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Sample records for benzene exposure assessed

  1. Dermal exposure assessment to benzene and toluene using charcoal cloth pads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendel de Joode, B. van; Tielemans, E.; Vermeulen, R.; Wegh, H.; Kromhout, H.

    2005-01-01

    Charcoal cloth pads have been used to assess volatile chemicals on the skin in a laboratory setting; however, they have not yet been applied to measure dermal exposure in occupational settings. This study aimed at evaluating whether charcoal pads can be used to assess dermal exposure to benzene and

  2. The use of biomonitoring data in exposure and human health risk assessment: benzene case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Scott M; Angerer, Juergen; Boogaard, Peter J; Hughes, Michael F; O'Lone, Raegan B; Robison, Steven H; Schnatter, A Robert

    2013-02-01

    Abstract A framework of "Common Criteria" (i.e. a series of questions) has been developed to inform the use and evaluation of biomonitoring data in the context of human exposure and risk assessment. The data-rich chemical benzene was selected for use in a case study to assess whether refinement of the Common Criteria framework was necessary, and to gain additional perspective on approaches for integrating biomonitoring data into a risk-based context. The available data for benzene satisfied most of the Common Criteria and allowed for a risk-based evaluation of the benzene biomonitoring data. In general, biomarker (blood benzene, urinary benzene and urinary S-phenylmercapturic acid) central tendency (i.e. mean, median and geometric mean) concentrations for non-smokers are at or below the predicted blood or urine concentrations that would correspond to exposure at the US Environmental Protection Agency reference concentration (30 µg/m(3)), but greater than blood or urine concentrations relating to the air concentration at the 1 × 10(-5) excess cancer risk (2.9 µg/m(3)). Smokers clearly have higher levels of benzene exposure, and biomarker levels of benzene for non-smokers are generally consistent with ambient air monitoring results. While some biomarkers of benzene are specific indicators of exposure, the interpretation of benzene biomonitoring levels in a health-risk context are complicated by issues associated with short half-lives and gaps in knowledge regarding the relationship between the biomarkers and subsequent toxic effects.

  3. The use of biomonitoring data in exposure and human health risk assessment: benzene case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angerer, Juergen; Boogaard, Peter J.; Hughes, Michael F.; O’Lone, Raegan B.; Robison, Steven H.; Robert Schnatter, A.

    2013-01-01

    A framework of “Common Criteria” (i.e. a series of questions) has been developed to inform the use and evaluation of biomonitoring data in the context of human exposure and risk assessment. The data-rich chemical benzene was selected for use in a case study to assess whether refinement of the Common Criteria framework was necessary, and to gain additional perspective on approaches for integrating biomonitoring data into a risk-based context. The available data for benzene satisfied most of the Common Criteria and allowed for a risk-based evaluation of the benzene biomonitoring data. In general, biomarker (blood benzene, urinary benzene and urinary S-phenylmercapturic acid) central tendency (i.e. mean, median and geometric mean) concentrations for non-smokers are at or below the predicted blood or urine concentrations that would correspond to exposure at the US Environmental Protection Agency reference concentration (30 µg/m3), but greater than blood or urine concentrations relating to the air concentration at the 1 × 10−5 excess cancer risk (2.9 µg/m3). Smokers clearly have higher levels of benzene exposure, and biomarker levels of benzene for non-smokers are generally consistent with ambient air monitoring results. While some biomarkers of benzene are specific indicators of exposure, the interpretation of benzene biomonitoring levels in a health-risk context are complicated by issues associated with short half-lives and gaps in knowledge regarding the relationship between the biomarkers and subsequent toxic effects. PMID:23346981

  4. Health Risk Assessment of Inhalation Exposure to Formaldehyde and Benzene in Newly Remodeled Buildings, Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lihui; Mo, Jinhan; Sundell, Jan; Fan, Zhihua; Zhang, Yinping

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess health risks associated with inhalation exposure to formaldehyde and benzene mainly emitted from building and decoration materials in newly remodeled indoor spaces in Beijing. Methods We tested the formaldehyde and benzene concentrations in indoor air of 410 dwellings and 451 offices remodeled within the past year, in which the occupants had health concerns about indoor air quality. To assess non-carcinogenic health risks, we compared the data to the health guidelines in China and USA, respectively. To assess carcinogenic health risks, we first modeled indoor personal exposure to formaldehyde and benzene using the concentration data, and then estimated the associated cancer risks by multiplying the indoor personal exposure by the Inhalation Unit Risk values (IURs) provided by the U.S. EPA Integrated Risk Information System (U.S. EPA IRIS) and the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA), respectively. Results (1) The indoor formaldehyde concentrations of 85% dwellings and 67% offices were above the acute Reference Exposure Level (REL) recommended by the OEHHA and the concentrations of all tested buildings were above the chronic REL recommended by the OEHHA; (2) The indoor benzene concentrations of 12% dwellings and 32% offices exceeded the reference concentration (RfC) recommended by the U.S. EPA IRIS; (3) The median cancer risks from indoor exposure to formaldehyde and benzene were 1,150 and 106 per million (based on U.S. EPA IRIS IURs), 531 and 394 per million (based on OEHHA IURs). Conclusions In the tested buildings, formaldehyde exposure may pose acute and chronic non-carcinogenic health risks to the occupants, whereas benzene exposure may pose chronic non-carcinogenic risks to the occupants. Exposure to both compounds is associated with significant carcinogenic risks. Improvement in ventilation, establishment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emission labeling systems for decorating and refurbishing materials

  5. Kriged and modeled ambient air levels of benzene in an urban environment: an exposure assessment study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Dejian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing concern regarding the potential adverse health effects of air pollution, particularly hazardous air pollutants (HAPs. However, quantifying exposure to these pollutants is problematic. Objective Our goal was to explore the utility of kriging, a spatial interpolation method, for exposure assessment in epidemiologic studies of HAPs. We used benzene as an example and compared census tract-level kriged predictions to estimates obtained from the 1999 U.S. EPA National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA, Assessment System for Population Exposure Nationwide (ASPEN model. Methods Kriged predictions were generated for 649 census tracts in Harris County, Texas using estimates of annual benzene air concentrations from 17 monitoring sites operating in Harris and surrounding counties from 1998 to 2000. Year 1999 ASPEN modeled estimates were also obtained for each census tract. Spearman rank correlation analyses were performed on the modeled and kriged benzene levels. Weighted kappa statistics were computed to assess agreement between discretized kriged and modeled estimates of ambient air levels of benzene. Results There was modest correlation between the predicted and modeled values across census tracts. Overall, 56.2%, 40.7%, 31.5% and 28.2% of census tracts were classified as having 'low', 'medium-low', 'medium-high' and 'high' ambient air levels of benzene, respectively, comparing predicted and modeled benzene levels. The weighted kappa statistic was 0.26 (95% confidence interval (CI = 0.20, 0.31, indicating poor agreement between the two methods. Conclusions There was a lack of concordance between predicted and modeled ambient air levels of benzene. Applying methods of spatial interpolation for assessing exposure to ambient air pollutants in health effect studies is hindered by the placement and number of existing stationary monitors collecting HAP data. Routine monitoring needs to be expanded if we are to use these data

  6. Retrospective benzene exposure assessment for a multi-center case-cohort study of benzene-exposed workers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portengen, Lützen; Linet, Martha S; Li, Gui-Lan; Lan, Qing; Dores, Graça M; Ji, Bu-Tian; Hayes, Richard B; Yin, Song-Nian; Rothman, Nathaniel; Vermeulen, Roel

    2016-01-01

    Quality of exposure assessment has been shown to be related to the ability to detect risk of lymphohematopoietic disorders in epidemiological investigations of benzene, especially at low levels of exposure. We set out to build a statistical model for reconstructing exposure levels for 2898 subjects from 501 factories that were part of a nested case-cohort study within the NCI-CAPM cohort of more than 110,000 workers. We used a hierarchical model to allow for clustering of measurements by factory, workshop, job, and date. To calibrate the model we used historical routine monitoring data. Measurements below the limit of detection were accommodated by constructing a censored data likelihood. Potential non-linear and industry-specific time-trends and predictor effects were incorporated using regression splines and random effects. A partial validation of predicted exposures in 2004/2005 was performed through comparison with full-shift measurements from an exposure survey in facilities that were still open. Median cumulative exposure to benzene at age 50 for subjects that ever held an exposed job (n=1175) was 509 mg/m(3) years. Direct comparison of model estimates with measured full-shift personal exposure in the 2004/2005 survey showed moderate correlation and a potential downward bias at low (<1 mg/m(3)) exposure estimates. The modeling framework enabled us to deal with the data complexities generally found in studies using historical exposure data in a comprehensive way and we therefore expect to be able to investigate effects at relatively low exposure levels.

  7. The use of biomonitoring data in exposure and human health risk assessment: benzene case study

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, Scott M.; Angerer, Juergen; Boogaard, Peter J.; Hughes, Michael F.; O?Lone, Raegan B.; Robison, Steven H.; Robert Schnatter, A.

    2013-01-01

    A framework of ?Common Criteria? (i.e. a series of questions) has been developed to inform the use and evaluation of biomonitoring data in the context of human exposure and risk assessment. The data-rich chemical benzene was selected for use in a case study to assess whether refinement of the Common Criteria framework was necessary, and to gain additional perspective on approaches for integrating biomonitoring data into a risk-based context. The available data for benzene satisfied most of th...

  8. Benzene exposure assessed by metabolite excretion in Estonian oil shale mineworkers: influence of glutathione s-transferase polymorphisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Poole, Jason; Autrup, Herman

    2004-01-01

    Measurement of urinary excretion of the benzene metabolites S-phenylmercapturic acid (S-PMA) and trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA) has been proposed for assessing benzene exposure, in workplaces with relatively high benzene concentrations. Excretion of S-PMA and t,t-MA in underground workers...... the last shift of the week. Personal benzene exposure was 114 +/- 35 mug/m(3) in surface workers (n = 15) and 190 +/- 50 mug/m(3) in underground workers (n = 15) in measurements made prior to the study. We found t,t-MA excretion to be significantly higher in underground workers after the end of shifts 1...... of benzene metabolites as biomarkers for assessment of exposure at modest levels and warrant for further investigations of health risks of occupational benzene exposure in shale oil mines....

  9. Retrospective benzene and total hydrocarbon exposure assessment for a petroleum marketing and distribution worker epidemiology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, T W; Pearlman, E D; Schnatter, A R; Bowes, S M; Murray, N; Nicolich, M J

    1996-04-01

    A quantitative exposure-estimating algorithm for benzene and total hydrocarbons was developed for a case control study of petroleum marketing and distribution workers. The algorithm used a multiplicative model to adjust recently measured quantitative exposure data to past scenarios for which representative exposure measurement data did not exist. This was accomplished through the development of exposure modifiers to account for differences in the workplace, the materials handled, the environmental conditions, and the tasks performed. Values for exposure modifiers were obtained empirically and through physical/chemical relationships. Dates for changes that altered exposure potential were obtained from archive records, retired employee interviews, and from current operations personnel. Exposure modifiers were used multiplicatively, adjusting available measured data to represent the relevant exposure scenario and time period. Changes in exposure modifiers translated to step changes in exposure estimates. Though limited by availability of data, a validation exercise suggested that the algorithm provided accurate exposure estimates for benzene (compared with measured data in industrial hygiene survey reports); the estimates generally differed by an average of less than 20% from the measured values. This approach is proposed to quantify exposures retrospectively where there are sufficient data to develop reliable current era estimates and where a historical accounting of key exposure modifiers can be developed, but where there are insufficient historic exposure measurements to directly assess historic exposures.

  10. Benzene exposures in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valerio, F.; Pala, M.; Cipolla, M.; Stella, A.

    2001-01-01

    Benzene exposures in urban areas were reviewed. Available data confirm that both in USA and Europe, benzene concentrations measured by fixed outdoor monitoring stations underestimate personal exposures of urban residents. Indoor sources, passive smoke and the high exposures during commuting time may explain this difference. Measures in European towns confirm that very frequently mean daily personal exposures to benzene exceed 10 μg/m 3 , current European air quality guideline for this carcinogenic compound [it

  11. Occupational exposure to benzene in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seong-Kyu; Lee, Mi-Young; Kim, Tae-Kyun; Lee, Jeong-Oh; Ahn, Yeon Soon

    2005-05-30

    Benzene has been used in various industries as glues or solvents in Korea. Since 1981, a preparation containing more than 1% benzene is not allowed to be manufactured, used or dealt with in the workplace, except in laboratories and in those situations benzene must be used in a completely sealed process as specified in Industrial Safety and Health Act (ISHA). Claims for compensation of hematopoietic diseases related to benzene have been rising even though the work environment has been improved. This study was conducted to assess the status of benzene exposure in different industries in Korea. We reviewed the claimed cases investigated by the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency (KOSHA) between 1992 and 2000. The Survey of National Work Environment Status in 1998 was analyzed to assume the number of workers and factories exposed to benzene. In 2000, six factories were investigated to evaluate benzene exposure. Personal air monitoring was performed in 61 workers and urine samples were collected from 57 workers to measure trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA). Hematologic examination has performed. Thirty-four cases of hematopoietic diseases were investigated by KOSHA including eight cases of myelodysplastic syndrome and eight cases of acute myelocytic leukemia. Eight cases were accepted as related to benzene exposure. The number of workers possibly exposed to benzene can be estimated to be 196,182 workers from 6219 factories based on the database. The geometric mean of benzene in air was 0.094 (0.005-5.311) ppm. Seven samples were higher than 1 ppm but they did not go over the 10 ppm occupational exposure limit (OEL) value in Korea. The geometric mean of trans,trans-muconic acid in urine was 0.966 (0.24-2.74) mg/g creatinine. The benzene exposure level was low except in a factory where benzene was used to polymerize other chemicals. The ambient benzene from 0.1 to 1 ppm was significantly correlated with urine t,t-MA concentration (r=0.733, p<0.01). Hematologic

  12. Biomonitoring-based exposure assessment of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene among workers at petroleum distribution facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heibati, Behzad; Godri Pollitt, Krystal J; Charati, Jamshid Yazdani; Ducatman, Alan; Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Karimi, Ali; Mohammadyan, Mahmoud

    2018-03-01

    Elevated emissions of volatile organic compounds, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and o, p, and m-xylenes (BTEX), are an occupational health concern at oil transfer stations. This exploratory study investigated personal exposure to BTEX through environmental air and urine samples collected from 50 male workers at a major oil distribution company in Iran. Airborne BTEX exposures were evaluated over 8h periods during work-shift by using personal passive samplers. Urinary BTEX levels were determined using solid-phase microextraction with gas chromatography mass spectrometry for separation and detection. Mean exposure to ambient concentrations of benzene differed by workers' job type: tanker loading workers (5390μg/m 3 ), tank-gauging workers (830μg/m 3 ), drivers (81.9μg/m 3 ), firefighters (71.2μg/m 3 ) and office workers (19.8μg/m 3 ). Exposure across job type was similarly stratified across all personal exposures to BTEX measured in air samples with maximum concentrations found for tanker loading workers. Average exposures concentrations of BTEX measured in urine were 11.83 ppb benzene, 1.87 ppb toluene, 0.43 ppb ethylebenzene, and 3.76 ppb xylene. Personal air exposure to benzene was found to be positively associated with benzene concentrations measured in urine; however, a relationship was not observed to the other BTEX compounds. Urinary exposure profiles are a potentially useful, noninvasive, and rapid method for assessing exposure to benzene in a developing and relatively remote production region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of Benzene Exposures in the Working Environment at Gasoline Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunisa Chaiklieng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate benzene exposure in the working environment of workers at gasoline stations. Ambient air (n=20 and inhaled air samples (n=101 of benzene were collected in the city of Khon Kaen, Thailand and analyzed with gas chromatography (GC-FID. Data records were also kept of the amounts of various petroleum products sold. The results of inhaled air benzene indicated the range concentration from 0.03 ppb to 65.71 ppb and showed significant differences between concentrations of each zone (p<0.05. The highest mean concentration was found in suburban stations (35.55 ppb, followed by urban stations (18.19 ppb, and rural stations (2.52 ppb. The highest mean concentration of ambient air was found in urban stations (45.55 ppb. Regarding different job functions, the benzene concentration of fueling workers in the inhalation zone (27.29 ppb was significantly higher than that of cashiers (0.56 ppb. The amounts of petroleum products with high benzene content sold were relatively consistent with inhaled benzene concentration, indicated by the significant differences between suburban and rural zones (p<0.05. In conclusion, this study found the inhaled air benzene concentration ranged 0.03 to 65.71 ppb depending on locations and job functions of workers. Therefore, workers should be protected of adversely affected health from long-term exposure by training on safe working practice and awareness of the different risks associated with their job functions, locations of stations and daily amounts of petroleum products sold.

  14. Effect of repeated benzene inhalation exposures on benzene metabolism, binding to hemoglobin, and induction of micronuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabourin, P.J.; Sun, J.D.; MacGregor, J.T.; Wehr, C.M.; Birnbaum, L.S.; Lucier, G.; Henderson, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    Metabolism of benzene is thought to be necessary to produce the toxic effects, including carcinogenicity, associated with benzene exposure. To extrapolate from the results of rodent studies to potential health risks in man, one must know how benzene metabolism is affected by species, dose, dose rate, and repeated versus single exposures. The purpose of our studies was to determine the effect of repeated inhalation exposures on the metabolism of [14C]benzene by rodents. Benzene metabolism was assessed by characterizing and quantitating urinary metabolites, and by quantitating 14C bound to hemoglobin and micronuclei induction. F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed, nose-only, to 600 ppm benzene or to air (control) for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 3 weeks. On the last day, both benzene-pretreated and control animals were exposed to 600 ppm, 14C-labeled benzene for 6 hr. Individual benzene metabolites in urine collected for 24 hr after the exposure were analyzed. There was a significant decrease in the respiratory rate of mice (but not rats) pretreated with benzene which resulted in lower levels of urinary [14C]benzene metabolites. The analyses indicated that the only effects of benzene pretreatment on the metabolite profile in rat or mouse urine were a slight shift from glucuronidation to sulfation in mice and a shift from sulfation to glucuronidation in rats. Benzene pretreatment also had no effect, in either species, on formation of [14C]benzene-derived hemoglobin adducts. Mice and rats had similar levels of hemoglobin adduct binding, despite the higher metabolism of benzene by mice. This indicates that hemoglobin adduct formation occurs with higher efficiency in rats. After 1 week of exposure to 600 ppm benzene, the frequency of micronucleated, polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) in mice was significantly increased

  15. Environmental exposure to benzene: an update.

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, L

    1996-01-01

    During the 1990s, several large-scale studies of benzene concentrations in air, food, and blood have added to our knowledge of its environmental occurrence. In general, the new studies have confirmed the earlier findings of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Total Exposure Assessment Methodology (TEAM) studies and other large-scale studies in Germany and the Netherlands concerning the levels of exposure and major sources. For example, the new studies found that personal exposures exceed...

  16. Bayesian Algorithm Implementation in a Real Time Exposure Assessment Model on Benzene with Calculation of Associated Cancer Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlos A. Kassomenos

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current study was the development of a reliable modeling platform to calculate in real time the personal exposure and the associated health risk for filling station employees evaluating current environmental parameters (traffic, meteorological and amount of fuel traded determined by the appropriate sensor network. A set of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs was developed to predict benzene exposure pattern for the filling station employees. Furthermore, a Physiology Based Pharmaco-Kinetic (PBPK risk assessment model was developed in order to calculate the lifetime probability distribution of leukemia to the employees, fed by data obtained by the ANN model. Bayesian algorithm was involved in crucial points of both model sub compartments. The application was evaluated in two filling stations (one urban and one rural. Among several algorithms available for the development of the ANN exposure model, Bayesian regularization provided the best results and seemed to be a promising technique for prediction of the exposure pattern of that occupational population group. On assessing the estimated leukemia risk under the scope of providing a distribution curve based on the exposure levels and the different susceptibility of the population, the Bayesian algorithm was a prerequisite of the Monte Carlo approach, which is integrated in the PBPK-based risk model. In conclusion, the modeling system described herein is capable of exploiting the information collected by the environmental sensors in order to estimate in real time the personal exposure and the resulting health risk for employees of gasoline filling stations.

  17. Bayesian algorithm implementation in a real time exposure assessment model on benzene with calculation of associated cancer risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigiannis, Dimosthenis A; Karakitsios, Spyros P; Gotti, Alberto; Papaloukas, Costas L; Kassomenos, Pavlos A; Pilidis, Georgios A

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the current study was the development of a reliable modeling platform to calculate in real time the personal exposure and the associated health risk for filling station employees evaluating current environmental parameters (traffic, meteorological and amount of fuel traded) determined by the appropriate sensor network. A set of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) was developed to predict benzene exposure pattern for the filling station employees. Furthermore, a Physiology Based Pharmaco-Kinetic (PBPK) risk assessment model was developed in order to calculate the lifetime probability distribution of leukemia to the employees, fed by data obtained by the ANN model. Bayesian algorithm was involved in crucial points of both model sub compartments. The application was evaluated in two filling stations (one urban and one rural). Among several algorithms available for the development of the ANN exposure model, Bayesian regularization provided the best results and seemed to be a promising technique for prediction of the exposure pattern of that occupational population group. On assessing the estimated leukemia risk under the scope of providing a distribution curve based on the exposure levels and the different susceptibility of the population, the Bayesian algorithm was a prerequisite of the Monte Carlo approach, which is integrated in the PBPK-based risk model. In conclusion, the modeling system described herein is capable of exploiting the information collected by the environmental sensors in order to estimate in real time the personal exposure and the resulting health risk for employees of gasoline filling stations.

  18. Risk assessment of occupational exposure to benzene using numerical simulation in a complex geometry of a reforming unit of petroleum refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayatian, Majid; Ashrafi, Khosro; Azari, Mansour Rezazadeh; Jafari, Mohammad Javad; Mehrabi, Yadollah

    2018-04-01

    There has been an increasing concern about the continuous and the sudden release of volatile organic pollutants from petroleum refineries and occupational and environmental exposures. Benzene is one of the most prevalent volatile compounds, and it has been addressed by many authors for its potential toxicity in occupational and environmental settings. Due to the complexities of sampling and analysis of benzene in routine and accidental situations, a reliable estimation of the benzene concentration in the outdoor setting of refinery using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) could be instrumental for risk assessment of occupational exposure. In the present work, a computational fluid dynamic model was applied for exposure risk assessment with consideration of benzene being released continuously from a reforming unit of a refinery. For simulation of benzene dispersion, GAMBIT, FLUENT, and CFD post software are used as preprocessing, processing, and post-processing, respectively. Computational fluid dynamic validation was carried out by comparing the computed data with the experimental measurements. Eventually, chronic daily intake and lifetime cancer risk for routine operations through the two seasons of a year are estimated through the simulation model. Root mean square errors are 0.19 and 0.17 for wind speed and concentration, respectively. Lifetime risk assessments of workers are 0.4-3.8 and 0.0096-0.25 per 1000 workers in stable and unstable atmospheric conditions, respectively. Exposure risk is unacceptable for the head of shift work, chief engineer, and general workers in 141 days (38.77%) in a year. The results of this study show that computational fluid dynamics is a useful tool for modeling of benzene exposure in a complex geometry and can be used to estimate lifetime risks of occupation groups in a refinery setting.

  19. Benzene exposure is associated with cardiovascular disease risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Abplanalp

    Full Text Available Benzene is a ubiquitous, volatile pollutant present at high concentrations in toxins (e.g. tobacco smoke known to increase cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. Despite its prevalence, the cardiovascular effects of benzene have rarely been studied. Hence, we examined whether exposure to benzene is associated with increased CVD risk. The effects of benzene exposure in mice were assessed by direct inhalation, while the effects of benzene exposure in humans was assessed in 210 individuals with mild to high CVD risk by measuring urinary levels of the benzene metabolite trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA. Generalized linear models were used to assess the association between benzene exposure and CVD risk. Mice inhaling volatile benzene had significantly reduced levels of circulating angiogenic cells (Flk-1+/Sca-1+ as well as an increased levels of plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL compared with control mice breathing filtered air. In the human cohort, urinary levels of t,t-MA were inversely associated several populations of circulating angiogenic cells (CD31+/34+/45+, CD31+/34+/45+/AC133-, CD34+/45+/AC133+. Although t,t-MA was not associated with plasma markers of inflammation or thrombosis, t,t-MA levels were higher in smokers and in individuals with dyslipidemia. In smokers, t,t-MA levels were positively associated with urinary metabolites of nicotine (cotinine and acrolein (3-hydroxymercapturic acid. Levels of t,t-MA were also associated with CVD risk as assessed using the Framingham Risk Score and this association was independent of smoking. Thus, benzene exposure is associated with increased CVD risk and deficits in circulating angiogenic cells in both smokers and non-smokers.

  20. Flexible meta-regression to assess the shape of the benzene-leukemia exposure-response curve.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaanderen, J.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31403160X; Portengen, L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/269224742; Rothman, N.; Lan, Q.; Kromhout, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074385224; Vermeulen, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous evaluations of the shape of the benzene-leukemia exposure-response curve (ERC) were based on a single set or on small sets of human occupational studies. Integrating evidence from all available studies that are of sufficient quality combined with flexible meta-regression models

  1. Bayesian Algorithm Implementation in a Real Time Exposure Assessment Model on Benzene with Calculation of Associated Cancer Risks

    OpenAIRE

    Sarigiannis, Dimosthenis A.; Karakitsios, Spyros P.; Gotti, Alberto; Papaloukas, Costas L.; Kassomenos, Pavlos A.; Pilidis, Georgios A.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the current study was the development of a reliable modeling platform to calculate in real time the personal exposure and the associated health risk for filling station employees evaluating current environmental parameters (traffic, meteorological and amount of fuel traded) determined by the appropriate sensor network. A set of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) was developed to predict benzene exposure pattern for the filling station employees. Furthermore, a Physiology Based...

  2. Benzene exposure in a Japanese petroleum refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, T; Yamaoka, K; Uchida, Y; Ikeda, M

    1990-07-01

    Time-weighted average (TWA) intensity of exposure of workers to benzene vapor during a shift was monitored by diffusive sampling technique in a Japanese petroleum refinery. The subjects monitored (83 in total) included refinery operators, laboratory personnel and tanker-loading workers. The results showed that the time-weighted average exposures are well below 1 ppm in most cases. The highest exposure was recorded in 1 case involved in bulk loading of tanker ships, in which exposure of over 1 ppm might take place depending on operational conditions. The observation was generally in agreement with levels previously reported.

  3. An efficient analytical method for determination of S-phenylmercapturic acid in urine by HPLC fluorimetric detector to assessing benzene exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Michele P Rocha; Silveira, Josianne Nicácio; Andre, Leiliane Coelho

    2017-09-15

    Benzene is an important occupational and environmental contaminant, naturally present in petroleum and as by-product in the steel industry. Toxicological studies showed pronounced myelotoxic action, causing leukemic and others blood cells disorders. Assessing of benzene exposure is performed by biomarkers as trans, trans-muconic acid (AttM) and S-phenylmercapturic acid (S-PMA) in urine. Due to specificity of S-PMA, this biomarker has been proposed to asses lower levels of benzene in air. The aim of this study was to validate an analytical method for the quantification of S-PMA by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with fluorometric detector. The development of an analytical method of S-PMA in urine was carried out by solid phase extraction (SPE) using C-18 phase. The eluated were submitted to water bath at 75°C and nitrogen to analyte concentration, followed by alkaline hydrolysis and derivatization with monobromobimane. The chromatography conditions were reverse phase C-18 column (240mm, 4mm and 5μm) at 35°C; acetonitrile and 0.5% acetic acid (50:50) as mobile phase with a flow of 0.8mL/min. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.22μg/L and 0.68μg/L, respectively. The linearity was verified by simple linear regression, and the method exhibited good linearity in the range of 10-100μg/L. There was no matrix effect for S-PMA using concentrations of 40, 60, 80 and 100μg/L. The intra- and interassay precision showed coefficient of variation of less than 10% and the recovery ranged from 83.4 to 102.8% with an average of 94.4%. The stability of S-PMA in urine stored at -20°C was of seven weeks. The conclusion is that this method presents satisfactory results per their figures of merit. This proposed method for determining urinary S-PMA showed adequate sensitivity for assessment of occupational and environmental exposure to benzene using S-PMA as biomarker of exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Indicators of benzene emissions and exposure in Bangkok street

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leong, S.T.; Laortanakul, Preecha

    2003-01-01

    Ambient benzene measurements were conducted for the first time at four air monitoring sites in the Bangkok metropolitan region (BMR), from January to December 2001. Analytical results show that the mean benzene concentrations range from 42.4 μg/m 3 at the Din Daeng urban site to 15.1 μg/m 3 at the Chaeng Wattana suburban site. The monitoring results show that at a larger distance from the roadside or a higher level from the street surface, the level of benzene decreases. Analysis of the ambient benzene concentrations was carried out with reference to meteorological influences and traffic density. In traffic analysis, the combined effects of street topography and traffic flows established high impact on the overall benzene concentration in Bangkok. Statistical analysis shows good correlations of blood benzene levels and trans, trans-muconic acid with ambient benzene and demonstrated substantial exposure from traffic

  5. Acute myeloid and chronic lymphoid leukaemias and exposure to low-level benzene among petroleum workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, L; Schnatter, A R; Tang, G; Glass, D C

    2014-01-01

    Background: High benzene exposure causes acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Three petroleum case–control studies identified 60 cases (241 matched controls) for AML and 80 cases (345 matched controls) for chronic lymphoid leukaemia (CLL). Methods: Cases were classified and scored regarding uncertainty by two haematologists using available diagnostic information. Blinded quantitative benzene exposure assessment used work histories and exposure measurements adjusted for era-specific circumstances. Statistical analyses included conditional logistic regression and penalised smoothing splines. Results: Benzene exposures were much lower than previous studies. Categorical analyses showed increased ORs for AML with several exposure metrics, although patterns were unclear; neither continuous exposure metrics nor spline analyses gave increased risks. ORs were highest in terminal workers, particularly for Tanker Drivers. No relationship was found between benzene exposure and risk of CLL, although the Australian study showed increased risks in refinery workers. Conclusion: Overall, this study does not persuasively demonstrate a risk between benzene and AML. A previously reported strong relationship between myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) (potentially previously reported as AML) at our study's low benzene levels suggests that MDS may be the more relevant health risk for lower exposure. Higher CLL risks in refinery workers may be due to more diverse exposures than benzene alone. PMID:24357793

  6. Benzene exposure and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martyn T; Jones, Rachael M; Smith, Allan H

    2007-03-01

    Exposure to benzene, an important industrial chemical and component of gasoline, is a widely recognized cause of leukemia, but its association with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is less clear. To clarify this issue, we undertook a systematic review of all case-control and cohort studies that identified probable occupational exposures to benzene and NHL morbidity or mortality. We identified 43 case-control studies of NHL outcomes that recognized persons with probable occupational exposure to benzene. Forty of these 43 (93%) studies show some elevation of NHL risk, with 23 of 43 (53%) studies finding statistically significant associations between NHL risk and probable benzene exposure. We also identified 26 studies of petroleum refinery workers reporting morbidity or mortality for lymphomas and all neoplasms and found that in 23 (88%), the rate of lymphoma morbidity or mortality was higher than that for all neoplasms. A substantial healthy-worker effect was evident in many of the studies and a comprehensive reevaluation of these studies with appropriate adjustments should be undertaken. Numerous studies have also reported associations between benzene exposure and the induction of lymphomas in mice. Further, because benzene is similar to alkylating drugs and radiation in producing leukemia, it is plausible that it might also produce lymphoma as they do and by similar mechanisms. Potential mechanisms include immunotoxicity and the induction of double-strand breaks with subsequent chromosome damage resulting in translocations and deletions. We conclude that, overall, the evidence supports an association between occupational benzene exposure and NHL.

  7. Variability of benzene exposure among filling station attendants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carere, A.; Iacovella, N.; Turrio Baldassarri, L.; Fuselli, S.; Iavarone, I.; Lagorio, S.; Proietto, A.R.

    1996-12-01

    A monitoring survey of filling station attendants aimed at identifying sources of variability of exposure to benzene and other aromatics was carried out. Concurrent samples of the worker's breathing zone air, atmospheric air in the service station proximity, and gasoline were collected, along with information about daily workloads and other exposure-related factors. Benzene personal exposure was characterised by a small between-worker variability and a predominant within-worker variance component. Such elevated day-to-day variability yields to imprecise estimates of mean personal exposure. Almost 70% of the overall personal exposure variance was explained by a model including daily benzene from dispensed fuel, presence of a shelter over the refueling area, amount of fuel supplied to the station if a delivery occurred, and background atmospheric benzene concentration

  8. Benzene exposure in the shoemaking industry in China, a literature survey, 1978-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Laiming; Zhou, Yimei; Liang, Youxin; Wong, Otto; Armstrong, Thomas; Schnatter, A Robert; Wu, Qiangen; Fang, Jinbin; Ye, Xibiao; Fu, Hua; Irons, Richard D

    2006-11-01

    trend of benzene exposure levels over the years, particularly after the introduction of the new lower OEL in 2002. Even though substantially lower when compared to levels in the past, current benzene exposure measurements from the literature review suggest that many facilities in the shoemaking industry in China have benzene concentrations that are still above the new OEL. The reported data, stratified by job, year and survey reason, can be used as part of the information and analysis for developing a job-exposure matrix in retrospective exposure assessment and thus may be part of the information used in developing historical exposure estimates in epidemiologic studies of shoe workers.

  9. Peer Review Comments on the IRIS Assessment of Benzene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attachment to IRIS file for benzene, January 19, 2000, RESPONSE TO THE PEER REVIEW COMMENTS, II. Extrapolation of the Benzene Inhalation Unit Risk Estimate to the Oral Route of Exposure (EPA/NCEA-W-0517, July 1999)

  10. Benzene in blood as a biomarker of low level occupational exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugnone, F.; Perbellini, L.; Romeo, L.; Cerpelloni, M.; Bianchin, M.; Tonello, A. [Institute of Occupational Medicine, University of Verona, Policlinico Borgo Roma, 37134 Verona (Italy)

    1999-09-01

    The occupational airborne exposure to benzene of 150 workers employed in petrol stations and a refinery plant was assessed using personal sampling pumps. All workers provided blood samples after the end of work and on the following morning before resuming work. Benzene concentrations in the blood of 243 non-occupationally-exposed subjects were also measured. The median occupational benzene exposure for all 150 workers studied was 80 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. Overall median blood benzene of all workers was 251 ng/l at the end of the shift, and 174 ng/l the following morning. The benzene concentrations measured in blood collected the following morning proved to be significantly lower than those measured at the end of the shift. Median blood benzene for the 243 'normal' subjects was 128 ng/l, which was significantly lower than that measured in the workers before a new work shift. The median blood benzene concentration was significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers, both in the general population (210 ng/l vs. 110 ng/l) and in the exposed workers at the end of the shift (476 ng/l vs. 132 ng/l) and the following morning (360 ng/l vs. 99 ng/l). End-of-shift blood benzene correlated significantly with environmental exposure; this correlation was better in the 83 non-smokers than in the 67 smokers. In non-smokers with the median benzene occupational exposure of 50 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, no difference was found in blood benzene concentration in exposed and non-exposed subjects.

  11. In utero exposure to benzene increases embryonic c-Myb and Pim-1 protein levels in CD-1 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Joanne; Winn, Louise M.

    2008-01-01

    Benzene is a known human leukemogen, but its role as an in utero leukemogen remains controversial. Epidemiological studies have correlated parental exposure to benzene with an increased incidence of childhood leukemias. We hypothesize that in utero exposure to benzene may cause leukemogenesis by affecting the embryonic c-Myb/Pim-1 signaling pathway and that this is mediated by oxidative stress. To investigate this hypothesis, pregnant CD-1 mice were treated with either 800 mg/kg of benzene or corn oil (i.p.) on days 10 and 11 of gestation and in some cases pretreated with 25 kU/kg of PEG-catalase. Phosphorylated and total embryonic c-Myb and Pim-1 protein levels were assessed using Western blotting and maternal and embryonic oxidative stress were assessed by measuring reduced to oxidized glutathione ratios. Our results show increased oxidative stress at 4 and 24 h after exposure, increased phosphorylated Pim-1 protein levels 4 h after benzene exposure, and increased Pim-1 levels at 24 and 48 h after benzene exposure. Embryonic c-Myb levels were elevated at 24 h after exposure. PEG-catalase pretreatment prevented benzene-mediated increases in embryonic c-Myb and Pim-1 protein levels, and benzene-induced oxidative stress. These results support a role for ROS in c-Myb and Pim-1 alterations after in utero benzene exposure

  12. Investigating the effects of in utero benzene exposure on epigenetic modifications in maternal and fetal CD-1 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philbrook, Nicola A.; Winn, Louise M.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to the ubiquitous environmental pollutant benzene is positively correlated with leukemia in adults and may be associated with childhood leukemia following in utero exposure. While numerous studies implicate oxidative stress and DNA damage as playing a role in benzene-mediated carcinogenicity, emerging evidence suggests that alterations in epigenetic regulations may be involved. The present study aimed to determine whether DNA methylation and/or various histone modifications were altered following in utero benzene exposure in CD-1 mice. Global DNA methylation and promoter-specific methylation of the tumor suppressor gene, p15, were assessed. Additionally, levels of acetylated histones H3, H4, and H3K56, as well as methylated histones H3K9 and H3K27 were assessed by Western blotting. A significant decrease in global DNA methylation of maternal bone marrow was observed following benzene exposure; however no effect on global DNA methylation was detected in fetal livers. Additionally, no effect of benzene exposure was observed on p15 promoter methylation or any measured histone modifications in both maternal bone marrow and fetal livers. These results suggest that the methodology used in the present study did not reveal alterations in DNA methylation and histone modifications following in utero exposure to benzene; however further experimentation investigating these modifications at the whole genome/epigenome level, as well as at later stages of benzene-induced carcinogenesis, are warranted. - Highlights: • Benzene exposure in pregnant mice decreased global DNA methylation in maternal bone marrow. • Benzene exposure in pregnant mice had no effect on global DNA methylation in fetal livers. • No effect of benzene exposure was observed on p15 promoter methylation. • No effect of benzene on measured histone modifications in both maternal bone marrow and fetal livers was observed.

  13. Investigating the effects of in utero benzene exposure on epigenetic modifications in maternal and fetal CD-1 mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philbrook, Nicola A. [Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, Graduate Program in Pharmacology and Toxicology, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON K7L3N6 (Canada); Winn, Louise M., E-mail: winnl@queensu.ca [Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, Graduate Program in Pharmacology and Toxicology, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON K7L3N6 (Canada); School of Environmental Studies, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON K7L3N6 (Canada)

    2015-11-15

    Exposure to the ubiquitous environmental pollutant benzene is positively correlated with leukemia in adults and may be associated with childhood leukemia following in utero exposure. While numerous studies implicate oxidative stress and DNA damage as playing a role in benzene-mediated carcinogenicity, emerging evidence suggests that alterations in epigenetic regulations may be involved. The present study aimed to determine whether DNA methylation and/or various histone modifications were altered following in utero benzene exposure in CD-1 mice. Global DNA methylation and promoter-specific methylation of the tumor suppressor gene, p15, were assessed. Additionally, levels of acetylated histones H3, H4, and H3K56, as well as methylated histones H3K9 and H3K27 were assessed by Western blotting. A significant decrease in global DNA methylation of maternal bone marrow was observed following benzene exposure; however no effect on global DNA methylation was detected in fetal livers. Additionally, no effect of benzene exposure was observed on p15 promoter methylation or any measured histone modifications in both maternal bone marrow and fetal livers. These results suggest that the methodology used in the present study did not reveal alterations in DNA methylation and histone modifications following in utero exposure to benzene; however further experimentation investigating these modifications at the whole genome/epigenome level, as well as at later stages of benzene-induced carcinogenesis, are warranted. - Highlights: • Benzene exposure in pregnant mice decreased global DNA methylation in maternal bone marrow. • Benzene exposure in pregnant mice had no effect on global DNA methylation in fetal livers. • No effect of benzene exposure was observed on p15 promoter methylation. • No effect of benzene on measured histone modifications in both maternal bone marrow and fetal livers was observed.

  14. Personal exposure to benzene and 1,3-butadiene during petroleum refinery turnarounds and work in the oil harbour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerstrom, M; Almerud, P; Andersson, E M; Strandberg, B; Sallsten, G

    2016-11-01

    Petroleum refinery workers' exposure to the carcinogens benzene and 1,3-butadiene has decreased during normal operations. However, certain occupational groups or events at the refineries still involve a risk of higher exposures. The aim of this study was to examine the personal exposure to benzene and 1,3-butadiene at refinery turnarounds and during work in the oil harbour. Personal exposure measurements of benzene and 1,3-butadiene were taken during work shifts, with a priori assumed higher benzene exposure, using PerkinElmer diffusive samplers filled with Carbopack X. Mean exposure levels were calculated, and repeated exposure measurements, when available, were assessed using mixed effect models. Group and individual compliance with the Swedish occupational exposure limit (OEL) was tested for the different exposure groups. Mean benzene exposure levels for refinery workers during the three measured turnarounds were 150, 610 and 960 µg/m 3 , and mean exposures for oil harbour workers and sewage tanker drivers were 310 and 360 µg/m 3 , respectively. Higher exposures were associated with handling benzene-rich products. Most occupational groups did not comply with the Swedish OEL for benzene nor did the individuals within the groups. The exposure to 1,3-butadiene was very low, between Work within the petroleum refinery industry, with potential exposure to open product streams containing higher fractions of benzene, pose a risk of personal benzene exposures exceeding the OEL. Refinery workers performing these work tasks frequently, such as contractors, sewage tanker drivers and oil harbour workers, need to be identified and protected.

  15. Characteristics of Occupational Exposure to Benzene during Turnaround in the Petrochemical Industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Eun-Kyo; Shin, Jung-Ah; Lee, Byung-Kyu; Kwon, Jiwoon; Lee, Naroo; Chung, Kwang-Jae; Lee, Jong-Han; Lee, In-Seop; Kang, Seong-Kyu; Jang, Jae-Kil

    2010-09-01

    The level of benzene exposure in the petrochemical industry during regular operation has been well established, but not in turnaround (TA), where high exposure may occur. In this study, the characteristics of occupational exposure to benzene during TA in the petrochemical companies were investigated in order to determine the best management strategies and improve the working environment. This was accomplished by evaluating the exposure level for the workers working in environments where benzene was being produced or used as an ingredient during the unit process. From 2003 to 2008, a total of 705 workers in three petrochemical companies in Korea were studied. Long- and short-term (< 1 hr) samples were taken during TAs. TA was classified into three stages: shut-down, maintenance and start-up. All works were classified into 12 occupation categories. The long-term geometric mean (GM) benzene exposure level was 0.025 (5.82) ppm (0.005-42.120 ppm) and the short-term exposure concentration during TA was 0.020 (17.42) ppm (0.005-61.855 ppm). The proportions of TA samples exceeding the time-weighted average, occupational exposure level (TWA-OEL in Korea, 1 ppm) and the short-term exposure limit (STEL-OEL, 5 ppm) were 4.1% (20 samples of 488) and 6.0% (13 samples of 217), respectively. The results for the benzene exposure levels and the rates of exceeding the OEL were both statistically significant (p < 0.05). Among the 12 job categories of petrochemical workers, mechanical engineers, plumbers, welders, fieldman and scaffolding workers exhibited long-term samples that exceeded the OEL of benzene, and the rate of exceeding the OEL was statistically significant for the first two occupations (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that the periodic work environment must be assessed during non-routine works such as TA.

  16. Interpretation of Urinary and Blood Benzene biomarkers of Exposure for Non-Occupationally Exposed Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-occupational exposure to benzene occurs primarily through inhalation ofair impacted by motor vehicle exhaust, fuel sources, and cigarette smoke. This study relates published measurements ofbenzene biomarkers to air exposure concentrations. Benzene has three reliable biomar...

  17. An analysis of violations of Osha's (1987) occupational exposure to benzene standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Pamela R D

    2014-01-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), which was formed by the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (OSH Act), establishes enforceable health and safety standards in the workplace and issues violations and penalties for non-compliance with these standards. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the number and type of violations of the OSHA (1987) Occupational Exposure to Benzene Standard. Violations of the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard (HCS), particularly those that may pertain to specific provisions of the benzene standard, were also assessed. All analyses were based on OSHA inspection data that have been collected since the early 1970s and that are publicly available from the U.S. Department of Labor enforcement website. Analysis of these data shows that fewer than a thousand OSHA violations of the benzene standard have been issued over the last 25+ years. The results for benzene are in contrast to those for some other toxic and hazardous substances that are regulated by OSHA, such as blood-borne pathogens, lead, and asbestos, for which there have been issued tens of thousands of OSHA violations. The number of benzene standard violations also varies by time period, standard provision, industry sector, and other factors. In particular, the greatest number of benzene standard violations occurred during the late 1980s to early/mid 1990s, soon after the 1987 final benzene rule was promulgated. The majority of benzene standard violations also pertain to noncompliance with specific provisions and subprovisions of the standard dealing with initial exposure monitoring requirements, the communication of hazards to employees, and medical surveillance programs. Only a small fraction of HCS violations are attributed, at least in part, to potential benzene hazards in the workplace. In addition, most benzene standard violations are associated with specific industries within the manufacturing sector where benzene or benzene

  18. Managing Exposure to Benzene and Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons at Two Oil Refineries 1977-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomi, Tapani; Veijalainen, Henna; Santonen, Tiina

    2018-01-24

    Air concentrations of and inhalation exposure to total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and benzene was monitored separately at two oil refineries from 1977 to 2014. Prevention policies and control measures that may explain changes were surveyed. The aim was to evaluate how the application of of Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series OHSAS 18001.04 principles as well as Environmental protection Agency EPA and European Oil Company Organisation for Environment, Health and Safety CONCAWE practices have influenced air concentrations. Benzene air concentrations declined in 11 of 17 units, six of which were associated with declining exposures. Benzene air concentrations declined across all units on average by 46%. This amounts to an average yearly decline of 1.7%. TPH air concentrations declined in 10 of 17 units, seven of which were associated with declining exposures. The average decline in TPH air concentrations was 49%, corresponding to 1.3% per year. As a result, average working day exposure in 10 of 17 units have declined significantly and today, benzene and TPH exposure in most units are well below 10% of the current Occupational Exposure Limit (OEL 8h :s). A decline in air concentrations have coincided with consistent implementation of control measures. Such measures include on-line monitoring of leaks; benzene recovery; floating container roofs; improved valves and seals; hermetic pumps; recovery of loading gases and instalment of torches in terminals; cutback in coke combustion; a new production line spanning directly from the dock to aromatics production; and recovery of loading gases in the doc. Other tools in exposure management include personal leak monitors, on-line measurements, monitoring campaigns, risk assessment, and availability and user training of protective equipment. However, improvements are still needed. Hydrocarbon or benzene air concentrations have not declined in 8 of 17 units, in some of which concentrations exceed 10% of the relevant

  19. Managing Exposure to Benzene and Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons at Two Oil Refineries 1977–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomi, Tapani; Veijalainen, Henna; Santonen, Tiina

    2018-01-01

    Air concentrations of and inhalation exposure to total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and benzene was monitored separately at two oil refineries from 1977 to 2014. Prevention policies and control measures that may explain changes were surveyed. The aim was to evaluate how the application of of Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series OHSAS 18001.04 principles as well as Environmental protection Agency EPA and European Oil Company Organisation for Environment, Health and Safety CONCAWE practices have influenced air concentrations. Benzene air concentrations declined in 11 of 17 units, six of which were associated with declining exposures. Benzene air concentrations declined across all units on average by 46%. This amounts to an average yearly decline of 1.7%. TPH air concentrations declined in 10 of 17 units, seven of which were associated with declining exposures. The average decline in TPH air concentrations was 49%, corresponding to 1.3% per year. As a result, average working day exposure in 10 of 17 units have declined significantly and today, benzene and TPH exposure in most units are well below 10% of the current Occupational Exposure Limit (OEL8h:s). A decline in air concentrations have coincided with consistent implementation of control measures. Such measures include on-line monitoring of leaks; benzene recovery; floating container roofs; improved valves and seals; hermetic pumps; recovery of loading gases and instalment of torches in terminals; cutback in coke combustion; a new production line spanning directly from the dock to aromatics production; and recovery of loading gases in the doc. Other tools in exposure management include personal leak monitors, on-line measurements, monitoring campaigns, risk assessment, and availability and user training of protective equipment. However, improvements are still needed. Hydrocarbon or benzene air concentrations have not declined in 8 of 17 units, in some of which concentrations exceed 10% of the relevant

  20. Assessing human variability in kinetics for exposures to multiple environmental chemicals: a physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling case study with dichloromethane, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and m-xylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcke, Mathieu; Haddad, Sami

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the magnitude of interindividual variability in internal dose for inhalation exposure to single versus multiple chemicals. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic models for adults (AD), neonates (NEO), toddlers (TODD), and pregnant women (PW) were used to simulate inhalation exposure to "low" (RfC-like) or "high" (AEGL-like) air concentrations of benzene (Bz) or dichloromethane (DCM), along with various levels of toluene alone or toluene with ethylbenzene and xylene. Monte Carlo simulations were performed and distributions of relevant internal dose metrics of either Bz or DCM were computed. Area under the blood concentration of parent compound versus time curve (AUC)-based variability in AD, TODD, and PW rose for Bz when concomitant "low" exposure to mixtures of increasing complexities occurred (coefficient of variation (CV) = 16-24%, vs. 12-15% for Bz alone), but remained unchanged considering DCM. Conversely, AUC-based CV in NEO fell (15 to 5% for Bz; 12 to 6% for DCM). Comparable trends were observed considering production of metabolites (AMET), except for NEO's CYP2E1-mediated metabolites of Bz, where an increased CV was observed (20 to 71%). For "high" exposure scenarios, Cmax-based variability of Bz and DCM remained unchanged in AD and PW, but decreased in NEO (CV= 11-16% to 2-6%) and TODD (CV= 12-13% to 7-9%). Conversely, AMET-based variability for both substrates rose in every subpopulation. This study analyzed for the first time the impact of multiple exposures on interindividual variability in toxicokinetics. Evidence indicates that this impact depends upon chemical concentrations and biochemical properties, as well as the subpopulation and internal dose metrics considered.

  1. Benzene - exposure and risk evaluation; Benzol - Exposition und Risikoabschaetzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eikmann, T. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Hygiene-Institut und Umweltmedizin; Eikmann, S. [Gesellschaft fuer Umwelttoxikologie und Krankenhaushygiene mbH, Wetzlar (Germany); Goeen, T. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Hygiene und Arbeitsmedizin

    2000-07-01

    Benzene is one of the most important environmental carcinogens. Because of its potential to induce leukemia, benzene is noted as carcinogeneous hazardous substance in legal guidelines for occupational use and environmental contact. Epidemiological studies resulted to unit-risk values between 2.8 x 10{sup -6} to 30 x 10{sup -6} for lifelong exposure to 1 {mu}g/m{sup 3} benzene. In Germany, the average unit-risk was estimated to be 9 x 10{sup -6}. The general population is mainly exposed to benzene due to the emissions of motor vehicles. The average annual air concentration of benzene at main roads and in industrial areas are 5 to 30 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. Due to seasonal influences and special exposure situations distinctly higher peak concentrations are occurring. Regional differences, i.e. between rural and urban immission levels and between the concentration in air of the northern and southern part of Europe, are also recognizable. The life-style factor smoking increases the individual exposure distinctly, whereas contamination of the diet contribute little to the total uptake of benzene. The internal exposure of the general population varies due to living area, smoking habits and mobility. Individuals living in no-smoking buildings show benzene concentrations in blood of 15 to 170 ng/l, whereas the benzene level of persons with additional exposures (smoking, frequently use of motor vehicles, etc.) can reach approximately 1000 ng/l blood. Comparable conclusions result from data for the urinary levels of two sensitive metabolites of benzene: trans-, trans-muconic acid and S-phenylmercapturic acid. (orig.) [German] Benzol stellt aufgrund seines ubiquitaeren Auftretens und seiner Leukaemie verursachenden Wirkung eines der bedeutendsten Umweltkanzerogene dar. Es ist als krebserzeugender Gefahrstoff (Gefahrstoffverordnung: Gruppe II) und als eindeutig krebserzeugender Arbeitsstoff (Kategorie 1) ausgewiesen. Aus epidemiologischen Studien ergaben sich Unit

  2. An analysis of workplace exposures to benzene over four decades at a petrochemical processing and manufacturing facility (1962-1999).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahmel, J; Devlin, K; Burns, A; Ferracini, T; Ground, M; Paustenbach, D

    2013-01-01

    Benzene, a known carcinogen, can be generated as a by-product during the use of petroleum-based raw materials in chemical manufacturing. The aim of this study was to analyze a large data set of benzene air concentration measurements collected over nearly 40 years during routine employee exposure monitoring at a petrochemical manufacturing facility. The facility used ethane, propane, and natural gas as raw materials in the production of common commercial materials such as polyethylene, polypropylene, waxes, adhesives, alcohols, and aldehydes. In total, 3607 benzene air samples were collected at the facility from 1962 to 1999. Of these, in total 2359 long-term (>1 h) personal exposure samples for benzene were collected during routine operations at the facility between 1974 and 1999. These samples were analyzed by division, department, and job title to establish employee benzene exposures in different areas of the facility over time. Sampling data were also analyzed by key events over time, including changes in the occupational exposure limits (OELs) for benzene and key equipment process changes at the facility. Although mean benzene concentrations varied according to operation, in nearly all cases measured benzene quantities were below the OEL in place at the time for benzene (10 ppm for 1974-1986 and 1 ppm for 1987-1999). Decreases in mean benzene air concentrations were also found when data were evaluated according to 7- to 10-yr periods following key equipment process changes. Further, an evaluation of mortality rates for a retrospective employee cohort (n = 3938) demonstrated that the average personal benzene exposures at this facility (0.89 ppm for the period 1974-1986 and 0.125 ppm for the period 1987-1999) did not result in increased standardized mortality ratio (SMRs) for diseases or malignancies of the lymphatic system. The robust nature of this data set provides comprehensive exposure information that may be useful for assessing human benzene exposures at

  3. Human risk assessment of benzene after a gasoline station fuel leak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam dos Anjos Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the health risk of exposure to benzene for a community affected by a fuel leak. METHODS: Data regarding the fuel leak accident with, which occurred in the Brasilia, Federal District, were obtained from the Fuel Distributor reports provided to the environmental authority. Information about the affected population (22 individuals was obtained from focal groups of eight individuals. Length of exposure and water benzene concentration were estimated through a groundwater flow model associated with a benzene propagation model. The risk assessment was conducted according to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry methodology. RESULTS: A high risk perception related to the health consequences of the accident was evident in the affected community (22 individuals, probably due to the lack of assistance and a poor risk communication from government authorities and the polluting agent. The community had been exposed to unsafe levels of benzene (> 5 µg/L since December 2001, five months before they reported the leak. The mean benzene level in drinking water (72.2 µg/L was higher than that obtained by the Fuel Distributer using the Risk Based Corrective Action methodology (17.2 µg/L.The estimated benzene intake from the consumption of water and food reached a maximum of 0.0091 µg/kg bw/day (5 x 10-7 cancer risk per 106 individuals. The level of benzene in water vapor while showering reached 7.5 µg/m3 for children (1 per 104 cancer risk. Total cancer risk ranged from 110 to 200 per 106 individuals. CONCLUSIONS: The population affected by the fuel leak was exposed to benzene levels that might have represented a health risk. Local government authorities need to develop better strategies to respond rapidly to these types of accidents to protect the health of the affected population and the environment.

  4. Biological monitoring of benzene exposure for process operators during ordinary activity in the upstream petroleum industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bråtveit, Magne; Kirkeleit, Jorunn; Hollund, Bjørg Eli; Moen, Bente E

    2007-07-01

    This study characterized the exposure of crude oil process operators to benzene and related aromatics during ordinary activity and investigated whether the operators take up benzene at this level of exposure. We performed the study on a fixed, integrated oil and gas production facility on Norway's continental shelf. The study population included 12 operators and 9 referents. We measured personal exposure to benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene during three consecutive 12-h work shifts using organic vapour passive dosimeter badges. We sampled blood and urine before departure to the production facility (pre-shift), immediately after the work shift on Day 13 of the work period (post-shift) and immediately before the following work shift (pre-next shift). We also measured the exposure to hydrocarbons during short-term tasks by active sampling using Tenax tubes. The arithmetic mean exposure over the 3 days was 0.042 ppm for benzene (range ethylbenzene and 0.03 ppm for xylene. Full-shift personal exposure was significantly higher when the process operators performed flotation work during the shift versus other tasks. Work in the flotation area was associated with short-term (6-15 min) arithmetic mean exposure to benzene of 1.06 ppm (range 0.09-2.33 ppm). The concentrations of benzene in blood and urine did not differ between operators and referents at any time point. When we adjusted for current smoking in regression analysis, benzene exposure was significantly associated with the post-shift concentration of benzene in blood (P = 0.01) and urine (P = 0.03), respectively. Although these operators perform tasks with relatively high short-term exposure to benzene, the full-shift mean exposure is low during ordinary activity. Some evidence indicates benzene uptake within this range of exposure.

  5. Combined analysis of job and task benzene air exposures among workers at four US refinery operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Amanda; Shin, Jennifer Mi; Unice, Ken M; Gaffney, Shannon H; Kreider, Marisa L; Gelatt, Richard H; Panko, Julie M

    2017-03-01

    Workplace air samples analyzed for benzene at four US refineries from 1976 to 2007 were pooled into a single dataset to characterize similarities and differences between job titles, tasks and refineries, and to provide a robust dataset for exposure reconstruction. Approximately 12,000 non-task (>180 min) personal samples associated with 50 job titles and 4000 task (job titles and task codes across all four refineries, and (5) our analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the distribution of benzene air concentrations for select jobs/tasks across all four refineries. The jobs and tasks most frequently sampled included those with highest potential contact with refinery product streams containing benzene, which reflected the targeted sampling approach utilized by the facility industrial hygienists. Task and non-task data were analyzed to identify and account for significant differences within job-area, task-job, and task-area categories. This analysis demonstrated that in general, areas with benzene containing process streams were associated with greater benzene air concentrations compared to areas with process streams containing little to no benzene. For several job titles and tasks analyzed, there was a statistically significant decrease in benzene air concentration after 1990. This study provides a job and task-focused analysis of occupational exposure to benzene during refinery operations, and it should be useful for reconstructing refinery workers' exposures to benzene over the past 30 years.

  6. Simultaneous exposure to ethyl benzene and noise : synergistic effects on outer hair cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cappaert, N.L.M.; Klis, S.F.L.; Muijser, H.; Kulig, B.M.; Smoorenburg, G.F.

    2001-01-01

    The effects on hearing of simultaneous exposure to the ototoxic organic solvent ethyl benzene and broad-band noise were evaluated in rats. The effects of three ethyl benzene concentrations (0, 300 or 400 ppm) and three noise levels (95 or 105 dBlin SPL or background noise at 65 dBlin SPL) and all

  7. Effect of in vivo exposure to benzene on the characteristics of bone marrow adherent cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnett, H M; Cronkite, E P; Drew, R T

    1983-01-01

    The effect of benzene on the adherent cell population, cultured from the bone marrow of exposed mice was investigated in the presence and absence of hydrocortisone. The adherent CFUs from exposed animals did not differ either in numbers or self-replicate ability to those derived from shown exposed animals. Adherent layers from mice exposed to 100 or 400 pp-benzene were devoid of fat cells regardless of the presence or absence of hydrocortisone. Hydrocortisone was shown to influence the proportion of acid phosphatase-positive cells derived from benzene-exposed animals. Those results suggest that benzene exposure may influence the bone marrow stromal cells.

  8. Estimating Benzene Exposure Level over Time and by Industry Type through a Review of Literature on Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Donguk; Choi, Sangjun; Ha, Kwonchul; Jung, Hyejung; Yoon, Chungsik; Koh, Dong-Hee; Ryu, Seunghun; Kim, Soogeun; Kang, Dongmug; Yoo, Kyemook

    2015-09-01

    The major purpose of this study is to construct a retrospective exposure assessment for benzene through a review of literature on Korea. Airborne benzene measurements reported in 34 articles were reviewed. A total of 15,729 individual measurements were compiled. Weighted arithmetic means [AM(w)] and their variance calculated across studies were summarized according to 5-year period intervals (prior to the 1970s through the 2010s) and industry type. Industries were classified according to Korea Standard Industrial Classification (KSIC) using information provided in the literature. We estimated quantitative retrospective exposure to benzene for each cell in the matrix through a combination of time and KSIC. Analysis of the AM(w) indicated reductions in exposure levels over time, regardless of industry, with mean levels prior to the 1980-1984 period of 50.4 ppm (n = 2,289), which dropped to 2.8 ppm (n = 305) in the 1990-1994 period, and to 0.1 ppm (n = 294) in the 1995-1999 period. There has been no improvement since the 2000s, when the AM(w) of 4.3 ppm (n = 6,211) for the 2005-2009 period and 4.5 ppm (n = 3,358) for the 2010-2013 period were estimated. A comparison by industry found no consistent patterns in the measurement results. Our estimated benzene measurements can be used to determine not only the possibility of retrospective exposure to benzene, but also to estimate the level of quantitative or semiquantitative retrospective exposure to benzene.

  9. Estimating Benzene Exposure Level over Time and by Industry Type through a Review of Literature on Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donguk Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The major purpose of this study is to construct a retrospective exposure assessment for benzene through a review of literature on Korea. Airborne benzene measurements reported in 34 articles were reviewed. A total of 15,729 individual measurements were compiled. Weighted arithmetic means [AM(w] and their variance calculated across studies were summarized according to 5-year period intervals (prior to the 1970s through the 2010s and industry type. Industries were classified according to Korea Standard Industrial Classification (KSIC using information provided in the literature. We estimated quantitative retrospective exposure to benzene for each cell in the matrix through a combination of time and KSIC. Analysis of the AM(w indicated reductions in exposure levels over time, regardless of industry, with mean levels prior to the 1980–1984 period of 50.4 ppm (n = 2,289, which dropped to 2.8 ppm (n = 305 in the 1990–1994 period, and to 0.1 ppm (n = 294 in the 1995–1999 period. There has been no improvement since the 2000s, when the AM(w of 4.3 ppm (n = 6,211 for the 2005–2009 period and 4.5 ppm (n = 3,358 for the 2010–2013 period were estimated. A comparison by industry found no consistent patterns in the measurement results. Our estimated benzene measurements can be used to determine not only the possibility of retrospective exposure to benzene, but also to estimate the level of quantitative or semiquantitative retrospective exposure to benzene.

  10. A critique of the exposure assessment in the epidemiologic study of benzene-exposed workers in China conducted by the Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine and the US National Cancer Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, O

    1999-12-01

    As reviewed in some detail in the present paper, workers employed in a wide variety of industries were included in the Chinese benzene study, and were exposed to not only benzene but also a wide range of other industrial chemicals. To attribute any or all health effects observed in the exposed cohort to benzene without examining other concomitant exposures is not appropriate. Although it was stated that one of the major objectives of the expanded study was to examine the effects of other risk factors, no such examination was made in any of the analyses in the expanded CAPM-NCI study. The CAPM-NCI study suffered from a number of limitations. One of the most serious limitations of the study involved the exposure estimates developed by the US NCI team. Comparing the assumptions used in the development of estimates and the exposure estimates themselves to actual data reported previously by the Chinese investigators revealed numerous inconsistencies and, in many cases, large discrepancies. It appeared that the exposure estimates were consistently lower than the actual exposure data. The so-called indirect validation conducted by the NCI team served no useful purpose, since by definition it could not validate the absolute values of the estimates. NCI was fully aware of some of the inadequacies of its exposure estimates. Although in a 1994 paper, the NCI team recognized that little confidence could be attached to the estimated (e.g., only 2% of the estimates for the time interval 1949-1959 and only 6% of the estimates prior to 1975 were rated in the high confidence category), the inadequacy of the estimates was never mentioned or discussed in any subsequent analyses or in the latest report (Hayes et al., 1998). Instead, the exposure of the workers was hailed as "well characterized" (Hayes et al., 1998). In conclusion both CAPM and NCI have made substantial efforts in studying the relationship between benzene exposure and various malignancies. Unfortunately, there were

  11. An overview of published benzene exposure data by industry in China, 1960-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, You-Xin; Wong, Otto; Armstrong, Thomas; Ye, Xi-Biao; Miao, Li-Zhuang; Zhou, Yi-Mei; Wu, Qiang-En; Qian, Hao-Jun; Fu, Hua

    2005-05-30

    This article presents an overview of occupational benzene exposures in China based on data published in Chinese medical journals. The data were derived from 384 reports of benzene poisoning or industrial hygiene surveys published in Chinese medical journals between 1960 and 2003. The following information was extracted whenever available: industry, occupation, task, date, benzene levels, sampling location, workplace descriptions and, for case reports, medical diagnosis. Each paper provided one or more sets of benzene data, each set representing a sampling location or job title with one to several measurements including, mainly, breathing zone area concentration measurements, and much less frequently personal monitoring. Two criteria based on data quality were applied to select suitable data for analyses. The selected exposure data were analyzed by industry and time period. Nine hundred five sets of benzene measurements from 72 industries were reported in the 384 papers selected for this review, and 621 sets (68.6%) presented average benzene concentrations, which covered 55 industries. The distribution of the reported average benzene exposures was skewed with a median of 51.5 mg/m3. The average benzene concentrations were below 100 mg/m3 for 406 (65%) of the 621 reported average concentrations. The medians of the reported averages in mg/m3 for the five industries with the highest exposures were: 124.8 for leather products, 98.7 for electronic devices, 75.4 for machinery, 50.4 for shoes, and 50.3 for office supplies and sports equipment manufacturing. These data describe the concentrations and changing patterns of occupational benzene exposure by industry and time period in China.

  12. Comparison of personal air benzene and urine t,t-muconic acid as a benzene exposure surrogate during turnaround maintenance in petrochemical plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Dong-Hee; Lee, Mi-Young; Chung, Eun-Kyo; Jang, Jae-Kil; Park, Dong-Uk

    2018-04-12

    Previous studies have shown that biomarkers of chemicals with long half-lives may be better surrogates of exposure for epidemiological analyses, leading to less attenuation of the exposure-disease association, than personal air samples. However, chemicals with short half-lives have shown inconsistent results. In the present study, we compared pairs of personal air benzene and its short-half-life urinary metabolite trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA), and predicted attenuation bias of theoretical exposure-disease association. Total 669 pairs of personal air benzene and urine t,t-MA samples were taken from 474 male workers during turnaround maintenance operations held in seven petrochemical plants. Maintenance jobs were classified into 13 groups. Variance components were calculated for personal air benzene and urine t, t-MA separately to estimate the attenuation of the theoretical exposure-disease association. Personal air benzene and urine t, t-MA showed similar attenuation of the theoretical exposure-disease association. Analyses for repeated measurements showed similar results, while in analyses for values above the limits of detection (LODs), urine t, t-MA showed less attenuation of the theoretical exposure-disease association than personal air benzene. Our findings suggest that there may be no significant difference in attenuation bias when personal air benzene or urine t,t-MA is used as a surrogate for benzene exposure.

  13. Meteorological aspects of benzene transport, dispersion and personal exposure in Valdez, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, D.R.; Ball, R.J. [TRC Environmental Corp., Windsor, CT (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The Valdez Air Health Study (VAHS) was conducted in Valdez, Alaska to determine the personal exposure of the residential population of Valdez to certain volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The VAHS used the EPA`s Total Exposure Assessment Methodology (TEAM) with continuous meteorology, air quality and intense tracer measurements to monitor personal and indoor/outdoor concentrations of VOCs in the community. The Valdez fjord is the site of the Alyeska Marine Terminal, the largest crude oil loading terminal in the United States, with a maximum capacity of 2.2 million barrels per day. The Alyeska Marine Terminal is the transfer point for Prudhoe Bay crude oil from the pipeline to marine tankers. During 1990, the terminal and marine tankers were estimated to emit approximately 450 metric tonnes/year of benzene to the air at an average throughput of 1.8 million barrels/day while benzene emissions from other sources in the basin were estimated to be approximately 3 tonnes/year.

  14. Exposure Evaluation for Benzene, Lead and Noise in Vehicle and Equipment Repair Shops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, Lynn C. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    2013-04-01

    An exposure assessment was performed at the equipment and vehicle maintenance repair shops operating at the U. S. Department of Energy Hanford site, in Richland, Washington. The maintenance shops repair and maintain vehicles and equipment used in support of the Hanford cleanup mission. There are three general mechanic shops and one auto body repair shop. The mechanics work on heavy equipment used in construction, cranes, commercial motor vehicles, passenger-type vehicles in addition to air compressors, generators, and farm equipment. Services include part fabrication, installation of equipment, repair and maintenance work in the engine compartment, and tire and brake services. Work performed at the auto body shop includes painting and surface preparation which involves applying body filler and sanding. 8-hour time-weighted-average samples were collected for benzene and noise exposure and task-based samples were collected for lead dust work activities involving painted metal surfaces. Benzene samples were obtained using 3M™ 3520 sampling badges and were analyzed for additional volatile organic compounds. These compounds were selected based on material safety data sheet information for the aerosol products used by the mechanics for each day of sampling. The compounds included acetone, ethyl ether, toluene, xylene, VM&P naphtha, methyl ethyl ketone, and trichloroethylene. Laboratory data for benzene, VM&P naphtha, methyl ethyl ketone and trichloroethylene were all below the reporting detection limit. Airborne concentrations for acetone, ethyl ether, toluene and xylene were all less than 10% of their occupational exposure limit. The task-based samples obtained for lead dusts were submitted for a metal scan analysis to identify other metals that might be present. Laboratory results for lead dusts were all below the reporting detection limit and airborne concentration for the other metals observed in the samples were less than 10% of the occupational exposure limit

  15. A methodological frame for assessing benzene induced leukemia risk mitigation due to policy measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakitsios, Spyros P.; Sarigiannis, Dimosthenis A.; Gotti, Alberto; Kassomenos, Pavlos A.; Pilidis, Georgios A.

    2013-01-01

    The study relies on the development of a methodology for assessing the determinants that comprise the overall leukemia risk due to benzene exposure and how these are affected by outdoor and indoor air quality regulation. An integrated modeling environment was constructed comprising traffic emissions, dispersion models, human exposure models and a coupled internal dose/biology-based dose–response risk assessment model, in order to assess the benzene imposed leukemia risk, as much as the impact of traffic fleet renewal and smoking banning to these levels. Regarding traffic fleet renewal, several “what if” scenarios were tested. The detailed full-chain methodology was applied in a South-Eastern European urban setting in Greece and a limited version of the methodology in Helsinki. Non-smoking population runs an average risk equal to 4.1 · 10 −5 compared to 23.4 · 10 −5 for smokers. The estimated lifetime risk for the examined occupational groups was higher than the one estimated for the general public by 10–20%. Active smoking constitutes a dominant parameter for benzene-attributable leukemia risk, much stronger than any related activity, occupational or not. From the assessment of mitigation policies it was found that the associated leukemia risk in the optimum traffic fleet scenario could be reduced by up to 85% for non-smokers and up to 8% for smokers. On the contrary, smoking banning provided smaller gains for (7% for non-smokers, 1% for smokers), while for Helsinki, smoking policies were found to be more efficient than traffic fleet renewal. The methodology proposed above provides a general framework for assessing aggregated exposure and the consequent leukemia risk from benzene (incorporating mechanistic data), capturing exposure and internal dosimetry dynamics, translating changes in exposure determinants to actual changes in population risk, providing a valuable tool for risk management evaluation and consequently to policy support. - Highlights

  16. A methodological frame for assessing benzene induced leukemia risk mitigation due to policy measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakitsios, Spyros P. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Chemical Engineering, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Sarigiannis, Dimosthenis A., E-mail: denis@eng.auth.gr [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Chemical Engineering, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Centre for Research and Technology Hellas (CE.R.T.H.), 57001, Thessaloniki (Greece); Gotti, Alberto [Centre for Research and Technology Hellas (CE.R.T.H.), 57001, Thessaloniki (Greece); Kassomenos, Pavlos A. [University of Ioannina, Department of Physics, Laboratory of Meteorology, GR-45110 Ioannina (Greece); Pilidis, Georgios A. [University of Ioannina, Department of Biological Appl. and Technologies, GR-45110 Ioannina (Greece)

    2013-01-15

    The study relies on the development of a methodology for assessing the determinants that comprise the overall leukemia risk due to benzene exposure and how these are affected by outdoor and indoor air quality regulation. An integrated modeling environment was constructed comprising traffic emissions, dispersion models, human exposure models and a coupled internal dose/biology-based dose–response risk assessment model, in order to assess the benzene imposed leukemia risk, as much as the impact of traffic fleet renewal and smoking banning to these levels. Regarding traffic fleet renewal, several “what if” scenarios were tested. The detailed full-chain methodology was applied in a South-Eastern European urban setting in Greece and a limited version of the methodology in Helsinki. Non-smoking population runs an average risk equal to 4.1 · 10{sup −5} compared to 23.4 · 10{sup −5} for smokers. The estimated lifetime risk for the examined occupational groups was higher than the one estimated for the general public by 10–20%. Active smoking constitutes a dominant parameter for benzene-attributable leukemia risk, much stronger than any related activity, occupational or not. From the assessment of mitigation policies it was found that the associated leukemia risk in the optimum traffic fleet scenario could be reduced by up to 85% for non-smokers and up to 8% for smokers. On the contrary, smoking banning provided smaller gains for (7% for non-smokers, 1% for smokers), while for Helsinki, smoking policies were found to be more efficient than traffic fleet renewal. The methodology proposed above provides a general framework for assessing aggregated exposure and the consequent leukemia risk from benzene (incorporating mechanistic data), capturing exposure and internal dosimetry dynamics, translating changes in exposure determinants to actual changes in population risk, providing a valuable tool for risk management evaluation and consequently to policy support

  17. Early changes of lymphocyte RNA and serum immunoglobulins following chronic exposure to benzene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chircu, V.; Ionescu, M.; Zgoan

    Hematologic and immunochemical investigations carried out in 270 workers with chronic exposure to benzene demonstrated changes of the nucleologram and of the area of lymphocyte nucleoli as well as disorders of the humoral immune response revealed by radial immunodiffusion. The numerical rise of bi- and polynucleolated cells, of cells with irregular macronucleoli as well as an enlargement of the nucleolar area are assumed to reflect an increase of the endolymphocytic amounts of RNA. An increased capacity of immunoglobulin formation, particularly of IgM, was also observed. All these changes are considered as early signs of an enhanced immune reactivity following chronic exposure to benzene.

  18. Occupational exposure to benzene at the ExxonMobil refinery in Baytown, TX (1978-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, Shannon H; Panko, Julie M; Unice, Ken M; Burns, Amanda M; Kreider, Marisa L; Gelatt, Richard H; Booher, Lindsay E; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2011-01-01

    Although occupational benzene exposure of refinery workers has been studied for decades, no extensive analysis of historical industrial hygiene data has been performed focusing on airborne concentrations at specific refineries and tasks. This study characterizes benzene exposures at the ExxonMobil Baytown, TX, refinery from 1978 to 2006 to understand the variability in workers' exposures over time and during different job tasks. Exposures were grouped by operational status, job title, and tasks. More than 9000 industrial hygiene air samples were evaluated; approximately 4000 non-task (> 3 h) and 1000 task-related (work areas, and 16 task bins (when applicable). Process technicians were sampled most frequently, resulting in the following mean benzene concentrations by area: hydrofiner (n=245, mean=1.3 p.p.m.), oil movements (n=286, mean=0.23 p.p.m.), reformer (n=575, mean=0.10 p.p.m.), tank farm (n=9, mean=0.65 p.p.m.), waste treatment (n=446, mean=0.13 p.p.m.), and other areas (n=460, mean=0.062 p.p.m.). The most frequently sampled task was sample collection (n=218, mean=0.40 p.p.m.). Job title and area did not significantly impact task-related exposures. Airborne concentrations were significantly lower after 1990 than before 1990. Results of this task-focused study may be useful when analyzing benzene exposures at other refineries.

  19. Benzene exposure among auto-repair workers from workplace ambience: A pioneer study from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atif Kamal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In Pakistan, the reports on benzene exposure among workers in chemical industries are almost non-existing due to limited research work in the field of exposure science. This study aimed to investigate such exposure in a widely adopted occupation in Rawalpindi city. Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 60 blood samples (N = 20/group of mechanics (MCs, spray painters (PNs and control participants (CN were analyzed. The socio-economic and demographic information of workers and that of workplaces was documented using a short questionnaire. Results: We identified that the workers in spray-painting occupation are highly at risk of benzene exposure. The results showed that PNs were more at risk of exposure to benzene than MCs, and this exposure was significantly correlated with long working hours (r = 0.68, p < 0.001. Moreover, there are several limitations in workplace setups, which need to be addressed in order to mitigate workers health risk in this occupation. In addition to the reckless use of chemicals, other identified predictors of exposure included active and passive smoking, poor workplace hygiene and substandard ventilation. Conclusions: To mitigate workplace exposure, it is necessary to reduce working hours and encourage regular use of self-protective equipments and adoption of proper hygiene in chemical workplaces.

  20. Resolving uncertainty in the spatial relationships between passive benzene exposure and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switchenko, Jeffrey M; Bulka, Catherine; Ward, Kevin; Koff, Jean L; Bayakly, A Rana; Ryan, P Barry; Waller, Lance A; Flowers, Christopher R

    2016-04-01

    Benzene is a known occupational carcinogen associated with increased risk of hematologic cancers, but the relationships between quantity of passive benzene exposure through residential proximity to toxic release sites, duration of exposure, lag time from exposure to cancer development, and lymphoma risk remain unclear. We collected release data through the Environmental Protection Agency's Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) from 1989 to 2003, which included location of benzene release sites, years when release occurred, and amount of release. We also collected data on incident cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) from the Georgia Comprehensive Cancer Registry (GCCR) for the years 1999-2008. We constructed distance-decay surrogate exposure metrics and Poisson and negative binomial regression models of NHL incidence to quantify associations between passive exposure to benzene and NHL risk and examined the impact of amount, duration of exposure, and lag time on cancer development. Akaike's information criteria (AIC) were used to determine the scaling factors for benzene dispersion and exposure periods that best predicted NHL risk. Using a range of scaling factors and exposure periods, we found that increased levels of passive benzene exposure were associated with higher risk of NHL. The best fitting model, with a scaling factor of 4 kilometers (km) and exposure period of 1989-1993, showed that higher exposure levels were associated with increased NHL risk (Level 4 (1.1-160kilograms (kg)) vs. Level 1: risk ratio 1.56 [1.44-1.68], Level 5 (>160kg) vs. Level 1: 1.60 [1.48-1.74]). Higher levels of passive benzene exposure are associated with increased NHL risk across various lag periods. Additional epidemiological studies are needed to refine these models and better quantify the expected total passive benzene exposure in areas surrounding release sites. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Kinetics of granulocytic and erythroid progenitor cells are affected differently by short-term, low-level benzene exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dempster, A.M.; Snyder, C.A. (New York Univ. Medical Center, NY (United States). Inst. of Environmental Medicine)

    1991-09-01

    Mice were exposed to either air or 10 ppm benzene for 6 h/d X 5 d. Immediately after the last exposure, mice were injected, i.v., with either saline or hydroxyurea (HU). The dose of HU was sufficient to kill hematopoietic cells in or near S-phase of the cell cycle and sufficient to synchronize the surviving populations of hematopoietic cells. Three days after benzene exposure, CFU-E numbers had declined to 50% of control values while CFU-GM numbers were equal to control values at this time. The benzene exposures were sufficient to double the percentage of CFU-E in S-phase but produced no such increase among CFU-Gm. During 3 days of recovery from benzene exposure and HU treatment, the CFU-E population expanded 30-fold while the CFU-GM population expanded less than 3-fold. Following benzene exposure and HU treatment, both progenitor cells produced elevated numbers of their respective progeny. When CFU-E from benzene-exposed mice were cultured with varying concentrations of erythropoietin (EPO), the response at maximal EPO concentration was 66% of the response by control CFU-E. This strongly suggests that the CFU-E populations from benzene-exposed mice had been depleted of cells in or near S-phase. The results indicate that CFU-GM respond to low-level benzene exposure by increasing their rate of differentiation but not their rate of proliferation, while CFU-E respond by increasing both their rates of differentiation and proliferation. We speculate that it is the increase in CFU-E proliferation that renders these cells more susceptible to benzene than their granulocytic counterparts, especially those CFU-E at or near the S-phase of the cell cycle. (orig.).

  2. No contribution of GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes to the risk of neutropenia due to benzene exposure in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Silvia Passos Lima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to benzene has been associated with haematological diseases such as neutropenia (NEB and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML. We tested whether the null genotypes of the GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes, involved in benzene inactivation, altered the risk for NEB in southeastern Brazil. Genomic DNA from 55 NEB patients and 330 controls was analysed by multiplex-polymerase chain reaction. The frequency of the GSTM1, GSTT1 and combined null genotypes was similar in patients and controls (GSTM1, 27.3% vs. 38.8%, p = 0.16; GSTT1, 25.5% vs. 19.7%, p = 0.24; GSTM1/GSTT1, 12.7% vs. 6.7%, p = 0.26; respectively. The distribution of genotype classes in NEB patients was similar to normal controls, suggesting that GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes make no specific contribution to the risk of NEB. As the GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes were previously associated with increased risk for AML in Brazil and elsewhere, we hypothesise that different thresholds of chemical exposure relative to distinct GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes may determine whether AML or NEB manifests in benzene exposed individuals from southeastern Brazil. Although indicative, our results still require support by prospective and large scale epidemiological studies, with rigorous assessment of daily chemical exposures and control of the possible contribution of other polymorphic genes involved in benzene metabolism.

  3. Meta-analysis of benzene exposure and non-Hodgkin lymphoma: biases could mask an important association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmaus, C; Smith, A H; Jones, R M; Smith, M T

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Benzene is a widely recognised cause of leukaemia but its association with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) is less well established. The goal of this project is to review the current published literature on this association. Methods We performed a meta-analysis of cohort and case-control studies of benzene exposure and NHL and a meta-analysis of NHL and refinery work, a potential source of benzene exposure. Results In 22 studies of benzene exposure, the summary relative risk for NHL was 1.22 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.47; one-sided p value = 0.01). When studies that likely included unexposed subjects in the “exposed” group were excluded, the summary relative risk increased to 1.49 (95% CI 1.12 to 1.97, n = 13), and when studies based solely on self-reported work history were excluded, the relative risk rose to 2.12 (95% CI 1.11 to 4.02, n = 6). In refinery workers, the summary relative risk for NHL in all 21 studies was 1.21 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.46; p = 0.02). When adjusted for the healthy worker effect, this relative risk estimate increased to 1.42 (95% CI 1.19 to 1.69). Conclusions The finding of elevated relative risks in studies of both benzene exposure and refinery work provides further evidence that benzene exposure causes NHL. In addition, the finding of increased relative risks after removing studies that included unexposed or lesser exposed workers in “exposed” cohorts, and increased relative risk estimates after adjusting for the healthy worker effect, suggest that effects of benzene on NHL might be missed in occupational studies if these biases are not accounted for. PMID:18417556

  4. Overview of the Benzene and Other Toxics Exposure (BEE-TEX) Field Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaguer, Eduardo P

    2015-01-01

    The Benzene and other Toxics Exposure (BEE-TEX) field study was an experimental campaign designed to demonstrate novel methods for measuring ambient concentrations of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in real time and to attribute these concentrations to quantified releases from specific emission points in industrial facilities while operating outside facility fence lines. BEE-TEX was conducted in February 2015 at three neighboring communities in the Houston Ship Channel of Texas, where a large number of petrochemical facilities are concentrated. The novel technologies deployed during BEE-TEX included: (1) tomographic remote sensing based on differential optical absorption spectroscopy; (2) real-time broadcasting of ambient air monitoring data over the World Wide Web; (3) real-time source attribution and quantification of HAP emissions based on either tomographic or mobile measurement platforms; and (4) the use of cultured human lung cells in vitro as portable indicators of HAP exposure.

  5. Occupational exposure to benzene: a prevention program for employees and contractors; PPEOB - Programa de Prevencao a Exposicao Ocupacional ao Benzeno para Empregados Proprios e Contratados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Paulo Sergio de; Silva, Edson Ferreira da; Patto, Claudio Monteiro [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    PETROBRAS/TRANSPETRO Pipelines and Terminals has 500 regular employees and 5.064 out sourced workers in its Southeast Division. The out sourced employees work through 125 contracts involving a wide range of activities such as maintenance, operational, pipeline launching , engineering, administrative and auxiliary services. Among these workers, 200 people are subjected to benzene occupational exposure, which might be present in the products we transport in our pipelines. Benzene is recognized as a carcinogen according to ACGIH and Brazilian Ministry of Labour regulation NR- 15. Exposure to benzene in an uncontrolled way, be it chronic or sharp, may affect the worker's health such as: hematological alterations, neoplasys, neurobehavior alterations. Our program PPEOB (acronym in Portuguese for benzene occupational exposure prevention program) involved the work force and fosters health by anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of the situations that may result in injuries. Further actions include the acquisition of equipment for benzene detection in the air or diluted in liquids and the introduction of new technologies for process control. The priority is the acquisition of equipment for collective protection not forgetting the individual protection equipment (IPE) and the required training. Implementation of this program counted with the effective participation of managers, contract supervisors and HSE professionals whose main task was to advise all involved parts. Furthermore, an auto-evaluation was released in order to assess the adherence of the PPEOB related to the facility reality. Since a suitable level of adherence is reached, the PPEOB can be used as a standard in the whole TRANSPETRO. (author)

  6. Exposures to jet fuel and benzene during aircraft fuel tank repair in the U.S. Air Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, G N; Smith, L B

    2000-06-01

    Jet fuel and benzene vapor exposures were measured during aircraft fuel tank entry and repair at twelve U.S. Air Force bases. Breathing zone samples were collected on the fuel workers who performed the repair. In addition, instantaneous samples were taken at various points during the procedures with SUMMA canisters and subsequent analysis by mass spectrometry. The highest eight-hour time-weighted average (TWA) fuel exposure found was 1304 mg/m3; the highest 15-minute short-term exposure was 10,295 mg/m3. The results indicate workers who repair fuel tanks containing explosion suppression foam have a significantly higher exposure to jet fuel as compared to workers who repair tanks without foam (p fuel, absorbed by the foam, to volatilize during the foam removal process. Fuel tanks that allow flow-through ventilation during repair resulted in lower exposures compared to those tanks that have only one access port and, as a result, cannot be ventilated efficiently. The instantaneous sampling results confirm that benzene exposures occur during fuel tank repair; levels up to 49.1 mg/m3 were found inside the tanks during the repairs. As with jet fuel, these elevated benzene concentrations were more likely to occur in foamed tanks. The high temperatures associated with fuel tank repair, along with the requirement to wear vapor-permeable cotton coveralls for fire reasons, could result in an increase in the benzene body burden of tank entrants.

  7. Toxicogenomic analysis of gene expression changes in rat liver after a 28-day oral benzene exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijne, W.H.M.; Jonker, D.; Stierum, R.H.; Ommen, van B.; Groten, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    Benzene is an industrial chemical, component of automobile exhaust and cigarette smoke. After hepatic bioactivation benzene induces bone marrow, blood and hepatic toxicity. Using a toxicogenomics approach this study analysed the effects of benzene at three dose levels on gene expression in the liver

  8. Assessment of human exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebret, E [RIVM-National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    This article describes some of the features of the assessment of human exposure to environmental pollutants in epidemiological studies. Since exposure assessment in air pollution epidemiology studies typically involve professionals from various backgrounds, interpretation of a concepts like `exposure` may vary. A brief descriptions is therefore given by way of introduction

  9. Assessment of human exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebret, E. [RIVM-National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    This article describes some of the features of the assessment of human exposure to environmental pollutants in epidemiological studies. Since exposure assessment in air pollution epidemiology studies typically involve professionals from various backgrounds, interpretation of a concepts like `exposure` may vary. A brief descriptions is therefore given by way of introduction

  10. Exposure to methyl tert-butyl ether, benzene, and total hydrocarbons at the Singapore-Malaysia causeway immigration checkpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, C.; Ong, H.Y.; Kok, P.W. [and others

    1996-12-31

    The primary aim of this study was to determine the extent and levels of exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from automobile emissions in a group of immigration officers at a busy cross-border checkpoint. A majority (80%) of the workers monitored were exposed to benzene at levels between 0.01 and 0.5 ppm, with only 1.2% exceeding the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration occupational exposure limit of 1 ppm. The geometric mean (GM) concentrations of 8-hr time-weighted average exposure were 0.03 ppm, 0.9 ppm, and 2.46 ppm for methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE), benzene, and total hydrocarbons (THC), respectively. The highest time-weighted average concentrations measured were 1.05 ppm for MTBE, 2.01 ppm for benzene, and 34 ppm for THC. It was found that motorbikes emitted a more significant amount of pollutants compared with motor cars. On average, officers at the motorcycle booths were exposed to four to five times higher levels of VOCs (GMs of 0.07 ppm, 0.23 ppm, and 4.7 ppm for MTBE, benzene, and THC) than their counterparts at the motor car booths (GMs of 0.01 ppm, 0.05 ppm, and 1.5 ppm). The airborne concentrations of all three pollutants correlated with the flow of vehicle traffic. Close correlations were also noted for the concentrations in ambient air for the three pollutants measured. Benzene and MTBE had a correlation coefficient of 0.97. The overall findings showed that the concentrations of various VOCs were closely related to the traffic density, suggesting that they were from a common source, such as exhaust emissions from the vehicles. The results also indicated that although benzene, MTBE, and THC are known to be volatile, a significant amount could still be detected in the ambient environment, thus contributing to our exposure to these compounds. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Health risk characterization for exposure to benzene in service stations and petroleum refineries environments using human adverse response data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edokpolo, Benjamin; Yu, Qiming Jimmy; Connell, Des

    2015-01-01

    Health risk characterization of exposure to benzene in service stations and petroleum refineries has been carried out in previous studies using guideline values set by various agencies. In this work, health risk was characterized with the exposure data as cumulative probability distribution (CPD) plots but using human epidemiological data. This was achieved by using lowest observable adverse effects levels (LOAEL) data plotted as cumulative probability lowest effects distribution (CPLED). The health risk due to benzene was characterized by using probabilistic methods of hazard quotient (HQ 50/50 and HQ 95/5 ), Monte-Carlo simulation (MCS) and overall risk probability (ORP). CPD relationships of adverse health effects relationships and exposure data were in terms of average daily dose (ADD) and lifetime average daily dose (LADD) for benzene. For service station environments HQ 50/50 and HQ 95/5 were in a range of 0.000071-0.055 and 0.0049-21, respectively. On the other hand, the risk estimated for petroleum refinery environments suggests higher risk with HQ 50/50 and HQ 95/5 values ranging from 0.0012 to 77 and 0.17 to 560, respectively. The results of Monte-Carlo risk probability (MRP) and ORP indicated that workers in petroleum refineries (MRP of 2.9-56% and ORP of 4.6-52% of the affected population) were at a higher risk of adverse health effects from exposure to benzene as compared to exposure to benzene in service station environments (MRP of 0.051 -3.4% and ORP of 0.35-2.7% affected population). The adverse effect risk probabilities estimated by using the Monte-Carlo simulation technique and the ORP method were found to be generally consistent.

  12. Mixture effects of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) on lung carcinoma cells via a hanging drop air exposure system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Faye F; Escher, Beate I; Were, Stephen; Duffy, Lesley; Ng, Jack C

    2014-06-16

    A recently developed hanging drop air exposure system for toxicity studies of volatile chemicals was applied to evaluate the cell viability of lung carcinoma A549 cells after 1 and 24 h of exposure to benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) as individual compounds and as mixtures of four or six components. The cellular chemical concentrations causing 50% reduction of cell viability (EC50) were calculated using a mass balance model and came to 17, 12, 11, 9, 4, and 4 mmol/kg cell dry weight for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-xylene, o-xylene, and p-xylene, respectively, after 1 h of exposure. The EC50 decreased by a factor of 4 after 24 h of exposure. All mixture effects were best described by the mixture toxicity model of concentration addition, which is valid for chemicals with the same mode of action. Good agreement with the model predictions was found for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and m-xylene at four different representative fixed concentration ratios after 1 h of exposure, but lower agreement with mixture prediction was obtained after 24 h of exposure. A recreated car exhaust mixture, which involved the contribution of the more toxic p-xylene and o-xylene, yielded an acceptable, but lower quality, prediction as well.

  13. GIS-based assessment of cancer risk due to benzene in Tehran ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atabi, Farideh; Mirzahosseini, Seyed Alireza Hajiseyed

    2013-10-01

    The present study aimed to assess the risk of cancer due to benzene in the ambient air of gas stations and traffic zones in the north of Tehran. The cancer risk was estimated using the population distribution data for benzene levels and the unit risk for benzene proposed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Sixteen sampling locations were monitored, once every week, during 5 April 2010 to 25 March 2011. The results showed that the mean annual benzene concentration was 14.51±3.17 parts per billion (ppb) for traffic zones and 29.01±1.32 ppb for outside gas stations. The risk calculated was 1026×10(-6) for gas station 27 and 955×10(-6) for gas station 139. According to our results, the annual benzene level in Tehran ambient air is 2 to 20 times higher than the respective value specified in International Standard (1.56 ppb). Moreover, the results showed a notable increase of cancer risks, ranging from 10% to 56%, for the vicinity population close to the gas stations in comparison to the vicinity population in the traffic zones.

  14. Early effects of benzene exposure in mice. Hematological versus genotoxic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plappert, U [Inst. fuer Arbeits- und Sozialmedizin, Univ. Ulm (Germany); Barthel, E [Inst. fuer Arbeits- und Sozialmedizin, Univ. Ulm (Germany); Raddatz, K [Inst. fuer Arbeits- und Sozialmedizin, Univ. Ulm (Germany); Seidel, H J [Inst. fuer Arbeits- und Sozialmedizin, Univ. Ulm (Germany)

    1994-05-01

    Female BDF[sub 1] mice were exposed to 100, 300 and 900 ppm benzene 6 h/day, 5 days/week, up to 8 weeks. Hematological studies included peripheral blood data, T4 and T8 lumphocyte counts in the blood and the spleen, hemopoietic stem and progenitor cell assays in the marrow (CFU-S, CFU-C, BFU-E, CFU-E). The single cell gel assay (''comet assay'') was applied in parallel with cells from the peripheral blood, bone marrow, spleen and liver. The results showed minor changes in the stem and progenitor cells and the development of a slight anemia at 4 and 8 weeks, in agreement with reported data. New was the increase of the T4/T8 ratio in the peripheral blood (not in the spleen) at the end of the first week of exposure to 300 and 900 ppm. The results of the ''comet assay'' indicate a much higher sensitivity of this test system (strand breaks and alkali labile sites of DNA). The tail moment indicative of the damage to DNA increased as early as 3 days with 300 ppm in the peripheral blood cells. Furthermore, the liver cells did react to a much higher extent than the other cells tested. With 100 ppm significant changes were seen in the liver after 5 days, but not in the blood. The repair, studied 24 and 48 h after the end of the exposure, was almost complete after 5-day exposure period in the blood and the liver, but not after 4 weeks of exposure with 300 ppm in the blood, and 100 and 300 ppm in the liver. (orig.)

  15. Benzene metabolite levels in blood and bone marrow of B6C3F{sub 1} mice after low-level exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtold, W.E.; Strunk, M.R.; Thornton-Manning, J.R. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Studies at the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute (ITRI) have explored the species-specific uptake and metabolism of benzene. Results have shown that metabolism is dependent on both dose and route of administration. Of particular interest were shifts in the major metabolic pathways as a function of exposure concentration. In these studies, B6C3F{sub 1} mice were exposed to increasing levels of benzene by either gavage or inhalation. As benzene internal dose increased, the relative amounts of muconic acid and hydroquinone decreased. In contrast, the relative amount of catechol increased with increasing exposure. These results show that the relative levels of toxic metabolites are a function of exposure level. Based on these results and assuming a linear relationship between exposure concentration and levels of bone marrow metabolites, it would be difficult to detect an elevation of any phenolic metabolites above background after occupational exposures to the OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit of 1 ppm benzene.

  16. Changes in the peripheral blood transcriptome associated with occupational benzene exposure identified by cross-comparison on two microarray platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHale, Cliona M.; Zhang, Luoping; Lan, Qing; Li, Guilan; Hubbard, Alan E.; Forrest, Matthew S.; Vermeulen, Roel; Chen, Jinsong; Shen, Min; Rappaport, Stephen M.; Yin, Songnian; Smith, Martyn T.; Rothman, Nathaniel

    2009-03-01

    Benzene is an established cause of leukemia and a possible cause of lymphoma in humans but the molecular pathways underlying this remain largely undetermined. This study sought to determine if the use of two different microarray platforms could identify robust global gene expression and pathway changes associated with occupational benzene exposure in the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) gene expression of a population of shoe-factory workers with well-characterized occupational exposures to benzene. Microarray data was analyzed by a robust t-test using a Quantile Transformation (QT) approach. Differential expression of 2692 genes using the Affymetrix platform and 1828 genes using the Illumina platform was found. While the overall concordance in genes identified as significantly associated with benzene exposure between the two platforms was 26% (475 genes), the most significant genes identified by either array were more likely to be ranked as significant by the other platform (Illumina = 64%, Affymetrix = 58%). Expression ratios were similar among the concordant genes (mean difference in expression ratio = 0.04, standard deviation = 0.17). Four genes (CXCL16, ZNF331, JUN and PF4), which we previously identified by microarray and confirmed by real-time PCR, were identified by both platforms in the current study and were among the top 100 genes. Gene Ontology analysis showed over representation of genes involved in apoptosis among the concordant genes while Ingenuity{reg_sign} Pathway Analysis (IPA) identified pathways related to lipid metabolism. Using a two-platform approach allows for robust changes in the PBMC transcriptome of benzene-exposed individuals to be identified.

  17. Exposure to benzene at work and the risk of leukemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pukkala Eero

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A substantial number of epidemiologic studies have provided estimates of the relation between exposure to benzene at work and the risk of leukemia, but the results have been heterogeneous. To bridge this gap in knowledge, we synthesized the existing epidemiologic evidence on the relation between occupational exposure to benzene and the risk of leukemia, including all types combined and the four main subgroups acute myeloid leukemia (AML, acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML. Methods A systematic literature review was carried out using two databases 'Medline' and 'Embase' from 1950 through to July 2009. We selected articles which provided information that can be used to estimate the relation between benzene exposure and cancer risk (effect size. Results In total 15 studies were identified in the search, providing 16 effect estimates for the main analysis. The summary effect size for any leukemia from the fixed-effects model was 1.40 (95% CI, 1.23-1.57, but the study-specific estimates were strongly heterogeneous (I2 = 56.5%, Q stat = 34.47, p = 0.003. The random-effects model yielded a summary- effect size estimate of 1.72 (95% CI, 1.37-2.17. Effect estimates from 9 studies were based on cumulative exposures. In these studies the risk of leukemia increased with a dose-response pattern with a summary-effect estimate of 1.64 (95% CI, 1.13-2.39 for low ( 100 ppm-years. In a meta-regression, the trend was statistically significant (P = 0.015. Use of cumulative exposure eliminated heterogeneity. The risk of AML also increased from low (1.94, 95% CI, 0.95-3.95, medium (2.32, 95% CI, 0.91-5.94 to high exposure category (3.20, 95% CI, 1.09-9.45, but the trend was not statistically significant. Conclusions Our study provides consistent evidence that exposure to benzene at work increases the risk of leukemia with a dose-response pattern. There was some evidence of an

  18. Hydrogeologic characterization and assessment of bioremediation of chlorinated benzenes and benzene in wetland areas, Standard Chlorine of Delaware, Inc. Superfund Site, New Castle County, Delaware, 2009-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Walker, Charles W.; Baker, Anna C.; Teunis, Jessica A.; Emily Majcher,; Brayton, Michael J.; Raffensperger, Jeff P.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2015-01-01

    Wetlands at the Standard Chlorine of Delaware, Inc. Superfund Site (SCD) in New Castle County, Delaware, are affected by contamination with chlorobenzenes and benzene from past waste storage and disposal, spills, leaks, and contaminated groundwater discharge. In cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Geological Survey began an investigation in June 2009 to characterize the hydrogeology and geochemistry in the wetlands and assess the feasibility of monitored natural attenuation and enhanced bioremediation as remedial strategies. Groundwater flow in the wetland study area is predominantly vertically upward in the wetland sediments and the underlying aquifer, and groundwater discharge accounts for a minimum of 47 percent of the total discharge for the subwatershed of tidal Red Lion Creek. Thus, groundwater transport of contaminants to surface water could be significant. The major contaminants detected in groundwater in the wetland study area included benzene, monochlorobenzene, and tri- and di-chlorobenzenes. Shallow wetland groundwater in the northwest part of the wetland study area was characterized by high concentrations of total chlorinated benzenes and benzene (maximum about 75,000 micrograms per liter [μg/L]), low pH, and high chloride. In the northeast part of the wetland study area, wetland groundwater had low to moderate concentrations of total chlorinated benzenes and benzene (generally not greater than 10,000 μg/L), moderate pH, and high sulfate concentrations. Concentrations in the groundwater in excess of 1 percent of the solubility of the individual chlorinated benzenes indicate that a contaminant source is present in the wetland sediments as dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). Consistently higher contaminant concentrations in the shallow wetland groundwater than deeper in the wetland sediments or the aquifer also indicate a continued source in the wetland sediments, which could include dissolution of DNAPLs and

  19. Benzene Exposure Alters Expression of Enzymes Involved in Fatty Acid β-Oxidation in Male C3H/He Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongli Sun

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Benzene is a well-known hematotoxic carcinogen that can cause leukemia and a variety of blood disorders. Our previous study indicated that benzene disturbs levels of metabolites in the fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO pathway, which is crucial for the maintenance and function of hematopoietic and leukemic cells. The present research aims to investigate the effects of benzene on changes in the expression of key enzymes in the FAO pathway in male C3H/He mice. Results showed that benzene exposure caused reduced peripheral white blood cell (WBC, red blood cell (RBC, platelet (Pit counts, and hemoglobin (Hgb concentration. Investigation of the effects of benzene on the expression of FA transport- and β-oxidation-related enzymes showed that expression of proteins Cpt1a, Crat, Acaa2, Aldh1l2, Acadvl, Crot, Echs1, and Hadha was significantly increased. The ATP levels and mitochondrial membrane potential decreased in mice exposed to benzene. Meanwhile, reactive oxygen species (ROS, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, and malondialdehyde (MDA levels were significantly increased in the benzene group. Our results indicate that benzene induces increased expression of FA transport and β-oxidation enzymes, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress, which may play a role in benzene-induced hematotoxicity.

  20. Socioeconomic status and exposure to outdoor NO2 and benzene in the Asturias INMA birth cohort, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Tardon, Adonina

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that low socioeconomic levels are associated with greater exposure to pollution, but this is not necessarily valid. Our goal was to examine how individual socioeconomic characteristics are associated with exposure levels in a Spanish region included in the INfancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) cohort. The study population comprised 430 pregnant women from the Asturias INMA cohort. Air pollution exposure was estimated using land-use regression techniques. Information about the participants' lifestyle and socioeconomic variables was collected through questionnaires. In multivariate analysis, the levels of NO2 and benzene assigned to each woman were considered as dependent variables. Other variables included in the models were residential zone, age, education, parity, smoking, season, working status during pregnancy and social class. The average NO2 level was 23.60 (SD=6.50) μg/m(3). For benzene, the mean value was 2.31 (SD=1.32) μg/m(3). We found no association of any pollutant with education. We observed an association between social class and benzene levels. Social classes I and II had the highest levels. The analysed socioeconomic and lifestyle variables accounted for little variability in air pollution in the models; this variability was explained mainly by residential zone (adjusted R(2): 0.27 for NO2; 0.09 for benzene). Education and social class were not clearly associated with pollution. Administrations should monitor the environment of residential areas regardless of the socioeconomic level, and they should increase the distances between housing and polluting sources to prevent settlements at distances that are harmful to health.

  1. Socioeconomic status and exposure to outdoor NO2 and benzene in the Asturias INMA birth cohort, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Tardon, Adonina

    2014-01-01

    Background It is commonly assumed that low socioeconomic levels are associated with greater exposure to pollution, but this is not necessarily valid. Our goal was to examine how individual socioeconomic characteristics are associated with exposure levels in a Spanish region included in the INfancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) cohort. Methods The study population comprised 430 pregnant women from the Asturias INMA cohort. Air pollution exposure was estimated using land-use regression techniques. Information about the participants’ lifestyle and socioeconomic variables was collected through questionnaires. In multivariate analysis, the levels of NO2 and benzene assigned to each woman were considered as dependent variables. Other variables included in the models were residential zone, age, education, parity, smoking, season, working status during pregnancy and social class. Results The average NO2 level was 23.60 (SD=6.50) μg/m3. For benzene, the mean value was 2.31 (SD=1.32) μg/m3. We found no association of any pollutant with education. We observed an association between social class and benzene levels. Social classes I and II had the highest levels. The analysed socioeconomic and lifestyle variables accounted for little variability in air pollution in the models; this variability was explained mainly by residential zone (adjusted R2: 0.27 for NO2; 0.09 for benzene). Conclusions Education and social class were not clearly associated with pollution. Administrations should monitor the environment of residential areas regardless of the socioeconomic level, and they should increase the distances between housing and polluting sources to prevent settlements at distances that are harmful to health. PMID:23999377

  2. Optimization of SPE for Analysis of Mandelic Acid as a Biomarker of Exposure to Ethyl Benzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SJ Shahtaheri, M Abdollahi, F Golbabaei, A Rahimi-Froushani, F Ghamari

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Ethyl benzene is an important constituent of widely used solvents in industries and laboratories, causing widespread environmental and industrial pollutions. For evaluation of occupational exposure to such pollutants, biological monitoring is an essential process, in which, preparation of environmental and biological samples is one of the most time-consuming and error-prone aspects prior to chromatographic techniques. The use of solid-phase extraction (SPE has been grown and is a fertile technique of sample preparation as it provides better results than those of liquid-liquid extraction (LLE. In this study, SPE using bonded silica has been optimized with regard to sample pH, sample concentration, elution solvent, elution volume, sorbent type, and sorbent mass. Through experimental evaluation, a strong anion exchange silica cartridge (SAX has been found successful in simplifying sample preparation. The present approach proved that, mandelic acid could be retained on SAX sorbent based on specific interaction. Further study was employed using 10% acetic acid to extract the analyte from spiked urine and gave a clean sample for HPLC-UV system. In this study, a high performance liquid chromatography, using reverse-phase column was used. The isocratic run was done at a constant flow rate of 0.85 ml/min, the mobile phase was water/methanol/acetic acid and a UV detector was used, setting at 225 nm. At the developed conditions the extraction recovery was exceeded 98%. The factors were evaluated statically and also validated with three different pools of spiked urine samples and showed a good reproducibility over six consecutive days as well as six within-day experiments.

  3. Asbestos Exposure Assessment Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcot, Divya K.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to particular hazardous materials in a work environment is dangerous to the employees who work directly with or around the materials as well as those who come in contact with them indirectly. In order to maintain a national standard for safe working environments and protect worker health, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set forth numerous precautionary regulations. NASA has been proactive in adhering to these regulations by implementing standards which are often stricter than regulation limits and administering frequent health risk assessments. The primary objective of this project is to create the infrastructure for an Asbestos Exposure Assessment Database specific to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) which will compile all of the exposure assessment data into a well-organized, navigable format. The data includes Sample Types, Samples Durations, Crafts of those from whom samples were collected, Job Performance Requirements (JPR) numbers, Phased Contrast Microscopy (PCM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) results and qualifiers, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), and names of industrial hygienists who performed the monitoring. This database will allow NASA to provide OSHA with specific information demonstrating that JSC s work procedures are protective enough to minimize the risk of future disease from the exposures. The data has been collected by the NASA contractors Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) and Wyle Laboratories. The personal exposure samples were collected from devices worn by laborers working at JSC and by building occupants located in asbestos-containing buildings.

  4. Comparison of the near field/far field model and the advanced reach tool (ART) model V1.5: exposure estimates to benzene during parts washing with mineral spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Mallory; Allen, Joseph G; Herrick, Robert F; Stewart, James H

    2018-03-01

    The Advanced Reach Tool V1.5 (ART) is a mathematical model for occupational exposures conceptually based on, but implemented differently than, the "classic" Near Field/Far Field (NF/FF) exposure model. The NF/FF model conceptualizes two distinct exposure "zones"; the near field, within approximately 1m of the breathing zone, and the far field, consisting of the rest of the room in which the exposure occurs. ART has been reported to provide "realistic and reasonable worst case" estimates of the exposure distribution. In this study, benzene exposure during the use of a metal parts washer was modeled using ART V1.5, and compared to actual measured workers samples and to NF/FF model results from three previous studies. Next, the exposure concentrations expected to be exceeded 25%, 10% and 5% of the time for the exposure scenario were calculated using ART. Lastly, ART exposure estimates were compared with and without Bayesian adjustment. The modeled parts washing benzene exposure scenario included distinct tasks, e.g. spraying, brushing, rinsing and soaking/drying. Because ART can directly incorporate specific types of tasks that are part of the exposure scenario, the present analysis identified each task's determinants of exposure and performance time, thus extending the work of the previous three studies where the process of parts washing was modeled as one event. The ART 50th percentile exposure estimate for benzene (0.425ppm) more closely approximated the reported measured mean value of 0.50ppm than the NF/FF model estimates of 0.33ppm, 0.070ppm or 0.2ppm obtained from other modeling studies of this exposure scenario. The ART model with the Bayesian analysis provided the closest estimate to the measured value (0.50ppm). ART (with Bayesian adjustment) was then used to assess the 75th, the 90th and 95th percentile exposures, predicting that on randomly selected days during this parts washing exposure scenario, 25% of the benzene exposures would be above 0.70ppm; 10

  5. Determination of S-phenylmercapturic acid in the urine--an improvement in the biological monitoring of benzene exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stommel, P.; Mueller, G.S.; Stuecker, W.V.; Verkoyen, C.; Schoebel, S.N.; Norpoth, K.

    1989-02-01

    In an inhalation study rats were exposed to different doses of benzene, ranging from 1 to 500 p.p.m. The urine was sampled during the inhalation period of 8 h and for 24 h after exposure. S-Phenylmercapturic acid (S-PMA) in the urine was determined by amino acid analysis. Phenol was measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In both cases the correlation between benzene uptake and the excretion of the urinary metabolites was significant at the level of P = 0.01. The same significant correlation (P = 0.01) was demonstrable after i.p. administration of benzene at doses between 0.7 and 140.0 microliters/kg body weight. In the case of two collectives of workers who were exposed to air concentrations of up to 0.15 p.p.m. for 8 h and of up to 1.13 p.p.m. for 12 h respectively, the amount of S-PMA in the first urine samples after the shift was significantly higher than in samples collected at the beginning of the shift (P = 0.01). In the first collective the mean values and the standard deviations of the S-PMA concentrations in the samples at the beginning of the shift were 12.0 +/- 16.7 compared with 48.5 +/- 64.5 micrograms/g creatinine at shift end. In the second collective they were 25.1 +/- 25.1 compared with 70.9 +/- 109.2 micrograms/g creatinine. The level of significance of the difference between the concentration values of S-PMA at the beginning and end of the shift was P = 0.01. The phenol concentration did not differ significantly. These results suggest that S-PMA can be regarded as a useful indicator for monitoring individuals and collectives exposed to benzene at levels even less than 1 p.p.m.

  6. Optimization of Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (SPME for Monitoring Occupational Exposure to Ethyl Benzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Heidari

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Objectives: Analytical methods for volatile organic compounds (VOCs in different samples need extraction of compounds, by applying hazardous solvents. Solid phase micro-extraction (SPME is a solvent-free equilibrium extraction method, in which proper calibration can allow quantitative determinations of VOCs at a very good sensitivity without the use of any organic solvent. VOCs are generally present in urine only at trace levels, therefore, a sensitive procedure is needed for their trace determinations. Throughout this study, headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME was followed by GC-FID for ethyl benzene in spiked urine was optimized.Methods: In this study, the parameters influencing SPME and gas chromatography of ethyl benzene, including extraction time, temperature, desorption temperature, desorption time, salt addition, sample pH, sample volume and sample agitation were investigated. Results: Extraction procedure was performed at 30°C for 6 min, using 0.2 gml-1 of NaCl in the sample solution. The sample volume and sample pH were optimized at 5 ml and 7 (neutral pH, respectively. Desorption of the ethyl benzene was carried out for 60 sec. at 250°C. The method was also validated with three different spiked urine samples and illustrated an appropriate reproducibility over six consecutive days as well as six within-day experiments. During this investigation, parameters of accuracy, linearity, and detection limits of the procedure were also evaluated.Conclusion: The developed method of HS- SPME-GC-FID proved to be a simple, convenient, and practical procedure, and was successfully used for measuring of ethyl benzene in spiked urine.

  7. [Exposure to benzene and hematologic changes in workers at the Ina-Oki Drnisplast factory in Drnis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulandra, O; Cala, D; Marković, V; Zorić, A

    1993-12-01

    In the summer of 1984 workers in the "INA-OKI Drnisplast" factory frequently complained about headaches, weight loss and irregular menstrual cycles. According to the factory engineers that might have been due to an altered composition of the paints and glues that were used in the manufacturing process that year. Those had been found to lack specifications of chemical composition. Experts from the Institute for the Safety at Work from Zagreb were called in to perform measurements of organic solvents content in the workroom air. Benzene concentrations were found to be up to five times higher than the maximum permissible levels, those of toluene up to three times and of cyclohexane up to ten times higher. The polluted part of the factory was closed down, changes were introduced into the working process (use of paints was stopped, only glues without benzene content were allowed and proper ventilation was installed) and all the workers, twenty in all, received medical treatment. After three months the working process was resumed. In 1989 all the twenty workers underwent a control medical examination. All showed signs of recovery, both objective and subjective. Their blood tests values were within normal range. All the workers continued working, save one who retired in 1988 upon recommendation of a disability commission. The cause of disablement was occupational disease--benzene poisoning. On the basis of this experience emphasis is placed on the importance, in working with benzene, of complying with the Legislation on working capacity assessment for jobs requiring special working conditions and with the Safety at work act.

  8. Health risk assessment of ambient air concentrations of benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) in service station environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edokpolo, Benjamin; Yu, Qiming Jimmy; Connell, Des

    2014-06-18

    A comprehensive evaluation of the adverse health effects of human exposures to BTX from service station emissions was carried out using BTX exposure data from the scientific literature. The data was grouped into different scenarios based on activity, location and occupation and plotted as Cumulative Probability Distributions (CPD) plots. Health risk was evaluated for each scenario using the Hazard Quotient (HQ) at 50% (CEXP50) and 95% (CEXP95) exposure levels. HQ50 and HQ95 > 1 were obtained with benzene in the scenario for service station attendants and mechanics repairing petrol dispensing pumps indicating a possible health risk. The risk was minimized for service stations using vapour recovery systems which greatly reduced the benzene exposure levels. HQ50 and HQ95 service station attendants than any other scenario.

  9. Benzene monitoring at CPPI service stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.S.

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted in which ambient airborne concentration levels of benzene were measured at a representative set of gasoline service stations in Toronto and Vancouver. Benzene is considered to be toxic under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA). It is a component in gasoline (0.1 to 4.7 per cent by volume) and is present in vehicle evaporative and exhaust emissions. Measurements were made every 18 days at each station for one year. The objective of the study was to assess the ambient and employee exposure levels of benzene at service stations and to determine whether the levels were typical of those published in the literature. In a 1986 PACE (Petroleum Association for Conservation of the Canadian Environment) survey of exposure to gasoline hydrocarbon vapours at Canadian service stations, airborne benzene concentration data was inconsistent with similar ambient and personal exposure data in the international literature. It was concluded that both the mean ambient benzene concentration and the personal exposure level measurements in this study were generally lower than similar measurements made in other countries. The same observation was made with respect to ambient and personal exposure levels measured in this study vis-a-vis those measured during the PACE study conducted in 1985/86. . 31 refs., 24 tabs., 5 figs

  10. Optimization of Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (SPME for Monitoring Occupational Exposure to Ethyl Benzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Heidari

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Analytical methods for volatile organic compounds (VOCs in different samples need extraction of compounds, by applying hazardous solvents. Solid phase micro-extraction (SPME is a solvent-free equilibrium extraction method, in which proper calibration can allow quantitative determinations of VOCs at a very good sensitivity without the use of any organic solvent. VOCs are generally present in urine only at trace levels, therefore, a sensitive procedure is needed for their trace determinations. Throughout this study, headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME was followed by GC-FID for ethyl benzene in spiked urine was optimized.

    Methods: In this study, the parameters influencing SPME and gas chromatography of ethyl benzene, including extraction time, temperature, desorption temperature, desorption time, salt addition, sample pH, sample volume and sample agitation were investigated.

    Results: Extraction procedure was performed at 30°C for 6 min, using 0.2 gml-1 of NaCl in the sample solution. The sample volume and sample pH were optimized at 5 ml and 7 (neutral pH, respectively. Desorption of the ethyl benzene was carried out for 60 sec. at 250°C. The method was also validated with three different spiked urine samples and illustrated an appropriate reproducibility over six consecutive days as well as six within-day experiments. During this investigation, parameters of accuracy, linearity, and detection limits of the procedure were also evaluated.

    Conclusion: The developed method of HS- SPME-GC-FID proved to be a simple, convenient, and practical procedure, and was successfully used for measuring of ethyl benzene in spiked urine.

  11. Personal exposure to benzene from fuel emissions among commercial fishers: comparison of two-stroke, four-stroke and diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirrane, Ellen; Loomis, Dana; Egeghy, Peter; Nylander-French, Leena

    2007-03-01

    Commercial fishers are exposed to unburned hydrocarbon vapors and combustion products present in the emissions from their boat engines. The objective of this study was to measure personal exposure to benzene as a marker of fuel exposure, and to predict exposure levels across categories of carbureted two-stroke, four-stroke and diesel engines. A self-monitoring approach, employing passive monitors, was used to obtain measurements of personal exposure to benzene over time. Mixed-effect linear regression models were used to predict exposure levels, identify significant effects and determine restricted maximum likelihood estimates for within- and between-person variance components. Significant fixed effects for engine type and refueling a car or truck were identified. After controlling for refueling, predicted benzene exposure levels to fishers on boats equipped with two-stroke, four-stroke and diesel engines were 58.4, 38.9 and 15.7 microg/m3, respectively. The logged within-person variance component was 1.43, larger than the between-person variance component of 1.13, indicating that the total variation may be attributable to monitor placement, environmental conditions and other factors that change over time as well as differences between individual work practices. The health consequences of exposure to marine engine emissions are not known. The predicted levels are well below those at which health effects have been attributed, however.

  12. Does maternal exposure to benzene and PM10 during pregnancy increase the risk of congenital anomalies? A population-based case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinceti, Marco; Malagoli, Carlotta; Malavolti, Marcella; Cherubini, Andrea; Maffeis, Giuseppe; Rodolfi, Rossella; Heck, Julia E.; Astolfi, Gianni; Calzolari, Elisa; Nicolini, Fausto

    2015-01-01

    A few studies have suggested an association between maternal exposure to ambient air pollution from vehicular traffic and risk of congenital anomalies in the offspring, but epidemiologic evidence is neither strong nor entirely consistent. In a population-based case-control study in a Northern Italy community encompassing 228 cases of birth defects and 228 referent newborns, we investigated if maternal exposure to PM10 and benzene from vehicular traffic during early pregnancy, as estimated through a dispersion model, was associated with excess teratogenic risk. In conditional logistic regression analysis, and with adjustment for the other pollutant, we found that higher exposure to PM10 but not benzene was associated with increased risk of birth defects overall. Anomaly categories showing the strongest dose-response relation with PM10 exposure were musculoskeletal and chromosomal abnormalities but not cardiovascular defects, with Down syndrome being among the specific abnormalities showing the strongest association, though risk estimates particularly for the less frequent defects were statistically very unstable. Further adjustment in the regression model for potential confounders did not considerably alter the results. All the associations were stronger for average levels of PM10 than for their maximal level. Findings of this study give some support for an excess teratogenic risk following maternal exposure during pregnancy to PM10, but not benzene. Such association appears to be limited to some birth defect categories. PMID:26410719

  13. Formaldehyde and co-exposure with benzene induce compensation of bone marrow and hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in BALB/c mice during post-exposure period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Chenxi [Key Laboratory of Ecological Safety Monitoring and Evaluation, School of Life Sciences, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081, Hunan (China); Section of Environmental Biomedicine, Hubei Key Laboratory of Genetic Regulation and Integrative Biology, School of Life Sciences, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, Hubei (China); Chen, Mouying [Key Laboratory of Ecological Safety Monitoring and Evaluation, School of Life Sciences, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081, Hunan (China); You, Huihui [Section of Environmental Biomedicine, Hubei Key Laboratory of Genetic Regulation and Integrative Biology, School of Life Sciences, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, Hubei (China); Qiu, Feng [Key Laboratory of Ecological Safety Monitoring and Evaluation, School of Life Sciences, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081, Hunan (China); Wen, Huaxiao; Yuan, Junlin [Section of Environmental Biomedicine, Hubei Key Laboratory of Genetic Regulation and Integrative Biology, School of Life Sciences, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, Hubei (China); Xiang, Shuanglin, E-mail: xshlin@hunnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Ecological Safety Monitoring and Evaluation, School of Life Sciences, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081, Hunan (China); Yang, Xu, E-mail: yangxu@mail.ccnu.edu.cn [Section of Environmental Biomedicine, Hubei Key Laboratory of Genetic Regulation and Integrative Biology, School of Life Sciences, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, Hubei (China)

    2017-06-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) is a human leukemogen. Since there is a latency period between initial FA exposure and the development of leukemia, the subsequent impact of FA on hematopoietic stem or progenitor cells (HSCs/HPCs) in post-exposure stage is crucial for a deep understanding of FA-induced hematotoxicity. BALB/c mice were exposed to 3 mg/m{sup 3} FA for 2 weeks, mimicking occupational exposure, and were monitored for another 7 days post-exposure. Meanwhile, we included benzene (BZ) as a positive control, separately and together with FA because co-exposure occurs frequently. After 7-day recovery, colonies of progenitors for CFU-GM and BFU-E, and nucleated bone marrow cells in FA-exposed mice were comparable to controls, although they were significantly reduced during exposure. Levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in CFU-GM and BFU-E from FA-exposed mice were higher than controls, although the increase in 8-OHdG was not significant. Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) level in the FA group was lower than controls, but the expression level for the receptor was not upregulated. It suggests that HSCs/HPCs in FA-exposed mice respond to a small amount of GM-CSF and proliferate rapidly, which may cause a possible risk of expansion of abnormal stem/progenitor cell clones. FA co-exposure with BZ was more potent for promoting CFU-GM formation and inducing ROS in BFU-E and 8-OHdG in CFU-GM during the post-exposure period. The compensation of myeloid progenitors with elevated ROS and 8-OHdG may lead to a risk of transforming normal HSCs/HPCs to leukemic stem/progenitor cells. Thus, co-exposure may pose a greater leukemia risk. - Highlights: • Nucleated bone marrow cell count recovered after 7 days post-FA and/or BZ exposure. • CFU-GM showed an increase in colonies and 8-OHdG after 7 days post-FA + BZ exposure. • Levels of ROS in CFU-GM and BFU-E were increased by FA or FA + BZ during recovery. • Levels of

  14. Formaldehyde and co-exposure with benzene induce compensation of bone marrow and hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in BALB/c mice during post-exposure period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Chenxi; Chen, Mouying; You, Huihui; Qiu, Feng; Wen, Huaxiao; Yuan, Junlin; Xiang, Shuanglin; Yang, Xu

    2017-01-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) is a human leukemogen. Since there is a latency period between initial FA exposure and the development of leukemia, the subsequent impact of FA on hematopoietic stem or progenitor cells (HSCs/HPCs) in post-exposure stage is crucial for a deep understanding of FA-induced hematotoxicity. BALB/c mice were exposed to 3 mg/m 3 FA for 2 weeks, mimicking occupational exposure, and were monitored for another 7 days post-exposure. Meanwhile, we included benzene (BZ) as a positive control, separately and together with FA because co-exposure occurs frequently. After 7-day recovery, colonies of progenitors for CFU-GM and BFU-E, and nucleated bone marrow cells in FA-exposed mice were comparable to controls, although they were significantly reduced during exposure. Levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in CFU-GM and BFU-E from FA-exposed mice were higher than controls, although the increase in 8-OHdG was not significant. Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) level in the FA group was lower than controls, but the expression level for the receptor was not upregulated. It suggests that HSCs/HPCs in FA-exposed mice respond to a small amount of GM-CSF and proliferate rapidly, which may cause a possible risk of expansion of abnormal stem/progenitor cell clones. FA co-exposure with BZ was more potent for promoting CFU-GM formation and inducing ROS in BFU-E and 8-OHdG in CFU-GM during the post-exposure period. The compensation of myeloid progenitors with elevated ROS and 8-OHdG may lead to a risk of transforming normal HSCs/HPCs to leukemic stem/progenitor cells. Thus, co-exposure may pose a greater leukemia risk. - Highlights: • Nucleated bone marrow cell count recovered after 7 days post-FA and/or BZ exposure. • CFU-GM showed an increase in colonies and 8-OHdG after 7 days post-FA + BZ exposure. • Levels of ROS in CFU-GM and BFU-E were increased by FA or FA + BZ during recovery. • Levels of GM

  15. Quantitative assessment of exposure and risk for three carcinogenics in long-standing pollution sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wichmann, H.E.; Wuppertal Univ.; Ihme, W.; Mekel, O.C.L.; Wuppertal Univ.

    1993-01-01

    The project attempts a quantitative assessment of risks for three carcinogenics that are common in sites of long-standing pollution. Benzo(a)pyrene stands for the group of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, cadmium for heavy metals, and benzene for volatile aromatic compounds. The report discusses the general fundamentals of exposure and risk assessment. The exposure model is described in detail and applied to the three test substances. (orig./MG) [de

  16. Critical issues in benzene toxicity and metabolism: the effect of interactions with other organic chemicals on risk assessment.

    OpenAIRE

    Medinsky, M A; Schlosser, P M; Bond, J A

    1994-01-01

    Benzene, an important industrial solvent, is also present in unleaded gasoline and cigarette smoke. The hematotoxic effects of benzene are well documented and include aplastic anemia and pancytopenia. Some individuals exposed repeatedly to cytotoxic concentrations of benzene develop acute myeloblastic anemia. It has been hypothesized that metabolism of benzene is required for its toxicity, although administration of no single benzene metabolite duplicates the toxicity of benzene. Several inve...

  17. Development of a shower exposure model for benzene : background work for potential recommended update to the recently derived drinking water guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knafla, A.L.; Carey, J.

    2009-01-01

    Chloroform exposure was first identified in showers. Shower exposures were then examined for other volatile substances. This presentation discussed the development of a shower exposure model for benzene and included background work for potential recommended updates to the recently derived drinking water guidelines. Specifically, the presentation addressed the relevance for oil and gas sites and the influence on the drinking water guideline. Issues and limitation with Health Canada's Khrisnan model were identified. The advantages of an alternate model development were also presented. Model structure was examined with particular reference to how model exposures are modelled and the risk associated with taking showers with impacted water. Two general types of models were discussed, notably the simple model used to estimate exposures and the integrated physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model. The relevance of the drinking water guideline revision to the petroleum industry was addressed. It was concluded that future water quality guidelines will likely incorporate shower exposures. tabs., figs.

  18. The effect of dose, dose rate, route of administration, and species on tissue and blood levels of benzene metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, R.F.; Sabourin, P.J.; Bechtold, W.E.; Griffith, W.C.; Medinsky, M.A.; Birnbaum, L.S.; Lucier, G.W.

    1989-01-01

    Studies were completed in F344/N rats and B6C3F 1 mice to determine the effect of dose, dose rate, route of administration, and rodent species on formation of total and individual benzene metabolites. Oral doses of 50 mg/kg or higher saturated the capacity for benzene metabolism in both rats and mice, resulting in an increased proportion of the administered dose being exhaled as benzene. The saturating air concentration for benzene metabolism during 6-hr exposures was between 130 and 900 ppm. At the highest exposure concentration, rats exhaled approximately half of the internal dose retained at the end of the 6-hr exposure as benzene; mice exhaled only 15% as benzene. Mice were able to convert more of the inhaled benzene to metabolites than were rats. In addition, mice metabolized more of the benzene by pathways leading to the putative toxic metabolites, benzoquinone and muconaldehyde, than did rats. In both rats and mice, the effect of increasing dose, administered orally or by inhalation, was to increase the proportion of the total metabolites that were the products of detoxification pathways relative to the products of pathways leading to putative toxic metabolites. This indicates low-affinity, high-capacity pathways for detoxification and high-affinity, low-capacity pathways leading to putative toxic metabolites. If the results of rodent studied performed at high doses were used to assess the health risk at low-dose exposures to benzene, the toxicity of benzene would be underestimated

  19. Urinary trans-trans muconic acid (exposure biomarker to benzene) and hippuric acid (exposure biomarker to toluene) concentrations in Mexican women living in high-risk scenarios of air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruneda-Alvarez, Lucía G; Ruíz-Vera, Tania; Ochoa-Martínez, Angeles C; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván N

    2017-11-02

    This study aimed to determine t,t-muconic acid (t,t-MA; exposure biomarker for benzene) and hippuric acid (HA; exposure biomarker for toluene) concentrations in the urine of women living in Mexico. In a cross-sectional study, apparently healthy women (n = 104) were voluntarily recruited from localities with a high risk of air pollution; t,t-MA and HA in urine were quantified using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique. Mean urinary levels of t,t-MA ranged from 680 to 1,310 μg/g creatinine. Mean values of HA ranged from 0.38 to 0.87 g/g creatinine. In conclusion, compared to data recently reported in literature, we found high urinary levels of t,t-MA and HA in assessed women participating in this study. We therefore deem the implementation of a strategy aimed at the reduction of exposure as a necessary measure for the evaluated communities.

  20. Benzene poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be admitted to the hospital if the poisoning is severe. ... benzene they swallowed and how quickly they receive treatment. The ... Poisoning can cause rapid death. However, deaths have occurred ...

  1. Critical issues in benzene toxicity and metabolism: the effect of interactions with other organic chemicals on risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medinsky, M A; Schlosser, P M; Bond, J A

    1994-11-01

    Benzene, an important industrial solvent, is also present in unleaded gasoline and cigarette smoke. The hematotoxic effects of benzene are well documented and include aplastic anemia and pancytopenia. Some individuals exposed repeatedly to cytotoxic concentrations of benzene develop acute myeloblastic anemia. It has been hypothesized that metabolism of benzene is required for its toxicity, although administration of no single benzene metabolite duplicates the toxicity of benzene. Several investigators have demonstrated that a combination of metabolites (hydroquinone and phenol, for example) is necessary to duplicate the hematotoxic effect of benzene. Enzymes implicated in the metabolic activation of benzene and its metabolites include the cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and myeloperoxidase. Since benzene and its hydroxylated metabolites (phenol, hydroquinone, and catechol) are substrates for the same cytochrome P450 enzymes, competitive interactions among the metabolites are possible. In vivo data on metabolite formation by mice exposed to various benzene concentrations are consistent with competitive inhibition of phenol oxidation by benzene. Other organic molecules that are substrates for cytochrome P450 can inhibit the metabolism of benzene. For example, toluene has been shown to inhibit the oxidation of benzene in a noncompetitive manner. Enzyme inducers, such as ethanol, can alter the target tissue dosimetry of benzene metabolites by inducing enzymes responsible for oxidation reactions involved in benzene metabolism. The dosimetry of benzene and its metabolites in the target tissue, bone marrow, depends on the balance of activation processes, such as enzymatic oxidation, and deactivation processes, like conjugation and excretion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Assessing the air quality impact of nitrogen oxides and benzene from road traffic and domestic heating and the associated cancer risk in an urban area of Verona (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavon, Marco; Redivo, Martina; Antonacci, Gianluca; Rada, Elena Cristina; Ragazzi, Marco; Zardi, Dino; Giovannini, Lorenzo

    2015-11-01

    Simulations of emission and dispersion of nitrogen oxides (NOx) are performed in an urban area of Verona (Italy), characterized by street canyons and typical sources of urban pollutants. Two dominant source categories are considered: road traffic and, as an element of novelty, domestic heaters. Also, to assess the impact of urban air pollution on human health and, in particular, the cancer risk, simulations of emission and dispersion of benzene are carried out. Emissions from road traffic are estimated by the COPERT 4 algorithm, whilst NOx emission factors from domestic heaters are retrieved by means of criteria provided in the technical literature. Then maps of the annual mean concentrations of NOx and benzene are calculated using the AUSTAL2000 dispersion model, considering both scenarios representing the current situation, and scenarios simulating the introduction of environmental strategies for air pollution mitigation. The simulations highlight potentially critical situations of human exposure that may not be detected by the conventional network of air quality monitoring stations. The proposed methodology provides a support for air quality policies, such as planning targeted measurement campaigns, re-locating monitoring stations and adopting measures in favour of better air quality in urban planning. In particular, the estimation of the induced cancer risk is an important starting point to conduct zoning analyses and to detect the areas where population is more directly exposed to potential risks for health.

  3. Evaluation of benzene exposure in petrol pump attendants and in mechanics by urinary trans, trans-muconic acid (t, t-MA determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cirillo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Occupational exposure to benzene in petrol pump attendants and in mechanics was studied by examining the benzene content in both the air breathed and in the urinary metabolite trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA. Thirty petrol pump attendants and thirty mechanics (as exposed workers and thirty adult male office workers (as non exposed workers were involved in the study. Measures were taken at the begin and at the end of the working shifts.

     The benzene concentrations in the breathing air samples varied from 2 to 88 μg m-3, lower than the EU acceptable limit for occupational environment. The average urinary t,t-MA in the petrol pump attendants at the begin and at the end of the working shifts ranged between 133 ± 69 and 255 ± 174 μg g-1 creatinine and in the mechanics between 204 ± 139 and 300 ± 211 μg g-1 creatinine, respectively.

    In all the participants the mean levels of urinary t,t-MA at the end of the working shifts were significantly higher than those at the beginning. In the exposed workers mean levels of urinary t,t-MA were significantly higher than in those of the non-exposed workers. The influence of the smoking was demonstrated by the urinary t,t-MA levels in smoking non-exposed subjects.

  4. Truncated Levy flights and agenda-based mobility are useful for the assessment of personal human exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlink, Uwe; Ragas, Ad M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Receptor-oriented approaches can assess the individual-specific exposure to air pollution. In such an individual-based model we analyse the impact of human mobility to the personal exposure that is perceived by individuals simulated in an exemplified urban area. The mobility models comprise random walk (reference point mobility, RPM), truncated Levy flights (TLF), and agenda-based walk (RPMA). We describe and review the general concepts and provide an inter-comparison of these concepts. Stationary and ergodic behaviour are explained and applied as well as performance criteria for a comparative evaluation of the investigated algorithms. We find that none of the studied algorithm results in purely random trajectories. TLF and RPMA prove to be suitable for human mobility modelling, because they provide conditions for very individual-specific trajectories and exposure. Suggesting these models we demonstrate the plausibility of their results for exposure to air-borne benzene and the combined exposure to benzene and nonane. - Highlights: → Human exposure to air pollutants is influenced by a person's movement in the urban area. → We provide a simulation study of approaches to modelling personal exposure. → Agenda-based models and truncated Levy flights are recommended for exposure assessment. → The procedure is demonstrated for benzene exposure in an urban region. - Truncated Levy flights and agenda-based mobility are useful for the assessment of personal human exposure.

  5. [Myelofibrosis in a benzene-exposed cleaning worker].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausà, Roser; Navarro, Lydia; Cortès-Franch, Imma

    Long-term exposure to benzene has been associated with several blood malignancies, including aplastic anemia, myeloproliferative neoplasms, and different leukemias. We present a case of primary myelofibrosis in a 59-year-old woman who worked as a cleaner at a car dealership and automobile mechanic shop. For 25 years, she used gasoline as a degreaser and solvent to clean engine parts, floors and work desks on a daily basis. She was referred by her primary care provider to the Occupational Health Unit of Barcelona to assess whether her illness was work-related. Review of her job history and working conditions revealed chronic exposure to benzene in the absence of adequate preventive measures. An association between benzene exposure and myeloproliferative disease was established, suspicious for an occupational disease. Copyright belongs to the Societat Catalana de Salut Laboral.

  6. Transcriptomics analysis of interactive effects of benzene, trichloroethylene and methyl mercury within binary and ternary mixtures on the liver and kidney following subchronic exposure in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendriksen, Peter J.M.; Freidig, Andreas P.; Jonker, Diana; Thissen, Uwe; Bogaards, Jan J.P.; Mumtaz, Moiz M.; Groten, John P.; Stierum, Rob H.

    2007-01-01

    The present research aimed to study the interaction of three chemicals, methyl mercury, benzene and trichloroethylene, on mRNA expression alterations in rat liver and kidney measured by microarray analysis. These compounds were selected based on presumed different modes of action. The chemicals were administered daily for 14 days at the Lowest-Observed-Adverse-Effect-Level (LOAEL) or at a two- or threefold lower concentration individually or in binary or ternary mixtures. The compounds had strong antagonistic effects on each other's gene expression changes, which included several genes encoding Phase I and II metabolizing enzymes. On the other hand, the mixtures affected the expression of 'novel' genes that were not or little affected by the individual compounds. The three compounds exhibited a synergistic interaction on gene expression changes at the LOAEL in the liver and both at the sub-LOAEL and LOAEL in the kidney. Many of the genes induced by mixtures but not by single compounds, such as Id2, Nr2f6, Tnfrsf1a, Ccng1, Mdm2 and Nfkb1 in the liver, are known to affect cellular proliferation, apoptosis and tissue-specific function. This indicates a shift from compound specific response on exposure to individual compounds to a more generic stress response to mixtures. Most of the effects on cell viability as concluded from transcriptomics were not detected by classical toxicological endpoints illustrating the benefit of increased sensitivity of assessing gene expression profiling. These results emphasize the benefit of applying toxicogenomics in mixture interaction studies, which yields biomarkers for joint toxicity and eventually can result in an interaction model for most known toxicants

  7. Safety assessments for potential exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, D.I.

    2012-04-01

    Safety Assessment of potential exposures have been carried out in major practices, namely: industrial radiography, gamma irradiators and electron accelerators used in industry and research, and radiotherapy. This paper focuses on reviewing safety assessment methodologies and using developed software to analyse radiological accidents, also review, and discuss these past accidents.The primary objective of the assessment is to assess the adequacy of planned or existing measures for protection and safety and to identify any additional measures that should be put in place. As such, both routine use of the source and the probability and magnitude of potential exposures arising from accidents or incidents should be considered. Where the assessment indicates that there is a realistic possibility of an accident affecting workers or members of the public or having consequences for the environment, the registrant or licensee should prepare a suitable emergency plan. A safety assessment for normal operation addresses all the conditions under which the radiation source operates as expected, including all phases of the lifetime of the source. Due account needs to be taken of the different factors and conditions that will apply during non-operational phases, such as installation, commissioning and maintenance. (author)

  8. Challenges and perspectives of nanoparticle exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Moon, Min Chaul; Lee, Joon Yeob; Yu, Il Je

    2010-06-01

    Nanoparticle exposure assessment presents a unique challenge in the field of occupational and environmental health. With the commercialization of nanotechnology, exposure usually starts from the workplace and then spreads to environment and consumer exposure. This report discusses the current trends of nanoparticle exposure assessment, including the definition of nanotechnology relevant terms, essential physicochemical properties for nanomaterial characterization, current international activities related nanomaterial safety, and exposure assessment standard development for nanotechnology. Further this report describes challenges of nanoparticle exposure assessment such as background measurement, metrics of nanoparticle exposure assessment and personal sampling.

  9. Air pollution in moderately polluted urban areas: How does the definition of "neighborhood" impact exposure assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenailleau, Quentin M; Mauny, Frédéric; Joly, Daniel; François, Stéphane; Bernard, Nadine

    2015-11-01

    Environmental health studies commonly quantify subjects' pollution exposure in their neighborhood. How this neighborhood is defined can vary, however, leading to different approaches to quantification whose impacts on exposure levels remain unclear. We explore the relationship between neighborhood definition and exposure assessment. NO2, benzene, PM10 and PM2.5 exposure estimates were computed in the vicinity of 10,825 buildings using twelve exposure assessment techniques reflecting different definitions of "neighborhood". At the city scale, its definition does not significantly influence exposure estimates. It does impact levels at the building scale, however: at least a quarter of the buildings' exposure estimates for a 400 m buffer differ from the estimated 50 m buffer value (±1.0 μg/m(3) for NO2, PM10 and PM2.5; and ±0.05 μg/m(3) for benzene). This variation is significantly related to the definition of neighborhood. It is vitally important for investigators to understand the impact of chosen assessment techniques on exposure estimates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Challenges and Perspectives of Nanoparticle Exposure Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Moon, Min Chaul; Lee, Joon Yeob; Yu, Il Je

    2010-01-01

    Nanoparticle exposure assessment presents a unique challenge in the field of occupational and environmental health. With the commercialization of nanotechnology, exposure usually starts from the workplace and then spreads to environment and consumer exposure. This report discusses the current trends of nanoparticle exposure assessment, including the definition of nanotechnology relevant terms, essential physicochemical properties for nanomaterial characterization, current international activi...

  11. Assessment of benzene-induced hematotoxicity using a human-like hematopoietic lineage in NOD/Shi-scid/IL-2Rγnull mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Takahashi

    Full Text Available Despite recent advancements, it is still difficult to evaluate in vivo responses to toxicants in humans. Development of a system that can mimic the in vivo responses of human cells will enable more accurate health risk assessments. A surrogate human hematopoietic lineage can be established in NOD/Shi-scid/IL-2Rγ(null (NOG mice by transplanting human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (Hu-NOG mice. Here, we first evaluated the toxic response of human-like hematopoietic lineage in NOG mice to a representative toxic agent, benzene. Flow cytometric analysis showed that benzene caused a significant decrease in the number of human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in the bone marrow and the number of human leukocytes in the peripheral blood and hematopoietic organs. Next, we established chimeric mice by transplanting C57BL/6 mouse-derived bone marrow cells into NOG mice (Mo-NOG mice. A comparison of the degree of benzene-induced hematotoxicity in donor-derived hematopoietic lineage cells within Mo-NOG mice indicated that the toxic response of Hu-NOG mice reflected interspecies differences in susceptibilities to benzene. Responses to the toxic effects of benzene were greater in lymphoid cells than in myeloid cells in Mo-NOG and Hu-NOG mice. These findings suggested that Hu-NOG mice may be a powerful in vivo tool for assessing hematotoxicity in humans, while accounting for interspecies differences.

  12. An Exposure Assessment of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, An Exposure Assessment of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers. This report provides a comprehensive assessment of the exposure of Americans to this class of persistent organic pollutants. Individual chapters in this document address: the production, use, and lifecycle of PBDEs; environmental fate; environmental levels; and human exposure. This final report addresses the exposure assessment needs identified in the OPBDE Workgroup project plan. It provides a comprehensive assessment of the exposure of Americans to this class of persistent organic pollutants. Individual chapters in this document address: the production, use, and lifecycle of PBDEs; environmental fate; environmental levels; and human exposure.

  13. Assessment of exposure to traffic related air pollution of children attending schools near motorways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, Nicole A.H.; Vliet, Patricia H.N. van; Aarts, Francee; Harssema, Hendrik; Brunekreef, Bert

    2001-01-01

    To assess exposure to air pollution from traffic of children attending schools near motorways, traffic related air pollution (PM 2.5 , NO 2 and benzene) was measured in and outside 24 schools located within 400m of motorways in the Netherlands. Reflectance of PM 2.5 filters was measured as a proxy for elemental carbon (EC). The relationship between this proxy and measurements of EC was studied in a sub-sample and a high correlation was established. In both indoor and outdoor air, concentrations of PM 2.5 and 'soot' significantly increased with increasing truck traffic density and significantly decreased with increasing distance. Indoor NO 2 concentrations significantly increased with increasing car traffic. The percentage of time that the school was downwind of the motorway during the measurements was significantly associated with 'soot' and NO 2 , but no with PM 2.5 and benzene. Estimated yearly averaged concentrations, calculated after standardising for differences in the background concentrations during the measurements, showed an about 2.5 fold range in 'soot', benzene (indoors and outdoors) and NO 2 (indoors) concentrations. For PM 2.5 (indoors and outdoors) and NO 2 outdoors the range was smaller (1.4-1.7). Standardised concentrations were highly correlated with the results of two other approaches that were used to order the exposures at the schools. This study has shown that concentrations of air pollutants in and outside schools near motorways are significantly associated with distance, traffic density and composition, and percentage of time downwind. These variables can therefore be used to assess exposure to traffic related air pollution of subjects living near motorways. Furthermore, the yearly averaged concentrations of PM 2.5 , soot, NO 2 and benzene can be used as a more direct measure of long-term exposure in epidemiological studies of the children attending the 24 schools. (Author)

  14. Health and exposure assessment of flare gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindzierski, W.B.; Byrne-Lewis, C.; Probert, S.

    2000-01-01

    The incomplete combustion of flare gases produces pollutants such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which are cause for concern for public health. Some of the concerns relate to potential long-term cumulative health effects from exposure to hazardous air pollutants including benzene, styrene, naphthalene, and benzopyrene. This study demonstrated that several factors should be taken into account when considering the importance of flaring and human exposure to flare gas emissions. Most flare stacks are located in rural areas, but most time-availability studies have been done on urban populations where the majority of people spend their time indoors. It was recommended that more time-activity studies are needed to emphasize the behaviour of rural populations which are most susceptible to exposure from pollutants from flaring. It was concluded that higher indoor air concentrations exist for many VOCs and PAHs compared to outdoors, but in these instances, indoor sources are the major contributors to indoor air concentrations. It was recommended that health assessments of hazardous air pollutants emitted from gas flaring has to take into account the indoor setting and other background exposures in order to provide useful information for decision makers. 49 refs., 8 tabs., 1 fig

  15. Environmental and biological monitoring of benzene during self-service automobile refueling.

    OpenAIRE

    Egeghy, P P; Tornero-Velez, R; Rappaport, S M

    2000-01-01

    Although automobile refueling represents the major source of benzene exposure among the nonsmoking public, few data are available regarding such exposures and the associated uptake of benzene. We repeatedly measured benzene exposure and uptake (via benzene in exhaled breath) among 39 self-service customers using self-administered monitoring, a technique rarely used to obtain measurements from the general public (130 sets of measurements were obtained). Benzene exposures averaged 2.9 mg/m(3) (...

  16. Mechanistic considerations in benzene physiological model development.

    OpenAIRE

    Medinsky, M A; Kenyon, E M; Seaton, M J; Schlosser, P M

    1996-01-01

    Benzene, an important industrial solvent, is also present in unleaded gasoline and cigarette smoke. The hematotoxic effects of benzene in humans are well documented and include aplastic anemia, pancytopenia, and acute myelogenous leukemia. However, the risks of leukemia at low exposure concentrations have not been established. A combination of metabolites (hydroquinone and phenol, for example) may be necessary to duplicate the hematotoxic effect of benzene, perhaps due in part to the synergis...

  17. Exposure Assessment Tools by Chemical Classes - Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA ExpoBox is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  18. Early Liver and Kidney Dysfunction Associated with Occupational Exposure to Sub-Threshold Limit Value Levels of Benzene, Toluene, and Xylenes in Unleaded Petrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neghab, Masoud; Hosseinzadeh, Kiamars; Hassanzadeh, Jafar

    2015-12-01

    Unleaded petrol contains significant amounts of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX). Toxic responses following occupational exposure to unleaded petrol have been evaluated only in limited studies. The main purpose of this study was to ascertain whether (or not) exposure to unleaded petrol, under normal working conditions, is associated with any hepatotoxic or nephrotoxic response. This was a cross-sectional study in which 200 employees of Shiraz petrol stations with current exposure to unleaded petrol, as well as 200 unexposed employees, were investigated. Atmospheric concentrations of BTX were measured using standard methods. Additionally, urine and fasting blood samples were taken from individuals for urinalysis and routine biochemical tests of kidney and liver function. The geometric means of airborne concentrations of BTX were found to be 0.8 mg m(-3), 1.4 mg m(-3), and 2.8 mg m(-3), respectively. Additionally, means of direct bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, blood urea and plasma creatinine were significantly higher in exposed individuals than in unexposed employees. Conversely, serum albumin, total protein, and serum concentrations of calcium and sodium were significantly lower in petrol station workers than in their unexposed counterparts. The average exposure of petrol station workers to BTX did not exceed the current threshold limit values (TLVs) for these chemicals. However, evidence of subtle, subclinical and prepathologic early liver and kidney dysfunction was evident in exposed individuals.

  19. Validation of an online dual-loop cleanup device with an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry-based system for simultaneous quantitative analysis of urinary benzene exposure biomarkers trans, trans-muconic acid and S-phenylmercapturic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, L.-C.; Chiung, Y.-M.; Shih, J.-F.; Shih, T.-S.G; Liao, P.-C.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to validate isotope-dilution electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS-MS) method with a dual-loop cleanup device for simultaneous quantitation of two benzene metabolites, trans, trans-muconic acid (ttMA) and S-phenylmercapturic acid (SPMA), in human urine. In this study, a pooled blank urine matrix from rural residents was adopted for validation of the analytical method. The calibration curve, detection limit, recovery, precision, accuracy and the stability of sample storage for the system have been characterized. Calibration plots of ttMA and SPMA standards spiked into two kinds of urine matrixes over a wide concentration range, 1/32-8-fold biological exposure indices (BEIs) values, showed good linearity (R > 0.9992). The detection limits in pooled urine matrix for ttMA and SPMA were 1.27 and 0.042 μg g -1 creatinine, respectively. For both of ttMA and SPMA, the intra- and inter-day precision values were considered acceptable well below 25% at the various spiked concentrations. The intra- and inter-day apparent recovery values were also considered acceptable (apparent recovery >90%). The ttMA accuracy was estimated by urinary standard reference material (SRM). The accuracy reported in terms of relative error (RE) was 5.0 ± 2.0% (n = 3). The stability of sample storage at 4 or -20 deg. C were assessed. Urinary ttMA and SPMA were found to be stable for at least 8 weeks when stored at 4 or -20 deg. C. In addition, urine samples from different benzene exposure groups were collected and measured in this system. Without tedious manual sample preparation procedure, the analytical system was able to quantify simultaneously ttMA and SPMA in less than 20 min

  20. Benzene and lymphohematopoietic malignancies in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, R B; Songnian, Y; Dosemeci, M; Linet, M

    2001-08-01

    Quantitative evaluations of benzene-associated risk for cancer have relied primarily on findings from a cohort study of highly exposed U.S. rubber workers. An epidemiologic investigation in China (NCI/CAPM study) extended quantitative evaluations of cancer risk to a broader range of benzene exposures, particularly at lower levels. We review the evidence implicating benzene in the etiology of hematopoietic disorders, clarify methodologic aspects of the NCI/CAPM study, and examine the study in the context of the broader literature on health effects associated with occupational benzene exposure. Quantitative relationships for cancer risk from China and the U.S. show a relatively smooth increase in risk for acute myeloid leukemia and related conditions over a broad dose range of benzene exposure (below 200 ppm-years mostly from the China study and above 200 ppm-years mostly from the U.S. study). Risks of acute myeloid leukemia and other malignant and nonmalignant hematopoietic disorders associated with benzene exposure in China are consistent with other information about benzene exposure, hematotoxicity, and cancer risk, extending evidence for hematopoietic cancer risks to levels substantially lower than had previously been established. Published 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Assessment of Human Exposure to ENMs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Araceli Sánchez; van Tongeren, Martie

    2017-01-01

    Human exposure assessment of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) is hampered, among other factors, by the difficulty to differentiate ENM from other nanomaterials (incidental to processes or naturally occurring) and the lack of a single metric that can be used for health risk assessment. It is important that the exposure assessment is carried out throughout the entire life-cycle as releases can occur at the different stages of the product life-cycle, from the synthesis, manufacture of the nano-enable product (occupational exposure) to the professional and consumer use of nano-enabled product (consumer exposure) and at the end of life.Occupational exposure surveys should follow a tiered approach, increasing in complexity in terms of instruments used and sampling strategy applied with higher tiers in order tailor the exposure assessment to the specific materials used and workplace exposure scenarios and to reduce uncertainty in assessment of exposure. Assessment of consumer exposure and of releases from end-of-life processes currently relies on release testing of nano-enabled products in laboratory settings.

  2. Human Exposure Assessment for Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bin; Hu, Li-Wen; Bai, Zhipeng

    2017-01-01

    Assessment of human exposure to air pollution is a fundamental part of the more general process of health risk assessment. The measurement methods for exposure assessment now include personal exposure monitoring, indoor-outdoor sampling, mobile monitoring, and exposure assessment modeling (such as proximity models, interpolation model, air dispersion models, and land-use regression (LUR) models). Among these methods, personal exposure measurement is considered to be the most accurate method of pollutant exposure assessment until now, since it can better quantify observed differences and better reflect exposure among smaller groups of people at ground level. And since the great differences of geographical environment, source distribution, pollution characteristics, economic conditions, and living habits, there is a wide range of differences between indoor, outdoor, and individual air pollution exposure in different regions of China. In general, the indoor particles in most Chinese families comprise infiltrated outdoor particles, particles generated indoors, and a few secondary organic aerosol particles, and in most cases, outdoor particle pollution concentrations are a major contributor to indoor concentrations in China. Furthermore, since the time, energy, and expense are limited, it is difficult to measure the concentration of pollutants for each individual. In recent years, obtaining the concentration of air pollutants by using a variety of exposure assessment models is becoming a main method which could solve the problem of the increasing number of individuals in epidemiology studies.

  3. Valdez air health study - Exposure monitoring and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, D.R.; Mikkelsen, R.

    1991-01-01

    In Valdez, Alaska there is concern about exposure of the public to benzene and other light hydrocarbons emitted during the loading of tankers from the Trans-Alaska Pipeline. As part of an overall risk assessment, the Valdez Air Health Study, a personal, indoor and outdoor air sampling program patterned after EPA's TEMA Study was designed and carried out. A unique feature of the study is that, during sampling periods, SF 6 tracer was released at the terminal site to represent terminal hydrocarbon emissions to provide a basis for directly quantitating any contribution of terminal emissions to personal exposure. Sixty citizens at Valdez were selected to wear vests containing sampling equipment for 24-hour periods summer and winter. At the homes of 30 of the participants simultaneous indoor and outdoor samples for hydrocarbons and tracer were collected during the period that each participant collected personal air samples. The paper reviews the design of the program, details of the procedures used, results of the August, 1990 program and preliminary results from the February-March, 1991 program

  4. Mechanistic considerations in benzene physiological model development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medinsky, M A; Kenyon, E M; Seaton, M J; Schlosser, P M

    1996-12-01

    Benzene, an important industrial solvent, is also present in unleaded gasoline and cigarette smoke. The hematotoxic effects of benzene in humans are well documented and include aplastic anemia, pancytopenia, and acute myelogenous leukemia. However, the risks of leukemia at low exposure concentrations have not been established. A combination of metabolites (hydroquinone and phenol, for example) may be necessary to duplicate the hematotoxic effect of benzene, perhaps due in part to the synergistic effect of phenol on myeloperoxidase-mediated oxidation of hydroquinone to the reactive metabolite benzoquinone. Because benzene and its hydroxylated metabolites (phenol, hydroquinone, and catechol) are substrates for the same cytochrome P450 enzymes, competitive interactions among the metabolites are possible. In vivo data on metabolite formation by mice exposed to various benzene concentrations are consistent with competitive inhibition of phenol oxidation by benzene. In vitro studies of the metabolic oxidation of benzene, phenol, and hydroquinone are consistent with the mechanism of competitive interaction among the metabolites. The dosimetry of benzene and its metabolites in the target tissue, bone marrow, depends on the balance of activation processes such as enzymatic oxidation and deactivation processes such as conjugation and excretion. Phenol, the primary benzene metabolite, can undergo both oxidation and conjugation. Thus the potential exists for competition among various enzymes for phenol. Zonal localization of phase I and phase II enzymes in various regions of the liver acinus also impacts this competition. Biologically based dosimetry models that incorporate the important determinants of benzene flux, including interactions with other chemicals, will enable prediction of target tissue doses of benzene and metabolites at low exposure concentrations relevant for humans.

  5. Assessing population exposures to motor vehicle exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Atten, Chris; Brauer, Michael; Funk, Tami; Gilbert, Nicolas L; Graham, Lisa; Kaden, Debra; Miller, Paul J; Bracho, Leonora Rojas; Wheeler, Amanda; White, Ronald H

    2005-01-01

    The need is growing for a better assessment of population exposures to motor vehicle exhaust in proximity to major roads and highways. This need is driven in part by emerging scientific evidence of adverse health effects from such exposures and policy requirements for a more targeted assessment of localized public health impacts related to road expansions and increasing commercial transportation. The momentum for improved methods in measuring local exposures is also growing in the scientific community, as well as for discerning which constituents of the vehicle exhaust mixture may exert greater public health risks for those who are exposed to a disproportionate share of roadway pollution. To help elucidate the current state-of-the-science in exposure assessments along major roadways and to help inform decision makers of research needs and trends, we provide an overview of the emerging policy requirements, along with a conceptual framework for assessing exposure to motor-vehicle exhaust that can help inform policy decisions. The framework includes the pathway from the emission of a single vehicle, traffic emissions from multiple vehicles, atmospheric transformation of emissions and interaction with topographic and meteorologic features, and contact with humans resulting in exposure that can result in adverse health impacts. We describe the individual elements within the conceptual framework for exposure assessment and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of various approaches that have been used to assess public exposures to motor vehicle exhaust.

  6. Benzene formation in electronic cigarettes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F Pankow

    Full Text Available The heating of the fluids used in electronic cigarettes ("e-cigarettes" used to create "vaping" aerosols is capable of causing a wide range of degradation reaction products. We investigated formation of benzene (an important human carcinogen from e-cigarette fluids containing propylene glycol (PG, glycerol (GL, benzoic acid, the flavor chemical benzaldehyde, and nicotine.Three e-cigarette devices were used: the JUULTM "pod" system (provides no user accessible settings other than flavor cartridge choice, and two refill tank systems that allowed a range of user accessible power settings. Benzene in the e-cigarette aerosols was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Benzene formation was ND (not detected in the JUUL system. In the two tank systems benzene was found to form from propylene glycol (PG and glycerol (GL, and from the additives benzoic acid and benzaldehyde, especially at high power settings. With 50:50 PG+GL, for tank device 1 at 6W and 13W, the formed benzene concentrations were 1.9 and 750 μg/m3. For tank device 2, at 6W and 25W, the formed concentrations were ND and 1.8 μg/m3. With benzoic acid and benzaldehyde at ~10 mg/mL, for tank device 1, values at 13W were as high as 5000 μg/m3. For tank device 2 at 25W, all values were ≤~100 μg/m3. These values may be compared with what can be expected in a conventional (tobacco cigarette, namely 200,000 μg/m3. Thus, the risks from benzene will be lower from e-cigarettes than from conventional cigarettes. However, ambient benzene air concentrations in the U.S. have typically been 1 μg/m3, so that benzene has been named the largest single known cancer-risk air toxic in the U.S. For non-smokers, chronically repeated exposure to benzene from e-cigarettes at levels such as 100 or higher μg/m3 will not be of negligible risk.

  7. Temporal variability of benzene concentration in the ambient air of Delhi: a comparative assessment of pre- and post-CNG periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khillare, P S; Hoque, Raza Rafiqul; Shridhar, Vijay; Agarwal, Tripti; Balachandran, S

    2008-06-15

    CNG (compressed natural gas) was fully implemented in public transport system in Delhi in December 2002. The study assesses the benzene concentration trends at two busy traffic intersections and a background site in Delhi, India. Monitoring was done for two different time periods viz; in the year 2001-2002 (pre-CNG) and two winter months (January and February) of the year 2007 (post-CNG) to assess the impact of various policy measures adopted by the government of Delhi to improve the air quality in the city. Annual average benzene concentration for the pre-CNG period was found to be 86.47+/-53.24 microg m(-3). Average benzene concentrations for the winter months (January-February) of pre- and post-CNG periods were 116.32+/-51.65 microg m(-3) and 187.49+/-22.50 microg m(-3), respectively. Enhanced values could be solely attributed to the increase in the vehicular population from 3.5 million in the year 2001-2002 to approximately 5.1 millions in the year 2007.

  8. Exposure scenario libraries as a tool for exposure assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiménez, Araceli Sánchez; Rashid, Shahzad; Van Tongeren, Martie; Brouwer, Derk; Fransman, Wouter; Fito, Carlos; Boulougouris, George

    2015-01-01

    The development of nanotechnology has reached a point where it is being widely applied, and numerous nanomaterials and nano-enabled products are handled across a broad range of industrial sectors. Exposure extends beyond occupational settings as products containing nanomaterials are used by different consumer groups.Despite the knowledge on their toxic effects is growing there is still not OEL for most NMS and therefore the precautionary approach is still used where levels are kept as low as possible Therefore there is a need to assess workers and consumers exposure. (paper)

  9. A comprehensive study of benzene concentrations and emissions in Houston

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Markus; Eichler, Philipp; Berk Knighton, W.; Estes, Mark; Crawford, James H.; Mikoviny, Tomas; Wisthaler, Armin

    2014-05-01

    The Houston Metropolitan Area (Greater Houston) has a population of over 6 million people, it ranks among the three fastest growing metropolises in the developed world and population growth scenarios predict it to reach megacity status in the coming two to four decades. Greater Houston is home to the largest petrochemical-manufacturing complex in the world with important consequences for the environment in the region. Direct and fugitive emissions of hydrocarbons adversely affect Houston's air quality which has been subject to intense studies over the past two decades. In 2013, NASA conducted the DISCOVER-AQ field campaign in support of developing a satellite-based capability to assess Houston's air quality in the future. Amongst other measurements, airborne, mobile ground-based and stationary ground-based measurements of benzene were carried out. Benzene is a carcinogenic air toxic with strict exposure regulations in the U.S. and in Europe. We have used the obtained comprehensive dataset to map benzene concentrations in the Houston metropolitan area, locate and identify point sources, compare industrial and traffic emissions and put them in relation to previous measurements and emission inventories. The obtained data will allow a better assessment of health risks associated with benzene exposure in a large metropolitan area that includes both traffic and industrial benzene sources. This work was funded by BMVIT / FFG-ALR in the frame of the Austrian Space Application Programme (ASAP 8, project 833451). PE was funded through the PIMMS ITN (EU-FP7, agreement number 287382). Additional resources were provided through NASA's Earth Venture program (EV-1) and the NASA Postdoctoral Program (NPP). We want to thank Scott Herndon and Aerodyne Research for their support.

  10. Air pollution in moderately polluted urban areas: How does the definition of “neighborhood” impact exposure assessment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenailleau, Quentin M.; Mauny, Frédéric; Joly, Daniel; François, Stéphane; Bernard, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    Environmental health studies commonly quantify subjects' pollution exposure in their neighborhood. How this neighborhood is defined can vary, however, leading to different approaches to quantification whose impacts on exposure levels remain unclear. We explore the relationship between neighborhood definition and exposure assessment. NO 2 , benzene, PM 10 and PM 2.5 exposure estimates were computed in the vicinity of 10,825 buildings using twelve exposure assessment techniques reflecting different definitions of “neighborhood”. At the city scale, its definition does not significantly influence exposure estimates. It does impact levels at the building scale, however: at least a quarter of the buildings' exposure estimates for a 400 m buffer differ from the estimated 50 m buffer value (±1.0 μg/m 3 for NO 2 , PM 10 and PM 2.5 ; and ±0.05 μg/m 3 for benzene). This variation is significantly related to the definition of neighborhood. It is vitally important for investigators to understand the impact of chosen assessment techniques on exposure estimates. - Highlights: • Residential building air pollution was calculated using 12 assessment techniques. • These techniques refer to common epidemiological definitions of neighborhood. • At the city scale, neighborhood definition does not impact exposure estimates. • At the building scale, neighborhood definition does impact exposure estimates. • The impact of neighborhood definition varies with physical/deprivation variables. - Ignoring the impact of the neighborhood's definition on exposure estimates could lead to exposure quantification errors that impact resulting health studies, health risk evaluation, and consequently all the decision-making process.

  11. Assessment of chemical exposures: calculation methods for environmental professionals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daugherty, Jack E

    1997-01-01

    ... on by scientists, businessmen, and policymakers. Assessment of Chemical Exposures: Calculation Methods for Environmental Professionals addresses the expanding scope of exposure assessments in both the workplace and environment...

  12. Exposure dose assessment using bioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suga, Shinichi

    1994-01-01

    Bioassay involves following steps: sampling, pre-treatment, chemical separation and counting of radioactivity. As bioassay samples, urines are usually used, although faecal analysis may be required in some occasions for example to assess intake of non-transferable radioactive materials. Nasal smear is a useful indicator of an inhalation case. Exhalation air is used to estimate the intake of tritiated water. Sample pre-treatment includes evaporation for concentration, wet ashing, dry ashing and co-precipitation. After adding small amount of nitric acid, the sample can be concentrated by 1/10 of initial volume, which may be used to identify γ-emitters. As the pre-treatment of urine, wet ashing is used for example for analysis of Pu, and co-precipitation is used for example for analysis of Sr. Dry ashing by electric furnace is usually adopted for faecal samples. Methods of chemical separation depend on the radionuclide(s) to be analysed. The detection limit depends also on radionuclide, and for example typical detection limits are 0.4Bq / l (volume of urine sample) for 89 Sr or 90 Sr, and 0.01 Bq / l with urine and 0.01 Bq per sample with faeces for 238 Pu, 239 Pu or 241 Am. Simpler methods can be used for some radionuclides: For example, radioactivity concentration of tritium can be determined by liquid scintillation counting of urine or condensed water from exhaled air, and natural uranium in urine can be quantified by using fluorometric method. In some circumstances, gross-α or gross-β analyses are useful for quick estimation. To estimate intakes by inhalation or by ingestion from bioassay results and to assess the committed dose equivalent, commonly available bases are the relevant publications by the ICRP and domestic guides and manuals that conform to the radiation protection regulations. (author)

  13. Assessment of genotoxicity of methyl-tert-butyl ether, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene to human lymphocytes using comet assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Colin S.; Hseu, You C.; Liang, Shih H.; Kuo, J.-Y.; Chen, Ssu. C.

    2008-01-01

    Methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a gasoline oxygenate and antiknock additive substituting for lead alkyls currently in use worldwide. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) are volatile monoaromatic hydrocarbons which are commonly found together in crude petroleum and petroleum products such as gasoline. The aim of this study is to evaluate the genotoxic effects of these tested chemicals in human lymphocytes. Using the alkaline comet assay, we showed that all of the tested chemicals induce DNA damage in isolated human lymphocytes. This effect could follow from the induction of DNA strands breaks. The neutral version of the test revealed that MTBE, benzene, and xylenes induce DNA double-strand breaks at 200 μM. Apart from MTBE, the spin traps, 5,5-dimethyl-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) and N-tert-butyl-α-phenylnitrone (PBN) can decrease the level of DNA damage in BTEX at 200 μM. This indicated that DNA damage could result from the participation of free radicals in DNA-damaging effect, which was further supported by the fact that post-treatment of formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (Fpg), enzyme recognizing oxidized DNA purines, gave rise to a significant increase in the extent of DNA damage in cells treated with benzene, and xylene at 200 μM. The results obtained suggested that MTBE and BTEX could induce a variety type of DNA damage such as single-strand breaks (SSBs), double-strand breaks (DSBs), and oxidative base modification

  14. Benzene: questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This information booklet is intended to inform residents near natural gas dehydration facilities about benzene and its levels in the atmosphere. It was issued following the federal government's decision to place benzene on its Priority Substances List and to require industry to establish means for reducing benzene emissions from natural gas dehydrators and to inform residents about benzene emissions from glycol dehydration facilities. Accordingly, the booklet explains what benzene is (a colourless flammable liquid component of hydrocarbons) how it gets into the air (during gasoline refining, vehicle refueling and the production of steel and petrochemicals), the associated health hazards (a recognized carcinogen, causing an increased incidence of leukemia in concentrations of 100 parts per million), defines a glycol dehydrator (a facility built at or near some natural gas fields for the removal of water from the natural gas to prevent corrosion and freezing of pipelines), and enumerates the steps that are being taken to reduce benzene levels in the air (benzene levels in gasoline have been reduced, along with benzene emissions from petrochemical plants, refineries, steel plants and glycol dehydrators by 54 per cent to date; this will rise to 90 per cent by 2005). In addition to these actions, industry plans call for all existing glycol dehydrators within 750 metres of any permanent residence to be limited to benzene emissions of no more than three tonnes per year before 2001; new glycol dehydrators after that date will be expected to have benzene emissions reduced to the lowest level that can be practically achieved

  15. [Occupational exposure to nanoparticles. Assessment of workplace exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujak-Pietrek, Stella

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology is currently one of the most popular branch of science. It is a technology that enables designing, manufacturing and application of materials and structures of very small dimensions, and its products are applied in almost every field of life. Nanoparticles are the structures having one or more dimensions of the order of 100 nm or less. They are used in precise mechanics, electronics, optics, medicine, pharmacy, cosmetics and many other spheres. Due to their very small size, nanostructures have completely different and specific properties, unknown for the bulk of materials. Fast-growing nanotechnology provides a wide spectrum of applications, but it also brings about new and unknown danger to human health. Nanotechnology is the branch that has developed rather recently, and much information about health risk and its influence on the environment is beyond our knowledge. Nanoparticles, released in many technological processes, as well as manufactured nanoparticles can induce occupational hazards to workers. The lack of regulations and standards, compulsory in the manufacture and use ofnanoparticles is a fundamental problem faced in the evaluation of exposure. Another problem is the choice of proper measurement equipment for surveying of very small particles - their number, mass and surface area in the workpost air. In this article, the possibility and scope of exposure assessment is discussed and a brief specification of available instrumentation for counting and assessing the parameters essential for classifying the exposure to nanoparticles is presented.

  16. Benzene from Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmgren, F.; Berkowicz, R.; Skov, H.

    The measurements of benzene showed very clear decreasing trends in the air concentrations and the emissions since 1994. At the same time the measurements of CO and NOx also showed a decreasing trend, but not so strong as for benzene. The general decreasing trend is explained by the increasing...... number of petrol vehicles with three way catalysts, 60-70% in 1999. The very steep decreasing trend for benzene at the beginning of the period from 1994 was explained by the combination of more catalyst vehicles and reduced benzene content in Danish petrol. The total amount of aromatics in petrol......, including toluene, increased only weakly. The analyses of air concentrations were confirmed by analyses of petrol sold in Denmark. The concentration of benzene at Jagtvej in Copenhagen is still in 1998 above the expected new EU limit value, 5 µg/m3 as annual average. However, the reduced content of benzene...

  17. Assessment of inhomogeneous ELF magnetic field exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitgeb, N.; Cech, R.; Schroettner, J.

    2008-01-01

    In daily life as well as at workplaces, exposures to inhomogeneous magnetic fields become very frequent. This makes easily applicable compliance assessment methods increasingly important. Reference levels have been defined linking basic restrictions to levels of homogeneous fields at worst-case exposure conditions. If reference levels are met, compliance with basic restrictions can be assumed. If not, further investigations could still prove compliance. Because of the lower induction efficiency, inhomogeneous magnetic fields such as from electric appliances could be allowed exceeding reference levels. To easily assess inhomogeneous magnetic fields, a quick and flexible multi-step assessment procedure is proposed. On the basis of simulations with numerical, anatomical human models reference factors were calculated elevating reference levels to link hot-spot values measured at source surfaces to basic limits and allowing accounting for different source distance, size, orientation and position. Compliance rules are proposed minimising assessment efforts. (authors)

  18. Assessment of dermal exposure to chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmen, J.J. van; Brouwer, D.H.

    1995-01-01

    The methods for the dermal exposure assessment vary in their complexity and are in some sense complementary to each other. The most easy-to-use methods involve a pseudo-skin-approach, such as gloves and removal by washing. In some cases generic modelling appears to be possible. The experimental

  19. ASSESSMENT OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO TOLUENE DIISOCYANATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLIVIA ANCA RUSU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of human exposure to toluene diisocyanate. Toluene diisocyanate (TDI, an aromatic compound, may be dangerous for human health. Diisocyanates have wide industrial use in the fabrication of flexible and rigid foams, fibers, elastomers, and coatings such as paints and varnishes. Isocyanates are known skin and respiratory sensitizers, and proper engineering controls should be in place to prevent exposure to isocyanate liquid and vapor; exposure to TDI vapors is well documented to increase asthma risk. The study focused on the exposure of workers and nearby populations to toluene diisocyanate in a Polyurethane Foam Factory located in Baia Mare, Romania. Workplace air measurements were performed in different departments of the plant, after sampling either in fixed points or as personal monitoring. Sampling in four different locations of Baia Mare town was carried out, - during and after the foaming process. TDI sampling was performed on silica cartridge followed by GC-MS analysis. TDI concentration at workplace was lower than 0,035 mg/m³, which represents the permissible exposure limit, while in the city the TDI concentration had shown values below 0,20 μg/m³. Health assessment of a group of 49 workers was based on questionnaire interview, determination of TDI antibodies and lung function tests. Data collected until this stage do not show any negative effects of TDI on the employees health. Since this plant had only recently begun operating, continuous workplace and ambient air TDI monitoring, along with workers health surveillance, is deemed necessary.

  20. The assessment of the aircrew exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tommasino, L.

    2002-01-01

    In 1991 ICRP first included exposure of aircraft crew to cosmic radiation as occupational exposure. The European Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) established a working group in 1992 to address this issue. The report 'Exposure of Air Crew to Cosmic Radiation' was published in the European Commission's Radiation Protection series as report 85. The first section of the report assesses the existing data on radiation exposure, describes the radiation environment at civil aviation altitudes and summarizes the computational models that have been developed to describe the cosmic ray radiation field in the atmosphere. The second section describes the quantities used to assess the radiation doses. It is clear that conventional radiation protection dosimetry as applied on the ground is not quite applicable to the situation for air crews. A multinational European research project was launched to investigate the problem of cosmic rays and dosimetry at aviation altitudes. The major objective was to measure the flux and energy spectra of neutrons and charged particles over a wide energy interval at aviation altitudes and compare the results with those calculated with various computer codes. Within the project much progress was made in different areas, for instance the determination of the fundamental physical characteristics of the cosmic radiation field at aircraft altitudes, development of instrumentation, measurements of dose rates and route doses and application of routine radiation protection. Surveys of air crew exposure have been carried out with different advanced dosimetric systems and comparisons were made between passive and real-time detector systems

  1. Integrated Environmental Assessment Part III: ExposureAssessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.; Small, Mitchell J.

    2006-06-01

    Human exposure assessment is a key step in estimating the environmental and public health burdens that result chemical emissions in the life cycle of an industrial product or service. This column presents the third in a series of overviews of the state of the art in integrated environmental assessment - earlier columns described emissions estimation (Frey and Small, 2003) and fate and transport modeling (Ramaswami, et al., 2004). When combined, these first two assessment elements provide estimates of ambient concentrations in the environment. Here we discuss how both models and measurements are used to translate ambient concentrations into metrics of human and ecological exposure, the necessary precursors to impact assessment. Exposure assessment is the process of measuring and/or modeling the magnitude, frequency and duration of contact between a potentially harmful agent and a target population, including the size and characteristics of that population (IPCS, 2001; Zartarian, et al., 2005). Ideally the exposure assessment process should characterize the sources, routes, pathways, and uncertainties in the assessment. Route of exposure refers to the way that an agent enters the receptor during an exposure event. Humans contact pollutants through three routes--inhalation, ingestion, and dermal uptake. Inhalation occurs in both outdoor environments and indoor environments where most people spend the majority of their time. Ingestion includes both water and food, as well as soil and dust uptake due to hand-to-mouth activity. Dermal uptake occurs through contacts with consumer products; indoor and outdoor surfaces; the water supply during washing or bathing; ambient surface waters during swimming or boating; soil during activities such as work, gardening, and play; and, to a lesser extent, from the air that surrounds us. An exposure pathway is the course that a pollutant takes from an ambient environmental medium (air, soil, water, biota, etc), to an exposure medium

  2. Transcriptomics analysis of interactive effects of benzene, trichloroethylene and methyl mercury within binary and ternary mixtures on the liver and kidney following subchronic exposure in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, P.J.M.; Freidig, A.P.; Jonker, D.; Thissen, U.; Bogaards, J.J.P.; Mumtaz, M.M.; Groten, J.P.; Stierum, R.H.

    2007-01-01

    The present research aimed to study the interaction of three chemicals, methyl mercury, benzene and trichloroethylene, on mRNA expression alterations in rat liver and kidney measured by microarray analysis. These compounds were selected based on presumed different modes of action. The chemicals were

  3. The investigation of exposure to benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX with Solid Phase Microextr action Method in gas station in Yazd province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Mosaddegh Mehrjerdi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX are volatile organic compounds which their physical and chemical characteristics are similar. Evaporation of BTEX from gasoline in petrol station into the air causes gasoline station attendants expose to them. A new extraction method of volatile organic compounds is solid phase microextraction (SPME. The aim of this study is to optimize extraction conditions of BTEX from air samples and then determination of gasoline station air contamination with BTEX in Yazd. Material and Methods: In this study air samples were collected using Tedlar bags and then extracted and analyzed with SPME fiber and gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionization detector. Results: Our results indicate that PDMS/CAR has the best peak area in comparison with two other fibers The Optimized extraction and desorption times are estimated 3 and 1 minutes, respectively Mean concentration of benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene in gas station’s air were 1932±807, 667±405, 148±89, 340±216 µg/m3 respectively. Conclusion: Benzene mean concentration is above threshold limit value (0.5PPM. Whereas, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene mean concentration are lower than threshold limit values.

  4. Assessing the sensitivity of benzene cluster cation chemical ionization mass spectrometry toward a wide array of biogenic volatile organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavi, Avi; Vermeuel, Michael; Novak, Gordon; Bertram, Timothy

    2017-04-01

    Chemical ionization mass spectrometry is a real-time, sensitive and selective measurement technique for the detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The benefits of CIMS technology make it highly suitable for field measurements that requires fast (10Hz and higher) response rates, such as the study of surface-atmosphere exchange processes by the eddy covariance method. The use of benzene cluster cations as a regent ion was previously demonstrated as a sensitive and selective method for the detection of select biogenic VOCs (e.g. isoprene, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes) [Kim et al., 2016; Leibrock and Huey, 2000]. Quantitative analysis of atmospheric trace gases necessitates calibration for each analyte as a function of atmospheric conditions. We describe a custom designed calibration system, based on liquid evaporation, for determination of the sensitivity of the benzene-CIMS to a wide range of organic compounds at atmospherically relevant mixing ratios (volatile organic compounds, Atmos Meas Tech, 9(4), 1473-1484, doi:10.5194/amt-9-1473-2016. Leibrock, E., and L. G. Huey (2000), Ion chemistry for the detection of isoprene and other volatile organic compounds in ambient air, Geophys Res Lett, 27(12), 1719-1722, doi:Doi 10.1029/1999gl010804.

  5. Benzene and its Isomers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    instantly brings benzene to mind. Benzene is one of the most basic structural units of thousands of the so-called aromatic compounds, which include dyes, drugs, polymers and many more types of compounds that are very useful for our existence and progress. The whole gamut of the chemistry of aromatic compounds, ...

  6. Assessing asbestos exposure potential in nonindustrial settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S N; White, L E; Scott, W D

    1987-01-01

    The presence of asbestos containing materials (ACM) in office and commercial buildings is a significant environmental problem. Asbestosis, mesothelioma and lung cancer have been linked with industrial exposure to airborne asbestos. The extensive use of asbestos products in buildings has raised concerns about the widespread exposure of the general public to asbestos in nonoccupational settings. The presence of asbestos in a building does not necessarily mean that significant exposure of the occupants of the building has occurred, but it is important that the asbestos be monitored regularly to ensure that fibers do not become airborne. If ACM are contained within a matrix and not disturbed, exposure is unlikely. However, if the asbestos becomes friable (crumbling) or if building maintenance, repair, renovation or other activities disturb ACM, airborne asbestos fibers may be a source of exposure to the occupants of the building. Currently, asbestos exposure assessment is conducted by a phase contrast light microscope (PCM) technique. Due to its inherent limitation in resolution and the generic counting rules used, analysis by the PCM method underestimates the airborne asbestos fiber concentration as compared to analysis by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It is important that the air monitoring results analyzed by PCM be interpreted carefully in conjunction with a survey by a professional to judge the physical condition of the ACM in buildings. Exposure levels to airborne asbestos fibers vary from day to day and depend on the physical condition of the material involved and the type of operating and maintenance program in place.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Densities and Kinematic Viscosities for the Systems Benzene + Methyl Formate, Benzene + Ethyl Formate, Benzene + Propyl Formate, and Benzene + Butyl Formate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmerling, Uwe; Rasmussen, Peter

    1998-01-01

    a Redlich-Kister type of expression with temperature-independent parameters and the data for the systems benzene + ethyl formate, benzene + propyl formate, and benzene + butyl formate with temperature-dependent parameters. The viscosities have furthermore been compared to values predicted by means of the GC......Densities and kinematic viscosities have been measured for the system benzene + methyl formate at 20°C and for the systems benzene + ethyl formate, benzene + propyl formate, and benzene + butyl formate from 20°C to 50°C. The results for the system benzene + methyl formate have been correlated using...

  8. Exposure Assessment of Diesel Bus Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Hofmann

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to measure ultrafine particle concentrations with diameters less than 1 μm emitted by diesel buses and to assess resulting human exposure levels. The study was conducted at the Woolloongabba Busway station in Brisbane, Australia in the winter months of 2002 during which temperature inversions frequently occurred. Most buses that utilize the station are fuelled by diesel, the exhaust of which contains a significant quantity of particle matter. Passengers waiting at the station are exposed to these particles emitted from the buses. During the course of this study, passenger census was conducted, based on video surveillance, yielding person-by-person waiting time data. Furthermore, a bus census revealed accurate information about the total number of diesel versus Compressed Natural Gas (CNG powered buses. Background (outside of the bus station and platform measurements of ultrafine particulate number size distributions were made to determine ambient aerosol concentrations. Particle number exposure concentration ranges from 10 and 40 to 60% of bus related exhaust fumes. This changes dramatically when considering the particle mass exposure concentration, where most passengers are exposed to about 50 to 80% of exhaust fumes. The obtained data can be very significant for comparison with similar work of this type because it is shown in previous studies that exhaust emissions causes cancer in laboratory animals. It was assumed that significant differences between platform and background distributions were due to bus emissions which, combined with passenger waiting times, yielded an estimate of passenger exposure to ultrafine particles from diesel buses. From an exposure point of view, the Busway station analyzed resembles a street canyon. Although the detected exhaust particle concentration at the outbound platform is found to be in the picogram range, exposure increases with the time passengers spend on the platform

  9. Compound-Specific Isotope Analysis (CSIA Application for Source Apportionment and Natural Attenuation Assessment of Chlorinated Benzenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Alberti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In light of the complex management of chlorobenzene (CB contaminated sites, at which a hydraulic barrier (HB for plumes containment is emplaced, compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA has been applied for source apportionment, for investigating the relation between the upgradient and downgradient of the HB, and to target potential CB biodegradation processes. The isotope signature of all the components potentially involved in the degradation processes has been expressed using the concentration-weighted average δ13C of CBs + benzene (δ13Csum. Upgradient of the HB, the average δ13Csum of −25.6‰ and −29.4‰ were measured for plumes within the eastern and western sectors, respectively. Similar values were observed for the potential sources, with δ13Csum values of −26.5‰ for contaminated soils and −29.8‰ for the processing water pipeline in the eastern and western sectors, respectively, allowing for apportioning of these potential sources to the respective contaminant plumes. For the downgradient of the HB, similar CB concentrations but enriched δ13Csum values between −24.5‰ and −25.9‰ were measured. Moreover, contaminated soils showed a similar δ13Csum signature of −24.5‰, thus suggesting that the plumes likely originate from past activities located in the downgradient of the HB. Within the industrial property, significant δ13C enrichments were measured for 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB, 1,2-dichlorobenzene (DCB, 1,3-DCB, and 1,4-DCBs, thus suggesting an important role for anaerobic biodegradation. Further degradation of monochlorobenzene (MCB and benzene was also demonstrated. CSIA was confirmed to be an effective approach for site characterization, revealing the proper functioning of the HB and demonstrating the important role of natural attenuation processes in reducing the contamination upgradient of the HB.

  10. The contribution of benzene to smoking-induced leukemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Korte, J E; Hertz-Picciotto, I; Schulz, M R; Ball, L M; Duell, E J

    2000-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased risk of leukemia; benzene, an established leukemogen, is present in cigarette smoke. By combining epidemiologic data on the health effects of smoking with risk assessment techniques for low-dose extrapolation, we assessed the proportion of smoking-induced total leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) attributable to the benzene in cigarette smoke. We fit both linear and quadratic models to data from two benzene-exposed occupational cohorts t...

  11. The Alberta Oil Sands Community Exposure and Health Effects Assessment Program : methods report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The Alberta Oil Sands Community Exposure and Health Effects Assessment Program involved the development of a holistic approach to the study of personal exposure and the potential health impacts of airborne contaminants including volatile organic compounds (VOCs), sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), ozone (O 3 ) and particulates (both PM10 and PM2.5). Volunteer residents from Fort McMurray, Alberta were recruited to participate in neurocognitive tests and a health and nutrition survey. In addition, the local community identified several priority contaminants which were highlighted during a public hearing of the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board in relation to Syncrude's Mildred Lake Development Project. The approach to the study was based on the direct measurement of all routes of exposure to the contaminants (breathing, ingestion and skin contact), direct measurement of biomarkers, and daily logs of participant's activities. The choice of biomarkers was based on the ability of the laboratory to measure low levels of relevant biological markers, the most appropriate media for measuring the markers, and the burden placed on each volunteer. The final set of biological measures of exposure included trace metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead and uranium) nicotine, and metabolites of the BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes). The objective was to determine if chronic or occupational exposure to these contaminants cause structural alterations in the respiratory system that compromise oxygen absorption and lung elasticity. 82 refs., 14 tabs., 15 figs., 3 appendices

  12. Assessment of Exposure to VOCs among Pregnant Women in the National Children's Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Elizabeth Barksdale; Viet, Susan M; Wright, David J; Merrill, Lori S; Alwis, K Udeni; Blount, Benjamin C; Mortensen, Mary E; Moye, John; Dellarco, Michael

    2016-03-29

    Epidemiologic studies can measure exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using environmental samples, biomarkers, questionnaires, or observations. These different exposure assessment approaches each have advantages and disadvantages; thus, evaluating relationships is an important consideration. In the National Children's Vanguard Study from 2009 to 2010, participants completed questionnaires and data collectors observed VOC exposure sources and collected urine samples from 488 third trimester pregnant women at in-person study visits. From urine, we simultaneously quantified 28 VOC metabolites of exposure to acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, benzene, 1-bromopropane, 1,3-butadiene, carbon disulfide, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, N,N-dimethylformamide, ethylbenzene, ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, styrene, tetrachloroethylene, toluene, trichloroethylene, vinyl chloride, and xylene exposures using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI/MSMS) method. Urinary thiocyanate was measured using an ion chromatography coupled with an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method (IC-ESI/MSMS). We modeled the relationship between urinary VOC metabolite concentrations and sources of VOC exposure. Sources of exposure were assessed by participant report via questionnaire (use of air fresheners, aerosols, paint or varnish, organic solvents, and passive/active smoking) and by observations by a trained data collector (presence of scented products in homes). We found several significant (p < 0.01) relationships between the urinary metabolites of VOCs and sources of VOC exposure. Smoking was positively associated with metabolites of the tobacco constituents acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, ethylene oxide, N,N-dimethylformamide, propylene oxide, styrene, and xylene. Study location was negatively associated with the toluene metabolite N

  13. Assessment of Exposure to VOCs among Pregnant Women in the National Children’s Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Elizabeth Barksdale; Viet, Susan M.; Wright, David J.; Merrill, Lori S.; Alwis, K. Udeni; Blount, Benjamin C.; Mortensen, Mary E.; Moye, John; Dellarco, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies can measure exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using environmental samples, biomarkers, questionnaires, or observations. These different exposure assessment approaches each have advantages and disadvantages; thus, evaluating relationships is an important consideration. In the National Children’s Vanguard Study from 2009 to 2010, participants completed questionnaires and data collectors observed VOC exposure sources and collected urine samples from 488 third trimester pregnant women at in-person study visits. From urine, we simultaneously quantified 28 VOC metabolites of exposure to acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, benzene, 1-bromopropane, 1,3-butadiene, carbon disulfide, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, N,N-dimethylformamide, ethylbenzene, ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, styrene, tetrachloroethylene, toluene, trichloroethylene, vinyl chloride, and xylene exposures using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI/MSMS) method. Urinary thiocyanate was measured using an ion chromatography coupled with an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method (IC-ESI/MSMS). We modeled the relationship between urinary VOC metabolite concentrations and sources of VOC exposure. Sources of exposure were assessed by participant report via questionnaire (use of air fresheners, aerosols, paint or varnish, organic solvents, and passive/active smoking) and by observations by a trained data collector (presence of scented products in homes). We found several significant (p < 0.01) relationships between the urinary metabolites of VOCs and sources of VOC exposure. Smoking was positively associated with metabolites of the tobacco constituents acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, ethylene oxide, N,N-dimethylformamide, propylene oxide, styrene, and xylene. Study location was negatively associated with the toluene metabolite N

  14. Assessment of Exposure to VOCs among Pregnant Women in the National Children’s Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Barksdale Boyle

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic studies can measure exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs using environmental samples, biomarkers, questionnaires, or observations. These different exposure assessment approaches each have advantages and disadvantages; thus, evaluating relationships is an important consideration. In the National Children’s Vanguard Study from 2009 to 2010, participants completed questionnaires and data collectors observed VOC exposure sources and collected urine samples from 488 third trimester pregnant women at in-person study visits. From urine, we simultaneously quantified 28 VOC metabolites of exposure to acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, benzene, 1-bromopropane, 1,3-butadiene, carbon disulfide, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, N,N-dimethylformamide, ethylbenzene, ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, styrene, tetrachloroethylene, toluene, trichloroethylene, vinyl chloride, and xylene exposures using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI/MSMS method. Urinary thiocyanate was measured using an ion chromatography coupled with an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method (IC-ESI/MSMS. We modeled the relationship between urinary VOC metabolite concentrations and sources of VOC exposure. Sources of exposure were assessed by participant report via questionnaire (use of air fresheners, aerosols, paint or varnish, organic solvents, and passive/active smoking and by observations by a trained data collector (presence of scented products in homes. We found several significant (p < 0.01 relationships between the urinary metabolites of VOCs and sources of VOC exposure. Smoking was positively associated with metabolites of the tobacco constituents acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, ethylene oxide, N,N-dimethylformamide, propylene oxide, styrene, and xylene. Study location was negatively associated with the toluene metabolite

  15. Technical Overview of Ecological Risk Assessment - Analysis Phase: Exposure Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure Characterization is the second major component of the analysis phase of a risk assessment. For a pesticide risk assessment, the exposure characterization describes the potential or actual contact of a pesticide with a plant, animal, or media.

  16. Benzene Monitor System report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    Two systems for monitoring benzene in aqueous streams have been designed and assembled by the Savannah River Technology Center, Analytical Development Section (ADS). These systems were used at TNX to support sampling studies of the full-scale open-quotes SRAT/SME/PRclose quotes and to provide real-time measurements of benzene in Precipitate Hydrolysis Aqueous (PHA) simulant. This report describes the two ADS Benzene Monitor System (BMS) configurations, provides data on system operation, and reviews the results of scoping tests conducted at TNX. These scoping tests will allow comparison with other benzene measurement options being considered for use in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) laboratory. A report detailing the preferred BMS configuration statistical performance during recent tests has been issued under separate title: Statistical Analyses of the At-line Benzene Monitor Study, SCS-ASG-92-066. The current BMS design, called the At-line Benzene Monitor (ALBM), allows remote measurement of benzene in PHA solutions. The authors have demonstrated the ability to calibrate and operate this system using peanut vials from a standard Hydragard trademark sampler. The equipment and materials used to construct the ALBM are similar to those already used in other applications by the DWPF lab. The precision of this system (±0.5% Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) at 1 sigma) is better than the purge ampersand trap-gas chromatograpy reference method currently in use. Both BMSs provide a direct measurement of the benzene that can be purged from a solution with no sample pretreatment. Each analysis requires about five minutes per sample, and the system operation requires no special skills or training. The analyzer's computer software can be tailored to provide desired outputs. Use of this system produces no waste stream other than the samples themselves (i.e. no organic extractants)

  17. Risk factor benzene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stobbe, H.

    1981-01-01

    Nearly one hundred years ago clinical and epidemiological studies have already assigned benzene as a markedly haematotoxic substance. Nowadays benzene is known as an important professional noxa, which is straight off directed against the haematopoietic system, essentially to a dose-time-effect. By this it can be taken as a model also for other noxious substances. Similar solvents often contain so-called 'hidden benzene', that means not declared benzene, so that the consumer doesn't know what dangerous substance are available for his personal use. Impairments caused by benzene mostly are manifested earliest after months, years or for tens of years, and the point is, that these haematopoietic disorders are irreversible disturbances of the haematopoietic stem cell compartment. The consequence of this fact is a deep involvement of the proliferation of the erythro-, mono-, granulo- and thrombopoietic cell lines, mostly with predominance of one of these myeloproliferative cell systems. In the further progression of the impairments due to benzene three different clinical pictures can be observed: the aplastic bone marrow syndrome (i.e. aplastic anemia), the haematopoietic dysplasia (i.e. preleukemia) and the acute leukemias (with the subtypes erythroleukosis, myeloblastic-promyelocytic or myelomonocytic from respectively). Also the transition from one clinical picture to another is possible.

  18. Biodegradation kinetics for pesticide exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolt, J D; Nelson, H P; Cleveland, C B; van Wesenbeeck, I J

    2001-01-01

    Understanding pesticide risks requires characterizing pesticide exposure within the environment in a manner that can be broadly generalized across widely varied conditions of use. The coupled processes of sorption and soil degradation are especially important for understanding the potential environmental exposure of pesticides. The data obtained from degradation studies are inherently variable and, when limited in extent, lend uncertainty to exposure characterization and risk assessment. Pesticide decline in soils reflects dynamically coupled processes of sorption and degradation that add complexity to the treatment of soil biodegradation data from a kinetic perspective. Additional complexity arises from study design limitations that may not fully account for the decline in microbial activity of test systems, or that may be inadequate for considerations of all potential dissipation routes for a given pesticide. Accordingly, kinetic treatment of data must accommodate a variety of differing approaches starting with very simple assumptions as to reaction dynamics and extending to more involved treatments if warranted by the available experimental data. Selection of the appropriate kinetic model to describe pesticide degradation should rely on statistical evaluation of the data fit to ensure that the models used are not overparameterized. Recognizing the effects of experimental conditions and methods for kinetic treatment of degradation data is critical for making appropriate comparisons among pesticide biodegradation data sets. Assessment of variability in soil half-life among soils is uncertain because for many pesticides the data on soil degradation rate are limited to one or two soils. Reasonable upper-bound estimates of soil half-life are necessary in risk assessment so that estimated environmental concentrations can be developed from exposure models. Thus, an understanding of the variable and uncertain distribution of soil half-lives in the environment is

  19. 29 CFR 1910.1028 - Benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Scope and application. (1) This section applies to all occupational exposures to benzene. Chemical...-general, and paragraph (e)(6) accuracy of monitoring. Engineering and work practice controls shall be used... wholesale customers. Container means any barrel, bottle, can, cylinder, drum, reaction vessel, storage tank...

  20. Environmental radiation exposure: Regulation, monitoring, and assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.Y.; Yu, C.; Hong, K.J.

    1991-01-01

    Radioactive releases to the environment from nuclear facilities constitute a public health concern. Protecting the public from such releases can be achieved through the establishment and enforcement of regulatory standards. In the United States, numerous standards have been promulgated to regulate release control at nuclear facilities. Most recent standards are more restrictive than those in the past and require that radioactivity levels be as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Environmental monitoring programs and radiological dose assessment are means of ensuring compliance with regulations. Environmental monitoring programs provide empirical information on releases, such as the concentrations of released radioactivity in environmental media, while radiological dose assessment provides the analytical means of quantifying dose exposures for demonstrating compliance

  1. Human biomonitoring after chemical incidents and during short-term maintenance work as a tool for exposure analysis and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, M; Van Weyenbergh, T; Verwerft, E; Van Pul, J; Lang, S; Oberlinner, C

    2014-12-15

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) is frequently used for the analysis and assessment of exposure to chemicals under routine working conditions. In recent years, HBM has also been applied to monitor the exposure of the general population, and of emergency responders in the aftermath of chemical incidents. Two examples of targeted HBM programs in the chemical industry are described and discussed in this paper: (1) analysis and assessment of the exposure of firefighters and chemical workers after the spill of p-chloroaniline from a burning chemical barrel, and (2) biomonitoring of maintenance workers potentially exposed to benzene during regular turnarounds. The results of these investigations underline that human biomonitoring contributes substantially to comprehensive exposure analyses, human health risk assessments and communication. In addition, regular HBM surveillance and feedback can assist in the continuous improvement of workplace safety measures and exposure control. In conclusion, data on accidental or short-term exposure to hazardous chemicals are an important source of information for the further development of limit and assessment values, the validation of biomarkers and of targeted HBM programs for both routine monitoring and disaster management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Advice of the Italian CCTN on the health risk assessment relative to exposure to automobile emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camoni, I [ed.; Istituto Superiore di Sanita` , Rome (Italy). Lab. di Tossicologia Applicata; Mucci, N [ed.; ISPESL, Monteporzio Catone, Roma (Italy). Dip. di Medicina del Lavoro; Foa` , V [ed.; Milan Univ. (Italy). Clinica del lavoro Luigi Devoto

    1998-06-01

    The period 1990-1995 are reported, they concern the health impact of exposure to benzene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), resulting from automobile exhaust products, for Italian general and occupationally exposed populations. The first recommendation takes into consideration the possible long-term effects of the unleaded gasoline, recently introduced in Italy. The latter two recommendations concern the quantitative evaluation of the risk of leukaemia and of the risk of lung cancer from exposure to benzene and PAHs, resulting from automobile exhaust. [Italiano] Sono riportati i pareri espressi dalla Commissione Consultiva Tossicologica Nazionale (CCTN) nel periodo 1990-1995 riguardanti la valutazione del rischio cancerogeno per esposizione a sostanze contenute nelle emissioni autoveicolari. In particolare, viene stimato il rischio aggiuntivo di leucemia per esposizione a benzene e di cancro polmonare per esposizione a idrocarburi policiclici aromatici (IPA), sia per la popolazione generale che per quella professionalmente esposta.

  3. Determinants of Dermal Exposure Relevant for Exposure Modelling in Regulatory Risk Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquart, J.; Brouwer, D.H.; Gijsbers, J.H.J.; Links, I.H.M.; Warren, N.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2003-01-01

    Risk assessment of chemicals requires assessment of the exposure levels of workers. In the absence of adequate specific measured data, models are often used to estimate exposure levels. For dermal exposure only a few models exist, which are not validated externally. In the scope of a large European

  4. Exposure Assessment Tools by Lifestages and Populations - General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA ExpoBox is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  5. Advanced REACH tool: A Bayesian model for occupational exposure assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McNally, K.; Warren, N.; Fransman, W.; Entink, R.K.; Schinkel, J.; Van Tongeren, M.; Cherrie, J.W.; Kromhout, H.; Schneider, T.; Tielemans, E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a Bayesian model for the assessment of inhalation exposures in an occupational setting; the methodology underpins a freely available web-based application for exposure assessment, the Advanced REACH Tool (ART). The ART is a higher tier exposure tool that combines disparate

  6. Distinguishing Petroleum (Crude Oil and Fuel) From Smoke Exposure within Populations Based on the Relative Blood Levels of Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xylenes (BTEX), Styrene and 2,5-Dimethylfuran by Pattern Recognition Using Artificial Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, D M; Reese, C M; Thornburg, L G; Sanchez, E; Rafson, J P; Blount, B C; Ruhl, J R E; De Jesús, V R

    2018-01-02

    Studies of exposure to petroleum (crude oil/fuel) often involve monitoring benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes (BTEX), and styrene (BTEXS) because of their toxicity and gas-phase prevalence, where exposure is typically by inhalation. However, BTEXS levels in the general U.S. population are primarily from exposure to tobacco smoke, where smokers have blood levels on average up to eight times higher than nonsmokers. This work describes a method using partition theory and artificial neural network (ANN) pattern recognition to classify exposure source based on relative BTEXS and 2,5-dimethylfuran blood levels. A method using surrogate signatures to train the ANN was validated by comparing blood levels among cigarette smokers from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) with BTEXS and 2,5-dimethylfuran signatures derived from the smoke of machine-smoked cigarettes. Classification agreement for an ANN model trained with relative VOC levels was up to 99.8% for nonsmokers and 100.0% for smokers. As such, because there is limited blood level data on individuals exposed to crude oil/fuel, only surrogate signatures derived from crude oil and fuel were used for training the ANN. For the 2007-2008 NHANES data, the ANN model assigned 7 out of 1998 specimens (0.35%) and for the 2013-2014 NHANES data 12 out of 2906 specimens (0.41%) to the crude oil/fuel signature category.

  7. Exploring Global Exposure Factors Resources for Use in Consumer Exposure Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleski, Rosemary T.; Egeghy, Peter P.; Hakkinen, Pertti J.

    2016-01-01

    This publication serves as a global comprehensive resource for readers seeking exposure factor data and information relevant to consumer exposure assessment. It describes the types of information that may be found in various official surveys and online and published resources. The relevant exposure factors cover a broad range, including general exposure factor data found in published compendia and databases and resources about specific exposure factors, such as human activity patterns and housing information. Also included are resources on exposure factors related to specific types of consumer products and the associated patterns of use, such as for a type of personal care product or a type of children’s toy. Further, a section on using exposure factors for designing representative exposure scenarios is included, along with a look into the future for databases and other exposure science developments relevant for consumer exposure assessment. PMID:27455300

  8. INFLUENCE OF EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT METHOD IN AN EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDY OF TRIHALOMETHANE EXPOSURE AND SPONTANEOUS ABORTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trihalomethanes are common contaminants of chlorinated drinking water. Studies of their health effects have been hampered by exposure misclassification, due in part to limitations inherent in using utility sampling records. We used two exposure assessment methods, one based on ut...

  9. Airborne concentrations of benzene for dock workers at the ExxonMobil refinery and chemical plant, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA (1977-2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widner, Thomas E; Gaffney, Shannon H; Panko, Julie M; Unice, Kenneth M; Burns, Amanda M; Kreider, Marisa; Marshall, J Ralph; Booher, Lindsay E; Gelat, Richard H; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2011-03-01

    Benzene is a natural constituent of crude oil and natural gas (0.1-3.0% by volume). Materials that are refined from crude oil and natural gas contain some residual benzene. Few datasets have appeared in the peer-reviewed literature characterizing exposures to benzene at specific refineries or during specific tasks. In this study, historical samples of airborne benzene collected from 1977-2005 at the ExxonMobil Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA, docks were evaluated. Workers were categorized into 11 job titles, and both non-task (≤180 min sample duration) and task-related (<180 min) benzene concentrations were assessed. Approximately 800 personal air samples (406 non-task and 397 task-related) were analyzed. Non-task samples showed that concentrations varied significantly across job titles and generally resulted from exposures during short-duration tasks such as tank sampling. The contractor - tankerman job title had the highest average concentration [N=38, mean 1.4 parts per million (ppm), standard deviation (SD) 2.6]. Task-related samples indicated that the highest exposures were associated with the disconnection of cargo loading hoses (N=134, mean 11 ppm, SD 32). Non-task samples for specific job categories showed that concentrations have decreased over the past 30 years. Recognizing the potential for benzene exposure, this facility has required workers to use respiratory protective equipment during selected tasks and activities; thus, the concentrations measured were likely greater than those that the employee actually experienced. This study provides a job title- and task-focused analysis of occupational exposure to benzene during dock facility operations that is insightful for understanding the Baton Rouge facility and others similar to it over the past 30 years.

  10. Application of industrial hygiene techniques for work-place exposure assessment protocols related to petro-chemical exploration and production field activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehn, J.

    1995-01-01

    Standard industrial hygiene techniques for recognition, evaluation, and control can be directly applied to development of technical protocols for workplace exposure assessment activities for a variety of field site locations. Categories of occupational hazards include chemical and physical agents. Examples of these types of hazards directly related to oil and gas exploration and production workplaces include hydrocarbons, benzene, oil mist, hydrogen sulfide, Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM), asbestos-containing materials, and noise. Specific components of well process chemicals include potential hazardous chemical substances such as methanol, acrolein, chlorine dioxide, and hydrochloric acid. Other types of exposure hazards may result from non-routine conduct of sandblasting and painting operations

  11. Framework for Multi-Pathway Cumulative Exposure for Comparative Assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKone, Tom; Fantke, Peter

    2016-01-01

    in comparative risk assessment, life-cycle assessment (LCA), and chemical alternatives assessment (CAA), multimedia fate and exposure models synthesize information about partitioning, reaction, and intermedia-transport properties of chemicals in a representative (local to regional) or generic (continental...

  12. Gene expression profile in bone marrow and hematopoietic stem cells in mice exposed to inhaled benzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faiola, Brenda; Fuller, Elizabeth S.; Wong, Victoria A.; Recio, Leslie

    2004-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia and chronic lymphocytic leukemia are associated with benzene exposure. In mice, benzene induces chromosomal breaks as a primary mode of genotoxicity in the bone marrow (BM). Benzene-induced DNA lesions can lead to changes in hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) that give rise to leukemic clones. To gain insight into the mechanism of benzene-induced leukemia, we investigated the DNA damage repair and response pathways in total bone marrow and bone marrow fractions enriched for HSC from male 129/SvJ mice exposed to benzene by inhalation. Mice exposed to 100 ppm benzene for 6 h per day, 5 days per week for 2 week showed significant hematotoxicity and genotoxicity compared to air-exposed control mice. Benzene exposure did not alter the level of apoptosis in BM or the percentage of HSC in BM. RNA isolated from total BM cells and the enriched HSC fractions from benzene-exposed and air-exposed mice was used for microarray analysis and quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Interestingly, mRNA levels of DNA repair genes representing distinct repair pathways were largely unaffected by benzene exposure, whereas altered mRNA expression of various apoptosis, cell cycle, and growth control genes was observed in samples from benzene-exposed mice. Differences in gene expression profiles were observed between total BM and HSC. Notably, p21 mRNA was highly induced in BM but was not altered in HSC following benzene exposure. The gene expression pattern suggests that HSC isolated immediately following a 2 weeks exposure to 100 ppm benzene were not actively proliferating. Understanding the toxicogenomic profile of the specific target cell population involved in the development of benzene-associated diseases may lead to a better understanding of the mechanism of benzene-induced leukemia and may identify important interindividual and tissue susceptibility factors

  13. Benzene: a case study in parent chemical and metabolite interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medinsky, M A; Kenyon, E M; Schlosser, P M

    1995-12-28

    Benzene, an important industrial solvent, is also present in unleaded gasoline and cigarette smoke. The hematotoxic effects of benzene in humans are well documented and include aplastic anemia and pancytopenia, and acute myelogenous leukemia. A combination of metabolites (hydroquinone and phenol for example) is apparently necessary to duplicate the hematotoxic effect of benzene, perhaps due in part to the synergistic effect of phenol on myeloperoxidase-mediated oxidation of hydroquinone to the reactive metabolite benzoquinone. Since benzene and its hydroxylated metabolites (phenol, hydroquinone and catechol) are substrates for the same cytochrome P450 enzymes, competitive interactions among the metabolites are possible. In vivo data on metabolite formation by mice exposed to various benzene concentrations are consistent with competitive inhibition of phenol oxidation by benzene. In vitro studies of the metabolic oxidation of benzene, phenol and hydroquinone are consistent with the mechanism of competitive interaction among the metabolites. The dosimetry of benzene and its metabolites in the target tissue, bone marrow, depends on the balance of activation processes such as enzymatic oxidation and deactivation processes such as conjugation and excretion. Phenol, the primary benzene metabolite, can undergo both oxidation and conjugation. Thus, the potential exists for competition among various enzymes for phenol. However, zonal localization of Phase I and Phase II enzymes in various regions of the liver acinus regulates this competition. Biologically-based dosimetry models that incorporate the important determinants of benzene flux, including interactions with other chemicals, will enable prediction of target tissue doses of benzene and metabolites at low exposure concentrations relevant for humans.

  14. Economical benzene emission reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuetz, R.

    1999-01-01

    Benzene has been classified as a toxic compound under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act. This has prompted the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (AEUB) to introduce specific reporting and monitoring guidelines for the oil and gas industry regarding excessive benzene emissions. Glycol dehydration units have been determined to be the major single source of benzene emissions causing air and soil pollution. DualTank Corp. has designed a condensation and storage tank unit to enhance emission reduction, odour elimination and liquid recovery from dehydration units. Their newly designed combined tank unit consists of a large, uninsulated surface area for cooling, and an excessive internal volume for increased retention time. The first prototype was installed in December 1998 at an Enerplus Resources Site. The system provides excellent benzene emission reduction and the elimination of odours and visual plumes. Effective January 1, 1999, the petroleum and natural gas industry must either clean up excessive emissions voluntarily or face government imposed regulations, facility shutdowns and/or fines. 1 fig

  15. Atmospheric benzene and toluene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, R.A.; Khalil, M.A.K.

    1983-01-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of benzene (C 6 H 6 ) and toluene (C 7 H 8 )have been observed at nine remote locations of the world ranging in latitude from inside the arctic circle to the south pole. The observations span all seasons at each location. In the northern hemisphere it is observed that C 6 H 6 and C 7 H 8 are most abundant during winter and least abundant during summer. Based on the limited data available, such cycles are not observed in the tropics. These findings are consistent with the expected latitudinal and seasonal variations of OH radicals which cause benzene and toluene to be removed from the atmosphere. The latitude distribution shows high concentrations at mid latitude and low levels in the southern hemisphere. This finding is consistent with the present understanding that the sources of benzene and toluene are primarily anthropogenic. The observed concentration distribution and varibility are consistent with the short expected atmospheric lifetime of the order of months for benzene and days for toluene

  16. Benzene and its Isomers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    organic chemistry in particular is the period between 1825 when benzene was isolated and 1865 when its correct structure was proposed. Significant initial strides were made during these years in finding new organic reactions and searching for meth- ods to draw molecular structures. For an average chemist the molecular ...

  17. Spatial variability in levels of benzene, formaldehyde, and total benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes in New York City: a land-use regression study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheirbek Iyad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hazardous air pollutant exposures are common in urban areas contributing to increased risk of cancer and other adverse health outcomes. While recent analyses indicate that New York City residents experience significantly higher cancer risks attributable to hazardous air pollutant exposures than the United States as a whole, limited data exist to assess intra-urban variability in air toxics exposures. Methods To assess intra-urban spatial variability in exposures to common hazardous air pollutants, street-level air sampling for volatile organic compounds and aldehydes was conducted at 70 sites throughout New York City during the spring of 2011. Land-use regression models were developed using a subset of 59 sites and validated against the remaining 11 sites to describe the relationship between concentrations of benzene, total BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes and formaldehyde to indicators of local sources, adjusting for temporal variation. Results Total BTEX levels exhibited the most spatial variability, followed by benzene and formaldehyde (coefficient of variation of temporally adjusted measurements of 0.57, 0.35, 0.22, respectively. Total roadway length within 100 m, traffic signal density within 400 m of monitoring sites, and an indicator of temporal variation explained 65% of the total variability in benzene while 70% of the total variability in BTEX was accounted for by traffic signal density within 450 m, density of permitted solvent-use industries within 500 m, and an indicator of temporal variation. Measures of temporal variation, traffic signal density within 400 m, road length within 100 m, and interior building area within 100 m (indicator of heating fuel combustion predicted 83% of the total variability of formaldehyde. The models built with the modeling subset were found to predict concentrations well, predicting 62% to 68% of monitored values at validation sites. Conclusions Traffic and

  18. Spatial variability in levels of benzene, formaldehyde, and total benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes in New York City: a land-use regression study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirbek, Iyad; Johnson, Sarah; Ross, Zev; Pezeshki, Grant; Ito, Kazuhiko; Eisl, Holger; Matte, Thomas

    2012-07-31

    Hazardous air pollutant exposures are common in urban areas contributing to increased risk of cancer and other adverse health outcomes. While recent analyses indicate that New York City residents experience significantly higher cancer risks attributable to hazardous air pollutant exposures than the United States as a whole, limited data exist to assess intra-urban variability in air toxics exposures. To assess intra-urban spatial variability in exposures to common hazardous air pollutants, street-level air sampling for volatile organic compounds and aldehydes was conducted at 70 sites throughout New York City during the spring of 2011. Land-use regression models were developed using a subset of 59 sites and validated against the remaining 11 sites to describe the relationship between concentrations of benzene, total BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes) and formaldehyde to indicators of local sources, adjusting for temporal variation. Total BTEX levels exhibited the most spatial variability, followed by benzene and formaldehyde (coefficient of variation of temporally adjusted measurements of 0.57, 0.35, 0.22, respectively). Total roadway length within 100 m, traffic signal density within 400 m of monitoring sites, and an indicator of temporal variation explained 65% of the total variability in benzene while 70% of the total variability in BTEX was accounted for by traffic signal density within 450 m, density of permitted solvent-use industries within 500 m, and an indicator of temporal variation. Measures of temporal variation, traffic signal density within 400 m, road length within 100 m, and interior building area within 100 m (indicator of heating fuel combustion) predicted 83% of the total variability of formaldehyde. The models built with the modeling subset were found to predict concentrations well, predicting 62% to 68% of monitored values at validation sites. Traffic and point source emissions cause substantial variation in street-level exposures

  19. Comparative metabolism of [14C]benzene to excretable products and bioactivation to DNA-binding derivatives in maternal and neonatal mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iba, M.M.; Ghosal, A.; Snyder, R.

    2001-01-01

    Lactating adult female mice treated with a single dose of 880 mg/kg i.p. [ 14 C]benzene, and their 2-day-old sucklings similarly treated or nursed by their treated dams were compared in terms of their ability to metabolize benzene to urinary products or reactive intermediates as assessed by covalently-bound benzene derivatives in whole blood or liver DNA. Six metabolite fractions were identified in the urine of sucklings by high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis at 5 h following intraperitoneal (direct) treatment with benzene. Three of the metabolite fractions co-chromatographed with authentic phenol, phenyl glucuronide, and muconic acid, and contributed 11, 6.9 and 0.6%, respectively, to the total urinary benzene metabolites. Two of the fractions were unidentified. The sixth and most polar fraction consisted of multiple metabolites, 21% of which were conjugates, and accounted for 72% of the total urinary metabolites. A similar metabolite profile was observed in 24-h urine samples from treated dams with the exception that one of the unidentified fractions in the sucklings was absent and levels of the metabolites were quantitatively higher than those observed in sucklings 5 h following their treatment with benzene. Furthermore, 78% of the most polar fraction from the dams consisted of conjugates compared with 21% of that from the sucklings. The metabolite pattern in urine of sucklings nursed by treated dams was qualitatively similar to, but quantitatively different from the pattern in treated dams. Five hours following intraperitoneal treatment with benzene, covalent binding of the compound to DNA (expressed as pmol benzene equivalents/mg DNA) in sucklings was slightly higher in whole blood (1.15±0.07) than in liver (0.77±0.07), whereas in the dam, it was slightly lower in whole blood (0.88±0.48) than in liver (1.63±0.61). Twenty four hours following benzene exposure in sucklings of benzene-treated dams, DNA binding by the compound in whole

  20. Environmental exposure assessment in European birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehring, Ulrike; Casas, Maribel; Brunekreef, Bert

    2013-01-01

    of the environmental exposure and health data in these studies was made as part of the ENRIECO (Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts) project. The focus with regard to exposure was on outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens and biological organisms, metals, pesticides, smoking and second...... hand tobacco smoke (SHS), persistent organic pollutants (POPs), noise, radiation, and occupational exposures. The review lists methods and data on environmental exposures in 37 European birth cohort studies. Most data is currently available for smoking and SHS (N=37 cohorts), occupational exposures (N......Environmental exposures during pregnancy and early life may have adverse health effects. Single birth cohort studies often lack statistical power to tease out such effects reliably. To improve the use of existing data and to facilitate collaboration among these studies, an inventory...

  1. Assessment and control of fetal exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harty, R.; Swinth, K.L.; Traub, R.J.

    1991-10-01

    The assessment and control of fetal exposure to radiation in the workplace is an issue that is complicated by both biological and political/social ramifications. As a result of the dramatic increase in the number of women employed as radiation workers during the past 10 years, many facilities using radioactive materials have instituted fetal protection programs with special requirements for female radiation workers. It is necessary, however, to ensure that any fetal protection program be developed in such a way as to be nondiscriminatory. A study has been initiated whose purpose is to balance the political/social and the biological ramifications associated with occupational protection of the developing embryo/fetus. Several considerations are involved in properly balancing these factors. These considerations include appropriate methods of declaring the pregnancy, training workers, controlling the dose to the embryo/fetus, measuring and calculating the dose to the embryo/fetus, and recording the pertinent information. Alternative strategies for handling these factors while ensuring maximum protection of the embryo/fetus and the rights and responsibilities of employees and employers are discussed

  2. Health risk assessment of exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, Hiromitsu

    2011-01-01

    Risk assessment is an essential process for evaluating the human health effects of exposure to ionizing radiation and for determining acceptable levels of exposure. There are two major components of radiation risk assessment: a measure of exposure level and a measure of disease occurrence. For quantitative estimation of health risks, it is important to evaluate the association between exposure and disease occurrence using epidemiological or experimental data. In these approaches, statistical risk models are used particularly for estimating cancer risks related to exposure to low levels of radiation. This paper presents a summary of basic models and methods of risk assessment for studying exposure-risk relationships. Moreover, quantitative risk estimates are subject to several sources of uncertainty due to inherent limitations in risk assessment studies. This paper also discusses the limitations of radiation risk assessment. (author)

  3. Development of Hollow-Fiber Liquid-Phase Microextraction Method for Determination of Urinary -Muconic Acid as a Biomarker of Benzene Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Ghamari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet was used to extract trans, trans -muconic acid, in urine samples of workers who had been exposed to benzene. The parameters affecting the metabolite extraction were optimized as follows: the volume of sample solution was 11 mL with pH 2, liquid membrane containing dihexyl ether as the supporter, 15% (w/v of trioctylphosphine oxide as the carrier, the time of extraction was 120 minutes, and stirring rate was 500 rpm. Organic phase impregnated in the pores of a hollow fiber was extracted into 24 μL solution of 0.05 mol L −1 Na 2 CO 3 located inside the lumen of the fiber. Under optimized conditions, a high enrichment factor of 153-182 folds, relative recovery of 83%-92%, and detection limit of 0.001 μg mL −1 were obtained. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of ttMA in real urine samples.

  4. Elevated Atmospheric Levels of Benzene and Benzene-Related Compounds from Unconventional Shale Extraction and Processing: Human Health Concern for Residential Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Alisa L; Orimoloye, Helen T

    2016-01-01

    The advancement of natural gas (NG) extraction across the United States (U.S.) raises concern for potential exposure to hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Benzene, a HAP and a primary chemical of concern due to its classification as a known human carcinogen, is present in petroleum-rich geologic formations and is formed during the combustion of bypass NG. It is a component in solvents, paraffin breakers, and fuels used in NG extraction and processing (E&P). The objectives of this study are to confirm the presence of benzene and benzene-related compounds (benzene[s]) in residential areas, where unconventional shale E&P is occurring, and to determine if benzene[s] exists in elevated atmospheric concentrations when compared to national background levels. Ambient air sampling was conducted in six counties in the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex with passive samples collected in evacuated 6-L Summa canisters. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, with sampling performed at variable distances from the facility fence line. Elevated concentrations of benzene[s] in the atmosphere were identified when compared to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Urban Air Toxics Monitoring Program. The 24-hour benzene concentrations ranged from 0.6 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) to 592 ppbv, with 1-hour concentrations from 2.94 ppbv to 2,900.20 ppbv. Benzene is a known human carcinogen capable of multisystem health effects. Exposure to benzene is correlated with bone marrow and blood-forming organ damage and immune system depression. Sensitive populations (children, pregnant women, elderly, immunocompromised) and occupational workers are at increased risk for adverse health effects from elevated atmospheric levels of benzene[s] in residential areas with unconventional shale E&P.

  5. ASSESSING HUMAN EXPOSURE TO GRASS POLLEN IN DENMARK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Hertel, Ole; Herbert, Rob

    Objectives: Exposure to pollen is typically assessed using data collected at fixed roof-top monitoring stations, which give a general picture of airborne pollen concentrations over a wide region. Actual exposure levels can be obtained through personal exposure monitoring. This is typically done u...

  6. Assessing Children's Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, John F.; Lawrence, Erika; Taber, Sarah M.; Bank, Lew; DeGarmo, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Child exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) is widely acknowledged as a threat to the psycho-social and academic well-being of children. Unfortunately, as reflected in the literature, the specific link between such exposure and childhood outcomes is ambiguous. Based on a review of the literature, this article suggests that this state of…

  7. Current understandings and perspectives on non-cancer health effects of benzene: A global concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahadar, Haji [International Campus, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center and Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mostafalou, Sara [Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center and Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdollahi, Mohammad, E-mail: Mohammad.Abdollahi@UToronto.Ca [Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center and Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    Objective: Benzene, as a volatile organic compound, is known as one of the main air pollutants in the environment. The aim of this review is to summarize all available evidences on non-cancerous health effects of benzene providing an overview of possible association of exposure to benzene with human chronic diseases, specially, in those regions of the world where benzene concentration is being poorly monitored. Methodology: A bibliographic search of scientific databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scirus was conducted with key words of “benzene toxic health effects”, “environmental volatile organic compounds”, “diabetes mellitus and environmental pollutants”, “breast cancer and environmental pollution”, “prevalence of lung cancer”, and “diabetes prevalence”. More than 300 peer reviewed papers were examined. Experimental and epidemiologic studies reporting health effects of benzene and volatile organic compounds were included in the study. Results: Epidemiologic and experimental studies suggest that benzene exposure can lead to numerous non-cancerous health effects associated with functional aberration of vital systems in the body like reproductive, immune, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, and respiratory. Conclusion: Chronic diseases have become a health burden of global dimension with special emphasis in regions with poor monitoring over contents of benzene in petrochemicals. Benzene is a well known carcinogen of blood and its components, but the concern of benzene exposure is more than carcinogenicity of blood components and should be evaluated in both epidemiologic and experimental studies. Aspect of interactions and mechanism of toxicity in relation to human general health problems especially endocrine disturbances with particular reference to diabetes, breast and lung cancers should be followed up. - Highlights: • Benzene is a volatile organic compound and established blood carcinogen. • Exposure to benzene needs to be

  8. Aircrew radiation exposure assessment for Yugoslav airlines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antic, Dragoljub [Vinca Inst. of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Petrovic, Zika [Yugoslav Airlines, JAT, Bulevar umetnosti 16, 11001 Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1997-12-31

    The presented study shows that the crews of the intercontinental flights can receive significant annual effective doses (1.5-2.0 mSv). The exposure of the crews is comparable with natural radiation level on the ground level (it can be up to 5 times higher for some air crew members in the intercontinental flights), but smaller than maximum permissible dose for general population. The annual exposures of the passengers are generally smaller than the exposures of tile air crews. because the passengers have a limited number of flights per year compared with the members of the air-crews. (author).

  9. The contribution of benzene to smoking-induced leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korte, J E; Hertz-Picciotto, I; Schulz, M R; Ball, L M; Duell, E J

    2000-04-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased risk of leukemia; benzene, an established leukemogen, is present in cigarette smoke. By combining epidemiologic data on the health effects of smoking with risk assessment techniques for low-dose extrapolation, we assessed the proportion of smoking-induced total leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) attributable to the benzene in cigarette smoke. We fit both linear and quadratic models to data from two benzene-exposed occupational cohorts to estimate the leukemogenic potency of benzene. Using multiple-decrement life tables, we calculated lifetime risks of total leukemia and AML deaths for never, light, and heavy smokers. We repeated these calculations, removing the effect of benzene in cigarettes based on the estimated potencies. From these life tables we determined smoking-attributable risks and benzene-attributable risks. The ratio of the latter to the former constitutes the proportion of smoking-induced cases attributable to benzene. Based on linear potency models, the benzene in cigarette smoke contributed from 8 to 48% of smoking-induced total leukemia deaths [95% upper confidence limit (UCL), 20-66%], and from 12 to 58% of smoking-induced AML deaths (95% UCL, 19-121%). The inclusion of a quadratic term yielded results that were comparable; however, potency models with only quadratic terms resulted in much lower attributable fractions--all models substantially overestimate low-dose risk, linear extrapolations from empirical data over a dose range of 10- to 100-fold resulted in plausible predictions.

  10. Exposure Monitoring and Risk Assessment of Biphenyl in the Workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyeon-Yeong; Shin, Sae-Mi; Ham, Miran; Lim, Cheol-Hong; Byeon, Sang-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to assess exposure to and the risk caused by biphenyl in the workplace. Biphenyl is widely used as a heat transfer medium and as an emulsifier and polish in industry. Vapor or high levels of dust inhalation and dermal exposure to biphenyl can cause eye inflammation, irritation of respiratory organs, and permanent lesions in the liver and nervous system. In this study, the workplace environment concentrations were assessed as central tendency exposure and reasonable ma...

  11. Early Liver and Kidney Dysfunction Associated with Occupational Exposure to Sub-Threshold Limit Value Levels of Benzene, Toluene, and Xylenes in Unleaded Petrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Neghab

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: The average exposure of petrol station workers to BTX did not exceed the current threshold limit values (TLVs for these chemicals. However, evidence of subtle, subclinical and prepathologic early liver and kidney dysfunction was evident in exposed individuals.

  12. Probabilistic assessment of wildfire hazard and municipal watershed exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe Scott; Don Helmbrecht; Matthew P. Thompson; David E. Calkin; Kate Marcille

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of wildfires within municipal watersheds can result in significant impacts to water quality and ultimately human health and safety. In this paper, we illustrate the application of geospatial analysis and burn probability modeling to assess the exposure of municipal watersheds to wildfire. Our assessment of wildfire exposure consists of two primary...

  13. Integration of Probabilistic Exposure Assessment and Probabilistic Hazard Characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, van der H.; Slob, W.

    2007-01-01

    A method is proposed for integrated probabilistic risk assessment where exposure assessment and hazard characterization are both included in a probabilistic way. The aim is to specify the probability that a random individual from a defined (sub)population will have an exposure high enough to cause a

  14. DREAM: a method for semi-quantitative dermal exposure assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendel de Joode, B. van; Brouwer, D.H.; Kromhout, H.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a new method (DREAM) for structured, semi-quantitative dermal exposure assessment for chemical or biological agents that can be used in occupational hygiene or epidemiology. It is anticipated that DREAM could serve as an initial assessment of dermal exposure, amongst others,

  15. Progress in human exposure assessment for biocidal products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmen, J.J. van

    2004-01-01

    An important shortcoming in our present knowledge required for risk assessment of biocidal products is the assessment of human exposure. This knowledge gap has been filled in a preliminary fashion with the TNsG on human exposure to biocidal products (available from the ECB website). Explicit User

  16. Human exposure assessment: Approaches for chemicals (REACH) and biocides (BPD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmen, J.J. van; Gerritsen-Ebben, R.

    2008-01-01

    The approaches that are indicated in the various guidance documents for the assessment of human exposure for chemicals and biocides are summarised. This reflects the TNsG (Technical notes for Guidance) version 2: human exposure assessment for biocidal products (1) under the BPD (Biocidal Products

  17. Task-based dermal exposure models for regulatory risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Nicholas D; Marquart, Hans; Christopher, Yvette; Laitinen, Juha; VAN Hemmen, Joop J

    2006-07-01

    The regulatory risk assessment of chemicals requires the estimation of occupational dermal exposure. Until recently, the models used were either based on limited data or were specific to a particular class of chemical or application. The EU project RISKOFDERM has gathered a considerable number of new measurements of dermal exposure together with detailed contextual information. This article describes the development of a set of generic task-based models capable of predicting potential dermal exposure to both solids and liquids in a wide range of situations. To facilitate modelling of the wide variety of dermal exposure situations six separate models were made for groupings of exposure scenarios called Dermal Exposure Operation units (DEO units). These task-based groupings cluster exposure scenarios with regard to the expected routes of dermal exposure and the expected influence of exposure determinants. Within these groupings linear mixed effect models were used to estimate the influence of various exposure determinants and to estimate components of variance. The models predict median potential dermal exposure rates for the hands and the rest of the body from the values of relevant exposure determinants. These rates are expressed as mg or microl product per minute. Using these median potential dermal exposure rates and an accompanying geometric standard deviation allows a range of exposure percentiles to be calculated.

  18. Human exposure assessment to environmental chemicals using biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calafat, Antonia M; Ye, Xiaoyun; Silva, Manori J; Kuklenyik, Zsuzsanna; Needham, Larry L

    2006-02-01

    In modern societies, humans may be exposed to a wide spectrum of environmental chemicals. Although the health significance of this exposure for many chemicals is unknown, studies to investigate the prevalence of exposure are warranted because of the chemicals' potential harmful health effects, as often indicated in animal studies. Three tools have been used to assess exposure: exposure history/questionnaire information, environmental monitoring, and biomonitoring (i.e. measuring concentrations of the chemicals, their metabolites, or their adducts in human specimens). We present an overview on the use of biomonitoring in exposure assessment using phthalates, bisphenol A and other environmental phenols, and perfluorinated chemicals as examples. We discuss some factors relevant for interpreting and understanding biomonitoring data, including selection of both biomarkers of exposure and human matrices, and toxicokinetic information. The use of biomonitoring in human risk assessment is not discussed.

  19. Measurements of benzene and formaldehyde in a medium sized urban environment. Indoor/outdoor health risk implications on special population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilidis, Georgios A; Karakitsios, Spyros P; Kassomenos, Pavlos A; Kazos, Elias A; Stalikas, Constantine D

    2009-03-01

    In the present study, the results of a measurement campaign aiming to assess cancer risk among two special groups of population: policemen and laboratory technicians exposed to the toxic substances, benzene and formaldehyde are presented. The exposure is compared to general population risk. The results show that policemen working outdoor (traffic regulation, patrol on foot or in vehicles, etc.) are exposed at a significantly higher benzene concentration (3-5 times) than the general population, while the exposure to carbonyls is in general lower. The laboratory technicians appear to be highly exposed to formaldehyde while no significant variation of benzene exposure in comparison to the general population is recorded. The assessment revealed that laboratory technicians and policemen run a 20% and 1% higher cancer risk respectively compared to the general population. Indoor working place air quality is more significant in assessing cancer risk in these two categories of professionals, due to the higher Inhalation Unit Risk (IUR) of formaldehyde compared to benzene. Since the origin of the danger to laboratory technicians is clear (use of chemicals necessary for the experiments), in policemen the presence of carbonyls in indoor air concentrations due to smoking or used materials constitute a danger equal to the exposure to traffic originated air pollutants.

  20. Comprehensive Biological Monitoring to Assess Isocyanates and Solvents Exposure in the NSW Australia Motor Vehicle Repair Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jimmy; Cantrell, Phillip; Nand, Aklesh

    2017-10-01

    Urethane products that contain isocyanates are extensively used in the motor vehicle repair (MVR) industry and other industries such as furniture and cabinet-making as two-pack spray paints, clears, and adhesives. Attention has recently been refocussed on isocyanate-containing chemicals, particularly in paints. The spray painters in the MVR industry had a propensity to develop industrial asthma at a rate 80 times higher than the general public, which was previously reported in the UK. To track workers exposure to isocyanates, urine samples were collected from 196 spray painters who worked mainly in 78 MVR shops across 54 New South Wales (NSW) towns and suburbs. The biological monitoring also covered exposure testing to a wide variety of solvents including aromatic hydrocarbons, ketones, and alcohols. The main finding of the study was that 2.6% of the spray painters surveyed in the MVR industry in NSW that handled isocyanate-containing paints showed exposure to isocyanates; with 1.0% being moderately exposed, which is more than twice the current UK's Health and Safety Executive (HSE) Biological Monitoring Guidance Value (BMGV) of 1 µmol mol-1 creatinine. Potential exposures to toluene (a solvent often found in paint thinners) was monitored via hippuric acid (HA) urine levels and showed 2.6% of the spray painters surveyed to be over the US' American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Biological Exposure Index (BEI) of 1010 mmol/mole creatinine for HA. The other solvents or their metabolites were all below their respective BEI; these comprised benzene, xylene, ethyl benzene, methyl ethyl ketone, acetone, methanol, and ethanol. These findings indicate that isocyanates and certain solvents exposure were occurring in the NSW Australia vehicle repair industry, albeit at lower levels than previous occupational biological monitoring studies that showed higher exposure levels, particularly for isocyanates. One reason for this could be the increasing use

  1. Assessment of annual exposure for grout operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the direct radiation exposures and dose rates to personnel from assumed quantities of radioactive grout, and Double Shell Tank (DST) waste feed. This analysis was based on filling four disposal vaults per year. Whole body doses were analyzed for occupational workers assigned to the Grout Treatment Facility (GTF). The study makes assumptions that must be met by the facility. Otherwise, the GTF will meet all DOE and WHC direct radiation exposure criteria. This analysis will be published in the Grout Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR)

  2. Risk assessment and management of radiofrequency radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabala, Dana [Railways Medical Clinic Cluj-Napoca, Occupational Medicine Department, 16-20 Bilascu Gheorghe St., 400015 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Surducan, Emanoil; Surducan, Vasile; Neamtu, Camelia [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath St., 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2013-11-13

    Radiofrequency radiation (RFR) industry managers, occupational physicians, security department, and other practitioners must be advised on the basic of biophysics and the health effects of RF electromagnetic fields so as to guide the management of exposure. Information on biophysics of RFR and biological/heath effects is derived from standard texts, literature and clinical experiences. Emergency treatment and ongoing care is outlined, with clinical approach integrating the circumstances of exposure and the patient's symptoms. Experimental risk assessment model in RFR chronic exposure is proposed. Planning for assessment and monitoring exposure, ongoing care, safety measures and work protection are outlining the proper management.

  3. Risk assessment and management of radiofrequency radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabala, Dana; Surducan, Emanoil; Surducan, Vasile; Neamtu, Camelia

    2013-01-01

    Radiofrequency radiation (RFR) industry managers, occupational physicians, security department, and other practitioners must be advised on the basic of biophysics and the health effects of RF electromagnetic fields so as to guide the management of exposure. Information on biophysics of RFR and biological/heath effects is derived from standard texts, literature and clinical experiences. Emergency treatment and ongoing care is outlined, with clinical approach integrating the circumstances of exposure and the patient's symptoms. Experimental risk assessment model in RFR chronic exposure is proposed. Planning for assessment and monitoring exposure, ongoing care, safety measures and work protection are outlining the proper management

  4. Metabolic Polymorphisms and Clinical Findings Related to Benzene Poisoning Detected in Exposed Brazilian Gas-Station Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Mitri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Benzene is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant and an important industrial chemical present in both gasoline and motor vehicle emissions. Occupational human exposure to benzene occurs in the petrochemical and petroleum refining industries as well as in gas-station workers, where it can lead to benzene poisoning (BP, but the mechanisms of BP are not completely understood. In Brazil, a significant number of gas-station service workers are employed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate alterations related to BP and metabolic polymorphisms in gas-station service workers exposed to benzene in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Occupational exposure was based on clinical findings related to BP, and metabolic polymorphisms in 114 Brazilian gas-station attendants. These workers were divided into No Clinical Findings (NCF and Clinical Findings (CF groups. Neutrophil and Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV showed a significant difference between the two study groups, and neutrophil has the greatest impact on the alterations suggestive of BP. The clinical findings revealed higher frequencies of symptoms in the CF group, although not all members presented statistical significance. The frequencies of alleles related to risk were higher in the CF group for GSTM1, GSTT1, CYP2E1 7632T > A, but lower for NQO1 and CYP2E1 1053C > T genotypes. Moreover, an association was found between GSTM1 null and alterations related to BP, but we did not observe any effects of other polymorphisms. Variations in benzene metabolizing genes may modify benzene toxicity and should be taken into consideration during risk assessment evaluations.

  5. Exposure Data for Travel Risk Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, N O; Koornstra, Matthijs; Broughton, Jeremy

    1999-01-01

    This report illustrates why risk and exposure data are critical for policymaking at local, national and EU levels.Conclusions are drawn about the evaluation and use of risk information for different modes and estimates are presented for the fatality risk of various travel modes in the EU....

  6. Assessing the risks from exposure to radon in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, P.J.; Lowder, W.M.

    1983-07-01

    The factors used to assess the radiation dose and health risks from human exposure to radon in dwellings are critically reviewed in this summary. Sources of indoor radon and determinants of air concentrations and exposure levels are given as well as the uncertainties that exist in their formulation. Methods of assessing health effects from inhalation of radon and its progeny are discussed with emphasis on dosimetry of radon daughters and formulation of risk per dose values. Finally, methods of assessing risks for general population exposures to indoor radon concentrations are treated

  7. Exposure Monitoring and Risk Assessment of Biphenyl in the Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon-Yeong Kim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to assess exposure to and the risk caused by biphenyl in the workplace. Biphenyl is widely used as a heat transfer medium and as an emulsifier and polish in industry. Vapor or high levels of dust inhalation and dermal exposure to biphenyl can cause eye inflammation, irritation of respiratory organs, and permanent lesions in the liver and nervous system. In this study, the workplace environment concentrations were assessed as central tendency exposure and reasonable maximum exposure and were shown to be 0.03 and 0.12 mg/m3, respectively. In addition, the carcinogenic risk of biphenyl as determined by risk assessment was 0.14 × 10−4 (central tendency exposure and 0.56 × 10−4 (reasonable maximum exposure, which is below the acceptable risk value of 1.0 × 10−4. Furthermore, the central tendency exposure and reasonable maximum exposure hazard quotients were 0.01 and 0.06 for oral toxicity, 0.05 and 0.23 for inhalation toxicity, and 0.08 and 0.39 for reproduction toxicity, respectively, which are all lower than the acceptable hazard quotient of 1.0. Therefore, exposure to biphenyl was found to be safe in current workplace environments. Because occupational exposure limits are based on socioeconomic assessment, they are generally higher than true values seen in toxicity experiments. Based on the results of exposure monitoring of biphenyl, the current occupational exposure limits in Korea could be reviewed.

  8. Exposure monitoring and risk assessment of biphenyl in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeon-Yeong; Shin, Sae-Mi; Ham, Miran; Lim, Cheol-Hong; Byeon, Sang-Hoon

    2015-05-13

    This study was performed to assess exposure to and the risk caused by biphenyl in the workplace. Biphenyl is widely used as a heat transfer medium and as an emulsifier and polish in industry. Vapor or high levels of dust inhalation and dermal exposure to biphenyl can cause eye inflammation, irritation of respiratory organs, and permanent lesions in the liver and nervous system. In this study, the workplace environment concentrations were assessed as central tendency exposure and reasonable maximum exposure and were shown to be 0.03 and 0.12 mg/m³, respectively. In addition, the carcinogenic risk of biphenyl as determined by risk assessment was 0.14 × 10⁻⁴ (central tendency exposure) and 0.56 × 10⁻⁴ (reasonable maximum exposure), which is below the acceptable risk value of 1.0 × 10⁻⁴. Furthermore, the central tendency exposure and reasonable maximum exposure hazard quotients were 0.01 and 0.06 for oral toxicity, 0.05 and 0.23 for inhalation toxicity, and 0.08 and 0.39 for reproduction toxicity, respectively, which are all lower than the acceptable hazard quotient of 1.0. Therefore, exposure to biphenyl was found to be safe in current workplace environments. Because occupational exposure limits are based on socioeconomic assessment, they are generally higher than true values seen in toxicity experiments. Based on the results of exposure monitoring of biphenyl, the current occupational exposure limits in Korea could be reviewed.

  9. Exposure assessment of JAVELIN missile combustion products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundy, Donald O.; Langford, Roland E.

    1994-02-01

    Characterization and analysis of combustion products resulting from firing the JAVELIN missile were performed. Of those combustion products analyzed, it was determined that airborne lead concentrations exceeded the OSHA PEL of 50 micrograms each time the missile was fired while in the enclosure. Since the OSHA PEL standard is based upon a continuous rather than a short-term exposures blood lead concentrations were sought to ascertain the relationship between a short duration airborne exposure and its physiological effect on the body. Blood lead levels were taken on 49 test subjects prior to various JAVELIN missile test firings. Of those 49, 21 were outfitted With personal sampling equipment to determine airborne concentrations at the Assistant Gunner and Gunner positions. Periodic blood sampling after a single exposure showed an average increase of 2.27 micrograms/dL for all test subjects. Recommendations were made to consider changes in the positioning of the enclosure inhabitants to minimize airborne lead concentrations, to limit the number of missiles fired (situation dependent), and replacement of the lead B-resorcyolate with a non-lead containing burn rate modifier for the launch motor.

  10. Assessment of risk of potential exposures on facilities industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leocadio, Joao Carlos

    2007-03-01

    This work develops a model to evaluate potential exposures on open facilities of industrial radiography in Brazil. This model will decisively contribute to optimize operational, radiological protection and safety procedures, to prevent radiation accidents and to reduce human errors in industrial radiography. The probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) methodology was very useful to assess potential exposures. The open facilities of industrial radiography were identified as the scenario to be analyzed in what concerns the evaluation of potential exposures, due to their high accidents indices. The results of the assessment of potential exposures confirm that the industrial radiography in Brazil is a high-risk practice as classified by the IAEA. The risk of potential exposure was estimated to be 40,5 x 10 -2 per year in Brazil, having as main consequences injuries to the workers' hands and arms. In the world scene, the consequences are worst, leading to fatalities of people, thus emphasizing the high risk of industrial radiography. (author)

  11. Exposure Assessment Tools by Tiers and Types - Deterministic and Probabilistic Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA ExpoBox is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  12. Wishful Thinking? Inside the Black Box of Exposure Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Money, Annemarie; Robinson, Christine; Agius, Raymond; de Vocht, Frank

    2016-05-01

    Decision-making processes used by experts when undertaking occupational exposure assessment are relatively unknown, but it is often assumed that there is a common underlying method that experts employ. However, differences in training and experience of assessors make it unlikely that one general method for expert assessment would exist. Therefore, there are concerns about formalizing, validating, and comparing expert estimates within and between studies that are difficult, if not impossible, to characterize. Heuristics on the other hand (the processes involved in decision making) have been extensively studied. Heuristics are deployed by everyone as short-cuts to make the often complex process of decision-making simpler, quicker, and less burdensome. Experts' assessments are often subject to various simplifying heuristics as a way to reach a decision in the absence of sufficient data. Therefore, investigating the underlying heuristics or decision-making processes involved may help to shed light on the 'black box' of exposure assessment. A mixed method study was conducted utilizing both a web-based exposure assessment exercise incorporating quantitative and semiqualitative elements of data collection, and qualitative semi-structured interviews with exposure assessors. Qualitative data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Twenty-five experts completed the web-based exposure assessment exercise and 8 of these 25 were randomly selected to participate in the follow-up interview. Familiar key themes relating to the exposure assessment exercise emerged; 'intensity'; 'probability'; 'agent'; 'process'; and 'duration' of exposure. However, an important aspect of the detailed follow-up interviews revealed a lack of structure and order with which participants described their decision making. Participants mostly described some form of an iterative process, heavily relying on the anchoring and adjustment heuristic, which differed between experts. In spite of having undertaken

  13. Lead concentrations and risk exposure assessment in surface soils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lead concentrations and risk exposure assessment in surface soils at residential lands previously used for auto-mechanic and auto-welding activities in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management.

  14. Aggregate exposure pathways in support of risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over time, risk assessment has shifted from establishing relationships between exposure to a single chemical and a resulting adverse health outcome, to evaluating multiple chemicals and disease outcomes simultaneously. As a result, there is an increasing need to better understand...

  15. Existing Default Values and Recommendations for Exposure Assessment - A Nordic Exposure Group Project 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höglund, Lena; Räisänen, Jouni; Hämäläinen, Anne-Maija

    range of more or less well-documented values originating from many different sources. The purpose of this report is to give an overview and to evaluate exposure factors that are currently used by the authorities and industry in the exposure assessments for both adults (occupational and consumer exposure......) and children in relation to REACH. Another important purpose of the report is to contribute towards a further harmonisation of exposure factors by giving recommendations of most valid and representative defaults. These recommendations can be used besides REACH also in biocide's and plant protection product...

  16. Quantitative Exposure Assessment of Various Chemical Substances in a Wafer Fabrication Industry Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunhee Park

    2011-03-01

    Conclusion: Benzene, a known human carcinogen for leukemia, and arsine, a hematologic toxin, were not detected in wafer fabrication sites in this study. Among reproductive toxic substances, n-butyl acetate was not detected, but fluorides and PGMEA existed in small amounts in the air. This investigation was focused on the air-borne chemical concentrations only in regular working conditions. Unconditional exposures during spills and/or maintenance tasks and by-product chemicals were not included. Supplementary studies might be required.

  17. The influence of different light quality and benzene on gene expression and benzene degradation of Chlorophytum comosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setsungnern, Arnon; Treesubsuntorn, Chairat; Thiravetyan, Paitip

    2017-11-01

    Benzene, a carcinogenic compound, has been reported as a major indoor air pollutant. Chlorophytum comosum (C. comosum) was reported to be the highest efficient benzene removal plant among other screened plants. Our previous studies found that plants under light conditions could remove gaseous benzene higher than under dark conditions. Therefore, C. comosum exposure to airborne benzene was studied under different light quality at the same light intensity. C. comosum could remove 500 ppm gaseous benzene with the highest efficiency of 68.77% under Blue:Red = 1:1 LED treatments and the lowest one appeared 57.41% under white fluorescent treatment within 8 days. After benzene was uptaken by C. comosum, benzene was oxidized to be phenol in the plant cells by cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system. Then, phenol was catalyzed to be catechol that was confirmed by the up-regulation of phenol 2-monooxygenase (PMO) gene expression. After that, catechol was changed to cic, cis-muconic acid. Interestingly, cis,cis-muconic acid production was found in the plant tissues higher than phenol and catechol. The result confirmed that NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR), cytochrome b5 (cyt b5), phenol 2-monooxygenase (PMO) and cytochrome P450 90B1 (CYP90B1) in plant cells were involved in benzene degradation or detoxification. In addition, phenol, catechol, and cis,cis-muconic acid production were found under the Blue-Red LED light conditions higher than under white fluorescent light conditions due to under LED light conditions gave higher NADPH contents. Hence, C. comosum under the Blue-Red LED light conditions had a high potential to remove benzene in a contaminated site. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of occupational exposure to radiofrequency fields and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, T. G.; Allen, S. G.; Blackwell, R. P.; Litchfield, I.; Mann, S. M.; Pope, J. M.; Van Tongeren, M. J. A.

    2004-01-01

    The use of personal monitors for the assessment of exposure to radiofrequency fields and radiation in potential future epidemiological studies of occupationally exposed populations has been investigated. Data loggers have been developed for use with a commercially available personal monitor and these allowed personal exposure records consisting of time-tagged measurements of electric and magnetic field strength to be accrued over extended periods of the working day. The instrumentation was worn by workers carrying out tasks representative of some of their typical daily activities at a variety of radio sites. The results indicated significant differences in the exposures of workers in various RF environments. A number of measures of exposure have been examined with a view to assessing possible exposure metrics for epidemiological studies. There was generally a good correlation between a given measure of electric field strength and the same measure of magnetic field strength. (authors)

  19. The global assessment of medical radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shannoun, F.

    2010-01-01

    World Health Organization (WHO) is the United Nations specialized agency which acts as a coordinating authority on international public health. It was established in 1948. It has 147 Country Offices, 6 Regional Offices and 193 Member States Ministries of Health Its headquarters is in Geneva. The World Health Assembly (WHA) requested WHO to s tudy the optimum use of ionizing radiation in medicine and the risks to health of excessive or improper use . (WHA, 1971) International Basic Safety Standards BSS) The (BSS) mark the culmination of efforts towards global harmonization of radiation safety requirements. However, the involvement of the health sector in the BSS implementation is still weak and scant. There is a need to mobilize the health sector towards safer and effective use of radiation in medicine. Radiation in Health Care The use of radiation in health care is by far the largest contributor to the exposure of the general population from artificial sources. Annually worldwide there are 3,600 million X-ray exams (> 300 million in children), 37 million nuclear medicine procedures and 7.5 million radiation oncology treatments [UNSCEAR Report 2008]. WHO Global Initiative on Radiation Safety in Health Care Settings Was launched in December 2008 It involved the following:- There was involvement of international organizations and professionals bodies, national health and radiation protection authorities, etc. Its aim is to improve the protection of patients and health care workers through better implementation of the BSS. It complements the International Action Plan for Radiological Protection of Patients established by the IAEA 7 UNSCEAR's medical exposure survey Objectives of UNSCEAR's survey were to facilitate evaluation of: - Global estimates of frequency and levels of exposures, with break-downs by medical procedure, age, sex, health care level, and country; - Trends in practice (including those relatively fast-changing); with supporting contextual

  20. Development of a spatial stochastic multimedia exposure model to assess population exposure at a regional scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caudeville, Julien; Bonnard, Roseline; Boudet, Céline; Denys, Sébastien; Govaert, Gérard; Cicolella, André

    2012-01-01

    Analyzing the relationship between the environment and health has become a major focus of public health efforts in France, as evidenced by the national action plans for health and the environment. These plans have identified the following two priorities: -identify and manage geographic areas where hotspot exposures are a potential risk to human health; and -reduce exposure inequalities. The aim of this study is to develop a spatial stochastic multimedia exposure model for detecting vulnerable populations and analyzing exposure determinants at a fine resolution and regional scale. A multimedia exposure model was developed by INERIS to assess the transfer of substances from the environment to humans through inhalation and ingestion pathways. The RESPIR project adds a spatial dimension by linking GIS (Geographic Information System) to the model. Tools are developed using modeling, spatial analysis and geostatistic methods to build and discretize interesting variables and indicators from different supports and resolutions on a 1-km 2 regular grid. We applied this model to the risk assessment of exposure to metals (cadmium, lead and nickel) using data from a region in France (Nord-Pas-de-Calais). The considered exposure pathways include the atmospheric contaminant inhalation and ingestion of soil, vegetation, meat, egg, milk, fish and drinking water. Exposure scenarios are defined for different reference groups (age, dietary properties, and the fraction of food produced locally). The two largest risks correspond to an ancient industrial site (Metaleurop) and the Lille agglomeration. In these areas, cadmium, vegetation ingestion and soil contamination are the principal determinants of the computed risk. -- Highlights: ► We present a multimedia exposure model for mapping environmental disparities. ► We perform a risk assessment on a region of France at a fine scale for three metals. ► We examine exposure determinants and detect vulnerable population. ► The largest

  1. Exposure assessment of tetrafluoroethylene and ammonium perfluorooctanoate 1951-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeuwenhoek, Anne; Cherrie, John W

    2012-03-01

    To develop a method to reconstruct exposure to tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) and ammonium perfluorooctanoate (APFO) in plants producing polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) in the absence of suitable objective measurements. These data were used to inform an epidemiological study being carried out to investigate possible risks in workers employed in the manufacture of PTFE and to study trends in exposure over time. For each plant, detailed descriptions of all occupational titles, including tasks and changes over time, were obtained during semi-structured interviews with key plant personnel. A semi-quantitative assessment method was used to assess inhalation exposure to TFE and inhalation plus dermal exposure to APFO. Temporal trends in exposure to TFE and APFO were investigated. In each plant the highest exposures for both TFE and APFO occurred in the polymerisation area. Due to the introduction of control measures, increasing process automation and other improvements, exposures generally decreased over time. In the polymerisation area, the annual decline in exposure to TFE varied by plant from 3.8 to 5.7% and for APFO from 2.2 to 5.5%. A simple method for assessing exposure was developed which used detailed process information and job descriptions to estimate average annual TFE and APFO exposure on an arbitrary semi-quantitative scale. These semi-quantitative estimates are sufficient to identify relative differences in exposure for the epidemiological study and should good data become available, they could be used to provide quantitative estimates for all plants across the whole period of operation. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  2. Standardizing measurement, sampling and reporting for public exposure assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Av. Salvador Allende s/No. CEP 22780-160 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: elaine@ird.gov.br

    2008-11-15

    UNSCEAR assesses worldwide public exposure from natural and man-made sources of ionizing radiation based on information submitted to UNSCEAR by United Nations Member States and from peer reviewed scientific literature. These assessments are used as a basis for radiation protection programs of international and national regulatory and research organizations. Although UNSCEAR describes its assessment methodologies, the data are based on various monitoring approaches. In order to reduce uncertainties and improve confidence in public exposure assessments, it would be necessary to harmonize the methodologies used for sampling, measuring and reporting of environmental results.

  3. Source-to-exposure assessment with the Pangea multi-scale framework - case study in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannaz, Cedric; Fantke, Peter; Lane, Joe; Jolliet, Olivier

    2018-01-24

    Effective planning of airshed pollution mitigation is often constrained by a lack of integrative analysis able to relate the relevant emitters to the receptor populations at risk. Both emitter and receptor perspectives are therefore needed to consistently inform emission and exposure reduction measures. This paper aims to extend the Pangea spatial multi-scale multimedia framework to evaluate source-to-receptor relationships of industrial sources of organic pollutants in Australia. Pangea solves a large compartmental system in parallel by block to determine arrays of masses at steady-state for 100 000+ compartments and 4000+ emission scenarios, and further computes population exposure by inhalation and ingestion. From an emitter perspective, radial spatial distributions of population intakes show high spatial variation in intake fractions from 0.68 to 33 ppm for benzene, and from 0.006 to 9.5 ppm for formaldehyde, contrasting urban, rural, desert, and sea source locations. Extending analyses to the receptor perspective, population exposures from the combined emissions of 4101 Australian point sources are more extended for benzene that travels over longer distances, versus formaldehyde that has a more local impact. Decomposing exposure per industrial sector shows petroleum and steel industry as the highest contributing industrial sectors for benzene, whereas the electricity sector and petroleum refining contribute most to formaldehyde exposures. The source apportionment identifies the main sources contributing to exposure at five locations. Overall, this paper demonstrates high interest in addressing exposures from both an emitter perspective well-suited to inform product oriented approaches such as LCA, and from a receptor perspective for health risk mitigation.

  4. Environmental tobacco smoke in designated smoking areas in the hospitality industry: exposure measurements, exposure modelling and policy assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNabola, A; Eyre, G J; Gill, L W

    2012-09-01

    Tobacco control policy has been enacted in many jurisdictions worldwide banning smoking in the workplace. In the hospitality sector many businesses such as bars, hotels and restaurants have installed designated smoking areas on their premises and allowance for such smoking areas has been made in the tobacco control legislation of many countries. An investigation was carried out into the level of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) present in 8 pubs in Ireland which included designated smoking areas complying with two different definitions of a smoking area set out in Irish legislation. In addition, ETS exposure in a pub with a designated smoking area not in compliance with the legislation was also investigated. The results of this investigation showed that the two differing definitions of a smoking area present in pubs produced similar concentrations of benzene within smoking areas (5.1-5.4 μg/m(3)) but differing concentrations within the 'smoke-free' areas (1.42-3.01 μg/m(3)). Smoking areas in breach of legislative definitions were found to produce the highest levels of benzene in the smoking area (49.5 μg/m(3)) and 'smoke-free' area (7.68 μg/m(3)). 3D exposure modelling of hypothetical smoking areas showed that a wide range of ETS exposure concentrations were possible in smoking areas with the same floor area and same smoking rate but differing height to width and length to width ratios. The results of this investigation demonstrate that significant scope for improvement of ETS exposure concentrations in pubs and in smoking areas may exist by refining and improving the legislative definitions of smoking areas in law. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Perspectives for integrating human and environmental exposure assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciffroy, P; Péry, A R R; Roth, N

    2016-10-15

    Integrated Risk Assessment (IRA) has been defined by the EU FP7 HEROIC Coordination action as "the mutual exploitation of Environmental Risk Assessment for Human Health Risk Assessment and vice versa in order to coherently and more efficiently characterize an overall risk to humans and the environment for better informing the risk analysis process" (Wilks et al., 2015). Since exposure assessment and hazard characterization are the pillars of risk assessment, integrating Environmental Exposure assessment (EEA) and Human Exposure assessment (HEA) is a major component of an IRA framework. EEA and HEA typically pursue different targets, protection goals and timeframe. However, human and wildlife species also share the same environment and they similarly inhale air and ingest water and food through often similar overlapping pathways of exposure. Fate models used in EEA and HEA to predict the chemicals distribution among physical and biological media are essentially based on common properties of chemicals, and internal concentration estimations are largely based on inter-species (i.e. biota-to-human) extrapolations. Also, both EEA and HEA are challenged by increasing scientific complexity and resources constraints. Altogether, these points create the need for a better exploitation of all currently existing data, experimental approaches and modeling tools and it is assumed that a more integrated approach of both EEA and HEA may be part of the solution. Based on the outcome of an Expert Workshop on Extrapolations in Integrated Exposure Assessment organized by the HEROIC project in January 2014, this paper identifies perspectives and recommendations to better harmonize and extrapolate exposure assessment data, models and methods between Human Health and Environmental Risk Assessments to support the further development and promotion of the concept of IRA. Ultimately, these recommendations may feed into guidance showing when and how to apply IRA in the regulatory decision

  6. Nutrition: assessment of human exposure to environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaini Hamzah; Zuraidah Abdullah Munir; Suziana Ismail; Abd Khalik Wood; Suhaimi Hamzah; Syamsiah Abdul Rahman; Wee Boon Siong; Suhaimi Alias; Nazatul Ashita Abdullah Salim

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of the research are (I) to determine the essential and toxic elements in foodstuffs, (II) to study the sufficient elemental levels in foodstuff for the dietary intake, (III) to assess the relationship of the essential and toxic elements intake to the types of diet and (IV) to compare the food quality of Malaysian various cuisine on essential and toxic elements

  7. Determinants of dermal exposure relevant for exposure modelling in regulatory risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquart, J; Brouwer, D H; Gijsbers, J H J; Links, I H M; Warren, N; van Hemmen, J J

    2003-11-01

    Risk assessment of chemicals requires assessment of the exposure levels of workers. In the absence of adequate specific measured data, models are often used to estimate exposure levels. For dermal exposure only a few models exist, which are not validated externally. In the scope of a large European research programme, an analysis of potential dermal exposure determinants was made based on the available studies and models and on the expert judgement of the authors of this publication. Only a few potential determinants appear to have been studied in depth. Several studies have included clusters of determinants into vaguely defined parameters, such as 'task' or 'cleaning and maintenance of clothing'. Other studies include several highly correlated parameters, such as 'amount of product handled', 'duration of task' and 'area treated', and separation of these parameters to study their individual influence is not possible. However, based on the available information, a number of determinants could clearly be defined as proven or highly plausible determinants of dermal exposure in one or more exposure situation. This information was combined with expert judgement on the scientific plausibility of the influence of parameters that have not been extensively studied and on the possibilities to gather relevant information during a risk assessment process. The result of this effort is a list of determinants relevant for dermal exposure models in the scope of regulatory risk assessment. The determinants have been divided into the major categories 'substance and product characteristics', 'task done by the worker', 'process technique and equipment', 'exposure control measures', 'worker characteristics and habits' and 'area and situation'. To account for the complex nature of the dermal exposure processes, a further subdivision was made into the three major processes 'direct contact', 'surface contact' and 'deposition'.

  8. Spatial and Temporal Dynamics in Air Pollution Exposure Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Daniela; Tchepel, Oxana

    2018-01-01

    Analyzing individual exposure in urban areas offers several challenges where both the individual’s activities and air pollution levels demonstrate a large degree of spatial and temporal dynamics. This review article discusses the concepts, key elements, current developments in assessing personal exposure to urban air pollution (seventy-two studies reviewed) and respective advantages and disadvantages. A new conceptual structure to organize personal exposure assessment methods is proposed according to two classification criteria: (i) spatial-temporal variations of individuals’ activities (point-fixed or trajectory based) and (ii) characterization of air quality (variable or uniform). This review suggests that the spatial and temporal variability of urban air pollution levels in combination with indoor exposures and individual’s time-activity patterns are key elements of personal exposure assessment. In the literature review, the majority of revised studies (44 studies) indicate that the trajectory based with variable air quality approach provides a promising framework for tackling the important question of inter- and intra-variability of individual exposure. However, future quantitative comparison between the different approaches should be performed, and the selection of the most appropriate approach for exposure quantification should take into account the purpose of the health study. This review provides a structured basis for the intercomparing of different methodologies and to make their advantages and limitations more transparent in addressing specific research objectives. PMID:29558426

  9. Retrospective internal radiation exposure assessment in occupational epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neton, J.W.; Flora, J.T.; Spitz, H.B.; Taulbee, T.D.

    2000-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of workers at U.S. Department of Energy facilities are being conducted by the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to evaluate the health risk associated with exposure to sources of external and internal ionizing radiation. While exposure to external sources of radiation can be estimated from personal dosimeter data, reconstruction of exposure due to internally deposited radioactivity is more challenging because bioassay monitoring data is frequently less complete. Although comprehensive monitoring was provided for workers with the highest internal exposures, the majority of workers were monitored relatively infrequently. This monitoring was conducted to demonstrate compliance with regulations rather than to evaluate exposure for use in epidemiologic studies. Attributes of past internal monitoring programs that challenge accurate exposure assessment include: incomplete characterization of the workplace source term; a lack of timely measurements; insensitive and/or nonspecific bioassay measurements; and the presence of censored data. In spite of these limitations, many facilities have collected a large amount of worker and workplace monitoring information that can be used to evaluate internal exposure while minimizing worker misclassification. This paper describes a systematic approach for using the available worker and workplace monitoring data that can lead to either a qualitative or quantitative retrospective assessment of internal exposures. Various aspects of data analysis will be presented, including the evaluation of minimum detectable dose, the treatment of censored data, and the use of combinations of bioassay and workplace data to characterize exposures. Examples of these techniques applied to a cohort study involving chronic exposure scenarios to uranium are provided. A strategy for expressing exposure or dose in fundamental, unweighted units related to the quantity of radiation delivered to an organ will also

  10. Modulation of Ras signaling alters the toxicity of hydroquinone, a benzene metabolite and component of cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    North, Matthew; Shuga, Joe; Fromowitz, Michele; Loguinov, Alexandre; Shannon, Kevin; Zhang, Luoping; Smith, Martyn T; Vulpe, Chris D

    2014-01-01

    Benzene is an established human leukemogen, with a ubiquitous environmental presence leading to significant population exposure. In a genome-wide functional screen in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, inactivation of IRA2, a yeast ortholog of the human tumor suppressor gene NF1 (Neurofibromin), enhanced sensitivity to hydroquinone, an important benzene metabolite. Increased Ras signaling is implicated as a causal factor in the increased pre-disposition to leukemia of individuals with mutations in NF1. Growth inhibition of yeast by hydroquinone was assessed in mutant strains exhibiting varying levels of Ras activity. Subsequently, effects of hydroquinone on both genotoxicity (measured by micronucleus formation) and proliferation of WT and Nf1 null murine hematopoietic precursors were assessed. Here we show that the Ras status of both yeast and mammalian cells modulates hydroquinone toxicity, indicating potential synergy between Ras signaling and benzene toxicity. Specifically, enhanced Ras signaling increases both hydroquinone-mediated growth inhibition in yeast and genotoxicity in mammalian hematopoetic precursors as measured by an in vitro erythroid micronucleus assay. Hydroquinone also increases proliferation of CFU-GM progenitor cells in mice with Nf1 null bone marrow relative to WT, the same cell type associated with benzene-associated leukemia. Together our findings show that hydroquinone toxicity is modulated by Ras signaling. Individuals with abnormal Ras signaling could be more vulnerable to developing myeloid diseases after exposure to benzene. We note that hydroquinone is used cosmetically as a skin-bleaching agent, including by individuals with cafe-au-lait spots (which may be present in individuals with neurofibromatosis who have a mutation in NF1), which could be unadvisable given our findings

  11. Assessment of occupational exposure to BTEX compounds at a bus diesel-refueling bay: A case study in Johannesburg, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolla, Raeesa; Curtis, Christopher J; Knight, Jasper

    2015-12-15

    Of increasing concern is pollution by volatile organic compounds, with particular reference to five aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and two isomeric xylenes; BTEX). These pollutants are classified as hazardous air pollutants. Due to the potential health risks associated with these pollutants, BTEX concentrations were monitored at a bus diesel-refueling bay, in Johannesburg, South Africa, using gas chromatography, coupled with a photo-ionization detector. Results indicate that o-xylene (29-50%) and benzene (13-33%) were found to be the most abundant species of total BTEX at the site. Benzene was within South African occupational limits, but above international occupational exposure limits. On the other hand, occupational concentrations of toluene, ethyl-benzene and xylenes were within national and international occupational limits throughout the monitoring period, based on 8-hour workday weighted averages. Ethyl-benzene and p-xylene concentrations, during winter, correspond to activity at the site, and thus idling of buses during refueling may elevate results. Overall, occupational air quality at the refueling bay is a matter of health concern, especially with regards to benzene exposure, and future reduction strategies are crucial. Discrepancies between national and international limit values merit further investigation to determine whether South African guidelines for benzene are sufficiently precautionary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Exposure assessment strategies for non-routine work operations (NORWO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lew, V.; Cohen, J.; Chiusano, S.; McGann, C.; McLouth, L.

    1993-09-01

    The DOE Office of Health and Office of Safety and Health Oversight are collaborating to address special problems related to assessment of worker exposures associated with nonroutine work operations (NORWO), such as hazardous waste operations. Both off ices have formed a single working group of industrial hygiene specialists from the DOE, fts contractors, and other interested organizations which held its first meeting July 1993. The DOE Canter of Excellence for Exposure Assessment, maintained at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, is assisting in developing reasonable policies and guidance on exposure assessment strategies for NORWO. The DOE EA Center will research this subject to assist the DOE in formulating guidance documents for conduct of EA for NORWO that are consistent with the DOE draft EAS technical standard. This report presents an outline for a section on NORWO intended for inclusion in the DOE technical guidance documents for EAS and Hazardous Waste Operations Emergency Response (HAZWOPER) currently under development by the DOE Industrial Hygiene Division (EH-412), and EM-23. Also presented is a review of the July 21--23 meeting and a proposed workplan for developing NORWO exposure assessment procedures. Appendices include: (A) David Weitzman's memo on NORWO, (B) Draft annotated outline of the technical standard for the Assessment of Employee Exposure to Hazardous Chemical Agents, (C) ORC proposed EAS standard, (D) program for the October 31--November 3, 1993 ACGIH Conference on Occupational Exposure Databases, (E) agenda for the July 15, 1993 DOE meeting on NORWO, (F) viewgraphs used in formal presentations at this meeting, (G) Hanford Exposure Assessment Program Plan, and (H) a list of attendees and invitees to the July DOE -- NORWO meeting

  13. Assessment of Industrial Exposure to Magnetic Fields (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadwick, P.

    1999-01-01

    Magnetic field strengths produced by industrial processes can be very large, but they often exhibit a marked spatial variation. Whilst there may be the potential for exposures of workers to be high, actual exposure will be determined to a great extent by working practices. Possible metrics for epidemiological studies might be based on the temporal variability of exposure as well as maximum operator exposure or time-weighted average exposure and, whilst it might be possible to estimate these quantities from spot magnetic field strength measurements and observed working practices, this might be very difficult to achieve in practice. An alternative would be the use of a logging dosemeter: this paper describes some of the results of exposure assessments carried out in industrial environments with a modified EMDEX II magnetic field dosemeter. Magnetic fields in industrial environments often have waveforms which are not purely sinusoidal. Distortion can be introduced by the magnetic saturation of transformer and motor cores, by rectification, by poor matching between oscillator circuits and loads and when thyristors are used to control power. The resulting repetitive but non-sinusoidal magnetic field waveforms can be recorded and analysed; the spectral data may be incorporated into possible exposure metrics. It is also important to ensure that measurement instrumentation is responding appropriately in a non-sinusoidal field and this can only be done if the spectral content of the field is characterised fully. Some non-sinusoidal magnetic field waveforms cannot be expressed as a harmonic series. Specialist instrumentation and techniques are needed to assess exposure to such fields. Examples of approaches to the assessment of exposure to repetitive and non-repetitive magnetic fields are also discussed. (author)

  14. Assessment of exposure dose to workers in virtual decommissioning environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, KwanSeong; Moon, JeiKwon; Choi, ByungSeon; Hyun, Dongjun; Lee, Jonghwan; Kim, Ikjune; Kim, GeunHo; Seo, JaeSeok

    2014-01-01

    This paper is intended to suggest the method analyze and assess the exposure dose to workers in virtual decommissioning environments. To simulate a lot of decommissioning scenarios, decommissioning environments were designed in virtual reality. To simulate and assess the exposure dose to workers, human model also was designed in virtual environments. These virtual decommissioning environments made it possible to real-time simulate and assess the exposure dose to workers. This work was to be able to simulate scenarios of decommissioning so that exposure dose to workers could be measured and assessed. To establish the plan of exposure dose to workers during decommissioning of nuclear facilities before decommissioning activities are accomplished, the method of simulation assessment was developed in virtual radiological environments. But this work was developed as a tool of simulation for single subject mode. Afterwards, the simulation environment for multi-subjects mode will be upgraded by simultaneous modules with networking environments. Then the much more practical method will be developed by changing number of workers and duration of time under any circumstances of decommissioning

  15. Assessment of exposure dose to workers in virtual decommissioning environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, KwanSeong; Moon, JeiKwon; Choi, ByungSeon; Hyun, Dongjun; Lee, Jonghwan; Kim, Ikjune; Kim, GeunHo; Seo, JaeSeok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    This paper is intended to suggest the method analyze and assess the exposure dose to workers in virtual decommissioning environments. To simulate a lot of decommissioning scenarios, decommissioning environments were designed in virtual reality. To simulate and assess the exposure dose to workers, human model also was designed in virtual environments. These virtual decommissioning environments made it possible to real-time simulate and assess the exposure dose to workers. This work was to be able to simulate scenarios of decommissioning so that exposure dose to workers could be measured and assessed. To establish the plan of exposure dose to workers during decommissioning of nuclear facilities before decommissioning activities are accomplished, the method of simulation assessment was developed in virtual radiological environments. But this work was developed as a tool of simulation for single subject mode. Afterwards, the simulation environment for multi-subjects mode will be upgraded by simultaneous modules with networking environments. Then the much more practical method will be developed by changing number of workers and duration of time under any circumstances of decommissioning.

  16. The Future of Exposure Assessment: Perspectives from the ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The British Occupational Hygiene Society, in collaboration with the Institute of Occupational Medicine, the University of Manchester, the UK Health and Safety Executive, and the University of Aberdeen hosted the 7th International Conference on the Science of Exposure Assessment (X2012) on 2 July–5 July 2012 in Edinburgh, UK. The conference ended with a special session at which invited speakers from government, industry, independent research institutes, and academia were asked to reflect on the conference and discuss what may now constitute the important highlights or drivers of future exposure assessment research. This article summarizes these discussions with respect to current and future technical and methodological developments. For the exposure science community to continue to have an impact in protecting public health, additional efforts need to be made to improve partnerships and cross-disciplinary collaborations, although it is equally important to ensure that the traditional occupational exposure themes are still covered as these issues are becoming increasingly important in the developing world. To facilitate this the ‘X’ conferences should continue to retain a holistic approach to occupational and non-occupational exposures and should actively pursue collaborations with other disciplines and professional organizations to increase the presence of consumer and environmental exposure scientists. The National Exposure Research Laboratory′s (NERL′

  17. Integrating exposure into chemical alternatives assessment using a qualitative approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greggs, Bill; Arnold, Scott; Burns, T. E.

    2016-01-01

    , other attributes beyond hazard are also important, including exposure, risk, life-cycle impacts, performance, cost, and social responsibility. Building on the 2014 recommendations by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences to improve AA decisions by including comparative exposure assessment, the HESI...... Sustainable Chemical Alternatives Technical Committee, which consists of scientists from academia, industry, government, and NGOs, has developed a qualitative comparative exposure approach. Conducting such a comparison can screen for alternatives that are expected to have a higher human or environmental...... not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency....

  18. OSHA's approach to risk assessment for setting a revised occupational exposure standard for 1,3-butadiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, E A; Martonik, J

    1990-01-01

    In its 1980 benzene decision [Industrial Union Department, ALF-CIO v. American Petroleum Institute, 448 U.S. 607 (1980)], the Supreme Court ruled that "before he can promulgate any permanent health or safety standard, the Secretary [of Labor] is required to make a threshold finding that a place of employment is unsafe--in the sense that significant risks are present and can be lessened by a change in practices" (448 U.S. at 642). The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has interpreted this to mean that whenever possible, it must quantify the risk associated with occupational exposure to a toxic substance at the current permissible exposure limit (PEL). If OSHA determines that there is significant risk to workers' health at its current standard, then it must quantify the risk associated with a variety of alternative standards to determine at what level, if any, occupational exposure to a substance no longer poses a significant risk. For rulemaking on occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene, there are two studies that are suitable for quantitative risk assessment. One is a mouse inhalation bioassay conducted by the National Toxicology Program (NTP), and the other is a rat inhalation bioassay conducted by Hazelton Laboratories Europe. Of the four risk assessments that have been submitted to OSHA, all four have used the mouse and/or rat data with a variety of models to quantify the risk associated with occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene. In addition, OSHA has performed its own risk assessment using the female mouse and female rat data and the one-hit and multistage models.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2401254

  19. Comparative risk assessment of carcinogens in alcoholic beverages using the margin of exposure approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Przybylski, Maria C; Rehm, Jürgen

    2012-09-15

    Alcoholic beverages have been classified as carcinogenic to humans. As alcoholic beverages are multicomponent mixtures containing several carcinogenic compounds, a quantitative approach is necessary to compare the risks. Fifteen known and suspected human carcinogens (acetaldehyde, acrylamide, aflatoxins, arsenic, benzene, cadmium, ethanol, ethyl carbamate, formaldehyde, furan, lead, 4-methylimidazole, N-nitrosodimethylamine, ochratoxin A and safrole) occurring in alcoholic beverages were identified based on monograph reviews by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The margin of exposure (MOE) approach was used for comparative risk assessment. MOE compares a toxicological threshold with the exposure. MOEs above 10,000 are judged as low priority for risk management action. MOEs were calculated for different drinking scenarios (low risk and heavy drinking) and different levels of contamination for four beverage groups (beer, wine, spirits and unrecorded alcohol). The lowest MOEs were found for ethanol (3.1 for low risk and 0.8 for heavy drinking). Inorganic lead and arsenic have average MOEs between 10 and 300, followed by acetaldehyde, cadmium and ethyl carbamate between 1,000 and 10,000. All other compounds had average MOEs above 10,000 independent of beverage type. Ethanol was identified as the most important carcinogen in alcoholic beverages, with clear dose response. Some other compounds (lead, arsenic, ethyl carbamate, acetaldehyde) may pose risks below thresholds normally tolerated for food contaminants, but from a cost-effectiveness point of view, the focus should be on reducing alcohol consumption in general rather than on mitigative measures for some contaminants that contribute only to a limited extent (if at all) to the total health risk. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  20. Assessment of health impacts of radon exposures in Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vonstille, W.T.; Sacarello, H.L.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on residential radon levels, from a statewide Florida survey, that were used in an analysis of over 150,000 medically treated episodes of malignancies and other serious illnesses and conditions in whites, blacks and Hispanics from all counties in the state. No evidence of an increased percentage of cancer was found in any sex or ethnic group from the areas with the highest radon exposure levels. Age adjustment of data did not affect the results. The highest radon exposures were associated with some of the lowest cancer rates and contradict the risk assessment hypothesis based on extrapolation from exposures in mining. Points for DOE and EPA errors in risk assessment methods are reviewed; predictions from risk assessment should be empirically tested as in the case of any other scientific hypothesis before being used as a basis for public policy. Thus, the authors find that cancer risks of residential radon have been vastly overstated

  1. Occupational Exposure Assessment of Nanomaterials using Control Banding Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liguori, Biase

    , are relatively advanced, and they are good foundations for an advanced exposure assessment. Considering the tiered approach for workplace assessment proposed by the OECD, these two tools could be situated, between Tier 1 (Information gathering) and Tier 2 (Basic exposure assessment). Moreover, the thesis......Nanotechnology can be termed as the “new industrial revolution”. A broad range of potential benefits in various applications for the environment and everyday life of humans can be related to the use of nanotechnology. Nanomaterials are used in a large variety of products already in the market......, and because of their novel physical and chemical characteristics, the application of nanomaterials is projected to increase further. This will inevitably increase the production of nanomaterials with potential increase of exposure for the workers which are the first in line expected to become exposed...

  2. Human exposure to bisphenol A by biomonitoring: Methods, results and assessment of environmental exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekant, Wolfgang; Voelkel, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Human exposure to bisphenol A is controversially discussed. This review critically assesses methods for biomonitoring of bisphenol A exposures and reported concentrations of bisphenol A in blood and urine of non-occupationally ('environmentally') exposed humans. From the many methods published to assess bisphenol A concentrations in biological media, mass spectrometry-based methods are considered most appropriate due to high sensitivity, selectivity and precision. In human blood, based on the known toxicokinetics of bisphenol A in humans, the expected very low concentrations of bisphenol A due to rapid biotransformation and the very rapid excretion result in severe limitations in the use of reported blood levels of bisphenol A for exposure assessment. Due to the rapid and complete excretion of orally administered bisphenol A, urine samples are considered as the appropriate body fluid for bisphenol A exposure assessment. In urine samples from several cohorts, bisphenol A (as glucuronide) was present in average concentrations in the range of 1-3 μg/L suggesting that daily human exposure to bisphenol A is below 6 μg per person (< 0.1 μg/kg bw/day) for the majority of the population

  3. Stakeholder attitudes towards cumulative and aggregate exposure assessment of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, Wim; Van Loo, Ellen J; Vanhonacker, Filiep; Delcour, Ilse; Spanoghe, Pieter; van Klaveren, Jacob D

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluates the attitudes and perspectives of different stakeholder groups (agricultural producers, pesticide manufacturers, trading companies, retailers, regulators, food safety authorities, scientists and NGOs) towards the concepts of cumulative and aggregate exposure assessment of pesticides by means of qualitative in-depth interviews (n = 15) and a quantitative stakeholder survey (n = 65). The stakeholders involved generally agreed that the use of chemical pesticides is needed, primarily for meeting the need of feeding the growing world population, while clearly acknowledging the problematic nature of human exposure to pesticide residues. Current monitoring was generally perceived to be adequate, but the timeliness and consistency of monitoring practices across countries were questioned. The concept of cumulative exposure assessment was better understood by stakeholders than the concept of aggregate exposure assessment. Identified pitfalls were data availability, data limitations, sources and ways of dealing with uncertainties, as well as information and training needs. Regulators and food safety authorities were perceived as the stakeholder groups for whom cumulative and aggregate pesticide exposure assessment methods and tools would be most useful and acceptable. Insights obtained from this exploratory study have been integrated in the development of targeted and stakeholder-tailored dissemination and training programmes that were implemented within the EU-FP7 project ACROPOLIS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Non-ionizing electromagnetic exposure assessment and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulsson, L.E.

    1992-11-01

    A comprehensive literature survey of advancements in the area 'human exposure assessment and dosimetry' for the years 1988-1992 has been performed by the author and published elsewhere. In the present report that material has been complemented with a historical background and a thorough description of the physical principles behind the methods and techniques. The report covers strategies, principles, methods, limitations and future developments for the area of human exposure assessment and dosimetry of electromagnetic fields form extremely low frequencies up to and including microwaves

  5. Biocides Steering Group on human exposure assessment: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hemmen, J J

    1999-06-30

    In a project granted by DG XI of the European Commission, it is attempted to collate experimental and theoretical data on human (workers and consumers) exposure assessment to biocidal products, and to outline the methodology for sampling and measurement. On the basis of the available evidence, approaches are presented for the exposure assessment to be used for estimation of risks in authorization procedures under the recently accepted Directive 98/8/EC. Gaps in knowledge are indicated, making it possible to study the issues involved in a comprehensive and cost-effective way. Some recommendations are given on how to best do this. The current project has been detailed in a final report.

  6. Task-based exposure assessment of nanoparticles in the workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, Seunghon; Yoon, Chungsik; Lee, Euiseung; Lee, Kiyoung; Park, Donguk; Chung, Eunkyo; Kim, Pilje; Lee, Byoungcheun

    2012-01-01

    Although task-based sampling is, theoretically, a plausible approach to the assessment of nanoparticle exposure, few studies using this type of sampling have been published. This study characterized and compared task-based nanoparticle exposure profiles for engineered nanoparticle manufacturing workplaces (ENMW) and workplaces that generated welding fumes containing incidental nanoparticles. Two ENMW and two welding workplaces were selected for exposure assessments. Real-time devices were utilized to characterize the concentration profiles and size distributions of airborne nanoparticles. Filter-based sampling was performed to measure time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations, and off-line analysis was performed using an electron microscope. Workplace tasks were recorded by researchers to determine the concentration profiles associated with particular tasks/events. This study demonstrated that exposure profiles differ greatly in terms of concentrations and size distributions according to the task performed. The size distributions recorded during tasks were different from both those recorded during periods with no activity and from the background. The airborne concentration profiles of the nanoparticles varied according to not only the type of workplace but also the concentration metrics. The concentrations measured by surface area and the number concentrations measured by condensation particle counter, particulate matter 1.0, and TWA mass concentrations all showed a similar pattern, whereas the number concentrations measured by scanning mobility particle sizer indicated that the welding fume concentrations at one of the welding workplaces were unexpectedly higher than were those at workplaces that were engineering nanoparticles. This study suggests that a task-based exposure assessment can provide useful information regarding the exposure profiles of nanoparticles and can therefore be used as an exposure assessment tool.

  7. In Vitro Exposure Systems and Dosimetry Assessment Tools ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2009, the passing of The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act facilitated the establishment of the FDA Center for Tobacco Products (CTP) and gave it regulatory authority over the marketing, manufacture and distribution of tobacco products, including those termed “modified risk”. On 4-6 April 2016, the Institute for In Vitro Sciences, Inc. (IIVS) convened a workshop conference titled “In Vitro Exposure Systems and Dosimetry Assessment Tools for Inhaled Tobacco Products” to bring together stakeholders representing regulatory agencies, academia, and industry to address the research priorities articulated by the FDA CTP. Specific topics were covered to assess the status of current in vitro smoke and aerosol/vapor exposure systems, as well as the various approaches and challenges to quantifying the complex exposures, in in vitro pulmonary models developed for evaluating adverse pulmonary events resulting from tobacco product exposures. The four core topics covered were, 1) Tobacco Smoke And E-Cigarette Aerosols, 2) Air-Liquid Interface-In Vitro Exposure Systems, 3) Dosimetry Approaches For Particles And Vapors; In Vitro Dosimetry Determinations and 4) Exposure Microenvironment/Physiology Of Cells. The two and a half day workshop included presentations from 20 expert speakers, poster sessions, networking discussions, and breakout sessions which identified key findings and provided recommendations to advance these technologies. Here, we will re

  8. Development of a spatial stochastic multimedia exposure model to assess population exposure at a regional scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caudeville, Julien, E-mail: Julien.CAUDEVILLE@ineris.fr [INERIS (French National Institute for Industrial Environment and Risks), Parc Technologique Alata, BP 2, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Joint research unit UMR 6599, Heudiasyc (Heuristic and Diagnoses of Complex Systems), University of Technology of Compiegne and CNRS, Rue du Dr Schweitzer, 60200 Compiegne (France); Bonnard, Roseline, E-mail: Roseline.BONNARD@ineris.fr [INERIS (French National Institute for Industrial Environment and Risks), Parc Technologique Alata, BP 2, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Boudet, Celine, E-mail: Celine.BOUDET@ineris.fr [INERIS (French National Institute for Industrial Environment and Risks), Parc Technologique Alata, BP 2, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Denys, Sebastien, E-mail: Sebastien.DENYS@ineris.fr [INERIS (French National Institute for Industrial Environment and Risks), Parc Technologique Alata, BP 2, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Govaert, Gerard, E-mail: gerard.govaert@utc.fr [Joint research unit UMR 6599, Heudiasyc (Heuristic and Diagnoses of Complex Systems), University of Technology of Compiegne and CNRS, Rue du Dr Schweitzer, 60200 Compiegne (France); Cicolella, Andre, E-mail: Andre.CICOLELLA@ineris.fr [INERIS (French National Institute for Industrial Environment and Risks), Parc Technologique Alata, BP 2, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France)

    2012-08-15

    Analyzing the relationship between the environment and health has become a major focus of public health efforts in France, as evidenced by the national action plans for health and the environment. These plans have identified the following two priorities: -identify and manage geographic areas where hotspot exposures are a potential risk to human health; and -reduce exposure inequalities. The aim of this study is to develop a spatial stochastic multimedia exposure model for detecting vulnerable populations and analyzing exposure determinants at a fine resolution and regional scale. A multimedia exposure model was developed by INERIS to assess the transfer of substances from the environment to humans through inhalation and ingestion pathways. The RESPIR project adds a spatial dimension by linking GIS (Geographic Information System) to the model. Tools are developed using modeling, spatial analysis and geostatistic methods to build and discretize interesting variables and indicators from different supports and resolutions on a 1-km{sup 2} regular grid. We applied this model to the risk assessment of exposure to metals (cadmium, lead and nickel) using data from a region in France (Nord-Pas-de-Calais). The considered exposure pathways include the atmospheric contaminant inhalation and ingestion of soil, vegetation, meat, egg, milk, fish and drinking water. Exposure scenarios are defined for different reference groups (age, dietary properties, and the fraction of food produced locally). The two largest risks correspond to an ancient industrial site (Metaleurop) and the Lille agglomeration. In these areas, cadmium, vegetation ingestion and soil contamination are the principal determinants of the computed risk. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present a multimedia exposure model for mapping environmental disparities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We perform a risk assessment on a region of France at a fine scale for three metals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We

  9. Biodegradation of phenol and benzene by endophytic bacterial strains isolated from refinery wastewater-fed Cannabis sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Aneela; Arshad, Muhammad; Hashmi, Imran; Karthikeyan, Raghupathy; Gentry, Terry J; Schwab, Arthur Paul

    2017-06-13

    The presence of benzene and phenol in the environment can lead to serious health effects in humans and warrant development of efficient cleanup strategies. The aim of the present work was to assess the potential of indigenous endophytic bacterial strains to degrade benzene and phenol. Seven strains were successfully isolated from Cannabis sativa plants irrigated with oil refinery wastewater. Molecular characterization was performed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Phenol was biodegraded almost completely with Achromobacter sp. (AIEB-7), Pseudomonas sp. (AIEB-4), and Alcaligenes sp. (AIEB-6) at 250, 500, and 750 mg L -1 ; however, the degradation was only 81%, 72%, and 69%, respectively, when exposed to 1000 mg L -1 . Bacillus sp. (AIEB-1), Enterobacter sp. (AIEB-3), and Acinetobacter sp. (AIEB-2) degraded benzene significantly at 250, 500, and 750 mg L -1 . However, these strains showed 80%, 72%, and 68% benzene removal at 1000 mg L -1 exposure, respectively. Rates of degradation could be modeled with first-order kinetics with rate constant values of 1.86 × 10 -2 for Pseudomonas sp. (AIEB-4) and 1.80 × 10 -2  h -1 for Bacillus sp. (AIEB-1) and half-lives of 1.5 and 1.6 days, respectively. These results establish a foundation for further testing of the phytoremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in the presence of these endophytic bacteria.

  10. Occupational exposure assessment in a radioactive facility: a preliminary evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Alice dos Santos; Gerulis, Eduardo; Sanches, Matias P.; Carneiro, Janete C.G.G.

    2013-01-01

    The risk that a worker has found on the job is a function of the hazards present and his exposure level to those hazards. Exposure and risk assessment is therefore the heart of all occupational health and industrial hygiene programs involving a continuous process of information gathering. The use of a systematic method to characterize workplace exposures to chemical, physical and biological risks is a fundamental part of this process. This study aims to carry out a preliminary evaluation in a radioactive facility, identifying potential exposures and consequently the existing occupational hazards (risk/agent) in the workplace which the employee is subject. The study is based on proposal to carry out a basic characterization of the facility, which could be the first step in the investigation of occupational exposure. For this study was essential to know the workplace, potential risks and agents; workforce profile including assignment of tasks, sources of exposure processes, and control measures. The main tool used in this study was based on references, records, standards, procedures, interviews with the workers and with management. Since the basic characterization of the facility has been carried out, consequently the potential exposure to the agents of risks to workers has been identified. The study provided an overview of the perception of risk founded at facility studied. It is expected to contribute with the occupational health program resources for welfare of the worker. (author)

  11. Occupational exposure assessment in a radioactive facility: a preliminary evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Alice dos Santos; Gerulis, Eduardo; Sanches, Matias P.; Carneiro, Janete C.G.G., E-mail: alicesante@hotmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The risk that a worker has found on the job is a function of the hazards present and his exposure level to those hazards. Exposure and risk assessment is therefore the heart of all occupational health and industrial hygiene programs involving a continuous process of information gathering. The use of a systematic method to characterize workplace exposures to chemical, physical and biological risks is a fundamental part of this process. This study aims to carry out a preliminary evaluation in a radioactive facility, identifying potential exposures and consequently the existing occupational hazards (risk/agent) in the workplace which the employee is subject. The study is based on proposal to carry out a basic characterization of the facility, which could be the first step in the investigation of occupational exposure. For this study was essential to know the workplace, potential risks and agents; workforce profile including assignment of tasks, sources of exposure processes, and control measures. The main tool used in this study was based on references, records, standards, procedures, interviews with the workers and with management. Since the basic characterization of the facility has been carried out, consequently the potential exposure to the agents of risks to workers has been identified. The study provided an overview of the perception of risk founded at facility studied. It is expected to contribute with the occupational health program resources for welfare of the worker. (author)

  12. Drone based measurement system for radiofrequency exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Wout; Aerts, Sam; Vandenbossche, Matthias; Thielens, Arno; Martens, Luc

    2016-03-10

    For the first time, a method to assess radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure of the general public in real environments with a true free-space antenna system is presented. Using lightweight electronics and multiple antennas placed on a drone, it is possible to perform exposure measurements. This technique will enable researchers to measure three-dimensional RF-EMF exposure patterns accurately in the future and at locations currently difficult to access. A measurement procedure and appropriate measurement settings have been developed. As an application, outdoor measurements are performed as a function of height up to 60 m for Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) 900 MHz base station exposure. Bioelectromagnetics. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. How Exposure Science can be Integrated into the Assessment ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presentation describes ongoing research in the Rapid Exposure and Dosimetry project funded under the Chemical Safety for Sustainability Research Program of the Office of Research and Development. There is a well known need for information on human exposure to thousands of chemicals, especially with respect to route of exposure. A combination of curation of legacy data, new data collection activities, and mathematical models based both upon statistics (empirical) and mechanism are allowing chemicals to be prioritized for further exposure study. This presentation pays special attention to the opportunities presented by non-targeted screening using mass spectrometry. This is a presentation to the American College of Toxicology annual meeting in Baltimore, Maryland on November 7, 2016. This half hour presentation is part of a session on 21st Century Approaches to Assessing Food Ingredient Safety.

  14. Comparison of occupational exposure assessment tools and concepts for nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liguori, Biase; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Baun, Anders

    The development, production and application of engineered nanomaterials have been growing in different fields. This leads to a consequent increased potential of exposure to nanomaterials in the working environment. However to determine the potential exposure risk is a challenging task for risk...... for Nanomaterials”; “NanoSafer vs. 1.1 – A web-based precautionary risk assessment tool for manufactured nanomaterials using first order modeling” Based on the literature information we have analyzed these tools and discussed elements regarding: the domain of application and whether it accounts for the nanospecific...... factor or nano-relevance; the work exposure scenario, for which types of processes they may be used; are the tools using the source-transmission-receptor approach; the input data requirements; whether the tools included qualitative or semi-quantitative or quantitative evaluations of the exposure; whether...

  15. Exposure assessment in studies on health effects of traffic exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setaelae, S [Association for the Pulmonary Disabled, Helsinki (Finland); Jaakkola, J J.K. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Public Health

    1996-12-31

    A main source of outdoor air pollution is road traffic, which produces a complex mixture of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile hydrocarbons, airborne particles and some other compounds. Traffic exhaust affects also the concentrations of ozone and other photo chemical oxidants. In earlier studies those components have had remarkable health effects. Several studies on occupational exposure to automobile exhaust have been published and several studies have been observed an association between both outdoor and indoor pollutant levels and health outcomes. However, there are only a few epidemiological studies in which traffic exhaust, a complex mixture, has been studied in its entirety. During recent years, interesting epidemiological studies of the health effects of this complex mixture have been published. Human exposure assessment for traffic exhaust can be categorized according to the environment of exposure (indoors, outdoors, in-traffic) or to the method of exposure assessment (direct or indirect methods). In this presentation the methods are further categorized into (1) traffic activity, (2) air concentration measurements, and (3) dispersion models, in order to better understand the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches. The objective of this presentation is to make a critical review of exposure assessments in the epidemiological studies on health effects of traffic exhaust. (author)

  16. Exposure assessment in studies on health effects of traffic exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setaelae, S. [Association for the Pulmonary Disabled, Helsinki (Finland); Jaakkola, J.J.K. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Public Health

    1995-12-31

    A main source of outdoor air pollution is road traffic, which produces a complex mixture of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile hydrocarbons, airborne particles and some other compounds. Traffic exhaust affects also the concentrations of ozone and other photo chemical oxidants. In earlier studies those components have had remarkable health effects. Several studies on occupational exposure to automobile exhaust have been published and several studies have been observed an association between both outdoor and indoor pollutant levels and health outcomes. However, there are only a few epidemiological studies in which traffic exhaust, a complex mixture, has been studied in its entirety. During recent years, interesting epidemiological studies of the health effects of this complex mixture have been published. Human exposure assessment for traffic exhaust can be categorized according to the environment of exposure (indoors, outdoors, in-traffic) or to the method of exposure assessment (direct or indirect methods). In this presentation the methods are further categorized into (1) traffic activity, (2) air concentration measurements, and (3) dispersion models, in order to better understand the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches. The objective of this presentation is to make a critical review of exposure assessments in the epidemiological studies on health effects of traffic exhaust. (author)

  17. Development of a spatial stochastic multimedia exposure model to assess population exposure at a regional scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudeville, Julien; Bonnard, Roseline; Boudet, Céline; Denys, Sébastien; Govaert, Gérard; Cicolella, André

    2012-08-15

    Analyzing the relationship between the environment and health has become a major focus of public health efforts in France, as evidenced by the national action plans for health and the environment. These plans have identified the following two priorities: - identify and manage geographic areas where hotspot exposures are a potential risk to human health; and - reduce exposure inequalities. The aim of this study is to develop a spatial stochastic multimedia exposure model for detecting vulnerable populations and analyzing exposure determinants at a fine resolution and regional scale. A multimedia exposure model was developed by INERIS to assess the transfer of substances from the environment to humans through inhalation and ingestion pathways. The RESPIR project adds a spatial dimension by linking GIS (Geographic Information System) to the model. Tools are developed using modeling, spatial analysis and geostatistic methods to build and discretize interesting variables and indicators from different supports and resolutions on a 1-km(2) regular grid. We applied this model to the risk assessment of exposure to metals (cadmium, lead and nickel) using data from a region in France (Nord-Pas-de-Calais). The considered exposure pathways include the atmospheric contaminant inhalation and ingestion of soil, vegetation, meat, egg, milk, fish and drinking water. Exposure scenarios are defined for different reference groups (age, dietary properties, and the fraction of food produced locally). The two largest risks correspond to an ancient industrial site (Metaleurop) and the Lille agglomeration. In these areas, cadmium, vegetation ingestion and soil contamination are the principal determinants of the computed risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Stoffenmanager exposure model: company-specific exposure assessments using a Bayesian methodology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, P. van de; Fransman, W.; Schinkel, J.; Rubingh, C.; Warren, N.; Tielemans, E.

    2010-01-01

    The web-based tool "Stoffenmanager" was initially developed to assist small- and medium-sized enterprises in the Netherlands to make qualitative risk assessments and to provide advice on control at the workplace. The tool uses a mechanistic model to arrive at a "Stoffenmanager score" for exposure.

  19. Variability and uncertainty in Swedish exposure factors for use in quantitative exposure assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipsson, Monika; Öberg, Tomas; Bergbäck, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Information of exposure factors used in quantitative risk assessments has previously been compiled and reported for U.S. and European populations. However, due to the advancement of science and knowledge, these reports are in continuous need of updating with new data. Equally important is the change over time of many exposure factors related to both physiological characteristics and human behavior. Body weight, skin surface, time use, and dietary habits are some of the most obvious examples covered here. A wealth of data is available from literature not primarily gathered for the purpose of risk assessment. Here we review a number of key exposure factors and compare these factors between northern Europe--here represented by Sweden--and the United States. Many previous compilations of exposure factor data focus on interindividual variability and variability between sexes and age groups, while uncertainty is mainly dealt with in a qualitative way. In this article variability is assessed along with uncertainty. As estimates of central tendency and interindividual variability, mean, standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis, and multiple percentiles were calculated, while uncertainty was characterized using 95% confidence intervals for these parameters. The presented statistics are appropriate for use in deterministic analyses using point estimates for each input parameter as well as in probabilistic assessments. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  20. Opportunities for using spatial property assessment data in air pollution exposure assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keller C Peter

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many epidemiological studies examining the relationships between adverse health outcomes and exposure to air pollutants use ambient air pollution measurements as a proxy for personal exposure levels. When pollution levels vary at neighbourhood levels, using ambient pollution data from sparsely located fixed monitors may inadequately capture the spatial variation in ambient pollution. A major constraint to moving toward exposure assessments and epidemiological studies of air pollution at a neighbourhood level is the lack of readily available data at appropriate spatial resolutions. Spatial property assessment data are widely available in North America and may provide an opportunity for developing neighbourhood level air pollution exposure assessments. Results This paper provides a detailed description of spatial property assessment data available in the Pacific Northwest of Canada and the United States, and provides examples of potential applications of spatial property assessment data for improving air pollution exposure assessment at the neighbourhood scale, including: (1 creating variables for use in land use regression modelling of neighbourhood levels of ambient air pollution; (2 enhancing wood smoke exposure estimates by mapping fireplace locations; and (3 using data available on individual building characteristics to produce a regional air pollution infiltration model. Conclusion Spatial property assessment data are an extremely detailed data source at a fine spatial resolution, and therefore a source of information that could improve the quality and spatial resolution of current air pollution exposure assessments.

  1. Task-based dermal exposure models for regulatory risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warren, N.D.; Marquart, H.; Christopher, Y.; Laitinen, J.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2006-01-01

    The regulatory risk assessment of chemicals requires the estimation of occupational dermal exposure. Until recently, the models used were either based on limited data or were specific to a particular class of chemical or application. The EU project RISKOFDERM has gathered a considerable number of

  2. PRELIMINARY EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FINDINGS FROM THE TAMPA ASTHMATIC CHILDREN'S STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study (TACS) was a pilot study that focused on developing and evaluating air pollution exposure assessment methods and participant recruiting tools. The four-week study was performed in October and November, 2003. The study involved repeated daily...

  3. EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FINDINGS FROM THE TAMPA ASTHMATIC CHILDREN'S STUDY (TACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study (TACS) was a pilot study that focused on developing and evaluating air pollution exposure assessment methods and participant recruiting tools. The four-week study was performed in October and November, 2003. The study involved repeated daily...

  4. Tools for regulatory assessment of occupational exposure: Development and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielemans, E.; Warren, N.; Schneider, T.; Tischer, M.; Ritchie, P.; Goede, H.; Kromhout, H.; Hemmen, J. van; Cherrie, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of CHemicals) requires improved exposure models that can be incorporated into screening tools and refined assessment tools. These are referred to as tier 1 and 2 models, respectively. There are a number of candidate in tier 1 models that could be

  5. Biocides Steering Group on human exposure assessment: A preliminary report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmen, J.J. van

    1999-01-01

    In a project granted by DG XI of the European Commission, it is attempted to collate experimental and theoretical data on human (workers and consumers) exposure assessment to biocidal products, and to outline the methodology for sampling and measurement. On the basis of the available evidence,

  6. EPa`s program for risk assessment guidelines: Exposure issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, M.A. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Three major issues to be dealt with over the next ten years in the exposure assessment field are: consistency in terminology, the impact of computer technology on the choice of data and modeling, and conceptual issues such as the use of time-weighted averages.

  7. Comparative Probabilistic Assessment of Occupational Pesticide Exposures Based on Regulatory Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouzou, Jane G.; Cullen, Alison C.; Yost, Michael G.; Kissel, John C.; Fenske, Richard A.

    2018-01-01

    Implementation of probabilistic analyses in exposure assessment can provide valuable insight into the risks of those at the extremes of population distributions, including more vulnerable or sensitive subgroups. Incorporation of these analyses into current regulatory methods for occupational pesticide exposure is enabled by the exposure data sets and associated data currently used in the risk assessment approach of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Monte Carlo simulations were performed on exposure measurements from the Agricultural Handler Exposure Database and the Pesticide Handler Exposure Database along with data from the Exposure Factors Handbook and other sources to calculate exposure rates for three different neurotoxic compounds (azinphos methyl, acetamiprid, emamectin benzoate) across four pesticide-handling scenarios. Probabilistic estimates of doses were compared with the no observable effect levels used in the EPA occupational risk assessments. Some percentage of workers were predicted to exceed the level of concern for all three compounds: 54% for azinphos methyl, 5% for acetamiprid, and 20% for emamectin benzoate. This finding has implications for pesticide risk assessment and offers an alternative procedure that may be more protective of those at the extremes of exposure than the current approach. PMID:29105804

  8. Comparative Probabilistic Assessment of Occupational Pesticide Exposures Based on Regulatory Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouzou, Jane G; Cullen, Alison C; Yost, Michael G; Kissel, John C; Fenske, Richard A

    2017-11-06

    Implementation of probabilistic analyses in exposure assessment can provide valuable insight into the risks of those at the extremes of population distributions, including more vulnerable or sensitive subgroups. Incorporation of these analyses into current regulatory methods for occupational pesticide exposure is enabled by the exposure data sets and associated data currently used in the risk assessment approach of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Monte Carlo simulations were performed on exposure measurements from the Agricultural Handler Exposure Database and the Pesticide Handler Exposure Database along with data from the Exposure Factors Handbook and other sources to calculate exposure rates for three different neurotoxic compounds (azinphos methyl, acetamiprid, emamectin benzoate) across four pesticide-handling scenarios. Probabilistic estimates of doses were compared with the no observable effect levels used in the EPA occupational risk assessments. Some percentage of workers were predicted to exceed the level of concern for all three compounds: 54% for azinphos methyl, 5% for acetamiprid, and 20% for emamectin benzoate. This finding has implications for pesticide risk assessment and offers an alternative procedure that may be more protective of those at the extremes of exposure than the current approach. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. Development of a method for personal, spatiotemporal exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Colby; Riggs, Philip; Volckens, John

    2009-07-01

    This work describes the development and evaluation of a high resolution, space and time-referenced sampling method for personal exposure assessment to airborne particulate matter (PM). This method integrates continuous measures of personal PM levels with the corresponding location-activity (i.e. work/school, home, transit) of the subject. Monitoring equipment include a small, portable global positioning system (GPS) receiver, a miniature aerosol nephelometer, and an ambient temperature monitor to estimate the location, time, and magnitude of personal exposure to particulate matter air pollution. Precision and accuracy of each component, as well as the integrated method performance were tested in a combination of laboratory and field tests. Spatial data was apportioned into pre-determined location-activity categories (i.e. work/school, home, transit) with a simple, temporospatially-based algorithm. The apportioning algorithm was extremely effective with an overall accuracy of 99.6%. This method allows examination of an individual's estimated exposure through space and time, which may provide new insights into exposure-activity relationships not possible with traditional exposure assessment techniques (i.e., time-integrated, filter-based measurements). Furthermore, the method is applicable to any contaminant or stressor that can be measured on an individual with a direct-reading sensor.

  10. Environmental exposure assessment framework for nanoparticles in solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Baun, Anders; Hartmann, Nanna Isabella Bloch; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-06-01

    Information related to the potential environmental exposure of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in the solid waste management phase is extremely scarce. In this paper, we define nanowaste as separately collected or collectable waste materials which are or contain ENMs, and we present a five-step framework for the systematic assessment of ENM exposure during nanowaste management. The framework includes deriving EOL nanoproducts and evaluating the physicochemical properties of the nanostructure, matrix properties and nanowaste treatment processes as well as transformation processes and environment releases, eventually leading to a final assessment of potential ENM exposure. The proposed framework was applied to three selected nanoproducts: nanosilver polyester textile, nanoTiO2 sunscreen lotion and carbon nanotube tennis racquets. We found that the potential global environmental exposure of ENMs associated with these three products was an estimated 0.5-143 Mg/year, which can also be characterised qualitatively as medium, medium, low, respectively. Specific challenges remain and should be subject to further research: (1) analytical techniques for the characterisation of nanowaste and its transformation during waste treatment processes, (2) mechanisms for the release of ENMs, (3) the quantification of nanowaste amounts at the regional scale, (4) a definition of acceptable limit values for exposure to ENMs from nanowaste and (5) the reporting of nanowaste generation data.

  11. Performance of GPS-devices for environmental exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekhuizen, Johan; Kromhout, Hans; Huss, Anke; Vermeulen, Roel

    2013-01-01

    Integration of individual time-location patterns with spatially resolved exposure maps enables a more accurate estimation of personal exposures to environmental pollutants than using estimates at fixed locations. Current global positioning system (GPS) devices can be used to track an individual's location. However, information on GPS-performance in environmental exposure assessment is largely missing. We therefore performed two studies. First, a commute-study, where the commute of 12 individuals was tracked twice, testing GPS-performance for five transport modes and two wearing modes. Second, an urban-tracking study, where one individual was tracked repeatedly through different areas, focused on the effect of building obstruction on GPS-performance. The median error from the true path for walking was 3.7 m, biking 2.9 m, train 4.8 m, bus 4.9 m, and car 3.3 m. Errors were larger in a high-rise commercial area (median error=7.1 m) compared with a low-rise residential area (median error=2.2 m). Thus, GPS-performance largely depends on the transport mode and urban built-up. Although ~85% of all errors were 50 m. Modern GPS-devices are useful tools for environmental exposure assessment, but large GPS-errors might affect estimates of exposures with high spatial variability.

  12. [Hygiene and legal aspects of occupational exposure assessment to cytostatics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupczewska-Dobecka, Małgorzata; Pałaszewska-Tkacz, Anna; Czerczak, Sławomir; Konieczko, Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    The employers responsibilities for the assessment of occupational exposure to cytostatics in the workplace were analyzed in the light of existing legal regulations. Cytostatics may pose a threat to health and life of workers taking care of patients treated oncologically, i.e., pharmacists, physicians, nurses and other personnel. The significant scale of occupational exposure to cytostatics in Poland is confirmed by the data collected in the Central Register of Data on Exposure to Carcinogenic or Mutagenic Substances, Mixtures, Agents or Technological Processes, maintained by the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland. The issue of occupational risk assessment of exposure to cytostatics gives raise to numerous concerns. Polish regulations concerning health protection of employees occupationally exposed to cytostatics are not unequivocal, as they are derived from different areas of the law, especially those applying to hazard classification, labeling and preparation of safety data sheets for cytostatics. There are neither binding occupational exposure limits legally set for active compounds of antineoplastic drugs nor methods for monitoring of these substances concentrations in a worker's breathing zone and biological material. This prevents the employer to carry out the correct assessment of occupational exposure, the results of which are the basis for preparing the proper preventive strategy. In this article the consequences of amendments to the European chemical legislation for employers responsible for adequate protection of health and life of employees exposed to cytostatics, were discussed, as well as some legal changes aimed at a better health and life protection of workers exposed to cytostatics in a workplace were proposed. Med Pr 2018;69(1):77-92. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  13. Nano-metal oxides: Exposure and engineering control assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Alberto; Eastlake, Adrienne; Topmiller, Jennifer L; Sparks, Christopher; Martinez, Kenneth; Geraci, Charles L

    2017-09-01

    In January 2007, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted a field study to evaluate process specific emissions during the production of ENMs. This study was performed using the nanoparticle emission assessment technique (NEAT). During this study, it was determined that ENMs were released during production and cleaning of the process reactor. Airborne concentrations of silver, nickel, and iron were found both in the employee's personal breathing zone and area samples during reactor cleaning. At the completion of this initial survey, it was suggested that a flanged attachment be added to the local exhaust ventilation system.  NIOSH re-evaluated the facility in December 2011 to assess worker exposures following an increase in production rates. This study included a fully comprehensive emissions, exposure, and engineering control evaluation of the entire process. This study made use of the nanoparticle exposure assessment technique (NEAT 2.0). Data obtained from filter-based samples and direct reading instruments indicate that reactor cleanout increased the overall particle concentration in the immediate area. However, it does not appear that these concentrations affect areas outside of the production floor. As the distance between the reactor and the sample location increased, the observed particle number concentration decreased, creating a concentration gradient with respect to the reactor. The results of this study confirm that the flanged attachment on the local exhaust ventilation system served to decrease exposure potential.  Given the available toxicological data of the metals evaluated, caution is warranted. One should always keep in mind that occupational exposure levels were not developed specifically for nanoscale particles. With data suggesting that certain nanoparticles may be more toxic than the larger counterparts of the same material; employers should attempt to control emissions of these particles at the source

  14. Benzene levels in ambient air and breath of smokers and nonsmokers in urban and pristine environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wester, R.C.; Maibach, H.I.; Gruenke, L.D.; Craig, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    Benzene levels in human breath and in ambient air were compared in the urban area of San Francisco (SF) and in a more remote coastal pristine setting of Stinson Beach, Calif. (SB). Benzene analysis was done by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Ambient benzene levels were sevenfold higher in SF (2.6 +/- 1.3 ppb, n = 25) than SB (0.38 +/- 0.39 ppb, n = 21). In SF, benzene in smokers' breath (6.8 +/- 3.0 ppb) was greater than in nonsmokers' breath (2.5 +/- 0.8 ppb) and smokers' ambient air (3.3 +/- 0.8 ppb). In SB the same pattern was observed: benzene in smokers' breath was higher than in nonsmokers' breath and ambient air. Benzene in SF nonsmokers' breath was greater than in SB nonsmokers' breath. Marijuana-only smokers had benzene breath levels between those of smokers and nonsmokers. There was little correlation between benzene in breath and number of cigarettes smoked, or with other benzene exposures such as diet. Of special interest was the finding that benzene in breath of SF nonsmokers (2.5 +/- 0.8 ppb) was greater than that in nonsmokers ambient air (1.4 +/- 0.1 ppb). The same was true in SB, where benzene in nonsmokers breath was greater than ambient air (1.8 +/- 0.2 ppb versus 1.0 +/- 0.1 ppb on d 1 and 1.3 +/- 0.3 ppb versus 0.23 +/- 0.18 ppb on d 2). This suggests an additional source of benzene other than outdoor ambient air.

  15. Exposure assessment strategies for non-routine work operations (NORWO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lew, V.; Johnson, J.; Chiusano, S.; McLouth, L.

    1993-01-01

    This meeting is the second in a series of a cooperative effort between the Industrial Hygiene Division of the Office of Health (EH-40) and the Office of Oversight (EM-23) to gain input for the development of a section on NORWO exposure assessment in the Exposure Assessment Strategies and HAZWOPER technical guidance manuals. The first day of the meeting was dedicated to a seminar relating to AIHA Strategy for Occupational Exposure Assessment to NORWO situations. Jeff Miller and Tom Weeda of Radian were the course instructors. The course covered how the elements of basic characterization, prioritization, monitoring and decision making could apply to NORWO situations. Several examples of applications of statistical analysis for decision making were illustrated. In addition, the seminar brought forth some points that need additional examination before the strategy can be applied to NORWO. They are: should qualitative and semi-quantitative data be applied to statistical decision making; should professional judgment be balanced with an acceptable degree of statistical certainty; and the need for development of a standardized application of statistics for the DOE Health ampersand Safety community. The remaining two days of the meeting were devoted to the continued development of guidelines to measure and document, in a technically correct and consistent manner, the exposures DOE environmental restoration and waste management (ERWM) workers receive during NORWO and reflects the perspectives and experiences of the attendees. Formal presentations were given by representatives from Hanford and INEL

  16. Occupational exposure assessment: Practices in Malaysian nuclear agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarowi, S. Muhd; Ramli, S. A.; Kontol, K. Mohamad; Rahman, N. A. H. Abd.

    2016-01-01

    Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) is the leading agency in introducing and promoting the application of nuclear science technology in Malaysia. The agency provides major nuclear facilities purposely for research and commercialisation such as reactor, irradiation plants and radioisotope production laboratory. When dealing with ionizing radiation, there is an obligatory requirement to monitor and assess the radiation exposure to the workers. The personal dose of radiation workers were monitored monthly by assessing their Thermoluminescence Dosimeter (TLD) dose reading. This paper will discuss the current practice in managing, assessing, record keeping and reporting of the occupational exposure in Nuclear Malaysia including the Health Physic Group roles and challenges. The statistics on occupational radiation exposure of monitored workers working in different fields in Nuclear Malaysia from 2011 - 2013 will also be presented. The results show that the null hypothesis (H₀) was accepted which the means of every populations are all equal or not differ significantly. This hypothesis states that the dose exposure received by the radiation workers in Nuclear Malaysia is similar and there were no significant changes from 2011 to 2013. The radiation monitoring programme correlate with the requirement of our national law, the Atomic Energy Licensing Act 1984 (Act 304).

  17. Occupational exposure assessment: Practices in Malaysian nuclear agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarowi, S. Muhd, E-mail: suzie@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Ramli, S. A.; Kontol, K. Mohamad [Radiation Safety & Health Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Rahman, N. A. H. Abd. [Faculty of Science & Mathematics, Sultan Idris of Education Universit, 35900, Tanjong Malim, Perak Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) is the leading agency in introducing and promoting the application of nuclear science technology in Malaysia. The agency provides major nuclear facilities purposely for research and commercialisation such as reactor, irradiation plants and radioisotope production laboratory. When dealing with ionizing radiation, there is an obligatory requirement to monitor and assess the radiation exposure to the workers. The personal dose of radiation workers were monitored monthly by assessing their Thermoluminescence Dosimeter (TLD) dose reading. This paper will discuss the current practice in managing, assessing, record keeping and reporting of the occupational exposure in Nuclear Malaysia including the Health Physic Group roles and challenges. The statistics on occupational radiation exposure of monitored workers working in different fields in Nuclear Malaysia from 2011 - 2013 will also be presented. The results show that the null hypothesis (H{sub 0}) was accepted which the means of every populations are all equal or not differ significantly. This hypothesis states that the dose exposure received by the radiation workers in Nuclear Malaysia is similar and there were no significant changes from 2011 to 2013. The radiation monitoring programme correlate with the requirement of our national law, the Atomic Energy Licensing Act 1984 (Act 304)

  18. Occupational exposure assessment: Practices in Malaysian nuclear agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarowi, S. Muhd; Ramli, S. A.; Kontol, K. Mohamad; Rahman, N. A. H. Abd.

    2016-01-01

    Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) is the leading agency in introducing and promoting the application of nuclear science technology in Malaysia. The agency provides major nuclear facilities purposely for research and commercialisation such as reactor, irradiation plants and radioisotope production laboratory. When dealing with ionizing radiation, there is an obligatory requirement to monitor and assess the radiation exposure to the workers. The personal dose of radiation workers were monitored monthly by assessing their Thermoluminescence Dosimeter (TLD) dose reading. This paper will discuss the current practice in managing, assessing, record keeping and reporting of the occupational exposure in Nuclear Malaysia including the Health Physic Group roles and challenges. The statistics on occupational radiation exposure of monitored workers working in different fields in Nuclear Malaysia from 2011 - 2013 will also be presented. The results show that the null hypothesis (H 0 ) was accepted which the means of every populations are all equal or not differ significantly. This hypothesis states that the dose exposure received by the radiation workers in Nuclear Malaysia is similar and there were no significant changes from 2011 to 2013. The radiation monitoring programme correlate with the requirement of our national law, the Atomic Energy Licensing Act 1984 (Act 304)

  19. Health effects assessment of chemical exposures: ARIES methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra, L; Montero, M.; Rabago, I.; Vidania, R.

    1995-07-01

    In this work, we present ARIES* update: a system designed in order to facilitate the human health effects assessment produced by accidental release of toxic chemicals. The first version of ARIES was developed in relation to 82/501/EEC Directive about mayor accidents in the chemical industry. So, the first aim was the support of the effects assessment derived for the chemicals included into this directive. From this establishment, it was considered acute exposures for high concentrations. In this report, we present the actual methodology for considering other type of exposures, such as environmental and occupational. Likewise other versions, the methodology comprises two approaches: quantitative and qualitative assessments. Quantitative assessment incorporates the mathematical algorithms useful to evaluate the effects produced by the most important routes of exposure: inhalation, ingestion, eye contact and skin absorption, in a short, medium and long term. It has been included models that realizes an accurate quantification of doses, effects,... and so on, such as simple approaches when the available information is not enough. Qualitative assessment, designed in order to complement or replace the previous one, is incorporated into an informatics system, developed in Clipper. It executes and displays outstanding and important toxicological information of about 100 chemicals. This information comes from ECDIN (Environmental Chemicals Data and Information Network) database through a collaboration with JRC-ISPRA working group. (Author) 24 refs.

  20. Health effects assessment of chemical exposures: ARIES methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierra, L; Montero, M.; Rabago, I.; Vidania, R.

    1995-01-01

    In this work, we present ARIES* update: a system designed in order to facilitate the human health effects assessment produced by accidental release of toxic chemicals. The first version of ARIES was developed in relation to 82/501/EEC Directive about mayor accidents in the chemical industry. So, the first aim was the support of the effects assessment derived for the chemicals included into this directive. From this establishment, it was considered acute exposures for high concentrations. In this report, we present the actual methodology for considering other type of exposures, such as environmental and occupational. Likewise other versions, the methodology comprises two approaches: quantitative and qualitative assessments. Quantitative assessment incorporates the mathematical algorithms useful to evaluate the effects produced by the most important routes of exposure: inhalation, ingestion, eye contact and skin absorption, in a short, medium and long term. It has been included models that realizes an accurate quantification of doses, effects,... and so on, such as simple approaches when the available information is not enough. Qualitative assessment, designed in order to complement or replace the previous one, is incorporated into an informatics system, developed in Clipper. It executes and displays outstanding and important toxicological information of about 100 chemicals. This information comes from ECDIN (Environmental Chemicals Data and Information Network) database through a collaboration with JRC-ISPRA working group. (Author) 24 refs

  1. Assessment of genetic risk for human exposure to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevcenko, V.A.; Rubanovic, A.V.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The methodology of assessing the genetic risk of radiation exposure is based on the concept of 'hitting the target' in development of which N.V. Timofeeff-Ressovsky has played and important role. To predict genetic risk posed by irradiation, the U N Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has worked out direct and indirect methods of assessment, extrapolation, integral and palpitation criteria of risk analysis that together permit calculating the risk from human exposure on the basis of data obtained for mice. Based on the reports of UNSCEAR for the period from 1958 to 2001 the paper presents a retrospective analysis of the use of direct methods and the doubling dose method for quantitative determination of the genetic risk of human exposure expressed as different hereditary diseases. As early as 1962 UNSCEAR estimated the doubling dose (a dose causing as many mutations as those occurring spontaneously during one generation) at 1 Gy for cases of exposure to ionizing radiations with low LET at a low dose rate and this value was confirmed in the next UNSCEAR reports up to now. For cases of acute irradiation the doubling dose was estimated at 0,3-0,4 Gy for the period under review. The paper considers the evolution of the concepts of human natural hereditary variability which is a basis for assessing the risk of exposure by the doubling dose method. The level of human natural genetic variability per 1 000 000 newborns is estimated at 738 000 hereditary diseases including mendelian, chromosomal and multifactorial ones. The greatest difficulties in assessing the doubling dose value were found to occur in the case of multifactorial diseases the pheno typical expression of which depends on mutational events in polygenic systems and on numerous environmental factors. The introduction in calculations of the potential recoverability correction factor (RPCF) made it possible to assess the genetic risk taking into account this class of

  2. Pollution exposure on marine protected areas: A global assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partelow, Stefan; von Wehrden, Henrik; Horn, Olga

    2015-11-15

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) face many challenges in their aim to effectively conserve marine ecosystems. In this study we analyze the extent of pollution exposure on the global fleet of MPAs. This includes indicators for current and future pollution and the implications for regionally clustered groups of MPAs with similar biophysical characteristics. To cluster MPAs into characteristic signature groups, their bathymetry, baseline biodiversity, distance from shore, mean sea surface temperature and mean sea surface salinity were used. We assess the extent at which each signature group is facing exposure from multiple pollution types. MPA groups experience similar pollution exposure on a regional level. We highlight how the challenges that MPAs face can be addressed through governance at the appropriate scale and design considerations for integrated terrestrial and marine management approaches within regional level networks. Furthermore, we present diagnostic social-ecological indicators for addressing the challenges facing unsuccessful MPAs with practical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Historical Exposures to Chemicals at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant: A Pilot Retrospective Exposure Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Janeen Denise [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1999-02-01

    In a mortality study of white males who had worked at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant between 1952 and 1979, an increased number of deaths from benign and unspecified intracranial neoplasms was found. A case-control study nested within this cohort investigated the hypothesis that an association existed between brain tumor death and exposure to either internally deposited plutonium or external ionizing radiation. There was no statistically significant association found between estimated radiation exposure from internally deposited plutonium and the development of brain tumors. Exposure by job or work area showed no significant difference between the cohort and the control groups. An update of the study found elevated risk estimates for (1) all lymphopoietic neoplasms, and (2) all causes of death in employees with body burdens greater than or equal to two nanocuries of plutonium. There was an excess of brain tumors for the entire cohort. Similar cohort studies conducted on worker populations from other plutonium handling facilities have not yet shown any elevated risks for brain tumors. Historically, the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant used large quantities of chemicals in their production operations. The use of solvents, particularly carbon tetrachloride, was unique to Rocky Flats. No investigation of the possible confounding effects of chemical exposures was done in the initial studies. The objectives of the present study are to (1) investigate the history of chemical use at the Rocky Flats facility; (2) locate and analyze chemical monitoring information in order to assess employee exposure to the chemicals that were used in the highest volume; and (3) determine the feasibility of establishing a chemical exposure assessment model that could be used in future epidemiology studies.

  4. Occupational Exposure of Petroleum Depot Workers to BTEX Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rezazadeh Azari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX are the most important toxic volatile compounds in the air and could be easily absorbed through the respiratory tract. In recent years, the risk of exposure to BTEX compounds, especially benzene as a carcinogen, has been considered in petroleum depot stations. Objective: To assess the occupational exposure of petroleum depot workers in Iran to BTEX compounds. Methods: After completing a questionnaire and assessing occupational exposure to BTEX compounds, 78 (46 exposed and 32 non-exposed depot workers were randomly selected to participate in this study. Air sampling and analysis of BTEX was conducted according to the NIOSH method No. 1501. Analysis of urinary hippuric acid, as an indicator of toluene exposure, was carried out according to NIOSH method No. 8300. Personal monitoring of the high exposure group to BTEX compounds was repeated to verify the results obtained in the first phase of the monitoring. Results: Among the 9 operating groups studied, occupational exposure to benzene and toluene was higher in quality control and gasoline loading operators—the median exposure ranged from 0.16 to 1.63 ppm for benzene and 0.2 to 2.72 ppm for toluene. Median exposure of other group members to BTEX compounds was below the detection limit of analytical method (0.07, 0.06, 0.05, and 0.05 ppm, respectively. The level of toluene exposure measured showed correlation with neither post-shift urinary hippuric acid (Spearman's rho=0.128, p=0.982 nor with the difference between post- and pre-shift urinary hippuric acid (Spearman's rho=0.089, p=0.847 in depot operational workers. Conclusion: Gasoline loading operators are exposed to a relatively high level of benzene.

  5. Accumulation of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.

    1996-01-01

    Chlorinated benzenes are widespread in the environment. Hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene and all isomers of dichlorobenzenes, trichlorobenzenes, and tetrachlorobenzenes, have been detected in fish, water, and sediments from the Great Lakes. This paper describes a long-term (26 week) experiment relating the concentrations of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms to 1) the length of exposure, and it describes three 8-week experiments relating concentrations of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms to 2) their concentration in soil 3) the soil organic matter content and, 4) the degree of chlorination. In the 26-week experiment, the concentration of 1,2,4 - trichlorobenzene in earthworms fluctuated only slightly about a mean of 0.63 ppm (Fig. 1). Although a statistically significant decrease can be demonstrated over the test (Pearson correlation coefficient, r = -0.62 p earthworms showed a cyclical trend that coincided with replacement of the media, and a slight but statistically significant tendency to increase from about 2 to 3 ppm over the 26 weeks (r = 0.55, p earthworms increased as the concentrations in the soil increased (Fig. 2), but leveled off at the highest soil concentrations. The most surprising result of this study was the relatively low concentrations in earthworms compared to those in soils. The average concentration of each of the six isomers of trichlorobenzene and tetrachlorobenzene in earthworms was only about 1 ppm (Table 2); the isomeric structure did not affect accumulation. The concentration of organic matter in soil had a prominent effect on hexachlorobenzene concentrations in earthworms (Fig. 3). Hexachlorobenzene concentrations decreased steadily from 9.3 ppm in earthworms kept in soil without any peat moss added to about 1 ppm in soil containing 16 or 32% organic matter.

  6. Risk assessment of fluoride exposure in drinking water of Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guissouma, Wiem; Hakami, Othman; Al-Rajab, Abdul Jabbar; Tarhouni, Jamila

    2017-06-01

    The presence of fluoride in drinking water is known to reduce dental cavities among consumers, but an excessive intake of this anion might leads to dental and skeletal fluorosis. This study reports a complete survey of the fluoridated tap water taken from 100 water consumption points in Tunisia. The fluoride concentrations in tap water were between 0 and 2.4 mg L -1 . Risk assessment of Fluoride exposure was assessed depending on the age of consumers using a four-step method: hazard identification, toxicity reference values selection (TRVs), daily exposure assessment, and risk characterization. Our findings suggest that approximately 75% of the Tunisian population is at risk for dental decay, 25% have a potential dental fluorosis risk, and 20% might have a skeletal fluorosis risk according to the limits of fluoride in drinking water recommended by WHO. More investigations are recommended to assess the exposure risk of fluoride in other sources of drinking water such as bottled water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Use-exposure relationships of pesticides for aquatic risk assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzhou Luo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Field-scale environmental models have been widely used in aquatic exposure assessments of pesticides. Those models usually require a large set of input parameters and separate simulations for each pesticide in evaluation. In this study, a simple use-exposure relationship is developed based on regression analysis of stochastic simulation results generated from the Pesticide Root-Zone Model (PRZM. The developed mathematical relationship estimates edge-of-field peak concentrations of pesticides from aerobic soil metabolism half-life (AERO, organic carbon-normalized soil sorption coefficient (KOC, and application rate (RATE. In a case study of California crop scenarios, the relationships explained 90-95% of the variances in the peak concentrations of dissolved pesticides as predicted by PRZM simulations for a 30-year period. KOC was identified as the governing parameter in determining the relative magnitudes of pesticide exposures in a given crop scenario. The results of model application also indicated that the effects of chemical fate processes such as partitioning and degradation on pesticide exposure were similar among crop scenarios, while the cross-scenario variations were mainly associated with the landscape characteristics, such as organic carbon contents and curve numbers. With a minimum set of input data, the use-exposure relationships proposed in this study could be used in screening procedures for potential water quality impacts from the off-site movement of pesticides.

  8. Indoor air pollution levels in public buildings in Thailand and exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinmalee, Aungsiri; Srimongkol, Kasama; Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi

    2009-09-01

    Levels of pollutants including PM2.5 and PM2.5 composition (black carbon and water soluble ions), SO(2), NO(2), CO, CO(2), and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene) were monitored for indoor and outdoor air at a university campus and a shopping center, both located in the Northern suburb of Bangkok. Sampling was done during December 2005-February 2006 on both weekdays and weekends. At the university, indoor monitoring was done in two different air conditioned classrooms which shows the I/O ratios for all pollutants to be below 0.5-0.8 during the weekends. However, on weekdays the ratios for CO(2) and most detected BTEX were above 1.0. The concept of classroom occupancy was defined using a function of the student number in a lecture hour and the number of lecture hours per day. Classroom 2, which had a higher occupancy than classroom 1, was characterized by higher concentrations of most pollutants. PM2.5 was an exception and was higher in classroom 1 (37 microg/m(3), weekdays) as compared to classroom 2 (26 microg/m(3), weekdays) which was likely linked to the dust resuspension from the carpeted floor in the former. Monitoring was also done in the shopping mall at three different sites. Indoor pollutants levels and the I/O ratios at the shopping mall were higher than at the university. Levels of all pollutants measured at the car park, except for toluene and CO(2), were the highest. I/O ratios of the pollutants at the mall were above 1.0, which indicates the relatively higher influence of the indoor sources. However, the black carbon content in PM2.5 outdoor is higher than indoor, which suggest the important contribution from outdoor combustion sources such as the traffic. Major sources of outdoor air pollution in the areas were briefly discussed. Exposure modeling was applied using the time activity and measured pollutant concentrations to assess the exposure of different groups of people in the study areas. High exposure to PM2.5, especially for the people

  9. Toxicity assessment of unintentional exposure to multiple chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumtaz, M.M.; Ruiz, P.; De Rosa, C.T.

    2007-01-01

    Typically exposure to environmental chemicals is unintentional, and often the exposure is to chemical mixtures, either simultaneously or sequentially. When exposure occurs, in public health practice, it is prudent to ascertain if thresholds for harmful health effects are exceeded, whether by individual chemicals or by chemicals in combination. Three alternative approaches are available for assessing the toxicity of chemical mixtures. Each approach, however, has shortcomings. As the procedures of each approach are described in this paper, at various steps research needs are identified. Recently, reliance has increased on computational toxicology methods for predicting toxicological effects when data are limited. Advances in molecular biology, identification of biomarkers, and availability of accurate and sensitive methods allow us to more precisely define the relationships between multiple chemical exposures and health effects, both qualitatively and quantitatively. Key research needs are best fulfilled through collaborative research. It is through such collaborations that resources are most effectively leveraged to further develop and apply toxicity assessment methods that advance public health practices in vulnerable communities

  10. Assessment and management of chemical exposure in the Mohs laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunson, Todd H; Smith, Harvey R; Vinciullo, Carl

    2011-01-01

    The correct handling, storage, and disposal of chemicals used in the processing of tissue for Mohs micrographic surgery are essential. To identify the chemicals involved in the preparation of Mohs frozen sections and assess the associated occupational health risks. To quantify exposure levels of hazardous chemicals and ensure that they are minimized. A risk assessment form was completed for each chemical. Atmospheric sampling was performed at our previous laboratory for formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds. These data were used in the design of our new facility, where testing was repeated. Twenty-five chemicals were identified. Ten were classified as hazardous substances, 10 were flammable, six had specific disposal requirements, four were potential carcinogens, and three were potential teratogens. Formaldehyde readings at our previous laboratory were up to eight times the national exposure standard. Testing at the new laboratory produced levels well below the exposure standards. Chemical exposure within the Mohs laboratory can present a significant occupational hazard. Acutely toxic and potentially carcinogenic formaldehyde was found at high levels in a relatively standard laboratory configuration. A laboratory can be designed with a combination of physical environment and operational protocols that minimizes hazards and creates a safe working environment. © 2010 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc.

  11. How to assess exposure of aquatic organisms to manufactured nanoparticles?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quik, Joris T.K.; Vonk, Jan Arie; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2011-01-01

    Ecological risk of chemicals is measured by the quotient of predicted no-effect concentrations and predicted exposure concentrations, which are hard to assess for manufactured nanomaterials (NMs). This paper proposes modifications to currently used models, in order to make them suitable for estim......Ecological risk of chemicals is measured by the quotient of predicted no-effect concentrations and predicted exposure concentrations, which are hard to assess for manufactured nanomaterials (NMs). This paper proposes modifications to currently used models, in order to make them suitable...... on sedimentation and dissolution of NMs in environmentally relevant systems. We deduce that the overall kinetics of water–sediment transport of NMs should be close to first order. The lack of data on dissolution of NMs under environmentally realistic conditions calls for a pragmatic decision on which rates...

  12. Methyldibromo glutaronitrile: clinical experience and exposure-based risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariae, Claus; Rastogi, Suresh; Devantier, Charlotte; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2003-03-01

    In the year 2000, the level of methyldibromo glutaronitrile (MDGN) allergy in dermatology clinics in Europe exceeded the level of allergies to all other preservatives, with a prevalence of 3.5%. In the present study, cases of primary sensitization and elicitation to MDGN due to cosmetic products were collected over an 8-month period at the Department of Dermatology, Gentofte University Hospital. The aim was to identify the products related to hand eczema, assess exposure to MDGN in these products and relate the findings to results from a newly developed updated risk assessment model for contact allergy. Out of 24 patients with a positive patch test to MDGN, 17 patients with hand eczema were identified. In 11 of these patients, cosmetic products used in relation to the onset of the disease were shown to contain MDGN (65%). In 8 of these 11 cases, primary sensitization was probable, 5 due to hand/body lotions and 3 due to lotions and/or liquid hand soap. Chemical analysis of 12 products showed that lotions contained 149-390 ppm of MDGN, liquid hand soap 144-399 ppm, a rinsing cream 293 ppm and shampoos 78-79 ppm. The shampoo exposure was not of certain relevance to the eczema. Applying the newly developed updated risk assessment model showed that the concentrations of MDGN in lotions of 149-390 ppm exceeded the calculated maximum acceptable exposure level for MDGN, which would be expected to lead to sensitization in consumers using such products, as seen in the current study. The present cases and updated exposure-based risk assessment process add to the evidence and need for re-defining safe-use concentrations of MDGN in cosmetic products.

  13. Modeling Exposure to Persistent Chemicals in Hazard and Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan-Ellsberry, Christina E.; McLachlan, Michael S.; Arnot, Jon A.; MacLeod, Matthew; McKone, Thomas E.; Wania, Frank

    2008-11-01

    Fate and exposure modeling has not thus far been explicitly used in the risk profile documents prepared to evaluate significant adverse effect of candidate chemicals for either the Stockholm Convention or the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. However, we believe models have considerable potential to improve the risk profiles. Fate and exposure models are already used routinely in other similar regulatory applications to inform decisions, and they have been instrumental in building our current understanding of the fate of POP and PBT chemicals in the environment. The goal of this paper is to motivate the use of fate and exposure models in preparing risk profiles in the POP assessment procedure by providing strategies for incorporating and using models. The ways that fate and exposure models can be used to improve and inform the development of risk profiles include: (1) Benchmarking the ratio of exposure and emissions of candidate chemicals to the same ratio for known POPs, thereby opening the possibility of combining this ratio with the relative emissions and relative toxicity to arrive at a measure of relative risk. (2) Directly estimating the exposure of the environment, biota and humans to provide information to complement measurements, or where measurements are not available or are limited. (3) To identify the key processes and chemical and/or environmental parameters that determine the exposure; thereby allowing the effective prioritization of research or measurements to improve the risk profile. (4) Predicting future time trends including how quickly exposure levels in remote areas would respond to reductions in emissions. Currently there is no standardized consensus model for use in the risk profile context. Therefore, to choose the appropriate model the risk profile developer must evaluate how appropriate an existing model is for a specific setting and whether the assumptions and input data are relevant in the context of the application

  14. Modeling exposure to persistent chemicals in hazard and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan-Ellsberry, Christina E; McLachlan, Michael S; Arnot, Jon A; Macleod, Matthew; McKone, Thomas E; Wania, Frank

    2009-10-01

    Fate and exposure modeling has not, thus far, been explicitly used in the risk profile documents prepared for evaluating the significant adverse effect of candidate chemicals for either the Stockholm Convention or the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. However, we believe models have considerable potential to improve the risk profiles. Fate and exposure models are already used routinely in other similar regulatory applications to inform decisions, and they have been instrumental in building our current understanding of the fate of persistent organic pollutants (POP) and persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT) chemicals in the environment. The goal of this publication is to motivate the use of fate and exposure models in preparing risk profiles in the POP assessment procedure by providing strategies for incorporating and using models. The ways that fate and exposure models can be used to improve and inform the development of risk profiles include 1) benchmarking the ratio of exposure and emissions of candidate chemicals to the same ratio for known POPs, thereby opening the possibility of combining this ratio with the relative emissions and relative toxicity to arrive at a measure of relative risk; 2) directly estimating the exposure of the environment, biota, and humans to provide information to complement measurements or where measurements are not available or are limited; 3) to identify the key processes and chemical or environmental parameters that determine the exposure, thereby allowing the effective prioritization of research or measurements to improve the risk profile; and 4) forecasting future time trends, including how quickly exposure levels in remote areas would respond to reductions in emissions. Currently there is no standardized consensus model for use in the risk profile context. Therefore, to choose the appropriate model the risk profile developer must evaluate how appropriate an existing model is for a specific setting and

  15. Evaluation of biomonitoring data from the CDC National Exposure Report in a risk assessment context: perspectives across chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, Lesa L; Kirman, Christopher R; Schoeny, Rita; Portier, Christopher J; Hays, Sean M

    2013-03-01

    Biomonitoring data reported in the National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals [NER; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2012)] provide information on the presence and concentrations of > 400 chemicals in human blood and urine. Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) and other risk assessment-based values now allow interpretation of these biomonitoring data in a public health risk context. We compared the measured biomarker concentrations in the NER with BEs and similar risk assessment values to provide an across-chemical risk assessment perspective on the measured levels for approximately 130 analytes in the NER. We identified available risk assessment-based biomarker screening values, including BEs and Human Biomonitoring-I (HBM-I) values from the German Human Biomonitoring Commission. Geometric mean and 95th percentile population biomarker concentrations from the NER were compared to the available screening values to generate chemical-specific hazard quotients (HQs) or cancer risk estimates. Most analytes in the NER show HQ values of chemicals, benzene, xylene, several metals, di-2(ethylhexyl)phthalate, and some legacy organochlorine pesticides) approach or exceed HQ values of 1 or cancer risks of > 1 × 10-4 at the geometric mean or 95th percentile, suggesting exposure levels may exceed published human health benchmarks. This analysis provides for the first time a means for examining population biomonitoring data for multiple environmental chemicals in the context of the risk assessments for those chemicals. The results of these comparisons can be used to focus more detailed chemical-specific examination of the data and inform priorities for chemical risk management and research.

  16. Changes in the nervous system state and peripheral blood parameters under benzene intoxication during an experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Orujov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Benzene is a widely spread chemical health risk factor. Our research goal was to examine the nervous system state and the blood system state under benzene intoxication during an experiment. An acute experiment was performed on 45 white mice with 5-fold poisoning with benzene; a chronic one was performed on 72 rabbits being under inhalation exposure to benzene during 4 months, its concentrations increasing and fluctuating. We determined the following blood parameters: number of reticulocytes, eosinophils, basocytes, and erythrocytes; erythrocytes sedimentation rate; blood clotting period; blood clot retraction; plasma re-calcification period; plasma tolerance to heparin; prothrombin time; prothrombin index; fibrinogen concentration; blood fibrinolytic activity; acetylcholine and choline esterase contents. We also determined adrenalin, noradrenalin, dopamine, and dihydroxyphenylalanine contents in urine. Acute experiments results revealed that one-time exposure to benzene exerted a narcotic effect on the central nervous system which had an excitation phase and inhibition phase. Under a repeat exposure to benzene animals' drug intoxication was shorter. And here neutrophils / leucocytes gradient first increased to 139.5 % from its standards value and then when down under consequent intoxications. We detected relevant changes in morphological picture of animals' peripheral blood and their central and vegetative nervous system under chronic exposure to intermittent and increasing benzene concentrations. So, our research revealed that effects exerted by benzene in small concentrations led to apparent shifts in white blood and catecholamines (adrenalin, noradrenalin, dopamine, and dihydroxyphenylalanine. We also detected certain signs that cate-cholamines endogenous reserves (dihydroxyphenylalanine were depleted and, and also signs of eosinophils-basocytes disso-ciation; such prognostic signs were considered to be unfavorable as it was exactly at that

  17. Benzene-induced genotoxicity in mice in vivo detected by the alkaline comet assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuo, J; Loft, S; Thomsen, M S

    1996-01-01

    was further increased to 5.4-fold and 6.6-fold of the control values, respectively (p propylene glycol (5 microliters/g b.wt., twice with a 60-min interval), a selective CYP2E1 inhibitor, reduced the increase in the tail length by about half at all doses in both cell types (p ...The myelotoxic and genotoxic effects of benzene have been related to oxidative DNA damage after metabolism by CYP2E1. Single cell gel electrophoresis (alkaline comet assay) detects DNA damage and may thus be a convenient method for the study of benzene genotoxicity. Benzene exposure to NMRI mice.......01). By comparing our data with those from genotoxicity studies on benzene using other methods, we conclude that the 'alkaline comet assay' is a sensitive method to detect DNA damage induced by benzene. We also infer that CYP2E1 contributes, at least partly, to the formation of the 'comet'-inducing metabolites...

  18. Assessment of Ab Initio and Density Functional Theory Methods for the Excitations of Donor-Acceptor Complexes: The Case of the Benzene-Tetracyanoethylene Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of the excited-state properties of electron donors, acceptors and their interfaces in organic optoelectronic devices is a fundamental issue for their performance optimization. In order to obtain a balanced description of the different excitation types for electron-donor-acceptor systems, including the singlet charge transfer (CT, local excitations, and triplet excited states, several ab initio and density functional theory (DFT methods for excited-state calculations were evaluated based upon the selected model system of benzene-tetracyanoethylene (B-TCNE complexes. On the basis of benchmark calculations of the equation-of-motion coupled-cluster with single and double excitations method, the arithmetic mean of the absolute errors and standard errors of the electronic excitation energies for the different computational methods suggest that the M11 functional in DFT is superior to the other tested DFT functionals, and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT with the Tamm–Dancoff approximation improves the accuracy of the calculated excitation energies relative to that of the full TDDFT. The performance of the M11 functional underlines the importance of kinetic energy density, spin-density gradient, and range separation in the development of novel DFT functionals. According to the TDDFT results, the performances of the different TDDFT methods on the CT properties of the B-TCNE complexes were also analyzed.

  19. Assessment of human exposure to environmental sources of nickel in Europe: Inhalation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buekers, Jurgen; De Brouwere, Katleen; Lefebvre, Wouter; Willems, Hanny; Vandenbroele, Marleen; Van Sprang, Patrick; Eliat-Eliat, Maxime; Hicks, Keegan; Schlekat, Christian E; Oller, Adriana R

    2015-07-15

    The paper describes the inhalation nickel (Ni) exposure of humans via the environment for the regional scale in the EU, together with a tiered approach for assessing additional local exposure from industrial emissions. The approach was designed, in the context of REACH, for the purpose of assessing and controlling emissions and air quality in the neighbourhood of Ni producers and downstream users. Two Derived No Effect Level (DNEL) values for chronic inhalation exposure to total Ni in PM10 (20 and 60ngNi/m(3)) were considered. The value of 20ngNi/m(3) is the current EU air quality guidance value. The value of 60ngNi/m(3) is derived here based on recently published Ni data (Oller et al., 2014). Both values are protective for respiratory toxicity and carcinogenicity but differ in the application of toxicokinetic adjustments and cancer threshold considerations. Estimates of air Ni concentrations at the European regional scale were derived from the database of the European Environment Agency. The 50th and 90th percentile regional exposures were below both DNEL values. To assess REACH compliance at the local scale, measured ambient air data are preferred but are often unavailable. A tiered approach for the use of modelled ambient air concentrations was developed, starting with the application of the default EUSES model and progressing to more sophisticated models. As an example, the tiered approach was applied to 33 EU Ni sulphate producers' and downstream users' sites. Applying the EUSES model demonstrates compliance with a DNEL of 60ngNi/m(3) for the majority of sites, while the value of the refined modelling is demonstrated when a DNEL of 20ngNi/m(3) is considered. The proposed approach, applicable to metals in general, can be used in the context of REACH, for refining the risk characterisation and guiding the selection of risk management measures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of semi-generic PBTK modeling for emergency risk assessment after acute inhalation exposure to volatile hazardous chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olie, J Daniël N; Bessems, Jos G; Clewell, Harvey J; Meulenbelt, Jan; Hunault, Claudine C

    2015-08-01

    Physiologically Based Toxicokinetic Models (PBTK) may facilitate emergency risk assessment after chemical incidents with inhalation exposure, but they are rarely used due to their relative complexity and skill requirements. We aimed to tackle this problem by evaluating a semi-generic PBTK model built in MS Excel for nine chemicals that are widely-used and often released in a chemical incident. The semi-generic PBTK model was used to predict blood concentration-time curves using inhalation exposure scenarios from human volunteer studies, case reports and hypothetical exposures at Emergency Response Planning Guideline, Level 3 (ERPG-3) levels.(2) Predictions using this model were compared with measured blood concentrations from volunteer studies or case reports, as well as blood concentrations predicted by chemical-specific models. The performances of the semi-generic model were evaluated on biological rationale, accuracy, and ease of use and range of application. Our results indicate that the semi-generic model can be easily used to predict blood levels for eight out of nine parent chemicals (dichloromethane, benzene, xylene, styrene, toluene, isopropanol trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene). However, for methanol, 2-propanol and dichloromethane the semi-generic model could not cope with the endogenous production of methanol and of acetone (being a metabolite of 2-propanol) nor could it simulate the formation of HbCO, which is one of the toxic end-points of dichloromethane. The model is easy and intuitive to use by people who are not so familiar with toxicokinetic models. A semi-generic PBTK modeling approach can be used as a 'quick-and-dirty' method to get a crude estimate of the exposure dose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Story of skeletally substituted benzenes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    values are extensively used to define aromaticity quantitatively.3 In a recent study on ... studies were directed to unravel the subtle ways in which the stability, reactivity, and ..... The singlet–triplet gaps of all the skeletally substituted benzenes ...

  2. Benzene adsorption and oxidation on Ir(111)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weststrate, C.J.; Bakker, J.W.; Gluhoi, A.C.; Ludwig, W.; Nieuwenhuys, B.E.

    2007-01-01

    Adsorption, decompn. and oxidn. of benzene on Ir(1 1 1) was studied by high resoln. (synchrotron) XPS, temp. programmed desorption and LEED. Mol. adsorption of benzene on Ir(1 1 1) is obsd. between 170 K and 350 K. Above this temp. both desorption and decompn. of benzene take place. An ordered

  3. Assessing public exposure in commercial flights in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Vanusa A.; Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Damasceno, Nadya M.P., E-mail: vanusa_abreu@ymail.com, E-mail: elainerochedo@gmail.com, E-mail: nadya@ime.eb.br [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Diogo N.G., E-mail: diogongs@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The exposure to cosmic radiation from air traveling is significantly higher than that at ground level, varying according to the route due to the effect of latitude and flight time, to the flight altitude, due to the type of airplane and to the year, due to the effect of solar cycle on the galactic cosmic rays flux. The computer code CARI-6, developed by the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration, is aimed to calculate the effective dose of galactic cosmic radiation received by an individual in an airplane, flying the shortest route between two airports in the world. The objective of this work is to estimate the contribution of the exposure to cosmic radiation on domestic commercial flights for the Brazilian customers. The work shall serve as a baseline for future comparisons of the growth of civil aviation in the country. It shall also open perspectives for discussions on the concept of risk and its public acceptance, relevant to the establishment of radiological protection guidelines. Average effective doses for individual flights ranged from 0.2 to 8.8 μSv. This is a very small contribution to average overall exposure to natural background radiation (2.4 mSv/y). Doses for the most frequent flight routes in the country have been assessed. These include flights to and from Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo and Brasilia. Doses for frequent flyers and collective doses are discussed in perspective of other exposure sources. (author)

  4. Assessing public exposure in commercial flights in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Vanusa A.; Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Damasceno, Nadya M.P.; Silva, Diogo N.G.

    2013-01-01

    The exposure to cosmic radiation from air traveling is significantly higher than that at ground level, varying according to the route due to the effect of latitude and flight time, to the flight altitude, due to the type of airplane and to the year, due to the effect of solar cycle on the galactic cosmic rays flux. The computer code CARI-6, developed by the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration, is aimed to calculate the effective dose of galactic cosmic radiation received by an individual in an airplane, flying the shortest route between two airports in the world. The objective of this work is to estimate the contribution of the exposure to cosmic radiation on domestic commercial flights for the Brazilian customers. The work shall serve as a baseline for future comparisons of the growth of civil aviation in the country. It shall also open perspectives for discussions on the concept of risk and its public acceptance, relevant to the establishment of radiological protection guidelines. Average effective doses for individual flights ranged from 0.2 to 8.8 μSv. This is a very small contribution to average overall exposure to natural background radiation (2.4 mSv/y). Doses for the most frequent flight routes in the country have been assessed. These include flights to and from Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo and Brasilia. Doses for frequent flyers and collective doses are discussed in perspective of other exposure sources. (author)

  5. Human health risk assessment related to cyanotoxins exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funari, Enzo; Testai, Emanuela

    2008-01-01

    This review focuses on the risk assessment associated with human exposure to cyanotoxins, secondary metabolites of an ubiquitous group of photosynthetic procariota. Cyanobacteria occur especially in eutrophic inland and coastal surface waters, where under favorable conditions they attain high densities and may form blooms and scums. Cyanotoxins can be grouped according to their biological effects into hepatotoxins, neurotoxins, cytotoxins, and toxins with irritating potential, also acting on the gastrointestinal system. The chemical and toxicological properties of the main cyanotoxins, relevant for the evaluation of possible risks for human health, are presented. Humans may be exposed to cyanotoxins via several routes, with the oral one being by far the most important, occurring by ingesting contaminated drinking water, food, some dietary supplements, or water during recreational activities. Acute and short-term toxic effects have been associated in humans with exposure to high levels of cyanotoxins in drinking and bathing waters. However, the chronic exposure to low cyanotoxin levels remains a critical issue. This article identifies the actual risky exposure scenarios, provides toxicologically derived reference values, and discusses open issues and research needs.

  6. Progress of epidemiological and molecular epidemiological studies on benzene in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guilan; Yin, Songnian

    2006-09-01

    Benzene is an organic solvent that has been used in industry for about 100 years throughout the world. Since 1973, a series of toxicological and molecular epidemiological studies on benzene were conducted by researchers at the Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine (CAPM) (1973-1986) and subsequently by a collaboration between the CAPM and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) in the United States that began in 1986, which was joined by investigators from the University of California at Berkeley, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and New York University. The findings demonstrated that the risk of leukemia and lymphoma among benzene-exposed workers was significantly increased, with elevated risks for leukemia present not only at higher exposure but also among workers exposed to under 10 ppm. Therefore, the benzene permissible level was decreased to 1.8 ppm (6 mg/m(3)) and benzene-induced leukemia is treated as an occupational cancer in China. The benzene permissible level is 1.0 in the United States and in several other developed countries and it has been suggested to be decreased to 0.5 ppm (ACGIH). A number of potential biomarkers are related to benzene exposure and poisoning. Some of these are benzene oxide-protein adducts, chromosome aberration of lymphocytes, and GPA mutations in erythrocytes, a decrease in B cell and CD4(-)T cell counts in peripheral blood, and altered expression of CXCL16, ZNF331, JUN, and PF4 in lymphocytes. Variation in multiple benzene metabolizing genes may be associated with risk of benzene hematotoxicity, including CYP2E1, MPO, NQO1, and GSTT1.

  7. Pesticide Exposure, Safety Issues, and Risk Assessment Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damalas, Christos A.; Eleftherohorinos, Ilias G.

    2011-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used in agricultural production to prevent or control pests, diseases, weeds, and other plant pathogens in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are developed through very strict regulation processes to function with reasonable certainty and minimal impact on human health and the environment, serious concerns have been raised about health risks resulting from occupational exposure and from residues in food and drinking water. Occupational exposure to pesticides often occurs in the case of agricultural workers in open fields and greenhouses, workers in the pesticide industry, and exterminators of house pests. Exposure of the general population to pesticides occurs primarily through eating food and drinking water contaminated with pesticide residues, whereas substantial exposure can also occur in or around the home. Regarding the adverse effects on the environment (water, soil and air contamination from leaching, runoff, and spray drift, as well as the detrimental effects on wildlife, fish, plants, and other non-target organisms), many of these effects depend on the toxicity of the pesticide, the measures taken during its application, the dosage applied, the adsorption on soil colloids, the weather conditions prevailing after application, and how long the pesticide persists in the environment. Therefore, the risk assessment of the impact of pesticides either on human health or on the environment is not an easy and particularly accurate process because of differences in the periods and levels of exposure, the types of pesticides used (regarding toxicity and persistence), and the environmental characteristics of the areas where pesticides are usually applied. Also, the number of the criteria used and the method of their implementation to assess the adverse effects of pesticides on human health could affect risk assessment and would possibly affect the characterization of the already

  8. Pesticide Exposure, Safety Issues, and Risk Assessment Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Damalas

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are widely used in agricultural production to prevent or control pests, diseases, weeds, and other plant pathogens in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are developed through very strict regulation processes to function with reasonable certainty and minimal impact on human health and the environment, serious concerns have been raised about health risks resulting from occupational exposure and from residues in food and drinking water. Occupational exposure to pesticides often occurs in the case of agricultural workers in open fields and greenhouses, workers in the pesticide industry, and exterminators of house pests. Exposure of the general population to pesticides occurs primarily through eating food and drinking water contaminated with pesticide residues, whereas substantial exposure can also occur in or around the home. Regarding the adverse effects on the environment (water, soil and air contamination from leaching, runoff, and spray drift, as well as the detrimental effects on wildlife, fish, plants, and other non-target organisms, many of these effects depend on the toxicity of the pesticide, the measures taken during its application, the dosage applied, the adsorption on soil colloids, the weather conditions prevailing after application, and how long the pesticide persists in the environment. Therefore, the risk assessment of the impact of pesticides either on human health or on the environment is not an easy and particularly accurate process because of differences in the periods and levels of exposure, the types of pesticides used (regarding toxicity and persistence, and the environmental characteristics of the areas where pesticides are usually applied. Also, the number of the criteria used and the method of their implementation to assess the adverse effects of pesticides on human health could affect risk assessment and would possibly affect the characterization

  9. Cea-Expo: A facility exposure matrix to assess passed exposure to chemical carcinogens and radionuclides of nuclear workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telle-Lamberton, M.; Bouville, P.; Bergot, D.; Gagneau, M.; Marot, S.; Telle-Lamberton, M.; Giraud, J.M.; Gelas, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    A 'Facility-Exposure Matrix' (FEM) is proposed to assess exposure to chemical carcinogens and radionuclides in a cohort of nuclear workers. Exposures are to be attributed in the following way: a worker reports to an administrative unit and/or is monitored for exposure to ionising radiation in a specific workplace. These units are connected with a list of facilities for which exposure is assessed through a group of experts. The entire process of the FEM applied in one of the nuclear centres included in the study shows that the FEM is feasible: exposure durations as well as groups of correlated exposures are presented but have to be considered as possible rather than positive exposures. Considering the number of facilities to assess (330), ways to simplify the method are proposed: (i) the list of exposures will be restricted to 18 chemical products retained from an extensive bibliography study; (ii) for each of the following classes of facilities: nuclear reactors, fuel fabrication, high-activity laboratories and radiation chemistry, accelerators and irradiators, waste treatment, biology, reprocessing, fusion, occupational exposure will be deduced from the information already gathered by the initial method. Besides taking into account confusion factors in the low doses epidemiological study of nuclear workers, the matrix should help in the assessment of internal contamination and chemical exposures in the nuclear industry. (author)

  10. Occupational health risk assessment of volatile organic compounds emitted from the coke production unit of a steel plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Fateme; Omidi, Fariborz; Heravizadeh, Omidreza; Barati Chamgordani, Saied; Gharibi, Vahid; Sotoudeh Manesh, Akbar

    2018-03-27

    In this study, cancer and non-cancer risks of exposure to volatile organic compounds in the coke production unit of a steel plant were evaluated. To determine individual exposure to benzene, toluene, xylene and ethylbenzene, personal samples were taken from the breathing zone of workers according to National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) method 1501. Cancer and non-cancer risk assessment was performed, using US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) methods. Samples analysis showed that the concentration of benzene in the energy and biochemistry and the benzol refinement sections was higher than occupational exposure limits. The cancer risk for benzene in all sections was significantly higher than allowable limit; the non-cancer risk for benzene in all sections and toluene in the benzol refinement section was also higher than 1.0. In conclusion, the current control measures are not sufficient and should be improved for efficient control of occupational exposures.

  11. Assessment of health risks from exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beebe, G.W.

    1982-01-01

    Rapid development in the assessment of health risks from exposure to ionizing radiation has produced an impressive array of risk differentials of presumed biologic significance. In the human data these differentials involve: (1) the variety of cancer, especially its size; (2) host factors, especially age; (3) time following exposure; (4) magnitude of dose; and (5) type of radiation. From experimental work we may presume that dose-rate also plays a role, especially for sparsely ionizing radiation. Current research is extending the scope of differentials with respect to these and other variables, including cell type and concomitant environmental risk factors, and testing dose-response models suggested by experimental and theoretical work. As facts to be explained, differentials in risk may lead to hypotheses to be explored experimentally and improve our understanding of how ionizing radiation causes cancer. 74 references

  12. Radiation exposure and risk assessment for critical female body organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwell, W.; Weyland, M.D.; Hardy, A.C.

    1991-07-01

    Space radiation exposure limits for astronauts are based on recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. These limits now include the age at exposure and sex of the astronaut. A recently-developed computerized anatomical female (CAF) model is discussed in detail. Computer-generated, cross-sectional data are presented to illustrate the completeness of the CAF model. By applying ray-tracing techniques, shield distribution functions have been computed to calculate absorbed dose and dose equivalent values for a variety of critical body organs (e.g., breasts, lungs, thyroid gland, etc.) and mission scenarios. Specific risk assessments, i.e., cancer induction and mortality, are reviewed. 13 refs

  13. Ecological and human exposure assessment to PBDEs in Adige River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulivo, Monica; Suciu, Nicoleta Alina; Eljarrat, Ethel; Gatti, Marina; Capri, Ettore; Barcelo, Damia

    2018-07-01

    The interest for environmental issues and the concern resulting from the potential exposure to contaminants were the starting point to develop methodologies in order to evaluate the consequences that those might have over both the environment and human health. Considering the feature of POPs, including PBDEs, such as bioaccumulation, biomagnification, long-range transport and adverse effects even long time after exposure, risk assessment of POPs requires specific approaches and tools. In this particular context, the MERLIN-Expo tool was used to assess the aquatic environmental exposure of Adige River to PBDEs and the accumulation of PBDEs in humans through the consumption of possible contaminated local aquatic food. The aquatic food web models provided as output of the deterministic simulation the time trend of concentrations for twenty years of BDE-47 and total PBDEs, expressed using the physico-chemical properties of BDE-47, in aquatic organisms of the food web of Adige River. For BDE-47, the highest accumulated concentrations were detected for two benthic species: Thymallus thymallus and Squalius cephalus whereas the lowest concentrations were obtained for the pelagic specie Salmo trutta marmoratus. The trend obtained for the total PBDEs, calculated using the physico-chemical properties of BDE-47, follows the one of BDE-47. For human exposure, different BDE-47 and total PBDEs concentration trends between children, adolescent, adults and elderly were observed, probably correlated with the human intake of fish products in the daily diet and the ability to metabolize these contaminants. In detail, for the adolescents, adults and elderly a continuous accumulation of the target contaminants during the simulation's years was observed, whereas for children a plateau at the end of the simulation period was perceived. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Risk assessment of exposure to radon decay products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monchaux, G

    1999-07-01

    The aim of this project was to assess the risk due to inhalation of radon and its decay products using an horizontal approach across a large scale research programme. The central objective was the assessment of human risk which requires combination of several topics involving a multidisciplinary approach. In the Aerosol Studies Group, progress was achieved in improvement, calibration and automation of experimental techniques for continuous and integrated measurements of the unattached fraction f{sub p}- and equilibrium factor F- values. Measurements were performed to determine the variation of size distributions of unattached and aerosol-associated radon decay products under typical living conditions. All aerosol groups performed controlled chamber studies to understand the basic behaviour of airborne activity concentrations. Measurements were performed to determine neutralisation rates of {sup 218}Po, to understand the cluster growth with residence time and to understand the hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles. In the Modelling Group, the programme RADEP has been developed to calculate the weighted committed equivalent lung dose per unit exposure of radon progeny (H{sub w}/P{sub p}) which implements the ICRP Publication 66 Human Respiratory Tract Model (HRTM). The stochastic deposition model (IDEAL) has been compared with the deposition model used by the HRTM, and the agreement between the two deposition models was excellent. A deterministic radon progeny dosimetry model (RADOS) has been developed. This model includes all bronchial airway generations compared with the HRTM that groups the 16 airway generations into three regions. Initial calculations with RADOS show that the basal and secretory cell doses are slightly smaller compared with that of the HRTM. A sensitivity analysis has been performed that has identified those HRTM model parameters that most affect the Hw/Pp. A stochastic rat deposition model (RALMO) and a clearance model for the rat based on the

  15. Risk assessment of exposure to radon decay products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monchaux, G.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this project was to assess the risk due to inhalation of radon and its decay products using an horizontal approach across a large scale research programme. The central objective was the assessment of human risk which requires combination of several topics involving a multidisciplinary approach. In the Aerosol Studies Group, progress was achieved in improvement, calibration and automation of experimental techniques for continuous and integrated measurements of the unattached fraction f p - and equilibrium factor F- values. Measurements were performed to determine the variation of size distributions of unattached and aerosol-associated radon decay products under typical living conditions. All aerosol groups performed controlled chamber studies to understand the basic behaviour of airborne activity concentrations. Measurements were performed to determine neutralisation rates of 218 Po, to understand the cluster growth with residence time and to understand the hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles. In the Modelling Group, the programme RADEP has been developed to calculate the weighted committed equivalent lung dose per unit exposure of radon progeny (H w /P p ) which implements the ICRP Publication 66 Human Respiratory Tract Model (HRTM). The stochastic deposition model (IDEAL) has been compared with the deposition model used by the HRTM, and the agreement between the two deposition models was excellent. A deterministic radon progeny dosimetry model (RADOS) has been developed. This model includes all bronchial airway generations compared with the HRTM that groups the 16 airway generations into three regions. Initial calculations with RADOS show that the basal and secretory cell doses are slightly smaller compared with that of the HRTM. A sensitivity analysis has been performed that has identified those HRTM model parameters that most affect the Hw/Pp. A stochastic rat deposition model (RALMO) and a clearance model for the rat based on the HRTM have been

  16. Integrated fate modeling for exposure assessment of produced water on the Sable Island Bank (Scotian shelf, Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Jody A; Wells, Peter G

    2004-10-01

    Produced water is the largest waste discharge from the production phase of oil and gas wells. Produced water is a mixture of reservoir formation water and production chemicals from the separation process. This creates a chemical mixture that has several components of toxic concern, ranging from heavy metals to soluble hydrocarbons. Analysis of potential environmental effects from produced water in the Sable Island Bank region (NS, Canada) was conducted using an integrated modeling approach according to the ecological risk assessment framework. A hydrodynamic dispersion model was used to describe the wastewater plume. A second fugacity-based model was used to describe the likely plume partitioning in the local environmental media of water, suspended sediment, biota, and sediment. Results from the integrated modeling showed that the soluble benzene and naphthalene components reach chronic no-effect concentration levels at a distance of 1.0 m from the discharge point. The partition modeling indicated that low persistence was expected because of advection forces caused by tidal currents for the Sable Island Bank system. The exposure assessment for the two soluble hydrocarbon components suggests that the risks of adverse environmental effects from produced water on Sable Island Bank are low.

  17. Health impact assessment of air pollution using a dynamic exposure profile: Implications for exposure and health impact estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhondt, Stijn; Beckx, Carolien; Degraeuwe, Bart; Lefebvre, Wouter; Kochan, Bruno; Bellemans, Tom; Int Panis, Luc; Macharis, Cathy; Putman, Koen

    2012-01-01

    In both ambient air pollution epidemiology and health impact assessment an accurate assessment of the population exposure is crucial. Although considerable advances have been made in assessing human exposure outdoors, the assessments often do not consider the impact of individual travel behavior on such exposures. Population-based exposures to NO 2 and O 3 using only home addresses were compared with models that integrate all time-activity patterns—including time in commute—for Flanders and Brussels. The exposure estimates were used to estimate the air pollution impact on years of life lost due to respiratory mortality. Health impact of NO 2 using an exposure that integrates time-activity information was on average 1.2% higher than when assuming that people are always at their home address. For ozone the overall estimated health impact was 0.8% lower. Local differences could be much larger, with estimates that differ up to 12% from the exposure using residential addresses only. Depending on age and gender, deviations from the population average were seen. Our results showed modest differences on a regional level. At the local level, however, time-activity patterns indicated larger differences in exposure and health impact estimates, mainly for people living in more rural areas. These results suggest that for local analyses the dynamic approach can contribute to an improved assessment of the health impact of various types of pollution and to the understanding of exposure differences between population groups. - Highlights: ► Exposure to ambient air pollution was assessed integrating population mobility. ► This dynamic exposure was integrated into a health impact assessment. ► Differences between the dynamic and residential exposure were quantified. ► Modest differences in health impact were found at a regional level. ► At municipal level larger differences were found, influenced by gender and age.

  18. Health impact assessment of air pollution using a dynamic exposure profile: Implications for exposure and health impact estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhondt, Stijn, E-mail: stijn.dhondt@vub.ac.be [Department of Medical Sociology and Health Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 103, B-1090, Brussels (Belgium); Beckx, Carolien, E-mail: Carolien.Beckx@vito.be [Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Degraeuwe, Bart, E-mail: Bart.Degraeuwe@vito.be [Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Lefebvre, Wouter, E-mail: Wouter.Lefebvre@vito.be [Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Kochan, Bruno, E-mail: Bruno.Kochan@uhasselt.be [Transportation Research Institute, Hasselt University, Wetenschapspark 5 bus 6, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Bellemans, Tom, E-mail: Tom.Bellemans@uhasselt.be [Transportation Research Institute, Hasselt University, Wetenschapspark 5 bus 6, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Int Panis, Luc, E-mail: Luc.intpanis@vito.be [Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Transportation Research Institute, Hasselt University, Wetenschapspark 5 bus 6, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Macharis, Cathy, E-mail: cjmachar@vub.ac.be [Department MOSI-Transport and Logistics, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050, Brussels (Belgium); Putman, Koen, E-mail: kputman@vub.ac.be [Department of Medical Sociology and Health Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 103, B-1090, Brussels (Belgium); Interuniversity Centre for Health Economics Research (I-CHER), Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium)

    2012-09-15

    In both ambient air pollution epidemiology and health impact assessment an accurate assessment of the population exposure is crucial. Although considerable advances have been made in assessing human exposure outdoors, the assessments often do not consider the impact of individual travel behavior on such exposures. Population-based exposures to NO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} using only home addresses were compared with models that integrate all time-activity patterns-including time in commute-for Flanders and Brussels. The exposure estimates were used to estimate the air pollution impact on years of life lost due to respiratory mortality. Health impact of NO{sub 2} using an exposure that integrates time-activity information was on average 1.2% higher than when assuming that people are always at their home address. For ozone the overall estimated health impact was 0.8% lower. Local differences could be much larger, with estimates that differ up to 12% from the exposure using residential addresses only. Depending on age and gender, deviations from the population average were seen. Our results showed modest differences on a regional level. At the local level, however, time-activity patterns indicated larger differences in exposure and health impact estimates, mainly for people living in more rural areas. These results suggest that for local analyses the dynamic approach can contribute to an improved assessment of the health impact of various types of pollution and to the understanding of exposure differences between population groups. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Exposure to ambient air pollution was assessed integrating population mobility. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This dynamic exposure was integrated into a health impact assessment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differences between the dynamic and residential exposure were quantified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Modest differences in health impact were found at a regional level. Black

  19. Indolent B-Cell Lymphoid Malignancy in the Spleen of a Man Who Handled Benzene: Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihye Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 45-year-old man with a history of benzene exposure who developed splenic marginal zone lymphoma. For 6 years, he had worked in an enclosed space cleaning instruments with benzene. He was diagnosed with splenic marginal zone lymphoma 19 years after retirement. During his time of working in the laboratory in the 1980s, working environments were not monitored for hazardous materials. We indirectly estimated the cumulative level of past benzene exposure using job-exposure matrices and technical assumptions. Care must be taken in investigating the relevance of occupational benzene exposure in the occurrence of indolent B-cell lymphoma. Because of the long latency period and because occupational measurement data do not exist for the period during the patient's exposure, the epidemiological impact of benzene exposure may be underestimated.

  20. Assessment of exposure to shiftwork mechanisms in the general population: the development of a new job-exposure matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Renae C; Peters, Susan; Carey, Renee N; Davies, Michael J; Fritschi, Lin

    2014-10-01

    To develop a job-exposure matrix (JEM) that estimates exposure to eight variables representing different aspects of shiftwork among female workers. Occupational history and shiftwork exposure data were obtained from a population-based breast cancer case-control study. Exposure to light at night, phase shift, sleep disturbances, poor diet, lack of physical activity, lack of vitamin D, and graveyard and early morning shifts, was calculated by occupational code. Three threshold values based on the frequency of exposure were considered (10%, 30% and 50%) for use as cut-offs in determining exposure for each occupational code. JEM-based exposure classification was compared with that from the OccIDEAS application (job-specific questionnaires and assessment by rules) by assessing the effect on the OR for phase shift and breast cancer. Using data from the Australian Workplace Exposure Study, the specificity and sensitivity of the threshold values were calculated for each exposure variable. 127 of 413 occupational codes involved exposure to one or more shiftwork variables. Occupations with the highest probability of exposure shiftwork included nurses and midwives. Using the 30% threshold, the OR for the association between phase shift exposure and breast cancer was decreased and no longer statistically significant (OR=1.14, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.42). The 30% cut-off point demonstrated best specificity and sensitivity, although results varied between exposure variables. This JEM provides a set of indicators reflecting biologically plausible mechanisms for the potential impact of shiftwork on health and may provide an alternative method of exposure assessment in the absence of detailed job history and exposure data. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Probabilistic mercury multimedia exposure assessment in small children and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisset, Typhaine; Ramirez-Martinez, Alejandra; Wesolek, Nathalie; Roudot, Alain-Claude

    2013-09-01

    Emissions of mercury in the environment have been decreasing for several years. However, mercury species are still found in different media (food, water, air and breast-milk). Due to mercury toxicity and typical behaviour in children, we have conducted a mercury exposure assessment in French babies, and small children aged 0 to 36months. Consumption and mercury concentration data were chosen for the exposure assessment. The Monte Carlo technique has been used to calculate the weekly exposure dose in order to integrate inter-individual variability and parameter uncertainty. Exposure values have been compared to toxicological reference values for health risk assessment. Inorganic mercury median exposure levels ranged from 0.160 to 1.649μg/kg of body weight per week (95th percentile (P95): 0.298-2.027µg/kg bw/week); elemental mercury median exposure level in children was 0.11ng/kg bw/week (P95: 28ng/kg bw/week); and methylmercury median exposure level ranged from 0.247 to 0.273µg/kg bw/week (P95: 0.425-0.463µg/kg bw/week). Only elemental mercury by inhalation route (indoor air) and methylmercury by ingestion (fish and breast-milk) seem to lead to a health risk in small children. These results confirm the importance of assessing total mercury concentration in media like breast-milk, indoor air and dust and methylmercury level in food, other than fish and seafood. In this way, informed monitoring plan and risk assessment in an at-risk sub-population can be set. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Use of ecological exposure units in ecological risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferenbaugh, R.; Myers, O.; Gallegos, A.; Breshears, D.; Ebinger, M.

    1995-01-01

    The traditional approach to ecological risk assessment at hazardous waste sites that are being evaluated for cleanup under CERCLA or RCRA requirements is to focus on the immediate impacts at or adjacent to a site. While this may be acceptable in some situations, it is not ecologically defensible in situations where there are numerous contaminated sites in proximity to each other. In the latter case, transport from the sites, potential cumulative effects, and wide-ranging receptors must be considered. The concept of the Ecological Exposure Unit (EEU) has been proposed to address this situation. Ecological Exposure Units are defined on the basis of ecological considerations and each EEU may contain several to many contaminated sites. The initial steps involved in performing ecological risk assessments using the EEU approach include (1) selection of appropriate receptors and assessment endpoints, and (2) geographical definition of EEUs. At Los Alamos National Laboratory, receptors have been identified and EEUs have been defined for these receptors. GIS is being used as a tool to map EEUs. Receptors include representatives from threatened or endangered species, species reflecting status of ecological health, species with social or cultural relevance, and other species of concern. After definition of EEUs, cumulative impacts of all stressors at all sites within each EEU must be evaluated. The two major advantages to performing ecological risk assessments using this approach are that risk assessments are performed in a more scientifically defensible manner because they are performed on ecologically defined units and that resources are used optimally by minimizing redundant remedial activities

  3. Health risk assessment of chemical pollutants in a petrochemical complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Golbabaie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: workers in petrochemical industries are exposed to various contaminants and are facing to serious hazards, therefore a comprehensive risk assessment program for identification of hazardous chemicals that affect human health and also determination of hazardous tasks and processes is necessary.     Methods : This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in three stages. First stage consisted of identifying hazardous chemicals and determination of chemicals risk ratio, the second stage included the evaluation of worker's exposure to hazardous chemicals, and the third stage was estimating the relative risk of blood cancer caused by exposure to benzene through epidemiological studies.     Results: With regard to risk assessment method, 40 chemicals were identified in this Petrochemical Company. Among them, Benzene introduced as the most hazardous chemical. The results of the second stage showed that site man workers in noon shift work and in aromatic site with mean exposure 4.29 ppm had the highest exposure to benzene. The results of estimated leukemia relative risk stage in benzene exposure, the highest relative risk in workers related to site man workers in aromatic units with cumulative benzene exposure of 4.149 ppm. Years that obtained the relative risk of 2.3. The statistical test results showed that the relationship between worker's exposure to benzene and their job was significant(p<0/001     Conclusion : This study showed that benzene with a risk ratio of 4.5 -5 have 5th rank in risk levels and this indicates that preventative actions regarding to this hazardous and carcinogenic chemical must be started as soon as possible.

  4. Assessment of Po-210 exposure for the Italian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemente, G.F.; Renzetti, A.; Santori, G.; Breuer, F.

    1980-01-01

    Most of the natural internal dose of the general population due to alpha particles is associated with 210 Po exposure. The experimental data obtained to evaluate the levels of 210 Po exposure to members of the general Italian population and to some critical population groups exposed to high radon and daughter air concentration are summarized. The 210 Po content was measured in the following: a) daily diets; b) urinary excretions from members of the general population, both non-smokers and smokers; c) urinary excretions from workers in radioactive spas and non-uranium mines; d) teeth and bone samples from the general population. In most samples the content of 210 Pb, was also measured to assess the behaviour of 210 Po in man. A mathematical model fitting the experimental data was developed to describe the metabolism of systemic 210 Po. Four different levels of 210 Po exposure were detected according to the internal burden measured in the considered subjects. The corresponding dose rate to cortical and trabecular bone and soft tissue was evaluated. The values of the mean dose to the skeleton (cortical bone) were found to range from about 70 μGy/year for non-smokers of the general population to about 2 mGy/year for individuals working inside radioactive spas. (H.K.)

  5. Exposure assessment of workers in printed electronics workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Sohn, Eun Kyung; Ahn, Jin Soo; Ahn, Kangho; Kim, Keun Soo; Lee, Jong Hwan; Lee, Taik Min; Yu, Il Je

    2013-07-01

    Printed electronics uses converging technologies, such as printing, fine mechanics, nanotechnology, electronics and other new technologies. Consequently, printed electronics raises additional health and safety concerns to those experienced in the traditional printing industry. This study investigated two printed electronics workplaces based on a walk-through survey and personal and area sampling. All the printed electronics operations were conducted in a cleanroom. No indication of exposure to excess silver nanoparticles or carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was found. While the organic solvents were lower than current occupational exposure limits, there was a lack of engineering controls, such as local exhaust ventilation, correct enclosure and duct connections. There was also an insufficient quantity of personal protective equipment, and some organic solvents not described in the safety data sheets (SDSs) were detected in the air samples. Plus, the cleaning work, a major emissions operation, was not conducted within a hood, and the cleaning waste was not properly disposed of. Therefore, the present exposure assessment results from two printed electronics workplaces suggest that the printed electronics industry needs to take note of the occupational safety and health risks and hazards already established by the traditional printing industry, along with new risks and hazards originating from converging technologies such as nanotechnology.

  6. Assessment of complex microwaves occupational exposure in radar maintenance activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danulescu, R.

    1996-01-01

    The modern of the society teas determined the increase of thousand times greater than the natural fond of the humankind exposure to a complex combination of electromagnetic man-made fields and radiations of extremely various strength and frequencies. A special contribution to this environmental change has had in the last decade the appearance and the explosive development of the microwaves generating appliances such as radars used in a great variety of military and civilian applications and which essentially contributes to the electromagnetic pollution. In the above mentioned content which firstly interests the occupational environment, it is necessary to improve the exposure limits, as well as, the emission standards, in order to better protect the human health and well-being. From this point of view, the estimation of the microwave occupational exposure risk constitutes, alongside the health status assessment, one of the priorities of the Occupational Health because the theoretical and practical problems related to the bioeffects of this kind of radiations are far to be clarified. Our study has been carried out in a factory where one performs research, production and especially maintenance of microwaves generating devices. (author)

  7. Major national human biomonitoring programs in chemical exposure assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Choi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Human biomonitoring (HBM programs have been established in several countries around the world in order to monitor the levels of chemical exposures in the general population and qualify health risk assessment of national and international interest. Study design, population, sample collection, and chemical analysis must be considered when comparing and interpreting the results. In this review, the objectives and brief descriptions of the major national HBM programs in North America, Europe, and Asia are provided. Similarities and differences observed from a comparative analysis among these programs, including the stratification of data according to age, sex, socioeconomic background, etc. as well as the identification of chemical exposure associated with food intake, are discussed. Overall, although there are some discrepancies in the study designs among the reviewed national HBM programs, results from the programs can provide useful information such as chemical levels found within the general population of a country that can be compared. Furthermore, the results can be used by regulatory authorities or the government to enforce legislations in order to reduce the exposure of chemicals into the human body.

  8. Exposure assessment of a cyclist to particles and chemical elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, C A; Silva, J R; Faria, T; Wolterbeek, T H; Almeida, S M

    2017-05-01

    Cycle paths can be used as a route for active transportation or simply to cycle for physical activity and leisure. However, exposure to air pollutants can be boosted while cycling, in urban environments, due to the proximity to vehicular emissions and elevated breathing rates. The objective of this work was to assess the exposure of a cyclist to particles and to chemical elements by combining real-time aerosol mass concentration reading equipment and biomonitoring techniques. PM 10 and PM 2.5 were measured on three cycle paths located in Lisbon, during weekdays and weekends and during rush hours and off-peak hours resulting in a total of 60 campaigns. Lichens were exposed along cycle paths for 3 months, and their element contents were measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis using the k 0 methodology (k 0 -INAA). Using a bicycle commute route of lower traffic intensity and avoiding rush hours or other times with elevated vehicular congestion facilitate a reduction in exposure to pollutants. The implementation of cycle paths in cities is important to stimulate physical activity and active transportation; however, it is essential to consider ambient air and pollutant sources to create safer infrastructures.

  9. Mercury contamination and exposure assessment of fishery products in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hye-Ran; Kim, Na-Young; Hwang, Lae-Hong; Park, Ju-Sung; Kim, Jung-Hun

    2015-01-01

    In this study, total (T-Hg) and methyl mercury (Me-Hg) contamination was investigated in fishery products including canned fish, fish sauces, dried bonito and frozen tuna sashimi, collected from retail markets in Korea, to assess dietary exposure. Direct mercury analyser and gas chromatography-electron captured detector were employed to measure T-Hg and Me-Hg, respectively. The highest T-Hg and Me-Hg contamination was present in tuna sashimi, followed by dried bonito, respectively. Canned tuna showed more frequent detection and higher content than other canned fishery products. The weekly exposure estimate indicates that exposure to mercury from fishery products is safe, showing 2.59% provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) for T-Hg, 1.82% PTWI for Me-Hg and 4.16% reference dose for Me-Hg. However, it should be addressed to monitor the mercury contamination in fish and fishery products regularly, to safeguard vulnerable population such as children, to limit intake of these food products.

  10. Assessment of exposure to chemical agents in in fill material for artificial turf soccer pitches: development and implementation of a survey protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellano, P.; Proietto, A.R.; Gordiani, A.; Ferrante, R.; Tranfo, G.; Paci, E.; Pigini, D.

    2008-01-01

    Health concerns over the composition of the in fill material used to construct artificial turf pitches (e.g., for soccer and rugby), raised the need to develop a specific procedure to assess the risks of human exposure to pollutants that may be released by these materials. The aim of this paper was to develop and implement a survey protocol to assess exposure of artificial turf pitches users (e.g., coaches and maintenance personnel) through environmental and biological monitoring of toxic and carcinogenic substances contained in some types of in fill materials for artificial turf pitches. The exposure was assessed by personal and environmental sampling of hazardous substances - particularly of benzene, toluene, xylene (BTX), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals (lead, cadmium, chromium, tin and zinc) - for comparison with the occupational exposure limit values as per the Italian regulations and the lists of the American Conference of Industrial Governmental Hygienists (ACGIH). In addition, biological monitoring was performed for the quantitative and qualitative determination of the exposure bio markers of the substances of interest in potentially exposed individuals and in control group. Environmental sampling was performed on an outdoor, artificial turf soccer pitch in a sports facility in Rome characterized by recycled in fill material (rubber granules from recycled tyres, without any further processing); suction pumps were used as environmental samplers to collect the samples (located in areas of the soccer pitch deemed representative of exposure conditions) and personal samplers (in this latter case exclusively for monitoring PAHs) worn by the coaches during training sessions. For the various substances the following sampling systems were used: vials for BTX (benzene, toluene, and xylene), filters for metals and combined systems (filter plus vial) for the PAHs. The extracts were then analyzed by various instrumental techniques such as gas

  11. Improving the relevance and efficiency of human exposure assessments within the process of regulatory risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Money, Chris

    2018-01-24

    The process for undertaking exposure assessments varies dependent on its purpose. But for exposure assessments to be relevant and accurate, they are reliant on access to reliable information on key exposure determinants. Acquiring such information is seldom straightforward and can take significant time and resources. This articles examines how the application of tiered and targeted approaches to information acquisition, within the context of European human health risk assessments, can not only lead to improvements in the efficiency and effectiveness of the process but also in the confidence of stakeholders in its outputs. The article explores how the benefits might be further improved through the coordination of such activities, as well as those areas that represent barriers to wider international harmonisation.

  12. Monitor for detecting and assessing exposure to airborne nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marra, Johan; Voetz, Matthias; Kiesling, Heinz-Juergen

    2010-01-01

    An important safety aspect of the workplace environment concerns the severity of its air pollution with nanoparticles (NP; <100 nm) and ultrafine particles (UFP; <300 nm). Depending on their size and chemical nature, exposure to these particles through inhalation can be hazardous because of their intrinsic ability to deposit in the deep lung regions and the possibility to subsequently pass into the blood stream. Recommended safety measures in the nanomaterials industry are pragmatic, aiming at exposure minimization in general, and advocating continuous control by monitoring both the workplace air pollution level and the personal exposure to airborne NPs. This article describes the design and operation of the Aerasense NP monitor that enables intelligence gathering in particular with respect to airborne particles in the 10-300 nm size range. The NP monitor provides real time information about their number concentration, average size, and surface areas per unit volume of inhaled air that deposit in the various compartments of the respiratory tract. The monitor's functionality relies on electrical charging of airborne particles and subsequent measurements of the total particle charge concentration under various conditions. Information obtained with the NP monitor in a typical workplace environment has been compared with simultaneously recorded data from a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) capable of measuring the particle size distribution in the 11-1086 nm size range. When the toxicological properties of the engineered and/or released particles in the workplace are known, personal exposure monitoring allows a risk assessment to be made for a worker during each workday, when the workplace-produced particles can be distinguished from other (ambient) particles.

  13. Systematic evaluation of observational methods assessing biomechanical exposures at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takala, Esa-Pekka; Irmeli, Pehkonen; Forsman, Mikael

    2009-01-01

    by sorting the methods according to the several items evaluated.   Numerous methods have been developed to assess physical workload (biomechanical exposures) in order to identify hazards leading to musculoskeletal disorders, to monitor the effects of ergonomic changes, and for research. No indvidual method...... between observers Potential users NIOSH Lifting Eq. NA X - O, R Arbouw M - - O ACGIH Lifting TLV M - - O MAC - - M O, W(?) ManTRA - - - O, R(?),W(?) NZ Code for MH - - - O, W(?) Washington state ergonomic rule M X M O, W(?) BackEST ML - M R   Correspondence with valid reference: HM = High to moderate, L......), and Washington state model. MAC (UK), ManTRA (Australia), and New Zealand code are widely used for the assessment of risks in MMH but we did not found formal studies on validity of these methods. The inter-observer repeatability of MAC and the Washington state model has been found to be moderate. Back...

  14. Assessment of soil lead exposure in children in Shenyang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, H.M.; Wang, J.D.; Zhang, X.L.

    2006-01-01

    Soil lead pollution is serious in Shenyang, China. The paper brings together the soil work, the bioaccessibility, and the blood lead data to assess the soil lead exposure in children in Shenyang, China. Approximately 15.25% of the samples were above China Environment Protection Agency guideline concentration for soil Pb to protect human from health risk (350 mg kg -1 ). Pb concentrations varied among use scenarios. The main lead contamination sources are industry emission and automobile exhaust. Bioaccessibility also varied among use scenarios. Children, who ingested soil from industrial area, public parks, kindergarten playground, and commercial area, are more susceptible to soil lead toxicity. The industrial area soil samples presented higher bioaccessibility compared to the other use scenario soil samples contaminated by automobile exhaust. The result also suggested a most significant linear relationship between the level of Pb contamination and the amount of Pb mobilized from soil into ingestion juice. Soil pH seemed to have insignificant influence on bioaccessibility in the present study. Bioaccessibility was mainly controlled by other factors that are not investigated in this study. A linear relationship between children blood lead and soil intestinal bioaccessibility was present in the study. Children who are 4-5 years old are more likely to demonstrate the significant relationship between soil lead bioaccessibility and blood lead as their behaviors place them at greatest risk of soil lead toxicity, and their blood lead levels are more likely to represent recent exposure. - Children were exposed to soil lead and the exposure was assessed by bioaccessibility using in vitro digestion model in a modified version

  15. Assessing Climate Change Impacts on Wildfire Exposure in Mediterranean Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Olga M; Salis, Michele; Ager, Alan A; Arca, Bachisio; Alcasena, Fermin J; Monteiro, Antonio T; Finney, Mark A; Del Giudice, Liliana; Scoccimarro, Enrico; Spano, Donatella

    2017-10-01

    We used simulation modeling to assess potential climate change impacts on wildfire exposure in Italy and Corsica (France). Weather data were obtained from a regional climate model for the period 1981-2070 using the IPCC A1B emissions scenario. Wildfire simulations were performed with the minimum travel time fire spread algorithm using predicted fuel moisture, wind speed, and wind direction to simulate expected changes in weather for three climatic periods (1981-2010, 2011-2040, and 2041-2070). Overall, the wildfire simulations showed very slight changes in flame length, while other outputs such as burn probability and fire size increased significantly in the second future period (2041-2070), especially in the southern portion of the study area. The projected changes fuel moisture could result in a lengthening of the fire season for the entire study area. This work represents the first application in Europe of a methodology based on high resolution (250 m) landscape wildfire modeling to assess potential impacts of climate changes on wildfire exposure at a national scale. The findings can provide information and support in wildfire management planning and fire risk mitigation activities. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  16. Assessment of respirable dust exposures in an opencast coal mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onder, M; Yigit, E

    2009-05-01

    All major opencast mining activities produce dust. The major operations that produce dust are drilling, blasting, loading, unloading, and transporting. Dust not only deteriorates the environmental air quality in and around the mining site but also creates serious health hazards. Therefore, assessment of dust levels that arise from various opencast mining operations is required to prevent and minimize the health risks. To achieve this objective, an opencast coal mining area was selected to generate site-specific emission data and collect respirable dust measurement samples. The study covered various mining activities in different locations including overburden loading, stock yard, coal loading, drilling, and coal handling plant. The dust levels were examined to assess miners' exposure to respirable dust in each of the opencast mining areas from 1994 to 2005. The data obtained from the dust measurement studies were evaluated by using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey-Kramer procedure. The analyses were performed by using Minitab 14 statistical software. It was concluded that, drilling operations produce higher dust concentration levels and thus, drill operators may have higher incidence of respiratory disorders related to exposure to dust in their work environment.

  17. A structured observational method to assess dermal exposure to manufactured nanoparticles: DREAM as an initial assessment tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duuren-Stuurman, B. van; Pelzer, J.; Moehlmann, C.; Berges, M.; Bard, D.; Wake, D.; Mark, D.; Jankowska, E.; Brouwer, D.

    2010-01-01

    Preliminary results of inventories of exposure scenarios for nanomaterials have indicated possible dermal exposure. Within the NANOSH project focused on occupational safety and health aspects of nanotechnology a shortened version of the observational DeRmal Exposure AssessMent (DREAM) method was

  18. Developing and evaluating distributions for probabilistic human exposure assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddalena, Randy L.; McKone, Thomas E.

    2002-08-01

    This report describes research carried out at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to assist the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in developing a consistent yet flexible approach for evaluating the inputs to probabilistic risk assessments. The U.S. EPA Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (OERR) recently released Volume 3 Part A of Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS), as an update to the existing two-volume set of RAGS. The update provides policy and technical guidance on performing probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). Consequently, EPA risk managers and decision-makers need to review and evaluate the adequacy of PRAs for supporting regulatory decisions. A critical part of evaluating a PRA is the problem of evaluating or judging the adequacy of input distributions PRA. Although the overarching theme of this report is the need to improve the ease and consistency of the regulatory review process, the specific objectives are presented in two parts. The objective of Part 1 is to develop a consistent yet flexible process for evaluating distributions in a PRA by identifying the critical attributes of an exposure factor distribution and discussing how these attributes relate to the task-specific adequacy of the input. This objective is carried out with emphasis on the perspective of a risk manager or decision-maker. The proposed evaluation procedure provides consistency to the review process without a loss of flexibility. As a result, the approach described in Part 1 provides an opportunity to apply a single review framework for all EPA regions and yet provide the regional risk manager with the flexibility to deal with site- and case-specific issues in the PRA process. However, as the number of inputs to a PRA increases, so does the complexity of the process for calculating, communicating and managing risk. As a result, there is increasing effort required of both the risk professionals performing the analysis and the risk manager

  19. Assessment of multiple frequency ELF electric and magnetic field exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitgeb, N

    2008-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields both in daily life and at workplaces exhibit increasingly complex frequency spectra. Present spectral assessment rules proved to be too conservative for health risk assessment. This is because they are based on the assumption that cells would react like linear systems in terms of responding to a sum of frequencies by a sum of independent responses to each individual frequency. Based on numerical investigations with the Hodgkin-Huxley and the Frankenhaeuser-Huxley nerve cell models, it could be shown that accounting for the nonlinear behaviour of cellular excitation processes avoids considerable overestimation of simultaneous exposures to multiple frequency ELF electric and magnetic fields. Besides this, it could be shown that the role of phase relationships is less important than that assumed so far. The present assessment rules lead to non-compliances of marketed electric appliances. For general application, a nonlinear biology-based assessment (NBBA) rule has been proposed, validated and proven advantageous compared with ICNIRP's rule. While staying conservative it avoids unnecessary overestimation and demonstrates compliance even in cases of suspected non-conformities. It is up to responsible bodies to decide upon the adoption of this proposal and the potential need for implementing additional or reducing the already incorporated safety factors

  20. Emissions from Electronic Cigarettes: Assessing Vapers' Intake of Toxic Compounds, Secondhand Exposures, and the Associated Health Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logue, Jennifer M; Sleiman, Mohamad; Montesinos, V Nahuel; Russell, Marion L; Litter, Marta I; Benowitz, Neal L; Gundel, Lara A; Destaillats, Hugo

    2017-08-15

    E-cigarettes likely represent a lower risk to health than traditional combustion cigarettes, but they are not innocuous. Recently reported emission rates of potentially harmful compounds were used to assess intake and predict health impacts for vapers and bystanders exposed passively. Vapers' toxicant intake was calculated for scenarios in which different e-liquids were used with various vaporizers, battery power settings and vaping regimes. For a high rate of 250 puff day -1 using a typical vaping regime and popular tank devices with battery voltages from 3.8 to 4.8 V, users were predicted to inhale formaldehyde (up to 49 mg day -1 ), acrolein (up to 10 mg day -1 ) and diacetyl (up to 0.5 mg day -1 ), at levels that exceeded U.S. occupational limits. Formaldehyde intake from 100 daily puffs was higher than the amount inhaled by a smoker consuming 10 conventional cigarettes per day. Secondhand exposures were predicted for two typical indoor scenarios: a home and a bar. Contributions from vaping to air pollutant concentrations in the home did not exceed the California OEHHA 8-h reference exposure levels (RELs), except when a high emitting device was used at 4.8 V. In that extreme scenario, the contributions from vaping amounted to as much as 12 μg m -3 formaldehyde and 2.6 μg m -3 acrolein. Pollutant concentrations in bars were modeled using indoor volumes, air exchange rates and the number of hourly users reported in the literature for U.S. bars in which smoking was allowed. Predicted contributions to indoor air levels were higher than those in the residential scenario. Formaldehyde (on average 135 μg m -3 ) and acrolein (28 μg m -3 ) exceeded the acute 1-h exposure REL for the highest emitting vaporizer/voltage combination. Predictions for these compounds also exceeded the 8-h REL in several bars when less intense vaping conditions were considered. Benzene concentrations in a few bars approached the 8-h REL, and diacetyl levels were close to the lower limit

  1. Quantifying human exposure to air pollution - moving from static monitoring to spatio-temporally resolved personal exposure assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinle, Susanne; Reis, Stefan; Sabel, Clive E

    2013-01-01

    exposure studies to accurately assess human health risks. ? We discuss potential and shortcomings of methods and tools with a focus on how their development influences study design. ? We propose a novel conceptual model for integrated health impact assessment of human exposure to air pollutants. ? We......Quantifying human exposure to air pollutants is a challenging task. Ambient concentrations of air pollutants at potentially harmful levels are ubiquitous in urban areas and subject to high spatial and temporal variability. At the same time, every individual has unique activity-patterns. Exposure...... results from multifaceted relationships and interactions between environmental and human systems, adding complexity to the assessment process. Traditionally, approaches to quantify human exposure have relied on pollutant concentrations from fixed air quality network sites and static population...

  2. Short-term monitoring of benzene air concentration in an urban area: a preliminary study of application of Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test to assess pollutant impact on global environment and indoor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, Maria Chiara; De Felice, Marco; Morlino, Roberta; Fuselli, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    In step with the need to develop statistical procedures to manage small-size environmental samples, in this work we have used concentration values of benzene (C6H6), concurrently detected by seven outdoor and indoor monitoring stations over 12 000 minutes, in order to assess the representativeness of collected data and the impact of the pollutant on indoor environment. Clearly, the former issue is strictly connected to sampling-site geometry, which proves critical to correctly retrieving information from analysis of pollutants of sanitary interest. Therefore, according to current criteria for network-planning, single stations have been interpreted as nodes of a set of adjoining triangles; then, a) node pairs have been taken into account in order to estimate pollutant stationarity on triangle sides, as well as b) node triplets, to statistically associate data from air-monitoring with the corresponding territory area, and c) node sextuplets, to assess the impact probability of the outdoor pollutant on indoor environment for each area. Distributions from the various node combinations are all non-Gaussian, in the consequently, Kruskal-Wallis (KW) non-parametric statistics has been exploited to test variability on continuous density function from each pair, triplet and sextuplet. Results from the above-mentioned statistical analysis have shown randomness of site selection, which has not allowed a reliable generalization of monitoring data to the entire selected territory, except for a single "forced" case (70%); most important, they suggest a possible procedure to optimize network design.

  3. Short-term monitoring of benzene air concentration in an urban area: a preliminary study of application of Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test to assess pollutant impact on global environment and indoor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Mura

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In step with the need to develop statistical procedures to manage small-size environmental samples, in this work we have used concentration values of benzene (C6H6, concurrently detected by seven outdoor and indoor monitoring stations over 12 000 minutes, in order to assess the representativeness of collected data and the impact of the pollutant on indoor environment. Clearly, the former issue is strictly connected to sampling-site geometry, which proves critical to correctly retrieving information from analysis of pollutants of sanitary interest. Therefore, according to current criteria for network-planning, single stations have been interpreted as nodes of a set of adjoining triangles; then, a node pairs have been taken into account in order to estimate pollutant stationarity on triangle sides, as well as b node triplets, to statistically associate data from air-monitoring with the corresponding territory area, and c node sextuplets, to assess the impact probability of the outdoor pollutant on indoor environment for each area. Distributions from the various node combinations are all non-Gaussian, in the consequently, Kruskal-Wallis (KW non-parametric statistics has been exploited to test variability on continuous density function from each pair, triplet and sextuplet. Results from the above-mentioned statistical analysis have shown randomness of site selection, which has not allowed a reliable generalization of monitoring data to the entire selected territory, except for a single "forced" case (70%; most important, they suggest a possible procedure to optimize network design.

  4. Assessment of Mycotoxin Exposure in Breastfeeding Mothers with Celiac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Valitutti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the risk of mycotoxin exposure (aflatoxin M1, ochratoxin A, and zearalenone in celiac disease (CD breastfeeding mothers and healthy control mothers, as well as in their offspring, by quantifying these contaminants in breast milk. Study design: Thirty-five breastfeeding women with CD on a gluten-free diet and 30 healthy breastfeeding controls were recruited. Milk sampling was performed three times per day for three consecutive days. Mycotoxin content was investigated by an analytical method using immunoaffinity column clean-up and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with fluorometric detection. Results: Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 was detected in 37% of CD group samples (mean ± SD = 0.012 ± 0.011 ng/mL; range = 0.003–0.340 ng/mL. The control group showed lower mean AFM1 concentration levels in 24% of the analyzed samples (0.009 ± 0.007 ng/mL; range = 0.003–0.067 ng/mL, ANOVA on ranks, p-value < 0.01. Ochratoxin A and zearalenone did not differ in both groups. Conclusion: Breast milk AFM1 contamination for both groups is lower than the European safety threshold. However, the estimated exposures of infants from CD mothers and control mothers was much higher (≃15 times and ≃11 times, respectively than the threshold set by the joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA. Since incongruities exist between JECFA and the European Union standard, a novel regulatory review of the available data on this topic is desirable. Protecting babies from a neglected risk of high AFM1 exposure requires prompt regulatory and food-control policies.

  5. ASSESSING CHILDREN'S EXPOSURES TO PESTICIDES: AN IMPORTANT APPLICATION OF THE STOCHASTIC HUMAN EXPOSURE AND DOSE SIMULATION MODEL (SHEDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurately quantifying human exposures and doses of various populations to environmental pollutants is critical for the Agency to assess and manage human health risks. For example, the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 (FQPA) requires EPA to consider aggregate human exposure ...

  6. Measurement of DNA repair deficiency in workers exposed to benzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallberg, L.M.; Au, W.W.; El Zein, R.; Grossman, L.

    1996-01-01

    We hypothesize that chronic exposure to environmental toxicants can induce genetic damage causing DNA repair deficiencies and leading to the postulated mutator phenotype of carcinogenesis. To test our hypothesis, a host cell reactivation (HCR) assay was used in which pCMVcat plasmids were damaged with UV light (175, 350 J/m 2 UV light), inactivating the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene, and then transfected into lymphocytes. Transfected lymphocytes were therefore challenged to repair the damaged plasmids, reactivating the reporter gene. Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and Gaucher cell lines were used as positive and negative controls for the HCR assay. The Gaucher cell line repaired normally but XP cell lines demonstrated lower repair activity. Additionally, the repair activity of the XP heterozygous cell line showed intermediate repair compared to the homozygous XP and Gaucher cells. We used HCR to measure the effects of benzene exposure on 12 exposed and 8 nonexposed workers from a local benzene plant. Plasmids 175 J/m 2 and 350 J/m 2 were repaired with a mean frequency of 66% and 58%, respectively, in control workers compared to 71% and 62% in exposed workers. Conversely, more of the exposed workers were grouped into the reduced repair category than controls. These differences in repair capacity between exposed and control workers were, however, not statistically significant. The lack of significant differences between the exposed and control groups may be due to extremely low exposure to benzene (<0.3 ppm), small population size, or a lack of benzene genotoxicity at these concentrations. These results are consistent with a parallel hprt gene mutation assay. 26 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Measurements for assessing the exposure from 3G femtocells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boursianis, Achilles; Vanias, Pantelis; Samaras, Theodoros

    2012-06-01

    Femtocells are low-power access points, which combine mobile and broadband technologies. The main operation of a femtocell is to function as a miniature base station unit in an indoor environment and to connect to the operator's network through a broadband phone line or a coaxial cable line. This study provides the first experimental measurements and results in Greece for the assessment of exposure to a femtocell access point (FAP) indoors. Using a mobile handset with the appropriate software, power level measurements of the transmitted (Tx) and the received by the mobile handset signal were performed in two different and typical (home and office) environments. Moreover, radiofrequency electric field strength and frequency selective measurements with a radiation meter (SRM-3000) were carried out in the proximity of the FAP installation point. The cumulative distribution functions of the Tx power at most cases (except one) show that in 90% of all points the power of the mobile phone was lower by at least 7 dB during FAP operation. At a distance of ∼1 m from the FAP (in its main beam), power flux density measurements show that there is very little difference between the two situations (FAP ON and OFF). As a conclusion, the use of femtocells indoors improves reception quality, reduces the Tx power of the user's mobile terminal and results in an indiscernible increase of the electromagnetic field in front of the unit, at values that are extremely low compared with reference levels of exposure guidelines.

  8. Radiation exposure assessment using cytological and molecular biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakely, W.F

    2001-07-01

    Chromosome aberration analysis is the conventional means of assessing radiation exposure. The Armed Forces Radiobiological Research Institute recently established an alternative method to measure radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in interphase cells. The method uses commercially available chemical agents to induce premature chromosome condensation in 'resting' G{sub 0} human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Then specific whole-chromosome DNA probes are used with fluorescence in situ hybridisation to detect aberrant cells rapidly over a broad dose range. In new research, the real-time fluorogenic 5'-nuclease, or TaqMan{sup TM}, polymerase chain reaction assay is being used to identify radiation-responsive molecular biomarkers, including gene expression targets and DNA mutations. The goal is to establish rapid, precise, high-throughput assay systems that are practical in a variety of radiation exposure scenarios. The new methodologies that have a number of other applications, together with diagnostic software now in development, could improve the United States military's emergency response capability and medical readiness. (author)

  9. External exposure assessment in dwelling built with phosphogypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villaverde, Freddy Lazo

    2008-01-01

    In this study it was evaluated the viability of the use of phosphogypsum plates as a building material in the dwelling construction. Thus, the effective dose due to external gamma exposure was assessed through the 226 Ra, 232 Th, 210 Pb e 40 K activity concentration in phosphogypsum plates. Samples of this material were analyzed by high resolution gamma spectrometry for their natural radionuclide activity concentration. The radium equivalent activity and extern ai and inter nai hazard indices were also calculated. The plates were made with phosphogypsum from fertilizer industries located in Cajati, Cubatao and Uberaba. The samples were identified according to phosphogypsum origin, Cajati (CA), Cubatao (CT) and Uberaba (UB). The activity concentrations results varied from 15.9 to 392 Bq kg -1 for 226 Ra, 26.1 to 253 Bq kg -1 for 232 Th, and 27.4 to 852 Bq kg -1 for 210 Pb. The results of 40 K were lower than 81 Bq kg -1 . The annual effective dose was obtained through the dosimetric model with reference standard room concept, the results were 0.02 mSv y -1 for a house built with phosphogypsum from origin CA, 0.2 mSvy -1 for CT phosphogypsum and 0.14 mSvy -1 for UB phosphogypsum, everything the effective doses were below 1 mSvy -1 , an annual effective dose limit for public exposure by International Commission on Radiological Protection. (author)

  10. Assessment of predictive dermal exposure to chemicals in the work environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Jankowska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of dermal exposure to chemicals in the work environment is problematic, mainly as a result of the lack of measurement data on occupational exposure to chemicals. Due to common prevalence of occupational skin exposure and its health consequences it is necessary to look for efficient solutions allowing for reliable exposure assessment. The aim of the study is to present predictive models used to assess non-measured dermal exposure, as well as to acquaint Polish users with the principles of the selected model functioning. This paper presents examples of models to assist the employer in the the assessment of occupational exposure associated with the skin contact with chemicals, developed in European Union (EU countries, as well as in countries outside the EU. Based on the literature data dermal exposure models EASE (Estimation and Assessment of Substance Exposure, COSHH Essentials (Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations, DREAM (Dermal Exposure Assessment Method, Stoffenmanager , ECETOC TRA (European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals Targeted Risk Assessment, MEASE (Metal’s EASE, PHED (Pesticide Handlers Exposure Database, DERM (Dermal Exposure Ranking Method and RISKOFDERM (Risk Assessment of Occupational Dermal Exposure to Chemicals were briefly described. Moreover the characteristics of RISKOFDERM, guidelines for its use, information on input and output data were further detailed. Problem of full work shift dermal exposure assessment is described. An example of exposure assessment using RISKOFDERM and effectiveness evaluation to date were also presented. When no measurements are available, RISKOFDERM allows dermal exposure assessment and thus can improve the risk assessment quality and effectiveness of dermal risk management. Med Pr 2017;68(4:557–569

  11. Muonium radicals in benzene-styrene mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, B.W.; Stadlbauer, J.W.; Walker, D.C.

    1984-01-01

    Muonium radicals were observed through their μ + SR precession frequencies in high transverse magnetic fields in pure benzene, pure styrene and their mixtures, all as liquids at room temperature. In benzene-styrene mixtures, the radicals obtained in each pure liquid are both present, so no slow (10 -9 -10 -5 s) intermolecular exchange occurs; but strong selectivity was found with the formation of the radical from styrene being about eight-times more probable than the radical from benzene. (Auth.)

  12. Assessing exposure to cosmic radiation aboard aircraft: the SIEVERT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottolier-Depois, J.F.; Clairand, I.; Blanchard, P.; Dessarps, P.; Lantos, P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The study of naturally-occurring radiation and its associated risk is one of the preoccupations of bodies responsible for radiation protection. Cosmic particle flux is significantly higher on board aircraft that at ground level. Furthermore, its intensity depends on solar activity and eruptions. Due to their professional activity, flight crews and frequent flyers may receive an annual dose of some milliSieverts. This is why the European directive adopted in 1996 requires the aircraft operators to assess the dose and to inform their flight crews about the risk. The effective dose is to be estimated using various experimental and calculation means. In France, the computerized system for flight assessment of exposure to cosmic radiation in air transport (SIEVERT) is delivered to airlines for assisting them in the application of the European directive. This dose assessment tool was developed by the French General Directorate of Civil Aviation (DGAC) and partners: the Institute for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), the Paris Observatory and the French Institute for Polar Research - PaulEmile Victor (IPEV). This professional service is available since more than two years on an Internet server accessible to companies with a public section. The system provides doses that consider the routes flown by aircraft. Various results obtained are presented: experimental validation, in particular for the ground level event model (large solar eruption), and statistics on routes and personal doses. (author)

  13. Assessing exposure to cosmic radiation aboard aircraft: the Sievert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottollier-Depois, J.F.; Biau, A.; Clairand, I.; Saint-Lo, D.; Valero, M.; Blanchard, P.; Dessarps, P.; Lantos, P.

    2003-01-01

    The study of naturally-occurring radiation and its associated risk is one of the preoccupations of bodies responsible for radiation protection. Cosmic particle flux is significantly higher on board aircraft that at ground level. Furthermore, its intensity depends on solar activity and eruptions. Due to their professional activity, flight crews and frequent flyers may receive an annual dose of some milli-sieverts. This is why the European directive adopted in 1996 requires the aircraft operators to assess the dose and to inform their flight crews about the risk. The effective dose is to be estimated using various experimental and calculation means. In France, the computerized system for flight assessment of exposure to cosmic radiation in air transport (SIEVERT) is delivered to airlines for assisting them in the application of the European directive. This dose assessment tool was developed by the French General Directorate of Civil Aviation (DGAC) and partners: the Institute for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), the Paris Observatory and the French Institute for Polar Research - Paul-Emile Victor (IPEV). This professional service is available on an Internet server accessible to companies with a public section. The system provides doses that consider the routes flown by aircraft Various results obtained are presented. (authors)

  14. Exposure assessment procedures in presence of wideband digital wireless networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinchero, D.

    2009-01-01

    The article analyses the applicability of traditional methods, as well as recently proposed techniques, to the exposure assessment of electromagnetic field generated by wireless transmitters. As is well known, a correct measurement of the electromagnetic field is conditioned by the complexity of the signal, which requires dedicated instruments or specifically developed extrapolation techniques. Nevertheless, it is also influenced by the typology of the deployment of the transmitting and receiving stations, which varies from network to network. These aspects have been intensively analysed in the literature and several cases of study are available for review. The present article collects the most recent analyses and discusses their applicability to different scenarios, typical of the main wireless networking applications: broadcasting services, mobile cellular networks and data access provisioning infrastructures. (authors)

  15. Assessment of patient exposure for barium enema examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednarek, D.R.; Rudin, S.; Wong, R.

    1983-01-01

    Methods are described for the assessment of patient exposure during clinical fluoroscopic procedures. Values of the roentgen-area-product (RAP) and their distribution throughout the examination are presented for both single-contrast and double-contrast barium enema studies. The double-contrast procedure was measured to give 50% more radiation to the patient than the single-contrast procedure when the same size optical aperture is used between the intensifier and TV pick-up tube. However, it was possible to decrease the fluoroscopic RAP value by over a factor of two for the double-contrast procedure without an adverse clinical effect by increasing the area of the aperture diaphragm

  16. Quality control for exposure assessment in epidemiological studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornkessel, C; Blettner, M; Breckenkamp, J

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of an epidemiological study, dosemeters were used for the assessment of radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure. To check the correct dosemeter's performance in terms of consistency of recorded field values over the entire study period, a quality control strategy...... was developed. In this paper, the concept of quality control and its results is described. From the 20 dosemeters used, 19 were very stable and reproducible, with deviations of a maximum of +/-1 dB compared with their initial state. One device was found to be faulty and its measurement data had to be excluded...... from the analysis. As a result of continuous quality control procedures, the confidence in the measurements obtained during the field work was strengthened significantly....

  17. Source-to-exposure assessment with the Pangea multi-scale framework – case study in Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wannaz, Cedric; Fantke, Peter; Lane, Joe

    2017-01-01

    that has a more local impact. Decomposing exposure per industrial sector shows petroleum and steel industry as the highest contributing industrial sectors for benzene, whereas the electricity sector and petroleum refining contribute most to formaldehyde exposures. The source apportionment identifies...... measures. This paper aims to extend the Pangea spatial multi-scale multimedia framework to evaluate source-to-receptor relationships of industrial sources of organic pollutants in Australia. Pangea solves a large compartmental system in parallel by block to determine arrays of masses at steady...

  18. Assessment of occupational exposure to gaseous peracetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugheri, Stefano; Bonari, Alessandro; Pompilio, Ilenia; Colpo, Marco; Montalti, Manfredi; Mucci, Nicola; Arcangeli, Giulio

    2018-02-07

    In order to assess short-term exposure to peracetic acid (PAA) in disinfection processes, the Authors compared 4 industrial hygiene monitoring methods to evaluate their proficiency in measuring airborne PAA concentrations. An active sampling by basic silica gel impregnated with methyl p-tolyl sulfoxide (MTSO), a passive solid phase micro-extraction technique using methyl p-tolyl sulfide (MTS) as on-fiber derivatization reagent, an electrochemical direct-reading PAA monitor, and a novel visual test strip PAA detector doped with 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonate were evaluated and tested over the range of 0.06-16 mg/m3, using dynamically generated PAA air concentrations. The linear regression analysis of linearity and accuracy showed that the 4 methods were suitable for PAA monitoring. Peracetic acid monitoring in several use applications showed that the PAA concentration (1.8 mg/m3) was immediately dangerous to life or health as proposed by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, and was frequently exceeded in wastewater treatment (up to 7.33 mg/m3), and sometimes during food and beverage processes and hospital high-level disinfection operations (up to 6.8 mg/m3). The methods were suitable for the quick assessment of acute exposure in PAA environmental monitoring and can assist in improving safety and air quality in the workplace where this disinfectant is used. These monitoring methods allowed the evaluation of changes to work out practices to reduce PAA vapor concentrations during the operations when workers are potentially overexposed to this strong antioxidant agent. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  19. Mutagenic potential assessment associated with human exposure to natural radioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Alexandre Endres; Navoni, Julio Alejandro; de Oliveira Galvão, Marcos Felipe; Garcia, Anuska Conde Fagundes Soares; do Amaral, Viviane Souza; Petta, Reinaldo Antônio; Campos, Thomas Ferreira da Costa; Panosso, Renata; Quinelato, Antônio Luiz; de Medeiros, Sílvia Regina Batistuzzo

    2017-01-01

    Lucrécia city, known to harbor a high cancer rate, is located in a semiarid region characterized by the presence of mineral reservoirs, facing a high exposure to metal and natural radioactivity. The present study aimed to assess the environmental scenario at a semiarid region located in Northeastern Brazil. Metal concentration, alpha and beta radiation, and cyanobacteria content in tap water along with indoor radon and gamma emitters (U, K and Th) concentrations were measured. In addition, mutagenic and nuclear instability effects were assessed using buccal micronucleus cytome assay. The study included five samplings corresponding to a period between 2007 and 2009. Drinking water from Lucrécia city presented levels of Mn, Ni and Cr along with cyanobacteria in concentrations one to four times higher than regulatory guidelines considered. Furthermore, high levels of all the tested radionuclides were found. A high percentage of the houses included in this study presented indoor radon concentrations over 100 Bq m -3 . The mean annual effective dose from Lucrécia houses was six times higher than observed in a control region. The levels of exposure in most of the Lucrécia houses were classified as middle to high. A significant mutagenic effect, represented as an increase of micronuclei (MN) frequency and nuclear abnormalities as nuclear buds (NB), binucleated cells (BN), and pyknotic cells (PYC) were found. The results obtained highlight the role of high background radioactivity on the observed mutagenic effect and could help to explain the exacerbated cancer rate reported in this locality. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Quantitative self-assessment of exposure to solvents among shoe repair men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertsenberg, S.; Brouwer, D.; Lurvink, M.; Rubingh, C.; Rijnders, E.; Tielemans, E.

    2007-01-01

    Self-assessment of exposure (SAE) refers to any exposure assessment methodology wherein the worker takes an active role in establishing his or her exposure status. The objective of this study was to investigate the reliability and feasibility of SAE approaches among shoe repair workers collecting

  1. Evaluation of accelerated UV and thermal testing for benzene formation in beverages containing benzoate and ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Patricia J; Wamer, Wayne G; Begley, Timothy H; Diachenko, Gregory W; Perfetti, Gracia A

    2010-04-01

    Under certain conditions, benzene can form in beverages containing benzoic and ascorbic acids. The American Beverage Assn. (ABA) has published guidelines to help manufacturers mitigate benzene formation in beverages. These guidelines recommend accelerated testing conditions to test product formulations, because exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light and elevated temperature over the shelf life of the beverage may result in benzene formation in products containing benzoic and ascorbic acids. In this study, the effects of UVA exposure on benzene formation were determined. Benzene formation was examined for samples contained in UV stabilized and non-UV stabilized packaging. Additionally, the usefulness of accelerated thermal testing to simulate end of shelf-life benzene formation was evaluated for samples containing either benzoic or ascorbic acid, or both. The 24 h studies showed that under intense UVA light benzene levels increased by as much as 53% in model solutions stored in non-UV stabilized bottles, whereas the use of UV stabilized polyethylene terephthalate bottles reduced benzene formation by about 13% relative to the non-UV stabilized bottles. Similar trends were observed for the 7 d study. Retail beverages and positive and negative controls were used to study the accelerated thermal testing conditions. The amount of benzene found in the positive controls and cranberry juice suggests that testing at 40 degrees C for 14 d may more reliably simulate end of shelf-life benzene formation in beverages. Except for cranberry juice, retail beverages were not found to contain detectable amounts of benzene (<0.05 ng/g) at the end of their shelf lives.

  2. The impact assessment of anticancer drug imatinib on the feeding behavior of rotifers with an integrated perspective: Exposure, post-exposure and re-exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhengyu; Yan, Kun; He, Xingliang; Liu, Yanhua; Zhang, Jie; Lopez Torres, Oscar; Guo, Ruixin; Chen, Jianqiu

    2017-10-01

    The anticancer drugs are getting increasing attention as an emerging contaminant in the aquatic environments. In the present study, feeding behavior of the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus under the impact of anticancer drug imatinib was evaluated. Traditional toxicological studies usually focus on dose-effect relationship at a given exposure time, while ignore the possible impact after the exposure. Thus, how the impact varied in the post-exposure and re-exposure was also considered in the present study. The feeding depression of the rotifers was attributed to the increased concentration of imatinib. Although the filtration and ingestion rate of the rotifers recovered to a certain extent after the exposure, the significant feeding inhibition still persisted even if the exposure was ended. In the re-exposure period, the feeding behavior was less depressed than those of the exposure period, which implied that rotifers might develop a tolerance to the same toxics. The activities of acetylcholine esterase (AchE) and the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in rotifers were also detected. Imatinib inhibited the activities of AchE in the exposure and re-exposure while ROS levels increased significantly in the re-exposure period. Our present study provided an integrated assessment the potential environmental risks of imatinib at a new perspective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Benzene observations and source appointment in a region of oil and natural gas development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Hannah Selene

    Benzene is a primarily anthropogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) with a small number of well characterized sources. Atmospheric benzene affects human health and welfare, and low level exposure (Atmospheric Observatory (PAO) in Colorado to investigate how O&NG development impacts air quality within the Wattenburg Gas Field (WGF) in the Denver-Julesburg Basin. The measurements were carried out in July and August 2014 as part of NASA's DISCOVER-AQ field campaign. The PTR-QMS data were supported by pressurized whole air canister samples and airborne vertical and horizontal surveys of VOCs. Unexpectedly high benzene mixing ratios were observed at PAO at ground level (mean benzene = 0.53 ppbv, maximum benzene = 29.3 ppbv), primarily at night (mean nighttime benzene = 0.73 ppbv). These high benzene levels were associated with southwesterly winds. The airborne measurements indicate that benzene originated from within the WGF, and typical source signatures detected in the canister samples implicate emissions from O&NG activities rather than urban vehicular emissions as primary benzene source. This conclusion is backed by a regional toluene-to-benzene ratio analysis which associated southerly flow with vehicular emissions from the Denver area. Weak benzene-to-CO correlations confirmed that traffic emissions were not responsible for the observed high benzene levels. Previous measurements at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) and our data obtained at PAO allow us to locate the source of benzene enhancements between the two atmospheric observatories. Fugitive emissions of benzene from O&NG operations in the Platteville area are discussed as the most likely causes of enhanced benzene levels at PAO. A limited information source attribution with the PAO dataset was completed using the EPA's positive matrix factorization (PMF) source receptor model. Six VOCs from the PTR-QMS measurement were used along with CO and NO for a total of eight chemical species. Six sources

  4. From eyeballing to statistical modelling : methods for assessment of occupational exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, H.

    1994-01-01

    In this thesis methods for assessment of occupational exposure are evaluated and developed. These methods range from subjective methods (qualitative and semiquantitative) to more objective quantitative methods based on actual measurement of personal exposure to chemical and physical

  5. original article assessment of hiv post-exposure prophylaxis use

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    showing the clear picture about HIV post exposure prophylaxis in the work place were non-existent. ... formal (separate) HIV post-exposure prophylaxis centre with proper guideline was non-existent in ..... related challenges at work and home.

  6. Supplementary measurements for air monitoring under NOVANA - Benzene and PAH; Supplerende maalinger til luftovervaagning under NOVANA - benzen og PAH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellermann, T.; Klenoe Noejgaard, J.; Bossi, R.

    2011-10-15

    The report presents results from a project carried out for the Danish Environmental Protection Agency. The aim of the project was to carry out several measuring campaigns in order to be able to better assess the monitoring needs for PAH and benzene in relation to EU's air quality directives. The results show that the mean concentrations of benzene are almost at the same level in Denmark's four largest cities, and that the concentrations are both below the threshold value (5mug/m3) as well as below the lower assessment threshold (2mug/m3). The report presents a method for objectively estimation the benzene concentration based on measurements of CO. The method can be applied to fulfil the monitoring need for benzene in those zones where no measurements of benzene are made. Measurements of PAH, especially benzo(a)pyrene, have been made during 12 months in the period 2010-2011 in an area with many wood burning furnaces are used (the town Jyllinge). The concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene in Jyllinge is almost three times higher than in the street H.C. Andersens Boulevard in Copenhagen. The concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene in Jylllinge are 0,6 ng/m3, which corresponds to the upper assessment threshold (0,6 ng/m3) and is 40% below the measuring value (1 ng/m3). On this basis, there is a need for re-evaluating the monitoring of PAH in the sub-programme for air under NOVANA. Measurements of PM{sub 10} showed that the levels in the towns Jyllinge, Lille Valby/Risoe and at the H.C. Oersted Institute in Copenhagen are all at about 20-22 mug/m3. (LN)

  7. Toxicological evaluation of complex industrial wastes: Implications for exposure assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMarini, D.M.; Gallagher, J.E.; Houk, V.S.; Simmons, J.E.

    1990-07-01

    We evaluated a variety of short-term bioassays to construct a battery of tests that could be used for assessing the biological effects of potentially hazardous complex industrial wastes. Ten samples were studied for hepatotoxicity; these samples and an additional five were studied for mutagenicity. Although the data are limited to these samples, the results suggest that the Salmonella assay (strain TA98) or a prophage-induction assay (both in the presence of S9) in combination with determination of relative liver weight and levels of a set of serum enzymes in rats may provide a battery of tests suitable to characterize complex industrial wastes for mutagenic and hepatotoxic potential. The biological activities exhibited by the wastes were not readily predicted by the chemical profiles of the wastes, emphasizing the importance of characterizing potentially hazardous complex industrial wastes by both chemical and biological means. DNA from liver, lung, and bladder of rats exposed to some of the wastes was analyzed by the 32P-postlabeling technique for the presence of DNA adducts. A waste that produced mutagenic urine produced a DNA adduct in bladder DNA. The implications of this approach for assessment of exposure to complex hazardous waste mixtures are discussed.

  8. Moss Biomonitoring as a Tool for Radiological Exposure Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barisic, D.; Vekic, B.; Kusan, V.; Spiric, Z.; Frontasyeva, M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide an insight into the Atmospheric Deposition of Airborne Radionuclides in Croatia by using the Moss Biomonitoring Technique. Moss samples were collected during the summer of 2010, from 161 locations in Croatia evenly distributed across the entire country. Sampling was performed in accordance with the LRTAP Convention - ICP Vegetation protocol and sampling strategy of the European Programme on Biomonitoring of Heavy Metal Atmospheric Deposition. In addition to the comprehensive qualitative and quantitative chemical analyses of all samples collected determined by NAA, ICP-AES and AAS, 22 out of 161 moss samples were subjected to gamma-spectrometric analyses for assessing activity of the naturally occurring radionuclides. The activities of 40K, 232Th, 137Cs, 226Ra and 238U were determined by using a low background HPGe detector system coupled with an 8192-channel CANBERRA analyzer. The detector system was calibrated using gamma mixed standards supplied by Eckert and Ziegler (Analytics USA). Preliminary research results on the Atmospheric Deposition of Airborne Radionuclides in Croatia by using the Moss Biomonitoring Technique confirm that it may serve as a valuable tool for Radiological Exposure Assessment. This research has the potential for simple, accurate, reliable and affordable environmental radiation control.(author)

  9. Annoyance Caused by Noise and Air Pollution during Pregnancy: Associated Factors and Correlation with Outdoor NO2 and Benzene Estimations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Llop, Sabrina; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Tamayo-Uria, Ibon; Martínez, María Dolores; Foraster, Maria; Ballester, Ferran; Tardón, Adonina

    2015-06-18

    This study aimed to describe the degree of annoyance among pregnant women in a Spanish cohort and to examine associations with proximity to traffic, NO2 and benzene exposure. We included 2457 participants from the Spanish Childhood and Environment study. Individual exposures to outdoor NO2 and benzene were estimated, temporally adjusted for pregnancy. Interviews about sociodemographic variables, noise and air pollution were carried out. Levels of annoyance were assessed using a scale from 0 (none) to 10 (strong and unbearable); a level of 8 to 10 was considered high. The reported prevalence of high annoyance levels from air pollution was 11.2% and 15.0% from noise; the two variables were moderately correlated (0.606). Significant correlations between NO2 and annoyance from air pollution (0.154) and that from noise (0.181) were observed. Annoyance owing to noise and air pollution had a low prevalence in our Spanish population compared with other European populations. Both factors were associated with proximity to traffic. In multivariate models, annoyance from air pollution was related to NO2, building age, and country of birth; annoyance from noise was only related to the first two. The health burden of these exposures can be increased by stress caused by the perception of pollution sources.

  10. The MONIT project: electromagnetic radiation exposure assessment in mobile communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carla Oliveira; Daniel Sebastiao; Goncalo Carpinteiro; Luis M Correia; Carlos A Fernandes; Afonso Serralha; Nuno Marques

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the m.o.n.I.T. Project, a risk communication initiative, providing information to the public on exposure to radiation associated to Electromagnetic Fields (E.M.F.), and performing activities of exposure assessment. M.o.n.I.T. is developed within Instituto de Telecomunicacoes (I.T.) Lisbon site at Instituto Superior Tecnico (I.S.T., Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal), which is a non-profit scientific R and D institute with activities in the Telecommunications area. M.o.n.I.T. started in 2004 in the context of an emergent general public concern about possible health hazards caused by radiation from mobile communication antennas, most of the times rooted in misconceptions about the involved aspects, aggravated by the lack of trusty sources of information capable of presenting it in a simple understandable way. An objective evaluation of the risk requires the quantification of E.M.F. levels to which the population is exposed. Systematic information of this type was not openly available in Portugal, and this was one of the gaps that m.o.n.I.T. filled in, by providing results from extensive measurements campaigns performed in public places over the country for a period that presently mounts to three years. The monitoring system is based on a network of autonomous remote probing stations, and also on an extensive E.M.F. sounding program. Measured results are automatically uploaded to a web site for public dissemination (www.lx.it.pt/monit), which includes also other relevant information about E.M.F. for both the general public and the technical community. This paper describes the project structure and activities in Section 2, the automatic monitoring system in Section 3, and a brief analysis of the measured results in Section 4. Finally, some conclusions are presented in Section 5. (authors)

  11. The MONIT project: electromagnetic radiation exposure assessment in mobile communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carla Oliveira; Daniel Sebastiao; Goncalo Carpinteiro; Luis M Correia; Carlos A Fernandes [Instituto de Telecomunicacoes/Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon (Portugal); Afonso Serralha; Nuno Marques [Magnete Lisbon (Portugal)

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents the m.o.n.I.T. Project, a risk communication initiative, providing information to the public on exposure to radiation associated to Electromagnetic Fields (E.M.F.), and performing activities of exposure assessment. M.o.n.I.T. is developed within Instituto de Telecomunicacoes (I.T.) Lisbon site at Instituto Superior Tecnico (I.S.T., Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal), which is a non-profit scientific R and D institute with activities in the Telecommunications area. M.o.n.I.T. started in 2004 in the context of an emergent general public concern about possible health hazards caused by radiation from mobile communication antennas, most of the times rooted in misconceptions about the involved aspects, aggravated by the lack of trusty sources of information capable of presenting it in a simple understandable way. An objective evaluation of the risk requires the quantification of E.M.F. levels to which the population is exposed. Systematic information of this type was not openly available in Portugal, and this was one of the gaps that m.o.n.I.T. filled in, by providing results from extensive measurements campaigns performed in public places over the country for a period that presently mounts to three years. The monitoring system is based on a network of autonomous remote probing stations, and also on an extensive E.M.F. sounding program. Measured results are automatically uploaded to a web site for public dissemination (www.lx.it.pt/monit), which includes also other relevant information about E.M.F. for both the general public and the technical community. This paper describes the project structure and activities in Section 2, the automatic monitoring system in Section 3, and a brief analysis of the measured results in Section 4. Finally, some conclusions are presented in Section 5. (authors)

  12. Benzene degradation in a denitrifying biofilm reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waals, van der Marcelle J.; Atashgahi, Siavash; Rocha, da Ulisses Nunes; Zaan, van der Bas M.; Smidt, Hauke; Gerritse, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Benzene is an aromatic compound and harmful for the environment. Biodegradation of benzene can reduce the toxicological risk after accidental or controlled release of this chemical in the environment. In this study, we further characterized an anaerobic continuous biofilm culture grown for more

  13. Population-Based Assessment of Exposure to Risk Behaviors in Motion Pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, James D; Worth, Keilah A; Beach, Michael; Gerrard, Meg; Heatherton, Todd F

    2008-01-01

    The aim of most population-based studies of media is to relate a specific exposure to an outcome of interest. A research program has been developed that evaluates exposure to different components of movies in an attempt of assess the association of such exposure with the adoption of substance use during adolescence. To assess exposure to movie substance use, one must measure both viewing time and content. In developing the exposure measure, the study team was interested in circumventing a common problem in exposure measurement, where measures often conflate exposure to media with attention to media. Our aim in this paper is to present a validated measure of exposure to entertainment media, the Beach method, which combines recognition of a movie title with content analysis of the movie for substance use, to generate population based measures of exposure to substance use in this form of entertainment.

  14. The Role of Arsenic Speciation in Dietary Exposure Assessment and the Need to Include Bioaccessibility and Biotransformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical form specific exposure assessment for arsenic has long been identified as a source of uncertainty in estimating the risk associated with the aggregate exposure for a population. Some speciation based assessments document occurrence within an exposure route; however, the...

  15. Categorization framework to aid exposure assessment of nanomaterials in consumer products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen Foss; Michelson, Evan S.; Kamper, Anja

    2008-01-01

    Exposure assessment is crucial for risk assessment for nanomaterials. We propose a framework to aid exposure assessment in consumer products. We determined the location of the nanomaterials and the chemical identify of the 580 products listed in the inventory maintained by the Woodrow Wilson Inte...

  16. Harmonization of future needs for dermal exposure assessment and modeling : a workshop report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquart, H.; Maidment, S.; Mcclaflin, J.L.; Fehrenbacher, M.C.

    2001-01-01

    Dermal exposure assessment and modeling is still in early phases of development. This article presents the results of a workshop organized to harmonize the future needs in this field. Methods for dermal exposure assessment either assess the mass of contaminant that is transferred to the skin, or the

  17. Occupational Exposure of Diesel Station Workers to BTEX Compounds at a Bus Depot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raeesa Moolla

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Diesel fuel is known to emit pollutants that have a negative impact on environmental and human health. In developing countries like South Africa, attendants are employed to pump fuel for customers at service stations. Attendants refuel vehicles with various octane unleaded fuel, lead-replacement petrol and diesel fuel, on a daily basis. Attendants are at risk to adverse health effects associated with the inhalation of volatile organic compounds released from these fuels. The pollutants released include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX, which are significant due to their high level of toxicity. In this study, a risk assessment of BTEX was conducted at a diesel service station for public buses. Using Radiello passive samplers, it was found that benzene concentrations were above recommended international standards. Due to poor ventilation and high exposure duration, the average benzene concentration over the sampling campaign exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency’s chronic inhalation exposure reference concentration. Lifetime cancer risk estimation showed that on average there is a 3.78 × 10−4 cancer risk, corresponding to an average chronic daily intake of 1.38 × 10−3 mg/kg/day of benzene exposure. Additionally, there were incidences where individuals were at potential hazard risk of benzene and toluene that may pose non-carcinogenic effects to employees.

  18. Highly sensitive detection of urinary cadmium to assess personal exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argun, Avni A.; Banks, Ashley M.; Merlen, Gwendolynne; Tempelman, Linda A. [Giner, Inc., 89 Rumford Ave., Newton 02466, MA United States (United States); Becker, Michael F.; Schuelke, Thomas [Fraunhofer USA – CCL, 1449 Engineering Research Ct., East Lansing 48824, MI (United States); Dweik, Badawi M., E-mail: bdweik@ginerinc.com [Giner, Inc., 89 Rumford Ave., Newton 02466, MA United States (United States)

    2013-04-22

    Highlights: ► An electrochemical sensor capable of detecting cadmium at parts-per-billion levels in urine. ► A novel fabrication method for Boron-Doped Diamond (BDD) ultramicroelectrode (UME) arrays. ► Unique combination of BDD UME arrays and a differential pulse voltammetry algorithm. ► High sensitivity, high reproducibility, and very low noise levels. ► Opportunity for portable operation to assess on-site personal exposure. -- Abstract: A series of Boron-Doped Diamond (BDD) ultramicroelectrode arrays were fabricated and investigated for their performance as electrochemical sensors to detect trace level metals such as cadmium. The steady-state diffusion behavior of these sensors was validated using cyclic voltammetry followed by electrochemical detection of cadmium in water and in human urine to demonstrate high sensitivity (>200 μA ppb{sup −1} cm{sup −2}) and low background current (<4 nA). When an array of ultramicroelectrodes was positioned with optimal spacing, these BDD sensors showed a sigmoidal diffusion behavior. They also demonstrated high accuracy with linear dose dependence for quantification of cadmium in a certified reference river water sample from the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) as well as in a human urine sample spiked with 0.25–1 ppb cadmium.

  19. Risk Assessment to Dust Exposure in Room Maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiku Rokhim

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available As one of the particulate chemicals, dust could occur in most of the production process and can create interference for workers health and safety. As one of the air pollution sources, dust could became a potential hazard which exist in room maintenances. Protection to workers is a must in order to reduce the risk of respiratory tract syndrome that often could be found in this cases. The aim of this study is to conduct a risk assessment to dust exposure in room maintenance, which held by contractors in PT. X (Persero building in Surabaya. This is an cross sectional study with obsevation approach. The object of this research is the repairing  works. The results indicate that the activities which could produce dust, such as: walls sanding using sandpaper, the tiles dismantle, sawmilling, the wood fiber refining, grinding, mixing and stirring cast  materials, and room cleaning. Dust produced from a variety of works including sanddust, cement, lime, wood and dust mixed with paint. The results show that three types of works considere as high-risk activity (value > 12-25, 3 types of work consider as midle risk activities (value > 5-12, and one activity considered as a low-risk work (grades 1-5. The dusk factors controlling should be held regularly, in order to minimize the risk leveln againts the workers.

  20. Reevaluation of time spent indoors used for exposure dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Katsumi; Fujimoto, Kenzo

    2016-01-01

    A time spent indoors of sixteen hours per day (indoor occupancy factor: 0.67) has been used to assess the radiation dose of residents who spend daily life in the area contaminated due to the nuclear accident in Japan. However, much longer time is considered to be spent indoors for recent modern life. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has been used an indoor occupancy factor of 0.8 since 1977 and a few reports suggested much higher indoor occupancy factors. Therefore it is important to reevaluate the indoor occupancy factor using current available survey data in Japan, such as 'NHK 2010 National Time Use Survey' and 'Survey on Time Use and Leisure Activities' of Statistics Bureau with certain assumption of time spent indoors in each daily activity. The total time spent indoors in a day is calculated to be 20.2 hours and its indoor occupancy factor is 0.84. Much lower indoor occupancy factors were derived from the survey data by Statistics Bureau for 10 to 14 and 15 to 19 years old groups and farmers who spend most of their time outdoors although present estimated indoor occupancy factor of 0.84 is still lower than those found in some of the relevant reports. A rounded indoor occupancy factor of 0.80 might be the appropriate conservative reference value to be used for the dose estimation of people who live in radioactively contaminated areas and for other relevant purposes of exposure assessment, taken into consideration the present results and values reported in United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and UNSCEAR. (author)

  1. Radiation in complex exposure situations. Assessing health risks at low levels from concomitant exposures to radiation and chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornhardt, S.; Jung, T.; Burkart, W.

    2000-01-01

    Health effects from exposures to ionizing radiation are in general the result of complex multi-step reaction chains involving changes and responses on the level of molecules, cells, tissues and organisms. In environmental low dose exposure situations ionizing radiation only contributes a small fraction to the life-long attack on DNA by other exogenous and endogenous genotoxins. Nevertheless, efforts to assess and quantify deleterious effects at low exposure levels are directed mainly towards radiation as a single isolated agent, and rarely towards the concomitant presence of other natural and anthropogenic toxicants. Only these combined exposures may lead to observable health risk effects. In addition they might differ from those expected from simple addition of the individual risks due to interaction. The existing data base on combined effects is rudimentary, mainly descriptive and rarely covers exposure ranges large enough to make direct inferences to present day low dose exposure situations. Therefore, any risk assessment will have to consider the question whether combined effects, i.e. interaction between two or more agents will influence the health outcome from specific exposure situations in such a way that predictions derived from simple standard exposure situations would have to be revised. In view of the multitude of possible interactions between the large number of potentially harmful agents in the human environment, descriptive approaches will have to be supplemented by the use of mechanistic models for critical health endpoints such as cancer. Agents will have to be grouped depending on their physical or chemical mode of action at the molecular and cellular level, to generalize and predict the outcome of combined exposures at low exposure levels and the possibility of interactions. (author)

  2. A Margin-of-Exposure Approach to Assessment of Noncancer Risks of Dioxins Based on Human Exposure and Response Data

    OpenAIRE

    Aylward, Lesa L.; Goodman, Julie E.; Charnley, Gail; Rhomberg, Lorenz R.

    2008-01-01

    Background Risk assessment of human environmental exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs) and other dioxin-like compounds is complicated by several factors, including limitations in measuring intakes because of the low concentrations of these compounds in foods and the environment and interspecies differences in pharmacokinetics and responses. Objectives We examined the feasibility of relying directly on human studies of exposure and potential responses to...

  3. Non-destructive pollution exposure assessment in the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus): IV hair versus soil analysis in exposure and risk assessment of organochlorine compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havé, D' H.; Scheirs, J.; Covaci, A.; Brink, van den N.W.; Verhagen, R.; Coen, De W.

    2007-01-01

    Few ecotoxicological studies on mammals use non-destructive methodologies, despite the growing ethical concern over the use of destructive sampling methods. In the present study we assessed exposure of hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs),

  4. Smoke exposure at western wildfires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy E. Reinhardt; Roger D. Ottmar

    2000-01-01

    Smoke exposure measurements among firefighters at wildfires in the Western United States between 1992 and 1995 showed that altogether most exposures were not significant, between 3 and 5 percent of the shift-average exposures exceeded occupational exposure limits for carbon monoxide and respiratory irritants. Exposure to benzene and total suspended particulate was not...

  5. Release of nanomaterials from solid nanocomposites and consumer exposure assessment - a forward-looking review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackevica, Aiga; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2016-01-01

    of the studies report their findings in a format that can be used for exposure assessment under REACH, and most do not include characterization of the released particles. Although inhalation, dermal, and oral exposures can be derived using the guidelines on how to complete consumer exposure assessments under......The European chemical legislation requires manufacturers and importers of chemicals to do consumer exposure assessment when the chemical has certain hazards associated to it (e.g. explosive, carcinogenicity, and hazardous to the aquatic environment), but the question is how this obligation can...... be met in light of the scientific uncertainty and technical challenges related to exposure assessment of nanomaterials. In this paper, we investigate to what extent the information and data in the literature can be used to perform consumer exposure assessment according to the REACH requirements and we...

  6. Quantifying human exposure to air pollution--moving from static monitoring to spatio-temporally resolved personal exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinle, Susanne; Reis, Stefan; Sabel, Clive Eric

    2013-01-15

    Quantifying human exposure to air pollutants is a challenging task. Ambient concentrations of air pollutants at potentially harmful levels are ubiquitous in urban areas and subject to high spatial and temporal variability. At the same time, every individual has unique activity-patterns. Exposure results from multifaceted relationships and interactions between environmental and human systems, adding complexity to the assessment process. Traditionally, approaches to quantify human exposure have relied on pollutant concentrations from fixed air quality network sites and static population distributions. New developments in sensor technology now enable us to monitor personal exposure to air pollutants directly while people are moving through their activity spaces and varying concentration fields. The literature review on which this paper is based on reflects recent developments in the assessment of human exposure to air pollution. This includes the discussion of methodologies and concepts, and the elaboration of approaches and study designs applied in the field. We identify shortcomings of current approaches and discuss future research needs. We close by proposing a novel conceptual model for the integrated assessment of human exposure to air pollutants taking into account latest technological capabilities and contextual information. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. HESI pilot project: Testing a qualitative approach for incorporating exposure into alternatives assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greggs, Bill; Arnold, Scott; Burns, Thomas J.

    -quantitative exposure assessment on the alternatives being considered. This talk will demonstrate an approach for including chemical and product exposure information in a qualitative AA comparison. Starting from existing hazard AAs, a series of four exposure examples were examined to test the concept, to understand...

  8. Video exposure monitoring as part of a strategy to assess exposure to nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurskens-Comuth, P.A.W.V.; Verbist, K.; Brouwer, D.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: There is a growing awareness of the potential risks for human health of exposure to ultrafine particles or nanoparticles. In that context, workplace air measurements become important, and various strategies have been developed to monitor exposure. In addition, observations and

  9. Health risk assessment for chemical exposures of military interest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langenberg, J.P.; Polhuijs, M.; Sijbranda, T.

    2016-01-01

    Participation in military operations is accompanied by health hazards resulting from exposure to chemical substances from natural and anthropogenic sources. Historically, focus on toxicological risks has been on the health effects of exposure to chemical warfare agents (CW A). In recent years the

  10. #2 - An Empirical Assessment of Exposure Measurement Error ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background• Differing degrees of exposure error acrosspollutants• Previous focus on quantifying and accounting forexposure error in single-pollutant models• Examine exposure errors for multiple pollutantsand provide insights on the potential for bias andattenuation of effect estimates in single and bipollutantepidemiological models The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division (HEASD) conducts research in support of EPA mission to protect human health and the environment. HEASD research program supports Goal 1 (Clean Air) and Goal 4 (Healthy People) of EPA strategic plan. More specifically, our division conducts research to characterize the movement of pollutants from the source to contact with humans. Our multidisciplinary research program produces Methods, Measurements, and Models to identify relationships between and characterize processes that link source emissions, environmental concentrations, human exposures, and target-tissue dose. The impact of these tools is improved regulatory programs and policies for EPA.

  11. Fabrication of vertical nanowire resonators for aerosol exposure assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merzsch, Stephan; Wasisto, Hutomo Suryo; Stranz, Andrej; Hinze, Peter; Weimann, Thomas; Peiner, Erwin; Waag, Andreas

    2013-05-01

    Vertical silicon nanowire (SiNW) resonators are designed and fabricated in order to assess exposure to aerosol nanoparticles (NPs). To realize SiNW arrays, nanolithography and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) at cryogenic temperature are utilized in a top-down fabrication of SiNW arrays which have high aspect ratios (i.e., up to 34). For nanolithography process, a resist film thickness of 350 nm is applied in a vacuum contact mode to serve as a mask. A pattern including various diameters and distances for creating pillars is used (i.e., 400 nm up to 5 μm). In dry etching process, the etch rate is set high of 1.5 μm/min to avoid underetching. The etch profiles of Si wires can be controlled aiming to have either perpendicularly, negatively or positively profiled sidewalls by adjusting the etching parameters (e.g., temperature and oxygen content). Moreover, to further miniaturize the wire, multiple sacrificial thermal oxidations and subsequent oxide stripping are used yielding SiNW arrays of 650 nm in diameter and 40 μm in length. In the resonant frequency test, a piezoelectric shear actuator is integrated with the SiNWs inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM) chamber. The observation of the SiNW deflections are performed and viewed from the topside of the SiNWs to reduce the measurement redundancy. Having a high deflection of ~10 μm during its resonant frequency of 452 kHz and a low mass of 31 pg, the proposed SiNW is potential for assisting the development of a portable aerosol resonant sensor.

  12. Detriment due to radiation exposure: concept and assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Jiro

    1999-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection has used a term risk' to denote the probability of a clinically observable deleterious effect such as fatal cancers and severe hereditary effects. In their 1990 recommendations ICRP developed a new term 'detriment' which contains a complex concept combining the probability, severity and time of expression of deleterious effects. Nominal probability coefficients for fatal cancer, one of the most important components of the detriment, are assessed to be 5% and 4% per Sv for the whole population and workers, respectively, for radiation protection. These values were derived from the data on mortality from the Life-Span Study of the atomic-bomb survivors up to 1985 assuming several components consist of dose-response relationship, life-span risk projection model, dose and dose rate effectiveness factor, national population and transfer model and so on. The risk estimates and each of these components include uncertainties which should be clarified for the better understanding and use of the risk estimates. However, it is not likely that near-future data from Life-Span Study will significantly change these uncertainties, which should in no way be interpreted as a denial of the essential importance of fundamental research into the mechanism of cancer induction. In these situation the National Institute of Radiological Sciences have performed a 5-year research project 'Experimental Studies on Detriments of Radiation Exposure'. The project consists of researches on a) Radiation carcinogenesis, b) Effects on embryo and fetus, c) Biological effect of plutonium. The project was successful to provide useful information on these subjects. (author)

  13. Exposure assessment to ochratoxin A in Chinese wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Qi Ding; Li, Guo Hui; Wang, Dao Bing; Shao, Yi; Li, Jing Guang; Xiong, Zheng He; Wu, Yong Ning

    2014-09-03

    A rapid, sensitive, reproducible, and inexpensive method of high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection after an anion-exchange solid-phase extraction cleanup step for the analysis of ochratoxin A (OTA) in Chinese wine was developed. The average recovery rate and the average RSD of recovery were 97.47% and about 4%. The relative standard deviations of both the interday and intraday precision were 6.7 and 12.6%, respectively. The limits of detection and quantitation were determined to be 0.01 and 0.03 μg/L, respectively. A total of 223 samples from the major wine-producing areas of China were analyzed for OTA. OTA was detected at levels of 0.01-0.98 μg/L. The mean was 0.15 μg/L. Then, participants as representative inhabitants were invited to answer the designed questionnaire about the quantity and frequency of wine consumption. All data were simulated by the point evaluation for the risk assessment of OTA contamination from wine. Those results indicated that daily intake (DI) of OTA for the average adult consumer varies between 0.86 and 1.08 ng/kg bw per week, which was lower than all the reference standards. However, the DI value (4.38-5.54 ng/kg bw per week) in the high percentile (97.5) was slightly above 5% PTWI (100 ng kg(-1) week(-1)) of the JECFA. In conclusion, OTA exposure from Chinese wine has no risk of harm. This research will provide the scientific basis for determining the maximum limit of OTA content in Chinese wine.

  14. An approach for assessing human exposures to chemical mixtures in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, Glenn; MacDonell, Margaret; Hertzberg, Richard C.; Teuschler, Linda; Picel, Kurt; Butler, Jim; Chang, Young-Soo; Hartmann, Heidi

    2008-01-01

    Humans are exposed daily to multiple chemicals, including incidental exposures to complex chemical mixtures released into the environment and to combinations of chemicals that already co-exist in the environment because of previous releases from various sources. Exposures to chemical mixtures can occur through multiple pathways and across multiple routes. In this paper, we propose an iterative approach for assessing exposures to environmental chemical mixtures; it is similar to single-chemical approaches. Our approach encompasses two elements of the Risk Assessment Paradigm: Problem Formulation and Exposure Assessment. Multiple phases of the assessment occur in each element of the paradigm. During Problem Formulation, analysts identify and characterize the source(s) of the chemical mixture, ensure that dose-response and exposure assessment measures are concordant, and develop a preliminary evaluation of the mixture's fate. During Exposure Assessment, analysts evaluate the fate of the chemicals comprising the mixture using appropriate models and measurement data, characterize the exposure scenario, and estimate human exposure to the mixture. We also describe the utility of grouping the chemicals to be analyzed based on both physical-chemical properties and an understanding of environmental fate. In the article, we also highlight the need for understanding of changes in the mixture composition in the environment due to differential transport, differential degradation, and differential partitioning to other media. The section describes the application of the method to various chemical mixtures, highlighting issues associated with assessing exposures to chemical mixtures in the environment

  15. Quantitative plasma biomarker analysis in HDI exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, Sheila L; Fent, Kenneth W; Trelles Gaines, Linda G; Thomasen, Jennifer M; Whittaker, Steve; Ball, Louise M; Nylander-French, Leena A

    2010-01-01

    Quantification of amines in biological samples is important for evaluating occupational exposure to diisocyanates. In this study, we describe the quantification of 1,6-hexamethylene diamine (HDA) levels in hydrolyzed plasma of 46 spray painters applying 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI)-containing paint in vehicle repair shops collected during repeated visits to their workplace and their relationship with dermal and inhalation exposure to HDI monomer. HDA was detected in 76% of plasma samples, as heptafluorobutyryl derivatives, and the range of HDA concentrations was HDA levels and HDI inhalation exposure measured on the same workday was low (N = 108, r = 0.22, P = 0.026) compared with the correlation between plasma HDA levels and inhalation exposure occurring approximately 20 to 60 days before blood collection (N = 29, r = 0.57, P = 0.0014). The correlation between plasma HDA levels and HDI dermal exposure measured on the same workday, although statistically significant, was low (N = 108, r = 0.22, P = 0.040) while the correlation between HDA and dermal exposure occurring approximately 20 to 60 days before blood collection was slightly improved (N = 29, r = 0.36, P = 0.053). We evaluated various workplace factors and controls (i.e. location, personal protective equipment use and paint booth type) as modifiers of plasma HDA levels. Workers using a downdraft-ventilated booth had significantly lower plasma HDA levels relative to semi-downdraft and crossdraft booth types (P = 0.0108); this trend was comparable to HDI inhalation and dermal exposure levels stratified by booth type. These findings indicate that HDA concentration in hydrolyzed plasma may be used as a biomarker of cumulative inhalation and dermal exposure to HDI and for investigating the effectiveness of exposure controls in the workplace.

  16. OccIDEAS: An Innovative Tool to Assess Past Asbestos Exposure in the Australian Mesothelioma Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewan MacFarlane

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Malignant mesothelioma is an uncommon but rapidly fatal disease for which the principal aetiological agent is exposure to asbestos. Mesothelioma is of particular significance in Australia where asbestos use was very widespread from the 1950s until the 1980s. Exposure to asbestos includes occupational exposure associated with working with asbestos or in workplaces where asbestos is used and also ‘take-home’ exposure of family members of asbestos exposed workers. Asbestos exposure may also be nonoccupational, occurring as a consequence of using asbestos products in non-occupational contexts and passive exposure is also possible, such as exposure to asbestos products in the built environment or proximity to an environmental source of exposure, for example an asbestos production plant. The extremely long latency period for this disease makes exposure assessment problematic in the context of a mesothelioma registry. OccIDEAS, a recently developed online tool for retrospective exposure assessment, has been adapted for use in the Australian Mesothelioma Registry (AMR to enable systematic retrospective exposure assessment of consenting cases. Twelve occupational questionnaire modules and one non-occupational module have been developed for the AMR, which form the basis of structured interviews using OccIDEAS, which also stores collected data and provides a framework for generating metrics of exposure.

  17. Assessment of mankind's exposure through his environment: new tools and aid to decision - Colloquium report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thierry-Mieg, Morgane; Rousset, Marine; Varkados-Lemarechal, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    During this colloquium, the different sessions addressed environmental measurement strategies to assess mankind's exposure, the use and the interpretation of exposure bio-markers, the estimation and reconstruction of exposures (integrated modelling, model-measurement coupling), the organization and motives of dialogue between involved parties. Round tables addressed topics such as: measurement strategies and objectives, bio-availability of soil pollutants, approaches and tools for exposure assessment, new methodological strategies for the assessment of chemical exposure, interpretation of bio-markers, reference toxicological values, interest of bio-monitoring in professional environment, transcriptomic analysis, evolutions in the characterization of genotoxic hazards, a tool for the assessment of the exposure of newborn children to pesticides, and so on

  18. Assessment of occupational exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Aniołczyk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: European Union Directive 2013/35/UE provides for the implementation of EU regulations into national legislation. Our aim is to assess actual health hazards from radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF (range: 100 kHz – 300 GHz and indicate workplaces with the highest risk to employee health. Material and Methods: Data from measurements of RF EMF performed by the Laboratory of Electromagnetic Hazards in Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (Łódź, Poland were analyzed. The analysis covered the results of electric field intensity (E for over 450 selected items. The ranges of protection zones and the extent to which maximum admissible intensity (MAI values were also analyzed. The determinations and measurements of EMF in the work environment met the requirements of Polish Standard, while Polish regulations on the MAI values were used as the criterion for the assessment of the exposure. Results: The highest values of E field intensity at workplaces were measured for: electrosurgery, to 400 V/m, and short-wave diathermy units, to 220 V/m, dielectric welders to 240 V/m, within the FM radio antenna systems, to 180 V/m. The widest protection zones were noted for prototype research instruments, short-wave diathermy units, and dielectric welders. The most excessive (up to 12-fold MAI values were recorded for dielectric welders, short-wave diathermy units (up to 11-fold and microwave diathermy units (up to 8-fold. Conclusions: Our results have confirmed the high RF EMF values for physiotherapists, operators of dielectric welders, and mast maintenance workers in radio communication facilities (especially radio and TV broadcasting stations. Med Pr 2015;66(2:199–212

  19. Time and frequency weightings and the assessment of sound exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; de Toro, Miguel Angel Aranda; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2010-01-01

    Since the development of averaging/integrating sound level meters and frequency weighting networks in the 1950’s, measurement of the physical characteristics of sound has not changed a great deal. Advances have occurred in how the measured values are used (day-night averages, limit and action...... of the exposure. This information is being used to investigate metrics that can differentiate temporal characteristics (impulsive, fluctuating) as well as frequency characteristics (narrow-band or tonal dominance) of sound exposures. This presentation gives an overview of the existing sound measurement...... and analysis methods, that can provide a better representation of the effects of sound exposures on the hearing system...

  20. Reliability of a semi-quantitative method for dermal exposure assessment (DREAM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendel de Joode, B. van; Hemmen, J.J. van; Meijster, T.; Major, V.; London, L.; Kromhout, H.

    2005-01-01

    Valid and reliable semi-quantitative dermal exposure assessment methods for epidemiological research and for occupational hygiene practice, applicable for different chemical agents, are practically nonexistent. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of a recently developed

  1. Assessment of the occupational exposure of the INOR personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa Zulueta, R.; Cardenas Herrera, J.

    1996-01-01

    The paper evaluate the levels of exposure to ionizing radiation and their influence on the health of occupationally exposed workers from the National Institute of Oncology and Radiobiology during the 1980.1988 period

  2. Nano-metal Oxides: Exposure and Engineering Control Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Alberto; Sparks, Christopher; Martinez, Kenneth; Topmiller, Jennifer L.; Eastlake, Adrienne; Geraci, Charles L.

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the evaluation of a facility that produces high quality engineered nanomaterials. These ENMs consist of various metals including iron, nickel, silver, manganese, and palladium. Although occupational exposure levels are not available for these metals, studies have indicated that it may be prudent to keep exposures to the nano-scale metal as low as possible. Previous In vitro studies indicated that in comparison with a material’s larger (parent) counterpart, nanomaterials c...

  3. Assessment of human dietary exposure to arsenic through rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Matthew A; Signes-Pastor, Antonio J; Argos, Maria; Slaughter, Francis; Pendergrast, Claire; Punshon, Tracy; Gossai, Anala; Ahsan, Habibul; Karagas, Margaret R

    2017-05-15

    Rice accumulates 10-fold higher inorganic arsenic (i-As), an established human carcinogen, than other grains. This review summarizes epidemiologic studies that examined the association between rice consumption and biomarkers of arsenic exposure. After reviewing the literature we identified 20 studies, among them included 18 observational and 2 human experimental studies that reported on associations between rice consumption and an arsenic biomarker. Among individuals not exposed to contaminated water, rice is a source of i-As exposure - rice consumption has been consistently related to arsenic biomarkers, and the relationship has been clearly demonstrated in experimental studies. Early-life i-As exposure is of particular concern due to its association with lifelong adverse health outcomes. Maternal rice consumption during pregnancy also has been associated with infant toenail total arsenic concentrations indicating that dietary exposure during pregnancy results in fetal exposure. Thus, the collective evidence indicates that rice is an independent source of arsenic exposure in populations around the world and highlights the importance of investigating its affect on health. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of noise exposure during commuting in the Madrid subway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacchi, M; Pavón, I; Ausejo, M; Asensio, C; Recuero, M

    2011-09-01

    Because noise-induced hearing impairment is the result not only of occupational noise exposure but also of total daily noise exposure, it is important to take the non-occupational exposure of individuals (during commuting to and from their jobs, at home, and during recreational activities) into account. Mass transit is one of the main contributors to non-occupational noise exposure. We developed a new methodology to estimate a representative commuting noise exposure. The methodology was put into practice for the Madrid subway because of all Spanish subway systems it covers the highest percentage of worker journeys (22.6%). The results of the application highlight that, for Madrid subway passengers, noise exposure level normalized to a nominal 8 hr (L(Ex,8h-cj) ) depends strongly on the type of train, the presence of squealing noise, and the public address audio system, ranging from 68.6 dBA to 72.8 dBA. These values play an important role in a more complete evaluation of a relationship between noise dose and worker health response.

  5. Epigenetic and Transcriptional Modifications in Repetitive Elements in Petrol Station Workers Exposed to Benzene and MTBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Rota

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Benzene, a known human carcinogen, and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE, not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity, are fuel-related pollutants. This study investigated the effect of these chemicals on epigenetic and transcriptional alterations in DNA repetitive elements. In 89 petrol station workers and 90 non-occupationally exposed subjects the transcriptional activity of retrotransposons (LINE-1, Alu, the methylation on repeated-element DNA, and of H3K9 histone, were investigated in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Median work shift exposure to benzene and MTBE was 59 and 408 µg/m3 in petrol station workers, and 4 and 3.5 µg/m3, in controls. Urinary benzene (BEN-U, S-phenylmercapturic acid, and MTBE were significantly higher in workers than in controls, while trans,trans-muconic acid (tt-MA was comparable between the two groups. Increased BEN-U was associated with increased Alu-Y and Alu-J expression; moreover, increased tt-MA was associated with increased Alu-Y and Alu-J and LINE-1 (L1-5′UTR expression. Among repetitive element methylation, only L1-Pa5 was hypomethylated in petrol station workers compared to controls. While L1-Ta and Alu-YD6 methylation was not associated with benzene exposure, a negative association with urinary MTBE was observed. The methylation status of histone H3K9 was not associated with either benzene or MTBE exposure. Overall, these findings only partially support previous observations linking benzene exposure with global DNA hypomethylation.

  6. A margin-of-exposure approach to assessment of noncancer risks of dioxins based on human exposure and response data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, Lesa L; Goodman, Julie E; Charnley, Gail; Rhomberg, Lorenz R

    2008-10-01

    Risk assessment of human environmental exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs) and other dioxin-like compounds is complicated by several factors, including limitations in measuring intakes because of the low concentrations of these compounds in foods and the environment and interspecies differences in pharmacokinetics and responses. We examined the feasibility of relying directly on human studies of exposure and potential responses to PCDD/PCDFs and related compounds in terms of measured lipid-adjusted concentrations to assess margin of exposure (MOE) in a quantitative, benchmark dose (BMD)-based framework using representative exposure and selected response data sets. We characterize estimated central tendency and upper-bound general U.S. population lipid-adjusted concentrations of PCDD/PCDFs from the 1970s and early 2000s based on available data sets. Estimates of benchmark concentrations for three example responses of interest (induction of cytochrome P4501A2 activity, dental anomalies, and neonatal thyroid hormone alterations) were derived based on selected human studies. The exposure data sets indicate that current serum lipid concentrations in young adults are approximately 6- to 7-fold lower than 1970s-era concentrations. Estimated MOEs for each end point based on current serum lipid concentrations range from 100 for dental anomalies-approximately 6-fold greater than would have existed during the 1970s. Human studies of dioxin exposure and outcomes can be used in a BMD framework for quantitative assessments of MOE. Incomplete exposure characterization can complicate the use of such studies in a BMD framework.

  7. Modeling annual benzene, toluene, NO2, and soot concentrations on the basis of road traffic characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, David; Ehrenstein, Ondine von; Weiland, Stephan; Wagner, Claudia; Wellie, Oliver; Nicolai, Thomas; Mutius, Erika von

    2002-01-01

    The investigation of potential adverse health effects of urban traffic-related air pollution is hampered by difficulties encountered with exposure assessment. Usually public measuring sites are few and thereby do not adequately describe spatial variation of pollutant levels over an urban area. In turn, individual monitoring of pollution exposure among study subjects is laborious and expensive. We therefore investigated whether traffic characteristics can be used to adequately predict benzene, NO 2 , and soot concentrations at individual addresses of study subjects in the city area of Munich, Germany. For all road segments with expected traffic volumes of at least 4000 vehicles a day (n=1840), all vehicles were counted manually or a single weekday in 1995. The proportion of vehicles in 'stop-go' mode, n estimate of traffic jam, was determined. Furthermore, annual concentrations of benzene, NO 2 , and soot from 18 high-concentration sites means: 8.7, 65.8, and 12.9 μg/m 3 , respectively) and from 16 school sites with moderate concentrations (means: 2.6, 32.2, and 5.7 μg/m 3 , respectively) were measured from 1996 to 1998. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using components of two different statistical models recently used to predict air pollution levels in comparable settings. Two traffic characteristics, traffic volume and traffic jam percentage, adequately described air pollutant concentrations (R 2 : 0.76-0.80, P=0.0001). This study shows that air pollutant concentrations can be accurately predicted by two traffic characteristics and that these models compare favorably with other more complex models in the literature

  8. Exposure assessment of process-related contaminants in food by biomarker monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Dussort, P; Günther, Helmut; Hanlon, Paul; Honda, Hiroshi; Mally, Angela; O'Hagan, Sue; Scholz, Gabriele; Seidel, Albrecht; Swenberg, James; Teeguarden, Justin; Eisenbrand, Gerhard

    2018-01-01

    Exposure assessment is a fundamental part of the risk assessment paradigm, but can often present a number of challenges and uncertainties. This is especially the case for process contaminants formed during the processing, e.g. heating of food, since they are in part highly reactive and/or volatile, thus making exposure assessment by analysing contents in food unreliable. New approaches are therefore required to accurately assess consumer exposure and thus better inform the risk assessment. Such novel approaches may include the use of biomarkers, physiologically based kinetic (PBK) modelling-facilitated reverse dosimetry, and/or duplicate diet studies. This review focuses on the state of the art with respect to the use of biomarkers of exposure for the process contaminants acrylamide, 3-MCPD esters, glycidyl esters, furan and acrolein. From the overview presented, it becomes clear that the field of assessing human exposure to process-related contaminants in food by biomarker monitoring is promising and strongly developing. The current state of the art as well as the existing data gaps and challenges for the future were defined. They include (1) using PBK modelling and duplicate diet studies to establish, preferably in humans, correlations between external exposure and biomarkers; (2) elucidation of the possible endogenous formation of the process-related contaminants and the resulting biomarker levels; (3) the influence of inter-individual variations and how to include that in the biomarker-based exposure predictions; (4) the correction for confounding factors; (5) the value of the different biomarkers in relation to exposure scenario's and risk assessment, and (6) the possibilities of novel methodologies. In spite of these challenges it can be concluded that biomarker-based exposure assessment provides a unique opportunity to more accurately assess consumer exposure to process-related contaminants in food and thus to better inform risk assessment.

  9. Radiocarbon dating methods using benzene liquid scintillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togashi, Shigeko; Matsumoto, Eiji

    1983-01-01

    The radiocarbon dating method using benzene liquid scintillation is reported in detail. The results of measurement of NBS oxalic acid agree with the recommended value, indicating that isotopic fractionation during benzene synthesis can be negligible. Ten samples which have been already measured by gas counter are dated by benzene liquid scintillation. There is no significant difference in age for the same sample between benzene liquid scintillation and gas counters. It is shown that quenching has to be corrected for the young sample. Memory effect in stainless steel reaction vessel can be removed by using an exchangeable inner vessel and by baking it in the air. Using this method, the oldest age that can be measured with 2.3 g carbon is 40,000 years B.P. (author)

  10. Addressing bystander exposure to agricultural pesticides in life cycle impact assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Morten Walbech; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Mosqueron, Luc

    2018-01-01

    Residents living near agricultural fields may be exposed to pesticides drifting from the fields after application to different field crops. To address this currently missing exposure pathway in life cycle assessment (LCA), we developed a modeling framework for quantifying exposure of bystanders...... magnitude of individual bystanders can be substantially larger than the exposure of populations not living in the proximity to agricultural fields. Our framework for assessing bystander exposure to pesticide applications closes a relevant gap in the exposure assessment included in LCA for agricultural...... to pesticide spray drift from agricultural fields. Our framework consists of three parts addressing: (1) loss of pesticides from an agricultural field via spray drift; (2) environmental fate of pesticide in air outside of the treated field; and (3) exposure of bystanders to pesticides via inhalation...

  11. Aromaticity of benzene in condensed phases. A case of a benzene-water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zborowski, Krzysztof K.

    2014-05-01

    A theoretical Density Functional Theory study was performed for a benzene molecule in water cages. Two DFT functionals (B3LYP and BLYP) were employed. The optimized geometries of the studied clusters were used to calculate the aromaticity of benzene in a condensed phase using the aromaticity indices: HOMA, NICS, PDI, and H. The results were compared with aromaticity of a single benzene molecule in the gas phase and in the solvent environment provided by the PCM continuum model. It is argued that high aromaticity of benzene in the gas phase is retained in the water environment.

  12. Risk assessment of released cellulose nanocrystals – mimicking inhalatory exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endes, C; Vanhecke, D; Petri-Fink, A; Rothen-Rutishauser, B; Clift, M J D; Müller, S; Foster, E J; Weder, C; Schmid, O

    2013-01-01

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) exhibit advantageous chemical and mechanical properties that render them attractive for a wide range of applications. During the life-cycle of CNC containing materials the nanocrystals could be released and become airborne, posing a potential inhalatory exposure risk towards humans. Absent reliable and dose-controlled models that mimic this exposure in situ is a central issue in gaining an insight into the CNC-lung interaction. Here, an Air Liquid Interface Cell Exposure system (ALICE), previously designed for studies of spherical nanoparticles, was used for the first time to establish a realistic physiological exposure test method for inhaled fiber shaped nano-objects; in this case, CNCs isolated from cotton. Applying a microscopy based approach the spatially homogenous deposition of CNCs was demonstrated as a prerequisite of the functioning of the ALICE. Furthermore, reliability and controllability of the system to nebulise high aspect ratio nanomaterials (HARN, e.g. CNCs) was shown. This opens the potential to thoroughly investigate the inhalatory risk of CNCs in vitro using a realistic exposure system.

  13. On the mechanistic differences of benzene-induced leukemogenesis between wild type and p53 knockout mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirabayashi, Yoko; Yoon, Byung-Il; Kawasaki, Yasushi; Li, Guang-Xun; Kanno, Jun; Inoue, Tohru

    2003-01-01

    Leukemia induction by benzene inhalation was first reported by Le Noire in 1887, described multiple cases of leukemia among Parisian cobblers. However, experimental induction of leukemia by benzene exposure was not succeeded for a hundred years, until Snyder et al. and our group reported it nearly 20 years ago. Nevertheless, the mechanistic background of benzene-induced leukemia was still an enigma until recently a benzene-induced peculiar cell kinetics of the stem/progenitor cells has been elucidated by our study, demonstrated a marked repeated oscillatory decrease in peripheral blood and bone marrow (BM) cellularity during and after benzene exposure, which epigenetically preceded and developed the leukemia more than a year later. We utilized the BUUV (bromodeoxyuridine + UV exposure) method to study stem/progenitor cell kinetics during and/or after benzene exposure. Using these methods, we were able to measure the labeling rate, cycling fraction of clonogenic progenitor cells, and other cell cycle parameters. The cycling fraction of stem/progenitor cells was found not to turn into an active hematopoiesis but to remain low during benzene inhalation and further we found evidence that the cycling fraction depression may be mediated in part by a slowing of stem/progenitor cell cycling perse by up-regulation of p21. The benzene induced leukemogenicity between mice carrying wild-type p53 and mice lacking p53 seem to differ from one another. In the case of p53 knockout mouse, DNA damage such as weak mutagenicity and or chromosomal damages are retained, and those damages participated in the induction of a consequent activation of proto-oncogenes and the like, which led cells to further neoplastic changes. In contrast, in the case of wild type mice, a dramatic oscillational change in the cell cycle of the stem cell compartment seems to be an important factor for mice carrying the p53 gene. (author)

  14. Assessment of personal exposures to optical radiation in large entertainment venues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, R.; O'Hagan, J. B.; Khazova, M.

    2012-01-01

    Workplace exposure to optical radiation from artificial sources is regulated in Europe under the Artificial Optical Radiation Directive 2006/25/EC implemented in the UK as The Control of Artificial Optical Radiation at Work Regulations 2010. The entertainment environment often presents an extremely complex situation for the assessment of occupational exposures. Multiple illumination sources, continuously changing illumination conditions and people moving during performances add further complexity to the assessment. This document proposes a methodology for assessing the risks arising from exposure to optical radiation and presents detailed case studies of practical assessment for two large entertainment venues. (authors)

  15. Assessing radiological impacts (exposures and doses) associated with the mining and milling of radioactive ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    The basic units and concepts applicable to radiological assessment are presented. Data relevant to the assessment of radiological exposures from the mining and milling phases of uranium and thorium ores are discussed. As a guide to the assessment of environmental exposures to members of the public, concepts such as the critical group are defined. Environmental transport and exposure pathways are presented in general terms, together with a discussion of the use of mathematical models. The dose assessment procedures defined in the 1987 Code of Practice are described. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  16. Assessing Sources of Human Methylmercury Exposure Using Stable Mercury Isotopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Miling; Sherman, Laura S; Blum, Joel D

    2014-01-01

    Seafood consumption is the primary route of methylmercury (MeHg) exposure for most populations. Inherent uncertainties in dietary survey data point to the need for an empirical tool to confirm exposure sources. We therefore explore the utility of Hg stable isotope ratios in human hair as a new...... method for discerning MeHg exposure sources. We characterized Hg isotope fractionation between humans and their diets using hair samples from Faroese whalers exposed to MeHg predominantly from pilot whales. We observed an increase of 1.75‰ in δ(202)Hg values between pilot whale muscle tissue and Faroese...... whalers' hair but no mass-independent fractionation. We found a similar offset in δ(202)Hg between consumed seafood and hair samples from Gulf of Mexico recreational anglers who are exposed to lower levels of MeHg from a variety of seafood sources. An isotope mixing model was used to estimate individual...

  17. Assessing Smoking Behaviour and Tobacco Smoke Exposure: Definitions and Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregg E

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the increased availability of tobacco products other than conventional cigarettes, the use of puffing topography devices for smoking behaviour studies and the use of biomarkers to study smoke constituents exposure have generated the need for a more comprehensive set of definitions concerning smoking behaviour and exposure to smoke. The definitions offered in this paper are based on many years of practical experience and on consensus within a broad group of scientists working in these areas. It is intended that, with wider and more consistent usage, these definitions should reduce any misunderstandings and facilitate interpretation of future studies.

  18. Environmental exposure assessment framework for nanoparticles in solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Baun, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Information related to the potential environmental exposure of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in the solid waste management phase is extremely scarce. In this paper, we define nanowaste as separately collected or collectable waste materials which are or contain ENMs, and we present a five...... transformation during waste treatment processes, (2) mechanisms for the release of ENMs, (3) the quantification of nanowaste amounts at the regional scale, (4) a definition of acceptable limit values for exposure to ENMs from nanowaste and (5) the reporting of nanowaste generation data....

  19. IRIS Toxicological Review of Benzene (Noncancer Effects) (1998 External Review Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzene is a widely used as an industrial solvent, an intermediate in chemical synthesis of commercial products, and a component of gasoline. The potential for human exposure via inhalation, dermal, and oral routes is great under environmental and occupational situations. The U.S...

  20. Ethyl benzene-induced ototoxicity in rats : a dose-dependent mild-frequency hearing loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cappaert, N.L.M.; Klis, S.F.L.; Baretta, A.B.; Muijser, H.; Smoorenburg, G.F.

    2000-01-01

    Rats were exposed to ethyl benzene at 0, 300, 400 and 550 ppm for 8 hours/day for 5 consecutive days. Three to six weeks after the exposure, auditory function was tested by measuring compound action potentials (CAP) in the frequency range of 1-24 kHz and 2f1-f2 distortion product otoacoustic

  1. Assessment of indirect human exposure to environmental sources of nickel: oral exposure and risk characterization for systemic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Brouwere, Katleen; Buekers, Jurgen; Cornelis, Christa; Schlekat, Christian E; Oller, Adriana R

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes the indirect human exposure to Ni via the oral route for the regional scale in the EU, together with a method to assess additional local exposure from industrial emissions. The approach fills a gap in the generic REACH guidance which is inadequate for assessing indirect environmental exposure of metals. Estimates of regional scale Ni dietary intake were derived from Ni dietary studies performed in the EU. Typical and Reasonable Worst Case dietary Ni intakes for the general population in the EU were below the oral Derived No Effect Level (DNEL) of Ni sulfate for systemic effects. Estimates for the Ni dietary intake at the local scale take into account the influence of aerial Ni deposition and transfer from soil to crops grown near industrial plants emitting Ni. The additional dietary exposure via this local contribution was small. Despite the use of conservative parameters for these processes, this method may underestimate dietary exposure around older industrial sites because REACH guidance does not account for historical soil contamination. Nevertheless, the method developed here can also be used as a screening tool for community-based risk assessment, as it accounts for historical soil pollution. Nickel exposure via drinking water was derived from databases on Ni tap water quality. A small proportion of the EU population (<5%) is likely to be exposed to tap water exceeding the EU standard (20 μg Ni/l). Taking into account the relative gastrointestinal absorption of Ni from water (30%) versus from solid matrices (5%), water intake constitutes, after dietary intake, the second most important pathway for oral Ni intake. Incidental ingestion of Ni from soil/dust at the regional scale, and also at the local scale, was low in comparison with dietary intake. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Radio frequency exposure in mobile phone users: Implications for exposure assessment in epidemiological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrissey, J. J.

    2007-01-01

    The majority of epidemiological studies investigating correlations between long-term low-level radiofrequency (RF) exposure from mobile phones and health endpoints have followed a case-control design, requiring reconstruction of individual RF exposure. To date, these have employed 'time of use' as an exposure surrogate from questionnaire information or billing records. The present study demonstrates such an approach may not account for variability in mobile phone transmit power, which can be roughly correlated with RF exposure. This variability exists (a) during a single call, (b) between separate calls, (c) between averaged values from individuals within a local study group and (d) between average values from groups in different geographical locations. The present data also suggest an age-related influence on talk time, as well as significant inaccuracy (45-60%) in recalling 'time of use'. Evolving technology and changing use behaviours may add additional complexities. Collectively, these data suggest efforts to identify dose response and statistical correlations between mobile phone use and subtle health endpoints may be significantly challenged. (authors)

  3. Assessment of Nicotine Exposure From Active Human Cigarette Smoking Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahours Xavier

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The burning of a cigarette is a series of consecutive sequences of both passive and active burnings when a smoking cycle is applied to the cigarette. A previous study, using a smoking machine, showed that cigarette nicotine yields are dependent linearly on the difference between the time of smouldering (passive burning and the time of smoking (active burning. It is predicted that the smoker’s nicotine yield increases when the intensity of smoking increases, i.e., when the time to smoke a cigarette (smoking time decreases. Note that observations made on machines might not be comparable to human behaviours. The aim of this study was to determine whether nicotine mouth-level exposure could be predicted through measurement of human smoking time. A smoking behaviour study was conducted to compare human smoking nicotine yields obtained from both filter tip analysis and the cigarette burning time model. Results showed that smokers’ exposure to the smoke depends essentially on the speed at which the cigarette is smoked. An increase in human smoking intensity, resulting in a decrease in smoking time, generates an increase in smoke exposure, whatever the puff number, puff duration, puff volume and filter ventilation (open or blocked. The association of a machine smoking yield with a corresponding smoking time, and the time taken by a consumer to smoke the cigarette would provide information on the exposure to smoke constituents in a simple and effective manner.

  4. Assessing elemental mercury vapor exposure from cultural and religious practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D M; Newby, C A; Leal-Almeraz, T O; Thomas, V M

    2001-08-01

    Use of elemental mercury in certain cultural and religious practices can cause high exposures to mercury vapor. Uses include sprinkling mercury on the floor of a home or car, burning it in a candle, and mixing it with perfume. Some uses can produce indoor air mercury concentrations one or two orders of magnitude above occupational exposure limits. Exposures resulting from other uses, such as infrequent use of a small bead of mercury, could be well below currently recognized risk levels. Metallic mercury is available at almost all of the 15 botanicas visited in New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, but botanica personnel often deny having mercury for sale when approached by outsiders to these religious and cultural traditions. Actions by public health authorities have driven the mercury trade underground in some locations. Interviews indicate that mercury users are aware that mercury is hazardous, but are not aware of the inhalation exposure risk. We argue against a crackdown by health authorities because it could drive the practices further underground, because high-risk practices may be rare, and because uninformed government intervention could have unfortunate political and civic side effects for some Caribbean and Latin American immigrant groups. We recommend an outreach and education program involving religious and community leaders, botanica personnel, and other mercury users.

  5. Quantitative exposure assessment in community-based studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Occupational epidemiology focuses on the associations between exposures at the workplace and disease outcomes, essentially concerned with the prevention of disease. Basically two types of studies can be distinguished in occupational epidemiology: industry-based studies which study a population at

  6. Assessment of Patient Exposure in Nuclear Medicine (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiners, C.; Lassmann, M.

    1998-01-01

    The radiation exposure of a patient in diagnostic nuclear medicine is influenced by different factors, which may be separated into direct and indirect determinants of exposure. The radiation burden is directly related to the radionuclide used (beta, gamma radiation, energy of radiation, physical half-life) and the activity used. In addition, the radiation exposure is strongly influenced by the type of radiolabelled compound (radiopharmaceutical) and its metabolic behaviour. The metabolism of a radio-pharmaceutical, however, depends not only on the general principles of its biodistribution but also on individual parameters of its biokinetics (i.e. patient's age, sex, weight, organ uptake and excretion). Optimisation in radiation protection requires a careful selection of activity, radionuclide and radiopharmaceutical compound for a patient. The radiation exposure of a patient may be influenced considerably by disturbance factors which can be controlled by means of quality assurance measures. Concerning the radiopharmaceutical, radiochemical and chemical impurities have to be ruled out before administration. Activity meters and gamma cameras must be checked by appropriate quality control procedures. The check of the gamma cameras includes background, efficiency, uniformity, linearity and resolution and has to be an integral part of a routine quality control programme in a nuclear medicine department. (author)

  7. Risk assessment for heart disease and workplace ETS exposure among nonsmokers.

    OpenAIRE

    Steenland, K

    1999-01-01

    In 1994 the U.S. Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) published a study of risk assessment for heart disease and lung cancer resulting from workplace exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) among nonsmokers. This assessment is currently being revised. The present article considers different possible approaches to a risk assessment for heart disease among nonsmokers resulting from workplace ETS exposure, reviews the approach taken by OSHA in 1994, and suggests some modifi...

  8. Prioritizing Chemicals and Data Requirements for Screening-Level Exposure and Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Trevor N.; Wania, Frank; Breivik, Knut; McLachlan, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Scientists and regulatory agencies strive to identify chemicals that may cause harmful effects to humans and the environment; however, prioritization is challenging because of the large number of chemicals requiring evaluation and limited data and resources. Objectives: We aimed to prioritize chemicals for exposure and exposure potential and obtain a quantitative perspective on research needs to better address uncertainty in screening assessments. Methods: We used a multimedia mass balance model to prioritize > 12,000 organic chemicals using four far-field human exposure metrics. The propagation of variance (uncertainty) in key chemical information used as model input for calculating exposure metrics was quantified. Results: Modeled human concentrations and intake rates span approximately 17 and 15 orders of magnitude, respectively. Estimates of exposure potential using human concentrations and a unit emission rate span approximately 13 orders of magnitude, and intake fractions span 7 orders of magnitude. The actual chemical emission rate contributes the greatest variance (uncertainty) in exposure estimates. The human biotransformation half-life is the second greatest source of uncertainty in estimated concentrations. In general, biotransformation and biodegradation half-lives are greater sources of uncertainty in modeled exposure and exposure potential than chemical partition coefficients. Conclusions: Mechanistic exposure modeling is suitable for screening and prioritizing large numbers of chemicals. By including uncertainty analysis and uncertainty in chemical information in the exposure estimates, these methods can help identify and address the important sources of uncertainty in human exposure and risk assessment in a systematic manner. PMID:23008278

  9. Prioritizing chemicals and data requirements for screening-level exposure and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnot, Jon A; Brown, Trevor N; Wania, Frank; Breivik, Knut; McLachlan, Michael S

    2012-11-01

    Scientists and regulatory agencies strive to identify chemicals that may cause harmful effects to humans and the environment; however, prioritization is challenging because of the large number of chemicals requiring evaluation and limited data and resources. We aimed to prioritize chemicals for exposure and exposure potential and obtain a quantitative perspective on research needs to better address uncertainty in screening assessments. We used a multimedia mass balance model to prioritize > 12,000 organic chemicals using four far-field human exposure metrics. The propagation of variance (uncertainty) in key chemical information used as model input for calculating exposure metrics was quantified. Modeled human concentrations and intake rates span approximately 17 and 15 orders of magnitude, respectively. Estimates of exposure potential using human concentrations and a unit emission rate span approximately 13 orders of magnitude, and intake fractions span 7 orders of magnitude. The actual chemical emission rate contributes the greatest variance (uncertainty) in exposure estimates. The human biotransformation half-life is the second greatest source of uncertainty in estimated concentrations. In general, biotransformation and biodegradation half-lives are greater sources of uncertainty in modeled exposure and exposure potential than chemical partition coefficients. Mechanistic exposure modeling is suitable for screening and prioritizing large numbers of chemicals. By including uncertainty analysis and uncertainty in chemical information in the exposure estimates, these methods can help identify and address the important sources of uncertainty in human exposure and risk assessment in a systematic manner.

  10. Assessment of arsenic exposures and controls in gallium arsenide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehy, J W; Jones, J H

    1993-02-01

    The electronics industry is expanding the use of gallium arsenide in the production of optoelectronic devices and integrated circuits. Workers in the electronics industry using gallium arsenide are exposed to hazardous substances such as arsenic, arsine, and various acids. Arsenic requires stringent controls to minimize exposures (the current OSHA PEL for arsenic is 10 micrograms/m3 and the NIOSH REL is 2 micrograms/m3 ceiling). Inorganic arsenic is strongly implicated in respiratory tract and skin cancer. For these reasons, NIOSH researchers conducted a study of control systems for facilities using gallium arsenide. Seven walk-through surveys were performed to identify locations for detailed study which appeared to have effective controls; three facilities were chosen for in-depth evaluation. The controls were evaluated by industrial hygiene sampling. Including personal breathing zone and area air sampling for arsenic and arsine; wipe samples for arsenic also were collected. Work practices and the use of personal protective equipment were documented. This paper reports on the controls and the arsenic exposure results from the evaluation of the following gallium arsenide processes: Liquid Encapsulated Czochralski (LEC) and Horizontal Bridgeman (HB) crystal growing, LEC cleaning operations, ingot grinding/wafer sawing, and epitaxy. Results at one plant showed that in all processes except epitaxy, average arsenic exposures were at or above the OSHA action level of 5 micrograms/m3. While cleaning the LEC crystal pullers, the average potential arsenic exposure of the cleaning operators was 100 times the OSHA PEL. At the other two plants, personal exposures for arsenic were well controlled in LEC, LEC cleaning, grinding/sawing, and epitaxy operations.

  11. Retrospective Occupational Exposure Assessment in Community-Based Studies Made Easier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritschi, L.; Girschik, J.; Friesen, M.C.; Glass, D.; Monash, G.B.; Sadkowsky, T.

    2010-01-01

    Occ DEAS Assessing occupational exposure in retrospective community-based case-control studies is difficult as measured exposure data are very seldom available. The expert assessment method is considered the most accurate way to attribute exposure but it is a time consuming and expensive process and may be seen as subjective, non reproducible, and non transparent. In this paper, we describe these problems and outline our solutions as ope rationalized in a web-based software application (Occ DEAS). The novel aspects of Occ DEAS are combining all steps in the assessment into one software package; enmeshing the process of assessment into the development of questionnaires; selecting the exposure(s) of interest; specifying rules for exposure assignment; allowing manual or automatic assessments; ensuring that circumstances in which exposure is possible for an individual are highlighted for review; providing reports to ensure consistency of assessment. Development of this application has the potential to make high-quality occupational assessment more efficient and accessible for epidemiological studies

  12. Range-finding risk assessment of inhalation exposure to nanodiamonds in a laboratory environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivisto, Antti J; Palomäki, Jaana E; Viitanen, Anna-Kaisa; Siivola, Kirsi M; Koponen, Ismo K; Yu, Mingzhou; Kanerva, Tomi S; Norppa, Hannu; Alenius, Harri T; Hussein, Tareq; Savolainen, Kai M; Hämeri, Kaarle J

    2014-05-16

    This study considers fundamental methods in occupational risk assessment of exposure to airborne engineered nanomaterials. We discuss characterization of particle emissions, exposure assessment, hazard assessment with in vitro studies, and risk range characterization using calculated inhaled doses and dose-response translated to humans from in vitro studies. Here, the methods were utilized to assess workers' risk range of inhalation exposure to nanodiamonds (NDs) during handling and sieving of ND powder. NDs were agglomerated to over 500 nm particles, and mean exposure levels of different work tasks varied from 0.24 to 4.96 µg·m(-3) (0.08 to 0.74 cm(-3)). In vitro-experiments suggested that ND exposure may cause a risk for activation of inflammatory cascade. However, risk range characterization based on in vitro dose-response was not performed because accurate assessment of delivered (settled) dose on the cells was not possible. Comparison of ND exposure with common pollutants revealed that ND exposure was below 5 μg·m(-3), which is one of the proposed exposure limits for diesel particulate matter, and the workers' calculated dose of NDs during the measurement day was 74 ng which corresponded to 0.02% of the modeled daily (24 h) dose of submicrometer urban air particles.

  13. Range-Finding Risk Assessment of Inhalation Exposure to Nanodiamonds in a Laboratory Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti J. Koivisto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study considers fundamental methods in occupational risk assessment of exposure to airborne engineered nanomaterials. We discuss characterization of particle emissions, exposure assessment, hazard assessment with in vitro studies, and risk range characterization using calculated inhaled doses and dose-response translated to humans from in vitro studies. Here, the methods were utilized to assess workers’ risk range of inhalation exposure to nanodiamonds (NDs during handling and sieving of ND powder. NDs were agglomerated to over 500 nm particles, and mean exposure levels of different work tasks varied from 0.24 to 4.96 µg·m−3 (0.08 to 0.74 cm−3. In vitro-experiments suggested that ND exposure may cause a risk for activation of inflammatory cascade. However, risk range characterization based on in vitro dose-response was not performed because accurate assessment of delivered (settled dose on the cells was not possible. Comparison of ND exposure with common pollutants revealed that ND exposure was below 5 μg·m−3, which is one of the proposed exposure limits for diesel particulate matter, and the workers’ calculated dose of NDs during the measurement day was 74 ng which corresponded to 0.02% of the modeled daily (24 h dose of submicrometer urban air particles.

  14. Children's exposure assessment of radiofrequency fields: Comparison between spot and personal measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallastegi, Mara; Huss, Anke; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Aurrekoetxea, Juan J; Guxens, Mònica; Birks, Laura Ellen; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Guerra, David; Röösli, Martin; Jiménez-Zabala, Ana

    2018-05-24

    Radiofrequency (RF) fields are widely used and, while it is still unknown whether children are more vulnerable to this type of exposure, it is essential to explore their level of exposure in order to conduct adequate epidemiological studies. Personal measurements provide individualized information, but they are costly in terms of time and resources, especially in large epidemiological studies. Other approaches, such as estimation of time-weighted averages (TWAs) based on spot measurements could simplify the work. The aims of this study were to assess RF exposure in the Spanish INMA birth cohort by spot measurements and by personal measurements in the settings where children tend to spend most of their time, i.e., homes, schools and parks; to identify the settings and sources that contribute most to that exposure; and to explore if exposure assessment based on spot measurements is a valid proxy for personal exposure. When children were 8 years old, spot measurements were conducted in the principal settings of 104 participants: homes (104), schools and their playgrounds (26) and parks (79). At the same time, personal measurements were taken for a subsample of 50 children during 3 days. Exposure assessment based on personal and on spot measurements were compared both in terms of mean exposures and in exposure-dependent categories by means of Bland-Altman plots, Cohen's kappa and McNemar test. Median exposure levels ranged from 29.73 (in children's bedrooms) to 200.10 μW/m 2 (in school playgrounds) for spot measurements and were higher outdoors than indoors. Median personal exposure was 52.13 μW/m 2 and median levels of assessments based on spot measurements ranged from 25.46 to 123.21 μW/m 2 . Based on spot measurements, the sources that contributed most to the exposure were FM radio, mobile phone downlink and Digital Video Broadcasting-Terrestrial, while indoor and personal sources contributed very little (altogether spot measurements, with the latter

  15. Radiolysis of Aqueous Benzene Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, H

    1964-05-15

    Aerated and deaerated aqueous solutions of benzene have been irradiated with {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays. The products of radiolysis in deaerated, unbuffered or acid, solutions were phenol, biphenyl, hydrogen and in acid solutions also hydrogen peroxide with the following yields: G(phenol) = 0. 37 (0. 37), G(biphenyl) = 1.3 (1.7), G(H{sub 2}) = 0.44 (0. 43) and G(H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) = 0 (0.60), the figures in brackets giving the results for acid solutions. The results are shown to agree with the conclusion that k(e{sup -}{sub aq} + H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) >> k(H + H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). Furthermore, the results indicate that a competition takes place between the reactions: 2 C{sub 6}H{sub 6}OH {center_dot} -> dimer -> biphenyl. C{sub 6}H{sub 7} {center_dot} + C{sub 6}H{sub 6}OH {center_dot} -> dimer -> biphenyl. The yields in aerated, unbuffered or acid, solutions were: G(phenol) = 2.1 (2.3), G(biphenyl) = 0 (0), and G(H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) = 2.2 (3.1), the figures in brackets being valid for acid solutions. The ratio k(H + C{sub 6}H{sub 6})/k(H + O{sub 2}) was 1.4x10{sup -2}. The results indicate that peroxides, or more probably hydroperoxides, take part in the reactions. After the addition of Fe{sup 2+} or Fe{sup 3+} to aerated acid solutions G(phenol) was increased to 6.6 and 3.4 respectively. Oxygen was consumed more rapidly in the presence of Fe. Reaction mechanisms are discussed.

  16. A probabilistic assessment of health risks associated with short-term exposure to tropospheric ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitfield, R.G; Biller, W.F.; Jusko, M.J.; Keisler, J.M.

    1996-06-01

    The work described in this report is part of a larger risk assessment sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Earlier efforts developed exposure-response relationships for acute health effects among populations engaged in heavy exertion. Those efforts also developed a probabilistic national ambient air quality standards exposure model and a general methodology for integrating probabilistic exposure-response relation- ships and exposure estimates to calculate overall risk results. Recently published data make it possible to model additional health endpoints (for exposure at moderate exertion), including hospital admissions. New air quality and exposure estimates for alternative national ambient air quality standards for ozone are combined with exposure-response models to produce the risk results for hospital admissions and acute health effects. Sample results explain the methodology and introduce risk output formats.

  17. Tumulus Disposal Demonstration Project assessment plan for potential worker exposure: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Styers, D.R.

    1989-03-01

    The purpose of the ''Assessment Plan for Potential Worker Exposure'' is to determine the potential radiological exposures to the workers as they dispose of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) on the Tumulus Disposal Demonstration Project (TDDP). An evaluation of the work procedures and precautions will be made so as to maintain the exposure levels As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). 10 refs., 10 figs

  18. Geogenic sources of benzene in aquifers used for public supply, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, Matthew K.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Statistical evaluation of two large statewide data sets from the California State Water Board's Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment Program (1973 wells) and the California Department of Public Health (12417 wells) reveals that benzene occurs infrequently (1.7%) and at generally low concentrations (median detected concentration of 0.024 μg/L) in groundwater used for public supply in California. When detected, benzene is more often related to geogenic (45% of detections) than anthropogenic sources (27% of detections). Similar relations are evident for the sum of 17 hydrocarbons analyzed. Benzene occurs most frequently and at the highest concentrations in old, brackish, and reducing groundwater; the detection frequency was 13.0% in groundwater with tritium 1600 μS/cm, and anoxic conditions. This groundwater is typically deep (>180 m). Benzene occurs somewhat less frequently in recent, shallow, and reducing groundwater; the detection frequency was 2.6% in groundwater with tritium ≥1 pCi/L, depth <30 m, and anoxic conditions. Evidence for geogenic sources of benzene include: higher concentrations and detection frequencies with increasing well depth, groundwater age, and proximity to oil and gas fields; and higher salinity and lower chloride/iodide ratios in old groundwater with detections of benzene, consistent with interactions with oil-field brines.

  19. Lead concentrations and risk exposure assessment in surface soils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated lead concentrations in < 250 μm and < 75 μm of deposited dust and< 2000 μm, < 250 μm, and < 75 μm of surface soils at undeveloped residential lands leased to auto-mechanic artisans for a minimum of ten years and estimated exposure risk for children that will reside on the polluted lands after the ...

  20. Assessment of natural radiation exposure inside a newly constructed building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, V.K.; Sadasivan, S.; Nambi, K.S.V.; Sundaram, V.K.

    1994-01-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides in building materials are one of the sources of radiation exposure to the population. Several building materials used for a newly constructed building complex were analysed for 40 K, 238 U radioactivity by gamma ray spectrometry. The external gamma dose inside the complex was evaluated by using the computer code QAD-CGGP. External dose rate was also measured by using scintillation gamma monitor. Calculated and the measured dose rate values are discussed. (author). 11 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Radiation exposure assessment for Portsmouth Naval Shipyard health studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, R. D.; Taulbee, T. D.; Chen, P.

    2004-01-01

    Occupational radiation exposures of 13,475 civilian nuclear shipyard workers were investigated as part of a retrospective mortality study. Estimates of annual, cumulative and collective doses were tabulated for future dose-response analysis. Record sets were assembled and amended through range checks, examination of distributions and inspection. Methods were developed to adjust for administrative overestimates and dose from previous employment. Uncertainties from doses below the recording threshold were estimated. Low-dose protracted radiation exposures from submarine overhaul and repair predominated. Cumulative doses are best approximated by a hybrid log-normal distribution with arithmetic mean and median values of 20.59 and 3.24 mSv, respectively. The distribution is highly skewed with more than half the workers having cumulative doses 95% having doses <100 mSv. The maximum cumulative dose is estimated at 649.39 mSv from 15 person-years of exposure. The collective dose was 277.42 person-Sv with 96.8% attributed to employment at Portsmouth Naval Shipyard. (authors)

  2. Assessing public exposure in commercial flights in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Vanusa A.; Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Prado, Nadya M.P.D. [Instituto Militar de Engenharia, Pc. Gen. Tiburcio, 80, Praia Vermelha, Rio de Janeiro, 22290-270 RJ (Brazil); Wasserman, Maria Angelica V. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, 21941-906, Rio de Janeiro RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The exposure to cosmic radiation in aircraft travel is higher than at ground level and varies with the year, the latitude, the altitude of flight and the flight time. The aim of this work was to estimate the contribution of cosmic radiation exposure on commercial flights to the Brazilian population. A database, including about 4000 domestic flights was implemented in Excel spreadsheet. The computer program CARI-6, developed by the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration, was used to calculate doses received in each route. Individual effective doses for commercial flights within Brazil ranged from 0.3 to 8.8 μSv, with a total collective annual dose of 312 man Sv. This value is low, about 5 % of the collective dose estimated for domestic flights in US and about 20 % of the collective doses from all flights in UK. This work shall serve as a baseline for future comparisons of exposures due to the growth of civil aviation in the country and open discussions on the concept of risk and its public acceptance, which are relevant aspects for defining radiological protection guidelines. (authors)

  3. RISKAP, Risk Assessment of Radiation Exposure for Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: RISKAP estimates risk to a population exposed to radioactivity. Risk is measured in terms of the expected number of premature deaths resulting from radiogenic cancers, the number of years of life lost as a result of these deaths, and the average number of years of life lost per premature death. RISKAP accommodates latency and plateau periods that vary with age at exposure and risk functions that vary with age at exposure as well as time after exposure. 2 - Method of solution: The user defines a population by specifying its size and age distribution at reference time zero, its subsequent age-specific mortality rates assuming no radiogenic deaths, and its subsequent birth rates. Radiation doses that may vary with age and time are also assigned by the user. These doses are used to compute an annual, age-specific risk of premature cancer death, based on a dose-response function selected by the user. Calculations of premature radiation deaths, deaths from all causes, and new age distribution of the population are performed for one-year intervals. The population is tracked over any specified period. This version of RISKAP allows the use of a linear, quadratic, or linear-quadratic dose-response function. The user may substitute any preferred dose-response function by editing the code. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: None noted

  4. Continuous 3-day exposure assessment of workplace manufacturing silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Ahn, Kangho; Kim, Sun Man; Jeon, Ki Soo; Lee, Jong Seong; Yu, Il Je

    2012-01-01

    With the increased production and widespread use of nanomaterials, human and environmental exposure to nanomaterials is inevitably increasing. Therefore, this study monitored the possible nanoparticle exposure at a workplace that manufactures silver nanoparticles. To estimate the potential exposure of workers, personal sampling, area monitoring, and real-time monitoring were conducted over 3 days using a scanning mobility particle sizer and dust monitor at a workplace where the workers handle nanomaterials. The area sampling concentrations obtained from the injection room showed the highest concentration, ranging from 0.00501 to 0.28873 mg/m 3 . However, apart from the injection room, none of the area samplings obtained from other locations showed a concentration higher than 0.0013 mg/m 3 . Meanwhile, the personal sampling concentrations ranged from 0.00004 to 0.00243 mg/m 3 over the 3 days of sampling, which was much lower than the silver TLV. The particle number concentrations at the silver nanoparticle manufacturing workplace were 911,170 (1st day), 1,631,230 (2nd day), and 1,265,024 (3rd day) particles/cm 3 with a size range of 15–710.5 nm during the operation of the reactor, while the concentration decreased to 877,364.9 (1st day), 492,732 (2nd day), and 344,343 (3rd day) particles/cm 3 when the reactor was stopped.

  5. Health effects assessment of exposure to particles from wood smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Elsa; Dybdahl, M [Technical Univ. of Denmark, National Food Institute, Dept. of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, Soeborg (Denmark); Larsen, Poul Bo [Danish Environmental Protection Agency, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2008-07-01

    The number of residential wood burning devices has increased in Denmark during the latest years and it has been estimated that there in 2005 were about 551,000 wood stoves and about 48,000 wood boilers in Denmark. This has resulted in an increased exposure of the general Danish population to pollutants associated with residential wood smoke. New Danish monitoring results on particulate matter (PM) in ambient air have shown elevated PM levels in areas with many wood stoves, particularly during wintertime when wood burning is common. Due to the size distribution of wood smoke particles essentially all will be contained in the PM{sub 2.5} fraction. It has been estimated that about 17,665 tonnes PM{sub 2.5} per year (2005) in Denmark come from residential wood combustion. Therefore, there is an increasing concern that adverse human health effects might be associated with the increased exposure to residential wood smoke. This project has been set up in order to review the scientific literature concerning adverse health effects of pollutants associated with residential wood smoke with the main focus on particulate matter and to quantify and evaluate, if possible, the impact on human health of the increased exposure to particles in residential wood smoke. (au)

  6. Distinguishing nanomaterial particles from background airborne particulate matter for quantitative exposure assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono-Ogasawara, Mariko; Serita, Fumio; Takaya, Mitsutoshi

    2009-10-01

    As the production of engineered nanomaterials quantitatively expands, the chance that workers involved in the manufacturing process will be exposed to nanoparticles also increases. A risk management system is needed for workplaces in the nanomaterial industry based on the precautionary principle. One of the problems in the risk management system is difficulty of exposure assessment. In this article, examples of exposure assessment in nanomaterial industries are reviewed with a focus on distinguishing engineered nanomaterial particles from background nanoparticles in workplace atmosphere. An approach by JNIOSH (Japan National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health) to quantitatively measure exposure to carbonaceous nanomaterials is also introduced. In addition to real-time measurements and qualitative analysis by electron microscopy, quantitative chemical analysis is necessary for quantitatively assessing exposure to nanomaterials. Chemical analysis is suitable for quantitative exposure measurement especially at facilities with high levels of background NPs.

  7. Harmonisation of food categorisation systems for dietary exposure assessments among European children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Neve, Melissa; Sioen, Isabelle; Boon, Polly

    2010-01-01

    Within the European project called EXPOCHI (Individual Food Consumption Data and Exposure Assessment Studies for Children), 14 different European individual food consumption databases of children were used to conduct harmonised dietary exposure assessments for lead, chromium, selenium and food...... colours. For this, two food categorisation systems were developed to classify the food consumption data in such a way that these could be linked to occurrence data of the considered compounds. One system served for the exposure calculations of lead, chromium and selenium. The second system was developed...... for the exposure assessment of food colours. The food categories defined for the lead, chromium and selenium exposure calculations were used as a basis for the food colour categorisation, with adaptations to optimise the linkage with the food colour occurrence data. With this work, an initial impetus was given...

  8. Harmonizing exposure metrics and methods for sustainability assessments of food contact materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstoff, Alexi; Jolliet, Olivier; Niero, Monia

    2016-01-01

    ) and Cradle to Cradle to support packaging design. Each assessment has distinct context and goals, but can help manage exposure to toxic chemicals and other environmental impacts. Metrics a nd methods to quantify and characterize exposure to potentially toxic chemicals specifically in food packaging are......, however, notably lacking from such assessments. Furthermore, previous case studies demonstrated that sustainable packaging design focuses, such as decreasing greenhouse gas emissions or resource consumption, can increase exposure to toxic chemicals through packaging. Thereby, developing harmonized methods...... for quantifying exposure to chemicals in food packaging is critical to ensure ‘sustainable packages’ do not increase exposure to toxic chemicals. Therefore we developed modelling methods suitable for first-tier risk screening and environmental assessments. The modelling framework was based on the new product...

  9. Comparative Assessment of Particulate Air Pollution Exposure from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Danielle C.; Fuller, Gary W.; Toledano, Mireille B.; Font, Anna; Elliott, Paul; Hansell, Anna L.; de Hoogh, Kees

    2013-01-01

    Background. Research to date on health effects associated with incineration has found limited evidence of health risks, but many previous studies have been constrained by poor exposure assessment. This paper provides a comparative assessment of atmospheric dispersion modelling and distance from source (a commonly used proxy for exposure) as exposure assessment methods for pollutants released from incinerators. Methods. Distance from source and the atmospheric dispersion model ADMS-Urban were used to characterise ambient exposures to particulates from two municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) in the UK. Additionally an exploration of the sensitivity of the dispersion model simulations to input parameters was performed. Results. The model output indicated extremely low ground level concentrations of PM10, with maximum concentrations of incinerator characteristics, magnitude of emissions, and surrounding meteorological and topographical conditions are considered. Reducing exposure misclassification is particularly important in environmental epidemiology to aid detection of low-level risks. PMID:23935644

  10. Indoor transformer stations and ELF magnetic field exposure: use of transformer structural characteristics to improve exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okokon, Enembe Oku; Roivainen, Päivi; Kheifets, Leeka; Mezei, Gabor; Juutilainen, Jukka

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that populations of multiapartment buildings with indoor transformer stations may serve as a basis for improved epidemiological studies on the relationship between childhood leukaemia and extremely-low-frequency (ELF) magnetic fields (MFs). This study investigated whether classification based on structural characteristics of the transformer stations would improve ELF MF exposure assessment. The data included MF measurements in apartments directly above transformer stations ("exposed" apartments) in 30 buildings in Finland, and reference apartments in the same buildings. Transformer structural characteristics (type and location of low-voltage conductors) were used to classify exposed apartments into high-exposure (HE) and intermediate-exposure (IE) categories. An exposure gradient was observed: both the time-average MF and time above a threshold (0.4 μT) were highest in the HE apartments and lowest in the reference apartments, showing a statistically significant trend. The differences between HE and IE apartments, however, were not statistically significant. A simulation exercise showed that the three-category classification did not perform better than a two-category classification (exposed and reference apartments) in detecting the existence of an increased risk. However, data on the structural characteristics of transformers is potentially useful for evaluating exposure-response relationship.

  11. The design of a miniature personal exposure monitor for continuous real-time data acquisition in electromagnetic field exposure assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, N.H.; Conroy, T.J.; Wilson, B.W.

    1994-06-01

    The design of a small, light-weight personal exposure monitor suitable for use in EMF exposure assessment studies is nearing completion at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The monitor is designed to be non-obtrusive, battery operated, and able to continuously record extremely low-frequency (ELF) (1Ohz--500hz) magnetic-field data. It also captures high-frequency (500hz--1OMhz) transients that exceed a preset threshold, retaining the largest transients in memory. The monitor can record one or more days of data on a single easily replaceable, credit-card-size memory (PCMCIA). A battery charge will last a minimum of one day. Batteries are rechargeable and easily replaced. A data-compression algorithm is under development that will be tailored to the efficient compression of low-frequency EMF signals and will permit data to be logged for at least one day before swapping memory cards. The memory cards are readable by a base- station computer that can perform analysis of the data. The monitor is designed to accommodate four inputs supporting full-field sensors as well as a proposed ocular exposure measurement system. Our design effort has shown that a practical personal exposure monitor for EMF can be built based on current technology, continuous logging of real-time ELF waveforms is both feasible and practical, and such a device is appropriate for proposed EMF exposure studies

  12. An assessment of residential exposure to environmental noise at a shipping port.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Enda; King, Eoin A

    2014-02-01

    The World Health Organisation has recently acknowledged that contrary to the trend for other environmental stressors, noise exposure is increasing in Europe. However, little research has been conducted on environmental noise exposure to handling activity at shipping ports. This paper reports on research examining the extent of noise exposure for residents within the vicinity of Dublin Port, Ireland using the nation's largest port terminal as a proxy for port noise. In order to assess the level of exposure in the area, long-term measurements were undertaken at the most exposed residential façade for a period of 45days to determine the extent of night-time exposure that was above levels recommended by the World Health Organisation. The indicators L90, Leq and LMax were used to determine exposure levels. The results show that exposure is above night-time guideline limits set down by the WHO, above Irish levels for the assessment of noise mitigation and highlight the extent to which port noise can be a significant environmental stressor. The research also investigated the extent of low-frequency noise (which is associated with greater health issues) from night-time port handling activity and found a significant low-frequency component indicating the negative health issues that might arise from port noise exposure more generally. We also undertook semi-structured interviews with residents to qualitatively assess the self-reported impact of prolonged night-time noise exposure for local residents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Canada-wide standard for benzene phase 1 : Progress report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    In June 2000, the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) ratified the Canada-Wide Standard (CWS) for Benzene Phase 1. Benzene is classified as a carcinogen to humans and any level of exposure is generally considered to carry some probability of harmful effects. The Ministers committed to reducing national benzene emissions by 30 per cent between 1995 and 2000. This report presents the progress thus far and describes how the Alberta Government has focused on effecting emission reductions in the natural gas sector, dehydrators, petroleum refineries and in chemical manufacturing plants. Their initiatives led to a 66 per cent decrease in benzene emissions by 1999. In addition, overall emissions in the province were reduced by 50 per cent from industry and mobile sources. The measures initiated during Phase 1 will continue beyond the time frame, and Phase 2, not yet ratified, will call for a follow-through on those measures. Phase 2 recognizes best management practices and jurisdictional regulations that will minimize emissions. Specifically, Phase 2 calls for an additional reduction of 6 kilotonnes in benzene emissions for existing facilities by the end of 2010. The minimization of benzene emissions through the application of best available pollution prevention and control techniques is contained for new and expanding facilities. The implementation of the CWS comprises the follow-up of existing initiatives resulting from the application of Phase 1 and the promotion and application of best management practices for new and expanding facilities, the determination and tracking of ancillary emission reductions of benzene realized as a result of other CWS initiatives, and the monitoring and reporting of progress. 13 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  14. Using cell phone location to assess misclassification errors in air pollution exposure estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haofei; Russell, Armistead; Mulholland, James; Huang, Zhijiong

    2018-02-01

    Air pollution epidemiologic and health impact studies often rely on home addresses to estimate individual subject's pollution exposure. In this study, we used detailed cell phone location data, the call detail record (CDR), to account for the impact of spatiotemporal subject mobility on estimates of ambient air pollutant exposure. This approach was applied on a sample with 9886 unique simcard IDs in Shenzhen, China, on one mid-week day in October 2013. Hourly ambient concentrations of six chosen pollutants were simulated by the Community Multi-scale Air Quality model fused with observational data, and matched with detailed location data for these IDs. The results were compared with exposure estimates using home addresses to assess potential exposure misclassification errors. We found the misclassifications errors are likely to be substantial when home location alone is applied. The CDR based approach indicates that the home based approach tends to over-estimate exposures for subjects with higher exposure levels and under-estimate exposures for those with lower exposure levels. Our results show that the cell phone location based approach can be used to assess exposure misclassification error and has the potential for improving