This paper examines the conjunction of pharmacological science and espionage fiction of the post-war era. This paper argues that, during the 1950s, the relatively new science of pharmacology propounded the possibility that illness and human deficiency could be treated in a way that better reflected the post-war zeitgeist. The use of pharmacological medicine, perceived as cleaner and quicker than more 'bodily' forms of treatment, represented progress in contemporary medical science. It is argued that this philosophy extended to more overt means of pharmacological application, directly related to the geopolitical concerns of the 'Cold War'. A growing form of popular literature in this period was the espionage novel. This paper argues that the benefits proffered by pharmacology were incorporated into the fabric of espionage fiction, specifically the James Bond novels of Ian Fleming. Here, it is demonstrated how Fleming used pharmacological knowledge of Benzedrine throughout his novels. His works illustrate a belief that the augmentation of the spy's natural ability with pharmacological science would award decisive advantage in the Cold War conflict played out in spy fiction. However, the relationship between public use of Benzedrine and awareness of its side effects changed during the period of Fleming's publications, moving from a position of casual availability to one of controlled prescription. It is argued that the recognition of the dangers associated with the drug were over-ruled in favour of the benefits its use presented to the state. The continued use of the drug by Bond illustrates how the concerns of the nation are given priority over the health, and life, of the individual.
anti-spasmodic action on the gastrointestinal tract, specifically by decreasing hypertonicity of the stomach without negatively affecting normal... peristalsis . In two separate case studies using Benzedrine, Keevil reported that subjects felt the effects of the medication in minutes and obtained...voluntarily participated in this study. All participants had a current flight physical and were medically screened for vestibular, gastrointestinal
beyond a period considered normal, while at the same time boosting their self - esteem .”22 Heye’s request led to the creation of D-IX, a...aggression, self - esteem , and arousal.72 Amphetamines were discovered in 1887 and introduced on the market as Benzedrine in 1935.73 At the time...Maximal Aerobic Power,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 16, no. 3 (1984): 256−262. 154 Norman Gledhill, “Blood Doping and Related Issues: A
Houtsmuller, Elisabeth J; Fant, Reginald V; Eissenberg, Thomas E; Henningfield, Jack E; Stitzer, Maxine L
Because the taste of nicotine gum has impeded compliance with dosing recommendations, nicotine gum with improved taste (mint, orange) was developed and marketed. Prior to marketing, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) required a rigorous abuse liability assessment to examine whether enhanced palatability of nicotine gum would increase its abuse liability. Subjective, physiological, and psychomotor effects of mint flavor and original nicotine gum were tested in adult smokers (22-55 years old); a group of younger subjects (18-21 years old) was also included to allow for assessment of abuse liability in young adults specifically. Amphetamine and confectionery gum served as positive controls for abuse liability and palatability. Subjects rated palatability of mint gum higher than original nicotine gum, but substantially lower than confectionery gum. Palatability decreased with increasing dose of nicotine. Neither original nor mint gum increased ratings of traditional abuse liability predictors [Good Effect, Like Effect, Morphine-Benzedrine Group (MBG) scales of Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI)], while amphetamine increased ratings of all these measures. Both flavors of nicotine gum decreased craving during 2 h of abstinence. These effects were more pronounced in the adult group and mint gum was more effective than original gum. Younger subjects reported fewer withdrawal symptoms and lower ratings for drug effects and flavor. Improved flavor of nicotine gum does not increase abuse liability, but may be associated with enhanced craving reduction.
Das, Mrinmay; Jain, Raka; Dhawan, Anju; Kaur, Amandeep
Tramadol is a widely used opioid analgesic. Different preclinical, clinical, and postmarketing surveillance studies show conflicting results regarding abuse potential of this drug. A randomized double-blind complete crossover study was conducted at National Drug Dependence Treatment Centre, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. Total subjects were 10, comprising total 120 observations (each subject assessed at baseline, 5, 45, and 240 minutes). Subjects with history of substance abuse were included after detoxification and informed consent. Assessment was done using modified single dose opiate questionnaire, morphine benzedrine group (MBG), pentobarbital chlorpromazine alcohol group (PCAG), and two bipolar visual analogue scales (VAS) after administration of three drugs-Tramadol (100 mg), Buprenorphine (0.6 mg), and Placebo (Normal Saline) intramuscularly, at 5-day interval. In intra-group analysis, there was statistically significant increase in scores of all four scales from baseline to all three time points after Tramadol and Buprenorphine administration. In inter-group analysis, statistically higher scores were seen for Buprenorphine in comparison to Tramadol at 5, 45, and 240 minutes for MBG scale; the score was significantly higher for Buprenorphine in VAS for pleasurable effect at 45 and 240 minutes, but not at baseline and 5 minutes. There was no significant difference in score at any point of time between Tramadol and Buprenorphine in PCAG scale and VAS for sedative/alertness effect. The scores were statistically insignificant in case of Placebo. All the subjects liked Buprenorphine most and then Tramadol followed by Placebo. Tramadol has abuse potential (even in therapeutic doses) more than Placebo but less than or comparable to Buprenorphine.