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Sample records for benzaanthracenes

  1. Benz[a]anthracene biotransformation and production of ring fission products by Sphingobium sp. strain KK22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunihiro, Marie; Ozeki, Yasuhiro; Nogi, Yuichi; Hamamura, Natsuko; Kanaly, Robert A

    2013-07-01

    A soil bacterium, designated strain KK22, was isolated from a phenanthrene enrichment culture of a bacterial consortium that grew on diesel fuel, and it was found to biotransform the persistent environmental pollutant and high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) benz[a]anthracene. Nearly complete sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene of strain KK22 and phylogenetic analysis revealed that this organism is a new member of the genus Sphingobium. An 8-day time course study that consisted of whole-culture extractions followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses with fluorescence detection showed that 80 to 90% biodegradation of 2.5 mg liter(-1) benz[a]anthracene had occurred. Biodegradation assays where benz[a]anthracene was supplied in crystalline form (100 mg liter(-1)) confirmed biodegradation and showed that strain KK22 cells precultured on glucose were equally capable of benz[a]anthracene biotransformation when precultured on glucose plus phenanthrene. Analyses of organic extracts from benz[a]anthracene biodegradation by liquid chromatography negative electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry [LC/ESI(-)-MS/MS] revealed 10 products, including two o-hydroxypolyaromatic acids and two hydroxy-naphthoic acids. 1-Hydroxy-2- and 2-hydroxy-3-naphthoic acids were unambiguously identified, and this indicated that oxidation of the benz[a]anthracene molecule occurred via both the linear kata and angular kata ends of the molecule. Other two- and single-aromatic-ring metabolites were also documented, including 3-(2-carboxyvinyl)naphthalene-2-carboxylic acid and salicylic acid, and the proposed pathways for benz[a]anthracene biotransformation by a bacterium were extended.

  2. Crystal induced phosphorescence from Benz(a)anthracene microcrystals at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Samir; Mazumdar, Prativa; Shyamal, Milan; Sahoo, Gobinda Prasad; Misra, Ajay

    2016-03-01

    Pure organic compounds that are also phosphorescent at room temperature are very rare in literature. Here, we report efficient phosphorescence emission from aggregated hydrosol of Benz(a)anthracene (BaA) at room temperature. Aggregated hydrosol of BaA has been synthesized by re-precipitation method and SDS is used as morphology directing agent. Morphology of the particles is characterized using optical and scanning electronic microcopy (SEM). Photophysical properties of the aggregated hydrosol are carried out using UV-vis, steady state and time resolved fluorescence study. The large stoke shifted structured emission from aggregated hydrosol of BaA has been explained due to phosphorescence emission of BaA at room temperature. In the crystalline state, the restricted intermolecular motions (RIM) such as rotations and vibrations are activated by crystal lattice. This rigidification effect makes the chromophore phosphorescent at room temperature. The possible stacking arrangement of the neighboring BaA within the aggregates has been substantiated by computing second order Fukui parameter as local reactivity descriptors. Computational study also reveals that the neighboring BaA molecules are present in parallel slipped conformation in its aggregated crystalline form.

  3. Piezochromism and structural and electronic properties of benz[a]anthracene under pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Weizhao; Zhang, Rong; Yao, Yansun; Deemyad, Shanti

    2017-01-31

    We report a combined experimental and theoretical study of the high pressure behavior of a herringbone-type hydrocarbon benz[a]anthracene (BaA) using fluorescence spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, optical absorption, photoconductivity measurements, and first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The ambient-pressure molecular solid phase of BaA was found to be stable up to ~15.0 GPa. Increasing the external pressure within this region would induce a reversible piezochromic colour change in the sample, from yellow-green to light brown. The reversibility of the colour change was confirmed by both optical observations and fluorescence measurements. Further compression beyond 15 GPa leads to polymerization of the sample and formation of an amorphous hydrogenated carbon. The low pressure crystalline phase is not recoverable when the sample is decompressed from pressure above 15 GPa. DFT investigation of the structures at zero temperature suggests that the formation of a crystalline polymeric phase can take place between 30 and 117 GPa, however the kinetic barriers hinder the process at low pressure regions. The phase transition is therefore suggested to proceed along a gradual transition path to an amorphous phase at a lower reaction threshold, activated by finite temperature effects. Optical absorption measurements reveal that the band gap of BaA decreases at high pressure, from 2.4 eV at 0.5 GPa to 1.0 eV at 50.6 GPa. The DFT calculations further suggest that the band gap of BaA in the molecular phase could reduce to ~0.1 eV at 117 GPa. Photoconductivity measurements show a continuous increase of photocurrent in the molecular phase region, which most likely originated from the increase of carrier mobility under pressure.

  4. Toxicity of benz(a)anthracene and fluoranthene to marine phytoplankton in culture: Does cell size really matter?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, Hiba Ben [UMR 5119 ECOSYM, CNRS-IRD-Universite Montpellier II-Ifremer-Universite Montpellier I, SMEL 2 rue des Chantiers, F-34200 Sete (France); Laboratoire de Cytologie Vegetale et Phytoplanctonologie, Faculte des Sciences de Bizerte, Universite de Carthage, Zarzouna 7021, Bizerte (Tunisia); Leboulanger, Christophe, E-mail: christophe.leboulanger@ird.fr [UMR 5119 ECOSYM, CNRS-IRD-Universite Montpellier II-Ifremer-Universite Montpellier I, SMEL 2 rue des Chantiers, F-34200 Sete (France); Le Floc' h, Emilie [UMS MEDIMEER, CNRS-Universite Montpellier II, SMEL 2 rue des Chantiers F-34200 Sete (France); Hadj Mabrouk, Hassine; Sakka Hlaili, Asma [Laboratoire de Cytologie Vegetale et Phytoplanctonologie, Faculte des Sciences de Bizerte, Universite de Carthage, Zarzouna 7021, Bizerte (Tunisia)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the marine environment are a hazardous chemical legacy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Benz(a)anthracene and fluoranthene are toxic to phytoplankton photosynthesis and growth in culture. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acute (photosynthesis) and chronic (population growth) effects have different thresholds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Toxicity depends on both the species selected as a model and the compound considered. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Further study of the size/sensitivity relationship is required to draw more general conclusions. - Abstract: The toxicity of benz(a)anthracene and fluoranthene (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs) was evaluated on seven species of marine algae in culture belonging to pico-, nano-, and microphytoplankton, exposed to increasing concentrations of up to 2 mg L{sup -1}. The short-term (24 h) toxicity was assessed using chlorophyll a fluorescence transients, linked to photosynthetic parameters. The maximum quantum yield Fv/Fm was lower at the highest concentrations tested and the toxicity thresholds were species-dependent. For acute effects, fluoranthene was more toxic than benz(a)anthracene, with LOECs of 50.6 and 186 {mu}g L{sup -1}, respectively. After 72 h exposure, there was a dose-dependent decrease in cell density, fluoranthene being more toxic than benz(a)anthracene. The population endpoint at 72 h was affected to a greater extent than the photosynthetic endpoint at 24 h. EC50 was evaluated using the Hill model, and species sensitivity was negatively correlated to cell biovolume. The largest species tested, the dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella, was almost insensitive to either PAH. The population endpoint EC50s for fluoranthene varied from 54 {mu}g L{sup -1} for the picophytoplankton Picochlorum sp. to 418 {mu}g L{sup -1} for the larger diatom Chaetoceros muelleri. The size/sensitivity relationship is proposed as a useful model when

  5. Oxidative DNA damage induced by benz[a]anthracene dihydrodiols in the presence of dihydrodiol dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seike, Kazuharu; Murata, Mariko; Hirakawa, Kazutaka; Deyashiki, Yoshihiro; Kawanishi, Shosuke

    2004-11-01

    Tobacco smoke and polluted air are risk factors for lung cancer and contain many kinds of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) including benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and benz[a]anthracene (BA). BA, as well as B[a]P, is assessed as probably carcinogenic to humans (IARC group 2A). BA is metabolized to several dihydrodiols. Dihydrodiol dehydrogenase (DD), a member of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily, catalyzes NAD(P)+-linked oxidation of dihydrodiols of aromatic hydrocarbons to corresponding catechols. To clarify the role of DD on PAH carcinogenesis, we examined oxidative DNA damage induced by trans-dihydrodiols of BA and B[a]P treated with DD using 32P-5'-end-labeled DNA fragments obtained from the human p53 tumor suppressor gene. In addition, we investigated the formation of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), an indicator of oxidative DNA damage, in calf thymus DNA by using HPLC with an electrochemical detector. DD-catalyzed BA-1,2-dihydrodiol caused Cu(II)-mediated DNA damage including 8-oxodG formation in the presence of NAD+. BA-1,2-dihydrodiol induced a Fpg sensitive and piperidine labile G lesion at the 5'-ACG-3' sequence complementary to codon 273 of the human p53 tumor suppressor gene, which is known as a hotspot. DNA damage was inhibited by catalase and bathocuproine, suggesting the involvement of H2O2 and Cu(I). The observation of NADH production by UV-visible spectroscopy suggested that DD catalyzed BA-1,2-dihydrodiol most efficiently to the corresponding catechol among the PAH-dihydrodiols tested. A time-of-flight mass spectroscopic study showed that the catechol form of BA-1,2-dihydrodiol formed after DD treatment. In conclusion, BA-1,2-dihydrodiol can induce DNA damage more efficiently than B[a]P-7,8-dihydrodiol and other BA-dihydrodiols in the presence of DD. The reaction mechanism on oxidative DNA damage may be explained by theoretical calculations with an enthalpy change of dihydrodiols and oxidation potential of their catechol forms. DD

  6. Biodegradation of anthracene and benz[a]anthracene by two Fusarium solani strains isolated from mangrove sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi-Rui; Luo, Zhu-Hua; Vrijmoed, L L P

    2010-12-01

    An investigation was undertaken on the biodegradation of two kinds of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), anthracene (ANT) and benz[a]anthracene (BAA), by fungi isolated from PAH-contaminated mangrove sediments environment in Ma Wan, Hong Kong. ANT (50mg l(-1)) and BAA (20mg l(-1)), respectively, were added to mineral salt medium initially for screening of PAH-degrading fungi, and finally two fungal species capable of using ANT or BAA as the sole carbon source were isolated and identified as Fusariumsolani species. Removal of ANT and BAA reached 40% and 60% of the added amount, respectively, after 40 days of incubation. A total of six metabolites were isolated and characterized by solid phase microextraction (SPME) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), which indicate that F.solani degraded both ANT and BAA via their respective quinone molecules to generate phthalic acid. Free extracellular laccase was detected during the degradation process without detectable lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese-dependent peroxidase (MnP), suggesting that laccase might play an important role in the transformation of PAHs compounds.

  7. Taurine Regulates Mitochondrial Function During 7,12-Dimethyl Benz[a]anthracene Induced Experimental Mammary Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manickam Kalappan Vanitha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study was undertaken to determine the modulatory effect of taurine on the liver mitochondrial enzyme system with reference to mitochondrial lipid peroxidation (LPO, antioxidants, major tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes, and electron transport chain enzymes during 7,12-dimethyl benz[a]anthracene (DMBA induced breast cancer in Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods: Animals in which breast cancer had been induced by using DMBA (25 mg/kg body weight showed an increase in mitochondrial LPO together with decreases in enzymic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione reductase (GR and glutathione-S-transferase (GST, non-enzymic antioxidants (reduced glutathione (GSH, vitamin C, and vitamin E, in citric acid cycle enzymes (isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH, alpha ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (alpha KDH, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH and malate dehydrogenase (MDH, and in electron transport chain (ETC complexes. Results: Taurine (100 mg/kg body weight treatment decreased liver mitochondrial LPO and augmented the activities/levels of enzymic, and non-enzymic antioxidants, tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes and ETC complexes. Conclusion: The results of our present study demonstrated the chemotherapeutic efficacy of taurine treatment for DMBA-induced breast carcinomas.

  8. UVA Photoirradiation of Oxygenated Benz[a]anthracene and 3-Methylcholanthene - Generation of Singlet Oxygen and Induction of Lipid Peroxidation

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    Diógenes Herreño Sáenz

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are widespread genotoxic environmental pollutants and potentially pose a health risk to humans. Although the biological and toxicological activities, including metabolism, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity, of PAHs have been thoroughly studied, their phototoxicity and photo-induced biological activity have not been well examined. We have long been interested in phototoxicity of PAHs and their derivatives induced by irradiation with UV light. In this paper we report the photoirradiation of a series of oxygenated benz[a]anthracene (BA and 3-methylcholanthene (3-MC by UVA light in the presence of a lipid, methyl linoleate. The studied PAHs include 2-hydroxy-BA (2-OH-BA, 3-hydroxy-BA (3-OH-BA, 5-hydroxymethyl-BA (5-CH2OH-BA, 7-hydroxymethyl-BA (7-CH2OH-BA, 12-hydroxymethyl-BA (12-CH2OH-BA, 7-hydroxymethyl-12-methyl-BA (7-CH2OH-12-MBA, 5-formyl-BA (5-CHO-BA, BA 5,6-cis-dihydrodiol (BA 5,6-cis-diol, 1-hydroxy-3- methylcholanthene (1-OH-3-MC, 1-keto-3-methylcholanthene (1-keto-3-MC, and 3-MC 1,2-diol. The results indicate that upon photoirradiation by UVA at 7 and 21 J/cm2, respectively all these compounds induced lipid peroxidation and exhibited a relationship between the dose of the light and the level of lipid peroxidation induced. To determine whether or not photoirradiation of these compounds by UVA light produces ROS, an ESR spin-trap technique was employed to provide direct evidence. Photoirradiation of 3-keto-3-MC by UVA (at 389 nm in the presence of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine (TEMP, a specific probe for singlet oxygen, resulted in the formation of TEMPO, indicating that singlet oxygen was generated. These overall results suggest that UVA photoirradiation of oxygenated BA and 3-methylcholanthrene generates singlet oxygen, one of the reactive oxygen species (ROS, which induce lipid peroxidation.

  9. Induction of chromosomal aberrations in rat bone marrow cells and mutations in Salmonella typhimurium by benz[a]anthracene derivatives.

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    Ito, Y; Ueda, N; Maeda, S; Murao, S; Sugiyama, T; Lee, H; Harvey, R G

    1988-09-01

    Benz[a]anthracene (BA) and its derivatives containing methyl and/or ethyl groups in the 7 and/or 12 positions were tested for their ability to induce chromosome aberrations (CA) in rat bone marrow cells and for their mutagenicity to Salmonella typhimurium TA100 or TA98. The incidence of aberrant cells induced by the BA derivatives, given in lipid emulsion as a single-pulse dose of 50 mg/kg body weight into the caudal vein, was in the order: DMBA greater than EMBA greater than MEBA greater than other BA derivatives = control. The alkyl groups, at least 1 methyl group, at the 7 and 12 positions of BA seemed to be necessary to induce CA, although DEBA having ethyl groups at both the 7 and 12 positions of BA did not induce CA. DMBA or EMBA induced not only gaps and breaks but also exchanges and multiple CA, while the CA induced by other BA derivatives consisted of only gaps and breaks. 7MBA and 12MBA which exhibit carcinogenic activity intermediate between that of DMBA and BA induced few CA in the present system. However, the correlation coefficient between the logarithm incidence of aberrant cells and the carcinogenicity index calculated from the data of 9 BA derivatives including both 7MBA and 12MBA was 0.792. The relative mutagenicities of the BA derivatives with TA100 in the presence of hepatic S9 from polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-treated rats were in the order: BA greater than 7MBA greater than DMBA greater than 12MBA greater than 7EBA greater than EMBA greater than MEBA greater than 12EBA = DEBA = control. The results with TA98 were essentially the same as those with TA100. The results with TA100 in the presence of hepatic S9 from phenobarbital (PB)-treated rats were in the order: DMBA greater than 12MBA greater than 7MBA greater than 7EBA greater than BA greater than EMBA = MEBA greater than 12EBA = DEBA = control. These findings reveal no obvious relation between the mutagenic activities of the BA derivatives with the PCB-S9 or PB-S9 activating systems and

  10. The anharmonic quartic force field infrared spectra of five non-linear polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and triphenylene

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    Mackie, Cameron J.; Candian, Alessandra; Huang, Xinchuan; Maltseva, Elena; Petrignani, Annemieke; Oomens, Jos; Mattioda, Andrew L.; Buma, Wybren Jan; Lee, Timothy J.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.

    2016-08-01

    The study of interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) relies heavily on theoretically predicted infrared spectra. Most earlier studies use scaled harmonic frequencies for band positions and the double harmonic approximation for intensities. However, recent high-resolution gas-phase experimental spectroscopic studies have shown that the harmonic approximation is not sufficient to reproduce experimental results. In our previous work, we presented the anharmonic theoretical spectra of three linear PAHs, showing the importance of including anharmonicities into the theoretical calculations. In this paper, we continue this work by extending the study to include five non-linear PAHs (benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and triphenylene), thereby allowing us to make a full assessment of how edge structure, symmetry, and size influence the effects of anharmonicities. The theoretical anharmonic spectra are compared to spectra obtained under matrix isolation low-temperature conditions, low-resolution, high-temperature gas-phase conditions, and high-resolution, low-temperature gas-phase conditions. Overall, excellent agreement is observed between the theoretical and experimental spectra although the experimental spectra show subtle but significant differences.

  11. Environmental concentrations of benz[a]anthracene induce developmental defects and DNA damage and impair photomotor response in Japanese medaka larvae.

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    Le Bihanic, Florane; Sommard, Vivien; Perrine, de Lansalut; Pichon, Anaïk; Grasset, Julie; Berrada, Saadia; Budzinski, Hélène; Cousin, Xavier; Morin, Bénédicte; Cachot, Jérôme

    2015-03-01

    Benz[a]anthracene (BaA) is a ubiquitous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in numerous aquatic ecosystems. However, ecotoxicological data in aquatic organisms are scarce. To remedy this lack of data, Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos were exposed to BaA and toxic effects were investigated at multiple toxicological endpoints. Japanese medaka embryos were incubated onto BaA-spiked artificial sediment for 9 days at low or moderate environmental concentrations ranging from 0.9 to 12 µgg(-1) dw. BaA-exposed embryos exhibited significant tachycardia. BaA exposure was also shown to increase CYP1A activity in the hepato-biliary tissue as well as craniofacial deformities and DNA damage in pro-larvae. The photomotor response of BaA-exposed larvae was reduced in comparison to the control group. According to this set of tests, the lowest tested and observed effect concentration (LOEC) for Japanese medaka early life stages was equivalent to 0.92 µgg(-1) dw of BaA. This concentration fall into the range of concentrations frequently encountered in sediments of polluted aquatic ecosystems. Taking into consideration these results, BaA represents a threat for fish early life stages in particular those developing onto or into contaminated sediments.

  12. Degradation of pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, and benzo[a]pyrene by Mycobacterium sp. strain RJGII-135, isolated from a former coal gasification site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, J; Grosser, R; Jayasimhulu, K; Xue, W; Warshawsky, D

    1996-01-01

    The degradation of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), pyrene (PYR), benz[a]anthracene (BAA), and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), by Mycobacterium sp. strain RJGII-135 was studied. The bacterium was isolated from an abandoned coal gasification site soil by analog enrichment techniques and found to mineralize [14C]PYR. Further degradation studies with PYR showed three metabolites formed by Mycobacterium sp. strain RJGII-135, including 4,5-phenanthrene-dicarboxylic acid not previously isolated, 4-phenanthrene-carboxylic acid, and 4,5-pyrene-dihydrodiol. At least two dihydrodiols, 5,6-BAA-dihydrodiol and 10,11-BAA-dihydrodiol, were confirmed by high-resolution mass spectral and fluorescence analyses as products of the biodegradation of BAA by Mycobacterium sp. strain RJGII-135. Additionally, a cleavage product of BAA was also isolated. Mass spectra and fluorescence data support two different routes for the degradation of BaP by Mycobacterium sp. strain RJGII-135. The 7,8-BaP-dihydrodiol and three cleavage products of BaP, including 4,5-chrysene-dicarboxylic acid and a dihydro-pyrene-carboxylic acid metabolite, have been isolated and identified as degradation products formed by Mycobacterium sp. strain RJGII-135. These latter results represent the first example of the isolation of BaP ring fission products formed by a bacterial isolate. We propose that while this bacterium appears to attack only one site of the PYR molecule, it is capable of degrading different sites of the BAA and BaP molecules, and although the sites of attack may be different, the ability of this bacterium to degrade these PAH is well supported. The proposed pathways for biodegradation of these compounds by this Mycobacterium sp. strain RJGII-135 support the dioxygenase enzymatic processes reported previously for other bacteria. Microorganisms like Mycobacterium sp. strain RJGII-135 will be invaluable in attaining the goal of remediation of sites containing mixtures of these PAH.

  13. Anticancer activity of fungal taxol derived from Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat., an endophytic fungus, against 7, 12 dimethyl benz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary gland carcinogenesis in Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandi, M; Manikandan, R; Muthumary, J

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second most prevalent cancer worldwide and their incidence increases gradually. Taxol (paclitaxel), a potent anticancer drug, is naturally isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew. Taxol is widely used in the treatment of ovarian, lung and breast cancer. The increased demand for taxol, coupled with its limited availability from the protected Pacific yew, has had researchers scrambling for alternate sources. The purpose of the present study is to investigate chemopreventive effect of fungal taxol derived from a novel endophytic fungus Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat., isolated from a medicinal plant Morinda citrifolia Linn. The fungal taxol is found to be active against the 7, 12 dimethyl benz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary gland carcinogenesis in Sprague dawley rats. The enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants i.e. superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutatione peroxidase (GPx), glutatione-S-transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH), vitamin C and vitamin E were evaluated in control and experimental groups. Lipid peroxides levels (LPO) were also tested. Histological analysis of breast tissue was analyzed by haematoxylin and eosin staining to assess the cytoprotective role of fungal taxol active against breast cancer. Immunohistochemical analyses were also performed to evaluate the effect of fungal taxol on the inflammatory marker such as Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in control and experimental groups. The results showed that the fungal taxol significantly suppresses the DMBA-induced breast cancer in Sprague dawley rats.

  14. Liver tumors induced in B6C3F{sub 1} mice by benz[a]anthracene and two of its halogenated derivatives contain K-RAS oncogene mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, O.; Yi, P.; Zhan, D. [and others

    1997-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and halogenated PAHs are genotoxic environmental contaminants. We previously examined the tumorigenicity of benz[a]anthracene (BA), 7-Cl-BA, and 7-Br-BA in the neonatal mouse tumorigenicity bioassay. Male B6C3F{sub 1} mice were administered i.p. injections at a total dose of 400 nmol per mouse on 1, 8, and 15 days after birth. BA, 7-Cl-BA, and 7-Br-BA induced hepatocellular adenoma in 67, 92, and 96% of the mice, respectively, and induced hepatocellular carcinoma in 15, 100 and 83% of the mice, respectively. In the present study, mRNA was isolated from each of the liver tumors induced by the three compounds, reversed-transcribed to cDNA, and portions of the K- and H-ras oncogene coding sequences were amplified and analyzed for DNA sequence alterations. 92% (11/12) of BA-induced, 79% (19/24) of 7-Cl-BA-induced and 86% (19/22) of 7-Br-BA-induced liver tumors had activated ras protooncogenes. In contrast to the general finding of H-ras mutations in B6C3F{sub 1} mouse liver tumors, all the mutations were at the first base of K-ras codon 13, resulting in a pattern of GGC{yields}CGC. No other ras oncogene mutations were detected. Our results clearly demonstrate that these chemicals induce a unique type of ras (K-ras) oncogene activation in the liver tumors of B6C3F{sub 1} mice.

  15. Rosiglitazone synergizes anticancer activity of cisplatin and reduces its nephrotoxicity in 7, 12-dimethyl benz{a}anthracene (DMBA induced breast cancer rats

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    Tikoo Kulbhushan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antineoplastic drug cisplatin remains the drug of choice for various solid tumours including breast cancer. But dose dependent nephrotoxicity is the major drawback in majority of platinum based chemotherapy regimens. Recent reports have shown that inflammatory pathways are the main offender for cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity. The present study was undertaken to assess the effect of rosiglitazone, a PPARγ agonist and an anti-inflammatory agent, on cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity, and its anticancer activity in DMBA induced breast cancer rats. Methods Mammary tumours were induced in female Sprague-Dawley rats by feeding orally with dimethylbenz [a]anthracene (DMBA (60 mg/kg. Cisplatin induced nephropathy was assessed by measurements of blood urea nitrogen, albumin and creatinine levels. Posttranslational modifications of histone H3, mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase p38 expression and PPAR-γ expression were examined by western blotting. Results Our data shows involvement of TNF-α in preventing cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity by rosiglitazone. Rosiglitazone pre-treatment to cisplatin increases the expression of p38, PPAR-γ in mammary tumours and shows maximum tumour reduction. Furthermore, cisplatin induced changes in histone acetylation, phosphorylation and methylation of histone H3 in mammary tumours was ameliorated by pre-treatment of rosiglitazone. Suggesting, PPAR-γ directly or indirectly alters aberrant gene expression in mammary tumours by changing histone modifications. Conclusion To best of our knowledge this is the first report which shows that pre-treatment of rosiglitazone synergizes the anticancer activity of cisplatin and minimizes cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in DMBA induced breast cancer.

  16. Tumor initiating activities of various derivatives of benz(a)anthracene and 7, 12-dimethyl-benz(a)anthracene in mouse skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaga, T.J.; Gleason, G.L.; DiGiovanni, J.; Berry, D.L.; Juchau, M.R.; Harvey, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    Current information indicates that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) exert their toxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic activities after they have been metabolically activated by target cells to reactive epoxides. The results obtained from IN VIVO and IN VITRO binding, mutagenicity, metabolism, and carcinogenicity studies have led to the conclusion that BP-7, 8-diol is a proximate carcinogenic metabolite of BP, and the BP-diol-epoxide is an ultimate carcinogenic metabolite of BP. Recent results concerning the strong carcinogenicity of BP-7..beta.., 8..cap alpha..-diol-9..cap alpha..,10..cap alpha..-epoxide in newborn mice and in mouse skin strongly indicate that it is the ultimate carcinogenic metabolite of BP. Since diol-epoxides may be responsible for the carcinogenicity of PAH other than BP, diols and diol-epoxides as well as other derivatives of PAH were tested for skin tumor-initiation in a two-stage system of tumorigenesis. In addition, since activation of methylated PAH may involve the side-chain methyl group, the skin tumor-initiating activity of various side-chain derivatives of methylated PA were determined. In this report, the skin tumor initiation of various derivatives of a nonmethylated PAH, BA as well as a methylated PAH, DMBA are compared. The data suggest that bay region diol-epoxides may be important in BA and DMBA carcinogenicity in mice which is supportive of the theory proposed by Jerina and co-workers which predicts that diol-epoxides in the bay region are the major determinants of PAH carcinogenicity.

  17. 40 CFR Appendix Vii to Part 261 - Basis for Listing Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...)pyrene, pentachlorophenol, arsenic, chromium, tetra-, penta-, hexa-, heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins, tetra-, penta-, hexa-, heptachlorodibenzofurans. F034 Benz(a)anthracene, benzo(k)fluoranthene,...

  18. Identification of two Nereis virens [Annelida: Polychaeta] cytochrome P450 enzymes and induction by xenobiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rewitz, Kim; Kjellerup, C; Jørgensen, A

    2004-01-01

    compounds such as fatty acids. Crude oil and benz(a)anthracene significantly induced CYP42 gene expression 2.6-fold, and because CYP enzymes often are induced by their own substrates, this induction may indicate involvement of N. virens CYP4 enzymes in the detoxification of environmental contaminants...

  19. Effect of various chemicals on the metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene by cultured rat colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1977-01-01

    in a lower level of BP binding to DNA and protein and in lower activity of AHH. Pretreatment with known inducers of AHH such as phenobarbital (PB) or benz(a)anthracene (BA), did not have any significant effect on the binding levels of BP to DNA or on the AHH activity. Of the bile acids investigated only...

  20. Metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene in cultured human bronchus and pancreatic duct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1977-01-01

    The metabolism of two carcinogenic polynuclear aro matic hydrocarbons, benzo[a]pyrene (BP) and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, was studied in expiants of human pancreatic duct and bronchus cultured in a chemically defined medium. In cultured human bronchial mucosa, activity of aryl hydrocarbon...... hydroxylase was inducible by both benz[a]anthracene and BP. Prior exposure of the bronchial expiants to benz[a]anthracene altered the qualitative features of the metabolite profile of BP as analyzed by highpressure liquid chromatography. The metabolite profiles of BP produced by normal-appearing bronchi from...... cochromatographed with both the 9,10-diol and a triol of BP. 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene was bound to the DMA of cultured human bronchial cells at higher levels than was BP. Binding of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene to DMA in human pancreatic duct was consistently less than that in cultured bronchi in the 5...

  1. Detection and characterization of human serum antibodies to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon diol-epoxide DNA adducts.

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, M J; Light, B A; Weston, A; Tollurud, D; Clark, J L; Mann, D L; Blackmon, J P; Harris, C C

    1988-01-01

    The presence of serum antibodies to the diol-epoxide DNA adducts of representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), chrysene, benz[a]anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene, was determined by ELISA using serum samples obtained from normal healthy individuals. Antibodies that reacted against PAH adducted-DNA, but not against PAH-adducted protein, were found in the serum of approximately 40% of the test individuals. Specificity analysis of the antibodies demonstrated that serological cross-reactio...

  2. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated and estrogenic activities of oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and azaarenes originally identified in extracts of river sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machala, M; Ciganek, M; Bláha, L; Minksová, K; Vondráck, J

    2001-12-01

    Reproductive dysfunction in wildlife populations can be a result of environmental contaminants binding to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) or estrogenic receptors. Signaling by both types of receptors can be affected by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are potential endocrine disruptors. However, our knowledge regarding the effects of oxygenated (oxy)-PAHs and azaarenes on AhR-mediated and estrogenic activities is incomplete. In the present study, we have identified 9-fluorenone, anthrone, anthraquinone, benzanthrone, benz[a]anthracene-7,12-dione, benz[c]acridine, and dibenz[a,h]acridine as prevalent oxy-PAHs and azaarenes found in river sediments. Their concentrations in sediment samples ranged from 2.1 to 165.2 ng g(-1) for oxy-PAHs and up to 27.3 ng g(-1) for azaarenes. Their relative AhR-inducing and estrogenic potencies were quantified in vitro using two cell lines that were stably transfected with a luciferase reporter gene system and expressed as induction equivalency factors (IEFs). The only oxy-PAHs with detectable levels of in vitro AhR-mediated activity were benzanthrone and benz[a]anthracene-7,12-dione. However, their IEFs were approximately three to four orders of magnitude lower than those of benzo[a]pyrene. On the other hand, azaarenes showed a strong AhR-mediated activity, with dibenzo[a,h]acridine being a far more potent inducer of activity than benzo[a]pyrene. Benzanthrone, benz[a]anthracene-7,12-dione, anthraquinone, and benz[a]acridine were weak inducers of in vitro estrogenic activity, with IEFs similar to that of benzo[a]pyrene. Based on concentrations and relative potencies, our results suggest that dibenzo[a,h]acridine can significantly contribute to the overall AhR-mediated activity in river sediments, whereas the remaining compounds do not. No studied compound was found to contribute significantly to estrogen receptor-mediated activity in vitro.

  3. Detection and characterization of human serum antibodies to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon diol-epoxide DNA adducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, M.J.; Light, B.A.; Weston, A.; Tollurud, D.; Clark, J.L.; Mann, D.L.; Blackmon, J.P.; Harris, C.C.

    1988-07-01

    The presence of serum antibodies to the diol-epoxide DNA adducts of representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), chrysene, benz(a)anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene, was determined by ELISA using serum samples obtained from normal healthy individuals. Antibodies that reacted against PAH adducted-DNA, but not against PAH-adducted protein, were found in the serum of approximately 40% of the test individuals. Specificity analysis of the antibodies demonstrated that serological cross-reactions between the benzo(a)pyrene and the chrysene diol-epoxide adducts were present. Similar cross-reactivity between the benz(a)anthracene and the chrysene adducts was observed. Sera containing antibodies that were apparently specific for each of the three PAH-DNA adducts were also identified. The presence of antibodies to PAH-DNA adducts indicates both past exposure to these carcinogenic PAH and their metabolic activation to the DNA damaging metabolites. These antibodies may prove to be useful in both retrospective and prospective epidemiological studies of various diseases associated with PAH exposure.

  4. Comparison of PCBs and PAHs levels in European coastal waters using mussels from the Mytilus edulis complex as biomonitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Olenycz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mussels from the Mytilus edulis complex were used as biomonitors for two groups of organic pollutants: polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, congeners: 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz(aanthracene, chrysene, benzo(bfluoranthene, benzo(kfluoranthene, benzo(apyrene, indeno(1,2,3-cdpyrene, dibenz(a,hanthracene, benzo(g,h,iperylene at 17 sampling sites to assess their relative bioavailabilities in coastal waters around Europe. Because of the temporal differences in PCBs and PAHs concentrations, data were adjusted using Seasonal Variation Coefficients (SVC before making large-scale spatial comparisons. The highest concentrations of PCBs were found near estuaries of large rivers flowing through urban areas and industrial regions. Elevated bioavailabilities of PAHs occurred in the vicinity of large harbors, urban areas, and regions affected by petroleum pollution as well as in some remote locations, which indicated long-range atmospheric deposition.

  5. Co-oxidation of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with some biologically active compounds (BAC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubergrits, M.Y.

    1978-09-01

    Oxidation of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) initiated by UV or gamma irradiation was promoted by benz(a)anthracene and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and inhibited by pyrene, dibenz(a,c)anthracene, and asymmetric benz(a)antharacene. The effects of these BAC commonly occurring together with BP in industrial wastes, increased with their concentrations. Phenol and 3-methylcholanthrene strongly promoted BP oxidation when present at low concentrations and inhibited it at high concentrations. Consistent promoting effect was also observed in BP co-oxidation with adipic acid, ..cap alpha..-naphthoflavon, and vitamin E, whereas succinic, azelaic, ferulic, gallic, and chlorogenic acids, rutin, and vitamin C acted as inhibitors. Most saturated dicarboxylic acids studied did not affect BP oxidation at 1:1 acid-BP molar ratio. The kinetics of 7,12-DMBA photooxidation inhibition by some metabolic intermediates, e.g., DMBA endo-peroxide, were also studied.

  6. Biodegradation of selected UV-irradiated and non-irradiated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, Kirsi-Maarit; Puhakka, Jaakko A; Lemmetyinen, Helge

    2003-08-01

    Biodegradation of UV-irradiated anthracene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene was compared to that of the non-irradiated samples, individually and in synthetic mixtures with enrichment cultures. Combined treatment was repeated for individual anthracene and for the PAH mixture with Sphingomonas sp. strain EPA 505 and Sphingomonas yanoikuyae. Enrichment culture studies were performed on the PAH mixtures in the presence of the main photoproduct of anthracene, pure 9,10-anthracenedione. Photochemically pretreated creosote solutions were also subjected to biodegradation and the results were compared to those of the non-irradiated solutions. The primary interest was on 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) listed as priority pollutants by European Union (EU) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Irradiation accelerated the biodegradation onset for anthracene, pyrene, and benz[a]anthracene when they were treated individually. The biodegradation of irradiated pyrene started with no lag phase and was complete by 122 h whereas biodegradation of the non-irradiated sample had a lag of 280 h and resulted in complete degradation by 720 h. Biodegradation of PAHs was accelerated in synthetic mixtures, especially in the presence of pure 9,10-anthracenedione. In general, irradiation had no effect on the biodegradation of PAHs incubated in synthetic mixtures or with pure cultures. Under current experimental conditions, the UV-irradiation invariably reduced the biodegradation of PAHs in creosote. Based on the results of the present and previous photochemical-biological studies of PAHs, the influence of the photochemical pretreatment on the biodegradation is highly dependent on the compounds being treated and other process parameters.

  7. Degradation and mineralization of high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by defined fungal-bacterial cocultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonchan, S; Britz, M L; Stanley, G A

    2000-03-01

    This study investigated the biodegradation of high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in liquid media and soil by bacteria (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia VUN 10,010 and bacterial consortium VUN 10,009) and a fungus (Penicillium janthinellum VUO 10, 201) that were isolated from separate creosote- and manufactured-gas plant-contaminated soils. The bacteria could use pyrene as their sole carbon and energy source in a basal salts medium (BSM) and mineralized significant amounts of benzo[a]pyrene cometabolically when pyrene was also present in BSM. P. janthinellum VUO 10,201 could not utilize any high-molecular-weight PAH as sole carbon and energy source but could partially degrade these if cultured in a nutrient broth. Although small amounts of chrysene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene were degraded by axenic cultures of these isolates in BSM containing a single PAH, such conditions did not support significant microbial growth or PAH mineralization. However, significant degradation of, and microbial growth on, pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene, each as a single PAH in BSM, occurred when P. janthinellum VUO 10,201 and either bacterial consortium VUN 10,009 or S. maltophilia VUN 10,010 were combined in the one culture, i.e., fungal-bacterial cocultures: 25% of the benzo[a]pyrene was mineralized to CO(2) by these cocultures over 49 days, accompanied by transient accumulation and disappearance of intermediates detected by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Inoculation of fungal-bacterial cocultures into PAH-contaminated soil resulted in significantly improved degradation of high-molecular-weight PAHs, benzo[a]pyrene mineralization (53% of added [(14)C]benzo[a]pyrene was recovered as (14)CO(2) in 100 days), and reduction in the mutagenicity of organic soil extracts, compared with the indigenous microbes and soil amended with only axenic inocula.

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon levels in European catfish from the upper Po River basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squadrone, Stefania; Favaro, Livio; Abete, Maria Cesarina; Vivaldi, Barbara; Prearo, Marino

    2014-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a major concern in environmental studies as many of them have been labeled as probable carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC 1983). Due to their lipophilic properties and resistance to degradation, PAHs can accumulate in organic tissue. As a consequence, alarming concentrations of these compounds have been found in many aquatic species. The European catfish (Silurus glanis) is a top food chain predator that is considered to be a reliable bio-indicator of environmental pollution. From 2009 to 2011, 54 specimens of S. glanis were captured from four different sites covering the area of the Po River basin (Northern Italy). Fish muscles were analyzed in the laboratory to determine the levels of nine PAHs, namely naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, and benz[a]pyrene (BaP), which were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The total average concentration of PAHs was 26.90 ± 49.50 ng g(-1) (min 0.60, max 275.75 ng g(-1)). Analysis showed that 9.20% of the fish muscles exceeded the maximum levels of 2 ng g(-1) set for BaP by European regulations (Commission Regulation (EC), 2006). Values measured for benz[a]pyrene ranged from 0.05 to 8.20 ng g(-1) (mean 1.07 ± 1.58 ng g(-1)). Chrysene and benz[a]anthracene, both considered potential human carcinogens (PAH2), were found at levels of 4.40 and 0.05 ng g(-1) (mean values), respectively. The highest mean concentration was recorded for anthracene (12.92 ng g(-1)), which has been recently included in the list of substances of very high concern (SVHC) as reported by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA 1-9, 2009).

  9. Risk Assessment for Children Exposed to Beach Sands Impacted by Oil Spill Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jennifer C; Welday, Jennifer N; Buckley, Brian; Ferguson, Alesia; Gurian, Patrick L; Mena, Kristina D; Yang, Ill; McCandlish, Elizabeth; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

    2016-08-27

    Due to changes in the drilling industry, oil spills are impacting large expanses of coastlines, thereby increasing the potential for people to come in contact with oil spill chemicals. The objective of this manuscript was to evaluate the health risk to children who potentially contact beach sands impacted by oil spill chemicals from the Deepwater Horizon disaster. To identify chemicals of concern, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) monitoring data collected during and immediately after the spill were evaluated. This dataset was supplemented with measurements from beach sands and tar balls collected five years after the spill. Of interest is that metals in the sediments were observed at similar levels between the two sampling periods; some differences were observed for metals levels in tar balls. Although PAHs were not observed five years later, there is evidence of weathered-oil oxidative by-products. Comparing chemical concentration data to baseline soil risk levels, three metals (As, Ba, and V) and four PAHs (benzo[a]pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene) were found to exceed guideline levels prompting a risk assessment. For acute or sub-chronic exposures, hazard quotients, computed by estimating average expected contact behavior, showed no adverse potential health effects. For cancer, computations using 95% upper confidence limits for contaminant concentrations showed extremely low increased risk in the 10(-6) range for oral and dermal exposure from arsenic in sediments and from dermal exposure from benzo[a]pyrene and benz[a]anthracene in weathered oil. Overall, results suggest that health risks are extremely low, given the limitations of available data. Limitations of this study are associated with the lack of toxicological data for dispersants and oil-spill degradation products. We also recommend studies to collect quantitative information about children's beach play habits, which are necessary to more

  10. Long-term toxicity of five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for the terrestrial isopods Oniscus asellus and Porcellio scaber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brummelen, T.C. van; Gestel, C.A.M. van; Verweij, R.A. [Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Ecology and Ecotoxicology

    1996-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a common component of soil pollution, yet little is known of the ecotoxicological risks these compounds may pose to life in soil. This article reports the ecotoxicity of five PAHs for two terrestrial isopod species. Isopods were exposed to food contaminated with four different concentrations of either fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene (up to 4 {micro}mol/g), benz[a]anthracene, or benzo[a]pyrene (up to 1.25 {micro}mol/.g). Exposure of Porcellio scaber lasted 16 weeks, and no adverse effects on survival, growth, or total protein (only females tested) were observed in any of the treatments. A small but significant reduction in growth of Oniscus asellus was observed at 47 weeks of exposure to 0.125 {micro}mol benz[a]anthracene-g{sup {minus}1} dry weight and higher concentrations. A significant stimulation of the reproduction of O. asellus was observed in some of the phenanthrene, fluoranthene, benz[a]anthracene, and benzo[a]pyrene treatments; a larger proportion of the females were gravid, which resulted in a higher number of juveniles per female. Exposure did not significantly affect brood size, weight of the mother after release of the juveniles, or the survival of the juveniles upon starvation. Total protein content of females was significantly reduced at 0.4 {micro}mol fluorene g{sup {minus}1} dry weight and higher concentrations. Growth and protein content of isopods is likely to be affected by PAH exposure only at highly contaminated sites. The ecological consequences of stimulated reproduction and possible DNA damage are poorly understood and require further attention because soil invertebrates may be exposed to PAHs over many generations.

  11. Risk Assessment for Children Exposed to Beach Sands Impacted by Oil Spill Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C. Black

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to changes in the drilling industry, oil spills are impacting large expanses of coastlines, thereby increasing the potential for people to come in contact with oil spill chemicals. The objective of this manuscript was to evaluate the health risk to children who potentially contact beach sands impacted by oil spill chemicals from the Deepwater Horizon disaster. To identify chemicals of concern, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s monitoring data collected during and immediately after the spill were evaluated. This dataset was supplemented with measurements from beach sands and tar balls collected five years after the spill. Of interest is that metals in the sediments were observed at similar levels between the two sampling periods; some differences were observed for metals levels in tar balls. Although PAHs were not observed five years later, there is evidence of weathered-oil oxidative by-products. Comparing chemical concentration data to baseline soil risk levels, three metals (As, Ba, and V and four PAHs (benzo[a]pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene were found to exceed guideline levels prompting a risk assessment. For acute or sub-chronic exposures, hazard quotients, computed by estimating average expected contact behavior, showed no adverse potential health effects. For cancer, computations using 95% upper confidence limits for contaminant concentrations showed extremely low increased risk in the 10−6 range for oral and dermal exposure from arsenic in sediments and from dermal exposure from benzo[a]pyrene and benz[a]anthracene in weathered oil. Overall, results suggest that health risks are extremely low, given the limitations of available data. Limitations of this study are associated with the lack of toxicological data for dispersants and oil-spill degradation products. We also recommend studies to collect quantitative information about children’s beach play habits, which are

  12. Structurally distinct polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons induce differential transcriptional responses in developing zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodale, Britton C. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, The Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Tilton, Susan C. [Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (United States); Corvi, Margaret M.; Wilson, Glenn R. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, The Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Janszen, Derek B. [Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (United States); Anderson, Kim A. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, The Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Waters, Katrina M. [Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (United States); Tanguay, Robert L., E-mail: tanguay.robert@oregonstate.edu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, The Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous in the environment as components of fossil fuels and by-products of combustion. These multi-ring chemicals differentially activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) in a structurally dependent manner, and induce toxicity via both AHR-dependent and -independent mechanisms. PAH exposure is known to induce developmental malformations in zebrafish embryos, and recent studies have shown cardiac toxicity induced by compounds with low AHR affinity. Unraveling the potentially diverse molecular mechanisms of PAH toxicity is essential for understanding the hazard posed by complex PAH mixtures present in the environment. We analyzed transcriptional responses to PAH exposure in zebrafish embryos exposed to benz(a)anthracene (BAA), dibenzothiophene (DBT) and pyrene (PYR) at concentrations that induced developmental malformations by 120 h post-fertilization (hpf). Whole genome microarray analysis of mRNA expression at 24 and 48 hpf identified genes that were differentially regulated over time and in response to the three PAH structures. PAH body burdens were analyzed at both time points using GC–MS, and demonstrated differences in PAH uptake into the embryos. This was important for discerning dose-related differences from those that represented unique molecular mechanisms. While BAA misregulated the least number of transcripts, it caused strong induction of cyp1a and other genes known to be downstream of the AHR, which were not induced by the other two PAHs. Analysis of functional roles of misregulated genes and their predicted regulatory transcription factors also distinguished the BAA response from regulatory networks disrupted by DBT and PYR exposure. These results indicate that systems approaches can be used to classify the toxicity of PAHs based on the networks perturbed following exposure, and may provide a path for unraveling the toxicity of complex PAH mixtures. - Highlights: • Defined global mRNA expression

  13. Quantitative structure–activity relationships for chronic toxicity of alkyl-chrysenes and alkyl-benz[a]anthracenes to Japanese medaka embryos (Oryzias latipes)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Hongkang [Department of Biology, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L3N6 (Canada); Morandi, Garrett D. [School of Environmental Studies, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L3N6 (Canada); Brown, R. Stephen [School of Environmental Studies, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L3N6 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L3N6 (Canada); Snieckus, Victor; Rantanen, Toni [Department of Chemistry, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L3N6 (Canada); Jørgensen, Kåre B. [Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Stavanger, 4036 Stavanger (Norway); Hodson, Peter V., E-mail: peter.hodson@queensu.ca [Department of Biology, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L3N6 (Canada); School of Environmental Studies, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L3N6 (Canada)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Medaka embryos were exposed to alkyl chrysenes and benzo[a]anthracenes (BAA). • Concentrations were kept constant by partition controlled delivery. • Chrysene was not toxic within solubility limits, in contrast to BAA. • Alkylation increased the toxicity of chrysene and BAA. • Toxicity was related to hydrophobicity and to specific modes of action. - Abstract: Alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (alkyl-PAHs) are a class of compounds found at significant concentrations in crude oils, and likely the main constituents responsible for the chronic toxicity of oil to fish. Alkyl substituents at different locations on the aromatic rings change the size and shape of PAH molecules, which results in different interactions with tissue receptors and different severities of toxicity. The present study is the first to report the toxicity of several alkylated derivatives of chrysene and benz[a]anthracene to the embryos of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) using the partition controlled delivery (PCD) method of exposure. The PCD method maintained the desired exposure concentrations by equilibrium partitioning of hydrophobic test compounds from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) films. Test concentrations declined by only 13% over a period of 17 days. Based on the prevalence of signs of blue sac disease (BSD), as expressed by median effective concentrations (EC50s), benz[a]anthracene (B[a]A) was more toxic than chrysene. Alkylation generally increased toxicity, except at position 2 of B[a]A. Alkyl-PAHs substituted in the middle region had a lower EC50 than those substituted at the distal region. Except for B[a]A and 7-methylbenz[a]anthracene (7-MB), estimated EC50 values were higher than their solubility limits, which resulted in limited toxicity within the range of test concentrations. The regression between log EC50s and log K{sub ow} values provided a rough estimation of structure–activity relationships for alkyl-PAHs, but K{sub ow} alone did not provide

  14. Sample preparation of sewage sludge and soil samples for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons based on one-pot microwave-assisted saponification and extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, M.T.; Pensado, Luis; Casais, M.C.; Mejuto, M.C.; Cela, Rafael [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Dpto. Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia. Instituto de Investigacion y Analisis Alimentario, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2007-04-15

    A microwave-assisted sample preparation (MASP) procedure was developed for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sewage sludge and soil samples. The procedure involved the simultaneous microwave-assisted extraction of PAHs with n-hexane and the hydrolysis of samples with methanolic potassium hydroxide. Because of the complex nature of the samples, the extracts were submitted to further cleaning with silica and Florisil solid-phase extraction cartridges connected in series. Naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[e]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, were considered in the study. Quantification limits obtained for all of these compounds (between 0.4 and 14.8 {mu}g kg{sup -1} dry mass) were well below of the limits recommended in the USA and EU. Overall recovery values ranged from 60 to 100%, with most losses being due to evaporation in the solvent exchange stages of the procedure, although excellent extraction recoveries were obtained. Validation of the accuracy was carried out with BCR-088 (sewage sludge) and BCR-524 (contaminated industrial soil) reference materials. (orig.)

  15. Urinary profiles to assess polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposure in coke-oven workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Laura; Rossella, Federica; Pavanello, Sofia; Mielzynska, Danuta; Siwinska, Ewa; Kapka, Lucyna; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Fustinoni, Silvia

    2010-01-15

    Aim of the study was the assessment of exposure of coke-oven workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by determination of urinary profiles of hydroxylated and unmetabolized PAHs. Fifty-five Polish coke-oven workers were investigated by measurement of 12 hydroxylated metabolites of PAHs (OHPAHs) (1-, 2-hydroxynaphthalene; 2-, 9-hydroxyfluorene; 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, 9-hydroxyphenanthrene; 1-hydroxyypyrene, 6-hydroxychrysene and 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene) and 13 unmetabolized PAHs (U-PAHs) (from naphthalene to benzo[a]pyrene), in spot urine samples collected at the end of the workshift. U-PAHs with four or less rings were detected in all samples. In particular, median levels for urinary naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene and benz[a]anthracene were 0.806, 0.721, 0.020, 0.032 and 0.035 microg/L. OHPAHs up to 1-hydroxypyrene were found in all samples, while high molecular-weight OHPAHs were always below quantification limit. Median level of 1-hydroxyypyrene was 15.4 microg/L. In all subjects significant correlations between OHPAHs and U-PAHs were observed (0.27 < r < 0.70, p < 0.01). Our results suggest that both hydroxylated metabolites and unmetabolized PAHs in urine are useful biomarkers of exposure to PAHs. Moreover, the simultaneous determination of several biomarkers permits to obtain specific excretion profiles that might help in exposure characterization and in better defining the excretion patterns.

  16. Red Mold Rice Mitigates Oral Carcinogenesis in 7,12-Dimethyl-1,2-Benz[a]anthracene-Induced Oral Carcinogenesis in Hamster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruei-Lan Tsai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of oral tumor has exponentially increased in recent years; however, the effective therapies or prevention strategies are not sufficient. Red mold rice is a traditional Chinese food, and several reports have demonstrated that red mold rice had an anti-tumor effect. However, the possible anti-tumor mechanisms of the red mold rice are unclear. In this study, we examined the anti-tumor effect of red mold rice on 7,12-dimethyl-1,2-benz[a]anthracene (DMBA-induced oral tumor in hamster. The ethanol extract of red mold rice (RMRE treatment significantly decreases the levels of DMBA-induced reactive oxygen species, nitro oxide and prostaglandin E2 than those of the lovastatin-treated group (P < .001. Moreover, RMRE decreases the formation of oral tumor induced by DMBA. Monacolin K, monascin, ankaflavin or other red mold rice metabolites had been reported to decrease inflammation and oxidative stress and exerted anti-tumor effects. Therefore, we evaluated the anti-inflammation and anti-oxidative stress effects of monacolin K, monascin, ankaflavin and citrinin in lipopolysaccharide-treated RAW264.7 cells. We found that RMRE reduced the LPS-induced nitrite levels in RAW264.7 cells better than monacolin K, monascin, ankaflavin or citrinin (P < .05.

  17. Characterization of wastes from construction and demolition sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somasundaram, Swarnalatha; Jeon, Tae-Wan; Kang, Young-Yeul; Kim, Woo-Il; Jeong, Seong-Kyeong; Kim, Yong-Jun; Yeon, Jin-Mo; Shin, Sun Kyoung

    2015-01-01

    In Republic of Korea, construction and demolition (C&D) waste accounts for 49.9% of the total waste. In the present work, the mineralogical composition, the concentrations of 11 heavy metals, 19 PAH, and 7 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners present in the 6 broad category (9 subcategories) of C&D hazardous waste were discussed along with their leaching characteristics. In concrete/mixed cement waste, the concentrations of As, Cr(6+), Hg, and Zn were in the range of 1.76-7.86, ND-1.63, 0.026-0.047, and 110.90-280.17 mg/kg, respectively. The asphalt waste sample A1 possessed relatively high concentrations of phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene comparing to the other samples and it contains 0.08-0.1% of coal tar. Hazardous nature of the C&D wastes greatly depends on the source of the collection. Zn concentration was above 1000 mg/kg for road asphalt waste samples A4 and A5. Total PCB concentration were high in the soil waste sample S1 (130 μg/kg) as it was the excavated soil obtained from the premises of an oil station. Leaching of As, Ba, CN(-), and F(-) were observed in most of the C&D waste samples.

  18. Accumulation and degradation of dead-end metabolites during treatment of soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with five strains of white-rot fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, B.E. [Centre for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Dept. of Biotechnology, Lund Univ. (Sweden); Henrysson, T. [Centre for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Dept. of Biotechnology, Lund Univ. (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    The white-rot fungi Trametes versicolor PRL 572, Trametes versicolor MUCL 28407, Pleurotus ostreatus MUCL 29527, Pleurotus sajor-caju MUCL 29757 and Phanerochaete chrysosporium DSM 1556 were investigated for their ability to degrade the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) anthracene, benz[a]anthracene and dibenz[a, h]anthracene in soil. The fungi were grown on wheat straw and mixed with artificially contaminated soil. The results of this study show that, in a heterogeneous soil environment, the fungi have different abilities to degrade PAH, with Trametes showing little or no accumulation of dead-end metabolites and Phanerochaete and Pleurotus showing almost complete conversion of anthracene to 9,10-anthracenedione. In contrast to earlier studies, Phanerochaete showed the ability to degrade the accumulated 9,10-anthracenedione while Pleurotus did not. This proves that, in a heterogeneous soil system, the PAH degradation pattern for white-rot fungi can be quite different from that in a controlled liquid system. (orig.)

  19. Chemometrics-assisted excitation-emission fluorescence spectroscopy on nylon-attached rotating disks. Simultaneous determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the presence of interferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañas, Alejandro; Richter, Pablo; Escandar, Graciela M

    2014-12-10

    This work presents a green and very simple approach which enables the accurate and simultaneous determination of benzo[a]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, benz[a]anthracene, and chrysene, concerned and potentially carcinogenic heavy-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in interfering samples. The compounds are extracted from water samples onto a device composed of a small rotating Teflon disk, with a nylon membrane attached to one of its surfaces. After extraction, the nylon membrane containing the concentrated analytes is separated from the Teflon disk, and fluorescence excitation-emission matrices are directly measured on the nylon surface, and processed by applying parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), without the necessity of a desorption step. Under optimum conditions and for a sample volume of 25 mL, the PAHs extraction was carried out in 20 min. Detection limits based on the IUPAC recommended criterion and relative errors of prediction were in the ranges 20-100 ng L(-1) and 5-7%, respectively. Thanks to the combination of the ability of nylon to strongly retain PAHs, the easy rotating disk extraction approach, and the selectivity of second-order calibration, which greatly simplifies sample treatment avoiding the use of toxic solvents, the developed method follows most green analytical chemistry principles.

  20. Sample preparation of sewage sludge and soil samples for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons based on one-pot microwave-assisted saponification and extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, M Teresa; Pensado, Luis; Casais, M Carmen; Mejuto, M Carmen; Cela, Rafael

    2007-04-01

    A microwave-assisted sample preparation (MASP) procedure was developed for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sewage sludge and soil samples. The procedure involved the simultaneous microwave-assisted extraction of PAHs with n-hexane and the hydrolysis of samples with methanolic potassium hydroxide. Because of the complex nature of the samples, the extracts were submitted to further cleaning with silica and Florisil solid-phase extraction cartridges connected in series. Naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[e]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, were considered in the study. Quantification limits obtained for all of these compounds (between 0.4 and 14.8 microg kg(-1) dry mass) were well below of the limits recommended in the USA and EU. Overall recovery values ranged from 60 to 100%, with most losses being due to evaporation in the solvent exchange stages of the procedure, although excellent extraction recoveries were obtained. Validation of the accuracy was carried out with BCR-088 (sewage sludge) and BCR-524 (contaminated industrial soil) reference materials.

  1. Assessment of pollution of the Boca de Camichin Estuary in Nayarit (Mexico) and its influence on oxidative stress in Crassostrea corteziensis oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Ibarra, G A; Díaz Resendiz, K J G; Ventura-Ramón, G H; Romero-Bañuelos, C A; Medina-Díaz, I M; Rojas-García, A E; Vega-López, A; Girón-Pérez, M I

    2016-10-01

    Boca de Camichin Estuary is one of the main producers of Crassostrea corteziensis oysters in Mexico, but the presence of pollutants can affect oyster production. Molluscs produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to changes in the environment and pollution. These ROS induce oxidative damage in biomolecules. The main objective of this study was to evaluate pollution in the estuary and the subsequent oxidative stress in C. corteziensis oysters during the 2010 production cycle. For this aim, we performed monthly samplings in the oyster farms from January to May. We took water samples to quantify polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and metal content; also, we evaluated oxidative damage (lipoperoxidation, lipidic hydroperoxides, protein oxidation) and enzyme activity (CAT, SOD, GPx, GST and AChE) in oyster gills. The results show the presence of Cu, Fe, Mn, naphthalene, benz[a]anthracene, pyrene, benz[a]pyrene and benzo[k]fluoranthene. On the other hand, AChE activity was not inhibited, which suggests that organophosphorus pollutants or carbamates were absent. Regarding oxidative stress, oysters from the estuary had oxidative damage in lipids, not proteins, and altered antioxidant enzyme activity, when compared to control organisms. Interestingly, we did not observe any correlation between the pollutants and the oxidative stress parameters evaluated in this study. Thus, we cannot rule out that a synergistic effect between the environmental variables and the pollutants is causing the oxidative stress in these oysters.

  2. PAH in tea and coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Navarantem, Marin; Adamska, Joanna;

    For food regulation in the European Union maximum limits on other foods than tea and coffee includes benzo[a]pyrene and the sum of PAH4 (sum of benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene and benzo[b]fluoranthene). This study includes analysis of the above mentioned PAH in both, tea leaves, coffee...... beans and ready-to-drink preparations. Compared to other food matrices (e.g. fish), the analytical methods were challenged by the hot water extracts. Preparation of tea includes roasting and drying of the tea leaves using combustion gases from burning wood, oil, or coal. These are responsible...... for accumulation of PAH in tea leaves. Different varieties of tea leaves were analyzed and highest concentrations were found in leaves from mate and black tea with maximum concentrations of 32 μg/kg for benzo[a]pyrene and 115 μg/kg for the sum of PAH4. Also, coffee beans are roasted during processing. However...

  3. EU marker polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in food supplements: analytical approach and occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelinkova, Zuzana; Wenzl, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Several food supplements comprising botanical, oil and bee products collected from retail markets in different countries were tested for the occurrence of 4 EU marker Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene). A robust GC/MS-based stable-isotope dilution method was used taking into account the differences in the type of matrices. The accuracy of the results was assessed by implementing several quality control tools. Sixty-eight samples of 94 analysed products exceeded the level of 0.5 μg/kg for the sum of the four EU marker PAHs (ΣPAH4). Benzo[a]pyrene exceeded the limit of quantification in 49 samples. The PAH with the highest abundance in all products was chrysene. On average, propolis extracts and other bee products showed relatively high levels of ΣPAH4 (mean 188.2 μg/kg), whereas the contamination levels of fish oil supplements were very low or mostly undetectable. Considerably high ΣPAH4 amounts found in some samples could remarkably increase the daily exposure of consumers to PAHs, demonstrating the need for continuous monitoring of ΣPAH4 in food supplements.

  4. Methylated and unsubstituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in street dust from Vietnam and India: occurrence, distribution and in vitro toxicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyen, Le Huu; Tue, Nguyen Minh; Takahashi, Shin; Suzuki, Go; Viet, Pham Hung; Subramanian, Annamalai; Bulbule, Kesav A; Parthasarathy, Peethambaram; Ramanathan, Alagappan; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2014-11-01

    Methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MePAHs), unsubstituted PAHs and AhR-mediated activities were determined in street dust collected from Vietnam and India using a combined approach of chemical analysis and in vitro reporter gene assay. MePAHs and PAHs diagnostic ratios indicated that the main sources of MePAHs in Vietnam were pyrogenic emissions, whereas in India there were mixed sources of pyrogenic and petrogenic emissions. AhR-mediated activities determined by using DR-CALUX assay were observed in urban street dust at mean 40, 29 and 20 ng CALUX-TEQ/g dw for Hanoi, Bangalore and New Delhi, respectively. MePAHs and PAHs contributed only 5% or less to AhR-mediated activity in street dust, indicating the occurrence of unknown AhR agonists. The principal contributors to Theoretical-TEQs among target compounds were methyl benz[a]anthracene, benzo[b]- and benzo[k]fluoranthene. The present study indicates importance of MePAHs in evaluation of toxic risk related to AhR-mediated activity in urban polluted areas.

  5. New observations on PAH pollution in old heavy industry cities in northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ningning; Ma, Junhua; Yu, Yang; Yang, Zhifeng; Li, Yingxia

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the distinctive PAHs adsorbed on street dust near various industries in the three typical industrialized cities of Daqing (DQ), Harbin (HEB) and Jilin (JL) in northeastern China. The mean ∑PAHs concentrations in street dust of DQ, HEB and JL were 1.84, 4.87, 12.38 μg/g, respectively. Typical petroleum resource city DQ had higher proportions of low and medium ringed PAHs with higher proportions of phenanthrene (Phe), naphthalene (Nap), fluoranthene (Flua) and chrysene (Chr) at industrial sites. Typical chemical processing city JL had higher proportions of medium and high ringed PAHs with higher proportions of Flua, benz[a]anthracene (BaA), pyrene (Pyr) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) at industrial sites. Phe, Flua, Pyr and Chr were four major PAHs from most studied industries. The distinctive PAH emissions from the ferroalloy plant were BaA and BaP. BaA and BaP concentrations decreased by 90% at sites more than 2 km away from the ferroalloy plant.

  6. Distinct rat hepatic microsomal epoxide hydrolases catalyze the hydration of cholesterol 5,6 alpha-oxide and certain xenobiotic alkene and arene oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, W; Michaud, D P; Thomas, P E; Jerina, D M

    1983-02-01

    Metabolism of cholesterol 5,6 alpha-oxide to the 5,6-glycol is catalyzed by a rat liver microsomal epoxide hydrolase that is distinct from the microsomal epoxide hydrolase that metabolizes a wide range of xenobiotic alkene and arene oxides. The two enzymes are antigenically distinct, and the purified microsomal epoxide hydrolase that metabolizes xenobiotic oxides does not catalyze the hydration of cholesterol 5,6 alpha-oxide. In vivo treatment of rats with inducers of microsomal epoxide hydrolase does not enhance the activity of cholesterol 5,6 alpha-oxide hydrolase and, in some cases, actually depresses enzyme activity in the resultant microsomal preparations. Octene 1,2-oxide and benz[a]anthracene 5,6-oxide, both good substrates for xenobiotic epoxide hydrolase, are not competitive inhibitors of cholesterol oxide hydration by rat liver microsomes. The above results establish the existence of a liver microsomal epoxide hydrolase that is under different regulatory control and that appears to have a different substrate specificity than the well-characterized microsomal epoxide hydrolase involved in the metabolism of a widely diverse group of alkene and arene oxides.

  7. Influence of retinol on carcinogen-induced sister chromatid exchangers and chromosome aberrations in V79 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, S.; Batt, T.; Huang, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of retinol (Rol) on sister chromatid exchangers (SCE) in V79 cells induced by six indirect and two direct carcinogens, and on chromosome aberration (CA) in V79 cells induced by four indirect carcinogens were studied. The indirect carcinogens used were aflatoxin B/sub 1/ (AFB), cyclophosphamide (CPP), benzo(a)anthracene (BA), benzo(a)pyrene (BP), 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benz(a)anthracene (DMBA), and 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA). The two direct carcinogens were ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). Rol effectively inhibited SCE and CA induced by AFB and CPP in a dose-dependent manner, but it had no effect on SCE induced by BA, BP, DMBA, MCA, EMS, and MNNG. To the contrary, Rol had an enhancing effect on CA induced by BP and DMBA. The possibility that Rol exerts its anticarcinogenic effects by inhibiting certain forms of the cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes required for activation of precarcinogens, such as AFB and CPP but not those enzymes required by BA, BP, DMBA, and MCA, is discussed.

  8. Modulation of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status upon administration of 'Shemamruthaa' in 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene induced mammary carcinoma bearing rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ayyakkannu Purushothaman; Elumalai Nandhakumar; Panchanatham Sachdanandam

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the therapeutic efficacy of a Shemamruthaa (SM), (combination of Hibiscus rosasinensis (H. rosasinensis) flowers, fruits of Phyllanthus emblica (P. emblica) and pure honey in definite ratio), against lipid peroxidation (LPO) and antioxidant status in experimentally induced mammary carcinoma rats. Methods: Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were used for the study and were divided into four groups. Group I control animals received standard pellet diet and water ad libitum. Group II rats were induced with 7,12-dimethyl benz[a]anthracene (DMBA) (25 mg in 1 mL olive oil) by gastric intubation, whereas another set of DMBA-induced rats were treated with SM (400 mg/kg body weight/d) in olive oil orally by gastric intubation for 14 d after 3 months of induction period (group III). Group IV rats served as SM-treated control animals. At the end of the experimental period, the rats were anaesthetised and sacrificed and used for biochemical measures and histology studies. Results: The LPO was increased and antioxidant levels were decreased in the serum, liver and mammary tissues of cancer-induced rats. The administration of SM drug significantly (P<0.05) decreased LPO and reversed the status of antioxidants to near normal level in cancer-bearing animals. Conclusions: The results obtained indicate the additive and synergistic action of constituents’ plants in the SM drug against oxidative damage and its protective role in DMBA induced mammary cancer.

  9. Chemotherapeutic effect of tangeretin, a polymethoxylated flavone studied in 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene induced mammary carcinoma in experimental rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, A; Subramanian, S

    2014-04-01

    Globally, breast cancer is the second most prevalent cancer among women and its incidence is amplifying alarmingly. Since genetics is believed to account for only 10% of the reported cases, the environmental factors including diet are thought to play a significant role in predisposing breast cancer. Many bioactive compounds of plant origin have been reported for their anticancer potential. Tangeretin, a pentamethoxy flavone, is a naturally occurring phytoconstituent found to be present in significant amounts in the peel of citrus fruits. Tangeretin possess a wide array of pharmacological activities such as cytostatic, anti-proliferative and antioxidant properties. In the absence of systemic studies in the literature, the present study was aimed to evaluate the chemotherapeutic potential of tangeretin in 7, 12-dimethyl benz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced mammary carcinoma in rats. Oral treatment of tangeretin (50 mg/kg BW) to breast tumor bearing rats daily for four weeks was found to be effective against DMBA induced mammary gland carcinogenesis in female Wistar rats. The increased activities of AST, ALT, ALP, ACP, 5'-ND, γ-GT and LDH in serum of control and experimental breast cancer rats were significantly (p induced breast cancer in rats.

  10. EU marker polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in food supplements: analytical approach and occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelinkova, Zuzana; Wenzl, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Several food supplements comprising botanical, oil and bee products collected from retail markets in different countries were tested for the occurrence of 4 EU marker Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene). A robust GC/MS-based stable-isotope dilution method was used taking into account the differences in the type of matrices. The accuracy of the results was assessed by implementing several quality control tools. Sixty-eight samples of 94 analysed products exceeded the level of 0.5 μg/kg for the sum of the four EU marker PAHs (ΣPAH4). Benzo[a]pyrene exceeded the limit of quantification in 49 samples. The PAH with the highest abundance in all products was chrysene. On average, propolis extracts and other bee products showed relatively high levels of ΣPAH4 (mean 188.2 μg/kg), whereas the contamination levels of fish oil supplements were very low or mostly undetectable. Considerably high ΣPAH4 amounts found in some samples could remarkably increase the daily exposure of consumers to PAHs, demonstrating the need for continuous monitoring of ΣPAH4 in food supplements. PMID:26467752

  11. Phthalate and PAH concentrations in dust collected from Danish homes and daycare centers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Sarka; Weschler, Charles J.; Fischer, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    (diethyl phthalate (DEP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP), di(isobutyl) phthalate (DiBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)) and three PAHs (pyrene, benz[a]anthracene (B[a]A) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P)). The three PAHs and DEHP were detected in dust samples from all sites, while...... DEP. DnBP, DiBP and BBzP were detected in more than 75% of the bedrooms and more than 90% of the daycare centers. The dust mass-fractions of both phthalates and PAHs were log-normally distributed. With the exception of DEP, the mass-fractions of phthalates in dust were higher in daycare centers than...... homes: PAH mass-fractions in dust were similar in the two locations. There was no correlation among the different phthalates in either homes or daycare centers. In contrast, the PAH were correlated with one another more strongly so in homes (R-2 = 0.80-0.90) than in daycare centers (R-2 = 0...

  12. The Effect of Interaction Between White-rot Fungi and Indigenous Microorganisms on Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesche, C. in der [Institute of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, Federal Agricultural Research Centre (Germany)], E-mail: carsten.wiesche@fal.de; Martens, R. [Institute of Agroecology, Federal Agricultural Research Centre (Germany); Zadrazil, F. [Institute of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, Federal Agricultural Research Centre (Germany)

    2003-05-15

    White-rot fungi applied for soil bioremediation have to compete with indigenous soil microorganisms. The effect of competition on both indigenous soil microflora and white-rot fungi was evaluated with regard to degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) with different persistence in soil. Sterile and non-sterile soil was artificially contaminated with {sup 14}C-labeled PAH consisting of three (anthracene), four (pyrene, benz[a]anthracene) and five fused aromatic rings (benzo[a]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene). The two fungi tested,Dichomitus squalens and Pleurotus ostreatus, produced similar amounts of ligninolytic enzymes in soil, but PAH mineralization by P. ostreatus was significantly higher. Compared to the indigenous soil microflora, P.ostreatus mineralized 5-ring PAH to a larger extent, while the indigenous microflora was superior in mineralizing 3-ring and 4-ring PAH. In coculture the special capabilities of both soil microflora and P. ostreatus were partly restricted due to antagonistic interactions, but essentially preserved. Thus, soil inoculation with P. ostreatus significantly increased the mineralization of high-molecular-weight PAH, and at the same time reduced the mineralization of anthracene and pyrene. Regarding the mineralization of low-molecular-weight PAH, the stimulation of indigenous soil microorganisms by straw amendment was more efficient than application of white-rot fungi.

  13. Fluoranthene and phenantrene, two predominant PAHs in heat-prepared food, do not influence the frequency of micronucleated mouse erythrocytes induced by other PAHs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilianne Abramsson-Zetterberg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs occur in complex mixtures present in the human environment. Because of the carcinogenic properties of some of these PAHs, they raise concerns regarding health and food safety. Because the occurrence of benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene, and benzo[b]fluoranthene (PAH4 are considered markers for other genotoxic PAHs in foodstuffs, the European Union has put a maximum level of PAH4 in some foodstuffs. Fluoranthene (Flu and phenanthrene (Phe, two other PAHs, are not classified as genotoxic and are abundant at rather high concentrations in food. Inasmuch as PAH4, Flu, and Phe are metabolized by the same cytochrome P450 pathway system, it is important to clarify whether Phe and Flu influence the genotoxicity of PAH4. We have analyzed the genotoxic response of Phe and Flu, separately and together, as well as in combination with different low doses of PAH4. In all experiments we used the flow cytometer-based micronucleus test in vivo. Phe and Flu, when administered separately, did not show any dose-related effect on the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (fMNPCE. Nor did a mixture of Phe and Flu change the fMNPCEs. Phe and Flu did not significantly change the fMNPCE of PAH4-exposed FVB and BALB/c mice.

  14. HEPATOPROTECTIVE AND ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF MORINGA OLEIFERA PODS AGAINST DMBA-INDUCED HEPATOCARCINOGENESIS IN MALE MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Paliwal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Moringa oleifera pods hydroethanolic extract was investigated for its possible hepatoprotective effect in male swiss albino mice against DMBA (synthetic poly aromatic hydrocarbon 7, 12- dimethyl benz(aanthracene induced hepatocarcinogenicity and oxidative stress in hepatic tissues. DMBA exposure elicited a significant escalation in TBARS substances level and depletion in antioxidant enzymes namely superoxide dismutase and catalase in liver. It has been observed that mice treated with MO showed a significant improvement in LPO level along with elevated levels of SOD and CAT activity, which might be the reason for its chemopreventive effect. Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity of MO clearly indicate that the extract possess antioxidant properties and could serve as free radical inhibitors, acting possibly as primary antioxidants. Finally, these results suggested that M. oleifera pods extract could act against DMBA-induced hepatic injury in mice by a mechanism related to its antioxidant properties and its ability to attenuate the hepatic stellate cells activation. These findings are suggestive of a possible chemopreventive potential of M. oleifera pods extract against chemical carcinogens.

  15. Raman spectroscopic investigation of the chemopreventive response of naringenin and its nanoparticles in DMBA-induced oral carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnakumar, N.; Sulfikkarali, N. K.; Manoharan, S.; Venkatachalam, P.

    2013-11-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a vibrational spectroscopic technique that can be used to optically probe the biomolecular changes associated with tumor progression. The aim of the present study is to investigate the biomolecular changes in chemopreventive response of prepared naringenin-loaded nanoparticles (NARNPs) relative to efficacy of free naringenin (NAR) during 7,12-dimethyl benz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced oral carcinogenesis by Fourier Transform Raman (FT-Raman) spectroscopy. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) was developed in the buccal pouch of golden Syrian hamsters by painting with 0.5% DMBA in liquid paraffin three times a week for 14 weeks. Raman spectra differed significantly between the control and tumor tissues, with tumors showing higher percentage signals for nucleic acids, phenylalanine and tryptophan and a lower in the percentage of phospholipids. Moreover, oral administration of free NAR and NARNPs significantly increased phospholipids and decreased the levels of tryptophan, phenylalanine and nucleic acid contents. On a comparative basis, NARNPs was found to have a more potent antitumor effect than free NAR in completely preventing the formation of squamous cell carcinoma and in improving the biochemical status to a normal range in DMBA-induced oral carcinogenesis. The present study further suggest that Raman spectroscopy could be a valuable tool for rapid and sensitive detection of specific biomolecular changes in response to chemopreventive agents.

  16. PAH in tea and coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Navarantem, Marin; Adamska, Joanna

    For food regulation in the European Union maximum limits on other foods than tea and coffee includes benzo[a]pyrene and the sum of PAH4 (sum of benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene and benzo[b]fluoranthene). This study includes analysis of the above mentioned PAH in both, tea leaves, coffee...... for accumulation of PAH in tea leaves. Different varieties of tea leaves were analyzed and highest concentrations were found in leaves from mate and black tea with maximum concentrations of 32 μg/kg for benzo[a]pyrene and 115 μg/kg for the sum of PAH4. Also, coffee beans are roasted during processing. However......, both benzo[a]pyrene and PAH4 concentrations were more than ten times lower for coffee beans than for tea leaves. Highest levels were found for PAH4 of solid instant coffee (5.1 μg/kg). Data were used to calculate the exposure of benzo[a]pyrene (15%) and sum of PAH4 (10%) from tea and coffee...

  17. Effect of chemical mutagens and carcinogens on gene expression profiles in human TK6 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lode Godderis

    Full Text Available Characterization of toxicogenomic signatures of carcinogen exposure holds significant promise for mechanistic and predictive toxicology. In vitro transcriptomic studies allow the comparison of the response to chemicals with diverse mode of actions under controlled experimental conditions. We conducted an in vitro study in TK6 cells to characterize gene expression signatures of exposure to 15 genotoxic carcinogens frequently used in European industries. We also examined the dose-responsive changes in gene expression, and perturbation of biochemical pathways in response to these carcinogens. TK6 cells were exposed at 3 dose levels for 24 h with and without S9 human metabolic mix. Since S9 had an impact on gene expression (885 genes, we analyzed the gene expression data from cells cultures incubated with S9 and without S9 independently. The ribosome pathway was affected by all chemical-dose combinations. However in general, no similar gene expression was observed among carcinogens. Further, pathways, i.e. cell cycle, DNA repair mechanisms, RNA degradation, that were common within sets of chemical-dose combination were suggested by clustergram. Linear trends in dose-response of gene expression were observed for Trichloroethylene, Benz[a]anthracene, Epichlorohydrin, Benzene, and Hydroquinone. The significantly altered genes were involved in the regulation of (anti- apoptosis, maintenance of cell survival, tumor necrosis factor-related pathways and immune response, in agreement with several other studies. Similarly in S9+ cultures, Benz[a]pyrene, Styrene and Trichloroethylene each modified over 1000 genes at high concentrations. Our findings expand our understanding of the transcriptomic response to genotoxic carcinogens, revealing the alteration of diverse sets of genes and pathways involved in cellular homeostasis and cell cycle control.

  18. Degradation and mineralization of high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by defined fungal-bacterial cocultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boonchan, S.; Britz, M.L.; Stanley, G.A.

    2000-03-01

    This study investigated the biodegradation of high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in liquid media and soil by bacteria (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia VUN 10,010 and bacterial consortium VUN 10,009) and a fungus (Penicillium janthinellum VUO 10,201) that were isolated from separate creosote- and manufactured-gas plant-contaminated soils. The bacteria could use pyrene as their sole carbon and energy source in a basal salts medium (BSM) and mineralized significant amounts of benzo[a]pyrene cometabolically when pyrene was also present in BSM. P. janthinellum VUO 10,201 could not utilize any high-molecular-weight PAH as sole carbon and energy source but could partially degrade these if cultured in a nutrient broth. Although small amounts of chrysene, benz[a]pyrene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene were degraded by axenic cultures of these isolates in BSM containing a single PAH, such conditions did not support significant microbial growth or PAH mineralization. However, significant degradation of, and microbial growth on, pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene, each as a single PAH in BSM, occurred when P. janthinellum VUO 10,201 and either bacterial consortium VUN 10,009 or S. maltophilia VUN 10,010 were combined in the one culture, i.e., fungal-bacterial cocultures: 25% of the benzo[a]pyrene was mineralized to CO{sub 2} by these cocultures over 49 days, accompanied by transient accumulation and disappearance of intermediates detected by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Inoculation of fungal-bacterial cocultures into PAH-contaminated soil resulted in significantly improved degradation of high-molecular-weight PAHs, benzo[a]pyrene mineralization, and reduction in the mutagenicity of organic soil extracts, compared with the indigenous microbes and soil amended with only axenic inocula.

  19. Chemical characterization and stable carbon isotopic composition of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons issued from combustion of 10 Mediterranean woods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Guillon

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to characterize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from particulate matter emitted during wood combustion and to determine, for the first time, the isotopic signature of PAHs from nine wood species and Moroccan coal from the Mediterranean Basin. In order to differentiate sources of particulate-PAHs, molecular and isotopic measurements of PAHs were performed on the set of wood samples for a large panel of compounds. Molecular profiles and diagnostic ratios were measured by gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer (GC/MS and molecular isotopic compositions (δ13C of particulate-PAHs were determined by gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS. Wood species present similar molecular profiles with benz(aanthracene and chrysene as dominant PAHs, whereas levels of concentrations range from 1.8 to 11.4 mg g−1 OC (sum of PAHs. Diagnostic ratios are consistent with reference ratios from literature but are not sufficient to differentiate the different species of woods. Concerning isotopic methodology, PAH molecular isotopic compositions are specific for each species and contrary to molecular fingerprints, significant variations of δ13C are observed for the panel of PAHs. This work allows differentiating wood combustion from others origins of particulate matter (vehicular exhaust using isotopic measurements (with δ13CPAH = −28.7 to −26.6‰ but also confirms the necessity to investigate source characterisation at the emission in order to help and complete source assessment models. These first results on woodburnings will be useful for the isotopic approach of source tracking.

  20. Photochemical Reaction of 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA and Formation of DNA Covalent Adducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter P. Fu

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available DMBA, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, is a widely studied polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon that has long been recognized as a probable human carcinogen. It has been found that DMBA is phototoxic in bacteria as well as in animal or human cells and photomutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA102. This article tempts to explain the photochemistry and photomutagenicity mechanism. Light irradiation converts DMBA into several photoproducts including benz[a]anthracene-7,12-dione, 7-hydroxy-12-keto-7-methylbenz[a]anthracene, 7,12-epidioxy-7,12-dihydro-DMBA, 7-hydroxymethyl-12-methylbenz[a]anthracene and 12-hydroxymethyl-7-methylbenz[a]anthracene. Structures of these photoproducts have been identified by either comparison with authentic samples or by NMR/MS. At least four other photoproducts need to be assigned. Photo-irradiation of DMBA in the presence of calf thymus DNA was similarly conducted and light-induced DMBA-DNA adducts were analyzed by 32P-postlabeling/TLC, which indicates that multiple DNA adducts were formed. This indicates that formation of DNA adducts might be the source of photomutagenicity of DMBA. Metabolites obtained from the metabolism of DMBA by rat liver microsomes were reacted with calf thymus DNA and the resulting DNA adducts were analyzed by 32P-postlabeling/TLC under identical conditions. Comparison of the DNA adduct profiles indicates that the DNA adducts formed from photo-irradiation are different from the DNA adducts formed due to the reaction of DMBA metabolites with DNA. These results suggest that photo-irradiation of DMBA can lead to genotoxicity through activation pathways different from those by microsomal metabolism of DMBA.

  1. Quantification of carcinogenic 4- to 6-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in human urine by solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-isotope dilution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Laura; Fustinoni, Silvia; Bertazzi, Pieralberto

    2011-08-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are pollutants found in living and working environments. The aim of this study was to develop a solid-phase microextraction (SPME) gas chromatography (GC)-isotope dilution mass spectrometry method for the quantification of 10 four- to six-ring PAHs in urine samples. Seven of the selected PAHs have been classified as carcinogenic. Under the final conditions, analytes were sampled with a 100-μm polydimethylsiloxane SPME fibre for 60 min at 80 °C and desorbed in the injection port of the GC at 270 °C. Fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene and benzo[ghi]perylene were separated using a highly arylene-modified phase capillary column and quantified by MS using eight deuterated PAHs as surrogate internal standards. Limits of quantification (LOQ) were in the 0.5- to 2.2-ng/L range. Validation showed linear dynamic ranges up to 340 ng/L, inter- and intra-run precisions <20%, and accuracies within 20% of spiked concentrations. Matrix effect evaluation and the use of control charts to monitor process performances showed that the isotope dilution approach allowed for the control of bias sources. Urinary PAHs were above or equal to LOQ, depending on different compounds, in 58-100% (min-max), 40-100% and 5-39% of samples from coke oven workers (n = 12), asphalt workers (n = 10) and individuals not occupationally exposed to PAHs (n = 18), respectively. Chrysene was the most abundant PAH determined with median levels of 62.6, 6.9 and <0.6 ng/L, respectively. These results show that the method is suitable for quantifying carcinogenic PAHs in specimens from individuals with different levels of PAH exposure.

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: determinants of residential carpet dust levels and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaValle, Curt T.; Deziel, Nicole C.; Jones, Rena R.; Colt, Joanne S.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Cerhan, James R.; Cozen, Wendy; Severson, Richard K.; Flory, Abigail R.; Morton, Lindsay M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) associated with residential carpet dust measurements of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Methods We evaluated the relationship between residential carpet dust PAH concentrations (benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, chrysene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, and indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene, and their sum) and risk of NHL (676 cases, 511 controls) in the National Cancer Institute Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results multicenter case–control study. As a secondary aim, we investigated determinants of dust PAH concentrations. We computed odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence interval (CI) for associations between NHL and concentrations of individual and summed PAHs using unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for age, gender, and study center. Determinants of natural log-transformed PAHs were investigated using multivariate least-squares regression. Results We observed some elevated risks for NHL overall and B cell lymphoma subtypes in association with quartiles or tertiles of PAH concentrations, but without a monotonic trend, and there was no association comparing the highest quartile or tertile to the lowest. In contrast, risk of T cell lymphoma was significantly increased among participants with the highest tertile of summed PAHs (OR = 3.04; 95 % CI, 1.09–8.47) and benzo(k)fluoranthene (OR = 3.20; 95 % CI, 1.13–9.11) compared with the lowest tertile. Predictors of PAH dust concentrations in homes included ambient air PAH concentrations and the proportion of developed land within 2 km of a residence. Older age, more years of education, and white race were also predictive of higher levels in homes. Conclusion Our results suggest a potential link between PAH exposure and risk of T cell lymphoma and demonstrate the importance of analyzing risk by NHL histologic type. PMID:26573845

  3. PAH determination based on a rapid and novel gas purge-microsyringe extraction (GP-MSE) technique in road dust of Shanghai, China: Characterization, source apportionment, and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xin; Yang, Yi; Liu, Min; Yu, Yingpeng; Zhou, John L; Li, Donghao

    2016-07-01

    A novel cleanup technique termed as gas purge-microsyringe extraction (GP-MSE) was evaluated and applied for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) determination in road dust samples. A total of 68 road dust samples covering almost the entire Shanghai area were analyzed for 16 priority PAHs using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results indicate that the total PAH concentrations over the investigated sites ranged from 1.04μg/g to 134.02μg/g dw with an average of 13.84μg/g. High-molecular-weight compounds (4-6 rings PAHs) were significantly dominant in the total mass of PAHs, and accounted for 77.85% to 93.62%. Diagnostic ratio analysis showed that the road dust PAHs were mainly from the mixture of petroleum and biomass/coal combustions. Principal component analysis in conjunction with multiple linear regression indicated that the two major origins of road dust PAHs were vehicular emissions and biomass/fossil fuel combustions, which contributed 66.7% and 18.8% to the total road dust PAH burden, respectively. The concentration of benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) varied from 0.16μg/g to 24.47μg/g. The six highly carcinogenic PAH species (benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene) accounted for 98.57% of the total BaPeq concentration. Thus, the toxicity of PAHs in road dust was highly associated with high-molecular-weight compounds.

  4. Structurally Distinct Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Induce Differential Transcriptional Responses in Developing Zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodale, Britton; Tilton, Susan C.; Corvi, Margaret M.; Wilson, Glenn V.; Janszen, Derek B.; Anderson, Kim A.; Waters, Katrina M.; Tanguay, Robert

    2013-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous in the environment as components of fossil fuels and by-products of combustion. These multi-ring chemicals differentially activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) in a structurally dependent manner, and induce toxicity via both AHR-dependent and -independent mechanisms. PAH exposure is known to induce developmental malformations in zebrafish embryos, and recent studies have shown cardiac toxicity induced by compounds with low AHR affinity. Unraveling the potentially diverse molecular mechanisms of PAH toxicity is essential for understanding the hazard posed by complex PAH mixtures present in the environment. We analyzed transcriptional responses to PAH exposure in zebrafish embryos exposed to benz(a)anthracene (BAA), dibenzothiophene (DBT) and pyrene (PYR) at concentrations that induced developmental malformations by 120 h post-fertilization (hpf). Whole genome microarray analysis of mRNA expression at 24 and 48 hpf identified genes that were differentially regulated over time and in response to the three PAH structures. PAH body burdens were analyzed at both time points using GC-MS, and demonstrated differences in PAH uptake into the embryos. This was important for discerning dose-related differences from those that represented unique molecular mechanisms. While BAA misregulated the least number of transcripts, it caused strong induction of cyp1a and other genes known to be downstream of the AHR, which were not induced by the other two PAHs. Analysis of functional roles of misregulated genes and their predicted regulatory transcription factors also distinguished the BAA response from regulatory networks disrupted by DBT and PYR exposure. These results indicate that systems approaches can be used to classify the toxicity of PAHs based on the networks perturbed following exposure, and may provide a path for unraveling the toxicity of complex PAH mixtures.

  5. Antimutagenicity of an acetone extract of yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadathur, S R; Gould, S J; Bakalinsky, A T

    1995-04-01

    Reconstituted non-fat dry milk powder, fermented by a mixture of Streptococcus thermophilus CH3 and Lactobacillus bulgaricus 191R to produce yogurt, was freeze-dried and extracted in acetone. After evaporation of the acetone, the extract was dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and tested for antimutagenicity. In the Ames test, significant dose-dependent activity was observed against N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), 4-nitro-quinoline-N-oxide (4NQO), 3,2'-dimethyl-4-aminobiphenyl (DMAB), 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benz[a]anthracene (DMBA), and 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole acetate (Trp-P-2). Weak activity was observed against 1,2,7,8-diepoxyoctane (DEO), and no activity was observed against methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), or aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). In a related assay (Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7), significant antimutagenic activity was detected against MNNG and 4NQO. Activity against the experimental colon carcinogens MNNG and DMAB was examined further, as assayed in the Ames test (Salmonella typhimurium TA100). Compounds responsible for both activities were less soluble in aqueous solutions than in DMSO. Adjustment of yogurt pH to 3, 7.6, or 13 prior to freeze-drying and acetone extraction did not significantly alter the amount of anti-MNNG activity recovered. In contrast, extractability of anti-DMAB activity was significantly greater at acidic pH. Conjugated linoleic acid, a known dairy anticarcinogen, failed to inhibit mutagenesis caused by either mutagen, suggesting that other yogurt-derived compound(s) are responsible. Unfermented milk was treated with lactic acid, yogurt bacteria without subsequent growth, or both, to determine if formation of antimutagenic activity required bacterial growth. Extracts of the milk treatments exhibited the same weak antimutagenicity observed in unfermented milk, approximately 2.5-fold less than in the yogurt extracts, suggesting that antimutagenic activity is associated with bacterial

  6. Hard Cap Espresso Machines in Analytical Chemistry: What Else?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenta, Sergio; de la Guardia, Miguel; Esteve-Turrillas, Francesc A

    2016-06-21

    A hard cap espresso machine has been used in combination with liquid chromatography with molecular fluorescence detection for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated soils and sediments providing appropriate extraction efficiencies and quantitative results. Naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benz[b]fluoranthene, benz[k]fluoranthene, benz[a]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, benz[ghi]perylene, and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene were used as target compounds. It should be mentioned that the pairs benz[a]anthracene-chrysene and dibenz[a,h]anthracene-benz[ghi]perylene peaks coelute under the employed chromatographic conditions; thus, those compounds were determined together. PAHs were extracted from 5.0 g of soil, previously homogenized, freeze-dried, and sieved to 250 μm, with 50 mL of 40% (v/v) acetonitrile in water at a temperature of 72 ± 3 °C. The proposed procedure is really fast, with an extraction time of 11 s, and it reduces the required amount of organic solvent to do the sample preparation. The obtained limit of detection for the evaluated PAHs was from 1 to 38 μg kg(-1). Recoveries were calculated using clean soils spiked with 100, 500, 1000, and 2000 μg kg(-1) PAHs with values ranging from 81 to 121% and good precision with relative standard deviation values lower than 30%. The method was validated using soil and sediment certified reference materials and also using real samples by comparison with ultrasound-assisted extraction, as reference methodology, obtaining statistically comparable results. Thus, the use of hard cap espresso machines in the analytical laboratories offers tremendous possibilities as low cost extraction units for the extraction of solid samples.

  7. Raman spectroscopy detects biomolecular changes associated with nanoencapsulated hesperetin treatment in experimental oral carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurushankar, K.; Gohulkumar, M.; Kumar, Piyush; Krishna, C. Murali; Krishnakumar, N.

    2016-03-01

    Recently it has been shown that Raman spectroscopy possesses great potential in the investigation of biomolecular changes of tumor tissues with therapeutic drug response in a non-invasive and label-free manner. The present study is designed to investigate the antitumor effect of hespertin-loaded nanoparticles (HETNPs) relative to the efficacy of native hesperetin (HET) in modifying the biomolecular changes during 7,12-dimethyl benz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced oral carcinogenesis using a Raman spectroscopic technique. Significant differences in the intensity and shape of the Raman spectra between the control and the experimental tissues at 1800-500 cm-1 were observed. Tumor tissues are characterized by an increase in the relative amount of proteins, nucleic acids, tryptophan and phenylalanine and a decrease in the percentage of lipids when compared to the control tissues. Further, oral administration of HET and its nanoparticulates restored the status of the lipids and significantly decreased the levels of protein and nucleic acid content. Treatment with HETNPs showed a more potent antitumor effect than treatment with native HET, which resulted in an overall reduction in the intensity of several biochemical Raman bands in DMBA-induced oral carcinogenesis being observed. Principal component and linear discriminant analysis (PC-LDA), together with leave-one-out cross validation (LOOCV) on Raman spectra yielded diagnostic sensitivities of 100%, 80%, 91.6% and 65% and specificities of 100%, 65%, 60% and 55% for classification of control versus DMBA, DMBA versus DMBA  +  HET, DMBA versus DMBA  +  HETNPs and DMBA  +  HET versus DMBA  +  HETNPs treated tissue groups, respectively. These results further demonstrate that Raman spectroscopy associated with multivariate statistical algorithms could be a valuable tool for developing a comprehensive understanding of the process of biomolecular changes, and could reveal the signatures of the

  8. Copper and resveratrol attenuates serum catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and element values in rats with DMBA-induced mammary carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrajnowska, Dorota; Bobrowska-Korczak, Barbara; Tokarz, Andrzej; Bialek, Slawomir; Jezierska, Ewelina; Makowska, Justyna

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, a hypothesis was assessed whether or not the intoxication with copper and supplementation with copper plus resveratrol would result in changes in the activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase and moreover if the characteristic changes would appear in concentrations of copper, iron, calcium, magnesium, and zinc in the serum of rats with chemically induced carcinogenesis. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into study groups which, apart from the standard diet, were treated with copper (42.6 mg Cu/kg food as CuSO4·5H2O) or copper plus resveratrol (0.2 mg/kg body) via gavage for a period from 40 days until 20 weeks of age. In cancer groups, the rats were treated with a dose of 80 mg/body weight of 7,12-dimethyl-1,2-benz[a]anthracene (DMBA) given in rapeseed oil at 50 and 80 days of age to induce mammary carcinogenesis. The control groups included the rats kept in the same conditions and fed with the same diet as the animals from the study groups, but not DMBA-treated. The activity of catalase significantly decreased in groups of rats with mammary carcinogenesis that were supplemented with copper (p copper plus resveratrol (p cancer groups of nonsupplemented rats, the increase of glutathione peroxidase activity was observed. The process of carcinogenesis and the applied supplementation significantly altered the concentrations of trace elements in serum, in particular as concerns iron and copper. The mean serum iron levels in rats with breast cancer were significantly lower than those in the control groups (p copper levels significantly decreased in the groups of rats with mammary carcinogenesis that were supplemented with copper or copper plus resveratrol in comparison with the control groups that received the same diets (p copper and zinc/iron ratios in blood may be used as one of the prognostic factors in breast cancer research.

  9. [An investigation of the formation of] polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions when firing pulverized coal in a bench-scale drop tube reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisupati, S.V.; Wasco, R.S.; Scaroni, A.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Combustion Lab.

    1998-12-31

    The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 contain provisions which will set standards for the allowable emissions of 188 analytes designated as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). This list of HAPs was used to establish an initial list of source categories for which EPA would be required to establish technology-based emission standards, which would result in regulated sources sharply reducing routine emissions of toxic air pollutants. Polycyclic organic matter (POM) has also been referred to as polynuclear or polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). Nine major categories of POM have been defined by EPA. The study of organic compounds from coal combustion is complex and the results obtained so far are inconclusive with respect to emission factors. The most common organic compounds in the flue gas of coal-fired power plants are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Furthermore, EPA has specified 16 PAH compounds as priority pollutants. These are naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene, and dibenz[ah]anthracene. Penn State`s Combustion Laboratory is equipped to collect and analyze the HAPs in the flue gas from fossil fuels combustion. The overall objective of this study was to examine the effect of unit temperature on PAH emissions. A Modified Method 5 sampling train was used to isokinetically collect samples at desired locations in flue gas streams. The collected sample can be separated into solid, condensed liquid and gaseous phases. The PAHs of interest are extracted from the collected sample, concentrated, then separated and quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). This study was conducted using a bench-scale drop-tube reactor (DTR). The fuel selected for this study was a Middle Kittanning seam coal pulverized to 80% passing US Standard 200 mesh (commonly

  10. Characterization of parent and oxygenated-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Xi'an, China during heating period: An investigation of spatial distribution and transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingzhi; Hang Ho, Steven Sai; Huang, Rujin; Gao, Meiling; Liu, Suixin; Zhao, Shuyu; Cao, Junji; Wang, Gehui; Shen, Zhenxing; Han, Yongming

    2016-09-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and its oxygenated derivatives (OPAHs) are toxins in PM2.5. Little information has been known for their transformation in the ambient airs. In this study, PM2.5 samples were collected at 19 sampling sites in Xi'an, China during the heating period, which is classified into: urban residential, university, commercial area, suburban region, and industry. Organic compounds including PAHs, OPAHs, hopanes and cholestanes were quantified. The average of total quantified PAHs and OPAHs concentrations were 196.5 ng/m(3) and 29.4 ng/m(3), respectively, which were consistent with other northern cities in China. Statistical analyses showed that there were significant differences on the distributions of PAHs between urban and suburban regions. The industry also had distinguishable profiles compared with urban residential and commercial area for OPAHs. The greater diversity of OPAHs than PAHs might be due to different primary emission sources and transformation and degradation pathways. The ratios of OPAHs to the corresponding parent PAHs, including 9-fluorenone/fluorene, anthraquinone/anthracene, benz[a]anthracene-7,12-dione/benzo[a]anthracene were 6.2, 12.7, and 1.4, respectively, which were much higher than those for the fresh emissions from coal combustion and biomass burning. These prove the importance of secondary formation and transformation of OPAHs in the ambient airs. Biomarkers such as retene, cyclopenta[CD]pyrene and αα-homohopane were characterized for the source apportionment. With Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model analysis, biomass burning was recognized as the most dominant pollution sources for PAHs during the heading period, which accounted for a contribution of 37.1%. Vehicle emission (22.8%) and coal combustion (22.6%) were also contributors in Xi'an.

  11. Sources appointment and ecological risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments of Erhai Lake, a low-latitude and high-altitude lake in southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezhong, Yuan; Enlou, Zhang; Qi, Lin; Rong, Wang; Enfeng, Liu

    2016-03-01

    Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed from the surficial sediments in Erhai Lake, a plateau lake in China. The results showed that except for acenaphthylene (Ace) Ace and Dibenz(a,h)anthracene (DBA), the central region contained individual PAHs at concentrations lower than those in other lake regions. Total concentration of the PAHs (ΣPAHs) in the sediments from Erhai Lake ranged from 32.42 to 558.53 mg/kg with a mean value of 256.70 mg/kg. The maximum value of ΣPAHs was observed in the north region of the lake and more than 10-fold higher than the minimum values. Moreover, high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs, especially 5-ring PAHs, accounted for higher ratios up to 76 % relative to other PAHs compound in almost all sampling sites. Molecular diagnostic ratios including anthtacene (Ant)/(Ant + phenanthrene (Phe)), fluoranthene (Flt)/(Flt + pyrene (Pyr)), benz(a)anthracene (BaA)/(BaA + chrysene (Chr)), and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene (IPY)/(IPY + benz(g,h,i)perylene (BPE)) were recorded at all sampling sites and indicated that the origin of PAHs in Erhai Lake was predominately pyrolytic. Furthermore, principal component analysis with component dominating by HMW PAHs showed that combustion origins were the primary contamination sources of PAHs in the sediments of Erhai Lake. Finally, ecological risk assessment indicated that the sediments from Erhai Lake are exposed to potential low risk for ΣPAHs, and the ecological risk decreases in the order of northern region > southern region > central region.

  12. Implementation of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of halogenated contaminants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalachova, Kamila; Pulkrabova, Jana; Cajka, Tomas; Drabova, Lucie; Hajslova, Jana [Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czech Republic). Department of Food Chemistry and Analysis, Faculty of Food and Biochemical Technology

    2012-07-15

    In the presented study, comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC x GC-TOFMS) was shown to be a powerful tool for the simultaneous determination of various groups of contaminants including 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), seven polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Since different groups of analytes (traditionally analyzed separately) were included into one instrumental method, significant time savings were achieved. Following the development of an integrated sample preparation procedure for an effective and rapid isolation of several groups of contaminants from fish tissue, the GC x GC-TOFMS instrumental method was optimized to obtain the best chromatographic resolution and low quantification limits (LOQs) of all target analytes in a complex mixture. Using large-volume programmable temperature vaporization, the following LOQs were achieved - PCBs, 0.01-0.25 {mu}g/kg; PBDEs, 0.025-5 {mu}g/kg; PAHs 0.025-0.5 {mu}g/kg. Furthermore, several capillary column combinations (BPX5, BPX50, and Rxi-17Sil-ms in the first dimension and BPX5, BPX50, Rt-LC35, and HT8 in the second dimension) were tested during the experiments, and the optimal separation of all target analytes even of critical groups of PAHs (group (a): benz[a]anthracene, cyclopenta[cd]pyrene and chrysene; group (b): benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[j]fluoranthene and benzo[k]fluoranthene; group (c): dibenz[ah]anthracene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene and benzo[ghi]perylene) was observed on BPX5 x BPX50 column setup. Moreover, since the determination of target analytes was performed using TOFMS detector, further identification of other non-target compounds in real life samples was also feasible. (orig.)

  13. Single-laboratory validation of a saponification method for the determination of four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in edible oils by HPLC-fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdoğan, Abdullah; Buttinger, Gerhard; Wenzl, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    An analytical method is reported for the determination of four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), benz[a]anthracene (BaA), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF) and chrysene (CHR)) in edible oils (sesame, maize, sunflower and olive oil) by high-performance liquid chromatography. Sample preparation is based on three steps including saponification, liquid-liquid partitioning and, finally, clean-up by solid phase extraction on 2 g of silica. Guidance on single-laboratory validation of the proposed analysis method was taken from the second edition of the Eurachem guide on method validation. The lower level of the working range of the method was determined by the limits of quantification of the individual analytes, and the upper level was equal to 5.0 µg kg(-1). The limits of detection and quantification of the four PAHs ranged from 0.06 to 0.12 µg kg(-1) and from 0.13 to 0.24 µg kg(-1). Recoveries of more than 84.8% were achieved for all four PAHs at two concentration levels (2.5 and 5.0 µg kg(-1)), and expanded relative measurement uncertainties were below 20%. The performance of the validated method was in all aspects compliant with provisions set in European Union legislation for the performance of analytical methods employed in the official control of food. The applicability of the method to routine samples was evaluated based on a limited number of commercial edible oil samples.

  14. Estimating individual-level exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons throughout the gestational period based on personal, indoor, and outdoor monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, H.; Perera, F.; Pac, A.; Wang, L.; Flak, E.; Mroz, E.; Jacek, R.; Chai-Onn, T.; Jedrychowski, W.; Masters, E.; Camann, D.; Spengler, J. [Columbia University, New York, NY (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Current understanding on health effects of long-term polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure is limited by lack of data on time-varying nature of the pollutants at an individual level. In a cohort of pregnant women in Krakow, Poland, we examined the contribution of temporal, spatial, and behavioral factors to prenatal exposure to airborne PAHs within each trimester and developed a predictive model of PAH exposure over the entire gestational period. The observed personal, indoor, and outdoor B(a)P levels we observed in Krakow far exceed the recommended Swedish guideline value for B(a)P of 0.1 ng/m{sup 3}. Based on simultaneously monitored levels, the outdoor PAH level alone accounts for 93% of total variability in personal exposure during the heating season. Living near the Krakow bus depot, a crossroad, and the city, center and time spent outdoors or commuting were not associated with higher personal exposure. During the nonheating season only, a 1-hr increase in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure was associated with a 10-16% increase in personal exposure to the nine measured PAHs. A 1{degree}C decrease in ambient temperature was associated with a 3-5% increase in exposure to benz(a)anthracene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, and dibenz(a,h)anthracene, after accounting for the outdoor concentration. A random effects model demonstrated that mean personal exposure at a given gestational period depends on the season, residence location, and ETS. Considering that most women reported spending < 3 hr/day outdoors, most women in the study were exposed to outdoor-originating PAHs within the indoor setting. Cross-sectional, longitudinal monitoring supplemented with questionnaire data allowed development of a gestation-length model of individual-level exposure with high precision and validity.

  15. Effect of zinc and polyphenols supplementation on antioxidative defense mechanisms and the frequency of microsatellite instability in chemically-induced mammary carcinogenesis in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrowska-Korczak, Barbara; Skrajnowska, Dorota; Tokarz, Andrzej; Bialek, Slawomir; Jezierska, Ewelina

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of dietary supplementation (with zinc or zinc and polyphenolic compounds - resveratrol or genistein) on antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase - GPx, catalase - CAT and superoxide dismutase - SOD) and the frequency of microsatellite instability (MSI) in a widely used model of mammary carcinogenesis induced in the rat by treatment with 7,12-dimethyl-1,2-benz[a]anthracene (DMBA). The impact of selected compounds on the intensity of DMBA-induced carcinogenesis was also assessed. Sixty four Sprague-Dawley female rats were divided into study groups which, apart from the standard diet and DMBA, were treated with zinc, zinc and resveratrol or zinc and genistein via gavage for a period ranging from 40 days to 20 weeks of age. On the basis of the obtained results it can be said that synergistic reaction between Zn(II) and genistein causes a delay in cancer development as compared with the animals treated with DMBA but with no food supplementation. Supplementation with Zn(II) and polyphenolic compounds resulted in the occurrence of microsatellite instabilities in tumors. LOH (loss of heterozygosity) was found in tumor samples at microsatellite D1Mgh6 and D3Mgh9. DMBA treatment increased significantly the glutathione peroxidase activity whereas it had no effect on the SOD and CAT activities, as compared with control rats. Diet supplementation has an effect on the activity of selected antioxidant enzymes. Diet supplementation has an effect on the occurrence of microsatellite instabilities as well as on the intensity of the neoplastic process. The intensity of occurrence of microsatellite instabilities does not depend on the activity of selected antioxidant enzymes.

  16. Bacterial degradation of recalcitrant PAHs: metabolic studies and application to pyrene degradation in a freshwater sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouanneau, Y.; Demaneche, S.; Meyer, Ch.; Willison, J.C. [CEA-Grenoble, UMR 5092 CNRS-CEA-UJF, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2005-07-01

    Cost-effective bio-remediation strategies have been proposed to remove toxic chemicals, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), from contaminated sites. However, the efficiency of these strategies is often limited, due to the resistance of certain chemicals to microbial degradation. Our studies deal with the biodegradation of four-ring PAHs using two recently isolated bacteria, Mycobacterium strain 6PY1, which can mineralize pyrene and phenanthrene, and Sphingomonas strain CHY-1, which mineralizes chrysene and various three-ring PAHs. The metabolic pathways for the biodegradation of PAHs have been investigated using GC-MS to identify and assay metabolites. Also, several enzymes involved in PAH catabolism have been identified by a combination of proteomic and genetic approaches. In Mycobacterium 6PY1, two ring-hydroxylating di-oxygenases which catalyze the initial attack of PAHs have been overproduced in E. coli, isolated and characterized. The selectivity of the two enzymes showed marked differences, since one di-oxygenase preferentially oxidized 2- or 3- ring PAHs whereas the other attacked pyrene and 3-ring PAHs exclusively. In Sphingomonas CHY-1, a single di-oxygenase, called PhnI, was found to convert seven PAHs, including chrysene, to the corresponding dihydro-diols. It is the first enzyme to be described which is able to attack the four-ring PAHs chrysene and benz[a]anthracene.. The fate of pyrene was examined in a sediment taken from a freshwater lake of the French Alps. Experiments were carried out in microcosms containing a layer of sediment which was spiked with {sup 14}C-pyrene. Pyrene mineralization was monitored over 61 days by measuring the {sup 14}CO{sub 2} evolved from the microcosms. Some microcosms were planted with young reeds (Phragmites australis), while other were inoculated with Mycobacterium 6PY1. P. australis reeds promoted a significant increase of pyrene degradation, which most likely resulted from a root-mediated increase of

  17. Mutagenicity and tumorigenicity of the four enantiopure bay-region 3,4-diol-1,2-epoxide isomers of dibenz[a,h]anthracene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Richard L; Wood, Alexander W; Huang, Mou Tuan; Xie, Jian Guo; Cui, Xiao Xing; Reuhl, Kenneth R; Boyd, D R; Lin, Yong; Shih, Weichung Joe; Balani, Suresh K; Yagi, Haruhiko; Jerina, Donald M; Conney, Allan H

    2013-09-01

    Each enantiomer of the diastereomeric pair of bay-region dibenz[a,h]anthracene 3,4-diol-1,2-epoxides in which the benzylic 4-hydroxyl group and epoxide oxygen are either cis (isomer 1) or trans (isomer 2) were evaluated for mutagenic activity. In strains TA 98 and TA 100 of Salmonella typhimurium, the diol epoxide with (1S,2R,3S,4R) absolute configuration [(-)-diol epoxide-1] had the highest mutagenic activity. In Chinese hamster V-79 cells, the diol epoxide with (1R,2S,3S,4R) absolute configuration [(+)-diol epoxide-2] had the highest mutagenic activity. The (1R,2S,3R,4S) diol epoxide [(+)-diol epoxide-1] also had appreciable activity, whereas the other two bay-region diol epoxide enantiomers had very low activity. In tumor studies, the (1R,2S,3S,4R) enantiomer was the only diol epoxide isomer tested that had strong activity as a tumor initiator on mouse skin and in causing lung and liver tumors when injected into newborn mice. This stereoisomer was about one-third as active as the parent hydrocarbon, dibenz[a,h]anthracene as a tumor initiator on mouse skin; it was several-fold more active than dibenz[a,h]anthracene as a lung and liver carcinogen when injected into newborn mice. (-)-(3R,4R)-3β,4α-dihydroxy-3,4-dihydro-dibenz[a,h]anthracene [(-)-3,4-dihydrodiol] was slightly more active than dibenz[a,h]anthracene as a tumor initiator on mouse skin, whereas (+)-(3S,4S)-3α,4β-dihydroxy-3,4-dihydro-dibenz[a,h]anthracene [(+)-3,4-dihydrodiol] had only very weak activity. The present investigation and previous studies with the corresponding four possible enantiopure bay-region diol epoxide enantiomers/diastereomers of benzo[a]pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[c]phenanthrene, dibenz[c,h]acridine, dibenz[a,h]acridine and dibenz[a,h]anthracene indicate that the bay-region diol epoxide enantiomer with [R,S,S,R] absolute stereochemistry has high tumorigenic activity on mouse skin and in newborn mice.

  18. ANTICANCER EFFECTS OF CARICA PAPAYA IN EXPERIMENTAL INDUCED MAMMARY TUMORS IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurudatta M, Deshmukh YA, Naikwadi A A

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the anticancer effect of Carica papaya in DMBA induced mammary tumors in rats. Methods: Wistar rats were divided in to five groups (n=6, Group-I (Normal control administered vehicle olive oil, Group-II, Group-III ,Group-IV and V induced mammary tumors by administering single dose of DMBA (7,12 Dimethyl benz(Aanthracene orally 65 mg/kg. Group-III was administered aqueous leaf extract of Carica papaya (ALQECP in a dose of 200 mg/kg body wt for a period of 3 months, group-IV has given ALQECP 200 mg/kg body wt for a period of 21 days post 3 months of tumor induction, group-V rats were administered a small dose of Carica papaya extract intra tumor locally in the region of tumor. Results: Values of CA15-3 were increased in group-II rats (tumor control significantly, whereas in group-III (prevention group the levels of CA15-3 were found to be reduced substantially and the P value < 0.001. Similarly, CA-15-3 levels were reduced significantly in group-IV (treatment groupand P<0.005. The levels of LDH were seen to be increased in group-II, where as in group-III LDH levels were decreased and P<0.001.similarly group-IV LDH levels also reduced significantly but not to the level of group-III. Conclusion: Among the various markers for the detection of cancer antigen-15(CA15-3 and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH are important biochemical parameters that give a clear understanding of the progression and proliferation of cancer cells. In this study it was found that there is increase in the levels of markers such as CA15-3 and LDH and also the tumor volume in tumor control, these marker levels were decreased by the administration of aqueous leaf extract of Carica papaya in a dose of 200 mg/kg body wt. ALQECP not only prevented the progression of cancer growth but also has significant effect in reducing the both CA15-3 and LDH levels in treatment group.

  19. Comparative developmental toxicity of environmentally relevant oxygenated PAHs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knecht, Andrea L., E-mail: andrea.knecht@tanguaylab.com [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, the Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Goodale, Britton C., E-mail: goodaleb@onid.orst.edu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, the Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Truong, Lisa, E-mail: lisa.truong.888@gmail.com [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, the Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Simonich, Michael T., E-mail: mtsimonich@oregonstate.edu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, the Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Swanson, Annika J., E-mail: swansoan@onid.orst.edu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, the Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Matzke, Melissa M., E-mail: melissa.matzke@pnl.gov [Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, Kim A., E-mail: kim.anderson@oregonstate.edu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, the Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Waters, Katrina M., E-mail: katrina.waters@pnl.gov [Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Tanguay, Robert L., E-mail: robert.tanguay@oregonstate.edu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, the Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OPAHs) are byproducts of combustion and photo-oxidation of parent PAHs. OPAHs are widely present in the environment and pose an unknown hazard to human health. The developing zebrafish was used to evaluate a structurally diverse set of 38 OPAHs for malformation induction, gene expression changes and mitochondrial function. Zebrafish embryos were exposed from 6 to 120 h post fertilization (hpf) to a dilution series of 38 different OPAHs and evaluated for 22 developmental endpoints. AHR activation was determined via CYP1A immunohistochemistry. Phenanthrenequinone (9,10-PHEQ), 1,9-benz-10-anthrone (BEZO), xanthone (XAN), benz(a)anthracene-7,12-dione (7,12-B[a]AQ), and 9,10-anthraquinone (9,10-ANTQ) were evaluated for transcriptional responses at 48 hpf, prior to the onset of malformations. qRT-PCR was conducted for a number of oxidative stress genes, including the glutathione transferase(gst), glutathione peroxidase(gpx), and superoxide dismutase(sod) families. Bioenergetics was assayed to measure in vivo oxidative stress and mitochondrial function in 26 hpf embryos exposed to OPAHs. Hierarchical clustering of the structure-activity outcomes indicated that the most toxic of the OPAHs contained adjacent diones on 6-carbon moieties or terminal, para-diones on multi-ring structures. 5-carbon moieties with adjacent diones were among the least toxic OPAHs while the toxicity of multi-ring structures with more centralized para-diones varied considerably. 9,10-PHEQ, BEZO, 7,12-B[a]AQ, and XAN exposures increased expression of several oxidative stress related genes and decreased oxygen consumption rate (OCR), a measurement of mitochondrial respiration. Comprehensive in vivo characterization of 38 structurally diverse OPAHs indicated differential AHR dependency and a prominent role for oxidative stress in the toxicity mechanisms. - Highlights: • OPAHs are byproducts of combustion present in the environment. • OPAHs pose a largely

  20. The effect of dietary zinc - and polyphenols intake on DMBA-induced mammary tumorigenesis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobrowska-Korczak Barbara

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with zinc and polyphenol compounds, i.e. resveratrol and genistein, on the effectiveness of chemically induced mammary cancer and the changes in the content of selected elements (Zn, Cu, Mg, Fe, Ca in tumors as compared with normal tissue of the mammary gland. Methods Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into study groups which, apart from the standard diet and DMBA (7,12-dimethyl-1,2- benz[a]anthracene, were treated with zinc ions (Zn or zinc ions + resveratrol (Zn + resveratrol or zinc ions + genistein (Zn + genistein via gavage for a period from 40 days until 20 weeks of age. The ICP-OES (inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry technique was used to analyze the following elements: magnesium, iron, zinc and calcium. Copper content in samples was estimated in an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results Regardless of the diet (standard; Zn; Zn + resveratrol; Zn + genistein, DMBA-induced breast carcinogenesis was not inhibited. On the contrary, in the Zn + resveratrol supplemented group, tumorigenesis developed at a considerably faster rate. On the basis of quantitative analysis of selected elements we found - irrespectively of the diet applied - great accumulation of copper and iron, which are strongly prooxidative, with a simultaneous considerable decrease of the magnesium content in DMBA-induced mammary tumors. The combination of zinc supplementation with resveratrol resulted in particularly large differences in the amount of the investigated elements in tumors as compared with their content in normal tissue. Conclusions Diet supplementation with zinc and polyphenol compounds, i.e. resveratrol and genistein had no effect on the decreased copper level in tumor tissue and inhibited mammary carcinogenesis in the rat. Irrespectively of the applied diet, the development of the neoplastic process in rats resulted in changes of

  1. Assessment of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated activities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a human cell-based reporter gene assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondráček, Jan; Pěnčíková, Kateřina; Neča, Jiří; Ciganek, Miroslav; Grycová, Aneta; Dvořák, Zdeněk; Machala, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated activity is one of key events in toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Although various classes of AhR ligands may differentially activate human and rodent AhR, there is presently a lack of data on the human AhR-inducing relative potencies (REPs) of PAHs. Here, we focused on estimation of the AhR-mediated activities of a large set of environmental PAHs in human gene reporter AZ-AhR cell line, with an aim to develop the human AhR-based REP values with potential implications for risk assessment of PAHs. The previously identified weakly active PAHs mostly failed to activate the AhR in human cells. The order for REPs of individual PAHs in human cells largely corresponded with the available data from rodent-based experimental systems; nevertheless, we identified differences up to one order of magnitude in REP values of PAHs between human and rodent cells. Higher REP values were found in human cells for some important environmental contaminants or suspected carcinogens, such as indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, benz[a]anthracene or benzo[b]fluoranthene, while lower REP values were determined for methyl-substituted PAHs. Our results also indicate that a different rate of metabolism for individual PAHs in human vs. rodent cells may affect estimation of REP values in human cell-based assay, and potentially alter toxicity of some compounds, such as benzofluoranthenes, in humans. We applied the AZ-AhR assay to evaluation of the AhR-mediated activity of complex mixtures of organic compounds associated with diesel exhaust particles, and we identified the polar compounds present in these mixtures as being particularly highly active in human cells, as compared with rodent cells. The present data suggest that differences may exist between the AhR-mediated potencies of PAHs in human and rodent cells, and that the AhR-mediated effects of polar PAH derivatives and metabolites in human cell models deserve further

  2. Tephrosia purpurea alleviates phorbol ester-induced tumor promotion response in murine skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, M; Ahmed Su; Alam, A; Sultana, S

    2001-02-01

    In recent years, considerable emphasis has been placed on identifying new cancer chemopreventive agents, which could be useful for the human population. Tephrosia purpurea has been shown to possess significant activity against hepatotoxicity, pharmacological and physiological disorders. Earlier we showed that Tephrosia purpurea inhibits benzoyl peroxide-mediated cutaneous oxidative stress and toxicity. In the present study, we therefore assessed the effect of Tephrosia purpurea on 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbal-13-acetate (TPA; a well-known phorbol ester) induced cutaneous oxidative stress and toxicity in murine skin. The pre-treatment of Swiss albino mice with Tephrosia purpurea prior to application of croton oil (phorbol ester) resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cutaneous carcinogenesis. Skin tumor initiation was achieved by a single topical application of 7,12-dimethyl benz(a)anthracene (DMBA) (25 microg per animal per 0.2 ml acetone) to mice. Ten days later tumor promotion was started by twice weekly topical application of croton oil (0.5% per animal per 0.2 ml acetone, v /v). Topical application of Tephrosia purpurea 1 h prior to each application of croton oil (phorbol ester) resulted in a significant protection against cutaneous carcinogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. The animals pre-treated with Tephrosia purpurea showed a decrease in both tumor incidence and tumor yield as compared to the croton oil (phorbol ester)-treated control group. In addition, a significant reduction in TPA-mediated induction in cutaneous ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity and [3H]thymidine incorporation was also observed in animals pre-treated with a topical application of Tephrosia purpurea. The effect of topical application of Tephrosia purpurea on TPA-mediated depletion in the level of enzymatic and non-enzymatic molecules in skin was also evaluated and it was observed that topical application of Tephrosia purpurea prior to TPA resulted in the significant recovery of

  3. Color encoded microbeads-based flow cytometric immunoassay for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meimaridou, Anastasia, E-mail: anastasia.meimaridou@wur.nl [RIKILT-Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 230, 6700 AE Wageningen (Netherlands); Haasnoot, Willem; Noteboom, Linda; Mintzas, Dimitrios [RIKILT-Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 230, 6700 AE Wageningen (Netherlands); Pulkrabova, Jana; Hajslova, Jana [Department of Food Chemistry and Analysis, Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Technicka 3, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Nielen, Michel W.F. [RIKILT-Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 230, 6700 AE Wageningen (Netherlands); Wageningen University, Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Dreijenplein 8, 6703 HB Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2010-07-05

    Food contamination caused by chemical hazards such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is a worldwide public health concern and requires continuous monitoring. The chromatography-based analysis methods for POPs are accurate and quite sensitive but they are time-consuming, laborious and expensive. Thus, there is a need for validated simplified screening tools, which are inexpensive, rapid, have automation potential and can detect multiple POPs simultaneously. In this study we developed a flow cytometry-based immunoassay (FCIA) using a color-encoded microbeads technology to detect benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in buffer and food extracts as a starting point for the future development of rapid multiplex assays including other POPs in food, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). A highly sensitive assay for BaP was obtained with an IC{sub 50} of 0.3 {mu}g L{sup -1} using a monoclonal antibody (Mab22F12) against BaP, similar to the IC{sub 50} of a previously described enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using the same Mab. Moreover, the FCIA was 8 times more sensitive for BaP compared to a surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensor immunoassay (BIA) using the same reagents. The selectivity of the FCIAs was tested, with two Mabs against BaP for 25 other PAHs, including two hydroxyl PAH metabolites. Apart from BaP, the FCIAs can detect PAHs such as indenol[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (IP), benz[a]anthracene (BaA), and chrysene (CHR) which are also appointed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) as suitable indicators of PAH contamination in food. The FCIAs results were in agreement with those obtained with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the detection of PAHs in real food samples of smoked carp and wheat flour and has great potential for the future routine application of this assay in a simplex or multiplex format in combination with simplified extraction

  4. Germ line transmission of the Cdk4(R24C) mutation facilitates tumorigenesis and escape from cellular senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rane, Sushil G; Cosenza, Stephen C; Mettus, Richard V; Reddy, E Premkumar

    2002-01-01

    Mutations in CDK4 and its key kinase inhibitor p16(INK4a) have been implicated in the genesis and progression of familial human melanoma. The importance of the CDK4 locus in human cancer first became evident following the identification of a germ line CDK4-Arg24Cys (R24C) mutation, which abolishes the ability of CDK4 to bind to p16(INK4a). To determine the role of the Cdk4(R24C) germ line mutation in the genesis of other cancer types, we introduced the R24C mutation in the Cdk4 locus of mice by using Cre-loxP-mediated "knock-in" technology. Cdk4(R24C/R24C) mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) displayed increased Cdk4 kinase activity resulting in hyperphosphorylation of all three members of the Rb family, pRb, p107, and p130. MEFs derived from Cdk4(R24C/R24C) mice displayed decreased doubling times, escape from replicative senescence, and escape sensitivity to contact-induced growth arrest. These MEFs also exhibited a high degree of susceptibility to oncogene-induced transformation, suggesting that the Cdk4(R24C) mutation can serve as a primary event in the progression towards a fully transformed phenotype. In agreement with the in vitro data, homozygous Cdk4(R24C/R24C) mice developed tumors of various etiology within 8 to 10 months of their life span. The majority of these tumors were found in the pancreas, pituitary, brain, mammary tissue, and skin. In addition, Cdk4(R24C/R24C) mice showed extraordinary susceptibility to carcinogens and developed papillomas within the first 8 to 10 weeks following cutaneous application of the carcinogens 9,10-di-methyl-1,2-benz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). This report formally establishes that the activation of Cdk4 is sufficient to promote cancer in many tissues. The observation that a wide variety of tumors develop in mice harboring the Cdk4(R24C) mutation offers a genetic proof that Cdk4 activation may constitute a central event in the genesis of many types of cancers in addition to melanoma.

  5. Erythrocyte-based Pig-a gene mutation assay: demonstration of cross-species potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phonethepswath, Souk; Bryce, Steven M; Bemis, Jeffrey C; Dertinger, Stephen D

    2008-12-08

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors attach specific proteins to the cell surface of hematopoietic cells. Of the genes required to form GPI anchors, only Pig-a is located on the X-chromosome. Prior work with rats suggests that the GPI anchor deficient phenotype is a reliable indicator of Pig-a mutation [Bryce et al., Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 49 (2008) 256-264]. The current report extends this line of investigation by describing simplified blood handling procedures, and by testing the assay principle in a second species, Mus musculus. With this method, erythrocytes are isolated, incubated with anti-CD24-PE, and stained with SYTO 13. Flow cytometric analyses quantify GPI anchor-deficient erythrocytes and reticulocytes. After reconstruction experiments with mutant-mimicking cells demonstrated that the analytical performance of the method is high, CD-1 mice were treated on three occasions with 7,12-dimethyl-1,2-benz[a]anthracene (DMBA, 75 mg/kg/day) or ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU, 40 mg/kg/day). Two weeks after the final treatment, DMBA-treated mice were found to exhibit markedly elevated frequencies of GPI anchor deficient erythrocytes and reticulocytes. For the ENU experiment, blood specimens were collected at weekly intervals over a 5-week period. Whereas the frequencies of mutant reticulocytes were significantly elevated 1 week after the last administration, the erythrocyte population was unchanged until the second week. Thereafter, both populations exhibited persistently elevated frequencies for the duration of the experiment (mean frequency at termination=310x10(-6) and 523x10(-6) for erythrocyte and reticulocyte populations, respectively). These data provide evidence that Pig-a mutation does not convey an appreciable positive or negative cell survival advantage to affected erythroid progenitors, although they do suggest that affected erythrocytes have a reduced lifespan in circulation. Collectively, accumulated data support the hypothesis that flow cytometric

  6. Amelioration of soil PAH and heavy metals by combined application of fly ash and biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masto, Reginald; George, Joshy; Ansari, Md; Ram, Lal

    2016-04-01

    Generation of electricity through coal combustion produces huge quantities of fly ash. Sustainable disposal and utilization of these fly ash is a major challenge. Fly ash along with other amendments like biochar could be used for amelioration of soil. In this study, fly ash and biochar were used together for amelioration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated soil. Field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of fly ash and biochar on the amelioration of soil PAH, and the yield of Zea mays. The treatments were control, biochar (4 t/ha), fly ash (4 t/ha), ash + biochar ( 2 + 2 t/ha). Soil samples were collected after the harvest of maize crop and analysed for chemical and biological parameters. Thirteen PAHs were analysed in the postharvest soil samples. Soil PAHs were extracted in a microwave oven at 120 °C using hexane : acetone (1:1) mixture. The extracted solutions were concentrated, cleaned and the 13 PAHs [Acenaphthene (Ace), fluorene (Flr), phenanthrene (Phn), anthracene(Ant), pyrene(Pyr), benz(a)anthracene (BaA), chrysene (Chy), benzo(b)fluoranthene (BbF), benzo(k)fluoranthene (BkF), benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene (BghiP), dibenzo(a,h)anthracene, and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene)(Inp)] were analysed using GC-MS. The mean pH increased from 6.09 in control to 6.64 and 6.58 at biochar and fly ash treated soils, respectively. N content was not affected, whereas addition of biochar alone and in combination with fly ash, has significantly increased the soil organic carbon content. P content was almost double in combined (9.06 mg/kg) treatment as compared to control (4.32 mg/kg). The increase in K due to biochar was 118%, whereas char + ash increased soil K by 64%. Soil heavy metals were decreased: Zn (-48.4%), Ni (-41.4%), Co (-36.9%), Cu (-35.7%), Mn (-34.3%), Cd (-33.2%), and Pb (-30.4%). Soil dehydrogenase activity was significantly increased by ash and biochar treatments and the maximum activity was observed for the combined

  7. Laboratory and Ambient Studies of the Products of Gas-Phase Hydroxyl and Nitrate Ion Radical-Initiated Reactions with Selected PAHs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Kathryn Jean

    Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (nitro-PAH) product distributions from the gas-phase hydroxyl (OH) and nitrate (NO3) radical-initiated reactions with selected PAHs, as well as the heterogeneous reactions of surface-bound PAHs with N2O5 and HNO3, were investigated. Chapter 2 presents formation yields of nitro-PAHs from the gas-phase OH radical-initiated reactions of 1,7- and 2,7-dimethylnaphthalene (DMN) as a function of NO 2 concentration over the range 0.04-0.14 ppmv. The measured formation yields of dimethylnitronaphthalenes (DMNNs) under conditions that the OH-DMN adducts reacted solely with NO2 were 0.252 ± 0.094% for Σ1,7-DMNNs and 0.010 ± 0.005% for Σ2,7-DMNNs. 1,7-dimethyl-5-nitronaphthalene (1,7DM5NN) was the major nitro-isomer formed, with a limiting high-NO 2 concentration yield of 0.212 ± 0.080% and with equal reactions of the 1,7-DMN-OH adduct with NO2 and O2 occurring in air at 60 ± 39 ppbv of NO2, indicating that the OH-DMN adduct reaction with NO2 can be important at NO2 concentrations commonly found in urban atmospheres. Although the yields of the DMNNs are low, ≤0.3%, the DMNN (and ethylnitronaphthalene) profiles from chamber experiments match well with those observed in polluted urban areas under conditions where OH radical-initiated chemistry is dominant, such as Mexico City, Mexico. Chapter 3 examines the nitro-PAH products of gas-phase OH and NO 3 radicals and heterogeneous N2O5 reactions with fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, and triphenylene. Analysis of nitro-PAHs in the NIST diesel particulate SRM (1975) and selected ambient samples are also presented. 2-Nitrofluoranthene (2-NFL) was the most abundant nitro-PAH in Riverside, CA and Mexico City, and the mw 273 nitro-PAHs were observed in lower concentrations. However, in Tokyo, Japan, concentrations of 1- + 2-nitrotriphenylene (NTP) were more similar to those of 2-NFL. Comparing specific nitro-PAH ratios in ambient particulate samples from Tokyo, Mexico City