Strohl, Madeleine P.
In 1937, psychiatrist Charles Bradley administered Benzedrine sulfate, an amphetamine, to “problem” children at the Emma Pendleton Bradley Home in Providence, Rhode Island, in an attempt to alleviate headaches; however, Bradley noticed an unexpected effect upon the behavior of the children: improved school performance, social interactions, and emotional responses. Drawing on Bradley’s published articles on his experiments, this paper explores the historical context of his experiments and the ...
Schoedel, Kerri A; Sun, Hong; Sellers, Edward M; Faulknor, Janice; Levy-Cooperman, Naama; Li, Xiaodong; Kennedy, William P; Cha, Jang-Ho; Lewis, Nicole M; Liu, Wen; Bondiskey, Phung; McCrea, Jacqueline B; Panebianco, Deborah L; Troyer, Matthew D; Wagner, John A
Suvorexant is a dual orexin receptor antagonist approved in the United States and Japan for the treatment of insomnia at a maximum dose of 20 mg. This randomized double-blind crossover study evaluated the abuse potential of suvorexant in 36 healthy recreational polydrug users with a history of sedative and psychedelic drug use. Single doses of suvorexant (40, 80, and 150 mg: 2-7.5 × maximum dose), zolpidem (15 and 30 mg: 1.5-3 × maximum dose), and placebo were administered, with a 10-day washout between treatments. Subjective and objective measures, including visual analog scales (VASs), Addiction Research Center Inventory, and cognitive/psychomotor tests, were evaluated for 24-hour postdose. Suvorexant had significantly greater peak effects on "drug liking" VAS (primary endpoint) than placebo. Although effects of suvorexant on abuse potential measures were generally similar to zolpidem, they remained constant across doses, whereas zolpidem often had greater effects at higher doses. Suvorexant (all doses) had significantly fewer effects than zolpidem 30 mg on secondary measures, such as "high" VAS, Bowdle VAS, and Addiction Research Center Inventory morphine-benzedrine group. The overall incidence of abuse-related adverse events, such as euphoric mood and hallucination, was numerically lower with suvorexant than zolpidem. In agreement with its classification as a schedule IV drug, suvorexant demonstrated abuse potential, compared with placebo. The abuse potential was similar to zolpidem using certain measures, but with a reduced incidence of abuse-related adverse events. Although this suggests that the overall abuse liability of suvorexant may be lower than zolpidem, the actual abuse rates will be assessed with the postmarketing experience. PMID:27253658
Khalilpour, Asieh; Pouramir, Mahdi; Asgharpour, Fariba
With regard to the importance of antioxidants in foods, cosmetics and pharmaceutics, there are several studies on natural resources for finding rich sources of antioxidants and their role in protecting the body against oxidative stress injuries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antioxidant stability of arbutin and the Pyrus boissieriana buhse Leaf extract and their effects on lipid oxidation in different conditions of temperature and time. Arbutin and the Pyrus boissieriana buhse Leaf extract were stored for 14 days in the different conditions of temperature including room, refrigerator and freezer. Total phenolic compounds were measured by the folin-ciocaltea method. Flavonoid compounds were evaluated by aluminum chloride method. Their total antioxidant activity was measured by FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) method and their protection effect on lipid oxidation was measured by TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactant substances) method. Also, the amount of sustainability for peroxide activities was measured by TMB (Tetra Methyl Benzedrine) method. Polyphenol formed 1.96 mg/g dry weight of Pyrus boissieriana buhse Leaf extract and the amount of flavonoid complex was 0.125 mg/g dry weight of Pyrus boissieriana buhse Leaf extract. The amount of FRAP was decreased by increasing temperature and time. The amount of lipid oxidation had increased in all samples with time (0-14). The stability of peroxide activities decreased in the different conditions of temperature and time. The results of this study show the existence of antioxidant activities with higher stability in storage time and the protective effect of arbutin and Pyrus boissieriana buhse Leaf extract on lipid oxidation. Therefore, using arbutin and Pyrus boissieriana buhse Leaf extract as a natural resource of antioxidant is suggested for substituting synthetic antioxidants.
目的：探讨影响梅毒患者治疗后血清学转归的因素。方法：对2010年1月至2013年1月期间我院接收治疗的128例梅毒患者进行回顾性分析，观察患者在驱梅治疗后1年的血清固定和血清转阴的情况。对影响血清固定的患者的年龄、性别、病期、治疗药物和 RPR 初始滴度等因素进行多因素 Logistic 分析。结果：128例患者中有89例（69.5%）患者发生血清转阴，39例（30.5%）患者发生血清固定，且血清固定的发生率随着患者病期的增长而增多。多因素 Logistic 分析结果显示，驱梅治疗后与血清转阴相关的临床特征包括：一期梅毒、二期梅毒患者以及年龄≤25岁的年轻患者。驱梅治疗后患者发生血清固定的因素包括：女性患者、非苄星青霉素治疗和初始 RPR 滴度≤1∶16。结论：梅毒患者经过驱梅治疗后血清学固定和转阴与患者的性别、年龄、病期、治疗药物和 RPR 基线滴度有关。%Objectives:To investigate the influencing factors on the posttreatment serologic outcome of syphilis patients.Methods:128 syphilis patients received treatment in our hospital from January 2010 to January 2013 were retrospectively analyzed,to observe the serologic outcome one year after treatment.Logistic analysis on the patient's age,gender multivariate,stage of disease,treatment,medications,RPR initial titers and other factors was conducted.Results:Of the 128 patients,89 (69.5%)patients seroconverted,and 39 (30.5%)patients had sero -resistance,whose incidence increased with the growth of disease.Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the seroconverted clinical features after treatment included:primary syphilis,secondary syphilis patients aged ≤ 25 years of age.Influencing factors of sero -resistance included:female patients,non -Benzedrine peni-cillin treatment and initial RPR titer ≤ 1:16.Conclusion:The influencing factors on the posttreatment serologic