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Sample records for bentonitas calcicas espanolas

  1. Research program to study the gamma radiation effects in Spanish bentonites; Programa de investigacion para estudiar los efectos de la radiacion gamma en bentonitas calcicas espanolas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dies, J.; Tarrasa, F. [Universidad Politecnica de Catalunya (Spain); Cuevas de las, C.; Miralles, L.; Pueyo, J. J. [Universidad de Barcelona (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    The engineering barrier of a radioactive waste underground disposal facility, placed in a granitic host rock, will consist of a backfill of compacted bentonite blocks. At first, this material will be subjected to a gamma radiation field, from the waste canister, and heat from the spent fuel inside the canister. Moreover, any groundwater that reaches the repository will saturate the bentonite. For these reasons the performance of the engineered barrier must be carefully assessed in laboratory experiments. (Author)

  2. CARACTERIZACIÓN ESTRUCTURAL Y TEXTURAL DE UNA BENTONITA COLOMBIANA

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    José Carriazo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se caracteriza una arcilla-bentonita colombiana (Valle del Cauca, mediante difracción de rayos X, técnicas espectroscópicas (IR, RMN y EPR y análisis textural. Los resultados indican que el componente principal en este material natural es una esmectita dioctaédrica (aluminosa. Igualmente, los resultados de RMN de 29Si y de 27Al revelan la substitución isomórfica de Al3+ por Si4+ en la capa tetraédrica. El estudio de EPR evidencia la presencia de hierro (III ocupando posiciones en la capa octaédrica del mineral de arcilla y formando nanoclusters, posiblemente de óxidos u oxihidróxidos. El análisis textural indica que el material es predominantemente mesoporoso.

  3. VISCOSIDAD DE SUSPENSIONES DE UNA BENTONITA EN ESTADO NATURAL Y ORGANOFÍLICA

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    Jorge Alejo Pinzon

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la viscosidad de suspensiones, en función del contenido de sólidos, de una bentonita procedente del Valle del Cauca, en estado natural en agua y modificada con iones bencildimetiltetradecil amonio en mezclas etanol-glicerina, a 25 oC. Para la bentonita natural la función: viscosidad frente a%de sólidos es lineal, mientras que para la organofílica es parabólica. La función matemática: viscosidad específica /%de sólidos frente a % de sólidos es un polinomio de grado dos, tanto para las suspensiones de la bentonita natural como para las de la organofílica. En ninguno de estos dos casos se cumple la ecuación de Einstein, de Dougherty-Kreiger o de Farris.

  4. USO DE BENTONITA EN AGUAS RESIDUALES DE CURTIEMBRES PARA LA REMOCIÓN DE Cr(III

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    Adriana Echavarria Isáza

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta un procedimiento eficiente para la remoción de Cr(lll de las aguas residuales de curtiembres utilizando bentonita natural y químicamente tratada. El mejor resultado se obtiene utilizando 7.5 gramos de bentonita natural para un volumen de efluente residual de 20 mi. Este sólido removió la totalidad del cromo(III presente en la muestra.

  5. ECUACIÓN DE VELOCIDAD PARA LA ADSORCIÓN SOBRE UNA BENTONITA.

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    David Rodríguez

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la adsorción de dodecilbencenosulfonato de sodio, a 25 oC, sobre arcillas organofílicas obtenidas tratando una bentonita del Valle del Cauca con iones hexadeciltrimetil amonio y hexadecilbencildimetil amonio. El proceso de adsorción es relativamente rápido. Igualmente, se estudió la adsorción de cadmio, niquel y zinc sobre la bentonita en estado natural y se encontró que este proceso es muy rápido. En todos los casos estudiados se cumple la ley cinética correspondiente al proceso reversible y a la ecuación de velocidad que incluye la superficie de adsorbente disponible para la adsorción y en la que todos los órdenes parciales son iguales a uno.

  6. Caracterización estructural y textural de una bentonita colombiana

    OpenAIRE

    José Carriazo; Rafael Molina; Sonia Moreno

    2008-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se caracteriza una arcilla-bentonita colombiana (Valle del Cauca), mediante difracción de rayos X, técnicas espectroscópicas (IR, RMN y EPR) y análisis textural. Los resultados indican que el componente principal en este material natural es una esmectita dioctaédrica (aluminosa). Igualmente, los resultados de RMN de 29Si y de 27Al revelan la substitución isomórfica de Al3+ por Si4+ en la capa tetraédrica. El estudi...

  7. Superficie específica de una bentonita mediante la adsorción de azul de metileno

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Se estudió la determinación de la superficie específica de una bentonita colombiana, procedente del Valle del Cauca, mediante la adsorción de azul de metileno, a 298 K. Este método se comparó con el de la adsorción de nitrógeno a 77 K.

  8. Volcanic Evolution in the Galapagos: The Geochemistry and Petrology of Espanola Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, M.; Varga, K. C.; Harpp, K. S.; Geist, D.; Hall, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    The Galapagos Archipelago consists of a series of volcanic islands located ~1,000 km west of South America that are thought to be the result of a mantle plume. The southeasternmost island, Espanola, is one of the smallest of the major islands, measuring only 7 by 14 km and reaching an elevation of 200 m. Espanola is also the oldest island in the chain, with K-Ar dates from 3.01 ± 0.11 to 3.31 ± 0.36 million years (Hall et al. 1983; White et al., 1993). The southern coast is defined by cliffs that exceed 100 m in height, made up of nearly flat-lying lavas that are each several meters thick. The northern coastline consists of lavas that dip gently toward the ocean from the highlands, as well as remnants of eroded cinder cones. Paleomagnetic measurements made in the field indicate that the western half of the island is reversely polarized, whereas most lavas measured across the eastern half are normally polarized. Major element analyses of samples from across the island indicate that fractional crystallization is the dominant process controlling chemical variations in Espanola lavas, suggesting a relatively long-lived magmatic plumbing system. Stratigraphically constrained chemical variations suggest the magma chamber may have experienced periodic replenishment by compositionally homogeneous primitive melts. Variable fluid-mobile trace element concentrations provide some evidence for contributions from ancient, recycled oceanic crust to the parental melts. Espanola lavas have more depleted Sr and Pb radiogenic isotope ratios than either Floreana or Fernandina, and lie on a mixing curve between the composition of the plume and that of the depleted upper mantle. Between ~3 and 8 Ma, the Galapagos Spreading Center was closer to the Galapagos plume than it is today. Given that Espanola was constructed during the same period, the depleted isotopic signatures suggest that plume-ridge interaction may have been a strong influence on the island's geochemical composition.

  9. RELACIÓN ESTRUCTURA MOLECULAR-VISCOSIDAD DE SUSPENSIONES DE BENTONITAS ORGANOFÍLICAS

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    Jorge Alejo Pinzón Bello

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Una bentonita  del  Valle del Cauca en Colombia, se trató con los cationes: tetrametilamonio, tetraetilamonio, benciltrietilamonio, tetrabutilamonio, tetradeciltrimetilamonio, benciltributilamonio, hexadeciltrimetilamonio, didecildimetilamonio, alquilbencildimetilamonio, bencildimetiltetradecilamonio, metiltrioctilamonio y bencildimetilhexadecilamonio, para obtener compuestos organofílicos. La viscosidad de suspensiones de los compuestos preparados en mezclas etanol-glicerina se relacionó con descriptores moleculares de la estructura de los cationes de amonio cuaternario. Para establecer las ecuaciones de regresión, los datos se dividieron en dos grupos: uno correspondiente a los cationes  con cadenas alifáticas únicamente y el otro en el cual las cadenas de los cationes contienen el grupo bencilo. Para ambos grupos se  encontró una ecuación lineal de varias variables con coeficiente de correlación  0,9956 y 0,9997, respectivamente.

  10. Superficie específica de una bentonita mediante la adsorción de azul de metileno

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    Jorge Alejo Pinzón Bello

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la determinación de la superficie específica de una bentonita colombiana, procedente del Valle del Cauca, mediante la adsorción de azul de metileno, a 298 K. Este método se comparó con el de la adsorción de nitrógeno a 77 K.

  11. Production of Specifically Labeled Compounds by Methanobacterium espanolae Grown on H2-CO2 plus [13C]Acetate †

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Girishchandra B; Sprott, Dennis; Ekiel, Irena

    1993-01-01

    Methanobacterium espanolae, an acidiphilic methanogen, required acetate for maximal growth on H2-CO2. In the presence of 5 to 15 mM acetate, at a growth pH of 5.5, the μmax was 0.05 h-1. M. espanolae consumed 12.3 mM acetate during 96 h of incubation at 35°C with shaking at 100 rpm. At initial acetate levels of 2.5 to 10.0 mM, the amount of biomass produced was dependent on the amount of acetate in the medium. 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of protein hydrolysates obtained from cultur...

  12. Three-dimensional geologic model of the southeastern Espanola Basin, Santa Fe County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantea, Michael P.; Hudson, Mark R.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Minor, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    This multimedia model and report show and describe digital three-dimensional faulted surfaces and volumes of lithologic units that confine and constrain the basin-fill aquifers within the Espanola Basin of north-central New Mexico. These aquifers are the primary groundwater resource for the cities of Santa Fe and Espanola, six Pueblo nations, and the surrounding areas. The model presented in this report is a synthesis of geologic information that includes (1) aeromagnetic and gravity data and seismic cross sections; (2) lithologic descriptions, interpretations, and geophysical logs from selected drill holes; (3) geologic maps, geologic cross sections, and interpretations; and (4) mapped faults and interpreted faults from geophysical data. Modeled faults individually or collectively affect the continuity of the rocks that contain the basin aquifers; they also help define the form of this rift basin. Structure, trend, and dip data not previously published were added; these structures are derived from interpretations of geophysical information and recent field observations. Where possible, data were compared and validated and reflect the complex relations of structures in this part of the Rio Grande rift. This interactive geologic framework model can be used as a tool to visually explore and study geologic structures within the Espanola Basin, to show the connectivity of geologic units of high and low permeability between and across faults, and to show approximate dips of the lithologic units. The viewing software can be used to display other data and information, such as drill-hole data, within this geologic framework model in three-dimensional space.

  13. Efecto del ph en la adsorción de cadmio, niquel y zinc sobre una bentonita

    OpenAIRE

    Liz Adriana Pinilla Cuenca; Jorge Alejo Pinzón Bello

    2010-01-01

    Se estudió el efecto del pH sobre la adsorción de cadmio, niquel y zinc, en solución acuosa a 25°C, sobre una bentonita colombiana proveniente del Valle del Cauca. Los datos experimentales se analizaron con base en las isotermas de adsorción, la constante termodinámica de reparto KDM (calculada mediante la isoterma de Langmuir), la relación de distribución Rd (obtenida del modelo Baeyens-Bradbury ) y una gráfica Kurbatov.

  14. Efecto del ph en la adsorción de cadmio, níquel y zinc sobre una bentonita

    OpenAIRE

    Pinilla Cuesta, Liz Adriana; Pinzón, Jorge Alejo

    2010-01-01

    Se estudió el efecto del pH sobre la adsorción de cadmio, niquel y zinc, en solución acuosa a 25"C, sobre una bentonita colombiana proveniente del Valle del Cauca. Los datos experimentales se analizaron con base en las isotermas de adsorción, la constante termodinámica de reparto Kdm (calculada mediante la isoterma de Langmuir), la relación de distribución Rd (obtenida del modelo Baeyens-Bradbury ) y una gráfica Kurbatov. La adsorción de cadmio, niquel y zinc aumenta con el pH. El or...

  15. EFECTO DEL pH EN LA ADSORCIÓN DE CADMIO, NÍQUEL Y ZINC SOBRE UNA BENTONITA

    OpenAIRE

    Liz Adriana Pinilla Cuesta; Jorge Alejo Pinzón

    2010-01-01

    Se estudió el efecto del pH sobre la adsorción de cadmio, niquel y zinc, en solución acuosa a 25"C, sobre una bentonita colombiana proveniente del Valle del Cauca. Los datos experimentales se analizaron con base en las isotermas de adsorción, la constante termodinámica de reparto Kdm (calculada mediante la isoterma de Langmuir), la relación de distribución Rd (obtenida del modelo Baeyens-Bradbury ) y una gráfica Kurbatov. La adsorción de cadmio, niquel y zinc aumenta con el pH. El or...

  16. Retention of chromium by modified Al-Bentonite Retenção de cromo por Al-bentonita modificada

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    C. Volzone

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Retention of chromium (III from a tanning wastewater by modified Al-bentonites was studied. One bentonite from San Juan province, Argentina, was used. Al-bentonite was prepared by contact of bentonite with hydrolyzed OH-Al solutions (0.10 M in Al for 24 hours. The modified Al-bentonites were obtained by: a treatment with 0.5 M sodium chloride; b with 0.5 M sodium chloride adjusted at pH 8; and c treatment with an hexametaphosphate solution after sodium addition. Then, the samples were dried at 100 °C and heated at 500 °C. The chromium (III retention by samples was carried out in batch system putting in contact the material with a 2000 ppm Cr tannery waste at different times. The retained chromium was characterized by analyzing the supernatant using UV-visible spectroscopy. The different chromium retention was correlated with structural characteristics of the solids.Foi estudada a retenção de cromo (III de águas residuais por meio de Al-bentonitas modificadas. Foi usada uma bentonita da província de San Juan, Argentina. As bentonitas-Al forma preparadas colocando-as em contato com soluções (0,10 M Al hydrolizadas de OH-Al durante 24 horas. As bentonitas-Al modidicadas foram obtidas por meio de: a tratamento com cloreto de sódio 0,5 M; b com cloreto de sódio 0,5 M sodium com pH ajustado para 8; e c tratamento com uma solução de hexametafosfato após a adição de sódio. As amostras foram então secas a 100 °C e aquecidas a 500 °C. A retenção do cromo (III pelas amostras foi feita em lotes colocando o material em contato em diferentes tempos com um resíduo contendo 2000 ppm de cromo. O cromo retido foi caracterizado por meio de análise do sobrenadante usando espectroscopia UV-visível. As diferentes retenções de cromo foram correlacionadas com características estruturais dos sólidos.

  17. Efecto del pH en la adsorción de cadmio, niquel y zinc sobre una bentonita

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    Liz Adriana Pinilla Cuenca

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto del pH sobre la adsorción de cadmio, niquel y zinc, en solución acuosa a 25°C, sobre una bentonita colombiana proveniente del Valle del Cauca. Los datos experimentales se analizaron con base en las isotermas de adsorción, la constante termodinámica de reparto KDM (calculada mediante la isoterma de Langmuir, la relación de distribución Rd (obtenida del modelo Baeyens-Bradbury y una gráfica Kurbatov.

  18. Aplicación de la isoterma langmuir a la adsorción competitiva de cadmio, níquel y zinc sobre una bentonita

    OpenAIRE

    Germán Darío Silva Giraldo; Jorge Alejo Pinzón Bello

    2010-01-01

    Se estudió la adsorción simultánea de los iones cadmio, níquel y zinc en solución acuosa de sus mezclas binarias y ternaria a 25°C, sobre una bentonita del Valle del Cauca, tanto en su estado natural como en su forma homoiónica de sodio.

  19. Estudio de la adsorción de cadmio, níquel y zinc sobre una bentonita natural y homoiónica de sodio

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    Germán Darío Silva Giraldo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Se esmdió la adsorción de cadmio, níquel y zinc, en solución acuosa a 25 "C, sobre una bentonita procedente del Valle del Cauca, tanto en su estado natural como en su forma homoiónica de sodio.

  20. Ground-Water Temperature, Noble Gas, and Carbon Isotope Data from the Espanola Basin, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Andrew H.

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water samples were collected from 56 locations throughout the Espanola Basin and analyzed for general chemistry (major ions and trace elements), carbon isotopes (delta 13C and 14C activity) in dissolved inorganic carbon, noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, and 3He/4He ratio), and tritium. Temperature profiles were measured at six locations in the southeastern part of the basin. Temperature profiles suggest that ground water generally becomes warmer with distance from the mountains and that most ground-water flow occurs at depths 50 years old, consistent with the 14C ages. Terrigenic He (Heterr) concentrations in ground water are high (log Delta Heterr of 2 to 5) throughout much of the basin. High Heterr concentrations are probably caused by in situ production in the Tesuque Formation from locally high concentrations of U-bearing minerals (Northeast zone only), or by upward diffusive/advective transport of crustal- and mantle-sourced He possibly enhanced by basement piercing faults, or by both. The 3He/4He ratio of Heterr (Rterr) is commonly high (Rterr/Ra of 0.3-2.0, where Ra is the 3He/4He ratio in air) suggesting that Espanola Basin ground water commonly contains mantle-sourced He. The 3He/4He ratio of Heterr is generally the highest in the western and southern parts of the basin, closest to the western border fault system and the Quaternary to Miocene volcanics of the Jemez Mountains and Cerros del Rio.

  1. Curvas de titulación potencio métrica ácido-base de una bentonita

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    Liz Adriana Pinilla Cuenca

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el comportamiento acido- base de una bentonita colombiana proveniente del Valle del Cauca, medianteexperimentos de titulación potenciométrica. Se escogió el método de titulación por retroceso, ya que la técnica de titulación continua no produce una curva única de valoración.La curva de titulación muestra tres puntos de inflexión, establecidos mediante los máximos en la curva derivada, envalores de pH de 4,8; 6,2 y 6,8, que indican tres tipos de sitios ácidos, identificados con los mecanismos de intercambioiónico presentes en la bentonita. El primer sitio ácido, y el más fuerte, se manifiesta como un mecanismo de sustitución de los iones interlaminares, de la estructura 2: 1, por iones H +. El segundo y el tercero son consecuencia de sitios de enlaces rotos o defectos de la red cristalina localizados en bordes y aristas, que originan sitios de acomplejamientosuperficial de dos tipos: silanol (=SiOH y aluminol (=A10H

  2. EFECTOS DEL CICLO ECONOMICO EN EL CREDITO COMERCIAL: EL CASO DE LA PYME ESPANOLA

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    Canto-Cuevas, Francisco-Javier

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo estudia los efectos de la situacion economica sobre el credito comercial en las pequenas y medianas empresas. Para lograr este objetivo, se analiza una muestra de pymes espanolas durante los anos 2004 a 2011, periodo que incluye una etapa de expansion y otra de recesion, utilizando la metodologia de datos de panel. Los resultados muestran que el ciclo economico afecta de manera significativa al credito comercial recibido y concedido, produciendose un aumento en la etapa de bonanza economica y una contraccion durante la crisis. Ademas son las empresas mas vulnerables financieramente las que durante la crisis, por un lado, tienen mas dificultades para conseguir financiacion via credito comercial, pero al mismo tiempo mas incrementan su credto a clientes. Por ultimo, aquellas firmas con mayor capacidad de generar recursos conceden mas credito a sus clientes.

  3. EFECTO DEL pH EN LA ADSORCIÓN DE CADMIO, NÍQUEL Y ZINC SOBRE UNA BENTONITA

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    Liz Adriana Pinilla Cuesta

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto del pH sobre la adsorción de cadmio, niquel y zinc, en solución acuosa a 25"C, sobre una bentonita colombiana proveniente del Valle del Cauca. Los datos experimentales se analizaron con base en las isotermas de adsorción, la constante termodinámica de reparto Kdm (calculada mediante la isoterma de Langmuir, la relación de distribución Rd (obtenida del modelo Baeyens-Bradbury y una gráfica Kurbatov. La adsorción de cadmio, niquel y zinc aumenta con el pH. El orden de adsorción encontrado: Cd > Ni≅Zn coincide con el establecido por el principio HSAB.

  4. Hidro conversión de heptano sobre una bentonita colombiana y una saponita española pilarizadas con aluminio y activadas con ácido

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    Manuel Fredy Molina C.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo estudia una arcilla tipo esmectita, una bentonita colombiana, la cual fue sometida a modificación por pilarización con especies de aluminio, y a modificación por tratamiento con ácido clorhídrico de diferentes concentraciones. Igualmente, se empleó una saponita española modificada por pilarización con Al y tratada con ácido clorhídrico de diferentes concentraciones, con el objetode establecer un paralelo entre los dos tipos de arcillas en su comportamiento frente a las modificaciones estudiadas.Los sólidos fueron caracterizados por técnicas convencionales, tales como análisis químico, capacidad de intercambio catiónico, difracción de rayos X, acidez total y análisis de textura. Los resultados indican que los dos tipos dearcilla fueron igualmente pilarizados con Al, independientemente del origen de la esmectita de partida.Los resultados catalíticos en la hidroconversión de heptano, obtenidos sobre catalizadores bifuncionales (arcilla modificada impregnada con Pt revelan que la AlP-saponita es más eficiente en la isomerización que la AIP-bentonita. Esta mayor eficiencia es atribuida a la presencia de sitios ácidos fuertes tipo Si-OH ... Al, los cuales están presentes únicamente en las esmectitas, donde las sustituciones isomórficas están localizadas en las láminas tetraédricas. En montmorillonitas (bentonita, estas sustituciones se encuentran presentes en las láminas octaédricas, de manera que este tipo de sitios ácidos son reducidos o simplemente están ausentes.

  5. Los depósitos de bentonita de Barda Negra y cerro Bandera, departamento Zapala, provincia del Neuquén, Argentina

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    A. Impiccini

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Las bentonitas de la región nordpatagónica pueden ser agrupadas en dos distritos mineralogenéticos caracterizados desde el punto de vista geológico, geográfico y estratigráfico. En este trabajo se considera a las bentonitas terciarias localizadas en la región occidental, en el departamento Zapala, provincia del Neuquén. Los depósitos consisten en estratos lenticulares, subhorizontales, de 2 a 15 metros de espesor, la mayoría de ellos aflorantes. Están incluidos en la Formación Collón Curá, una secuencia miocena continental donde alternan tobas y areniscas. Los cuerpos de arcilla son productos de alteración de materiales piroclásticos vítreos en ambientes húmedos confinados, tales como cuerpos de agua someros. Los análisis por difracción de rayos X muestran que prevalece una esmectita dioctaédrica - montmorillonita - como único mineral arcilloso en la mayoría de los depósitos. Los minerales accesorios son cuarzo, feldespato, plagioclasa y cristobalita (ópalo-CT, y en menor proporción, ceolitas y yeso. El Na+ es el ión intercambiable dominante, junto con Ca++, Mg++ y K+. El contenido en Fe2O3 es muy alto. Estas bentonitas son buenos agentes ligantes en arenas de moldeo para fundición, pero sus propiedades reológicas y el test de filtrado no cumplen exactamente con las normas API para lodos de perforación de petróleo.

  6. Mobilidade do zinco e do cobre em Argissolo com aplicação de argila bentonita Zinc and copper mobility in Argisol with application of bentonite clay

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    Gilvanise A. Tito

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A mobilidade dos metais pesados no solo é influenciada pelas características do solo, pela mineralogia das argilas e pelo teor do metal. Objetivando avaliar o efeito da bentonita na mobilidade do zinco e do cobre no solo, colunas de lixiviação preenchidas com um Argissolo foram submetidas a ensaios de mobilidade utilizando-se doses de bentonita (0, 30 e 60 t ha-1 e concentrações de zinco e cobre, de 50, 250 e 450 mg kg-1. As colunas de solo foram mantidas saturadas e sob fluxo de água permanente; em seguida foram determinados densidade, velocidade do fluxo, fator de retardamento, coeficiente de dispersão-difusão e número de Peclet. Os parâmetros de transporte foram definidos através do modelo computacional DISP. A incorporação de bentonita ao solo promoveu a retenção do zinco e do cobre pelo solo, principalmente deste último, diminuindo a concentração em solução lixiviada e os riscos de contaminação do meio ambiente. A aplicação de bentonita aumentou o fator de retardamento, mas reduziu o coeficiente de dispersão-difusão do solo.The mobility of heavy metals in the soil is influenced by the soil, the clay mineralogy and the amount of metal. Aiming to evaluate the effect of bentonite clay on zinc and copper mobility, leaching columns of soil, filled with an Argisol, utilising increasing doses of bentonite (0, 30 e 60 t ha-1 and concentrations of zinc and copper (50, 250 e 450 mg kg-1 were submitted to a saturated and steady flow. The flux density, velocity, transport retardation factor, dispersion-diffusion coefficient and breakthrough curves were obtained. The transport parameters were determined using the DISP computational model. The results allow to conclude that the application of bentonite clay to the soil promoted the retention of the zinc and copper, mainly the last one, decreasing the concentration in leachate and reducing potential contamination risks. The bentonite clay application increased the soil

  7. Production of Specifically Labeled Compounds by Methanobacterium espanolae Grown on H(2)-CO(2) plus [C]Acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, G B; Sprott, D; Ekiel, I

    1993-04-01

    Methanobacterium espanolae, an acidiphilic methanogen, required acetate for maximal growth on H(2)-CO(2). In the presence of 5 to 15 mM acetate, at a growth pH of 5.5, the mu(max) was 0.05 h. M. espanolae consumed 12.3 mM acetate during 96 h of incubation at 35 degrees C with shaking at 100 rpm. At initial acetate levels of 2.5 to 10.0 mM, the amount of biomass produced was dependent on the amount of acetate in the medium. C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of protein hydrolysates obtained from cultures grown on [1-C]- or [2-C]acetate indicated that an incomplete tricarboxylic acid pathway, operating in the reductive direction, was functional in this methanogen. The amino acids were labeled with a very high degree of specificity and at greater than 90% enrichment levels. Less than 2% label randomization occurred between positions primarily labeled from either the carboxyl or methyl group of acetate, and very little label was transferred to positions primarily labeled from CO(2). The labeling pattern of carbohydrates was typical for glucogenesis from pyruvate. This methanogen, by virtue of the properties described above and its ability to incorporate all of the available acetate (10 mM or lower) from the growth medium, has advantages over other microorganisms for use in the production of specifically labeled compounds.

  8. Volatilização de Amônia Proveniente de Ureia Compactada com Enxofre e Bentonita, em Ambiente Controlado

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    José Antônio de Oliveira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, novas tecnologias têm sido desenvolvidas para reduzir as perdas de N quando se utiliza ureia como fonte desse macronutriente. A utilização de fertilizantes de características ácidas pode reduzir as perdas de amônia por volatilização, quando combinados com a ureia. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as perdas de amônia provenientes de fontes de N revestidas e, ou, incorporadas com ou sem enxofre e bentonita. Esses foram aplicados na superfície de um Planossolo Háplico contido em bandejas (0,1 m2 de área e 10 cm de profundidade, em dose equivalente a 200 kg ha-1 de N. Foram avaliadas as perdas de N-NH3 por volatilização durante 21 dias, com auxílio de um coletor semiaberto. A adição de diferentes fontes de enxofre e de bentonita no processo de compactação da ureia reduziu as perdas de amônia em até 29 %, quando comparadas com a ureia granulada comercial, comprovando serem alternativas promissoras para aumentar a eficiência da adubação nitrogenada.

  9. Seismic and Gravity Investigations of the Western Espanola Basin, Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braile, L. W.; Coldren, B. G.; Baca, A.; Fontana, J.; Olheiser, M.; Ziff, M.; Keske, A.; Rhode, A.; Martin-Short, R.; Allen, W.; Denton, K. M.; Harper, C.; Baldridge, W.; Biehler, S.; Ferguson, J. F.; McPhee, D.; Snelson, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    The SAGE (Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience) program collected new seismic, gravity, electromagnetic and down-hole temperature data in 2013 in the western Espanola basin of the Rio Grande rift area of northern New Mexico. The location, about 25 km NW of Santa Fe, has been identified as a potential geothermal resources area based on relatively high temperature gradients in drill holes. The SAGE 2013 data collection was part of an integrated geophysical study of the area initiated in 2011. Seismic data consisted of a 4.8 km W to E profile (120 three-component stations in four overlapping deployments, 20 m station spacing, using a Vibroseis source - 20 m spacing for reflection VPs; 800 m spacing for refraction VPs) with both refraction and CMP reflection coverage. About 55,000 seismograms were recorded. The surface conditions (dry unconsolidated sediments) increased surface wave energy and limited the signal-to-noise level of the refraction and reflection arrivals. Utilizing longer source-receiver offsets improved the shot-gather record sections by emphasizing wider angle reflections which are very strong and coherent. The refraction data were modeled with first arrival travel time methods. The reflection data were processed to produce a CMP stacked record section. Strong reflectors from basin-filling sedimentary rocks (mostly Tertiary in age) are visible above reflections from a thin section of Paleozoic rocks and the basement. The lower reflections have an apparent dip to the west of about 12 degrees. Eighty-one new gravity measurements (detailed data at 200 m spacing along the seismic profile, and regional stations) were collected and combined with existing regional data for modeling. Interpretation of the seismic and gravity data was aided by refraction velocities, the existence of a nearby regional seismic reflection profile from industry, and lithologies and well-logs from a deep well. The sedimentary basin interpreted from the seismic and gravity data

  10. INFLUÊNCIA DA TEMPERATURA NA REOLOGIA DE FLUIDOS DE PERFURAÇÃO PREPARADOS COM CARBOXIMETILCELULOSE, GOMA XANTANA E BENTONITA

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    Klismeryane Costa de Melo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available O comportamento reológico dos fluidos de perfuração pode sofrer alterações ao longo da perfuração em função do gradiente de temperatura do poço. A degradação térmica sofrida por alguns aditivos utilizados como viscosificantes restringe a utilização da classe dependendo da temperatura a qual será exposto. Este trabalho apresenta um estudo sobre o comportamento reológico da Goma Xantana (GX, da Carboximetilcelulose (CMC e da Bentonita (BNT em função da temperatura. Os Modelos matemáticos de Ostwald de Waale e o de Herschel-Bulkley foram aplicados para determinar os parâmetros reológicos. O efeito da hidratação dos polímeros e da argila na reologia de soluções aquosas foram previamente estudados. A caracterização reológica foi realizada através de ensaios de reologia, utilizando sistema de cilindros coaxiais, para obtenção das curvas de fluxo. A reologia foi avaliada em função da temperatura para cada um dos aditivos utilizados. Os resultados mostraram que a CMC se solubiliza rapidamente em água, porém apresenta maior degradação quando exposta a temperatura mais elevada. A GX se mostrou apta para ser utilizada em formulações de fluidos que serão usados em poços com gradiente de temperatura mais elevados. A bentonita não apresentou alterações no comportamento reológico em função do gradiente de temperatura estudado.

  11. Variabilidad textural, mineralógica y geoquímica de la bentonita de Yuncos (Cuenca de Madrid

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    Moreno, A.

    1993-12-01

    processes (Al/Mg > 0.3 and the other to neoformation (Al/Mg En este trabajo se estudia la variabilidad composicional (mineralógica y geoquímica y textural de la capa principal de bentonita (saponita del depósito de Yuncos (Toledo, en el sector suroccidental de la cuenca de Madrid. Desde un punto de vista sedimentológico se han diferenciado en la capa bentonítica dos episodios: uno inferior (1 caracterizado por litofacies de lutitas masivas, que muestran lateralmente microfacies brechoides-bioturbadas (columna A a intraclásticas con «glébulas» y materia orgánica (columnas B y C, y otro episodio superior (11 constituido por lutitas laminadas-Iajeadas con ooides calcíticos, que muestra un escaso desarrollo en las columnas estudiadas. El primer episodio se interpreta como depósitos de encharcamiento palustre somero sobre facies de «mud-flat» lacustre, y el segundo como correspondiente a depósitos en pequeños encharcamientos rellenando depresiones sobre la bentonita del episodio inferior que es parcialmente removilizada. De los datos texturales se infiere que la columna A corresponde a la zona con mayor grado de somerización, mientras que la C es la que presenta rasgos de un mayor período de encharcamiento, siendo la B transicional entre ambas. Mineralógicamente se observa una disminución progresiva en el contenido de minerales heredados (cuarzo, feldespatos, illita-mica en la dirección A-C, que coincide con un incremento en la proporción de fracción arcilla en las granulometrías. La arcilla está constituida fundamentalmente por saponita, con illita abundante en la columna A y sepiolita mejor desarrollada en la zona transicional (columna B. Estas características se reflejan en el comportamiento geoquímico, con A12O3, K2O, Fe2O3, Na2O y TiO2 decreciendo en la dirección A-C (correlación positiva, mientras que MgO es su antagonista (correlación negativa. Los elementos traza, especialmente Ba, Nb, Pb

  12. Cadmium and copper adsorption on bentonite: effects of pH and particle size Adsorção de cádmio e cobre em bentonita: efeito do pH e da granulometria

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    Lúcia Helena Garófalo Chaves

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Reactions of heavy metals with clay minerals are important in determining metal fates in the environment. However, the adsorption process of these metals by the bentonite has been extensively investigated. The objectives of this work were to assess the ability of bentonite clay to adsorb cadmium and copper and to study the effects of pH and particle size upon these metals adsorption. Adsorption isotherms were obtained from batch adsorption experiments, with increasing cadmium and copper concentrations (5-200 mg L-1. To find out the effects of pH and particle size on adsorption, the experiments were conducted at pH 4; 5 and 6 using particles sizes of As reações dos metais pesados com os minerais de argila são importantes para determinar o destino dos mesmos no meio ambiente. Assim, o processo de adsorção destes metais pela bentonita tem sido muito investigado. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a capacidade da argila bentonita em adsorver cádmio e cobre e os efeitos do pH e de sua granulometria na adsorção dos mesmos. A partir de experimentos tipo "batch", foram elaboradas isotermas de adsorção com quantidades crescentes de Cd e Cu (5-200 mg L-1. Para determinar o efeito do pH e da granulometria sobre a adsorção, os experimentos foram conduzidos a pH 4; 5 e 6, utilizando bentonita com granulometria < 0,5 mm e entre 0,5 a 2,0 mm. As quantidades de Cd e Cu adsorvidas pela bentonita foram determinadas pela diferença entre as concentrações inicial e final dos elementos na solução de equilíbrio. A bentonita adsorveu mais Cu do que Cd, entretanto a adsorção dos dois metais aumentaram com o aumento do pH independentemente da granulometria. Nenhum efeito da granulometria sobre a adsorção foi observada. Os dados experimentais foram bem ajustados ao modelo de Langmuir. A capacidade máxima de adsorção diminuiu e a energia de ligação aumentou em função do aumento do pH.

  13. Caracterización de bentonitas y zeolitas sin tratamiento como refuerzo en materiales compuestos de matriz polimérica//Characterization of untreated zeolites and bentonites as reinforcement in polymer matrix composites

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    Francisco Jesús Mondelo‐García

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Las bentonitas con microestructuras compuestas de placas silicio aluminosas. Se logró el objetivo de caracterizar las bentonitas sódicas de Wyoming, USA, Patagonia de Argentina, nordeste de Brasil, así como las bentonitas policatiónicas de Brasil, la cálcica activada con sodio y zeolita de Cuba no organofilizadas para emplearlas como refuerzo en materiales compuestos de matriz polimérica. Estosmateriales se evaluaron usando técnicas físico-químicas como fluorescencia de rayos X, difracción de rayos X, microscopia electrónica de barrido, humedad, capacidad de intercambio catiónico, absorción e hinchabilidad en diluyente acuoso. Los resultados confirmaron rangos variables de intercambio catiónico,hinchamiento y absorciòn en agua entre las bentonitas analizadas, debido a su naturaleza química estructural en hidratación, logrando mayores valores las sódicas, luego la cálcica activada y con menor valor las policatiónicas, pero permiten usarlas como carga en polímeros.Palabras claves: bentonita, zeolita, matriz polimérica, organofilizada, materiales compuestos._____________________________________________________________________________AbstractBentonites with aluminous silicon microstructure composed of plates. The work accomplished to characterize the sodium bentonites in Wyoming USA, Patagonia Argentina, Northeast Brazil and the Brazilian polycationic bentonites, calcium-activated sodium zeolite from Cuba without organic modificationnot organophilized to employ as reinforcing in composite materials of polymer matrix. These materials were evaluated for physical and chemical assay techniques such as X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, moisture, cation exchange capacity, absorption and swelling aqueousdiluent. The results confirmed variables ranges of cationic exchange, swelling and water absorption from the bentonites tested, due to its chemical-structural hydration, achieving higher values nature

  14. Adição de bentonita sódica como adsorvente de aflatoxinas em rações de frangos de corte Utilization of sodium bentonite as adsorbent of aflatoxins in broiler feed

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    Juarez Morbini Lopes

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A presença de micotoxinas nas matérias-primas, principalmente no milho utilizado para rações para aves, é uma das maiores preocupações atuais devido aos danos causados por essa substâmcia não só aos animais, mas também aos produtores e às empresas do setor avícola. Considerando a utilização de adsorvente ou seqüestrante na ração para minimizar os efeitos deletérios, realizou-se um experimento para avaliar o efeito da adição de um adsorvente, baseado em bentonita sódica, na ração de frangos de corte, a fim de reduzir os efeitos de aflatoxinas. Foram utilizados 960 pintos Cobb de um dia de idade, distribuídos em oito repetições de 20 animais nos tratamentos: T1=sem aflatoxina;T2=3mg kg-1 de aflatoxina;T3=sem aflatoxina+0,5% de bentonita; T4=3mg kg-1 de aflatoxina+0,1% de bentonita; T5=3mg kg-1 de aflatoxina+0,3% de bentonita e T6=3mg kg-1 de aflatoxina+0,5% de bentonita. O consumo alimentar, o peso corporal e a conversão alimentar foram afetados pela presença da toxina na ração. A adição de bentonita sódica na ração sem aflatoxina não causou nenhum efeito depressivo nas aves. Nos tratamentos que continham 3mg kg-1 de aflatoxinas, a adição do adsorvente promoveu um melhor desempenho das aves, sendo que 0,3% de adição de bentonita apresentou melhores resultados.High concentrations of micotoxins in raw materials, mainly in corn used in poultry rations of food, is an important subject of study due to hazardous problems not only to the animals themselves but also to the producer and to the poultry industry due to the reduction of performance by aflatoxins. Taking into account the lack of efficient tecnique for its elimination, from the feed, an adsorbent was added to the diets in order to reduce the effects of aflatoxins. Nine hundred sixty day old Cobb chicks, distributed in 8 replicates of 20 birds per pen the following treatments: T1=No aflatoxin; T2=3mg kg-1 of aflatoxin; T3=no aflatoxin+0.5% of bentonite; T

  15. Analysis of model sensitivity and predictive uncertainty of capture zones in the Espanola Basin regional aquifer, Northern New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesselinov, V. V. (Velimir V.); Keating, E. H. (Elizabeth H.); Zyvoloski, G. A. (George Anthony)

    2002-01-01

    Predictions and their uncertainty are key aspects of any modeling effort. The prediction uncertainty can be significant when the predictions depend on uncertain system parameters. We analyze prediction uncertainties through constrained nonlinear second-order optimization of an inverse model. The optimized objective function is the weighted squared-difference between observed and simulated system quantities (flux and time-dependent head data). The constraints are defined by the maximization/minimization of the prediction within a given objective-function range. The method is applied in capture-zone analyses of groundwater-supply systems using a three-dimensional numerical model of the Espanola Basin aquifer. We use the finite-element simulator FEHM coupled with parameter-estimation/predictive-analysis code PEST. The model is run in parallel on a multi-processor supercomputer. We estimate sensitivity and uncertainty of model predictions such as capture-zone identification and travel times. While the methodology is extremely powerful, it is numerically intensive.

  16. History of Spanish Selection of the International Solar Energy; Historia de la Asociacion Espanola de Energia solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, M.

    2004-07-01

    This paper is about the old and new Spanish Sections of the International Solar Energy Society (ISES). The old Section was formed on the initiative of the Spanish Association Atecyr and was named ISES Espana. As a legal Spanish association, it developed its activities from 1981 until 1991 when economic difficulties made ISES suspend the Section. In that year Prof. Manuel Vazquez, director of the Laboratory of Solar Energy of the University of Vigo, became interested in the subject and participated in his restlessness to other Spanish members of ISES. All of them agreed to create a new Spanish association under the name of Asociacion Espanola de Energia Solar (AEDES), which was registered as an ONG in the Spanish National Register of Associations and ratified by ISES as its Spanish Section in 1993. In this paper the significant data of the old and new sections are given, including the names of representative people and members of the Board and the development of the membership. (Author)

  17. SINTESIS Y CARACTERIZACIÓN DE BENTONITA MODIFICADA CON ESPECIES DE TiO2 y Fe-TiO2 OBTENIDAS DEL MINERAL ILMENITA

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    Juan Torres

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Se sintetizó una serie de sólidos nanoestructurados, obtenidos por la intercalación de nanopartículas de TiO2 y Fe-TiO2 en los espacios interlaminares de un mineral de arcilla esmectítico. Los nuevos materiales se prepararon mediante la modificación simultánea de dos minerales naturales: una bentonita y una ilmenita. Los materiales obtenidos se caracterizaron por fluorescencia de rayos X (FRX, espectroscopía infrarroja (IR, difracción de rayos X (DRX, microscopía electrónica de barrido (SEM y sortometría de nitrógeno. Los resultados del análisis químico (FRX confirmaron claramente la incorporación de titanio y de hierro en los materiales sintetizados. Los análisis por DRX, SEM y sortometría de nitrógeno verificaron la modificación del mineral de arcilla por incorporación de especies de dióxido de titanio, demostrando la generación de estructuras mesoporosas delaminadas o exfoliadas con incremento en los valores de área superficial y porosidad controlada.

  18. A Conceptual Model to Link Anomalously High Temperature Gradients in the Cerros del Rio Volcanic Field to Regional Flow in the Espanola Basin, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillingham, E. J.; Keller, S. N.; McCullough, K. R.; Watters, J.; Weitering, B.; Wilce, A. M.; Folsom, M.; Kelley, S.; Pellerin, L.

    2015-12-01

    Temperature-depth well data along with electromagnetic (EM) data were collected by students of the Summer of Applied Geophysics Experience (SAGE) 2015 field season in the Espanola Basin, New Mexico. The data from this year, in addition to data acquired since 2013, were used to construct a conceptual east-west cross-section of the Espanola Basin and the adjacent highlands in order to evaluate the regional flow system. Vertical geothermal gradients from several monitoring wells were measured using a thermistor. Anomalously warm geothermal gradients were mapped in the Cerros del Rio volcanic field in the basin just east of the Rio Grande. Temperature gradients are up to 70℃/km, while the background geothermal gradients in the Rio Grande rift zone generally show 28℃-35℃/km. This anomaly extends to the Buckman well field, which supplies water to the city of Santa Fe. Overpumping of this well field has led to subsidence in the past. However, discharge temperature plots indicate that the temperature gradients of the Buckman field may be rebounding as pumping is reduced. Audiomagnetotelluric (AMT) and transient electromagnetic (TEM) data were acquired in the vicinity of three monitoring wells. TEM and AMT methods complement each other with the former having depths of investigation of less than ten to hundreds of meters and AMT having depths of investigation comparable to the wells deeper than 500m. These datasets were used collectively to image the subsurface stratigraphy and, more specifically, the hydrogeology related to shallow aquifers. The EM data collected at these wells showed a trend indicating a shallow aquifer with a shallower resistive layer of approximately 100 ohm-m at 70-100 meters depth. Beneath this resistive layer we resolved a more conductive, clay-rich layer of 10 ohm-m. These resistivity profiles compliment the electrical logs provided by Jet West, which indicate shallower sandstone interbedded with silt on top of more silt-dominant layers. Our

  19. Propriedades térmicas de compósitos de polipropileno e bentonita organofílica Thermal properties of polypropylene and organophilic bentonite

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    Elaine V. D. G. Líbano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Uma argila bentonita policatiônica nacional foi utilizada para a produção de uma argila organofílica, obtida a partir da síntese com o sal de amônio quaternário, cloreto de cetiltrimetilamônio. A argila tratada com o sal orgânico (BENT-org e a não tratada (BENT foram caracterizadas por espectroscopia de absorção no infravermelho (FTIR e difratometria de raios X (DRX. Posteriormente, as argilas foram misturadas com o polipropileno (PP pelo método de intercalação por fusão em uma extrusora dupla-rosca co-rotativa. Os compósitos foram caracterizados pelas técnicas de DRX, calorimetria diferencial de varredura (DSC e análise termogravimétrica (TGA. Os resultados de FTIR e DRX mostraram a presença dos grupos característicos do sal de amônio e a intercalação deste entre as camadas do argilomineral. As análises de DRX dos compósitos com 3 e 5% em massa de BENT-org evidenciaram a presença de picos deslocados para regiões de baixo ângulo, sugerindo a intercalação das cadeias do polímero entre as camadas da argila. Os resultados de DSC indicaram que a argila pode ter atuado como agente nucleante devido ao aumento na Tcc (temperatura de cristalização no resfriamento dos compósitos. De acordo com os resultados de TG, constatou-se que a incorporação da argila ao PP melhorou a estabilidade térmica do polímero nos compósitos com 5% em massa de BENT e 3 e 5% em massa de BENT-org.A Brazilian polycationic bentonite clay was used for producing an organophilic clay with the quaternary ammonium salt, cetyltrimethylammonium chloride. The salt treated clay (BENT-org and untreated clay (BENT were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and X-ray diffraction (XRD. Then, each clay was mixed with polypropylene (PP by melt intercalation in a counter-rotating twin-screw extruder. The composites were characterized by XRD, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The results from FTIR and XRD

  20. Los depósitos de bentonita de Barda Negra y cerro Bandera, departamento Zapala, provincia del Neuquén, Argentina Bentonite deposits of Barda Negra and Cerro Bandera, Zapala Department, Neuquén Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Impiccini

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Las bentonitas de la región nordpatagónica pueden ser agrupadas en dos distritos mineralogenéticos caracterizados desde el punto de vista geológico, geográfico y estratigráfico. En este trabajo se considera a las bentonitas terciarias localizadas en la región occidental, en el departamento Zapala, provincia del Neuquén. Los depósitos consisten en estratos lenticulares, subhorizontales, de 2 a 15 metros de espesor, la mayoría de ellos aflorantes. Están incluidos en la Formación Collón Curá, una secuencia miocena continental donde alternan tobas y areniscas. Los cuerpos de arcilla son productos de alteración de materiales piroclásticos vítreos en ambientes húmedos confinados, tales como cuerpos de agua someros. Los análisis por difracción de rayos X muestran que prevalece una esmectita dioctaédrica - montmorillonita - como único mineral arcilloso en la mayoría de los depósitos. Los minerales accesorios son cuarzo, feldespato, plagioclasa y cristobalita (ópalo-CT, y en menor proporción, ceolitas y yeso. El Na+ es el ión intercambiable dominante, junto con Ca++, Mg++ y K+. El contenido en Fe2O3 es muy alto. Estas bentonitas son buenos agentes ligantes en arenas de moldeo para fundición, pero sus propiedades reológicas y el test de filtrado no cumplen exactamente con las normas API para lodos de perforación de petróleo.Bentonites from the North Patagonia region can be grouped in two mineralogenic districts distinguishable on geological, geographical, and stratigraphical criteria. In this paper, we consider the Tertiary bentonites located in the western region, Zapala Department, Neuquén Province. The deposits occur in sub-horizontal lenticular beds, 2 to 15 m in thickness, most of which crop out at the surface. They lie within the Collón Curá Formation, a Miocene continental sequence of alternating tuffs and sandstones. The clay bodies are alteration products of pyroclastic glassy materials in confined wet

  1. Uso de bentonita na remediação de solos contaminados com zinco: efeito na produção de feijão Use of bentonite in the remediation of soils contaminated with zinc: effect on bean production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilvanise A. Tito

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Diversos procedimentos têm sido propostos para reduzir a concentração de metais pesados nos solos, e, conseqüentemente, seus efeitos poluidores. Dentre eles destacam-se a aplicação de materiais, como a bentonita, capazes de adsorver estes elementos, tornando-os menos disponíveis para as plantas. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a capacidade da bentonita na remediação de solos contaminados com zinco. Conduziu-se experimento em condições de casa de vegetação com delineamento inteiramente casualizado com três repetições e uma planta por parcela, utilizando-se como planta indicadora o feijão caupi (Vigna unguiculata L.. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma combinação fatorial 3 x 3, sendo o primeiro fator composto por três doses de Zn (50, 250 e 450 mg kg-1 e o segundo fator por três doses de bentonita (0, 30 e 60 t ha-1. Para o estudo, utilizou-se vasos com capacidade de18 kg, preenchidos com 15 kg de solo em mistura com as respectivas doses de bentonita e com o zinco. Os tratamentos permaneceram incubados por um período de 10 dias, e em seguida foi realizada a semeadura da planta indicadora. Aos 65 dias após a semeadura colheram-se folhas, caules, raízes, sementes e casca, que, depois de secos em estufa de circulação de ar (65°C, foram pesados, moídos e analisados quanto aos teores de zinco. Os resultados evidenciaram que a bentonita parece ser um excelente material inorgânico para remediar solos contaminados com zinco. A incorporação de bentonita ao solo aumenta a adsorção do zinco diminuindo a disponibilidade deste elemento para a planta tendendo, consequentemente, aumentar a produção de massa seca.Several procedures have been proposed to reduce the concentration of heavy metals in soils and consequently, to reduce polluting effects. One of the most used procedures is the application of materials such as bentonite capable of adsorbing these elements making them less available to plants. The objective of this

  2. Caracterización física con difractogramas e hinchamiento de bentonitas organofílicas para adicionar a materiales compuestos poliméricos//Physical characterization with difractograms and swelling of organophilic bentonites to add to polymer composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Jesús Mondelo‐García

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Las bentonitas con partículas de microestructura combinada por placas de tetraedros y octaedros silicio-aluminosos, contienen cavidades interlaminares entre ellas, confiriéndoles cualidades positivas para usarse en tintas, medicamentos, fluidos de perforación, retener desechos contaminantes residuales y como refuerzos de polímeros. Se logró el objetivo de hidratar y modificar orgánicamentecon sal cuaternaria orgánica del tipo cloruro hexadecil trimetil amonio y sal de sodio a bentonitas sódicas del Nordeste brasileño y la Patagonia argentina, policatiónicas brasileñas, cálcica activada y zeolita ambas cubanas, estableciendo una caracterización entre muestras no tratadas y organofilizadas. Estos materiales se evaluaron comparativamente por difracción de rayos X ehinchamiento Foster en diluyentes orgánicos. Los resultados confirmaron una variación significativa fisicoquímica y microestructural en los difractogramas de las bentonitas organofílicas, mientras las partículas micrométricas tomaron dimensiones nanométricas, se incrementó mucho más el hinchamiento en estas, mejorando su efectividad de empleo, al emplearlas como refuerzo,adicionado a una matriz polimérica.Palabras claves: bentonita, organofílica, zeolita, hinchamiento Foster, matriz polimérica.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe bentonites with microstructure particles combined by plates tetrahedral and octahedral siliconaluminous contain interlaminares cavities including, conferring positive qualities for use in inks, medicines, drilling fluids; retain polluting waste residuals and as polymer reinforcements. The objective to hydrate and organically modified with organic quaternary salt of hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride type and sodium salt the sodium bentonites Northeast Brazilian and PatagoniaArgentina, Brazilian polycationics, calcium activated and zeolite both Cuban, establishing a characterization

  3. Ocorrência de uma nova bentonita brasileira nos basaltos intemperizados da formação Mosquito, bacia do Parnaíba, sul do Maranhão Occurrence of a new brazilian bentonite in the weathered basalts of the Mosquito formation, Parnaíba basin, southern Maranhão, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. A. Paz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available No município de Formosa da Serra Negra, sul do Maranhão, às margens da rodovia MA006, encontram-se afloramentos de basaltos intemperizados da Formação Mosquito, apresentando textura bastante argilosa e potencial de ser um material bentonítico. Neste trabalho, esse material que vem sendo considerado uma nova ocorrência de bentonita no Brasil e, batizado de Formosa, foi caracterizado por difração de raios X, fluorescência de raios X, microscopia eletrônica de varredura, espectroscopia Mössbauer e capacidade de troca catiônica, em amostra total e após separação granulométrica, e ainda, comparada com duas das principais bentonitas brasileiras, Chocolate e Bofe. Apesar das variações químicas e mineralógicas encontradas, muito comuns nesse tipo de argila, as semelhanças observadas convencem o promissor uso da argila Formosa como bentonita, uma vez que o ponto principal da caracterização está na presença dominante de montmorillonita e baixa concentração de outras fases minerais, mostrando que esse material apresenta mineralogia importante do ponto de vista tecnológico.Extensive weathered basalt outcrops can be found in the vicinities of the Formosa da Serra Negra town, southern of Maranhão state, northern Brazil. They exhibit typical clay texture and an enormous potential to be used and explored as bentonite. This work deals with the chemical and mineralogical characterization of this material that has been named as Formosa Bentonite. The main following methods and analytical techniques were used: XRD, XRF, SEM, Mössbauer spectroscopy and CEC in total sample and after grain size separation. Two samples from the main Brazilian "Paraíba bentonites" (Chocolate and Bofe types were used for comparison purposes. The results show that the Formosa bentonite exhibit some chemical and mineralogical differences in comparison with the two reference samples, although the main and most important feature is the presence of

  4. Phytomass of beans and grain production as affected by zinc, copper and cadmium doses and bentonite application Fitomassa e produção do feijão afetadas pelas doses de zinco, cobre e cádmio e aplicação de bentonita

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    Gilvanise A. Tito

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of zinc, copper and cadmium on phytomass and grain production and to evaluate indirectly the adsorbent effect of bentonite clay by determining the accumulation of these heavy metals in bean plants. The study consisted of three separate experiments (one for each cation with the application of three doses of bentonite (0, 30 and 60 t ha-1 in pots containing separately 50 mg of Zn; Cu and Cd kg-1 of soil, with three replicates. Thus, each experiment consisted of 9 experimental units. In each one, a bean plant was cultivated and after 65 days, samples of leaves, stems, roots and grains were collected. Afterwards, the samples were dried, weighed, grinded and the concentrations of Zn, Cu and Cd were determined. The phytomass of leaves of the plant growing on the soil with Zn, the Zn concentration in the whole plant and the Cd concentration in the leaves, stem and grains were significantly influenced by the bentonite application. Zn and Cd concentration in leaves, stem and grains decreased with the application of bentonite, indicating a positive effect of the clay application to the soil on the adsorption of these metals, decreasing the availability for plants. Zn was the most accumulated element in the plant, followed by Cd and Cu. The Zn, Cu and Cd accumulation in the plant obeyed the following sequence: stem > leaves > grains > roots; roots > stem > grains > leaves; roots > stem > leaves > grains, respectively.Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, estudar o efeito do cobre, zinco e cádmio em fitomassa e produção de grãos e avaliar indiretamente o efeito adsorvente da argila bentonita, determinando o acúmulo de metais pesados em plantas de feijão. O estudo consistiu de três experimentos separados (um para cada cátion, com a aplicação de três doses de bentonita (0, 30 e 60 t ha-1 em vasos contendo, separadamente, 50 mg de Zn, 50 mg de Cu e 50 mg de Cd kg-1 de solo, com três repeti

  5. Las buenas practicas espanolas 1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasarre y de Goicoechea, Fernando

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available The II HABITAT Conference held at Istanbul on June 1996, adopted the Habitat Program -Global Action Plan, in within which two performance lines are especially reinforced to reach the two main goals of suitable e housing for all and sustainable human settlements: the collaboration and participation among all the levels of the government and the civil society and, the recognition of the importance of the urban policies. In this framework is addressed the International Award Best Practices for the Improvement of the Life Conditions that, sponsored by the municipality of Dubai, is celebrated every two years and is awarded to the 10 selected by an International Independent Jury. The goal of the Competition is to promote policies and strategies more effective for the sustainable development of the humanity and their settlements, through the transmission of information and knowledge on experiences and solutions proved in the practice. The obtained results in the last international competition, with 32 of the presented Practices included in the Data Base of the United Nations Good Practices, 18 classified among the 100 best (3 of them included among the 40 finalists and finally, one, among the 10 awarded (Programs for the improvement of the urban environment of Malaga, allow us to look forward with satisfaction the panorama of the urban policy in our country.La Conferencia HABITAT II celebrada en Estambul en junio de 1996 adopto el Programa Hábitat-Plan Global de Acción-, dentro del cual se refuerzan especialmente dos líneas de actuación: la colaboración y participación entre todos los niveles de gobierno y la sociedad civil y el reconocimiento de la importancia de las políticas urbanas para alcanzar los dos objetivos principales: vivienda adecuada para todos y asentamientos humanos sostenibles. En este marco se inscribe el Concurso Internacional de Buenas Practicas para la Mejora de las Condiciones de Vida que, patrocinado par la municipalidad de Dubai, se celebra cada dos años y se concede a las 10 mejores actuaciones seleccionadas por un Jurado Internacional Independiente. EI objetivo del Concurso es promover políticas y estrategias mas efectivas para el desarrollo sostenible de la humanidad y de sus asentamientos mediante la transmisión de información y conocimientos sobre experiencias y soluciones comprobadas en la practica. Los resultad os obtenidos en el certamen internacional, con 32 de las Practicas presentadas incluidas en la Base de Datos sobre Buenas Practicas de Nación es Unidas, 18 clasificadas entre las 100 mejores (3 incluidas entre las 40 finalistasy una, finalmente, entre las 10 premiadas (Programas para la mejora del medio ambiente urbano de Málaga, permiten mirar con satisfacción el panorama de la política urbana en nuestro país.

  6. Aproximación a la imagen petrarquista en la lirica Española Maria Pilar Manero Sorolla, Imágenes petrarquistas en Ia lirica espanola del Renacimiento. Repertorio, Barcelona, PPU (Estudios de Literatura Española y Comparada, 7, 1990, pp. 717, Pts. 9.200.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alida Ares Ares

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available El volumen de P. Manero constituye un vasto repertorio de imágenes y metáforas de la poesía de influencia petrarquista, italiana y española durante los siglos XVI y XVII. Como es sabido, a partir de 1526, fecha del encuentro de Boscán con Navagero, la influencia italiana cambió radicalmente la lirica espanola del siglo XVI. Boscán y Garcilaso aclimataron los nuevos metros; los tercetos, heptasílabos y endecasílabos, y los sonetos, octavas y liras pervivirán hasta hoy en nuestra poesía. Junto a las novedades métricas penetran también los temas, las metáoras y las imágenes de los maestros italianos y en particular de Petrarca.

  7. Revista Espanola de Cirugia Oral y Maxilofacial

    OpenAIRE

    Reinoso Quezada, Santiago; Alemán Iñiguez, Juan Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Maxillary myiasis is a rare tropical disease, it is endemic in several areas around the world, and common of some mammals, although humans are not excluded. The first case of maxillary myiasis in Ecuador is presented, as well as a description of the massive larval invasion. Similar cases reported in the medical literature are also reviewed. Cuenca

  8. Nanocompósitos de polietileno/argila bentonita nacional: influência da argila e do agente compatibilizante PE-g-MA nas propriedades mecânicas e de inflamabilidade Polyethylene/national bentonite clay nanocomposites: influence of clay and PE-g-MA coupling agent on the mechanical properties and flammability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo F. Brito

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanocompósitos de polietileno de alta densidade/argila bentonita nacional foram preparados por intercalação por fusão. A influência da adição da argila sem tratamento e da argila tratada com o sal quaternário de amônio Cetremide e do polietileno graftizado com anidrido maléico (PE-g-MA como agente compatibilizante foi avaliada. Os sistemas obtidos foram caracterizados por inflamabilidade, propriedades mecânicas e reológicas, difração de raios X e microscopia eletrônica de transmissão. Os resultados de difração de raios X e microscopia eletrônica de transmissão indicaram a obtenção de nanocompósitos com estruturas parcialmente esfoliadas e/ou intercaladas que conduziram ao aumento do módulo de elasticidade e do valor do torque. O teste de inflamabilidade mostrou que a adição da argila na matriz polimérica e a presença do PE-g-MA retardaram a velocidade de queima do sistema, ou seja, diminuíram a inflamabilidade do PE puro. Em geral, o sistema contendo o agente compatibilizante (PE-g-MA exibiu melhorias na estabilidade térmica e nanocompósitos parcialmente esfoliados foram formados, quando comparados à matriz de polietileno de alta densidade. O polietileno graftizado com anidrido maléico não apenas promoveu a esfoliação da argila, mas também facilitou a adesão carga-matriz, obtendo-se com isso melhorias nos resultados mecânicos do sistema.High density polyethylene/national bentonite clay nanocomposites were prepared with the melt intercalation technique. The effect of the clay without treatment and clay treated with quaternary ammonium salt Cetremide with polyethylene-graft-maleic anhydride as coupling agent was evaluated. The systems were characterized by flammability, mechanical and rheological properties, X ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. In general, the results of X ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy showed partially exfoliated and/or intercalated structures with

  9. ISOTERMAS DE ADSORÇÃO DE COBRE POR BENTONITA

    OpenAIRE

    Gilvanise Alves Tito; Lúcia Helena Garófalo Chaves; Susane Ribeiro; Ramara Sena Souza

    2008-01-01

    In environmental studies is important to know the adsorption process of heavy metals in clay minerals, since they are able to immobilize these metals. Knowing the cations adsorption is influenced for several factors, the objective of this research was to study the copper adsorption process by bentonite clay and to evaluate the electrolyte type and pH influence on this process. In order to quantify the adsorbed copper, 2 g of bentonite clay were equilibrated for 24 hours with 20 mL of a NaNO3 ...

  10. ISOTERMAS DE ADSORÇÃO DE COBRE POR BENTONITA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilvanise Alves Tito

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In environmental studies is important to know the adsorption process of heavy metals in clay minerals, since they are able to immobilize these metals. Knowing the cations adsorption is influenced for several factors, the objective of this research was to study the copper adsorption process by bentonite clay and to evaluate the electrolyte type and pH influence on this process. In order to quantify the adsorbed copper, 2 g of bentonite clay were equilibrated for 24 hours with 20 mL of a NaNO3 (0,01 mol L-1 solution and with 20 mL of water containing different quantities of copper (5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100,120 mg L-1 as background solutions of pH values 4 and 6. Langmuir's adsorption equation in its linearized form was applied and the values of the maximum capacity and those of the constant related to the bonding energy were obtained. Langmuir isotherms presented two distinct adsorption regions at both pH 4 and pH 6, showing that the adsorptive phenomenon occurs in two distinct stages. The adsorption of copper depends on pH and ionic strength and it increased with an increase in pH and decreased slightly with an increase in ionic strength. The maximum capacity of adsorption and the bonding energy varied with the pH, with electrolyte used and with the adsorption regions.

  11. Spanish solid wastes legislation; Legislacion espanola de Residuos Solidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castrillon Pelaez, L.; Maranon Maison, E.; Rodriguez Iglesias

    2001-07-01

    A review is made of the regulations in the field of solid wastes with the aim of providing a useful working tool for those entities that generate or manage some type of waste. The coming into force of the current Spanish Wastes Law establishes common regulations for all wastes, substituting all previous Municipal Waste and Toxic and Dangerous Waste Laws. For reasons of greater practical applicability, we have preferred in this paper to classify wastes on the basis of their characteristics. The regulations are thus presented in a series of sections: municipal waste, dangerous wastes, sewage plant sludge, cattle waste and specific risk materials, highlighting in each case those areas of the regulations that are of greater interest for the producers and managers of solid wastes. (Author)

  12. Thermally modified bentonite clay for copper removal; Argila bentonita modificada termicamente para remocao de cobre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertagnolli, C.; Kleinübing, S.J.; Silva, M.G.C., E-mail: meuris@feq.unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica. Laboratorio de Engenharia Ambiental

    2011-07-01

    Bentonite clay coming from Pernambuco was thermally modified in order to increase its affinity and capacity in the copper removal in porous bed. The application of this procedure is justified by the low cost of clay, their abundance and affinity for various metal ions. Thermally treatment modifies the clay adsorption properties enables its use in porous bed system, with the increase in surface area and mechanical strength. The material was characterized by x-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and N{sub 2} physisorption. Then tests were carried out for adsorption of copper in various experimental conditions and evaluated the mass transfer zone, useful and total adsorbed removal amounts and total copper removal percentage. The results showed that the clay treated at higher temperature showed higher copper removal. (author)

  13. Hydrothermal alterations of Bentonites in Almeria (Spain); Alteracion hidrotermal de las bentonitas de Almeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linares Gonzalez, J.; Barahona Fernandez, E.; Huertas Garcia, F.; Caballero Mesa, E.; Cuadros Ojeda, J.

    1996-12-01

    The use of bentonite as backfilling and sealing material in the high level radioactive waste disposals has been treated in previous studies accomplished by different authors. However, the use of this clayey barrier needs the resolution of different problems so that its efficiency will be enhanced. between those could be cited the study of the actual capacity of sealing the space around the canister and the accommodation to the pressure of the rocky environment; the possible variations in plasticity; the diffusion and reaction processes that can be produced through the barrier by groundwater, the capacity of radionuclides adsorption, etc. These studies, show that the bentonites with high content in smectite fulfill satisfactorily with the physical and chemical conditions to be used as sealing material, but it is known that the smectite can be unstable in diagenetic conditions similar to those are given in a deep repository of radioactive wastes, being transformed into illite. A conclusion of immediate interest is deduced from this last study. The bentonites used as sealing material in radioactive waste repositories must no contain Na as interlayer cation since it is very easily exchangeable by K. It is better to select those smectites with Ca and Mg that detain the entry of K in the interlayer and as a consequence the transformation process of smectite into illite is made more difficult. (Author)

  14. Preparation and characterization of bentonite organo clay; Preparacao de caracterizacao de argilas bentonitas organofilicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertagnolli, C.; Almeida Neto, A.F. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Quimica. Lab. de Engenharia Ambiental; Silva, M.G.C., E-mail: meuris@feq.unicamp.b [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Quimica

    2009-07-01

    Bentonite clays organically modified have great potential use for environmental remediation, especially in the separation of organic compounds from the water. The aim of this work was the preparation of organophilic clays from 'Verde-Lodo' bentonite clay with the quaternary ammonium salts cetyl-pyridinium chloride and benzalkonium chloride. The materials obtained were characterized by XRD, thermogravimetric analyses, Helium picnometry, SEM and energy dispersive X-ray techniques. The results show consistently successful synthesis of the organoclay through the increase in the basal spacing, as well as salt elimination picks and presence of carbon and chlorine in the modified clays; they are inexistent elements in the natural clay. (author)

  15. Chitosan/bentonite bionanocomposites: morphology and mechanical behavior; Bionanocompositos quitosana/bentonita: morfologia e comportamento mecanico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, C.R.C.; Melo, F.M.A. de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais; Vitorino, I.F. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais; Fook, M.V.L.; Silva, S.M.L., E-mail: suedina@dema.ufcg.edu.b [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    This study chitosan/bentonite bionanocomposite films were prepared by solution intercalation process, seeking to investigate the effect of the chitosan/bentonite ratio (5/1 e 10/1) on the morphology and mechanical behavior of the bionanocomposites. It was used as nanophase, Argel sodium bentonite (AN), was provided by Bentonit Uniao Nordeste-BUN (Campina Grande, Brazil) and as biopolymer matrix the chitosan of low molecular weight and degree of deacetylation of 86,7% was supplied by Polymar (Fortaleza, Brazil). The bionanocomposites was investigated by X-ray diffraction and tensile properties. According to the results, the morphology and the mechanical behavior of the bionanocomposite was affected by the ratio of chitosan/bentonite. The chitosan/bentonite ratio (5/1 and 10/1) indicated the formation of an intercalated nanostructure and of the predominantly exfoliated nanostructure, respectively. And the considerable increases in the resistance to the traction were observed mainly for the bionanocomposite with predominantly exfoliated morphology. (author)

  16. The Sociedad Espanola de Ceramica y Vidrio over half a century; La Sociedad Espanola de Ceramica y Vidrio a lo largo de medio siglo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Navarro, J.M.

    2010-07-01

    The double objective of this lecture is to commemorate, on the occasion of its golden jubilee, the work performed by the Spanish Society of Ceramics and Glass and to pay a special homage to the memory of its main promoter and supporter, Professor Antonio Garcia Verduch. Since its foundation in 1960 the Society has contributed to join all the experts in ceramics and glass, as well as to promote and spread among them scientific and technical knowledge related to both areas, while adapting itself to the investigation trends of each moment in time and to the interests of the different industrial sectors. Along its half century of history it has organized some hundred and twenty-five national congresses and specialized technical meetings and nine national congresses. It represents Spain in five international associations. The Society's main contribution, together with its international activities, has been the uninterrupted publication of its bimonthly magazine, the Society's Bulletin, which since 1999 is included in the database of the Science Citation Index. Furthermore, the Society keeps a permanent relationship with investigation centres, universities, museums, technicians' and manufacturers' associations and fairground institutions. As a sign of its promotion of technical development, the Society grants every year since 1977 its Alfa de Oro Awards to the most outstanding industrial products shown in the Valencia Fair, in order to highlight quality, technological innovation and design. In 1999 the Society's Electroceramics group created the Epsilon de Oro Awards which are granted every two years to the people or institutions that have produced the main scientific contribution in a given field. (Author).

  17. Tres mitos de la fonetica espanola (Three Myths of Spanish Phonetics).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbor, John B.

    1980-01-01

    Contrasts current pronunciation of some Spanish consonants with the teachings and theory of pronunciation manuals, advocating more realistic standards of instruction. Gives a detailed phonetic description of common variants of the sounds discussed, covering both Spanish and Latin American dialects. (MES)

  18. La pronunciacion espanola y los metodos de investigacion. (Spanish Pronunciation and Methods of Investigation.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torreblanca, Maximo

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the validity of studies of Spanish pronunciation in terms of research methods employed. Topics include data collection in the laboratory vs. in a natural setting; recorded vs. non-recorded data; quality of the recording; aural analysis vs. spectrographic analysis; and transcriber reliability. Suggestions for improving data collection are…

  19. Realities and paradoxes of the Spanish industry; Realidades y paradojas de la industria espanola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrens, L.

    2013-06-01

    Spanish industry has destroyed more than 900,000 jobs since the crisis. However, it has maintained and even increased their production and exports share in the whole European Union. Some indicators show competitive behavior of Spanish industry was correct in front of the rest of its European partners during the real estate bubble. The challenges facing the Spanish industry go through replacing the disappearance of the construction sector by to new emerging and more internationalized sectors. The article introduces the different items on the journal and makes several recommendations based on the results obtained. (Author)

  20. Spanish mining in the 2008-09; La mineria espanola 2008-09

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espi, J. A.; Sanz Contreras, J. L.

    2009-07-01

    The year 2008 and early 2009 has been for the Spanish mining a period of enormous significance. The world in crisis has an impact, however, differently in sub-sectors where the mineral industry is divided. Thus, those most directly linked to the construction industry (aggregates, dimension stone and industrial minerals) have collapsed the demand for their products. However, despite moments of uncertainty ending last year, solid fossil fuels and metal ores in general are between hope and lack of knowledge in the coming months. In this way, now we should be pleased to have four metal mines, at least some of them with real interest. (Author)

  1. Analysis of the situation of Spanish metal mining; Analisis de situacion de la mineria metalica espanola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espi Rodriguez, J. A.; Vazquez Guzman, F.; Leon Altamirano, C.; Perez Macias, D.

    2015-07-01

    This article is a summary of the original document drawn up by the Task Force on Mineral Resources and Reserves of the National Association of Mining Engineers, available in free digital format through the Link. (Author)

  2. Spanish participation in supranational and international fora; Participacion espanola en los foros supranacionales e internacionales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, J. I.; Cancio, D.; Munoz, M. J.; Revuelta, R.; Vano, E.; Alonso, A.

    2004-07-01

    The text describes the Spanish participation in committees and working groups related to radiation protection and radiological and nuclear safety in supranational organizations, such as the European Commission; in international governmental organizations, such as the International Atomic Energy Agency and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, and in scientific and technical commissions and associations, in particular, the International Commission on Radiological Protection, ICRP and the World Organization of Nuclear Operators, WANO. (Author)

  3. El Cuestionario de Personalidad Zuckerman-Kuhlman-III (ZKPQ-III: version espanola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Herrero

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presentan los resultados obtenidos al validar una adaptación del ZKPQ- III en una muestra de Tenerife (España. Esta prueba fue administrada a una muestra de 650 personas. Una parte de la muestra cumplimentó asimismo otras pruebas de personalidad (Cuestionario de Personalidad de Eysenck, EPQ-A, y el Cuestionario de los Cinco Grandes de Caprara, Barbaranelli y Borgogni, BFQ. La otra submuestra cumplimentó pruebas que evalúan variables psicopatológicas (Inventario de Depresión de Beck, BDI; Inventario de Ansiedad de Beck, BAI, el Cuestionario de Salud General de Goldberg, GHQ- 28, Y una escala del Inventario de Paduade Sanavio. Se utilizó una triple estrategia de obtención de factores de cuyo análisis se llega a una estructura bastante similar a la propuesta por los autores del cuestionario denominada los "cinco alternativos".

  4. The Dawns of the Spanish Geo technic; Los albores de la Geotecnia espanola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano Gonzalez, A.

    2013-06-01

    From a personal perspective, there are analyzed the first steps of the spanish Geotechnical Engineering history understood as an academic discipline but also linked in a very directly way the profession. This evolution is not foreign to the own history of the Geneticist in other countries of our cultural or geographical environment. The contributions discover that our predecessors transmitted important achievements to the international community. The direct presence in the international congresses of that time of the spanish geo technicians is analysed. Three consecutive stages are distinguished, personalizing in each of them the participation of celebrated spanish Civil Engineers. (Author)

  5. Programa de lengua espanola: Guia para el profesor, 2 (Spanish Language Program: Teacher's Guide 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Emiliano; And Others

    This teacher's guide is designed for use with "La Ciudad" and "Otros Amigos, Otras Culturas," two textbooks in the second part of the Spanish language series of readers. It contains lesson plans to enable the teacher to make better use of the texts and includes illustrations taken from each of the books themselves. (SK)

  6. Experimental Setup to Characterize Bentonite Hydration Processes; Diseno experimental para la caracterizacion de los procesos de hidratacion de la bentonita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bru, A.; Casero, D.; Pastor, J.M.

    2001-07-01

    We present an experimental setup to follow-up the hydration process of a bentonite. Clay samples, of 2 cm x 12 cm x 12 cm, were made and introduced in a Hele-Shaw cell with two PMM windows and two steel frames. In hydration experiments, a fluid enters by an orifice in the frame, located both at the top and the bottom of the cell, to perform hydration in both senses. To get a uniform hydration we place a diffuser near the orifice. Volume influxes in hydration cells are registered in time. The evolution of the developed interface was recorded on a videotape. The video cameras was fixed to a holder so that the vertical direction in the monitor was the same as the direction of the larger extension of the cell. (Author) 6 refs.

  7. Synthesis of mullite nanometers microwave from bentonite delaminated; Sintese de mulita nanometrica por microondas a partir bentonitas delaminadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, J.; Azevedo, N.A.; Vieira, D.A.; Neves, G.A.; Santana, L.N.L., E-mail: josileido@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil); Menezes, R.R. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), PB (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The smectite clays present as lamellar structure is formed by two layers of silica tetrahedrons and one layer of aluminum octahedra, which can be individually delaminated, reaching a thickness of about 1mm. Mullite is the only thermodynamically stable crystalline phase of SiO{sub 2} and Al2O{sub 3} system and can be synthesized from minerals that exhibit these oxides in its composition. The microwave synthesis offers advantages over conventional methods, the heating is rapid and uniform, avoiding an undesirable grain growth. This study aims to obtain nanometric mullite from bentonites delamined subjected to microwave heating. The samples were initially treated, then rehydrated, frozen and deagglomeration in a ball mill for 4 and 8 hours. Subsequently subjected to centrifugation, drying and microwave heating. The results showed that nano-mullite was obtained for samples subjected to longer heating and dispersions. (author)

  8. Bentonite chemical modification for use in industrial effluents; Modificacao quimica de bentonita para uso em efluentes industriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laranjeira, E.; Pinto, M.R.O.; Rodrigues, D.P.; Costa, B.P.; Guimaraes, P.L.F. [Universidade Estadual da Paraiba (DQ/CCT/UEPB), Campina Grande (Brazil). CCT. Dept. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    The present work aims at synthesizing organoclays using a layered silicate of regional importance, bentonite clay, for the treatment of industrial effluents. The choice of clay to be organophilized was based on cation exchange capacity (CEC). Bentonite with higher CTC was called AN 35 (92 meq/100 g), and therefore was the one that suffered the chemical modification with salt cetyl trimethyl ammonium Cetremide, provided by Vetec.The unmodified and modified clays were characterized by FTIR and XDR. The data obtained through the characterizations confirmed the acquisition of bentonite organoclay thus suggesting its subsequent application in the treatment of industrial effluents. (author)

  9. Decantation time of evaluation on bentonite clays fractionation; Avaliacao do tempo de decantacao no fracionamento de argilas bentonitas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, J.; Menezes, R.R.; Neves, G.A.; Lira, H.L; Santana, L.N.L., E-mail: lisiane@dema.ufcg.edu.b [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2009-07-01

    Bentonite clays present a great number of industrial uses, from petroleum to pharmaceutics and cosmetic industry. The bentonite clay present particles with very fine particles that is responsible by the vast application of these materials. However, commercial clays present wide particle size distribution and a significant content of impurities, particularly quartz, in the form of silt and fine silt. So, the aim of this work is to analyze the effect of the stirring and decantation time in the deagglomeration, purification and size separation of the bentonite clay particles from Paraiba. The clays were characterized by X-ray diffraction and particle size distribution. Based on the results it was observed the decantation time give the elimination of the agglomerates formed by submicrometric particles. The uses of decantation column give separation of the fraction below 200nm. (author)

  10. Lifetime of Bentonites study: hydrothermal stability of saponites; Estudio de longevidad en bentonitas: estabilidad hidrotermal de saponitas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leguey, S.; Cuevas, J.; Garralon, A. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Quimica Agricola, Geologia y Geoquimica, Madrid (Spain)

    1996-10-01

    The report studies the lifetime of bentonite and the hydrothermal stability of saponites. The testing comprised determination of physical and chemical properties of clays, the stability of the mineral porosity, lifetime and the wall of clay.

  11. Nanocomposites of PP and bentonite clay modified with different surfactants; Nanocompositos de PP e bentonita organofilizada com diferentes tensoativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Andre W.B.; Agrawal, Pankaj; Araujo, Edcleide M.; Melo, Tomas J.A., E-mail: tomas@dema.ufcg.edu.b [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil); Ueki, Marcelo M. [Servico Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial (SENAI/CIMATEC), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Centro Integrado de Manufatura e Tecnologia

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this work was the development of nano composites of polypropylene (PP) and national bentonite clay modified with different surfactants. The results of X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that the organophilization process was effective. The surfactants led to a significant increase in the basal spacing of Brasgel PA clay. XRD results of the mixture PP/Brasgel PA clay modified with Praepagem WB surfactant indicated that a nanocomposite with intercalated structure was formed. When the Brasgel PA clay was modified with Praepagem HY surfactant, DRX results indicated that a micro composite was formed. Screw speed, clay content and PP viscosity had no influence on the XRD pattern of the obtained materials. (author)

  12. Asociacion Espanola de la Industria Electrica UNESA annual report 2000. Information about electricity activities; Asociacion Espanola de la Industria Electrica UNESA 2000 memoria estadistica. Informe sobre las actividades electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The annual report of UNESA, the industrial grouping of major power companies in Spain, gives statistical data relating to power generation transmission and distribution and summary of achievements during 2001. Power is generated from fossil fuel, nuclear, and hydro power. Information is given on emissions of SO{sub 2}, NOX and particulates. Cooperation of UNESA with international organizations is reported. Detailed figures are given for electricity production during the year, together with annual figures from 1940 to date.

  13. Asociacion Espanola de la Industria Electrica (UNESA) annual report 2006. Information about electricity activities; Asociacion Espanola de la Industria Electrica UNESA 2006 memoria estadistica. Informe sobre las actividades electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The annual report of UNESA, the industrial grouping of major power companies in Spain, gives statistical data relating to power generation, transmission and distribution and a summary of achievements during 2006. Power is generated from fossil fuel, nuclear, and hydro power. Cooperation of UNESA with international organizations is reported. Detailed figures are given for electricity production during the year. A summary of the report is available in English and Spanish on the website www.unesa.es.

  14. Determinants of labor safety management in Spanish companies; Determinacion de la gestion de la seguridad laboral en las empresas espanolas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Muniz, B.; Montes Peon, J. M.; Vazquez Ordas, C. J.

    2011-07-01

    Managing health and safety risks in an integrated way with the operations of the organization has been of increasing importance in recent years. This approach reduces accident rates, reducing losses and improves the firm's productivity. However, very little attention has been paid to analyse the organizational factors that favour or limit the implementation of the safety management system in firms. In an attempt to address this gap in the literature, the present study focuses on the identification of the characteristics of the organization that encourage the development of this system. The results show that several factors, as firm's size, previous experience on quality and environmental management or internationalisation, among others, have a positive influence on safety management system. (Author) 62 refs.

  15. The role of the consulting engineering and Spanish; el papel de la Ingenieria y la Consultoria Espanolas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzanedo del Rivero, I.; Casanova Valcazar, M.

    2011-07-01

    Within the Spanish energy model, the role assigned to the engineering and consulting is extensive, you must define an energetic mix. Aside for studies and projects are the product of everyday classic engineering companies, on the other, energy audits are a tool of the first order to know the current situation regarding energy consumption and to propose actions and measures that seek better use of energy and convergence with the model defined. (Author)

  16. Forum Spanish leading brands, experience of international competitiveness; El foro de marcas renombras espanolas, una experiencia para la competitividad internacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonet Feffer, J. L.

    2011-07-01

    In 1999, the Leading Brands of Spain Forum was created as an institution with a mixed nature, public and private, whose main mission is the defence and promotion of the Spanish renowned and well-known brands strongly internationalized, as basic elements for the international competitiveness of our country. Since then, its activity has focused on the strategic importance of these intangible assets of the companies and the country, its leading brands, on which the international positioning of the Spain Brand will strongly rely on. (Author) 7 refs.

  17. Environmental management systems implemented in the Spanish nuclear power plants; Sistemas de gestion ambiental implantados en las centrales nucleares espanolas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, R.; Fernandez Guisado, M. B.; Hortiguela, R.; Bustamante, L. F.; Esparza, J. L.; Villareal, M.; Yague, F.

    2013-09-01

    The companies that own the Spanish Nuclear Power Plants, aware of social concern and in the context of a growing demanding environmental legislation, have a permanent commitment to the electricity production based on the principles of a maximum respect for the environment, safety, quality, professionalism and continuous improvement. In order to minimize the environmental impact of their plants they have implemented and Environmental Management System based on the ISO 14001 Standard. They minimize the environmental impact by identifying the significant environmental aspects and defining the corresponding objectives. This article describes the referred environmental management systems and their environmental objectives, as applied and defined by the Spanish Nuclear Power Plants. (Author)

  18. American legislation European and Spanish regulation on hazardous wastes; Apuntes sobre la legislacion americana, comunitaria y espanola sobre residuos peligrosos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arango Mesa, H. [Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia (Colombia); Gomer Gotor, A. [Universidad de las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canairias (Spain)

    1999-08-01

    This article approaches the Dangerous Residuals from the point of view of the effective legislation in the United States and the European Community, making emphasis in the Spanish Legislation by Considering it an extension of the normative of the European Community. (Author)

  19. Sources for researching the business history of Spanish mining; Fuentes para la historia empresarial de la mineria espanola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez de Perceval Verde, M. A.; Lopez-Morell, M. A.

    2013-09-01

    This article analyzes the sources available when studying the firms that have exploited underground resources in Spain in contemporary times. The materials we have are diverse, given the variety of mining areas, minerals, types of firms, nationalities involved, etc. Large businesses are covered, in the main, by business archives, which have evolved in different ways, whilst for smaller concerns and when reconstructing an overall business and production map the researcher is better served by tax registers, in particular those on the gross production tax. A wide set of sources with details of where to find them, what they offer, the obstacles they can produce and how best to use them to study the mining business fabric is also included. (Author)

  20. Technological research programmes in the European Community. Spanish participation. Los programas de investigacion tecnologica en las comunidades europeas. Participacion espanola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caride de Linan, C. (OCICARBON, Madrid (Spain))

    1988-01-01

    The European Communities give a big importance to Research, Development and Demonstration (R D D) into technologic field, as a platform to improve the competitivity in different communitary industrial sectors, where they promote and finance a diversity of programmes. On coal sector there are several programmes contemplated by the Community, with different traditions, dispersed in the framework of its organization. In this communication there have been described principal programmes relating to coal with which OCICARBON has some relation, in the same way the Spanish position, in order to present the possibilities offered to interested organizations. 18 refs., 1 fig.

  1. Technological research programmes in the European Communities: Spanish participation. Los programas de investigacion tecnologica en las Comunidades Europeas: participacion espanola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caride de Linan, C. (OCICARBON, Madrid (Spain))

    1989-02-01

    Ocicarbon was founded and began its work in 1985, the year before Spain's accession to the European Community. In other Community member countries, there is a great tradition of technological research and much work has been required to coordinate research effort. For this reason, special attention has been given to close familiarisation with Community programmes for coal research in order to integrate Spanish research work and to achieve adequate representation on the appropriate committees with a view to obtaining technical and economic assistance in proportion to Spain's coal production capacity and financial input. 18 refs., 5 tabs.

  2. The future of the coal on the energetic Spanish policy; El futuro del carbon en la politica energetica espanola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This work was born as a result of the decision of the Foundation for Studies on energy, to undertake and analysis on the role of coal in the X XI century, because although coal appears as the fuel to be most affected by the provisions of the fight against global warming, it must be recognized its essential contribution in ensuring the power supply and to contain the cost of the kWh. The study was prepared by a group of professionals of the energy sector, without direct commercial links with the subject discussed, but with acknowledges expertise technique. It is pertinent to stress that the purpose of this study is to provide data and analyze rigorously technical options with a view to be able to use the coal energy, minimizing and, theoretically, eliminating the CO{sub 2} emissions. It is therefore not a document produced from predetermined positions, but it is deducted from the characteristics of the nature and mechanisms and other processes involved in generating electricity from coal, and in the treatment of generated CO{sub 2} for it not to reach the atmosphere. We intend to contribute to the better understanding by our society, a major problem for our economy and out welfare. (Author)

  3. {sup 14}C in human diet in three Spanish locations; {sup 14}C en dieta humana en tres localizaciones espanolas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Martinez, I.; Santos Arevalo, F. J.; Manjon, G.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.

    2011-07-01

    {sup 14}C reach humans via the diet. In this study we present the results of diet samples from three locations type Spanish, Seville, Caceres and Tenerife. These diets are collected quarterly and historical dates back to early 2008.

  4. Conservation promotion policy of the Spanish energy industry; Politica de promocion de conservacion de la energia en la industria espanola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, Juan Antonio

    1992-03-01

    This paper focalizes the energy general policy of Spain from the National Energy Plan (1991-2000), presenting the strategic lines and testing the main decisions to be adopted in this present decade 5 tabs.

  5. Spanish industry and competitiveness. The overview from the Industrial Observatories; Industria espanola y competitividad. La vision desde los observatorios industriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortigosa Goni, J. A.; Fuente Garcia, T. de la

    2012-07-01

    This article analyzes the competitiveness of the Spanish industry. It explains the interdependencies and relations that link globalization, internationalization and international trade with competitiveness. The main features of the Spanish industry are also studied in depth, its strengths and weaknesses. Finally, the challenges that the Spanish industry will face in the future are considered, as well as the role that the industrial observatories will play in that context. (Author)

  6. Reference dose levels in dental radiology Spanish; Niveles de dosis de referencia en la radiologia dental espanola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasco Hidalgo, F.; Velasco Hidalgo, E.; Alcaraz-Saura, M.; Martinez Garcia-Cervantes, A.; Andreu-Galvez, M.; Martinez-Beneyto, Y.; Alcaraz Banos, M.

    2011-07-01

    Our goal is to evaluate the DRLs to obtain a diagnostic image of a second upper molar in the usual conditions of clinical practice in recent years to assess the evolution of the doses administered to the patient during the last 8 years.

  7. Antonio Quilis, La concodancia gramatiaal en Za Zengua espanola hablada en Madrid, C. S. I. C., Madrid 1983, pags. 128

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitja Skubic

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available El libra de Antonio Quilis, de poco más de cien páginas, nos ofrece los resultados de las encuestas sabre la concordancia sintáctica en el habla de Madrid. El Autor que es también cultivador y conocedor de la fonética del español­ pensemos en su importante trabajo sobre la fonética acústica de la lengua española (Gredos, Madrid 1981 - vuelve aqué a su vocacion de sintáctico, visible en sus trabajos sabre la estructura del español la edición de la Gramática de Nebri­ja y en el amor con que cuidó la presentación al mundo de habla castellana de las obras de B. Pottier.

  8. Radiation hazard surveillance in spanish uranium mines; Control de los peligros de la radiactividad en las minas de uranio espanolas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iranzo, E.; Liarte, J.

    1963-07-01

    The regulations applied in the uranium mines which belong to the Junta de Energia Nuclear to control the radioactive hazards, and to get the personal protection avoiding overexposures in the external radiation and inhalation of radioactive dust and gases are given. The Radon daughters concentration in the atmosphere of Avery one of the mines and the external radiation exposure and uranium excretion in urine of the miners during 1962 are specified. (Author) 9 refs.

  9. Hydrothermal alkaline stability of bentonite barrier by concrete interstitial wastes; Alteracion alcalina hidrotermal de la barrera de bentonita por aguas intersticiales de cementos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leguey Jimenez, S.; Cuevas Rodriguez, J.; Ramirez Martin, S.; Vigil de la villa Mencia, R.; Martin Barca, M. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    At present, the main source of High Level radioactive Waste (HLW) is the electrical energy production during all the steps of developing. In almost all the countries with nuclear programs, the option for the final management of HLW is the Deep Geological Repository (DGR) based on the concept of multi barrier. According to this concept, the waste is isolated from biosphere by the interposition of confinement barriers. Two of the engineering barriers in the Spanish design of DGR in granitic rock are compacted bentonite and concrete. The bentonite barrier is the backfilling and sealing material for the repository gallery, because of its mechanical and physico-chemical properties. The main qualities of concrete as a component of a multi barrier system are its low permeability, mechanical resistance and chemical properties. With regard to chemical composition of concrete, the alkaline nature of cement pore water lowers the solubility of many radioactive elements. However, structural transformation in smectite, dissolution or precipitation of minerals and, consequently, changes in the bentonite properties could occurs in the alkaline conditions generated by the cement degradation. The main objective of the present work is to evaluate the effect of concrete in the stability of Spanish reference bentonite (La Serrata of Nijar, Almeria, Spain) in conditions similar to those estimated in a DGR in granitic rock. Because of the main role of bentonite barrier in the global performance of the repository, the present study is essential to guarantee its security. (Author)

  10. Modifications in Compacted MX-80 Bentonite Due to Thermo-Hydraulic Treatment; Modificaciones en la Bentonita MX-80 Compactada Sometida a Tratamiento Termo-Hidraulico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Espina, R.; Villar, M. V.

    2013-09-01

    The thermo-hydraulic tests reproduce the thermal and hydraulic conditions to which bentonite is subjected in the engineered barrier of a deep geological repository of radioactive waste. The results of thermo-hydraulic test TBT1500, which was running for approximately 1500 days, are presented. This is a continuation to the Technical Report Ciemat 1199, which presented results of test TBT500, performed under similar conditions but with duration of 500 days. In both tests the MX-80 bentonite was used with initial density and water content similar to those of the large-scale test TBT. The bentonite column was heated at the bottom at 140 degree centigrade and hydrated on top with deionized water. At the end of the test a sharp water content gradient was observed along the column, as well as an inverse dry density gradient. Hydration modified also the bentonite microstructure. Besides, an overall decrease of the smectite content with respect to the initial value took place, especially in the most hydrated areas where the percentage of interest ratified illite increased and in the longer test. On the other hand, the content of cristobalite, feldspars and calcite increased. Smectite dissolution processes (probably colloidal) occurred, particularly in the more hydrated areas and in the longer test. Due to the dissolution of low-solubility species and to the loss of exchangeable positions in the smectite, the content of soluble salts in the pore water increased with respect to the original one, especially in the longer test. The solubilized ions were transported; sodium, calcium, magnesium and sulphate having a similar mobility, which was in turn lower than that of potassium and chloride. The cationic exchange complex was also modified. (Author)

  11. Characterization of bentonite, fibrous and kaolinite clays with regard to their use in pelotherapy; Caracterizacion de bentonitas, arcillas fibrosas y arcillas caoliniferas para su empleo en peloterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozo Martin, E.; Martin Rubi, J. A.; Pozo Rodriguez, M.

    2011-07-01

    We have characterized the mineralogical and chemical contents of several Spanish special clays (bentonite, fibrous clays and kaolin). Mineralogical analyses revealed that the samples were composed mainly of phyllosilicates (78 %-99 %) with a notable presence of dioctahedral and trioctahedral smectites in the bentonite, kaolinite in the kaolin and sepiolite or palygorskite in the fibrous clays. Illite was the common subordinate mineral in the bentonite, kaolin and palygorskite. Quartz, calcite, dolomite and feldspars were found as associate minerals with the occasional presence of zeolites and amphiboles. The chemical analysis was consistent with the mineralogy. With regard to trace elements (V, Cr, Ni, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Mo, Ba, Sb, Pb, U), the whole samples of the magnesium bentonite and sepiolite were found to have the lowest trace-element contents (<257,28 ppm ), whilst the aluminium bentonite, kaolin and particularly the palygorskite had higher contents than the other clays, with some elements occasionally exceeding the contents of previously studied common clays. Nevertheless, all the trace elements were found in lower quantities than the recommended toxicity levels and those quantities currently used in pelotherapy in Spanish spas. (Author)

  12. The effectivity of bentonites in cesium retention of cemented waste products; Efetividade das bentonitas na retencao de cesio em produtos de rejeitos cimentados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de

    2001-01-15

    The nuclear energy has been used for the human development in different areas, as in the medicine, in the agriculture, in the industry and in the environmental protection, besides the electricity generation. As in other activities, in the use of nuclear energy, residues are also generated. They are considered radioactive wastes when the contaminant content can bring a potential negative impact in the human health and in the environment. In this case they should be properly managed and should not be released without treatment. In general the waste processing consists in a volume reduction followed by solidification and/or conditioning. A number of materials can be considered as immobilisation matrices for the wastes, with the objective of maintain the radioactive material physical and chemically stable. The cement is extensively used because it is easy to obtain, there is large. experience in its use and the processing is done at room temperature. Many materials have been studied to improve the fixation characteristics of the radionuclides in the cemented product. The aim of this study was to search, among Brazilian natural materials, those that could be effective in the contaminant retention without jeopardising the process and other characteristics of the waste product. Four types of bentonite were selected to the process and product evaluation tests. Many mixtures were prepared with simulated waste, cement and bentonite in different proportions. The viscosity, set time, compressive strength and leaching were evaluated. In addition it was verified if the products were monolithic and without free water. Inactive caesium was used as tracer. The leaching resistance is the most important parameter in the product evaluation, because it indicates the retention capacity of the matrix for radionuclides when the product is in contact with the water. In 1985 leaching tests were begun and they have been continued till now and from their results it was proved that the bentonites were efficient in the caesium retention. The leaching data were analysed by a BNL computer program that models four release mechanisms. A good fit was obtained for the partition mechanism. The results obtained in this study can be used in the repository safety assessment. (author)

  13. Characterization of nanocomposites containing Ecoflex®, LDPE and organophilic bentonite; Caracterizacao de nanocompositos de PEBD contendo Ecoflex® e bentonita organofilizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, A.R.; Rosa, D.S., E-mail: derval.rosa@ufabc.edu.br [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), SP (Brazil); Poveda, P.N.S. [Colorfix Itamaster Ltda, SP (Brazil); Viana, H. [Centro Universitario Fundacao Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Considering the need for development of environmentally degradable polymers for high performance, this study aimed to develop and characterize compounds of LDPE containing different levels of Ecoflex® (biodegradable) and organophilic bentonite (environmentally correct, low cost and plentiful). The clay showed interlayer distance (d{sub 001}) of 17.59 Å, which confirms the organophilization organization and salts in monolayer lateral between the layers of bentonite. Through the test IF it can be verified that the fluidity of the compounds was reduced proportionately with the addition of nano clay, improving the dimensional stability of the material. The mechanical test showed that the addition of nano clay increased the maximum stress and elastic modulus of the composites. The FTIR assay corroborated the mechanical results, indicating the presence of interfacial interactions polymer/clay, through axial deformation bands OH related to hydroxyl groups of clay. (author)

  14. Caracterização e propriedades do material coloidal nanoestruturado β-FeOOH/bentonita Characterization and properties of colloidal β-FeOOH/bentonite nanostructured material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauze Jacó Anaissi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A new mixed material was obtained through the combination of the suspensions of iron oxy-hydroxide and bentonite clay, denoted BFe. Analysis of its structure (XRD, Mossbauer and TGA and composition (AAS suggests the maintenance of the layer structure of the clay and an increase in the thermal stability of the BFe. Electrochemical studies performed in different electrolytes show that only in an alkaline medium it is possible to observe the redox peaks relative to the processes involving Fe+2/Fe+3 pair. Tests that evaluated the potential use of the photo-Fenton process showed an efficient degradation process of the dyes in significantly reduced reaction times.

  15. Gas transport in the bentonite barrier of AGP and their interfaces; Transporte de gas en la barrera de bentonita de un AGP y sus interfases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Rodrigo, V.; Villar Gelicia, M. V.; Martin Martin, P. L.; Romero Alvarez, F. J.

    2014-07-01

    The research of gas transport processes through the barriers is of great relevance in the assessment of the behaviour of the repository. The main objective of this study is to determine the properties of gas transport in saturated bentonite samples and the interfaces between them. (Author)

  16. Development of aqueous fluids with bentonite clay for drilling of onshore oil wells; Desenvolvimento de fluidos aquosos com bentonita para perfuracao de pocos de petroleo onshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, R.C.A.M.; Santana, L.N.L. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais; Amorim, L.V. [Agencia Nacional de Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (PRH-25/ANP), PB (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos], Email: nalealves@hotmail.com

    2010-04-15

    Due to challenges encountered in drilling wells, there is a need to develop fluids that have properties suitable and able to meet all the requirements of drilling, such as, high capacity for carrying of solid and high lubricity. Besides that, they need to be environmentally friend. The degree of impact of drilling fluids in the environment depends on the type of fluid used, if water or oil or synthetic or air based. It is therefore of fundamental importance to develop fluid with specific characteristics in each stage of drilling. Thus, the aim of this work is to develop aqueous fluids with low content of solids and rheological, filtration and lubricity properties adjusted for drilling of onshore oil wells. The fluids were formulated by using industrialized sodium bentonite, polymeric additives and lubricants, in different concentrations, in its composition. Rheological, filtration and lubricity studies showed that the fluids have pseudo plastic behavior and, the selected additives successively play their functions of rheological modifiers, filtrate reducer and lubricant agent. Moreover, it was evidenced the necessity of lubricant additives in aqueous fluids containing bentonite clay and polymers. The addition of 1% of lubricant in the fluid is sufficient to adjust the lubricant capacity of fluids. (author)

  17. Study of corrosion behaviour in saturated bentonite barrier Corroben; Estudio de los productos de corrosion de la capsula y su interaccion con la berrar arcillosa de bentonita Corroben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azkarate, I.; Insausti, M.; Medina, V.

    2004-07-01

    The corrosion behavior in saturated bentonite of various candidate metallic materials, to be used in the fabrication of containers of high level radioactive waste granite repositories, has been studied in this project. Due to the multi-barrier concept in which the canisters are surrounded by a clay barrier of compacted bentonite blocks, special attention has been paid to the characterization of corrosion products and the interaction between these and the repository sealing bentonite. The following metallic materials have been studied: S355 carbon steel, AISI 316L stainless steel, Cu-ETP electrolytic copper and Cu30Ni alloy. Samples of the alloys have been embedded in saturated bentonite to a water content of 25%, and compacted. The obtained pastilles have been introduced in autoclaves and tested at different temperatures and times ranging from one to 18 months. Once tests have concluded, several parameters have been evaluated: corrosion morphology, general corrosion rates calculated by gravimetric methods, nature and composition of the corrosion products and penetration of the corrosion products into the bentonite. Experimental data obtained are used to developed models of the corrosion behavior of canisters under disposal conditions. Results show that S355 carbon steel has suffered the highest general corrosion attack, with average corrosion rates of 10 per year and maximum penetration of 100 measured in specimens tested at 75C during 18 months. The most common analyzed corrosion product has been siderite, FeCO3. Formation of siderite, in the test conditions, effectively passivated the steel because of its stable and adherent feature. In test carried out at 25 and 5 C, sulfur rich corrosion products are observed, thus indicating a microbiologically corrosion phenomena due to the metabolic activity of bacteria present in the bentonite. No appreciable general corrosion rates, nor sensitivity to localized corrosion, has been observed in the AISI 316L stainless steel tested samples. Finally, Cu30Ni and Cu-ETP cooper alloys have shown some degree of surface corrosion, with rates under 1/year in the 100C and 18 months test. Because some corrosion products rich in sulfur have been found in Cu30Ni alloy, the effect of microbiological corrosion should be further studied for this alloy. (Author) 16 refs.

  18. Obtaining of mullite by fast burning from bentonite clays from Paraiba state, BR; Obtencao de mulita por queima rapida a partir de argilas bentonitas paraibanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, J.; Rocha, A.I.O.; Oliveira, S.S.; Neves, G.A.; Lira, H.L.; Santana, L.N.L. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Menezes, R.R., E-mail: josileido@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: lisiane@dema.ufcg.edu.br [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2012-07-01

    Bentonite clays are aluminium-silicates that when heated turn into mullite. The sintering of mullite obtained from these mineral clays by quick microwaves heating comes up as an alternative process for mullite powders synthesis. The use of quick heating on ceramics nanopowders synthesis is a recent technology that is being successfully used on synthesis with microwaves and synthesis process by combustion. The quick microwaves heating enables adding heat quickly and equally, accelerating the nucleation kinetics and the development of the mullite stage. Thus, the purpose of this work is to analyze the effect of the microwaves heating process variables, analyzing the influence of the applied power and of the heating rate on the mullite powders obtaining from bentonite clays. The clays have been favored and submitted to the following characterizations: chemical granulometric and mineralogically. Subsequently, the clays have been delaminated aiming deagglomeration and separation of the thinner fractions and submitted to granulometric and mineralogical characterization. The synthesis has been realized on a domestic microwaves oven. The obtained powders have been characterized by X-ray diffraction. The results showed that the applied power variation and the sintering time are fundamental on the obtaining of mullite powders. (author)

  19. Geochemical Processes and compacted bentonite FEBEX with a thermohydraulic gradient with a thermohydraulic gradient; Procesos geoquimicos y modificaciones texturales en bentonita FEBEX compactada sometida a un gradiente termohidraulico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leguey Jimenez, S.; Cuevas Rodriguez, J.; Martin Barca, M.; Vigil de la Villa Mencia, R.; Ramirez Martin, S.; Garcia Gimenez, R. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    At present, the main source of High Level radioactive Waste (HLW) is the electrical energy production during all sep of developing. In almost all the countries with nuclear programs, the option for the final management of HLW is the Deep Geological Repository (DGR), based on the concept of multi barrier. According to this concept, the wastes is isolated from biosphere by the interposition of confinement barrier. In the context of an investigation of the near field for a repository of HLW, the FEBEX Project, a set of laboratory test has been designed to give a better understanding of the thermo-hydro-mechanical and geochemical behaviour of the compacted bentonite as a confinement barrier. The object of these work is to analyse the properties of the bentonite and its behaviour under conditions that will be found in a repository. The precipitation of mineral phases, due to local changes in the chemical equilibrium and the hydration itself, can produce changes in the salinity of the interstitial water and in the microstructural organisation of the clay particles. the hydraulic and mechanical properties of the bentonite can be modified by the special conditions of the barrier. (Author)

  20. Study of mechanical properties of films of nanocomposites LLDPE/bentonite; Estudo das propriedades mecanicas de filmes de nanocompositos PEBDL/bentonita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Eduardo M.; Carvalho, Laura H.; Canedo, Eduardo L.; Coutinho, Maria G.F.; Costa, Raquel B., E-mail: laura@dema.ufcg.edu.br [Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materias, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEMa/UFCG) Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Araujo, Arthur R.A. [Felinto Industria e Comercio Ltda., Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Mechanical properties of LLDPE/bentonite clay were determined as a function of clay content (1 and 2% w/w), purification and organophilization. Raw materials were characterized by FTIR and XRD. Nanocomposites were obtained as flat films and characterized by XRD and mechanical properties. Results indicate that best overall mechanical properties were displayed by systems containing purified clay and that they tended to decrease with increasing clay content. Organofilization was effective and only intercalated nanocomposites were obtained. (author)

  1. Preparation and performance of Ecobras/bentonite biodegrading films; Preparacao e desempenho de filmes polimericos biodegradaveis a base de Ecobras e bentonita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Ana Nery M.; Melo, Nadja M.C.; Canedo, Eduardo L.; Carvalho, Laura H., E-mail: laura@dema.ufcg.edu.br [Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEMa/UFCG) Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Araujo, Arthur R.A. [Felinto Industria e Comercio Ltda., Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Compounds based on the biodegradable polymer Ecobras and bentonite clay in its pristine, sonicated, and organically modified with a quaternary ammonium salt forms were prepared as flat films. Clays and compounds were characterized by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Mechanical properties of the films were determined according to pertinent ASTM standards. Reasonable properties, higher than those of the matrix, were obtained with compounds prepared with purified clays and organoclays, particularly for low clay loading. (author)

  2. Caracterização de argilas bentonitas e diatomitas e sua aplicação como adsorventes Bentonites and diatomites clays characterization and aplication in adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enéderson Rossetto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Five samples of natural clays denominated: diatomite, CN-20, CN-29, CN-40 and CN-45 from Aliança Latina LTDA were characterized by differents supplementary techniques such as: XRD, chemical analysis, adsorption N2 measurements, infrared spectroscopy analysis, thermogravimetric analysis. Clays were tested in adsorption of blue methylene. All of isotherms adjust in a model of physics adsorption with formation of multilayers, however in the case of diatomite was a favorable adsorption (type II and the CNs were a not favorable adsorption (type III. In the case of CNs had flocculation of clay in high concentration of coloring.

  3. Study of the Properties of Bentonites for their use in Clay Geo synthetic Barriers; Estudio de la propiedades de las bentonitas para su utilizacion en barreras geosinteticas arcillosas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiro Lopez, A.; Mateo Sanz, B.; Garcia Cidoncha, H.; Blanco Fernandez, M.

    2014-02-01

    Bentonites used for the production of clay geo synthetic barriers need to meet some properties so that they can be a waterproofing system. among the bentonites used in industry, sodium bentonite has the lowest permeability due to its high water absorption capacity in the inter-laminar space, causing it to swell and form a barrier to water flow. this paper provides the study of the properties of four bentonite to evaluate their quality the study of the properties of four bentonite to evaluate their quality. For this study, the main properties have been tested: water absorption, swelling index, fluid loss, cation exchange capacity and montmorillonite content. In order to optimize the procedure for the characterization of bentonites, correlations between different tests have been done, to identify the most suitable ones. Finally, a compatibility test has been carried out to study the performance of bentonites in water containing a high amount of sales, because in this case, an ion exchange between the interlayer sodium ions of bentonite and cations dissolved in the water can take, resulting in a decrease swell of the bentonite. (Author)

  4. Organophilization process of Brazilian bentonite for preparation of polymeric nanocomposites; Processo de organofilizacao de bentonita brasileira para preparacao de nanocompositos polimericos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Carlos I.R. de; Rocha, Marisa C.G.; Ferreira, Joao L.A.N.G., E-mail: carlosivan@iprj.uerj.br [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (IPRJ/UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Politecnico; Silva, Ana L.N. da [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IMA/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Macromoleculas Profa. Eloisa Mano; Bertolino, Luiz C. [Centro de Tecnologia Mineral (CETEM/MCTI), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Bentonite clay from the municipality of Cubati, PB, was used for the preparation of an organophilic clay. First, the clay was treated with sodium chloride to obtain the homo-ionic sodium clay. The organoclay was, then, obtained from the reaction of homo-ionic clay with the quaternary ammonium salt, cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride. The natural clay and the modified clays were characterized by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The chemical analysis showed a decrease in the concentration of the majority of the metallic oxides when the bentonite was organophilizated. This result is characteristic of the metal cation exchange process by organic salt molecules. The X-ray diffraction confirmed the intercalation among the layers of the clay. The results obtained by FTIR showed the presence of the characteristic groups of the salt in the clay, thus confirming the obtaining of organophilic bentonite. (author)

  5. Membrane Bioreactors design and operation improvements: The Spanish Experience; Avances en el diseno y la operacion de los biorreactores de membrana: La experiencia espanola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias Esteban, R.; Ortega de Miguel, E.; Martinez Tarifa, M. A.; Simon Andreu, P.; Moragas Bouyart, L.; Garcia Fernandez, E.; Robuste Cartro, J.; Rodriguez-Roda layret, I.

    2012-07-01

    A Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) is a modification of a conventional activated sludge (CAS) plant where the secondary settling ins replaced by a low pressure ultrafiltration (UF) or micro filtration (MF) membranes separation process in order to obtain an effluent almost free of suspended solids and microorganisms. since the first MBR installation in 2002, the number and capacity of these systems have exponentially increased in spain, driven by the high quality of the effluent which allows direct reuse and discharge into environmentally sensitive areas, the compactness and automation of these plants and the possibility of upgrading existing wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) which no longer reach the required effluent quality levels. There were 45 operating MBR systems in 2011 and the total municipal wastewater treatment capacity by this type of plants will be about 90 hm{sup 3} in 204 when the current projects have been implemented. Today, Spain public and private wastewater management agencies consider MBR plants as an alternative of treatment but first they had to face a complex learning period to operate and design this kind of system. A significant progress has been made over the last years, but especially energy efficiency responds to the challenge of continuous improvement. Membrane fouling control consumes most of the energy involved in the process therefore, anti fouling materials and better membrane air-scour systems that allow the frequency and intensity of air flow to be controlled in realtime, are being investigated. This brings MBR closer to the CAS process in terms of energy efficiency. Breakthroughs in the design and operation of MBR plants are being collected in a guide for the implementation of MBR led by CEDEX, in which the main managers and operators are involved. This paper presents some of these improvements. (Author) 9 refs.

  6. Thickness of Santa Fe Group sediments in the Espanola Basin south of Santa Fe, New Mexico, as estimated from aeromagnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Grauch, V.J.S.

    2004-01-01

    In the southern Espa?ola basin south of Santa Fe, New Mexico, weakly magnetic Santa Fe Group sediments of Oligocene to Pleistocene age, which represent the primary aquifers for the region, are locally underlain by moderately to strongly magnetic igneous and volcaniclastic rocks of Oligocene age. Where this relationship exists, the thickness of Santa Fe Group sediments, and thus the maximum thickness of the aquifers, can be estimated from quantitative analysis of high-resolution aeromagnetic data. These thickness estimates provide guidance for characterizing the ground-water resources in between scattered water wells in this area of rapid urban development and declining water supplies. This report presents one such analysis based on the two-step extended Euler method for estimating depth to magnetic sources. The results show the general form of a north-trending synclinal basin located between the Cerrillos Hills and Eldorado with northward thickening of Santa Fe Group sediments. The increase in thickness is gradual from the erosional edge on the south to a U-shaped Santa Fe embayment hinge line, north of which sediments thicken much more dramatically. Along the north-south basin axis, Santa Fe Group sediments thicken from 300 feet (91 meters) at the hinge line near latitude 35o32'30'N to 2,000 feet (610 meters) at the Cerrillos Road interchange at Interstate 25, north of latitude 35o36'N. The depth analysis indicates that, superimposed on this general synclinal form, there are many local areas where the Santa Fe Group sediments may be thickened by a few hundred feet, presumably due to erosional relief on the underlying Oligocene volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks. Some larger areas of greater apparent thickening occur where the presence of magnetic rocks directly underlying the Santa Fe Group is uncertain. Where magnetic rocks are absent beneath the Santa Fe Group, the thickness cannot be estimated from the aeromagnetic data.

  7. Comparative study on diets and food consumption of Spanish people; Estudio comparativo sobre dietas y habitos alimentarios en la poblacion espanola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suanez, A.; Robles, B. [CIEMAT. Madrid (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    When the radiological consequences of the environmental discharges are analysed. It is necessary to take into account several parameters as the values related with the population diets, because food ingestion will be one of the main pathways of radionuclide intake by the human body. With the aim of having current food consumption values, in agreement with the Spanish reality, the CIEMAT has performed a wide study in collaboration with CSN and the Nutritional Department of the Complutense University of Madrid. This work involves people between 0-60 years old, divided in 6 age groups following the ICRP recommendations, with a total sample about 12,000 persons from 10 provinces. The methodology applied is based in three questionnaires and 2 concordance tests. The results obtained in this study are compared with those of several national and international information sources (MAPA, INE and FAO), normally used in dose assessments by ingestion. The results are also compared with the RG 1109 NRC values, widely used for regulatory purposes. (Author) 10 refs.

  8. Sludge Lancing IBL: results and experiences in the Spanish NPP's; Sluge Lancing e IBL: resultados y experiencias en las centrales espanolas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoro, E.; Pozo, C. del

    2014-04-01

    During the operation cycle of the PWR plants, oxides deposits (sludge) generated in the secondary circuit by erosion corrosion, chemical additives, etc. Which are deposited on the tube plate of GVs, limiting their efficiency and lifespan. To reduce them, Iberdrola Engineering and Construction, together with SRA SAVAC cleaned by high-pressure water means and tele visual inspection between tubes of the GVs. After Sludge Lancing cleanings performed by 250 bar from the center line, an area of solidified sludge remaining on the tubular plate was identified. Late 2010, Iberdrola Engineering and Construction, together with SRA SAVAC developed the Inner Bundle Lancing (IBL) system, which is based on a jet of water of high pressure>500 bar directly impacting areas of hard sludge within the tube bundle to detach and break the deposits into small pieces that can be extracted from GV through a closed circuit suction. (Author)

  9. Sludge lancing and IBL: Results and experiences in the Spanish NPP; SLUDGE LANCING e IBL: Resultados y experiencias en las central espanolas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoro, E.; Pozo, C. del

    2013-07-01

    During the cycle of operation of the PWR plants, oxides (sludge) tanks are generated in the secondary circuit by corrosion, chemical additives, etc which are deposited onto the tubular steam generators (GVs), limiting its efficiency and service life.

  10. Mineralogical and chemical study of Spanish common clays with regard to their use in pelotherapy; Estudio mineralogico y quomico de arcillas comunes espanolas para su empleo en peloterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozo Martin, E.; Martin Rubi, J. A.; Pozo Rodriguez, M.

    2011-07-01

    The mineralogical (whole sample and clay fraction) and chemical compositions of 5 representative samples of Spanish common clays have been studied to evaluate their use in pelotherapy. The mineralogy of the samples revealed clays with phyllosilicate contents of between 53% and 74% and minor quantities of quartz, calcite, dolomite, feldspars, gypsum, pyrite and hematite. Smectite was the predominant clay mineral, with the exception of one sample containing only illite. The results of analyses of the major chemical elements were consistent with the mineralogical composition. The samples contained low quantities (<130 ppm, with the exception of Ba) of potentially harmful elements; the CAR sample contained the highest quantities of Ba, V, Cr, Co, As, Sb, and Ni. Nevertheless, the concentrations of trace elements in the samples analysed showed lower levels of phytotoxicity than those permitted and were also lower than those found in peloids currently used in Spanish spas. (Author)

  11. Fuel cycle management by the electric enterprises and spanish nuclear Power plants; Gestion del ciclo de combustible por las empresas electricas y centrales nucleares espanolas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celma, E. M.; Gonzalez, C.; Lopez, J. V.; Melara, J.; Lopez, L.; Martinez, J. C.; Culbras, F.; Blanco, J.; Francia, L.

    2015-07-01

    The Nuclear Fuel Group reports to the Technology Committee of the UNESA Nuclear Energy Committee, and is constituted by representatives of both the Spanish Utilities and the Nuclear Power Plants. The Group addresses the nuclear plant common issues in relation to the operation and management of the nuclear fuel in their different stages of the Fuel Cycle. The article reviews the activities developed by the Group in the Front-End, mainly in the monitoring of international programs that define criteria to improve the Fuel Reliability and in the establishment of common bases for the implementation of changes in the regulation applying the nuclear fuel. Concerning the Back-End the Group focuses on those activities of coordination with third parties related to the management of used fuel. (Author)

  12. What they have in common the engineering from the Spanish nuclear power plants?; Que tienen en comun las ingenierias de las centrales nucleares espanolas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Mendez, M.

    2012-11-01

    In recent years, Spain Nuclear Power Plant Engineering have switched their project/task management method to Critical Chain multi-project management, developed by Dr. Goldratt, achieving outstanding results in improving quality and productivity. Multitasking reduction, task and resource synchronizing without the need of exact schedules, implementing a real-time priority information system, relying on the software Concerto, and daily decision making are the basis for the management change that has generated productivity increases of between 20% to 50%, opening new horizons for improvement in other scenarios such as optimizing refueling shutdowns. (Author)

  13. Evaluating wind power potential in the Spanish Antarctic Base (BAE); Evaluacion del Potencial Eolico en la Base Antartica Espanola Juan Carlos I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arribas de Paz, L. M.; Garcia Barquero, C.; Navarro Montesinos, J.; Cuerva Tejero, A.; Cruz Cruz, I.; Roque Lopez, V.; Marti Perez, I. [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    The objective of the work is to model wind field in the surroundings of the Spanish Antarctic Base (BAE in the following). The need of such a work comes from the necessity of an energy source able to supply the energy demand in the BAE during the Antarctic winter. When the BAE is in operation (in the Antarctic summer) the energy supply comes from a diesel engine. In the Antartic winter the base is closed, but the demand of energy supply is growing up every year because of the increase in the number of technical and scientific machines that remain in the BAE taking different measurements. For this purpose the top of a closed hill called Pico Radio, not perturbed by close obstacles, has been chosen as the better site for the measurements. The measurement station is made up with a sonic an-emometer and a small wind generator to supply the energy needed by the sensors head heating of the anemometer. this way, it will be also used as a proof for the suitability of a wind generator in the new chosen site, under those special climactic conditions. (Author) 3 refs.

  14. Electromagnetic fields and safety : information and risk perception in Spanish population; Campos electromagneticos y salud: informacion y percepcion del riesgo en la poblacion espanola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, A.; Guillen, V.

    2005-07-01

    There is a lack of knowledge about both the information the general population in Spain has on electromagnetic fields (EMF) and the public risk perception regarding the exposure to non-ionizing EMF emitting sources. The aims of the present preliminary survey were to assess what the Spanish population knew about EMF, to explore their health risk perception associated with the exposure to commonly used sources of non-ionizing radiation; and to know their risk perception regarding cell towers. A total number of 801 adult participants, randomly selected answered a telephone interview based on a 13-item semi-structured questionnaire. Sixty-nine per cent of the interviewees reported having no knowledge about electromagnetic fields. Up to 88.9% mentioned to have a little or no information at all on the health effects of EMF. Comparing risk perception regarding several commonly used devices, mobile telephones and microwave ovens were associated with a higher heath risk than TV and computers. Of those who believed that the devices mentioned were linked with health problems, 40.7% associated them with cancer. Regarding base stations, 52.1% of the sample envisioned such sources as a health risk, and of those who believed so, the majority linked the proximity of base stations with cancer. Gender differences were observed in risk perception. (Author) 16 refs.

  15. Evolution of Spanish industrial companies in the first decade of XXI century; Evolucion de las empresas industriales espanolas en la primera decada del siglo XXI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Tirados, R. M.; Medina Rojas, S.

    2011-07-01

    This article discusses the key issues that have influenced the evolution of Spanish industrial companies in the first decade of XXI century. This evolution is clearly influenced by the economic crisis that began in 2007 and has become clear in 2008. As for industrial production, is made a forecast based on an data analysis and the results have achieved if the current economic crisis would not have taken place. Another aspect presented refers to the organization of Spanish companies, the influence of industrial policy and equally, the role of technology parks and synergy's between university-business to these parks. (Author)

  16. Genetic-Structural relations in some types of spanish uranium deposits; Relaciones genetico-estructurales de algunos tipos de mienralizaciones uraniferas espanolas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alia Medina, M.

    1962-07-01

    On the spanish hercynian areas there are different types of uraniferous deposits, which may be classified in the following groups: Group I, high temperature magmatic deposits, Group II, low temperature veins and Group III supergenic deposits, generated by weathering of the former ones or by lixiviation of the intra granitic uranium. The deposits belonging to Group I are founding the hercynian ge anticlinal; those of Groups II and III, chiefly in the eugeosyncline. The explanation suggested for these genetic-structural relationships assumes that, in the ge anticlinal, uranium would migrate from the dioritic magmas to form and high temperature deposits. In the eugeosyncline, a large fraction of the uranium would migrate towards more differentiated granites, in which it might partially remain or from which it might have been finally concentrated in the epithermal veins or by later tectonic actions. The Group III deposits ar more frequent in the eugeosyncline, due to the greater abundance of more differentiated intrusive rocks. (Author) 16 refs.

  17. Spanish firms patenting in the European office. characteristics compared with non-applicant; Las empresas espanolas que patentan en la oficina Europea. Caracteristicas comparadas con las no solicitantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barajas, A.; Huergo, E.; Moreno, L.

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide evidence about the features of Spanish firms applying for patents to the European Patent Office between 1998 and 2008. We compare these firms with a control sample of non-applicants during the same period and focus especially on firms that have been awarded public aid for R and D projects by the Centre for the Development of Industrial Technology. (Author) 14 refs.

  18. Application of Spanish legislation on radiation protection in contaminated soils; Aplicacion de la normativa espanola sobre suelos contaminados en proteccion radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba Alonso, C.; Robles Atienza, B.

    2013-07-01

    As the developments that have led the regulations on contaminated soils conventional pollutants are more advanced than those due to radioactive contaminants, this work is a state of the art of the current situation and is framed within the developments in R and D for radiation protection of the public and the environment. (Author)

  19. Medical Physics in the new undergraduate curriculum of Spanish medical schools; La Fisica Medica en los nuevos planes de estudio de grado de las facultades de medicina espanola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guibelalde, E.; Calzado, A.; Chevalier, M.

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a systematic review of the contents of Medical Physics in the curricula of the new curriculum Grade in Spanish medical schools after the entry into force of that legislation.

  20. El uso de escritos ensayisticos en clases de lengua espanola a nivel intermedio y superior (The Use of Written Essays in Intermediate and Advanced Level Spanish Language Classes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Hans Jorg

    1994-01-01

    Presents as an alternative to the traditional Spanish textbook a modular approach that consists of activities based on essay reading and grammar exercises. Students liked this form of instruction, and most indicated that they had learned material previously unknown to them. (seven references) (Author/CK)

  1. The logistics, the key for the competitiveness of the Spanish vehicle manufacturing plants; La logistica, clave para la competitividad de las plantas espanolas de fabricacion de vehiculos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Lopez, A.

    2012-07-01

    This article aims to outline the logistics chain in the automotive sector and analyze the current situation of the different modes of transport for finished vehicles. Nowadays the Spanish production plants depend on the export, wage levels are very close to the European average and transport costs are winning importance. With the integration of new EU countries with cheaper labor costs and more favorable geographical situation, the distribution logistics become a key variable for the competitiveness of Spanish automotive industry. All data used come from official sources and are as updated as possible. (Author)

  2. Convergence and Spanish technological specialization: the role of multinational companies; Convergencia y especializacion tecnologica espanola: El papel de las empresas multinacionales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urraca Ruiz, A.

    2007-07-01

    Using patent data from EPO from 1978 to 2003, this paper aims to identify the role of MNE in the determination of technological specialization trends and convergence in Spain and the extend to which the technological activity of these companies helps to define the technical distribution of competence in the country.The main findings are: (i) Spain reduces its technological distances to world along the whole period; (ii) Spanish convergence process does not seem to be accompanied by greater specialization, but greater diversification of its technological competence; (iii) Spain is specialized in a few technical fields characterized by being less dynamic and pervasive; (iv) MNE do not seem to hold strong competence in those technical fields where Spain holds technological strengths but do help to convergence process thought diversification of competence process, which is a consequence of the performance of MNE in host catching up countries, more focused on duplication of their home countries.(Author)

  3. 40 Annual Meeting of Spanish Nuclear Society, Oct 1-3, 2014, Valencia, Spain; 40 Reunion Anual Sociedad Nuclear Espanola, 1-3 Octubre 2014, Valencia, Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The Spanish Nuclear Society (SNE) is a non-profit association, made up of professionals and institutions in order to promote awareness and dissemination of science and nuclear technology. The 40th meeting of the SNE held in Valencia, analyzes the current situation of nuclear energy and its future challenges, covering different topics from engineering to R and D, nuclear safety, also the impact on health and the environment in the vicinity of a nuclear facility, the experience of Spanish companies in the construction of power and knowledge management in the nuclear sector.

  4. Participation of CIEMAT in 27th annual meeting of the Spanish Nuclear Safety; Participacion del CIEMAT en la 27 Reunion Anual de la Sociedad Nuclear Espanola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The book assembles the paper of researches of CIEMAT during the 27th annual meeting of Spanish Nuclear society. The paper were presented during the following sessions: 1. Maintenance and in-service inspection 2. Radioactive wastes. 3. Environment 4. R and D management 5. Nuclear Safety. 6. Lifetime. (Author)

  5. European Spallation Source ESS. Spanish participation in the ESS Primary system design; Fuente Europea de Spallation ESS. Participacion espanola en el diseno del sistema primario de la ESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, M. T.; Albisu, F.

    2001-07-01

    Neutron scattering provides basic microscopic information on the structure and dynamics of materials which underpins our understanding of condensed matter in fields as diverse as biology, material science chemistry, earth sciences and physics. Europe is preeminent, in this field and the current proposal for a next generation neutron source, the European Spallation source (ESS), will ensure that neutron beams of the highest quality are available early next century to a broad spectrum of users from academia and industry. In the Large Facilities Report to the Commission of the European Community (CEC) in 1990, the Neutron Study Panel underlined the continuing need for neutron scattering and recognised that a major initiative was necessary to secure an effective on-going neutron science programme in Europe for the year 2000 and beyond. (Author)

  6. Participation of CIEMAT in 26th annual meeting of the Spanish Nuclear Safety; Participacion del CIEMAT en la 26 reunion anual de la Sociedad Nuclear Espanola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The book assembles the paper of researches of CIEMAT during the 26th annual meeting of Spanish Nuclear society. The paper were presented during the following sessions: 1. Maintenance and in-service inspection 2. Radioactive wastes 3. Environment 4. R and D management 5. Nuclear Safety 6. Lifetime.

  7. The role of ENSA in the internationalization of the spanish nuclear industry; La participacion de ENSA en la internacionalizacion de la industria nuclear espanola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubimendi, J. M.

    2012-11-01

    Originally born to face the manufacture of the large components for the Spanish nuclear power plants, ENSA is a valid example of internationalization. Mainly based on its high technology and quality as a differential fact, the international success started at the end of the eighties. currently 90% of the manufactured equipment is exported and 50% of the services are performed abroad, ENSA is working for demanding markets as China, France, North America, Taiwan, Argentina, slovenia, Belgium, south Africa, etc. Today, all large equipment being manufactured at ENSA will be exported. (Author)

  8. The Social Dimension of Science in the 2010 Spanish Presidency; La dimension social de la ciencia en la Presidencia Espanola de 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Riera, C.

    2010-07-01

    During the Spanish Presidency of the European Union in the first half of this year, Spain will decisively promote the social dimension of science and innovation. Spain thereby seeks to mobilize the capabilities and resources of the Member States and the Union as a whole to confront the growing challenges posed by poverty and social exclusion, aggravated by the recent global financial crisis. To this end, Spain will hold an international Conference in La Granja (Segovia) on April 8-9. The conclusions of this conference will be included in the political agenda of the EU Council in May. Spain is determined to have the social dimension of science and innovation become a fundamental pillar of the European Research Area. (Author)

  9. R and D as a future strategy for the Spanish shipbuilding; La I+D+I como estrategia de futuro para la construccion naval espanola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novoa Rojas, E. M.; Carneros Lozano, A. M.

    2012-07-01

    This paper analyses the link between the RDI and the growth and competitiveness of companies in the shipbuilding sector. We examine the development activity on the technical and technological matters. It is noted that the RDI is a pivot of economic growth, discusses the European context and the time currently lives with enhancing measures such as: the so-called Blue Economy and the Integrated Maritime Policy, in which the sea is an important role. (Author)

  10. Spanish experience in the use of synthetic geo membranes for hydraulic works; Experiencia espanola en el uso de geomembranas sinteticas en obras hidraulicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco Fernandez, M.; Leiro Lopez, A.

    2014-02-01

    The Spanish institution Centro de Estudios y Experimentacion de Obras Publicas (CEDEX) has studied for decades the behaviour of geosynthetic products, specially the polymeric geo synthetic barriers used as waterproofing systems of different hydraulic works, mainly in reservoirs. Both in geotextiles or related products and in geomembranes, initial characteristics are determined; besides of that, periodic controls along the service life are performers in geomembranes. The monitoring of more than two hundred hydraulic structure hydraulic structures requires technical inspection, taking samples and replacing them, experimental tests and recommendations, with the purpose of increasing security and durability in hydraulic structures. Because of that, the Spanish experience in this field of technology is presented along this paper. (Author)

  11. Stability analysis criteria in landfill design based on the Spanish code; Criterios de estabilidad en el diseno de un vertedero, basado en la normativa espanola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estaire Gepp, J.; Pardo de Santayana, F.

    2014-02-01

    The design of a landfill requires performing stability analyses. To perform such analyses it is necessary to define different design situations and their corresponding safety factors. Geo synthetics are normally used to construct the lining system of the landfills, causing critical slip surfaces to pass along one of the different geo synthetic interfaces. Determination of the shear strength of such critical interfaces is, therefore, an extremely important issue. In this paper, these aspects are analysed based on what is set in the Spanish codes and in the technical literature. As a result of the study, some tables are presented which relate the different design situations (normal, accidental or extraordinary) to the shear strength of the lining system to be used (peak or residual) and define the minimum factor of safety to be accomplished. (Author)

  12. New Sounds of the English Consonants for Spanish Speakers Learning English (Sonidos Nuevos de las Consonantes Inglesas Para los de Habla Espanola Aprendiendo Ingles).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagore, Mary Louise

    This book "represents an effort to present in simply and readily understood terms some of the sounds in English that create problems for the Spanish speaker learning English." Each of the 18 chapters teaches a specific consonant through a comparison of the Spanish and English pronunciations, facial diagrams, explanations of articulation, minimal…

  13. The globalization of brands and competitiveness, trends and challenges for Spanish; La globilizacion de las marcas y la competitividad. tendencias y retos para las empresas espanolas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervino, J.; Baena, V.

    2011-07-01

    Increasing competitive global, augmented by the rise of new multinationals from emerging countries and the concentration and internationalization of large global distribution networks, is forcing companies and Spanish brands to accelerate their plans for international expansion and consolidation. To do this, we need a change of perspective in the external competitive focus. We must move from a vision of sellers, with a position of lowest price, to one of marketers by adopting a strategic vision focused on sustain ability and long-term profitability through innovation products and services, sold under brands with projection and international reputation. (Author)

  14. NATO 2000: The Role of the Spanish Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    Mediterraneo. Politica Exterior . Prensa Espanola. Madrid 1987. * Menaul, Stewart. The Geostrategic Importance Of The Iberian Peninsula. The Institute for...it% IA,,s,. I -- - - LIST OF REFERENCES 1 J. Salgado Alba. Rear Admiral. EL ESTRECHO DE GIBRALTAR, CORAZON DE LA ESTRATEGIA MILITAR ESPANOLA...International Affairs. 1984. * Salgado Alba, J. El Estrecho de Gibraltar, Corazon de la Estrategia Militar Espanola. Revista de Marina. December 1984. Madrid

  15. 78 FR 37363 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Determination for the New Mexico Meadow...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... small mammal whose historical distribution likely included riparian wetlands along streams in the Sangre... and Sacramento Mountains and the Rio Grande Valley from Espanola to Bosque del Apache...

  16. Carboniferous 'green shales' of the Solimoes Basin: volcanic ashes (K-bentonites); 'Folhelhos verdes' carboniferos da Bacia do Solimoes: cinzas vulcanicas (K-bentonitas)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Daisy Barbosa [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Gerencia de Sedimentologia e Petrologia], E-mail: daisy@petrobras.com.br; Vaz, Pekim Tenorio

    2005-11-15

    Several K-bentonite beds have been found intercalated with sedimentary rocks of the Jurua Formation (Namurian) in the Solimoes Basin, northern part of Brazil. These beds are only 1 to 15 cm-thick, but are spread over a wide area, comprising Rio Urucu, East of Urucu and Jurua oil and gas fields. They exhibit sharp contacts with the adjacent layers (carbonates, shales or even sandstones) and can be easily identified by their typical apple green color, homogeneous texture and smooth silky touch. These K-bentonites are composed almost exclusively of either a type of ordered illite-smectite mixed-layer or of discrete illite (1M polytype) - both clay minerals formed from the alteration of Carboniferous volcanic ashes. Unknown previously, such beds point out to an additional clastic source to the basin at this time. Due to their specific origin, they can therefore become stratigraphic markers; which can be useful for local and regional correlations along of the Solimoes Basin. (author)

  17. Study on the mechanical properties of a HMS-PP nanocomposite with a Brazilian bentonite; Estudo das propriedades mecanicas de um nanocomposito de HMS-PP com uma bentonita brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fermino, D.M.; Parra, D.F.; Lugao, A.B.; Oliani, W.L., E-mail: mfermino@usp.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Valenzuela-Diaz, F.R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    This work concerns to the study of the mechanical behavior of the nanocomposite HMSPP - Polypropylene High Melt Strength (obtained at a dose of 12.5 kGy) and a bentonite clay Brazilian Paraiba (PB), known as 'Chocolate' in concentrations of 5 and 10% by weight, comparison of to one American Clay, cloisite 20A nanocomposite was done. Agent compatibilizer polypropylene-graft, known as maleic anhydride (PP-g-AM) was addict 3% concentration thought technique melt intercalation using a twin-screw extruder and the specimens were prepared by injection process. The mechanical behavior was evaluated by strength, flexural strength and impact tests. The morphology of the nanocomposites was studied by the technique of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), while the organophilic bentonite and nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared (FTIR). (author)

  18. Polypropylene/elastomers/organophilic bentonite nanocomposites. Influence of elastomer content on morphology and mechanical properties; Nanocompositos polipropileno/elastomero/bentonita organofilica. Influencia do teor de elastomero na morfologia e propriedades mecanicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, K.R.M.; Braga, C.R.C. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais; Andrade, D.L.A.C.S.; Carvalho, L.H.; Silva, S.M.L., E-mail: suedina@dema.ufcg.edu.b [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    In this study, the effect of the elastomer terpolymer ethylene-propylene-diene (EPDM) content on the morphology and mechanical properties of polypropylene PP/EPDM/organophilic bentonite nanocomposite was evaluated. The bentonite, supplied by Bentonit Uniao Nordeste, was purified and organically modified with cetyl trimethyl quaternary ammonium (cetremide) before the incorporation in PP/EPDM blend. The blends with various amounts of EPDM (10, 20, 30 and 40 wt%) and 1 phr of organoclay were prepared by melt-blending at 180 deg C and 50 rpm for 15 min with an internal mixer (Haake). The blends were characterized by X-ray diffraction and mechanical properties (tensile strength). According to the results, we concluded that the content of EPDM affected the morphology and mechanical properties of nanocomposites resulting in improvement in mechanical and morphological properties when a content of 30 wt% of EPDM was used. (author)

  19. Study and development of nanocomposites PBT/bentonite clay treated by ionizing radiation: preparation and characterization; Estudo e desenvolvimento de nanocompositos PBT/argila bentonita tratados por radiacao ionizante: preparacao e caracterizacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartori, Mariana do Nascimento

    2014-07-01

    This work describes the preparation and characterization of composites based on poly (butylene terephthalate) - PBT and brazilian modified clay prepared by the melt intercalation. PBT nanocomposites with 3 and 5 % by weight of organically modified clay, by the addition of a quaternary ammonium salt, were prepared by extrusion using a twin-screw extruder machine. After the extrusion process, the materials were injected to obtain specimens tests samples for the characterization tests. Part of the specimens samples were irradiated using an electron beam accelerator with 1.5 MeV at room temperature in the presence of air. Samples of pure PBT and irradiated and non-irradiated nanocomposites were characterized by mechanical tests of tensile, flexural and impact, heat distortion temperature (HDT), X - ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), melt flow index (MFI) thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the correlation between the properties was discussed. The results showed that the addition of clay, in both percentages, promoted an increase greater than 50 % in tensile strength at break and a gain of around 35% in heat distortion temperature when compared to the pure polymer. The treatment with ionizing radiation of electron beam at the doses used in this study showed no significant changes in material properties. (author)

  20. Assessment by X-ray diffraction the process of bentonite organophilization using a different quaternary ammonium salts; Avaliacao por difracao de raios X do processo de organofilizacao de uma bentonita utilizando diferentes sais quaternarios de amonio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, L.A. da; Rosario, J.A. do; Lima, R.B.; Milioli, C.C.; Gusatti, M.; Linhares, R.H.; Kuhnen, N.C.; Riella, H.G., E-mail: lasqmc@hotmail.co [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Campus Reitor Joao David Ferreira Lima; Cumbane, A.J. [Universidade Eduardo Mondlane (UEM), Maputo (Mozambique)

    2010-07-01

    The process was conducted in an organophilization Bentonite originated from the Company of Industrial Minerals of Mozambique Ltd. (Mimoc). The transformation of bentonite organophilic clay were performed in laboratory procedures that aim to mechanochemical exchange of Na{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+} from the interlayer space of clay minerals by cations of quaternary ammonium salts. In this study we used two types of salts, which are: the cetyl trimethyl ammonium chloride and alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride at different concentrations (30, 50, 80, 100 meq/100 g clay). The natural bentonite and organophilic clay samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) to obtain the mineralogical constituents and analysis phases of the increase in interlayer distance confirming the incorporation of quaternary ammonium salts in the structure of clays. (author)

  1. Study of mechanical, rheological and thermal properties of nanocomposite HMSPP (high melt strength polypropylene) with Brazilian bentonite; Estudo das propriedades mecanicas, reologicas e termicas de nanocomposito de HMSPP (polipropileno com alta resistencia do fundido) com uma bentonita brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fermino, Danilo Marin

    2011-07-01

    This work concerns to the study of the mechanical, thermal and rheological behavior of the nano composite HMSPP - Polypropylene High Melt Strength (obtained at a dose of 12.5 kGy) and a bentonite clay Brazilian Paraiba, known as 'Chocolate' in concentrations of 5 and 10% by weight, comparison of to one American Clay, Cloisite 20A nanocomposite was done. Agent compatibilizer polypropylene-graft, known as maleic anhydride (PP-g-AM) was addict 3% concentration thought technique melt intercalation using a twin-screw extruder and the specimens were prepared by injection process. The mechanical behavior was evaluated by strength, flexural strength and impact tests. The thermal behavior was evaluated by the techniques of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TGM). The rheological behavior was evaluated in rheometer. The morphology of the nanocomposites was studied by the technique of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The organophilic bentonite and the nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared (FTIR). (author)

  2. Influence of the chemical modification and content of the clay on the mechanical properties of polypropylene and national bentonite composites; Influencia da modificacao quimica e do teor de argila nas propriedades mecanicas de compositos de polipropileno e bentonita nacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libano, Elaine V.D.G., E-mail: elainelibano@uezo.rj.gov.br [Centro Universitario Estadual da Zona Oeste - UEZO - RJ (Brazil); Pacheco, Elen B.A.V.; Visconte, Leila L.Y. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ, Instituto de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano - IMA, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The polypropylene/national clay composite was prepared by melt intercalation in a counter-rotating twin screw extruder, using bentonite as filler either in the natural (BENT) form or modified with the ammonium salt, cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (BENT-org). The clay was used in 1, 3 and 5%w. The influence of the modification and content of clay on the mechanical properties of this system was analysed. The analyses of infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that clay organophilization did occur. The tensile modulus and the tensile strength at the yield point were not affected by chemical modification (BENT and BENT-org) or clay content. On the other hand, it was evidenced that the elongation at the yield point decreased with the addition of BENT and BENT-org to polypropylene. According to the thermogravimetric results, it was evidenced that the incorporation of clay into polypropylene improved thermal stability of the polymer in the composites with 5%w of BENT and 3 and 5%w of BENT-org. (author)

  3. Influence of natural or organophilic bentonite for flammable of the poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate); Influencia da bentonita natural ou organofilica na inflamabilidade do poli(etileno-co-acetato de vinila)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyder, Eduardo T.; Kloss, Juliana R.; Morita, Reinaldo Y., E-mail: yomorita1@gmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba,PR (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica e Biologia; Caetano, Elenice H.; Andrade, Andre Vitor C. de [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa (UEPG), Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Barbosa, Ronilson V. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica

    2013-07-01

    The manufacture polymeric applied in electrical sector in general use additives which act as flame retardants, for example, some borates, phosphates, and halogenated hydroxides. An alternative material for this purpose frequently reported in the literature because the flame resistance or flame retardancy is organoclay. Thus, the objective of this study is to evaluate the flammability of mixtures of EVA/natural bentonite and EVA/organoclay containing modifier as a species free of quaternary ammonium ions. The natural bentonite and organoclay were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy and materials were evaluated by X-ray diffraction and the flammability test. Regarding the combustion rate values, there was a reduction of flame propagation in EVA/natural bentonite (3.0%), showing that in this case the clay without modifier acted as a physical barrier and promoted retardant action of flame. (author)

  4. Algorithm Development and Application of High Order Numerical Methods for Shocked and Rapid Changing Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-06

    high order well-balanced schemes to a class of hyperbolic systems with source terms, Boletin de la Sociedad Espanola de Matematica Aplicada, v34 (2006...schemes to a class of hyperbolic systems with source terms, Boletin de la Sociedad Espanola de Matematica Aplicada, v34 (2006), pp.69-80. 39. Y. Xu and C.-W

  5. Technology platforms and tools invigorate the economy. situation maritime Spanish Technology Platform; Las plataformas tecnologicas como herramientas dinamizadoras de la economia. Situacion de la plataforma tecnologica maritima espanola (PTME)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz de Leon Loriga, C.

    2012-07-01

    The Ministry of Industry, Energy and Tourisme and the Ministry of Education and Science, through Fundacion INNOVAMAR, promote and help in 2005 the creation of the Spanish Maritime Technology Platform, (SMTP). Is a forum where all stake holders from the maritime sector define and share a common vision and a Strategic Research Agenda, driving the necessary innovation efforts forward. The Challenges 2020: a competitive maritime industry, safe, sustainable and efficient operations, adaptation of the demand, transversal areas. (Author)

  6. Validez Convergente de la Version Espanola Preliminar del Child Abuse Potential Inventory: Depresion y Aduste Marital (Convergent Validity of the Preliminary Spanish Version of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory: Depression and Marital Adjustment).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruabarrena, M. Ignacia; de Paul, Joaquin

    1992-01-01

    "Convergent validity" of preliminary Spanish version of Child Abuse Potential (CAP) Inventory was studied. CAP uses ecological-systemic model of child maltreatment to evaluate individual, family, and social factors facilitating physical child abuse. Depression and marital adjustment were measured in three groups of mothers. Results found…

  7. The evolution of energy costs and their effect on the competitiveness of Spanish industry; La evolucion de los costes energeticos y su efecto en la competitividad de la industria espanola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arocena, P.; Diaz, A. C.

    2015-07-01

    This paper analyzes the role of energy costs in the Spanish manufacturing and its evolution during the period 2000-2010. We carry out a descriptive analysis to firstly, determine the share of energy expenses on total operating expenses and personnel costs, and compare it with that registered in other European countries. Secondly, we analyze the evolution of the energy expenditure in relation to the output value created throughout the decade 2000-2010 and decompose such variation into a price effect and a quantity effect. (Author)

  8. Spanish Network for Isotopes in Precipitation: Isotope Spatial distribution and contribution to the knowledge of the hydrological cycle; La Red Espanola de Vigilancia de Isotopos en la Precipitacion (REVIP): distribucion isotopica espacial y aportacion al conocimiento del ciclo hidrologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Teijeiro, M. F.; Rodriguez-Arevalo, J.; Castano, S.

    2009-07-01

    The results of seven years of operation of the Spanish Network for Isotopes ({sup 2}H, {sup 1}8O y {sup 3}H) in Precipitation (REVIP) are shown. this Network is managed since 2000 by the Centro de Estudios de Tecnicas Aplicadas of the Centro de Estudios y Experimentacion de Obras Publicas (CEDEX) in collaboration with the Agencia Estatal de Meteorologia (AEMET). The results of REVIP are sent to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in order to be integrated in the Global Network for Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP). The spatial distribution of stable isotopes ({sup 1}8O h {sup 2}H) in precipitation in Spain follows a multiple regression model, based on two geographic factors: latitude and elevation, which is strongly correlated with temperature, an important factor controlling isotope fractionation. This information on {sup 1}8O and {sup 2}H is useful to trace surface and ground waters and, combined with the information, about the spatial and temporal distribution of the Tritium ({sup 3}H) concentration in precipitation, allows to date these waters in order to estimate flow directions and velocities, and to evaluate the residence time of water resources and aquifer vulnerability. (Author)

  9. Comparison of the results obtained in the design of shallow foundations when applying the eurocode 7 and the Spanish standards; Comparacion del dimensionamiento de cimentaciones superficiales aplicando el Eurocodigo 7 y las normativas espanolas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieto Rodriguez, A.; Varela Nieto, J. M.; Magdaleno Mas, F.; Diaz Balteiro, L.; Saiz de Omenaca Gonzalez, J. A.; Saiz de Omena Gonzalez, J.; Lazaro Benito, F.; Macias Palomo, A.

    2008-07-01

    It has been done the comparison of the results obtained in the design of shallow foundations when the Eurocode 7 and different geotechnical Spanish Standards are applied (R.O.M. 05-94). Guia de cimentaciones para Obras de Carretera y Documento Basico SE-C del Codigo Tecnico de la Edificacion). Several designs have been done with different types of soils, characterized by their strength parameters, and with different shapes of foundations. the comparison of the results makes it possible to quantify the differences that exist between the European and the Spanish Standards. (Author) 8 refs.

  10. Technology and industrialization in Spanish economy from 1950 to 1960: the patents as technological activity indicators; Tecnologia e industrializacion en la economia espanola de 1950 a 1960: Nueva evidencia a partir de datos de patentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo Nuchera, A.; Molero Zayas, J.; Granda Gayo, I.

    2007-07-01

    The goal of this research is to study the innovative activity developed in the fifties by the Spanish industry focussing on the foreign technology incorporated in the activity of several industrial sectors. The structure of innovation in each sector has been characterized by using patents as technological activity indicators. The data of patents registered in Spain belonging to the 1950-1960 period have been obtained taking into account the research developed by the Department of Business Administration of the Universidad Politecnica de Madrid through a subsidy granted by the Spanish Patent Office. (Author)

  11. Patterns of technology diffusion Spanish. An identification through the information contained in patents; Pautas de difusion de la tecnologia espanola. Una identificacion a traves de la informacion contenida en las patentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta Sero, M.; Coronado Guerrero, D.; Fernandez Perez, A. M.

    2010-07-01

    This paper aims to answer the following research questions: What countries are the geographical destinations of technological knowledge generated by Spanish inventors? What sectors take advantage of the technological knowledge produced in a different sector? What are the characteristics of the patented knowledge more intensively diffused? Our methodology rests on a biblio metric analysis of patent granted by the Patent Office from the US (USPTO) to Spanish inventors. We found some relevant aspects that might be useful to think about technological policy favouring knowledge diffusion. (Author) 27 refs.

  12. Adapting winning methods in Spanish coal for integration into the EEC. Proceso de adaptacion de los metodos de explotacion en la mineria de carbon espanola, con motivo de la integracion en la CEE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madera, R.; Luque, V.

    1986-01-01

    The winning methods used in a coal mine depend upon a series of factors which can be divided into two large groups: - geological and mining conditions of the coalfields, including smaller zones within each coalfield; structural, legal, administrative and organisational factors. In order to draw comparisons and analyse the differences, the present situation in EEC countries is first described before going on to Spain and Asturias in particular.

  13. The project of the Spanish Nuclear Industry Forum to develop an interactive educational material on Radiological Protection; El Proyecto de Foro de la Industria Nuclear espanola para elaborar un material didactico interactivo sobre Proteccion Radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Real, A.; Cruz, T. de la; Girona, L.; Montesinos, L.; Sanchez, P.

    2012-07-01

    The Training Department of the Spanish Nuclear Industry Forum has undertaken a new project to develop an interactive educational material on Radiological Protection. The objective was to develop an attractive, comprehensive and interactive material, to facilitate students and teachers of Elementary, Middle and High schools, to become familiar with ionising radiations. The novelly of the project, is that based on the European framework of key competencies for file long learning, which are defined as a set of knowledge, skills and altitudes that all individuals need for personal fulfilment and employment. The material presented in this paper, is based in an integrated structure of tasks, activities and exercises, which will facilitate the acquisition of as may key competencies as possible. Besides, the material also includes reference texts, links to pertinent web sites and videos. Students, through the development of a specific task (and related activities and exercises), will learn the differences between ionizing and non ionising radiation, the origin, characteristics and types of types of ionising radiation, how to detect and measure them, the potential detrimental health effects, the principles of radiation protection and the beneficial applications can have for man. The material is freely available in www.rinconeducativo.org. (Author) 4 refs.

  14. Eco-innovation an evolution of innovation? Empirical analysis at the Spanish tile ceramic industry; Eco-innovacion, una evolucion de la innovacion? Analisis empirico en la industria ceramica espanola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segarra-Ona, M.; Peiro-Signes, A.; Miret-Pastor, L.; Albors-Garrigos, J.

    2011-07-01

    Innovation and sustainable development are considered to be economic drivers and crucial in fixing competitive position of companies. Eco-innovation, known as a synergic relation among both concepts must be an element to consider when designing the company's strategy. The objective of this paper is to analyze which are the variables that determine that innovative companies go beyond and consider the improvement of their environmental impact as an output when developing innovating activities. This research considers firms belonging to the Spanish tile industry. Data has been provided by PITEC Database. The paper identifies the moderating factors that influence the eco-innovative behavior of firms. (Author)

  15. Control and Data Acquisitions System for the spanish Beamline (BM25) at the ESRF; Sistema de Control y Acquisicion de Datos para la Linea Espanola (BN25) del ESRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira Gonzalez, A.; Olalla Garcia, C.; Sanchez Sanz, J.; Castro, G. R.

    2005-07-01

    A new control and data acquisition system has been developed for BM25 Spanish Line at the ESRF. The system is based in VMEbus, Motorola PreP architecture and Linux Operating System and it's linked to a local ETHERNET network which provides the way of communicate with the servers (PC workstations). In these computers, the data are available for general usage in order to analyze them. The data acquisition consists of many channels connected to the VME crates mainly, independent between them, and fully programmable by drivers, CLUI's and GUI's interfaces, and a set of independent systems (embedded ones, PLCs, others) controlling the security aspects. This report is described in terms of their architecture, their electronic system to the process hard ware and the functionality and the application development facilities they provide using the software and the data acquisition. (Author) 18 refs.

  16. Mechanical characterization of a reduced activation 9 Cr ferritic/martensitic steel of spanish production; Caracterizacion mecanica de un acero ferritico/martenitico de activacion reducida de produccion espanola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, D.; Serrano, M.

    2012-07-01

    This paper shows the first results concerning the characterization of two heats of a reduced activation 9 Cr ferritic/martensitic steel (RAFM) made in Spain, called AF1B and AF2A. The results of this characterization are compared with their European counterparts, EUROFER97-2, which was chosen as reference material. All activities described were performed in the Structural Materials Unit of CIEMAT, within the national project TECNO-FUS CONSOLIDER INGENIO.The two Spanish heats have the same production process and heat treatment. Both heats have a similar tensile behaviour similar to EUROFER97-2, but on the other hand impact properties are lower. The microstructure of AF1B reveals large biphasic inclusions that affecting its mechanical properties, especially the impact properties. AF2A casting was free of these inclusions. (Author) 24 refs.

  17. Spanish mining at the entrance of 2010 and its relation to the current environment; La mineria espanola en la entrada del ano 2010 y su relacion con el entorno actual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espi, J. A.; Sanz Contreras, J. L.

    2010-07-01

    Spanish mining, due to the actual crisis in the global economy, is in a change situation, highlighting the important defeat of minerals associated with the construction activity and the metal mining revival. It is essential to revise its figures, actors and factors for its development and to locate it in the new international framework and about the European Union position. We conclude about improving the knowledge of our mining activity and the true potential of our resources. (Author)

  18. IV Joint Congress Spanish Societies of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, 23-26 Jun 2015, Valencia (Spain); IV Congreso Conjunto Sociedad Espanola Fisica Medica y Proteccion Radiologica, 23-26 Junio 2015, Valencia (Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    The Congress theme is Physical Activity and Health: Challenges of medical physics and radiation protection. Held in Valencia Spain, from 23 to 26 June 2015. This Congress gathers the papers presented by the group of technicians working in fields related to medical physics and radiation protection in hospitals, UTPRs, universities or other institutions. (Author)

  19. 15 years of Spanish participation in the international projects of R and D coal technology coordinated by OCICARBON; 15 Anos de Participacion Espanola en los foros Internacionales de I+D Tecnologico del Carbon coordinados por OCICARBON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    As fulfillment of strategy objectives, OCICARBON ( the Spanish Management Association for Coal Research and Development Projects) has maintained a strong link with European and International entities, devoted to coal research and development activities. As consequence of these collaborations, it has been reached uncountable economical and technological benefits, from the projects carried out by Spanish industries and technological entities, under the European Programmes umbrella. In this summary report, it is informed about how the co-ordination of national and international entities, was organised and structured; and the national results, obtained as consequence of the activities carried out by OCICARBON. (Author)

  20. Industrial effluent costs in some Spanish regions and other parts of the EU. Canons and taxes of water treatment; El coste del vertido industrial en varias comunidades autonomas espanolas y en algunos territorios europeos. Los canones y tasas de depuracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grau Rahola, J.; Munoz Requena, A.; Ruaix Prat, T.

    2009-07-01

    In this article, the different systems existing in the Spanish regions for paying all the expense related to industrial effluents are examined and compared with the ones in use in other parts of the EU. Also, the degree of fulfillment of the economic objectives of the Water Framework Directives is determined. The findings are quite clear that there is a comparative disadvantage in the sense that some of the regions have not even regulated and instrument to ensure the principle of Who pollutes, pays, there is a widespread unequal treatment for the same type of effluent within Spain and there is clear evidence of a transfer of resources from the industrial use to the domestic one. (Author)

  1. Participation of CIEMAT in the 29 Annual meeting of the Spanish Nuclear Society. Zaragoza 1,2 y 3 October 2003; Participacion del CIEMAT en la 29 Reunion Anual de la Sociedad Nuclear Espanola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The book assembles the paper of researches of CIEMAT during the 29th annual meeting of Spanish Nuclear Society. The paper were presented during the following sessions : 1. Nuclear fuel. 2. R and D materials. 3.Operation and maintenance. Lifetime. 4.- R and D and T participation and transmutation.5. Environment. 6. Radioactive wastes and dismantling. 7. Nuclear safety. 8. Nuclear law.

  2. Spanish participation in the Benchmark of the OECD of CFDs applied to nuclear safety: the test of Tee Junction; Participacion espanola en el Benchmark de la OCDE de CFDS aplicados a Seguridad Nuclear: el test de la Tee Junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelaziz Essa, M. A.; Chiva, S.; Munoz-Cobo, J. L.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we show the main results obtained by the groups of the Universities UPV and UJI (GITH-Inter-Universitary Group on Thermal-Hidraulics), in the modeling of the OCDE Benchmark on the T-Junction performed during the year 2010. This benchmark consisted in predicting, using CFD codes the velocity and temperature distributions downstream the junction. Also was considered a important issue the prediction of the velocity and temperature fluctuations, especially the Power Spectral density of the temperature fluctuations. The results obtained in the Benchmark by the GITH group were very good.

  3. Experience the declassification of radioactive waste from Spanish nuclear power plants as an alternative route of administration; Experiencia de la desclasificacion de los residuos radiactivos procedentes de Centrales Nucleares Espanolas como alternativa de via de gestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Gomez, M. A.; Gonzalez Crespo, M.

    2011-07-01

    During the operation of the plants generated several slightly contaminated materials that can be managed conventionally by declassification. Declassification activity is incorporated into the Waste Management Plan of each plant considered a {sup g}ood practice{sup .} However experience to date demonstrates that there are difficulties to carry out the practice.

  4. Architectural integration of solar thermal systems and photovoltaic: study of Spanish legislation by thermal collectors in buildings; Integracion arquitectonica de sistemas solares termicos y fotovoltaicos: estudio de la legislacion espanola sobre captadores termicos en edificios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosqued, G. R.; Heras, C. M. R.

    2004-07-01

    In this article the legal dispositions are studied relating to architectural integration and urban landscape, considered in the different mandatories and Spanish local legislation on the use of thermal solar systems in construction, new and rehabilitated. As consequence some of the multiple possibilities that exist, are analyzed to place the external part of the system, the solar collectors, in the envelop of the building, without any aesthetic reduction on the building and urban set, and in this way fulfill with specified in the normative to contribute to a bigger respect to the environment. (Author)

  5. Bilateral comparison 2012 between calibration laboratories dosimetry spaniards for qualities ISO: S-Cs and S-Co; Comparacion bilateral 2012 entre laboratorios de calibracion dosimetrica espanolaes para las calidades ISO: S-Cs y S-Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornejo Diaz, N. A.; Ginjaume Egido, M.; Roig Costa, M.; Amores Medina, M.; Toll Escobedo, A.; Guantes Diez, E.

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes the Protocol and the results of the comparison bilateral organized during 2012, between two Spanish calibration laboratories. The main objective of the comparison was to contribute to verification and documentation of the consistency of calibration services offered at national level, with regard to the metrological traceability of calibrations and dose levels of protection assignments radiation to gamma radiation. (Author)

  6. Development of database for spent fuel and special waste from the Spanish nuclear power plants; Desarrollo de la base de datos para el combustible gastado y residuos especiales de las centrales nucleares espanolas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Gandal, R.; Rodriguez Gomez, M. A.; Serrano, G.; Lopez Alvarez, G.

    2013-07-01

    GNF Engineering is developing together with ENRESA and with the UNESA participation, the spent fuel and high activity radioactive waste data base of Spanish nuclear power plants. In the article is detailed how this strategic project essential to carry out the CTS (centralized temporary storage) future management and other project which could be emerged is being dealing with, This data base will serve as mechanics of relationship between ENRESA and Spanish NPPS, covering the expected necessary information to deal with mentioned future management of spent fuel and high activity radioactive waste. (Author)

  7. Calcium-free and low-calcium water production for aquaculture research = Produção de água mole e isenta de cálcio para experimentação em aquicultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Damasceno Pinheiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to obtain a mathematical expression to calculate the amount of EDTA required to produce calcium-free and low-calcium water ([Ca2+] O presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a quantidade de EDTAnecessaria para se produzir agua sem calcio e agua mole ([Ca2+] < 5 mg L-1 para experimentacao em aquicultura. Inicialmente, realizou-se teste-piloto para confirmar a efetividade do EDTA como agente complexante do calcio presente na agua e avaliar seu efeito no pH da agua. No teste principal, cinco taxas de aplicacao de Na-EDTA (25, 50, 75, 100 e 125 mg L-1 foram avaliadas. A concentracao de calcio da agua foi determinada inicialmente (antes da aplicacao de EDTA e apos 1h. Analise de regressao linear foi feita para se descobrir a relacao entre a concentracao desejada de calcio na agua e a relacaoEDTA/dureza calcica inicial da agua necessaria. A expressao . = -0,0911x + 3,3628 (R2 = 0,933 foi obtida a partir da regressao realizada na qual x representa a concentracao desejada de calcio na agua e y a relacao EDTA/dureza calcica inicial da agua.

  8. JPRS Report, Science & Technology. Europe: Economic Competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    its partners, the Spanish companies ENDESA [National Electric Power Enterprise, Inc.], Hidroelectrica Espanola, Sevillana de Electricidade ...Hidroelectrica del Cantabrico, and the Electricidade de Portugal Company, the carbon dioxide emissions from the plant will be reduced by 20 percent, as

  9. Uso de Arcillas Especiales para Depuración de Aguas Residuales Use of Special Clays for Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade,L.; E.F. Covelo; F.A. Vega

    2005-01-01

    Para evaluar la eficacia de las arcillas especiales para la remoción de metales pesados de aguas residuales, se muestrearon y caracterizaron varios tipos de arcillas y las aguas de tres efluentes residuales industriales. Los componentes mayoritarios de las arcillas fueron: sepiolita: montmorillonita (76%); bentonita magnésica: vermiculita (74,4%); bentonita alumínica: esmectita (69,1%) y paligorskita (80%). Las aguas residuales se hicieron circular a través de lechos de cada una de las arcill...

  10. Evaluate the action of polymeric additives in protect and recover water and bentonite clay based drilling fluids contaminated by degradation agents; Analise da acao de aditivos polimericos na protecao e recuperacao de fluidos de perfuracao base agua e bentonita contaminados por sais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, L.F.A.; Ferreira, H.S.; Amorim, L.V.; Franca, K.B.; Ferreira, H.C. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this paper is study influences of electrolytes and cellulose polymers on rheological and water loss properties of dispersions of bentonite compositions. Evaluate the action of degradation additives CaSO{sub 4}, MgCl{sub 2} and CaCl{sub 2} and polymeric additives to protect and recover water and clay based. The results show a negative effect of degradation additives the rheological and water loss properties of drilling fluids. The cellulose polymers can be successfully applied to protect and recover of the rheological properties and water loss of the dispersions contaminated. (author)

  11. Simulación del Transporte deTrazadores en Medios Porosos: Aplicación al Caso de Arcillas

    OpenAIRE

    Bru Espino, Antonio; Casero Díaz-Cano, David

    2001-01-01

    Presentamos un marco para describir el transporte de trazadores en medios heterogéneos, tales como los medios porosos tales como las bentonitas. En estos medios, la aproximación de campo medio no es válida ya que exiten ciertas restricciones geométricas y el transporte es anómalo.

  12. International Boundary Study. Series A. Limits in the Seas. Number 42, Straight Baselines: Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-05-23

    Isla Santa Maria ; (f) A straight line passing through the southeastern tip of Isla Isabela, near Punta Essex, and intersecting the southern extension of...Cristobal (9). 9-10 48 Connects Isla San Cristobal (9) and Isla Espanola (10). 10-11 51 Connects Isla Espanola (10) and Isla Santa Maria (11). 11-12 66...Connects Isla Santa Maria (11) and a point offshore from Isla Isabela (12). Point 12 does not qualify as a basepoint as it is simply the site of the

  13. Disponibilidad en abierto de los artículos y de los datos brutos de investigación en las revistas pediátricas españolas.

    OpenAIRE

    Aleixandre Benavent, Rafael; Vidal-Infer, A.; A. Alonso-Arroyo; J. González de Dios; Ferrer Sapena, Antonia; Peset Mancebo, María Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    [ES] [Introducción] La publicación en abierto de los artículos y de los datos brutos que han servido de soporte a la investigación permite su reutilización y mejoran el avance de la ciencia. El objetivo de este trabajo es identificar estas prácticas en las revistas pediátricas espanolas. [Método] Se han revisado las instrucciones de 13 revistas pediátricas espanolas, identificando su política sobre acceso abierto y depósito. [Resultados] Ocho revistas permiten el acceso abierto sin restriccio...

  14. Realization of R and D and its composition in the Spanish manufacturing company, differentiated analysis of the determinants of research and development; Realizacion de I+D y su composiscion en la empresa manufacturera espanola. Analisis de los determinantes diferenciados de la investigacion y el desarrollo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barge-Gil, A.; Lopez, A.

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the differentiated effect of classical R and D determinants (size, technological opportunity, demand pull and appropriability) on research and development. First, we briefly expose the differences between research and development activities. Second, we analyze different issues related to R and D performance by Spanish manufacturing firms. We find that less than half of the firms with R and D perform both research and development. With respect to the determinants, we find that technological opportunity and industry level of appropriability have a higher effect on innovation activities (compared with the effect on development activities). (Author) 40 refs.

  15. Accumulative effects of regulatory actions. Exercise of analysis of CER, consideration of the cumulative Effects of regulation in the rulemaking process in Spanish NPP; Efectos acumulativos de la ccion reguladora. ejercicio de analisis del CER, Consideration of the cummulative Effects of Regulation in the rulemaking process en una central espanola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Ayestaran, P.; Castella, L.

    2014-02-01

    Through its interaction with the American industry, the NRC has been aware for a number of years of the concern about the impact of the accumulative effect of some regulatory actions. In response to this concern, which was highlighted by the industry, the NRC has carried out initiative to review a number of regulatory requirements order to ensure that NRC regulation and practices dno not lead to an unnecessary regulatory load. The foregoing was in response to what has become commonly known as the CER. Cumulative Effects of Regulation in the Rulemaking Process. In view of the regulatory actuation by the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council (CSN) and, in particular after the events which occurred in Japan, a pilot study has been carried out to examine the CER on a Spanish plant in order to analyse the cumulative effects of regulation and to propose improvements to the management of regulation in line with that set our by the NRC in various documents (SECY-02-081, SECY-11-0032 among others). (Authors)

  16. Maintenance and improvement of thermal hydraulic system codes using results of OCDE experiments (PKL, Rosa, Atlas) and application to Spanish Nuclear power plants. Camp-Spain project; Mejora y mantenimiento de codigos termohidraulicos de sistema de base a resultados de los experimentos OECD (PKL, ROSA y ATLAS) y su aplicacion a plantas espanolas, proyecto Camp-Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, M.; Perez, J.; Martorell, S.; Carlos, S.; Villanueva, J. F.; Sanchez, F.; Queral, C.; Rebollo, M. J.; Rivas-Lewicky, J.; Verdu, G.; Gallardo, S.; Miro, R.; Querol, A.; Munoz-Cobo, J. L.; Escriva, A.; Berna, C.; Reventos, F.; Freixa, J.; Martinez, V.

    2016-08-01

    CSN involvement in different international NEA experimental TH programmes has outlined the scope for a new period of CAMP-Espana activities, currently focused on the: -Analysis, simulation and investigation of specific safety aspects of PKL3/OECD and ATLAS/OECD experiments. -Analysis of applicability and/or extension of the results in these projects to the safety, operation or availability of the Spanish nuclear power plants. Both objective are carried out by simulating experiments and plant application with the last available versions of NRC TH codes (RELAP5 or TRACE). A CAMP in kind contribution (NUREG/IA) is aimed as final result of both types of analyses. Five different national research groups (from Technical Universities of Madrid, Valencia and Cataluna) ate carrying out the development of these activities. (Author)

  17. Thermal energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions in ceramic tile manufacture - Analysis of the Spanish and Brazilian industries; Consumo de energia termica y emisiones de dioxido de carbono en la fabricacion de baldosas ceramicas Analisis de las industrias Espanola y Brasilena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monfort, E.; Mezquita, A.; Vaquer, E.; Mallol, G.; Alves, H. J.; Boschi, A. O.

    2012-11-01

    Spain and Brazil are two of the world's biggest ceramic tile producers. The tile manufacturing process consumes a great quantity of thermal energy that, in these two countries, is mainly obtained from natural gas combustion, which entails CO{sub 2} emission, a greenhouse gas. This study presents a comparative analysis of the thermal energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions in the ceramic tile manufacturing process in Spain and Brazil, in terms of the different production technologies and different products made. The energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions in ceramic tile manufacture by the wet process are very similar in both countries. In the dry process used in Brazil, less thermal energy is consumed and less CO{sub 2} is emitted than in the wet process, but it is a process that is only used in manufacturing one particular type of product, which exhibits certain technical limitations. While in Spain the use of cogeneration systems in spray-dryers improves significantly the global energy efficiency. The average energy consumption in the different process stages, in both countries, lies within the range indicated in the Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in the Ceramic Manufacturing Industry (BREF of the Ceramic Manufacturing Industry) of the European Union. (Author) 14 refs.

  18. Diferencias de género en las universidades españolas y en sus órganos gerenciales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Manuel Lopez-Bonilla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Las universidades espanolas son un reflejo de las desigualdades de genera en la esfera publica. Diversos trabajos e informes publicados hasta la fecha muestran la falta de equidad en la participaci6n de mujeres y hombres en las instituciones consideradas como democraticas. EI objetivo principal de este trabajo es diagnosticar la composici6n de genera en el ambito de la gerencia universitaria espanola. Asf, se analiza la presencia de la mujer en la universidad espanola, su representaci6n en los 6rganos de gobierno y la evoluci6n de estas cifras en los ultimos anos. Para ello, en primer lugar se revisa la normativa en materia de igualdad de genera, tanto a nivel nacional como europeo y, en segundo lugar, se realiza un analisis longitudinal para abordar la situaci6n de las mujeres y los hombres en las universidades espanolas, tanto publicas como privadas. La investigaci6n se cataloga como descriptiva. Los resultados reflejan una aparente tendencia a la igualdad formal en el acceso discente y docente a la universidad, pera esconde una segregaci6n que sigue manteniendo a las mujeres en situaciones de desigualdad ante los hombres.

  19. "Sometimes I Am Spanish and Sometimes Not": A Study of the Identity and Integration of Spanish Muslim Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibai, Salam Adlbi

    2010-01-01

    This article reports part of a wider investigation which is still being developed and analyzes in depth the lives of female university students who are both Spanish and Muslim. The first part of this research was published in the "Revista Espanola de Educacion Comparada," where the results of the study in Madrid are presented. Here, the…

  20. The Social Significance and Value Dimension of Current Mexican American Dialectal Spanish. A Glossary for the Human Service Professions. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Ernesto; Cerda, Gilberto

    Results of a study documenting the Mexican American's unique Spanish dialectal expressions used in the barrios of San Antonio, Texas, and its surrounding areas are presented. The expressions included are those which were not recorded in the "Diccionario de la Real Academia Espanola" (19th Edition) or which were recorded therein but with…

  1. Special Report: Conflicting Data on Spanish Intransitive Verbs in Two Leading Dictionaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschner, Richard V.; Flemming, Jennifer

    1996-01-01

    Presents a conflation of and a comparison between the 1,646 verbs the Royal Academy's "Diccionario de la lengua espanola" (Dictionary of the Spanish Language) classifies as solely or partly intransitive and the 1,382 verbs that are so classified by the "Pequeno Larousse ilustrado" (Illustrated Larousse Small Dictionary).…

  2. The Social Significance and Value Dimension of Current Mexican American Dialectal Spanish. A Glossary for the Human Service Professions. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Ernesto; Cerda, Gilberto

    Results of a study documenting the Mexican American's unique Spanish dialectal expressions used in the barrios of San Antonio, Texas, and its surrounding areas are presented. The expressions included are those which were not recorded in the "Diccionario de la Real Academia Espanola" (19th Edition) or which were recorded therein but with different…

  3. Special Report: Conflicting Data on Spanish Intransitive Verbs in Two Leading Dictionaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschner, Richard V.; Flemming, Jennifer

    1996-01-01

    Presents a conflation of and a comparison between the 1,646 verbs the Royal Academy's "Diccionario de la lengua espanola" (Dictionary of the Spanish Language) classifies as solely or partly intransitive and the 1,382 verbs that are so classified by the "Pequeno Larousse ilustrado" (Illustrated Larousse Small Dictionary). Considerable disagreement…

  4. "Sometimes I Am Spanish and Sometimes Not": A Study of the Identity and Integration of Spanish Muslim Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibai, Salam Adlbi

    2010-01-01

    This article reports part of a wider investigation which is still being developed and analyzes in depth the lives of female university students who are both Spanish and Muslim. The first part of this research was published in the "Revista Espanola de Educacion Comparada," where the results of the study in Madrid are presented. Here, the second…

  5. Spanish Bilateral Initiatives for Education in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, Regina; Sanchez, Maria Teresa

    2007-01-01

    The research presented in this article concerns la Agencia Espanola de Cooperacion Internacional (Spanish Agency for International Cooperation--AECI) and its growing presence in Latin America since the late 1990s. The aim is to evaluate the transformative potential that bilateral funding can have on educational reform in the region. The article…

  6. A Bibliography of Shift Work Research: 1950-1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    Circadian Rhythm and Some p Psychic Functions in a Group of State Railway Workers. Bulletno di Psicologia Aplicata, 103-105:79-91, 1971. 181. Caymax, L...Physiopathological Effects of the Maladjusted Hourly Schedules in Air Travel Personnel of Civil Aviation). Revista Clinica Espanola, 119:517-524i

  7. Identification and Evaluation of Submerged Anomalies, Mobile Harbor, Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    nuuDnru ENEEEMA~hE 1.011,._ I .ll 5 n. MiCROCOPY RESOLUTION TESI CHART N41,. 1 AI LAI -J LU ca LU VII. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Anomaly Summary... Arquitectura Naval Espanola. Madrid. Aten, Lawrence E. 1983 Indians of the Upper Texas Coast. Academic Press, New York. Barrett, F. S. 1864 Report of

  8. Third Dialogue Between Chinese and Spanish Mayors Held in Taiyuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni; Yuan

    2014-01-01

    <正>The Third Dialogue between Chinese and Spanish Mayors sponsored by the CPAFFC,the Federation of Spanish Municipalities and Provinces(Federacion Espanola de Municipios y Provincias-FEMP)and the Shanxi Provincial People’s Government and hosted by the Foreign and Overseas Chinese Affairs Office of the Shanxi Provincial Government was held in Taiyuan on September 16,2013.

  9. Spain’s Present Role as a Crossroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-26

    monetary and social policy, there is an important agreement in the struggle against terrorism and the need to stop inflation. France has been for many years...November 1990, Lacrisis Revoluciona el Norte de Africa y amenaza Espana. Revista Cambio 16, No. 1000, Enero 1991, Amplia Movilizacion Militar espanola

  10. 76 FR 11772 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION...-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Northern New Mexico (known locally as the Northern New Mexico Citizens... Norte, Espanola, New Mexico 87532. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Menice Santistevan, Northern...

  11. Directionally Solidified Eutectic Ceramics for Multifunctional Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    expected to occur locally and globally by the same mechanism and to increase the toughness. Finally, the Al2Ti05 is very difficult to sinter due to...comportamiento plastico de perovsquitas conductoras protonicas de alata temperatura". Boletin d la Sociedad Espanola de Ceramica y Vidrio, Vol. 44

  12. 福斯特惠勒公司计划扩建与改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张弛(译)

    2007-01-01

    福斯特惠勒西班牙分公司已与Compania Espanola de Petroleos SA(CEPSA)公司签订一份合同,内容涉及到西班牙拉拉维塔炼油厂新型原油真空和气体回收装置的具体工程。

  13. [Translation and validation of the Egen Klassifikation scale for the Spanish population: functional assessment for non-ambulatory individuals with Duchenne's muscular dystrophy and spinal muscular atrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagoaga, Joaquín; Girabent-Farrés, Montserrat; Bagur-Calafat, Caritat; Febrer, Anna; Steffensen, Birgit F

    2013-06-01

    Introduccion. La escala Egen Klassifikation (EK) es un cuestionario que valora la capacidad funcional de personas con distrofia muscular de Duchenne y atrofia muscular espinal no ambulantes y que estan en silla de ruedas. Objetivo. Traducir y validar la EK para la poblacion espanola, como instrumento de medicion de la capacidad funcional en dichos pacientes. Pacientes y metodos. Se realiza, en primer lugar, una traduccion-retrotraduccion de la EK en la poblacion espanola y, posteriormente, se practica el estudio de fiabilidad de la version traducida al espanol de dicha escala. Se llevan a cabo tres mediciones a 30 pacientes con edades comprendidas entre 4 y 67 anos. Dos de estas mediciones se realizan por el mismo observador, y la tercera, por un segundo observador, para evaluar la concordancia intra e interobservador. Resultados. Los valores obtenidos referidos a la puntuacion total de los items de la escala, suma EK, reflejan un indice de fiabilidad del 0,995. Tambien muestran una fiabilidad superior a 0,86 en cada uno de los items, tanto en las observaciones intra como interobservador. Conclusiones. La version espanola de la EK es un instrumento valido y fiable para la poblacion espanola, como herramienta de medicion de la capacidad funcional en pacientes con distrofia muscular de Duchenne y atrofia muscular espinal no ambulantes y que estan en silla de ruedas.

  14. Pathogenesis of Cell Injury by Rickettsia conorii

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-26

    documentation of the mit end ofi-the cl inicalT spetru "o Fhuiman R. conorli infection that he represents. A sixty year old agricultural laborer ...de la fiebre exantematica mediterranea. Revista Espanola de Enfermedades del Aparato Digestivo (in press). 89. Ruiz, R., A.M. Martin, F. Sanz, A

  15. Reparación de un dique seco en el Ferrol/España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navas Gutiérrez, Mariano

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available El dique seco de El Ferrol, construido como dique de gravedad según la técnica de la época (1913, ha sufrido una serie de averías como consecuencia de su envejecimiento, que ha obligado a emprender una obra de reparación según las modernas técnicas de soleras ancladas y drenadas, y pantallas de bentonita-cemento. Se ha construido una losa de 30 cm en el antedique, anclada con armaduras activas, formado cada anclaje por diez cables según una malla de 3 x 3 m. Para aliviar la subpresión se ha colocado un dren entre la solera permeable actualmente existente y la losa. Con la pantalla de bentonita-cemento se pretende cerrar la entrada de agua por el relleno permeable del antiguo dique. El terreno natural es prácticamente impermeable.

  16. Influencia de la formulación de la arena en verde en su difusividad térmica y su efecto en una pieza colada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noguez, M. E.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Data evidencing a relation among green sand formulations (% water/% bentonite, w/b, in the ranks 0.2-0.55 for 6, 7, 8 and 9 % bentonite, their heat transfer behaviour, specifically their thermal diffusivity, the casting solidification rate and the resulting macrostructures in aluminium castings are presented.

    Se presentan evidencias de que la formulación de una arena en verde (relación entre los porcentajes de agua y de bentonita, a/b, en el rango 0,2-0,55 para 6, 7, 8 y 9 % de bentonita parece determinar su transferencia de calor y, por tanto, su coeficiente de difusividad térmica, lo que influye en la rapidez de solidificación y en las macroestructuras de piezas coladas en aluminio.

  17. Caracterização estrutural de argilas bentoníticas nacional e importada: antes e após o processo de organofilização para utilização como nanocargas Structural characterization of Brazilian and imported bentonitic clays: before and after the process of organophilization for utilization as nanofiller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. F. Leite

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi utilizada uma bentonita natural codificada como ASCN oriunda da Bentonit União Nordeste, PB sob forma de pó com granulometria inferior a 0,074 µm. A bentonita ASCN foi modificada organicamente através de troca iônica com o sal brometo de cetil trimetil amônio Cetremide e denominada ASCM. Para obter bentonitas organofílicas, inicialmente, dispersões aquosas de bentonita/sal Cetremide foram mantidas sob agitação mecânica constante a aproximadamente 80 °C por 30 min. Em seguida o sistema foi mantido em repouso por 24 h, sendo então lavado e filtrados os insumos. Por fim os materiais foram secos a 60 °C e então desagregados e passados em malha 200 para serem caracterizados. Como parâmetro de comparação foi utilizada uma bentonita importada organofílica Cloisite 30 B (Southern Clay Products, Texas, EUA. Ambas argilas foram caracterizadas estruturalmente por análise química, capacidade de troca de cátions, espectroscopia no infravermelho (FTIR, difração de raios X e análise termogravimétrica. A análise química mostrou a presença de óxidos característicos da estrutura do aluminossilicato e eventual redução na maioria dos óxidos metálicos quando as bentonitas foram organofilizadas, ASCM e Cloisite 30B, característico do processo de troca dos cátions metálicos por moléculas do sal orgânico. Mediante os espectros de FTIR verifica-se a presença de bandas características das moléculas do sal nas bentonitas e através da análise de difração de raios X observa-se um aumento no espaçamento basal pela inserção das cadeias do sal entre as lamelas da bentonita, confirmando assim a obtenção de bentonitas organofílicas. A curva termogravimétrica das bentonitas organofílicas indicou que a bentonita Cloisite 30 B apresentou-se mais estável termicamente que a bentonita ASCM.A natural bentonite coded as ASCN supplied by Bentonit União Nordeste from Paraíba, Brazil in powder form with particle size smaller

  18. Comportamiento geoquímico de barreras arcillosas: transformaciones hidrotermales en esmectitas alumínicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuadros, F. J.

    1993-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of bentonite barriers in radiactive waste repositories is conditioned by its transformation into illite, due to the influence of temperature and solutions in the canister vicinity. This reaction is known in burial diagenesis and hydrothermal alterations, but its mechanism is not yet well stablished. A preliminary study on spanish bentonites shows that important variations exist in the chemical solutions in contact with bentonites in a hydrothermal environment.El uso de bentonitas como barrera en almacenamientos de residuos radiactivos viene condicionado por su posible transformación en ilita debido a la influencia de la temperatura y de las soluciones cercanas al contenedor. Esta reacción se conoce en zonas de diagénesis de enterramiento y en áreas hidrotermales, pero su mecanismo no está todavía bien establecido. En un estudio preliminar realizado sobre bentonitas españolas se ha encontrado que existen variaciones importantes en el quimismo de las soluciones en contacto con bentonitas en ambiente hidrotermal.

  19. Spanish Electric Sector Nuclear R and D Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casero, M.; Francia, L.

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents the R and D model that, based on the experience gained and lessons learned in nearly forty years of nuclear power use in Spain, is Promoted by the Spanish Electricity Sector for the nuclear R and D activities it develops in a coordinated manner in the frame of the Nuclear Energy Committee of the Association Espanola de la Industria Electrica (UNESA). (Author)

  20. Directionally Solidified Multifunctional Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    34Microestructura y comportamiento plastico de perovsquitas conductoras protonicas de alata temperatura". Boletin d la Sociedad Espanola de Ceramica y...De Lopez and A. Sayir, "Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of High Temperature Protonic Conductors Fabricated by Melt Growth," Boletin de la...For High Temperature Environments," NASA TM-2004-213211, Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH, August 2004. 36. Cover page of Boletin de la Sociedad

  1. Is Einstein Still Right?

    CERN Document Server

    Yunes, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    This is an article commissioned by the Spanish Physics Magazine ("Revista Espa\\~nola de F\\'isica") for the Centennial Anniversary of the discovery of General Relativity. The article reviews experimental and observational efforts to test Einstein's theory of General Relativity in a variety of scenarios (from the Solar System to binary pulsars, from the Sag A* to binary black hole and neutron star coalescences).

  2. Influential Observations in Time Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    Statistics and Probability *i ETSII, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Spain. At the Mathematics Research B Center and Statistics Department...relevant features of the model, such as the estimated parameter values, or the forecasts. I XTSII, Universidad Politecnica do Madrid, Spain. At the...to appear). 20. Treadway, A. B. (1978). Ifectos sabre la economia espanola de usa devaluacion da Ia "eseta, undacion Ramon-Areces, Madrid. . 21

  3. Bibliography of Leishmania and Leishmanial Diseases. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    DE ANATOMIA PATOLOGICA, ARCIJIVOS CARDIOLOGIA Y HEMATO- PATOLOGIA CORRELATIVA E NEURO- LOGIA. Madrid. ERGENOLOGIA. Coimbra. S ZR 1 AL P U BL I C A...VETERINARA. Publicatiune a DE ANATOMIA Normal y Paiolo’gica. Corpulul dida’ctic’ al Facultitei de Medi- Buenos Aires. cini Veterinarl BVCUREITI. Arch. Soc...ESPANOLA Trn DE BIOLOGIA.’ Madrid. BOLLETTINO DEI NICSEI-’Dl ZOOLOGIA E DI ANATOMIA COMPARATA DELLA REALE VNIVERSITA, DI TORINO. Bol. Soc. Esp. Hint. Nat

  4. Radical and Ethnic Differences in Breast Cancer Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-01

    in postmenopausal African-American women may be due to their high prevalence of estrogen receptor-negative breast tumors . Associations with waist-to...analogues were found to prevent the induction of mammary gland tumors [Anzano 1994] and induce the regression of such tumors [Colston 1992a, Colston 1992b...and Varela, G. Estudio caso-control de la relacion dieta y cancer de mama en una muestra procedente de tres poblaciones hospitaliarias espanolas

  5. A Cultural Resources Reconnaissance of Five Projects in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Prehistoria de Puerto Rico (1907) which probably represents the first comprehensive "modern" attempt in Spanish to present the details of aboriginal...preceramic complex. In Archeology: The Method. Series in the San Juan Sunday Star, April 17, 1977. 1979 La Serie Cultural Saladoide ELL la Prehistoria de...Roberto n.d. Los tainos de la Espanola. Coll y Toste, Cayetano 1907 Prehistoria de Puerto Rico. San Juan, Puerto Rico. 1923 Boletin Historico de Puerto

  6. Caracterización de la Arcilla como Barrera de Ingeniería para la Migración de Contaminantes: Propiedades Térmicas, Hidráulicas y Mecánicas

    OpenAIRE

    Bru Espino, Antonio; Casero Díaz-Cano, David

    2001-01-01

    En este trabajo caracterizamos la estructura de una arcilla, concretamente la bentonita. Nuestro propósito es realzar la importancia que la heterogeneidad de la estructura del medio tiene en los procesos de transporte.La aleatoriedad de los tamaños de poros produce un transporte anómalo de los contaminantes. Analizamos los resultados de la porosimetría de mercurio y los comparamos con simulaciones, hallando que la distribución de los tamaños de los poros sigue una ley de potencias

  7. Análise da estabilidade estrutural da esmectita sob altas pressões e altas temperaturas

    OpenAIRE

    Frederico Gil Alabarse

    2009-01-01

    A estabilidade térmica da bentonita (rocha composta pelo argilomineral montmorilonita, do grupo da esmectita) é de particular interesse no uso de barreira de contenção para rejeitos radioativos de alto nível. No entanto, muito pouco se sabe sobre a estabilidade da argila esmectita sob condições de altas pressões e altas temperaturas (APAT). O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a estabilidade estrutural da esmectita sob condições de APAT. Os experimentos foram realizados em câmaras toroida...

  8. White wine continuous protein stabilisation: industrial viablity

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Las proteínas térmicamente inestables que están presentes en uvas, jugos de uva y vinos podrían llegar a ser insolubles y precipitar causando la formación de turbidez o precipitados indeseables en vinos blancos después del embotellado durante el almacenamiento.La turbidez proteica en vinos blancos es evitada tradicionalmente, mediante la adición de bentonita, aunque esta técnica presenta algunas desventajas tales como efectos negativos sobre las propiedades sensoriales del vino debido princip...

  9. Obtención de arcillas organofílicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Corredor Tarazona

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Una bentonita procedente del Valle del Cauca se caractarizó mediante análisis físico, fisicoquímico, mineralógico y químico. Los resultados obtenidos indican que este mineral es de tipo montmorilloníiico. Esta bentonita se trató con cloruro de alquilbencildimetilamonio para producir una arcilla organofilica, compuesto que tiene propiedades tixotrópicas de amplia aplicación en diferentes campos de la industria. Para obtener la arcilla organofilica se empicaron tres métodos diferentes. Tomando como referencia la viscosidad de suspensiones de los compuestos preparados y de los patrones en mezclas de acetato de etilo y N,N- dimetilformamida, se hizo un estudio estadistico para comparar los métodos entre sí y la calidad de la arcilla organofilica obtenida con la de productos importados, tales como: Pcrchem 44. Perchem 108 y Bentogcn N. Este estudio permitió concluir que no existe diferencia significativa entre los métodos empleados. Igualmente se encontró que las suspensiones de las muestras obtenidas presentan valores superiores de viscosidad que las de las muestras comerciales.

  10. A study on the piston ring wear in automotive engine Seat 1500 CA by means of radioactive tracer technique; Estudio del desgaste de segmentos en motor Seat 1500 CA mediante trazadores radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Val Cob, M. del; Chul, Y.; Fuentes Figuera de Vargas, J.

    1971-07-01

    The iron side wear in the chromium-plated top compression ring has been a matter of interest for the engine makers and it has been required by them to investigate the wear characteristics of the chromium-plated piston ring. Meanwhile, Bureau of Nuclear Energy in Spain (Junta de Energia Nuclear) and Seat Car Manufacturing Company (Sociedad Espanola de Automoviles de Turismo) agreed to study the wear characteristics of chromium-plated piston ring of type CA gasoline engine for Seat 1500 car by means of radioactive tracer technique. (Author) 9 refs.

  11. La utilización de registros para la mejora del comportamiento táctico en deportistas de equipo

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Uno de los aspectos más importantes para el rendimiento de los equipos deportivos es el comportamiento táctico, tanto a nivel individual como colectivo. La táctica de juego cobra especial significación en el fútbol, donde no sólo indica un proceso determinado de toma de decisiones, sino una manera de entender el desarrollo y el sistema de juego, provenientes de los conceptos de la Escuela de Entrenadores de la Real Federación Espanola de Fútbol. El conocimiento profundo del fútbol, su termino...

  12. Estudio de genes de susceptibilidad no-"HLA" implicados en artritis reumatoide en población española

    OpenAIRE

    Perdigones Borderías, Nieves

    2011-01-01

    La artritis reumatoide (AR) es una enfermedad auto-inmune inflamatoria crónica que afecta aproximadamente al 1% de la población europea y norteamericana. Aunque la causa última de la enfermedad todavía no ha sido determinada, se sabe que existen factores genéticos y ambientales implicados en el desarrollo y la severidad de la enfermedad. nuestro trabajo contribuye al conocimiento de la base genetica de la AR en población espanola, ya que propone la asociacion de nuevos factores geneticos de s...

  13. Optimization of compressive strength in admixture-reinforced cement-based grouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahin Zaimoglu, A.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Taguchi method was used in this study to optimize the unconfined (7-, 14- and 28-day compressive strength of cement-based grouts with bentonite, fly ash and silica fume admixtures. The experiments were designed using an L16 orthogonal array in which the three factors considered were bentonite (0%, 0.5%, 1.0% and 3%, fly ash (10%, 20%, 30% and 40% and silica fume (0%, 5%, 10% and 20% content. The experimental results, which were analyzed by ANOVA and the Taguchi method, showed that fly ash and silica fume content play a significant role in unconfined compressive strength. The optimum conditions were found to be: 0% bentonite, 10% fly ash, 20% silica fume and 28 days of curing time. The maximum unconfined compressive strength reached under the above optimum conditions was 17.1 MPa.En el presente trabajo se ha intentado optimizar, mediante el método de Taguchi, las resistencias a compresión (a las edades de 7, 14 y 28 días de lechadas de cemento reforzadas con bentonita, cenizas volantes y humo de sílice. Se diseñaron los experimentos de acuerdo con un arreglo ortogonal tipo L16 en el que se contemplaban tres factores: la bentonita (0, 0,5, 1 y 3%, las cenizas volantes (10, 20, 30 y 40% y el humo de sílice (0, 5, 10 y 20% (porcentajes en peso del sólido. Los datos obtenidos se analizaron con mediante ANOVA y el método de Taguchi. De acuerdo con los resultados experimentales, el contenido tanto de cenizas volantes como de humo de sílice desempeña un papel significativo en la resistencia a compresión. Por otra parte, las condiciones óptimas que se han identificado son: 0% bentonita, 10% cenizas volantes, 20% humo de sílice y 28 días de tiempo de curado. La resistencia a compresión máxima conseguida en las anteriores condiciones era de 17,1 MPa.

  14. [Development of integrated support software for clinical nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siquier Homar, Pedro; Pinteño Blanco, Manel; Calleja Hernández, Miguel Ángel; Fernández Cortés, Francisco; Martínez Sotelo, Jesús

    2015-09-01

    Objetivos: desarrollar una aplicacion informatica integral en el soporte nutricional especializado, e integrado en la historia clinica electronica, que detecte de forma automatizada y precoz a los pacientes desnutridos o en riesgo de desarrollar desnutricion, determinando puntos de oportunidad de mejora y evaluacion de resultados. Métodos: se han tenido en cuenta los estandares de calidad publicados por el grupo de trabajo de nutricion de la Sociedad Espanola de Farmacia Hospitalaria (SEFH) y las recomendaciones del grupo de farmacia de la Sociedad Espanola de Nutricion Parenteral y Enteral (SENPE). De acuerdo con dichos estandares de calidad, las etapas o subprocesos asistenciales que debe contemplar el soporte nutricional son: cribado nutricional, valoracion nutricional, plan de cuidados nutricionales, formulacion, elaboracion y administracion. Resultados: la aplicacion permite, de forma automatizada, realizar una valoracion nutricional especifica a los pacientes con riesgo nutricional, instaurando, si fuese preciso, un plan de tratamiento nutricional y realizando el seguimiento y trazabilidad de los resultados derivados de la implantacion de acciones de mejora y, cuantificando en que medida nuestra practica se aproxima a la establecida como estandar. Conclusiones: la aplicacion permite estandarizar el soporte nutricional especializado desde un punto multidisciplinar, introduciendo el concepto de control de calidad por procesos y al paciente como cliente principal.

  15. Eliminación catalítica de compuestos orgánicos volátiles presentes en pequeñas y medianas empresas mediante la adaptación de extractores comerciales de aire

    OpenAIRE

    Colman Lerner, Jorge Esteban; Peluso, Miguel Ángel; Porta, Atilio Andrés; Horacio J. Thomas; Sambeth, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    El trabajo se enmarca en la modificación de un extractor de aire comercial, al cual se le colocó en la chimenea de venteo un sistema catalítico, evaluándose la eliminación de Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles (COVs) tales como metiletilcetona, cloroformo, tolueno, m-xileno, o-xileno y p-xileno. Se estudió la actividad catalítica de sistemas en base a platino, óxido de manganeso, y óxido de manganeso dopado con Pt, todos ellos soportados sobre monolitos de bentonita. La elección de los COVs a eli...

  16. Enzimas de função hepática na aflatoxicose aguda experimental em frangos de corte Hepatic enzimes function in experimental acute enzimes aflatoxicosis in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Borsa

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a função hepática de aves experimentalmente intoxicadas por aflatoxina, com e sem uso de bentonita sódica, foram utilizados 40 (quarenta frangos de corte, machos, linhagem Ross, divididos em 4 (quatro grupos de 10 (dez. animais, sendo que cada grupo foi submetido a um tratamento: T1 - controle (ração sem aflatoxina ou bentonita, T2 - ração com 5ppm de aflatoxina, T3 - ração com 5ppm de aflatoxina e 0,5% de bentonita sódica e T4 - ração com 0,5% de bentonita sódica. Todos estes tratamentos foram aplicados do 1° ao 42 ° dia de vida das aves. Aos 21, 35 e 42 dias de idade, foram analisados os níveis séricos das enzimas aspartato aminotransferase (AST, alanina aminotransferase (ALT, lactato desidrogenase (LDH e gama glutamiltransferase (GGT, A análise da variância mostrou que houve interação entre os tratamentos e datas de colheita de material, para as seguintes variáveis: AST, LDH e GGT. Para estas, foi aplicado o teste de Tukey, comparando-se as médias de cada tratamento em cada data. Observou-se que as enzimas AST, ALT e GGT não apresentaram diferenças significativas entre tratamentos, porém, nos tratamentos l e 2, a AST apresentou um aumento linear (pThe aim ofthis study is to evaluate ïhe hepatic function of experimentally intoxicated broilers by aflatoxin with and without sodium bentonite. Forty Ross mole broilers, were used divided into 4 groups of 10 birds, and such groups have been submitted to the following treatments: T1- control (feed without aflatoxin or sodium bentonite, T2- feed containing 5ppm of aflatoxin, T3- feed containing 5ppm of aflatoxin and 0.5% of sodium bentonite and T4- feed containing 0.5% of sodium bentonite. Ali these treatments have been appiied from the l st to the 42nd day of lif e. On the days 21, 35 and 42, the serum leveis of the enzimes aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanino aminotransferase (ALT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and gamma glutamiltransferase (GGT

  17. Actitudes de los espanoles ante la inmigración (1997-2007: El papel de los partidos políticos Spanish attitudes towards immigration (1997-2007: The role of political parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Checa Olmos

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es comprobar las coincidencias que existen entre las medidas y discursos de los políticos en materia migratoria y la opinión que la sociedad espanola tiene sobre el fenómeno. Para ello, se han utilizado diferentes estrategias metodológicas. En primer lugar, se ha realizado un recorrido por las principales decisiones tomadas tanto por el Partido Socialista como por el Partido Popular en sus anos de gobierno. De igual modo, se han analizado, utilizando la teoría de la Agenda Setting, tanto las propuestas que ambos partidos recogen en sus programas electorales, como las manifestaciones públicas acopiadas en los diarios El País y El Mundo. En segundo lugar, para conocer la opinión que tienen los espanoles sobre la inmigración se ha construido el índice de sentimiento antiinmigrante. Los resultados muestran que existe correlación entre las decisiones y discursos políticos y la opinión pública espanola: por un lado, el grueso de las medidas y manifestaciones públicas de los políticos se centran en el control fronterizo y los procesos de regulación. Por otro lado, las variables que explican el incremento del sentimiento antiinmigrante de la población espanola son: la amenaza -poblacional e identitaria?, competencia por los recursos y decisiones políticas en el proceso de integración -regularización?.The aim of this paper is to examine the overlap that exists between the measures and political discourse on migration and the view that Spanish society has of the phenomenon. To do so, different methodological strategies were used. First, an exploration was conducted of the major decisions taken by both the Socialist Party and the Popular Party during their years in office. Proposals that both parties included in their manifestos and public demonstrations as listed in the newspapers El País and El Mundo were analyzed using the theory of agenda setting. Second, an index of anti-immigrant sentiment was

  18. [Analysis of the continuity, circulation and productivity of the Revista Española de Quimioterapia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno Sieres, E

    2007-06-01

    The primary objective of this study was to compare some of the bibliometric indicators of the continuity, circulation and productivity of the Revista Espanola de Quimioterapia up to 2003 with other spanish journals of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. This was done by reviewing periodicals directories, such as the ISSN (International Standard Serial Number/Número Internacional Normalizado de Publicaciones Seriadas) and ULRICH'S (Periodicals Directory), as well as the CDU (Classification Universal Decimal), national and international databases including IME (Indice Médico Español), ICYT (Indice Espanol de Ciencia y Tecnologia), IPA (International Pharmaceutical Abstracts), SCI Expanded (Science Citation Index Expanded), MEDLINE (Index Medicus), EMBASE (Excerpta Medica), BIOSIS PREVIEWS, ANALYTICAL ABSTRACTS, FSTA (Food Science and Technology Abstracts), SCIFINDER SCHOLAR and CHEMISTRY CITATION INDEX. According to the results, the Revista Española de Quimioterapia, in publication for 15 years, is widely distributed and has a good rating among other scientific journals of the same discipline.

  19. Geochemistry of Precambrian carbonates. IV - Early Paleoproterozoic (2.25 +/- 0.25 Ga) seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veizer, Jan; Clayton, R. N.; Hinton, R. W.

    1992-01-01

    The mineralogy, chemistry, and isotopic composition of the Malmani Dolomite, Duck Creek Dolomite, and Bruce 'Limestone' Member of the Espanola Formation are studied in an effort to restrict the first- and second-order variations in isotopic composition of Early Paleoproterozoic seawater. The diagenetic rank is found to increase in the order Duck Creek less than Bruce less than Malmani. The interpolation of alteration trends to 'best' value yields an estimate of 0.70550 for Sr-87/Sr-86. For delta C-13, the measured range of 0 +/- 1.5 percent PDB is similar to that observed for Phanerozoic marine carbonates, while the 'best' delta O-18 value for dolostones is -5 percent PDB, depleted in O-18 relative to Phanerozoic counterparts but comparable to estimates obtained for Archean facies. The isotope geochemistry and mineralogy of Bruce 'Limestone' Member is consistent with the proposition that the sequence was deposited in a lacustrine environment.

  20. Viability report for the ByWater Lakes project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Passell, Howard David; Peplinski, William J.

    2013-10-01

    This report presents the results from the hydrological, ecological, and renewable energy assessments conducted by Sandia National Laboratories at the ByWater Lakes site in Espanola, New Mexico for ByWater Recreation LLC and Avanyu Energy Services through the New Mexico small business assistance (NMSBA) program. Sandia's role was to assess the viability and provide perspective for enhancing the site to take advantage of renewable energy resources, improve and sustain the natural systems, develop a profitable operation, and provide an asset for the local community. Integral to this work was the identification the pertinent data and data gaps as well as making general observations about the potential issues and concerns that may arise from further developing the site. This report is informational only with no consideration with regards to the business feasibility of the various options that ByWater and Avanyu may be pursuing.

  1. Technology monitoring in the CIEMAT; La vigilancia tecnologica en el CIEMAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Martinez, M.; Cuesta, M. J.; Crespi, S. N.; Cabrera, J. A.

    2008-07-01

    The CIEMAT Foresight and Technology Monitoring Unit focuses its activities on obtaining strategic information on future developments in the area of energy and environment that can be used for decision making by the centers management. In addition, it provides services to CIEMAT researchers and other external customers. In May 2007, the Asociacion Espanola de Normalizacion y Certificacion AENOR delivered to the CIEMAT the first Technology Monitoring System certificate granted in Spain as per standard UNE 166006:2006. This article describes the Units experience in the implementation process of the Technology Monitoring System and provides several examples of the way in which the Unit graphically represents the information analyzed in its Technology Monitoring Reports. (Author)

  2. Antología de la poesía Eslovena Traducción y notas de María Francisca. de Castro Gil, Introducción de France Koren, Madrid, 1954

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Mislej

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Por intennedio de un distinguido cientifico es1oveno que reside en Canadá, el dr. Srečko Pregelj, ha llegado a mis manos un manuscrito sumamente interesante. Se trata de una Antología de la Poesía eslovena, la cual evidentemente había sido preparada para su impresión en 1954, en Madrid. El hecho de que contemos con tan pocas traducciones de obras literarias eslovenas al castellano hace de este descubrimiento algo realmente curioso e importante. La obra es fruto de la colaboración estrecha de un emigrante esloveno, France Koren y de una escritora y poetisa espanola, María Francisca de Castro Gil. El nacimiento de una obra tan singular merece algunas palabras de explicación.

  3. Procedimientos de selección de personal en pequeñas y medianas empresas españolas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Alonso

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio analiza el grado de uso de los diferentes instrumentos de selección en las pequenas y media- ˜ nas empresas (PYME espanolas. Los resultados encontrados muestran que el CV, las referencias y la ˜ entrevista sin estructura son empleados por la mayoría de las empresas tanto medianas como pequenas. ˜ Estos instrumentos no son los mejores en términos de sus propiedades psicométricas. Los resultados también indican que otros instrumentos con buenas o excelentes propiedades psicométricas, como los tests de habilidades cognitivas, las medidas de personalidad, las entrevistas estructuradas y las pruebas profesionales, son empleados por un porcentaje cada vez mayor de empresas. Por último, se comentan las implicaciones que estos resultados tienen para la práctica profesional y se ofrecen sugerencias para futuras investigaciones.

  4. A comparative study of dumping limits in the bye-laws and regulations on industrial waste waters; Estudio comparativo de los limites de vertido en las ordenanzas y reglamentos de aguas residuales industriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orus Lacort, M. A.; Capafons, C.; Tussell Ossould, E.; Mantecon Pascual, R.

    2003-07-01

    Since Barcelona City Council published its first set of regulations on the dumping of waste in the sewer system, a large number of regulations have been drawn up and revised throughout Spain. Commission 5 of the Asociacion Espanola de Abastecimientos de Agua y Saneamiento (Spanish Association of Water Supplies and Sewerage) collected 43 of these regulations and extracted 63 parameters from them. Surprisingly, it found that rather unconventional parameters, such arsenic and mercury levels, were the ones most often mentioned. On the contrary, organo chlorides and COT were seldom mentioned. Lists and graphs of parameters are presented showing coincidence or dispersion in the concentrations, Peninsular Spain was divided into four regions (North, Centre, Levant and south) with a view to finding common points sin the regulations depending on the area concerned. (Author)

  5. 110 years of Avipoxvirus in the Galapagos Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia G Parker

    Full Text Available The role of disease in regulating populations is controversial, partly owing to the absence of good disease records in historic wildlife populations. We examined birds collected in the Galapagos Islands between 1891 and 1906 that are currently held at the California Academy of Sciences and the Zoologisches Staatssammlung Muenchen, including 3973 specimens representing species from two well-studied families of endemic passerine birds: finches and mockingbirds. Beginning with samples collected in 1899, we observed cutaneous lesions consistent with Avipoxvirus on 226 (6.3% specimens. Histopathology and viral genotyping of 59 candidate tissue samples from six islands showed that 21 (35.6% were positive for Avipoxvirus, while alternative diagnoses for some of those testing negative by both methods were feather follicle cysts, non-specific dermatitis, or post mortem fungal colonization. Positive specimens were significantly nonrandomly distributed among islands both for mockingbirds (San Cristobal vs. Espanola, Santa Fe and Santa Cruz and for finches (San Cristobal and Isabela vs. Santa Cruz and Floreana, and overall highly significantly distributed toward islands that were inhabited by humans (San Cristobal, Isabela, Floreana vs. uninhabited at the time of collection (Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, Espanola, with only one positive individual on an uninhabited island. Eleven of the positive specimens sequenced successfully were identical at four diagnostic sites to the two canarypox variants previously described in contemporary Galapagos passerines. We conclude that this virus was introduced late in 1890's and was dispersed among islands by a variety of mechanisms, including regular human movements among colonized islands. At present, this disease represents an ongoing threat to the birds on the Galapagos Islands.

  6. [Cost-effectiveness analysis of Belimumab in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Cerezo, Silvia; García-Aparicio, Ángel María; Parrondo, Javier; Vallejo-Aparicio, Laura Amanda

    2015-05-01

    Objetivo: Estimar el coste-efectividad (CE) de belimumab en aquellos pacientes con biomarcadores positivos y enfermedad activa a pesar del tratamiento estandar (TE) desde la perspectiva social espanola. Métodos: A partir de un modelo de microsimulacion, que permite simular la evolucion natural de la enfermedad, se estimo el CE de belimumab + TE vs. TE. Se considero una duracion del tratamiento de dos anos y un horizonte temporal de toda la vida. La extrapolacion de eficacia a largo plazo se baso en los ensayos clinicos de belimumab y en la cohorte de pacientes John Hopkins de Estados Unidos; los datos de utilidades se obtuvieron de la literatura. Se calcularon costes directos e indirectos en base a datos espanoles publicados (€, 2014), aplicando una tasa de descuento (TD) del 3% tanto a costes como a efectos. Los resultados se expresaron como ratio coste- efectividad incremental (ICER) en terminos de anos de vida ganados (AVG) y anos de vida ajustados por calidad (AVAC). Se realizaron analisis de sensibilidad deterministicos (TD al 0% y 5%, duracion de tratamiento 5 anos y exclusion de costes indirectos) asi como probabilisticos (PSA). Resultados: El ICER de belimumab + TE vs. TE fue de 16.647€/ AVG y 23.158€/AVAC respectivamente. La variacion de la TD supuso la mayor variacion de los resultados respecto al escenario base. En el 68% de los escenarios simulados en el PSA, belimumab fue una alternativa coste-efectiva considerando como umbral 30.000€/AVAC. Conclusiones: Belimumab puede considerarse una alternativa coste-efectiva desde la perspectiva social espanola.

  7. Estudio cinético del proceso de digestión anaerobia de las aguas residuales de la elaboración de aceitunas de mesa negras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja Padilla, R.

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available A kinetic study of the anaerobic digestion process of wastewaters from black olive preparation was carried out. The bioreactors used accommodated various suspended micronized clay supports of different chemical composition (Sepiolite and Bentonite. Assuming that the overall anaerobic digestion process conforms to a first-order kinetics, experimental data pairs, namely the methane volume yielded (G and the time (t fitted the equation: G=Gm·[1-exp (-Ko·t], the rate coefficient, Ko, was determined in each of the situations studied. The support used has a marked influence on the kinetic constant of the process; the Sepiolite support yields significantly the highest values. The average Ko values, obtained in the rank of COD between 0 and 1 g/L were: 1,83 days-1 (Sepiolite and 1,23 days-1 (Bentonite. For values of COD greater than 1g/L, the specific rate constant decreased when the volume of wastewater added or substrate concentration was increased. The yield coefficients of methane, Yp/s, were 333 and 316 mL CH4/g COD for the Sepiolite and Bentonite reactor, respectively. Treatment yields of COD were above 95% in all the cases.

    Se ha efectuado un estudio cinético del proceso de digestión anaerobia de las aguas residuales obtenidas en la elaboración de aceitunas negras, mediante biorreactores que contienen en suspensión soportes micronizados de tipo arcilloso de distinta composición química (Sepiolita y Bentonita. Admitiendo que globalmente el proceso de digestión anaerobia sigue una cinética de primer orden, se ajustan las parejas de datos experimentales, volumen de metano acumulado (G, tiempo (t a la ecuación: G=Gm·[1-exp (-Ko·t], determinándose los valores del coeficiente de velocidad Ko, para cada caso estudiado. El soporte utilizado ejerce una influencia acusada sobre la constante cinética del proceso

  8. Avaliação da integridade e da retenção de metais pesados em materiais estabilizados por solidificação Assessment of integrity and retention of heavy metals in materials stabilized by solidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Fiquene de Brito

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A quantidade de resíduos sólidos industriais tem aumentado significativamente em decorrência da industrialização, e o seu gerenciamento adequado é necessário para reduzir o impacto ao meio ambiente e aos ecossistemas. Neste trabalho, foram avaliadas a integridade e a retenção de metais pesados em materiais estabilizados por solidificação. Foi adotado o planejamento completamente aleatorizado com um único fator, ou seja, foram comparadas as médias de quatro tratamentos (A, B, C e D com 0, 40, 50 e 60% respectivamente de contaminantes e três repetições. Cimento Portland comum, bentonita sódica e hidróxido de cálcio foram usados para estabilizar por solidificação o resíduo sólido sintético contendo óxido de Cd2+, Pb2+ e Cu2+. Pode-se concluir que os tratamentos influenciaram no resultado de lixiviação do cádmio, chumbo e cobre. Os tratamentos mostraram que as concentrações do extrato solubilizado e lixiviado aumentam em função da quantidade de cádmio, chumbo e cobre adicionada. O maior valor encontrado foi para o material proveniente do tratamento D, que apresentou lixiviação igual a 32,815 mg.kg-1 para o cádmio e 29,769 mg.kg-1 para o chumbo. Para os ensaios de integridade/durabilidade, constatou-se que o aumento da absorção de água fez com que a resistência à compressão diminuísse. O uso de cimento, de hidróxido de cálcio e de bentonita sódica se mostrou ideal para retenção de metais pesados, evitando a sua lixiviação e a solubilização para o meio ambiente.As the quantity of hazardous industrial wastes increases significantly owing to rapid industrialization, its appropriate management is required to reduce adverse impacts on humans and ecosystems. This work evaluated the integrity and retention of heavy metals in materials stabilized by solidification. It was adopted a completely randomized design with a single factor, that is, the averages of four treatments were compared (A, B, C and D with 0

  9. Análise da influência do tratamento de purificação no comportamento de inchamento de argilas organofílicas em meios não aquosos Analysis of the influence of the purification treatment on the swelling behavior in non-aqueous media of organophilic clays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Ferreira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available As argilas bentonitas possuem importantes funções em fluidos de perfuração não aquosos. No entanto, impurezas presentes na argila e a escolha inadequada do sal quaternário utilizado no seu processo de organofilização podem comprometer a compatibilidade do sistema argila-fluido. Assim, este trabalho tem por objetivo analisar a influência do tratamento de purificação e dos sais quaternários de amônio no comportamento de inchamento de argilas organofílicas em meios não aquosos. A argila bentonita foi purificada através de procedimento de sedimentação e as argilas organofílicas foram preparadas utilizando-se cloreto de alquil benzil amônio (Dodigen, cloreto de diestearil dimetil amônio (Praepagen, cloreto de cetil trimetil amônio (Genamim e brometo de cetil trimetil amônio (Cetremide. As argilas organofilizadas foram caracterizadas por difração de raios X e determinação da distribuição do tamanho de partículas e, em seguida, submetidas ao ensaio de inchamento de Foster em éster, parafina e óleo diesel. Os resultados mostram que o processo de purificação foi eficiente na redução de impurezas presentes na bentonita e que a argila organofílica purificada tratada com Praepagen e Genamim apresenta valores de inchamento de Foster em éster, óleo diesel e parafina superiores aos obtidos com argilas organofílicas sem purificação (natural e comercial.Bentonite clays play important roles in oil based drilling fluids. However, clay impurities and the wrong choose of the quaternary ammonium salt used in the organophilization process can lead to organoclay-fluid low interactions. Thus, this work has as aim study the influence of the purification process and quaternary ammonium salts on the swelling behavior in oil media of organophilic clays. The bentonite clay was purified using a sedimentation process and organoclay were prepared using alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (Dodigen, distearyl dimethyl ammonium

  10. Uso de argila organofílica na compatibilização de misturas PP/EPDM The use of an organoclay on the compatibilization of PP/EPDM Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaline R. M. Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Misturas PP/EPDM com variadas razões PP:EPDM, não compatibilizadas e compatibilizadas com o polipropileno modificado com anidrido maleico (PP-g-MA, foram preparadas por fusão. A influência da adição de 1 pcr de uma argila bentonita na morfologia, propriedades mecânicas e reológicas destas misturas foi avaliada. A bentonita empregada como carga, proveniente da Bentonit União Nordeste/PB foi purificada e modificada organicamente com tecnologia desenvolvida por nosso grupo de pesquisa, antes de ser adicionada às misturas. Os dados de difratometria de raios X mostraram que, para diferentes razões de PP:EPDM na mistura a incorporação de 1 pcr de argila organofílica resultou na formação de nanocompósitos intercalados desordenados (20 ou 40% de EPDM ou intercalados/esfoliados (10 e 30% EPDM. A incorporação da argila organofílica provocou alterações nas propriedades morfológicas, mecânicas e reológicas das misturas, especialmente daquelas preparadas com 30% em massa de EPDM onde a ação compatibilizante da argila foi observada.PP/EPDM blends with different PP:EPDM ratios, non-compatibilized and compatibilized with maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (PP-g-MA were prepared by melting. The influence of 1 phr bentonite clay addition on the morphology, mechanical and rheological properties of these blends was evaluated. The bentonite used as a filler, provided by Bentonit União Nordeste/PB, was purified and organically modified with a technology developed by our research group, before being added to the blends. X-ray diffraction results showed that, for blends having different PP:EPDM ratios, 1 phr organoclay addition led to the formation of intercalated (20 or 40% EPDM or intercalated/exfoliated (10 and 30% EPDM nanocomposites. The morphological, mechanical and rheological properties of the blends were modified by organoclay addition, especially for those with 30 wt% of EPDM, where a compatibilizing effect of the organoclay

  11. Desempenho de sementes peletizadas de alface em função do material cimentante e da temperatura de secagem dos péletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva João Bosco C.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Sementes de alface da cultivar Grand Rapids Nacional foram peletizadas, utilizando-se como material de enchimento, a mistura de microcelulose e areia fina em volumes iguais e, como material cimentante, diferentes volumes de suspensão aquosa de bentonita e de acetato de polivinila, em cinco proporções (%: 100+0; 75+25; 50+50; 25+75; e 0+100. Os cimentantes foram aplicados em separado, sendo a bentonita aplicada na primeira camada de recobrimento das sementes. Após a peletização, as sementes foram submetidas à secagem sob temperaturas de 15 e 36degreesC, e avaliadas quanto à germinação e emergência das plântulas. As combinações de cimentantes utilizadas na peletização e a temperatura de secagem não afetaram significativamente a porcentagem final de germinação das sementes em gerbox. Na avaliação da emergência de plântulas em bandejas, apenas duas formulações de péletes apresentaram menor taxa em relação ao tratamento com desempenho máximo, indicando que as diferenças obtidas não foram devidas às diferenças na formulação do recobrimento e nem à temperatura de secagem. Independentemente da temperatura de secagem, todas as formulações utilizadas na peletização causaram redução na velocidade de germinação. Entretanto, quando semeadas em substrato orgânico e cultivadas em casa de vegetação, as sementes revestidas com várias formulações apresentaram índices de velocidade de emergência semelhantes aos das sementes não peletizadas. Neste ambiente, as plântulas oriundas de sementes peletizadas apresentaram crescimento normal, sem diferenças significativas com a testemunha, em relação à produção de matéria seca da parte aérea e das raízes, avaliadas aos 20 dias após a semeadura.

  12. EXTRUIDOS DE AlFe-PILC EN LA OXIDACIÓN CATALÍTICA DE FENOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy R. Sanabria

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Extruidos de AlFe-PILC con forma de cilindro compacto se emplearon como catalizadores en la reacción de oxidación de fenol en medio acuoso. Debido a que el proceso de elaboración de los extruidos con fase activa AlFe-PILC afecta la actividad intrínseca del catalizador, en este trabajo se determinaron la resistencia mecánica y la estabilidad química del catalizador conformado, así como las limitaciones difusionales por efecto de la aglomeración. Los extruidos se elaboraron con la proporción másica 42/28/30 de arcilla intercalada con AlFe, aglomerante (mezcla 50/50 de bentonita sódica y cálcica y agua, exhibiendo elevada resistencia mecánica y estabilidad química a la inmersión en agua. Los extruidos de AlFe-PILC presentaron un factor de efectividad menor a 1; por tanto, la reacción se encuentra limitada por la difusión intrapartícula.

  13. EFECTO DEL ULTRASONIDO EN LA SÍNTESIS DE ARCILLA PILARIZADA CON ALUMINIO EN MEDIO CONCENTRADO

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    Sonia Moreno

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se realizó la síntesis de bentonita pilarizada con aluminio en medio concentrado, empleando ultrasonido en la etapa de intercalación. El agente pilarizante fue preparado por hidrólisis del AlCl3 con NaOH, seguido de precipitación con disolución de Na2SO4 y redisolución en Ba(NO32, y fue caracterizado por fluorescencia de rayos X (FRX, difracción de rayos X (DRX, microscopía electrónica de barrido (SEM y resonancia magnética nuclear de aluminio (27Al-RMN. La arcilla pilarizada fue caracterizada por FRX, DRX y fisiadsorción de N2 a 77 K, revelando propiedades estructurales y texturales comparables a la modificada siguiendo la metodología convencional: suspensiones diluidas y tiempos de intercalación elevados. El empleo de suspensiones concentradas de arcilla-agente pilarizante y la aplicación de ultrasonido en la etapa de intercalación, permiten una disminución en el volumen de agua entre el 90-95 % y una reducción en el tiempo de intercalación entre el 70–93 % respecto al método convencional de pilarización.

  14. Obtención de metalizados de hierro a partir de los residuos sólidos de la industria del níquel en Nicaro, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosvany Ferreiro-Guerrero

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de la investigación fue obtener un material con características siderúrgicas a partir de los residuos sólidos industriales de la empresa del níquel Comandante René Ramos Latour. Para ello fueron sometidos a un proceso de concentración magnética y aglomeración mediante la peletización, empleando como aglutinante la bentonita. Los pelets obtenidos de 14 y 18 mm de diámetro resistieron a la compresión en verde 9,71 y 6,98 kg respectivamente. Se demuestra que realizando las pruebas de reducción a la temperatura del horno de 1 265 ºC y enfriando con atmósfera inerte se logra obtener 76 % de metalización, así como un grado de reducción de 80,42 %

  15. DESARROLLO DE UNA PASTA DE REVELADO BASADA EN EL REACTIVO DE FRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Puentes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se realiza el diseño de un agente de revelado o revenido químico basado en una pasta conteniendo el reactivo de Fry (una solución de CuCl2 en HCl y bentonita. Esta pasta de revelado, puede aplicarse a diversas muestras de hierro y aceros similares a las encontradas en muchos motores de vehículos. La eficiencia del revelado es similar a la que presenta el uso del reactivo líquido. Además, esta pasta de revelado presenta ventajas para su aplicación, pues evita los problemas de derrame de soluciones ácidas durante su aplicación por técnicos y peritos policiales. Los ensayos por microscopía electrónica muestran asimismo que no se produce una alteración morfológica de la superficie metálica durante el proceso. Actualmente la pasta desarrollada está siendo eficientemente utilizada por personal policial en Uruguay.

  16. Physicochemical and biological characterization of the Roble river, Upper Cauca, western Colombia Caracterización fisicoquímica y biológica del río Roble, Alto Cauca, occidente de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. García-Alzate

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available To determine dial and seasonal differences as well as productivity and the trophic status of the lower Roble river, a tributary of the Vieja and upper Cauca rivers of west Colombia, we sampled phytoplankton, zooplankton, fish and macroinvertebrates and recorded physicochemical variables (dissolved oxygen, percent oxygen saturation, pH, conductivity, relative humidity, environmental, water, maximum and minimum temperatures, width, depth, current velocity, substrate, CO2, COD, BOD, total calcium and magnesium hardness, total, dissolved and suspended solids, alkalinity, acidity, chlorine and turbidity during the wet and dry seasons. Most physicochemical variables such as relative humidity, dissolved oxygen and percent oxygen saturation showed low coefficients of variation, except for oxygen deficit. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index, equity and dominance had low values around 0.5. We recorded eight orders, 28 families and 58 genera of macroinvertebrates, three divisions, five orders and 45 genera of phytoplankton, two divisions and six genera of zooplankton and 19 species of fishes. This river has an allochthonous-heterotrophic trophic state and productivity is oligotrophic but with a tendency to eutrophication.Para determinar las diferencias diarias y estaciónales, así como la productividad y el estado trófico del río Roble, un afluente de la Vieja, alto Cauca al occidente de Colombia, tomamos muestras de fitoplancton, zooplancton, peces y macroinvertebrados y registramos variables físico-químicas (oxígeno disuelto, porcentaje de saturación de oxígeno, pH, conductividad, humedad relativa, temperaturas ambiente, del agua, máximas y mínimas, ancho, profundidad, velocidad de la corriente, sustrato, CO2, DQO, DBO5, dureza total, dureza calcica y durezas magnesicas, sólidos totales, disueltos y suspendidos, alcalinidad , acidez, cloruros y turbidez durante sequía y lluvias. La mayoría de las variables físico-químicas tales como la

  17. PEG-Interferon-α ribavirin-induced HCV viral clearance: a pharmacogenetic multicenter Spanish study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milara, Javier; Outeda-Macias, Maria; Aumente-Rubio, M Dolores; Más-Serrano, Patricio; Aldaz, Azucena; Calvo, M Victoria; García-Simón, M Sergia; Martin-Barbero, Marisa; Padullés-Zamora, Núria; Schoenenberger, Juan Antonio; Saavedra-Aldrich, Marianne; Tévar-Alfonso, Enrique; Saval, Ana; Pastor-Clerigues, Alfonso; García, Marta; Margusino-Framiñan, Luis; Montero-Alvarez, Jose Luis; Merino, Esperanza; Herrero, Jose Ignacio; Beunza, Mónica; Conesa-Zamora, Pablo; Gimenez-Manzorro, Alvaro; Comas-Sugrañes, Dolors; Cano-Marron, Manuel; Jiménez-Mutiloa, Elena; Díaz-Ruíz, Pilar; Cortijo, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo: El interferon-pegilado (IFN-PEG) junto a ribavirina ha sido el principal tratamiento de la infeccion por el virus de la hepatitis C (VHC) de la ultima decada. Los agentes antivirales de accion directa actuales han mejorado los resultados de la terapia, pero tambien han aumentado el costo y la gestion de la complejidad del tratamiento. El presente estudio analiza factores geneticos de los pacientes, asi como predictores virales y clinicos de respuesta sostenida viral (RSV) al tratamiento con IFN-PEG y ribavirina en poblacion Espanola. Métodos: Estudio farmacogenetico, multicentrico, prospectivo, observacional de cohortes realizado en 12 hospitales diferentes de 12 comunidades autonomas diferentes. Se incluyeron un total de 98 pacientes con RVS y 106 sin SVR al tratamiento con IFNPEG y ribavirina. Se seleccionaron 33 polimorfismos de nucleotido unico ubicados en 24 genes diferentes relacionados con la respuesta inflamatoria, inmunologica y viral. Los datos clinicos y virales tambien se analizaron como candidatos predictores de RVS. Resultados: Los genotipos IL-28B (rs12979860, rs7248668, rs8105790, rs8099917) y TNFRSF1B (rs1061622), asi como los haplotipos TNFRSF1B / IL-10 / TNF(-308) no-TTG y TNFRSF1B / IL-10 / IL-4 no-TTC junto con la menor edad, menor carga de ARN-VHC basal, valores elevados de colesterol LDL en suero basal, genotipos VHC2 y 3 y bajo grado de fibrosis basal (0-2) se asociaron con una RVS en el analisis univariante. Los predictores independientes de RVS en el analisis multivariante fueron el genotipo IL-28B rs12979860 CC, el haplotipo TNFRSF1B / IL-10 / IL-4 no-TTC junto con los bajos niveles basales de VHCARN y los genotipos virales VHC2 y 3. Conclusiones: El genotipo IL-28B rs12979860 CC, el haplotipo TNFRSF1B / IL-10 / IL-4 haplotipos no-TTC, la carga viral basal baja y los genotipos del VHC2 y 3 pueden ayudar a predecir una buena respuesta a la terapia con IFN-PEG y ribavirina en poblacion espanola.

  18. The Person Centered approach in Gerontology: New validity evidence of the Staff Assessment Person-directed Care Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Martínez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes/Objetivos La atención centrada en la persona es un enfoque innovador que busca mejorar la calidad asistencial de los servicios para personas mayores que precisan cuidados. Ante el creciente interés hacia este enfoque es necesario contar con instrumentos de medida que permitan evaluar en qué grado los servicios gerontológicos llevan a cabo una atención centrada en la persona. El objetivo de este trabajo es la adaptación y validación del Staff Assessment Person-directed Care (PDC en población espanola. ˜ Método Se llevó a cabo la traducción y adaptación del PDC al espanol ˜ y se aplicó a una muestra de 1.339 profesionales de atención directa, pertenecientes a 56 residencias para personas mayores. El estudio de las propiedades psicométricas se realizó desde el marco de la Teoría Clásica de los Tests y los modelos de Teoría de Respuesta a los Ítems. Resultados El coeficiente alfa de Cronbach fue de 0,97 y el coeficiente de fiabilidad test-retest de 0,89. La Función de Información indica que la prueba mide de forma precisa para un amplio rango de puntuaciones (valores entre -2 y + 2. La estructura factorial del PDC es esencialmente unidimensional, confirmándose la existencia de dos grandes dimensiones que se articulan a su vez en ocho factores muy correlacionados. En cuanto a la validez predictiva destacan las correlaciones del PDC con el The Person-centered Care Assessment Tool (r= 0,68, con el clima organizacional (r = 0,67 y con los factores del burnout, agotamiento emocional (r= -0,41 y realización personal (r = 0,46. Conclusiones La versión espanola ˜ del PDC confirma los resultados encontrados en otras poblaciones, presentando unas excelentes propiedades psicométricas para su uso en la evaluación de residencias de personas mayores, tanto con fines profesionales como de investigación.

  19. Composición corporal y velocidad de lanzamiento en jugadoras de élite de balonmano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam García Expósito

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue describir y comparar las caracteristicas antropometricas, composicion corporal, somatotipo y velocidad de lanzamiento de las jugadoras de balonmano de la seleccion espanola de diferentes categorias. Fueron estudiadas 59 jugadoras de balonmano, todas ellas pertenecen a las categorias juvenil, junior y senior. Las variables analizadas fueron: 20 medidas antropometricas, el indice de masa corporal, sumatorio de cuatro pliegues, porcentaje muscular, el somatotipo y las velocidades de lanzamiento. No se encontraron diferencias estadisticamente significativas (p . 0,05 en las variables que caracterizan a la muestra asi como en el somatotipo y velocidad de lanzamiento en los distintos equipos nacionales. Todas las selecciones estudiadas presentan un somatotipo endo-mesomorfico a excepcion del equipo juvenil que presenta un somatotipo meso-endomorfico. Los resultados corroboran que existe un prototipo de jugadora de balonmano similar en todas las categorias. El componente mesomorfico es el predominante por lo que se puede deducir que la robustez musculo-esqueletico en el balonmano femenino puede ser determinante.

  20. Dosimetry by means of external dose rate measurements in patients undergoing 131I thyroid cancer theraphy; Dosimetria de pacientes con cancer diferenciado de tiroides en tratamiento de terapia metabolica con 131I a partir de medidas de tasa de dosis externa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, M.A.; Ferrer, N.; Cordoba, D.; Alonso, L.; Sastre, J.M.; Arranz, L.

    2010-07-01

    Dosimetry in patients treated with radiopharmaceuticals needs to be carried out for each individual treatment. No standardized procedure is currently available. In our study, the dosimetry for each individual treatment has been calculated using the dose protocol of the Sociedad Espanola de Fisica Medica for the treatment of thyroid cancer with 131I. This protocol is currently under review, since it proposes a procedure which only uses the daily external dose rate measurements during the patient hospital stay and an external dose rate measurement performed 7-9 days after the activity administration. The results obtained seem to be consistent with those found by other authors following different procedures. Moreover, this protocol has proved to be very useful to verify the values of doses established for red marrow are not exceeded. The maximum activity that can be administered in later treatments could also be assessed with this procedure. Additionally, the activity in urine, which cannot be measured directly, was determined. The potential dose which any patients relative or any person staying close to the patient might receive during the treatment was determined as well. These results make it possible to establish more realistic criteria regarding radiation protection. (Author).

  1. Ficción y erotismo. La reubicación del cuerpo en la ficción Española contemporánea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Navajas

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Es apropiado que un ensayo sobre el erotismo empiece con una consideración en tomo al cuerpo. El cuerpo entendido no como un recipiente o receptor pasivo de un con­ tenido extemo (una idea, un alma y, por tanto, un elemento secundario de Ia signifi­ cación, sino como un generador de significado, un signo primordial de Ia discursividad (Foucault, 20. Poner, además, el cuerpo en relación con la narración ficcional implica que ese concepto del cuerpo está realizado concretamente dentro de una estructura dinámica, en progresión articulada y coherente y en interconexión con otros cuerpos. Ubicar el cuerpo dentro de un contexto diferencial-el español-conlleva, además, el que ese cuerpo actúa y se visualiza de una manera específica, determinada por unos parámetros culturales. Tres son, por consiguiente, los presupuestos preliminares de mi ensayo. Es una reflexión en tomo a los modos de significación del cuerpo y sus ramificaciones (deseo, sexualidad, afectividad; esa reflexión se hace dentro de la ficción; y con el referente específico de la ficción (novela y cine espanola contemporánea.a.

  2. Bacterial degradation of cyanide and its metal complexes under alkaline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Almagro, Víctor M; Huertas, María-J; Martínez-Luque, Manuel; Moreno-Vivián, Conrado; Roldán, M Dolores; García-Gil, L Jesús; Castillo, Francisco; Blasco, Rafael

    2005-02-01

    A bacterial strain able to use cyanide as the sole nitrogen source under alkaline conditions has been isolated. The bacterium was classified as Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes by comparison of its 16S RNA gene sequence to those of existing strains and deposited in the Coleccion Espanola de Cultivos Tipo (Spanish Type Culture Collection) as strain CECT5344. Cyanide consumption is an assimilative process, since (i) bacterial growth was concomitant and proportional to cyanide degradation and (ii) the bacterium stoichiometrically converted cyanide into ammonium in the presence of l-methionine-d,l-sulfoximine, a glutamine synthetase inhibitor. The bacterium was able to grow in alkaline media, up to an initial pH of 11.5, and tolerated free cyanide in concentrations of up to 30 mM, which makes it a good candidate for the biological treatment of cyanide-contaminated residues. Both acetate and d,l-malate were suitable carbon sources for cyanotrophic growth, but no growth was detected in media with cyanide as the sole carbon source. In addition to cyanide, P. pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 used other nitrogen sources, namely ammonium, nitrate, cyanate, cyanoacetamide, nitroferricyanide (nitroprusside), and a variety of cyanide-metal complexes. Cyanide and ammonium were assimilated simultaneously, whereas cyanide strongly inhibited nitrate and nitrite assimilation. Cyanase activity was induced during growth with cyanide or cyanate, but not with ammonium or nitrate as the nitrogen source. This result suggests that cyanate could be an intermediate in the cyanide degradation pathway, but alternative routes cannot be excluded.

  3. Analysis of the soil amplification factor in NCSE-02 and Eurocode-8 regulations: application to the 11{sup t}h May , 2011 Lorca earthquake; Analisis del efecto de amplificacion sismica por suelos en las normativas NCSE-02 y Eurocodigo 8: aplicacion al terremoto de Lorca del 11 de Mayo de 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corsino Fernandez, C.; Garcia-Mayordomo, J.

    2014-07-01

    Earthquakes are one of the geological hazards which have produced more human and material loses in the history of manking. Seismic engineering has the purpose of studying the soil dynamic behavior in order to desing structures and buildings adapted to the effects triggered by earthquakes. Within this purpose, one of the most important tasks has been the sutdy of the amplifying effect of seismic movement due to ground characteristics, which is often a major cause responsible of the damage produced by earthquakes, even when their magnitude is not very high. In this article, the soil amplifying effects is considered according to two official sismorresistant regulations in Spain: the current Norma de Construccion Sismorresistente Espanola (NCSE-02) and the European regulation Eurocode 8 (EC-8). First, soils classification different criteria is analyzed and how this affects the soil factor and, particularly, the design seismic action in the form of response spectra. Subsequently, we compared the result of apllying both regulations to typical geological scenarios where the application of either regulation may cause notable differences. The second part of the paper deals with the comparison of NCSE-02 and EC-8 applied in the frame of a real case: the 11{sup t}h May, 2011 Lorca earthquake. We compare the response spectra from both regulations to the actual response spectra derived from the accelerometric record of the earthquake at the Lorca station, and discuss which one fits it better. (Author)

  4. Content validity evidences in test development: An applied perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Delgado-Rico

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio instrumental es mostrar los pasos a seguir para la obtenci6n de evidencias de validez de contenido dentro del proccso de construcción/adaptacion de tests. Para ello se haec usa de una perspectiva aplicada, presentandose el estudio de validez de contenido llevada a cabo para la adaptacion espm:lo1a de la version rasgo del S'fafe-Trait Cheerfitlness Inventory (STCI-T. Este trabajo profundiza en las fases que permiten obtener evidencias de validez de contenido: 1 definicion de las areas de contenido a evaluar, 2 construcci6n de items y 3 evaluaci6n a traves de expertos de los items constnridos. Para este liltimo plmto se muestran los resultados encontrados para un panel de expertos previamente seleccionado. La presentaci6n se centTa en los criterios para la selecci6n de expertos, procedimiento general a seguir, material para admirristrar, aspectos a evaluar de los items, Ycwculos mas importantes. Se temlina argllmentando sobre la relev8ncia de la validez de contenido en el proceso de constmccion/adaptacion de tests a partir de los resultados obtenidos para la adaptacion espanola del STCI-T. Estos resultados ponen de manifiesto llllOS buenos indices de validez de contenido para los items de la version espm:l01a del STCI-T.

  5. Dieter Messner, los manuals de Espanol impresos en Viena en el siglo XVII. Edición facsimil y comentario, vol. 1-11, Institut für Romanistik der Universität Salzburg, Biblioteca hispano-lusa, Salzburg 2000, pág. LX + 856.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitja Skubic

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available El estimado cultivador de los problemas lingüísticos y filológicos iberorromances prof. Dieter Messner de la Universitad de Salzburgo, hispanista y lusitanista, ha enriquecido nuestro conocimiento de los contactos en el campo de la enseñanza de las lenguas alemana y española y, más ampliamente, de la esfera cultural en Austria en lo que atañe el español: la reimpresión de los manuales de español impresos en Viena en el siglo diecisiete es preciosa por varios aspectos. Primero, sin duda, el comprobar el interés en aquel entonces, quizás necesidad, de aprender las respectivas lenguas. En el primer manual Grammatica y Pronunciacion Alemana y Española. Espanola y Alemana de luan Angel de Zumaran se lee como subtítulo "Compuesta en beneficio de estas dos Naciones, que quieren aprender una destas lenguas". El libro apareció en Viena en el año 1634. El autor no era nuevo in rebus lexicograficis: en el 1626 apareció su Thesaurus linguarum. In quo facilis via Hispanicam Gal­ licam ltalicam attingendo etiam per Latinam & Germanicam sternitur. A Ioanne Angelo a Sumaran, nobili cantabro.

  6. [The influence of physical exercise in the prevention of cognitive deterioration in the elderly: a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Martín, Manuel; Parra-Vidales, Esther; González-Palau, Fátima; Bernate-Navarro, Mara; Solis, Abdel

    2013-06-01

    Introduccion. La poblacion espanola mayor de 65 anos continua creciendo, por lo que la atencion a adultos mayores se convierte en un objetivo de salud publica cada vez mas relevante. La actividad fisica esta siendo reconocida como un factor altamente protector de las funciones cognitivas en el envejecimiento, y se establece, en la actualidad, como una estrategia psicosocial prometedora para la proteccion de las facultades cognitivas. Pacientes y metodos. Mediante una busqueda bibliografica en las bases de datos PubMed, PsycINFO, Psicodoc, Scopus y SciELO, se revisaron sistematicamente los estudios relativos a la influencia del ejercicio fisico en la prevencion del deterioro cognitivo en adultos mayores sanos y en la reversion o en el mantenimiento del declive cognitivo una vez ya iniciado. Se seleccionaron y utilizaron 31 articulos como unidades de analisis. Resultados. En conjunto, estos estudios indicaron que un mayor indice de actividad fisica se relacionaria con un menor deterioro de las funciones cognitivas en adultos mayores sanos y con deterioro cognitivo ya manifiesto. Conclusiones. El ejercicio fisico constituye una estrategia psicosocial prometedora para la intervencion de adultos mayores con y sin signos de deterioro cognitivo. Serian convenientes mayores estudios que empleen una metodologia experimental, mayor homogeneidad en cuanto a los instrumentos de recogida de datos de funciones cognitivas y una profundizacion en la frecuencia e intensidad necesaria en las intervenciones.

  7. Reduced Resolution Groundwater Modeling in the Rio Grande for Real Time Scenario Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, J. D.; Tidwell, V. C.

    2006-12-01

    As the finite, and often over-allocated water resources of the western United States are challenged by growing demands, computer based simulations can provide a powerful tool for evaluating potential water use scenarios in support of hydrologic decision making and water policy analysis. To represent the complexities of water resource management, a model should capture the salient behaviors and interactions between, the groundwater, surface water, and human behavioral systems, while to effectively connect science to the decision process, the model should run quickly enough to allow real time evaluation of a wide range of scenarios by stakeholders and decision makers themselves. As these potentially mutually exclusive objectives are pursued, the tradeoffs between resolution, run time, and the degree of coupling between modeled systems must be considered. In the Upper Rio Grande in New Mexico, three MODFLOW based, distributed groundwater models of the Espanola, Albuquerque, and Socorro groundwater basins have been used to calibrate a spatially simplified representation of the groundwater system in the region. The groundwater model is dynamically coupled to surface water and human behavioral systems as part of an integrated system dynamics based model which runs quickly enough to support rapid basin scale water policy scenario evaluation. This presentation will focus on development of the simplified groundwater model, and the performance tradeoffs and gains associated with spatial aggregation and dynamic coupling to the surface water system.

  8. Use of spectral data for estimating the relationship between iron oxides and 2:1 minerals with their respective reflectancesUso de dados espectrais para estimar a relação entre óxidos de ferro e minerais 2:1 com suas respectivas reflectâncias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everson Cezar

    2013-09-01

    repetições por tratamento. As leituras espectrais das amostras de hematita, goethita, magnetita e bentonita foram realizadas por meio do equipamento FieldSpec 3 jr, o qual recobre a faixa espectral de 350 a 2500 nm. Após as leituras, foram escolhidos os intervalos que melhor representavam os minerais e realizaram-se as análises estatísticas a partir dos fatores de reflectância médios encontrados nestes pontos. Os resultados mostraram que a hematita, goethita e magnetita apresentam relação não linear com seus respectivos fatores de refletância, enquanto que a bentonita apresenta relação linear não só no intervalo estudado, mas em toda faixa coberta pelo equipamento. Desta maneira, conclui-se que quantidades relativamente pequenas destes óxidos de ferro são capazes de afetar a reflectância do solo da mesma forma que quantidades próximas de 100%. Com relação aos minerais 2:1 conclui-se que o aumento na proporção dos mesmos em uma determinada classe de solo leva a uma queda progressiva do fator de reflectância em todo o espectro-óptico, assim como descrito para outros elementos.

  9. Chemical signature of two Permian volcanic ash deposits within a bentonite bed from Melo, Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane M. Calarge

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A Permian bentonite deposit at Melo, Uruguay is composed of a calcite-cemented sandstone containing clay pseudomorphs of glass shards (0-0.50 m overlying a pink massive clay deposit (0.50-2.10m. The massive bed is composed of two layers containing quartz and smectite or pure smectite respectively. The smectite is remarkably homogeneous throughout the profile: it is a complex mixed layer composed of three layer types whose expandability with ethylene glycol (2EG 1EG or 0EG sheets in the interlayer zone which correspond to low-, medium- and high-charge layers respectively varies with the cation saturating the interlayer zone. The smectite homogeneity through the profile is the signature of an early alteration process in a lagoonal water which was over saturated with respect to calcite. Compaction during burial has made the bentonite bed a K-depleted closed system in which diagenetic illitization was inhibited. Variations in major, REE and minor element abundances throughout the massive clay deposit suggest that it originated from two successive ash falls. The incompatible element abundances are consistent with that of a volcanic glass fractionated from a rhyolite magma formed in a subduction/collision geological context.Um depósito Permiano de bentonita em Melo, Uruguai,é composto por um arenito com cimento calcítico contendo pseudomorfos de argila sobre detritos vítreos(0-0.50 m superpostos a um deposito maciço de argila rosado (0.50-2.10 m. A camada maciça é composta por dois níveis contendo quartzo e esmectita ou esmectita pura, respectivamente. A homogeneidade de esmectita ao longo do perfil é notável: trata-se de um interestratificado composto de três tipos de camadas, cuja expansibilidade com etileno-glicol (folhas 2EG, 1EG ou 0EG na zona interfoliar correspondentes a camadas com baixa, média e alta carga, respectivamente variam com o tipo de cátion que satura a zona interfoliar. A homogeneidade da esmectita ao longo do perfil

  10. Evaluación de la reducción de pelets utilizando carbón como agente reductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Patricia Pérez Velásquez Alfonso López Díaz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available La obtención del acero se realiza a partir del mineralde hierro o de  la chatarra. En el primer caso el procesotiene lugar vía alto horno–convertidor; en el segundo,vía horno  eléctrico de  arco. Sin  embargo,  al hornoeléctrico también se pueden cargar los denominadospelets  prerreducidos  de  minerales  de  hierro,materiales metálicos  que  pueden  ser  obtenidos  apartir de  finos de mineral de hierro  (portador de  lacarga metálica,  finos de  carbón  (agente  reductor,finos  de  cal  (agente  desulfurante  y  bentonita(aglomerante, los cuales son convertidos en ovoidesmediante el empleo de un disco peletizador. El trabajomuestra  la  caracterización  realizada  a  las materiasprimas,  los  ensayos  de  reducibilidad  efectuados  apelets cargados en un horno tipo Linder –fabricadosa partir de dos yacimientos colombianos de mineralesde  hierro–  y  el  diseño  y  construcción  de  un  hornopara evaluar el comportamiento de los pelets durantela  reducción. Describe  los  equipos  y  analiza  sus

  11. Engineered barriers for radioactive waste confinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández, R.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear power plants generate long-lived radioactive waste of high toxicity. The security assessment of repositories destined to definitive confinement of radioactive waste has been studied for several decades. Deep geological repositories are technically feasible and begin to be built by some pioneer countries. The scientific evaluation of interactions between the different engineered barriers is studied by laboratory experiments, natural analogues and modeling studies. The three methods are able to represent and validate the main geochemical processes that take place in the near field. This paper reviews the scientific and technical basis of the concept of geological disposal, with particular focus on the methods of study applied to the evaluation of geochemical stability of the bentonite barrier.

    Las centrales nucleares generan residuos radiactivos de elevada peligrosidad y permanencia en el tiempo. La evaluación de la seguridad de repositorios destinados al alojamiento definitivo de estos residuos lleva estudiándose desde hace varias décadas. El almacenamiento geológico es técnicamente factible y empieza ya a desarrollarse en países pioneros. La evaluación científica de las interacciones entre las distintas barreras de ingeniería se estudia mediante ensayos de laboratorio, análisis de análogos naturales y modelos teóricos. Las tres vías de estudio son capaces de representar y validar los principales procesos geoquímicos que tienen lugar en el campo cercano al repositorio. Este artículo revisa los fundamentos científicos y técnicos del concepto de almacenamiento geológico detallando, en particular, los métodos de estudio aplicados a la evaluación de la estabilidad geoquímica de la barrera de bentonita.

  12. Influência do tipo de ácido usado e da sua concentração na ativação de uma argila bentonítica Influence of the type and concentration of the used acid on the activation of bentonite clays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Foletto

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A ativação ácida de uma argila tem por finalidade aumentar as suas propriedades adsortivas e catalíticas. Nesse estudo, uma amostra de argila bentonítica, proveniente da Província de Mendoza (Argentina, foi ativada com diferentes concentrações (4 e 8 N por ácido sulfúrico e clorídrico. Para verificar a influência das concentrações e do tipo de ácido usado na ativação da argila, utilizou-se técnicas de difração de raios X, análise térmica diferencial e termogravimétrica e análise química. Os resultados mostraram que houve modificação na estrutura do material argiloso após o ataque ácido. O tratamento com ácido sulfúrico e clorídrico sobre uma mesma bentonita originou produtos com diferentes características estruturais.The clay acid activation has the purpose of increasing its adsorbent and catalytic properties. In this study, a bentonite clay sample from Mendoza (Argentine was activated in different concentrations (4 N and 8 N through the use of sulphuric and hydrochloric acid. To verify the influence of concentrations and the kind of acid utilized in the clay activation, it was utilized techniques of X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis and chemical analysis. The results have shown that the clay structure was modified after acid attack. Sulphuric and hydrochloric acid treatment in the same bentonite originated products with different structural characteristics.

  13. Composition and diagenetic processes of sandstone and tuff deposits of the Cenomanian Cardiel Formation, Cardiel Lake area, province of Santa Cruz Composición y procesos diagenéticos de los depósitos de arenisca y toba de la Formación Cardiel (Cenomaniano, área Lago Cardiel, provincia de Santa Cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R. Andreis

    2007-06-01

    sandstone beds indicate main sediment transport directions towards the north, northeast, and less frequently to the southwest. The abundance of glass shards thorough this unit indicates a magmatic origin related to the volcanoes situated along the Andean Mountains possibly associated with alternating plinian and subplinian eruptions with brief phreato- plinian processes.La Formación Cardiel de alrededor de 200 m de espesor en el área estudiada, contiene diferentes tipos de depósitos volcaniclásticos, mayormente representados por tobas finas y bentonitas, y epiclásticos subordinados como areniscas líticas con colores castaño amarillentos, amarillentos u oliva claros, limolitas y arcilitas. Paleosuelos de tonalidad rojiza con algunas raíces axiales y débiles estructuras prismáticas aparecen en el tope de las limolitas, tobas o bentonitas. Las tufitas y tobas contienen los mismos componentes neovolcánicos, junto a abundantes vitroclastos y menor cantidad de fragmentos pumíceos. Diferentes tipos de vitroclastos pueden ser reconocidos dentro de esta unidad, mientras que los fragmentos pumíceos están representados por diversas variedades vesiculares. Clastos de tobas son frecuentes en las tufitas. Casi todas las muestras contienen montmorillonita diagenética y pedogenéticamente infiltrada, como así también zeolitas. Fueron identificadas clinoptilolita Ca-Na-K (Si/Al>4 predominante, y menor cantidad de analcima (Si/Al cerca de 3. La esmectita y la clinoptilolita pueden reemplazar los vitroclastos y los fragmentos pumíceos, o rellenar espacios, mientras que la esmectita también forma finos cutanes. La secuencia de procesos diagenéticos incluye la transformación (hidrólisis del vidrio a esmectita, y luego a zeolitas. Además, las zeolitas preceden el crecimiento de calcita (a veces remplazan vitroclastos o fragmentos pumíceos, y la infiltración de óxidos-hidróxidos de hierro. La variación vertical de las zeolitas puede ser explicada por la existencia de

  14. Genetic differentiation between marine iguanas from different breeding sites on the island of Santa Fe (Galapagos Archipelago).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanterbecq, Deborah; Glaberman, Scott; Vitousek, Maren Noelani; Steinfartz, Sebastian; Benavides, Edgar; Wikelski, Martin; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2010-01-01

    We studied patterns of genetic diversity within and among 5 populations (318 individuals) of Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) from the island Santa Fé. Populations were separated by distances of 0.2 to 9.9 km. We sequenced 1182 base pairs of the mitochondrial control region and screened 13 microsatellite loci for variability. We also added data from 5 populations (397 individuals) sampled on 4 neighboring islands (Santa Cruz, Floreana, Espanola, and San Cristobal). The 5 Santa Fé populations, revealed as genetically distinct from populations on other islands, present relatively low levels of genetic diversity, which are similar for both microsatellite (average observed heterozygosity from 0.7686 to 0.7773) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers (haplotypic and nucleotide diversity from 0.587 to 0.728 and from 0.00079 to 0.00293, respectively), and comparable with those observed in similar-sized sampling sites on other islands. There was frequency-based evidence of genetic structure between northern and southern sites on Santa Fé (F(st) of 0.0027-0.0115 for microsatellite and 0.0447-0.2391 for mtDNA), but the 4 southern sites showed little differentiation. Most of the intra-island genetic variation was allocated within rather than between sites. There was no evidence of sex-biased dispersal or population substructuring due to lek-mating behavior, suggesting that these 2 observed behaviors are not strong enough to leave an evolutionary signal on genetic patterns in this species.

  15. Hypoglycemic treatment of diabetic patients in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero Requejo, Carmen; Urbieta Sanz, Elena; Trujillano Ruiz, Abel; García-Molina Sáez, Celia; Onteniente Candela, María; Piñera Salmerón, Pascual

    2016-05-01

    Objetivo: Analizar la adecuacion del tratamiento hipoglucemiante prescrito en el Servicio de Urgencias a las recomendaciones de consenso disponibles, asi como evaluar su repercusion clinica. Método: Estudio observacional descriptivo. Se incluyeron pacientes que se encontraban en la sala de observacion del Servicio de Urgencias pendientes de ingreso hospitalario, con diagnostico previo de diabetes mellitus y en tratamiento domiciliario con farmacos hipoglucemiantes. Se evaluo el manejo del tratamiento antidiabetico y su repercusion clinica. Resultados: Se incluyeron 78 pacientes. Al ingreso en el Servicio de Urgencias se modifico el tratamiento en el 91% de los pacientes, y se omitio en el 9%, siendo el tratamiento mas pautado los rescates con insulina rapida (68%). Los tratamientos prescritos se ajustaron en un 16,7% a las recomendaciones de la Sociedad Espanola de Medicina de Urgencias y Emergencias. Tras la intervencion del farmaceutico, la omision descendio al 1,3% y la adecuacion a las recomendaciones aumento al 20,5%. Comparando los pacientes cuyo tratamiento se ajusto a las recomendaciones y los que no, la repercusion clinica fue, respectivamente: media de glucemia a las 24 horas 138,3 } 49,5 mg/dL versus 182,7 } 97,1 mg/dL (p = 0,688); media de rescates con insulina lispro 1 } 1,6 versus 1,5 } 1,8 (p = 0,293); media de unidades de insulina lispro administradas 4,6 } 12,7 UI frente a 6,6 } 11,3 UI (p = 0,155). Conclusiones: Encontramos una baja adecuacion de las prescripciones de antidiabeticos a las recomendaciones de consenso. Estos resultados van en linea con otros estudios, objetivandose un abuso de las pautas de rescate con insulina rapida como unico tratamiento hipoglucemiante.

  16. Deep structure of the northern Rio Grande rift beneath the San Luis basin (Colorado) from a seismic reflection survey: implications for rift evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Kush; Brown, Larry; Hearn, Thomas

    1999-02-01

    A seismic reflection survey by Chevron across the San Luis basin (northern Rio Grande rift) and San Juan volcanic field of southern Colorado is reprocessed with extended correlation to search for basement structure. The trace of the main bounding fault of the basin, a high-angle normal fault against the Sangre de Cristo Range, can be correlated to a wide zone of dipping reflection fabric and soles out at lower crustal depths (26-28 km). The deeper reflection fabric represent either broad extensional strain or pre-existing structure, such as a Laramide thrust system. The Sangre de Cristo bounding fault in San Luis basin does not sole out at mid-crustal depths but continues into the lower crust with a shallower dip. The basin architecture in the northern Rio Grande rift (San Luis basin) provides little if any evidence that the Sangre de Cristo bounding fault should flatten in a shallow listric fashion. This fault geometry is quite similar to the high-angle bounding fault in the Espanola basin but contrasts with less deeply-rooted faults in the Albuquerque basin in the central Rio Grande rift. Deeper soling out of the Sangre de Cristo bounding fault could be due to less extension in the northern Rio Grande rift and/or greater strength of the lithosphere compared to the central Rio Grande rift. Unequivocal Moho reflections beneath the San Luis basin cannot be identified, probably due to limited signal penetration or a gradational nature of the Moho. The majority of rift-related movement observed on the Sangre de Cristo bounding fault is post-Eocene. Either the western margin of the basin is marked by a tight monocline or a low-angle normal fault.

  17. Subsurface recharge to the Tesuque aquifer system from selected drainage basins along the western side of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains near Santa Fe, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasiolek, Maryann

    1995-01-01

    Water budgets developed for basins of five streams draining the western side of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains in northern New Mexico indicate that subsurface inflow along the mountain front is recharging the Tesuque aquifer system of the Espanola Basin. Approximately 14,700 acre-feet of water per year, or 12.7 percent of average annual precipitation over the mountains, is calculated to leave the mountain block and enter the basin as subsurface recharge from the drainage basins of the Rio Nambe, Rio en Medio, Tesuque Creek, Little Tesuque Creek, and Santa Fe River. About 5,520 acre- feet per year, or about 12 percent of average annual precipitation, is calculated to enter from the Rio Nambe drainage basin; about 1,710 acre- feet per year, or about 15 percent of average annual precipitation, is calculated to enter from the Rio en Medio drainage basin; about 1,530 acre- feet, or about 10 percent of average annual precipi- tation, is calculated to enter from the Tesuque Creek drainage basin; about 1,790 acre-feet, or about 19 percent of average annual precipitation, is calculated to enter from the Little Tesuque Creek drainage basin; and about 4,170 acre-feet per year, or about 12 percent average annual precipitation, is calculated to enter from the Santa Fe River drainage basin. Calculated subsurface recharge values were used to define maximum fluxes permitted along the specified-flux boundary defining the mountain front of the Sangre De Cristo Mountains in a numerical computer model of the Tesuque aquifer system near Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  18. Raising infanta Catalina de Aragón to be Catherine queen of England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earenfight, Theresa M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the household of infanta Catalina de Aragón, youngest daughter of Isabel of Castile and Fernando of Aragon, to demonstrate how trusted women at court provided the foundation for Catalina’s transformation from Spanish infanta to English queen. Using account records from the court of her mother and records from English royal sources, this essay focuses four women in particular –Inés Vanegas, María de Rojas, María de Salinas, Elvira Manuel– who were deeply embedded in a complex kin and patronage network at court. Their tutelage and loyalty prepared Catalina to navigate the complexity of court politics in Tudor England.Este estudio examina la casa de la infanta Catalina de Aragón, hija menor de Isabel de Castilla y Fernando de Aragón, para mostrar cómo las mujeres de confianza de la corte constituyeron la base de la transformación de Catalina de infanta espanola en reina inglesa. Utilizando los libros de cuentas de la casa y corte de su madre y documentos reales ingleses, este ensayo se centra en cuatro mujeres en particular –Inés Vanegas, María de Rojas, María de Salinas y Elvira Manuel–, inmersas en unas complejas redes de parentesco y de patronazgo dentro de la propia corte. Su tutela y lealtad prepararon a Catalina para sortear los entresijos de la política cortesana de la Inglaterra de los Tudor.

  19. Colonialismo y santidad en las Islas Marianas: la sangre de los mártires (1668-1676

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coello de la Rosa, Alexandre

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article I analyze the conquest and colonization of the Marianas islands (1668-1676 as an example of the construction of the Catholic frontier in the Spanish possessions in the Pacific. One of the main objectives consists of analyzing martyrdom as one of the strategies used by the Jesuit missionaries to convert the Marianas islands to the Catholic faith. The first Jesuit martyrs −Diego Luis de San Vítores, Luis de Medina, and Sebastián de Monroy, SJ, among others− were elevated to the category of «distinguished heroes» of the Catholic Reformation who died as victims of the unbeatable barbarians in defence of Christian faith. Martyrdom, as longing and culmination of the missionary experience, turned those peripheral spaces into central points of reference wherein would end up rooting Christian dogma.

    En este artículo examino la conquista y colonización de las islas Marianas (1668-1676 como un ejemplo de la construcción de la frontera católica en las posesiones espanolas del Pacífico. Uno de los objetivos es analizar el martirio como uno de los mecanismos utilizados por los misioneros jesuitas para convertir las islas Marianas al catolicismo. Los primeros mártires −Diego Luis de San Vítores, Luis de Medina y Sebastián de Monroy, SJ, entre otros− se convirtieron en «héroes insignes» de la Reforma católica que murieron víctimas de los «bárbaros indómitos» en defensa de la fe. El martirio, como anhelo y culminación de la experiencia misionera, transformó aquellos espacios periféricos en puntos de referencia centrales donde acabaría triunfando el dogma cristiano.

  20. [What kind of health information search the spinal cord injured patients from Spain on the internet?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bea-Muñoz, Manuel; Medina-Sánchez, María; Flórez-García, Mariano

    2015-04-16

    Introduccion. Internet es una alternativa para la educacion sanitaria en la poblacion. Los lesionados medulares consultan la red sobre cuestiones de su salud. Objetivo. Conocer cuales son las fuentes de informacion, los temas sobre salud mas consultados y la confianza en el material obtenido de la red por un grupo de lesionados medulares espanoles usuarios de Internet. Pacientes y metodos. Realizamos una encuesta a lesionados medulares espanoles mediante un cuestionario en Google Drive. Se accedia a el mediante un enlace en la pagina de ASPAYM-Asturias. El cuestionario incluia datos epidemiologicos y cuestiones sobre Internet, fuentes de informacion y confianza en ellas. Resultados. Contestaron 121 lesionados medulares (el 64%, hombres), con una edad media de 45 anos. La etiologia predominante era la traumatica (70%), y en el 72%, las lesiones eran paraplejias. El 83% prefiere consultar al personal sanitario. Busca en Internet mas del 70% de la muestra, y lo hace en paginas web en espanol. El tema de mayor interes es el material ortopedico. El 27% confia mucho o bastante en la informacion de la red, mientras que el 32% lo hace poco o nada. Conclusiones. Los resultados nos aproximan al uso de Internet que hacen los lesionados medulares espanoles. Asumiendo el sesgo inherente en un estudio de este tipo, mas del 70% de la muestra consulta sobre su salud en la red, sobre todo en paginas web espanolas. El tema mas buscado es 'material ortopedico y sillas de ruedas'. Solo uno de cada cuatro confia en los contenidos de la red, y la mayoria prefiere consultar sus problemas de salud directamente con los profesionales sanitarios.

  1. Pianistic Interpretation of in the Spanish Character in Albeniz'‘Suite Espanole'%阿尔贝尼兹《西班牙组曲》中的民族情结及其钢琴演绎

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶红

    2005-01-01

    @@ 中的民族情结 伟大的西班牙作曲家伊萨克·阿尔贝尼兹(Isaac Albeniz,1860-1909)创作以西班牙命名的钢琴作品就有4集之多.其中作品号为Op.47的("Suite Espanola")实际上共有两集.第一集作品创作于1886至1887年,共八首曲子,其中的第一首(Granada Serenata)、第二首(Cataluna Curranda)、第三首(Sevilla Sevillanas)和第八首(Cuba Nocturne)是阿尔贝尼兹在手稿中同时留下标题与曲谱的.而对于手稿中只留下标题未留下曲谱的第四首(Cadiz Saeta)、第五首(Asturias Leyenda)、第六首(Aragon Fantasia)和第七首(Castilla Seguidillas),出版社则自行转用了阿尔贝尼兹其他的钢琴作品来填补它们,并最终完整地出版发行了这部作品(其中的第四首由Op.181转用,第五首由的第一首转用,第六首由Op.164的第一首转用,第七首由的第五首转用).

  2. Groundwater resources of the East Mountain area, Bernalillo, Sandoval, Santa Fe, and Torrance Counties, New Mexico, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolino, James R.; Anderholm, Scott K.; Myers, Nathan C.

    2010-01-01

    The groundwater resources of about 400 square miles of the East Mountain area of Bernalillo, Sandoval, Santa Fe, and Torrance Counties in central New Mexico were evaluated by using groundwater levels and water-quality analyses, and updated geologic mapping. Substantial development in the study area (population increased by 11,000, or 50 percent, from 1990 through 2000) has raised concerns about the effects of growth on water resources. The last comprehensive examination of the water resources of the study area was done in 1980-this study examines a slightly different area and incorporates data collected in the intervening 25 years. The East Mountain area is geologically and hydrologically complex-in addition to the geologic units, such features as the Sandia Mountains, Tijeras and Gutierrez Faults, Tijeras syncline and anticline, and the Estancia Basin affect the movement, availability, and water quality of the groundwater system. The stratigraphic units were separated into eight hydrostratigraphic units, each having distinct hydraulic and chemical properties. Overall, the major hydrostratigraphic units are the Madera-Sandia and Abo-Yeso; however, other units are the primary source of supply in some areas. Despite the eight previously defined hydrostratigraphic units, water-level contours were drawn on the generalized regional potentiometric map assuming all hydrostratigraphic units are connected and function as a single aquifer system. Groundwater originates as infiltration of precipitation in upland areas (Sandia, Manzano, and Manzanita Mountains, and the Ortiz Porphyry Belt) and moves downgradient into the Tijeras Graben, Tijeras Canyon, San Pedro synclinorium, and the Hagan, Estancia, and Espanola Basins. The study area was divided into eight groundwater areas defined on the basis of geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical information-Tijeras Canyon, Cedar Crest, Tijeras Graben, Estancia Basin, San Pedro Creek, Ortiz Porphyry Belt, Hagan Basin, and Upper Sandia

  3. Influencia de los coadyuvantes tecnológicos utilizados en el proceso de elaboración de aceite de oliva sobre la cinética del proceso de digestión anaerobia del alpechín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja Padilla, R.

    1992-08-01

    Full Text Available A kinetic study of the anaerobic digestion of olive mill wastewater, which was obtained with the technological helper "Olivex" (Carbohydrase -pectinases, cellulases and hemicellulases- from the Aspergillus aculeatus was carried out. An identical wastewater, obtained without this enzymatic formulation was also used. The process was carried out in bioreactors with microorganisms immobilized on two micronized clay supports, Sepiolite and Bentonite. The methane volume-time data pairs obtained were used to calculate the specific rate constant, Ko, by using the Roediger's equation. A decrease of the specific rate constant value was observed over the substrate concentration studied when the volume of wastewater added was increased; this confirmed the occurrence of an inhibition process, which was more marked for the olive mill wastewater obtained with Olivex. The Levenspiel's model was used to obtain the inhibition constants of this process.

    Se ha efectuado un estudio cinético del proceso de digestión anaerobia de un alpechín obtenido con el coadyuvante tecnológico "Olivex" (Carbohidrasa -pectinasas, celulasas y hemicelulasas- procedente de Aspergillus aculeatus en comparación con un testigo obtenido sin esta formulación enzimática. El proceso se ha realizado en biorreactores con microorganismos inmovilizados en dos soportes micronizados arcillosos, Sepiolita y Bentonita. A partir de los datos volumen de metano-tiempo, se calculan las constantes específicas de velocidad, Ko, utilizando la ecuación de Roediger. Dentro del rango de concentración de sustrato estudiado se observa una disminución de la constante cinética al aumentar el volumen de residuo añadido a los digestores lo que confirma la existencia de un proceso de inhibición, que es más acusado en el caso del alpechín obtenido con Olivex. Para determinar las constantes de inhibición del proceso se utiliza el modelo propuesto por Levenspiel.

  4. Produção e caracterização físico-química de fermentado de umbu Production and physicochemical characterization of fermented umbu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno de Paula

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um fermentado de umbu visando a agregar valor a esse fruto e contribuir para a melhoria de renda das famílias do semiárido nordestino. A polpa utilizada nos experimentos foi submetida a análises físico-químicas e microbiológicas. Para a produção da bebida, a polpa foi diluída em água, sendo necessário realizar uma chaptalização com sacarose até atingir 20,5°Brix. A levedura vínica comercial utilizada foi Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A fermentação foi conduzida a 18°C durante 18 dias e posteriormente a bebida foi submetida a uma estabilização com auxílio de agentes de sedimentação, gelatina e bentonita, por 14 dias a 1°C. Após a estabilização, o fermentado de umbu foi filtrado em filtro prensa. O fermentado de umbu obtido apresentou teor alcoolico de 11,20°GL. A bebida foi analisada quanto às suas características físico-químicas e todos os parâmetros estavam em conformidade com a legislação vigente.The objective of this study was to develop a fermented umbu drink aiming at adding value to this fruit and contribute for improving the families income in Brazil northeast semiarid region. The pulp used in the experiments was subjected to physico-chemical and microbiological analysis. For the production of liquor, the pulp was diluted with water, and needed a sugaring with sucrose up to 20.5°Brix. A commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast was used. The fermentation was conducted at 18°C for 18 days and subsequently underwent a drink with the aid of stabilizing agents of sedimentation, gelatin and bentonite, for 14 days at 1°C. After stabilizing the fermented umbu drink was subjected to filtered in filter press. The fermented alcoholic umbu drink showed an alcohol contents of 11.20°GL. The drink was analyzed for their physicochemical characteristics and all parameters were in accordance with current legislation.

  5. Morfologia de nanocompósitos de polietileno e poliamida-6 contendo argila nacional Morphology study of polyethylene and nylon 6 nanocomposites containing national clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Barbosa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocompósitos de polietileno de alta densidade e poliamida-6 com argila bentonita nacional foram preparados por meio do processo de intercalação por fusão. Para a modificação da argila foram utilizados tipos diferentes de sais quaternários de amônio visando sintetizar as argilas organofílicas. As argilas não modificada e modificada com os sais foram incorporadas nas matrizes poliméricas, sendo que foram utilizados procedimentos diferentes para a modificação das argilas: para os nanocompósitos de polietileno, a argila foi preparada com quatro sais quaternários de amônio e para os nanocompósitos de poliamida-6 foi utilizado um único tipo de sal quaternário de amônio, variando-se seus teores para a organofilização da argila. O objetivo desse trabalho foi obter nanocompósitos de polietileno e poliamida-6 e caracterizá-los por microscopia eletrônica de transmissão (MET e por difração de raios X (DRX. Os resultados indicaram que os sistemas polietileno/argila organofílica apresentaram estruturas de nanocompósitos intercalados e/ou parcialmente esfoliados. Já os sistemas poliamida-6/argila organofílica apresentaram uma morfologia esfoliada com uma predominância de partículas de argilas dispersas na matriz.High density polyethylene and nylon 6 nanocomposites with national bentonite clay were prepared with the melt intercalation technique. Different quaternary ammonium salts were used to obtain the organoclays. The unmodified and modified clays with the salts were incorporated in the polymer matrices and different procedures were used for the modification of clays: for the polyethylene nanocomposites, the clay was prepared with four quaternary ammonium salts and for the nylon 6 nanocomposites only one type of quaternary ammonium salt was used, which had its contents varied in the organophilization of the clay. The objective of this work was to obtain polyethylene and nylon 6 nanocomposites. They were characterized by

  6. Estudo do comportamento reológico das argilas bentoníticas de Cubati, Paraíba, Brasil Rheological behavior study of bentonite clays from Cubati, Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Menezes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O estado da Paraíba possui jazidas de bentonitas utilizadas comercialmente para uma vasta gama de setores tecnológicos. No entanto, esses jazimentos estão se exaurindo, após dezenas de anos de exploração. Assim, este trabalho tem por objetivo dar prosseguimento à caracterização de argilas bentoníticas de Cubati, PB, estudando o comportamento reológico das dispersões argila-água de modo avaliar seu desempenho para fluidos de perfuração de poços de petróleo base água. As amostras estudadas foram secas a 60 ºC e determinou-se sua capacidade de troca de cátions. As argilas foram transformadas em sódica por tratamento com Na2CO3 e em seguida realizou-se o estudo do comportamento reológico das dispersões. As viscosidades, aparente e plástica, o volume de filtrado, os parâmetros reológicos do fluido e a sua força gel foram determinados. Os resultados evidenciaram que cada amostra apresenta um teor ótimo de carbonato de sódio e que as dispersões argila-água possuem um comportamento pseudo-plástico e tixotrópico. Duas amostras apresentam potencial para utilização como agentes viscosificantes para fluidos de perfuração.The bentonites of the state of Paraíba, Brazil, are commercially used in numerous technological sectors, particularly in oil drilling muds. However, these bentonite deposits are becoming exhausted due to several years of exploitation. Thus, the aim of this work was continue the characterization of the bentonites from Cubati, Paraíba, studying the rheological behavior of water-clay suspensions, evaluating their viability to be used in oil drilling muds. The samples were dried at 60 ºC and, their cation exchange capacity was determined. The natural bentonite clays were transformed in sodium bentonite by addition of concentrated Na2CO3 solution, then the suspensions rheological study was performed. The apparent and plastic viscosities, water loss, rheological parameters and the gel force were determined

  7. Preparação de argilas organofílicas e desenvolvimento de nanocompósitos de polietileno. Parte 2: comportamento de inflamabilidade Preparation of organophilic clays and development of polyethylene nanocomposites. Part 2: flammability behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Barbosa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanocompósitos de polietileno de alta densidade/argila bentonita foram preparados por meio da técnica de intercalação por fusão. Para a modificação da argila foram utilizados quatro tipos diferentes de sais quaternários de amônio visando a sintetizar argilas organofílicas. A argila não modificada e modificada com os quatro sais foi incorporada em teores de 1 e 3% a uma matriz de polietileno. A estabilidade térmica e a inflamabilidade dos sistemas foram determinadas por termogravimetria e segundo a norma UL-94 HB, respectivamente. A avaliação da dispersão e a distância entre planos (d001 das partículas de argila foram realizadas por difração de raios X (DRX e microscopia eletrônica de transmissão (MET. A presença da argila organofílica na matriz polimérica aumentou a temperatura de degradação dos sistemas em relação ao polímero puro. Os sistemas apresentaram atraso da velocidade de queima, indicando uma melhoria no comportamento de inflamabilidade dos nanocompósitos.High density polyethylene/Bentonite clay nanocomposites were prepared by the melt intercalation technique. The clay was organically modified with different quaternary ammonium salts to obtain the organoclay. The unmodified and modified clays with the quaternary ammonium salts were introduced in a polyethylene matrix with 1 and 3 wt. % of clay. The thermal stability and the flammability of the systems were investigated by thermogravimetry and UL-94HB standard, respectively. The dispersion analysis and the interlayer distance (d001 of the clay particles were obtained by X ray Diffraction (XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The organoclay presence in the polymer matrix increased the degradation temperature in relation to the pure polymer. The systems showed a reduction on the burning rate, indicating that the flammability resistance of the nanocomposites was improved.

  8. Propuesta para la integración de criterios sostenibles en los proyectos de ingenierìa civil: un caso práctico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Sánchez, G.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an indicator system is proposed for assessing sustainability in linear infrastructure projects from early stages (previous analysis of alternatives to allow classification of the different alternatives according to their impact on the environment, society and economy, and thus to select the most sustainable alternative. It is developed a brief study of the state of knowledge on sustainable construction worldwide and, according to existing initiatives, it is proposed the sustainability assessment of infrastructure projects using a set of criteria and indicators. The indicator system is also applied to a case study, a Spanish highway, through a multi-criteria analysis, to identify existing constraints to the implementation of sustainability criteria from early stages considering the project life cycle, taking into account the interest of controlling and monitoring the indicator valuation in later stages and their possible application in the comparison between projects.

    Se propone en este artículo un sistema de indicadores para la evaluación de la sostenibilidad en los proyectos de infraestructuras lineales desde etapas iniciales (estudio previo de soluciones para permitir la clasificación de las distintas alternativas según su impacto sobre el medio ambiente, la sociedad y la economía, y lograr así la selección de la solución considerada como más sostenible. Se realiza un breve estudio del estado del conocimiento relativo a la construcción sostenible a nivel internacional y, de acuerdo a las iniciativas existentes, se propone la evaluación de la sostenibilidad de los proyectos de infraestructuras mediante criterios e indicadores. Se aplica este sistema de indicadores a un caso de estudio de una autovía espanola mediante un análisis multicriterio, de manera que se identifican las limitaciones existentes para la aplicación de criterios sostenibles desde etapas tempranas considerando el ciclo de vida del proyecto

  9. La flexibilidad laboral: significados y consecuencias Labour Flexibility: Meanings and Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio Martínez Pastor

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Los objetivos del articulo son 1 analizar las consecuencias de la flexibilidad laboral en el curso vital de los individuos, 2 asi como saber si la flexibilidad ha socavado o reforzado la importancia de las clases sociales, de la educacion y del genero en distintos aspectos concernientes al curso vital, sobre todo relacionados con el empleo en Espana. La peculiaridad espanola con respecto a la flexibilidad radica en la alta proporcion de contratos temporales. La mayor diferencia entre estos contratos y los indefinidos es su menor coste de despido. La manera en la que el Estado del Bienestar ha introducido la flexibilidad ha logrado un equilibrio de riesgos entre generaciones, por lo que no puede decirse que haya unos claros ganadores o perdedores. Los datos indican que los efectos de la flexibilizacion sobre el curso vital de los individuos son mucho mas modestos de lo que las hipotesis preven. Asimismo, la flexibilización no ha mermado la importancia de las clases sociales ni de los niveles de estudio para explicar la posición de los individuos en el mercado laboral, aunque tampoco hay una clara evidencia de que las brechas entre los individuos de distintas clases ocupaciones o con distintos niveles de estudio hayan aumentado en Espana.

    The objectives of the paper are 1 to analyse the effects of labour flexibility on individuals from a lifecourse perspective and 2 to know whether flexibility has undermined or reinforced the effects of social classes, education and gender on several aspects concerning the life-course, above all those related to employment in Spain. The peculiarity of the Spanish case lies in the proportion of fixed-term contracts. The greatest difference between these contracts and permanent contracts is not the job to be done, or even its temporary or permanent nature, but rather the lower layoff cost. The way that the Welfare State has introduced flexibilisation has achieved a balance of risks between the generations

  10. Precambrian supercontinents, glaciations, atmospheric oxygenation, metazoan evolution and an impact that may have changed the second half of Earth history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant M. Young

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In more than 4 Ga of geological evolution, the Earth has twice gone through extreme climatic perturbations, when extensive glaciations occurred, together with alternating warm periods which were accompanied by atmospheric oxygenation. The younger of these two episodes of climatic oscillation preceded the Cambrian “explosion” of metazoan life forms, but similar extreme climatic conditions existed between about 2.4 and 2.2 Ga. Over long time periods, changing solar luminosity and mantle temperatures have played important roles in regulating Earth's climate but both periods of climatic upheaval are associated with supercontinents. Enhanced weathering on the orogenically and thermally buoyed supercontinents would have stripped CO2 from the atmosphere, initiating a cooling trend that resulted in continental glaciation. Ice cover prevented weathering so that CO2 built up once more, causing collapse of the ice sheets and ushering in a warm climatic episode. This negative feedback loop provides a plausible explanation for multiple glaciations of the Early and Late Proterozoic, and their intimate association with sedimentary rocks formed in warm climates. Between each glacial cycle nutrients were flushed into world oceans, stimulating photosynthetic activity and causing oxygenation of the atmosphere. Accommodation for many ancient glacial deposits was provided by rifting but escape from the climatic cycle was predicated on break-up of the supercontinent, when flooded continental margins had a moderating influence on weathering. The geochemistry of Neoproterozoic cap carbonates carries a strong hydrothermal signal, suggesting that they precipitated from deep sea waters, overturned and spilled onto continental shelves at the termination of glaciations. Paleoproterozoic (Huronian carbonates of the Espanola Formation were probably formed as a result of ponding and evaporation in a hydrothermally influenced, restricted rift setting. Why did metazoan

  11. Lo global y lo local en la colonialidad: prácticas cotidianas en la Nueva Población y Fuerte de Floridablanca (San Julián, Siglo XVIII The global and the local in coloniality: daily practices at Nueva Población y Fuerte de Floridablanca, San Julián Bay, during the eighteenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Bianchi Villelli

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available La expansión colonial de la sociedad moderna fue estudiada recientemente desde varias disciplinas y perspectivas. Desde la arqueología histórica sudamericana en particular se ha discutido la naturaleza homogeneizante de este proceso global en función de reevaluar los diversos contextos específicos en el tiempo y en el espacio. Este trabajo se centra en la articulación entre la escala global y la particular para discutir el lugar asignado a los agentes y procesos locales en la constitución de las sociedades coloniales. A partir de los aportes de la teoría poscolonial latinoamericana, se busca discutir el concepto de sociedad moderna, para así reconocer los legados coloniales. Esta discusión se ilustra con el estudio de la colonización española de la costa patagónica a fines del siglo XVIII, en particular, el caso de la Nueva Población y Fuerte de Floridablanca (Bahía de San Julián, 1780-1784. El estudio de la reproducción y transformación social en Floridablanca se centró en los escenarios sociales no contemplados por la Corona espanola en su planificación colonial. El énfasis en las prácticas cotidianas en una escala pequena permitió un abordaje a la tensión entre las categorías definidas desde el orden colonial y su puesta en práctica.Recently, the colonial expansion of modern society has been studied from various disciplines and theoretical perspectives. South American historical archaeology in particular has discussed the homogenizing nature of this global process in order to reevaluate specific contexts through time and space. This paper is centered on the articulation of the global and the particular and the place assigned to agents and local processes in the formation of colonial societies. Latin American postcolonial theory shines light on this debate through the critical assessment of modern discourse and the acknowledgement of colonial legacies. The discussion is illustrated with a case study from the Spanish

  12. Mapping the edge of the Cerros del Rio volcanic field, New Mexico: a piece of the puzzle to understanding a potential geothermal resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerin, L.; Gallegos, M.; Goebel, M.; Murphy, B. S.; Smith, J.; Soto, D.; Swiatlowski, J.; Volk, C.; Welch, M.; Feucht, D. W.; Hollingshaus, B.; Bedrosian, P. A.; McPhee, D. K.

    2012-12-01

    The Cerros del Rio volcanic field located west of Santa Fe, New Mexico spans the southwestern part of the Espanola Basin with the Rio Grande to the west. Underlying the volcanics are the Santa Fe Group sediments, which contain the Ancha Formation, an important aquifer in the region. High temperature gradients in water wells reveal a potential geothermal prospect. In 2012 the Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience (SAGE) program acquired transient electromagnetic (TEM), audiomagnetotelluric (AMT), gravity and ground magnetic data to determine the buried eastern margin of the volcanic field and the connectivity related to the underlying sediments. The roughly EW 5-km long transect was sited from USGS aeromagnetic data to cross the boundary of the Cerros del Rio volcanic field. TEM data collected at ten stations, at 200-400 m spacing, along the transect employed an in-loop configuration with a square 100 m x 100 m transmitter loop and both a Zonge receiver coil and a 5 m square receiver loop. The 5 m loop allowed for the recovery of early-time data that was saturated when using the Zonge coil. AMT data were acquired at eight stations, at 400-500 m spacing, using the Geometric Stratagem system recording from 92 kHz to 10 Hz; a horizontal magnetic dipole transmitter was used to augment low signal strength at around 1 kHz. Gravity data along the profile were acquired using CG-3 and CG-5 Scintrex gravimeters with a station interval >250 m. Magnetic data were acquired with a Geometrics Cesium vapor G-858 magnetometer for about 3500 m along the profile at a 0.5 second sampling rate. Two volcanic flows interbedded with Ancha Formation and overlying Santa Fe Group sediments were identified in both the TEM and AMT modeling. High surface resistivity zones (>300 ohm-m) with depths ranging from ~100 to 300 m define the volcanic flows and correspond to high densities (2.3 to 2.55 g/cm3), while low resistivity zones (<30 ohm-m) correspond to lower densities (~2.1 g/cm3). High

  13. Magnetotelluric Investigation of Structures Related to a Geothermal Anomaly in the Buckman Well field in the Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D.; Chu, S.; McCormack, K.; Barghouty, L. K.; Mostafanejad, A.; Lasscock, B.; Bedrosian, P.; Pellerin, L.

    2013-12-01

    High borehole temperature gradients have been measured over short spatial scales in the Buckman Well Field located within the Espanola Basin of the Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico. The proximity of the well field to the young Caja del Rio volcanic plateau prompted a study undertaken by the Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience (SAGE) program to uncover structure related to this geothermal anomaly. The localized nature of this geothermal anomaly is suggested to be indicative of a local controlling structure as opposed to a more regional structure. Two-dimensional (2-D) models were constructed using magnetotelluric (MT) and audiomagnetotelluric (AMT) data acquired during 2011-13 seasons of the SAGE field program. Geoelectric strike, being important in determining whether an optimal survey design was employed for 2-D MT inverse modeling, was determined from Swift';s formula, which is subject to galvanic distortion. The geoelectric strike direction obtained from a phase tensor analysis, unaffected by such distortion, generally agreed with the established geological strike of the region. The phase tensor analysis shows predominantly 2-D behavior, although some three-dimensional (3-D) character is observed in the low-frequency MT data. An independent statistical metric developed at SAGE confirms these findings. This observation could be reflected as a conductive anomaly found in the 2-D MT inverse model. Synthetic data were generated to test the sensitivity of the 2-D inversion method to different layer resistivity values and faulted structures in the AMT range. Using these synthetic results to understand the inversion of field data we identify conductive horizons at 100 m and 250-300 m depth. The MT models estimate basin depth at 3-4 km in accordance with independent constraints from geologic mapping, gravity models and seismic imaging. Variations in basement topography correlate to some degree with previously proposed structural features elsewhere beneath the Caja del

  14. Obtenção de argilas organofílicas purificadas através de tensoativos iônicos e não iônicos visando uso em fluidos de perfuração base óleo Getting purified organoclays by ionic and non-ionic surfactant aiming use in oil based drilling fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. R. Costa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Em perfurações de petróleo sensíveis ao contato com água, torna-se necessária a utilização de fluidos de perfuração base óleo. Nestes casos, utilizam-se argilas organofílicas, que são obtidas a partir de argilas bentoníticas purificadas e tratadas com a adição de tensoativos. A utilização do hidrociclone pode representar uma ferramenta eficiente e de custo acessível para purificar argilas naturais em escala industrial. Este trabalho tem por objetivo estudar a purificação de argilas bentoníticas utilizando-se um hidrociclone, visando o desenvolvimento de argilas organofílicas para uso em fluidos de perfuração base óleo. As caracterizações das amostras das argilas estudadas - Brasgel PA e Chocolate - foram efetuadas por meio das técnicas: análise granulométrica por difração de laser, difração de raios X (DRX e análise química por fluorescência de raios X. A caracterização das argilas organofílicas obtidas foi efetuada por meio dos seguintes métodos: DRX e por uma modificação do inchamento de Foster. Os resultados mostram que o processo de purificação foi eficiente na redução de impurezas presentes na bentonita e que a argila organofílica purificada tratada com Praepagen WB e Imidazolina Oléica Vegetal apresenta valores de inchamento de Foster em éster, óleo diesel e parafina superiores aos obtidos com argilas organofílicas sem purificação (natural, e evidenciando maior afinidade com o tensoativo Praepagen WB.Oil drilling in sensitive contact with water, becomes required the use of oil base drilling fluids. In these cases, organoclays are used, which are made from clay bentonite purified and treated with surfactants addition. The use of the hydrocyclone can be a effective tool and affordable for purifying clays in industrial scale. This work aims to study the purification of clays bentonite using a hydrocyclone, aiming to develop organoclays for use in oil base drilling fluids. The

  15. Uso de sementes de Moringa oleifera para tratamento de águas superficiais The use of Moringa oleifera seeds for treatment of surface water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E. S. Paterniani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Visou-se, no presente trabalho, estudar o uso de sementes de Moringa oleifera para tratamento de água superficiais por filtração lenta direta em mantas sintéticas não tecidas e por sedimentação simples. Nos países em desenvolvimento, como o Brasil, as tecnologias para tratamento de água devem proporcionar às pessoas que habitam em regiões carentes de água potável, a possibilidade de sua clarificação, de maneira fácil, auto-sustentável e a baixo custo. Os estudos referidos no presente trabalho sugerem haver potencial de aplicação da Moringa oleifera. Utilizaram-se, no tratamento da água com Filtração Lenta Direta, um floculador constituído de garrafa Pet e três filtros, do mesmo material, com mantas sintéticas não tecidas, empregadas na filtração lenta, com vazão de água afluente aos filtros de aproximadamente 4 m³ m-2 d-1. No processo de tratamento de água em que se avaliou a eficiência da operação de sedimentação, o floculador era de garrafas pet e um tanque de sedimentação. A água bruta empregada na realização dos experimentos foi a água sintética obtida por Bentonita, a qual apresenta características qualitativas adequadas aos ensaios.This research had as its main purpose the evaluation of the use of natural coagulate, obtained from Moringa oleifera seeds and their efficiency in the slow direct filtration and sedimentation processes for the treatment of highly turbid water. In developing countries such as Brazil, technologies for water treatment must provide the possibility of water purification in an easy, self-maintainable and low cost process, for people who live in regions characterized by shortage of drinking water. Studies so far suggest that there is a potential application of Moringa oleifera in the water treatment with slow direct filtration. A flocker composed of a PET bottle and three filters composed of similar bottles with non-woven synthetic blanket were used in the slow filtration

  16. Tratamiento de salmueras de fermentación de aceitunas verdes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrido Fernández, A.

    1992-10-01

    de polisulfona de 1.000 daltons de corte molecular es lo más adecuado, trabajando a una presión de 18 bars. Un pretratamiento con bentonita (2 g/l, temperatura entre 30 y 45°G y la menor concentración inicial de polifenoles y sólidos en suspensión aumentan el rendimiento de forma considerable. En principio, un estudio económico aproximado de costes indica que la regeneración por cualquiera de los dos sistemas daría una salmuera regenerada a un precio algo inferior al obtenido al preparar el líquido de gobierno para envasar a partir de sus componentes.

  17. Desenvolvimento de filmes de nananocompósitos polipropileno/argila organofílica para embalagens Development of polypropylene/organoclay nanocomposite films for packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur R. A. Araújo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram preparados filmes de nanocompósitos de polipropileno (PP contendo 1% em massa de bentonita modificada organicamente com tecnologia nacional (APO. Polipropileno enxertado com anidrido maleico (PP-g-AM e copolímero de etileno e álcool vinílico (EVOH foram utilizados como agentes compatibilizantes. Os nanocompósitos foram preparados através da intercalação no estado fundido em extrusora de filme plano. A influência do tipo e do teor de compatibilizante e do tipo de polipropileno, na morfologia, propriedades mecânicas e de barreira ao vapor d'água dos referidos filmes foi investigada. Os dados de difração de raio X evidenciam que apesar da morfologia dos nanocompósitos ter sido afetada pelo tipo de compatibilizante, esta praticamente não variou com o teor de compatibilizante utilizado. As morfologias e as propriedades de barreira ao vapor d'água dos nanocompósitos preparados com os polipropilenos PP H401 e PP H07D-00 são semelhantes. Entretanto, aqueles preparados com PP H07D-00 apresentaram melhores propriedades mecânicas, excetuando a resistência da termossoldagem à tração, do que os preparados com a matriz polimérica PP H401, e a transparência dos nanocompósitos preparados com PP H07D-00 foi idêntica à da matriz polimérica sem argila. Os resultados indicam que os filmes de nanocompósitos PP H07D-00 compatibilizados com 15% de PP-g-AM e contendo 1% de argila organofílica APO podem ser promissores para aplicação em embalagens.This work deals with polypropylene (PP nanocomposite films containing 1 wt. (% bentonite clay organically modified with national technology (APO. Maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (PP-g-MA and ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH were used as compatibilizing agents. Nanocomposites were prepared by melt intercalation in a flat film extruder. An investigation was made of the influence from the type and content of compatibilizer and type of polypropylene on the morphology

  18. Desempenho de perus de corte alimentados com níveis crescentes de aflatoxinas, com ou sem adição de adsorvente Turkey performance fed with increasing aflatoxins levels, with or without adsorvent inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janio Morais Santurio

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado durante o verão de 1995/96 com o objetivo de determinar o nível de aflatoxinas (AFL capaz de causar prejuízos no desempenho de perus de corte criados sob condições ambientais de baixo desafio, bem como avaliar a eficácia da adição de bentonita sódica natural (BSN como um adsorvente. Foram utilizados 1008 perus de corte, alojados em 84 boxes seguindo um delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com 14 tratamentos distribuídos em um arranjo fatorial 7x2, sendo 7 níveis de adição de AFL, (0, 10, 50, 100, 500, 1000 e 2000ppb e 2 níveis de adição de BSN (0 e 0,5%. Aos 21 dias de idade, as aves alimentadas com as dietas sem adição de BSN mostraram uma redução significativa (PThis experiment was carried out in the 1995/96 summer to determine the aflatoxin (AFL levels ability to decrease turkey performance raised under excellent environmental conditions and also to avaluate a natural sodium bentonite (NSB efficiency as an adsorbent. One thousand and eight poults were housed in 84 floor pens following a randomized complete block design with 14 treatments arranged in a 7x2 factorial, with 7 AFL levels (0, 10, 50, 100, 500, 1000 and 2000ppb and 2 NSB levels (0 and 0.5%. At 21 days of age the birds fed without NSB showed body weight gain (BWG and feed intake (FI reduction (P<0.05 from 500ppb or more of AFL, whereas the birds fed with NSB showed BWG and FI reduction (P<0.05 only from 1000ppb or more of AFL. These same results were observed at 40 days of age, but at 70 days, the BWG and FI reduction was statistically significant (P<0.05 from 500ppb or more of AFL, with or without NSB inclusion. In general, birds fed with NSB had about 15 to 20% less BWG and FI reduction than birds fed without NSB. The feed conversion (FC was less affected by AFL levels, although it worsened with increasing AFL levels. AFL have greatly affected the mortality rate. At 21 days of age the birds fed with 1000 and 2000pbb of

  19. Germinação de sementes de cenoura osmoticamente condicionadas e peletizadas com diversos ingredientes Germination of carrot seed primed and pelleted with several ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warley M Nascimento

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A semente de cenoura caracteriza-se por ser relativamente pequena, o que dificulta o processo de distribuição, tornando a mecanização por semeadeiras convencionais uma prática difícil. A técnica da peletização tem sido utilizada visando a melhoria da distribuição de sementes e o estabelecimento de plântulas no campo. As sementes peletizadas geralmente apresentam menor velocidade de germinação quando comparadas com as sementes nuas do mesmo lote. O condicionamento osmótico tem sido utilizado para aumentar a velocidade de germinação de sementes. Neste estudo foram avaliados materiais cimentantes para a peletização de sementes e verificadas as relações existentes entre o condicionamento osmótico e a germinação das sementes peletizadas de cenoura cv. Alvorada. A peletização foi feita utilizando-se, como material de enchimento, a mistura de microcelulose e areia fina em volumes iguais e, para enchimento foram avaliados cinco materiais cimentantes: bentonita, methocel, opadry, rhoximat e goma arábica. Sementes peletizadas receberam ou não o acabamento com iriodin. Uma testemunha (sementes nuas foi incluída no ensaio. Em outro estudo, sementes foram osmoticamente condicionadas em solução aerada de polietileno glicol e peletizadas imediatamente após o condicionamento osmótico ou após a secagem. Os produtos rhoximat e opadry apresentaram as melhores características como material cimentante, formando uma fina camada de revestimento, que resultou na formação de péletes com superfície lisa, uniforme e ótima aparência externa. Em geral, péletes apresentaram uma ligeira redução na porcentagem e na velocidade de germinação, em comparação às sementes não peletizadas, com diferenças maiores para os péletes que receberam o acabamento com iriodin. O condicionamento osmótico aumentou a velocidade de germinação das sementes peletizadas de cenoura.Carrot seeds are small and the distribution in the field by

  20. Puertollano IGCC Power Plant; Central de Gasificacion Integrada en Ciclo Combinado de Puertollano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The Puertollano IGCC Power Plant, rated 335 MW and located in Puertollano, Ciudad Real, in the central area of Spain, is a project led by ELCOGAS, a company incorporated by the European utilities ENDESA, ELECTRICITE DE FRANCE, IBERDROLA HIDROCANTABRICO ELECTRICIDADE DE PURTUGAL, ENEL and NATIONAL POWER and the technology and equipment suppliers SIEMENS, KRUPP UHDE and BABCOCK WILCOX ESPANOLA. IGCC technology is based in a process of coal gasification to obtain a clean combustion synthetic gas, integrated with a combined cycle, agas and steam, electricity-generating unit. The energy efficiency which is aimed to achieve at the Plant is 46% in ISO conditions. The Gasification unit uses the process of pressurised entrained flow for coal gasification. The gas is produced by the reaction of coal with oxygen at high temperatures, of up to 1600 degree centigree. This process is capable of gasifying a wide variety of types and qualities of coal for the production of a synthetic fuel gas. In the case of Puertollano, the raw fuel is a 50% mixture by weight of local coal and petroleum coke. The oxygen needed in the process and the nitrogen used for covering the fuel is generated in the Air Separation. The Gas Cleaning and Sulphur Recovery Unit clean the gases from contaminants and solid particles before to send them to the Gas Turbine. The clean gas is burnt in gas turbine of the Combined Cycle Plant, producing electricity. The exhaust gases feed a heat recovery steam generator, which produces steam used to generate additional electricity in a conventional steam turbine. The gas turbine is capable of operating both with synthetic gas and with natural gas, allowing operation flexibility. The net output of the plant up to December 1999 was 3.061 GWh, from them 344 GWh were produced with synthetic gas. This project has an important technological value, being the first power plant which uses coal gasification to feed a combined cycle in Spain and being also the biggest power plant

  1. Anomalously High Geothermal Gradients in the Buckman Well Field, Santa Fe County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, A.; Munda, R.; Farrell, T. F.; Kelley, S. A.; Frost, J.; Jiracek, G. R.

    2013-12-01

    Temperature as a function of depth was measured in ten wells in the Santa Fe, NM area as part of the Summer of Applied Geophysics Experience (SAGE) program. Eight of the wells are within 5.5 km of the city's Buckman municipal well field and two wells are at La Tierra, 16.5 km to the SE. Geothermal gradients increase from east to west towards the Buckman area, from 20°C/km at La Tierra to 76°C/km at Buckman. Within the Buckman well field, two wells on its eastern side were determined to have temperature gradients of 32°C/km and 42°C/km. Only 300 m west, the geothermal gradient sharply increases, and measured gradients reach 76 °C/km (well number SF4A), 62°C/km (SF4B), and 68°C/km (SF3A) in three shallow (<100 m) monitoring drill holes. Both local and regional causes may explain the geothermal anomaly. The short spatial wavelength of the horizontal gradient increase argues for a localized source. The unusually high gradients in three of the wells may be associated with fault-controlled, effective shallow-source, warm water upflow or with lateral flow in a shallow aquifer. On the regional level, the east to west increase in temperature gradients can be explained by deep circulating groundwater flow in the Espanola Basin and upwelling near the Rio Grande. Another possible explanation comes from gravity data gathered by SAGE over several years that shows a local NW-striking structural high in the area that could force localized convective upflow. Regional aeromag maps indicate magnetic lows exactly underneath the anomalous wells. These may be interpreted as buried volcanic plugs beneath the Buckman well field, acting as conduits for upwelling warmer waters. They may also indicate hydrothermally altered rock beneath the surface. A more nontraditional cause of the sharp thermal anomaly is also possible. The geothermal gradient anomaly coincides with the dramatic discovery by InSAR in 1993-2000 of localized ground subsidence due to excessive water well pumping

  2. A Cafe Scientifique for Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, M.; Mayhew, M.

    2008-12-01

    It is well-known to those pursuing the quest to connect scientists to the public that an exceedingly hard-to- reach demographic is people of high school age. Typically, kids may tag along with their parents to museums until they reach adolescence, and then don't again appear in museums until they themselves have children. We have addressed this demographic challenge for free-choice-learning by developing a Cafe Scientifique program specifically for high school students. The Cafe Scientifique model for adults was developed in England and France, and has now spread like wildfire across the U.S. Typically, people come to a informal setting like a cafe, socialize and have food and drink, and then hear a short presentation by a scientist on a hot science topic in the news. This is followed by a period of lively discussion. We have followed this model for high school age students in four towns in northern New Mexico--Los Alamos, Santa Fe, Espanola, and Albuquerque--which represent a highly diverse demographic. We started this novel project with some trepidation, i.e. what if we build it and they don't come. But the program has proven popular beyond our expectations in all four towns. A part of the secret of success is the social setting, and-especially for this age group-the food provided. But we have also found that the kids are genuinely interested in the science topics, directing their own program, and interacting with scientists. We have often heard statements like, "I think it is important to be well-informed citizens". One of the most important aspects of the Cafes for the kids is to be able to discuss and argue about issues related to the science topic with the presenter and each other. It is an important part of the popularity that the Cafes do not involve school or parents, but also that we have strived to give the kids ownership of the program. Each town has a Youth Leadership Team-open to any teen-that discusses and prioritizes potential topics, conducts

  3. Spanish Peaks, Sangre de Cristo Range, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The Spanish Peaks, on the eastern flank of the Sangre de Cristo range, abruptly rise 7,000 feet above the western Great Plains. Settlers, treasure hunters, trappers, gold and silver miners have long sighted on these prominent landmarks along the Taos branch of the Santa Fe trail. Well before the westward migration, the mountains figured in the legends and history of the Ute, Apache, Comanche, and earlier tribes. 'Las Cumbres Espanolas' are also mentioned in chronicles of exploration by Spaniards including Ulibarri in 1706 and later by de Anza, who eventually founded San Francisco (California). This exceptional view (STS108-720-32), captured by the crew of Space Shuttle mission STS108, portrays the Spanish Peaks in the context of the southern Rocky Mountains. Uplift of the Sangre de Cristo began about 75 million years ago and produced the long north-trending ridges of faulted and folded rock to the west of the paired peaks. After uplift had ceased (26 to 22 million years ago), the large masses of igneous rock (granite, granodiorite, syenodiorite) that form the Peaks were emplaced (Penn, 1995-2001). East and West Spanish Peaks are 'stocks'-bodies of molten rock that intruded sedimentary layers, cooled and solidified, and were later exposed by erosion. East Peak (E), at 12,708 ft is almost circular and is about 5 1/2 miles long by 3 miles wide, while West Peak (W), at 13,623 ft is roughly 2 3/4 miles long by 1 3/4 miles wide. Great dikes-long stone walls-radiate outward from the mountains like spokes of a wheel, a prominent one forms a broad arc northeast of East Spanish Peak. As the molten rock rose, it forced its way into vertical cracks and joints in the sedimentary strata; the less resistant material was then eroded away, leaving walls of hard rock from 1 foot to 100 feet wide, up to 100 feet high, and as long as 14 miles. Dikes trending almost east-west are also common in the region. For more information visit: Sangres.com: The Spanish Peaks (accessed January 16

  4. Soil Materials and Health: An new experience for teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Hoyo Martínez, Carmen

    2014-05-01

    clays in the field of the health is a source to develop numerous studies of cases in the teaching of different subjects related to the geoscience and a new opportunity to connect the learning with the reality. References -Carretero, MI 2002. Clay Minerals and Their Beneficial Effects upon Human Health. A review. Appl. Clay Sci. 21, pp. 155-163. -Choy, J.H., Choi, S.J., Oh, J.M., Park, T. 2007. Clay minerals and layered double hydroxides for novel biological applications. Appl. Clay Sci. 36 pp. 122-132. -Del Hoyo, C. 2007. Layered double hydroxides and human health: An overview. Appl. Clay Sci. 36, pp. 103-121. -Lopez-Galindo, A., Viseras Iborra, C. & Cerezo Gonzalez, P. 2005. Arcillas y salud. In: Conferencias de la XIX Reunion de la Sociedad Espanola de Arcillas. Rives, Ed., pp. 15-18.

  5. A Planetary Ring Around Earth as Source for the Ir-Enrichment at the KT-Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stage, M.; Rasmussen, K. L.

    1992-07-01

    a planetary ring formed around the Earth prior to the KT boundary event, and that the Ir enrichment at the KT boundary layer is formed by a slow accretion from a planetary ring rather than from a giant impact. This explains the gradual rise in Ir content prior to the peak event at the boundary layer (Hansen et al. 1988) and the gradual decrease in Ir content found in the sediments after the peak event. References Brahic A. (1976) J. of Computational Physics 22, 171-188. Brahic, A. (1977) Astr. Astrophys. 54, 895-907. Hansen, H.J., Gwozdz, R., and Rasmussen, K.L. (1988). Revista Espanola Paleontologia. extra vol., 21-29. Hansen, H.J. (1990) Geological Soc. Am. Spec. Pap. 247, 417-423. Figure 1, which in the hard copy appears here, shows the atmospheric drag on ring particles.

  6. Efeito da adição de componentes inorgânicos na resistência mecânica de moldes de areia para fundição Effect of addition of inorganic components on the mechanical strength of sand molds for casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Cilla

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O processo de fundição mais rápido, econômico e convencional é o de moldagem em areia a verde, onde o ligante principal é uma argila umedecida (bentonita. Entretanto, devido a exigências tecnológicas, são utilizados também ligantes tóxicos como resinas furânicas, fenólicas ou uretânicas. Novas tecnologias vêm sendo desenvolvidas para a recuperação e inertização das areias, porém as resinas disponíveis atualmente têm como limitação "ecológica" sua origem química. Após sua utilização estes moldes são descartados, e assim, os ligantes tóxicos tornam-se um problema ambiental. Desta maneira, a substituição destes ligantes por compostos orgânicos derivados de fontes renováveis como a resina poliuretana derivada do óleo de mamona minimiza os impactos ambientais, conduzindo o processo de fundição rumo à sustentabilidade, necessária devido ao aumento do rigor da legislação ambiental. Devido ao comportamento térmico do poliuretano vegetal, que se decompõem de maneira mais acentuada quando exposto a altas temperaturas quando comparado aos ligantes orgânicos tradicionais a adição de componentes inorgânicos se faz necessária como promotora da ligação entre os grãos de areia e conseqüente coesão dos moldes durante a etapa de fusão. Neste sentido, o uso de diagramas de fases na previsão do surgimento de fase líquida pela adição de componentes inorgânicos à mistura areia/resina em moldes de areia para fundição e seu efeito na resistência mecânica dos moldes em altas temperaturas, funciona como ferramenta teórica no auxílio à determinação das composições dos moldes de acordo com sua solicitação térmica durante a fusão. Testes iniciais de moldagem e resistência mecânica a temperatura ambiente mostraram que a resina poliuretana derivada da mamona apresenta resultados comparáveis aos das resinas comerciais. Também a adição dos componentes inorgânicos e seu efeito quando submetido a