Sample records for benzamides

  1. Chemical synthesis of benzamide riboside. (United States)

    Krohn, K; Dörner, H; Zukowski, M


    The C-glycosidic nicotinamide riboside analogue (1) was prepared by reaction of ribonolactone 16 with the lithiated 2-oxazoline 13 followed by triethylsilane reduction of the hemiacetal 17 to the tetrahydrofurane 18. Cleavage of the oxazoline group in 20 to the acid 21, conversion of the acid chloride 22 to the amide 23, and hydrogenative debenzylation afforded the benzamide riboside 1. Phosphorylation of the acetonide 26 and acid-catalyzed cleavage of the resulting ketal yielded the pseudonucleotide 27.

  2. Exploring the cocrystallization potential of urea and benzamide. (United States)

    Cysewski, Piotr; Przybyłek, Maciej; Ziółkowska, Dorota; Mroczyńska, Karina


    The cocrystallization landscape of benzamide and urea interacting with aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids was studied both experimentally and theoretically. Ten new cocrystals of benzamide were synthesized using an oriented samples approach via a fast dropped evaporation technique. Information about types of known bi-component cocrystals augmented with knowledge of simple binary eutectic mixtures was used for the analysis of virtual screening efficiency among 514 potential pairs involving aromatic carboxylic acids interacting with urea or benzamide. Quantification of intermolecular interaction was achieved by estimating the excess thermodynamic functions of binary liquid mixtures under supercooled conditions within a COSMO-RS framework. The smoothed histograms suggest that slightly more potential pairs of benzamide are characterized in the attractive region compared to urea. Finally, it is emphasized that prediction of cocrystals of urea is fairly direct, while it remains ambiguous for benzamide paired with carboxylic acids. The two known simple eutectics of urea are found within the first two quartiles defined by excess thermodynamic functions, and all known cocrystals are outside of this range belonging to the third or fourth quartile. On the contrary, such a simple separation of positive and negative cases of benzamide miscibility in the solid state is not observed. The difference in properties between urea and benzamide R2,2(8) heterosynthons is also documented by alterations of substituent effects. Intermolecular interactions of urea with para substituted benzoic acid analogues are stronger compared to those of benzamide. Also, the amount of charge transfer from amide to aromatic carboxylic acid and vice versa is more pronounced for urea. However, in both cases, the greater the electron withdrawing character of the substituent, the higher the binding energy, and the stronger the supermolecule polarization via the charge transfer mechanism.

  3. Synthesis and biological activity of benzamide DNA minor groove binders. (United States)

    Khan, Gul Shahzada; Pilkington, Lisa I; Barker, David


    A range of di- and triaryl benzamides were synthesised to investigate the effect of the presence and nature of a polar sidechain, bonding and substitution patterns and functionalisation of benzylic substituents. These compounds were tested for their antiproliferative activity as well as their DNA binding activity. The most active compounds in all assays were unsymmetrical triaryl benzamides with a bulky or alkylating benzylic substituent and a polar amino sidechain.

  4. Ortho lithiation-in situ borylation of substituted morpholine benzamides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cederbalk, Anna; Lysén, Morten; Kehler, Jan


    Morpholine amides are cheap and safe alternative to Weinreb amides as acylating agents of organometallic species. Herein, the in-situ lithiation/borylation of 18 ortho- meta- and para-substituted morpholine benzamides has been investigated. 10 of the 18 substrates provided the desired boronic...

  5. An Unusual N-Boc Deprotection of Benzamides under Basic Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Biaolin; ZHANG Yuanxiu


    For the first time,an unusal cleavage of N-tert-butyloxycarbonyl(N-Boc)protection from N-Boc-protected benzamide under basic conditions in excellent yields is reported.The deprotection involves the N-Boc emigration from the benzamide to form 2-O-Boo group followed by O-Boc deprotection on the phenyl ring.

  6. Gastrointestinal motility, prokinetic benzamides and serotonin - a study on the guinea pig colon.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briejer, M.R.


    The prokinetic substituted benzamides stimulate gastrointestinal motility in animal models and in man. Studies done on the isolated guinea-pig ileum have led to the hypothesis that the benzamides act through facilitation of cholinergic transmission due to stimulation of serotonin4 (5-HT 4

  7. Consensus on the use of substituted benzamides in psychiatric patients. (United States)

    Racagni, Giorgio; Canonico, Pier Luigi; Ravizza, Luigi; Pani, Luca; Amore, Mario


    The class of substituted benzamides includes compounds able to modulate dopaminergic neurons selectively and specifically. The first synthetic substituted benzamide was sulpiride, which has been replaced in the clinic by the more modern amisulpride. The compound is very selective for mesolimbic D2 and D3 receptors and, therefore, has a dual mechanism of action, which is associated with two different indications. At low doses (50 mg), amisulpride preferentially blocks presynaptic autoreceptors, producing an increase in dopamine release, and therefore acting as a dopaminergic compound able to resolve the dopaminergic hypoactivity that characterizes depression. At higher doses (400-1,200 mg), the drug exerts its activity on postsynaptic D3/D2 receptors located in the limbic region and prefrontal areas, producing selective dopaminergic inhibition, eliciting antipsychotic effects. In the present review, the clinical use of amisulpride in depressive syndromes is discussed, in particular in dysthymia and in schizophrenia. Based on experimental data, amisulpride is a treatment of choice for dopaminergic transmission disorders, both in depression and in schizophrenia.

  8. Metabolism of the novel IMP dehydrogenase inhibitor benzamide riboside. (United States)

    Jäger, Walter; Salamon, Alexandra; Szekeres, Thomas


    Benzamide riboside (BR) is a novel anticancer agent exhibiting pronounced activity against several human tumor cell lines via the inhibition of inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) that catalyzes the formation of xanthine 5'-monophosphate from inosine 5'-monophosphate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, thereby restricting the biosynthesis of guanylates. Phosphorylation of BR to its 5'-monophosphate derivative appears to be ubiquitous in most cells catalyzed by the enzymes, adenosine kinase, nicotinamide nucleoside kinase and 5' nucleotidase. BR 5'-monophosphate is then converted to the active metabolite benzamide adenine dinucleotide (BAD) by NMN adenylyltransferase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of NAD. As BAD is more potent in the inhibition of IMPDH than BR and BR 5'-monophosphate, cytotoxicity of BR is closely connected with intercellular metabolism to BAD. However, intracellular BAD level is also affected by BADase activity, a phosphodiesterase which hydrolyzes BAD to BR-5'-monophosphate and AMP. A recent study demonstrates enzymatic deamination of BR to non-cytotoxic benzene carboxylic acid (BR-COOH) as the main hepatic BR biotransformation product in rat liver. As the IMPDH inhibitors tiazofurin and ribavirin exhibit predominant accumulation and biotransformation in liver, hepatic metabolism may be an important factor also for BR activation and inactivation and should be considered in human liver during cancer therapy when BR is used as a single drug or in combination with other anticancer agents.

  9. A second target of benzamide riboside: dihydrofolate reductase. (United States)

    Roussel, Breton; Johnson-Farley, Nadine; Kerrigan, John E; Scotto, Kathleen W; Banerjee, Debabrata; Felczak, Krzysztof; Pankiewicz, Krzysztof W; Gounder, Murugesan; Lin, HongXia; Abali, Emine Ercikan; Bertino, Joseph R


    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is an essential enzyme involved in de novo purine and thymidine biosynthesis. For several decades, selective inhibition of DHFR has proven to be a potent therapeutic approach in the treatment of various cancers including acute lymphoblastic leukemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, osteogenic sarcoma, carcinoma of the breast, and head and neck cancer. Therapeutic success with DHFR inhibitor methotrexate (MTX) has been compromised in the clinic, which limits the success of MTX treatment by both acquired and intrinsic resistance mechanisms. We report that benzamide riboside (BR), via anabolism to benzamide adenine dinucleotide (BAD) known to potently inhibit inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), also inhibits cell growth through a mechanism involving downregulation of DHFR protein. Evidence to support this second site of action of BR includes the finding that CCRF-CEM/R human T-cell lymphoblasic leukemia cells, resistant to MTX as a consequence of gene amplification and overexpression of DHFR, are more resistant to BR than are parental cells. Studies of the mechanism by which BR lowers DHFR showed that BR, through its metabolite BAD, reduced NADP and NADPH cellular levels by inhibiting nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide kinase (NADK). As consequence of the lack of NADPH, DHFR was shown to be destabilized. We suggest that, inhibition of NADK is a new approach to downregulate DHFR and to inhibit cell growth.

  10. The substituted benzamides and their clinical potential on dysthymia and on the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. (United States)

    Pani, L; Gessa, G L


    In this paper the historical and scientific background that led to the use of substituted benzamides in two apparently unrelated clinical conditions namely dysthymic disorder and schizophrenia will be reviewed, in order to understand if a common mechanism of action may support this dual therapeutic indication. The dopaminergic antidepressant action of substituted benzamides such as sulpiride, has been proposed, since the late 1970s, by several authors and extensively explored in preclinical experiments by our group. In Italy the first marketing authorization obtained for the new substituted benzamide amisulpride, was with the sole indication of dysthymia and therefore a solid clinical experience exists in the use of substituted benzamides in mild forms of depression, with more than 1 000 000 patients being treated in the last 7 years. The proposed mechanism of action of substituted benzamides implies a selective modulation of the dopaminergic system in the mesocorticolimbic area, important for cognitive processing of internal and external cues, related to survival. The selective antagonism of dopamine D2-D3 receptors has been evoked to explain, in small to moderate doses (ie 50-100 mg day(-1)), the antidepressant effect and, in moderate to medium doses (100-400 mg day(-1)), the reported efficacy on negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Thus, substituted benzamides could represent the first class of atypical antipsychotics successfully employed for both depressive states and schizophrenia. Interestingly, recent evidence in the literature suggests that depressive episodes belonging to the bipolar spectrum are among "alternative indications" of other atypical antipsychotics such as olanzapine and risperidone.

  11. Crystal structures of three 3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-benzamide-based derivatives. (United States)

    Gomes, Ligia R; Low, John Nicolson; Oliveira, Catarina; Cagide, Fernando; Borges, Fernanda


    The crystal structures of three benzamide derivatives, viz. N-(6-hy-droxy-hex-yl)-3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-benzamide, C16H25NO5, (1), N-(6-anilinohex-yl)-3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-benzamide, C22H30N2O4, (2), and N-(6,6-di-eth-oxy-hex-yl)-3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-benzamide, C20H33NO6, (3), are described. These compounds differ only in the substituent at the end of the hexyl chain and the nature of these substituents determines the differences in hydrogen bonding between the mol-ecules. In each mol-ecule, the m-meth-oxy substituents are virtually coplanar with the benzyl ring, while the p-meth-oxy substituent is almost perpendicular. The carbonyl O atom of the amide rotamer is trans related with the amidic H atom. In each structure, the benzamide N-H donor group and O acceptor atoms link the mol-ecules into C(4) chains. In 1, a terminal -OH group links the mol-ecules into a C(3) chain and the combined effect of the C(4) and C(3) chains is a ribbon made up of screw related R 2 (2)(17) rings in which the ⋯O-H⋯ chain lies in the centre of the ribbon and the tri-meth-oxy-benzyl groups forms the edges. In 2, the combination of the benzamide C(4) chain and the hydrogen bond formed by the terminal N-H group to an O atom of the 4-meth-oxy group link the mol-ecules into a chain of R 2 (2)(17) rings. In 3, the mol-ecules are linked only by C(4) chains.

  12. [The benzamides tiapride, sulpiride, and amisulpride in treatment for Tourette's syndrome]. (United States)

    Müller-Vahl, K R


    The treatment of Tourette's syndrome is a challenge. Dopamine receptor antagonists are the drugs of first choice for the treatment of tics. Because large controlled trials are lacking, there is no consensus about which of the different neuroleptic drugs should be preferred. In Germany, tiapride seems to be used most often for the treatment of tics in children - although only one small controlled trial has been performed on it till now. In adults, other dopamine receptor antagonists such as risperidone, pimozide, and sulpiride seem to be more effective than tiapride. Today it is unknown whether new atypical neuroleptic drugs including the benzamide amisulpride are more effective than the older benzamides tiapride and sulpiride.

  13. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial studies of 2-chloro-5-fluoro-N-[dibenzyl carbamothioyl] benzamide thiourea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapari, Suhaila; Yamin, Bohari M.; Hasbullah, Aishah; Ibrahim, Nazlina [School of Chemical Science and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, The National University of Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)


    Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial studies of 2-chloro-5-fluoro-N-[dibenzyl carbamothioyl] benzamide thiourea has been reported. The compound characterized by using elementary analysis CHNS, IR, {sup 1}H NMR and {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopies. The compounds have been screened for their antibacterial studies.

  14. Resonance Raman and theoretical investigation of the photodissociation dynamics of benzamide in S3 state. (United States)

    Pei, Ke-Mei; Ma, Yufang; Zheng, Xuming


    Resonance Raman spectra were obtained for benzamide in methanol and acetonitrile solutions with excitation wavelengths in resonance with the S(3) state. These spectra indicate that the Franck-Condon region photodissociation dynamics have multidimensional character with the motions mainly along the benzene ring C[Double Bond]C stretch nu(9), the Ph-CO-NH(2) and ring benzene stretch nu(14), the CCH in plane bend nu(17), the Ph-CO-NH(2) stretch and NH(2) rock nu(19), the ring trigonal bend nu(23), and the ring deformation and Ph-CO-NH(2) stretch nu(29). A preliminary resonance Raman intensity analysis was done, and the results were compared to those previously reported for acetophenone to examine the substituent effect. Solvent effect on the short-time photodissociation dynamics of benzamide was also examined. A conical intersection point S(2)S(3) between S(3) and S(2) potential energy surfaces of benzamide was determined by using a complete active space self-consistent field theory computations. The structural differences and similarities between S(3)S(2) point and S(0) were examined, and the results were used to correlate to the Franck-Condon photodissociation dynamics of benzamide in S(3) state.

  15. Benzamide derivatives and their constrained analogs as histamine H3 receptor antagonists. (United States)

    Nirogi, Ramakrishna; Shinde, Anil; Tiriveedhi, Vinaykumar; Kota, Laxman; Saraf, Sangram Keshari; Badange, Rajesh Kumar; Mohammed, Abdul Rasheed; Subramanian, Ramkumar; Muddana, Nageshwararao; Bhyrapuneni, Gopinadh; Abraham, Renny


    A series of 4-(1-substituted piperidin-4-yloxy) benzamides and 6-(1-substituted piperidin-4-yloxy)-3,4-dihydro-2H-isoquinolin-1-one derivatives have been synthesized and tested for their binding affinity towards H3 receptor. Most of these synthesized compounds have displayed potent binding affinity for H3 receptor when tested in in vitro binding assay. Preliminary SAR studies, functional activity, pharmacokinetic profile and efficacy profile constitute the subject matter of this communication.

  16. Effects of acute or chronic administration of substituted benzamides in experimental models of depression in rats. (United States)

    Drago, F; Arezzi, A; Virzì, A


    The effects of substituted benzamides, sulpiride and raclopride on experimental models of depression were studied in male rats after acute or chronic administration in comparison to those of the classical antidepressant, clomipramine. In contrast to clomipramine (50 mg/kg), acute doses of sulpiride or raclopride (1 or 5 mg/kg) failed to change the behavioral response of animals tested in the despair (constrained swim) test or in the model of reserpine-induced changes in the open field behavior. These doses also did not modify the grooming response of rats exposed to a novel environment. Sulpiride or raclopride 10 mg/kg increased the immobility time in the despair test and reduced novelty-induced grooming. The repeated injection for 21 days of sulpiride or raclopride (1 or 5 mg/kg, but not 10 mg/kg) induced a reduction of the immobility period during the constrained swim test similar to that following the chronic treatment with clomipramine 50 mg/kg. This appeared to be a clear-cut reversed dose-response relationship for both substituted benzamides, being the dose potency 1 mg/kg>5 mg/kg>10 mg/kg. Raclopride was more potent than sulpiride in this respect. Furthermore, like clomipramine, sulpiride (1 or 5 mg/kg) and raclopride (1 mg/kg) antagonized reserpine-induced changes in the open field behavior and enhanced novelty-induced grooming. These results indicate that, in contrast to acute injection, repeated administration of small doses of the substituted benzamides, sulpiride or raclopride induce an effect similar to that of the classical antidepressant, clomipramine. The reverse dose-response relationship suggests that these drugs in small doses act on presynaptic dopamine D(2) receptors. This may be consistent with a postsynaptic action of greater doses that exert sedative effects and increase immobility time in the despair test.

  17. Benzamide Derivatives as Protective Agents against the Action of Xenotoxic Agents on Human Cells. (United States)


    developed a procedure for detecting the presence of a malignant pheno- type in sarcoma tumor tissue. Monoclonal antibodies, (McAb) were developed against the... MAMA was obtained from Sigma Chemical Cotp. St. Louis, MO, and 1-nitropyrene was supplied by Dr. Fred Beland, NCTR, Jefferson, ARK) in CM...14C)- MAMA 7 HUMAN CELL TRANSFORMATION (2.5 uCi/ml) at 0.03 mM or (1 4 C)- MAMA , 0.03 mM and benzamide, - - 1.0 mM. At the end of treatment, after washing

  18. Synthesis of benzamides by microwave assisted ring opening of less reactive dimethylaminobenzylidene oxazolone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh C. Khadse


    Full Text Available This paper presents the synthesis of some benzamide compounds (B1–B10 by microwave-assisted ring opening of 4-(4-dimethylaminobenzylidene-2-phenyl-5-oxazolone (AZ4. By conventional synthesis involving heating, it was found difficult to obtain ring-opened products, probably due to poor tendency of the carbonyl carbon (C5 of AZ4 to undergo nucleophilic attack by mono/or disubstituted anilines. Microwave assisted reactions were easy to perform, have reduced the reaction time and produced good yields.

  19. Substituted Benzamides Containing Azaspiro Rings as Upregulators of Apolipoprotein A-I Transcription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Hong


    Full Text Available Apolipoprotein A-I (Apo A-I is the principal protein component of high density lipoprotein (HDL, which is generally considered as a potential therapeutic target against atherosclerosis. The understanding of the Apo A-I regulation mechanism has fuelled the development of novel HDL targeted therapeutic approaches. To identify novel agents that can upregulate Apo A-I expression, we performed a cell-based reporter assay to screen 25,600 small molecules. Based on the dataset obtained from screening, a series of novel analogs of substituted benzamides containing azaspiro rings were assessed for their ability to induce the transcription of the Apo A-I gene, and the structure-activity relationship (SAR around these analogs was also proposed. The results indicated that the trifluoromethyl substituted benzamide containing an azaspiro ring is a promising backbone for designing Apo A-I transcriptional upregulator and could be viable leads for development of new drugs to prevent and treat atherosclerosis in the future.

  20. A fluorinated quinuclidine benzamide named LMA 10203 acts as an agonist of insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. (United States)

    Mathé-Allainmat, Monique; Bodereau-Dubois, Béatrice; Lapied, Bruno; Lebreton, Jacques; Thany, Steeve H


    In the present study, we take advantage of the fact that cockroach dorsal unpaired median neurons express different nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes to demonstrate that simple quinuclidine benzamides such as the 2-fluorinated benzamide LMA 10203, could act as an agonist of cockroach α-bungarotoxin-insensitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtype, called nAChR2. Indeed, 1 mM LMA 10203 induced ionic currents which were partially blocked by 0.5 μM α-bungarotoxin and methyllycaconitine and completely blocked by 5 μM mecamylamine. Moreover, the current-voltage curve revealed that the ionic current induced by LMA 10203 increased from -30 mV to +20 mV confirming that it acted as an agonist of α-bungarotoxin-insensitive nAChR2. In addition, 1 mM LMA 10203 induced a depolarization of the sixth abdominal ganglion and this neuroexcitatory activity was completely blocked by 5 μM mecamylamine. These data suggest that nAChR2 was also expressed at the postsynaptic level on the synapse between the cercal afferent nerve and the giant interneurons. Interestingly, despite LMA 10203 being an agonist of cockroach nicotinic receptors, it had a poor insecticidal activity. We conclude that LMA 10203 could be used as an interesting compound to identify specific insect nAChR subtypes.

  1. Terahertz Absorption Spectroscopy of Benzamide, Acrylamide, Caprolactam, Salicylamide, and Sulfanilamide in the Solid State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Jiang


    Full Text Available Terahertz (THz absorption spectra of the similarly structured molecules with amide groups including benzamide, acrylamide, caprolactam, salicylamide, and sulfanilamide in the solid phase at room temperature and 7.8 K for salicylamide are reported and compared to infrared vibrational spectral calculations using density functional theory. The results of THz absorption spectra show that the molecules have characteristic bands in the region of 0.2–2.6 THz (~7–87 cm−1. THz technique can be used to distinguish different molecules with amide groups. In the THz region benzamide has three bands at 0.83, 1.63, and 1.73 THz; the bands are located at 1.44 and 2.00 THz for acrylamide; the bands at 1.24, 1.66 and 2.12 THz are observed for caprolactam. The absorption bands are located at 1.44, 1.63, and 2.39 THz at room temperature, and at 1.22, 1.46, 1.66, and 2.41 THz at low temperature for salicylamide. The bands at 1.63, 1.78, 2.00, and 2.20 THz appear for sulfanilamide. These bands in the THz region may be related to torsion, rocking, wagging, and other modes of different groups in the molecules.

  2. Synthesis of benzamide derivatives of anacardic acid and their cytotoxic activity. (United States)

    Chandregowda, Venkateshappa; Kush, Anil; Reddy, Goukanapalli Chandrasekara


    Several benzamide derivatives were synthesized from anacardic acid (1a) which was the product of hydrogenation of the naturally occurring anacardic acid mixture (1a-d), a major constituent of cashew nut shell liquid. Anacardic acid (1a) was first alkylated followed by hydrolysis of the ester to obtain synthones namely, 2-ethoxy-6-pentadecylbenzoic acid (5) and 2-isopropoxy-6-pentadecylbenzoic acid (6). These salicylic acid derivatives were then coupled with a variety of anilines to obtain novel benzamide compounds (7-39). Cytotoxic effect of these synthesized compounds was tested on HeLa cell line of wild type with relatively high expression of p300 and on HCT-15, which is p300 negative. Of all the compounds, 2-isopropoxy-6-pentadecyl-N-pyridin-4-ylbenzamide (27), 2-ethoxy-N-(3-nitrophenyl)-6-pentadecylbenzamide (22) and 2-ethoxy-6-pentadecyl-N-pyridin-4-ylbenzamide (10) were found to be more potent with the respective IC(50) values 11.02 microM, 13.55 microM, 15.29 microM on HeLa cell line. Their activities are comparable with garcinol which is a cell permeable histone acetyltransferase (HAT) inhibitor and 10 fold more active than p300 HAT activators so far reported.

  3. Synthesis and Bacteriostatic Activity and Antifouling Capability of Benzamide Derivatives Containing Capsaicin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CONG Wei-wei; YU Liang-min


    Five benzamide deriatives containing capsaicin were synthesized which have similar structures to capsaicin.Their yield was high.The monomers synthesized were characterized by IR,1H NMR and MS spectroscopy.Characterization data are in agreement with the proposed structures of the products.These five compounds exhibit bacterial inhibition and N-[4-hydroxy-2-methyl-5-(methylthio)benzyl]benzamide(HMMBBA),for instance,shows that the minimal inhibitory concentrations(MIC) of HMMBBA are 0.125 and 0.25 mg/mL on Staphyloccocus aureus and Escherichia coli,respectively.A static test site was set up in the eighth harbor to investigate the antifouling effectiveness of the five new antifoulants.Five-month exposure experiments were performed on sets of panels coated with each of antifouling coatings,and the results were compared to that of the test panel without antifouling coating.Test boards with antifouling coating were covered with just a macroscopic fouling organism such as Balanus.The results of the present paper demonstrate that new antifoulants represent an alternative to the biocidal antifouling paint.

  4. Substituted benzamide inhibitors of human rhinovirus 3C protease: structure-based design, synthesis, and biological evaluation. (United States)

    Reich, S H; Johnson, T; Wallace, M B; Kephart, S E; Fuhrman, S A; Worland, S T; Matthews, D A; Hendrickson, T F; Chan, F; Meador, J; Ferre, R A; Brown, E L; DeLisle, D M; Patick, A K; Binford, S L; Ford, C E


    A series of nonpeptide benzamide-containing inhibitors of human rhinovirus (HRV) 3C protease was identified using structure-based design. The design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of these inhibitors are reported. A Michael acceptor was combined with a benzamide core mimicking the P1 recognition element of the natural 3CP substrate. alpha,beta-Unsaturated cinnamate esters irreversibly inhibited the 3CP and displayed antiviral activity (EC(50) 0.60 microM, HRV-16 infected H1-HeLa cells). On the basis of cocrystal structure information, a library of substituted benzamide derivatives was prepared using parallel synthesis on solid support. A 1.9 A cocrystal structure of a benzamide inhibitor in complex with the 3CP revealed a binding mode similar to that initially modeled wherein covalent attachment of the nucleophilic cysteine residue is observed. Unsaturated ketones displayed potent reversible inhibition but were inactive in the cellular antiviral assay and were found to react with nucleophilic thiols such as DTT.

  5. One-pot synthesis of novel 1, 8-dioxo-decahydroacridines containing phenol and benzamide moiety and their synthetic uses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ali Dorehgiraee; Esmat Tavakolinejad Kermani; Hojatollah Khabazzadeh


    An efficient synthesis of some new 1, 8-dioxo-decahydroacridines is achieved via one-pot, threecomponent condensation of aromatic aldehydes, cyclic diketone, and 4-amino benzamide/4-aminophenol. Reaction of these acridines with dimethylacetylene dicarboxylate and triphenylphosphine or cyclohexylisocyanide gives stable phosphorus ylides or 4H-chromene derivatives, respectively, with good yields.

  6. N-[2-(maleimido)ethyl]-3-(trimethylstannyl)benzamide, a molecule for radiohalogenation of proteins and peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aneheim, Emma; Foreman, Mark R StJ; Jensen, Holger


    In this work a new coupling reagent, N-[2-(maleimido)ethyl]-3-(trimethylstannyl)benzamide, for radiohalogenation has been synthesized and characterized. The reagent is intended to either be attached to reduced disulfide bridges of proteins (making the halogenation site-specific) or to free termin...

  7. Removal of Uranium (VI from aqueous solution by Uranium Benzamide Complex using AC_Fe3O4 Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Akbari Jonoush


    Conclusion: The removal of U(VI on AC_Fe3O4 nanocomposite with the aid of benzamide is a rapid and highly pH depended process. The maximum sorption capacity (15/87 mg/g of AC_Fe3O4 nanocomposite shows that this method is a suitable method for Uranium removal.

  8. The PARP inhibitor benzamide protects against kainate and NMDA but not AMPA lesioning of the mouse striatum in vivo. (United States)

    Cosi, Cristina; Guerin, Karen; Marien, Marc; Koek, Wouter; Rollet, Karin


    Overactivation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in response to genotoxic insults can cause cell death by energy deprivation. We previously reported that neurotoxic amounts of kainic acid (KA) injected into the rat striatum produce time-dependent changes in striatal PARP activity in vivo. Here, we have investigated the time-course of KA-induced toxicity and the effects of the PARP inhibitor benzamide on KA, AMPA and NMDA neurotoxicities in vivo, by measuring changes in the volume of the lesion and in NAD+ and ATP levels induced by the intra-striatal injection of these excitotoxins in C57Bl/6N mice. The KA-induced lesion volume was dependent on the amount of toxin injected and the survival time. The lesion was well developed at 48 h and was almost undetectable after one week. KA produced an extensive astrogliosis at one week. Benzamide partially prevented both KA- and NMDA- but not AMPA-induced lesions when measured at 48 h after the treatment. The effects of benzamide appeared to be in part related to changes in energy metabolism, since KA produced decreases in striatal levels of NAD+ and ATP that were partially prevented by benzamide at 48 h and which returned to control levels at one week. NMDA did not affect NAD+ and induced little alteration in ATP levels. Benzamide had no effect on AMPA-induced decreases in either NAD+ or ATP levels at 48 h. These results (1) indicate that PARP overactivation and energy depletion could be responsible in part for the cellular demise during the development of the lesion induced by KA; (2) confirm that PARP is involved in NMDA but not AMPA toxicities; (3) suggest the existence of differences between KA and AMPA-mediated toxicities; and (4) provide further evidence supporting PARP as a novel target for new drug treatments against neurodegenerative disorders.

  9. Crystal structures of three N-(aryl-sulfon-yl)-4-fluoro-benzamides. (United States)

    Suchetan, P A; Naveen, S; Lokanath, N K; Srivishnu, K S; Supriya, G M; Lakshmikantha, H N


    The crystal structures of three N-aryl-sulfonyl-4-fluoro-benzamides, namely 4-fluoro-N-(2-methyl-phenyl-sulfon-yl)benzamide, C14H12FNO3S, (I), N-(2-chloro-phenyl-sulfon-yl)-4-fluorobenzamide, C13H9ClFNO3S, (II), and N-(4-chloro-phenyl-sulfon-yl)-4-fluoro-benzamide monohydrate, C13H9ClFNO3S·H2O, (III), are described and compared with related structures. The asymmetric unit of (I) contains two independent mol-ecules (A and B), while that of (II) contains just one mol-ecule, and that of (III) contains a mol-ecule of water in addition to one main mol-ecule. The dihedral angle between the benzene rings is 82.83 (11)° in mol-ecule A and 85.01 (10)° in mol-ecule B of (I), compared to 89.91 (10)° in (II) and 81.82 (11)° in (III). The crystal structure of (I) features strong N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds between the A and B mol-ecules, resulting in an R 4 (4)(16) tetra-meric unit. These tetra-meric units are connected into sheets in the bc plane by various C-H⋯O inter-actions, and adjacent sheets are further inter-linked via C-H⋯πar-yl inter-actions, forming a three-dimensional architecture. The crystal structure is further stabilized by πar-yl-πar-yl and S=O⋯πar-yl inter-actions. In the crystal of (II), mol-ecules are connected into R 2 (2)(8) and R 2 (2)(14) dimers via N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and C-H⋯O inter-actions, respectively; the dimers are further inter-connected via a weak C=O⋯πar-yl inter-action, leading to the formation of chains along [1-10]. In the crystal of (III), N-H⋯O and O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds involving both the main mol-ecule and the solvent water mol-ecule results in the formation of sheets parallel to the bc plane. The sheets are further connected by C-H⋯O inter-actions and weak C-Cl⋯πar-yl, C-F⋯πar-yl and S=O⋯πar-yl inter-actions, forming a three-dimensional architecture.

  10. Benzamide neuroleptics in the practice of a psychiatrist, a neurologist, and an internist at the present development stage of psychopharmacology (by the example of sulpiride)



    The paper reviews the literature on the use of benzamide neuroleptics (by the example of sulpiride) to treat mental disorders and psychosomatic diseases. It characterizes medications, such as benzamide derivatives. The mechanism of action of sulpiride and its differences from other neuroleptics are discussed. The efficacy of sulpiride (as monotherapy or combined therapy) in the treatment of different mental disorders, psychosomatic diseases, alcohol and drug additions, etc. is critically anal...

  11. Crystal structure of N-[(morpholin-4-yl(thiophen-2-ylmethyl]benzamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Arun Prabhu


    Full Text Available In the title compound, C16H18N2O2S, the morpholine ring adopts a chair conformation. The thiophene ring makes a dihedral angle of 63.54 (14° with the mean plane of the four C atoms [maximum deviation = 0.010 (3 Å] of the morpholine ring. The benzamide ring is disordered, with four C atoms occupying two sets of sites, with a refined occupancy ratio of 0.502 (4:0.498 (4. These two rings are inclined to one another by 85.2 (4° and to the thiophene ring by 72.7 (3 and 13.0 (3° for the major and minor components, respectively. In the crystal, molecules are linked via N—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming chains along [001].

  12. Fragmentation of Protonated N-(3-Aminophenyl)Benzamide and Its Derivatives in Gas Phase (United States)

    Zu, Chengli; Mukhopadhyay, Sukrit; Hanley, Patrick S.; Xia, Shijing; Bell, Bruce M.; Grigg, David; Gilbert, Jeffrey R.; O'Brien, John P.


    An ion of m/ z 110.06036 (ion formula [C6H8NO]+; error: 0.32 mDa) was observed in the collision induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry experiments of protonated N-(3-aminophenyl)benzamide, which is a rearrangement product ion purportedly through nitrogen-oxygen (N-O) exchange. The N-O exchange rearrangement was confirmed by the MS/MS spectrum of protonated N-(3-aminophenyl)- O 18 -benzamide, where the rearranged ion, [C6H8N O 18 ]+ of m/ z 112 was available because of the presence of O 18 . Theoretical calculations using Density Functional Theory (DFT) at B3LYP/6-31 g(d) level suggest that an ion-neutral complex containing a water molecule and a nitrilium ion was formed via a transition state ( TS- 1), followed by the water molecule migrating to the anilide ring, eventually leading to the formation of the rearranged ion of m/ z 110. The rearrangement can be generalized to other protonated amide compounds with electron-donating groups at the meta position, such as, -OH, -CH3, -OCH3, -NH(CH3)2, -NH-Ph, and -NHCOCH3, all of which show the corresponding rearranged ions in MS/MS spectra. However, the protonated amide compounds containing electron-withdrawing groups, including -Cl, -Br, -CN, -NO2, and -CF3, at the meta position did not display this type of rearrangement during dissociation. Additionally, effects of various acyl groups on the rearrangement were investigated. It was found that the rearrangement can be enhanced by substitution on the ring of the benzoyl with electron-withdrawing groups. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  13. Serendipity in drug-discovery: a new series of 2-(benzyloxy)benzamides as TRPM8 antagonists. (United States)

    Brown, Alan; Ellis, David; Favor, David A; Kirkup, Tony; Klute, Wolfgang; MacKenny, Malcolm; McMurray, Gordon; Stennett, Adam


    A new series of 2-(benzyloxy)benzamides are presented that are potent functional antagonists of TRPM8 and possess improved LipE and LE compared to the original lead. They were discovered through a series of compound libraries and we present a powerful visualization method for the chemical space explored with each library. Remarkably this new series originated from the highest risk design strategy where compounds were synthesised with the least degree of similarity to the lead structure.

  14. Bis{2-hydroxy-N-[2-(2-pyridylethyl]benzamide}copper(I tetrafluoridoborate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaodong Wang


    Full Text Available The title complex, [Cu(C14H14N2O22]BF4, is a monomeric copper(I species with linear two-coordinate geometry around the CuI atom. The asymmetric unit contains two half-cations that sit on crystallographic twofold rotation axes. The selected crystal was non-merohedrally twinned by a twofold rotation about an axis normal to the (100 family of planes. The ratio of the twin components refined to 0.4123 (6. Two 2-hydroxy-N-[2-(2-pyridylethyl]benzamide ligands coordinate to each CuI atom via the pyridyl N atom. Intramolecular hydrogen bonding between the phenol OH groups and the amide O atoms imparts rigidity and planarity to the non-coordinating end of the ligand. The cationic complex is linked to the BF4− anions via hydrogen bonding between the amide NH groups in the cations and BF4− anions.

  15. Modulation of gastrointestinal afferent sensitivity by a novel substituted benzamide (ecabapide). (United States)

    Jiang, W; Grundy, D


    The effects of ecabapide, a novel substituted benzamide compound (3-[2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethylcarbamoylmethyl]amino-N-methylb enzamide) that has gastrointestinal prokinetic action, were examined on the discharge of extrinsic afferent nerves supplying the stomach and jejunum in anaesthetized rats. Ecabapide (60 and 180 microg kg(-1), i.v.) had no effect on the baseline discharge of vagal gastric distension-sensitive afferents or the stimulus-response profile to gastric distension. Ecabapide also had no effect on either spontaneous jejunal mesenteric afferent nerve discharge or responses to intestinal distension. Ecabapide (180 microg kg(-1)) significantly inhibited the maximum discharge of jejunal afferents induced by cholecystokinin (CCK8; 50 pmol, i.v.), whereas it failed to inhibit the excitatory action of 2-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine (2Me-5-HT; 10 microg, i.v.), a selective 5-HT3 receptor agonist. A model of acute focal intestinal ischaemia was used to evaluate the actions of ecabapide on the discharge of activated jejunal afferents. Ischaemia produced a substantial increase in afferent discharge which was reproducible when the duration of ischaemia was limited to less than 10 min and repeated every 15 min. Ecabapide at doses of 60 and 180 microg kg(-1) significantly reduced ischaemia-induced increases in afferent discharge. In addition to its therapeutic efficacy as a gastrointestinal prokinetic agent, these findings show also that ecabapide may also have an inhibitory action on the discharge of intestinal afferents activated by ischaemia.

  16. Design, synthesis, characterization, and computational studies on benzamide substituted Mannich bases as novel, potential antibacterial agents. (United States)

    Bala, Suman; Sharma, Neha; Kajal, Anu; Kamboj, Sunil


    A series of benzamide substituted Mannich bases (1-7) were synthesized. The synthesized derivatives were authenticated by TLC, UV-Visible, FTIR, NMR, and mass spectroscopic techniques and further screened for in vitro antibacterial activity by test tube dilution method using amoxicillin and cefixime as standard drugs. The compounds 5, 6, and 7 were found to be the most active antibacterial agents among all the synthesized compounds. The physicochemical similarity of the compounds with standard drugs was assessed by calculating various physicochemical properties using software programs. The percent similarity of synthesized compounds was found to be good and compound 1 was found to have higher percentage of similarity. The compounds were subjected to QSAR by multilinear regression using Analyze it version 3.0 software, and four statistically sound models were developed with R2 (0.963-0.997), Radj2 (0.529-0.982), and Q2 (0.998-0.999) with good F (2.35-65.56) values.

  17. Benzamide neuroleptics in the practice of a psychiatrist, a neurologist, and an internist at the present development stage of psychopharmacology (by the example of sulpiride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Sergeyevich Danilov


    Full Text Available The paper reviews the literature on the use of benzamide neuroleptics (by the example of sulpiride to treat mental disorders and psychosomatic diseases. It characterizes medications, such as benzamide derivatives. The mechanism of action of sulpiride and its differences from other neuroleptics are discussed. The efficacy of sulpiride (as monotherapy or combined therapy in the treatment of different mental disorders, psychosomatic diseases, alcohol and drug additions, etc. is critically analyzed. By taking into account the currently adopted multidisciplinary approach to managing patients with the above conditions, the presented data are certain to provoke interest among physicians of different specialties.

  18. A PLS QSAR analysis using 3D generated aromatic descriptors of principal property type: Application to some dopamine D2 benzamide antagonists (United States)

    Norinder, Ulf


    A simple and computationally nonintensive technique based on principal component analysis of 3D fields to derive theoretical descriptors is presented. The descriptors are then applied to a quantitative structure-activity relationship study on some dopamine D2 antagonists of benzamide type.

  19. Synthesis, crystal structure, and cytotoxic activity of novel cyclic systems in [1,2,4]thiadiazolo[2,3-a]pyridine benzamide derivatives and their copper(II) complexes. (United States)

    Adhami, Forogh; Safavi, Maliheh; Ehsani, Maryam; Ardestani, Sussan K; Emmerling, Franziska; Simyari, Farzaneh


    Three N-(pyridine-2-ylcarbamothioyl)benzamide derivatives were synthesized by the reaction of potassium thiocyanate, benzoyl chloride, and 2-amino pyridine derivatives in one pot. The obtained derivatives were oxidized using copper(ii) chloride. During the oxidation, two hydrogen atoms were removed, cyclization of the derivatives occurred, and finally, three new N-(2H-[1,2,4]thiadiazolo[2,3-a]pyridine-2-ylidene)benzamide derivatives were produced. Coordination of these three new derivative ligands to the copper(II) ion resulted in the formation of three new complexes: dichlorobis(N-(2H-[1,2,4]thiadiazolo[2,3-a]pyridine-2-ylidene)benzamide)copper(II), dichlorobis(N-(7-methyl-2H-[1,2,4]thiadiazolo[2,3-a]pyridine-2ylidene)benzamide)copper(II), and dichlorobis(N-(5-methyl-2H-[1,2,4]thiadiazolo[2,3-a]pyridine-2-ylidene)benzamide)copper(II). All the synthesized products were characterized by IR, (1)H NMR, and (13)C NMR spectroscopies. Crystal structures of the obtained N-(pyridine-2-ylcarbamothioyl)benzamide derivatives, N-(2H-[1,2,4]thiadiazolo[2,3-a]pyridine-2-ylidene)benzamide derivatives, and complexes were determined using X-ray single-crystal diffraction; the positions of atoms, bond lengths, bond angles, and dihedral angles were also determined. In all complexes, the coordination of two large monodentate ligands and two chloride anions to the copper(ii) ion resulted in the formation of a stable planar geometry around the central ion. Three N-(pyridine-2-ylcarbamothioyl)benzamide derivatives, three N-(2H-[1,2,4]thiadiazolo[2,3-a]pyridine-2-ylidene)benzamide derivatives, and three complexes were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against five human cancer cell lines (breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231, neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-MC, prostate adenocarcinoma cell line LNCap, nasopharyngeal epidermoid carcinoma cell line KB, and liver cancer cell line HEPG-2) using an in vitro analysis. The N-(pyridine-2-ylcarbamothioyl)benzamide derivatives showed no cytotoxic

  20. Structural, intramolecular hydrogen bonding and vibrational studies on 3-amino-4-methoxy benzamide using density functional theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    An extensive theoretical study on the molecular structure and vibrational analysis of 3-amino-4- methoxy benzamide (3A4MBA) was undertaken using density functional theoretical (DFT) method. The possibility of formation of intramolecular hydrogen bonding was identified from structural parameter analysis and confirmed with the natural bond orbital (NBO), molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and natural charge analysis. The harmonic oscillator model of aromaticity (HOMA) index elucidated the impact of hydrogen bonding in the ring. Intramolecular hydrogen bonding energy has been calculated from topological study. The lowwavenumber vibrational modes obtained from experimental FT-Raman spectrum also supported the presence of hydrogen bonding. Bands are assigned for vibrational frequencies using DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G** level of theory.

  1. Molecular structure, intramolecular hydrogen bonding and vibrational spectral investigation of 2-fluoro benzamide--a DFT approach. (United States)

    Krishnakumar, V; Murugeswari, K; Surumbarkuzhali, N


    The FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of 2-fluoro benzamide (2FBA) have been recorded in the region 4000-400 and 4000-100 cm(-1), respectively. The structuralanalysis, hydrogen bonding, optimized geometry, frequency and intensity of the vibrational bands of 2FBA were obtained by the density functional theory (DFT) with complete relaxation in the potential energy surface using 6-31G** basis set. The harmonic vibrational frequencies were calculated and the scaled values have been compared with experimental FTIR and FT-Raman spectra. The observed and the calculated frequencies are found to be in good agreement. The (13)C NMR spectra have been recorded and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts of the molecule were also calculated using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method and their respective linear correlations were obtained. The electronic properties, such as HOMO and LUMO energies, were performed by time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) approach. The Mulliken charges, the values of electric dipole moment (μ) of the molecule were computed using DFT calculations. The change in electron density (ED) in the σ* antibonding orbitals and stabilization energies E(2) have been calculated by natural bond (NBO) analysis to give clear evidence of stabilization originating in the hyper conjugation of hydrogen-bonded interactions.

  2. Copper(II) complexes of N-(2-{[(2E)-2-(2-Hydroxy-(5-substituted)-benzylidene)-hydrazino]carbonyl}phenyl)benzamide ligands and heterocyclic coligands. (United States)

    Chavan, S S; Sawant, V A; Jadhav, A N


    Some copper(II) complexes of the type [Cu(L1-3)(phen]·CH2Cl2 (1a-3a) and [Cu(L1-3) (bipy)]·CH2Cl2 (1b-3b) (where L1=N-(2-{[(2E)-2-(2-Hydroxy-benzylidene)-hydrazino]carbonyl}phenyl)benzamide, L2=N-(2-{[(2E)-2-(2-Hydroxy-(5-bromo)-benzylidene)-hydrazino]carbonyl}phenyl)benzamide, L3=N-(2-{[(2E)-2-(2-Hydroxy-(5-methoxy)-benzylidene)-hydrazino]carbonyl}phenyl)benzamide; phen=1,10-phenanthroline, bipy=2,2'-bipyridine) have been prepared and characterized on the basis of elemental analyses, IR, UV-Vis and EPR spectral studies. IR spectra indicate that the ligand L1-3 exists in the keto form in the solid state, while at the time of complexation, it tautomerises into enol form. The single crystal X-ray diffraction study of the representative complex [Cu(L1) (phen)]·CH2Cl2 (1a) reveals the distorted square pyramidal geometry around copper(II). Crystal data of (1a): space group=P21/n, a=11.5691(16) Å, b=11.0885(15) Å, c=24.890(4) Å, V=3166.2(8) Å(3), Z=4. The electrochemical behavior of all the complexes indicate that the phen complexes appears at more positive potential as compared to those for bipy complexes, as a consequence of its stronger π acidic character. All the complexes exhibit blue-green emission as a result of the fluorescence from the intra-ligand (π→π(*)) emission excited state.

  3. Copper(II) complexes of N-(2-{[(2E)-2-(2-Hydroxy-(5-substituted)-benzylidene)-hydrazino]carbonyl}phenyl)benzamide ligands and heterocyclic coligands (United States)

    Chavan, S. S.; Sawant, V. A.; Jadhav, A. N.


    Some copper(II) complexes of the type [Cu(L1-3)(phen]ṡCH2Cl2 (1a-3a) and [Cu(L1-3) (bipy)]ṡCH2Cl2 (1b-3b) (where L1 = N-(2-{[(2E)-2-(2-Hydroxy-benzylidene)-hydrazino]carbonyl}phenyl)benzamide, L2 = N-(2-{[(2E)-2-(2-Hydroxy-(5-bromo)-benzylidene)-hydrazino]carbonyl}phenyl)benzamide, L3 = N-(2-{[(2E)-2-(2-Hydroxy-(5-methoxy)-benzylidene)-hydrazino]carbonyl}phenyl)benzamide; phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, bipy = 2,2‧-bipyridine) have been prepared and characterized on the basis of elemental analyses, IR, UV-Vis and EPR spectral studies. IR spectra indicate that the ligand L1-3 exists in the keto form in the solid state, while at the time of complexation, it tautomerises into enol form. The single crystal X-ray diffraction study of the representative complex [Cu(L1) (phen)]ṡCH2Cl2 (1a) reveals the distorted square pyramidal geometry around copper(II). Crystal data of (1a): space group = P21/n, a = 11.5691(16) Å, b = 11.0885(15) Å, c = 24.890(4) Å, V = 3166.2(8) Å3, Z = 4. The electrochemical behavior of all the complexes indicate that the phen complexes appears at more positive potential as compared to those for bipy complexes, as a consequence of its stronger π acidic character. All the complexes exhibit blue-green emission as a result of the fluorescence from the intra-ligand (π → π∗) emission excited state.

  4. The combination of benzamides/NCS as nitrogen/halogen sources for aminohalogenation of β-nitrostyrenes resulting in dichlorinated haloamides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The combination of benzamide and NCS was found to be an efficient nitrogen/halogen source for aminohalogenation of β-nitrostyrenes.The reaction was convenient to carry out by using 4-dimethylaminopyridine as the catalyst,resulting in vicinal dichlorinated haloamino nitroalkanes with opposite regiochemistry to that generated from other electron-deficient olefins observed previously.The reaction proceeded smoothly at room temperature with good yields and excellent regioselectivities.A mechanism involving a chloronium intermediate was proposed to explain the resulting regiochemistry.The current system explored a new type of nitrogen sources for aminohalogenation of functionalized olefins.

  5. Super acid catalysed sequential hydrolysis/cycloisomerization of -(acetylenic)benzamides under microwave condition: Synthesis, antinociceptive and antiinflammatory activity of substituted isocoumarins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chandrasekaran Praveen; P Dheenkumar; P T Perumal


    Synthesis of isocoumarins and related compounds via triflic acid promoted hydrolysis/cyclization sequence of 2-(alkynyl)benzamides under microwave condition was achieved. The substrate scope of the reaction was broad to include not only aromatic but also polyaromatic and heteroaromatic motifs, thus highlighting the significance of this methodology. One-pot operation, short reaction time, good chemical yields and excellent regioselectivity are the advantages of this protocol. All the synthesized compounds were evaluated for their antinociceptive and antiinflammatory activities using in vivo rodent models.

  6. Synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial and single crystal X-ray crystallographic studies of some new sulfonyl, 4-chloro phenoxy benzene and dibenzoazepine substituted benzamides. (United States)

    Priya, B S; Swamy, S Nanjunda; Tejesvi, M V; Basappa; Sarala, G; Gaonkar, S L; Naveen, S; Prasad, J Shashidhara; Rangappa, K S


    A new class of benzamide derivatives 3a(I-VI) and 3b(I-VI), bearing different bioactive moieties were synthesized and evaluated for their efficacy as antimicrobials in vitro. Compounds 3bVI, 3aII, 3aV, 3bIII, 3aVI, 3bII showed significant antibacterial activity and 3bIII, 3bII, 3aIV, 3bV, 3bVI, 3aI exhibit significant antifungal activity. The title compounds are characterized by spectral and elemental analysis. Compounds 2-methoxy-N-[4-(thiazol-2-yl-sulfamoyl)-phenyl]-benzamide 3aII and 2-(2-(2-ethoxybenzoylamino) phenethyl)-N-(2-ethoxybenzoyl) benzenamine 3bV are characterized by the single crystal X-ray studies. Compound 3aII crystallizes in monoclinic space group P2(1) and 3bV in triclinic space group P-1. Compounds 3aII and 3bV exhibit both inter and intra molecular hydrogen bonding.

  7. Experimental and Theoretical Studies on Rhodium-Catalyzed Coupling of Benzamides with 2,2-Difluorovinyl Tosylate: Diverse Synthesis of Fluorinated Heterocycles. (United States)

    Wu, Jia-Qiang; Zhang, Shang-Shi; Gao, Hui; Qi, Zisong; Zhou, Chu-Jun; Ji, Wei-Wei; Liu, Yao; Chen, Yunyun; Li, Qingjiang; Li, Xingwei; Wang, Honggen


    Fluorinated heterocycles play an important role in pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries. Herein, we report on the synthesis of four types of fluorinated heterocycles via rhodium(III)-catalyzed C-H activation of arenes/alkenes and versatile coupling with 2,2-difluorovinyl tosylate. With N-OMe benzamide being a directing group (DG), the reaction delivered a monofluorinated alkene with the retention of the tosylate functionality. Subsequent one-pot acid treatment allowed the efficient synthesis of 4-fluoroisoquinolin-1(2H)-ones and 5-fluoropyridin-2(1H)-ones. When N-OPiv benzamides were used, however, [4 + 2] cyclization occurred to provide gem-difluorinated dihydroisoquinolin-1(2H)-ones. Synthetic applications have been demonstrated and the ready availability of both the arene and the coupling partner highlighted the synthetic potentials of these protocols. Mechanistically, these two processes share a common process involving N-H deprotonation, C-H activation, and olefin insertion to form a 7-membered rhodacycle. Thereafter, different reaction pathways featuring β-F elimination and C-N bond formation are followed on the basis of density functional theory (DFT) studies. These two pathways are DG-dependent and led to the open chain and cyclization products, respectively. The mechanistic rationale was supported by detailed DFT studies. In particular, the origins of the intriguing selectivity in the competing β-F elimination versus C-N bond formation were elucidated. It was found that β-F elimination is a facile event and proceeds via a syn-coplanar transition state with a low energy barrier. The C-N bond formation proceeds via a facile migratory insertion of the Rh-C(alkyl) into the Rh(V) amido species. In both reactions, the migratory insertion of the alkene is turnover-limiting, which stays in good agreement with the experimental studies.

  8. In Vitro Bactericidal Activity of 4- and 5-Chloro-2-hydroxy-N-[1-oxo-1-(phenylaminoalkan-2-yl]benzamides against MRSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Zadrazilova


    Full Text Available A series of nine substituted 2-hydroxy-N-[1-oxo-1-(phenylaminoalkan-2-yl]benzamides was assessed as prospective bactericidal agents against three clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and S. aureus ATCC 29213 as the reference and quality control strain. The minimum bactericidal concentration was determined by subculturing aliquots from MIC determination onto substance-free agar plates. The bactericidal kinetics of compounds 5-chloro-2-hydroxy-N-[(2S-3-methyl-1-oxo-1-{[4-(trifluoromethylphenyl]amino}butan-2-yl]benzamide (1f, N-{(2S-1-[(4-bromophenylamino]-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl}-4-chloro-2-hydroxybenzamide (1g, and 4-chloro-N-{(2S-1-[(3,4-dichlorophenylamino]-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl}-2-hydroxybenzamide (1h was established by time-kill assay with a final concentration of the compound equal to 1x, 2x, and 4x MIC; aliquots were removed at 0, 4, 6, 8, and 24 h time points. The most potent bactericidal agent was compound 1f exhibiting remarkable rapid concentration-dependent bactericidal effect even at 2x MIC at 4, 6, and 8 h (with a reduction in bacterial count ranging from 3.08 to 3.75 log10 CFU/mL and at 4x MIC at 4, 6, 8, and 24 h (5.30 log10 CFU/mL reduction in bacterial count after incubation against MRSA 63718. Reliable bactericidal effect against other strains was maintained at 4x MIC at 24 h.

  9. Synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular docking study of N-(2-methoxyphenyl)-6-((4-nitrophenyl)sulfonyl)benzamide derivatives as potent HIV-1 Vif antagonists. (United States)

    Zhou, Meng; Luo, Rong-Hua; Hou, Xue-Yan; Wang, Rui-Rui; Yan, Guo-Yi; Chen, Huan; Zhang, Rong-Hong; Shi, Jian-You; Zheng, Yong-Tang; Li, Rui; Wei, Yu-Quan


    Viral infectivity factor (Vif) is protective against APOBEC3G (A3G)-mediated viral cDNA hypermutations, and development of molecules that inhibit Vif mediated A3G degradation is a novel strategy for blocking HIV-1 replication. Through optimizations of the central ring of N-(2-methoxyphenyl)-2-((4-nitrophenyl)thio)benzamide (RN-18), we found a potent compound 12c with EC50 value of 1.54 μM, enhancing the antiviral activity more than 150-fold compared with RN-18 in nonpermissive H9 cells. 12c protected A3G from degradation by inhibiting Vif function. Besides, 12c suppressed different HIV-1 clinical strains (HIV-1KM018, HIV-1TC-1 and HIV-1WAN) and drug-resistant strains (NRTI, NNRTI, PI, and FI) with relatively high activities. Amidation of 12c with glycine gave a prodrug 13a, improving the water solubility about 2600-fold compared with 12c. Moreover, 13a inhibited the virus replication efficiently with an EC50 value of 0.228 μM. These results suggested that the prodrug 13a is a promising candidate agent for the treatment of AIDS.

  10. Optimized Anti-pathogenic Agents Based on Core/Shell Nanostructures and 2-((4-Ethylphenoxyethyl-N-(substituted-phenylcarbamothioyl-benzamides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Carmen Chifiriuc


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to design a new nanosystem for catheter surface functionalization with an improved resistance to Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 colonization and subsequent biofilm development. New 2-((4 ethylphenoxymethyl-N-(substituted-phenylcarbamothioyl-benzamides were synthesized and used for coating a core/shell nanostructure. Their chemical structures were elucidated by NMR, IR and elemental analysis, being in agreement with the proposed ones. Fe3O4/C12 of up to 5 nm size had been synthesized with lauric acid as a coating agent and characterized by XRD, FT-IR, TGA, TEM and biological assays. The catheter pieces were coated with the fabricated nanofluid in magnetic field. The microbial adherence ability was investigated in 6 multiwell plates by using culture based methods and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. The nanoparticles coated with the obtained compounds 1a–c inhibited the adherence and biofilm development ability of the S. aureus and P. aeruginosa tested strains on the catheter functionalized surface, as shown by the reduction of viable cell counts and SEM examination of the biofilm architecture. Using the novel core/shell/adsorption-shell to inhibit the microbial adherence could be of a great interest for the biomedical field, opening new directions for the design of film-coated surfaces with improved anti-biofilm properties.

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Divalent Nickel, Copper and Cadmium Complexes of N-(2-2-[1-(3-aminophenyl ethylidene] hydrazino-2-oxoethyl Benzamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Th. Promila Devi


    Full Text Available Complexes of Ni(II (1, Cu(II (2 and Cd(II (3 with a novel Schiff base N-(2-2-[1-(3-aminophenyl ethylidene] hydrazino-2-oxoethyl benzamide (LH have been prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, TG-DTA, magnetic, electronic, molar conductivity measurements, IR, SEM, NMR, ESR and mass studies. It is observed that all the complexes having 1:1 metal-ligand stoichiometry are tetracoordinated. The result shows that LH binds to Cu and Cd ions through the hydrazidic carbonyl oxygen, azomethine nitrogen and amine nitrogen as a tridentate ligand while with Ni ion, it coordinates as a bidentate species through the hydrazidic carbonyl oxygen and azomethine nitrogen. The ligand exhibits keto-enol tautomerism in 2 in which it acts as a uninegative ligand. Complexes 1 and 3 behave as 1:1 electrolytes in DMF solution while complex 2, as a nonelectrolyte. Complex 2 is diamagnetic and ESR inactive which suggest that copper ion is present in its cuprous form. SEM images are used to observe external morphology of the compounds.

  12. Inorganic base-catalyzed formation of antivirally active N-substituted benzamides from α-amido sulfones and N-nucleophile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhenchao


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heteronucleophiles as well as carbanionic reagents can be used to react with α-amido sulfones, thus giving the opportunity to prepare a large array of amino derivatives. Since, novel 1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thiol derivatives can serve as potent nucleophiles, we employed 5-subsititued phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thiols as the nucleophilic source of nitrogen in the reaction with α-amido sulfones. Results A series of N-substituted benzamides bearing 1,3,4-oxadiazol unit were prepared for the first time by the reaction of in situ generated protected imine from α-amido sulfones with 5-subsititued phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thiols as the source of nitrogen nucleophile. Some of the synthesized products displayed favourable antiviral activity against cucumber mosaic virus (CMV in preliminary antiviral activity tests. The title compounds 5c, 5o and 5r revealed curative activity of 42.2%, 48.7% and 40.5%, respectively against CMV (inhibitory rate compared to the commercial standard Ningnanmycin (53.4% at 500 μg/mL. Conclusion A practical synthetic route to N-benzoyl-α-amido sulfones by the reaction of 5-subsititued phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thiols as the source of nitrogen nucleophiles with in situ generated protected imine from N-benzoyl-α-amido sulfones is presented. The reaction catalyzed by an inorganic base has considerable significance to exploit the potential of α-amido sulfones in organic synthesis.

  13. Efficacy of the repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methyl-benzamide (DEET) against tabanid flies on horses evaluated in a field test in Switzerland. (United States)

    Herholz, C; Kopp, C; Wenger, M; Mathis, A; Wägeli, S; Roth, N


    Female tabanid flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) can be a serious nuisance for horses because of their painful bites during blood feeding. They also play a primary role in mechanical transmission of a lentivirus causing Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA), a virus that has spread within Europe in recent years. According to the European law for products intended for use as a repellent on horses (recreational and sport horses), a field test is mandatory to demonstrate sufficient repellency of such a substance against the specific target fly species, but currently no agreed protocols are available for testing of potential repellents. The aim of the present study was to establish a protocol for a field test to investigate the efficacy of N,N-diethyl-3-methyl-benzamide (DEET, Brum®, Huebeli-Stud Horse Care AG) in a 15-17% oil-water emulsion against tabanid flies on horses up to four hours. Between July and August 2015, four horses on three farms each were tested on two consecutive days in a cross-over design. The four horses on Farm A were used in the pre-test as well as in the main test. Two and a half hours after repellent application the horses were lunged until sweating. Tabanid fly infestations were both photographed and directly counted during five minutes 3 and 4h after repellent application on the right side of the horses in the area from the head to the flank, belly and first third of the foreleg. Without repellent application, up to 29 tabanid flies were counted on a horse, whereas the maximum for the repellent treated horses was four. In 50% of the horses treated with DEET there were no Tabanids observed (efficacy 100%), and in all horses the tabanid fly counts were lower than in the control horses with one exemption at 4h. The efficacy of the DEET repellent was at least 80% and 71% respectively, three or four hours after application (with a confidence level of 89%). A fly trap (Horse Pal) revealed the presence of the tabanid species Tabanus brominus and Haematopota

  14. Synthesis of Novel μ-Star Copolymers with Poly(N-Octyl Benzamide) and Poly(ε-Caprolactone) Miktoarms through Chain-Growth Condensation Polymerization, Styrenics-Assisted Atom Transfer Radical Coupling, and Ring-Opening Polymerization. (United States)

    Huang, Chih-Feng; Aimi, Junko; Lai, Kuan-Yu


    Star copolymers are known to phase separate on the nanoscale, providing useful self-assembled morphologies. In this study, the authors investigate synthesis and assembly behavior of miktoarm star (μ-star) copolymers. The authors employ a new strategy for the synthesis of unprecedented μ-star copolymers presenting poly(N-octyl benzamide) (PBA) and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) arms: a combination of chain-growth condensation polymerization, styrenics-assisted atom transfer radical coupling, and ring-opening polymerization. Gel permeation chromatography, mass-analyzed laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry, and (1) H NMR spectroscopy reveal the successful synthesis of a well-defined (PBA11 )2 -(PCL15 )4 μ-star copolymer (Mn,NMR ≈ 12 620; Đ = 1.22). Preliminary examination of the PBA2 PCL4 μ-star copolymer reveals assembled nanofibers having a uniform diameter of ≈20 nm.

  15. Pharmacological characterization of the newly synthesized 5-amino-N-butyl-2-(4-ethoxyphenoxy)-benzamide hydrochloride (BED) as a potent NCX3 inhibitor that worsens anoxic injury in cortical neurons, organotypic hippocampal cultures, and ischemic brain. (United States)

    Secondo, Agnese; Pignataro, Giuseppe; Ambrosino, Paolo; Pannaccione, Anna; Molinaro, Pasquale; Boscia, Francesca; Cantile, Maria; Cuomo, Ornella; Esposito, Alba; Sisalli, Maria Josè; Scorziello, Antonella; Guida, Natascia; Anzilotti, Serenella; Fiorino, Ferdinando; Severino, Beatrice; Santagada, Vincenzo; Caliendo, Giuseppe; Di Renzo, Gianfranco; Annunziato, Lucio


    The Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX), a 10-transmembrane domain protein mainly involved in the regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis, plays a crucial role in cerebral ischemia. In the present paper, we characterized the effect of the newly synthesized compound 5-amino-N-butyl-2-(4-ethoxyphenoxy)-benzamide hydrochloride (BED) on the activity of the three NCX isoforms and on the evolution of cerebral ischemia. BED inhibited NCX isoform 3 (NCX3) activity (IC50 = 1.9 nM) recorded with the help of single-cell microflorimetry, (45)Ca(2+) radiotracer fluxes, and patch-clamp in whole-cell configuration. Furthermore, this drug displayed negligible effect on NCX2, the other isoform expressed within the CNS, and it failed to modulate the ubiquitously expressed NCX1 isoform. Concerning the molecular site of action, the use of chimera strategy and deletion mutagenesis showed that α1 and α2 repeats of NCX3 represented relevant molecular determinants for BED inhibitory action, whereas the intracellular regulatory f-loop was not involved. At 10 nM, BED worsened the damage induced by oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD) followed by reoxygenation in cortical neurons through a dysregulation of [Ca(2+)]i. Furthermore, at the same concentration, BED significantly enhanced cell death in CA3 subregion of hippocampal organotypic slices exposed to OGD and aggravated infarct injury after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice. These results showed that the newly synthesized 5-amino-N-butyl-2-(4-ethoxyphenoxy)-benzamide hydrochloride is one of the most potent inhibitor of NCX3 so far identified, representing an useful tool to dissect the role played by NCX3 in the control of Ca(2+) homeostasis under physiological and pathological conditions.

  16. Toxicological evaluation and metabolism of two N-alkyl benzamide umami flavour compounds: N-(heptan-4-ylbenzo[d][1,3]dioxole-5-carboxamide and (R-N-(1-methoxy-4-methylpentan-2-yl-3,4-dimethylbenzamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald S. Karanewsky


    Full Text Available Toxicological evaluations of two N-alkyl benzamide umami flavour compounds, N-(heptan-4-ylbenzo[d][1,3]dioxole-5-carboxamide (S807, CAS 745047-51-2 and (R-N-(1-methoxy-4-methylpentan-2-yl-3,4-dimethylbenzamide (S9229, CAS 851669-60-8, were completed for the purpose of assessing their safety for use in food and beverage applications. Both S807 and S9229 undergo rapid oxidative metabolism by both rat and human liver microsomes in vitro. In pharmacokinetic studies in rats, the systemic exposure to S9229 on oral administration is very low at all doses (% F < 1%, while that of S807 demonstrated a non-linear dose dependence. In metabolism studies in rats, hydroxylation of the C-4 aryl methyl group was found to be the dominant metabolic pathway for S9229. The dominant metabolic pathway for S807 in the rat involved oxidative scission of the methylenedioxy moiety to produce the corresponding 3,4-dihydroxybenamide which is further converted by Phase II metabolic enzymes to the 3- and 4-O-methyl ethers as well as their corresponding glucuronides. Both S807 and S9229 were not found to be mutagenic or clastogenic in vitro, and did not induce micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes in vivo. In a subchronic oral toxicity study in rats, the no-observed-effect-level (NOEL for S807 was 20 mg/kg bw/day when administered in the diet for 13 weeks. The no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL for S9229 in rats was 100 mg/kg bw/day (highest dose tested when administered in the diet for 28 consecutive days.

  17. Study of Synthesis on Insect Repellant 3-methyl-N, N-diethyl Benzamid(EDETB)%昆虫驱逐剂3-甲基-N,N-二乙基苯甲酰胺(EDETB)的合成研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    3-甲基-N,N-二乙基苯甲酰胺(EDETB)是一种无毒无味、用量少、药效长的广谱杀虫药。本研究以间二甲苯、HNO3、亚硫酰氯、二乙胺为原料,超声条件下合成3-甲基-N,N-二乙基苯甲酰胺,得出的最佳合成条件为:反应温度30℃,反应时间1.0h,反应的最佳溶剂为乙醚,反应无需催化剂、速度快、易操作,可得棕黄色产物EDETB,产率97.37%,沸点160℃,并通过元素分析和IR对产品EDETB进行了表征。%3-methyl-N, N-diethyl benzamide (EDETB) is a non-toxic and tasteless with less, the efficacy of broad-spectrum pesticides. Its synthesis used M-xylene, HNO3, thionyl chloride, diethylamide as raw materials under ultrasonic conditions. The best synthesis conditions of EDETB were as follows:reaction temperature 30℃, reaction time 1.0 h, the best response for the solvent ether, reaction without catalyst, the reaction speed fast, easy to operate, brown EDETB, yield 97.37%, boiling point of EDETB 160℃. The product EDETB was analysed by elemental analyzer and IR characterization.

  18. 苯酰胺类组蛋白去乙酰化酶抑制剂的分子对接及三维定量构效关系研究%Studied on benzamide hydroxamic acid histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACI) by molecular docking and CoMFA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    相玉红; 蒋大鹏; 张卓勇


    利用surflex-dock模块对59个苯酰胺类抑制剂和组蛋白去乙酰化酶进行了对接研究,分析了配体和受体的相互作用模式,所得结论与文献报道的实验结果符合.并利用比较分子力场分析方法(comparative molecular field analysis,CoMFA)对此类抑制剂分子进行了三维定量构效关系研究,所建模型交叉验证相关系数q~2=0.640,非交叉验证相关系数r~2=0.932,有较好的预测能力.CoMFA得到的立体场和静电场的等值线图可用于指导新型药物的设计与合成.%Surflex-dock is used to dock 59 benzamides hydroxamic acid histone deacetylase inhibitors to histone deaeetylase,and thebinding mode of ligand and the receptor was analyzed.The conclusion was corresponding with the experimental results.A further studyon the three-dimensionl quantitative structure-activity relationship(3D-QSAR)was carried out using the method of comparative molec-ular field analysis(CoMFA).A 3D-QSAR model has been established,in which cross-validation coefficient q~2 is 0.640,and non-cross-validation correlation coefficient r~2 is 0.932.The result showed that CoMFA model has a good predictive ability.The contourmaps of steric and electrostatic fields can be used to guide the drug design and synthesis.

  19. Conformational and Chiral Properties of Cyclic-tri(N-methyl-meta-benzamide) Bearing Amidino Groups. (United States)

    Nishiyama, Shizuka; Urushibara, Ko; Masu, Hyuma; Azumaya, Isao; Kagechika, Hiroyuki; Tanatani, Aya


    Cyclic triamides bearing amidino groups at the meta position of the phenyl rings were synthesized, and their conformational properties in the crystal and in solution were examined. Compound exists as a capsule-type dimer of the enantiomers with a bowl-shaped syn conformation in the crystal state. Compound exists mainly in the syn form in solution, and chiral induction was observed upon addition of a chiral acid to a solution of.

  20. Benzamide capped peptidomimetics as non-ATP competitive inhibitors of CDK2 using the REPLACE strategy. (United States)

    Premnath, Padmavathy Nandha; Craig, Sandra N; Liu, Shu; McInnes, Campbell


    Inhibition of cyclin dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) in complex with cyclin A in G1/S phase of the cell cycle has been shown to promote selective apoptosis of cancer cells through the E2F1 pathway. An alternative approach to catalytic inhibition is to target the substrate recruitment site also known as the cyclin binding groove (CBG) to generate selective non-ATP competitive inhibitors. The REPLACE strategy has been applied to identify fragment alternatives and substituted benzoic acid derivatives were evaluated as a promising scaffold to present appropriate functionality to mimic key peptide determinants. Fragment Ligated Inhibitory Peptides (FLIPs) are described which potently inhibit both CDK2/cyclin A and CDK4/cyclin D1 and have preliminary anti-tumor activity. A structural rationale for binding was obtained through molecular modeling further demonstrating their potential for further development as next generation non ATP competitive CDK inhibitors.

  1. N-{2-[2-(5-Methyl-1H-pyrazol-3-ylacetamido]phenyl}benzamide monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Chkirate


    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C19H18N4O2·H2O, comprises the U-shaped pyrazole derivative and a solvent water molecule. The molecular conformation is partly determined by an intramolecular N—H...O hydrogen bond. The crystal packing is directed by an extensive network of O—H...O, N—H...O, N—H...N and C—H...O hydrogen bonds together with C—H...π(ring contacts that generate a three-dimensional network.

  2. Novel benzamide-based histamine h3 receptor antagonists: the identification of two candidates for clinical development. (United States)

    Letavic, Michael A; Aluisio, Leah; Apodaca, Richard; Bajpai, Manoj; Barbier, Ann J; Bonneville, Anne; Bonaventure, Pascal; Carruthers, Nicholas I; Dugovic, Christine; Fraser, Ian C; Kramer, Michelle L; Lord, Brian; Lovenberg, Timothy W; Li, Lilian Y; Ly, Kiev S; Mcallister, Heather; Mani, Neelakandha S; Morton, Kirsten L; Ndifor, Anthony; Nepomuceno, S Diane; Pandit, Chennagiri R; Sands, Steven B; Shah, Chandra R; Shelton, Jonathan E; Snook, Sandra S; Swanson, Devin M; Xiao, Wei


    The preclinical characterization of novel phenyl(piperazin-1-yl)methanones that are histamine H3 receptor antagonists is described. The compounds described are high affinity histamine H3 antagonists. Optimization of the physical properties of these histamine H3 antagonists led to the discovery of several promising lead compounds, and extensive preclinical profiling aided in the identification of compounds with optimal duration of action for wake promoting activity. This led to the discovery of two development candidates for Phase I and Phase II clinical trials.

  3. Ab-initio crystal structure analysis and refinement approaches of oligo p-benzamides based on electron diffraction data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorelik, Tatiana E; van de Streek, Jacco; Kilbinger, Andreas F M


    Ab-initio crystal structure analysis of organic materials from electron diffraction data is presented. The data were collected using the automated electron diffraction tomography (ADT) technique. The structure solution and refinement route is first validated on the basis of the known crystal stru...

  4. 4-N-pyridin-2-yl-benzamide nanotubes compatible with mouse stem cell and oral delivery in Drosophila (United States)

    Yadav, Jhillu S.; Lavanya, Madugula P.; Das, Pragna P.; Bag, Indira; Krishnan, Anita; Jagannadh, Bulusu; Mohapatra, Debendra K.; Pal Bhadra, Manika; Bhadra, Utpal


    p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), a structural moiety of many commercial drugs, is self-assembled with linker alkyl side chains to form tubular nanostructures. The tubes exhibited fluorescence either intrinsic or from fluorescent molecules embedded in the wall during self-assembly. Uptake and inter-cellular delivery of the conjugated nanotubes in human cancer cells and in mouse embryonic stem cells were demonstrated by fluorescence imaging and flow cytometry. Biocompatibility, cytotoxicity and clearance were monitored both ex vivo in mouse multipotent embryonic stem cells and in vivo in adult Drosophila. Accumulation of nanotubes had no adverse effects and abnormalities on stem cell morphology and proliferation rate. A distinct distribution of two separate nanotubes in various internal organs of Drosophila interprets that accumulation of nanomaterials might be interdependent on the side chain modifications and physiological settings of cell or tissue types. Unlike carbon nanomaterials, exposure of PABA nanotubes does not produce any hazards including locomotion defects and mortality of adult flies. Despite differential uptake and clearance from multiple live tissues, the use of self-assembled nanotubes can add new dimensions and scope to the development of dual-purpose oral carriers for the fulfilment of many biological promises.

  5. Shelf-life of ɛ-lysyl-3-(trimethylstannyl)benzamide immunoconjugates, precursors for 211At labeling of antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aneheim, Emma; Halleröd, Jenny; Albertsson, Per;


    Astatine-211 is possibly the most promising radionuclide for targeted α-particle therapy when it comes to the treatment of occult disseminated cancer. Preclinical research has proven effective, and patient studies have been initiated based on these results. However, a lack of production capacity...

  6. 4-N-pyridin-2-yl-benzamide nanotubes compatible with mouse stem cell and oral delivery in Drosophila. (United States)

    Yadav, Jhillu S; Lavanya, Madugula P; Das, Pragna P; Bag, Indira; Krishnan, Anita; Leary, R; Bagchi, A; Jagannadh, Bulusu; Mohapatra, Debendra K; Bhadra, Manika Pal; Bhadra, Utpal


    p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), a structural moiety of many commercial drugs, is self-assembled with linker alkyl side chains to form tubular nanostructures. The tubes exhibited fluorescence either intrinsic or from fluorescent molecules embedded in the wall during self-assembly. Uptake and inter-cellular delivery of the conjugated nanotubes in human cancer cells and in mouse embryonic stem cells were demonstrated by fluorescence imaging and flow cytometry. Biocompatibility, cytotoxicity and clearance were monitored both ex vivo in mouse multipotent embryonic stem cells and in vivo in adult Drosophila. Accumulation of nanotubes had no adverse effects and abnormalities on stem cell morphology and proliferation rate. A distinct distribution of two separate nanotubes in various internal organs of Drosophila interprets that accumulation of nanomaterials might be interdependent on the side chain modifications and physiological settings of cell or tissue types. Unlike carbon nanomaterials, exposure of PABA nanotubes does not produce any hazards including locomotion defects and mortality of adult flies. Despite differential uptake and clearance from multiple live tissues, the use of self-assembled nanotubes can add new dimensions and scope to the development of dual-purpose oral carriers for the fulfilment of many biological promises.

  7. 4-N-pyridin-2-yl-benzamide nanotubes compatible with mouse stem cell and oral delivery in Drosophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Jhillu S; Das, Pragna P; Bag, Indira; Krishnan, Anita; Jagannadh, Bulusu; Mohapatra, Debendra K; Bhadra, Manika Pal [Division of Organic Chemistry-I, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Uppal Road, Hyderabad 500007 (India); Lavanya, Madugula P; Bhadra, Utpal [Functional Genomics and Gene Silencing Group, Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Uppal Road, Hyderabad 500007 (India)


    p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), a structural moiety of many commercial drugs, is self-assembled with linker alkyl side chains to form tubular nanostructures. The tubes exhibited fluorescence either intrinsic or from fluorescent molecules embedded in the wall during self-assembly. Uptake and inter-cellular delivery of the conjugated nanotubes in human cancer cells and in mouse embryonic stem cells were demonstrated by fluorescence imaging and flow cytometry. Biocompatibility, cytotoxicity and clearance were monitored both ex vivo in mouse multipotent embryonic stem cells and in vivo in adult Drosophila. Accumulation of nanotubes had no adverse effects and abnormalities on stem cell morphology and proliferation rate. A distinct distribution of two separate nanotubes in various internal organs of Drosophila interprets that accumulation of nanomaterials might be interdependent on the side chain modifications and physiological settings of cell or tissue types. Unlike carbon nanomaterials, exposure of PABA nanotubes does not produce any hazards including locomotion defects and mortality of adult flies. Despite differential uptake and clearance from multiple live tissues, the use of self-assembled nanotubes can add new dimensions and scope to the development of dual-purpose oral carriers for the fulfilment of many biological promises.

  8. Synthesis and in vivo evaluation of a new fluorine-19 labeled dopamine D2 radioligand with benzofuran benzamide skeleton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takao, Futoshi; Sasaki, Shigeki; Maeda, Minoru (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences); Fukumura, Toshimitsu; Tahara, Takashi; Masuda, Kouji; Ichiya, Yuichi (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)


    N-[(1-Ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl]-5-(2-[[sup 18]F]fluorethyl)-2,3 -dihydrobenzofuran-7-carboxamide ([[sup 18]F]5) was synthesized via nucleophilic substitution with K[sup 18]F/Kryptofix222 complex in 5.4[approx]6.8% radiochemical yields with a specific activity of larger than 5.6 TBq/mmol (150 Ci/mmol) at the end of the 110 minutes synthetic period. Its in vivo affinity toward CNS dopamine D2 receptors was investigated using rats in order to evaluate as a radiotracer for the PET (positron emission tomography) study of the dopamine D2 receptors. (Author).

  9. Heterocyclic acetamide and benzamide derivatives as potent and selective beta3-adrenergic receptor agonists with improved rodent pharmacokinetic profiles. (United States)

    Goble, Stephen D; Wang, Liping; Howell, K Lulu; Bansal, Alka; Berger, Richard; Brockunier, Linda; DiSalvo, Jerry; Feighner, Scott; Harper, Bart; He, Jiafang; Hurley, Amanda; Hreniuk, Donna; Parmee, Emma; Robbins, Michael; Salituro, Gino; Sanfiz, Anthony; Streckfuss, Eric; Watkins, Eloisa; Weber, Ann E; Struthers, Mary; Edmondson, Scott D


    A series of amide derived beta(3)-adrenergic receptor (AR) agonists is described. The discovery and optimization of several series of compounds derived from 1, is used to lay the SAR foundation for second generation beta(3)-AR agonists for the treatment of overactive bladder.

  10. The family of N9-adenine: New entry for adenine-benzamide conjugates linked via versatile spacers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prabhpreet Singh


    We have prepared 4-nitrobenzamide-adenine conjugates (8, 13 and 14) linked with versatile spacer such as triethylene glycol (TEG), aminocaproic acid and ethyl chains which were eventually reduced to obtain the corresponding 4-aminobenzamide-adenine conjugates (1-3) in good yields. These conjugates bear a nucleobase for DNA recognition or self-assembly through base-pair complementarity, a biocompatible linker for interfacing with biological system, and a p-aminobenzamide moiety for pharmacological applications. The use of hydrophilic or lipophilic linkers may tune the dispersibility of these conjugates in different solvents, as well as impart different properties. In the preliminary experiments the versatility and application of these linkers has been tested for functionalization of SWCNTs.

  11. Crystal structure of 4-(3,4-dicyanophenoxy-N-[3-(dimethylaminopropyl]benzamide monohydrate: a phenoxyphthalonitrile derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senem Çolak


    Full Text Available In the title compound, C20H20N4O2·H2O, the planes of the phenoxy and phthalonitrile rings are oriented at a dihedral angle of 60.39 (5°. The 3-(dimethylaminopropyl chain has an extended conformation and is cis with respect to the phthalonitrile ring. In the crystal, O—H...O, O—H...N and N—H...O hydrogen bonds link the molecules to form slabs parallel to (100. There are also C—H...O and C—H...N hydrogen bonds and C—H...π interactions present within the slabs. The slabs are linked by a pair of inversion-related C—H...N hydrogen bonds, involving phthalonitrile rings, forming a three-dimensional structure.

  12. Crystal structures of 3-fluoro-N-[2-(tri-fluoro-meth-yl)phen-yl]benzamide, 3-bromo-N-[2-(tri-fluoro-meth-yl)phen-yl]benzamide and 3-iodo-N-[2-(tri-fluoro-meth-yl)phen-yl]benzamide. (United States)

    Suchetan, P A; Suresha, E; Naveen, S; Lokanath, N K


    In the title compounds, C14H9F4NO, (I), C14H9BrF3NO, (II), and C14H9F3INO, (III), the two benzene rings are inclined to one another by 43.94 (8)° in mol-ecule A and 55.66 (7)° in mol-ecule B of compound (I), which crystallizes with two independent mol-ecules in the asymmetric unit, but by only 10.40 (12)° in compound (II) and 12.5 (2)° in compound (III). In the crystals of all three compounds, N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol-ecules to form chains propagating along the a-axis direction for (I), and along the b-axis direction for (II) and (III). In the crystal of (I), -A-B-A-B- chains are linked by C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming layers parallel to (010). Within the layers there are weak offset π-π inter-actions present [inter-centroid distances = 3.868 (1) and 3.855 (1) Å]. In the crystals of (II) and (III), the chains are linked via short halogen-halogen contacts [Br⋯Br = 3.6141 (4) Å in (II) and I⋯I = 3.7797 (5) Å in (III)], resulting in the formation of ribbons propagating along the b-axis direction.

  13. Synthesis and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Evaluation of 4-(1,3-Dioxoisoindolin-2-yl)-N-Phenyl Benzamide Derivatives as Potential Anti-Alzheimer Agents (United States)

    Mohammadi-Farani, Ahmad; Soltani Darbandi, Samira; Aliabadi, Alireza


    Alzheimer᾽s disease is characterized by cognitive deficits, impaired long-term potentiation of learning and memory. A progressive reduction in cholinergic neurons in some areas of the brain such as cortex and hippocampus is related to the deficits in memory and cognitive function in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In the current project a new series of phthalimide derivatives were synthesized. Phthalic anhydride was reacted with 4-aminobenzoic acid in the presence of triethylamine under reflux condition. Then, the obtained acidic derivative was utilized for preparation of final compounds via an amidation reaction through a carbodiimde coupling reaction. Anti-acetylcholinesterase activity of synthesized derivatives was assessed by Ellman᾽s test. Compound 4g in this series exhibited the highest inhibitory potency (IC50 = 1.1 ± 0.25 µM) compared to donepezil (IC50 = 0.41 ± 0.12 µM) as reference drug. PMID:27980565

  14. Difluoro-dioxolo-benzoimidazol-benzamides as potent inhibitors of CK1δ and ε with nanomolar inhibitory activity on cancer cell proliferation. (United States)

    Richter, Julia; Bischof, Joachim; Zaja, Mirko; Kohlhof, Hella; Othersen, Olaf; Vitt, Daniel; Alscher, Vanessa; Pospiech, Irmgard; García-Reyes, Balbina; Berg, Sebastian; Leban, Johann; Knippschild, Uwe


    Deregulation of CK1 (casein kinase 1) activity can be involved in the development of several pathological disorders and diseases such as cancer. Therefore, research interest in identifying potent CK1-specific inhibitors is still increasing. A previously published potent and selective benzimidazole-derived CK1δ/ε-specific inhibitor compound with significant effects on several tumor cell lines was further modified to difluoro-dioxolo-benzoimidazole derivatives displaying remarkable inhibitory effects and increased intracellular availability. In the present study, we identified two heterocyclic molecules as new CK1-specific inhibitor compounds with favorable physicochemical properties and notable selectivity in a kinome-wide screen. Being compared to other CK1 isoforms, these compounds exhibited advanced isoform selectivity toward CK1δ. Moreover, newly designed compounds showed increased growth inhibitory activity in a panel of different tumor cell lines as determined by analyses of cell viability and cell cycle distribution. In summary, presented lead optimization resulted in new highly selective CK1δ-specific small molecule inhibitors with increased biological activity.

  15. Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes of 2-((thiophen-2-ylmethylene)amino)benzamide: synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, thermal, DFT and anticancer activities. (United States)

    Tyagi, Prateek; Chandra, Sulekh; Saraswat, B S


    The paper presents the synthesis of Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes of general composition M(L)X₂ and M(L)₂X₂ (M=Ni(II), Zn(II), X=Cl(-1), OAc(-1)) with Schiff base obtained through the condensation of 2-aminobenzamide with thiophene-2-carbaldehyde. The characterization of newly formed complexes was done by (1)H NMR, UV-VIS, TGA, IR, mass spectrophotometry and molar conductivity studies. The thermal studies suggested that the complexes are more stable as compared to ligand. In DFT studies the geometries of Schiff's base and metal complexes were fully optimized with respect to the energy using the 6-31+g(d,p) basis set. On the basis of the spectral studies a distorted octahedral geometry has been assigned for Ni(II) complexes and tetrahedral geometry for Zn(II) complexes. The effect of these complexes on proliferation of human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line (HepG2) were studied and compared with those of free ligand.

  16. Design and Investigation of a [(18)F]-Labeled Benzamide Derivative as a High Affinity Dual Sigma Receptor Subtype Radioligand for Prostate Tumor Imaging. (United States)

    Yang, Dongzhi; Comeau, Anthony; Bowen, Wayne D; Mach, Robert H; Ross, Brian D; Hong, Hao; Van Dort, Marcian E


    High overexpression of sigma (σ) receptors (σ1 and σ2 subtypes) in a variety of human solid tumors has prompted the development of σ receptor-targeting radioligands, as imaging agents for tumor detection. A majority of these radioligands to date target the σ2 receptor, a potential marker of tumor proliferative status. The identification of approximately equal proportions of both σ receptor subtypes in prostate tumors suggests that a high affinity, dual σ receptor-targeting radioligand could potentially provide enhanced tumor targeting efficacy in prostate cancer. To accomplish this goal, we designed a series of ligands which bind to both σ receptor subtypes with high affinity. Ligand 3a in this series, displaying optimal dual σ receptor subtype affinity (σ1, 6.3 nM; σ2, 10.2 nM) was radiolabeled with fluorine-18 ((18)F) to give [(18)F]3a and evaluated as a σ receptor-targeting radioligand in the mouse PC-3 prostate tumor model. Cellular assays with PC-3 cells demonstrated that a major proportion of [(18)F]3a was localized to cell surface σ receptors, while ∼10% of [(18)F]3a was internalized within cells after incubation for 3.5 h. Serial PET imaging in mice bearing PC-3 tumors revealed that uptake of [(18)F]3a was 1.6 ± 0.8, 4.4 ± 0.3, and 3.6 ± 0.6% ID/g (% injection dose per gram) in σ receptor-positive prostate tumors at 15 min, 1.5 h, and 3.5 h postinjection, respectively (n = 3) resulting in clear tumor visualization. Blocking studies conducted with haloperidol (a nonselective inhibitor for both σ receptor subtypes) confirmed that the uptake of [(18)F]3a was σ receptor-mediated. Histology analysis confirmed similar expression of σ1 and σ2 in PC-3 tumors which was significantly greater than its expression in normal organs/tissues such as liver, kidney, and muscle. Metabolite studies revealed that >50% of radioactivity in PC-3 tumors at 30 min postinjection represented intact [(18)F]3a. Prominent σ receptor-specific uptake of [(18)F]3a in prostate tumors and its subsequent clear visualization with PET imaging indicate potential utility for the diagnosis of prostate carcinoma.

  17. N-{2-Methyl-5-[(5-oxo-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-2-ylamino]phenyl}benzamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Dorn


    Full Text Available In the title compound, C29H24N2O2, the two aromatic rings of the tricyclic unit are oriented at a dihedral angle of 32.27 (8°. In the crystal N—H...O hydrogen bonds link the molecules into chains along the a axis. Further N—H...·O interactions link the chains.

  18. Synthesis and biological activity of N-{l_brace}5-(4-methylphenyl) diazenyl-4-phenyl-1, 3-thiazole-2-yl{r_brace}benzamide derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prajapati, Ashishkumar K.; Modi, Vishal P. [The M.S. University of Baroda, Gujarat (India). Faculty of Technology and Engineering. Applied Chemistry Dept.


    In the present study, various amides of 2-amino-5-(4-methylphenyl)-diazenyl-4-phenyl-1, 3-thiazole was synthesized and their biological activities were evaluated. All the synthesized compounds were characterized by the combination of elemental analysis and standard spectroscopic methods. They are screened for anti-bacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus as well as screened for antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae by cup plate method at 1 {mu}g/ mL concentration in DMF. (author)

  19. Synthese, Tritierung, 99m Tc-Markierung und Evaluierung von Benzamid-Derivaten zur Visualisierung der D 2, D 3-Rezeptoren


    Heß, Tobias


    Die Diagnose und Therapie von neurodegenerativen Krankheiten, wie beispielsweise Morbus Parkinson besitzt in der heutigen Gesellschaft eine immer größere Bedeutung. Über moderne, bild¬gebende nuklear¬medizinische Verfahren wie SPECT und PET ist es mit geeigneten Radioliganden möglich, Morbus Parkinson vor dem Auftreten von Symptomen zu diagnostizieren. Ein wichtiger Ansatzpunkt zur Diagnose von Morbus Parkinson ist die Visualisierung der postsynaptischen Dopamin-Rezeptoren über radioaktiv (11...

  20. N-对甲基苄基苯甲酰胺的固相合成及其晶体结构分析%Solid Phase Synthesis of N-p-Methylbenzyl Benzamide and Its Crystal Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗君涛; 黄文强


    标题化合物采用固相法合成:聚苯乙烯磺酰氯树脂1与对甲基苄胺反应得到N-对甲基苄基磺酰胺树脂2,用苯甲酰氯酰化得到N-对甲基苄基-N-苯甲酰基磺酰胺树脂3.用TiCl4/Zn/THF处理从树脂3上经自由基解脱的方法得到N-对甲基苄基苯甲酰胺4,产率为76%.晶体结构在BrukerSMART 1000 CCD X-射线衍射仪上,用石墨单色器单色化的MoKa射线(λ=0.071073 nm)测定.非氢原子坐标用直接法解出,用最小二乘法对非氢原子进行各向异性温度因子修正.N-对甲基苄基-苯甲酰胺:化学计量式为:C15H15N0,Mr=225.28,晶体属于正交晶系,Pna21空间群.晶胞参数:α=0.9549(6),b=1.1169(7),c=1.1774(7)nm,V=1.2557(13)nm3,Z=4,Dc=1.192 g/cm3,μ=0.075 mm-1,F(000)=480;最终结构偏离因子R=0.0478,wR=0.1013,S=0.912.化合物4的晶体结构中有分子间氢键相互作用.

  1. Preparation and biological evaluation of cyclopentadienyl-based {sup 99m}Tc-complexes [(Cp-R){sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}] mimicking benzamides for malignant melanoma targeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peindy N' Dongo, Harmel W. [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Zuerich, 190, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Raposinho, Paula D.; Fernandes, Celia; Santos, Isabel [Unidade de Ciencias Quimicas e Radiofarmaceuticas, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Can, Daniel; Schmutz, Paul; Spingler, Bernhard [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Zuerich, 190, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Alberto, Roger [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Zuerich, 190, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland)], E-mail:


    The biological evaluation of half-sandwich {sup 99m}Tc-complexes that surrogate iodobenzamide with a high affinity for melanin tumor tissue is described. We have synthesized via retro Diels-Alder reaction two models of {sup 99m}Tc complexes which possess the piano stool [Cp{sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}] motif instead of a phenyl ring as in the original iodobenzamide {sup 123}I-N-(N-benzylpiperidin-4-yl)-2-iodobenzamide (2-IBP) and N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)-4-iodobenzamide (BZA). Diels-Alder products - (HCp-CONHR){sub 2} (, R=2-diethylaminoethyl; , R=benzylpiperidin-4-yl) were prepared and reacted with fac-[{sup 99m}Tc(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}(CO){sub 3})]{sup +}1 in water to produce the corresponding {sup 99m}Tc complexes [(){sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3})] and [(){sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3})] . The structures of the {sup 99m}Tc complexes on the no-carrier-added level have been confirmed by chromatographic comparison with the corresponding rhenium complexes and , macroscopically characterized by IR, NMR, ESI-MS and X-ray crystallography for [triclinic, P-1, a=7.3518(1) A, b=8.0309(2) A, c=17.5536(3) A, {alpha}=99.1260(5){sup o}, {beta}=90.4215(14){sup o}, {gamma}=117.0187(11){sup o}]. The radioconjugate showed good in vitro stability. In murine melanoma B16F1 cells, significant cellular uptake (43.9% of the total applied activity) was attained after 4 h at 37 deg. C with about 50% of the cell-associated radioactivity being internalized in the cells (22% of the applied activity). Furthermore, in melanoma-bearing C57BL6 mice, tumor uptake values of 3.39{+-}0.50 %ID g{sup -1} and 3.21{+-}0.26 %ID g{sup -1} at 1 and 4 h postinjection, respectively, were observed indicating a good retention of in the tumor.

  2. Cobalt-catalyzed C-H olefination of aromatics with unactivated alkenes. (United States)

    Manoharan, Ramasamy; Sivakumar, Ganesan; Jeganmohan, Masilamani


    A cobalt-catalyzed C-H olefination of aromatic and heteroaromatic amides with unactivated alkenes, allyl acetates and allyl alcohols is described. This method offers an efficient route for the synthesis of vinyl and allyl benzamides in a highly stereoselective manner. It is observed that the ortho substituent on the benzamide moiety is crucial for the observation of allylated products in unactivated alkenes.

  3. 舒必利治疗精神病患者拒食行为的疗效观察%The effect of sulpiride on sitieirgia of psychotic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张长军; 王振英; 吕应春


    @@ BACKGROUND: Sulpiride belongs to derivative of benza-mide, which is also called dogmatil. It has the affect of an-ti-psychosis and is effective to tension, indifference, introversion and withdrawal.

  4. Copper-catalysed intramolecular O-arylation: a simple and efficient method for benzoxazole synthesis. (United States)

    Wu, Fengtian; Zhang, Jie; Wei, Qianbing; Liu, Ping; Xie, Jianwei; Jiang, Haojie; Dai, Bin


    A wide range of 2-substituted benzoxazoles can be efficiently synthesized from N-(2-iodo-/bromo-phenyl)benzamides, and even the less reactive N-(2-chlorophenyl)benzamides, via Cu-catalysed intramolecular coupling cyclization reactions using methyl 2-methoxybenzoate as the ligand under mild reaction conditions. In addition, the benzoxazoles can be easily prepared from the primary amides coupling with o-dihalobenzenes in a single step.

  5. Triphenylethanamine Derivatives as Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein Inhibitors: Discovery of N-[(1R)-1-(3-Cyclopropoxy-4-fluorophenyl)-1-[3-fluoro-5-(1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethoxy)phenyl]-2-phenylethyl]-4-fluoro-3-(trifluoromethyl)benzamide (BMS-795311). (United States)

    Qiao, Jennifer X; Wang, Tammy C; Adam, Leonard P; Chen, Alice Ye A; Taylor, David S; Yang, Richard Z; Zhuang, Shaobin; Sleph, Paul G; Li, Julia P; Li, Danshi; Yin, Xiaohong; Chang, Ming; Chen, Xue-Qing; Shen, Hong; Li, Jianqing; Smith, Daniel; Wu, Dauh-Rurng; Leith, Leslie; Harikrishnan, Lalgudi S; Kamau, Muthoni G; Miller, Michael M; Bilder, Donna; Rampulla, Richard; Li, Yi-Xin; Xu, Carrie; Lawrence, R Michael; Poss, Michael A; Levesque, Paul; Gordon, David A; Huang, Christine S; Finlay, Heather J; Wexler, Ruth R; Salvati, Mark E


    Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors raise HDL-C in animals and humans and may be antiatherosclerotic by enhancing reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). In this article, we describe the lead optimization efforts resulting in the discovery of a series of triphenylethanamine (TPE) ureas and amides as potent and orally available CETP inhibitors. Compound 10g is a potent CETP inhibitor that maximally inhibited cholesteryl ester (CE) transfer activity at an oral dose of 1 mg/kg in human CETP/apoB-100 dual transgenic mice and increased HDL cholesterol content and size comparable to torcetrapib (1) in moderately-fat fed hamsters. In contrast to the off-target liabilities with 1, no blood pressure increase was observed with 10g in rat telemetry studies and no increase of aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) was detected in H295R cells. On the basis of its preclinical profile, compound 10g was advanced into preclinical safety studies.

  6. Theoretical Study on the Mechanism of CuI-catalyzed Carbon-nitrogen Coupling Reaction of 2-Iodo-selenophene with Benzamide%2-碘代硒苯与苯甲酰胺在CuI催化下的C-N偶联反应机理的理论研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佩怡; 胡启山; 何云清



  7. Novel N-benzoyltyramines of Swinglea glutinosa (Rutaceae); Novas N-benzoiltiraminas de Swinglea glutinosa (Rutaceae).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerqueira, Cristovam do Nascimento; Santos, Djalma A.P. dos; Malaquias, Karla da Silva; Lima, Murilo Marinho de Castro; Silva, Maria Fatima das Gracas Fernandes da; Fernandes, Joao Batista; Vieira, Paulo Cezar, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica


    Phytochemical studies of the leaves and fruits have led to the identification of the known amides (E)-N-methyl-cinnamamide, N-benzoyltyramine, N-benzoyl-O-geranyl tyramine, N-benzoyl-O-(4-acetoxyl)-geranyl tyramine, in addition to the new N-{l_brace}2-[4-(butoxyl-3-one)phenyl]ethyl{r_brace}benzamide, N-{l_brace}2-[4-(2,3-dihydroxy-2-methyl-butoxylanal)phenyl]ethyl{r_brace}benzamide, N-{l_brace}2-[4-(2,3-dihydroxy-2-methyl-butoxyloic) phenyl]ethyl{r_brace}benzamide, N-benzoyl-O-(4-acetoxyl-6,7-epoxy)-geranyltyramine, N-benzoyl-O-(4-acetoxyl-6,7-dihydroxy)-geranyltyramine and N-benzoyl-O-(6-acetoxyl-4,7-dihydroxy)-geranyltyramine. The isolated compounds clearly point to Swinglea phytochemical affinities with other Aurantioideae species. (author)


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shadpour Mallakpour; Mehdi Hatami


    Novel aromatic-aliphatic poly(amide-imide)s containing chiral units in the main chain and hydroxyl benzamide units in the side chain have been obtained from the step-growth polymerization of 3,5-diamino-N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) benzamide (2) with different chiral diacid chlorides (1a-1e).Theoretical calculations were done by means of computational chemistry methods to narrate the stable conformation and orientation of each diacid chloride monomers under reaction conditions.These polymers were characterized by conventional techniques.The resulting polymers show good thermal stability.Other physical properties of polymers including crystallinity,inherent viscosity and morphological characteristics were also studied.

  9. Reações de carbociclização radicalar de orto-iodoaliloxibenzoatos derivados de d-glicose e d-galactose e comparação com as reações de seus análogos benzamidas Radical carbocyclization reactions of ortho-iodoallyloxybenzoate derivatives of d-glucose and d-galactose and comparison with the reactions of their benzamide analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildefonso Binatti


    Full Text Available Two ortho-iodoallyloxybenzoates, methyl 4-O-allyl-2,3-di-O-benzyl-6-O-(2-iodobenzoyl- alpha-D-glucopyranoside (3 and methyl 4-O-allyl-2,3-di-O-benzyl-6-O-(2-iodobenzoyl- alpha-D-galactopyranoside (4 were synthesized in seven conventional steps from methyl alpha-D-glucopyranoside and methyl alpha-D-galactopyranoside, respectively. Bu3SnH-mediated aryl radical cyclization of 3 provided exclusively the hydrogenolysis product 12. The reaction of 4 gave the reduced uncyclized product 13 and only traces of 4A, resulting from 11-endo aryl radical cyclization. In previous papers we described that in similar Bu3SnH-mediated radical reaction of ortho-iodoallyloxybenzamides, analogs of 3 and 4, we obtained macrolactams resulting from 11-endo cyclization. An hypothesis to explain the differences is presented. It was assumed that in the aryl radical formed from iodobenzamides there is a suitable conformation to cyclization, which is stabilized by an intramolecular hydrogen bond.

  10. H-Y-zeolites induced heterocyclization: Highly efficient synthesis of substituted-quinazolin-4(3H)ones under microwave irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Bakavoli; O. Sabzevari; M. Rahimizadeh


    A highly efficient synthesis of 2-amino-N-substituted-benzamides was performed by the condensation of isatoic anhydride with several amines in solvent-free conditions under microwave irradiation. H-Y-zeolites induced heterocyclization of these products with ortho-esters under similar conditions afforded the relevant substituted-quinazolin-4(3H)ones in high yields.

  11. C-Terminally modified peptides via cleavage of the HMBA linker by O-, i>N>- or S-nucleophiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas; Diness, Frederik; Meldal, Morten Peter


    A large variety of C-terminally modified peptides was obtained by nucleophilic cleavage of the ester bond in solid phase linked peptide esters of 4-hydroxymethyl benzamide (HMBA). The developed methods provided peptides, C-terminally functionalized as esters, amides and thioesters, with high puri...

  12. [Mivazerol and other benzylimidazoles with alpha-2 adrenergic properties]. (United States)

    Cossement, E; Geerts, J P; Michel, P; Motte, G; Noyer, M


    4-Benzyl-imidazole compounds derived from Salbutanol are evaluated for potential adrenergic activities. The prevalent property of a series of new bioisosteres of catecholamines either of the saligenol-(ucb LO61) or benzamide-(Mivazerol) type is a selective alpha-adrenergic agonism, at the presynaptic level. The present study stresses the structural features responsible for the alpha-2-agonistic property.

  13. Rapid and convenient semi-automated microwave-assisted solid-phase synthesis of arylopeptoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jakob Ewald; Boccia, Marcello Massimo; Nielsen, John


    A facile and expedient route to the synthesis of arylopeptoid oligomers (N-alkylated aminomethyl benz-amides) using semi-automated microwave-assisted solid-phase synthesis is presented. The synthesis was optimized for the incorporation of side chains derived from sterically hindered or unreactive...

  14. Cp*Co(III)-Catalyzed Dehydrative C-H Allylation of 6-Arylpurines and Aromatic Amides Using Allyl Alcohols in Fluorinated Alcohols. (United States)

    Bunno, Youka; Murakami, Nanami; Suzuki, Yudai; Kanai, Motomu; Yoshino, Tatsuhiko; Matsunaga, Shigeki


    Cp*Co(III)-catalyzed C-H allylation of various aromatic C-H bonds using allyl alcohols as allylating reagents is described. Improved reaction conditions using fluorinated alcohol solvents afforded efficient directed C-H allylation of 6-arylpurines, benzamides, and a synthetically useful Weinreb amide with good functional group compatibility.

  15. Drug: D07311 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07311 Drug Veralipride (INN); Agreal (TN) C17H25N3O5S 383.1515 383.4625 D07311.gif...N NERVOUS SYSTEM N05 PSYCHOLEPTICS N05A ANTIPSYCHOTICS N05AL Benzamides N05AL06 Veralipride D07311 Veralipride

  16. Drug: D07310 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07310 Drug Amisulpride (INN); Deniban (TN); Solian (TN) C17H27N3O4S 369.1722 369.4...n [BR:br08303] N NERVOUS SYSTEM N05 PSYCHOLEPTICS N05A ANTIPSYCHOTICS N05AL Benzamides N05AL05 Amisulpride D07310 Amisulpride

  17. New heteronuclear gold(I)-platinum(II) complexes with cytotoxic properties : Are two metals better than one?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenzel, Margot; Bigaeva, Emilia; Richard, Philippe; Le Gendre, Pierre; Picquet, Michel; Casini, Angela; Bodio, Ewen


    A series of mono- and heterodinuclear gold(I) and platinum(II) complexes with a new bipyridylamine-phosphine ligand have been synthesized and characterized. The X-ray structures of the ligand precursor 4-iodo-N,N-di(pyridin-2-yl)benzamide, and of one gold derivative are reported. All the complexes d

  18. Eupenicillium bovifimosum, a new species from dry cow manure in Wyoming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuthill, D.E.; Frisvad, Jens Christian


    within 3 wk of inoculation onto MEA. The new species produces penicillic acid, a fumagillin-like molecule, patulodin-like compounds CK2108A and CK2108B, and a compound resembling 2-[(2-hydroxypropionyl) amino] benzamide. Phylogenetic analysis using 1100 bases of the ITS and LSU DNA regions indicates...

  19. Pyrrolidin-3-yl-N-methylbenzamides as potent histamine 3 receptor antagonists. (United States)

    Zhou, Dahui; Gross, Jonathan L; Sze, Jean Y; Adedoyin, Adedayo B; Bowlby, Mark; Di, Li; Platt, Brian J; Zhang, Guoming; Brandon, Nicholas; Comery, Thomas A; Robichaud, Albert J


    On the basis of the previously reported benzimidazole 1,3'-bipyrrolidine benzamides (1), a series of related pyrrolidin-3-yl-N-methylbenzamides were synthesized and evaluated as H(3) receptor antagonists. In particular, compound 32 exhibits potent H(3) receptor binding affinity, improved pharmaceutical properties and a favorable in vivo profile.

  20. The first X-ray crystal structure of the glucocorticoid receptor bound to a non-steroidal agonist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madauss, Kevin P.; Bledsoe, Randy K.; Mclay, Iain; Stewart, Eugene L.; Uings, Iain J.; Weingarten, Gordon; Williams, Shawn P. (GSKNC); (GSK)


    The amino-pyrazole 2,6-dichloro-N-ethyl benzamide 1 is a selective GR agonist with dexamethasone-like in vitro potency. Its X-ray crystal structure in the GR LBD (Glucocorticoid ligand-binding domain) is described and compared to other reported structures of steroidal GR agonists in the GR LBD (3E7C).

  1. Analysis of Pyrolysates for Polysulphoneamide Fiber by Py-GC/MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN He-sheng; LIN Dan-li


    Pyrolysis of polysulphoneamide fiber has been investigated using pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy at the different temperatures from 420℃ to 750℃. Its compositions of pyrolysates have been analyzed. At 420 ℃,pyrolysis of molecular chain could not completely take place, 12 compounds of pyrolysis have only been identified.When the temperature increases, the compositions of pyrolysate increase sharply. Several compounds, especially sulfur dioxide, benzene, aniline, benzoic acid, 1,4-benzene dicaronitrile, N-phenyl-acetamide, diphenylamine, benzo[g]isoquinoline, N-phenyl-benzamide, N-( 4-cyanophenyl )benzamide, could be formed. The degradation mechanisms which are determined by structure and amount of the thermal decomposition products are described. During pyrolysis, for polysulphoneamide, polymeric chain scissions take place as a successive removal of the monomer units from the polymeric chain. The chain scissions are followed by secondary reactions, which lead to a variety of compounds.Additional reactions can also take place during pyrolysis.

  2. Synthesis and pharmacological investigation of 2-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)-3,5-disubstituted thiazolidin-4-ones as anticonvulsants. (United States)

    Senthilraja, Manavalan; Alagarsamy, Veerachamy


    A new series of 2-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)-3-substituted thiazolidin-4-one-5-yl-acetyl acetamides/benzamides were synthesized by the nucleophilic substitution of 3-substituted-2-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)-thiazolidin-4-one-5-yl-acetylchloride with acetamide and benzamide. The starting material 3-substituted-2-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)-thiazolidin-4-one-5-yl-acetylchloride was synthesized from 3-substituted-2-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)-thiazolidin-4-one-5-yl-acetic acid, which in turn was prepared by one-pot reaction of amino component, p-dimethylamino benzaldehyde and mercapto succinic acid. The title compounds were investigated for their anticonvulsant activities; among the test compounds, compound 2-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)-3-phenylamino-thiazolidine-4-one-5-yl-acetylbenzamide (14) emerged as the most active compound of the series and as moderately more potent than the reference standard diazepam.

  3. Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) attenuate microglial activation. (United States)

    Xue, Fengtian; Stoica, Bogdan A; Hanscom, Marie; Kabadi, Shruti V; Faden, Alan I


    Traumatic brain injury causes progressive neurodegeneration associated with chronic microglial activation. Recent studies show that neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation after traumatic brain injury can be inhibited as late as one month in animals by the activation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 in microglia using (RS)-2-chloro-5- hydroxy-phenylglycine. However, the therapeutic potential of this agonist is limited due to its relatively weak potency and brain permeability. To address such concerns, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory activities of several positive allosteric modulators using various in vitro assays, and found that 3,3'-difluorobenzaldazine, 3-cyano-N-(1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol- 5-yl)benzamide and 4-nitro-N-(1-(2-fluorophenyl)-3-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)benzamide showed significantly improved potency which makes them potential lead compounds for further development of positive allosteric modulators for the treatment of traumatic brain injury.

  4. Crystal structure of N-(7-di­bromo­methyl-5-methyl-1,8-naphthyridin-2-yl)benzamide–pyrrolidine-2,5-dione (1/1) (United States)

    Wang, Bang Zhong; Zhou, Jun Ping; Zhou, Yong; Luo, Jian Song; Yang, Jun Jie; Chi, Shao


    The title compound, C17H13Br2N3O·C4H5NO2, is a co-crystal of N-(7-di­bromo­methyl-5-methyl-1,8-naphthyridin-2-yl)benzamide and pyrrolidine-2,5-dione (succinimide). The benzamide mol­ecule exhibits pseudo-mirror symmetry, with an r.m.s. deviation of the non-H atoms of 0.09 Å (except for the two Br atoms). The angle between the least-squares planes of the two mol­ecules is 26.2 (2)°. In the crystal, the two mol­ecules are mutually linked by N—H⋯O and N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds. The packing is consolidated by C—H⋯(O,N) hydrogen bonds and π–π stacking inter­actions. PMID:28083121

  5. Structures and vibrational spectra of the N-benzoyl N‧-dialkylthiourea derivative and their complexes with Hg(II) (United States)

    Weiqun, Zhou; Wen, Yang; Lihua, Qiu; Yong, Zhang; Zhengfeng, Yu


    The complex Hg (MTCB) 2 (MTCB= N-(morpholinothiocarbonyl) benzamide) and Hg (PTCB) 2 (PTCB= N-(piperidylthiocarbonyl) benzamide) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, FT-Raman spectra and NMR methods. The complex, Hg (MTCB) 2, crystallizes in the triclinic space group P1¯, with Z=2. Unit cell parameters, a=10.3621(11) Å, b=11.5738(11) Å, c=12.7722(7) Å, α=64.493(8)°, β=66.132(8)°, γ=85.811(11)°, V=1254.7(2) Å 3. The FT-Infrared and FT-Raman spectra were used in study of the structures of MTCB, PTCB and their complexes with mercury cation, which were agreement with the result of X-ray diffraction.

  6. A Convenient Method for the Synthesis of 1,3,2-Oxazaphospholidin-[3,2-a]-8-oxo-10-thio(or seleno)-[1,3,2]-benzodiazaphosphorines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A Convenient method for the synthesis of fused phosphorusheterocycle 1,3,2-oxazaphosphorin-[3,2-a]-8-oxo-10-thio(or seleno)-[1,3,2]-benzodiazaphosphorines was carried out in one pot by the reaction of Tris(diethylamino)phosphine with multifunctional compounds 2-(N-(βor γ-hydroxyl) alkylene) amino-benzamides 1.When PCL3 was used, only chlorinated product was obtained.

  7. Synthesis and evaluation of in vitro antibacterial activity of novel 2,5-disubstituted-1,3,4-thiadiazoles from fatty acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A series of new 1-(alkenoyl/hydroxyalkenoyl)-4-benzoyl-thiosemicarbazides 2a-d and 2-benzamide-5-alkenyl/hydroxyalk-enyl-1,3,4-thiadiazoles 3a-d were synthesized from fatty acid hydrazides. Structure of all these compounds was confirmed by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, mass spectra and elemental analysis. The bioassay results indicate that some compounds 2,c, 2d, 3c and 3d have good antibacterial activity.

  8. Drug: D08549 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08549 Drug Sultopride (INN) C17H26N2O4S 354.1613 354.4643 D08549.gif Neuroleptic S...:br08303] N NERVOUS SYSTEM N05 PSYCHOLEPTICS N05A ANTIPSYCHOTICS N05AL Benzamides N05AL02 Sultopride D08549 Sultopride...ily Dopamine dopamine D2-receptor [HSA:1813] [KO:K04145] Sultopride [ATC:N05AL02] D08549 Sultopride

  9. Sulpiride in tardive dyskinesia.


    Schwartz, M.; Moguillansky, L; Lanyi, G; Sharf, B


    The abnormal involuntary movements in tardive dyskinesia can be reduced by the dopamine antagonist drugs, phenothiazines and butyrophenones, but most cause an increase in Parkinsonian signs. Sulpiride, a benzamide derivative, and selective antagonist of D2 receptors had a significantly beneficial effect on most of 15 patients (p less than 0.01). In 12 patients the improvement was marked. The reduction of abnormal movements was observed even with low doses, and it was not necessary to increase...

  10. Direct Nucleophilic Substitution of Free Allylic Alcohols in Water Catalyzed by FeCl3⋅6 H2O: Which is the Real Catalyst?


    Trillo Alarcón, María Paz; Baeza, Alejandro; Nájera Domingo, Carmen


    The allylic substitution reaction, and particularly the direct allylic amination reaction, of free allylic alcohols in water catalyzed by FeCl3⋅6 H2O is described. This novel environmentally-friendly methodology allows the use of a wide variety of nitrogenated nucleophiles such as sulfonamides, carbamates, benzamides, anilines, benzotriazoles, and azides, generally giving good yields of the corresponding substitution products. The synthetic applicability of the process is also demonstrated be...

  11. Synthesis and characterization of novel organic heteroatom compounds from reaction of Woollins’ Reagent with various organic substrates


    Hua, Guoxiong; Du, Junyi; Cordes, David Bradford; Athukorala Arachchige, Kasun Sankalpa; Slawin, Alexandra Martha Zoya; Woollins, J. Derek


    A series of new selenium-containing heteroatom compounds were synthesized in good yields by the reactions of Woollins’ reagent with various organic substrates such as cyclohexanamine, N-benzoylbenzamide, benzoic anhydride, 4-fluoro-N-(2-oxo-2-phenylethyl)benzamide, N-benzoylbenzamide, benzoic anhydride, 3-(bromomethyl)benzonitrile, 1,2-diphenylethane-1,2-diol and sodium alcoholate. Three representative X-ray structures are described. Postprint Postprint Peer reviewed

  12. 2-(Pyrrolidin-1-yl)ethyl-3,4-dihydroisoquinolin-1(2H)-one derivatives as potent and selective histamine-3 receptor antagonists. (United States)

    Zhou, Dahui; Gross, Jonathan L; Adedoyin, Adedayo B; Aschmies, Suzan B; Brennan, Julie; Bowlby, Mark; Di, Li; Kubek, Katie; Platt, Brian J; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Guoming; Brandon, Nicholas; Comery, Thomas A; Robichaud, Albert J


    On the basis of the previously reported benzimidazole 1,3'-bipyrrolidine benzamides (1), a new class of 2-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)ethyl-3,4-dihydroisoquinolin-1(2H)-one derivatives (3-50) were synthesized and evaluated as potent H(3) receptor antagonists. In particular, compound 39 exhibited potent in vitro binding and functional activities at the H(3) receptor, good selectivities against other neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels, acceptable pharmacokinetic properties, and a favorable in vivo profile.

  13. Preparation and Application of Perchloric Acid Supported on Alumina (Al2O3-HCIO4) to the Synthesis of α-(α-Amidobenzyl)-β-naphthols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Preparation of perchloric acid supported on alumina and its primary application as a solid supported heterogeneous catalyst to the synthesis of α-(α-amidobenzyl)-β-naphthols by a one-pot,three-component condensation of benzaldehydes,β-naphthol and acetamide or benzamide under thermal solvent-free conditions were described.The present methodology offers several advantages such as simple procedure,shorter reaction time,and excellent yields.

  14. Intramolecular Homolytic Substitution with Amidyl Radicals: A Free-Radical Synthesis of Ebselen and Related Analogues. (United States)

    Fong, Mei C.; Schiesser, Carl H.


    Irradiation of a water-cooled benzene solution of pyridine-2-thioneoxycarbonyl (PTOC) imidate esters 9 derived from N-butyl-2-(benzylseleno)benzamide (6, R = Bu), 2-(benzylseleno)-N-hexylbenzamide (6, R = Hex), N-benzyl-2-(benzylseleno)benzamide (6, R = Bn), and 2-(benzylseleno)-N-cyclohexylbenzamide (6, R = c-Hex) with a 250-W low-pressure mercury lamp affords the corresponding 1,2-benzisoselenazol-3(2H)-ones (1) in yields of 81-91% (R = primary alkyl) and 45% (R = c-Hex). Presumably, these transformations involve formation of amidyl radicals 2 which undergo subsequent intramolecular homolytic substitution at the selenium atom with expulsion of a benzyl radical. PTOC imidate esters derived from 2-(benzylseleno)benzanilide (6, R = Ph) and 2-(benzylseleno)-N-tert-butylbenzamide (6, R = t-Bu) were unable to be prepared in this manner. 1,2-Benzisoselenazol-3(2H)-ones (1, R = Ph, Hex, i-Pr, t-Bu) could also be prepared in 76-85% yield by reaction of the corresponding 2,2'-diselenobis(benzamide) (15) with benzoyl or tert-butyl peroxide. The mechanisms of these transformations are discussed.

  15. Product-induced gene expression, a product-responsive reporter assay used to screen metagenomic libraries for enzyme-encoding genes. (United States)

    Uchiyama, Taku; Miyazaki, Kentaro


    A reporter assay-based screening method for enzymes, which we named product-induced gene expression (PIGEX), was developed and used to screen a metagenomic library for amidases. A benzoate-responsive transcriptional activator, BenR, was placed upstream of the gene encoding green fluorescent protein and used as a sensor. Escherichia coli sensor cells carrying the benR-gfp gene cassette fluoresced in response to benzoate concentrations as low as 10 μM but were completely unresponsive to the substrate benzamide. An E. coli metagenomic library consisting of 96,000 clones was grown in 96-well format in LB medium containing benzamide. The library cells were then cocultivated with sensor cells. Eleven amidase genes were recovered from 143 fluorescent wells; eight of these genes were homologous to known bacterial amidase genes while three were novel genes. In addition to their activity toward benzamide, the enzymes were active toward various substrates, including d- and l-amino acid amides, and displayed enantioselectivity. Thus, we demonstrated that PIGEX is an effective approach for screening novel enzymes based on product detection.

  16. (S)-amisulpride as a discriminative stimulus in C57BL/6 mice and its comparison to the stimulus effects of typical and atypical antipsychotics. (United States)

    Donahue, Timothy J; Hillhouse, Todd M; Webster, Kevin A; Young, Richard; De Oliveira, Eliseu O; Porter, Joseph H


    Amisulpride, a substituted benzamide derivative, exerts atypical antipsychotic and antidepressant clinical effects and its (S)-stereoisomer is thought to underlie these actions. In the present study, male C57BL/6 mice were trained to discriminate (S)-amisulpride (10mg/kg, s.c.) from vehicle in a two-lever drug discrimination task for food reward. The (S)-amisulpride stimulus was rapidly acquired and was shown to be dose-related, time dependent (effective between 30 and 120min) and stereoselective: (S)-amisulpride (ED50=1.77mg/kg; 4.2µmol/kg) was about three times more potent than rac-amisulpride (ED50=4.94mg/kg; 13.4µmol/kg) and ten times more potent than (R)-amisulpride (ED50=15.84mg/kg; 42.9µmol/kg). In tests of stimulus generalization, the (S)-amisulpride stimulus generalized completely to sulpiride (ED50=12.67mg/kg; 37.1µmol/kg), a benzamide analog that also is purported to be an atypical antipsychotic, but did not fully generalize to the typical antipsychotic drug haloperidol (maximum of 45% drug-lever responding) nor to the atypical antipsychotic drugs clozapine (partial substitution of 65% drug-lever responding) or aripiprazole (~30% drug-lever responding). These results demonstrated that (S)-amisulpride appears to exert a unique discriminative stimulus effect that is similar to other benzamides, but which differs from other structural classes of antipsychotic drugs.

  17. Effect of cyclosporin A on the uptake of D{sub 3}-selective PET radiotracers in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu Zhude; Li Shihong; Xu Jinbin; Chu Wenhua; Jones, Lynne A. [Department of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Luedtke, Robert R. [Department of Pharmacology and Neuroscience, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX 76107 (United States); Mach, Robert H., E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States)


    Introduction: Four benzamide analogs having a high affinity and selectivity for D{sub 3} versus D{sub 2} receptors were radiolabeled with {sup 11}C or {sup 18}F for in vivo evaluation. Methods: Precursors were synthesized, and the four D{sub 3} selective benzamide analogs were radiolabeled. The tissue distribution and brain uptake of the four compounds were evaluated in control rats and rats pretreated with cyclosporin A, a modulator of P-glycoprotein and an inhibitor of other ABC efflux transporters that contribute to the blood brain barrier. Micro-positron emission tomographic (PET) imaging was carried out for [{sup 11}C]6 in a control and a cyclosporin A pretreated rat. Results: All four compounds showed low brain uptake in control rats at 5 and 30 min post-injection; despite recently reported rat behavioral studies conducted on analogs 6 (WC-10) and 7 (WC-44). Following administration of cyclosporin A, increased brain uptake was observed with all four PET radiotracers at both 5 and 30 min post-intravenous injection. An increase in brain uptake following modulation/inhibition of the ABC transporters was also observed in the microPET study. Conclusions: These data suggest that D3 selective conformationally-flexible benzamide analogs which contain a N-2-methoxyphenylpiperazine moiety are substrates for P-glycoprotein or other adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette transporters expressed at the blood-brain barrier, and that PET radiotracers containing this pharmacophore may display low brain uptake in rodents due to the action of these efflux transporters.

  18. Crystal structures of three 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzamide-based derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia R. Gomes


    Full Text Available The crystal structures of three benzamide derivatives, viz. N-(6-hydroxyhexyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzamide, C16H25NO5, (1, N-(6-anilinohexyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzamide, C22H30N2O4, (2, and N-(6,6-diethoxyhexyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzamide, C20H33NO6, (3, are described. These compounds differ only in the substituent at the end of the hexyl chain and the nature of these substituents determines the differences in hydrogen bonding between the molecules. In each molecule, the m-methoxy substituents are virtually coplanar with the benzyl ring, while the p-methoxy substituent is almost perpendicular. The carbonyl O atom of the amide rotamer is trans related with the amidic H atom. In each structure, the benzamide N—H donor group and O acceptor atoms link the molecules into C(4 chains. In 1, a terminal –OH group links the molecules into a C(3 chain and the combined effect of the C(4 and C(3 chains is a ribbon made up of screw related R22(17 rings in which the ...O—H... chain lies in the centre of the ribbon and the trimethoxybenzyl groups forms the edges. In 2, the combination of the benzamide C(4 chain and the hydrogen bond formed by the terminal N—H group to an O atom of the 4-methoxy group link the molecules into a chain of R22(17 rings. In 3, the molecules are linked only by C(4 chains.

  19. Rh(III)-Catalyzed Diastereoselective Annulation of Amides with Quinone Monoacetals: Access to Bridged Nine-Membered Heterocycles via C-H Activation. (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Dong, Jinhuan; Wang, Jingyi; Xu, Xianxiu


    An unprecedented Rh(III)-catalyzed annulation of various benzamides and acrylamides with quinone monoacetals was developed for the facile and efficient one-pot synthesis of bridged nine-membered benzo[c]azonine-1,5(2H)-diones and 2-azabicyclo[4.3.1]dec-4-ene-3,8-diones. It is the first example of synthesis of nine-membered heterocycles through Rh(III)-catalyzed C-H bond functionalization, and both aryl and vinyl C-H bonds are tolerant in this reaction. A plausible mechanism is proposed on the basis of control experiments.

  20. Chemical constituents from the leaves ofCerbera manghas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiao-po; Pei Yue-hu; Liu Ming-sheng; Kang Sheng-li; Zhang Jun-qing


    Objective:To study the chemical constituents in leaves ofCebera manghas.Methods: Chemical constituents were isolated by using various column chromatography and the structures were elucidated on basis of physicochemical constants and spectral data analysis.Results: Nine compounds were obtained including p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (1), benzamide (2), n-hexadecane acid monoglyceride(3), loliolide(4), β-sitosterol(5), cerberin(6), neriifolin(7), cerleaside A(8), daucosterol (9).Conclusions: Compounds 1-4 are obtained from this genus for the first time.

  1. Olanzapine as an antiemetic in refractory nausea and vomiting in advanced cancer. (United States)

    Srivastava, Manish; Brito-Dellan, Norman; Davis, Mellar P; Leach, Marie; Lagman, Ruth


    Nausea and vomiting are difficult symptoms to manage in patients with advanced cancer. Several classes of antiemetics are available, including phenothiazines, butyrophenones, substituted benzamides and selective serotonin antagonists, as well as corticosteroids. Most patients will respond to either single agents or combinations that frequently include corticosteroids. A minority of patients will have nausea that fails to respond. The atypical antipsychotic, olanzapine, relieves nausea in some patients failing to respond to the usual antiemetics. Two case reports are presented and the rationale for olanzapine's benefit is discussed.

  2. Advanced method for oligonucleotide deprotection (United States)

    Surzhikov, Sergey A.; Timofeev, Edward N.; Chernov, Boris K.; Golova, Julia B.; Mirzabekov, Andrei D.


    A new procedure for rapid deprotection of synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides has been developed. While all known deprotection methods require purification to remove the residual protective groups (e.g. benzamide) and insoluble silicates, the new procedure based on the use of an ammonia-free reagent mixture allows one to avoid the additional purification steps. The method can be applied to deprotect the oligodeoxynucleotides synthesized by using the standard protected nucleoside phosphoramidites dGiBu, dCBz and dABz. PMID:10734206

  3. Advanced method for oligonucleotide deprotection.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surzhikov, S. A.; Timofeev, E. N.; Chernov, B. K.; Golova, J. B.; Mirzabekov, A. D.; Biochip Technology Center; Engelhardt Inst. of Molecular Biology


    A new procedure for rapid deprotection of synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides has been developed. While all known deprotection methods require purification to remove the residual protective groups (e.g. benzamide) and insoluble silicates, the new procedure based on the use of an ammonia-free reagent mixture allows one to avoid the additional purification steps. The method can be applied to deprotect the oligodeoxynucleotides synthesized by using the standard protected nucleoside phosphoramidites dG{sup iBu}, dC{sup Bz} and dA{sup Bz}.

  4. Phase Behavior of the Ternary Solution Involving Rodlike and Random Coil Polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The present paper covers the phase behavior of poly(p-benzamide)(PBA)/Nylon 6/H2SO4 and poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide) (PPTA)/Nylon 6/H2SO4 systems. The transition temperatures detected by the Depolarized Light Intensity measurements were used to construct the phase diagram in which the influence of temperature was shown. The enhanced depolarized light intensity observed in the ternary system suggests that the coil polymer chains may tend to be extended and contribute to the overall anisotropy of the liquid crystal phase.

  5. Drug: D08590 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08590 Drug Tiapride (INN); Tiapridal (TN) C15H24N2O4S 328.1457 328.4271 D08590.gif...ANTIPSYCHOTICS N05AL Benzamides N05AL03 Tiapride D08590 Tiapride (INN) Target-based classification of drugs ...[BR:br08310] G Protein-coupled receptors Rhodopsin family Dopamine dopamine D2-receptor [HSA:1813] [KO:K04145] Tiapride... [ATC:N05AL03] D08590 Tiapride (INN) CAS: 51012-32-9 PubChem: 96025274

  6. Drug: D01522 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D01522 Drug Tiapride hydrochloride (JP16); Gramalil (TN) C15H24N2O4S. HCl 364.1224 ...eous 1190 Miscellaneous D01522 Tiapride hydrochloride (JP16) Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classific...ation [BR:br08303] N NERVOUS SYSTEM N05 PSYCHOLEPTICS N05A ANTIPSYCHOTICS N05AL Benzamides N05AL03 Tiaprid...e D01522 Tiapride hydrochloride (JP16) Target-based classification of drugs [BR:br0...8310] G Protein-coupled receptors Rhodopsin family Dopamine dopamine D2-receptor [HSA:1813] [KO:K04145] Tiapride

  7. Drug: D02682 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D02682 Drug Remoxipride (USAN) C16H23BrN2O3 370.0892 371.2694 D02682.gif Antipsycho...TICS N05A ANTIPSYCHOTICS N05AL Benzamides N05AL04 Remoxipride D02682 Remoxipride (USAN) Target-based classif...A:1813] [KO:K04145] Remoxipride [ATC:N05AL04] D02682 Remoxipride (USAN) Opioid si...gma1-opioid receptor [HSA:10280] Remoxipride [ATC:N05AL04] D02682 Remoxipride (USAN) CAS: 80125-14-0 PubChem

  8. Drug: D02683 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D02683 Drug Remoxipride hydrochloride (USAN) C16H23BrN2O3. HCl. H2O 424.0764 425.74...OUS SYSTEM N05 PSYCHOLEPTICS N05A ANTIPSYCHOTICS N05AL Benzamides N05AL04 Remoxipride D02683 Remoxipride hyd...mily Dopamine dopamine D2-receptor [HSA:1813] [KO:K04145] Remoxipride [ATC:N05AL04] D02683 Remoxipride... hydrochloride (USAN) Opioid sigma1-opioid receptor [HSA:10280] Remoxipride [ATC:N05AL04] D02683 Remoxipride

  9. Nuclear medicine and imaging research (quantitative studies in radiopharmaceutical science). Progress report, January 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, M.; Beck, R.N.


    This report describes three studies aimed at using radiolabeled pharmaceuticals to explore brain function and anatomy. The first section describes the chemical preparation of [F18]fluorinated benzamides (dopamine D-2 receptor tracers), [F18]fluorinated benzazepines (dopamine D-1 receptor tracers), and tissue distribution of [F18]-fluoxetine (serotonin reuptake site tracer). The second section relates pharmacological and behavioral studies of amphetamines. The third section reports on progress made with processing of brain images from CT, MRI and PET/SPECT with regards to brain metabolism of glucose during mental tasks.

  10. Nuclear medicine and imaging research (quantitative studies in radiopharmaceutical science)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, M.; Beck, R.N.


    This report describes three studies aimed at using radiolabeled pharmaceuticals to explore brain function and anatomy. The first section describes the chemical preparation of (F18)fluorinated benzamides (dopamine D-2 receptor tracers), (F18)fluorinated benzazepines (dopamine D-1 receptor tracers), and tissue distribution of (F18)-fluoxetine (serotonin reuptake site tracer). The second section relates pharmacological and behavioral studies of amphetamines. The third section reports on progress made with processing of brain images from CT, MRI and PET/SPECT with regards to brain metabolism of glucose during mental tasks.

  11. [Sulpiride: the best known atypical, safe neuroleptic drug. Review of literature]. (United States)

    Rzewuska, M


    This is a review of literature data on a neuroleptic drug--sulpiride. Sulpiride, a benzamide derivative displays selective affinity for mesolimbic and mesocortical dopamine receptors. For this reason it is classified as an atypical antipsychotic drug. In clinical use, it causes undesirable side effects (particularly extrapyramidal, cholinolytical) less often than classical neuroleptics, does not cause sedation, and has activating and antidepressive properties. These characteristics caused that it is considered a drug of first choice in delusional psychoses with inhibition, depression, lowered activity, intensified negative or deterioration symptoms. The most serious drawback of the drug is the risk of symptoms caused by increased prolactine excretion, and increase in body weight.

  12. Aromatic oligoamides with a rare ortho-connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmgaard, T.; Nielsen, John


    Even though aromatic oligoamides composed of aromatic amino acids in a "one-way sequence" attract ever increasing research interest, backbones connected through ortho-linked aromatics remain rare. Herein, we present the first synthesis and study of N-alkylated ortho-aminomethyl- benzamides termed...... studies indicated a more restricted rotation about the amide bonds in ortho-arylopeptoids, presumably due to a more congested backbone structure resulting from the ortho-connectivity pattern. Intriguingly, tert-butyl and phenyl side chains offer complete control over the amide conformations; whereas...

  13. X-ray Structures of Precursors of Styrylpyridine-Derivatives Used to Obtain 4-((E)-2-(Pyridin-2-yl)vinyl)benzamido-TEMPO: Synthesis and Characterization


    Guillermo Soriano-Moro; María Judith Percino; Ana Laura Sánchez; Víctor Manuel Chapela; Margarita Cerón; María Eugenia Castro


    The synthesis and characterization of the precursor isomers trans-4-(2-(pyridin-2-yl)vinylbenzaldehyde (I), trans-4-(2-(pyridin-4-yl)vinylbenzaldehyde (II), trans-4-(2-(pyridin-2-yl)vinylbenzoic acid (III) and (E)-4-(2-(pydridin-4-yl)vinylbenzoic acid (IV) are reported. These compounds were prepared in order to obtain trans-4-((E)-2-(pyridin-2-yl)vinyl)benzamide-TEMPO (V). Compounds I and II were obtained by using a Knoevenagel reaction in the absence of a condensing agent and solvent. Oxidat...

  14. Neonaucline, a New Indole Alkaloid from the Leaves of Ochreinauclea maingayii (Hook. f. Ridsd. (Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Litaudon


    Full Text Available A new indole alkaloid; neonaucline (1, along with six known compounds–Cadamine (2, naucledine (3, harmane, benzamide, cinnamide and blumenol A–were isolated from the leaves of Ochreinauclea maingayii (Rubiaceae. In addition to that of compound 1, 13C-NMR data of cadamine (2 and naucledine (3 were also reported. Structural elucidations of these alkaloids were performed using spectroscopic methods especially 1D- and 2D-NMR, IR, UV and LCMS-IT-TOF. The excellent vasorelaxant activity on isolated rat aorta was observed for the alkaloids 1–3 after injection of each sample at 1 × 10−5 M.

  15. Drug: D02208 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D02208 Drug Sultopride hydrochloride (JAN); Sultopride monohydrochloride; Barnetil ...(TN) C17H26N2O4S. HCl 390.138 390.9253 D02208.gif Neuroleptic Therapeutic category: 1179 ATC code: N05AL02 B...sensory organs 11 Agents affecting central nervous system 117 Psychotropics 1179 Others D02208 Sultopride hy...3] N NERVOUS SYSTEM N05 PSYCHOLEPTICS N05A ANTIPSYCHOTICS N05AL Benzamides N05AL02 Sultopride D02208 Sultopr...sin family Dopamine dopamine D2-receptor [HSA:1813] [KO:K04145] Sultopride [ATC:N05AL02] D0220

  16. Recurrent neuroleptic malignant syndrome due to tiapride and haloperidol: the possible role of D-2 dopamine receptors. (United States)

    Hermesh, H; Huberman, M; Radvan, H; Kott, E


    Two typical recurrent episodes of neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) in the same patient are described. The first episode was caused by a sulpiride derivative, tiapride. This is the first case in which a drug of the benzamide group has been reported to have caused such adverse drug reaction. In the second episode, NMS occurred due to haloperidol in the lowest dose ever reported and was accompanied by highly excessive levels of various muscle enzymes. Involvement of hypothalamic and striatal dopamine system, and particularly of D-2 subtype receptors, is suggested by this case.

  17. Novel amide-type ligand bearing bis-pyridine cores: Synthesis, spectral characterizations and X-ray structure analyses (United States)

    Ke, Shaoyong


    The novel salicylamide-type ligand containing bis-pyridine moieties, i.e. 2-((6-chloropyridin-3-yl)methoxy)-N-(2-((6-chloropyridin-3-yl)methylthio)phenyl)benzamide, which has been successfully synthesized and characterized by typical spectroscopic techniques mainly including IR, 1H NMR and ESI-MS. The structure of target compound was further determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction method and which crystallized in the monoclinic system with space group P2(1)/c.

  18. Non-hinge-binding pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines as potent B-Raf kinase inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Dan M.; Torres, Nancy; Dutia, Minu; Powell, Dennis; Ciszewski, Greg; Gopalsamy, Ariamala; Levin, Jeremy I.; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Xu, Weixin; Wilhelm, James; Hu, YongBo; Collins, Karen; Feldberg, Larry; Kim, Steven; Frommer, Eileen; Wojciechowicz, Donald; Mallon, Robert; (Wyeth)


    As part of our research effort to discover B-Raf kinase inhibitors, we prepared a series of C-3 substituted N-(3-(pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-7-yl)phenyl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)benzamides. X-ray crystallography studies revealed that one of the more potent inhibitors (10n) bound to B-Raf kinase without forming a hinge-binding hydrogen bond. With basic amine residues appended to C-3 aryl residues, cellular activity and solubility were enhanced over previously described compounds of this class.

  19. New SPECT tracers: Example of tracers of proteoglycans and melanin; Nouveaux traceurs TEMP: exemple des traceurs des proteoglycanes et de la melanine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cachin, F.; Mestas, D.; Kelly, A.; Merlin, C.; Veyre, A.; Maublant, J. [CRLCC Jean-Perrin, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 63 - Clermont-Ferrand (France); Cachin, F.; Chezal, J.M.; Miot-Noirault, E.; Moins, N.; Auzeloux, P.; Vidal, A.; Bonnet-Duquennoy, M.; Boisgard, S.; D' Incan, M.; Madelmont, J.C.; Maublant, J. [Universite d' Auvergne, EA 4231, 63 - Clermont-Ferrand (France); Boisgard, S. [CHRU Gabriel-Montpied, Service d' Orthopedie, 63 - Clermont-Ferrand (France); D' Incan, M. [CHRU Gabriel-Montpied, Service de Dermatologie, 63 - Clermont-Ferrand (France); Redini, F. [Inserm, U957-EA3822, Faculte de Medecine, 44 - Nantes (France); Filaire, M. [Universite d' Auvergne, Lab. d' Anatomie, 63 - Clermont-Ferrand (France)


    The majority of research program on new radiopharmaceuticals turn to tracers used for positron emission tomography (PET). Only a few teams work on new non fluorine labeled tracers. However, the coming of SPECT/CT gamma cameras, the arrival of semi-conductors gamma cameras should boost the development of non-PET tracers. We exhibit in this article the experience acquired by our laboratory in the conception and design of two new non fluorine labelled compounds. The {sup 99m}Tc-N.T.P. 15-5 (N.T.P. 15-5 for N-[tri-ethyl-ammonium]-3-propyl-[15]ane-N5) which binds to proteoglycans could be used for the diagnosis and staging of osteoarthritis and chondrosarcoma. The iodo benzamides, specific to the melanin, are nowadays compared to {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose in a phase III clinical trial for the diagnosis and detection of melanoma metastasis. Our last development focus on N-[2-(diethyl-amino)ethyl]-4 and 2-iodo benzamides respectively B.Z.A. and B.Z.A.2 hetero-aromatic analogues usable for melanoma treatment. (authors)

  20. Estimation of the hydrophobicity of 2,4-diphenyl-1,3-oxazoline analogs and QSAR analysis of their ovicidal activity against Tetranychus [corrected] urticae. (United States)

    Minakuchi, Chieka; Suzuki, Junji; Toda, Kazuya; Akamatsu, Miki; Nakagawa, Yoshiaki


    Partition coefficients of six 2-phenyl-1,3-oxazoline congeners containing 2-I, 2-NO2, 2-CF3, 2,6-(CH3)2, 2,6-F2, and 2-F-6-Cl substitutions on the phenyl moiety were measured in a 1-octanol/water system using the flask-shaking method. The effect on the hydrophobicity (LogP) of substituents on the phenyl moiety of 2-phenyl-1,3-oxazolines linearly correlated with that of benzamide congeners. logP values of other 2-(substituted phenyl)-1,3-oxazoline analogs were empirically estimated from the corresponding substituted benzamides. The ovicidal activity of 2-(substituted phenyl)-4-phenyl-1,3-oxazoline analogs against the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus [corrected] urticae was quantitatively analyzed using the classical QSAR (Hansch-Fujita) method. Results showed that ovicidal activity increases with hydrophobicity. The introduction of inductive electron-withdrawing groups at ortho-positions increased ovicidal activity, but addition of steric bulk was unfavorable. Substitution at either the meta- or para-position was detrimental to the acaricidal activity.

  1. Structure-Based Optimization of a Small Molecule Antagonist of the Interaction Between WD Repeat-Containing Protein 5 (WDR5) and Mixed-Lineage Leukemia 1 (MLL1). (United States)

    Getlik, Matthäus; Smil, David; Zepeda-Velázquez, Carlos; Bolshan, Yuri; Poda, Gennady; Wu, Hong; Dong, Aiping; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Marcellus, Richard; Senisterra, Guillermo; Dombrovski, Ludmila; Hajian, Taraneh; Kiyota, Taira; Schapira, Matthieu; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H; Brown, Peter J; Vedadi, Masoud; Al-Awar, Rima


    WD repeat-containing protein 5 (WDR5) is an important component of the multiprotein complex essential for activating mixed-lineage leukemia 1 (MLL1). Rearrangement of the MLL1 gene is associated with onset and progression of acute myeloid and lymphoblastic leukemias, and targeting the WDR5-MLL1 interaction may result in new cancer therapeutics. Our previous work showed that binding of small molecule ligands to WDR5 can modulate its interaction with MLL1, suppressing MLL1 methyltransferase activity. Initial structure-activity relationship studies identified N-(2-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-5-substituted-phenyl) benzamides as potent and selective antagonists of this protein-protein interaction. Guided by crystal structure data and supported by in silico library design, we optimized the scaffold by varying the C-1 benzamide and C-5 substituents. This allowed us to develop the first highly potent (Kdisp < 100 nM) small molecule antagonists of the WDR5-MLL1 interaction and demonstrate that N-(4-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-3'-(morpholinomethyl)-[1,1'-biphenyl]-3-yl)-6-oxo-4-(trifluoromethyl)-1,6-dihydropyridine-3-carboxamide 16d (OICR-9429) is a potent and selective chemical probe suitable to help dissect the biological role of WDR5.

  2. Quinuclidine compounds differently act as agonists of Kenyon cell nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and induced distinct effect on insect ganglionic depolarizations. (United States)

    Mathé-Allainmat, Monique; Swale, Daniel; Leray, Xavier; Benzidane, Yassine; Lebreton, Jacques; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R; Thany, Steeve H


    We have recently demonstrated that a new quinuclidine benzamide compound named LMA10203 acted as an agonist of insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Its specific pharmacological profile on cockroach dorsal unpaired median neurons (DUM) helped to identify alpha-bungarotoxin-insensitive nAChR2 receptors. In the present study, we tested its effect on cockroach Kenyon cells. We found that it induced an inward current demonstrating that it bounds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed on Kenyon cells. Interestingly, LMA10203-induced currents were completely blocked by the nicotinic antagonist α-bungarotoxin. We suggested that LMA10203 effect occurred through the activation of α-bungarotoxin-sensitive receptors and did not involve α-bungarotoxin-insensitive nAChR2, previously identified in DUM neurons. In addition, we have synthesized two new compounds, LMA10210 and LMA10211, and compared their effects on Kenyon cells. These compounds were members of the 3-quinuclidinyl benzamide or benzoate families. Interestingly, 1 mM LMA10210 was not able to induce an inward current on Kenyon cells compared to LMA10211. Similarly, we did not find any significant effect of LMA10210 on cockroach ganglionic depolarization, whereas these three compounds were able to induce an effect on the central nervous system of the third instar M. domestica larvae. Our data suggested that these three compounds could bind to distinct cockroach nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

  3. Dopamine D2 receptors labeled with ( sup 3 H)raclopride in rat and rabbit brains. Equilibrium binding, kinetics, distribution and selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewar, K.M.; Montreuil, B.; Grondin, L.; Reader, T.A. (Universite de Montreal, Quebec (Canada))


    The binding properties of the substituted benzamide raclopride to dopamine D2 receptors were studied with membrane preparations from rat and rabbit neostriatum. An analysis of the association kinetics suggested a single binding site but the data from the dissociation experiments were better described by a two-site model. Examination of saturation curves at equilibrium revealed a single class of binding sites in the neostriatum from both species (rat: maximum binding capacity (Bmax) = 247 fmol/mg of protein; rabbit: Bmax = 337 fmol/mg of protein). In cortical regions known to possess a distinct dopaminergic innervation (piriform-entorhinal areas and cingulate cortex) the Bmax values ranged between 9 and 22 fmol/mg of protein. ({sup 3}H)Raclopride binding sites (less than 12 fmol/mg of protein) were also detectable in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus as well as in the somatosensory and visual cortices. The selectivity in the neostriatum was examined by competition experiments with dopaminergic drugs. The rank of potency of agonists and antagonists to displace ({sup 3}H)raclopride binding revealed its selectivity for the dopamine D2 receptor and was essentially the same for both species. Antagonist competition curves could be fitted to a single site but inhibition by agonists was better described assuming a two-site model. The stereospecificity of binding was demonstrated by the use of the enantiomer pairs. These results validate the utilization of the novel benzamide ({sup 3}H)raclopride as a selective marker of dopamine D2 receptors.

  4. Synthesis and in vivo brain distribution of carbon-11-labeled {delta}-opioid receptor agonists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichika, Rama, E-mail: rpichika@ucsd.ed [Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Jewett, Douglas M.; Sherman, Philip S. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Traynor, John R. [Department of Pharmacology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Husbands, Stephen M. [Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of Bath, Bath (United Kingdom); Woods, James H. [Department of Pharmacology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Kilbourn, Michael R. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)


    Three new radiolabeled compounds, [{sup 11}C]SNC80 ((+)-4-[({alpha}R)-{alpha}-{l_brace}(2S,5R)-4-allyl-2,5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl{r_brace}-3-[{sup 11}C] methoxybenzyl-N,N-diethylbenzamide), N,N-diethyl-4-[3-methoxyphenyl-1-[{sup 11}C]methylpiperidin-4-ylidenemethyl) benzamide and N,N-diethyl-4-[(1-[{sup 11}C]methylpiperidin-4-ylidene)phenylmethyl]benzamide, were prepared as potential in vivo radiotracers for the {delta}-opioid receptor. Each compound was synthesized by alkylation of the appropriate desmethyl compounds using [{sup 11}C]methyl triflate. In vivo biodistribution studies in mice showed very low initial brain uptake of all three compounds and no regional specific binding for [{sup 11}C]SNC80. A monkey positron emission tomography study of [{sup 11}C]SNC80 confirmed low brain permeability and uniform regional distribution of this class of opioid agonists in a higher species. Opioid receptor ligands of this structural class are thus unlikely to succeed as in vivo radiotracers, likely due to efficient exclusion from the brain by the P-glycoprotein efflux transporter.

  5. Thermolysis of some N-arylbenzamidoximes: Mechanistic studies for formation of anilide, oxazole and imidazole derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    The thermolysis of N-2-pyridylbenzamidoxime I under nitrogen atmosphere for 5 hours givesrise to 2-phenyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine and N-(pyridin-2-yl)benzamide as the major products (52.4and 18.11%, respectively), in addition to 2-hydroxy pyridine, benzonitrile, benzoic acid, 2-aminopyridine,2-phenyloxazolo[4,5-b]pyridine, 9H-pyrrolo[2,3-b:5,4-b']dipyridine and 2,4,6-triphenyl-1,3,5-triazine. Also,heating N-Α-naphthylbenzamidoxime II under the same conditions gave N-(Α-Naphthyl)benzamide, 2-Phenyl-3H-naphtho[2,1-d] imidazole as the major products besides benzonitrile, benzoic acid, Α-naphthylamine and2-phenylnaphtho[1,2-d]oxazole. In the presence of tetralin, I gave 1-hydroxytetralin, Α-tetralone and 1,1'-bitetrayl besides the previous products. The reaction and isolated products have been interpreted in terms of afree radical mechanism involving the homolysis of N-O and/or C-N bonds.

  6. The chemistry of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) analogues containing C-nucleosides related to nicotinamide riboside. (United States)

    Pankiewicz, Krzysztof W; Watanabe, Kyoichi A; Lesiak-Watanabe, Krystyna; Goldstein, Barry M; Jayaram, Hiremagalur N


    Oncolytic C-nucleosides, tiazofurin (2-beta-D-ribofuranosylthiazole-4-carboxamide) and benzamide riboside (3-beta-D-ribofuranosylbenzamide) are converted in cell into active metabolites thiazole-4-carboxamide- and benzamide adenine dinucleotide, TAD and BAD, respectively. TAD and BAD as NAD analogues were found to bind at the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (cofactor NAD) site of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), an important target in cancer treatment. The synthesis and evaluation of anticancer activity of a number of C-nucleosides related to tiazofurin and nicotinamide riboside then followed and are reviewed herein. Interestingly, pyridine C-nucleosides (such as C-nicotinamide riboside) are not metabolized into the corresponding NAD analogues in cell. Their conversion by chemical methods is described. As dinucleotides these compounds show inhibition of IMPDH in low micromolar level. Also, the synthesis of BAD in metabolically stable bis(phosphonate) form is discussed indicating the usefulness of such preformed inhibitors in drug development. Among tiazofurin analogues, Franchetti and Grifantini found, that the replacement of the sulfur by oxygen (as in oxazafurin) but not the removal of nitrogen (tiophenfurin) of the thiazole ring resulted in inactive compounds. The anti cancer activity of their synthetic dinucleotide analogues indicate that inactive compounds are not only poorly metabolized in cell but also are weak inhibitors of IMPDH as dinucleotides.

  7. Nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis of imatinib mesylate and related substances. (United States)

    Ye, Lei; Huang, Yifei; Li, Jian; Xiang, Guangya; Xu, Li


    In the present study, nonaqueous capillary electrophoretic separation of imatinib mesylate (IM) and related substances, N-(5-amino-2-methylphenyl)-4-(3-pyridyl)-2-pyrimidinamine (PYA), N-(4-methyl-3-(4-(pyridin-3-yl)pyrimidin-2-ylamino)phenyl)-4-((piperazin-1-yl)methyl) benzamide (NDI) and 4-chloromethyl-N-(4-methyl-3-((4-(pyridin-3-yl) pyrimidin-2-yl) amino) phenyl) benzamide (CPB) was developed. The influential factors affecting separation, including type and concentration of the electrolyte, applied voltage, and buffer modifier were investigated. Baseline separation of the studied analytes was obtained using a buffer of 50 mM Tris and 50 mM methanesulfonic acid in methanol at a apparent pH (pH*) of 1.65. To enhance the sensitivity, large-volume sample stacking was employed for online concentration. The strongest analytical signal with a suitable separation was achieved when the injection time was 100 s. The linearity ranges of PYA and NDI were 0.100-2.50 μg mL(-1), and that of CPB was 0.125-2.50 μg mL(-1), with good coefficients (r(2) > 0.9948). The relative standard deviations of intra- and interday were satisfactory. Under the optimized conditions, seven batches of the synthesized samples were analyzed and CPB was detected in two batches. Owing to its simplicity, effectiveness, and low price, the developed method is promising for quality control of IM.

  8. New mustard prodrugs for antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy: alternatives to the amide link. (United States)

    Dowell, R I; Springer, C J; Davies, D H; Hadley, E M; Burke, P J; Boyle, F T; Melton, R G; Connors, T A; Blakey, D C; Mauger, A B


    Antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT) is a two-step approach for the treatment of cancer which seeks to generate a potent cytotoxic agent selectively at a tumor site. In this work described the cytotoxic agent is generated by the action of an enzyme CPG2 on a relatively nontoxic prodrug. The prodrug 1 currently on clinical trial is a benzamide and is cleaved by CPG2 to a benzoic acid mustard drug 1a. We have synthesized a series of new prodrugs 3-8 where the benzamide link has been replaced by, for example, carbamate or ureido. Some of these alternative links have been shown to be good substrates for CPG2 and therefore new candidates for ADEPT. The active drugs 3a and 4a derived from the best of these prodrugs are potent cytotoxic agents (1-2 microM) some 100 times more than 1a. The prodrugs 3 and 4 are some 100-200-fold less cytotoxic, in a proliferating cell assay, than their corresponding active drugs 3a and 4a.

  9. Syntheses and pharmacological evaluation of two potent antagonists for dopamine D{sub 4} receptors: [{sup 11}C]YM-50001 and N-[2-[4-(4-Chlorophenyl)-piperizin-1-yl]ethyl]-3-[{sup 11}C]methoxybenzamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Mingrong E-mail:; Haradahira, Terushi; Maeda, Jun; Okauchi, Takashi; Kawabe, Kouichi; Noguchi, Junko; Kida, Takayo; Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Suhara, Tetsuya


    Two benzamide derivatives as dopamine D{sub 4} receptor antagonists, YM-50001(4) and N- [2-[4-(4-chlorophenyl]piperizin-1-yl]ethyl]-3-methoxybenzamide (9), were labeled by positron-emitter ({sup 11}C), and their pharmacological specificities to dopamine D{sub 4} receptors were examined by quantitative autoradiography and positron emission tomography (PET). Radiosyntheses were accomplished by O-methylation of corresponding phenol precursors (5 and 10) with [{sup 11}C]CH{sub 3}I followed by HPLC purifications. In vitro binding on rat brain slices showed different distribution patterns and pharmacological properties between the two radioligands. The [{sup 11}C]4 showed the highest binding in the striatum, which was inhibited not only by 10 {mu}M 4 but also by 10 {mu}M raclopride, a selective dopamine D{sub 2} receptor antagonist. In contrast, [{sup 11}C]9 showed the highest binding in the cerebral cortex, which was inhibited by several D{sub 4} receptor antagonists (9, RBI-254, L-745,870), but not by any other receptor ligands (D{sub 1}/D{sub 5}, D{sub 2}/D{sub 3}, 5-HT{sub 1A}, 5-HT{sub 2A}, {sigma}{sub 1} and {alpha}{sub 1}) tested. In vivo brain distribution of [{sup 11}C]9 in rat showed the highest uptake in the frontal cortex, a region that has a high density of D{sub 4} receptors. These results indicate that the pharmacological property of [{sup 11}C]9 matches the rat brain D{sub 4} receptors, but that of [{sup 11}C]4 rather appears to match the rat brain D{sub 2} receptors. The results for the benzamide [{sup 11}C]9 prompted us to further evaluate its potential as a PET radioligand for D{sub 4} receptors by employing PET on monkey brain. Unfortunately, in contrast to rats, neither specific binding nor differences in regional uptake of radioactivity were observed in monkey brain after intravenous {sup 11}C]9 injection. Based on that specific activities of radioligands might be critical in mapping the neurotransmitter receptors if they are only faintly expressed

  10. Electrostatic assembly/disassembly of nanoscaled colloidosomes for light-triggered cargo release

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Song


    Colloidosome capsules possess the potential for the encapsulation and release of molecular and macromolecular cargos. However, the stabilization of the colloidosome shell usually requires an additional covalent crosslinking which irreversibly seals the capsules, and greatly limits their applications in large-cargos release. Herein we report nanoscaled colloidosomes designed by the electrostatic assembly of organosilica nanoparticles (NPs) with oppositely charged surfaces (rather than covalent bonds), arising from different contents of a bridged nitrophenylene-alkoxysilane [NB; 3-nitro-N-(3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl)-4-(((3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl)-amino)methyl)benzamid] derivative in the silica. The surface charge of the positively charged NPs was reversed by light irradiation because of a photoreaction in the NB moieties, which impacted the electrostatic interactions between NPs and disassembled the colloidosome nanosystems. This design was successfully applied for the encapsulation and light-triggered release of cargos. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Difference in volatiles of poplar induced by various damages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUZeng-hui; YANGDi; SHENYing-bai


    Three treatments including mechanical damage, Lymantria dispar attacking and daubing oral secretions of the insects on mechanically damaged cut were conducted on Populus simoniixPopulus pyramibalis c.v. in order to find the genuine reason leading to effective resistance response of tree to insects attacking. The release situation of the induced volatiles of the plant was analyzed by TCT-GC/MS at 24 hours after damages. The results indicated that some of the volatiles such as (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, decanal, 3-hexenyl isovalerate, nonanal, ocimene, and 2-cyanobutane can be induced by both insects attacking and mechanical damage, while 2,6-dimethyl-1,3,5,7-octatetraene, 2-methyl-6-methylene-1,7-octadien-3-one, caryophyllene,Isovaleronitrile, diethyl-methyl-benzamide, and dicapryl phthalate were only induced by insects attacking. Such difference in volatiles was attributed to that there existed active components in oral sections of the larvae of Lymantria dispar

  12. Selective solar photodegradation of organopollutant mixtures in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert, D.; Piscopo, A.; Weber, J.V. [Metz Univ., Saint-Avold (France). Lab. de Chimie et Applications


    Heterogeneous photocatalysis in a water solution is recognised as a method of totally eliminating most recalcitrant organic pollutants found in such solutions. Our current work has tried to show that the heterogeneous photocatalysis process can also be a selective elimination method in the case of the mixture: 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HBz) and benzamide (Bz) at semi-pilot plant scale (190 dm{sup 3}) under conditions of solar irradiation. The photocatalysis experiments performed by us were done at the 'Plataforma Solar de Almeria' and were carried out in the compound parabolic collectors' CPC system. We investigated in particular the influence of TiO{sub 2} loading, the effect of 4-HBz concentration and the effect of the presence of chloride anions and pH on the selectivity of the reaction process. (Author)

  13. Synthesis, biological evaluation, and structure-activity relationships of 2-[2-(benzoylamino)benzoylamino]benzoic acid analogues as inhibitors of adenovirus replication. (United States)

    Öberg, Christopher T; Strand, Mårten; Andersson, Emma K; Edlund, Karin; Tran, Nam Phuong Nguyen; Mei, Ya-Fang; Wadell, Göran; Elofsson, Mikael


    2-[2-Benzoylamino)benzoylamino]benzoic acid (1) was previously identified as a potent and nontoxic antiadenoviral compound (Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2010, 54, 3871). Here, the potency of 1 was improved over three generations of compounds. We found that the ortho, ortho substituent pattern and the presence of the carboxylic acid of 1 are favorable for this class of compounds and that the direction of the amide bonds (as in 1) is obligatory. Some variability in the N-terminal moiety was tolerated, but benzamides appear to be preferred. The substituents on the middle and C-terminal rings were varied, resulting in two potent inhibitors, 35g and 35j, with EC(50) = 0.6 μM and low cell toxicity.

  14. Synthesis and biological evaluation of some new amide moiety bearing quinoxaline derivatives as antimicrobial agents. (United States)

    Abu Mohsen, U; Yurttaş, L; Acar, U; Özkay, Y; Kaplacikli, Z A; Karaca Gencer, H; Cantürk, Z


    In this study, we aimed to synthesize some new quinoxaline derivatives bearing amide moiety and to evaluate their antimicrobial activity. A set of 16 novel compounds of N-[2,3-bis(4-methoxy/methylphenyl)quinoxalin-6-yl]-substituted benzamide derivatives were synthesized by reacting 2,3-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)-6-aminoquinoxaline or 2,3-bis(4-methylphenyl)-6-aminoquinoxaline with benzoyl chloride derivatives in tetrahydrofuran and investigated for their antimicrobial activity. The structures of the obtained final compounds were confirmed by spectral data (IR, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR and MS). The antimicrobial activity of the compounds were determined by using the microbroth dilution method. Antimicrobial activity results revealed that synthesized compounds exhibited remarkable activity against Candida krusei (ATCC 6258) and Candida parapsilosis (ATCC 22019).

  15. Synthesis, Optimization, and Evaluation of Novel Small Molecules as Antagonists of WDR5-MLL Interaction. (United States)

    Bolshan, Yuri; Getlik, Matthäus; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Wasney, Gregory A; Hajian, Taraneh; Poda, Gennadiy; Nguyen, Kong T; Wu, Hong; Dombrovski, Ludmila; Dong, Aiping; Senisterra, Guillermo; Schapira, Matthieu; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H; Brown, Peter J; Al-Awar, Rima; Vedadi, Masoud; Smil, David


    The WD40-repeat protein WDR5 plays a critical role in maintaining the integrity of MLL complexes and fully activating their methyltransferase function. MLL complexes, the trithorax-like family of SET1 methyltransferases, catalyze trimethylation of lysine 4 on histone 3, and they have been widely implicated in various cancers. Antagonism of WDR5 and MLL subunit interaction by small molecules has recently been presented as a practical way to inhibit activity of the MLL1 complex, and N-(2-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-5-substituted-phenyl) benzamides were reported as potent and selective antagonists of such an interaction. Here, we describe the protein crystal structure guided optimization of prototypic compound 2 (K dis = 7 μM), leading to identification of more potent antagonist 47 (K dis = 0.3 μM).

  16. Preparation and characterization of monosubstituted porphyrins immobilized on nanosilica

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ebrahim Ahmadi; Ali Ramazani; Asemeh Mashhadi-Malekzadeh; Zahra Hamdi; Zahra Mohamadnia


    Three kinds of heteroaldehydes, -(3-triethoxysilylpropyl)-4-formyl benzamide (TPHA/SiO2), were prepared by the reaction of terephthalaldehydic acid with different silica supports such as hexagonal SBA-15, spherical SBA-15 and amorphous SiO2 for comparison purposes. Anchoring of this aldehyde to different supports allows the synthesis of mono-substituted porphyrins without the production of di-, tri- and tetra-substituted porphyrin side products. The exclusion of the aforementioned side products during the synthesis of monosubstituted porphyrins greatly reduced the complexity during purification of the product. Absorption spectrophotometry was performed on silica gel immobilizing porphyrin (CPTTP), free base tetraphenylporphyrin (H2TPP) and heteroaldehydes (TPHA/SiO2) using UV–Visible instrument and confirmed the presence of porphyrin on the structure of CPTTP.

  17. Long QT syndrome and torsades de pointes induced by acute sulpiride poisoning. (United States)

    Chang, Jia-How; Weng, Te-I; Fang, Cheng-Chung


    Sulpiride, a selective dopamine D2 antagonist and a substituted benzamide derivative, is considered a safe antipsychotic and antidepressant agent with few adverse effects on the cardiovascular system. Sulpiride-induced torsades de pointes is rare. We report a case of long QT syndrome and torsades de pointes induced by ingestion of 1.5 g of sulpiride. Ventricular arrhythmia was initially treated with amiodarone, without success. Eventually, lidocaine and magnesium sulfate successfully terminated the ventricular arrhythmia. The patient was discharged uneventfully after 3 days of hospitalization. This case illustrates the fact that acute sulpiride poisoning may lead to life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia. Early recognition followed by effective therapy is crucial. Intensive cardiac monitoring is recommended for sulpiride poisoning.

  18. Kinetics of Oxidation of 3-Benzoylpropionic Acid by N-Chlorobenzamide in Aqueous Acetic Acid Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Mohamed Farook


    Full Text Available The kinetics of oxidation of 3-benzoylpropionic acid (KA by N-chlorobenzamide (NCB in aqueous acetic acid medium in the presence of perchloric acid have been investigated. The observed rate of oxidation is first order dependence each in [KA], [NCB] and [H+]. The main product of the oxidation is the corresponding carboxylic acid. The rate decreases with the addition of benzamide, one of the products of the reaction. Variation in ionic strength of the reaction medium has no significant effect on the rate of oxidation. But the rate of the reaction is enhanced by lowering the dielectric constant of the reaction medium. Hypochlorous acidium ion (H2O+Cl, has been postulated as the reactive oxidizing species. A mechanism consistent with observed results have been proposed and the related rate law deduced. The activation parameters have been computed with respect to slow step of the mechanism.

  19. Propensity of salicylamide and ethenzamide cocrystallization with aromatic carboxylic acids. (United States)

    Przybyłek, Maciej; Ziółkowska, Dorota; Mroczyńska, Karina; Cysewski, Piotr


    The cocrystallization of salicylamide (2-hydroxybenzamide, SMD) and ethenzamide (2-ethoxybenzamide, EMD) with aromatic carboxylic acids was examined both experimentally and theoretically. The supramolecular synthesis taking advantage of the droplet evaporative crystallization (DEC) technique was combined with powder diffraction and vibrational spectroscopy as the analytical tools. This led to identification of eleven new cocrystals including pharmaceutically relevant coformers such as mono- and dihydroxybenzoic acids. The cocrystallization abilities of SMD and EMD with aromatic carboxylic acids were found to be unexpectedly divers despite high formal similarities of these two benzamides and ability of the R2,2(8) heterosynthon formation. The source of diversities of the cocrystallization landscapes is the difference in the stabilization of possible conformers by adopting alternative intramolecular hydrogen boding patterns. The stronger intramolecular hydrogen bonding the weaker affinity toward intermolecular complexation potential. The substituent effects on R2,2(8) heterosynthon properties are also discussed.

  20. Nickel-Catalyzed Oxidative C-H/N-H Isocyanide Insertion: An Efficient Synthesis of Iminoisoindolinone Derivatives. (United States)

    Hao, Wenyan; Tian, Jun; Li, Wu; Shi, Renyi; Huang, Zhiliang; Lei, Aiwen


    Transition metal-catalyzed isocyanide insertion has served as a fundamental and important chemical transformation. Classical isocyanide insertion usually occurs between organohalides and nucleophiles, which normally involves tedious and non-atom-economical prefunctionalization processes. However, oxidative C-H/N-H isocyanide insertion offers an efficient and green alternative. Herein, a nickel-catayzed oxidative C-H/N-H isocyanide insertion of aminoquinoline benzamides has been developed. Different kinds of iminoisoindolinone derivatives could be synthesized in good yields by utilizing Ni(acac)2 as the catalyst. In this transformation, isocyanide serves as an efficient C1 connector, which further inserted into two simple nucleophiles (C-H/N-H), representing an effective way to construct heterocycles.

  1. Derivatives of (phenylsulfonamido-methyl)nicotine and (phenylsulfonamido-methyl)thiazole as novel 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitors: synthesis and biological activities in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu ZHANG; Yang ZHOU; Yu SHEN; Li-li DU; Jun-hua CHEN; Ying LENG; Jian-hua SHEN


    Aim: To design and synthese a novel class of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) inhibitors, featuring the (phenylsul-fonamido-methyl)pyridine and (phenyisulfonamido-methyl)thiazole framework. Methods: Our initial lead 4-(phenylsulfonamido-methyl)benzamides were modified. Inhibition of human and mouse 11β-HSD1 enzy-matic activities by the new compounds was determined by a scintillation proximity assay (SPA) using microsomes containing 11β-HSD1.Results: Sixteen new compounds (6a-6h, 7a-7h) were designed, synthesized and bioassayed. In dose-response studies, several com-pounds showed strong inhibitory activities with IC_(50) values at nanomolar or low nanomolar concentrations. Structure-activity relation-ships are also discussed with respect to molecular docking results. Conclusion: This study provides two promising new templates for 11β-HSD1 inhibitors.

  2. Fluorescence enhancement of Er{sup 3+} ion by Glibenclamide: A practical probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faridbod, Farnoush [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Medical Sciences/University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ganjali, Mohammad Reza, E-mail: [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Medical Sciences/University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Larijani, Bagher [Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Medical Sciences/University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Norouzi, Parviz [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Medical Sciences/University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Glibenclamide, 5-chloro-N-[2-[4-(cyclohexylcarbamoyl-sulfamoyl) phenyl]ethyl]-2-methoxy-benzamide, is an important anti-diabetic drug that can enhance the erbium (Er) intrinsic fluorescence intensity. Based on that fact, Glibenclamide can be monitored using simple and sensitive fluorimetric probes. For this research, an interest arose in using lanthanides as probing biochemical reactions, and to study the interactions between Ca{sup 2+} and biologically important molecules. Methodologies employed are based on the unique fluorescence properties of lanthanides due to their unfilled 4f{sup n} electronic orbital, and formation of a complex between Er{sup 3+} and Glibenclamide. The proposed method was found to be simple, accurate and precise, thus allowing it to be used as a detector for high performance liquid chromatography in the future.

  3. Study of H/D exchange rates to derive the strength of intramolecular hydrogen bonds in halo substituted organic building blocks: An NMR spectroscopic investigation (United States)

    Mishra, Sandeep Kumar; Suryaprakash, N.


    Rates of hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange determined by 1H NMR spectroscopy are utilized to derive the strength of hydrogen bonds and to monitor the electronic effects in the site-specific halogen substituted benzamides and anilines. The theoretical fitting of the time dependent variation of the integral areas of 1H NMR resonances to the first order decay function permitted the determination of H/D exchange rate constants (k) and their precise half-lives (t1/2) with high degree of reproducibility. The comparative study also permitted the unambiguous determination of relative strength of hydrogen bonds and the contribution from electronic effects on the H/D exchange rate.

  4. Synthesis, NMR characterization, X-ray structural analysis and theoretical calculations of amide and ester derivatives of the coumarin scaffold (United States)

    Matos, Maria J.; Uriarte, Eugenio; Santana, Lourdes; Vilar, Santiago


    Compounds 1 (4-methyl-N-(coumarin-3-yl)benzamide) and 2 ((coumarin-3-yl)-4-methylbenzoate) were synthesized by linking the coumarin system (3-aminocoumarin or 3-hydroxycoumarin, respectively) to a p-toluoylchloride. 1H and 13C NMR and X-ray diffractometry determined the molecular structures of both derivatives. The X-ray results were compared to those obtained by conformational analysis followed by semiempirical methodologies (AM1 and PM3). The theoretical calculations yielded results reproducing the whole three-dimensional (3D) structure of both molecules in a good agreement with X-ray structural analysis. The global structures of the two compounds are very similar in the two studied environments, meaning that the structural determination in the gas phase can be extrapolated. A comparative study between compounds 1 and 2, based on the structural results, was carried out.

  5. Synthetic studies on axial chiral biaryls and functional materials utilizing arene-metal complexes; aren kinzokusakutai no tokusei wo riyo shita jikufusai biariru, oyobi shinki kinosei zairyo no gosei kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uemura, Motokazu [Osaka Prefecture University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Integrated Arts and Sceinces


    Axially chiral biaryls compounds are of importance not only as chiral ligands for asymmetric reactions but also as biologically active natural products, e. g., korupensamine, michellamine and vancomycin. (Arene) chromium complex exists in two enantiomeric forms based on a planar chirality. Axially chiral biaryls were stereoselectively prepared by palladium(0)-catalyzed cross-coupling of (aryl halide)Cr(CO){sub 3} complexes with arylboronic acids. This method was applied for the total synthesis of antimaralial agent korupensamine A, naphthyltetrahydro-isoquinoline alkaloid. Furthermore, chiral 1,2-diols and diamines are important compounds for asymmetric reactions. These enantionerically pure 1,2-diols and 1,2-diamines were stereoselectively prepared by pinacol coupling of planar chiral chromium complexes of benzaldehydes and benzaldimines with samarium iodide. Moreover, non-biaryl axial compounds, N,N-dialkyl 2,6-disubstituted benzamides were synthesized in enantiomerically pure form utilizing planar chiral arene chromium complex. (author)

  6. Chemical constituents from red algae Bostrychia radicans (Rhodomelaceae): new amides and phenolic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Ana Ligia Leandrini de; Silva, Denise B. da; Lopes, Norberto P.; Debonsi, Hosana M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FCFRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto. Dept. de Quimica e Fisica; Yokoya, Nair S., E-mail: [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Ficologia


    This study describes the isolation and structural determination of two amides, isolated for the first time: N,4-dihydroxy-N-(2'-hydroxyethyl)-benzamide (0.019%) and N,4-dihydroxy-N-(2'-hydroxyethyl)-benzeneacetamide (0.023%). These amides, produced by the red macroalgae Bostrychia radicans, had their structures assigned by NMR spectral data and MS analyses. In addition, this chemical study led to the isolation of cholesterol, heptadecane, squalene, trans-phytol, neophytadiene, tetradecanoic and hexadecanoic acids, methyl hexadecanoate and methyl 9-octadecenoate, 4-(methoxymethyl)-phenol, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, methyl 4-hydroxybenzeneacetate, methyl 2-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propanoate, hydroquinone, methyl 4-hydroxymandelate, methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, 4-hydroxybenzeneacetic acid and (4-hydroxyphenyl)-oxo-acetaldehyde. This is the first report concerning these compounds in B. radicans, contributing by illustrating the chemical diversity within the Rhodomelaceae family. (author)

  7. Increased survival of tumor-bearing mice by the delta opioid SNC 80. (United States)

    Gomez-Flores, Ricardo; Caballero-Hernández, Diana; Tamez-Guerra, Reyes; Rodríguez-Padilla, Cristina; Tamez-Guerra, Patricia; Rice, Kenner C; Hicks, Mary E; Weber, Richard J


    Opioids represent a major source of relief from pain. However, opioid abuse may cause immunosuppression and cancer. We have recently reported results on novel non-peptidic delta- and mu-selective opioids that induced immunopotentiation of T cell and macrophage functions in vitro and ex vivo. In the present study, the effects of the delta-opioid receptor agonist and potent analgesic (+)-4-((alpha R)-alpha-((2S, 5R)-4-allyl-2, 5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl)-3-methoxybenzyl)-N, N-diethyl-benzamide (SNC80) on in vitro and in vivo tumor cell growth were investigated using the L5178Y-R murine model. SNC80 marginally, but significantly (p SNC80 (2 and 4 mg/kg) reduced up to 60% L5178Y-R tumor-bearing Balb/c mice death, and significantly (p SNC80 in preclinical and clinical studies.

  8. Chemical constituents from red algae Bostrychia radicans (Rhodomelaceae: new amides and phenolic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lígia Leandrini de Oliveira


    Full Text Available This study describes the isolation and structural determination of two amides, isolated for the first time: N,4-dihydroxy-N-(2'-hydroxyethyl-benzamide (0.019% and N,4-dihydroxy-N-(2'-hydroxyethyl-benzeneacetamide (0.023%. These amides, produced by the red macroalgae Bostrychia radicans, had their structures assigned by NMR spectral data and MS analyses. In addition, this chemical study led to the isolation of cholesterol, heptadecane, squalene, trans-phytol, neophytadiene, tetradecanoic and hexadecanoic acids, methyl hexadecanoate and methyl 9-octadecenoate, 4-(methoxymethyl-phenol, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, methyl 4-hydroxybenzeneacetate, methyl 2-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl-propanoate, hydroquinone, methyl 4-hydroxymandelate, methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, 4-hydroxybenzeneacetic acid and (4-hydroxyphenyl-oxo-acetaldehyde. This is the first report concerning these compounds in B. radicans, contributing by illustrating the chemical diversity within the Rhodomelaceae family.

  9. Research into aroma changes in irradiated foodstuffs. I.- Studies on Fish; Investigacion de Alteraciones de Aroma en alimentos irradiados. I Estudio sobre Pescado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreiro Pinero, R.; Gasco Sanchez, L.; Valverde Garcia, F.


    Radiolytic formation of volatile compounds have been investigated in fillets of hake, codfish and bonito gamma-irradiated at a dose range of 0.1-5 Mrads. Analytical methods have been developed by gas chromatography of functional group derivatives: carbonyls as 2,4,-dinitrophenyl hydrazones, primary and secondary amines as N-alkyl benzamides, and thiols as 2,4-dinitrophenyl alkyl thioethers. The main results are as follows: increasing with the integral dose of the whole carbonyls, the most significant components being acetaldehyde, propional dehyde and formaldehyde; no significant variations with the integral dose od the traces of ammonia, methylamine, trimethylamine, ethylamine, diethylamine, propylamine, butylamine and pentylamine found in unirradiated samples; and radiolytic formation of methanethiol and dimethyl disulfide. (Author) 98 refs.

  10. Grafting of 4-(2,4,6-Trimethylphenoxybenzoyl onto Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Poly(phosphoric acid via Amide Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Loon-Seng


    Full Text Available Abstract Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs, which were commercial grade containing 60–70 wt% impurity, were treated in a mild poly(phosphoric acid (PPA. The purity of PPA treated SWCNTs was greatly improved with or without little damage to SWCNTs framework and stable crystalline carbon particles. An amide model compound, 4-(2,4,6-trimethylphenoxybenzamide (TMPBA, was reacted with SWCNTs in PPA with additional phosphorous pentoxide as “direct” Friedel–Crafts acylation reaction to afford TMPBA functionalized SWCNTs. All evidences obtained from Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microcopy, and transmission electron microscopy strongly supported that the functionalization of SWCNTs with benzamide was indeed feasible.

  11. Preparation and characterization of a novel Al(18)F-NOTA-BZA conjugate for melanin-targeted imaging of malignant melanoma. (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Chao; Chang, Chih-Hsien; Lo, Yi-Hsuan; Lin, Ming-Hsien; Shen, Chih-Chieh; Liu, Ren-Shyan; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Chen, Chuan-Lin


    Melanin is an attractive target for the diagnosis and treatment of malignant melanoma. Previous studies have demonstrated the specific binding ability of benzamide moiety to melanin. In this study, we developed a novel (18)F-labeled NOTA-benzamide conjugate, Al(18)F-NOTA-BZA, which can be synthesized in 30min with a radiochemical yield of 20-35% and a radiochemical purity of >95%. Al(18)F-NOTA-BZA is highly hydrophilic (logP=-1.96) and shows good in vitro stability. Intravenous administration of Al(18)F-NOTA-BZA in two melanoma-bearing mouse models revealed highly specific uptake in B16F0 melanotic melanoma (6.67±0.91 and 1.50±0.26%ID/g at 15 and 120min p.i., respectively), but not in A375 amelanotic melanoma (0.87±0.21 and 0.24±0.09%ID/g at 15 and 120min p.i., respectively). The clearance from most normal tissues was fast. A microPET scan of Al(18)F-NOTA-BZA-injected mice also displayed high-contrast tumor images as compared with normal organs. Owing to the favorable in vivo distribution of Al(18)F-NOTA-BZA after intravenous administration, the estimated absorption dose was low in all normal organs and tissues. The melanin-specific binding ability, sustained tumor retention, fast normal tissues clearance and thelow projected human dosimetry supported that Al(18)F-NOTA-BZA is a very promising melanin-specific PET probe for melanin-positive melanoma.

  12. Architecture of Chiral Poly(phenylacetylene)s: From Compressed/Highly Dynamic to Stretched/Quasi-Static Helices. (United States)

    Rodríguez, Rafael; Quiñoá, Emilio; Riguera, Ricardo; Freire, Félix


    The remarkable consequences in elongation, dynamic character, response to external stimuli (e.g., solvent effects, metal cations), and aggregation observed in helical poly(phenylacetylene)s (PPAs) when either the type of linkage with the pendant groups (i.e., anilide, benzamide) or the aromatic substitution pattern (i.e., ortho, meta, para) of the parent phenylacetylene monomer undergo modification are analyzed in depth. Two series of PPAs substituted at the phenyl ring in ortho, meta, and para with either (S)-α-methoxy-α-phenylacetic acid (MPA) or (S)-phenylglycine methyl ester (PGME) linked through anilide or benzamide bonds were prepared (i.e., o-, m-, p-poly-1 and poly-2 series) and characterized both in solution and in the solid state (CD, UV-vis, Raman, NMR, DSC, TGA, X-ray, AFM, SEM). Para-substituted polymers (p-poly-1 and p-poly-2) present the most compressed and dynamic helices, which respond easily to external stimuli. Meta-substituted PPAs (m-poly-1 and m-poly-2) exist as a mixture in equilibrium of two different helices (compressed and stretched), both less dynamic than the para counterparts and with a weak response to external stimuli. Moreover, in the solid state, m-poly-1 and m-poly-2 show separate fields for the compressed and for the stretched helices. For its part, the ortho-substituted PPA (o-poly-1) presents a highly stretched, almost planar and practically rigid helical structure, inert to external stimuli and prone to aggregate. These structural changes (elongation/dynamic behavior) are rationalized on the basis of the increasing difficulties imposed by the meta- and ortho-substitution on the accommodation of the pendants within the helical structure.

  13. Synthesis and in Vitro and in Vivo Anticoagulant and Antiplatelet Activities of Amidino- and Non-Amidinobenzamides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Hyun Lee


    Full Text Available Three amidino- and ten non-amidinobenzamides were synthesized as 3-aminobenzoic acid scaffold-based anticoagulant and antiplatelet compounds. The anticoagulant activities of thirteen synthesized compounds 1–13, and 2b and 3b as prodrugs were preliminary evaluated by screening the prolongation of activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT and prothrombin time (PT in vitro. From the aPTT results obtained, two amidinobenzamides, N-(3′-amidinophenyl-3-(thiophen-2′′-ylcarbonylamino benzamide (1, 33.2 ± 0.7 s and N-(4′-amidinophenyl-3-(thiophen-2′′-ylcarbonylamino benzamide (2, 43.5 ± 0.6 s were selected to investigate the further anticoagulant and antiplatelet activities. The aPTT results of 1 (33.2 ± 0.7 s and 2 (43.5 ± 0.6 s were compared with heparin (62.5 ± 0.8 s in vitro at 30 μM. We investigated the effect of 1 and 2 on blood anticoagulant activity (ex vivo and on tail bleeding time (in vivo on mice. A tail cutting/bleeding time assay revealed that both 1 and 2 prolonged bleeding time in mice at a dose of 24.1 g/mouse and above. Compounds 1 and 2 dose-dependently inhibited thrombin-catalyzed fibrin polymerization and platelet aggregation. In addition, 1 and 2 were evaluated on the inhibitory activities of thrombin and FXa as well as the generation of thrombin and FXa in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. Collectively, 1 and 2 possess some antiplatelet and anticoagulant activities and offer a basis for development of a novel antithrombotic product.

  14. X-ray structures of precursors of styrylpyridine-derivatives used to obtain 4-((E)-2-(pyridin-2-yl)vinyl)benzamido-TEMPO: synthesis and characterization. (United States)

    Soriano-Moro, Guillermo; Percino, María Judith; Sánchez, Ana Laura; Chapela, Víctor Manuel; Cerón, Margarita; Castro, María Eugenia


    The synthesis and characterization of the precursor isomers trans-4-(2-(pyridin-2-yl)vinylbenzaldehyde (I), trans-4-(2-(pyridin-4-yl)vinylbenzaldehyde (II), trans-4-(2-(pyridin-2-yl)vinylbenzoic acid (III) and (E)-4-(2-(pydridin-4-yl)vinylbenzoic acid (IV) are reported. These compounds were prepared in order to obtain trans-4-((E)-2-(pyridin-2-yl)vinyl)benzamide-TEMPO (V). Compounds I and II were obtained by using a Knoevenagel reaction in the absence of a condensing agent and solvent. Oxidation of the aldehyde group using the Jones reagent afforded the corresponding acid forms III and IV. A condensation reaction with 4-amino-TEMPO using oxalyl chloride/DMF/CH2Cl2 provided the 4-((E)-2-(pyridin-2-yl)vinyl)benzamide-TEMPO. Single crystals of compounds I, II and III were obtained and characterized by X-ray diffraction. Compound I belongs to space group P2(1)/c, a = 12.6674(19) Å, b = 7.2173(11) Å, c = 11.5877(14) Å, b = 97.203(13)° and the asymmetric unit was Z = 4, whereas compound II was in the space group P2(1), with a = 3.85728(9) Å, b = 10.62375(19) Å, c = 12.8625(2) Å, b = 91.722 (2)° and the asymmetric unit was Z = 2. Compound III crystallized as single colorless needle crystals, belonging to the monoclinic system with space group P2(1), with Z = 2, with a = 3.89359(7) Å, b = 17.7014(3) Å, c = 8.04530(12) Å, b = 94.4030 (16)°. All compounds were completely characterized by IR, (1)H-NMR, EI-MS and UV-Vis.

  15. A novel radioligand for glycine transporter 1: characterization and use in autoradiographic and in vivo brain occupancy studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng Zhizhen [Imaging, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States)], E-mail:; O' Brien, Julie A. [Sleep and Psychiatric Disorders, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States); Lemaire, Wei [Medicinal Chemistry, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States); O' Malley, Stacey S.; Miller, Patricia J. [Imaging, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States); Zhao Zhijian [Medicinal Chemistry, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States); Wallace, Michael A. [Drug Metabolism, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, NJ 07065 (United States); Raab, Conrad [Drug Metabolism, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States); Lindsley, Craig W. [Medicinal Chemistry, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States); Departments of Pharmacology and Chemistry, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Sur, Cyrille; Williams, David L. [Imaging, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States)


    Introduction: In an effort to develop agents to test the NMDA hypofunction hypothesis of schizophrenia, benchmark compounds from a program to discover potent, selective, competitive glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1) inhibitors were radiolabeled in order to further study the detailed pharmacology of these inhibitors and the distribution of GlyT1 in brain. We here report the in vitro characterization of [{sup 35}S](S)-2-amino-4-chloro-N-(1-(4-phenyl-1-(propylsulfonyl)piperidin-4-yl) ethyl)benzamide ([{sup 35}S]ACPPB), a radiotracer developed from a potent and selective non-sarcosine-derived GlyT1 inhibitor, its use in autoradiographic studies to localize (S)-2-amino-6-chloro-N-(1-(4-phenyl-1-(propylsulfonyl)piperidin-4-yl)ethyl) benzamide (ACPPB) binding sites in rat and rhesus brain and for in vivo occupancy assays of competitive GlyT1 inhibitors. Methods: Functional potencies of unlabeled compounds were characterized by [{sup 14}C]glycine uptake into JAR (human placental choriocarcinoma) cells and synaptosomes. Radioligand binding studies were performed with tissue homogenates. Autoradiographic studies were performed on tissue slices. Results: ACPPB is a potent (K{sub d}=1.9 nM), selective, GlyT1 inhibitor that, when radiolabeled with [{sup 35}S], is a well-behaved radioligand with low nondisplaceable binding. Autoradiographic studies of rat and rhesus brain slices with this ligand showed that specific binding sites were plentiful and nonhomogeneously distributed, with high levels of binding in the brainstem, cerebellar white matter, thalamus, cortical white matter and spinal cord gray matter. In vivo studies demonstrate displaceable binding of [{sup 35}S]ACPPB in rat brain tissues following iv administration of this radioligand. Conclusions: This is the first report of detailed anatomical localization of GlyT1 using direct radioligand binding, and the first demonstration that an in vivo occupancy assay is feasible, suggesting that it may also be feasible to develop

  16. Evaluating cis-2,6-dimethylpiperidide (cis-DMP) as a base component in lithium-mediated zincation chemistry. (United States)

    Armstrong, David R; Garden, Jennifer A; Kennedy, Alan R; Leenhouts, Sarah M; Mulvey, Robert E; O'Keefe, Philip; O'Hara, Charles T; Steven, Alan


    Most recent advances in metallation chemistry have centred on the bulky secondary amide 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidide (TMP) within mixed metal, often ate, compositions. However, the precursor amine TMP(H) is rather expensive so a cheaper substitute would be welcome. Thus this study was aimed towards developing cheaper non-TMP based mixed-metal bases and, as cis-2,6-dimethylpiperidide (cis-DMP) was chosen as the alternative amide, developing cis-DMP zincate chemistry which has received meagre attention compared to that of its methyl-rich counterpart TMP. A new lithium diethylzincate, [(TMEDA)LiZn(cis-DMP)Et2] (TMEDA=N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine) has been synthesised by co-complexation of Li(cis-DMP), Et2Zn and TMEDA, and characterised by NMR (including DOSY) spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography, which revealed a dinuclear contact ion pair arrangement. By using N,N-diisopropylbenzamide as a test aromatic substrate, the deprotonative reactivity of [(TMEDA)LiZn(cis-DMP)Et2] has been probed and contrasted with that of the known but previously uninvestigated di-tert-butylzincate, [(TMEDA)LiZn(cis-DMP)tBu2]. The former was found to be the superior base (for example, producing the ortho-deuteriated product in respective yields of 78% and 48% following D2O quenching of zincated benzamide intermediates). An 88% yield of 2-iodo-N,N-diisopropylbenzamide was obtained on reaction of two equivalents of the diethylzincate with the benzamide followed by iodination. Comparisons are also drawn using 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexamethyldisilazide (HMDS), diisopropylamide and TMP as the amide component in the lithium amide, Et2Zn and TMEDA system. Under certain conditions, the cis-DMP base system was found to give improved results in comparison to HMDS and diisopropylamide (DA), and comparable results to a TMP system. Two novel complexes isolated from reactions of the di-tert-butylzincate and crystallographically characterised, namely the pre-metallation complex [{(iPr)2N

  17. Imaging malignant melanoma with {sup 18}F-5-FPN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Hongyan; Xia, Xiaotian; Li, Chongjiao; Song, Yiling; Qin, Chunxia; Liu, Qingyao; Zhang, Yongxue; Lan, Xiaoli [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging (China)


    Radiolabelled benzamides are attractive candidates for targeting melanoma because they bind to melanin and exhibit high tumour uptake and retention. {sup 18}F-5-Fluoro-N-(2-[diethylamino]ethyl)picolinamide ({sup 18}F-5-FPN), a benzamide analogue, was prepared and its pharmacokinetics and binding affinity evaluated both in vitro and in vivo to assess its clinical potential in the diagnosis and staging of melanoma. {sup 18}F-5-FPN was prepared and purified. Its binding specificity was measured in vitro in two different melanoma cell lines, one pigmented (B16F10 cells) and one nonpigmented (A375m cells), and in vivo in mice xenografted with the same cell lines. Dynamic and static PET images using {sup 18}F-5-FPN were obtained in the tumour-bearing mice, and the static images were also compared with those acquired with {sup 18}F-FDG. PET imaging with {sup 18}F-5-FPN was also performed in B16F10 tumour-bearing mice with lung metastases. {sup 18}F-5-FPN was successfully prepared with radiochemical yields of 5 - 10 %. Binding of {sup 18}F-5-FPN to B16F10 cells was much higher than to A375m cells. On dynamic PET imaging B16F10 tumours were visible about 1 min after injection of the tracer, and the uptake gradually increased over time. {sup 18}F-5-FPN was rapidly excreted via the kidneys. B16F10 tumours were clearly visible on static images acquired 1 and 2 h after injection, with high uptake values of 24.34 ± 6.32 %ID/g and 16.63 ± 5.41 %ID/g, respectively, in the biodistribution study (five mice). However, there was no visible uptake by A375m tumours. {sup 18}F-5-FPN and {sup 18}F-FDG PET imaging were compared in B16F10 tumour xenografts, and the tumour-to-background ratio of {sup 18}F-5-FPN was ten times higher than that of {sup 18}F-FDG (35.22 ± 7.02 vs. 3.29 ± 0.53, five mice). {sup 18}F-5-FPN PET imaging also detected simulated lung metastases measuring 1 - 2 mm. {sup 18}F-5-FPN specifically targeted melanin in vitro and in vivo with high retention and affinity

  18. Radiation damages in chemical components of organic scintillator detectors; Danos de radiacao em componentes quimicos de detectores cintiladores organicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes Neto, Jose Maria


    Samples containing PPO (1%, g/ml), diluted in toluene, they were irradiated in a {sup 60}Co irradiator (6.46 kGy/h) at different doses. The PPO concentration decay bi-exponentially with the dose, generating the degradation products: benzoic acid, benzamide and benzilic alcohol. The liquid scintillator system was not sensitive to the radiation damage until 20 kGy. Otherwise, the pulse height analysis showed that dose among 30 to 40 kGy generate significant loss of quality of the sensor (liquid scintillating) and the light yield was reduced in half with the dose of (34.04 {+-} 0.80) kGy. This value practically was confirmed by the photo peak position analysis that resulted D{sub 1/2} = (31.7 {+-} 1,4) kGy, The transmittance, at 360 nm, of the irradiated solution decreased exponentially. The compartmental model using five compartments (fast decay PPO, slow decay PPO, benzamide, benzoic acid and benzilic alcohol) it was satisfactory to explain the decay of the PPO in its degradation products in function of the dose. The explanation coefficient r{sup 2} = 0.985636 assures that the model was capable to explain 98.6% of the experimental variations. The Target Theory together with the Compartmental Analysis showed that PPO irradiated in toluene solution presents two sensitive molecular diameters both of them larger than the true PPO diameter. >From this analysis it showed that the radiolytic are generated, comparatively, at four toluene molecules diameter far from PPO molecules. For each one PPO-target it was calculated the G parameter (damage/100 eV). For the target expressed by the fast decay the G value was (418.4 {+-} 54.1) damages/100 eV, and for the slow decay target the G value was (54.5 {+-} 8.9) damages/100 eV. The energies involved in the chemical reactions were w (0.239 {+-} 0.031) eV/damage (fast decay) and w = (1 834 {+-} 0.301) eV/damage (slow decay). (author)

  19. Computing membrane-AQP5-phosphatidylserine binding affinities with hybrid steered molecular dynamics approach. (United States)

    Chen, Liao Y


    In order to elucidate how phosphatidylserine (PS6) interacts with AQP5 in a cell membrane, we developed a hybrid steered molecular dynamics (hSMD) method that involved: (1) Simultaneously steering two centers of mass of two selected segments of the ligand, and (2) equilibrating the ligand-protein complex with and without biasing the system. Validating hSMD, we first studied vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1) in complex with N-(4-Chlorophenyl)-2-((pyridin-4-ylmethyl)amino)benzamide (8ST), for which the binding energy is known from in vitro experiments. In this study, our computed binding energy well agreed with the experimental value. Knowing the accuracy of this hSMD method, we applied it to the AQP5-lipid-bilayer system to answer an outstanding question relevant to AQP5's physiological function: Will the PS6, a lipid having a single long hydrocarbon tail that was found in the central pore of the AQP5 tetramer crystal, actually bind to and inhibit AQP5's central pore under near-physiological conditions, namely, when AQP5 tetramer is embedded in a lipid bilayer? We found, in silico, using the CHARMM 36 force field, that binding PS6 to AQP5 was a factor of 3 million weaker than "binding" it in the lipid bilayer. This suggests that AQP5's central pore will not be inhibited by PS6 or a similar lipid in a physiological environment.

  20. Effects of Side Chains with Similar Lengths and Different Structures of Polyimides on Liquid Crystal Alignment Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-hao Xia; Ying Jiang; Shi-ming Gong; Zhen Sun; Ying-han Wang


    Polyimides (PI) with different side chains in structure were synthesized by copolycondensation of pyromelliticmdianhydride (PMDA) with 3,5-diamino-(4'-methane acid hexyl ester) phenyl-benzamide (C6-PDA),(4-butoxybiphenol)-3',5'-diaminobenzoate (C4-BBDA) and 3,5-diamino-benzoic acid decyl ester (C 10-DA) named PI-PDA,PI-C4,PI-DA,respectively.The lengths of side chains of PI-PDA and PI-DA are as similar as that of PI-C4.Through the pretilt angle tests it is demonstrated that neither the structure of side chains nor the rubbing process could make an obvious difference on vertical alignment property when the lengths of the side chains are similar,standing at around 1.6 nm.The measurement of surface energy of PI surfaces further proved this result.The result of the X-ray photo-electron spectroscope measurement indicated that the side chains of PIs stretched out from the polymer bulk phase and accumulated on the surface.

  1. Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonding Involving Organic Fluorine: NMR Investigations Corroborated by DFT-Based Theoretical Calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar Mishra


    Full Text Available The combined utility of many one and two dimensional NMR methodologies and DFT-based theoretical calculations have been exploited to detect the intramolecular hydrogen bond (HB in number of different organic fluorine-containing derivatives of molecules, viz. benzanilides, hydrazides, imides, benzamides, and diphenyloxamides. The existence of two and three centered hydrogen bonds has been convincingly established in the investigated molecules. The NMR spectral parameters, viz., coupling mediated through hydrogen bond, one-bond NH scalar couplings, physical parameter dependent variation of chemical shifts of NH protons have paved the way for understanding the presence of hydrogen bond involving organic fluorine in all the investigated molecules. The experimental NMR findings are further corroborated by DFT-based theoretical calculations including NCI, QTAIM, MD simulations and NBO analysis. The monitoring of H/D exchange with NMR spectroscopy established the effect of intramolecular HB and the influence of electronegativity of various substituents on the chemical kinetics in the number of organic building blocks. The utility of DQ-SQ technique in determining the information about HB in various fluorine substituted molecules has been convincingly established.

  2. A cyclohexanecarboxamide derivative with inhibitory effects on Schistosoma mansoni cercarial serine protease and penetration of mice skin by the parasite. (United States)

    Bahgat, Mahmoud; Aboul-Enein, Mohamed N; El Azzouny, Aida A; Maghraby, Amany; Ruppel, Andreas; Soliman, Wael M


    A cyclohexanecarboxamide derivative, N-phenyl-N-[1-(piperidine-1-carbonyl)cyclohexyl] benzamide (MNRC-5), was evaluated for its inhibitory effects on Schistosoma mansoni cercarial serine protease activity and cercarial penetration. MNRC-5 exerted an inhibitory effect on S. mansoni cercarial serine protease at serial concentrations of the specific chromogenic substrate Boc-Val-Leu-Gly-Arg-PNA for such enzyme family and the inhibitory coefficient (Ki) value was deduced. Moreover, topical treatment of mice tails with the most potent inhibitory concentration of MNRC-5 formulated in jojoba oil successfully blocked cercarial penetration as demonstrated by a significant reduction (75%; p jojoba oil base containing no MNRC-5. In addition, the IgM and IgG reactivities to crude S. mansoni cercarial, worm and egg antigens were generally lower in sera from treated infected mice than untreated infected mice. In conclusion, we report on a new serine protease inhibitor capable for blocking penetration of host skin by S. mansoni cercariae as measured by lowering worm burden and decrease in the levels of both IgM and IgG towards different bilharzial antigens upon topical treatment.

  3. Synthesis, pharmacological evaluation and molecular modeling studies of triazole containing dopamine D3 receptor ligands. (United States)

    Peng, Xin; Wang, Qi; Mishra, Yogesh; Xu, Jinbin; Reichert, David E; Malik, Maninder; Taylor, Michelle; Luedtke, Robert R; Mach, Robert H


    A series of 2-methoxyphenyl piperazine analogues containing a triazole ring were synthesized and their in vitro binding affinities at human dopamine D2 and D3 receptors were evaluated. Compounds 5b, 5c, 5d, and 4g, demonstrate high affinity for dopamine D3 receptors and moderate selectivity for the dopamine D3 versus D2 receptor subtypes. To further examine their potential as therapeutic agents, their intrinsic efficacy at both D2 and D3 receptors was determined using a forskolin-dependent adenylyl cyclase inhibition assay. Affinity at dopamine D4 and serotonin 5-HT1A receptors was also determined. In addition, information from previous molecular modeling studies of the binding of a panel of 163 structurally-related benzamide analogues at dopamine D2 and D3 receptors was applied to this series of compounds. The results of the modeling studies were consistent with our previous experimental data. More importantly, the modeling study results explained why the replacement of the amide linkage with the hetero-aromatic ring leads to a reduction in the affinity of these compounds at D3 receptors.

  4. Electrochemical Sensor for the Selective Determination of Prindopril Based on Phosphotungestic Acid Plastic Membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zareh, Mohsen M. [Univ. of Tabuk, Tabuk (Saudi Arabia); Wasel, Anower M. [Association of Drug Agency, Cairo (Egypt); Abd Alkreem, Yasser M. [Zagazig Univ., Zagazig (Egypt)


    A novel PVC membrane sensor for perindopril based on perindopril-phosphotungstate ion pair complex was prepared. The influence of membrane composition (i.e. percent of PVC, plasticizer, ion-pair complex, and kind of plasticizer), inner solution, pH of test solution and foreign cations on the electrode performance was investigated. The optimized membrane demonstrates Nernstian response (30.9 ± 1.0 mV per decade) for perindopril cations over a wide linear range from 9.0 Χ 10{sup -7} to 1 Χ 10{sup -2} M at 25 .deg. C. The potentiometric response is independent of the pH in the range of 4.0-9.5. The proposed sensor has the advantages of easy preparation, fast response time. The selectivity coefficients indicate excellent selectivity for perindopril over many common cations (e. g., Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, rhamnose, maltose, glycine and benzamide). The practical applications of this electrode was demonstrated by measuring the concentrations of perindopril in pure solutions and pharmaceutical preparations with satisfactory results.

  5. Biodegradation of acrylamide by Enterobacter aerogenes isolated from wastewater in Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kanokhathai Buranasilp; Jittima Charoenpanich


    A widespread use of acrylamide, probably a neurotoxicant and carcinogen, in various industrial processes has led to environmental contamination. Fortunately, some microorganisms are able to derive energy from acrylamide. In the present work, we reported the isolation and characterization of a novel acrylamide-degrading bacterium from domestic wastewater in Chonburi, Thailand. The strain grew well in the presence of acrylamide as 0.5% (W/V), at pH 6.0 to 9.0 and 25℃. Identification based on biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequence identified the strain as Enterobacter aerogenes. Degradation of acrylamide to acrylic acid started in the late logarithmic growth phase as a biomass-dependent pattern. Specificity of cell-free supernatant towards amides completely degraded butyramide and urea and 86% of lactamide. Moderate degradation took place in other amides with that by formamide > benzamide > acetamide > cyanoacetamide > propionamide. No degradation was detected in the reactions of N,N-methylene bisacrylamide, sodium azide, thioacetamide, and iodoacetamide. These results highlighted the potential of this bacterium in the cleanup of acrylamide/amide in the environment.

  6. Bio-Inspired Nitrile Hydration by Peptidic Ligands Based on L-Cysteine, L-Methionine or L-Penicillamine and Pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cillian Byrne


    Full Text Available Nitrile hydratase (NHase, EC is a metalloenzyme which catalyses the conversion of nitriles to amides. The high efficiency and broad substrate range of NHase have led to the successful application of this enzyme as a biocatalyst in the industrial syntheses of acrylamide and nicotinamide and in the bioremediation of nitrile waste. Crystal structures of both cobalt(III- and iron(III-dependent NHases reveal an unusual metal binding motif made up from six sequential amino acids and comprising two amide nitrogens from the peptide backbone and three cysteine-derived sulfur ligands, each at a different oxidation state (thiolate, sulfenate and sulfinate. Based on the active site geometry revealed by these crystal structures, we have designed a series of small-molecule ligands which integrate essential features of the NHase metal binding motif into a readily accessible peptide environment. We report the synthesis of ligands based on a pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid scaffold and L-cysteine, L-S-methylcysteine, L-methionine or L-penicillamine. These ligands have been combined with cobalt(III and iron(III and tested as catalysts for biomimetic nitrile hydration. The highest levels of activity are observed with the L-penicillamine ligand which, in combination with cobalt(III, converts acetonitrile to acetamide at 1.25 turnovers and benzonitrile to benzamide at 1.20 turnovers.

  7. Chidamide, a novel histone deacetylase inhibitor, inhibits the viability of MDS and AML cells by suppressing JAK2/STAT3 signaling (United States)

    Zhao, Sida; Guo, Juan; Zhao, Youshan; Fei, Chengming; Zheng, Qingqing; Li, Xiao; Chang, Chunkang


    Many studies have indicated that histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity is always increased in a lot of human tumors, and inhibition of HDAC activity is a promising new strategy in the treatment of cancers. Chidamide, a novel HDAC inhibitor of the benzamide class, is currently under clinical trials. In this study, we aimed to investigate the antitumor activity of Chidamide on myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines and explore the possible mechanism. Chidamide exhibited efficient anti-proliferative activity on MDS and AML cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner, accompanied by cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and cell apoptosis. Importantly, Chidamide possessed potent HDAC inhibition property, as evaluated by HDAC activity analysis and acetylation of histone H3 and H4. Moreover, Chidamide significantly increased the expression of Suppressors of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), reduced the expression of Janus activated kinases 2 (JAK2) and Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), and inhibited STAT3 downstream genes, including c-Myc, Bcl-xL, and Mcl-1, which are involved in cell cycle progression and anti-apoptosis. Therefore, we demonstrate that Chidamide exhibits potent inhibitory effect on cell viability of MDS and AML cells, and the possible mechanism may lie in the downregulation of JAK2/STAT3 signaling through SOCS3 upregulation. Our data provide rationale for clinical investigations of Chidamide in MDS and AML. PMID:27508038

  8. Pathway and kinetics of cyhalothrin biodegradation by Bacillus thuringiensis strain ZS-19 (United States)

    Chen, Shaohua; Deng, Yinyue; Chang, Changqing; Lee, Jasmine; Cheng, Yingying; Cui, Zining; Zhou, Jianuan; He, Fei; Hu, Meiying; Zhang, Lian-Hui


    Cyhalothrin is a common environmental pollutant which poses increased risks to non-target organisms including human beings. This study reported for the first time a newly isolated strain, Bacillus thuringiensis ZS-19 completely degraded cyhalothrin in minimal medium within 72 h. The bacterium transformed cyhalothrin by cleavage of both the ester linkage and diaryl bond to yield six intermediate products. Moreover, a novel degradation pathway of cyhalothrin in strain ZS-19 was proposed on the basis of the identified metabolites. In addition to degradation of cyhalothrin, this strain was found to be capable of degrading 3-phenoxybenzoic acid, a common metabolite of pyrethroids. Furthermore, strain ZS-19 participated in efficient degradation of a wide range of pyrethroids including cyhalothrin, fenpropathrinn, deltamethrin, beta-cypermethrin, cyfluthrin and bifenthrin. Taken together, our results provide insights into the mechanism of cyhalothrin degradation and also highlight the promising potentials of B.thuringiensis ZS-19 in bioremediation of pyrethroid-contaminated environment. This is the first report of (i) degradation of cyhalothrin and other pyrethroids by B.thuringiensis, (ii) identification of 3-phenoxyphenyl acetonitrile and N-(2-isoproxy-phenyl)-4-phenoxy-benzamide as the metabolites in the degradation pathway of pyrethroids, and (iii) a pathway of degradation of cyhalothrin by cleavage of both the ester linkage and diaryl bond in a microorganism. PMID:25740758

  9. Spontaneous transfer of chirality in an atropisomerically enriched two-axis system. (United States)

    Barrett, Kimberly T; Metrano, Anthony J; Rablen, Paul R; Miller, Scott J


    One of the most well-recognized stereogenic elements in a chiral molecule is an sp(3)-hybridized carbon atom that is connected to four different substituents. Axes of chirality can also exist about bonds with hindered barriers of rotation; molecules containing such axes are known as atropisomers. Understanding the dynamics of these systems can be useful, for example, in the design of single-atropisomer drugs or molecular switches and motors. For molecules that exhibit a single axis of chirality, rotation about that axis leads to racemization as the system reaches equilibrium. Here we report a two-axis system for which an enantioselective reaction produces four stereoisomers (two enantiomeric pairs): following a catalytic asymmetric transformation, we observe a kinetically controlled product distribution that is perturbed from the system's equilibrium position. As the system undergoes isomerization, one of the diastereomeric pairs drifts spontaneously to a higher enantiomeric ratio. In a compensatory manner, the enantiomeric ratio of the other diastereomeric pair decreases. These observations are made for a class of unsymmetrical amides that exhibits two asymmetric axes--one axis is defined through a benzamide substructure, and the other axis is associated with differentially N,N-disubstituted amides. The stereodynamics of these substrates provides an opportunity to observe a curious interplay of kinetics and thermodynamics intrinsic to a system of stereoisomers that is constrained to a situation of partial equilibrium.

  10. Fatal intoxications associated with the designer opioid AH-7921. (United States)

    Kronstrand, R; Thelander, G; Lindstedt, D; Roman, M; Kugelberg, F C


    AH-7921 (3,4-dichloro-N-[(1-dimethylamino)cyclohexylmethyl]benzamide) is a designer opioid with ∼80% of morphine's µ-agonist activity. Over a 6-month period, we encountered nine deaths where AH-7921 was involved and detected in blood from the deceased. Shortly after the last death, on August 1 2013, AH-7921 was scheduled as a narcotic and largely disappeared from the illicit market in Sweden. AH-7921 was measured by a selective liquid chromatography-MS-MS method and the concentrations of AH-7921 ranged from 0.03 to 0.99 µg/g blood. Six of our cases had other drugs of abuse on board and most had other medications such as benzodiazepines, antidepressants and analgesics. However, the other medicinal drugs encountered were present in postmortem therapeutic concentrations and unlikely to have contributed to death. In addition to the parent compound, we identified six possible metabolites where two N-demethylated dominated and four mono-hydroxylated were found in trace amounts in the blood. In conclusion, deaths with AH-7921 seem to occur both at low and high concentrations, probably a result of different tolerance to the drug. Hence, it is reasonable to assume that no sharp dividing line exists between lethal and non-lethal concentrations. Further, poly-drug use did not seem to be a major contributing factor for the fatal outcome.

  11. Effects of cisapride on ulcer formation and gastric secretion in rats: comparison with ranitidine and omeprazol. (United States)

    Alarcón de la Lastra, C; Martin, M J; La Casa, M; López, A; Motilva, V


    1. The antiulcerogenic effects of cisapride, a potent benzamide-stimulating gastrointestinal motility agent, were studied on cold-resistant and pylorus-ligated gastric ulcers. Acidity, composition of gastric secretion, and quantitative and qualitative changes on mucus glycoprotein content were also determined. These effects were compared with those of ranitidine (50 mg/kg) and omeprazol (10 mg/kg). 2. Oral cisapride (10-100 mg/kg) dose-relatedly and significantly (P < 0.01, P < 0.05) decreased the severity of the lesions induced by cold-resistant stress. In stressed rats, cisapride increased the amount of mucus secretion and markedly enhanced the glycoprotein content. Morphometric evaluation of mucus secretion revealed a significant increase in both the PAS area (neutral glycoproteins) and Alcian blue area (sulfated glycoproteins). 3. In 4 h pyloric-ligated animals, cisapride (10-100 mg/kg) showed a significant reduction in the number and severity of ulcers (P < 0.01) and histamine concentration (P < 0.01, P < 0.001). In addition, at the highest doses (50-100 mg/kg), cisapride produced a significant decreases in acidity; however, it did not alter the gastric volume secretion or pepsin concentrations. 4. These results suggest that cisapride shows antiulcerogenic effects which could possibly be explained through antisecretory and cytoprotective mechanisms involving an enhancement of cuality and production of gastric mucus.

  12. The effects of lactic acid bacteria inoculants and formic acid on the formation of biogenic amines in grass silages. (United States)

    Steidlová, S; Kalac, P


    Silages were prepared in six laboratory experiments from four direct-cut grassland swards and pure swards of perennial ryegrass and false oat with dry matter contents ranging between 180 and 325 g/kg. Grass was fermented at 22 degrees C and silages were stored at the same temperature for 4 months. Untreated silages (negative control) and silages preserved with 3 g/kg of formic acid (positive control) were compared with silages inoculated with commercial strains of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus buchneri and a mixed preparation Microsil. The inoculants were applied at a dose of 5.10(6) CFU/g of grass. Seven biogenic amines were extracted from silages with perchloric acid and determined as N-benzamides by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography. Common chemical quality parameters of silages were also determined. Tyramine, cadaverine and putrescine were the amines occurring at the highest concentration. As compared to untreated silages, formic acid was most effective to suppress formation of the main amines. Also the inoculants often decreased amine contents significantly (P < 0.05). The inoculants decreased levels of polyamine spermidine more efficiently than formic acid. Contents of histamine, tryptamine and polyamine spermine were very low, commonly below the detection limits.

  13. Acute Dystonia in a Child Receiving Metoclopramide: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaaddin Yorulmaz


    Full Text Available Metoclopramide is a benzamide that is a dopamine receptor, often preferred as a prokinetic agent to accelerate gastrointestinal passage in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease; itis also used as an antiemetic agent in many diseases that progress with nausea-vomiting. It is effective on the digestive system both centrally and peripherally. It easily overcomes the blood-brain barrier and may create side effects pertaining to the extrapyramidal system. Acute dystonic reaction is rare among these side effects; it is, however, a condition that needs to be treated urgently. This paper presents a 5-month-old infant patient who developed acute dystonic reaction secondary to the use of Metpamid at a high dose. The diagnosis in this case was made based onpatient history. The patient%u2019s symptoms rapidly disappeared thanks to treatment with diphenhydramine. It should be remembered that metoclopramide may cause side effects in patients presenting to the emergency service with acute dystonia, soa complete history of drugs should definitely be taken for such patients.

  14. Antifungal Compounds Produced by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, an Endophytic Fungus from Michelia champaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Mara Chapla


    Full Text Available In this study, eight endophytic fungi were isolated from the leaves, stems and roots of Michelia champaca. The isolates were screened and evaluated for their antifungal, anticancer and acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibitory activities. All of the extracts exhibited potent activity against two evaluated phytopathogenic fungi. Chemical investigation of EtOAc extracts of the endophytic fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides resulted in the isolation of one new compound, 2-phenylethyl 1H-indol-3-yl-acetate (1, and seven known compounds: uracil (2, cyclo-(S*-Pro-S*-Tyr (3, cyclo-(S*-Pro-S*-Val (4, 2(2-aminophenylacetic acid (5, 2(4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (6, 4-hydroxy- benzamide (7 and 2(2-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (8. All of the compound structures were elucidated using 1D and 2D NMR and MS analyses. The antifungal and AChE inhibitory activities of compounds 1–8 were evaluated in vitro. Compound 1 exhibited promising activity against Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum that was comparable to that of the positive control nystatin.

  15. 2-acylamino-5-nitro-1,3-thiazoles: preparation and in vitro bioevaluation against four neglected protozoan parasites. (United States)

    Nava-Zuazo, Carlos; Chávez-Silva, Fabiola; Moo-Puc, Rosa; Chan-Bacab, Manuel Jesús; Ortega-Morales, Benjamín Otto; Moreno-Díaz, Hermenegilda; Díaz-Coutiño, Daniel; Hernández-Núñez, Emanuel; Navarrete-Vázquez, Gabriel


    The 2-acylamino-5-nitro-1,3-thiazole derivatives (1-14) were prepared using a one step reaction. All compounds were tested in vitro against four neglected protozoan parasites (Giardia intestinalis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Leishmania amazonensis and Trypanosoma cruzi). Acetamide (9), valeroylamide (10), benzamide (12), methylcarbamate (13) and ethyloxamate (14) derivatives were the most active compounds against G. intestinalis and T. vaginalis, showing nanomolar inhibition. Compound 13 (IC50=10nM), was 536-times more active than metronidazole, and 121-fold more effective than nitazoxanide against G. intestinalis. Compound 14 was 29-times more active than metronidazole and 6.5-fold more potent than nitazoxanide against T. vaginalis. Ureic derivatives 2, 3 and 5 showed moderate activity against L. amazonensis. None of them were active against T. cruzi. Ligand efficiency indexes analysis revealed higher intrinsic quality of the most active 2-acylamino derivatives than nitazoxanide and metronidazole. In silico toxicity profile was also computed for the most active compounds. A very low in vitro mammalian cytotoxicity was obtained for 13 and 14, showing selectivity indexes (SI) of 246,300 and 141,500, respectively. Nitazoxanide showed an excellent leishmanicidal and trypanocidal effect, repurposing this drug as potential new antikinetoplastid parasite compound.

  16. The contribution of delta subunit-containing GABAA receptors to phasic and tonic conductance changes in cerebellum, thalamus and neocortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen G Brickley


    Full Text Available We have made use of the delta subunit-selective allosteric modulator DS2 (4-chloro-N-[2-(2-thienylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-3-yl benzamide to assay the contribution of delta-GABAARs to tonic and phasic conductance changes in the cerebellum, thalamus and neocortex. In cerebellar granule cells, an enhancement of the tonic conductance was observed for DS2 and the orthosteric agonist THIP (4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol. As expected, DS2 did not alter the properties of GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic synaptic currents (IPSCs supporting a purely extrasynaptic role for delta-GABAARs in cerebellar granule cells. DS2 also enhanced the tonic conductance recorded from thalamic relay neurons of the visual thalamus with no alteration in IPSC properties. However, in addition to enhancing the tonic conductance DS2 also slowed the decay of IPSCs recorded from layer II/III neocortical neurons. A slowing of the IPSC decay also occurred in the presence of the voltage-gated sodium channel blocker TTX. Moreover, under conditions of reduced GABA release the ability of DS2 to enhance the tonic conductance was attenuated. These results indicate that delta-GABAARs can be activated following vesicular GABA release onto neocortical neurons and that the actions of DS2 on the tonic conductance may be influenced by the ambient GABA levels present in particular brain regions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Hitesh P. Dalvadi


    Full Text Available Orodispersible dosage forms have lured the market for a certain section of the patient population which includes dysphagia, bed ridden, psychic, and geriatric patients. Moreover Orodispersible tablets shows increased bioavailability as compared to conventional dosage forms. Amisulpride is a psychotropic agent belonging to the chemical class of benzamide derivatives. At low doses, it enhances dopaminergic neurotransmission by preferentially blocking presynaptic dopamine D2/D3 auto receptors. The tablets were prepared by using direct compression method, and drug solubility is enhanced by solid dispersion. Formulation were prepared by using different superdisintegrant, combination of different superdisintegrant and effect of hydrophilic lubricant was studied and evaluated pre and post compression parameters. Tablets were evaluated for content uniformity, Disintegration time, wetting time, hardness, friability and In-vitro dissolution studies. More than 90% of drug was released from almost all the formulations within 10 min. Formulation C4 containing Sodium starch glycolate (4.5%, Crospovidone (2.5% and crosscarmellose sodium (3.5%, was having disintegration time 24 seconds, wetting time 18 seconds, hardness 3.4Kg/cm2 and in vitro drug release of 99.96% in pH 6.8. Based on this data C4 was found to be the best formulation. Further formulations were subjected to accelerated stability studies. Tablets showed no appreciable changes with respect to disintegration and dissolution profiles. Results of this study indicate among the superdisintegrants tried, combination of superdisintegrant gave the best result.

  18. Field trial of five repellent formulations against mosquitoes in Ahero, Kenya. (United States)

    Sherwood, Van; Kioko, Elizabeth; Kasili, Sichangi; Ngumbi, Philip; Hollingdale, Michael R


    Twelve volunteers, using one leg for repellent application and the other leg as a control, field-tested 5 insect repellent formulations--Avon's (New York, NY) SS220 Spray, SS220 Lotion, and Bayrepel Lotion, and SC Johnson's (Racine, Wisconsin) Autan Bayrepel Lotion--against the standard N,N-diethyl-3-methyl-benzamide (deet) in a rice-growing district near Kisumu, western Kenya, in 2 trials in May and June 2004. In addition to a control leg for each volunteer, an additional control was introduced into the study by the use of a sixth repellent, a "null repellent," which was literally a treatment application of no repellent at all. The 5 active repellent formulations were uniformly applied at the maximum Environmental Protection Agency recommended dose of 1.5 g per 600 cm2 in the first trial and half that dose in the second trial, and none of them failed during the nightly 12-hour test period over 6 consecutive days, May 19 through May 24, 2004, and June 14 through June 19, 2004. However, the repellent control legs demonstrated a statistically significant increased landing rate compared to both the null repellent and the null repellent control leg. This suggests that, in this approach, active repellents increased the capture rate on an adjacent control leg compared to null controls. A single human volunteer can act as his/her own control provided null treatment controls are included.

  19. Pathway and kinetics of cyhalothrin biodegradation by Bacillus thuringiensis strain ZS-19. (United States)

    Chen, Shaohua; Deng, Yinyue; Chang, Changqing; Lee, Jasmine; Cheng, Yingying; Cui, Zining; Zhou, Jianuan; He, Fei; Hu, Meiying; Zhang, Lian-Hui


    Cyhalothrin is a common environmental pollutant which poses increased risks to non-target organisms including human beings. This study reported for the first time a newly isolated strain, Bacillus thuringiensis ZS-19 completely degraded cyhalothrin in minimal medium within 72 h. The bacterium transformed cyhalothrin by cleavage of both the ester linkage and diaryl bond to yield six intermediate products. Moreover, a novel degradation pathway of cyhalothrin in strain ZS-19 was proposed on the basis of the identified metabolites. In addition to degradation of cyhalothrin, this strain was found to be capable of degrading 3-phenoxybenzoic acid, a common metabolite of pyrethroids. Furthermore, strain ZS-19 participated in efficient degradation of a wide range of pyrethroids including cyhalothrin, fenpropathrinn, deltamethrin, beta-cypermethrin, cyfluthrin and bifenthrin. Taken together, our results provide insights into the mechanism of cyhalothrin degradation and also highlight the promising potentials of B.thuringiensis ZS-19 in bioremediation of pyrethroid-contaminated environment. This is the first report of (i) degradation of cyhalothrin and other pyrethroids by B.thuringiensis, (ii) identification of 3-phenoxyphenyl acetonitrile and N-(2-isoproxy-phenyl)-4-phenoxy-benzamide as the metabolites in the degradation pathway of pyrethroids, and (iii) a pathway of degradation of cyhalothrin by cleavage of both the ester linkage and diaryl bond in a microorganism.

  20. Bcl-2/MDM2 Dual Inhibitors Based on Universal Pyramid-Like α-Helical Mimetics. (United States)

    Wang, Ziqian; Song, Ting; Feng, Yingang; Guo, Zongwei; Fan, Yudan; Xu, Wenjie; Liu, Lu; Wang, Anhui; Zhang, Zhichao


    No α-helical mimetic that exhibits Bcl-2/MDM2 dual inhibition has been rationally designed due to the different helicities of the α-helixes at their binding interfaces. Herein, we extracted a one-turn α-helix-mimicking ortho-triarene unit from o-phenylene foldamers. Linking benzamide substrates with a rotatable C-N bond, we constructed a novel semirigid pyramid-like scaffold that could support its two-turn α-helix mimicry without aromatic stacking interactions and could adopt the different dihedral angles of the key residues of p53 and BH3-only peptides. On the basis of this universal scaffold, a series of substituent groups were installed to capture the key residues of both p53TAD and BimBH3 and balance the differences of the bulks between them. Identified by FP, ITC, and NMR spectroscopy, a compound 6e (zq-1) that directly binds to Mcl-1, Bcl-2, and MDM2 with balanced submicromolar affinities was obtained. Cell-based experiments demonstrated its antitumor ability through Bcl-2/MDM2 dual inhibition simultaneously.

  1. Pharmacotherapy of gastroparesis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, E M


    The evaluation and management of gastric motor dysfunction continues to represent a significant clinical challenge. The very definition of what constitutes a clinically relevant disturbance of gastric motility remains unclear. The spectrum of gastroparesis extends from those with classical symptoms and severe delay of gastric emptying to those with dyspepsia and a mild delay in emptying rate. Indeed, for many patients with dyspepsia, the role of gastric emptying delay in the pathogenesis of symptoms, remains unclear. Any assessment of the efficacy of any therapeutic class in gastroparesis must be mindful, therefore, of these variations in definition. For those individuals with severe established gastroparesis, therapeutic success often remains elusive and i.v. erythromycin and oral dopamine antagonists, or substituted benzamides, remain the best options for acute severe exacerbations and chronic maintenance therapy, respectively. Alternatives, currently under investigation, include a number of 5-HT4 agonists, macrolides devoid of antibiotic activity, CCK antagonists and gastric electrical stimulation. Other novel approaches include strategies to address some of the regional abnormalities in gastric motor function that have been identified in some patients with dyspepsia.

  2. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of some novel cross-linked chitosan hydrogels. (United States)

    Mohamed, Nadia Ahmed; Fahmy, Mona Mohamed


    Four novel hydrogels based on chitosan were synthesized via a cross-linking reaction of chitosan with different concentrations of oxalyl bis 4-(2,5-dioxo-2H-pyrrol- 1(5H)-yl)benzamide. Their structures were confirmed by fourier transform infrared X-ray (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction. The antimicrobial activities of the hydrogels against two crop-threatening pathogenic fungi namely: Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus, RCMBA 06002), and Aspergillus niger (A. niger, RCMBA 06106), and five bacterial species namely: Bacillis subtilis (B. subtilis, RCMBA 6005), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, RCMBA 2004), Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumonia, RCMB 000101) as Gram positive bacteria, and Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium, RCMB 000104), and Escherichia coli (E. coli, RCMBA 5003) as Gram negative bacteria have been investigated. The prepared hydrogels showed much higher antimicrobial activities than that of the parent chitosan. The hydrogels were more potent in case of Gram-positive bacteria than Gram-negative bacteria. Increasing the degree of cross-linking in the hydrogels resulted in a weaker antimicrobial activity.

  3. Biodegradation of acrylamide by Enterobacter aerogenes isolated from wastewater in Thailand. (United States)

    Buranasilp, Kanokhathai; Charoenpanich, Jittima


    A widespread use of acrylamide, probably a neurotoxicant and carcinogen, in various industrial processes has led to environmental contamination. Fortunately, some microorganisms are able to derive energy from acrylamide. In the present work, we reported the isolation and characterization of a novel acrylamide-degrading bacterium from domestic wastewater in Chonburi, Thailand. The strain grew well in the presence of acrylamide as 0.5% (W/V), at pH 6.0 to 9.0 and 25 degrees C. Identification based on biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequence identified the strain as Enterobacter aerogenes. Degradation of acrylamide to acrylic acid started in the late logarithmic growth phase as a biomass-dependent pattern. Specificity of cell-free supernatant towards amides completely degraded butyramide and urea and 86% of lactamide. Moderate degradation took place in other amides with that by formamide > benzamide > acetamide > cyanoacetamide > propionamide. No degradation was detected in the reactions of N,N-methylene bisacrylamide, sodium azide, thioacetamide, and iodoacetamide. These results highlighted the potential of this bacterium in the cleanup of acrylamide/amide in the environment.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of dopamine substitue tripodal trinuclear [(salen/salophen/salpropen)M] (Mdbnd Cr(III), Mn(III), Fe(III) ions) capped s-triazine complexes: Investigation of their thermal and magnetic properties (United States)

    Uysal, Şaban; Koç, Ziya Erdem


    In this work, we aimed to synthesize and characterize a novel tridirectional ligand including three catechol groups and its novel tridirectional-trinuclear triazine core complexes. For this purpose, we used melamine (2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-triazine) (MA) as starting material. 2,4,6-tris(4-carboxybenzimino)-1,3,5-triazine (II) was synthesized by the reaction of an equivalent melamine (I) and three equivalent 4-carboxybenzaldehyde. 4,4‧,4″-((1E,1‧E,1″E)-((1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triyl)tris(azanylylidene))tris(methanylylidene))tris(N-(3,4-dihydroxyphenethyl)benzamide) L (IV) was synthesized by the reaction of one equivalent (II) and three equivalent dopamine (3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) (DA) by using two different methods. (II, III, IV) and nine novel trinuclear Cr(III), Mn(III) and Fe(III) complexes of (IV) were characterized by means of elemental analyses, 1H NMR, FT-IR spectrometry, LC-MS (ESI+) and thermal analyses. The metal ratios of the prepared complexes were performed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS). We also synthesized novel tridirectional-trinuclear systems and investigated their effects on magnetic behaviors of [salen, salophen, salpropen Cr(III)/Mn(III)/Fe(III)] capped complexes. The complexes were determined to be low-spin distorted octahedral Mn(III) and Fe(III), and distorted octahedral Cr(III) all bridged by catechol group.

  5. Borneol Is a TRPM8 Agonist that Increases Ocular Surface Wetness (United States)

    Chen, Gui-Lan; Lei, Ming; Zhou, Lu-Ping; Zou, Fangdong


    Borneol is a compound widely used in ophthalmic preparations in China. Little is known about its exact role in treating eye diseases. Here we report that transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) channel is a pharmacological target of borneol and mediates its therapeutic effect in the eyes. Ca2+ measurement and electrophysiological recordings revealed that borneol activated TRPM8 channel in a temperature- and dose-dependent manner, which was similar to but less effective than the action of menthol, an established TRPM8 agonist. Borneol significantly increased tear production in guinea pigs without evoking nociceptive responses at 25°C, but failed to induce tear secretion at 35°C. In contrast, menthol evoked tearing response at both 25 and 35°C. TRPM8 channel blockers N-(3-Aminopropyl)-2-[(3-methylphenyl)methoxy]-N-(2-thienylmethyl)benzamide hydrochloride (AMTB) and N-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-4-(3-chloropyridin-2-yl)piperazine-1-carboxamide (BCTC) abolished borneol- and menthol-induced tear secretion. Borneol at micromolar concentrations did not affect the viability of human corneal epithelial cells. We conclude that borneol can activate the cold-sensing TRPM8 channel and modestly increase ocular surface wetness, which suggests it is an active compound in ophthalmic preparations and particularly useful in treating dry eye syndrome. PMID:27448228

  6. The antipsychotic sultopride is overdosed--a PET study of drug-induced receptor occupancy in comparison with sulpiride. (United States)

    Takano, Akihiro; Suhara, Tetsuya; Yasuno, Fumihiko; Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Takahashi, Hidehiko; Morimoto, Takuya; Lee, Young-Joo; Kusuhara, Hiroyuki; Sugiyama, Yuichi; Okubo, Yoshiro


    Conventional antipsychotics tend to elicit extrapyramidal symptoms at clinical doses, but dose optimization could reduce the risk of such side-effects. In-vivo receptor-binding studies have suggested that 70-80% of dopamine D2 receptor occupancy provides the desired antipsychotic effects without extrapyramidal symptoms. In terms of dose optimization based on the occupancy, there has not been enough supporting data regarding the clinical doses of the respective antipsychotics. In this study, we measured dopamine D2 receptor occupancy of two conventional benzamide antipsychotics, sulpiride and sultopride, using positron emission tomography, to investigate the rationale of their clinical dose. Although they are prescribed at similar doses (300-1200 mg), the doses required to obtain similar receptor occupancy (70-80%) were quite different: 1010-1730 mg for sulpiride but 20-35 mg for sultopride. In terms of dose, sultopride has about 50 times greater potency than sulpiride based on dopamine D2 receptor occupancy. Evidence for the optimal doses of conventional antipsychotics based on dopamine D2 receptor occupancy would be helpful for rational antipsychotic therapy.

  7. [Changes in the endocrine system in the course of sulpiride therapy]. (United States)

    Roś, L T


    The influence of sulpiride, a neuroleptic included into the group of benzamide derivatives, upon endocrine system has been discussed in the article. It is noted that sulpiride clearly increases the evolution of prolactin in both sexes. It gives a chain of various consequences. They are, among others, impairment of gonad activity in both sexes which causes emmeniopathy and galactorrhea in women and impotence in men. The influence of hyperprolactinemia, caused by sulpiride, upon the level of testosterone in plasma and also upon the evolution of progesterone has been also discussed. The knowledge of the influence of sulpiride upon endocrine system is necessary for physicians applying therapy by this medicine. In the article the analysis has been carried out how wider and wider used neuroleptic-sulpiride--influences upon endocrine system and particularly upon the evaluation of prolactin. In the article the main methods of action of the known neuroleptic-sulpiride have been discussed. This is an antiautistic, activizing, antipsychotic and antidepressive action. The other authors used sulpiride in therapy of depressive endogenic syndrome. They obtained a good therapeutic effect. The drug distribution in human organism was also taken into consideration. The mechanism of action of sulpiride and its extrapsychiatric application was also mentioned. The other authors often combines the drug with benzodiazepine derivatives which soothe the fear characteristic of depression.

  8. Sulpiride augmentation of olanzapine in the management of treatment-resistant chronic schizophrenia: evidence for improvement of mood symptomatology. (United States)

    Kotler, Moshe; Strous, Rael D; Reznik, Ilya; Shwartz, Sima; Weizman, Abraham; Spivak, Baruch


    Several recent studies, albeit limited in sample number, design and generalizability, have suggested that augmentation of atypical antipsychotic medication (such as clozapine and olanzapine) with sulpiride, a substituted benzamide antipsychotic medication, may play a role in the management of treatment-resistant psychotic conditions. The objective of this study was to investigate any change in clinical symptomatology or side-effect profile in treatment-resistant schizophrenia patients receiving sulpiride in addition to olanzapine. Seventeen patients with treatment-resistant chronic schizophrenia, who were receiving olanzapine monotherapy for at least 6 months before study commencement, were randomized in a 1:1 fashion to receive either adjunctive treatment with sulpiride (study group) or to continue their pre-study treatment with olanzapine with no medication augmentation (control group), each for a period of 8 weeks. Changes in measures of positive and negative symptoms, anxiety, depression and extrapyramidal symptoms were assessed at baseline and at 8 weeks. Study observations indicated no significant differences in the changes in positive or negative symptomatology between patients receiving a combined regimen of olanzapine with sulpiride (600 mg/ day) augmentation and controls. However, a significantly greater improvement of depressive symptomatology (P Depression) was noted in the sulpiride augmentation group. These data indicate improvement in depressive symptomatology with sulpiride augmentation of olanzapine in treatment-resistant chronic schizophrenia patients.

  9. Serum levels of sulpiride enantiomers after oral treatment with racemic sulpiride in psychiatric patients: a pilot study. (United States)

    Müller, M J; Härtter, S; Köhler, D; Hiemke, C


    Sulpiride (SULP), a substituted benzamide with high selectivity for D2-like dopamine receptors, has a chiral structure and is used in most countries as the racemate. In an open pilot study, we investigated 26 inpatients (13 female, 13 male) with schizophrenic or depressive disorder treated with SULP (mean daily dosage 64-1062 mg) administered orally, either as a monotherapy or as an add-on treatment to a stable and unchanged medication for 3-60 days. Serum levels of total SULP and of its enantiomers were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) procedures. Clinically relevant indicators of hepatic and renal function as well as retrospectively assessed clinical outcome parameters were correlated with serum levels of racemic SULP, L-SULP, D-SULP, and the L:D-SULP ratio. A significant correlation between mean daily dosage and serum levels of SULP, L-SULP, and D-SULP emerged (p < 0.05) which was not influenced by age, gender, diagnosis, hepatic, or renal function. The ratio of L:D-SULP serum levels was <1 (range 0.66-0.97) in all patients. A slight negative correlation between CGI improvement and the ratio of L:D-SULP (p < 0.10) and a positive correlation between racemic SULP concentrations and side-effects at endpoint was found (p < 0.05).

  10. (18)F-FBHGal for asialoglycoprotein receptor imaging in a hepatic fibrosis mouse model. (United States)

    Kao, Hao-Wen; Chen, Chuan-Lin; Chang, Wen-Yi; Chen, Jenn-Tzong; Lin, Wuu-Jyh; Liu, Ren-Shyan; Wang, Hsin-Ell


    Quantification of the expression of asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR), which is located on the hepatocyte membrane with high-affinity for galactose residues, can help assess ASGPR-related liver diseases. A hepatic fibrosis mouse model with lower asialoglycoprotein receptor expression was established by dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) administration. This study developed and demonstrated that 4-(18)F-fluoro-N-(6-((3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)oxy)hexyl)benzamide ((18)F-FBHGal), a new (18)F-labeled monovalent galactose derivative, is an asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR)-specific PET probe in a normal and a hepatic fibrosis mouse models. Immunoassay exhibited a linear correlation between the accumulation of GalH-FITC, a fluorescent surrogate of FBHGal, and the amount of ASGPR. A significant reduction in HepG2 cellular uptake (P ASGPR blocking agent. Animal studies showed the accumulation of (18)F-FBHGal in fibrosis liver (14.84±1.10 %ID/g) was appreciably decreased compared with that in normal liver (20.50±1.51 %ID/g, P ASGPR-related liver dysfunction.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of iodobenzamide analogues: Potential D-2 dopamine receptor imaging agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, R.A.; Kung, H.F.; Kung, M.P.; Billings, J. (Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (USA))


    (S)-N-((1-Ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl)-2-hydroxy-3-iodo-6- methoxybenzamide (({sup 123}I)IBZM) is a central nervous system (CNS) D-2 dopamine receptor imaging agent. In order to investigate the versatility of this parent structure in specific dopamine receptor localization and the potential for developing new dopamine receptor imaging agents, a series of new iodinated benzamides with fused ring systems, naphthalene (INAP) and benzofuran (IBF), was synthesized and radiolabeled, and the in vivo and in vitro biological properties were characterized. The best analogue of IBZM is IBF (21). The specific binding of ({sup 125}I)IBF (21) with rat striatal tissue preparation was found to be saturable and displayed a Kd of 0.106 {plus minus} 0.015 nM. Competition data of various receptor ligands for ({sup 125}I)IBF (21) binding show the following rank order of potency: spiperone greater than IBF (21) greater than IBZM greater than (+)-butaclamol greater than ({plus minus})-ADTN,6,7 greater than ketanserin greater than SCH-23390 much greater than propranolol. The in vivo biodistribution results confirm that ({sup 125}I)IBF (21) concentrated in the striatal area after iv injection into rats. The study demonstrates that ({sup 123}I)IBF (21) is a potential agent for imaging CNS D-2 dopamine receptors.

  12. Synthesis and electron paramagnetic resonance study of a nitroxide free radical covalently bonded on aminopropyl-silica gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tudose, Madalina; Constantinescu, Titus [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Spl. Independentei 202, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Balaban, Alexandru T. [Texas A and M University at Galveston, Marine Sciences Department, Galveston, TX 77551 (United States); Ionita, Petre [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Spl. Independentei 202, 060021 Bucharest (Romania)], E-mail:


    A solid spin-labeled material was obtained starting from 2-chloro-3,5-dinitro-N-(4-(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-piperidine-1-oxyl) -benzamide) and aminopropyl-silica gel. Stability tests showed that even after several months the spin-labeled material had the same properties as immediately after synthesis. EPR properties of the TEMPO-derivatized silica were studied as a function of solvent polarity and temperature. Rotational correlation times were calculated from EPR spectra and correlated with solvent characteristics and temperature. Polar solvents induce a fast motion of the spin-label, clearly seen in the EPR spectra by the apparition of the well-known TEMPO radical triplet. The solid spin-labeled (dry) sample showed a high interspin interaction, which can be disrupted not only by different (liquid) solvents, but also by absorption of different solids, like cyclodextrins, dendrimers or polyethyleneglycols. Also, changes induced by the temperature were studied in the case of toluene wet sample. From 150 to 370 K, the spectrum is changing from a slow motion spectrum type to a fast motion regime. The preparative procedures to obtain the spin-labeled silica as well as some of its parameters are described.

  13. Hsp90 C-terminal inhibitors exhibit antimigratory activity by disrupting the Hsp90α/Aha1 complex in PC3-MM2 cells. (United States)

    Ghosh, Suman; Shinogle, Heather E; Garg, Gaurav; Vielhauer, George A; Holzbeierlein, Jeffrey M; Dobrowsky, Rick T; Blagg, Brian S J


    Human Hsp90 isoforms are molecular chaperones that are often up-regulated in malignances and represent a primary target for Hsp90 inhibitors undergoing clinical evaluation. Hsp90α is a stress-inducible isoform of Hsp90 that plays a significant role in apoptosis and metastasis. Though Hsp90α is secreted into the extracellular space under metastatic conditions, its role in cancer biology is poorly understood. We report that Hsp90α associates with the Aha1 co-chaperone and found this complex to localize in secretory vesicles and at the leading edge of migrating cells. Knockdown of Hsp90α resulted in a defect in cell migration. The functional role of Hsp90α/Aha1 was studied by treating the cells with various novobiocin-based Hsp90 C-terminal inhibitors. These inhibitors disrupted the Hsp90α/Aha1 complex, caused a cytoplasmic redistribution of Hsp90α and Aha1, and decreased cell migration. Structure-function studies determined that disruption of Hsp90α/Aha1 association and inhibition of cell migration correlated with the presence of a benzamide side chain, since an acetamide substituted analog was less effective. Our results show that disruption of Hsp90α/Aha1 interactions with novobiocin-based Hsp90 C-terminal inhibitors may limit the metastatic potential of tumors.

  14. Nitazoxanide Use as Part of an Empiric Multi-Drug Regimen in Treating Children with Suspected Helicobacter pylori Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuncion G. Ramos-Soriano


    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori, a Gram-negative bacterium found in the human stomach, is often present in patients with chronic gastritis. Traditional treatment for H. pylori infection includes metronidazole or clarithromycin, both being associated with development of resistance. In this retrospective report, we describe our clinical experience using a multi-drug treatment regimen for pediatric H. pylori that included nitazoxanide, a newer nitrothiazole benzamide compound used in treating intestinal protozoa infections. Charts were identified for patients who were treated between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2013 with an ICD-9-CM code 041.86 (H. pylori and who underwent elective endoscopy. All patients were exposed to nitazoxanide for 3 days plus azithromycin, and cefixime (or another 3rd-generation oral cephalosporin for 7-10 days, plus a proton pump inhibitor for 30 days. The clinical cure criteria were predefined. There were 127 individual occurrences or cases identified for inclusion in the review, with 111 occurrences meeting the inclusion criteria. The success rate or clinical cure for the new therapy combination prescribed as defined prior to the chart review was 99 out of 111 cases (89.2%. There were no serious adverse events observed or reported during the treatment of any patient. Approximately 10% of patient charts reflected minor complaints of nausea, vomiting or abdominal cramps during the time of active drug therapy. Nitazoxanide appears to be an effective and well-tolerated option for use in combination with other agents to treat H. pylori-induced gastritis.

  15. Synthesis of novel nanostructured chiral poly(amide-imide)s containing dopamine and natural amino acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shadpour Mallakpour; Amin Zadehnazari


    Four new thermally stable and optically active poly(amide-imide)s (PAI)s with good inherent viscosities were synthesized from the direct polycondensation reaction of N,N'-(pyromellitoyl)-bis-L--amino acids with 3,5-diamino-N-(3,4-dihydroxy-phen-ethyl)benzamide in a medium consisting of a molten salt, tetrabutylammonium bromide, and triphenyl phosphite as the activator. The polymerization reactions produced a series of novel PAIs containing dopamine segment in the side chain in high yield with inherent viscosities between 0.33 and 0.49 dL/g. The obtained polymers were typically characterized by means of FT-IR, 1HNMR spectroscopy, elemental analyses, powder X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electronmicroscopy, inherent viscosity, and solubility tests. Thermal properties and flame retardant behaviour of the PAIs were also investigated using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA and DTG) and limiting oxygen index (LOI). Data obtained by thermal analysis revealed that these polymers showed good thermal stability. Furthermore, high char yield in TGA and good LOI values indicated that the obtained polymers were capable of exhibiting good flame retardant properties.

  16. Research Perspective: Potential Role of Nitazoxanide in Ovarian Cancer Treatment. Old Drug, New Purpose?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Santo, Nicola, E-mail:; Ehrisman, Jessie [Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States)


    Among gynecological malignancies epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the leading cause of death. Despite improvements in conventional chemotherapy combinations, the overall cure rate has remained mostly stable over the years, and only 10%–15% of patients maintain a complete response following first-line therapy. To improve the efficacy of ovarian cancer chemotherapy it is essential to develop drugs with new mechanisms of action. Compared to normal tissues, protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is overexpressed in ovarian tumors. PDI is a cellular enzyme in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of eukaryotes or the periplasmic region of prokaryotes. This protein catalyzes the formation and breakage of disulphide bonds between cysteine residues in proteins, which affects protein folding. Selective inhibition of PDI activity has been exhibited both in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity in human ovarian cancer models. PDI inhibition caused accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins, which led to ER stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR), and in turn resulted in cell death. Nitazoxanide [NTZ: 2-acetyloxy-N-(5-nitro-2-thiazolyl)benzamide] is a thiazolide antiparasitic agent with excellent activity against a wide variety of protozoa and helminths. In this article, we propose that NTZ, acting as PDI inhibitor, may be a new and potent addition to the chemotherapeutic strategy against ovarian cancer.

  17. Synthesis, Antifungal Evaluation and In Silico Study of N-(4-Halobenzylamides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Carneiro Montes


    Full Text Available A collection of 32 structurally related N-(4-halobenzylamides were synthesized from cinnamic and benzoic acids through coupling reactions with 4-halobenzylamines, using (benzotriazol-1-yloxytris(dimethylaminophosphonium hexafluorophosphate (BOP as a coupling agent. The compounds were identified by spectroscopic methods such as infrared, 1H- and 13C- Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR and high-resolution mass spectrometry. The compounds were then submitted to antimicrobial tests by the minimum inhibitory concentration method (MIC and nystatin was used as a control in the antifungal assays. The purpose of the tests was to evaluate the influence of structural changes in the cinnamic and benzoic acid substructures on the inhibitory activity against strains of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei. A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR study with KNIME v. 3.1.0 and Volsurf v. 1.0.7 softwares were realized, showing that descriptors DRDRDR, DRDRAC, L4LgS, IW4 and DD2 influence the antifungal activity of the haloamides. In general, 10 benzamides revealed fungal sensitivity, especially a vanillic amide which enjoyed the lowest MIC. The results demonstrate that a hydroxyl group in the para position, and a methoxyl at the meta position enhance antifungal activity for the amide skeletal structure. In addition, the double bond as a spacer group appears to be important for the activity of amide structures.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Ghaemy; M. Bazzar; H. Mighani


    Nanocomposites from nanoscale silica particles (NS), diglycidylether of bisphenol-A based epoxy (DGEBA), and 3,5-diamino-N-(4-(quinolin-8-yloxy) phenyl) benzamide (DQPB) as curing agent were obtained from direct blending of these materials. The effect of nanosilica (NS) particles as catalyst on the cure reaction of DGEBA/DQPB system was studied by using non-isothermal DSC technique. The activation energy (Ea) was obtained by using Kissinger and Ozawa equations.The Ea value of curing of DGEBA/DQPB/10% NS system showed a decrease of about 10 KJ/mol indicating the catalytic effect of NS particles on the cure reaction. The Ea values of thermal degradation of the cured samples of both systems were 148 KJ/mol and 160 KJ/mol, respectively. The addition of 10% of NS to the curing mixture did not have much effect on the initial decomposition temperature (Ti) but increased the char residues from 20% to 28% at 650℃.

  19. Rational prescription of drugs within similar therapeutic or structural class for gastrointestinal disease treatment: Drug metabolism and its related interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    AIM: To review and summarize drug metabolism and its related interactions in prescribing drugs within the similar therapeutic or structural class for gastrointestinal disease treatment so as to promote rational use of medicines in clinical practice.METHODS: Relevant literature was identified by performing MEDLINE/Pubmed searches covering the period from 1988 to 2006. RESULTS: Seven classes of drugs were chosen, including gastric proton pump inhibitors, histamine H2-receptor antagonists, benzamide-type gastroprokinetic agents, selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, fluoroquinolones, macrolide antibiotics and azole antifungals. They showed significant differences in metabolic profile (I.e., the fraction of drug metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP), CYP reaction phenotype, impact of CYP genotype on interindividual pharmacokinetics variability and CYP-mediated drug-drug interaction potential). Many events of severe adverse drug reactions and treatment failures were closely related to the ignorance of the above issues. CONCLUSION: Clinicians should acquaint themselves with what kind of drug has less interpatient variability in clearance and whether to perform CYP genotyping prior to initiation of therapy. The relevant CYP knowledge helps clinicians to enhance the management of patients with gastrointestinal disease who may require treatment with polytherapeutic regimens.

  20. Computer-aided identification of potential TYK2 inhibitors from drug database (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Li, Jianzong; Huang, Zhixin; Wang, Haiyang; Luo, Hao; Wang, Xin; Zhou, Nan; Wu, Chuanfang; Bao, Jinku


    TYK2 is a member of JAKs family protein tyrosine kinase activated in response to various cytokines. It plays a crucial role in transducing signals downstream of various cytokine receptors, which are involved in proinflammatory responses associated with immunological diseases. Thus, the study of selective TYK2 inhibitors is one of the most popular fields in anti-inflammation drug development. Herein, we adopted molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulation and MM-PBSA binding free energy calculation to screen potential TYK2-selective inhibitors from ZINC Drug Database. Finally, three small molecule drugs ZINC12503271 (Gemifloxacin), ZINC05844792 (Nebivolol) and ZINC00537805 (Glyburide) were selected as potential TYK2-selective inhibitors. Compared to known inhibitor 2,6-dichloro-N-{2-[(cyclopropylcarbonyl)amino]pyridin-4-yl}benzamide, these three candidates had better Grid score and Amber score from molecular docking and preferable results from binding free energy calculation as well. What's more, the ATP-binding site and A-loop motif had been identified to play key roles in TYK2-targeted inhibitor discovery. It is expected that our study will pave the way for the design of potent TYK2 inhibitors of new drugs to treat a wide variety of immunological diseases such as inflammatory diseases, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and so on.

  1. Metabolic and Dynamic Profiling for Risk Assessment of Fluopyram, a Typical Phenylamide Fungicide Widely Applied in Vegetable Ecosystem (United States)

    Wei, Peng; Liu, Yanan; Li, Wenzhuo; Qian, Yuan; Nie, Yanxia; Kim, Dongyeop; Wang, Mengcen


    Fluopyram, a typical phenylamide fungicide, was widely applied to protect fruit vegetables from fungal pathogens-responsible yield loss. Highly linked to the ecological and dietary risks, its residual and metabolic profiles in the fruit vegetable ecosystem still remained obscure. Here, an approach using modified QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) extraction combined with GC-MS/MS analysis was developed to investigate fluopyram fate in the typical fruit vegetables including tomato, cucumber, pepper under the greenhouse environment. Fluopyram dissipated in accordance with the first-order rate dynamics equation with the maximum half-life of 5.7 d. Cleveage of fluopyram into 2-trifluoromethyl benzamide and subsequent formation of 3-chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl) pyridine-2-acetic acid and 3-chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl) picolinic acid was elucidated to be its ubiquitous metabolic pathway. Moreover, the incurrence of fluopyram at the pre-harvest interval (PHI) of 7–21 d was between 0.0108 and 0.1603 mg/kg, and the Hazard Quotients (HQs) were calculated to be less than 1, indicating temporary safety on consumption of the fruit vegetables incurred with fluopyram, irrespective of the uncertain toxicity of the metabolites. Taken together, our findings reveal the residual essential of fluopyram in the typical agricultural ecosystem, and would advance the further insight into ecological risk posed by this fungicide associated with its metabolites.

  2. [Toxicity of sulpiride]. (United States)

    Ciszowski, Krzysztof; Szpak, Dorota; Wilimowska, Jolanta


    Sulpiride is a benzamide neuroleptic used in the treatment of some psychiatric and gastroenterological disorders. Its antipsychotic, antiautistic, activizing and antidepressive properties result from antagonistic action to dopaminergic D2, D3 and D4 receptors in the central nervous system (CNS). The oral bioavailability of sulpiride is poor and it does not appear to have an extensive first-pass metabolism, nor is it extensively protein-bound. Elimination of sulpiride appears to depend primarily on the kidneys. The acute sulpiride poisoning includes mainly neuropsychiatric (i.e., agitation, hallucinations, and CNS depression) as well as cardiac effects (i.e., hypotension, dysrhythmias, and sinus tachycardia). The life-threatening conditions with sometimes fatal outcome after sulpiride poisoning are prolongation of QTc interval with consequent torsade de pointes (TdP) and neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS). The quantitative methods for the measurement of sulpiride blood concentration are not routinely available and the toxic blood concentration is probably higher than 2 mg/L. Treatment of acute sulpiride poisoning includes standard protocols of gastrointestinal decontamination and further symptomatic and supportive measures, among them TdP (magnesium sulphate, isoproterenol, electrotherapy) and NMS treatment (benzodiazepines, bromocriptine, dantrolene, physical cooling).

  3. Studies on the Chemical Constituents from Marine Bryozoan Cryptosula pallasiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Rong Tian


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical constituents of marine bryozoan Cryptosula pallasiana inhabiting Huang Island of China. Three aromatic compounds, p-methylsulfonylmethyl-phenol (1, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (4 and methylparaben (5, nine alkaloids, 7-bromoquinolin-4(1H-one (2, 7-bromo-2,4(1H,3H-quinazolinedione (3, benzamide (6, phenylacetamide (7, 4(3H-quinazolinone (8, thymine (9, uracil (10, hypoxanthine (11 and tryptophan (12, together with two glycerol derivatives, glycerol (13 and monoheneicosanoin (14, were isolated for the first time from this marine bryozoan. Among the isolates, compounds 1 and 2 were new natural products, and their spectral traits were reported for the first time. The structures of the two compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses, including HR-ESI-MS, EI-MS, 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques. The isolated compounds 1–3 were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against HL-60 human myeloid leukemia cell line. The results showed that bromated alkaloid (3 appeared strong cytotoxicity against HL-60 cells with IC 50 value of 11.87 µg/mL, while compounds 1 and 2 were inactivity.

  4. Small molecule modulators of histone acetyltransferase p300. (United States)

    Balasubramanyam, Karanam; Swaminathan, V; Ranganathan, Anupama; Kundu, Tapas K


    Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) are a group of enzymes that play a significant role in the regulation of gene expression. These enzymes covalently modify the N-terminal lysine residues of histones by the addition of acetyl groups from acetyl-CoA. Dysfunction of these enzymes is often associated with the manifestation of several diseases, predominantly cancer. Here we report that anacardic acid from cashew nut shell liquid is a potent inhibitor of p300 and p300/CBP-associated factor histone acetyltranferase activities. Although it does not affect DNA transcription, HAT-dependent transcription from a chromatin template was strongly inhibited by anacardic acid. Furthermore, we describe the design and synthesis of an amide derivative N-(4-chloro-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-2-ethoxy-6-pentadecyl-benzamide (CTPB) using anacardic acid as a synthon, which remarkably activates p300 HAT activity but not that of p300/CBP-associated factor. Although CTPB does not affect DNA transcription, it enhances the p300 HAT-dependent transcriptional activation from in vitro assembled chromatin template. However, it has no effect on histone deacetylase activity. These compounds would be useful as biological switching molecules for probing into the role of p300 in transcriptional studies and may also be useful as new chemical entities for the development of anticancer drugs.

  5. Raman and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic studies of specific, small molecule activator of histone acetyltransferase p300 (United States)

    Kundu, Partha P.; Pavan Kumar, G. V.; Mantelingu, Kempegowda; Kundu, Tapas K.; Narayana, Chandrabhas


    We report for the first time, the Raman and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) studies of N-(4-chloro-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-2-ethoxy-benzamide (CTB). This molecule is specific activator of human histone acetyltransferase (HAT), p300, and serves as lead molecule to design anti-neoplastic therapeutics. A detailed Raman and SERS band assignments have been performed for CTB, which are compared with the density functional theory calculations. The observed red shift of N sbnd H stretching frequency from the computed wavenumber indicates the weakening of N sbnd H bond resulting from proton transfer to the neighboring oxygen atom. We observe Ag sbnd N vibrational mode at 234 cm -1 in SERS of CTB. This indicates there is a metal-molecule bond leading to chemical enhancement in SERS. We also observe, enhancement in the modes pertaining to substituted benzene rings and methyl groups. Based on SERS analysis we propose the adsorption sites and the orientation of CTB on silver surface.

  6. Improvement of vestibular compensation by Levo-sulpiride in acute unilateral labyrinthine dysfunction. (United States)

    Zanetti, D; Civiero, N; Balzanelli, C; Tonini, M; Antonelli, A R


    L-sulpiride is the levorotatory enantiomer of sulpiride, a neuroleptic of the family of benzamide derivatives; it has a characteristic antagonist effect on central DA2 dopaminergic receptors and dopamine DA1 "autoreceptors". Its efficacy in the symptomatic control of acute vertigo spells has been recognized, apart from its well-known antiemetic, antidyspeptic and anti-depressant properties, at high dosages. To establish objective parameters of the results of its clinical application, a randomized prospective study was started comparing the effects of the drug in a group of 87 patients with vertigo of peripheral origin, with those in a control group treated with other vestibular suppressants. The drug was administered via the intravenous route, 25 mg t.i.d., for the first 3 days, then by oral administration, with the same schedule and dosage, for a further 7 days. After clinical evaluation of vestibular signs and symptoms, electronystagmographic recordings of rotatory tests were obtained, at admission and were then controlled after 6 months. A subjective Visual Analogue Scale was also delivered daily to the patients in order to monitor symptomatic improvements. When compared to conventional treatments, L-sulpiride appeared to induce a statistically significant faster recovery in unilateral vestibular lesions. An unexpected favourable outcome of treatment was the facilitation of spontaneous vestibular compensation, in terms of lesser residual labyrinthine dysfunction and reduction of recurrent vertigo attacks during the 6 months follow-up. The mechanisms of action of the drug and its interaction with the vestibular system are discussed.

  7. Increased tumor necrosis factor-alpha and nitric oxide production by rat macrophages following in vitro stimulation and intravenous administration of the delta-opioid agonist SNC 80. (United States)

    Gomez-Flores, R; Rice, K C; Zhang, X; Weber, R J


    Opioids alter immune function by binding to opioid receptors on cells of the immune system, or indirectly by acting on receptors within the central nervous system. Mu-selective opioid agonists are generally associated with immunosuppression, whereas delta-opioid receptor-selective agonists are commonly associated with immunopotentiation. We have previously shown that intracerebroventricular administration of the nonpeptide delta-opioid receptor agonist (+)-4-((alpha R)-alpha-((2S, 5R)-4-allyl-2, 5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl)-3-methoxybenzyl)-N, N-diethyl-benzamide (SNC 80) did not alter certain parameters of immunocompetence. In the present study, we studied the in vitro and ex vivo effects of SNC 80 on rat macrophage and lymphocyte functions. We showed that SNC 80 at concentrations of 10(-7) M and 10(-6) M, significantly (P SNC 80 (6.8 mg/kg) significantly (P SNC 80 plus Con A potentiated ex vivo LPS-stimulated macrophage functions. SNC 80 could potentially be utilized in various clinical situations where immunosuppression is undesirable.

  8. Chemotaxis of human and rat leukocytes by the delta-selective non-peptidic opioid SNC 80. (United States)

    Ordaz-Sánchez, Iván; Weber, Richard J; Rice, Kenner C; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Rodríguez-Padilla, C; Tamez-Guerra, R; Méndez-Vázquez, José L; Gómez-Flores, R


    Opioids like morphine, represent a major source of relief for most chronic moderate to severe nonmalignant pain. However, opioid abuse may lead to infections such as hepatitis and AIDS because opioids have been associated with suppressing various parameters of immune function including antimicrobial resistance, antibody production, monocyte-mediated phagocytosis, and both neutrophil and monocyte chemotaxis. We have previously reported immunopotentiating properties of non-peptidic opioid receptor selective agonists and antagonists. In this study, we evaluated the effects of the nonpeptidic delta-opioid receptor agonist (+)-4-((alpha R)-alpha-((2S, 5R)-4-allyl-2, 5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl)-3-methoxybenzyl)-N, N-diethyl-benzamide (SNC 80) on chemotaxis of rat thymic and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells by using a modified Wilkinson chamber. Cell recruitment is an essential process in acute and chronic inflammatory responses. We observed that SNC 80 at concentrations of 10(-10), 10(-9), 10(-8), 10(-7), and 10(-6) M, significantly (p SNC 80 on chemotaxis of rat and human leukocytes were antagonized by naloxone, indicating that the modulation of chemotaxis by SNC 80 is via a classic opioid receptor. The development and use of non-peptidic opioids like SNC 80 could have an immediate impact not only as potent analgesics, but in immunoregulation.

  9. Synthesis and small-animal PET image of 18F-Fallypride%18F-Fallypride的自动化合成与小动物PET显像

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨敏; 徐宇平; 潘栋辉; 王颂佩; 唐婕; 黄洪波; 罗世能


    目的 研究高效、简单的自动化合成多巴胺D2受体显像剂(S)-(-)-N-(1-烯丙基吡咯烷-2-氨基甲基)-5-(3-18F)-2,3-二甲氧基苯甲酰胺(18F-Fallypride)的方法,并用小动物PET观察其在小鼠活体内的生物分布.方法 采用国产氟标记多功能模块控制整个过程,18F-在乙腈溶液中与前体(s)-(-)-N-(1-烯丙基吡咯烷-2-氨基甲基)-5-(3-磺酰基)-2,3-二甲氧基苯甲酰胺(OTSF)直接反应生成18F-Fallypride,混合物装柱,产品被C18柱吸附,用水冲洗柱,用少量乙醇淋出,加生理盐水稀释.ICR小鼠给药后经小动物PET活体显像.结果 18F-Fallypride放化产率为40.7%(已校正),合成时间为40 min,无需高效液相色谱(HPLC)法分离,放化纯>95%.注射18F-Fallypride后ICR小鼠经小动物PET显像,脑内纹状体区域摄取最高,且双侧放射性浓聚对称,清除较慢.结论 18F-Fallypride自动化合成速度快,效率高.18F-Fallypride适于多巴胺D2受体显像.%Objective Benzamide,5-(3-fluoropropyl)-2,3-dimethoxy-N-[(2S)-1-(2-propenyl)-2-pyrrolidinyl]methyl(Fallypride)is a well-known dopamine D2 and D3 antagonist.18F-Fallypride PET has been used to study D2 and D3 receptor occupancy and density in neuropsychiatric disorders and aging in humans.This study aimed to develop an automated synthesis of the potent dopamine D2 and D3 receptor PET imaging agent and to study the distribution of the mice by small-animal PET.Methods 18F ion Was reacted with precursor(s)-(-)-N-(1-allyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl-5-(3-tolunesulfonyloxypropyl)-2,3-dimethoxy-benzamide in a chemical process control unit(CPCU).The crude product was transported to a C18 column.18F-Fallypride was absorbed on the column.the column Was washed by water.18F-Fallypride was then eluted from the column with small volume of ethanol.The mice were imaged by small-animal PET after in travenous 18F-Fallypride(1.85 MBq).Results It took 40 min for synthesizing 18F-Fallypride at CPCU,the radiochemical yield was 40

  10. Synthesis, in vitro pharmacologic characterization, and preclinical evaluation of N-[2-(1'-piperidinyl)ethyl]-3-[125I]iodo-4-methoxybenzamide (P[125I]MBA) for imaging breast cancer. (United States)

    John, C S; Bowen, W D; Fisher, S J; Lim, B B; Geyer, B C; Vilner, B J; Wahl, R L


    The goal of this study was to investigate the potential use of a radioiodinated benzamide, N-[2-(1'-piperidinyl)ethyl]-3-iodo[125I]-4-methoxybenzamide (P[125I]MBA), a sigma receptor binding radioligand for imaging breast cancer. The chemical and radiochemical syntheses of PIMBA are described. The pharmacological evaluation of PIMBA was carried out for sigma-1 and sigma-2 receptor sites. The in vivo pharmacokinetics of the radioiodinated benzamide were determined in rats and comparison of P[125I]MBA with Tc-99m sestamibi were made in a rat mammary tumor model. Sigma-1 affinity (Ki) for PIMBA in guinea pig brain membranes using [3H](+)pentazocine was found to be 11.82 +/- 0.68 nM, whereas sigma-2 affinity in rat liver using [3H]DTG (1,3-o-di-tolylguanidine) was 206 +/- 11 nM. Sites in guinea pig brain membranes labeled by P[125I]MBA showed high affinity for haloperidol, (+)-pentazocine, BD1008, and PIMBA (Ki = 4.87 +/- 1.49, 8.81 +/- 1.97, 0.057 +/- 0.005, 46.9 +/- 1.8 nM, respectively). Competition binding studies were carried out in human ductal breast carcinoma cells (T47D). A dose-dependent inhibition of specific binding was observed with several sigma ligands. Ki values for the inhibition of P[125I]MBA binding in T47D cells for haloperidol, N-[2-(1'-piperidinyl)]ethyl]4-iodobenzamide (IPAB), N-(N-benzylpiperidin-4-yl)-4-iodobenzamide (4-IBP), and PIMBA were found to be 1.30 +/- 0.07, 13 +/- 1.5, 5.19 +/- 2.3, 1.06 +/- 0.5 nM, respectively. The in vitro binding data in guinea pig brain membranes and breast cancer cells confirmed binding to sigma sites. The saturation binding of P[125I]MBA in T47D cells as studied by Scatchard analysis showed saturable binding, with a Kd = 94 +/- 7 nM and a Bmax = 2035 +/- 305 fmol/mg of proteins. Biodistribution studies in Sprague-Dawley rats showed a rapid clearance of P[125I]MBA from the normal organs. The potential of PIMBA in imaging breast cancer was evaluated in Lewis rats bearing syngeneic RMT breast cancers, a cancer that

  11. Field evaluation of deet, Repel Care, and three plant based essential oil repellents against mosquitoes, black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) and land leeches (Arhynchobdellida: Haemadipsidae) in Thailand. (United States)

    Tawatsin, Apiwat; Thavara, Usavadee; Chansang, Uruyakorn; Chavalittumrong, Pranee; Boonruad, Thidarat; Wongsinkongman, Prapai; Bansidhi, Jaree; Mulla, Mir S


    Diethyl methyl benzamide, or deet, a commercial plant-based repellent (Repel Care), and essential ils from 3 species of plants (finger root rhizomes, guava leaves, and turmeric rhizomes), steam distillated and formulated as insect repellents, were evaluated in the field on human volunteers against hematophagous mosquitoes, black flies, and land leeches in Thailand. Field trials were conducted against wild mosquitoes in Bang Bua Thong District, Nonthaburi Province, and in the Thap Lan National Park Headquarters, Nadee District, Pranchinburi Province; anthroophilic black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) at the Forestry Fire Control Station in Doi Inthanon National Park, Chomthong district, Chiang Mai Province; and land leeches (Arhynchobdellida: Haemadipsidae) in the Khao Yai National Park, Pak Chong District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province. The 3 experimental plant-based essential oil formulations as well as Repel Care and deet provided complete protection from mosquito landing and biting for up to 9 h (duration of the experiment). Similar results were obtained with the 5 products against black flies, providing 100% protection for 9 h but 96-82% protection after 10 and 11 h posttreatment. The 5 repellent products also provided 100% protection against land leeches for at least 8 h. Thi is the 1st report of repellency of plant-based repellents against black flies and land leeches in Thailand. The identification and availability of inexpensive sources of plant-based oils, i.e., finger root rhizomes, guava leaves, and turmeric rhizomes providing long-lasting repellency against blood-sucking organisms are promising leads into commercial production of relatively safe and effective repellents.

  12. mGluR5 positive modulators both potentiate activation and restore inhibition in NMDA receptors by PKC dependent pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Pei-Fei


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to understand the interaction between the metabotropic glutamate subtype 5 (mGluR5 and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors, the influence of mGluR5 positive modulators in the inhibition of NMDA receptors by the noncompetitive antagonist ketamine, the competitive antagonist D-APV and the selective NR2B inhibitor ifenprodil was investigated. Methods This study used the multi-electrode dish (MED system to observe field potentials in hippocampal slices of mice. Results Data showed that the mGluR5 agonist (RS-2-chloro-5-hydroxyphenylglycine (CHPG, as well as the positive allosteric modulators 3-cyano-N-(1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl benzamide (CDPPB and 3,3'-difluorobenzaldazine (DFB alone did not alter the basal field potentials, but enhanced the amplitude of field potentials induced by NMDA. The inhibitory action of ketamine on NMDA-induced response was reversed by CHPG, DFB, and CDPPB, whereas the blockade of NMDA receptor by D-APV was restored by CHPG and CDPPB, but not by DFB. Alternatively, activation of NMDA receptors prior to the application of mGluR5 modulators, CHPG was able to enhance NMDA-induced field potentials and reverse the suppressive effect of ketamine and D-APV, but not ifenprodil. In addition, chelerythrine chloride (CTC, a protein kinase C (PKC inhibitor, blocked the regulation of mGluR5 positive modulators in enhancing NMDA receptor activation and recovering NMDA receptor inhibition. The PKC activator (PMA mimicked the effects of mGluR5 positive modulators on enhancing NMDA receptor activation and reversing NMDA antagonist-evoked NMDA receptor suppression. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that the PKC-dependent pathway may be involved in the positive modulation of mGluR5 resulting in potentiating NMDA receptor activation and reversing NMDA receptor suppression induced by NMDA antagonists.

  13. Uncharged isocoumarin-based inhibitors of urokinase-type plasminogen activator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deck Lorraine M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA plays a major role in extracellular proteolytic events associated with tumor cell growth, migration and angiogenesis. Consequently, uPA is an attractive target for the development of small molecule active site inhibitors. Most of the recent drug development programs aimed at nonpeptidic inhibitors targeted at uPA have focused on arginino mimetics containing amidine or guanidine functional groups attached to aromatic or heterocyclic scaffolds. There is a general problem of limited bioavailability of these charged inhibitors. In the present study, uPA inhibitors were designed on an isocoumarin scaffold containing uncharged substituents. Results 4-Chloro-3-alkoxyisocoumarins were synthesized in which the 3-alkoxy group contained a terminal bromine; these were compared with similar inhibitors that contained a charged terminal functional group. Additional variations included functional groups attached to the seven position of the isocoumarin scaffold. N- [3-(3-Bromopropoxy-4-chloro-1-oxo-1H-isochromen-7-yl]benzamide was identified as an uncharged lead inhibitor of uPA, Ki = 0.034 μM. Molecular modeling of human uPA with these uncharged inhibitors suggests that the bromine occupies the same position as positively charged arginino mimetic groups. Conclusion This study demonstrates that potent uncharged inhibitors of uPA can be developed based upon the isocoumarin scaffold. A tethered bromine in the three position and an aromatic group in the seven position are important contributors to binding. Although the aim was to develop compounds that act as mechanism-based inactivators, these inhibitors are competitive reversible inhibitors.

  14. Novel Cholinesterase Inhibitors Based on O-Aromatic N,N-Disubstituted Carbamates and Thiocarbamates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Krátký


    Full Text Available Based on the presence of carbamoyl moiety, twenty salicylanilide N,N-disubstituted (thiocarbamates were investigated using Ellman’s method for their ability to inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE. O-Aromatic (thiocarbamates exhibited weak to moderate inhibition of both cholinesterases with IC50 values within the range of 1.60 to 311.0 µM. IC50 values for BChE were mostly lower than those obtained for AChE; four derivatives showed distinct selectivity for BChE. All of the (thiocarbamates produced a stronger inhibition of AChE than rivastigmine, and five of them inhibited BChE more effectively than both established drugs rivastigmine and galantamine. In general, 5-chloro-2-hydroxy-N-[4-(trifluoromethyl-phenyl]benzamide, 2-hydroxy-N-phenylbenzamide as well as N-methyl-N-phenyl carbamate derivatives led to the more potent inhibition. O-{4-Chloro-2-[(4-chlorophenylcarbamoyl]phenyl} dimethylcarbamothioate was identified as the most effective AChE inhibitor (IC50 = 38.98 µM, while 2-(phenylcarbamoylphenyl diphenylcarbamate produced the lowest IC50 value for BChE (1.60 µM. Results from molecular docking studies suggest that carbamate compounds, especially N,N-diphenyl substituted representatives with considerable portion of aromatic moieties may work as non-covalent inhibitors displaying many interactions at peripheral anionic sites of both enzymes. Mild cytotoxicity for HepG2 cells and consequent satisfactory calculated selectivity indexes qualify several derivatives for further optimization.

  15. Synthesis, spectroscopic and thermal characterization of sulpiride complexes of iron, manganese, copper, cobalt, nickel, and zinc salts. Antibacterial and antifungal activity. (United States)

    Mohamed, Gehad G; Soliman, Madiha H


    Sulpiride (SPR; L) is a substituted benzamide antipsychotic which is reported to be a selective antagonist of central dopamine receptors and claimed to have mood-elevating properties. The ligation behaviour of SPR drug is studied in order to give an idea about its potentiality towards some transition metals in vitro systems. Metal complexes of SPR have been synthesized by reaction with different metal chlorides. The metal complexes of SPR with the formula [MCl(2)(L)(2)(H(2)O)(2)].nH(2)O [M=Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II); n=0-2] and [FeCl(2)(HL)(H(2)O)(3)]Cl.H(2)O have been synthesized and characterized using elemental analysis (CHN), electronic (infrared, solid reflectance and (1)H NMR spectra) and thermal analyses (TG and DTA). The molar conductance data reveal that the bivalent metal chelates are non-electrolytes while Fe(III) complex is 1:1 electrolyte. IR spectra show that SPR is coordinated to the metal ions in a neutral monodentate manner with the amide O. From the magnetic and solid reflectance spectra, octahedral geometry is suggested. The thermal decomposition processes of these complexes were discussed. The correlation coefficient, the activation energies, E*, the pre-exponential factor, A, and the entropies, DeltaS*, enthalpies, DeltaH*, Gibbs free energies, DeltaG*, of the thermal decomposition reactions have been derived from thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermogravimetric (DTG) curves. The synthesized ligand and its metal complexes were also screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activity against bacterial species (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus) and fungi (Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans). The activity data show that the metal complexes are found to have antibacterial and antifungal activity than the parent drug and less than the standard.

  16. Locomotor activity induced by MK-801 is enhanced in dopamine D3 receptor knockout mice but suppression by dopamine D3/D2 antagonists does not occur through the dopamine D3 receptor. (United States)

    Yarkov, Alex V; Der, Terry C; Joyce, Jeffrey N


    There are contradictory data regarding the role of the dopamine D(3) receptor in regulating N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist (e.g., dizocilpine) induced hyperactivity. The purpose of the present study was to examine the interaction of dopamine D(3) receptor preferring antagonists U99194A (5,6-dimethoxy-2(dipropylamino)indan) and S33804 ((3aR,9bS)-N[4-(8-cyano-1,3a,4,9b-tetrahydro-3H-benzopyrano[3,4-c]pyrrole-2-yl)-butyl] (4-phenyl)benzamide)) with dizocilpine (MK-801)-induced hyperactivity in wild type (WT) and dopamine D(3) receptor mutant (D(3)R KO) mice. D(3)R KO and WT mice were administered vehicle (saline, 1 ml/100g body weight, i.p.), or S33084 (1.0mg/kg.) and U99194A (0.1mg/kg or 0.01 mg/kg), and horizontal and vertical activity counts were recorded for 30 min. Mice were then treated with vehicle or MK-801 (0.12 mg/kg i.p.) and returned to the open field for an additional 55 min. D(3)R KO mice showed a significantly higher level of locomotor and rearing activity during the 1st 30 min after vehicle treatment compared to WT mice. MK-801-hyperactivity was significantly higher in D(3)R KO mice than WT mice. Dopamine D(3) receptor preferring antagonists suppressed the locomotor activity response to MK-801 to an equal extent in D(3)R KO and WT mice. The results confirm that MK-801-induced hyperactivity and novelty-induced behavioral activity and rearing are enhanced in D(3)R KO mice, but suppression by dopamine D(3) receptor preferring antagonists is not through dopamine D(3) receptor antagonism.

  17. Predictive relationships for the effects of triglyceride ester concentration and water uptake on solubility and partitioning of small molecules into lipid vehicles. (United States)

    Cao, Yichen; Marra, Michelle; Anderson, Bradley D


    The ability to predict drug solubility and partitioning in triglyceride solvents from the chemical structures of the solute and the triglyceride would be highly useful in drug formulation development and in screening drug candidates for lipid solubility and possibly drug bioavailability. This study explores the role of triglyceride ester concentration on small molecule partitioning between lipid vehicles and water, including the effect of ester concentration on water uptake. The influence of solvated water is further examined in studies of small molecule solubility in dry and water saturated lipid vehicles varying in triglyceride ester concentration. A series of model solutes with varying hydrogen bond donating/accepting abilities was chosen for this study while triglyceride ester concentrations were varied by using squalane/tricaprylin solvent mixtures. General linear free energy solvation relationships having the form utilized previously by Abraham were obtained at each solvent composition. An examination of the solvent descriptors indicated that those descriptors representing the sensitivity of the solvent to the solute dipolarity/polarizability, s, and to the hydrogen bond acidity of the solute, a, vary systematically with the concentration of ester moieties in the solvent mixture. An empirical equation has been derived that offers the potential for predicting triglyceride/water partition coefficients and in certain cases, solubility in hydrated, fully-saturated triglyceride solvents for any small molecule for which Abraham solute descriptors can be obtained. Water uptake in triglyceride vehicles is shown to be approximately linear with water activity and may also be described by the empirical relationship developed for other solutes providing an adjustment is made in the value of its hydrogen bond acidity parameter. Water uptake enhances the solubility of benzamide and N-methylbenzamide and a modest "water-dragging" effect by N-methylbenzamide in the

  18. Synthesis and the Bacteriostasic Activity and Antifouling Capability of 2-t-Butyl-p-Cresol Amide Derivatives%2-叔丁基对甲基酚酰胺衍生物的合成及其抑菌和防污性能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张智嘉; 于良民; 姜晓辉


    Two compounds having the capsaicin derivative structure of acrylamide, TV - ( 3 - tert - butyl - 2 - hydroxy - 5 - methylbenzyl) acrylamide ( MBHBA) and N - ( 3 - tert - butyl - 2 - hydroxy - 5 - meth-ylbenzyl)benzamide ( MBHBB) were synthesized, the structure of which were characterized by FT - IR spectroscopy and 'HNMR. Comparison of the antibacterial and antifouling properties of the MBHBA and MBHBB showed that two compounds were good on suppression of staphyloecocus aureus and escherichia co-lit, and the minimal inhibitory concentration of MBHBA was 0. 125 mg/mL. With MBHBA and MBHBB antifouling agent for preparation of marine antifouling coatings, test panels immersed in seawater for 60 days showed that MBHBB and MBHBA exhibited equally good anti - biofouling performance.%通过Friedel-Crafts反应合成了N-(5-甲基-3-叔丁基-2-羟基苄基)丙烯酰胺(MBHBA)和N-(5-甲基-3-叔丁基-2-羟基苄基)苯甲酰胺(MBHBB),并通过红外光谱(FT-IR)和核磁波谱(1HNMR)对其结构进行了表征.对比了MBHBA和MBHBB的抑菌性能和防污性能,结果显示2种化合物均有良好的抑制金黄色葡萄球菌和大肠杆菌的性能,且MBHBA的最小抑菌浓度可达0.125 mg/mL;以MBHBA和MBHBB为防污剂制备海洋防污涂料,60d的实海挂板仍无明显的污损生物附着.

  19. GPR139, an Orphan Receptor Highly Enriched in the Habenula and Septum, Is Activated by the Essential Amino Acids L-Tryptophan and L-Phenylalanine. (United States)

    Liu, Changlu; Bonaventure, Pascal; Lee, Grace; Nepomuceno, Diane; Kuei, Chester; Wu, Jiejun; Li, Qingqin; Joseph, Victory; Sutton, Steven W; Eckert, William; Yao, Xiang; Yieh, Lynn; Dvorak, Curt; Carruthers, Nicholas; Coate, Heather; Yun, Sujin; Dugovic, Christine; Harrington, Anthony; Lovenberg, Timothy W


    GPR139 is an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor expressed in the central nervous system. To identify its physiologic ligand, we measured GPR139 receptor activity from recombinant cells after treatment with amino acids, orphan ligands, serum, and tissue extracts. GPR139 activity was measured using guanosine 5'-O-(3-[(35)S]thio)-triphosphate binding, calcium mobilization, and extracellular signal-regulated kinases phosphorylation assays. Amino acids L-tryptophan (L-Trp) and L-phenylalanine (L-Phe) activated GPR139, with EC50 values in the 30- to 300-μM range, consistent with the physiologic concentrations of L-Trp and L-Phe in tissues. Chromatography of rat brain, rat serum, and human serum extracts revealed two peaks of GPR139 activity, which corresponded to the elution peaks of L-Trp and L-Phe. With the purpose of identifying novel tools to study GPR139 function, a high-throughput screening campaign led to the identification of a selective small-molecule agonist [JNJ-63533054, (S)-3-chloro-N-(2-oxo-2-((1-phenylethyl)amino)ethyl) benzamide]. The tritium-labeled JNJ-63533054 bound to cell membranes expressing GPR139 and could be specifically displaced by L-Trp and L-Phe. Sequence alignment revealed that GPR139 is highly conserved across species, and RNA sequencing studies of rat and human tissues indicated its exclusive expression in the brain and pituitary gland. Immunohistochemical analysis showed specific expression of the receptor in circumventricular regions of the habenula and septum in mice. Together, these findings suggest that L-Trp and L-Phe are candidate physiologic ligands for GPR139, and we hypothesize that this receptor may act as a sensor to detect dynamic changes of L-Trp and L-Phe in the brain.

  20. Amisulpride vs. fluoxetine treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome: a pilot study. (United States)

    Pardini, Matteo; Guida, Silvia; Primavera, Alberto; Krueger, Frank; Cocito, Leonardo; Gialloreti, Leonardo Emberti


    Different pharmacologic agents have been evaluated in the treatment of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS), albeit with moderate efficacy. Among the compounds thought to present with potential to be efficacious in CFS patients stands out low-dose amisulpride, a substituted benzamide that has been shown to be an useful treatment for conditions which exhibit some overlap with CFS such as dysthymia and somatoform disorders. We thus recruited forty non-depressed CFS patients that were randomized to receive either amisulpride 25mg bid, or fluoxetine 20mg uid; all subjects were un-blinded to the treatment regimen. At the time of enrollment in the study and after twelve weeks of treatment, enrolled subjects completed the Krupp Fatigue Severity Scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and a visual analog scale focused on pain and bodily discomfort. Moreover, all subjects were evaluated by a clinician, blinded to the treatment regimen, using the Clinical Global Impression Severity Scale. Our data revealed a significant improvement both in self-report, and observer-based measures for the amisulpride-treated, but not for the fluoxetine-treated patients. Amisulpride-treated subjects also presented with a significant reduction of somatic complaints, while the amisulpride effect on anxiety and mood levels was not significant. Both drugs were equally well tolerated. Summing up, we showed a positive symptomatic effect of amisulpride, compared to SSRI treatment, in a group of non-depressed CSF patients on self-report and on observer-based measures of fatigue and somatic complaints. If confirmed by larger, blinded studies, amisulpride thus could represent an effective approach to this difficult-to-treat condition.

  1. Prandial effect on the systemic exposure of amisulpride. (United States)

    Jang, Yoo-Jung; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Noh, Keumhan; Baek, In-Whan; Kwon, Kwang-il; Kim, Eunyoung; Yoon, Young-Ran; Kang, Wonku


    A substituted benzamide, amisulpride is an atypical antipsychotic and a specific antagonist for dopamine D2 and D3 receptors. The prandial effect on amisulpride absorption remains unclear, therefore, this study was designed to investigate the effect of food on the systemic exposure to amisulpride in healthy volunteers. The study was a randomized, two-way crossed trial in which a single oral dose of amisulpride was administered on two occasions, with 7-days washout period between each drug administration. The volunteers were randomly divided into two groups and received amisulpride (50 mg) with Korean traditional food or under fasting state. Blood was serially taken, and the plasma amisulpride concentrations were measured by LC/MS/MS. At fasting state, amisulpride reached the first peak (37.1 ± 13.3 ng/ml) at ~2.3 h, and decreased down to 19.4 ± 4.3 ng/ml until 3.5 h, and then again went up to the second peak (25.3 ± 5.8 ng/ml) at 5 h followed by a slow decay with 10.6 h of half-life. In contrast, no double peaks were shown when the drug was given with meal. The maximum concentration of amisulpride (56.0 ± 12.7 ng/ml) was increased by a 1.5-fold compared with that under fasting (p > 0.05), and the time to peak shortened a little (1.7 ± 0.6 h).

  2. Imaging brain gene expression profiles by antipsychotics: region-specific action of amisulpride on postsynaptic density transcripts compared to haloperidol. (United States)

    de Bartolomeis, Andrea; Marmo, Federica; Buonaguro, Elisabetta Filomena; Rossi, Rodolfo; Tomasetti, Carmine; Iasevoli, Felice


    Induction of motor disorders is considered the clinical landmark differentiating typical from atypical antipsychotics, and has been mainly correlated to dopamine D2 receptors blockade in striatum. This view is challenged by benzamides, such as amisulpride, which display low liability for motor side effects despite being D2/D3 receptors high-affinity blocking agents. These effects have been explained with the prominent presynaptic action of amisulpride or with the fast dissociation at D2 receptors, but there is scarce information on the effects of amisulpride on postsynaptic signaling. We carried out a molecular imaging study of gene expression after acute administration of haloperidol (0.8 mg/kg), amisulpride (10 or 35 mg/kg), or vehicle, focusing on postsynaptic genes that are key regulators of synaptic plasticity, such as Arc, c-fos, Zif-268, Norbin, Homer. The last one has been associated to schizophrenia both in clinical and preclinical studies, and is differentially induced by antipsychotics with different D2 receptors affinity. Topography of gene expression revealed that amisulpride, unlike haloperidol, triggers transcripts expression peak in medial striatal regions. Correlation analysis of gene expression revealed a prevalent correlated gene induction within motor corticostriatal regions by haloperidol and a more balanced gene induction within limbic and motor corticostriatal regions by amisulpride. Despite the selective dopaminergic profile of both compounds, our results demonstrated a differential modulation of postsynaptic molecules by amisulpride and haloperidol, the former impacting preferentially medial regions of striatum whereas the latter inducing strong gene expression in lateral regions. Thus, we provided a possible molecular profile of amisulpride, putatively explaining its "atypical atypicality".

  3. Chidamide in the treatment of peripheral T-cell lymphoma (United States)

    Chan, Thomas S; Tse, Eric; Kwong, Yok-Lam


    Mature T-cell lymphomas are aggressive malignancies. Treatment outcome is poor with conventional chemotherapy. They are about twice as common in Asia as compared with other non-Asian countries. Histone proteins form the basic structure of chromatin, and their acetylation at lysine residues relaxes chromatin structure, facilitating gene transcription. Conversely, histone deacetylation, catalyzed by histone deacetylases, compacts chromatin and represses gene transcription. Histone deacetylase inhibitors are an important class of antineoplastic agents. Chidamide is a novel orally active benzamide-type histone deacetylase inhibitor that has shown in vitro activities against a wide array of neoplasms. In Phase I trials, chidamide showed preferential efficacy in mature T-cell lymphomas. In a pivotal Phase II trial of chidamide in 79 patients with relapsed or refractory mature T-cell lymphomas, an overall response rate of 28% (complete remission/complete remission unconfirmed: 14%) was achieved, with most responses occurring within the first 6 weeks of treatment. The median duration of response (DOR) was 9.9 (1.1–40.8) months. Of 22 responders, 19 patients (86%) had a DOR of ≥3 months and eight patients (36%) had a DOR of >12 months. Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma and anaplastic large cell lymphoma (anaplastic lymphoma kinase-negative) showed better response rates, with the most durable responses observed in angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma patients. Safety profile was favorable, with very few cases of grade 3/4 toxicities observed. Chidamide is approved by the China Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of relapsed and refractory peripheral T-cell lymphomas. PMID:28138258

  4. Meta-diamide insecticides acting on distinct sites of RDL GABA receptor from those for conventional noncompetitive antagonists. (United States)

    Nakao, Toshifumi; Banba, Shinich; Nomura, Michikazu; Hirase, Kangetsu


    The RDL GABA receptor is an attractive target of insecticides. Here we demonstrate that meta-diamides [3-benzamido-N-(4-(perfluoropropan-2-yl)phenyl)benzamides] are a distinct class of RDL GABA receptor antagonists showing high insecticidal activity against Spodoptera litura. We also suggest that the mode of action of the meta-diamides is distinct from that of conventional noncompetitive antagonists (NCAs), such as fipronil, picrotoxin, lindane, dieldrin, and α-endosulfan. Using a membrane potential assay, we examined the effects of the meta-diamide 3-benzamido-N-(2-bromo-4-(perfluoropropan-2-yl)-6-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-2-fluorobenzamide (meta-diamide 7) and NCAs on mutant Drosophila RDL GABA receptors expressed in Drosophila Mel-2 cells. NCAs had little or no inhibitory activity against at least one of the three mutant receptors (A2'S, A2'G, and A2'N), which were reported to confer resistance to NCAs. In contrast, meta-diamide 7 inhibited all three A2' mutant receptors, at levels comparable to its activity with the wild-type receptor. Furthermore, the A2'S·T6'V mutation almost abolished the inhibitory effects of all NCAs. However, meta-diamide 7 inhibited the A2'S・T6'S mutant receptor at the same level as its activity with the wild-type receptor. In contrast, a G336M mutation in the third transmembrane domain of the RDL GABA receptor abolished the inhibitory activities of meta-diamide 7, although the G336M mutation had little effect on the inhibitory activities of conventional NCAs. Molecular modeling studies also suggested that the binding site of meta-diamides was different from those of NCAs. Meta-diamide insecticides are expected to be prominent insecticides effective against A2' mutant RDL GABA receptors with a different mode of action.

  5. In vitro gamma oscillations following partial and complete ablation of δ subunit-containing GABAA receptors from parvalbumin interneurons. (United States)

    Ferando, Isabella; Mody, Istvan


    Perisynaptic and extrasynaptic δ subunit-containing GABAA receptors (δ-GABAARs) mediate tonic conductances in many neurons. On principal cells of the neocortex and hippocampus they comprise α4 subunits, whereas they usually contain α1 on various interneurons. Specific characteristics of δ-GABAARs are their pharmacology and high plasticity. In particular δ-GABAARs are sensitive to low concentrations of neurosteroids (NS) and during times of altered NS production (stress, puberty, ovarian cycle and pregnancy) δ-GABAARs expression varies in many neurons regardless of the α subunits they contain, with direct consequences for neuronal excitability and network synchrony. For example δ-GABAARs plasticity on INs underlies modifications in hippocampal γ oscillations during pregnancy or over the ovarian cycle. Most δ-GABAAR-expressing INs in CA3 stratum pyramidale (SP) are parvalbumin (PV) + INs, whose fundamental role in γ oscillations generation and control has been extensively investigated. In this study we reduced or deleted δ-subunits in PV + INs, with the use of a PV/Cre-Gabrd/floxed genetic system. We find that in vitro CA3 γ oscillations of both PV-Gabrd(+/-)and PV-Gabrd(-/-) mice are characterized by higher frequencies than WT controls. The increased frequencies could be lowered to control levels in PV-Gabrd(+/-) by the NS allopregnanolone (3α,5α-tetrahydroprogesterone, 100 nM) but not the synthetic δ-GABAAR positive allosteric modulator 4-Chloro-N-[2-(2-thienyl)imidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-3-yl] benzamide (DS-2, 10 μM). This is consistent with the idea that DS-2, in contrast to ALLO, selectively targets α4/δ-GABAARs but not the α1/δ-GABAARs found on INs. Therefore, development of drugs selective for IN-specific α1/δ-GABAARs may be useful in neurological and psychiatric conditions correlated with altered PV + IN function and aberrant γ oscillations.

  6. Design of HIV-1 integrase inhibitors targeting the catalytic domain as well as its interaction with LEDGF/p75: a scaffold hopping approach using salicylate and catechol groups. (United States)

    Fan, Xing; Zhang, Feng-Hua; Al-Safi, Rasha I; Zeng, Li-Fan; Shabaik, Yumna; Debnath, Bikash; Sanchez, Tino W; Odde, Srinivas; Neamati, Nouri; Long, Ya-Qiu


    HIV-1 integrase (IN) is a validated therapeutic target for antiviral drug design. However, the emergence of viral strains resistant to clinically studied IN inhibitors demands the discovery of novel inhibitors that are structurally as well mechanistically different. Herein, we describe the design and discovery of novel IN inhibitors targeting the catalytic domain as well as its interaction with LEDGF/p75, which is essential for the HIV-1 integration as an IN cofactor. By merging the pharmacophores of salicylate and catechol, the 2,3-dihydroxybenzamide (5a) was identified as a new scaffold to inhibit the strand transfer reaction efficiently. Further structural modifications on the 2,3-dihydroxybenzamide scaffold revealed that the heteroaromatic functionality attached on the carboxamide portion and the piperidin-1-ylsulfonyl substituted at the phenyl ring are beneficial for the activity, resulting in a low micromolar IN inhibitor (5p, IC(50)=5 μM) with more than 40-fold selectivity for the strand transfer over the 3'-processing reaction. More significantly, this active scaffold remarkably inhibited the interaction between IN and LEDGF/p75 cofactor. The prototype example, N-(cyclohexylmethyl)-2,3-dihydroxy-5-(piperidin-1-ylsulfonyl) benzamide (5u) inhibited the IN-LEDGF/p75 interaction with an IC(50) value of 8 μM. Using molecular modeling, the mechanism of action was hypothesized to involve the chelation of the divalent metal ions inside the IN active site. Furthermore, the inhibitor of IN-LEDGF/p75 interaction was properly bound to the LEDGF/p75 binding site on IN. This work provides a new and efficient approach to evolve novel HIV-1 IN inhibitors from rational integration and optimization of previously reported inhibitors.

  7. 5-HT1A receptors are involved in the modulation of respiratory rhythmical discharge activity in the medulla oblongata slice preparation of neonatal rats%5-HT1A受体对新生大鼠离体延髓脑片呼吸节律性放电的调制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦峥; 吴中海; 王晓锋


    本研究探讨5-HT1A受体在延髓基本节律性呼吸放电发生和调节中的作用.以改良Kreb's液恒温灌流新生Sprague-Dawley大鼠离体延髓脑片标本,稳定记录与之相连的舌下神经根的呼吸节律性放电活动(respiratory rhythmical discharge activity,RRDA)后,第一组在灌流液中分别单独给予5-HT1A受体的特异性激动剂8-羟四氢萘[(+/-)-8-hydroxy-2-(di-N-propylamino)tetralin hydrobromide,8-OHDPAT]和特异性拮抗剂多次甲基多苯基多异氰酸酯[4-iodo-N-[2-[4-methoxyphenyl]-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-N-2-pyridynyl-benzamide hydrochloride,PMPPI];第二组分别先后给予8-OHDPAT和8-OHDPAT+PMPPI,观察舌下神经根RRDA的变化,探讨5-HT1A受体对其调节作用.结果显示,给予8-OHDPAT后,呼吸周期(respiratory cycle,RC)和呼气时程(expiratory time,TE)显著延长,放电的积分幅度(integral amplitude,IA)持续降低,吸气时程(inspiratory time,TI)无明显变化;给予PMPPI后RC、TI和TE明显缩短,舌下神经根IA无明显变化,且8-OHDPAT的作用可部分被PMPPI逆转.结果提示,5-HT1A受体参与了哺乳动物基本呼吸节律的产生和调节.

  8. Metabolic characterization of AH-7921, a synthetic opioid designer drug: in vitro metabolic stability assessment and metabolite identification, evaluation of in silico prediction, and in vivo confirmation. (United States)

    Wohlfarth, Ariane; Scheidweiler, Karl B; Pang, Shaokun; Zhu, Mingshe; Castaneto, Marisol; Kronstrand, Robert; Huestis, Marilyn A


    AH-7921 (3,4-dichloro-N-[(1-dimethylamino)cyclohexylmethyl]benzamide) is a new synthetic opioid and has led to multiple non-fatal and fatal intoxications. To comprehensively study AH-7921 metabolism, we assessed human liver microsome (HLM) metabolic stability, determined AH-7921's metabolic profile after human hepatocytes incubation, confirmed our findings in a urine case specimen, and compared results to in silico predictions. For metabolic stability, 1 µmol/L AH-7921 was incubated with HLM for up to 1 h; for metabolite profiling, 10 µmol/L was incubated with pooled human hepatocytes for up to 3 h. Hepatocyte samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography quadrupole/time-of-flight high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS). High-resolution full scan MS and information-dependent acquisition MS/MS data were analyzed with MetabolitePilot™ (SCIEX) using multiple data processing algorithms. The presence of AH-7921 and metabolites was confirmed in the urine case specimen. In silico prediction of metabolite structures was performed with MetaSite™ (Molecular Discovery). AH-7921 in vitro half-life was 13.5 ± 0.4 min. We identified 12 AH-7921 metabolites after hepatocyte incubation, predominantly generated by demethylation, less dominantly by hydroxylation, and combinations of different biotransformations. Eleven of 12 metabolites identified in hepatocytes were found in the urine case specimen. One metabolite, proposed to be di-demethylated, N-hydroxylated and glucuronidated, eluted after AH-7921 and was the most abundant metabolite in non-hydrolyzed urine. MetaSite™ correctly predicted the two most abundant metabolites and the majority of observed biotransformations. The two most dominant metabolites after hepatocyte incubation (also identified in the urine case specimen) were desmethyl and di-desmethyl AH-7921. Together with the glucuronidated metabolites, these are likely suitable analytical targets for documenting AH-7921 intake. Copyright © 2015

  9. Nitric oxide interacts with oxygen free radicals to evoke the release of adenosine and adenine nucleotides from rat hippocampal slices. (United States)

    Broad, R M; Fallahi, N; Fredholm, B B


    The present study examined some possible mechanisms underlying the previously demonstrated release of adenosine by nitric oxide (NO) donors. Perfusion with the NO-donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl penicillamine (SNAP; 300 microM) led to a significant increase in the release of [3H]purines from both unstimulated and electrically stimulated hippocampal slices prelabeled with [3H]adenine. The NO-donor also evoked the release of endogenous ATP and ADP from unstimulated slices and, when combined with electrical stimulation, the release of ATP, AMP and adenosine. The SNAP-induced [3H]purine release was calcium-dependent, but not affected by the glutamate receptor antagonists MK-801 ((+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a, d]-cyclohepten-5,10-imine;100 nM) and CNQX (6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione; 10 microM). Zaprinast (5 microM), an inhibitor of the cyclic GMP-dependent phosphodiesterase and 8-Br-cyclic GMP (0.01-1 mM) failed to evoke the release of purines, whereas generation of oxygen free radicals by xanthine plus xanthine oxidase did evoke purine release. Coperfusion of SNAP with the free radical scavengers superoxide dismutase (SOD; 60 microg/ml) and catalase (50 microg/ml) reduced or eliminated the ability of the NO-donor to enhance [3H]purine release, but the poly (ADP-ribosyl) synthetase (PARS) inhibitor benzamide (500 microM) did not affect it. These data indicate that NO interacts with superoxide, likely forming peroxynitrite, which subsequently acts to release adenosine and adenine nucleotides from hippocampal tissue.

  10. Structure-function relationship of thiazolide-induced apoptosis in colorectal tumor cells. (United States)

    Brockmann, Anette; Strittmatter, Tobias; May, Sarah; Stemmer, Kerstin; Marx, Andreas; Brunner, Thomas


    Thiazolides are a novel class of anti-infectious agents against intestinal intracellular and extracellular protozoan parasites, bacteria, and viruses. While the parent compound nitazoxanide (NTZ; 2-(acetolyloxy)-N-(5-nitro-2-thiazolyl)benzamide) has potent antimicrobial activity, the bromo-thiazolide RM4819 (N-(5-bromothiazol-2-yl)-2-hydroxy-3-methylbenzamide) shows only reduced activity. Interestingly, both molecules are able to induce cell death in colon carcinoma cell lines, indicating that the molecular target in intestinal pathogens and in colon cancer cells is different. The detoxification enzyme glutathione S-transferase of class Pi 1 (GSTP1) is frequently overexpressed in various tumors, including colon carcinomas, and limits the efficacy of antitumor chemotherapeutic drugs due to its detoxifying activities. In colorectal tumor cells RM4819 has been shown to interact with GSTP1, and GSTP1 enzymatic activity is required for thiazolide-induced apoptosis. At present it is unclear which molecular structures of RM4819 are required to interact with GSTP1 and to induce cell death in colon carcinoma cell lines. Here, we demonstrate that novel thiazolide derivatives with variation in their substituents of the benzene ring do not significantly affect apoptosis induction in Caco-2 cells, whereas removal of the bromide atom on the thiazole ring leads to a strong reduction of cell death induction in colon cancer cells. We further show that active thiazolides require caspase activation and GSTP1 expression in order to induce apoptosis. We demonstrate that increased glutathione (GSH) levels sensitize colon cancer cells to thiazolides, indicating that both GSTP1 enzymatic activity as well as GSH levels are critical factors in thiazolide-induced cell death.

  11. Plasma levels of catecholamine metabolites predict the response to sulpiride or fluvoxamine in major depression. (United States)

    Ueda, N; Yoshimura, R; Shinkai, K; Nakamura, J


    We investigated the relationships between the changes in plasma catecholamine metabolites obtained from depressed patients before and after administration of sulpiride, a benzamide compound, or fluvoxamine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), and between clinical responses to treatment with each of these drugs. Responders to sulpiride had significantly lower plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) levels before administration of sulpiride than did non-responders or controls (responders: 4.5 +/- 3.1 ng/ml, non-responders: 11.1 +/- 5.9 ng/ml, controls: 10.9 +/- 5.3 ng/ml). Positive relationships were observed between changes in pHVA levels and improvement rates in the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (Ham-D). In contrast, responders to fluvoxamine had significantly higher plasma free 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (pMHPG) levels before administration of fluvoxamine than did non-responders or controls (responders: 8.5 +/- 1.8 ng/ml, non-responders: 5.9 +/- 2.I ng/ml, controls: 5.2 +/- 2.9 ng/ml). Negative relationships were observed between changes in pMHPG levels and improvement rates in Ham-D. These results suggest that lower pretreatment pHVA levels and higher pretreatment levels of pMHPG might be predictors of response to sulpiride and fluvoxamine, respectively, and that sulpiride might produce a functional increase in the dopaminergic system, resulting in improvement in some depressive symptoms; fluvoxamine, on the other hand, might produce a functional decrease in the noradrenergic system via serotonergic neurons, resulting in improvement of those symptoms.

  12. Striatal dopamine receptors modulate the expression of insulin receptor, IGF-1 and GLUT-3 in diabetic rats: effect of pyridoxine treatment. (United States)

    Anitha, M; Abraham, Pretty Mary; Paulose, C S


    The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is rising at alarming proportions. Central nervous system plays an important part in orchestrating glucose metabolism, with accumulating evidence linking dysregulated central nervous system circuits to the failure of normal glucoregulatory mechanisms. Pyridoxine is a water soluble vitamin and it has important role in brain function. This study aims to evaluate the role of pyridoxine in striatal glucose regulation through dopaminergic receptor expressions in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Radio receptor binding assays for dopamine D(1), D(2) receptors were done using [(3)H] 7-chloro-3-methyl-1-phenyl-1,2,4,5-tetrahydro-3-benzazepin-8-ol and [(3)H] 5-chloro-2-methoxy-4-methylamino-N-[-2-methyl-1-(phenylmethyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl]benzamide. Gene expressions were done using fluorescently labeled Taqman probes of dopamine D(1), D(2) receptor, Insulin receptor, Insulin like growth factor-1(IGF-1) and Glucose transporter-3 (GLUT-3). Bmax of dopamine D(1) receptor is decreased and B(max) of dopamine D(2) was increased in diabetic rats compared to control. Gene expression of dopamine D(1) receptor was down regulated and dopamine D(2) receptor was up regulated in diabetic rats. Our results showed decreased gene expression of Insulin receptor, IGF-1 and increased gene expression of GLUT-3 in diabetic rats compared to control. Pyridoxine treatment restored diabetes induced alterations in dopamine D(1), D(2) receptors, Insulin receptor, IGF-1, GLUT-3 gene expressions in striatum compared to diabetic rats. Insulin treatment reversed dopamine D(1), D(2) receptor, GLUT-3 mRNA expression, D(2) receptor binding parameters in the striatum compared to diabetic group. Our results suggest the potential role of pyridoxine supplementation in ameliorating diabetes mediated dysfunctions in striatal dopaminergic receptor expressions and insulin signaling. Thus pyridoxine has therapeutic significance in diabetes management.

  13. Allosteric “beta-blocker” isolated from a DNA-encoded small molecule library (United States)

    Ahn, Seungkirl; Kahsai, Alem W.; Pani, Biswaranjan; Wang, Qin-Ting; Zhao, Shuai; Wall, Alissa L.; Strachan, Ryan T.; Staus, Dean P.; Wingler, Laura M.; Sun, Lillian D.; Sinnaeve, Justine; Choi, Minjung; Cho, Ted; Xu, Thomas T.; Hansen, Gwenn M.; Burnett, Michael B.; Lamerdin, Jane E.; Bassoni, Daniel L.; Gavino, Bryant J.; Husemoen, Gitte; Olsen, Eva K.; Franch, Thomas; Costanzi, Stefano; Chen, Xin; Lefkowitz, Robert J.


    The β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) has been a model system for understanding regulatory mechanisms of G-protein–coupled receptor (GPCR) actions and plays a significant role in cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. Because all known β-adrenergic receptor drugs target the orthosteric binding site of the receptor, we set out to isolate allosteric ligands for this receptor by panning DNA-encoded small-molecule libraries comprising 190 million distinct compounds against purified human β2AR. Here, we report the discovery of a small-molecule negative allosteric modulator (antagonist), compound 15 [([4-((2S)-3-(((S)-3-(3-bromophenyl)-1-(methylamino)-1-oxopropan-2-yl)amino)-2-(2-cyclohexyl-2-phenylacetamido)-3-oxopropyl)benzamide], exhibiting a unique chemotype and low micromolar affinity for the β2AR. Binding of 15 to the receptor cooperatively enhances orthosteric inverse agonist binding while negatively modulating binding of orthosteric agonists. Studies with a specific antibody that binds to an intracellular region of the β2AR suggest that 15 binds in proximity to the G-protein binding site on the cytosolic surface of the β2AR. In cell-signaling studies, 15 inhibits cAMP production through the β2AR, but not that mediated by other Gs-coupled receptors. Compound 15 also similarly inhibits β-arrestin recruitment to the activated β2AR. This study presents an allosteric small-molecule ligand for the β2AR and introduces a broadly applicable method for screening DNA-encoded small-molecule libraries against purified GPCR targets. Importantly, such an approach could facilitate the discovery of GPCR drugs with tailored allosteric effects. PMID:28130548

  14. Synthesis, spectroscopic and thermal characterization of sulpiride complexes of iron, manganese, copper, cobalt, nickel, and zinc salts. Antibacterial and antifungal activity (United States)

    Mohamed, Gehad G.; Soliman, Madiha H.


    Sulpiride (SPR; L) is a substituted benzamide antipsychotic which is reported to be a selective antagonist of central dopamine receptors and claimed to have mood-elevating properties. The ligation behaviour of SPR drug is studied in order to give an idea about its potentiality towards some transition metals in vitro systems. Metal complexes of SPR have been synthesized by reaction with different metal chlorides. The metal complexes of SPR with the formula [MCl 2(L) 2(H 2O) 2]· nH 2O [M = Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II); n = 0-2] and [FeCl 2(HL)(H 2O) 3]Cl·H 2O have been synthesized and characterized using elemental analysis (CHN), electronic (infrared, solid reflectance and 1H NMR spectra) and thermal analyses (TG and DTA). The molar conductance data reveal that the bivalent metal chelates are non-electrolytes while Fe(III) complex is 1:1 electrolyte. IR spectra show that SPR is coordinated to the metal ions in a neutral monodentate manner with the amide O. From the magnetic and solid reflectance spectra, octahedral geometry is suggested. The thermal decomposition processes of these complexes were discussed. The correlation coefficient, the activation energies, E*, the pre-exponential factor, A, and the entropies, Δ S*, enthalpies, Δ H*, Gibbs free energies, Δ G*, of the thermal decomposition reactions have been derived from thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermogravimetric (DTG) curves. The synthesized ligand and its metal complexes were also screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activity against bacterial species ( Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus) and fungi ( Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans). The activity data show that the metal complexes are found to have antibacterial and antifungal activity than the parent drug and less than the standard.

  15. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy of Melanoma. (United States)

    Norain, Abdullah; Dadachova, Ekaterina


    An estimated 60,000 individuals in the United States and 132,000 worldwide are yearly diagnosed with melanoma. Until recently, treatment options for patients with stages III-IV metastatic disease were limited and offered marginal, if any, improvement in overall survival. The situation changed with the introduction of B-RAF inhibitors and anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 and anti-programmed cell death protein 1 immunotherapies into the clinical practice. With only some patients responding well to the immune therapies and with very serious side effects and high costs of immunotherapy, there is still room for other approaches for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Targeted radionuclide therapy of melanoma could be divided into the domains of radioimmunotherapy (RIT), radiolabeled peptides, and radiolabeled small molecules. RIT of melanoma is currently experiencing a renaissance with the clinical trials of alpha-emitter (213)Bi-labeled and beta-emitter (188)Rhenium-labeled monoclonal antibodies in patients with metastatic melanoma producing encouraging results. The investigation of the mechanism of efficacy of melanoma RIT points at killing of melanoma stem cells by RIT and involvement of immune system such as complement-dependent cytotoxicity. The domain of radiolabeled peptides for targeted melanoma therapy has been preclinical so far, with work concentrated on radiolabeled peptide analogues of melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor and on melanin-binding peptides. The field of radiolabeled small molecule produced radioiodinated benzamides that cross the cellular membrane and bind to the intracellular melanin. The recent clinical trial demonstrated measurable antitumor effects and no acute or midterm toxicities. We are hopeful that the targeted radionuclide therapy of metastatic melanoma would become a clinical reality as a stand-alone therapy or in combination with the immunotherapies such as anti-PD1 programmed cell death protein 1 monoclonal antibodies

  16. CX717 as a positive allosteric modulator of α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid receptor: research advances%AMPA受体正向变构调节剂CX717研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺艺超; 肖典; 齐倩倩; 赵国明; 周辛波


    α-氨基-3-羟基-5-甲基-4-异噁唑丙酸(AMPA)受体是离子型谷氨酸受体的一种亚型,分布于中枢神经系统的突触后膜,介导大多数快速兴奋性神经传递.CX717是由美国Cortex制药公司研制的苯甲酰胺类AMPA受体正向调节剂,能够降低AMPA受体失活或降敏的速度从而提高突触的活性,与阿尔茨海默病、帕金森病、抑郁症和注意力缺陷多动症等疾病的治疗密切相关.本文主要综述CX717在化学结构、药代动力学、毒理学和药效学方面的研究进展.%α-Amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor,a subtype of ionotropic glutamate receptors in the postsynaptic membrane of the central nervous system (CNS),mediates most of the fast excitatory neurotransmission.CX717 developed by Cortex Pharmaceuticals Company of the USA belongs to the benzamide series of AMPA receptor positive modulators.It can reduce the speed of AMPA receptor inactivation or desensitization,thereby enhancing synaptic activity,and is closely related to the treatment of Alzheimer's disease,Parkinson's disease,depression and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD).This article reviews the latest research of CX717 regarding its structure,pharmacokinetics,toxicology and pharmacodynamics.

  17. The Effects of Pharmacological Inhibition of Histone Deacetylase 3 (HDAC3 in Huntington's Disease Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiqun Jia

    Full Text Available An important epigenetic modification in Huntington's disease (HD research is histone acetylation, which is regulated by histone acetyltransferase and histone deacetylase (HDAC enzymes. HDAC inhibitors have proven effective in HD model systems, and recent work is now focused on functional dissection of the individual HDAC enzymes in these effects. Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3, a member of the class I subfamily of HDACs, has previously been implicated in neuronal toxicity and huntingtin-induced cell death. Hence, we tested the effects of RGFP966 ((E-N-(2-amino-4-fluorophenyl-3-(1-cinnamyl-1H-pyrazol-4-ylacrylamide, a benzamide-type HDAC inhibitor that selectively targets HDAC3, in the N171-82Q transgenic mouse model of HD. We found that RGFP966 at doses of 10 and 25 mg/kg improves motor deficits on rotarod and in open field exploration, accompanied by neuroprotective effects on striatal volume. In light of previous studies implicating HDAC3 in immune function, we measured gene expression changes for 84 immune-related genes elicited by RGFP966 using quantitative PCR arrays. RGFP966 treatment did not cause widespread changes in cytokine/chemokine gene expression patterns, but did significantly alter the striatal expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (Mif, a hormone immune modulator associated with glial cell activation, in N171-82Q transgenic mice, but not WT mice. Accordingly, RGFP966-treated mice showed decreased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP immunoreactivity, a marker of astrocyte activation, in the striatum of N171-82Q transgenic mice compared to vehicle-treated mice. These findings suggest that the beneficial actions of HDAC3 inhibition could be related, in part, with lowered Mif levels and its associated downstream effects.

  18. Quantitative receptor-based imaging of tumor proliferation with the sigma-2 ligand [(18)F]ISO-1. (United States)

    Shoghi, Kooresh I; Xu, Jinbin; Su, Yi; He, June; Rowland, Douglas; Yan, Ying; Garbow, Joel R; Tu, Zhude; Jones, Lynne A; Higashikubo, Ryuji; Wheeler, Kenneth T; Lubet, Ronald A; Mach, Robert H; You, Ming


    The sigma-2 receptor is expressed in higher density in proliferating (P) tumor cells versus quiescent (Q) tumor cells, thus providing an attractive target for imaging the proliferative status (i.e., P:Q ratio) of solid tumors. Here we evaluate the utility of the sigma-2 receptor ligand 2-(2-[(18)F]fluoroethoxy)-N-(4-(3,4-dihydro-6,7-dimethoxyisoquinolin-2(1H)-yl)butyl)-5-methyl-benzamide, [(18)F]ISO-1, in two different rodent models of breast cancer. In the first study, small animal Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging studies were conducted with [(18)F]ISO-1 and (18)FDG in xenografts of mouse mammary tumor 66 and tracer uptake was correlated with the in vivo P:Q ratio determined by flow cytometric measures of BrdU-labeled tumor cells. The second model utilized a chemically-induced (N-methyl-N-nitrosourea [MNU]) model of rat mammary carcinoma to correlate measures of [(18)F]ISO-1 and FDG uptake with MR-based volumetric measures of tumor growth. In addition, [(18)F]ISO-1 and FDG were used to assess the response of MNU-induced tumors to bexarotene and Vorozole therapy. In the mouse mammary 66 tumors, a strong linear correlation was observed between the [(18)F]ISO-1 tumor: background ratio and the proliferative status (P:Q ratio) of the tumor (R = 0.87). Similarly, measures of [(18)F]ISO-1 uptake in MNU-induced tumors significantly correlated (R = 0.68, PISO-1 provide a measure of both the proliferative status and tumor growth rate, which would be valuable in designing an appropriate treatment strategy.

  19. Identification of tetraphenylborate radiolysis products in a simulated feedstock for radioactive waste processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eibling, R.E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Bartlett, M.G.; Carlson, R.E.; Testino, S.A. Jr.; Kunkel, G.J.; Browner, R.F.; Busch, K.L. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Chemistry and Biochemistry


    The first step towards immobilization of the soluble radioactive species in borosilicate glass is the addition of sodium tetraphenylborate (TPB) and sodium titanate to the radioactive aqueous solution. Initial studies of the TPB hydrolysis process have found that some component of the radiolysis mixture inactivates the Cu catalyst. The interaction of organic materials with the catalyst, and the subsequent interference with the hydrolysis process, would have presented problems with the use of the vitrification process. Prevention of the catalyst deactivation is obtained by washing the irradiated TPB precipitate in the Late Wash Facility prior to hydrolysis to remove the soluble radiolysis products. Identification of the organic radiolysis products, their distribution in the Late Wash Facility, and their interactions with the Cu catalyst has become an important analytical issue. To further investigate the reaction products of the TPB precipitation process, a simulated feedstock was created from compounds known to be present in the starting materials. This simulated feedstock was precipitated with sodium TPB and then exposed to Co-60 gamma radiation to simulate two years of additional storage time prior to the hydrolysis process. The irradiated product was divided into two parts, the filtered supernatant liquid and the precipitate slurry, which contains the TPB and the solid sodium titanate. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry, ion chromatography, and high performance liquid chromatography, over 50 organic and inorganic species have been identified in the aqueous portion of a simulated feedstock for TPB hydrolysis. The major organic species present are benzene, phenol, benzamide and a variety of substituted phenylphenols. The major inorganic species present are sodium, nitrite, and oxalate ions.

  20. Centrally acting oximes in reactivation of tabun-phosphoramidated AChE. (United States)

    Kovarik, Zrinka; Maček, Nikolina; Sit, Rakesh K; Radić, Zoran; Fokin, Valery V; Barry Sharpless, K; Taylor, Palmer


    Organophosphates (OP) inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC, both in peripheral tissues and central nervous system (CNS), causing adverse and sometimes fatal effects due to the accumulation of neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh). The currently used therapy, focusing on the reactivation of inhibited AChE, is limited to peripheral tissues because commonly used quaternary pyridinium oxime reactivators do not cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) at therapeutically relevant levels. A directed library of thirty uncharged oximes that contain tertiary amine or imidazole protonable functional groups that should cross the BBB as unionized species was tested as tabun-hAChE conjugate reactivators along with three reference oximes: DAM (diacetylmonoxime), MINA (monoisonitrosoacetone), and 2-PAM. The oxime RS150D [N-((1-(3-(2-((hydroxyimino)methyl)-1H-imidazol-1-yl)propyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methyl)benzamide] was highlighted as the most promising reactivator of the tabun-hAChE conjugate. We also observed that oximes RS194B [N-(2-(azepan-1-yl)ethyl)-2-(hydroxyimino)acetamide] and RS41A [2-(hydroxyimino)-N-(2-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)ethyl)acetamide], which emerged as lead uncharged reactivators of phosphylated hAChE with other OPs (sarin, cyclosarin and VX), exhibited only moderate reactivation potency for tabun inhibited hAChE. This implies that geometry of oxime access to the phosphorus atom conjugated to the active serine is an important criterion for efficient reactivation, along with the chemical nature of the conjugated moiety: phosphorate, phosphonate, or phosphoramidate. Moreover, modification of the active center through mutagenesis enhances the rates of reactivation. The phosphoramidated-hAChE choline-binding site mutant Y337A showed three-times enhanced reactivation capacity with non-triazole imidazole containing aldoximes (RS113B, RS113A and RS115A) and acetamide derivative (RS194B) than with 2PAM.

  1. 4-Pyridone-3-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribonucleoside triphosphate (4PyTP), a novel NAD metabolite accumulating in erythrocytes of uremic children: a biomarker for a toxic NAD analogue in other tissues? (United States)

    Synesiou, Elena; Fairbanks, Lynnette D; Simmonds, H Anne; Slominska, Ewa M; Smolenski, Ryszard T; Carrey, Elizabeth A


    We have identified a novel nucleotide, 4-pyridone 3/5-carboxamide ribonucleoside triphosphate (4PyTP), which accumulates in human erythrocytes during renal failure. Using plasma and erythrocyte extracts obtained from children with chronic renal failure we show that the concentration of 4PyTP is increased, as well as other soluble NAD(+) metabolites (nicotinamide, N(1)-methylnicotinamide and 4Py-riboside) and the major nicotinamide metabolite N(1)-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide (2PY), with increasing degrees of renal failure. We noted that 2PY concentration was highest in the plasma of haemodialysis patients, while 4PyTP was highest in erythrocytes of children undergoing peritoneal dialysis: its concentration correlated closely with 4Py-riboside, an authentic precursor of 4PyTP, in the plasma. In the dialysis patients, GTP concentration was elevated: similar accumulation was noted previously, as a paradoxical effect in erythrocytes during treatment with immunosuppressants such as ribavirin and mycophenolate mofetil, which deplete GTP through inhibition of IMP dehydrogenase in nucleated cells such as lymphocytes. We predict that 4Py-riboside and 4Py-nucleotides bind to this enzyme and alter its activity. The enzymes that regenerate NAD(+) from nicotinamide riboside also convert the drugs tiazofurin and benzamide riboside into NAD(+) analogues that inhibit IMP dehydrogenase more effectively than the related ribosides: we therefore propose that the accumulation of 4PyTP in erythrocytes during renal failure is a marker for the accumulation of a related toxic NAD(+) analogue that inhibits IMP dehydrogenase in other cells.

  2. 4-Pyridone-3-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribonucleoside Triphosphate (4PyTP, a Novel NAD+ Metabolite Accumulating in Erythrocytes of Uremic Children: A Biomarker for a Toxic NAD+ Analogue in Other Tissues?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Carrey


    Full Text Available We have identified a novel nucleotide, 4-pyridone 3/5-carboxamide ribonucleoside triphosphate (4PyTP, which accumulates in human erythrocytes during renal failure. Using plasma and erythrocyte extracts obtained from children with chronic renal failure we show that the concentration of 4PyTP is increased, as well as other soluble NAD+ metabolites (nicotinamide, N1-methylnicotinamide and 4Py-riboside and the major nicotinamide metabolite N1-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide (2PY, with increasing degrees of renal failure. We noted that 2PY concentration was highest in the plasma of haemodialysis patients, while 4PyTP was highest in erythrocytes of children undergoing peritoneal dialysis: its concentration correlated closely with 4Py-riboside, an authentic precursor of 4PyTP, in the plasma. In the dialysis patients, GTP concentration was elevated: similar accumulation was noted previously, as a paradoxical effect in erythrocytes during treatment with immunosuppressants such as ribavirin and mycophenolate mofetil, which deplete GTP through inhibition of IMP dehydrogenase in nucleated cells such as lymphocytes. We predict that 4Py-riboside and 4Py-nucleotides bind to this enzyme and alter its activity. The enzymes that regenerate NAD+ from nicotinamide riboside also convert the drugs tiazofurin and benzamide riboside into NAD+ analogues that inhibit IMP dehydrogenase more effectively than the related ribosides: we therefore propose that the accumulation of 4PyTP in erythrocytes during renal failure is a marker for the accumulation of a related toxic NAD+ analogue that inhibits IMP dehydrogenase in other cells.

  3. Pharmacological Characterization of the Edema Caused by Vitalius dubius (Theraphosidae, Mygalomorphae) Spider Venom in Rats. (United States)

    Rocha-E-Silva, Thomaz A A; Linardi, Alessandra; Antunes, Edson; Hyslop, Stephen


    Bites by tarantulas (Theraphosidae, Mygalomorphae) in humans can result in mild clinical manifestations such as local pain, erythema, and edema. Vitalius dubius is a medium-sized, nonaggressive theraphosid found in southeastern Brazil. In this work, we investigated the mediators involved in the plasma extravasation caused by V. dubius venom in rats. The venom caused dose-dependent (0.1-100 μg/site) edema in rat dorsal skin. This edema was significantly inhibited by ((S)1-{2-[3(3-4-dichlorophenyl)-1-(3-iso-propoxyphenylacetyl)piperidine-3-yl]ethyl}-4-phenyl-1-azoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octone, chloride) (SR140333, a neurokinin NK1 receptor antagonist), indomethacin [a nonselective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor], cyproheptadine (a serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine1/2 and histamine H1 receptor antagonist), and N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor). In contrast, mepyramine (a histamine H1 receptor antagonist), D-Arg-[Hyp(3),Thi(5),D-Tic(7),Oic(8)-]-BK (JE 049, a bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist), and ((S)-N-methyl-N-[4-(4-acetylamino-4-phenylpiperidino)-2-(3,4-di-chlorophenyl)butyl]benzamide) (SR48968, a neurokinin NK2 receptor antagonist) had no effect on the venom-induced increase in vascular permeability. In rat hind paws, the venom-induced edema was attenuated by ketoprofen (a nonselective COX inhibitor) administered 15 minutes postvenom. Preincubation of venom with commercial antiarachnid antivenom attenuated the venom-induced edema. These results suggest that the enhanced vascular permeability evoked by V. dubius venom involves serotonin, COX products, neurokinin NK1 receptors, and nitric oxide formation. The attenuation of hind paw edema by ketoprofen suggests that COX inhibitors could be useful in treating the local inflammatory response to bites by these spiders.

  4. Photophysical study of a polyoxo ethylene linked naphthalene-based fluorescent chemosensor for Mg2+ and Ca2+ detection. (United States)

    Xiang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Dan; Guo, Yali; Liu, Weisheng; Qin, Wenwu


    A naphthalene-based bichromophoric fluorescent sensor 2,2'-[oxy-bis(2-oxatetramethyleneoxy)]-bis[N-(2-naphthyl)-benzamide)] (1) was synthesized and characterized. Fluorescence decay for 1 in alcoholic solvents in the region of 415-460 nm revealed bi-exponential behavior. The faster component of the decay can be attributed to the formation of dimers. Above 480 nm, besides the dimer, there is also a little excimer formation and this excimer emits at longer wavelengths than the dimer. The observation of the change of the fluorescence emission spectra upon addition of water in EtOH-water mixtures is in line with the formation of water-bridged complexes preventing excimer formation. The sensor shows an increase in fluorescence intensity upon increasing Mg(2+) or Ca(2+) concentration in EtOH because the formation of the excimer can be hindered upon complexation with Mg(2+) or Ca(2+) ions. Because of the competition between hydrated metal ions and the water-bridged complex, spectral changes by complexation with Mg(2+) or Ca(2+) in EtOH-H2O (9 : 1 v/v) are quite different from those in neat ethanol. The ground-state dissociation constant K(d) estimated for the complex with Mg(2+) or Ca(2+) was found to be around 2.0 mM in EtOH-H2O (9 : 1 v/v), which makes it suitable for the measurement of the concentrations of these ions in physiologically relevant concentration ranges.

  5. HDAC inhibitors, MS-275 and salermide, potentiates the anticancer effect of EF24 in human pancreatic cancer cells (United States)

    Yar Saglam, Atiye Seda; Yilmaz, Akin; Onen, Hacer Ilke; Alp, Ebru; Kayhan, Handan; Ekmekci, Abdullah


    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play a major role in the regulation of chromatin structure and gene expression by changing acetylation status of histone and non-histone proteins. MS-275 (entinostat, MS) is a well-known benzamide-based HDACI and Salermide (SAL), a reverse amide compound HDACI, have antiproliferative effects on several human cancer cells. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of HDACIs (MS and SAL) alone and/or combined use with EF24 (EF), a novel synthetic curcumin analog, on human pancreatic cancer cell line (BxPC-3). In vitro, BxPC-3 cells were exposed to varying concentrations of MS, SAL with or without EF, and their effects on cell viability, acetylated Histone H3 and H4 levels, cytotoxicity, and cleaved caspase 3 levels, and cell cycle distribution were measured. The viability of BxPC-3 cells decreased significantly after treatment with EF, MS and SAL treatments. MS and SAL treatment increased the acetylation of histone H3 and H4 in a dose dependent manner. MS and SAL alone or combined with EF were increased the number of cells in G1 phase. In addition, treatment with agents significantly decreased the ratio of cell in G2/M phase. There were significant dose-dependent increases at cleaved Caspase 3 levels after MS treatment but not after SAL treatment. Our results showed that HDAC inhibitors (MS and SAL), when combined with EF, may effectively reduce pancreatic cancer cell (BxPC-3) progression and stop the cell cycle at G1 phase. Further molecular analyses are needed to understand the fundamental molecular consequences of HDAC inhibition in pancreas cancer cells. PMID:27330528

  6. Crystal Structures of Trypanosoma brucei Sterol 14[alpha]-Demethylase and Implications for Selective Treatment of Human Infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepesheva, Galina I.; Park, Hee-Won; Hargrove, Tatiana Y.; Vanhollebeke, Benoit; Wawrzak, Zdzislaw; Harp, Joel M.; Sundaramoorthy, Munirathinam; Nes, W. David; Pays, Etienne; Chaudhuri, Minu; Villalta, Fernando; Waterman, Michael R. (ULdB); (Vanderbilt); (TTU); (Toronto); (NWU); (Meharry)


    Sterol 14{alpha}-demethylase (14DM, the CYP51 family of cytochrome P450) is an essential enzyme in sterol biosynthesis in eukaryotes. It serves as a major drug target for fungal diseases and can potentially become a target for treatment of human infections with protozoa. Here we present 1.9 {angstrom} resolution crystal structures of 14DM from the protozoan pathogen Trypanosoma brucei, ligand-free and complexed with a strong chemically selected inhibitor N-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)ethyl-4-(5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadi-azol-2-yl)benzamide that we previously found to produce potent antiparasitic effects in Trypanosomatidae. This is the first structure of a eukaryotic microsomal 14DM that acts on sterol biosynthesis, and it differs profoundly from that of the water-soluble CYP51 family member from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, both in organization of the active site cavity and in the substrate access channel location. Inhibitor binding does not cause large scale conformational rearrangements, yet induces unanticipated local alterations in the active site, including formation of a hydrogen bond network that connects, via the inhibitor amide group fragment, two remote functionally essential protein segments and alters the heme environment. The inhibitor binding mode provides a possible explanation for both its functionally irreversible effect on the enzyme activity and its selectivity toward the 14DM from human pathogens versus the human 14DM ortholog. The structures shed new light on 14DM functional conservation and open an excellent opportunity for directed design of novel antiparasitic drugs.

  7. Na+/H+ exchange inhibition delays the onset of hypovolemic circulatory shock in pigs. (United States)

    Wu, Dongmei; Arias, Jaqueline; Bassuk, Jorge; Doods, Henri; Seidler, Randolph; Adams, Jose A; Abraham, William M


    Severe blood loss is a major cause of death occurring within hours of traumatic injury. Na+/H+ exchange (NHE-1) activity is an important determinant of the extent of ischemic myocardial injury. The goal of the present study was to test the hypothesis that NHE-1 inhibition delays the onset of hypovolemic circulatory shock, thereby preventing early death due to severe hemorrhage in pigs. Severe hypovolemia was studied in 16 (25.2 kg) anesthetized male pigs in steps of 10-, 20-, 30-, 40-, and 50-mL kg(-1) blood loss, each in 30-min intervals. Shed blood resuscitation was started 30 min after 50 mL kg(-1) blood loss. The experiment was terminated after 3 h of resuscitation. Eight pigs were used as seline control. Eight pigs received 3 mg kg(-1) benzamide, N-(aminoiminomethyl)-4-[4-(2-furanylcarbonyl)-1-piperazinyl]-3-(methylsulfonyl), methanesulfonate (NHE-1 inhibitor) 15 min before hemorrhage. Seven control pigs died at 40- to 50-mL kg(-1) blood loss. One control pig survived initial resuscitation but died soon after. In contrast, all animals treated with NHE-1 inhibitor survived the entire protocol. In control animals, cardiac output and MAP gradually decreased at each step of blood loss with marked increase in heart rate. Cardiovascular decompensation occurred at 40 mL kg(-1) blood loss. Na+/H+ exchange inhibition increased oxygen delivery, attenuated cardiovascular decompensation, delayed the onset of irreversible hypovolemic circulatory shock, and enabled resuscitation to survival. Echocardiography analysis showed that myocardial hypercontracture gradually developed with each step of blood loss in control animals, but this hypercontracture was attenuated in the animals receiving the NHE-1 inhibitor. We conclude that NHE-1 inhibition attenuates ischemic myocardial hypercontracture, cardiovascular decompensation, delays the onset of hypovolemic circulatory shock, and prevents early death in severe hemorrhage.

  8. On-line solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography–isotope dilution–tandem mass spectrometry approach to quantify N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide and oxidative metabolites in urine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuklenyik, Peter; Baker, Samuel E.; Bishop, Amanda M.; Morales-A, Pilar; Calafat, Antonia M., E-mail:


    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A fast assay to quantify the concentrations of N,N-Diethyl-m-Toluamide and two urinary metabolites was developed •It uses online SPE, reversed phase HPLC and tandem mass spectrometry •The method is precise and accurate with limits of detection ≤1 ng mL{sup −1} -- Abstract: Human exposure to N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) occurs because of the widespread use of DEET as an active ingredient in insect repellents. However, information on the extent of such exposure is rather limited. Therefore, we developed a fast on-line solid phase extraction–high performance liquid chromatography–isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method to measure in urine the concentrations of DEET and two of its oxidative metabolites: N,N-diethyl-3-(hydroxymethyl)benzamide and 3-(diethylcarbamoyl)benzoic acid (DCBA). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first HPLC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantification of DEET and its select metabolites in human urine. After enzymatic hydrolysis of the conjugated species in 0.1 mL of urine, the target analytes were retained and pre-concentrated on a monolithic column, separated from each other and from other urinary biomolecules on a reversed-phase analytical column, and detected by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization in positive ion mode. The limits of detection ranged from 0.1 ng mL{sup −1} to 1.0 ng mL{sup −1}, depending on the analyte. Accuracy ranged between 90.4 and 104.9%, and precision ranged between 5.5 and 13.1% RSD, depending on the analyte and the concentration. We tested the usefulness of this method by analyzing 75 urine samples collected anonymously in the Southeastern United States in June 2012 from adults with no known exposure to DEET. Thirty eight samples (51%) tested positive for at least one of the analytes. We detected DCBA most frequently and at the highest concentrations. Our results suggest that this method can be used for the analysis of a large

  9. Design and synthesis of a novel series of histamine H3 receptor antagonists through a scaffold hopping strategy. (United States)

    Gao, Zhongli; Hurst, William J; Hall, Daniel; Hartung, Ryan; Reynolds, William; Kang, Jiesheng; Nagorny, Raisa; Hendrix, James A; George, Pascal G


    Lead compounds 5-fluoro-2-methyl-N-[2-methyl-4-(2-methyl-[1,3']bipyrrolidinyl-1'-yl)-phenyl]-benzamide (1), tetrahydro-pyran-4-carboxylic acid [((2S,3'S)-2-methyl-[1,3']bipyrrolidinyl-1'-yl)-phenyl]-amide (2), and 3,5-dimethyl-isoxazole-4-carboxylic acid [((2S,3'S)-2-methyl-[1,3']bipyrrolidinyl-1'-yl)-phenyl]-amide (3) discovered in our laboratory, displayed high histamine H3 receptor (H3R) affinity, good selectivity and weak human Ether-à-go-go-Related Gene (hERG) channel affinity with desirable overall physico-chemical and pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles. Herein, we describe the design and synthesis of a novel series of H3R antagonists utilizing a scaffold hopping strategy. Further structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of the series culminated in the identification of ((2S,3'S)-2-methyl-[1,3']bipyrrolidinyl-1'-yl)-naphthalene-2-carboxylic acid (tetrahydro-pyran-4-yl)-amide (4c) and -[4-((2S,3'S)-2-methyl-[1,3']bipyrrolidinyl-1'-yl)-phenyl]-N-(tetrahydro-pyran-4-yl)-acetamide (4d), which exhibited good H3R affinity in vitro, good selectivity, and desirable PK properties. Compounds 4c and 4d were also assessed in cardiac safety experiments. In particular, the effects of the compounds on action potentials recorded from ventricular myocytes isolated from guinea pigs were used to screen compounds that not only displayed a low affinity towards hERG channel, but also had lower interference with other cardiac ion channels. Compound 4c did not alter the major parameters in this model system at ⩽10 μM, and no significant induction of any major haemodynamic effect when intravenously administered at 3mg/kg dose to anaesthetized mongrel dogs. Compound 4c is a new promising lead as orally potent and selective H3R antagonist belonging to a distinct structural class.

  10. Involvement of the 5-HT(1A) receptor in the anti-immobility effects of fluvoxamine in the forced swimming test and mouse strain differences in 5-HT(1A) receptor binding. (United States)

    Sugimoto, Yumi; Furutani, Sachiko; Kajiwara, Yoshinobu; Hirano, Kazufumi; Yamada, Shizuo; Tagawa, Noriko; Kobayashi, Yoshiharu; Hotta, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Jun


    We previously demonstrated the presence of strain differences in baseline immobility time and sensitivity to the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluvoxamine in five strains of mice (ICR, ddY, C57BL, DBA/2 and BALB/c mice). Furthermore, variations in serotonin (5-HT) transporter binding in the brain were strongly related to strain differences in baseline immobility and sensitivity to fluvoxamine. In the present study, we examined the involvement of the 5-HT(1A) receptor in anti-immobility effects in DBA/2 mice, which show high sensitivity to fluvoxamine. The anti-immobility effects of fluvoxamine in DBA/2 mice were inhibited by the 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist N-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-N-(2-pyridinyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide (WAY 100635). However, the 5-HT(1B) receptor antagonist 3-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]-4-hydroxy-N-[4-(4-pyridinyl)phenyl]benzamide (GR55562), the 5-HT(2) receptor antagonist 6-methyl-1-(methylethyl)-ergoline-8beta-carboxylic acid 2-hydroxy-1-methylpropyl ester (LY 53857), the 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist ondansetron and the 5-HT(4) receptor antagonist 4-amino-5-chloro-2-methoxy-benzoic acid 2-(diethylamino)ethyl ester (SDZ 205,557) did not influence the anti-immobility effects of fluvoxamine in DBA/2 mice. These results suggest that fluvoxamine-induced antidepressant-like effects in DBA/2 mice are mediated by the 5-HT(1A) receptor. We analyzed 5-HT(1A) receptor binding in the brains of five strains of mice. Strain differences in 5-HT(1A) receptor binding were observed. 5-HT(1A) receptor binding in brain was not correlated with baseline immobility time in the five strains of mice examined. These results suggest that, although the anti-immobility effects of fluvoxamine in DBA/2 mice are mediated by the 5-HT(1A) receptor, strain differences in 5-HT(1A) receptor binding are not related to variation in immobility time and responses to fluvoxamine.

  11. Antinociceptive activity of transient receptor potential channel TRPV1, TRPA1, and TRPM8 antagonists in neurogenic and neuropathic pain models in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kinga SAŁAT; Barbara FILIPEK


      结论:TRP通道家族包含了不同的小鼠疼痛模型。TRP通道拮抗剂能减轻神经源性、持续性和神经病理性疼痛,但是其镇痛效果与疼痛模型有关。%The aim of this research was to assess the antinociceptive activity of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel TRPV1, TRPM8, and TRPA1 antagonists in neurogenic, tonic, and neuropathic pain models in mice. For this purpose, TRP channel antagonists were administered into the dorsal surface of a hind paw 15 min before capsaicin, al yl isothiocyanate (AITC), or formalin. Their antial odynic and antihyperalgesic efficacies after intraperitoneal ad-ministration were also assessed in a paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain model. Motor coordination of paclitaxel-treated mice that received these TRP channel antagonists was investigated using the rotarod test. TRPV1 antagonists, capsazepine and SB-366791, attenuated capsaicin-induced nociceptive reaction in a concentration-dependent manner. At 8 µg/20 µl, this effect was 51%(P<0.001) for capsazepine and 37%(P<0.05) for SB-366791. A TRPA1 antagonist, A-967079, reduced pain reaction by 48%(P<0.05) in the AITC test and by 54%(P<0.001) in the early phase of the formalin test. The test compounds had no influence on the late phase of the formalin test. In paclitaxel-treated mice, they did not attenuate heat hyperalgesia but N-(3-aminopropyl)-2-{[(3-methylphenyl)methyl]oxy}-N-(2-thienylmethyl) benzamide hydrochloride salt (AMTB), a TRPM8 antagonist, reduced cold hyperalgesia and tactile al odynia by 31%(P<0.05) and 51%(P<0.01), respectively. HC-030031, a TRPA1 channel antagonist, attenuated tactile al odynia in the von Frey test (62%; P<0.001). In conclusion, distinct members of TRP channel family are involved in different pain models in mice. Antagonists of TRP channels attenuate nocifensive responses of neurogenic, tonic, and neuropathic pain, but their efficacies strongly depend on the pain model used.

  12. 贵州扁形绿茶香气成分组成研究%Study on the Aroma Components of Guizhou Flat Green Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑文佳; 沈强; 郑道芳


    To identify the aroma characteristics and components of the essential oil of Guizhou flat green tea, the paper adopted olfactory evaluation and headspace solid-phase microextraction together with gas chromatography- mass spectrometry technology (GC-MS). The results showed that Guizhou flat green tea had a rich aroma charac- terized by faint scent, chestnut-like aroma lasting and 53 compounds had been found from isolated 67 peaks as 86. 25 % of the total components, in which the upper relative content of the aroma constituents were 2,3-dihydro-1, 1, 3-trimethyl-3-phenyl-1H-indene (10.05 % ), phenylethyl alcohol(6.64 % ), benzyl alcohol (6. 07 % ), Butylat- ed hydroxytoluene (6.04 % ) , pentadecanoic acid (4.79 % ), (Z) -7, l 1-dimethyl-3-methylene_l, 6,10-dodeca- triene (4.38 % ), 2,4-diphenyl-4-methyl-l-pentene (4.31% ), 3-(2-cyclopentenyl)-2-methyl_l, 1-diphenyl-1- propene(2.95 % ) ,E)-3,7, 11-trimethyl-1,3,6,10-dodecatetraene (2.65 % ) and -longipinene (2.54 % ). Apart from that, dehydro-aromadendrene, N-ethyl-benzenamine, (Z)-3-methyl-2-(2,4-pentadienyl)-2-Cyclopenten- 1-one and N-tetrahydrofuffuryl-3-fluoro-benzamide were probably the characteristic fragrance ingredients of Guizhou flat green tea.%为了探索贵州扁形绿茶栗香高长品质特点的组成,采用感官审评法和顶空固相微萃取.气相色谱质谱法进行了所选样品精油成分分析鉴定。分离出67个峰,分析鉴定出53种化学成分,占总面积的86.25%。另外贵州扁形绿茶可能还有脱氢香木兰烯、N-乙基苯胺、(Z)-3-甲基-2-(2,4-戊二烯基)-2-环戊烯-1-酮、N-四氢呋喃甲基3-氟苯酰胺4种特有的香气成分。

  13. Dopamine D3 and D2 receptor mechanisms in the abuse-related behavioral effects of cocaine: studies with preferential antagonists in squirrel monkeys. (United States)

    Achat-Mendes, Cindy; Grundt, Peter; Cao, Jianjing; Platt, Donna M; Newman, Amy Hauck; Spealman, Roger D


    Dopamine (DA) D3 and D2 receptor mechanisms are implicated in cocaine's abuse-related behavioral effects, but the relative contribution of the two receptor subtypes is only partially characterized. This study investigated the role of D3 and D2 subtype mechanisms by determining the degree to which the D3-preferring antagonist PG01037 [N-{4-[4-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-piperazin- 1-yl]-trans-but-2-enyl}-4-pyridine-2-yl-benzamide HCl] and the D2-preferring antagonist L-741626 [3-[4-(4-chlorophenyl)-4- hydroxypiperidin-1-yl]methyl-1H-indole] attenuated several behavioral effects of cocaine in squirrel monkeys. Quantitative observational studies established doses of each antagonist that did not produce untoward effects, which were used in subsequent comparisons. In addition, the ability of the D3-preferring agonist PD128907 [(R-(+)-trans-3,4a,10b-tetrahydro-4-propyl-2H,5H-[1]benzopyrano[4,3-b]-1,4-oxazin-9-ol)] and the D2-preferring agonist sumanirole [(R)-5,6-dihydro-5-(methylamino)-4H- imidazo[4,5,1-ij]quinolin-2(1H)-one(Z)-2-butenedioate] to reproduce cocaine's discriminative stimulus (DS) and priming effects were compared. In monkeys trained to discriminate cocaine from vehicle, both DA antagonists attenuated and both DA agonists partially reproduced cocaine's DS effects. PG01037 also selectively attenuated the cocaine-like DS effects of PD128907, whereas L-741626 attenuated the cocaine-like DS effects of both agonists. In self-administration studies, L-741626 nonselectively reduced cocaine- and food-maintained responding, whereas PG01037 was ineffective against either reinforcer. In studies involving reinstatement of extinguished cocaine seeking, both antagonists attenuated cocaine-induced reinstatement of responding, and both agonists induced at least partial reinstatement of cocaine seeking. L-741626 also attenuated sumanirole-induced, but not PD128907-induced, reinstatement of responding, whereas PG01037 was ineffective against either DA agonist. The results are

  14. SIRT1 inactivation induces inflammation through the dysregulation of autophagy in human THP-1 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda-Watanabe, Ai; Kitada, Munehiro; Kanasaki, Keizo [Diabetology and Endocrinology, Kanazawa Medical University, Kahoku-Gun, Ishikawa (Japan); Koya, Daisuke, E-mail: [Diabetology and Endocrinology, Kanazawa Medical University, Kahoku-Gun, Ishikawa (Japan)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIRT1 inactivation decreases autophagy in THP-1 cell. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of autophagy induces inflammation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIRT1 inactivation induces inflammation through NF-{kappa}B activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The p62/Sqstm1 accumulation by impairment of autophagy is related to NF-{kappa}B activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIRT1 inactivation is involved in the activation of mTOR and decreased AMPK activation. -- Abstract: Inflammation plays a crucial role in atherosclerosis. Monocytes/macrophages are some of the cells involved in the inflammatory process in atherogenesis. Autophagy exerts a protective effect against cellular stresses like inflammation, and it is regulated by nutrient-sensing pathways. The nutrient-sensing pathway includes SIRT1, a NAD{sup +}-dependent histone deacetylase, which is implicated in the regulation of a variety of cellular processes including inflammation and autophagy. The mechanism through which the dysfunction of SIRT1 contributes to the regulation of inflammation in relation to autophagy in monocytes/macrophages is unclear. In the present study, we demonstrate that treatment with 2-[(2-Hydroxynaphthalen-1-ylmethylene)amino]-N-(1-phenethyl)benzamide (Sirtinol), a chemical inhibitor of SIRT1, induces the overexpression of inflammation-related genes such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha} and interleukin (IL)-6 through nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B signaling activation, which is associated with autophagy dysfunction, as shown through p62/Sqstm1 accumulation and decreased expression of light chain (LC) 3 II in THP-1 cells. The autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine, also induces inflammation-related NF-{kappa}B activation. In p62/Sqstm1 knockdown cells, Sirtinol-induced inflammation through NF-{kappa}B activation is blocked. In addition, inhibition of SIRT1 is involved in the activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway and

  15. A risk-benefit assessment of sulpiride in the treatment of schizophrenia. (United States)

    Mauri, M C; Bravin, S; Bitetto, A; Rudelli, R; Invernizzi, G


    Sulpiride is a substituted benzamide with a selective action on receptors of the dopamine D2-like family, and clinical and pharmacological data suggest that it could be considered to be an atypical antipsychotic. Sulpiride penetrates the blood-brain barrier poorly because of its low lipid solubility. It is mainly excreted unchanged in the urine, and accumulation of the drug could occur in patients with renal dysfunction and possibly in elderly patients with declining glomerular filtration rate. At low dosages (50 to 150 mg/day), sulpiride produces a disinhibiting and antidepressant effect, which is probably related to its action on D2 presynaptic autoreceptors, thus facilitating dopaminergic neurotransmission. Data have confirmed the efficacy of sulpiride in patients with acute or chronic schizophrenia during both short and long term treatment, but long term, placebo-controlled trials are still lacking. It is still doubtful whether sulpiride is more effective than typical antipsychotics for the treatment of negative symptoms. Data from clinical studies are controversial; the majority of authors indicate that sulpiride produces a better recovery rate from negative than from positive symptoms at low doses, but it shows a similar efficacy either on negative and positive symptoms at higher doses. The safety profile of sulpiride is similar to that of typical antipsychotics, although the frequency of adverse effects seems to be globally lower. Extrapyramidal reactions appear generally to be mild. Autonomic effects occur less frequently with sulpiride than with typical antipsychotics, showing no clinically relevant influence on cardiovascular parameters and, on the whole, good tolerability in elderly patients. Sulpiride is known to induce prolactin elevation in both serum and CSF, which may be associated with impotence in men and diminished gonadal function in women; these effects appear to be dosage-dependent. Sulpiride can be considered to be an atypical antipsychotic

  16. Ultra-structural cell distribution of the melanoma marker iodobenzamide: improved potentiality of SIMS imaging in life sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papon Janine


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analytical imaging by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS provides images representative of the distribution of a specific ion within a sample surface. For the last fifteen years, concerted collaborative research to design a new ion microprobe with high technical standards in both mass and lateral resolution as well as in sensitivity has led to the CAMECA NanoSims 50, recently introduced onto the market. This instrument has decisive capabilities, which allow biological applications of SIMS microscopy at a level previously inaccessible. Its potential is illustrated here by the demonstration of the specific affinity of a melanoma marker for melanin. This finding is of great importance for the diagnosis and/or treatment of malignant melanoma, a tumour whose worldwide incidence is continuously growing. Methods The characteristics of the instrument are briefly described and an example of application is given. This example deals with the intracellular localization of an iodo-benzamide used as a diagnostic tool for the scintigraphic detection of melanic cells (e.g. metastasis of malignant melanoma. B16 melanoma cells were injected intravenously to C57BL6/J1/co mice. Multiple B16 melanoma colonies developed in the lungs of treated animals within three weeks. Iodobenzamide was injected intravenously in tumour bearing mice six hours before sacrifice. Small pieces of lung were prepared for SIMS analysis. Results Mouse lung B16 melanoma colonies were observed with high lateral resolution. Cyanide ions gave "histological" images of the cell, representative of the distribution of C and N containing molecules (e.g. proteins, nucleic acids, melanin, etc. while phosphorus ions are mainly produced by nucleic acids. Iodine was detected only in melanosomes, confirming the specific affinity of the drug for melanin. No drug was found in normal lung tissue. Conclusion This study demonstrates the potential of SIMS microscopy, which allows the

  17. Avaliação de xaropes contendo cloridrato de metoclopramida, pelo método de Bratton-Marshall Evaluation of metoclopramide syrups by Bratton-Marshall method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Resende Freitas


    Full Text Available Atualmente, a maioria dos fármacos apresenta grupamento amínico. Estes quando associados a açúcares redutores ou a outros adjuvantes farmacêuticos contendo carbonila, freqüentemente produzem problemas de estabilidade, comprometendo a idoneidade do produto. A Reação de Maillard pode explicar tal ocorrência. Neste trabalho estudou-se o comportamento de xarope contendo amina aromática, tendo em vista a associação de açúcares e aminas, a Reação de Maillard e problemas de estabilidade. O protótipo escolhido foi o cloridrato de metoclopramida, benzamida com atividade farmacológica antiemética. Amostras dos xaropes de cloridrato de metoclopramida foram mantidas em estufa a 40 °C por seis meses. Em intervalos regulares de tempo alíquotas foram retiradas e submetidas à análise pelo método de Bratton-Marshall, seguida de leitura espectrofotométrica. Não houve grande variação no teor do cloridrato de metoclopramida em relação ao teor de açúcar, sendo que foram preparadas amostras padronizadas dos xaropes de cloridrato de metoclopramida em diferentes concentrações de açúcar. Houve diminuição do teor do cloridrato de metoclopramida, da ordem de 50%, tanto para amostras padronizadas como para amostra comercial.Nowadays, most of the drugs have amine group in their structure. These drugs, when associated to sugar reducers, or other carbonyl excipients frequently produce dark stains or fading. The Maillard reaction can explain such occurrence. In this work, we have studied the behavior of syrups containing aromatic amines. It is known that association of sugars and amines can generate problems of stability. The chosen prototype was the metoclopramide hydrochloride, a benzamide, with anti-emetic pharmacological activity. Samples of the metoclopramide syrups were maintained in stove at 40 °C for six months. In regular time intervals aliquots were removed and submitted to quantitative determination by the Bratton

  18. Receptor mapping in psychiatric patients with SPECT; Rezeptor-SPECT-Untersuchungen bei psychiatrischen Patienten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlegel, S. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Psychiatrische Klinik


    ). Eine Mitbeteiligung des BZ-Rezeptorsystems in der Pathogenese von Angst und Depression wird in der Literatur diskutiert. Es lag daher nahe, bei diesen Stoerungen die BZr-Bindung erstmals in vivo zu untersuchen. Eine weitere Studie war der Bestimmung der BZr-Besetzung unter klinischer Gabe von BZ (Lorazepam) gewidemt. Ergebnisse: (a) Patienten mit einer Panikstoerung wiesen deutlich niedrigere BZr-Werte auf als ein Referenzkollektiv. (b) Depressive Patienten zeigten eine positive Korrelation zwischen frontaler BZr-Bindung und dem Schweregrad der Erkrankung. (c) Unter Lorazepam-Medikation liess sich eine BZr-Besetzung nachweisen, die allerdings nicht mit den Lorazepam-Plasmaspiegeln korrelierte. Dopamin-D2-Rezeptoren: Mit IBZM, einem mit 123-Jod markierten Benzamid, kann die Dopamin-D2-Rezeptordichte im Striatum semiquantitativ erfasst werden. Wir untersuchten daher die Rezeptorbesetzung unter typischen und atypischen Neuroleptika in Relation zu Aequivalenzdosierungen, Nebenwirkungen und Prolaktinspiegeln. Ergebnisse: In Abhaengkeit von dem ausgewaehlten Aequivalenzdosisumrechnungsmodell fanden sich Korrelationen zwischen der Rezeptorbesetzung und der Dosis. Extrapyramidale Nebenwirkungen und Prolaktinplasmaspiegel korrelierten ebenfalls mit der Rezeptorbesetzung. (orig.)

  19. Inhibiting heat-shock protein 90 reverses sensory hypoalgesia in diabetic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian S J Blagg


    Full Text Available Increasing the expression of Hsp70 (heat-shock protein 70 can inhibit sensory neuron degeneration after axotomy. Since the onset of DPN (diabetic peripheral neuropathy is associated with the gradual decline of sensory neuron function, we evaluated whether increasing Hsp70 was sufficient to improve several indices of neuronal function. Hsp90 is the master regulator of the heat-shock response and its inhibition can up-regulate Hsp70. KU-32 (N-{7-[(2R,3R,4S,5R-3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxy-6,6-dimethyl-tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yloxy]-8-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl}acetamide was developed as a novel, novobiocin-based, C-terminal inhibitor of Hsp90 whose ability to increase Hsp70 expression is linked to the presence of an acetamide substitution of the prenylated benzamide moiety of novobiocin. KU-32 protected against glucose-induced death of embryonic DRG (dorsal root ganglia neurons cultured for 3 days in vitro. Similarly, KU-32 significantly decreased neuregulin 1-induced degeneration of myelinated Schwann cell DRG neuron co-cultures prepared from WT (wild-type mice. This protection was lost if the co-cultures were prepared from Hsp70.1 and Hsp70.3 KO (knockout mice. KU-32 is readily bioavailable and was administered once a week for 6 weeks at a dose of 20 mg/kg to WT and Hsp70 KO mice that had been rendered diabetic with streptozotocin for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks of diabetes, both WT and Hsp70 KO mice developed deficits in NCV (nerve conduction velocity and a sensory hypoalgesia. Although KU-32 did not improve glucose levels, HbA1c (glycated haemoglobin or insulin levels, it reversed the NCV and sensory deficits in WT but not Hsp70 KO mice. These studies provide the first evidence that targeting molecular chaperones reverses the sensory hypoalgesia associated with DPN.

  20. Inhibiting heat-shock protein 90 reverses sensory hypoalgesia in diabetic mice. (United States)

    Urban, Michael J; Li, Chengyuan; Yu, Cuijuan; Lu, Yuanming; Krise, Joanna M; McIntosh, Michelle P; Rajewski, Roger A; Blagg, Brian S J; Dobrowsky, Rick T


    Increasing the expression of Hsp70 (heat-shock protein 70) can inhibit sensory neuron degeneration after axotomy. Since the onset of DPN (diabetic peripheral neuropathy) is associated with the gradual decline of sensory neuron function, we evaluated whether increasing Hsp70 was sufficient to improve several indices of neuronal function. Hsp90 is the master regulator of the heat-shock response and its inhibition can up-regulate Hsp70. KU-32 (N-{7-[(2R,3R,4S,5R)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxy-6,6-dimethyl-tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yloxy]-8-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl}acetamide) was developed as a novel, novobiocin-based, C-terminal inhibitor of Hsp90 whose ability to increase Hsp70 expression is linked to the presence of an acetamide substitution of the prenylated benzamide moiety of novobiocin. KU-32 protected against glucose-induced death of embryonic DRG (dorsal root ganglia) neurons cultured for 3 days in vitro. Similarly, KU-32 significantly decreased neuregulin 1-induced degeneration of myelinated Schwann cell DRG neuron co-cultures prepared from WT (wild-type) mice. This protection was lost if the co-cultures were prepared from Hsp70.1 and Hsp70.3 KO (knockout) mice. KU-32 is readily bioavailable and was administered once a week for 6 weeks at a dose of 20 mg/kg to WT and Hsp70 KO mice that had been rendered diabetic with streptozotocin for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks of diabetes, both WT and Hsp70 KO mice developed deficits in NCV (nerve conduction velocity) and a sensory hypoalgesia. Although KU-32 did not improve glucose levels, HbA1c (glycated haemoglobin) or insulin levels, it reversed the NCV and sensory deficits in WT but not Hsp70 KO mice. These studies provide the first evidence that targeting molecular chaperones reverses the sensory hypoalgesia associated with DPN.

  1. Enhancement of social novelty discrimination by positive allosteric modulators at metabotropic glutamate 5 receptors: adolescent administration prevents adult-onset deficits induced by neonatal treatment with phencyclidine. (United States)

    Clifton, Nicholas E; Morisot, Nadège; Girardon, Sylvie; Millan, Mark J; Loiseau, Florence


    Metabotropic glutamate-5 receptors (mGluR5), which physically and functionally interact with N-methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptors, likewise control cognitive processes and have been proposed as targets for novel classes of antipsychotic agent. Since social cognition is impaired in schizophrenia and disrupted by NMDA receptor antagonists like dizocilpine, we evaluated its potential modulation by mGluR5. Acute administration (0.63-40 mg/kg) of the mGluR5 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs), 3-cyano-N-(1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)benzamide (CDPPB) and ADX47273, reversed a delay-induced impairment in social novelty discrimination (SND) in adult rats. The action of CDPPB was blocked by the mGluR5 antagonist, 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (2.5-10 mg/kg), and was also expressed upon microinjection into frontal cortex (0.63-10 μg/side), but not striatum. Supporting an interrelationship between mGluR5 and NMDA receptors, enhancement of SND by CDPPB was blocked by dizocilpine (0.08 mg/kg) while, reciprocally, dizocilpine-induced impairment in SND was attenuated by CDPPB (10 mg/kg). The SND deficit elicited by post-natal administration of phencyclidine (10 mg/kg, days 7-11) was reversed by CDPPB or ADX47273 in adults at week 8. This phencyclidine-induced impairment in cognition emerged in adult rats from week 7 on, and chronic, pre-symptomatic treatment of adolescent rats with CDPPB over weeks 5-6 (10 mg/kg per day) prevented the appearance of SND deficits in adults until at least week 13. In conclusion, as evaluated by a SND procedure, mGluR5 PAMs promote social cognition via actions expressed in interaction with NMDA receptors and exerted in frontal cortex. MGluR5 PAMs not only reverse but also (when given during adolescence) prevent the emergence of cognitive impairment associated with a developmental model of schizophrenia.

  2. Ethanol, not metabolized in brain, significantly reduces brain metabolism, probably via specific GABA(A) receptors (United States)

    Rae, Caroline D.; Davidson, Joanne E.; Maher, Anthony D.; Rowlands, Benjamin D.; Kashem, Mohammed A.; Nasrallah, Fatima A.; Rallapalli, Sundari K.; Cook, James M; Balcar, Vladimir J.


    Ethanol is a known neuromodulatory agent with reported actions at a range of neurotransmitter receptors. Here, we used an indirect approach, measuring the effect of alcohol on metabolism of [3-13C]pyruvate in the adult Guinea pig brain cortical tissue slice and comparing the outcomes to those from a library of ligands active in the GABAergic system as well as studying the metabolic fate of [1,2-13C]ethanol. Ethanol (10, 30 and 60 mM) significantly reduced metabolic flux into all measured isotopomers and reduced all metabolic pool sizes. The metabolic profiles of these three concentrations of ethanol were similar and clustered with that of the α4β3δ positive allosteric modulator DS2 (4-Chloro-N-[2-(2-thienyl)imidazo[1,2a]-pyridin-3-yl]benzamide). Ethanol at a very low concentration (0.1 mM) produced a metabolic profile which clustered with those from inhibitors of GABA uptake, and ligands showing affinity for α5, and to a lesser extent, α1-containing GABA(A)R. There was no measureable metabolism of [1,2-13C]ethanol with no significant incorporation of 13C from [1,2-13C]ethanol into any measured metabolite above natural abundance, although there were measurable effects on total metabolite sizes similar to those seen with unlabeled ethanol. The reduction in metabolism seen in the presence of ethanol is therefore likely to be due to its actions at neurotransmitter receptors, particularly α4β3δ receptors, and not because ethanol is substituting as a substrate or because of the effects of ethanol catabolites acetaldehyde or acetate. We suggest that the stimulatory effects of very low concentrations of ethanol are due to release of GABA via GAT1 and the subsequent interaction of this GABA with local α5-containing, and to a lesser extent, α1-containing GABA(A)R. PMID:24313287

  3. Structural and vibrational spectroscopic elucidation of sulpiride in solid state. (United States)

    Kecel-Gunduz, Serda; Celik, Sefa; Ozel, Aysen E; Akyuz, Sevim


    The study on the conformational and vibrational behaviors of sulpiride molecule which is known as a neuroleptic or antipsychotic drug that is widely used clinically in the treatment of schizophrenic or depressive disorders is an important scientific and practical task. In here, a careful enough study of monomer and dimeric forms of sulpiridine {5-(aminosulfonyl)-N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl) ethyl]-2-methoxy-benzamide (C(15)H(23)N(3)O(4)S)} is undertaken by density functional theory (DFTB3LYP) method with the B3LYP/6-31 G(d,p) basis set. The conformations of free molecule were searched by means of torsion potential energy surfaces scan studies through dihedral angles D1 (8 N, 18 C, 20 C, 23 N), D2 (18 C, 20 C, 23 N, 25 C) and D3 (28 C, 30 C, 41 S, 44 N) in electronically ground state, employing 6-31 G basic set. The final geometrical parameters for the obtained stable conformers were determined by means of geometry optimization, carried out at DFT/B3LYP/6-31 G(d,p) theory level. Afterwards, the possible dimer forms of the molecule were formed and their energetically preferred conformations were investigated. Moreover, the effect of basis set superposition error on the structure and energy of the three energetically favourable sulpiride dimers has been determined. The optimized structural parameters of the most stable monomer and three low energy dimer forms were used in the vibrational wavenumber calculations. Raman and IR (4000-400 cm(-1)) spectra of sulpiride have been recorded in the solid state. The assignment of the bands was performed based on the potential energy distribution data. The natural bond orbital analysis has been performed on both monomer and dimer geometries in order to elucidate delocalization of electron density within the molecule. The predicted frontier molecular orbital energies at DFT/B3LYP/6-31 G(d,p) theory level show that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. The first-order hyperpolarizability (β0) and related properties (μ and

  4. Pharmacological profile of DA-6886, a novel 5-HT4 receptor agonist to accelerate colonic motor activity in mice. (United States)

    Lee, Min Jung; Cho, Kang Hun; Park, Hyun Min; Sung, Hyun Jung; Choi, Sunghak; Im, Weonbin


    DA-6886, the gastrointestinal prokinetic benzamide derivative is a novel 5-HT4 receptor agonist being developed for the treatment of constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C). The purpose of this study was to characterize in vitro and in vivo pharmacological profile of DA-6886. We used various receptor binding assay, cAMP accumulation assay, organ bath experiment and colonic transit assay in normal and chemically constipated mice. DA-6886 exhibited high affinity and selectivity to human 5-HT4 receptor splice variants, with mean pKi of 7.1, 7.5, 7.9 for the human 5-HT4a, 5-HT4b and 5-HT4d, respectively. By contrast, DA-6886 did not show significant affinity for several receptors including dopamine D2 receptor, other 5-HT receptors except for 5-HT2B receptor (pKi value of 6.2). The affinity for 5-HT4 receptor was translated into functional agonist activity in Cos-7 cells expressing 5-HT4 receptor splice variants. Furthermore, DA-6886 induced relaxation of the rat oesophagus preparation (pEC50 value of 7.4) in a 5-HT4 receptor antagonist-sensitive manner. The evaluation of DA-6886 in CHO cells expressing hERG channels revealed that it inhibited hERG channel current with an pIC50 value of 4.3, indicating that the compound was 1000-fold more selective for the 5-HT4 receptor over hERG channels. In the normal ICR mice, oral administration of DA-6886 (0.4 and 2mg/kg) resulted in marked stimulation of colonic transit. Furthermore, in the loperamide-induced constipation mouse model, 2mg/kg of DA-6886 significantly improved the delay of colonic transit, similar to 10mg/kg of tegaserod. Taken together, DA-6886 is a highly potent and selective 5-HT4 receptor agonist to accelerate colonic transit in mice, which might be therapeutic agent having a favorable safety profile in the treatment of gastrointestinal motor disorders such as IBS-C and chronic constipation.

  5. Novas drogas no tratamento da dispepsia funcional New drugs for the treatment of functional dyspepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ernesto de Almeida TRONCON


    any evidence of structural abnormalities or organic disease. Current pharmacological treatment of functional dyspepsia is largely empirical and involves anti-secretory or prokinetic drugs. Aims - To review recent advances in the understanding of the mechanisms involved in symptom production in functional dyspepsia, as well as the development of new drugs that may interfere with these mechanisms, which may lead to more rational and effective treatment of this clinical condition. Method - Systematic review of papers published in English for the last 10 years. Results - New drugs that increase propulsive gastroduodenal motor activity include new benzamides similar to cisapride, CCK-A blockers, agonists of opiate receptors and motilin agonists similar to erythromycin. A number of agents, including sumatriptan and buspirone, stimulates serotonin receptors in the myoenteric plexuses and have been shown to increase gastric accommodation to a meal. Finally, a number of new drugs that either increase thresholds for visceral perception or modify sensations is currently under investigation. This includes agents of several groups, such as octreotide, loxiglumide, ondansetron and other serotonin blockers, fedotozine and tricyclic antidepressant at low doses. Conclusions - Although these new drugs may improve the pharmacological approach to the treatment of functional dyspepsia, there is a need for randomized, controlled trials to assess their efficacy. Moreover, difficulties related to the identification of the mechanisms underlying symptoms may limit the utilization of these new drugs.

  6. The carcinogenicity of certain derivatives of p-dimethylaminozobenz in the rat. (United States)



    , since the 3'-nitro derivative was incompletely absorbed its real activity appears to be about 1(1/2) times that of 4-dimethylaminoazobenzene. 2'-Nitro- and 2'-chloro-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene were about one-half to one-third as active and 4'-chloro-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene was approximately one-fourth as active as the parent dye. 3'-Ethoxy-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene and 3-methyl-4-monomethylaminoazobenzene exhibited only slight carcinogenic activity. The following compounds proved inactive: the benzamide of N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine; the diethyl, monoethyl, benzylmethyl, beta-hydroxyethylmethyl, and formyl derivatives of 4-aminoazobenzene on the amino group; and the 3-methyl, 3', 5'-dimethyl, 2',5'-dimethyl, and 2',4'-dimethyl derivatives of 4-dimethylaminoazobenzene. From the available data two conditions appear to be essential if a dye is to possess high activity: (1) at least one methyl group must be attached to the amino group together with the proper second substituent, and (2) the rings must bear either no substituents or carry only certain substituents, preferably in the 3' position. 3. The data on the carcinogenicity of the 2'-, 3'-, or 4'-methyl, chloro, and nitro derivatives of 4-dimethylaminoazobenzene show that the position of these groups determines the carcinogenicity of these compounds to a greater extent than does the type of group. The activity relationship was 3' > 2' > 4'. 4. Primary, secondary, and tertiary aminoazo dyes were determined in the livers and blood of rats fed aminoazo dyes which differed in the substituents on the amino group. The data show that deethylation of 4-diethyl-, 4-monoethyl-, and 4-ethylmethylaminoazobenzene occurs in vivo just as 4-dimethyl- and 4-monomethylaminoazobenzene are demethylated in vivo. However, 4-benzylmethylaminoazobenzene and 4-beta-hydroxyethylmethylaminoazobenzene were dealkylated only slightly under similar conditions. 5. The following new compounds are described: 4-ethylmethyl-, 4-monoethyl-, 4

  7. On the clinical impact of cerebral dopamine D{sub 2} receptor scintigraphy; Zur klinischen Wertigkeit der zerebralen Dopamin-D{sub 2}-Rezeptorszintigraphie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larisch, R. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Klimke, A. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Psychiatrische Klinik


    The present review describes findings and clinical indications for the dopamine D{sub 2} receptor scintigraphy. Methods for the examination of D{sub 2} receptors are positron emission tomography (PET) using {sup 11}C- or {sup 18}F-labelled butyrophenones or benzamides or single photon emission tomography (SPECT) using {sup 123}I-iodobenzamide (IBZM) respectively. The most important indication in neurology is the differential diagnosis of Parkinsonism: Patients with early Parkinson`s disease show an increased D{sub 2} receptor binding (D{sub 2}-RB) compared to control subjects. However, patients suffering from Steele-Richardson-Olszewski-Syndrome or Multiple System Atrophy show a decreased D{sub 2}-RB and are generally non-responsive to treatment. Postsynaptic blockade of D{sub 2} receptors results in a drug induced Parkinsonian syndrome, which can be diagnosed by D{sub 2} scintigraphy. Further possible indications occur in psychiatry: The assessment of receptor occupancy is useful in schizophrenic patients treated with neuroleptics. Additionally, D{sub 2} receptor scintigraphy might help to clarify the differential diagnosis between neuroleptic malignant syndrome and lethal catatonia. The method might be useful for supervising neurobiochemical changes in drug dependency and during withdrawal. Assessment of dopamine D{sub 2} receptor binding can simplify the choice of therapy in depressive disorder: Patients showing a low D{sub 2} binding are likely to improve following an antidepressive drug treatment whereas sleep deprivation is promising in patients with high D{sub 2} binding. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die vorliegende Arbeit gibt eine Uebersicht ueber Befunde und klinische Indikationen zur Dopamin-D{sub 2}-Rezeptorszintigraphie. Methoden zur Untersuchung der D{sub 2}-Rezeptoren sind die Positronen-Emissions-Tomographie (PET) mit {sup 11}C- oder {sup 18}F-markierten Butyrophenonen oder Benzamiden oder die Einzelphotonen-Emissions-Tomographie (SPECT) mit {sup 123}I

  8. 一株除草剂氰氟草酯降解菌的分离鉴定与降解特性%Isolation of a Cyhalofop-butyl-degrading Bacterium and Its Degradation Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂志娟; 顾谢军; 蔡舒; 谢香婷; 何健; 郑金伟; 李顺鹏


    Stenotrophomonas sp. The degradation rate was about 88.2% when the strain with an inoculum size of 5% (V/V) was incubated at the concentration of 100 mg/L cyhalofop-butyl for 5 d. And large initial inoculum size could promote the degradation in the range of 5%. The optimal pH and temperature for cyhalofop-butyl degradation were 7.0 and 30 ℃, respectively. Three metabolites of cyhalofop-butyl degradation by strain QDZ-B were identified as cyhalofop acid, cyhalofop amide and 2-fluoro-(3-p-ethoxy-phenoxy) benzamide by HPLC/MS analysis. Fig 11, Ref 21

  9. “一锅法”合成2-氨基-N,3-二甲基-5-卤代苯甲酰胺%One-Pot Synthesis of 2-Amino-5-halogenated-N,3-dimethylben-zamides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦伟艳; 刘波; 由君; 马静; 李香; 吕程程


    报道了从3-甲基-2-氨基苯甲酸出发一锅三步合成2-氨基-N,3-二甲基-5-卤代苯甲酰胺的方法.3-甲基-2-氨基苯甲酸(1)与固体光气反应生成中间体8-甲基-2H-3,1-苯并噁嗪-2,4(1H)-二酮(2),化合物2与甲胺水溶液发生胺解反应生成2-氨基-N,3-二甲基苯甲酰胺(3),3再与氯代丁二酰亚胺(NCS)、溴代丁二酰亚胺(NBS)或碘代丁二酰亚胺(NIS)发生芳香亲电取代反应生成目标产物2-氨基-N,3-二甲基-5-卤代苯甲酰胺(4~6).整个反应过程不需分离中间产品,最终产物经减压浓缩除去有机溶剂后,直接从水中析出针状晶体,总收率达到87%~94%,较文献报道的分步法收率提高30%以上.该方法工艺操作简单、反应条件温和、反应时间短、收率高,是一条环境友好的绿色合成路线.%The synthetic method of 2-amino-5-halogenated-N,3-dimethylbenzamides is reported from 2-amino-3-methylbenzoic acid by three steps in one pot. Firstly, 8-methyl-2H-3,l-benzoxazine-2,4(1H)-dione (2) was synthesized by using 2-amino-3-methylbenzoic acid (1) and bis(trichloromethyl) carbonate. Secondly, 2-amino-N,3-dimethyl-benzamide (3) was prepared through the aminolysis of compounds 2 and aqueous methylamine. Lastly the target products 2-amino-5-halogenated- N,3-dimethylbenzamides (4 ~ 6) were obtained by using 3 and N-chlorosuccinimide (NCS), iV-bromosuccinimide (NBS) or iV-iodosuccinimide (NIS) through electrophilic aromatic substitution. This whole process does not need to separate the middle products, and the needlelike crystals of the target product can be directly separated from water after evaporating the organic solvent under reduced pressure. The overall yield was 87%~94%, at least 30% higher than using the substep methods which reported by early literatures. This method gets the advantages of simple work-up procedure, milder conditions, shorter reaction time, higher yield and environ-mental friendliness, which is a green synthetic route.

  10. 5-HT1A receptors are involved in the modulation of discharge activities of biphasic expiratory neurons and inspiratory neurons%5-HT1A受体对双相呼气和吸气神经元电活动的调制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦峥; 王晓锋; 郭谦; 吴中海


    目的 探讨5-HT1A受体对延髓脑片双相呼气神经元和吸气神经元电活动的影响.方法 在新生大鼠延髓脑片上同步记录舌下神经根和双相呼气神经元/吸气神经元单位的放电活动,并在灌流的改良Kreb'S液中先后加以5-HT1A受体的特异性激动剂(+/-)-8-hydroxy-2-(di-N-propylamino)tetralin hydrobromide(8-OH-DPAT)和特异性拮抗剂多次甲基多苯基多异氰酸酯[4-iodo-N-[2-[4-(methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-N-2-pyridynyl-benzamide hydrochloride](PMPPI)观察对神经元单位放电的影响.结果 给予5-HT1A受体激动剂8-OH-DPAT后,双相呼气神经元/吸气神经元的呼吸周期和呼气时程明显延长,积分幅度降低,单位放电峰频率显著性降低;给予特异性拮抗剂PMPPI后,对呼吸周期,呼气时程的作用相反,而积分幅度和单位放电峰频率无明显变化.结论 5-HT1A受体可能通过影响双相呼气神经元的电活动参与了呼吸时相的转换,同时也可能介导了吸气神经元的抑制性突触输入.%Objective To determine whether 5-HT1A receptors could modulate the discharge activities of biphasic expiratory neurons(BE-neurons)and inspiratory neurons (I-neurons).Methods Brainstem slices from newborn SD rats(0~3d)were made according to the method of Suzue,et al.These preparations included the medial region of the nucleus retrofacialis (mNRF)with the hypoglossal nerve rootlets retained.Respiratory rhythmical discharge activities (RRDA)of BE-neurons/I-neurons in mNRF and activities of the hypoglossal nerve(Ⅻ nerve)were simultaneously recorded by using extracellular microelectrodes and suction electrode,respectively.The effects of 5-HT1A receptors on the respiratory rhythm were investigated by application of 5-HT1A receptor specific agonist 8-OH-DPAT and its specific antagonist PMPPI in the perfusion solution.Results 8-OHDPAT induced a significant increase in the respiratory cycles(RC)and the expiratory time (TE) as well as a decrease

  11. 查尔酮类似化合物的合成及其抑菌活性研究%Study on Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of Chalcone Analogues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田珈源; 罗青春; 梁华忠; 谌晓洪


    [目的]合成查尔酮类似化合物,并研究其抑菌活性,以寻找高效、安全的抑菌活性化合物.[方法]以苯甲酰氯类化合物和胺类化合物为原料,通过酰氯的胺解反应设计并合成了16种查尔酮类似化合物,对其分子结构经红外光谱(IR)和氢核磁共振波谱(1H NMR)进行确认.[结果]该类化合物具有一定的抑菌活性,当浓度为100 mg/L时,化合物A2(2-氯-N-苯基苯甲酰胺)对水稻纹枯病(Rhizoctonia solani)和油菜菌核病菌(Sclerotiua sclerotiorum的抑制率分别达90.27%和92.56%.[结论]产物A2为查尔酮的类似化合物,且属于天然产物,在自然界中能够自然降解,不会引起环境污染;而且其化学结构简单,人工合成也比较容易,可以以此为先导化合物对其结构进行优化和改造;研究其结构和活性之间的关系,开发出高效、低毒、对非靶标生物安全的新型抑菌剂.%[Objective] To synthesize chalcone analogues and study their antifungal activity so as to find high-efficient and safe compounds with antifungal activity. [Method] With benzoyl chloride compounds and amines as the materials, 16 chalcone analogues were designed and synthe sized through the aminolysis reaction of acyl chloride, and their molecular structures were determined by IR and ' H NMR. [ Result ] The chal cone analogues had certain antifungal activity. The antifungal rate of 100 mg/L compound A2 (2-chloro-N-phenyl benzamide) against Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotiua sclerotiorum reached 90. 27% and 92.56% , respectively. [Conclusion] Product A2 was an analogue of the natural product chalcone that could naturally degrade without causing environmental pollution. What's more, its chemical structure was simple and easy to pre pare. Using A2 as a lead compound, new high-efficient and low-toxic antifungal agents which were safe to the non-target organisms could be de veloped through optimizing its chemical structure and studying the relationship

  12. Optimization of cross-coupling reaction for synthesis of antitumor drug vismodegib%合成抗肿瘤药物 vismodegib 的交叉偶联反应工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹萌; 赵虎城; 胡兵; 吉民


    为了提高抗肿瘤药物 vismodegib 合成反应的产率并控制反应成本,制备了合成目标化合物所需的中间体,并对 Negishi 偶联反应条件进行了考察.通过单因素分析法,研究了不同的摩尔比、催化剂用量和回流时间对反应的影响.结果表明,在反应混合物2-溴吡啶、2-氯-N-(4-氯-3-碘苯基)-4-(甲磺酰)苯甲酰胺、氯化锌、正丁基锂和四(三苯基膦)钯的摩尔比为1.0∶0.5∶1.5∶1.1∶0.05及回流时间为24 h 的条件下,反应收率提高到了72%.该反应条件明显提高了合成效率,避免了原料/催化剂的过多消耗,同时避免了过长的反应时间.反应体系配比和反应时间的优化在合成 vismodegib 的过程中对提高效率和经济性有重要作用.%In order to improve the yield and reduce the cost in the synthesis of antitumor drug vismodegib the key intermediates are prepared and the Negishi reaction step is examined.The effects of different molar ratios of reactants dosages of catalyst and time for refluxing are investigated by using single factor tests.The results demonstrate that when the molar ratios of 2-bromopyridine 2-chloro-N-4-chloro-3-iodophenyl -4-methylsulfonyl benzamide zinc chloride n-butyllithium and tetrakis triphenyl phosphine palladium are changed to 1.0∶0.5∶1.5∶1.1∶0.05 and the mixture is refluxed for 24 h the production yield is improved to 72%.This reaction condition significantly enhances the synthetic efficiency avoids consuming excessive raw materials/catalysts and meanwhile prevents a prolonged reaction time.The optimization of the proportion of reactants and the heating time is proved to be important for the efficiency and economy in cross-coupling reaction to synthesize vismodegib.

  13. Novel 99mTc labeled

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN; Caiyun


    [1]Quirion,R.,Bowen,W.D.,Itzhak, al.,A proposal for the classification of sigma binding sites,Trends Pharmacol.Sci.,1992,13:85-86.[2]Su,T.P.,Sigma receptors:Putative links between nervous,endocrine and immune systems,Eur.J.Biochem.,1991,200:633-642.[3]Guitart,X.,Codony,X.,Monroy,X.,Sigma receptors:Biology and therapeutic potential,Psychopharmacology,2004,174:301-319.[4]Vilner,B.J.,John,C.S.,Bowen,W.D.,Sigma-1 and sigma-2 receptors are expressed in a wide variety of human and rodent tumor cell lines,Cancer Res.,1995,55:408-413.[5]Mach,R.H.,Smith,C.R.,al-Nabulsi, al.,σ2 receptors as potential biomarkers of proliferation in breast cancer,Cancer Res.,1997,57:156-161.[6]Shiue,C.Y.,Shiue,G.G.,Zhang, al.,N-(N-benzylpi-peridin-4-yl)-2-[18F]fluorobenzamide:A potential ligand for PET imaging of σ receptors,Nucl.Med.Biol.,1997,24:671-676.[7]Dence,C.S.,John,C.S.,Bowen, al.,Synthesis and evaluation of [18F] labeled benzamides:High affinity sigma receptor ligands for PET imaging,Nucl.Med.Biol.,1997,24:333-340.[8]Shiue,C.Y.,Shiue,G.G.,Benard, al.,N-(N-benzylpi-peridin-4-yl)-2-[18F]fluorobenzamide:A potential ligand for PET imaging of breast cancer,Nucl.Med.Biol.,2000,27:763-767.[9]Rowland,D.J.,Tu,Z.,Mach, al.,Investigation of a new sigma-2 receptor ligand for detection of breast cancer,J.Labelled Cpd.Radiopharm.,2003,46:S6.[10]Everaert,H.,Flamen,P.,Franken, al.,Sigma receptor imaging by means of 123-IDAB scintigraphy;clinical application in melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer,Anticancer Res.,1997,17:1577-1582.[11]John,C.S.,Gulden,M.E.,Li, al.,Synthesis,in vitro binding,and tissue distribution of radioiodinated 2-[125I]N-(N-benzylpip-eridin-4-yl)-2-iodobenzamide,2-[125I]BP:A potential σ receptor marker for human prostate tumors,Nucl.Med.Biol.,1998,25:189-194.[12]Staelens,L.,Oltenfreiter,R.,Dumont, al.,In vivo evaluation of [123I]-4-iodo-N-(4-(4-(2-me-thoxyphenyl)-piperazin-1-yl)butyl)-benzamide:A potential sigma receptor ligand