Hay, Justin L; White, Jason M; Bochner, Felix; Somogyi, Andrew A
The treatment of acute pain in patients maintained on methadone is difficult due to increased pain sensitivity (hyperalgesia) and cross-tolerance to other opioids. This study aimed to investigate whether remifentanil elicits antinociception in methadone-maintained subjects in a dose-dependent manner. Eight chronic methadone-maintained subjects attended the testing session approximately 20 h after their normal methadone dose (range 50-110 mgday(-1)). Following a 20 min saline infusion, subjects were administered intravenous remifentanil in seven increasing doses ranging from 0.5 to 3.5 microgkg(-1)min(-1), each for 2 0min. Testing was performed in the last 10 min of each infusion. The testing measures included nociception, as measured by the cold pressor test, withdrawal using the subjective opiate withdrawal scale (SOWS), and subjective opioid effects using the morphine-benzedrine group scale (MBG). Results showed dose-dependent increase in cold pressor tolerance time from baseline of 15.6+/-3.5 (mean+/-SEM)s up to 77.3+/-24.7s during this dosing protocol. During the infusion typical mu-opioid receptor agonist side effects were observed, but with no withdrawal. Methadone-maintained patients demonstrate significant tolerance to remifentanil and may require opioid doses 20-30 higher than required for the treatment of acute pain in opioid-naïve patients.
Khalilpour, Asieh; Pouramir, Mahdi; Asgharpour, Fariba
With regard to the importance of antioxidants in foods, cosmetics and pharmaceutics, there are several studies on natural resources for finding rich sources of antioxidants and their role in protecting the body against oxidative stress injuries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antioxidant stability of arbutin and the Pyrus boissieriana buhse Leaf extract and their effects on lipid oxidation in different conditions of temperature and time. Arbutin and the Pyrus boissieriana buhse Leaf extract were stored for 14 days in the different conditions of temperature including room, refrigerator and freezer. Total phenolic compounds were measured by the folin-ciocaltea method. Flavonoid compounds were evaluated by aluminum chloride method. Their total antioxidant activity was measured by FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) method and their protection effect on lipid oxidation was measured by TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactant substances) method. Also, the amount of sustainability for peroxide activities was measured by TMB (Tetra Methyl Benzedrine) method. Polyphenol formed 1.96 mg/g dry weight of Pyrus boissieriana buhse Leaf extract and the amount of flavonoid complex was 0.125 mg/g dry weight of Pyrus boissieriana buhse Leaf extract. The amount of FRAP was decreased by increasing temperature and time. The amount of lipid oxidation had increased in all samples with time (0-14). The stability of peroxide activities decreased in the different conditions of temperature and time. The results of this study show the existence of antioxidant activities with higher stability in storage time and the protective effect of arbutin and Pyrus boissieriana buhse Leaf extract on lipid oxidation. Therefore, using arbutin and Pyrus boissieriana buhse Leaf extract as a natural resource of antioxidant is suggested for substituting synthetic antioxidants.
目的：探讨影响梅毒患者治疗后血清学转归的因素。方法：对2010年1月至2013年1月期间我院接收治疗的128例梅毒患者进行回顾性分析，观察患者在驱梅治疗后1年的血清固定和血清转阴的情况。对影响血清固定的患者的年龄、性别、病期、治疗药物和 RPR 初始滴度等因素进行多因素 Logistic 分析。结果：128例患者中有89例（69.5%）患者发生血清转阴，39例（30.5%）患者发生血清固定，且血清固定的发生率随着患者病期的增长而增多。多因素 Logistic 分析结果显示，驱梅治疗后与血清转阴相关的临床特征包括：一期梅毒、二期梅毒患者以及年龄≤25岁的年轻患者。驱梅治疗后患者发生血清固定的因素包括：女性患者、非苄星青霉素治疗和初始 RPR 滴度≤1∶16。结论：梅毒患者经过驱梅治疗后血清学固定和转阴与患者的性别、年龄、病期、治疗药物和 RPR 基线滴度有关。%Objectives:To investigate the influencing factors on the posttreatment serologic outcome of syphilis patients.Methods:128 syphilis patients received treatment in our hospital from January 2010 to January 2013 were retrospectively analyzed,to observe the serologic outcome one year after treatment.Logistic analysis on the patient's age,gender multivariate,stage of disease,treatment,medications,RPR initial titers and other factors was conducted.Results:Of the 128 patients,89 (69.5%)patients seroconverted,and 39 (30.5%)patients had sero -resistance,whose incidence increased with the growth of disease.Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the seroconverted clinical features after treatment included:primary syphilis,secondary syphilis patients aged ≤ 25 years of age.Influencing factors of sero -resistance included:female patients,non -Benzedrine peni-cillin treatment and initial RPR titer ≤ 1:16.Conclusion:The influencing factors on the posttreatment serologic