WorldWideScience

Sample records for benishangul-gumuz regional state

  1. Visceral Leishmaniasis in Benishangul-Gumuz Regional State, Western Ethiopia: Reemerging or Emerging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abera, Adugna; Tasew, Geremew; Tsegaw, Teshome; Kejella, Asfaw; Mulugeta, Abate; Worku, Dagimlidet; Aseffa, Abraham; Gadisa, Endalamaw

    2016-07-01

    Kala-azar is a growing public health problem in Ethiopia. Benishangul-Gumuz regional state was previously not known to be endemic for the disease. In response to a case report from the region, we conducted a rapid assessment survey. A pretested questionnaire was used to capture sociodemographic and clinical histories pertinent to kala-azar. Study participants with complaints of fever and headache for 2 weeks or more were tested for kala-azar and malaria. All participants were screened with the leishmanin skin test and the direct agglutination test for exposure to Leishmania, defined as a positive result with either or both tests. Of 275 participants, 20 were exposed giving an overall leishmaniasis seroprevalence rate of 7.3%. Among the 20 positive individuals, 19 were farmers and nine of them reported no travel history outside their district. It appears that kala-azar is emerging in Dangur and Guba districts of Benishangul-Gumuz regional state, probably in connection with human encroachment into one or several previously out-of-reach zoonotic foci. We recommend integrated epidemiological surveys for confirmation and early containment of disease transmission in the area. PMID:27139445

  2. Ethnomedical survey of Berta ethnic group Assosa Zone, Benishangul-Gumuz regional state, mid-west Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asres Kaleab

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditional medicine (TM has been a major source of health care in Ethiopia as in most developing countries around the world. This survey examined the extent and factors determining the use of TM and medicinal plants by Berta community. One thousand and two hundred households (HHs and fourteen traditional healers were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires and six focused group discussions (FGDs were conducted. The prevalence of the use of TM in the two weeks recall period was 4.6%. The HH economic status was found to have a significant effect while the educational level and age of the patients have no effect either on the care seeking behavior or choice of care. Taking no action about a given health problem and using TM are common in females with low-income HHs. Forty plant species belonging to 23 families were reported, each with local names, methods of preparation and parts used. This study indicates that although the proportion of the population that uses TM may be small it is still an important component of the public health care in the study community as complementary and alternative medicine.

  3. How Sustainable Is Transnational Farmland Acquisition in Ethiopia? Lessons Learned from the Benishangul-Gumuz Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dereje Teklemariam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the nature of available land as one of the main attractions for investment, land lease marketing in Sub-Saharan Africa is appearing on policy agenda. This paper describes critical land-related institutional and governmental frameworks that have shaped the contemporary land governance and land lease contracts in Ethiopia. It also examines the effectiveness of the land lease process regarding economic, social, and environmental expectations from agricultural outsourcing. Both qualitative and quantitative data analyses were used and results showed that the size of the land cultivated by investors is significantly lower than the agreed-upon size in the contract. Besides, the supply of land to large-scale commercial investors in Ethiopia is made without adequate land use planning, land valuation, and risk analysis. Furthermore, limitations in monitoring systems have contributed to meager socio-economic gains and led to deforestation. Accordingly, the study concludes that supplying vast tracts of farmland to large-scale agricultural investors requires integrated land use planning, land valuation and governance, monitoring systems, and a capacity to implement the various social and environmental laws in coordination with other sectors. Improving rural infrastructure, particularly road, is also indispensable to enhance the level of performance of commercial farms. Last but most importantly, the customary land holding rights of residents should be respected and institutionally recognized.

  4. The Content and Bioavailability of Mineral Nutrients of Selected Wild and Traditional Edible Plants as Affected by Household Preparation Methods Practiced by Local Community in Benishangul Gumuz Regional State, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailu, Andinet Abera; Addis, Getachew

    2016-01-01

    Edible parts of some wild and traditional vegetables used by the Gumuz community, namely, Portulaca quadrifida, Dioscorea abyssinica, Abelmoschus esculentus, and Oxytenanthera abyssinica, were evaluated for their minerals composition and bioavailability. Mineral elements, namely, Ca, Fe, Zn, and Cu, were analyzed using Shimadzu atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Effects of household processing practices on the levels of mineral elements were evaluated and the bioavailability was predicted using antinutrient-mineral molar ratios. Fe, Zn, Ca, Cu, P, Na, and K level in raw edible portions ranged in (0.64 ± 0.02–27.0 ± 6.24), (0.46 ± 0.02–0.85 ± 0.02), (24.49 ± 1.2–131.7 ± 8.3), (0.11 ± 0.01–0.46 ± 0.04), (39.13 ± 0.34–57.27 ± 0.94), (7.34 ± 0.42–20.42 ± 1.31), and (184.4 ± 1.31–816.3 ± 11.731) mg/100 g FW, respectively. Although statistically significant losses in minerals as a result of household preparation practices were observed, the amount of nutrients retained could be valuable especially in communities that have limited alternative sources of these micronutrients. The predicted minerals' bioavailability shows adequacy in terms of calcium and zinc but not iron. PMID:26981523

  5. Analyzing the Challenges of IS implementation in public health institutions of a developing country

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengiste, Shegaw Anagaw

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the challenges of introducing computer-based health information systems in the context of the Ethiopian public health care system. Drawing empirical examples from the process of introducing computer-based health information system(HIS) in two regional states (Amhara...... and Benishangul-Gumuz) of Ethiopia, this paper analyses the socio-technical challenges influencing the transition towards a new computerised system and suggested the importance of developing context-sensitive strategies to tackle different challenges in different contexts. Building on the notions of installed......, availability of adaquate and qualified manpower, and managerial commitment and support would significantly influence the implementation process. I argue that, such context-senitive challenges need to be dealt through flexible startegies that took in to account the specific context. In this paper, four...

  6. STATE/REGIONAL GOVERNANCE: CONCEPTS, MODELS (AZERBAIJAN)

    OpenAIRE

    Gamidov, Samir

    2007-01-01

    The article analyzes modern concepts of state governance and its role in social development, considers aspects of regional governance, and offers a systemic/functional model of regional governance in Azerbaijan.

  7. Regional Synthesis for State Wildlife Action Plans

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The North Atlantic LCC and Northeast states are developing a synthesis of regional conservation information for State Wildlife Action Plan (SWAP) revisions....

  8. Optimal error regions for quantum state estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An estimator is a state that represents one's best guess of the actual state of the quantum system for the given data. Such estimators are points in the state space. To be statistically meaningful, they have to be endowed with error regions, the generalization of error bars beyond one dimension. As opposed to standard ad hoc constructions of error regions, we introduce the maximum-likelihood region—the region of largest likelihood among all regions of the same size—as the natural counterpart of the popular maximum-likelihood estimator. Here, the size of a region is its prior probability. A related concept is the smallest credible region—the smallest region with pre-chosen posterior probability. In both cases, the optimal error region has constant likelihood on its boundary. This surprisingly simple characterization permits concise reporting of the error regions, even in high-dimensional problems. For illustration, we identify optimal error regions for single-qubit and two-qubit states from computer-generated data that simulate incomplete tomography with few measured copies. (paper)

  9. Hydrologic landscape regions of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hydrologic landscape regions (HLRs) in the United States were delineated by using geographic information system (GIS) tools and statistical methods including...

  10. Use of Balanced Scorecard Methodology for Performance Measurement of the Health Extension Program in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teklehaimanot, Hailay D; Teklehaimanot, Awash; Tedella, Aregawi A; Abdella, Mustofa

    2016-05-01

    In 2004, Ethiopia introduced a community-based Health Extension Program to deliver basic and essential health services. We developed a comprehensive performance scoring methodology to assess the performance of the program. A balanced scorecard with six domains and 32 indicators was developed. Data collected from 1,014 service providers, 433 health facilities, and 10,068 community members sampled from 298 villages were used to generate weighted national, regional, and agroecological zone scores for each indicator. The national median indicator scores ranged from 37% to 98% with poor performance in commodity availability, workforce motivation, referral linkage, infection prevention, and quality of care. Indicator scores showed significant difference by region (P < 0.001). Regional performance varied across indicators suggesting that each region had specific areas of strength and deficiency, with Tigray and the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region being the best performers while the mainly pastoral regions of Gambela, Afar, and Benishangul-Gumuz were the worst. The findings of this study suggest the need for strategies aimed at improving specific elements of the program and its performance in specific regions to achieve quality and equitable health services. PMID:26928842

  11. Use of Balanced Scorecard Methodology for Performance Measurement of the Health Extension Program in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teklehaimanot, Hailay D; Teklehaimanot, Awash; Tedella, Aregawi A; Abdella, Mustofa

    2016-05-01

    In 2004, Ethiopia introduced a community-based Health Extension Program to deliver basic and essential health services. We developed a comprehensive performance scoring methodology to assess the performance of the program. A balanced scorecard with six domains and 32 indicators was developed. Data collected from 1,014 service providers, 433 health facilities, and 10,068 community members sampled from 298 villages were used to generate weighted national, regional, and agroecological zone scores for each indicator. The national median indicator scores ranged from 37% to 98% with poor performance in commodity availability, workforce motivation, referral linkage, infection prevention, and quality of care. Indicator scores showed significant difference by region (P < 0.001). Regional performance varied across indicators suggesting that each region had specific areas of strength and deficiency, with Tigray and the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region being the best performers while the mainly pastoral regions of Gambela, Afar, and Benishangul-Gumuz were the worst. The findings of this study suggest the need for strategies aimed at improving specific elements of the program and its performance in specific regions to achieve quality and equitable health services.

  12. Economic disparities between EU states and regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion CIUREA

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available EU has 27 Member States representing a community and a market of 493million citizens, which creates further economic and social disparities between thestates and their 271 regions. In a region in four, the GDP (gross domestic product percapita is 75% below the average for the EU-27. Based on the concepts of solidarity andcohesion, regional policy of the European Union favors reducing structural disparitiesbetween EU regions, the balanced development of the community and promoting aneffective equality of opportunity between people. Over the past 50 years, Europeancooperation has helped build highways, sewage plants, bridges, laboratories forbiotechnology. She helped to revive urban areas and neglected activities, throughcountless projects in the poorest regions of the Union.. Two key values: solidarity andcohesion, underlying these projects and the regional policy of the European Union. Theeconomic, social and territorial cohesion will always be at the heart of Europe Strategy2020, a key mechanism for achieving the priorities for a smart growth, sustainable andinclusive in the Member States and regions.

  13. 77 FR 76173 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Washington; Regional Haze State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... Implementation Plans; State of Washington; Regional Haze State Implementation Plan; Federal Implementation Plan for Best Available Retrofit Technology for Alcoa Intalco Operations and Tesoro Refining and Marketing... Plans; State of Washington; Regional Haze State Implementation Plan; Federal Implementation Plan...

  14. State support of regional investment projects

    OpenAIRE

    Skopin Aleksey Olegovich

    2012-01-01

    The author provides an overview of the regulatory framework in the field of public support (at the federal level and at federation) regional investment projects in the form of capital investment. Marks a significant role in co-financing of regional investment projects Investment Fund of Russia, shows the role of regional investment funds, as a new instrument of government support for regional investment projects.

  15. Costly Regional Landslide Events in the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains information on costly regional landslide events in the 50 United States and Puerto Rico. The extents of the regional events were drawn from...

  16. State fragility and its regional implications for peace and stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    of the Cold war left a security void, and the fragility, and in some instances collapse, of the state structures resulted in new state formations and new conflicts, both intra- and inter-state in nature. However, conflicts and security challenges in East Africa are due to amongst other things porous borders......, fragile states and bad governance regional in nature, and cannot be solved by the individual states alone. Regional institutions have been in a weak position dealing with these challenges, and attempts have been to strengthen the capacity of these regional institutions. This paper investigates...... the attempts setting up regional security institutions in the Greater Horn of Africa and asks if fragile states are capable of creating strong security institutions and effectively handling regional peace and security challenges?  ...

  17. The Southern Regional Education Board and Member States, January 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report provides an overview of Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services and how each member state participated in them from July 2012 through December 2013. The nation's first regional interstate compact for education, SREB is today the most comprehensive, bringing together states to enable them to achieve…

  18. Decoding Brain States Based on Magnetoencephalography From Prespecified Cortical Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinyin; Li, Xin; Foldes, Stephen T; Wang, Wei; Collinger, Jennifer L; Weber, Douglas J; Bagić, Anto

    2016-01-01

    Brain state decoding based on whole-head MEG has been extensively studied over the past decade. Recent MEG applications pose an emerging need of decoding brain states based on MEG signals originating from prespecified cortical regions. Toward this goal, we propose a novel region-of-interest-constrained discriminant analysis algorithm (RDA) in this paper. RDA integrates linear classification and beamspace transformation into a unified framework by formulating a constrained optimization problem. Our experimental results based on human subjects demonstrate that RDA can efficiently extract the discriminant pattern from prespecified cortical regions to accurately distinguish different brain states.

  19. The Southern Regional Education Board and Member States, December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report provides an overview of Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services and how each member state participated in them from December 2013 through November 2014. SREB serves a wide range of education policy leaders, including governors, state legislators, executive and legislative staff, and K-12 and postsecondary agency…

  20. 76 FR 43963 - Regional Haze State Implementation Plan; State of Nevada; Extension of Comment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... plan. DATES: The comment period for the proposed rule published June 22, 2011 (76 FR 36450), is... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 51 Regional Haze State Implementation Plan; State of Nevada; Extension of Comment... (SIP) to implement the regional haze program for the first planning period through July 31, 2018....

  1. 77 FR 42718 - Notice of Staff Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Regional Entity Trustee, Regional State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ...) Regional Entity Trustee (RE), Regional State Committee (RSC) and Board of Directors, as noted below. Their... RE July, 30, 2012 (8:00 a.m.-12:00 p.m.) SPP RSC July 30, 2012 (1:00 p.m.-5:00 p.m.) SPP Board...

  2. 77 FR 64505 - Notice of Staff Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Regional Entity Trustee, Regional State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ..., Inc. (SPP) Regional Entity Trustee (RE), Regional State Committee (RSC) and Board of Directors, as...) 312-9000. SPP RE October 29, 2012 (8:00 a.m.-12:00 p.m.) SPP RSC October 29, 2012 (1:00 p.m.-5:00...

  3. 78 FR 64495 - Notice of Staff Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Regional Entity Trustee, Regional State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ..., Inc. (SPP) Regional Entity Trustee (RE), Regional State Committee (RSC) and Board of Directors, as...) 312-9000. SPP RE October 28, 2013 (8:00 a.m.-12:00 p.m.) SPP RSC October 28, 2013 (1:00 p.m.-5:00...

  4. 78 FR 6320 - Notice of Staff Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Regional Entity Trustee, Regional State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ..., Inc. (SPP) Regional Entity Trustee (RE), Regional State Committee (RSC) and Board of Directors, as...) 312-9000. SPP RE January 28, 2013 (8:00 a.m.-12:00 p.m.) SPP RSC January 28, 2013 (1:00 p.m.-5:00...

  5. 76 FR 22699 - Notice of Staff Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Regional Entity Trustee, Regional State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ...) Regional Entity Trustee (RE), Regional State Committee (RSC) and Board of Directors, as noted below. Their..., 2011 (8:30 a.m.-2 p.m.). SPP RSC April 25, 2011 (1 p.m.-5 p.m.). SPP Board of Directors April 26,...

  6. 78 FR 25078 - Notice of Staff Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Regional Entity Trustee, Regional State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-29

    ..., Inc. (SPP) Regional Entity Trustee (RE), Regional State Committee (RSC) and Board of Directors, as... phone number is (816) 891-8900. SPP RE April 29, 2013 (8:00 a.m.-12:00 p.m.) SPP RSC April 29, 2013...

  7. 76 FR 64940 - Notice of Staff Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Regional Entity Trustee, Regional State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ...) Regional Entity Trustee (RE), Regional State Committee (RSC) and Board of Directors, as noted below. Their... RE October 24, 2011 (8:30 a.m.-2 p.m.) SPP RSC October 24, 2011 (1 p.m.-5 p.m.) SPP Board...

  8. 76 FR 4652 - Notice of Staff Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Regional Entity Trustee, Regional State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ..., Inc. (SPP) Regional Entity Trustee (RE), Regional State Committee (RSC) and Board of Directors, as...) 581- 1300. SPP RE January 24, 2011 (8:30 a.m.-2 p.m.) SPP RSC January 24, 2011 (1 p.m.-5 p.m.)...

  9. 76 FR 42123 - Notice of Staff Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Regional Entity Trustee, Regional State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ..., Inc. (SPP) Regional Entity Trustee (RE), Regional State Committee (RSC) and Board of Directors, as... phone number is (800) 810-3708. SPP RE July 25, 2011 (8:30 a.m.-2 p.m.). ] SPP RSC July 25, 2011 (1-5...

  10. 77 FR 24199 - Notice of Staff Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Regional Entity Trustee, Regional State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ...) Regional Entity Trustee (RE), Regional State Committee (RSC) and Board of Directors, as noted below. Their.... SPP RE April 23, 2012 (8 a.m.-12 p.m.) SPP RSC April 23, 2012 (1 p.m.-5 p.m.) SPP Board of...

  11. 77 FR 3765 - Notice of Staff Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Regional Entity Trustee, Regional State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ...) Regional Entity Trustee (RE), Regional State Committee (RSC) and Board of Directors, as noted below. Their...) 235-4670. SPP RE January 30, 2012 (8 a.m.-2 p.m.). SPP RSC January 30, 2012 (1 p.m.-5 p.m.). SPP...

  12. Pottery ethnoarchaeology in Western Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    González Ruibal, Alfredo

    2005-01-01

    The results of three ethnoarchaeological field seasons carried out among the Berta, Gumuz, Mao and Kwama of western Ethiopia are presented here. Fieldwork focused on the gathering of general data on the material culture of Benishangul- Gumuz, and particularly on pottery and vernacular architecture. The data relating to production, distribution and consumption of pottery are addressed in this article. The peoples studied are organised on egalitarian lines and practise a slash-and-burn agricult...

  13. State and Regional Control of Geological Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitze, Arnold [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Durrant, Marie [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2011-03-01

    The United States has economically recoverable coal reserves of about 261 billion tons, which is in excess of a 250-­year supply based on 2009 consumption rates. However, in the near future the use of coal may be legally restricted because of concerns over the effects of its combustion on atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Carbon capture and geologic sequestration offer one method to reduce carbon emissions from coal and other hydrocarbon energy production. While the federal government is providing increased funding for carbon capture and sequestration, recent congressional legislative efforts to create a framework for regulating carbon emissions have failed. However, regional and state bodies have taken significant actions both to regulate carbon and facilitate its capture and sequestration. This article explores how regional bodies and state government are addressing the technical and legal problems that must be resolved in order to have a viable carbon sequestration program. Several regional bodies have formed regulations and model laws that affect carbon capture and storage, and three bodies comprising twenty-three states—the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, the Midwest Regional Greenhouse Gas Reduction Accord, and the Western Climate initiative—have cap-­and-trade programs in various stages of development. State property, land use and environmental laws affect the development and implementation of carbon capture and sequestration projects, and unless federal standards are imposed, state laws on torts and renewable portfolio requirements will directly affect the liability and viability of these projects. This paper examines current state laws and legislative efforts addressing carbon capture and sequestration.

  14. State and Regional Control of Geological Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitze, Arnold; Durrant, Marie

    2011-03-31

    The United States has economically recoverable coal reserves of about 261 billion tons, which is in excess of a 250-­‐year supply based on 2009 consumption rates. However, in the near future the use of coal may be legally restricted because of concerns over the effects of its combustion on atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Carbon capture and geologic sequestration offer one method to reduce carbon emissions from coal and other hydrocarbon energy production. While the federal government is providing increased funding for carbon capture and sequestration, recent congressional legislative efforts to create a framework for regulating carbon emissions have failed. However, regional and state bodies have taken significant actions both to regulate carbon and facilitate its capture and sequestration. This article explores how regional bodies and state government are addressing the technical and legal problems that must be resolved in order to have a viable carbon sequestration program. Several regional bodies have formed regulations and model laws that affect carbon capture and storage, and three bodies comprising twenty-­‐three states—the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, the Midwest Regional Greenhouse Gas Reduction Accord, and the Western Climate initiative—have cap-­‐and-­‐trade programs in various stages of development. State property, land use and environmental laws affect the development and implementation of carbon capture and sequestration projects, and unless federal standards are imposed, state laws on torts and renewable portfolio requirements will directly affect the liability and viability of these projects. This paper examines current state laws and legislative efforts addressing carbon capture and sequestration.

  15. Regionalism, Cultural Diversity and the State in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecours, Andre

    2001-01-01

    Uses historical institutionalism to explain Spain's contemporary regional-cultural identities. Shows how these identities were molded by various historical forms of the Spanish state. Discusses four such forms in light of their impact on the country's identity landscape. (Author/VWL)

  16. Equation of State for Water in the Small Compressibility Region

    CERN Document Server

    Bardik, V Yu; Pavlov, E V; Zhyganiuk, I V

    2012-01-01

    The equation of state for dense fluids has been derived within the framework of the Sutherland and Katz potential models. The equation quantitatively agrees with experimental data on the isothermal compression of water under extrapolation into the high pressure region. It establishes an explicit relationship between the thermodynamic experimental data and the effective parameters of the molecular potential.

  17. Great Lakes Biomass State and Regional Partnership (GLBSRP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzel, Frederic

    2009-09-01

    The Council of Great Lakes Governors administered the Great Lakes Biomass State and Regional Partnership (GLBSRP) under contract with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). This Partnership grew out of the existing Regional Biomass Energy Program which the Council had administered since 1983. The GLBSRP includes the States of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio and Wisconsin. The GLBSRP's overall goal is to facilitate the increased production and use of bioenergy and biobased products throughout the region. The GLBSRP has traditionally addressed its goals and objectives through a three-pronged approach: providing grants to the States; undertaking region-wide education, outreach and technology transfer projects; and, providing in-house management, support and information dissemination. At the direction of US Department of Energy, the primary emphasis of the GLBSRP in recent years has been education and outreach. Therefore, most activities have centered on developing educational materials, hosting workshops and conferences, and providing technical assistance. This report summarizes a selection of activities that were accomplished under this cooperative agreement.

  18. The Contradictions of Uneven Development for States and Firms: Capital and State Rescaling in Peripheral Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quark, Amy Adams

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that processes of capital and state rescaling are generating new socio-spatial inequalities within nation-states. I explore rescaling in the understudied context of a peripheral region through the case of a global apparel merchant, Lands' End, and its decision to relocate its call and distribution centers to Dodgeville,…

  19. Strategies of urban development between europeisation, the state and regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metka Sitar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In European and national strategic documents, even Slovene ones, emphasis in physical and regional development, which is aligned to principles of sustainable development, is on goals and directions for balanced spatial development, while contemporary urbanisation processes, conditioned by global competitiveness of the post-industrial age, underline the leading role of large urban centres. On the other hand structural transformations in Europe are increasingly changing spatial relations between states, regions, cities and agglomerations. With growth of economic and infrastructure flows and strategic enforcement of transnational authority a uniform European economic and social space is emerging, in which different integrations are substituting the role of states. We are deliberating on the necessity of changing the viewpoint on prospective development of cities and urban regions, whereby focus of spatial policies and strategies is on integral dealings with space. Conditions for successful, competitive urban economy can be established only by connecting economic policies with other spatially-relevant departmental policies (transport, environment, agriculture etc.; with general welfare as the goal, another component is becoming significantly closer, which is social cohesion. In different chapters the article presents various global, regional and local factors and in European circumstances identifies the most typical factors affecting roles and functions in city development. Starting from various theoretical embarkation points and selected practical examples from different urban environments, the article tries to define possibilities for identifying initiatives and recommendations for designing development policies and strategies that are essential even in Slovene circumstances.

  20. Equation of state for water in the small compressibility region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The approach developed on the basis of the free energy perturbation expansion and a new version of TPT resulted in some universality for the EOS statistical foundation of the low weight molecular supercritical fluids. In principle, the concept of the thermodynamic reference state implies that an initial state (P0, V0) on the isotherm corresponds to the reference system with the unperturbed potential, and every subsequent point on the isotherm (P1, V2), . . . , (Pn, Vn) corresponds to the system with the perturbed potential at the isothermal compression of the system. This modification of TPT allowed obtaining the EoS which exhibits good results under the extrapolation to the high-pressure region and, most importantly, establishes a relationship between the parameters of the model potential and the thermodynamic properties of substances. This relationship gives estimations for the values of the parameter ε (Table 2). Interestingly, the values are of the same order of magnitude as the values of many well-known water models (SPC/E, SPC/Fw, TIP3P/Fw, TIP5P/Ew). However, the temperature dependence of ε in this region of thermodynamic variables indicates that the form of the Sutherland model is unsuitable for this high pressure region. Nevertheless, these data can be used as additional information for calibrating the potential parameters in simulations.

  1. Regional Patterns of Cortical Phase Synchrony in the Resting State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casimo, Kaitlyn; Darvas, Felix; Wander, Jeremiah; Ko, Andrew; Grabowski, Thomas J; Novotny, Edward; Poliakov, Andrew; Ojemann, Jeffrey G; Weaver, Kurt E

    2016-07-01

    Synchronized phase estimates between oscillating neuronal signals at the macroscale level reflect coordinated activities between neuronal assemblies. Recent electrophysiological evidence suggests the presence of significant spontaneous phase synchrony within the resting state. The purpose of this study was to investigate phase synchrony, including directional interactions, in resting state subdural electrocorticographic recordings to better characterize patterns of regional phase interactions across the lateral cortical surface during the resting state. We estimated spontaneous phase locking value (PLV) as a measure of functional connectivity, and phase slope index (PSI) as a measure of pseudo-causal phase interactions, across a broad range of canonical frequency bands and the modulation of the amplitude envelope of high gamma (amHG), a band that is believed to best reflect the physiological processes giving rise to the functional magnetic resonance imaging BOLD signal. Long-distance interactions had higher PLVs in slower frequencies (≤theta) than in higher ones (≥beta) with amHG behaving more like slow frequencies, and a general trend of increasing frequency band of significant PLVs when moving across the lateral surface along an anterior-posterior axis. Moreover, there was a strong trend of frontal-to-parietal directional phase synchronization, measured by PSI across multiple frequencies. These findings, which are likely indicative of coordinated and structured spontaneous cortical interactions, are important in the study of time scales and directional nature of resting state functional connectivity, and may ultimately contribute to a better understanding of how spontaneous synchrony is linked to variation in regional architecture across the lateral cortical surface. PMID:27019319

  2. Optimization of Functioning of the Klintsovsky State Nature Reserve of Regional Importance in the Bryansk Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moskalenko Igor Vladimirovich

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides information on the current status of specially protected natural territories of the Bryansk region – namely, the Klintsovsky state nature reserve of regional importance located on the territory of the Bryansk region. The authors touch upon the problems of global biodiversity and conservation of rare and endangered plant species. The species composition is specified, and the habitats of rare plant species are revealed. The purpose of the research is to develop policies and programs aimed at the conservation of biodiversity and restoration of rare and endangered species of plants growing in the region, including in the Klintsovsky reserve of the Bryansk region. The authors have developed the methods on preservation and restorations of rare and endangered plants species populations growing in the reserve. For successful implementation of a number of issues on environmental trends, the authors identified the feasibility of establishing an interregional introduction center. The task of introduction center for issues related to the identification and involvement of economically valuable species of plants, including rare and endangered species in the center. The article also deals with the organization of research on their biology and ecology, modeling optimal conditions for mass breeding and cultivation of planting material and the development of programs for the implementation of these species in natural habitats in order to restore the size and population density.

  3. 77 FR 76871 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Regional Haze State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... haze in 1999 (64 FR 35714, July 1, 1999, codified at 40 CFR part 51, subpart P). The requirements for... the regional haze requirements (74 FR 2392). Once EPA has found that a state has failed to make a... Register on March 26, 2012 (77 FR 18052). In that notice, we provided a detailed description of the...

  4. Regional Climate Change Impacts in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhoe, K.; Burkett, V.; Grimm, N.; McCarthy, J.; Miles, E.; Overpeck, J.; Shea, E.; Wuebbles, D.

    2009-05-01

    Climate change will affect one region differently from another. For that reason, the U.S. Unified Synthesis Product "Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States" broke down its assessment of climate change impacts on the country into 8 regions. Key highlights include: In the Northeast, agricultural production, including dairy, fruit, and maple syrup, will be increasingly affected as favorable climates shift northward. In the Southeast, accelerated sea-level rise and increased hurricane intensity will have serious impacts. In the Midwest, under higher emissions scenarios, significant reductions in Great Lakes water levels will impact shipping, infrastructure, beaches, and ecosystems. In the Great Plains, projected increases in temperature, evaporation, and drought frequency exacerbate concerns regarding the region's declining water resources. In the Southwest, water supplies will become increasingly scarce, calling for trade-offs among competing uses, and potentially leading to conflict. In the Northwest, salmon and other cold-water species will experience additional stresses as a result of rising water temperatures and declining summer streamflows. In Alaska, thawing permafrost damages roads, runways, water and sewer systems, and other infrastructure. And in the U.S. islands in the Caribbean and Pacific, climate changes affecting coastal and marine ecosystems will have major implications for tourism and fisheries. In addition, significant sea-level rise and storm surge will affect coastal cities and ecosystems around the nation; low-lying and subsiding areas are most vulnerable.

  5. Evolution of PAHs in photodissociation regions: Hydrogenation and charge states

    CERN Document Server

    Montillaud, J; Toublanc, D

    2013-01-01

    Various studies have emphasized variations of the charge state and composition of the interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) population in photodissociation regions (PDRs). We aim to model the spatial evolution of the charge and hydrogenation states of PAHs in PDRs. We focus on the specific case of the north-west (NW) PDR of NGC 7023 and also discuss the case of the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM). The physical conditions in NGC 7023 NW are modelled using a state-of-the-art PDR code. We then use a new PAH chemical evolution model that includes recent experimental data on PAHs and describes multiphoton events. We consider a family of compact PAHs bearing up to 96 carbon atoms. The calculated ionization ratio is in good agreement with observations in NGC 7023 NW. Within the PDR, PAHs evolve into three major populations: medium-sized PAHs (5090) can be superhydrogenated, and smaller species (Nc<50) are fully dehydrogenated. In the cavity, where the fullerene C60 was recently detected, all the st...

  6. New Insights on US Aggregate and State Level Trade with the China Region%New Insights on US Aggregate and State Level Trade with the China Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Catherine Y. Co

    2011-01-01

    Aggregate trade data with breakdown into related and non-related party components show that US multinational enterprises use different trading strategies in the China region relative to other countries. US trade with the China region in 2002-007 is characterized by arm 's- length transactions. State-level trade data show great variability in state engagement with the region through trade: exports to the region range from 1 to 28 percent of state exports. In addition, compared to exports to other countries, exports to the region are highly concentrated. At the extreme, for some states, 96-98 percent of exports to the region are computer and electronic products. Finally, gravity regressions show that state exports to Hong Kong are posflively associated with the relative size of the ltong Kong-born population in the states. There is no evidence that stricter labor regimes lead to lower state exports.

  7. State switching in regions of high modal density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopp, Garrett K.; Kauffman, Jeffrey L.

    2016-04-01

    Performance of piezoelectric-based, semi-active vibration reduction approaches has been studied extensively in the past decade. Originally analyzed with single-degree-of-freedom systems, these approaches have been extended to multi-mode vibration reduction. However, the accompanying analysis typically assumes well-separated modes, which is often not the case for plate structures. Because the semi-active approaches induce a shift in the structural resonance frequency (at least temporarily), targeting a specific mode for vibration reduction can actually lead to additional vibration in an adjacent mode. This paper presents an analysis using a simplified model of a two-degree-of-freedom mass-spring-damper system with lightly-coupled masses to achieve two closely-spaced modes. This investigation is especially applicable to the resonance frequency detuning approach previously proposed to reduce vibrations caused by transient excitation in turbomachinery blades where regions of high modal density exist. More generally, this paper addresses these effects of stiffness state switches in frequency ranges containing regions of high modal density and subject to frequency sweep excitation. Of the approaches analyzed, synchronized switch damping on an inductor offers the greatest vibration reduction performance, whereas resonance frequency detuning and state switching each yield similar performance. Additionally, as the relative distance between resonance peaks decreases, the performance for the vibration reduction methods approaches that of a single-degree-of-freedom system; however, there are distances between these resonant peaks that diminish vibration reduction potential.

  8. Regional Lg attenuation for the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, H.M.; Frankel, A.; Boore, D.M.

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of the Fourier amplitude spectra of Lg phases recorded at high frequency (0.5 to 14.0 Hz) by broadband seismic stations are used to determine regional attenuation relationships for southern California, the Basin and Range Province, the central United States, and the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada. Fourier spectral amplitudes were measured every quarter octave from Lg phases windowed between 3.0 and 3.7 km sec-1 and recorded in the distance range of 150 to 1000 km. Attenuation at each frequency is determined by assuming a geometrical spreading exponent of 0.5 and inverting for Q and source and receiver terms. Both southern California and the Basin and Range Province are well described by low Lg Q and frequency-dependent attenuation. Lg spectral amplitudes in southern California are fit at low frequencies (0.625 to 0.875 Hz) by a constant Lg Q of 224 and by a frequency-dependent Lg Q function Q = 187-7+7 f0.55(??0.03) in the frequency band 1.0 to 7.0 Hz. The Basin and Range Province is characterized by a constant Lg Q of 192 for frequencies of 0.5 to 0.875 Hz and by the frequency-dependent Lg Q function Q = 235-11+11 f0.56(??0.04) in the frequency band 1.0 to 5.0 Hz. A change in frequency dependence above 5.0 Hz is possible due to contamination of the Lg window by Pn and Sn phases. Lg spectral amplitudes in the central United States are fit by a mean frequency-independent Lg Q of 1291 for frequencies of 1.5 to 7.0 Hz, while a frequency-dependent Lg Q of Q = 1052-83+91(f/1.5)0.22(??0.06) fits the Lg spectral amplitudes for the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada over the passband 1.5 to 14.0 Hz. Attenuation measurements for these areas were restricted to frequencies >1.5 Hz due to larger microseismic noise levels at the lower frequencies.

  9. The United States National Climate Assessment - Alaska Technical Regional Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markon, Carl J.; Trainor, Sarah F.; Chapin, F. Stuart; Markon, Carl J.; Trainor, Sarah F.; Chapin, F. Stuart

    2012-01-01

    The Alaskan landscape is changing, both in terms of effects of human activities as a consequence of increased population, social and economic development and their effects on the local and broad landscape; and those effects that accompany naturally occurring hazards such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and tsunamis. Some of the most prevalent changes, however, are those resulting from a changing climate, with both near term and potential upcoming effects expected to continue into the future. Alaska's average annual statewide temperatures have increased by nearly 4°F from 1949 to 2005, with significant spatial variability due to the large latitudinal and longitudinal expanse of the State. Increases in mean annual temperature have been greatest in the interior region, and smallest in the State's southwest coastal regions. In general, however, trends point toward increases in both minimum temperatures, and in fewer extreme cold days. Trends in precipitation are somewhat similar to those in temperature, but with more variability. On the whole, Alaska saw a 10-percent increase in precipitation from 1949 to 2005, with the greatest increases recorded in winter. The National Climate Assessment has designated two well-established scenarios developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Nakicenovic and others, 2001) as a minimum set that technical and author teams considered as context in preparing portions of this assessment. These two scenarios are referred to as the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A2 and B1 scenarios, which assume either a continuation of recent trends in fossil fuel use (A2) or a vigorous global effort to reduce fossil fuel use (B1). Temperature increases from 4 to 22°F are predicted (to 2070-2099) depending on which emissions scenario (A2 or B1) is used with the least warming in southeast Alaska and the greatest in the northwest. Concomitant with temperature changes, by the end of the 21st century the growing season is expected

  10. Results of percutaneous nephrolithotomy performed in a regional state hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taner Çiftçi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of percutaneous stone surgery that performe in a regional state hospital.Materials and methods: We retrospectively analyzed 183 percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL performed cases that treated at our clinic between June 2010 and July 2011. After necessary laboratory and radiological investigations, we performed PNL for the patients those diagnosed as having stones needed surgery. After surgery, we investigated radiologically whether residual stone fragments remained or not. When there were residual stone fragments (bigger than 4 mm, we performed ESWL, repeated percutaneous interventions and surveillance protocols. In six patients, open surgery was needed during PNL.Results: Of the totally 183 patients underwent PNL at our clinic, 102 were male and 81 were female. The mean age was 37.6 and mean stone burden was 35.5 mm2. Stone-free rate was 75.4% and the rate of the patients who have residual stones (bigger than 4mm was 25.7%. Stone free rates were 95% and 86% for stone burden lesser and more than 2 cm2, respectively. The mean blood loss was 186ml for per operational case. Totally four patients (8.5% underwent blood tranfusion.Conclusion: As a result, because of its high stone-free rates, the shorter hospital stay, minimal surgical scar and absence of wound infection, PNL is preserving its place for the treatment of stones bigger than 2 cm2. J Clin Exp Invest 2011; 2 (4: 371-374

  11. The United States National Climate Assessment - Alaska Technical Regional Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markon, Carl J.; Trainor, Sarah F.; Chapin, F. Stuart; Markon, Carl J.; Trainor, Sarah F.; Chapin, F. Stuart

    2012-01-01

    The Alaskan landscape is changing, both in terms of effects of human activities as a consequence of increased population, social and economic development and their effects on the local and broad landscape; and those effects that accompany naturally occurring hazards such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and tsunamis. Some of the most prevalent changes, however, are those resulting from a changing climate, with both near term and potential upcoming effects expected to continue into the future. Alaska's average annual statewide temperatures have increased by nearly 4°F from 1949 to 2005, with significant spatial variability due to the large latitudinal and longitudinal expanse of the State. Increases in mean annual temperature have been greatest in the interior region, and smallest in the State's southwest coastal regions. In general, however, trends point toward increases in both minimum temperatures, and in fewer extreme cold days. Trends in precipitation are somewhat similar to those in temperature, but with more variability. On the whole, Alaska saw a 10-percent increase in precipitation from 1949 to 2005, with the greatest increases recorded in winter. The National Climate Assessment has designated two well-established scenarios developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Nakicenovic and others, 2001) as a minimum set that technical and author teams considered as context in preparing portions of this assessment. These two scenarios are referred to as the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A2 and B1 scenarios, which assume either a continuation of recent trends in fossil fuel use (A2) or a vigorous global effort to reduce fossil fuel use (B1). Temperature increases from 4 to 22°F are predicted (to 2070-2099) depending on which emissions scenario (A2 or B1) is used with the least warming in southeast Alaska and the greatest in the northwest. Concomitant with temperature changes, by the end of the 21st century the growing season is expected

  12. Regional Input Output Table for the State of Punjab

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Inderjeet; Singh, Lakhwinder

    2011-01-01

    Because of policy relevance of regional input-output analysis, a vast literature on the construction of regional input-output tables has emerged in the recent past, especially on the non-survey and hybrid methods. Although, construction of regional input-output tables is not new in India, but generation of input-output table using non-survey methods is relatively a rare phenomenon. This work validates alternative non-survey, location quotient methodologies and finally uses comparatively bette...

  13. Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station: an example of the state role in regional nuclear projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear power plant siting policy which confines new construction to existing sites will lead to the formation of large regional power centers, each involving many utilities from several states. The Palo Verde Nuclear Project in Arizona has been examined in terms of the role state regulation plays in large regional nuclear projects. State regulatory processes do not reflect the regional nature of large power centers. Decisions and actions by individual state regulatory commissions create risk and uncertainty for all the utility participants in regional projects. A climate and mechanism to encourage and facilitate interstate cooperation are needed to enhance the viability of the confined siting policy and the regional power center concept

  14. Regional Poverty and Population Response:A Comparison of Three Regions in the United States and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemarie Siebert

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we examine poverty in three regions in the United States and Germany and discuss its causes and demographic consequences. The three regions are those with the highest rates of poverty in the two countries: the Mississippi Delta and Texas Borderland in the United States and the Northeastern Border Region in Germany. We show that standard models to explain poverty need to be placed in the historical legacies of the three regions in order to understand their current levels of poverty. While our results show many common factors for poverty in the three regions, they also point to important differences. Similarly, we identify differences among the regions in their demographic responses to poverty, in part reflecting their different historical legacies. Thus, one implication of the paper is the importance of place-based poverty-mitigation strategies for successful policy planning.

  15. 40 CFR 81.76 - State of Hawaii Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State of Hawaii Air Quality Control... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.76 State of Hawaii Air Quality Control Region. The State of Hawaii Air...

  16. Inventory of power plants in the United States. [By state within standard Federal Regions, using county codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    The purpose of this inventory of power plants is to provide a ready reference for planners whose focus is on the state, standard Federal region, and/or national level. Thus the inventory is compiled alphabetically by state within standard Federal regions. The units are listed alphabetically within electric utility systems which in turn are listed alphabetically within states. The locations are identified to county level according to the Federal Information Processing Standards Publication Counties and County Equivalents of the States of the United States. Data compiled include existing and projected electrical generation units, jointly owned units, and projected construction units.

  17. Regional versus Global Entanglement in Resonating-Valence-Bond states

    CERN Document Server

    Chandran, A; Sen, A; Sen, U; Vedral, V; Chandran, Anushya; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal; Vedral, Vlatko

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the entanglement properties of resonating valence bond states on two and higher dimensional lattices, which play an important role in the theory of conductivity. We show that these states are genuinely multipartite entangled, while there is only a negligible amount of two-site entanglement. We comment on possible physical implications of our findings.

  18. 77 FR 38509 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; South Carolina; Regional Haze State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... promulgated a rule to address regional haze on July 1, 1999 (64 FR 35714), the Regional Haze Rule (RHR). The... address the first implementation period for regional haze.\\1\\ See 77 FR 11894. EPA proposed a limited..., 2012, proposal action on the South Carolina regional haze SIP submittal (77 FR 11906), the states...

  19. Report on state of the environment of the Banska Bystrica region to 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report on state of environment of the Banska Bystrica region to 2002 is presented. In this report the following parts are reviewed: Basic information about region; Compositions of the environment and their protection; Nature protection and landscape management; Environmental regional classification of the environment and endangered regions; Reasons and consequences of the environment; Risk factors in the environment; Environment conservation

  20. Host state incentives and compensation: Regional Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this incentive report is to present a model incentive and compensation package and to examine the factors that might be addressed in implementing a host state incentive and compensation program. The package is intended to be available to a community and state that volunteers or that is designated by the Commission to host a radioactive waste disposal facility. This report incorporates comments received from the Commission on a draft version of the report dated February 28, 1986. 10 refs., 4 tabs

  1. Regional Comparative Unit Cost Studies for Maintenance and Operation of Physical Plants in Universities and Colleges in Central States Region and Rocky Mountain Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Physical Plant Administrators, Corvallis, OR.

    Presented in this document are data pertaining to maintenance and operations costs at colleges and universities in the central states region and the Rocky Mountain region. The major accounts included in the cost analysis are: (1) physical plant administration, (2) building maintenance, (3) custodial services, (4) utilities, (5) landscape and…

  2. 77 FR 38185 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of North Carolina; Regional Haze State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... regional haze issues. EPA promulgated a rule to address regional haze on July 1, 1999 (64 FR 35713), the..., 2007, SIP revision to address the first implementation period for regional haze.\\1\\ See 77 FR 11858...' test.'' See also 70 FR 39121. North Carolina's analysis in the regional haze SIP revision...

  3. 77 FR 38191 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Mississippi; Regional Haze State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... regional haze issues. EPA promulgated a rule to address regional haze on July 1, 1999 (64 FR 35713), the... address the first implementation period for regional haze.\\1\\ See 77 FR 11879. EPA proposed a limited... FR 33642), EPA finalized a limited disapproval of the Mississippi regional haze SIP because...

  4. Socialist state planning reconsidered: regional policy in China, 1949 - 1989

    OpenAIRE

    O-K Lai; T-K Lai

    1991-01-01

    In this paper regional policy in the People's Republic of China over the last four decades is critically reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the ideological and political dimensions, and their changes, as guided by the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), which accompany the need to modernize China's underdeveloped economy. In part 1 of the paper the interpretations of the urban question, within the Marxist - Maoist school of thought, upon which the policy rationales and justifications are ba...

  5. The Role of the State of the Autonomous Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humlebæk, Carsten

    . The goal is to analyse the differences over time and across the ideological spectrum of the identification patterns and the preferences with regards to the territorial organisation of the Spanish state and the arguments used to legitimise these positions. The investigation shows that the current conflict...... parties act in Valencia and Catalonia, respectively. Despite the complex dynamics, the results suggest that the inauguration of the Estado de las Autonomíasdid not decrease the conflict potential around the territorial organisation of Spain....

  6. 76 FR 76646 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; South Dakota; Regional Haze State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    .... 64 FR 35714 (July 1, 1999), codified at 40 CFR part 51, subpart P. The Regional Haze Rule revised the... the regional ] haze requirements. 74 FR 2392. Once EPA has found that a state has failed to make a...\\ The preamble to the Regional Haze Rule provides additional details about the deciview. 64 FR...

  7. Report on state of the environment of the Kosice region to 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report on state of environment of the Kosice region to 2002 is presented. In this report the following parts are reviewed: Basic information about region; Compositions of the environment and their protection; Nature protection and landscape management; Environmental regional classification of the environment; Reasons and consequences of the environment; Risk factors in the environment; Environmental care

  8. 76 FR 44534 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Tennessee; Regional Haze State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    .... The Commenters requested the extension in order to determine any potential impacts of the CSAPR on the... potential impacts of the final CSAPR on EPA's proposed rulemaking to approve Tennessee's Regional Haze State... the Regional Haze requirements and, specifically, any potential impacts on the Tennessee Regional...

  9. Report on state of the environment of the Trnava region to 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report on state of environment of the Nitra region to 2002 is presented. In this report the following parts are reviewed: Basic information about region; Compositions of the environment and their protection; Nature protection and landscape management; Environmental regional classification of the environment; Reasons and consequences of the environment; Risk factors in the environment; Environmental care

  10. Report on state of the environment of the Trencin region to 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report on state of environment of the Trencin region to 2002 is presented. In this report the following parts are reviewed: Basic information about region; Compositions of the environment and their protection; Nature protection and landscape management; Environmental regional classification of the environment; Reasons and consequences of the environment; Risk factors in the environment; Environmental care

  11. Report on state of the environment of the Bratislava region to 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    he report on state of environment of the Bratislava region to 2002 is presented. In this report the following parts are reviewed: Basic information about region; Compositions of the environment and their protection; Nature protection and landscape management; Environmental regional classification of the environment; Reasons and consequences of the environment; Risk factors in the environment; Environmental care

  12. Report on state of the environment of the Zilina region to 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report on state of environment of the Zilina region to 2002 is presented. In this report the following parts are reviewed: Basic information about region; Compositions of the environment and their protection; Nature protection and landscape management; Environmental regional classification of the environment; Reasons and consequences of the environment; Risk factors in the environment; Environmental care

  13. Productivity Effects of United States Multinational Enterprises : The Roles of Market Orientation and Regional Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, Roger; Wei, Yingqi

    2010-01-01

    Smeets R. and Wei Y. Productivity effects of United States multinational enterprises: the roles of market orientation and regional integration, Regional Studies. This paper considers the role of market orientation and regional integration in foreign direct investment (FDI) productivity effects. Usin

  14. 77 FR 33021 - Approval, Disapproval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Wyoming; Regional Haze...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... address regional haze issues. EPA promulgated a rule to address regional haze on July 1, 1999. 64 FR 35714... addressing the regional haze requirements. 74 FR 2392. Once EPA has found that a state has failed to make a... conditions. 64 FR 35715 (July 1, 1999). \\1\\ Visual range is the greatest distance, in kilometers or miles,...

  15. 77 FR 11452 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Georgia; Regional Haze...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... submittal arising from the State's reliance on CAIR to meet certain regional haze requirements. See 76 FR... promulgated a rule to address regional haze on July 1, 1999 (64 FR 35713), the RHR. The RHR revised the... ] revising the regional haze program, EPA made just such a demonstration for CAIR. See 70 FR 39104 (July...

  16. 78 FR 40654 - Approval, Disapproval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Wyoming; Regional Haze...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... partially approving and partially disapproving Wyoming's 40 CFR 51.309(g) regional haze SIP. 78 FR 34738. In.... at both locations. The comment period for the proposed rule published June 10, 2013 at 78 FR 34738 is...; Regional Haze State Implementation Plan; Federal Implementation Plan for Regional Haze; Notice of...

  17. 77 FR 38501 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Georgia; Regional Haze State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... haze on July 1, 1999 ] (64 FR 35714), the Regional Haze Rule (RHR). The RHR revised the existing... period for regional haze.\\1\\ See 77 FR 11452. EPA proposed a limited approval of Georgia's SIP revisions... discussed in the proposed rulemaking (77 FR 11474-11475), Georgia's regional haze SIP satisfies the...

  18. 77 FR 30454 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Oregon; Regional Haze State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... approved certain provisions in Oregon's Regional Haze SIP submission. 76 FR 38997. This previous action... regional haze on July 1, 1999 (64 FR 35713) (the regional haze rule or RHR). The RHR revised the existing... (BART). 76 FR 38997. The action in this Federal Register notice addresses the remaining requirements...

  19. 77 FR 38515 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Alabama; Regional Haze State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... haze on July 1, 1999 (64 FR 35713), the Regional Haze Rule (RHR). The RHR revised the existing... also 70 FR 39121. Alabama's analysis in the regional haze SIP revision was consistent with EPA's... February 28, 2012, proposal action on the Alabama regional haze SIP submittal (77 FR 11949), the RHR...

  20. State and Regional Prevalence of Diagnosed Multiple Chronic Conditions Among Adults Aged ≥18 Years - United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Brian W; Black, Lindsey I

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence and care management of multiple (two or more) chronic conditions (MCC) are important public health concerns (1). Approximately 25% of U.S. adults have diagnoses of MCC (2). Care management of MCC presents a challenge to both patients and providers because of the substantial costs associated with treating more than one condition and the traditional care strategies that focus on single conditions as opposed to enhanced care coordination (3,4). Maintaining surveillance, targeting service delivery, and projecting resources are all important to meet this challenge, and these actions can be informed by identifying state and other regional variations in MCC prevalence (5,6). Data from the 2014 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to estimate prevalence of MCC (defined as two or more of 10 diagnosed chronic conditions) for each U.S. state and region by age and sex. Significant state and regional variation in MCC prevalence was found, with state-level estimates ranging from 19.0% in Colorado to 38.2% in Kentucky. MCC prevalence also varied by region, ranging from 21.4% in the Pacific region to 34.5% in the East South Central region. The prevalence of MCC was higher among women than among men within certain U.S. regions, and was higher in older persons in all regions. Such findings further the research and surveillance objectives stated in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) publication, Multiple Chronic Conditions: A Strategic Framework (1). Furthermore, geographic disparities in MCC prevalence can inform state-level surveillance programs and groups targeting service delivery or allocating resources for MCC prevention activities. PMID:27467707

  1. Regional Evacuation Modeling: A State of the Art Reviewing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southworth, F.

    1991-01-01

    Regional evacuation modeling is treated as a five step process: involving vehicle trip generation, trip departure time, trip destination, and trip route selection modeling, supplemented by plan set-up and analysis procedures. Progress under each of these headings is reviewed and gaps in the process identified. The potential for emergency planners to make use of real time traffic data, resulting from the recent technical and economic revolutions in telecommunications and infrared traffic sensing, is identified as the single greatest opportunity for the near future; and some beginnings in the development of real time dynamic traffic modeling specifically geared to evacuation planning are highlighted. Significant data problems associated with the time of day location of large urban populations represent a second area requiring extensive research. A third area requiring much additional effort is the translation of the considerable knowledge we have on evacuee behavior in times of crisis into reliable quantitative measures of the timing of evacuee mobilization, notably by distance from the source of the hazard. Specific evacuation models are referenced and categorized by method. Incorporation of evacuation model findings into the definition of emergency planning zone boundaries is also discussed.

  2. FOREST SPECIES EVALUATION IN THE FOREST REGION IN RORAIMA STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Tonini

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate 19 native and exotic species and to identify potential species for plantation inhomogeneous stands and in agroforestry systems in forest ecosystem in Roraima State. The species were planted from 1997 to 2000.When the objective was sawn wood production the spacing was 4 x 3 m and when the objective was energy and pulp production thespacing was 3 x 2 m. The samples consisted of 9 lines of 9 plants, totaling 81 plants, coming down to 49 useful trees. In each useful treewere measured the DBH (diameter at 1.30 m and total height. The merchantable volume per hectare was obtained with themerchantable form factor determination, through the scaling of two medium trees using the Smalian method. Each species, was alsoevaluated in relation to survival, bole quality, phytossanitary aspects and wind damages.The data analysis indicated as promisingspecies for use in energy, Eucalyptus urograndis; Schizolobium amazonicum as low or medium wood density species for use inveneer production and Bertholettia excelsa as medium to high density for use in sawn timber.

  3. 77 FR 66929 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Idaho; Regional Haze State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-08

    ... a previous action EPA approved certain provisions in Idaho's Regional Haze SIP submission, 76 FR...]. regional haze SIP elements as proposed in the May 22, 2012 notice. 77 FR 30248. 0 3. Section 52.672 is... toward improving visibility in mandatory Class I Federal areas \\1\\ (Class I areas). 64 FR 35714 (July...

  4. 77 FR 11022 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Alaska; Regional Haze State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... address regional haze on July 1, 1999 (64 FR 35713), the regional haze rule or RHR. The RHR revised the... Federal areas \\1\\ (Class I areas). 64 FR 35714 (July 1, 1999); see also 70 FR 39104 (July 6, 2005) and 71 FR 60612 (October 13, 2006). \\1\\ Areas designated as mandatory Class I Federal areas consist...

  5. 77 FR 50611 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Oregon; Regional Haze State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... approved certain provisions in Oregon's Regional Haze SIP submission. 76 FR 38997. This previous action... developing a LTS. 76 FR 38997. A detailed explanation of the Regional Haze Rule including the requirements... retrofit technology (BART). 76 FR 38997. On May 23, 2012, EPA proposed approving the remaining portion...

  6. 77 FR 30248 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Idaho; Regional Haze State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... regional haze on July 1, 1999 (64 FR 35713) (the regional haze rule or RHR). The RHR revised the existing... toward improving visibility in mandatory Class ] I Federal areas \\1\\ (Class I areas). 64 FR 35714 (July 1, 1999); see also 70 FR 39104 (July 6, 2005) and 71 FR 60612 (October 13, 2006). \\1\\ Areas designated...

  7. 77 FR 30467 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Washington; Regional Haze State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... regional haze on July 1, 1999 (64 FR 35713) (the Regional Haze Rule or RHR). The RHR revised the existing... toward improving visibility in mandatory Class I Federal areas \\1\\ (Class I areas). 64 FR 35714 (July 1, 1999); see also 70 FR 39104 (July 6, 2005) and 71 FR 60612 (October 13, 2006). \\1\\ Areas designated...

  8. Attributes for NHDPlus Catchments (Version 1.1) for the Conterminous United States: Hydrologic Landscape Regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the area of Hydrologic Landscape Regions (HLR) compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. The source data...

  9. Automatic Regionalization Algorithm for Distributed State Estimation in Power Systems: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dexin; Yang, Liuqing; Florita, Anthony; Alam, S.M. Shafiul; Elgindy, Tarek; Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2016-08-01

    The deregulation of the power system and the incorporation of generation from renewable energy sources recessitates faster state estimation in the smart grid. Distributed state estimation (DSE) has become a promising and scalable solution to this urgent demand. In this paper, we investigate the regionalization algorithms for the power system, a necessary step before distributed state estimation can be performed. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first investigation on automatic regionalization (AR). We propose three spectral clustering based AR algorithms. Simulations show that our proposed algorithms outperform the two investigated manual regionalization cases. With the help of AR algorithms, we also show how the number of regions impacts the accuracy and convergence speed of the DSE and conclude that the number of regions needs to be chosen carefully to improve the convergence speed of DSEs.

  10. Altered Regional Homogeneity in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder during Manic State: A Resting-State fMRI Study

    OpenAIRE

    Qian Xiao; Yuan Zhong; Dali Lu; Weijia Gao; Qing Jiao; Guangming Lu; Linyan Su

    2013-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) is a severely debilitating illness, which is characterized by episodes of mania and depression separated by periods of remission. Previous fMRI studies investigating PBD were mainly task-related. However, little is known about the abnormalities in PBD, especially during resting state. Resting state brain activity measured by fMRI might help to explore neurobiological biomarkers of the disorder. METHODS: Regional homogeneity (ReHo) was examined with...

  11. 77 FR 20893 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Dakota; Regional Haze State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... regional haze issues, and we promulgated regulations addressing regional haze in 1999. 64 FR 35714 (July 1... requirements. 74 FR 2392. Once EPA has found that a state has failed to make a required submission, EPA is.... 62 FR 38652. Section 110(a)(2) of the CAA lists the elements that such new SIPs must address,...

  12. 77 FR 27671 - State of Hawaii; Regional Haze Federal Implementation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... air pollution.'' Hawaii has two Class I areas: Hawaii Volcanoes National Park on the Big Island and... available by May 16, 2012 on the following Web site: http://www.epa.gov/region9/air/actions/hawaii.html and... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 State of Hawaii; Regional Haze Federal Implementation Plan AGENCY:...

  13. 78 FR 49684 - Approval and Disapproval of Air Quality State Implementation Plans; Arizona; Regional Haze and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ... INFORMATION: In Federal Register document 2013-18022 published in the Federal Register on July 30, 2013 (78 FR...; Regional Haze and Interstate Transport Requirements AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... of Arizona's State Implementation Plan (SIP) to implement the regional haze program for the...

  14. 77 FR 39938 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Regional Haze State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... approving into the Maryland SIP. \\1\\ EPA promulgated the RHR to address regional haze on July 1, 1999 (64 FR... which the SIP relies,'' which is ``defined as 2002 for regional haze purposes.'' See 64 FR 35742, July 1..., 2012 (77 FR 11839), EPA published a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPR) for the State of Maryland....

  15. U.S. Department of Energy Regional Resource Centers Report: State of the Wind Industry in the Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranowski, Ruth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United St; Oteri, Frank [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United St; Baring-Gould, Ian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United St; Tegen, Suzanne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United St

    2016-03-01

    The wind industry and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) are addressing technical challenges to increasing wind energy's contribution to the national grid (such as reducing turbine costs and increasing energy production and reliability), and they recognize that public acceptance issues can be challenges for wind energy deployment. Wind project development decisions are best made using unbiased information about the benefits and impacts of wind energy. In 2014, DOE established six wind Regional Resource Centers (RRCs) to provide information about wind energy, focusing on regional qualities. This document summarizes the status and drivers for U.S. wind energy development on regional and state levels. It is intended to be a companion to DOE's 2014 Distributed Wind Market Report, 2014 Wind Technologies Market Report, and 2014 Offshore Wind Market and Economic Analysis that provide assessments of the national wind markets for each of these technologies.

  16. Modeling of the process of regional innovation management within the economic space of the state

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Karmazina

    2014-01-01

    Research strategies for sustainable development of the national and regional levels to determine what the priority is reforming the system of state regulation with expansion to new ideas and managerial innovations to create a model of a modern regional innovation management. Developed structural-logical scheme of the formation mechanism of the implementation of management strategies of reproduction processes in the regional economic system. The proposed system of economic polic...

  17. 40 CFR 63.13 - Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA Regional Offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Addresses of State air pollution... POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES General Provisions § 63.13 Addresses of State air pollution control agencies... Wynkoop Street, Denver, CO 80202-1129. EPA Region IX (Arizona, California, Hawaii, Nevada, American...

  18. 77 FR 74355 - Approval, Disapproval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans; State of Utah; Regional...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... initials LNB mean or refer to low NO X burner. x. The initials NOX mean or refer to nitrogen oxides. xi..., and we promulgated regulations addressing regional haze in 1999. 64 FR 35714 (July 1, 1999), codified... the Federal Register on May 16, 2012 (77 FR 28825). In that notice, we provided a detailed...

  19. Development of State Interindustry Models for Rocky Mountain Region and California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Jayant A.; Kunin, Leonard

    1976-02-01

    Interindustry tables have been developed for the eight Rocky Mountain States and California. These tables are based on the 367-order 1967 national interindustry table. The national matrix was expanded to 404 sectors by disaggregating the seven minerals industries to 44 industries. The state tables can be used for energy and other resource analysis. Regional impacts of alternate development strategies can be evaluated with their use. A general computer program has been developed to facilitate construction of state interindustry tables.

  20. Time evolution of initial states that extend beyond the potential interaction region in quantum decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Calderón, Gastón; Villavicencio, Jorge; Hernández-Maldonado, Alberto; Romo, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the decay of initial states that possess a tail that extends beyond the interaction potential region, for potentials of arbitrary shape that vanish exactly after a distance. This is the case for a relevant class of artificial quantum structures. We obtain that along the internal interaction region, the time evolution of the decaying wave function is formed by two terms. The first one refers to the proper decay of the internal portion of the initial state, whereas the second one, that arises from the external tail, yields a transient contribution that tunnels into the internal region, builds up to a value, and then decays. We obtain that depending on the parameters of the initial state, the nonexponential tail decaying contribution may be larger than the contribution of the proper nonexponential term. These results are illustrated by an exactly solvable model and the Heidelberg potential for decay of ultracold atoms and open the possibility to control initial states in artificial decaying systems.

  1. 77 FR 28825 - Approval, Disapproval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans; State of Utah; Regional...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... LNB mean or refer to low NO X burner. xiv. The initials NOX mean or refer to nitrogen oxides. xv. The... separate notice (76 FR 69217, November 8, 2011). We are proposing to approve specific sections of the State... would exist under estimated natural conditions. 64 FR 35715 (July 1, 1999). \\2\\ Visual range is...

  2. Altered regional homogeneity in pediatric bipolar disorder during manic state: a resting-state fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Xiao

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD is a severely debilitating illness, which is characterized by episodes of mania and depression separated by periods of remission. Previous fMRI studies investigating PBD were mainly task-related. However, little is known about the abnormalities in PBD, especially during resting state. Resting state brain activity measured by fMRI might help to explore neurobiological biomarkers of the disorder. METHODS: Regional homogeneity (ReHo was examined with resting-state fMRI (RS-fMRI on 15 patients with PBD in manic state, with 15 age-and sex-matched healthy youth subjects as controls. RESULTS: Compared with the healthy controls, the patients with PBD showed altered ReHo in the cortical and subcortical structures. The ReHo measurement of the PBD group was negatively correlated with the score of Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS in the superior frontal gyrus. Positive correlations between the ReHo measurement and the score of YMRS were found in the hippocampus and the anterior cingulate cortex in the PBD group. CONCLUSIONS: Altered regional brain activity is present in patients with PBD during manic state. This study presents new evidence for abnormal ventral-affective and dorsal-cognitive circuits in PBD during resting state and may add fresh insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying PBD.

  3. Response to state comments on the draft regional characterization reports for the Crystalline Repository Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In May, 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Crystalline Repository Project Office (CPO) issued six draft Regional Characterization Reports (RCRs) for review and comment to the 17 Crystalline States comprising the Northeastern, Southeastern, and North Central crystalline regions. Comment letters were received from 13 of the 17 states. The more than 2000 comments generally focused on the quality and content of the characterization reports and on their intended use in region-to-area screening. These comments were paraphrased and grouped into 23 subjects within the following four topical areas: (1) General and Programmatic; (2) Geologic; (3) Environmental and Socioeconomic; and (4) Editorial. This document provides responses to the comments submitted by the states

  4. Epidemiology of laboratory confirmed measles virus cases in Amhara Regional State of Ethiopia, 2004–2014

    OpenAIRE

    Getahun, Mekonen; Beyene, Berhane; Ademe, Ayesheshem; Teshome, Birke; Tefera, Mesfin; Asha, Anjelo; Afework, Aklog; HaileMariyam, Yoseph; Assefa, Esete; Gallagher, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Background Measles is a highly contagious viral infection causing large outbreaks all over the world. Despite the availability of safe and cost effective vaccine, measles remained endemic with persistent periodic outbreaks in the Horn of Africa. The aim of this study is to characterize laboratory confirmed measles cases in Amhara Regional State, which was one of the highly affected regions in Ethiopia. Method A suspected measles case was defined as any person presenting with fever, maculopapu...

  5. Water Footprint of pigs slaughtered in the northeast region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Vania Elisabete Schneider; Sofia Helena Zanella Carra

    2016-01-01

    This study estimated the water footprint of pigs slaughtered in the municipalities that participate in the Regional Council for the Development of Serra (Corede Serra, in Portuguese), located in the northeast region of Rio Grande do Sul State, in 2014. In order to determine the water footprint, we estimated the water consumed in the production of grains (corn and soybeans) used for animal feed, the water used for livestock watering, the water used for cleaning creation areas and the water con...

  6. Is there incomplete mixing of states with different K quantum numbers in the neutron resonance region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, B.R. (Department of Physics, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85719 (United States)); Casten, R.F. (Department of Physics, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)); Ginocchio, J.N. (Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)); Seligman, T. (Department of Physics, Universidad Autonoma de Mexico, Guemavaca (Mexico)); Weidenmueller, H.A. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany))

    1992-04-01

    A recent publication claimed incomplete mixing of states with different {ital K} quantum numbers in the neutron resonance region. We discuss the theoretical implications of such a claim and show that it leads to serious discrepancies with the statistical model. We, therefore, reexamine the experimental data on which such a claim is based. The totality of the evidence invalidates the claim that {ital K} mixing in the resonance region is incomplete.

  7. Theoretical and methodological approaches to the diagnosis of the region's state material reservation system status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Anatol'evich Kuklin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the structural components of the state reserve theory with elements of decomposition and tools for studies in separate directions. The system of state material reserve, which includes the following components: economy - people - natural environment - is a necessary and sufficient reserve for their operation and development which is having the ability to respond to short-, medium- and long-term fluctuations in the economy and consider the risks of adverse factors appliance. It was determined that a necessary and sufficient reserve for the operation and development of the region is a major factor in ensuring its economic security. A method of diagnostics for the state material reserve system within the economic security of the region is presented and described. The approbation of the methodological apparatus for the assessment of the state material reserve by the example on the Ural Federal District was done.

  8. [Regionalization and access to healthcare in Brazilian states: historical and political-institutional conditioning factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Luciana Dias; Viana, Ana Luiza d'Ávila; Machado, Cristiani Vieira; de Albuquerque, Mariana Vercesi; de Oliveira, Roberta Gondim; Iozzi, Fabíola Lana; Scatena, João Henrique Gurtler; Mello, Guilherme Arantes; Pereira, Adelyne Maria Mendes; Coelho, Ana Paula Santana

    2012-11-01

    This article examines the healthcare regionalization process in the Brazilian states in the period from 2007 to 2010, seeking to identify the conditions that favor or impede this process. Referential analysis of public policies and especially of historical institutionalism was used. Three dimensions sum up the conditioning factors of regionalization: context (historical-structural, political-institutional and conjunctural), directionality (ideology, object, actors, strategies and instruments) and regionalization features (institutionality and governance). The empirical research relied mainly on the analysis of official documents and interviews with key actors in 24 states. Distinct patterns of influence in the states were observed, with regionalization being marked by important gains in institutionality and governance in the period. Nevertheless, inherent difficulties of the contexts prejudice greater advances. There is a pressing need to broaden the territorial focus in government planning and to integrate sectorial policies for medium and long-term regional development in order to empower regionalization and to overcome obstacles to the access to healthcare services in Brazil.

  9. [Regionalization and access to healthcare in Brazilian states: historical and political-institutional conditioning factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Luciana Dias; Viana, Ana Luiza d'Ávila; Machado, Cristiani Vieira; de Albuquerque, Mariana Vercesi; de Oliveira, Roberta Gondim; Iozzi, Fabíola Lana; Scatena, João Henrique Gurtler; Mello, Guilherme Arantes; Pereira, Adelyne Maria Mendes; Coelho, Ana Paula Santana

    2012-11-01

    This article examines the healthcare regionalization process in the Brazilian states in the period from 2007 to 2010, seeking to identify the conditions that favor or impede this process. Referential analysis of public policies and especially of historical institutionalism was used. Three dimensions sum up the conditioning factors of regionalization: context (historical-structural, political-institutional and conjunctural), directionality (ideology, object, actors, strategies and instruments) and regionalization features (institutionality and governance). The empirical research relied mainly on the analysis of official documents and interviews with key actors in 24 states. Distinct patterns of influence in the states were observed, with regionalization being marked by important gains in institutionality and governance in the period. Nevertheless, inherent difficulties of the contexts prejudice greater advances. There is a pressing need to broaden the territorial focus in government planning and to integrate sectorial policies for medium and long-term regional development in order to empower regionalization and to overcome obstacles to the access to healthcare services in Brazil. PMID:23175295

  10. Regional formation of high-technology service industries: the software industry in Washington State

    OpenAIRE

    Haug, P.

    1991-01-01

    The development of high-technology manufacturing concentrations has attracted extensive research, but few studies have provided evidence on the genesis of regional agglomerations of software industry. In this paper findings from a survey of 152 software firms in Washington State are presented. As in US industry data, the majority of these software companies are relatively small and new organizations within the State. Results on company location and formation decisions and on international act...

  11. Fish invasions in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Lapointe, Nicolas WR

    2010-01-01

    Nonnative fishes are a major threat to biodiversity and new species continue to be introduced. In this dissertation, I described patterns and assessed determinants of fish invasions in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Data on nonnative fish distributions were obtained from the United States Geological Surveyâ s Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database (NASD). Nonnative fishes are introduced by a variety of pathways, and prevention efforts can be optimized by focusing on pathw...

  12. Steady-state particle tracking in the object-oriented regional groundwater model ZOOMQ3D

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, C.R.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the development of a steady-state particle tracking code for use in conjunction with the object-oriented regional groundwater flow model, ZOOMQ3D (Jackson, 2001). Like the flow model, the particle tracking software, ZOOPT, is written using an object-oriented approach to promote its extensibility and flexibility. ZOOPT enables the definition of steady-state pathlines in three dimensions. Particles can be tracked in both the forward and reverse directions en...

  13. THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO THE DIAGNOSIS OF THE REGION'S STATE MATERIAL RESERVATION SYSTEM STATUS

    OpenAIRE

    Kuklin, Aleksandr; Zemskov, Aleksandr; Nikulina, Natal'ya

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the structural components of the state reservation theory with the elements of decomposition and tools of studies performed on private lines. A method for diagnosing the state material reservation system (SMRS) as part of economic security in the region is presented. Extensive tests of the methodological apparatus of SMRS assessment on the example of the Ural Federal District have been made.

  14. Using Coherence to Measure Regional Homogeneity of Resting-State fMRI Signal

    OpenAIRE

    Dongqiang Liu; Chaogan Yan; Juejing Ren; Li Yao; Vesa J Kiviniemi; Yufeng Zang

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we applied coherence to voxel-wise measurement of regional homogeneity of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) signal. We compared the current method, regional homogeneity based on coherence (Cohe-ReHo), with previously proposed method, ReHo based on Kendall’s coefficient of concordance (KCC-ReHo), in terms of correlation and paired t-test in a large sample of healthy participants. We found the two measurements differed mainly in some brain region...

  15. Offshore Wind Jobs and Economic Development Impacts in the United States: Four Regional Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, S.; Keyser, D.; Flores-Espino, F.; Miles, J.; Zammit, D.; Loomis, D.

    2015-02-01

    This report uses the offshore wind Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) model and provides four case studies of potential offshore deployment scenarios in different regions of the United States: the Southeast, the Great Lakes, the Gulf Coast, and the Mid-Atlantic. Researchers worked with developers and industry representatives in each region to create potential offshore wind deployment and supply chain growth scenarios, specific to their locations. These scenarios were used as inputs into the offshore JEDI model to estimate jobs and other gross economic impacts in each region.

  16. Regional inequalities and convergence clubs in the European Union new member-states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris KALLIORAS

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper assesses on empirical grounds the level and the evolution of regional inequalities in each European Union new member-state (EU NMS and examines the possibility for the emergence of regional convergence clubs. The experience of the EU NMS is a unique situation, where relatively closed economic systems opened, almost at once, to the world economy and, at the same time, market mechanisms replaced central planning. Thus, understanding the spatial pattern of regional growth in the EU NMS may provide valuable insight for theory and policy. The application of non linear econometric models, which transcend the “all or nothing” logic behind conventional convergence analysis, has shown the existence of regional convergence clubs in many EU NMS. The identification of regional convergence clubs, irrespective of the pattern that emerges in each EU NMS, highlights the heterogeneous spatial impact of the EU economic integration process.

  17. Stability of whole brain and regional network topology within and between resting and cognitive states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna K Rzucidlo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Graph-theory based analyses of resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI data have been used to map the network organization of the brain. While numerous analyses of resting state brain organization exist, many questions remain unexplored. The present study examines the stability of findings based on this approach over repeated resting state and working memory state sessions within the same individuals. This allows assessment of stability of network topology within the same state for both rest and working memory, and between rest and working memory as well. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: fMRI scans were performed on five participants while at rest and while performing the 2-back working memory task five times each, with task state alternating while they were in the scanner. Voxel-based whole brain network analyses were performed on the resulting data along with analyses of functional connectivity in regions associated with resting state and working memory. Network topology was fairly stable across repeated sessions of the same task, but varied significantly between rest and working memory. In the whole brain analysis, local efficiency, Eloc, differed significantly between rest and working memory. Analyses of network statistics for the precuneus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex revealed significant differences in degree as a function of task state for both regions and in local efficiency for the precuneus. Conversely, no significant differences were observed across repeated sessions of the same state. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that network topology is fairly stable within individuals across time for the same state, but also fluid between states. Whole brain voxel-based network analyses may prove to be a valuable tool for exploring how functional connectivity changes in response to task demands.

  18. Regionalization of the Iowa State University Extension System: Lessons Learned by Key Administrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherry Glenn

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The cyclical economic downturn in the United States hasforced many Extension administrators to rethink and adjustservices and programming. The Cooperative Extension System(CES, the organization primarily responsible for governmentalExtension work in the United States, at Iowa State University responded to this economic downturn by restructuring its organizationfrom county based to a regional model. This paper shares the experiences of key administrators in planning this restructuringprocess and the lessons learned. This experience and the restructuringprocesses used have implications for administrators in all organiizational settings

  19. 78 FR 16452 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Dakota; Regional Haze State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... discussion of regional haze requirements, please see our proposal at 76 FR 58574, 58576. In our proposed action, we proposed to disapprove the State's NO X BART determinations for these units. See 76 FR 58570... BART determinations for these units. 77 FR 20894, 20897 (April 6, 2012). We based our change on...

  20. Trends in Tuberculosis Reported from the Appalachian Region: United States, 1993-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ryan M.; Armstrong, Lori R.; Pratt, Robert H.; Kammerer, J. Steve; Iademarco, Michael F.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Appalachia has been characterized by its poverty, a factor associated with tuberculosis, yet little is known about the disease in this region. Purpose: To determine whether Appalachian tuberculosis risk factors, trends, and rates differ from the rest of the United States. Methods: Analysis of tuberculosis cases reported to the Centers for…

  1. 77 FR 61477 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Hawaii; Regional Haze Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... worst polluters in Hawaii. The commenter noted that EPA has not proposed additional pollution controls... address regional haze in the State of Hawaii. This FIP addresses the requirements of the Clean Air Act... ``from manmade air pollution'' . According to the commenter, failing to include the volcano in...

  2. 76 FR 4652 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... efforts. Entergy Regional State Committee Meeting January 26, 2011 (8 a.m.-5 p.m.), Doubletree Hotel, 300...-2157 EWO Marketing, Inc. Docket No. ER11-2158 Entergy Power, LLC. Docket No. ER11-2560 Entergy...

  3. 77 FR 71533 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Michigan; Regional Haze State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... Regional Haze Rule was promulgated on July 1, 1999 (64 FR 35713), with further significant provisions promulgated on July 6, 2005 (70 FR 39104), that provided guidance related to BART. On August 6, 2012 (77 FR... Michigan and a number of other states in a separate rulemaking, published on June 7, 2012 (77 FR...

  4. 77 FR 11937 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Alabama; Regional Haze...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... submittal arising from the State's reliance on CAIR to meet certain regional haze requirements. See 76 FR... in 40 CFR 52.61 that were approved into the Alabama SIP. See 52 FR 45138 (November 24, 1987). EPA is... 64 FR 35715 (July 1, 1999). \\3\\ Visual range is the greatest distance, in kilometers or miles,...

  5. An Analysis and Evaluation of Regional Cost of Education Indexes for New York State. Study #5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furno, Orlando F.; Gaughan, James M.

    The proposed New York State Cost of Education Index would be a statistical measure of the price changes in the goods and services purchased by local districts. Data would be available on a regional basis. Many statistical procedures and theoretical considerations involved in constructing such an index are similar to those used for the Consumer…

  6. Analysis of environment state in technogenic region and its threat to public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grishenko S.V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to give a complex hygienic evaluation of environment state in Donetsk region and to determine the degree of their potential danger to population health. It includes air pollution, water contamination, state of soil. Nearly 43000 samples of air, 32000 drinking water samples and 4500 soil samples were analyzed. Regions with the highest rate of environmental pollution were defined. It was found that the main sources of environment pollution in Donetsk region are ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy enterprises, power, coal, building industry and transport. All other sources ac¬count for only 5-10% of total emissions. Level of harmful technogenic pressing on population’s health was determined.

  7. Projecting changes in regional temperature and precipitation extremes in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin T. Schoof

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Regional and local climate extremes, and their impacts, result from the multifaceted interplay between large-scale climate forcing, local environmental factors (physiography, and societal vulnerability. In this paper, we review historical and projected changes in temperature and precipitation extremes in the United States, with a focus on strengths and weaknesses of (1 commonly used definitions for extremes such as thresholds and percentiles, (2 statistical approaches to quantifying changes in extremes, such as extreme value theory, and (3 methods for post-processing (downscaling global climate models (GCMs to investigate regional and local climate. We additionally derive regional and local estimates of changes in temperature extremes by applying a quantile mapping approach to high-resolution gridded daily temperature data for 6 U.S. sub-regions. Consistent with the background warming in the parent GCMs, we project decreases in regional and local cold extremes and increases in regional and local warm extremes throughout the domain, but the downscaling approach removes bias and produces substantial spatial variability within the relatively small sub-regions. We finish with recommendations for future research on regional climate extremes, suggesting that focus be placed on improving understanding of extremes in the context of large-scale circulation and evaluating the corresponding cascade of scale interactions within GCMs.

  8. Decreased regional homogeneity in major depression as revealed by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Dai-hui; JIANG Kai-da; FANG Yi-ru; XU Yi-feng; SHEN Ting; LONG Xiang-yu; LIU Jun; ZANG Yu-feng

    2011-01-01

    Backgroud Functional imaging studies indicate abnormal activities in cortico-limbic network in depression during either task or resting state. The present work was to explore the abnormal spontaneous activity shown with regional homogeneity (ReHo) in depression by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).Methods Using fMRI, the differences of regional brain activity were measured in resting state in depressed vs. healthy participants. Sixteen participants firstly diagnosed with major depressive disorder and 16 controls were scanned during resting state. A novel method based on ReHo was used to detect spontaneous hemodynamic responses across the whole brain.Results ReHo in the left thalamus, left temporal lobe, left cerebellar posterior lobe, and the bilateral occipital lobe was found to be significantly decreased in depression compared to healthy controls in resting state of depression.Conclusions Abnormal spontaneous activity exists in the left thalamus, left temporal lobe, left cerebellar posterior lobe,and the bilateral occipital lobe. And the ReHo may be a potential reference in understanding the distinct brain activity in resting state of depression.

  9. Shape coexistence and shell-model intruder states in the lead region studied by $\\alpha$ -decay

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % IS336 \\\\ \\\\ Low-lying 0$^+$ states in even-even nuclei near closed shells can be a manifestation of the coexistence of different shapes in the same nucleus. Deformed bandstructures built upon these 0$^+$ states, coexisting at low energy with the ground state band, have been observed in several regions of the nuclear chart, including the Z=82 region. Such structures have been found in the neutron-deficient even Pb nuclei and the mixing between intruder and normal states has been studied by the $\\alpha$- decay of $^{194, 196, 198}$Po towards the 0$^+$ excited and ground states in $^{190, 192, 194}$Pb using $\\alpha$-e-t coincidence events. It is expected that shape coexistence will occur in the light Po isotopes as well. Evidence for a deformed band at low excitation energy in $^{196, 198}$Po has been found in in-beam studies and the $\\alpha$-decay of $^{202}$Rn studied at ISOLDE revealed feeding to a 0$^+$~state at 816~keV in $^{198}$Po. \\\\ \\\\It is our intention to investigate the $^{194, 196}$Po nuclei with ...

  10. Wind Powering America's Regional Stakeholder Meetings and Priority State Reports: FY11 Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-06-01

    Beginning in 2010, DOE conducted an assessment of Wind Powering America (WPA) activities to determine whether the methods the department had used to help grow the wind industry to provide 2% of the nation's electrical energy should be the same methods used to achieve 20% of the nation's energy from wind (as described in the report 20% Wind Energy by 2030: Increasing Wind Energy's Contribution to U.S. Electricity Supply). After the assessment, it was determined that the initiative's state-based activities should be phased out as part of a shift to regional-based approaches. To assist with this transition, WPA hosted a series of 1-day regional meetings at six strategic locations around the country and a single teleconference for island states, U.S. territories, and remote communities. This report summarizes the results of the inaugural regional meetings and the state reports with a focus on ongoing wind deployment barriers in each region.

  11. Regional homogeneity changes in prelingually deafened patients: a resting-state fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjing; He, Huiguang; Xian, Junfang; Lv, Bin; Li, Meng; Li, Yong; Liu, Zhaohui; Wang, Zhenchang

    2010-03-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a technique that measures the intrinsic function of brain and has some advantages over task-induced fMRI. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) assesses the similarity of the time series of a given voxel with its nearest neighbors on a voxel-by-voxel basis, which reflects the temporal homogeneity of the regional BOLD signal. In the present study, we used the resting state fMRI data to investigate the ReHo changes of the whole brain in the prelingually deafened patients relative to normal controls. 18 deaf patients and 22 healthy subjects were scanned. Kendall's coefficient of concordance (KCC) was calculated to measure the degree of regional coherence of fMRI time courses. We found that regional coherence significantly decreased in the left frontal lobe, bilateral temporal lobes and right thalamus, and increased in the postcentral gyrus, cingulate gyrus, left temporal lobe, left thalamus and cerebellum in deaf patients compared with controls. These results show that the prelingually deafened patients have higher degree of regional coherence in the paleocortex, and lower degree in neocortex. Since neocortex plays an important role in the development of auditory, these evidences may suggest that the deaf persons reorganize the paleocortex to offset the loss of auditory.

  12. Increased regional homogeneity in internet addiction disorder: a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jun; GAO Xue-ping; Isoken Osunde; LI Xin; ZHOU Shun-ke; ZHENG Hui-rong; LI Ling-jiang

    2010-01-01

    Background Internet addition disorder (lAD) is currently becoming a serious mental health problem among Chinese adolescents. The pathogenesis of IAD, however, remains unclear. The purpose of this study applied regional homogeneity (ReHo) method to analyze encephalic functional characteristic of IAD college students under resting state. Methods Functional magnetic resonanc image (fMRI) was performed in 19 IAD college students and 19 controls under resting state. ReHo method was used to analyze the differences between the average ReHo in two groups. Results The following increased ReHo brain regions were found in IAD group compared with control group: cerebellum,brainstem, right cingulate gyrus, bilateral parahippocampus, right frontal lobe (rectal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus and middle frontal gyrus), left superior frontal gyrus, left precuneus, right postcentral gyrus, right middle occipital gyrus, right inferior temporal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus and middle temporal gyrus. The decreased ReHo brain regions were not found in the IAD group compared with the control group. Conclusions There are abnormalities in regional homogeneity in IAD college students compared with the controls and enhancement of synchronization in most encephalic regions can be found. The results reflect the functional change of brain in IAD college students. The connections between the enhancement of synchronization among cerebellum, brainstem, limbic lobe, frontal lobe and apical lobe may be relative to reward pathways.

  13. Pottery ethnoarchaeology in Western Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Ruibal, Alfredo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of three ethnoarchaeological field seasons carried out among the Berta, Gumuz, Mao and Kwama of western Ethiopia are presented here. Fieldwork focused on the gathering of general data on the material culture of Benishangul- Gumuz, and particularly on pottery and vernacular architecture. The data relating to production, distribution and consumption of pottery are addressed in this article. The peoples studied are organised on egalitarian lines and practise a slash-and-burn agriculture.

    Se presentan los resultados de tres campañas etnoarqueológicas llevadas a cabo entre los Berta, Gumuz, Mao y Kwama de Etiopía. El trabajo se centró en la recogida de datos generales sobre la cultura material de la región de Benishangul-Gumuz y en particular en la cerámica y la arquitectura vernácula. Aquí se tratan los datos relativos a la producción, distribución y consumo de cerámica. Los pueblos estudiados se organizan en comunidades igualitarias y practican una agricultura de roza y quema.

  14. Alterations in regional homogeneity of resting-state brain activity in internet gaming addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Guangheng

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgrounds Internet gaming addiction (IGA, as a subtype of internet addiction disorder, is rapidly becoming a prevalent mental health concern around the world. The neurobiological underpinnings of IGA should be studied to unravel the potential heterogeneity of IGA. This study investigated the brain functions in IGA patients with resting-state fMRI. Methods Fifteen IGA subjects and fourteen healthy controls participated in this study. Regional homogeneity (ReHo measures were used to detect the abnormal functional integrations. Results Comparing to the healthy controls, IGA subjects show enhanced ReHo in brainstem, inferior parietal lobule, left posterior cerebellum, and left middle frontal gyrus. All of these regions are thought related with sensory-motor coordination. In addition, IGA subjects show decreased ReHo in temporal, occipital and parietal brain regions. These regions are thought responsible for visual and auditory functions. Conclusions Our results suggest that long-time online game playing enhanced the brain synchronization in sensory-motor coordination related brain regions and decreased the excitability in visual and auditory related brain regions.

  15. Moving Beyond Paralysis: How States and Regions Are Creating Innovative Transmission Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, A. [Schumacher & Associates, Arlington, VA (United States); Fink, S. [ExeterAssociates, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Porter, K. [ExeterAssociates, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    2009-10-01

    This report profiles certain state and regional transmission policy initiatives aimed at promoting transmission development, mainly to access renewable resources – including renewable energy zones, location-constrained tariffs, open seasons, and balanced portfolio plans. In particular, this article focuses on transmission initiatives intended to plan and build transmission in advance of new generation, instead of waiting for enough planned new generation to justify the development of a new transmission line of sufficient capability.

  16. Equatorial Energy Accumulation and Emanation Regions: Impacts of a Zonally Varying Basic State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Peter J.; Chang, Hai-Ru

    1988-03-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the regions of mean anomalous perturbation kinetic energy which exist in the vicinity of the equatorial upper-tropospheric westerlies are the result of the propagation of extratropical synoptic and low frequency waves through the equatorial `westerly duet' where a subsequent wave energy convergence occurs. The proposition that these perturbed equatorial regions may arise from remote equatorial energy sources is investigated. It is shown that three criteria must be met. The first two, the existence of wave energy sources along the equator and a mechanism to transport that energy longitudinally, are accounted for relatively easily with existing theory of divergent, trapped equatorial modes. The third criterion, the requirement of a mechanism for an accumulation of transient energy in the equatorial stretch flow (i.e., nonzero x), is not immediately obvious and requires exploration to develop new concepts.Using simple WKBJ arguments it is shown that within a realistic parameter range, a combination of longitudinal stretch in the basic state along the equator and the characteristics of the equatorial trapped waves satisfy the third criterion. The equatorial waves must possess a divergent structure which insists on equatorial trapping. It is shown that purely barotropic modes, which cannot be equatorially trapped, do not represent the real atmospheric structure at low latitudes. Regions of negative longitudinal stretch along the equator (i.e., westerlies decreasing, or easterlies increasing, towards the cast) are shown to be wave energy accumulation regions. Regions with positive stretch, on the other hand, are wave energy depletion regions. A free-surface barotropic model with fully nonlinear basic states, containing both stretch and shear, confirm the results of the simpler model, i.e., regardless of the position of the energy source within the tropical atmosphere the wave energy accumulates in the same region; namely, on the

  17. Regional study on investment for transmission infrastructure in China based on the State Grid data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wendong; Wu, Xudong; Wu, Xiaofang; Xi, Qiangmin; Ji, Xi; Li, Guoping

    2016-06-01

    Transmission infrastructure is an integral component of safeguarding the stability of electricity delivery. However, existing studies of transmission infrastructure mostly rely on a simple review of the network, while the analysis of investments remains rudimentary. This study conducted the first regionally focused analysis of investments in transmission infrastructure in China to help optimize its structure and reduce investment costs. Using State Grid data, the investment costs, under various voltages, for transmission lines and transformer substations are calculated. By analyzing the regional profile of cumulative investment in transmission infrastructure, we assess correlations between investment, population, and economic development across the regions. The recent development of ultra-high-voltage transmission networks will provide policy-makers new options for policy development.

  18. Characterization of seven United States coal regions. The development of optimal terrace pit coal mining systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimer, R.L.; Adams, M.A.; Jurich, D.M.

    1981-02-01

    This report characterizes seven United State coal regions in the Northern Great Plains, Rocky Mountain, Interior, and Gulf Coast coal provinces. Descriptions include those of the Fort Union, Powder River, Green River, Four Corners, Lower Missouri, Illinois Basin, and Texas Gulf coal resource regions. The resource characterizations describe geologic, geographic, hydrologic, environmental and climatological conditions of each region, coal ranks and qualities, extent of reserves, reclamation requirements, and current mining activities. The report was compiled as a basis for the development of hypothetical coal mining situations for comparison of conventional and terrace pit surface mining methods, under contract to the Department of Energy, Contract No. DE-AC01-79ET10023, entitled The Development of Optimal Terrace Pit Coal Mining Systems.

  19. Resting-state, functional MRI on regional homogeneity changes of brain in the heavy smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the mechanism of self-awareness in the heavy smokers (HS) by using regional homogeneity (ReHo) combined with resting-state functional MRI (fMRI). Methods: Thirty HS and 31 healthy non-smokers (NS) matched for age and sex underwent a 3.0 T resting-state fMRI. The data were post-processed by SPM 5 and then the ReHo values were calculated by REST software. The ReHo values between the two groups were compared by two-sample t-test. The brain map with significant difference of ReHo value was obtained. Results: Compared with that in NS group, the regions with decreased ReHo value included the bilateral precuneus, superior frontal gyrus,medial prefrontal cortex, right angular gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, inferior occipital gyrus, cerebellum, and left middle frontal gyrus in HS group. The regions of increased ReHo value included the bilateral insula, parahippocampal gyrus, white matter of parietal lobe, pons, left inferior parietal lobule, lingual gyrus, thalamus, inferior orbital gyrus, white matter of temporal-frontal lobe, and cerebellum. The difference was more obvious in the left hemisphere. Conclusions: In HS, abnormal ReHo on a resting state which reflects network of smoking addiction. This method may be helpful in understanding the mechanism of self-awareness in HS. (authors)

  20. Altered regional and circuit resting-state activity associated with unilateral hearing loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingchao Wang

    Full Text Available The deprivation of sensory input after hearing damage results in functional reorganization of the brain including cross-modal plasticity in the sensory cortex and changes in cognitive processing. However, it remains unclear whether partial deprivation from unilateral auditory loss (UHL would similarly affect the neural circuitry of cognitive processes in addition to the functional organization of sensory cortex. Here, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate intrinsic activity in 34 participants with UHL from acoustic neuroma in comparison with 22 matched normal controls. In sensory regions, we found decreased regional homogeneity (ReHo in the bilateral calcarine cortices in UHL. However, there was an increase of ReHo in the right anterior insular cortex (rAI, the key node of cognitive control network (CCN and multimodal sensory integration, as well as in the left parahippocampal cortex (lPHC, a key node in the default mode network (DMN. Moreover, seed-based resting-state functional connectivity analysis showed an enhanced relationship between rAI and several key regions of the DMN. Meanwhile, lPHC showed more negative relationship with components in the CCN and greater positive relationship in the DMN. Such reorganizations of functional connectivity within the DMN and between the DMN and CCN were confirmed by a graph theory analysis. These results suggest that unilateral sensory input damage not only alters the activity of the sensory areas but also reshapes the regional and circuit functional organization of the cognitive control network.

  1. Regional impacts of oil and gas development on ozone formation in the western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Marco A; Barna, Michael G; Moore, Tom

    2009-09-01

    The Intermountain West is currently experiencing increased growth in oil and gas production, which has the potential to affect the visibility and air quality of various Class I areas in the region. The following work presents an analysis of these impacts using the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (CAMx). CAMx is a state-of-the-science, "one-atmosphere" Eulerian photochemical dispersion model that has been widely used in the assessment of gaseous and particulate air pollution (ozone, fine [PM2.5], and coarse [PM10] particulate matter). Meteorology and emissions inventories developed by the Western Regional Air Partnership Regional Modeling Center for regional haze analysis and planning are used to establish an ozone baseline simulation for the year 2002. The predicted range of values for ozone in the national parks and other Class I areas in the western United States is then evaluated with available observations from the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET). This evaluation demonstrates the model's suitability for subsequent planning, sensitivity, and emissions control strategy modeling. Once the ozone baseline simulation has been established, an analysis of the model results is performed to investigate the regional impacts of oil and gas development on the ozone concentrations that affect the air quality of Class I areas. Results indicate that the maximum 8-hr ozone enhancement from oil and gas (9.6 parts per billion [ppb]) could affect southwestern Colorado and northwestern New Mexico. Class I areas in this region that are likely to be impacted by increased ozone include Mesa Verde National Park and Weminuche Wilderness Area in Colorado and San Pedro Parks Wilderness Area, Bandelier Wilderness Area, Pecos Wilderness Area, and Wheeler Peak Wilderness Area in New Mexico.

  2. Regional impacts of oil and gas development on ozone formation in the western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Marco A; Barna, Michael G; Moore, Tom

    2009-09-01

    The Intermountain West is currently experiencing increased growth in oil and gas production, which has the potential to affect the visibility and air quality of various Class I areas in the region. The following work presents an analysis of these impacts using the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (CAMx). CAMx is a state-of-the-science, "one-atmosphere" Eulerian photochemical dispersion model that has been widely used in the assessment of gaseous and particulate air pollution (ozone, fine [PM2.5], and coarse [PM10] particulate matter). Meteorology and emissions inventories developed by the Western Regional Air Partnership Regional Modeling Center for regional haze analysis and planning are used to establish an ozone baseline simulation for the year 2002. The predicted range of values for ozone in the national parks and other Class I areas in the western United States is then evaluated with available observations from the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET). This evaluation demonstrates the model's suitability for subsequent planning, sensitivity, and emissions control strategy modeling. Once the ozone baseline simulation has been established, an analysis of the model results is performed to investigate the regional impacts of oil and gas development on the ozone concentrations that affect the air quality of Class I areas. Results indicate that the maximum 8-hr ozone enhancement from oil and gas (9.6 parts per billion [ppb]) could affect southwestern Colorado and northwestern New Mexico. Class I areas in this region that are likely to be impacted by increased ozone include Mesa Verde National Park and Weminuche Wilderness Area in Colorado and San Pedro Parks Wilderness Area, Bandelier Wilderness Area, Pecos Wilderness Area, and Wheeler Peak Wilderness Area in New Mexico. PMID:19785277

  3. An analysis of consanguineous marriage in the Muslim population of India at regional and state levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittles, A H; Hussain, R

    2000-01-01

    Consanguineous marriage is widely favoured in a large majority of the world's Islamic populations. According to recent estimates, the resident Muslim population of India is over 100 million. However, apart from a few numerically small or geographically defined surveys, little is known about their patterns of marriage preferences since partition of the Indian Subcontinent in 1947. This study seeks to determine the prevalence and patterns of consanguineous marriages contracted among Indian Muslims at regional and state levels during the last two generations. Data from the 1992/93 Indian National Family Health Survey (NFHS) were used in the analysis. The NFHS was a nationally-representative survey of ever-married women aged 13-49 years, conducted across 25 states of India. Of the initial 9845 respondents, 8436 were included in the final weighted analysis sample. Overall, 22.0% of marriages were found to be contracted between spouses related as second cousins or closer, ranging from 15.9% in the eastern states to 32.9% in the western states of India. In all parts of the country first cousin marriages were the preferred form of consanguineous union, and in four of the five regions paternal first cousin marriages predominated. Despite predictions to the contrary, there was no evidence of a significant change in the prevalence of consanguineous unions over the course of the study period, which extended from the late 1950s to the early 1990s. PMID:10768421

  4. Pathways of fish invasions in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, Nicolas W. R.; Fuller, Pam; Neilson, Matthew; Murphy, Brian R.; Angermeier, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Non-native fish introductions are a major threat to biodiversity and fisheries, and occur through numerous pathways that vary regionally in importance. A key strategy for managing invasions is to focus prevention efforts on pathways posing the greatest risk of future introductions. We identified high-risk pathways for fish establishment in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States based on estimates of probability of establishment and records of previous introductions, which were considered in the context of emerging socioeconomic trends. We used estimates of propagule pressure, species’ environmental tolerance, and size of species pool to assess the risk of establishment by pathway. Pathways varied considerably in historic importance and species composition, with the majority of species introduced intentionally via stocking (primarily for sport, forage, or biocontrol) or bait release. Bait release, private stocking, illegal introductions intended to establish reproducing populations (e.g., of sport fish), aquaculture, and the sale of live organisms all create risks for future invasions in the Mid-Atlantic region. Of these pathways, bait release probably poses the greatest risk of introductions for the Mid-Atlantic region because propagule pressure is moderate, most released species are tolerant of local environmental conditions, and the pool of species available for transplantation is large. Our findings differ considerably from studies in other regions (e.g., bait release is a dominant pathway in the Mid-Atlantic region, whereas illegal introduction of sport fish is dominant in the western US and aquarium releases are dominant in Florida), demonstrating the need for regional-scale assessments of, and management strategies for, introduction pathways.

  5. Breaking out of the 'isolated state': views on the status and future of regional science from a European border region

    OpenAIRE

    Olivier Kramsch; Frans Boekema

    2002-01-01

    Against the backdrop of a perceived 'crisis' within the field of Anglo-American regional science, in this paper we offer a brief overview of the early engagement of regional science with the regional concept, while placing its theoretical formulations within the wider sociohistorical context of the Cold War period and the rise of positivist social science. With regard to the development of regional science as a field of enquiry with its own theoretical and empirical postulates, attention focu...

  6. Methodology for Elaborating Regional Susceptibility Maps of Slope Instability: the State of Guerrero (mexico) Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Huesca, A. E.; Ferrés, D.; Domínguez-M, L.

    2013-05-01

    Numerous cases of different types of slope instability occur every year in the mountain areas of México. Sometimes these instabilities severely affect the exposed communities, roads and infrastructure, causing deaths and serious material damage, mainly in the states of Puebla, Veracruz, Oaxaca, Guerrero and Chiapas, at the central and south sectors of the country. The occurrence of the slope instability is the result of the combination of climatic, geologic, hydrologic, geomorphologic and anthropogenic factors. The National Center for Disaster Prevention (CENAPRED) is developing several projects in order to offer civil protection authorities of the Mexican states some methodologies to address the hazard assessment for different natural phenomena in a regional level. In this framework, during the past two years, a methodology was prepared to construct susceptibility maps for slope instability at regional (≤ 1:100 000) and national (≤ 1:1 000 000) levels. This research was addressed in accordance to the criteria established by the International Association of Engineering Geology, which is the highest international authority in this topic. The state of Guerrero has been taken as a pilot scheme to elaborate the susceptibility map for slope instability at a regional level. The major constraints considered in the methodology to calculate susceptibility are: a) the slope of the surface, b) the geology and c) the land use, which were integrated using a Geographic Information System (GIS). The arithmetic sum and weighting factors to obtain the final susceptibility map were based on the average values calculated in the individual study of several cases of slope instability occurred in the state in the past decade. For each case, the evaluation format proposed by CENAPRED in 2006 in the "Guía Básica para la elaboración de Atlas Estatales y Municipales de Peligros y Riesgos" to evaluate instabilities in a local level, was applied. The resulting susceptibility map shows

  7. High-resolution, regional-scale crop yield simulations for the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, D. H.; Kafatos, M.; Medvigy, D.; El-Askary, H. M.; Hatzopoulos, N.; Kim, J.; Kim, S.; Prasad, A. K.; Tremback, C.; Walko, R. L.; Asrar, G. R.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past few decades, there have been many process-based crop models developed with the goal of better understanding the impacts of climate, soils, and management decisions on crop yields. These models simulate the growth and development of crops in response to environmental drivers. Traditionally, process-based crop models have been run at the individual farm level for yield optimization and management scenario testing. Few previous studies have used these models over broader geographic regions, largely due to the lack of gridded high-resolution meteorological and soil datasets required as inputs for these data intensive process-based models. In particular, assessment of regional-scale yield variability due to climate change requires high-resolution, regional-scale, climate projections, and such projections have been unavailable until recently. The goal of this study was to create a framework for extending the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) crop model for use at regional scales and analyze spatial and temporal yield changes in the Southwestern United States (CA, AZ, and NV). Using the scripting language Python, an automated pipeline was developed to link Regional Climate Model (RCM) output with the APSIM crop model, thus creating a one-way nested modeling framework. This framework was used to combine climate, soil, land use, and agricultural management datasets in order to better understand the relationship between climate variability and crop yield at the regional-scale. Three different RCMs were used to drive APSIM: OLAM, RAMS, and WRF. Preliminary results suggest that, depending on the model inputs, there is some variability between simulated RCM driven maize yields and historical yields obtained from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Furthermore, these simulations showed strong non-linear correlations between yield and meteorological drivers, with critical threshold values for some of the inputs (e.g. minimum and

  8. 77 FR 3765 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee Work Group and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee Work Group and Stakeholder Meeting The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hereby gives notice that members... outreach efforts. Entergy Regional State Committee Working Group and Stakeholders Meeting January 26,...

  9. 76 FR 62804 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee Work Group and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... outreach efforts. Entergy Regional State Committee Work Group and Stakeholder Meeting October 19, 2011 (9 a... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee Work Group and Stakeholder Meeting The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hereby gives notice that...

  10. Regional Variation in Landscape Controls on the Width of Wadeable Streams Across the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faustini, J. M.; Herlihy, A. T.; Kaufmann, P. R.

    2007-12-01

    We examine regional variations in landscape controls on the width of wadeable streams across the conterminous United States using a unique dataset from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Wadeable Streams Assessment (WSA). The WSA dataset includes a probability sample of over 1,300 randomly selected stream reaches (drawn from the 1:100,000 scale USGS digitized stream network) and over 500 hand- picked reference sites covering 48 states sampled between 2000 and 2004. The scaling of bankfull stream width with drainage area varies significantly among the nine ecological regions (ecoregions) defined for the WSA: width increases more rapidly with basin area in the humid Eastern Highlands (encompassing the Northern and Southern Appalachians and the Ozark Mountains) and the Upper Midwest (Great Lakes region) than for the West (both mountainous and xeric areas), the southeastern Coastal Plain, and the Northern Plains (the Dakotas and Montana). Stream width increases least rapidly with basin area in the Temperate Plains (cornbelt) and Southern Plains (Great Prairies) in the heartland. Besides basin area, key predictors of channel width included particle size and precipitation, although the relative importance of these factors varies among ecoregions. Precipitation was only significant (p < 0.01) as a predictor of bankfull width in the Western Mountains, the cornbelt, and to a lesser degree the Great Prairies. Width was significantly positively related to bed material size (p < 0.01) in the mountainous and xeric West, the cornbelt, and the Southern Appalachians, but was only weakly related or unrelated elsewhere. Preliminary analysis suggests that riparian vegetation cover is an important predictor of channel width only in the Northern Plains and Great Lakes regions, and that width does not seem to be related to measures of woody debris abundance in any region.

  11. Using coherence to measure regional homogeneity of resting-state fMRI signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongqiang Liu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we applied coherence to voxel-wise measurement of regional homogeneity of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI signal. We compared the current method, regional homogeneity based on coherence (Cohe-ReHo, with previously proposed method, ReHo based on Kendall’s coefficient of concordance (KCC-ReHo, in terms of correlation and paired t-test in a large sample of healthy participants. We found the two measurements differed mainly in some brain regions where physiological noise is dominant. We also compared the sensitivity of these methods in detecting difference between resting-state conditions (eyes open (EO vs. eyes closed (EC and in detecting abnormal local synchronization between two groups (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD patients vs. normal controls. Our results indicated that Cohe-ReHo is more sensitive than KCC-ReHo to the difference between two conditions (EO vs. EC as well as that between ADHD and normal controls. These preliminary results suggest that Cohe-ReHo is superior to KCC-ReHo. A possible reason is that coherence is not susceptible to random noise induced by phase delay among the timecourses to be measured. However, further investigation is still needed to elucidate the sensitivity and specificity of these methods.

  12. Using coherence to measure regional homogeneity of resting-state FMRI signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongqiang; Yan, Chaogan; Ren, Juejing; Yao, Li; Kiviniemi, Vesa J; Zang, Yufeng

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we applied coherence to voxel-wise measurement of regional homogeneity of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) signal. We compared the current method, regional homogeneity based on coherence (Cohe-ReHo), with previously proposed method, ReHo based on Kendall's coefficient of concordance (KCC-ReHo), in terms of correlation and paired t-test in a large sample of healthy participants. We found the two measurements differed mainly in some brain regions where physiological noise is dominant. We also compared the sensitivity of these methods in detecting difference between resting-state conditions [eyes open (EO) vs. eyes closed (EC)] and in detecting abnormal local synchronization between two groups [attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients vs. normal controls]. Our results indicated that Cohe-ReHo is more sensitive than KCC-ReHo to the difference between two conditions (EO vs. EC) as well as that between ADHD and normal controls. These preliminary results suggest that Cohe-ReHo is superior to KCC-ReHo. A possible reason is that coherence is not susceptible to random noise induced by phase delay among the time courses to be measured. However, further investigation is still needed to elucidate the sensitivity and specificity of these methods. PMID:20589093

  13. Properties of acceleration sites in active regions as derived from heavy ion charge states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartavykh, Y.; Dröge, W.; Klecker, B.; Möbius, E.; Popecki, M.; Mason, G.; Krucker, S.

    Charge states of heavy ions in solar energetic particle SEP events are determined by both the plasma conditions in the acceleration region and propagation effects The steep increase of the ionic charge of heavy ions as observed in all 3He- and Fe-rich SEP events suggests that stripping in a dense environment in the low corona is important in all these events The observed charge states and energy spectra of iron ions are used to infer the plasma conditions in the acceleration region by modelling the observations with a combined acceleration and propagation model that includes charge stripping acceleration coulomb losses and recombination in the corona and interplanetary propagation The interplanetary propagation includes anisotropic pitch-angle scattering on magnetic irregularities as well as magnetic focusing convection and adiabatic deceleration in the expanding solar wind To accurately derive the value of the scattering mean free path of particles the intensity profiles and anisotropy data from ACE and Wind spacecraft were used The comparison of the deduced parameters of the acceleration region with coronal density profiles shows that the acceleration of these ions takes place in closed magnetic structures in the low corona

  14. Particulate Matter Pollution and its Regional Transport in the Mid-Atlantic States

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, H.; Goldberg, D. L.; Hembeck, L.; Canty, T. P.; Vinciguerra, T.; Ring, A.; Salawitch, R. J.; Dickerson, R. R.

    2015-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM) causes negative effects on human health, impair visibility in scenic areas, and affect regional/global climate. PM can be formed through chemical changes of precursors, including biogenic VOCs and anthropogenic SO2 and NOx often from fossil fuel combustion. In the past decades, PM pollution in the US has improved substantially. However, some areas in the Mid-Atlantic States are still designated as 'moderate' nonattainment by EPA. We utilize datasets obtained during the NASA 2011 DISCOVER-AQ campaign to characterize the composition and distribution of summertime PM pollution in the Mid-Atlantic States. Aircraft measurements and OMI satellite retrieval of major anthropogenic precursors (NO2 and SO2) are analyzed to investigate the regional transport of PM precursors from upwind sources. We compare PM concentration and chemical composition observed during the field campaign to CMAQ simulations with the latest EPA emission inventory. Specifically, we focus on the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) chemistry in CMAQ simulations using various biogenic VOCs estimates from the MEGAN and BEIS models. Airborne PM observations including PILS measurements from DISCOVER-AQ campaign and OMI retrievals of HCHO are also used to validate and improve the representation of SOA chemistry and PM pollution within CMAQ. The comparison reveals the source and evolution of PM pollution in the Mid-Atlantic States.

  15. Regional approaches to power plant siting in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The selection and evaluation of sites for power plants in the United States of America have become increasingly difficult in recent years as pressures from various societal segments have resulted in governmental restraints on selection and burning of fossil fuels, methods of heat dissipation, acquisition of transmission rights of way, and on environmental impact of industrialization in general. New legislation at both Federal and state levels has been enacted that influences power plant siting. In addition to environmental requirements that must be satisfied, implementing procedures require documented justification for sites chosen and public disclosure of the basis for selection. Some states have consolidated their regulatory activities in the power plant siting area to provide for a more unified approach to these problems. Although nuclear plants have by far the most rigorous requirements for documentation of site selection and plant design, the application of the same general philosophies to fossil plants has been made in several states and can be anticipated elsewhere. Individual site-related investigations have not so much changed in basics as they have been enlarged in scope. Whereas in the past the search for siting alternatives was frequently confined to a utility's service area, the additional siting constraints represented in environmental laws, the economies of size of nuclear power plants, and the sharing of plant capacities among utilities have contributed to a widening of the search area. Several states have assumed the responsibility for site search and investigation and their efforts extend state-wide. This paper discusses applications of regional approaches to power plant siting in the United States of America using case studies made by NUS Corporation, an engineering/environmental consulting firm. The universality of these approaches is indicated, leaving to national policies and goals the importance of values assigned to the basic siting factors

  16. Parameter regionalization of a monthly water balance model for the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Andrew R.; Hay, Lauren E.; McCabe, Gregory J.; Markstrom, Steven L.; Atkinson, R. Dwight

    2016-07-01

    A parameter regionalization scheme to transfer parameter values from gaged to ungaged areas for a monthly water balance model (MWBM) was developed and tested for the conterminous United States (CONUS). The Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test, a global-sensitivity algorithm, was implemented on a MWBM to generate parameter sensitivities on a set of 109 951 hydrologic response units (HRUs) across the CONUS. The HRUs were grouped into 110 calibration regions based on similar parameter sensitivities. Subsequently, measured runoff from 1575 streamgages within the calibration regions were used to calibrate the MWBM parameters to produce parameter sets for each calibration region. Measured and simulated runoff at the 1575 streamgages showed good correspondence for the majority of the CONUS, with a median computed Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient of 0.76 over all streamgages. These methods maximize the use of available runoff information, resulting in a calibrated CONUS-wide application of the MWBM suitable for providing estimates of water availability at the HRU resolution for both gaged and ungaged areas of the CONUS.

  17. STATE SUPPORT OF EMPLOYABLE DISABLED PERSONS' EMPLOYMENT IN THE KRASNODAR REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemova E. I.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to solving such an important state task as improving the employment rate level of people with disabilities in the Krasnodar region. The promising areas of governmental support of employable disabled people at the regional level were reflected in the article, and the socio-economic significance of proposals, presented by the author, was considered. As an object of this study, the modern conditions of functioning and factors, influencing the activity of employable disabled people were considered. The subject of study is a set of organizational and economic relations, which characterize a governmental support of disabled people in the Krasnodar region. Nowadays the federal and regional targeted programs for social integration of the persons with disabilities and for their support at the labor market of Russian Federation are being worked out, rehabilitation and professional development centers are being created. The more attention is being paid to the issues of disabled people's social rehabilitation and their involvement of labor at the different levels of authorities, which determines the relevance of the research topic. A number of provisions in the article, such as a rationale of the extra forms of disabled people's governmental support formation, has a scientific novelty

  18. Study of uranium mobilization from Himalayan Siwaliks to the Malwa region of Punjab state in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossils, palaeosols and associated sedimentary rock samples from well-dated Siwalik sediments have been measured for their uranium content by low background gamma ray spectrometry with a view to study the role of geo-genic mobilization in enhancing the levels of uranium in ground water bodies of Malwa region in Punjab state, North Western India. Uranium activity in pure palaeosol and palaeosol associated samples i.e. calcrete and nodules varied between 46 and 214 Bq/kg whereas the same in pure fossil samples varied between 208 and 4837 Bq/kg. The data indicates a geo-genic contribution in the enhancement of uranium concentration in groundwater of the region. (author)

  19. Arsenic content of soils from three regions of Santa Catarina State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Cristina de Souza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The determination of trace elements is necessary in order to monitor their entry into the soil system and to remediate contaminated areas. The purpose of this study was to determine the natural content of arsenic (As in soils of three regions of Santa Catarina State (SC: the Southern Plateau, the Metropolitan area and the Southern Coast. Arsenic content was obtained after digestion in a microwave oven, following the USEPA 3051 A protocol and quantification was made by atomic absorption spectrometry with electrothermal atomization. The results were analyzed by the Scott-Knott test at a 5% significance level. Soil attributes that best correlated with arsenic content were clay, organic carbon, cation exchange capacity and Al and Fe oxides. The arsenic levels are related to the source material and the slope of regional soils.

  20. Assessment of Factors Contributing to Health Outcomes in the Eight States of the Mississippi Delta Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovaag, Amanda; Catlin, Bridget B.; Rodock, Matthew; Park, Hyojun

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this observational study was to examine the key contributors to health outcomes and to better understand the health disparities between Delta and non-Delta counties in 8 states in the Mississippi River Delta Region. We hypothesized that a unique set of contributors to health outcomes in the Delta counties could explain the disparities between Delta and non-Delta counties. Methods Data were from the 2014 County Health Rankings for counties in 8 states (Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, and Tennessee). We used the Delta Regional Authority definition to identify the 252 Delta counties and 468 non-Delta counties or county equivalents. Information on health factors (eg, health behaviors, clinical care) and outcomes (eg, mortality) were derived from 38 measures from the 2014 County Health Rankings. The contributions of health factors to health outcomes in Delta and non-Delta counties were examined using path analysis. Results We found similarities between Delta counties and non-Delta counties in the health factors (eg, tobacco use, diet and exercise) that significantly predicted the health outcomes of self-rated health and low birthweight. The most variation was seen in predictors of mortality; however, Delta counties shared 2 of the 3 significant predictors (ie, community safety and income) of mortality with non-Delta counties. On average across all measures, values in the Delta were 16% worse than in the non-Delta and 22% worse than in the rest of the United States. Conclusion The health status of Delta counties is poorer than that of non-Delta counties because the health factors that contribute to health outcomes in the entire region are worse in the Delta counties, not because of a unique set of health predictors. PMID:26940300

  1. The ground state of the D=11 supermembrane and matrix models on compact regions

    CERN Document Server

    Boulton, L; Restuccia, A

    2015-01-01

    We establish a general framework for the analysis of boundary value problems at zero energy of matrix models on compact regions. This allows us to prove existence and uniqueness of ground state wavefunctions for the mass operator of the D=11 regularized supermembrane theory (and therefore the N=16 supersymmetric matrix model) on a ball of finite radius. Our results rely on the structure of the associated Dirichlet form and a factorization in terms of the supersymmetric charges. They also rely on the polynomial structure of the potential and various other supersymmetric properties of the system.

  2. Anuran amphibians of the urban region of Altamira (Oriental Amazonia, state of Pará, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Bezerra Barros

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to take stock of the species of anurans in three localities of the urban region of Altamira, a municipal district in the west of the state of Pará (Oriental Amazonia. Collections were made between January and June of 2004. Fifteen species were recorded during the study. The family Hylidae was the most represented, with eight species. The data was compatible with the degree of conservation of the collection areas. The necessity of making new fauna inventories in all Brazilian biomes is of extreme urgency, particularly in the Amazon, given its vast extension and lack of inventories.

  3. Anuran amphibians of the urban region of Altamira (Oriental Amazonia), state of Pará, Brazil.

    OpenAIRE

    Flávio Bezerra Barros; Sílvia Renata Knispel

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed to take stock of the species of anurans in three localities of the urban region of Altamira, a municipal district in the west of the state of Pará (Oriental Amazonia). Collections were made between January and June of 2004. Fifteen species were recorded during the study. The family Hylidae was the most represented, with eight species. The data was compatible with the degree of conservation of the collection areas. The necessity of making new fauna inventories in all Br...

  4. The ground state of the D = 11 supermembrane and matrix models on compact regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Lyonell; Garcia del Moral, Maria Pilar; Restuccia, Alvaro

    2016-09-01

    We establish a general framework for the analysis of boundary value problems of matrix models at zero energy on compact regions. We derive existence and uniqueness of ground state wavefunctions for the mass operator of the D = 11 regularized supermembrane theory, that is the N = 16 supersymmetric SU (N) matrix model, on balls of finite radius. Our results rely on the structure of the associated Dirichlet form and a factorization in terms of the supersymmetric charges. They also rely on the polynomial structure of the potential and various other supersymmetric properties of the system.

  5. Probing the transition state region in catalytic CO oxidation on Ru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrom, H. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden); Oberg, H. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden); Xin, H. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); LaRue, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Beye, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin fur Materialien und Energie GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Dell' Angela, M. [Univ. of Hamburg and Center for Free Electron Laser Science, Hamburg (Germany); Gladh, J. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden); Ng, M. L. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Sellberg, J. A. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Kaya, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Mercurio, G. [Univ. of Hamburg and Center for Free Electron Laser Science, Hamburg (Germany); Nordlund, D. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hantschmann, M. [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin fur Materialien und Energie GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Hieke, F. [Univ. of Hamburg and Center for Free Electron Laser Science, Hamburg (Germany); Kuhn, D. [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin fur Materialien und Energie GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Schlotter, W. F. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Dakovski, G. L. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Turner, J. J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Minitti, M. P. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Mitra, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Moeller, S. P. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fohlisch, A. [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin fur Materialien und Energie GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Univ. Potsdam, Potsdam (Germany); Wolf, M. [Fritz-Haber Institute of the Max-Planck-Society, Berlin (Germany); Wurth, W. [Univ. of Hamburg and Center for Free Electron Laser Science, Hamburg (Germany); DESY Photon Science, Hamburg (Germany); Persson, M. [The Univ. of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Norskov, J. K. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Abild-Pedersen, F. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Ogasawara, H. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Pettersson, L. G. M. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden); Nilsson, A. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-02-12

    Femtosecond x-ray laser pulses are used to probe the CO oxidation reaction on ruthenium (Ru) initiated by an optical laser pulse. On a time scale of a few hundred femtoseconds, the optical laser pulse excites motions of CO and O on the surface, allowing the reactants to collide, and, with a transient close to a picosecond (ps), new electronic states appear in the O K-edge x-ray absorption spectrum. Density functional theory calculations indicate that these result from changes in the adsorption site and bond formation between CO and O with a distribution of OC–O bond lengths close to the transition state (TS). After 1 ps, 10% of the CO populate the TS region, which is consistent with predictions based on a quantum oscillator model.

  6. System Model Bias Processing Approach for Regional Coordinated States Information Involved Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zebo Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Kalman filtering applications, the conventional dynamic model which connects the states information of two consecutive epochs by state transition matrix is usually predefined and assumed to be invariant. Aiming to improve the adaptability and accuracy of dynamic model, we propose multiple historical states involved filtering algorithm. An autoregressive model is used as the dynamic model which is subsequently combined with observation model for deriving the optimal window-recursive filter formulae in the sense of minimum mean square error principle. The corresponding test statistics characteristics of system residuals are discussed in details. The test statistics of regional predicted residuals are then constructed in a time-window for model bias testing with two hypotheses, that is, the null and alternative hypotheses. Based on the innovations test statistics, we develop a model bias processing procedure including bias detection, location identification, and state correction. Finally, the minimum detectable bias and bias-to-noise ratio are both computed for evaluating the internal and external reliability of overall system, respectively.

  7. Present state of the perception gap of nuclear energy between Japanese nuclear energy supplying region and an energy consuming region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Public opinion surveys have been carried out since 1998 on what phase and on what extent of the perception of nuclear energy differs between Japanese dwelling in energy supplying region and an energy-consuming region. Southern Fukui rural district where 15 nuclear reactors are now installed and Osaka urban region of about 100 km apart from Fukui were selected as the respective targets for the energy supplying and consuming regions. Analyses of the data of about 3000 samples have revealed the followings. (1) The public in the nuclear energy supplying region are very friendly to nuclear energy so that only about 20 and 39 of the public are resistive to the general promotion of nuclear energy in Japan and to the construction of another nuclear reactor in their dwelling region, respectively. (2) On the other hand, in the energy-consuming region those respective fractions are 41 and 70 implying strong resistance to nuclear energy in the urban region. (3) Both the degree of interest in and the degree of knowledge on nuclear energy are very low, whereas the extent of fear to nuclear is high for the urban public. (4) Not only the fraction of the public who are satisfied with their present life, but the public fraction who is eagerly support the thought of return-to-nature are very high in the urban region. (5) On the other hand, in the energy supplying region, many peoples eagerly want their life to become more convenient than it is now, and 6) all those trends (I)-(5) are revealed more pronouncedly in the woman than the man. The perception gap of nuclear energy thus became clear between Japanese dwelling in rural and urban regions. On the basis of this knowledge, discussions on the nature of the so-called NIMBY will be made from the socio-psychological viewpoint and propositions will also be made on the methods to dissolve the perception gap of that soft. (author)

  8. ECONOMICS OF OPERATION AND STATE REGULATION DEVELOPMENT OF THE REGIONAL AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papahchyan I. A.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article considers current economic situation in the economy of the Krasnodar region, the importance of import substitution in the future functioning and regulation of regional development of agro-industrial complex. The positive impact on the agricultural economy, double sided grocery sanctions, the leadership of the rural economy of the region with annual growth of GDP of 9.2% (in Russia – 4,5% is pointed. The article shows that the growth of quantitative and qualitative indicators in the industry was provided with additional targeted investment to increase profitability of crop production to 44%. The advantages of big business that produces mostly grains are pointed out, because this factor will continue to determine the vector of development of agriculture. A big positive point of the livestock industry is the growth of profitability of milk production to 37%. At the same time, cattle breeding with the margin of 19.7% is still highly problematic on observance of technological discipline. Production of cattle meat remains unprofitable. A significant segment of production in farming is still taken by small farms. In 2014 the government regulated their development supporting them with money in the amount of more than 700 million RUB . The author believes to keep further growth of the livestock on it is necessary to stabilize the number of livestock, especially dairy cattle, to restore the production of pork, to continue the construction and reconstruction of farms and complexes, to provide animals with high quality food. The author also stresses the importance of development of business of rice growing, vegetable growing, fruit growing, the importance of updating and development of material and technical base. The work provides the data that at the expense of state regulation (support profitability of agriculture in the region has grown by an additional 7%, so it creates new opportunities for growth of the agricultural economy of our

  9. Regional homogeneity analysis on acupoint specificity with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Xiu-jun; CHEN Hong-yan; WANG Bao-guo; ZHAO Bai-xiao; LI Shao-wu; ZHANG Lei; DAI Jian-ping; LIU Xiao-yuan; LUO Fang

    2012-01-01

    Background The mechanism of acupuncture analgesia in craniotomy has been widely studied.However,the theoretical basis for selection of acupoints has not been examined.In this study,we used the regional homogeneity method blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals to determine changes in brain activity in response to transcutaneous electrical stimulation on acupoints and non-acupoints in resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).Methods Twelve healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study.BOLD fMRI scanning of the brain was performed for 306 seconds before and 30 minutes after transcutaneous electrical stimulation on acupoints UB63 (Jinmen),LV3 (Tai chong),ST36 (Zusanli),and GB40 (Qiuxu).The procedure was repeated after one week with stimulation on non-acupoints (one was 9 above BL67,the second was 12 above BL67 (Kunlun),the third was 7 above Kl3,and the fourth was 10 above Kl3 (Taixi)).Results The regional homogeneity in the acupoint group was increased in the left thalamus,caudate,putamen,lentiform nucleus (BA19,30,39),postcentral gyrus,precentral gyrus (BA3,4,30,32),calcarine fissure,middle temporal gyrus (BA30),right superior temporal gyrus,inferior temporal gyrus (BA38),cuneus,and precuneus (BA7,19) when compared to the non-acupoint group.The regional homogeneity of the acupoint group was decreased in the left cerebellum posterior lobe,middle frontal gyrus (BA10),double-side precuneus (BA7),and the postcentral gyrus (BA40).Conclusions The brain region activated following acupoint stimulation is the ipsilateral pain-related brain region,which may relate to the therapeutic effect of acupuncture on pain relief.Further acupoint stimulation causes different central nervous responses compared to non-acupoint stimulation.

  10. Brain regions involved in dispositional mindfulness during resting state and their relation with well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Feng; Wang, Xu; Song, Yiying; Liu, Jia

    2016-08-01

    Mindfulness can be viewed as an important dispositional characteristic that reflects the tendency to be mindful in daily life, which is beneficial for improving individuals' both hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. However, no study to date has examined the brain regions involved in individual differences in dispositional mindfulness during the resting state and its relation with hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. To investigate this issue, the present study employed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to evaluate the regional homogeneity (ReHo) that measures the local synchronization of spontaneous brain activity in a large sample. We found that dispositional mindfulness was positively associated with the ReHo in the left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), left parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), and right insula implicated in emotion processing, body awareness, and self-referential processing, and negatively associated with the ReHo in right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) implicated in response inhibition and attentional control. Furthermore, we found different neural associations with hedonic (i.e., positive and negative affect) and eudaimonic well-being (i.e., the meaningful and purposeful life). Specifically, the ReHo in the IFG predicted eudaimonic well-being whereas the OFC predicted positive affect, both of which were mediated by dispositional mindfulness. Taken together, our study provides the first evidence for linking individual differences in dispositional mindfulness to spontaneous brain activity and demonstrates that dispositional mindfulness engages multiple brain mechanisms that differentially influence hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. PMID:26360907

  11. A global fundamental equation of state for normal hexane in the critical region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The crossover Landau model is used to predict the thermodynamic properties of normal hexane. ► Thermodynamic properties of normal are studied. ► Comparison with different thermodynamic properties is done. - Abstract: In our previous work [S. Azzouz, A. Rizi, A. Acidi, A. Abbaci, St. Cerc. St. CICBIA 11 (2) (2010) 235–241], we developed an interim thermodynamic property formulation for the supercritical n-hexane which incorporates non-analytic scaling laws in the critical region and reproduces the thermodynamic properties of n-hexane far away from the critical region. However, it appears that this equation of state gives unphysical values for critical amplitudes such as that of the compressibility above the critical point. In this work, we present a modification of this equation of state based on the pressure data of Grigoriev et al. group and those of Abdulagatov, the isochoric specific heat data of Amirkhanov et al. as well as the isobaric specific heat of Gerasimov et al. Comparison with different sets of thermodynamic-property data available is given

  12. Marshak Lectureship Talk: Women in Physics in the Baltic States Region: Problems and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satkovskiene, Dalia

    2008-03-01

    In this contribution the gender equality problem in physics will be discussed on the basis of the results obtained implementing the project ``Baltic States Network: Women in Sciences and High Technology'' (BASNET) initiated by Lithuanian women physicists and financed by European Commission. The main goal of BASNET project was creation of the regional Strategy how to deal with women in sciences problem in the Baltic States. It has some stages and the contribution follows them. The first one was in depth sociological study aiming to find out disincentives and barriers women scientists face in their career and work at science and higher education institutions. Analysis of results revealed wide range of problems concerned with science organization, management and financing common for both counterparts. However it also proved the existence of women discrimination in sciences. As main factors influencing women under-representation in Physics was found: the stereotypes existing in the society where physics is assigned to the masculine area of activity; failings of the science management system, where highest positions are distributed not using the institutionalized objective criteria but by voting, where the correctness of majority solutions is anticipated implicitly. In physics where male scientists are the majority (they also usually compose executive boards, committees etc.) results of such a procedures often are unfavorable for women. The same reasons also influence women ``visibility'' in physicist's community and as the consequence possibility to receive needed recourses for their research as well as appropriate presentation of results obtained. The study revealed also the conservatism of scientific community- reluctance to face existing in the scientific society problems and to start solving them. On the basis of the results obtained as well practice of other countries the common strategy of solving women in physics (sciences) in the Baltic States region was

  13. Acaricides efficiency on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus from Bahia state North-Central region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynal, José Tadeu; Silva, Aretha Alves Borges da; Sousa, Thiago de Jesus; Bahiense, Thiago Campanharo; Meyer, Roberto; Portela, Ricardo Wagner

    2013-01-01

    The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is responsible for major losses in the Brazilian livestock, mainly due to reduction in cattle productive performance. Resistance development to major classes of acaricide widely used nowadays has been extensively reported, as well as the occurrence of residues from these compounds in animal products and the environment. This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of acaricides on R. (B.) microplus collected from rural properties in the North-Central region of Bahia State. Ticks were collected in several cattle farms in the cited region, and an in vitro acaricide efficiency assay was performed based on the immersion of ticks in acaricide solutions made according to manufacturers' recommendations. The results obtained in the experiments indicated varying degrees of efficiency of the several bases studied, with the products benzofenilurea, macrocyclic lactone and fipronil showing the highest levels of efficiency, 100%, 100% and 97.34%, respectively. It was possible to conclude that, for the region studied, there are different degrees of commercial acaricides efficiency, and many present less than 95% effectiveness, value determined as acceptable by the Brazilian legislation. PMID:23538503

  14. Study of superdeformed state of nuclei in $Z=70-80$ drip-line region

    CERN Document Server

    Mahapatro, S; Kumar, Bharat; Patra, S K

    2015-01-01

    We study binding energy, root- mean square radius, quadrapole deformation parameter, two-neutron separation energy and single particle energy levels for various isotopes of Ytterbium (Yb), Hafnium(Hf), Tungsten(W), Osmium(Os), Platinum(Pt) and Mercury(Hg) in $Z = 70 - 80$ drip-line region starting from $N =80$ to $N=170$ within the formalism of relativistic mean field (RMF) theory. We compared our results with Finite Range Droplet Model(FRDM) and experimental data and found that the calculated results are in good agreement. The nuclei $^{168}$Yb,$^{172}$Hf, $^{176}$W, $^{184}$Os, $^{188}$Pt, $^{196}$Hg are found to be most stable isotope in the respective series in the neutron-deficient region. We also observe that there is a shape transition at about $A=190$ in $Z=70-80$ region. The shape changes from oblate to highly prolate shape in their intrinsic ground state. We have also studied probable decay mechanisms of these elements.

  15. MODERN PROBLEMS OF ANIMAL HUSBANDRY OF THE KRASNODAR REGION: STATE AND SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemirskiy A. S.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Krasnodar region is a major producer and supplier of agricultural products. Livestock development in the Krasnodar region has been supported by the following factors: favorable climate, the intensive development of crop production, the need of the population in livestock production and others. Recently, however, there is a decline in livestock production, which is due to the influence of negative factors. Industry analysis showed the problems that hinder the development: high costs for the purchase of feed for livestock and poultry, low purchase price of products, pedigree cattle deficit, lack of foreign investment, low level of modernization of production. The development of the livestock industry of Krasnodar region must be associated with the use of optimal feed rations of cows, implementation of new methods of genetics and selection, implementation of strict accounting and control of livestock, improvement of livestock veterinary support. This will increase the milk production and improve the efficiency of the industry. The article provides the optimal parameters of the diet of cows, calculated by the authors and based on the use of methods of optimization and simulation. It is based on economic and mathematical model developed by the staff of the Department of Economic Cybernetics of Kuban State Agrarian University

  16. Regional modeling of natural dust in the United State: Source emission, transport, and photochemical impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, D. Q.; Mathur, R.; Mobley, D.; Wong, D.; Yu, S.

    2008-12-01

    We developed a dust emission module to estimate the wind-blown dust emissions from dessert and agricultural land using local wind speed, threshold wind speed to initiate erosion, soil texture and moisture, land use type, and vegetation coverage. The estimated dust is then partitioned to create a fraction of the total sediment mobilized by the wind for vertical transport and subsequent regional circulation. This dust module also included detailed chemical speciation and size distribution, and a geographic filter to eliminate unrealistic emission sources (e.g., mountain peaks with dry soil and strong winds). We then couple the dust module with a regional air quality model CMAQ to: (1) study if the WRF-CMAQ national air quality forecasting system can accurately predict major dust storms occurring in the United States; 2) estimate the annual budget of natural dust emissions from agricultural and dessert lands and their relative importance for total PM2.5 over different U.S. regions; and 3) examine the effects of dust emissions on photolysis rates and consequently on levels of tropospheric O3 and atmospheric oxidants.

  17. Regional Climate and Variability of the Summertime Continental United States in Reanalyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilovich, M G.; Robertson, F. R.; Roberts, B.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding climate variability at regional scales is an important for research and societal needs. Atmospheric retrospective-analyses (or reanalyses) integrate multitudes of observing systems with numerical models to produce continuous data that include variables not easily observed, if at all. The breadth of variables as well as observational influence included in reanalyses make them ideal for investigating climate variability. In this paper, we assess NASA s Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Application (MERRA) regional variability in North America, specifically the United States, in conjunction with current satellite data reanalyses. Emphasis is placed on summertime precipitation because 1) it is a difficult parameter to capture in the most difficult season, 2) significant observational resources exist to benchmark comparisons, and 3) accurate assessment of precipitation variability is crucial to a multitude of sectors and applications. Likewise, we have also begun to evaluate surface air temperature. While precipitation biases are identified, year to year variability of the precipitation variations, in many cases, are quite reasonable. However, some spurious long term trends and sudden shifts in the time series are also identified. In surface air temperature, analysis of station observations provides ERA Interim a clear overall advantage. However, in a number of regions, all the reanalyses are quite comparable in variability and trend. In other regions, significant precipitation biases may occur, which has implications for the ancillary process data in a reanalysis, such as surface fluxes. We also characterize the reanalyses ability to capture variability related to ENSO. In general, the summertime variations of precipitation in the reanalyses are more highly correlated (positively) to ENSO (using ENSO34) than are the observations. The Northwestern US shows the largest positive correlations to ENSO34, and reanalyses agree with that, and

  18. Response to state comments on the revised draft Southeastern Regional Characterization Reports for the Crystalline Repository Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to respond to the comments received from the states of the Southeastern Region on the revised draft Southeastern Regional Characterization Reports (RCRs). The responses in this document indicate the manner in which the suggestions or comments received have been considered in modifying the revised draft Southeastern RCRs. Both general comments related to the overall Crystalline Repository Project (CRP) and comments on specific sections of the RCRs are addressed. This document responds to Southeastern State comments on both the revised draft Southeastern Regional Geologic Characterization Report (RGCR) and the revised draft Southeastern Regional Environmental Characterization Report (RECR)

  19. Response to state comments on the revised draft North Central Regional characterization reports for the Crystalline Repository Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to respond to the comments received from the states of the North Central Region on the revised draft North Central Regional Characterization Reports (RCRs). The responses in this document indicate the manner in which the suggestions or comments received have been considered in modifying the revised draft North Central RCRs. Both general comments related to the overall Crystalline Repository Project (CRP) and comments on specific sections of the RCRs are addressed. This document responds to North Central State comments on both the revised draft North Central Regional Geologic Characterization Report (RGCR) and the revised draft North Central Regional Environmental Characterization Report (RECR)

  20. Response to state comments on the revised draft northeastern regional characterization reports for the Crystalline Repository Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to respond to the comments received from the States of the Northeastern Region on the revised draft Northeastern Regional Characterization Reports (RCRs). The responses in this document indicate the manner in which the suggestions or comments received have been considered in modifying the revised draft Northeastern RCRs. Both general comments related to the overall Crystalline Repository Project (CRP) and comments on specific sections of the RCRs are addressed. This document responds to Northeastern State comments on both the revised draft Northeastern Regional Geologic Characterization Report (RGCR) and the revised draft Northeastern Regional Environmental Characterization Report (RECR)

  1. Models of regional habitat quality and connectivity for pumas (Puma concolor) in the southwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Brett G; Roemer, Gary W; McRae, Brad H; Rundall, Jill M

    2013-01-01

    The impact of landscape changes on the quality and connectivity of habitats for multiple wildlife species is of global conservation concern. In the southwestern United States, pumas (Puma concolor) are a well distributed and wide-ranging large carnivore that are sensitive to loss of habitat and to the disruption of pathways that connect their populations. We used an expert-based approach to define and derive variables hypothesized to influence the quality, location, and permeability of habitat for pumas within an area encompassing the entire states of Arizona and New Mexico. Survey results indicated that the presence of woodland and forest cover types, rugged terrain, and canyon bottom and ridgeline topography were expected to be important predictors of both high quality habitat and heightened permeability. As road density, distance to water, or human population density increased, the quality and permeability of habitats were predicted to decline. Using these results, we identified 67 high quality patches across the study area, and applied concepts from electronic circuit theory to estimate regional patterns of connectivity among these patches. Maps of current flow among individual pairs of patches highlighted possible pinch points along two major interstate highways. Current flow summed across all pairs of patches highlighted areas important for keeping the entire network connected, regardless of patch size. Cumulative current flow was highest in Arizona north of the Colorado River and around Grand Canyon National Park, and in the Sky Islands region owing to the many small habitat patches present. Our outputs present a first approximation of habitat quality and connectivity for dispersing pumas in the southwestern United States. Map results can be used to help target finer-scaled analyses in support of planning efforts concerned with the maintenance of puma metapopulation structure, as well as the protection of landscape features that facilitate the dispersal

  2. Models of regional habitat quality and connectivity for pumas (Puma concolor in the southwestern United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett G Dickson

    Full Text Available The impact of landscape changes on the quality and connectivity of habitats for multiple wildlife species is of global conservation concern. In the southwestern United States, pumas (Puma concolor are a well distributed and wide-ranging large carnivore that are sensitive to loss of habitat and to the disruption of pathways that connect their populations. We used an expert-based approach to define and derive variables hypothesized to influence the quality, location, and permeability of habitat for pumas within an area encompassing the entire states of Arizona and New Mexico. Survey results indicated that the presence of woodland and forest cover types, rugged terrain, and canyon bottom and ridgeline topography were expected to be important predictors of both high quality habitat and heightened permeability. As road density, distance to water, or human population density increased, the quality and permeability of habitats were predicted to decline. Using these results, we identified 67 high quality patches across the study area, and applied concepts from electronic circuit theory to estimate regional patterns of connectivity among these patches. Maps of current flow among individual pairs of patches highlighted possible pinch points along two major interstate highways. Current flow summed across all pairs of patches highlighted areas important for keeping the entire network connected, regardless of patch size. Cumulative current flow was highest in Arizona north of the Colorado River and around Grand Canyon National Park, and in the Sky Islands region owing to the many small habitat patches present. Our outputs present a first approximation of habitat quality and connectivity for dispersing pumas in the southwestern United States. Map results can be used to help target finer-scaled analyses in support of planning efforts concerned with the maintenance of puma metapopulation structure, as well as the protection of landscape features that facilitate

  3. Diversity of United States medical students by region compared to US census data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith MM

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mark M Smith,1 Steven H Rose,1 Darrell R Schroeder,2 Timothy R Long1 1Department of Anesthesiology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA; 2Division of Biomedical Statistics and Informatics, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA Purpose: Increasing the diversity of the United States (US physician workforce to better represent the general population has received considerable attention. The purpose of this study was to compare medical student race data to that of the US general population. We hypothesized that race demographics of medical school matriculants would reflect that of the general population. Patients and methods: Published race data from the United States Census Bureau (USCB 2010 census and the 2011 Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC allopathic medical school application and enrollment by race and ethnicity survey were analyzed and compared. Race data of enrolled medical students was compared to race data of the general population within geographic regions and subregions. Additionally, race data of medical school applicants and matriculants were compared to race data of the overall general population. Results: Race distribution within US medical schools was significantly different than race distribution for the overall, regional, and subregional populations of the US (P<0.001. Additionally, the overall race distribution of medical school applicants differed significantly to the race distribution of the general population (P<0.001. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that race demographics of US medical school applicants and matriculants are significantly different from that of the general population, and may be resultant of societal quandaries present early in formal education. Initiatives targeting underrepresented minorities at an early stage to enhance health care career interest and provide academic support and mentorship will be required to address the racial disparity that exists in US

  4. Experience with WASP and MAED among IAEA Member States participating in the Regional Co-operative Agreement (RCA) in Asia and the Pacific Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report includes the proceedings and papers presented during the workshop on the experience with WASP/MAED computer programs among IAEA Member States participating in the regional co-operative agreement (RCA) in Asia and the Pacific Region, organized by the IAEA and held in Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia) between 5-9 December 1988. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 14 papers presented. Refs, figs and tabs

  5. A Regional Modeling Framework of Phosphorus Sources and Transport in Streams of the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, A.M.; Hoos, A.B.; Terziotti, S.

    2011-01-01

    We applied the SPARROW model to estimate phosphorus transport from catchments to stream reaches and subsequent delivery to major receiving water bodies in the Southeastern United States (U.S.). We show that six source variables and five land-to-water transport variables are significant (p<0.05) in explaining 67% of the variability in long-term log-transformed mean annual phosphorus yields. Three land-to-water variables are a subset of landscape characteristics that have been used as transport factors in phosphorus indices developed by state agencies and are identified through experimental research as influencing land-to-water phosphorus transport at field and plot scales. Two land-to-water variables - soil organic matter and soil pH - are associated with phosphorus sorption, a significant finding given that most state-developed phosphorus indices do not explicitly contain variables for sorption processes. Our findings for Southeastern U.S. streams emphasize the importance of accounting for phosphorus present in the soil profile to predict attainable instream water quality. Regional estimates of phosphorus associated with soil-parent rock were highly significant in explaining instream phosphorus yield variability. Model predictions associate 31% of phosphorus delivered to receiving water bodies to geology and the highest total phosphorus yields in the Southeast were catchments with already high background levels that have been impacted by human activity. ?? 2011 American Water Resources Association. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Evaluating historical climate and hydrologic trends in the Central Appalachian region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaertner, B. A.; Zegre, N.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is surfacing as one of the most important environmental and social issues of the 21st century. Over the last 100 years, observations show increasing trends in global temperatures and intensity and frequency of precipitation events such as flooding, drought, and extreme storms. Global circulation models (GCM) show similar trends for historic and future climate indicators, albeit with geographic and topographic variability at regional and local scale. In order to assess the utility of GCM projections for hydrologic modeling, it is important to quantify how robust GCM outputs are compared to robust historical observations at finer spatial scales. Previous research in the United States has primarily focused on the Western and Northeastern regions due to dominance of snow melt for runoff and aquifer recharge but the impact of climate warming in the mountainous central Appalachian Region is poorly understood. In this research, we assess the performance of GCM-generated historical climate compared to historical observations primarily in the context of forcing data for macro-scale hydrologic modeling. Our results show significant spatial heterogeneity of modeled climate indices when compared to observational trends at the watershed scale. Observational data is showing considerable variability within maximum temperature and precipitation trends, with consistent increases in minimum temperature. The geographic, temperature, and complex topographic gradient throughout the central Appalachian region is likely the contributing factor in temperature and precipitation variability. Variable climate changes are leading to more severe and frequent climate events such as temperature extremes and storm events, which can have significant impacts on our drinking water supply, infrastructure, and health of all downstream communities.

  7. Monitoring the expansion of built-up areas in Seberang Perai region, Penang State, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid urbanization has caused land use transformation and encroachment of built environment into arable agriculture land. Uncontrolled expansion could bring negative impacts to society, space and the environment. Therefore, information on expansion and future spatial pattern of built-up areas would be useful for planners and decision makers in formulating policies towards managing and planning for sustainable urban development. This study demonstrates the usage of Geographic Information System in monitoring the expansion of built-up area in Seberang Perai region, Penang State, Malaysia. Built-up area has increased by approximately 20% between 1990 and 2001 and further increased by 12% between 2001 and 2007. New development is expected to continue encroach into existing open space and agriculture area since those are the only available land in this study area. The information on statistics of the expansion of built-up area and future spatial pattern of urban expansion were useful in planning and managing urban spatial growth

  8. Ectoparasites are Major Skin Diseases of Dogs in Gondar, Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anberbir Tesfaye

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was conducted from November, 2010 to April, 2011 in the Amhara regional state, Gondar town. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites, determine associated risk factors and identify the most important ectoparasites species of dogs. Skin scrapings for mange mite suspected cases and collection of ectoparasites for lice, fleas and ticks was done using simple random technique. Age, sex, breed and coat color were considered as risk factors. SPSS version 17 (2004 was used for chi- square test and P-value 0.05. Ectoparasites were found more prevalent in female dogs (91.8% than males (87.1%. For age groups of 8-18 months it was 96.6% prevalent and in local breeds it was found 90.3% prevalence. In conclusion, dogs were highly exposed to ectoparasites and hence ectoparasites were serious dermatologic problems in Gondar.

  9. Managers' perspective on continuous health education in a region of São Paulo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Martins Mishima

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVEAnalysing the concepts of Continuous Health Education - CHE (EPS - in Portuguese, operated by municipal managers and translated into official documents.METHODQualitative research with the use of official documents and semi-structured interviews with the Municipal Health Secretaries or Coordinators of Primary Health Care in the Northeast Region of São Paulo State, and thematic analysis of empirical material.RESULTSResults indicate difficulties in the municipalities problematizing their management practices, services and health care; EPS tools presented are insufficient and unsatisfactory for amending the array of problems raised and are still far from the routine of Primary Care services.CONCLUSIONDespite efforts to implement EPS actions for the strengthening of primary care, the process appears to be incipient.

  10. Incidence of gastro-intestinal parasites in horses of Shimoga region, Karnataka state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeppa, J; Ananda, K J; Krishna Murthy, C M; Satheesha, G M

    2016-09-01

    A study was conducted to ascertain the incidence of gastrointestinal parasites in horses of Shimoga region, to generate the data regarding status of parasitic infections of equines in Karnataka state due to paucity of information. A total of 100 fresh fecal samples of equines were collected and examined by direct and sedimentation method for the detection of parasitic egg/ova. Among 100 samples examined, 84 (84.0 %) were found positive for various gastrointestinal helminths. Out of 84 positive cases, 44 (52.38 %) were found positive for Strongylus spp. eggs, 09 (10.71 %) showed Parascaris equorum eggs, 06 (7.14 %) had Gastrodiscus spp. eggs, 04 (4.76 %) harbored Oxyuris equi and the remaining 21 (25.0 %) had a mixed infection of Strongylus spp., Strongyloides spp. and Gastrodiscus spp. PMID:27605810

  11. The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) Network in the PNW region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, K.; Austin, K.; Feaux, K.; Jackson, M.; Fengler, K.; Doelger, S.

    2007-05-01

    The Pacific Northwest Region (PNW) of the United States contains a variety of geologic regions and tectonic problems. These include the Cascadia Subduction Zone, Mt. St. Helens and the transition to the Basin and Range province. Since September of 2003, the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), which is part of the larger NSF-funded EarthScope project, has been installing a network of continuously operating GPS, strainmeter and tiltmeter instruments. There are currently 78 GPS, 13 strainmeter/borehole seismometers, and 4 tiltmeters operating in the PNW region. The data from this network has already been used to study Episodic Tremor Events (ETS) during September 2005 and January 2007, and renewed activity on Mt. St. Helens that began on September 23, 2004. The goal is have 134 continuously operating GPS stations by the end of September 2008. The locations of the GPS stations were determined by scientific committees. Whenever possible, multiple instruments are deployed at the same location, and share power and communications resources. Examples of this are GPS antennas mounted on top of strainmeter boreholes in the forearc region of western Washington and tiltmeters collecting data through GPS receivers on Mt. St. Helens. In addition, a number of stations provide real time kinematic data to professional surveyors within the region. During the fall of 2006, a 16 GPS and 4 tiltmeter station network was completed on Mt. St. Helens. Results from analysis of both PBO and USGS GPS stations on the mountain, show a radially inward and downward motion, with the maximum vertical offsets high on the mountain and the maximum horizontal offsets located at distances of 5-10km from the crater. Displacements are small over the 2004-present eruption with a maximum of 3cm of inward movement. GPS stations installed high on the mountain experience severe weather and heavy rime accumulations for approximately 6 months of the year. Ice build-up causes distortion of the GPS antenna phase

  12. Lichens as indicators of the atmosphere state in the oil exploration district of Tomsk Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolshunova, Tatiana; Ivan, Podkozlin

    2013-04-01

    Lichens are widespread in the vegetative cover of West Siberia, particularly in the north. They play an important role in the migration and transformation of chemical pollutants. Lichens lack waxy cuticles and are largely dependent on the atmosphere for their water and nutrient uptake. Lichens are not only studied and used as indicators, but also as accumulators, e.g. for trace and heavy metals. In fact, lichens are known for their ability to accumulate airborne substances to concentrations far greater those in the atmosphere, and the element contents of lichen thalli proved to be directly correlated with environmental levels. Monitoring of the atmosphere pollution using lichens is more efficient than that using snow cover. Because of the long lichen life it is possible to obtain persistent mean characteristics of the ecosystems state. Epiphytic lichens, growing on tree stems are more appropriate to use than that which grow on soil. Epiphytic lichens are more sensitive to changes of the chemical composition of the atmosphere. Pollutants penetrate in the lichen thalli from the atmosphere together with precipitations and dust. Moreover the precipitations are saturated with pollutants when going through crowns of trees and trickling down the steams and branches. Lichen studies are especially important in territories subjected to excessive human activity. Because a great part of Tomsk region (West Siberia, Russia) is the territory of the oil-field exploration, there the atmosphere monitoring is a necessary part of the whole environmental monitoring. The aim of this investigation is the estimation of the influence of oil exploration industry in Tomsk region on the atmosphere by means of the study of epiphytic lichens. Lichen samples were collected in August and September 2010-2011. Sampling net included seven areas distributed inside the oil-exploration districts of Tomsk region. In total 27 samples were collected. In these samples 53 chemical elements were detected by

  13. Episodic response project: Wet deposition at watersheds in three regions of the eastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the period from August 1988 to June 1990, wet-only sampling of precipitation was carried out at three Episodic Response Project sites and at one supplemental site. The three watershed sites are Moss Lake, Biscuit Brook, and Linn Run. The supplemental site was the MAP3S site at Pennsylvania State University that characterizes the central group of northern Appalachian streams. The site operators adhered by varying degrees to the sample collection protocol based on the daily sampling protocol of the MAP3S Precipitation Chemistry Network. Sulfate and nitrate ion together accounted for more than 80% of total anions (in μEq/L) in the precipitation at all sites. Wet deposition of sulfate at Moss Lake, Biscuit Brook, Penn State, and Linn Run averaged 223, 230, 253, and 402 mg/m2/month, respectively, whereas nitrate wet deposition averaged 197, 195, 160, and 233 mg/m2/month, respectively. Sulfate deposition was a factor of 2 to 4 higher in summer than in winter. The seasonal pattern for nitrate deposition was weak; the seasonal contrast was less than a factor of 2.5 at all sites. The association between the wet deposition and precipitation chemistry at the MAP3S monitoring site and the average for the study watersheds was dependent on the distance between the site and watershed and the intervening terrain. Precipitation chemistry at the monitoring site is representative of that at the ERP study watersheds in the Adirondack and Catskill regions and in the south-western group of watersheds in the Appalachian region. High spatial variability in precipitation amounts makes this assumption weaker for wet deposition. Chemical input to watersheds from dry deposition has not been determined at any site but could range from a factor of 0.3 to 1.0 of the wet deposition. 7 refs., 38 figs., 12 tabs

  14. Episodic response project: Wet deposition at watersheds in three regions of the eastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barchet, W.R.

    1991-11-01

    During the period from August 1988 to June 1990, wet-only sampling of precipitation was carried out at three Episodic Response Project sites and at one supplemental site. The three watershed sites are Moss Lake, Biscuit Brook, and Linn Run. The supplemental site was the MAP3S site at Pennsylvania State University that characterizes the central group of northern Appalachian streams. The site operators adhered by varying degrees to the sample collection protocol based on the daily sampling protocol of the MAP3S Precipitation Chemistry Network. Sulfate and nitrate ion together accounted for more than 80% of total anions (in {mu}Eq/L) in the precipitation at all sites. Wet deposition of sulfate at Moss Lake, Biscuit Brook, Penn State, and Linn Run averaged 223, 230, 253, and 402 mg/m{sup 2}/month, respectively, whereas nitrate wet deposition averaged 197, 195, 160, and 233 mg/m{sup 2}/month, respectively. Sulfate deposition was a factor of 2 to 4 higher in summer than in winter. The seasonal pattern for nitrate deposition was weak; the seasonal contrast was less than a factor of 2.5 at all sites. The association between the wet deposition and precipitation chemistry at the MAP3S monitoring site and the average for the study watersheds was dependent on the distance between the site and watershed and the intervening terrain. Precipitation chemistry at the monitoring site is representative of that at the ERP study watersheds in the Adirondack and Catskill regions and in the south-western group of watersheds in the Appalachian region. High spatial variability in precipitation amounts makes this assumption weaker for wet deposition. Chemical input to watersheds from dry deposition has not been determined at any site but could range from a factor of 0.3 to 1.0 of the wet deposition. 7 refs., 38 figs., 12 tabs.

  15. Characterization and genesis of waterfalls of the Presidente Figueiredo region, Northeast State of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOGUEIRA AFONSO C. R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The waterfalls of the Presidente Figueiredo municipality represent a fascinating natural scenery of northeast state of Amazonas, northern Brazil. The falls, generally less than 10m high, are developed on siliciclastic rocks of the Nhamundá (Lower Silurian, and Manacapuru (Upper Silurian - Lower Devonian formations. Morphological and structural analyses of these features indicate that most of them originated through Quaternary neotectonics and are installed in NE-trending normal fault escarpments. Waterfalls also developed within pseudokarstic features, but are less frequent. The origin of the Presidente Figueiredo waterfalls probably goes back to the Neogene, when the region was submitted to laterization processes associated with a humid climate and a dense rainforest. These conditions favored the development of caves in quartzarenites of the Nhamundá Formation. During the Quaternary, the region was subjected to NE-trending normal faulting which displaced laterite layers, rivers and streams giving rise to waterfalls. These climatic and tectonic phenomena promoted intense relief dissection, as indicated by fault escarpment retreat and cave dismantlement, responsible for the present-day morphologic configuration.

  16. Provenience studies in archaeological sites in Araruama region, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work shows the results of provenience studies for ceramics collected at Sao Jose, Morro Grande, Serrano and Bela Vista archaeological sites in Araruama region, in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The clays used in this study were collected in the same region. The elemental chemical composition were determined in ceramic and clay samples by INAA allowing the simultaneous determination of twenty five elements, most of them at trace level. The studies of classification and provenience were made by multivariate statistical methods. The Euclidean distance and the hierarchical means in the Ward subroutine were used in cluster analysis. besides, dilution effect was also taken into account to verify the relation between clays and the different groups defined. The results of the cluster analysis and of the average dilution factor calculated for each one of the clays in relation to each group defined show that ceramics without decorations from Sao Jose have a closer chemical composition collected at the closest point at Morro Grande, denominated as Corrego Cambuci. The elements Co, Cr, Hf, Ta, Ti and Sb show smaller concentration in the ceramic, suggesting that in some way those elements are lost during fabrication or probably are diluted by the addition of temper or other materials. (author)

  17. The economic growth of small states and small economies in regional economic organizations and integrations: similarities and differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Kurečić

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors examine the effect of membership of small states in regional economic organizations and integrations on the growth of GDP. The aim is to use cost-benefit analysis to answer the question of whether small states, and also small economies, achieve greater economic growth through regional economic organizations and integrations than those small states that are not small economies. Small states, as the subjects of research work, have been chosen precisely because of their size, here defined by quantitative criteria, but taking into account that relational criteria are very important for their positioning in international relations, such as greater exposure to external influences and their dependence on membership in regional economic organizations and integrations. The GDP of small states, in an attempt to answer the hypothesis, was followed for a period of twenty years. Characteristics that depend on regional affiliation of small states, as well as the similarities and differences between small states which are members of the same regional economic organizations/integrations, were also the subject of this paper.

  18. Resting-state functional connectivity of ventral parietal regions associated with attention reorienting and episodic recollection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander M Daselaar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In functional neuroimaging studies, ventral parietal cortex (VPC is recruited by very different cognitive tasks. Explaining the contributions VPC to these tasks has become a topic of intense study and lively debate. Perception studies frequently find VPC activations during tasks involving attention-reorienting, and memory studies frequently find them during tasks involving episodic recollection. According to the Attention to Memory (AtoM model, both phenomena can be explained by the same VPC function: bottom-up attention. Yet, a recent functional MRI (fMRI meta-analysis suggested that attention-reorienting activations are more frequent in anterior VPC, whereas recollection activations are more frequent in posterior VPC. Also, there is evidence that anterior and posterior VPC regions have different functional connectivity patterns. To investigate these issues, we conducted a resting-state functional connectivity analysis using as seeds the center-of-mass of attention-reorienting and recollection activations in the meta-analysis, which were located in the supramarginal gyrus (SMG, around the temporo-parietal junction—TPJ and in the angular gyrus (AG, respectively. The SMG seed showed stronger connectivity with ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC and occipito-temporal cortex, whereas the AG seed showed stronger connectivity with the hippocampus and default network regions. To investigate whether these connectivity differences were graded or sharp, VLPFC and hippocampal connectivity was measured in VPC regions traversing through the SMG and AG seeds. The results showed a graded pattern: VLPFC connectivity gradually decreases from SMG to AG, whereas hippocampal connectivity gradually increases from SMG to AG. Importantly, both gradients showed an abrupt break when extended beyond VPC borders. This finding suggests that functional differences between SMG and AG are more subtle than previously thought. These connectivity differences can be

  19. Frequency specificity of regional homogeneity in the resting-state human brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Song

    Full Text Available Resting state-fMRI studies have found that the inter-areal correlations in cortical networks concentrate within ultra-low frequencies (0.01-0.04 Hz while long-distance connections within subcortical networks distribute over a wider frequency range (0.01-0.14 Hz. However, the frequency characteristics of regional homogeneity (ReHo in different areas are still unclear. To examine the ReHo properties in different frequency bands, a data-driven method, Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD, was adopted to decompose the time series of each voxel into several components with distinct frequency bands. ReHo values in each of the components were then calculated. Our results showed that ReHo in cortical areas were higher and more frequency-dependent than those in the subcortical regions. BOLD oscillations of 0.02-0.04 Hz mainly contributed to the cortical ReHo, whereas the ReHo in limbic areas involved a wider frequency range and were dominated by higher-frequency BOLD oscillations (>0.08 Hz. The frequency characteristics of ReHo are distinct between different parts of the striatum, with the frequency band of 0.04-0.1 Hz contributing the most to ReHo in caudate nucleus, and oscillations lower than 0.02 Hz contributing more to ReHo in putamen. The distinct frequency-specific ReHo properties of different brain areas may arise from the assorted cytoarchitecture or synaptic types in these areas. Our work may advance the understanding of the neural-physiological basis of local BOLD activities and the functional specificity of different brain regions.

  20. Mitochondrial DNA control region diversity in a population from Espirito Santo state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, Naiara M; Paneto, Greiciane G; Figueiredo, Raquel F; de Mello, Aline O; Cicarelli, Regina M B

    2014-10-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis has proved to be useful for forensic identification, especially in cases which nuclear DNA markers fail, as in degraded samples or in cases where the biological material has few traces or no nuclear DNA. Moreover, it can be applied in population genetics, inferring the origin of a population. In this work, the entire mtDNA control region of 97 individuals from the state of Espirito Santo, Brazil, was analyzed. We have found 94 different haplotypes yielding a high haplotype diversity of 0.9994 ± 0.0016. The probability of a random match calculated was 1.09. Haplogroup distribution analysis confirmed a highly admixed Latin American population: African lineages (43.3 %), European lineages (32.0 %), Native American lineages (23.7 %) and Asian lineages (1.0 %). We have concluded that this type of tool can be used both in forensic genetics to the study of different human populations, such as highly admixed populations, and in the study of migration's history and colonization of different states and countries of the world. PMID:24996288

  1. Chronic whiplash symptoms are related to altered regional cerebral blood flow in the resting state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnman, Clas; Appel, Lieuwe; Söderlund, Anne; Frans, Orjan; Engler, Henry; Furmark, Tomas; Gordh, Torsten; Långström, Bengt; Fredrikson, Mats

    2009-01-01

    The neural pathogenic mechanisms involved in mediating chronic pain and whiplash associated disorders (WAD) after rear impact car collisions are largely unknown. This study's first objective was to compare resting state regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) by means of positron emission tomography with (15)O labelled water in 21 WAD patients with 18 healthy, pain-free controls. A second objective was to investigate the relations between brain areas with altered rCBF to pain experience, somatic symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms and personality traits in the patient group. Patients had heightened resting rCBF bilaterally in the posterior parahippocampal and the posterior cingulate gyri, in the right thalamus and the right medial prefrontal gyrus as well as lowered tempero-occipital blood flow compared with healthy controls. The altered rCBF in the patient group was correlated to neck disability ratings. We thus suggest an involvement of the posterior cingulate, parahippocampal and medial prefrontal gyri in WAD and speculate that alterations in the resting state are linked to an increased self-relevant evaluation of pain and stress. PMID:18486506

  2. Mitochondrial DNA control region diversity in a population from Espirito Santo state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, Naiara M; Paneto, Greiciane G; Figueiredo, Raquel F; de Mello, Aline O; Cicarelli, Regina M B

    2014-10-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis has proved to be useful for forensic identification, especially in cases which nuclear DNA markers fail, as in degraded samples or in cases where the biological material has few traces or no nuclear DNA. Moreover, it can be applied in population genetics, inferring the origin of a population. In this work, the entire mtDNA control region of 97 individuals from the state of Espirito Santo, Brazil, was analyzed. We have found 94 different haplotypes yielding a high haplotype diversity of 0.9994 ± 0.0016. The probability of a random match calculated was 1.09. Haplogroup distribution analysis confirmed a highly admixed Latin American population: African lineages (43.3 %), European lineages (32.0 %), Native American lineages (23.7 %) and Asian lineages (1.0 %). We have concluded that this type of tool can be used both in forensic genetics to the study of different human populations, such as highly admixed populations, and in the study of migration's history and colonization of different states and countries of the world.

  3. CHINA'S REGIONAL DISPARITY IN 1981-2000:OPENNESS AND DEVELOPMENT OF NON-STATE-OWNED ENTERPRISES AND FISCAL DECENTRALIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Bing

    2004-01-01

    While China's economic growth has been impressive since 1978, regional disparity in terms of provincial per capita GDP has been increasing. On the other hand, this rapid but uneven growth was accompanied by China's deepening openness and structural reforms including the development of non-state-owned enterprises (non-SOEs) and fiscal decentralization. Based on quantitative analyses, this paper tries to explore the features of regional disparity in China and the relationships between regional growth and China's openness and economic structure reforms in the period from 1981 to 2000. The paper finds that the catching-up of the coastal region to the initially rich provinces, which are mainly located in inland areas, brought about a convergence of the growth pattern across provinces in the 1980s.The subsequent divergence in the provincial growth rates between the coast and the interior generated an enlarging regional disparity in China in the 1990s. The ever-faster growth in the coastal region was benefited by China's openness and the development of non-state-owned enterprises. The development of non-state-owned enterprises underlies the higher operational efficiency in the coastal region. Additionally, with the insignificant regression results, fiscal decentralization was observed to facilitate faster growth in the coast region. The findings justify the initiative of the "West Region Development Strategy" and offer some policy implications for China.

  4. Distance Education Policy Standards: A Review of Current Regional and National Accrediting Organizations in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Suzanne; Brown, Abbie

    2014-01-01

    A review of distance education accreditation policies and standards written by the six United States regional accrediting commissions and two national accrediting organizations: the Middle States Commission on Higher Education; the New England Association of Schools and Colleges - Commission on Institutions of Higher Education; the North Central…

  5. High charge state carbon and oxygen ions in Earth's equatorial quasi-trapping region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christon, S. P.; Hamilton, D. C.; Gloeckler, G.; Eastmann, T. E.

    1994-01-01

    Observations of energetic (1.5 - 300 keV/e) medium-to-high charge state (+3 less than or equal to Q less than or equal to +7) solar wind origin C and O ions made in the quasi-trapping region (QTR) of Earth's magnetosphere are compared to ion trajectories calculated in model equatorial magnetospheric magnetic and electric fields. These comparisons indicate that solar wind ions entering the QTR on the nightside as an energetic component of the plasma sheet exit the region on the dayside, experiencing little or no charge exchange on the way. Measurements made by the CHarge Energy Mass (CHEM) ion spectrometer on board the Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorer/Charge Composition Explorer (AMPTE/CCE) spacecraft at 7 less than L less than 9 from September 1984 to January 1989 are the source of the new results contained herein: quantitative long-term determination of number densities, average energies, energy spectra, local time distributions, and their variation with geomagnetic disturbance level as indexed by Kp. Solar wind primaries (ions with charge states unchanged) and their secondaries (ions with generally lower charge states produced from primaries in the magnetosphere via charge exchange)are observed throughout the QTR and have distinctly different local time variations that persist over the entire 4-year analysis interval. During Kp larger than or equal to 3 deg intervals, primary ion (e.g., O(+6)) densities exhibit a pronounced predawn maximum with average energy minimum and a broad near-local-noon density minimum with average energy maximum. Secondary ion (e.g., O(+5)) densities do not have an identifiable predawn peak, rather they have a broad dayside maximum peaked in local morning and a nightside minimum. During Kp less than or equal to 2(-) intervals, primary ion density peaks are less intense, broader in local time extent, and centered near midnight, while secondary ion density local time variations diminish. The long-time-interval baseline helps

  6. Exotic molluscs (Mollusca, Gastropoda et Bivalvia in Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil region: check list and regional spatial distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ignacio Agudo-Padrón

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of twenty-one exotic mollusc taxa were assessed for Santa Catarina State (SC, fifteen Gastropoda andsix Bivalvia (twelve terrestrial, five limnic/freshwater - three gastropods and two bivalves, and four marinebivalves. Of these, fourteen are confirmed as invasive species (nine terrestrial, three limnic/freshwater, andtwo marine.

  7. Contemporary State and Strategic Directions of Developing the Information Environment of the North-Eastern Regions in Russia (With the Kamchatka Region as an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petruk GV

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Information environment is the basis for the contemporary economic systems development, and a component of the production infrastructure of any territory. The present article evaluates the state, analyzes the problems, and defines strategic perspectives of developing the information environment of the remote North-Eastern regions of Russia, with the Kamchatka Region as an example. The authors specify that the development of the information environment is a vitally important factor for the North-Eastern regions of Russia that are not directly connected with the continent by means of road-transport and train communication. It must provide stable economic growth and increase in the level of people’s life. According to the authors, the development of telecommunication infrastructure that connects information resources allocated territorially, and large-scale assimilation of geographic information systems based on contemporary communications must become the priority directions of developing the information environment of the North-Eastern regions.

  8. Water Footprint of pigs slaughtered in the northeast region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania Elisabete Schneider

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study estimated the water footprint of pigs slaughtered in the municipalities that participate in the Regional Council for the Development of Serra (Corede Serra, in Portuguese, located in the northeast region of Rio Grande do Sul State, in 2014. In order to determine the water footprint, we estimated the water consumed in the production of grains (corn and soybeans used for animal feed, the water used for livestock watering, the water used for cleaning creation areas and the water consumed by animals during the growing and finishing phases. The total water footprint of slaughtered pigs was 0.19825 km3, the largest component of which was water used for the cultivation of grains (99.6%. The municipality of Nova Prata had the largest water footprint of Corede Serra (0.02343 km3 year1, followed by the municipalities of Paraí (0.02187 km3 year-1 and Serafina Corrêa (0.01658 km3 year-1. The municipalities of São Marcos (0.000006 km3 year-1, Bento Gonçalves (0,00002 km3 year-1 and Boa Vista do Sul (0.0004 km3 year-1 had the lowest water footprints, due to low corn productivity associated with the low number of hogs slaughtered. From this assessment, it was found that the management of water resources associated with pig chain production should include water used in the production of feed grain as well as the water used directly in animal husbandry.

  9. 78 FR 8083 - Partial Disapproval of State Implementation Plan; Arizona; Regional Haze Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... regional haze on July 1, 1999. 64 FR 35714 (July 1, 1999) codified at ] 40 CFR part 51, subpart P (Regional... of the required SIP submissions to address regional haze. See 74 FR 2392. Specifically, EPA found... Arizona's 309 Regional Haze SIP, if finalized, will not create a new FIP obligation.\\18\\ \\16\\ 74 FR...

  10. 78 FR 53250 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Florida; Regional Haze...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... regional haze issues. EPA promulgated a rule to address regional haze on July 1, 1999 (64 FR 35713... first implementation period for regional haze.\\1\\ See 77 FR 31240. EPA's May 25, 2012, proposed... Florida regional haze SIP, and on June 7, 2012 (77 FR 33642), EPA finalized a limited disapproval of...

  11. CHARCOAL PRICE ANALYSIS IN FOUR REGIONS OF MINAS GERAIS STATE-BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Pereira de Rezende

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The State of Minas Gerais is the largest producer and consumer of charcoal, that is used as term-reducer of iron ore,for producing pig iron. This study analyzed the time series of charcoal prices in four regions of Minas Gerais State. For the analysisof the price series, the SARIMA model was used, for finding a model that better forecasts prices for the four studied areas. The mostappropriate models were chosen using graphical analyses of the standardized residues, autocorrelation functions and partialautocorrelations, stochastic tests and criteria of evaluation of the order of the model. It concluded that: the differences of charcoalprices occur, basically, due to the geographical location; the analyses of domain of the time and domain of the frequency showed thatthere is difference in the price series of the four studied areas; the areas of Sete Lagoas and Belo Horizonte, giving that they are closelylocated, possess similar prices and they generated similar model; the studied areas presented differentiated models and supplied goodadjustments for the observed series. The best models were SARIMA (2,1,1x(1,0,012, for Belo Horizonte; SARIMA (2,0,0x(2,1,212,for Divinópolis; SARIMA (2,1,1x(1,0,012, for Sete Lagoas and SARIMA (1,1,1x(1,1,112, for Vertentes. Such models presented in aparsimonious way, containing a small number of parameters. All models SARIMA (p,d,q (P,D,Qs, for the four studied areas,presented white noise and supplied adequate price forecast.

  12. Integrated Assessment of Climate Change, Land-Use Changes, and Regional Carbon Dynamics in United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, J. E.; Sleeter, B. M.; Abatzoglou, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    (e.g., counties in the United States) and aggregate to states or eco-logical regions. Alternative approach used in previous literature is the top-down approach, which depends on global economic model projections and downscaling methods. Compared to the top-down approach, our approach is more realistic by using observed data.

  13. Recent Regional Climate State and Change - Derived through Downscaling Homogeneous Large-scale Components of Re-analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Storch, H.; Klehmet, K.; Geyer, B.; Li, D.; Schubert-Frisius, M.; Tim, N.; Zorita, E.

    2015-12-01

    Global re-analyses suffer from inhomogeneities, as they process data from networks under development. However, the large-scale component of such re-analyses is mostly homogeneous; additional observational data add in most cases to a better description of regional details and less so on large-scale states. Therefore, the concept of downscaling may be applied to homogeneously complementing the large-scale state of the re-analyses with regional detail - wherever the condition of homogeneity of the large-scales is fulfilled. Technically this can be done by using a regional climate model, or a global climate model, which is constrained on the large scale by spectral nudging. This approach has been developed and tested for the region of Europe, and a skillful representation of regional risks - in particular marine risks - was identified. While the data density in Europe is considerably better than in most other regions of the world, even here insufficient spatial and temporal coverage is limiting risk assessments. Therefore, downscaled data-sets are frequently used by off-shore industries. We have run this system also in regions with reduced or absent data coverage, such as the Lena catchment in Siberia, in the Yellow Sea/Bo Hai region in East Asia, in Namibia and the adjacent Atlantic Ocean. Also a global (large scale constrained) simulation has been. It turns out that spatially detailed reconstruction of the state and change of climate in the three to six decades is doable for any region of the world.The different data sets are archived and may freely by used for scientific purposes. Of course, before application, a careful analysis of the quality for the intended application is needed, as sometimes unexpected changes in the quality of the description of large-scale driving states prevail.

  14. Aspects and environmental impacts of mining in the central region of the State of the Tocantins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Mary Gondim Mendonça

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of mineral resources for the man is so old how much its history. The register of the activity human being searchs its initial references in the dependence of the man in relation to the mineral goods. A study of the quality of superficial waters it was carried through, in a mining company of crushed rock of granite in the central region of the state of the Tocantins. The results had shown a significant variation of the parameters throughout the six months of study. A characterization was carried through physicist-chemistry and biological (coliforms. The results showed a significant variation of the parameters sampled over six months of study, especially the temperature, which ranged from 22.6 oC to 35 °C, pH varying from 5.04 to 8.94, the electrical conductivity varying from 11.5 to 94.1 μS cm-1, the turbidity varying from 0.90 UNT to 461 UNT, and the total coliforms and thermotolerant, with presence in determined samples. These values found in the sampling demonstrate significant variation of the ambient quality of superficial waters in the area of direct influence of the company; action must be taken in the direction to diminish possible happened ambient impacts of the mining actions.Key-words: mining, waters quality, tracking.

  15. The dynamical state of stellar structure in star-forming regions

    CERN Document Server

    Kruijssen, J M Diederik; Moeckel, Nickolas; Clarke, Cathie J; Bastian, Nate; Bonnell, Ian A

    2011-01-01

    The fraction of star formation that results in bound star clusters is influenced by the density spectrum in which stars are formed and by the response of the stellar structure to gas expulsion. We analyse hydrodynamical simulations of turbulent fragmentation in star-forming regions to assess the dynamical properties of the resulting population of stars and (sub)clusters. Stellar subclusters are identified using a minimum spanning tree algorithm. When considering only the gravitational potential of the stars and ignoring the gas, we find that the identified subclusters are close to virial equilibrium (the typical virial ratio Q_vir~0.59, where virial equilibrium would be Q_vir~0.5). This virial state is a consequence of the low gas fractions within the subclusters, caused by the accretion of gas onto the stars and the accretion-induced shrinkage of the subclusters. Because the subclusters are gas-poor, up to a length scale of 0.1-0.2 pc at the end of the simulation, they are only weakly affected by gas expulsi...

  16. Integrated multi-regional energy and interindustry model of the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goettle, IV, Richard J.; Cherniavsky, Ellen A.; Tessmer, Jr, Raymond G.

    1977-05-01

    The energy sector of the proposed formulation is represented in a detailed multi-regional linear programming model. This model optimally allocates regionally produced energy resources and selects the optimal regional mix of energy supply, conversiion, and demand technologies according to least cost or other important criteria (e.g. an aggregate environmental index or foreign energy imports) to meet projected regional energy demands. Regions are linked by both imports and exports of natural resources and converted fuels or products, including electricity. Resources are characterized by region-specific supply functions, and regional energy demands are specified in terms of functional end use. The energy sector model is integrated with a multi-regional Leontief interindustry model of the economic system. Here, regions are linked not only by inter-regional energy flows but also by inter-regional industrial flows. The traditional components of final demand result from macroeconomic projections of regional product and its composition and may be derived from a typical multi-regional econometric model. The advantages of this integrated formulation are (1) the LP formulation allows for intraregional interfuel substitution and variable inter-regional energy trade patterns; these are precluded in a standard multi-regional interindustry model; and (2) the interindustry formulation, though accepting structural overrides from the LP in regional energy production, conversion, and consumption activities, preserves the conceptual dependency of the energy sector on the larger regional economic system in which it is embedded. Two solution methodologies are outlined. The first is an iterative technique that has been successfully employed in a national version of this integrated model. The second is a reduced system LP formulation of the combined model.

  17. Downscaling global land-use/land-cover projections for use in region-level state-and-transition simulation modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Jason T. Sherba; Benjamin M. Sleeter; Adam W. Davis; Owen Parker

    2015-01-01

    Global land-use/land-cover (LULC) change projections and historical datasets are typically available at coarse grid resolutions and are often incompatible with modeling applications at local to regional scales. The difficulty of downscaling and reapportioning global gridded LULC change projections to regional boundaries is a barrier to the use of these datasets in a state-and-transition simulation model (STSM) framework. Here we compare three downscaling techniques to transform gridded LULC t...

  18. Energy intensities in Mato Grosso state and in meso-regions; Intensidades energeticas nas mesorregioes de Mato Grosso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavarros, Otacilio Borges; Melo, Moises Candido de; Dorileo, Ivo Leandro [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Estudos em Planejamento Energetico (NIEPE)

    2004-07-01

    This work presents some energetic intensities in Mato Grosso state and in each of its five meso-regions that are in the document produced in 2002 by the NIPE/UFMT (Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Estudos em Planejamento Energetico of the Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso) entitled: 'Energetic Balance of the Mato Grosso and meso-regions: period 1995-2001'. (author)

  19. Foreign Trade of Central Asian Independent States: What is the main trend- Globalization and Regionalization or Re-integration?

    OpenAIRE

    Islamov, Bakhtior

    1999-01-01

    Assessing the most recent data on the foreign trade of the Central Asian states and evaluation its main trends after their independence, the author argues that despite of lack of solid framework the tendency for globalization and regionalization hash been stronger compared to restoration of traditional ties. Elimination of existing institutional, infrastructural and other impediments, as well as proper multilateral regional initiatives could serve for further increase of trade within the regi...

  20. Economics Benefit Evaluation of State-owned Forestry Region in China

    OpenAIRE

    Qu Haiqun; He Yong

    2015-01-01

    This study establishes evaluation indicators for sustainable forestry region management referring to a large number of literatures on the previous study and carry out the forestry sustainable development comprehensive evaluation, which has extremely important and practical significance to scientifically determine the region forestry region management, reasonable plan sustainable forest management measures and promote local forestry sustainable development and sustainable management.

  1. 76 FR 33662 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Tennessee; Regional Haze...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ... address regional haze issues. EPA promulgated a rule to address regional haze on July 1, 1999 (64 FR 35713... revising the regional haze program, EPA made just such a demonstration for CAIR. See 70 FR 39104 (July 6... FR 39104, 39142-4143 (July 6, 2005). CAIR, as originally promulgated, requires significant...

  2. 77 FR 71111 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Florida; Regional Haze...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    ... regional haze on July 1, 1999 (64 FR 35713), the Regional Haze Rule (RHR). The RHR revised the existing... haze SIP, and on June 7, 2012 (77 FR 33642), the EPA finalized a limited disapproval of the regional... of sources, i.e., ``reasonably attributable visibility impairment.'' See 45 FR 80084....

  3. Convection-Permitting Regional Climate Simulations over the Contiguous United States Including Potential Climate Change Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changhai; Rasmussen, Roy; Ikeda, Kyoko; Barlage, Michael; Chen, Fei; Clark, Martyn; Dai, Aiguo; Dudhia, Jimy; Gochis, David; Gutmann, Ethan; Li, Yanping; Newman, Andrew; Thompson, Gregory

    2016-04-01

    The WRF model with a domain size of 1360x1016x51 points, using a 4 km spacing to encompass most of North America, is employed to investigate the water cycle and climate change impacts over the Contiguous United States (CONUS). Four suites of numerical experiments are being conducted, consisting of a 13-year retrospective simulation forced with ERA-I reanalysis, a 13-year climate sensitivity or Pseudo-Global Warming (PGW) simulation, and two 10-year CMIP5-based historical/future period simulations based on a revised bias-correction method. The major objectives are: 1) to evaluate high-resolution WRF's capability to capture orographic precipitation and snow mass balance over the western CONUS and convective precipitation over the eastern CONUS; 2) to assess future changes of seasonal snowfall and snowpack and associated hydrological cycles along with their regional variability across the different mountain barriers and elevation dependency, in response to the CMIP5 projected 2071-2100 climate warming; 3) to examine the precipitation changes under the projected global warming, with an emphasis on precipitation extremes and the warm-season precipitation corridor in association with MCS tracks in the central US; and 4) to provide a valuable community dataset for regional climate change and impact studies. Preliminary analysis of the retrospective simulation shows both seasonal/sub-seasonal precipitation and temperature are well reproduced, with precipitation bias being within 10% of the observations and temperature bias being below 1 degree C in most seasons and locations. The observed annual cycle of snow water equivalent (SWE), such as peak time and disappearance time, is also realistically replicated, even though the peak value is somewhat underestimated. The PGW simulation shows a large cold-season warming in northeast US and eastern Canada, possibly associated with snow albedo feedback, and a strong summer warming in north central US in association with

  4. Advances in regional crop yield estimation over the United States using satellite remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. M.; Dorn, M. F.; Crawford, C.

    2015-12-01

    Since the dawn of earth observation imagery, particularly from systems like Landsat and the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer, there has been an overarching desire to regionally estimate crop production remotely. Research efforts integrating space-based imagery into yield models to achieve this need have indeed paralleled these systems through the years, yet development of a truly useful crop production monitoring system has been arguably mediocre in coming. As a result, relatively few organizations have yet to operationalize the concept, and this is most acute in regions of the globe where there are not even alternative sources of crop production data being collected. However, the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) has continued to push for this type of data source as a means to complement its long-standing, traditional crop production survey efforts which are financially costly to the government and create undue respondent burden on farmers. Corn and soybeans, the two largest field crops in the United States, have been the focus of satellite-based production monitoring by NASS for the past decade. Data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) has been seen as the most pragmatic input source for modeling yields primarily based on its daily revisit capabilities and reasonable ground sample resolution. The research methods presented here will be broad but provides a summary of what is useful and adoptable with satellite imagery in terms of crop yield estimation. Corn and soybeans will be of particular focus but other major staple crops like wheat and rice will also be presented. NASS will demonstrate that while MODIS provides a slew of vegetation related products, the traditional normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is still ideal. Results using land surface temperature products, also generated from MODIS, will also be shown. Beyond the MODIS data itself, NASS research has also focused efforts on understanding a

  5. Perceived barriers to the regionalization of adult critical care in the United States: a qualitative preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubenfeld Gordon D

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regionalization of adult critical care services may improve outcomes for critically ill patients. We sought to develop a framework for understanding clinician attitudes toward regionalization and potential barriers to developing a tiered, regionalized system of care in the United States. Methods We performed a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews of critical care stakeholders in the United States, including physicians, nurses and hospital administrators. Stakeholders were identified from a stratified-random sample of United States general medical and surgical hospitals. Key barriers and potential solutions were identified by performing content analysis of the interview transcriptions. Results We interviewed 30 stakeholders from 24 different hospitals, representing a broad range of hospital locations and sizes. Key barriers to regionalization included personal and economic strain on families, loss of autonomy on the part of referring physicians and hospitals, loss of revenue on the part of referring physicians and hospitals, the potential to worsen outcomes at small hospitals by limiting services, and the potential to overwhelm large hospitals. Improving communication between destination and source hospitals, provider education, instituting voluntary objective criteria to become a designated referral center, and mechanisms to feed back patients and revenue to source hospitals were identified as potential solutions to some of these barriers. Conclusion Regionalization efforts will be met with significant conceptual and structural barriers. These data provide a foundation for future research and can be used to inform policy decisions regarding the design and implementation of a regionalized system of critical care.

  6. Adaptive Disturbance Tracking Theory with State Estimation and State Feedback for Region II Control of Large Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, Mark J.; Thapa Magar, Kaman S.; Frost, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    A theory called Adaptive Disturbance Tracking Control (ADTC) is introduced and used to track the Tip Speed Ratio (TSR) of 5 MW Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT). Since ADTC theory requires wind speed information, a wind disturbance generator model is combined with lower order plant model to estimate the wind speed as well as partial states of the wind turbine. In this paper, we present a proof of stability and convergence of ADTC theory with lower order estimator and show that the state feedback can be adaptive.

  7. Assessment of radioecological state of surface waters in the Gomel and Mogilev regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Article states that aplication of the republican Admissible Levels (RAL-96) in practice and their juxtaposition with the obtained results of analyses are not always justified because water of the studied systems is excluded from economic water supply to population in resettlement zone. The radioecological criteria of quality of surface waters were developed in 1993 by Ukrainian hydrobiologists O.P.Oksiyuk, V.N.Zhukinsky and others contain six levels (classes) of radioecological pollution of water: 1 - non-polluted, 2 - lowly polluted, 3 - moderately polluted, 4 - highly polluted, 5 - very high pollution, 6 - utmost pollution; three classes of water quality and six categories of water quality. It is believed that according to this complex clasification of quality of surface terrestrial waters, water of the studied systems of Gomel and Mogilev regions very often has exceeded the RAL-96 for 90Sr. According to the proposed complex classification of quality of surface terrestrial waters, water of the studied systems belongs mainly - for 137Cs and 90Sr - to the quality categories: 3b ''lowly polluted'' and 4a ''moderately polluted'' independent on sampling period. On some sites of 30...10 km zone, water quality corresponds to categories 5a ''very high pollution'' and 5b ''utmost pollution'' for 90Sr (rivers Slovechna, Nesvich and Pogonyansky channel). Thus, in the studied water systems, in radioecological relation, there is not a single one with water quality corresponding to indices 3a, i.e.sufficiently clean. 90Sr has high migration ability and is able to participate in different migration cycles including biological (food chains). The cases of exceeding the RAL indices for 90Sr in water indicate the necessity to study also other components of water systems of Belarus relating to this isotope

  8. Orthotics, prosthesis and mobility aids (OPM dispensation in the Regional Health Department of the 3RD Region of Sao Paulo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Caminha Caro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the process of dispensation of orthotics, prostheses and mobility aids (OPM by the Unified Health System (SUS in the Regional Health Department of the 3rd Region (DRSIII of Sao Paulo state; perform a mapping of the existing physical rehabilitation services in that region; and subsequently correlate the data with applicable laws. Methodology: This is an exploratory cross-sectional qualitative study whose subjects were the main professionals involved in the process of OPM dispensation, or responsible for their acquisition flow in the cities of that region. Data collection was carried out through a semi-structured questionnaire, developed by the researchers themselves, composed of questions aiming to identify the physical rehabilitation centers in the towns, the staff members involved, the provision of assistive technology through SUS, delivery time and existence of waiting lists. Results and discussion: The data were statistically measured, categorized, described and correlated with the current legislation aimed to guarantee access to assistive technology. We observed that the practice around this resource in the 3rd region concentrates in a single care center, causing long waits and poor efficiency of the services provided, in addition to maintaining a paternalistic aspect. Conclusion: This study provides evidence that, although the right to access to assistive technology is legally guaranteed, there are still many difficulties and challenges around this practice.

  9. Nuclear-weapon-free zones: Pursuing security, region by region. Conference of States Parties and Signatories of treaties that establish nuclear-weapon-free zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of nuclear-weapon-free zones, over the past four decades, is a testament to what nations can do, region by region, to achieve common security objectives. In fact, when considering the history of nuclear non-proliferation efforts, it might be said that here in Mexico City is where it all began. The 1967 Treaty of Tlatelolco was the first multilateral treaty to establish a region free of nuclear weapons and a requirement for comprehensive IAEA safeguards for its parties - and clearly gave impetus to the conclusion of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Nuclear-weapon-free zones provide tangible security benefits. They help to reassure the larger international community of the peaceful nuclear intentions of countries in these regions. They provide their members with security assurances against the use, or threat of use, of nuclear weapons by a nuclear-weapon State. They include control mechanisms for dealing with non-compliance in a regional setting. And in all cases, they prohibit the development, stationing or testing of nuclear weapons in their respective regions. An important benefit of these zones is that they open a forum for expanded regional dialogue on issues of security. Because the causes of insecurity vary from region to region, security solutions do not come in a 'one-size-fits-all' package. It is for this reason that regional dialogues, as we see in the nuclear-weapon-free zones, are so beneficial. It is clear that such treaties, and such security dialogues, would be invaluable in other areas of the world, such as the Middle East and the Korean Peninsula. Since the end of the Cold War, the international security landscape has undergone dramatic changes. For example, the rise in terrorism, the discovery of clandestine nuclear programmes, and the emergence of covert nuclear procurement networks have heightened our awareness of vulnerabilities in the nuclear non-proliferation regime. This statement focuses on two issues

  10. The rise of the regional state in economic governance: 'partnerships for prosperity' or new scales of state power?

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Jones

    2001-01-01

    In recent debates on the regulation and governance of contemporary capitalism and its territorial form, there is an emerging consensus that successful economic development is contingent on a movement away from the nation-state and policy interventions at the national scale toward subnational institutional frameworks and supports. In effect, both an 'institutional turn' and a 'scalar turn' appear to be occurring, through which the heterogeneity of economic growth may be explored. The author sc...

  11. Skilled Cities, Regional Disparities, and Efficient Transport: The state of the art and a research agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Proost, Stef; Thisse, Jacques-François

    2015-01-01

    The three themes of this survey—cities, regions, and transport—are closely intertwined and gathered in the category R of the JEL Classification System. We discuss cities and regions in separate sections because they are different spatial units facing specific problems. Transport issues affect both cities and regions and are discussed in each relevant section. The introductory remarks explain both the reason for this division, as well as what spatial economics is all about. Because general eco...

  12. Frequency-dependent brain regional homogeneity alterations in patients with mild cognitive impairment during working memory state relative to resting state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengyun eWang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have reported working memory deficits in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI. However, previous studies investigating the neural mechanisms of MCI have primarily focused on brain activity alterations during working memory tasks. No study to date has compared brain network alterations in the working memory state between MCI patients and normal control subjects. Therefore, using the index of regional homogeneity (ReHo, we explored brain network impairments in MCI patients during a working memory task relative to the resting state, and identified frequency-dependent effects in separate frequency bands.Our results indicate that, in MCI patients, ReHo is altered in the posterior cingulate cortex in the slow-3 band (0.073–0.198 Hz, and in the bottom of the right occipital lobe and part of the right cerebellum, the right thalamus, a diffusing region in the bilateral prefrontal cortex, the left and right parietal-occipital regions, and the right angular gyrus in the slow-5 band (0.01–0.027 Hz. Furthermore, in normal controls, the value of ReHo in clusters belonging to the default mode network decreased, while the value of ReHo in clusters belonging to the attentional network increased during the task state. However, this pattern was reversed in MCI patients, and was associated with decreased working memory performance. In addition, we identified altered functional connectivity of the abovementioned regions with other parts of the brain in MCI patients.This is the first study to compare frequency-dependent alterations of ReHo in MCI patients between resting and working memory states. The results provide a new perspective regarding the neural mechanisms of working memory deficits in MCI patients, and extend our knowledge of altered brain patterns in resting and task-evoked states.

  13. Red states, blue states, and divorce: understanding the impact of conservative Protestantism on regional variation in divorce rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Jennifer; Levchak, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Why do states with larger proportions of religious conservatives have higher divorce rates than states with lower proportions of religious conservatives? This project examines whether earlier transitions to marriage and parenthood among conservative Protestants (known risk factors for divorce) contribute to this paradox while attending to other plausible explanations. County-level demographic information from all 50 states is combined from a variety of public data sources and merged with individual records from the National Surveys of Family Growth to estimate both aggregated county and multilevel individual models of divorce. Results show that individual religious conservatism is positively related to individual divorce risk, solely through the earlier transitions to adulthood and lower incomes of conservative Protestants. However, the proportion of conservative Protestants in a county is also independently and positively associated with both the divorce rate in that county and an individual's likelihood of divorcing. The earlier family formation and lower levels of educational attainment and income in counties with a higher proportion of conservative Protestants can explain a substantial portion of this association. Little support is found for alternative explanations of the association between religious conservatism and divorce rates, including the relative popularity of marriage versus cohabitation across counties.

  14. National, Regional, State, and Selected Local Area Vaccination Coverage Among Adolescents Aged 13-17 Years - United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan-Steiner, Sarah; Yankey, David; Jeyarajah, Jenny; Elam-Evans, Laurie D; Curtis, C Robinette; MacNeil, Jessica; Markowitz, Lauri E; Singleton, James A

    2016-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that adolescents aged 11-12 years routinely receive vaccines to prevent diseases, including human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers, pertussis, and meningococcal disease (1). To assess vaccination coverage among adolescents in the United States, CDC analyzed data collected regarding 21,875 adolescents through the 2015 National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen).* During 2014-2015, coverage among adolescents aged 13-17 years increased for each HPV vaccine dose among males, including ≥1 HPV vaccine dose (from 41.7% to 49.8%), and increased modestly for ≥1 HPV vaccine dose among females (from 60.0% to 62.8%) and ≥1 quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY) dose (from 79.3% to 81.3%). Coverage with ≥1 HPV vaccine dose was higher among adolescents living in households below the poverty level, compared with adolescents in households at or above the poverty level.(†) HPV vaccination coverage (≥1, ≥2, or ≥3 doses) increased in 28 states/local areas among males and in seven states among females. Despite limited progress, HPV vaccination coverage remained lower than MenACWY and tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) coverage, indicating continued missed opportunities for HPV-associated cancer prevention. PMID:27561081

  15. Red states, blue states, and divorce: understanding the impact of conservative Protestantism on regional variation in divorce rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Jennifer; Levchak, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Why do states with larger proportions of religious conservatives have higher divorce rates than states with lower proportions of religious conservatives? This project examines whether earlier transitions to marriage and parenthood among conservative Protestants (known risk factors for divorce) contribute to this paradox while attending to other plausible explanations. County-level demographic information from all 50 states is combined from a variety of public data sources and merged with individual records from the National Surveys of Family Growth to estimate both aggregated county and multilevel individual models of divorce. Results show that individual religious conservatism is positively related to individual divorce risk, solely through the earlier transitions to adulthood and lower incomes of conservative Protestants. However, the proportion of conservative Protestants in a county is also independently and positively associated with both the divorce rate in that county and an individual's likelihood of divorcing. The earlier family formation and lower levels of educational attainment and income in counties with a higher proportion of conservative Protestants can explain a substantial portion of this association. Little support is found for alternative explanations of the association between religious conservatism and divorce rates, including the relative popularity of marriage versus cohabitation across counties. PMID:25032268

  16. Analysis of the State of Discipline in Kwanyarko Senior High School in the Central Region of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackey, Elizabeth; Amaniampong, Kwarteng; Abrokwa, Juliana Efua

    2016-01-01

    The general purpose of this paper was to find out the perceptions of students and teachers on the state of discipline in Senior High Schools (SHS) in Ghana using Kwanyarko SHS in the Central Region as a case study. Questionnaire was formulated to direct the research. The question focused on the perceptions, causes and remedies to discipline in the…

  17. 76 FR 7839 - Notice of Commission and Commission Staff Attendance at ISO/RTO Council and Regional State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Commission and Commission Staff Attendance at ISO/RTO Council and... of the Commission and Commission staff may attend the following ISO/RTO Council and Regional State..., RTO/ISO Performance Metrics. For more information, contact Sandra Waldstein, Office of...

  18. 76 FR 67727 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee Work Group and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee Work Group and Stakeholder Meeting The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hereby gives notice that...

  19. A prospective study on Aeromonas in outpatients with diarrhea in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline de Campos Prediger

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas spp. were identified in five (2,7% of 182 diarrheal stool cultures, A. caviae was predominant, resistant mainly to ampicillin and cephalotin. This is the first study showing the presence of Aeromonas spp. in diarrheal stools of outpatients in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

  20. 7 CFR 1150.153 - Qualified State or regional dairy product promotion, research or nutrition education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., research or nutrition education programs. 1150.153 Section 1150.153 Agriculture Regulations of the... § 1150.153 Qualified State or regional dairy product promotion, research or nutrition education programs... nutrition education program may apply to the Secretary for certification of qualification so that...

  1. TO THE ISSUE OF IMPROVING THE EFFICIENCY OF STATE ECONOMIC MANAGEMENT AT THE REGIONAL AND FEDERAL LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreev S. Y.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the solution of such actual problem as improving the quality parameters of the state management at the different levels. As an object of study we consider the modern factors and conditions of improving the quality of decisions at the sphere of the state management of the socio-economic development of the national and regional economies. We believe raised questions in the formation of effective anti-crisis actions with government are up-to-date. The basis of the work is the developing of the number of offers to enhance the role of science, small and medium businesses in developing of the new forms of municipal and regional support of the real economy, as well as effective forms of the federal economic policy; the need in the evolution of the actual economic system is also raised, the offers to change banking services at the market are made. The article has a research nature, which is expressed by that authors, relying on different scientific works, practical and theoretical work experience of federal and regional authorities, express their position and offers to improve the quality of making solutions at the sphere of the state management of socio-economic development of the national and regional economies. The article is of interest of specialists of state and municipal management

  2. IMPROVING THE MECHANISMS OF STATE REGULATION OF THE AGRO-INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX OF THE KRASNODAR REGION IN MODERN CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemova E. I.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines features of the functioning of the agro-industrial complex of Russia and the Krasnodar region in the economic crisis. It substantiates the urgency of adaptation of state regulation of agro-industrial complex mechanisms to modern economic realities, we have disclosed functions and principles for the development of regional policy strategy in the agricultural sector. It is proved, that the system of state regulation of regional agro-industrial complex should correlate with the priorities of the development of its main component - agriculture and to promote structural reforms in the agricultural sector, enhance its innovation and investment potential and maintain the social orientation of the agrarian reforms. Improving the mechanisms of state support of the agro-industrial complex of Russia and the Krasnodar region requires a special approach in relation to the country's membership in the World Trade Organization. Due to this, we have proposed the adjustment of state support instruments of domestic agro-industrial complex, which involves the use of priority measures of the "green box", including an increase in funding for research in agriculture, development of an effective institutional environment, which will stimulate the efficiency and competitiveness of the agricultural sector

  3. K-Ar geology, geochemistry and geochronology from the Maria River region dikes, Parana State southeastern part, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper synthesizes the geological, petrographical, geochemical and geochronological data from the Maria River region dikes, situated at the southeastern part of the Para State, Brazil. It identifies five groups of dikes and determines the age of these dikes, through the Potassium-Argon (K-Ar) methodology

  4. 75 FR 63177 - Availability of FY 09 Grantee Performance Evaluation Reports for the Eight States of EPA Region 4...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... AGENCY Availability of FY 09 Grantee Performance Evaluation Reports for the Eight States of EPA Region 4...; Clean Air Act Section 105 grantee performance evaluation reports. SUMMARY: EPA's grant regulations (40 CFR 35.115) require the Agency to evaluate the performance of agencies which receive grants....

  5. 76 FR 64086 - Availability of FY 10 Grantee Performance Evaluation Reports for the Eight States of EPA Region 4...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... AGENCY Availability of FY 10 Grantee Performance Evaluation Reports for the Eight States of EPA Region 4...; Clean Air Act Section 105 grantee performance evaluation reports. SUMMARY: EPA's grant regulations require the Agency to evaluate the performance of agencies which receive grants. EPA's regulations...

  6. 78 FR 68060 - Availability of FY 12 Grantee Performance Evaluation Reports for the Eight States of EPA Region 4...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... AGENCY Availability of FY 12 Grantee Performance Evaluation Reports for the Eight States of EPA Region 4...; Clean Air Act Section 105 grantee performance evaluation reports. SUMMARY: EPA's grant regulations require the Agency to evaluate the performance of agencies which receive grants. EPA's regulations...

  7. 77 FR 52022 - Availability of FY 11 Grantee Performance Evaluation Reports for the Eight States of EPA Region 4...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... AGENCY Availability of FY 11 Grantee Performance Evaluation Reports for the Eight States of EPA Region 4...; Clean Air Act Section 105 grantee performance evaluation reports. SUMMARY: EPA's grant regulations require the Agency to evaluate the performance of agencies which receive grants. EPA's regulations...

  8. The estimation of the ionosphere state over Mexico region based on TEC data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeeva, Maria; Maltseva, Olga; Mejia-Ambriz, Julio-Cesar; Gonzalez-Esparza, Americo; De La Luz-Rodriguez, Victor Hugo; Romero-Hernández, Esmeralda

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, increasing interest toward Space Weather (SW) issues comes not only from researches but the general public as well because SW events can influence unfavorably all aspects of human life and technology. To prevent negative impacts the constant monitoring of the near-Earth space is required based on radio methods and with the help of satellites, magnetometers, all-sky imagers, other ground-based instruments, including Total Electron Content (TEC) studies and modeling. In October of 2014 the Mexican Space Weather Service (SCiESMEX) was established. The objectives of this new service include the study, analysis and forecast of changes in the ionosphere over the Mexican region (geographic latitudes 14º - 32º N, geomagnetic latitudes 23º - 38º N). From the beginning of September 2015 the continuous monitoring of TEC variations over Mexico is performed to monitor the Space Weather conditions. The traditional parameters describing these conditions in the ionosphere are the critical frequency of the F2-layer foF2 and its maximum height hmF2 measured by ground ionosondes. Since Mexico at the moment has no ionosonde in operation but has a rather dense network of GPS receivers the present paper discusses the possibility of evaluating the ionosphere state with use of the vertical total electron content (vTEC) reconstructed using the data of GPS receivers. To verify such prospect the comparison was made between the results for Mexico and for the adjacent regions having ionosondes. Three problems are being solved: (1) comparison of two options to obtain TEC values (global ionospheric maps and values from local receivers calculated on the base of software complex provided by Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences) based on daily and seasonal variations of monthly medians, (2) comparison of instantaneous values during disturbances, (3) determination of foF2 from observational values of TEC using the medians of the

  9. 77 FR 19098 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Commonwealth of Kentucky; Regional Haze State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ..., 1999 (64 FR 35713), the Regional Haze Rule (RHR). The RHR revised the existing visibility regulations... for regional haze. See 76 FR 78194. EPA proposed a limited approval of Kentucky's two SIP revisions to....e., ``reasonably attributable visibility impairment.'' See 45 FR 80084. These...

  10. 77 FR 17334 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Nevada; Regional Haze...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... promulgated a rule to address regional haze on July 1, 1999 known as the Regional Haze Rule (RHR). See 64 FR... program. EPA proposed to approve all parts of Nevada's SIP revisions on June 22, 2011 (76 FR 36450). This... conditions. 64 FR 35715 (July 1, 1999). \\1\\ Visual range is the greatest distance, in kilometers or miles,...

  11. 77 FR 41279 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Regional Haze State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... CAA and EPA's Regional Haze Rule (64 FR 35714, July 1, 1999) and the rationale for EPA's proposed... under the Regional Haze Rule at Appendix Y to 40 CFR part 51 (hereafter the BART Rule). See 70 FR 39104... (NPR) for Pennsylvania (77 FR 3984). The NPR proposed limited approval of Pennsylvania's RH SIP....

  12. 77 FR 46911 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Michigan; Regional Haze State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... July 1, 1999 (64 FR 35713). The regional haze rule, which amended 40 CFR part 50, subpart P, integrated... haze rule provides additional details about the deciview. 64 FR 35714 (July 1, 1999). To track changes... which revised the regional haze program. 70 FR 39104 (July 6, 2005). EPA's regulations provided...

  13. 76 FR 27973 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Delaware; Regional Haze...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    .... EPA promulgated a rule to address regional haze on July 1, 1999 (64 FR 35714), the Regional Haze Rule... kilometers or about one-fifth of the visual range that would exist under estimated natural conditions (64 FR... of sources, i.e., ``reasonably attributable visibility impairment'' (45 FR 80084). These...

  14. The role of inflation differentials in regional adjustments : Evidence from the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, I.J.M.; Kool, C.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Within a monetary union, regional inflation differentials lead to a competition between a real interest rate and wealth channels on the one hand and the real exchange rate channel on the other hand in the transmission of regional shocks. This may have implications for the length and vehemence of reg

  15. The Role of Inflation Differentials in Regional Adjustment: Evidence from the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, I.; Kool, C.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Within a monetary union, regional inflation differentials lead to a competition between the real interest rate and wealth channels on the one hand and the real exchange rate channel on the other hand in the transmission of regional shocks. This may have implications for the length and vehemence of r

  16. [The State of Measles and Rubella in the WHO European region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscat, Mark; Ben Mamou, Myriam; Shefer, Abigail; Jankovic, Dragan; Deshevoy, Sergei; Butler, Robb

    2015-01-01

    The long-standing and widespread use of vaccines against measles has resulted in a dramatic decline in cases and measles mortality worldwide compared with the pre-vaccination era.All regions of the World Health Organization (WHO) have measles elimination goals and the WHO regions of the Americas, Europe and Western Pacific also have rubella elimination goals. This article aims to report on progress toward elimination of measles and rubella in the WHO European Region based on the latest available data. We also discuss current challenges and actions needed to reach this goal in the Region. Despite substantial progress made towards controlling measles and rubella, the countries of the WHO European Region continue to face challenges in interrupting endemic transmission of these diseases. Widespread outbreaks and endemic transmission of measles and rubella persisted in some countries of the Region in 2014 and have continued in 2015. Interrupting endemic transmission in each and every country is necessary to declare elimination for the entire Region. High population immunity and high-quality surveillance are the cornerstones to eliminate measles and rubella. In the absence of sustained political commitment and implementation of the required strategies by all countries, the goal of eliminating these diseases in the WHO European Region is at stake. PMID:26580789

  17. State of the marine environment in the South Asian seas region

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SenGupta, R.; Ali, M.M.; Bhuiyan, A; Hossain, M.M.; Sivalingam, P.M.; Subasinghe, S.; Tirmizi, N

    stream_size 45 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name UNEP_Regional_Seas_Rep_Stud_1990_123.pdf.txt stream_source_info UNEP_Regional_Seas_Rep_Stud_1990_123.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  18. Source regions of granites and their links to tectonic environment: examples from the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Elizabeth Y.

    2005-03-01

    concentrations of Rb, SiO 2, and high concentrations of transition elements. These parameters change through the system to the youngest unit (granite), which has the most negative ɛNd (-8.5), the highest 87Sr/ 86Sr i (0.7092), and is chemically most evolved. Correlation between chemical and Nd isotopic evolution probably resulted from a continuous process of progressive assimilation, in which mafic magmas invade and incorporate continental crust. Deposits in Arizona with ɛNd values more negative than the -8.5 of Sierrita lie in the older Yavapai province in the northwestern part of the state. The difference in the most negative epsilon Nd implies that Nd isotopic signature is sensitive to the age of the Precambrian domain. The granites from the Colorado Mineral Belt were emplaced during the transition from Laramide convergence to mid-Tertiary extension. Three different groups of granites are recognized. The first is Laramide and was formed during assimilation-fractional crystallization involving lower crustal mafic source materials; the second and third groups are mid-Tertiary and represent intracrustal melting of heterogeneous sources. This change in source regions and melt regimes in transition from convergence to extension is fundamental to the Mesozoic and Cenozoic evolution of western North America.

  19. Extension of the BMCSL equation of state for hard spheres to the metastable disordered region: Application to the SAFT approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paricaud, P. [Unité de Chimie et Procédés, ENSTA-ParisTech, Université Paris-Saclay, 828 Boulevard des Maréchaux, 91762 Palaiseau cedex (France)

    2015-07-28

    A simple modification of the Boublík-Mansoori-Carnahan-Starling-Leland equation of state is proposed for an application to the metastable disordered region. The new model has a positive pole at the jamming limit and can accurately describe the molecular simulation data of pure hard in the stable fluid region and along the metastable branch. The new model has also been applied to binary mixtures hard spheres, and an excellent description of the fluid and metastable branches can be obtained by adjusting the jamming packing fraction. The new model for hard sphere mixtures can be used as the repulsive term of equations of state for real fluids. In this case, the modified equations of state give very similar predictions of thermodynamic properties as the original models, and one can remove the multiple liquid density roots observed for some versions of the Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (SAFT) at low temperature without any modification of the dispersion term.

  20. Redefining climate regions in the United States of America using satellite remote sensing and machine learning for public health applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Liss

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Existing climate classification has not been designed for an efficient handling of public health scenarios. This work aims to design an objective spatial climate regionalization method for assessing health risks in response to extreme weather. Specific climate regions for the conterminous United States of America (USA were defined using satellite remote sensing (RS data and compared with the conventional Köppen-Geiger (KG divisions. Using the nationwide database of hospitalisations among the elderly (≥65 year olds, we examined the utility of a RS-based climate regionalization to assess public health risk due to extreme weather, by comparing the rate of hospitalisations in response to thermal extremes across climatic regions. Satellite image composites from 2002-2012 were aggregated, masked and compiled into a multi-dimensional dataset. The conterminous USA was classified into 8 distinct regions using a stepwise regionalization approach to limit noise and collinearity (LKN, which exhibited a high degree of consistency with the KG regions and a well-defined regional delineation by annual and seasonal temperature and precipitation values. The most populous was a temperate wet region (10.9 million, while the highest rate of hospitalisations due to exposure to heat and cold (9.6 and 17.7 cases per 100,000 persons at risk, respectively was observed in the relatively warm and humid south-eastern region. RS-based regionalization demonstrates strong potential for assessing the adverse effects of severe weather on human health and for decision support. Its utility in forecasting and mitigating these effects has to be further explored.

  1. THE IMPACT OF FISCAL DECENTRALIZATION AND STATE ALLOCATIVE EFFICIENCY ON REGIONAL GROWTH IN INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    DARIUS TIRTOSUHARTO

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a new empirical analysis on the effects of fiscal decentralization on economic growth with the inclusion of a state allocative efficiency factor in the growth model. Using Indonesia as a case study, this study aims to reveal whether the state allocative efficiency will impact growth through better allocation of public goods. Following a two-stage empirical method, the expenditure efficiency of Indonesia's 26 state governments over a 10-year period (1996–2005) is constructe...

  2. Multi-Agent Many-Objective Robust Decision Making: Supporting Cooperative Regional Water Portfolio Planning in the Eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, J. D.; Zeff, H. B.; Reed, P. M.; Characklis, G. W.

    2013-12-01

    In the Eastern United States, water infrastructure and institutional frameworks have evolved in a historically water-rich environment. However, large regional droughts over the past decade combined with continuing population growth have marked a transition to a state of water scarcity, for which current planning paradigms are ill-suited. Significant opportunities exist to improve the efficiency of water infrastructure via regional coordination, namely, regional 'portfolios' of water-related assets such as reservoirs, conveyance, conservation measures, and transfer agreements. Regional coordination offers the potential to improve reliability, cost, and environmental impact in the expected future state of the world, and, with informed planning, to improve robustness to future uncertainty. In support of this challenge, this study advances a multi-agent many-objective robust decision making (multi-agent MORDM) framework that blends novel computational search and uncertainty analysis tools to discover flexible, robust regional portfolios. Our multi-agent MORDM framework is demonstrated for four water utilities in the Research Triangle region of North Carolina, USA. The utilities supply nearly two million customers and have the ability to interact with one another via transfer agreements and shared infrastructure. We show that strategies for this region which are Pareto-optimal in the expected future state of the world remain vulnerable to performance degradation under alternative scenarios of deeply uncertain hydrologic and economic factors. We then apply the Patient Rule Induction Method (PRIM) to identify which of these uncertain factors drives the individual and collective vulnerabilities for the four cooperating utilities. Our results indicate that clear multi-agent tradeoffs emerge for attaining robustness across the utilities. Furthermore, the key factor identified for improving the robustness of the region's water supply is cooperative demand reduction. This type

  3. The Status of State-Level Response to Intervention Policies and Procedures in the West Region States and Five Other States. Issues & Answers. REL 2009-No. 077

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harr-Robins, Jenifer J.; Shambaugh, Larisa S.; Parrish, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Response to intervention (RTI) can be both a system for providing early interventions to struggling students and a special education diagnostic tool for evaluating and identifying students with specific learning disabilities. Contributing to the very limited literature on state-level approaches, this report describes how nine states define and…

  4. Return migration to region of birth among retirement-age persons in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, A

    1990-05-01

    This study addresses some of the methodological difficulties one encounters in assessing the question of whether older persons display an increasing tendency to return to their state of birth after reaching retirement age. It reanalyzes previously studied data on the question and concludes that there is no indication that elderly people are more prone than nonelderly to "return home" to their native state.

  5. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1975 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  6. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2010 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  7. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2006 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  8. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1992 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  9. Steady State Ocean Response to Wind Forcing in Extratropical Frontal Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Meghan F.; Tozuka, Tomoki

    2016-01-01

    In regions of strong sea surface temperature (SST) gradients, the surface “geostrophic” currents have a vertical shear aligned with the surface density front defined by the temperature. This surface geostrophic (“thermal wind”) shear can balance a portion of the surface wind stress, altering the classic Ekman response to wind forcing. Here we show that these frontal effects cannot be ignored in the Tropics or in strong frontal regions in the extratropics, such as found in coastal regions and in western boundary currents of all basins. Frontal effects also dominate the classic Ekman response in the regions of both hemispheres where Trade winds change to westerlies. Implications for vertical motion and global heat transport are discussed. PMID:27354231

  10. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2001 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  11. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1996 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  12. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1985 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  13. Steady State Ocean Response to Wind Forcing in Extratropical Frontal Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Meghan F.; Tozuka, Tomoki

    2016-06-01

    In regions of strong sea surface temperature (SST) gradients, the surface “geostrophic” currents have a vertical shear aligned with the surface density front defined by the temperature. This surface geostrophic (“thermal wind”) shear can balance a portion of the surface wind stress, altering the classic Ekman response to wind forcing. Here we show that these frontal effects cannot be ignored in the Tropics or in strong frontal regions in the extratropics, such as found in coastal regions and in western boundary currents of all basins. Frontal effects also dominate the classic Ekman response in the regions of both hemispheres where Trade winds change to westerlies. Implications for vertical motion and global heat transport are discussed.

  14. Steady State Ocean Response to Wind Forcing in Extratropical Frontal Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Meghan F; Tozuka, Tomoki

    2016-01-01

    In regions of strong sea surface temperature (SST) gradients, the surface "geostrophic" currents have a vertical shear aligned with the surface density front defined by the temperature. This surface geostrophic ("thermal wind") shear can balance a portion of the surface wind stress, altering the classic Ekman response to wind forcing. Here we show that these frontal effects cannot be ignored in the Tropics or in strong frontal regions in the extratropics, such as found in coastal regions and in western boundary currents of all basins. Frontal effects also dominate the classic Ekman response in the regions of both hemispheres where Trade winds change to westerlies. Implications for vertical motion and global heat transport are discussed. PMID:27354231

  15. Frequency-dependent changes in the regional amplitude and synchronization of resting-state functional MRI in stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfang Zhu

    Full Text Available Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI has been intensively used to assess alterations of inter-regional functional connectivity in patients with stroke, but the regional properties of brain activity in stroke have not yet been fully investigated. Additionally, no study has examined a frequency effect on such regional properties in stroke patients, although this effect has been shown to play important roles in both normal brain functioning and functional abnormalities. Here we utilized R-fMRI to measure the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF and regional homogeneity (ReHo, two major methods for characterizing the regional properties of R-fMRI, in three different frequency bands (slow-5: 0.01-0.027 Hz; slow-4: 0.027-0.73 Hz; and typical band: 0.01-0.1 Hz in 19 stroke patients and 15 healthy controls. Both the ALFF and ReHo analyses revealed changes in brain activity in a number of brain regions, particularly the parietal cortex, in stroke patients compared with healthy controls. Remarkably, the regions with changed activity as detected by the slow-5 band data were more extensive, and this finding was true for both the ALFF and ReHo analyses. These results not only confirm previous studies showing abnormality in the parietal cortex in patients with stroke, but also suggest that R-fMRI studies of stroke should take frequency effects into account when measuring intrinsic brain activity.

  16. Estimated fluoride intake of 6-month-old infants in four dietary regions of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ophaug, R H; Singer, L; Harland, B F

    1980-02-01

    Eleven composite food groups comprising the infant "market basket" food collections for 1977 or 1978 from each of four dietary regions of the United States were analyzed for their fluoride content. Based upon the determined fluoride content of each composite and Food and Drug Administration estimates of food consumption the daily fluoride intake of an average 6-month-old infant residing in each of the dietary regions was calculated. The daily fluoride intake varied from 0.207 mg/day in Grand Rapids, Mich. (north central dietary region) to 0.541 mg/day in Orlando, Fla. (south dietary region). Flouride intakes of 0.272 and 0.354 mg/day were calculated for Philadelphia, Pa. (northeast dietary region) and Los Angeles, Calif. (west dietary region), respectively. The fluoride content of the water supplies ranged from 0.37 ppm (Los Angeles) to 1.04 ppm (Grand Rapids). Drinking water, dairy products and substitutes (other than milk), and grain and cereal products contributed 44 to 80% of the daily fluoride intake. In three of the four dietary regions the daily fluoride intake was less than the optimum level of 0.05 mg/kg body weight.

  17. MODERN PROBLEMS OF ANIMAL HUSBANDRY OF THE KRASNODAR REGION: STATE AND SOLUTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Nemirskiy A. S.; Kosnikov S. N.

    2015-01-01

    The Krasnodar region is a major producer and supplier of agricultural products. Livestock development in the Krasnodar region has been supported by the following factors: favorable climate, the intensive development of crop production, the need of the population in livestock production and others. Recently, however, there is a decline in livestock production, which is due to the influence of negative factors. Industry analysis showed the problems that hinder the development: high costs for th...

  18. Prerrogativas estatais, integração regional e lógica distributiva State prerrogatives, regional integration, and distributive logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de A. Medeiros

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Analisa-se a emergência de um novo paradigma de ordem internacional, baseado em processos de integração regional no lugar do decadente Estado nacional, tendo em vista os limites a ele impostos pela persistência da dinâmica do Estado nacional. Assinala-se a dificuldade para substituir a lógica intergovernamental pela lógica supranacional. A ausência de organizações supranacionais efetivas impõe restrições à distribuição dos ganhos obtidos pela dinâmica integracionista. Examina-se isso com base nos casos do Mercosul e da União Européia.The emergency of a new paradigm of international order, based on processes of regional integration instead of the decadent national State is examined in view of the limits imposed on it by the persistence of the dynamics of the national State. The difficulty in substituting a supranational logic for the intergovernmental one is pointed out. The absence of effective supranational organizations imposes restrictions on the distribution of the gains attained through the integrationist dynamics. This is examined on the basis of the cases of the Mercosul and of the European Union.

  19. Socio-spatial formation and urban-regional dynamics in Rio Grande do Norte State: the place of the Metropolitan Region of Natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Adopting the category of socio-spatial formation (Milton Santos, a study about the relationship between space and society in the course of history of the development of Rio Grande do Norte was undertaken, with the overall aim of identifying socio-economic, demographic and spatial links, that represent the different urban-regional dynamics of the state, and also with the specific aim of giving the metropolitan area of Natal its rightful place, as the structuring core of these dynamics. In this search, thought was given to the analysis of the profile of urbanization, which does not only show some characteristics of the urban network of the state evolution, which make it possible to glimpse the outline of its regionalization. In conclusion, we can observe, among other aspects, the sharp contrast between the technical-economic status in recent decades, and the precarious conditions in which large parts of the society live, what is spatially represented in a weak territorial division of labor in an unbalanced urban network, supported by a very small number of cities.

  20. Giardiasis as zoonosis: between proof of principle and paradigm in the Northwestern region of São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Cardoso Caseca Volotão

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In order to evaluate the potential zoonotic transmission of Giardia duodenalis, isolates from humans and dogs in the Northwestern region of the São Paulo State, Brazil were characterized based on the β-giardin gene. METHODS: The samples were analyzed by sequencing of the Nested-PCR products. RESULTS: The A1 and A2 subgenotypes were detected in human and dogs. Cysts of assemblage B, C and D have not been found in any isolates studied. CONCLUSIONS: These results are consistent with the view that giardiasis in the largest endemic region of the Brazil should not be seen as a single entity.

  1. Development of a United States-Mexico Emissions Inventory for the Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational (BRAVO) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhns, Hampden; Knipping, Eladio M; Vukovich, Jeffrey M

    2005-05-01

    The Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational (BRAVO) Study was commissioned to investigate the sources of haze at Big Bend National Park in southwest Texas. The modeling domain of the BRAVO Study includes most of the continental United States and Mexico. The BRAVO emissions inventory was constructed from the 1999 National Emission Inventory for the United States, modified to include finer-resolution data for Texas and 13 U.S. states in close proximity. The first regional-scale Mexican emissions inventory designed for air-quality modeling applications was developed for 10 northern Mexican states, the Tula Industrial Park in the state of Hidalgo, and the Popocatépetl volcano in the state of Puebla. Emissions data were compiled from numerous sources, including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Texas Natural Resources Conservation Commission (now Texas Commission on Environmental Quality), the Eastern Research Group, the Minerals Management Service, the Instituto Nacional de Ecología, and the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica Geografía y Informática. The inventory includes emissions for CO, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia, particulate matter (PM) < 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter, and PM < 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter. Wind-blown dust and biomass burning were not included in the inventory, although high concentrations of dust and organic PM attributed to biomass burning have been observed at Big Bend National Park. The SMOKE modeling system was used to generate gridded emissions fields for use with the Regional Modeling System for Aerosols and Deposition (REMSAD) and the Community Multiscale Air Quality model modified with the Model of Aerosol Dynamics, Reaction, Ionization and Dissolution (CMAQ-MADRID). The compilation of the inventory, supporting model input data, and issues encountered during the development of the inventory are documented. A comparison of the BRAVO emissions

  2. United States security strategy for the East Asia-Pacific region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The three years since release of the last East Asia Strategy Report (EASR) have produced important development in the security environment of the Asia-Pacific region. The 1998 EASR outlines a multifaceted regional security strategy, including: maintenance of comprehensive US engagement, including not only the presence of approximately 100,000 US military personnel in Asia but also a variety of other public and private interaction with the region; continued enhancement of the alliance relationships with Japan, Korea, Australia, Thailand and the Philippines; comprehensive engagement with China to build the foundation for a long-term relationship based on cooperation and mutual interest; broadening of cooperation with the nations of Southeast Asia on security and confidence building; expansion of regional cooperation with Russia; support for the development of security pluralism, including expansion of multilateral, minilateral and bilateral dialogue in the region; promotion of democracy; stemming and countering proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD): and increased attention to terrorism, environmental degradation, emerging infectious diseases, drug trafficking and other transnational challenges as critical elements of `comprehensive security.`

  3. Hospital care and capacity in the tri-state region of Indiana, Kentucky, and Ohio: analysis and insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, David J; Chinta, Ravi; Kashyap, Vishal; Manolis, Chris; Sen, Amit

    2008-01-01

    Hospitals are a significant part of the burgeoning healthcare sector in the United States (U.S.) economy. Despite the availability of what some describe as the world's best healthcare, the U.S. suffers from wide discrepancies in healthcare provision across hospitals and regions of the country. Specifically, capacity, utilization, quality, and even financial performance of hospitals vary widely. Based on secondary data from 533 hospitals in the adjoining states of Indiana, Kentucky, and Ohio, this study develops several comparative metrics that enable benchmarking, which, in turn, leads to several inferences and implications for hospital administrators. The paper concludes with implications for hospital administrators and suggestions for future research. PMID:19042547

  4. Scaling net ecosystem production and net biome production over a heterogeneous region in the western United States

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, D. P.; Ritts, W. D.; Law, B. E.; W. B. Cohen; Yang, Z.; T. Hudiburg; Campbell, J L; Duane, M

    2007-01-01

    Bottom-up scaling of net ecosystem production (NEP) and net biome production (NBP) was used to generate a carbon budget for a large heterogeneous region (the state of Oregon, 2.5×105 km2) in the western United States. Landsat resolution (30 m) remote sensing provided the basis for mapping land cover and disturbance history, thus allowing us to account for all major fire and logging events over the last 30 years. For NEP, a 23-year record...

  5. 12-Digit Watershed Boundary Data 1:24,000 for EPA Region 2 and Surrounding States (NAT_HYDROLOGY.HUC12_NRCS_REG2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — 12 digit Hydrologic Units (HUCs) for EPA Region 2 and surrounding states (Northeastern states, parts of the Great Lakes, Puerto Rico and the USVI) downloaded from...

  6. The regional (state level) importance of the agribusiness GDP in the Brazilian economy

    OpenAIRE

    Guilhoto, J. J. M.

    2004-01-01

    Following Furtuoso and Guilhoto (2003) the GDP of the Brazilian Agribusiness is estimated to be around 27% of the Brazilian GDP in 2000, and the latest numbers show that it could be reaching 30% of the Brazilian GDP in 2003. Despite its importance for the Brazilian economy as a whole, the size of the Brazilian territory and the regional differences draws attention for the fact that the importance of the agribusiness is not uniform over the Brazilian regions, and if the agribusiness is also di...

  7. Analysis of the incidence of syphilis in the Leningrad region and St. Petersburg: the current state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Agaev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1996–2009, the incidence of syphilis in the North-West region of Russia has declined and changed its structure. The frequency of neurosyphilis and latent forms increased, especially of late and unspecified latent syphilis. Differences in the structure of syphilis between the Leningrad region and St. Petersburg have been identified, which consisted in the reduction of primary syphilis and an increase in early latent syphilis in comparison with the city.

  8. Factors limiting industrial development in peripheral regions of developing countries: a case study of kedah state, peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morshidi Sirat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Many developing countries, Malaysia included, have relied quite heavily on the policy of industrial decentralization to uplift the lagging economies of their peripheral regions. In Malaysia, the Malaysian Industrial Development Authorithy (MIDA - a federal agency - plays a major role in persuading foreign enterprises to locate in the periphery. In addition to MIDA there are plethora of state agencies which implement state industrial policy. Development officials, in their effort to attract more industries to their respective regions, work on the premise that certain locational factors are critical to investors locational decision- making process. Obviously, development officials have their own perceptions of the attractions and disadvantages of the periphery. This paper (a examines whether the officials have a good grasp of the industrialists dominant motives for selecting Kedah as production location, and (b discusses the implications for industrial development if officials assumptions do not concur with industrialists real reasons for selecting Kedah location.

  9. Regional disconformities in Turonian and Coniacian (Upper Cretaceous) strata in Colorado, Wyoming, and adjoining states - Biochronological evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merewether, E.A.; Cobban, W.A.; Obradovich, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    Siliciclastic and calcareous sedimentary rocks of early Late Cretaceous age in the Western Interior of the United States have been assigned to, in ascending order, the Graneros Shale, Greenhorn Formation, Carlile Shale, Niobrara Formation, and their lateral equivalents (including members of the Frontier Formation and overlying formations). This sequence of formations was deposited intermittently within and near an epicontinental seaway during the Cenomanian, Turonian, and Coniacian stages of the Cretaceous. It encloses three conspicuous and widespread disconformities that reflect regional marine regressions and transgressions as well as moderate tectonism. The disconformities and associated lacunae occupy three large areas within Wyoming, Colorado, and adjoining states. In parts of that region, as in northwestern Wyoming, a lacuna can represent more than one period of erosion and more than a single disconformity. Evidence for these disconformities was obtained from about 175 collections of molluscan fossils and from sedimentological studies of outcrops and borehole logs, supplemented by previously published data.

  10. Rural-urban focus of canine visceral leishmaniosis in the far western region of Santa Catarina State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziero, Nelí; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Steindel, Mário; Link, Juliana Seger; Rossini, Diego; Alban, Silvana M; Nascimento, Aguinaldo J

    2014-09-15

    The aim of this work was to investigate the occurrence of canine visceral leishmaniosis (CVL) in the far western region of Santa Catarina State, bordering Argentina and Parana State, southern Brazil, where in recent years, VL has been recorded in both dogs and humans. Clinical signs, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used for Leishmania investigation. Among the 252 dogs surveyed, 41 were positive by ELISA assay, 43 in IFAT (titer>40), and 55 by PCR. From the 48 positive for VL by both serological and molecular methods, 19 (39.6%) presented clinical symptoms of leishmaniosis, 35 (72.9%) were from rural areas, and 13 (27.1%) were from urban areas. This pilot study confirms the occurrence of VL among dogs in the far western region of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, with high risk of CVL outbreaks and presenting a threat to humans.

  11. Altered regional homogeneity in spontaneous cluster headache attacks: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU En-chao; YU Sheng-yuan; LIU Ruo-zhuo; WANG Yan; MA Lin; TIAN Li-xia

    2012-01-01

    Background Functional neuroimaging study has opened an avenue for exploring the pathophysiology of cluster headache (CH).The aim of our study was to assess the changes in brain activity in CH patients by the regional homogeneity method using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging technique.Methods The functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained for 12 male CH patients with spontaneous right-sided headache attacks during “in attack” and “out of attack” periods and 12 age- and sex-matched normal controls.The data were analyzed to detect the altered brain activity by the regional homogeneity method using statistical parametric mapping software.Results Altered regional homogeneity was detected in the anterior cingulate cortex,the posterior cingulate cortex,the prefrontal cortex,insular cortex,and other brain regions involved in pain processing and modulation among different groups.Conclusion It is referred that these brain regions with altered regional homogeneity might be related to the pain processing and modulation of CH.

  12. Monitoring of results of Unified State Exam in mathematics and its uses in regions and educational institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Tatyana Tretyakova

    2007-01-01

    The article considers issues relating to the practical organization of education quality monitoring in the regions. The study is based on the results of the six year long monitoring of the Unified State Exam in 13 school subjects. The author shows the possibility to use the results of independent measurements of individual achievements in the education quality management. A model of education quality increasing system is described. This model was practically tested in educational institutions...

  13. GIS and remote sensing techniques for measuring agriculture land loss in balik pulau region of Penang state, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid Sabbar Mohammed; Yasin Elhadary; Narimah Samat; Najat Qader Omar

    2015-01-01

    Currently, Malaysia like other Asian countries has experienced rapid expansion of urbanization due to economic development, industrialization, massive migrations as well as natural population growth. This expansion particularly unplanned consumed a huge amount of arable land in the urban milieu and in its surrounding areas. This paper aims to measure arable land loss due to massive urbanization in Balik Pulau region of Penang State, Malaysia. Landsat TM (Thematic Mapper) images of 1992 and 20...

  14. Determinants of Occupational Injury: A Case Control Study among Textile Factory Workers in Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Zewdie Aderaw; Dagnew Engdaw; Takele Tadesse

    2011-01-01

    Background. Occupational injuries pose major public health and socioeconomic developmental problems. However, efforts towards investigation of determinants among factory workers are very minimal in developing countries. Thus, this study aimed at to identify determinants of occupational injury among textile factory workers in Amahara regional state in Ethiopia. Methods. A case control study was done among 456 textile factory workers (152 cases and 304 controls). Self-reported data from workers...

  15. Characterization of a Novel Hepadnavirus in the White Sucker (Catostomus commersonii) from the Great Lakes Region of the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, Cassidy M.; Luke R. Iwanowicz; Cornman, Robert S; Conway, Carla M.; Winton, James R.; Blazer, Vicki S.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The white sucker Catostomus commersonii is a freshwater teleost often utilized as a resident sentinel. Here, we sequenced the full genome of a hepatitis B-like virus that infects white suckers from the Great Lakes Region of the United States. Dideoxy sequencing confirmed that the white sucker hepatitis B virus (WSHBV) has a circular genome (3,542 bp) with the prototypical codon organization of hepadnaviruses. Electron microscopy demonstrated that complete virions of approximately 40 ...

  16. A regional analysis of labour force participation rates across the member states of the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    This study investigates the causes of variation in labour force participation rates in a regional Europe. Two participation rate equations are estimated, one for men and one for women, using annual data derived from Eurostat, 1983-1989. The explanatory variables are based on previous studies on the

  17. Nonlinear H-infinity State Feedback Controllers: Computation of Valid Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael; Møller-Pedersen, J.; Pagh Petersen, M.

    1996-01-01

    the nature of solutions V tothe Hamilton-Jacobi inequalities ... such as properness of V as acandidate Lyapunov function" Citation van der Schaft, 1992 [vdS92].The first of these problems is solved regionally (semi-globally) in thispaper, and the obtained control laws are implemented in MAPLE....

  18. 76 FR 41158 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Regional Haze State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    .... EPA promulgated a rule to address regional haze on July 1, 1999 (64 FR 35713), the RHR. The RHR... FR 39104, 39142-4143, July 6, 2005). CAIR, as originally promulgated, requires significant reductions.... (75 FR 45210, Aug. 2, 2010) (``the Transport Rule''). EPA explained in that proposal that...

  19. 77 FR 38006 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Iowa: Regional Haze

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... Regional Haze SIP and imposed a FIP for Iowa. 77 FR 33642. V. Statutory and Executive Order Requirements... Executive Order Reviews I. Background On February 28, 2012 (77 FR 11974), EPA published a notice of proposed... Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993); Does not impose an information collection burden...

  20. 77 FR 73369 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Florida; Regional Haze...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... CAIR to meet certain regional haze requirements. See 76 FR 82219 (December 30, 2011). On May 25, 2012... first implementation period. See 77 FR 31240. EPA's May 25, 2012, proposed rulemaking covered Florida's... sources. On November 29, 2012 (77 FR 71111), EPA took final action fully approving the unit-specific...

  1. 77 FR 11827 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Maryland; Regional Haze...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... promulgated a rule to address regional haze on July 1, 1999 (64 FR 35714), the RHR. The RHR revised the... under estimated natural conditions (64 FR 35714, July 1, 1999). \\1\\ Visual range is the greatest... visibility impairment'' (45 FR 80084). These regulations represented the first phase in addressing...

  2. Regional training course on state systems of accounting for and control of nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication is an outline of the subjects that are included in a regional training course organized in Buenos Aires (Argentina) by the IAEA with the cooperation of the Argentine Government and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for the Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) from September 24 to October 5, 2001

  3. Terahertz generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers with a dual-upper-state active region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the performance of room temperature terahertz sources based on intracavity difference-frequency generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers with a dual-upper-state (DAU) active region. DAU active region design is theoretically expected to produce larger optical nonlinearity for terahertz difference-frequency generation, compared to the active region designs of the bound-to-continuum type used previously. Fabricated buried heterostructure devices with a two-section buried distributed feedback grating and the waveguide designed for Cherenkov difference-frequency phase-matching scheme operate in two single-mode mid-infrared wavelengths at 10.7 μm and 9.7 μm and produce terahertz output at 2.9 THz with mid-infrared to terahertz conversion efficiency of 0.8 mW/W2 at room temperature

  4. Land-use change, economics, and rural well-being in the Prairie Pothole Region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascoigne, William R.; Hoag, Dana L.K.; Johnson, Rex R.; Koontz, Lynne M.; Thomas, Catherine Cullinane

    2013-01-01

    This fact sheet highlights findings included in a comprehensive new report (see USGS Professional Paper 1800) which investigated land-use change, economic characteristics, and rural community well-being in the Prairie Pothole Region of the United States. Once one of the largest grassland-wetlands ecosystems on earth, the North American prairie has experienced extensive conversion to cultivated agriculture, with farming becoming the dominant land use in the region over the last century. Both perennial habitat lands and agricultural croplands retain importance economically, socially, and culturally. Greatly increased oil and gas development in recent years brought rises in employment and income but also stressed infrastructure, cost of living, and crime rates. Research described in these reports focuses on land-use dynamics and illuminates how economic variables and rural development in the Prairie Pothole Region might be influenced as land uses change.

  5. Landscape, demographic and climatic associations with human West Nile virus occurrence regionally in 2012 in the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. DeGroote

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available After several years of low West Nile virus (WNV occurrence in the United States of America (USA, 2012 wit- nessed large outbreaks in several parts of the country. In order to understand the outbreak dynamics, spatial clustering and landscape, demographic and climatic associations with WNV occurrence were investigated at a regional level in the USA. Previous research has demonstrated that there are a handful of prominent WNV mosquito vectors with varying ecological requirements responsible for WNV transmission in the USA. Published range maps of these important vectors were georef- erenced and used to define eight functional ecological regions in the coterminous USA. The number of human WNV cases and human populations by county were attained in order to calculate a WNV rate for each county in 2012. Additionally, a binary value (high/low was calculated for each county based on whether the county WNV rate was above or below the rate for the region it fell in. Global Moran’s I and Anselin Local Moran’s I statistics of spatial association were used per region to examine and visualize clustering of the WNV rate and the high/low rating. Spatial data on landscape, demographic and climatic variables were compiled and derived from a variety of sources and then investigated in relation to human WNV using both Spearman rho correlation coefficients and Poisson regression models. Findings demonstrated significant spatial clustering of WNV and substantial inter-regional differences in relationships between WNV occurrence and landscape, demographic and climatically related variables. The regional associations were consistent with the ecologies of the dominant vectors for those regions. The large outbreak in the Southeast region was preceded by higher than normal winter and spring precipitation followed by dry and hot conditions in the summer.

  6. Regionalized Equations for Bankfull-Discharge and Channel Characteristics of Streams in New York State - Hydrologic Region 3 East of the Hudson River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvihill, Christiane I.; Baldigo, Barry P.

    2007-01-01

    Equations that relate drainage area to bankfull discharge and channel characteristics (such as width, depth, and cross-sectional area) at gaged sites are needed to define bankfull discharge and channel characteristics at ungaged sites and can be used for stream-restoration and protection projects, stream-channel classification, and channel assessments. These equations are intended to serve as a guide for streams in areas of similar hydrologic, climatic, and physiographic conditions. New York State contains eight hydrologic regions that were previously delineated on the basis of high-flow (flood) characteristics. This report presents predictive equations for bankfull characteristics (discharge and channel characteristics) for streams east of the Hudson River, referred to as Hydrologic Region 3. Stream-survey data and discharge records from 12 streamflow-gaging stations were used in regression analyses to relate drainage area to bankfull discharge and bankfull channel width, depth, and cross-sectional area. The four predictive equations are: bankfull discharge (cubic feet per second) = 83.8 (drainage area (square miles))0.679, (1) bankfull-channel width (feet) = 24.0 (drainage area (square miles))0.292, (2) bankfull-channel depth (feet) = 1.66 (drainage area (square miles))0.210, (3) bankfull-channel cross-sectional area (square feet) = 39.8 (drainage area (square miles))0.503. (4) The coefficients of determination (R2) for these four equations are 0.93, 0.85, 0.77, and 0.92, respectively. The high coefficients of determination for bankfull discharge and cross-sectional area indicate that much of the range in the variables is explained by the size of the drainage area; the smaller correlation coefficients for bankfull channel width and depth indicate that other factors also affect these relations. Recurrence intervals for the estimated bankfull discharge of each stream ranged from 1.16 to 3.35 years; the mean recurrence interval was 2.08 years. The 12 surveyed

  7. Hydrochemical Regions of the Glacial Aquifer System, Northern United States, and Their Environmental and Water-Quality Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Terri L.; Warner, Kelly L.; Groschen, George E.; Caldwell, James P.; Kalkhoff, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    The glacial aquifer system in the United States is a large (953,000 square miles) regional aquifer system of heterogeneous composition. As described in this report, the glacial aquifer system includes all unconsolidated geologic material above bedrock that lies on or north of the line of maximum glacial advance within the United States. Examining ground-water quality on a regional scale indicates that variations in the concentrations of major and minor ions and some trace elements most likely are the result of natural variations in the geologic and physical environment. Study of the glacial aquifer system was designed around a regional framework based on the assumption that two primary characteristics of the aquifer system can affect water quality: intrinsic susceptibility (hydraulic properties) and vulnerability (geochemical properties). The hydrochemical regions described in this report were developed to identify and explain regional spatial variations in ground-water quality in the glacial aquifer system within the hypothetical framework context. Data analyzed for this study were collected from 1991 to 2003 at 1,716 wells open to the glacial aquifer system. Cluster analysis was used to group wells with similar ground-water concentrations of calcium, chloride, fluoride, magnesium, potassium, sodium, sulfate, and bicarbonate into five unique groups. Maximum Likelihood Classification was used to make the extrapolation from clustered groups of wells, defined by points, to areas of similar water quality (hydrochemical regions) defined in a geospatial model. Spatial data that represented average annual precipitation, average annual temperature, land use, land-surface slope, vertical soil permeability, average soil clay content, texture of surficial deposits, type of surficial deposit, and potential for ground-water recharge were used in the Maximum Likelihood Classification to classify the areas so the characteristics of the hydrochemical regions would resemble the

  8. Regional Warming from Aerosol Removal over the United States: Results from a Transient 2010-2050 Climate Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickley, L. J.; Leibensperger, E. M.; Jacob, D. J.; Rind, D.

    2012-01-01

    We use a general circulation model (NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies GCM 3) to investigate the regional climate response to removal of aerosols over the United States. We perform a pair of transient 2010e2050 climate simulations following a scenario of increasing greenhouse gas concentrations, with and without aerosols over the United States and with present-day aerosols elsewhere. We find that removing U.S. aerosol significantly enhances the warming from greenhouse gases in a spatial pattern that strongly correlates with that of the aerosol. Warming is nearly negligible outside the United States, but annual mean surface temperatures increase by 0.4e0.6 K in the eastern United States. Temperatures during summer heat waves in the Northeast rise by as much as 1e2 K due to aerosol removal, driven in part by positive feedbacks involving soil moisture and low cloud cover. Reducing U.S. aerosol sources to achieve air quality objectives could thus have significant unintended regional warming consequences.

  9. Ohio's statewide land use inventory: An operational approach for applying LANDSAT data to state, regional and local planning programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldridge, P. E.; Geosling, P. H.; Leone, F.; Minshall, C.; Rodgers, R. H.; Wilhelm, C. L.

    1975-01-01

    The programmatic, technical, user application, and cost factors associated with the development of an operational, statewide land use inventory from LANDSAT data are described. The LANDSAT multispectral data are subjected to geometrical and categorical processing to produce map files for each of the 200 fifteen (15) minute quads covering Ohio. Computer compatible tapes are rescanned to produce inventory tapes which identify eight (8) Level I land use categories and a variety of Level II categories. The inventory tapes are processed through a series of ten (10) software programs developed by the State of Ohio. The net result is a computerized inventory which can be displayed in map or tabular form for various geographic units, at a variety of scales and for selected categories of usage. The computerized inventory data files are applied to technical programs developed by the various state agencies to be used in state, regional, and local planning programs.

  10. 77 FR 24845 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; South Dakota; Regional Haze State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... the first implementation period (through 2018). 76 FR 76646. A detailed explanation of the CAA's... stack parameters.'' 76 FR 76656. The commenter stated that EPA should not rely on ``unreliable... reasonable for the two remaining control options, semi-dry and wet FGD.'' 76 FR 76656. Comment: One...

  11. 77 FR 40149 - Approval, Disapproval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Nebraska; Regional Haze...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... rain, ozone formation, and nitrogen deposition. The commenter also stated that haze-causing pollutants... acid rain. We agree that the same emissions that cause visibility impairment can form fine PM and be... Implementation Plans to Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone, 76 FR 48208 (August...

  12. 77 FR 38007 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Missouri: Regional Haze

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... revisions on February 28, 2012 (77 FR 11958). In a separate rulemaking action, EPA finalized the limited... June 7, 2012. 77 FR 33642. DATES: This rule will become effective July 26, 2012, except that the... FR 11958), EPA published a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPR) for the State of Missouri,...

  13. 77 FR 16937 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Regional Haze State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... Throughout this document, whenever ``we,'' ``us,'' or ``our'' is used, we mean EPA. On July 13, 2011 (76 FR... Rule states (which include West Virginia). 76 FR 82219. Given the significance of the emissions... published on December 30, 2011. 76 FR 82219. EPA is also approving this revision as meeting the...

  14. 78 FR 46141 - Approval and Disapproval of Air Quality State Implementation Plans; Arizona; Regional Haze and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... respectively, and EPA's adoption of the RHR in 1999. Nonetheless, in both cases, the Supreme Court recognized... deciview, a measure of visual range. (9) The words EPA, we, us or our mean or refer to the United States... on December 21, 2012, and May 20, 2013. \\1\\ 77 FR 75704. Please see the proposal for a summary of...

  15. THE ECONOMIC STRUCTURES IN THE ROMANIAN REGIONS AND COUNTIES AND THE EU MEMBER STATES. COMPARATIVE ANALYSES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marioara, IORDAN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bridging the gap between countries, and thus decresing poverty, is the greatest challenge of European countries in the context of the European social cohesion. The risk of future economic difficulties caused by the size of budget deficits is beared by the funds to be allocated to social inclusion in the EU and the EU member countries. They will be concerned in the post-crisis period with aligning the requirements of progress, of poverty reduction, but also of ensuring the sustainability of public finances. For Romania, cohesion is particularly important as most regions show significant differences as compared to the EU average and the national average. This group also includes the South Muntenia Region, which has many advantages for faster progress and to be able to exploit the opportunities offered by the implementation of the Europe 2020 strategy.

  16. Scarcity of female mates predicts regional variation in men's and women's sociosexual orientation across US states

    OpenAIRE

    Kandrik, Michal; Jones, Benedict C.; DeBruine, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have linked regional variation in willingness to engage in uncommitted sexual relationships (i.e., sociosexual orientation) to many different socio-ecological measures, such as adult sex ratio, life expectancy, and gross domestic product. However, these studies share a number of potentially serious limitations, including reliance on a single dataset of responses aggregated by country and a failure to properly consider intercorrelations among different socio-ecological measure...

  17. Regional convergence and divergence in Latin American:A state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Mauricio Cuervo González

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Barro &Sala-i-Martin (1995growth ’s model has been a theoretical reference to Latin American studies on regional convergence.This article analyses around twenty research works published about Bolivia,Brazil,Colombia,Chile,Mexico and Peru during the last decade.It evaluates theoretical,methodological and empirical implementation of the model and proposes new researching questions to progress on knowledge ’s production.

  18. Regional power systems planning: a state of the art assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    The purpose of this report was to define regional power systems planning problems, the tools available and their shortcomings, and to document all of the above in a concise readable form. The approach consisted of a survey and literature search. The survey determined the tools being used by utilities, the tools they had rejected, and the tools they planned to try out. The literature search was conducted for the purpose of documenting the tools available, and performing a comparative analysis of these tools. The project included a mix of utility, university, and consulting organizations. Several organizations were consulted in the selection of the participants. A non-profit organization, The University of Oklahoma, was selected to manage the project. The results were reviewed in a series of four one day meetings by known authorities in each field. This report consists of the results of this project. Perhaps its major finding is that several aspects of the regional planning problem are not well defined, the roles of the various participants in regional planning is not clear, and certainly research is needed for the development of new methodology.

  19. Water resources and land use and cover in a humid region: the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, R Chelsea; Lockaby, B Graeme; Helms, Brian; Kalin, Latif; Stoeckel, Denise

    2011-01-01

    It is widely recognized that forest and water resources are intricately linked. Globally, changes in forest cover to accommodate agriculture and urban development introduce additional challenges for water management. The U.S. Southeast typifies this global trend as predictions of land-use change and population growth suggest increased pressure on water resources in coming years. Close attention has long been paid to interactions between people and water in arid regions; however, based on information from regions such as the Southeast, it is evident that much greater focus is required to sustain a high-quality water supply in humid areas as well. To that end, we review hydrological, physicochemical, biological, and human and environmental health responses to conversion of forests to agriculture and urban land uses in the Southeast. Commonly, forest removal leads to increased stream sediment and nutrients, more variable flow, altered habitat and stream and riparian communities, and increased risk of human health effects. Although indicators such as the percentage of impervious cover signify overall watershed alteration, the threshold to disturbance, or the point at which effects can been observed in stream and riparian parameters, can be quite low and often varies with physiographic conditions. In addition to current land use, historical practices can greatly influence current water quality. General inferences of this study may extend to many humid regions concerning climate, environmental thresholds, and the causes and nature of effects.

  20. Differential Activation Patterns in the Same Brain Region Led to Opposite Emotional States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Kazuhisa; Watanabe, Takeo; Kawato, Mitsuo; Sasaki, Yuka

    2016-01-01

    In human studies, how averaged activation in a brain region relates to human behavior has been extensively investigated. This approach has led to the finding that positive and negative facial preferences are represented by different brain regions. However, using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) decoded neurofeedback (DecNef) method, we found that different patterns of neural activations within the cingulate cortex (CC) play roles in representing opposite directions of facial preference. In the present study, while neutrally preferred faces were presented, multi-voxel activation patterns in the CC that corresponded to higher (or lower) preference were repeatedly induced by fMRI DecNef. As a result, previously neutrally preferred faces became more (or less) preferred. We conclude that a different activation pattern in the CC, rather than averaged activation in a different area, represents and suffices to determine positive or negative facial preference. This new approach may reveal the importance of an activation pattern within a brain region in many cognitive functions. PMID:27608359

  1. Ultrasound guidance in regional anesthesia: state of the art review through challenging clinical scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian D Sites

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Brian D Sites1, John G Antonakakis21Departments of Anesthesiology and Orthopedic Surgery, Dartmouth Medical School, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire, USA; 2Department of Anesthesiology, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA, USAAbstract: Ultrasound guided regional anesthesia (UGRA for peripheral nerve blockade is becoming increasingly popular. The advantage of ultrasound technology is that it affords the anesthesiologist the real time ability to visualize neural structures, needle advancement, and local anesthetic spread. Recent data suggest that UGRA generates improved success rates and reductions in performance times in comparison to traditional approaches. Further, the use of ultrasound technology in peripheral nerve blocks has provided insight into needle–nerve interactions, revealing distinct limitations of nerve stimulator techniques. Given that UGRA requires a unique set of skills, formal standards and guidelines are currently being developed by leadership societies in order to foster education and training. This review article, in a case vignette format, highlights important techniques, concepts, and limitations regarding the use of ultrasound to facilitate regional anesthesia. Clinically relevant aspects of ultrasound physics are also discussed.Keywords: ultrasound, regional anesthesia

  2. Incorporating human activities into an earth system model of the Northeastern United States: socio-hydrology at the regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, B.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Miara, A.; Stewart, R.; Wollheim, W. M.; Lu, X.; Kicklighter, D. W.; Ehsani, N.; Shikhmacheva, K.; Yang, P.

    2013-12-01

    The Northeastern United States is one of the most urbanized regions of the world and its 70 million residents will be challenged by climate change as well as competing demands for land and water through the remainder of the 21st Century. The strategic management decisions made in the next few years will have major impacts on the region's future water resources, but planners have had limited quantitative information to support their decision-making. We have developed a Northeast Regional Earth System Model (NE-RESM), which allows for the testing of future scenarios of climate change, land use change and infrastructure management to better understand their implications for the region's water resources and ecosystem services. Human features of the water cycle - including thermoelectric power plants, wastewater treatment plants interbasin transfers and changes in impervious cover with different patterns of urban development - are explicitly represented in our modeling. We are currently engaged in a novel, participatory scenario design process with regional stakeholders to ensure the policy relevancy of our modeling experiments. The NE-RESM hydrologic modeling domain. Figure by Stanley Glidden and Rob Stewart

  3. 30,000 years of hydroclimatic variability in the coastal southwest United States: regional synthesis and forcings analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    The coastal southwest United States is characterized by a winter dominated hydroclimate. Far from dependable, this region's supply of winter precipitation is highly variable and often characterized by hydrologic opposites - droughts and floods. Predicting future precipitation and hydrologic dynamics requires a paleoperspective. Here, we present an up-to-date synthesis of hydroclimatic variability over the past 30,000 years. A variety of terrestrial-based studies are examined and compared to understand patterns of regional hydroclimatic change. This comparison is extended into the San Joaquin Basin of California where future climate change will impact the region's agricultural stability and economy. Particularly interesting is the apparent role that Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs) play in modulating the region's hydroclimate over a variety of timescales. Are past periods of above average Pacific SSTs analogs for future global warming? If yes, the region might expect an increase in winter precipitation as SSTs rise in response to global warming. However, how this potential precipitation increase is manifest is unknown. For example, will the intensity of precipitation events increase and thus present increased flood hazards and diminished freshwater capture? Finally, we present evidence for changes in the source of winter precipitation over time as well as ecological responses to past hydrologic change.

  4. Insular ecosystems of the southeastern United States- A regional synthesis to support biodiversity conservation in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Jennifer M.; Wolfe, William J.

    2016-01-01

    In the southeastern United States, insular ecosystems—such as rock outcrops, depression wetlands, high-elevation balds, flood-scoured riparian corridors, and insular prairies and barrens—occupy a small fraction of land area but constitute an important source of regional and global biodiversity, including concentrations of rare and endemic plant taxa. Maintenance of this biodiversity depends upon regimes of abiotic stress and disturbance, incorporating factors such as soil surface temperature, widely fluctuating hydrologic conditions, fires, flood scouring, and episodic droughts that may be subject to alteration by climate change. Over several decades, numerous localized, site-level investigations have yielded important information about the floristics, physical environments, and ecological dynamics of these insular ecosystems; however, the literature from these investigations has generally remained fragmented. This report consists of literature syntheses for eight categories of insular ecosystems of the southeastern United States, concerning (1) physical geography, (2) ecological determinants of community structures including vegetation dynamics and regimes of abiotic stress and disturbance, (3) contributions to regional and global biodiversity, (4) historical and current anthropogenic threats and conservation approaches, and (5) key knowledge gaps relevant to conservation, particularly in terms of climate-change effects on biodiversity. This regional synthesis was undertaken to discern patterns across ecosystems, identify knowledge gaps, and lay the groundwork for future analyses of climate-change vulnerability. Findings from this synthesis indicate that, despite their importance to regional and global biodiversity, insular ecosystems of the southeastern United States have been subjected to a variety of direct and indirect human alterations. In many cases, important questions remain concerning key determinants of ecosystem function. In particular, few

  5. Models of Regional Habitat Quality and Connectivity for Pumas (Puma concolor) in the Southwestern United States

    OpenAIRE

    Dickson, Brett G.; Roemer, Gary W.; Mcrae, Brad H.; Jill M. Rundall

    2013-01-01

    The impact of landscape changes on the quality and connectivity of habitats for multiple wildlife species is of global conservation concern. In the southwestern United States, pumas (Puma concolor) are a well distributed and wide-ranging large carnivore that are sensitive to loss of habitat and to the disruption of pathways that connect their populations. We used an expert-based approach to define and derive variables hypothesized to influence the quality, location, and permeability of habita...

  6. A steady-state F-region model and its use for satellite data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Stankov

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available A steady-state mathematical model of the Earth's upper ionosphere and plasmasphere is presented. In the model the equations of continuity, momentum, and energy balance for O+, H+, and He+ ions are solved numerically along dipole magnetic field lines. As an extension of the model, a searching method is developed for de- termination of the boundary values in a self-consistent manner. Model results are compared with Atmosphere Explorer satellite measurements.

  7. Free Magnetic Energy in Solar Active Regions above the Minimum-Energy Relaxed State

    OpenAIRE

    Regnier, Stephane; Priest, Eric

    2008-01-01

    To understand the physics of solar flares, including the local reorganization of the magnetic field and the acceleration of energetic particles, we have first to estimate the free magnetic energy available for such phenomena, which can be converted into kinetic and thermal energy. The free magnetic energy is the excess energy of a magnetic configuration compared to the minimum-energy state, which is a linear force-free field if the magnetic helicity of the configuration is conserved. We inves...

  8. 76 FR 34872 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of California; Regional Haze and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ... these SIP revisions on March 17, 2011 (76 FR 14616). DATES: Effective Date: This rule is effective on..., EPA promulgated new standards for 8-hour ozone (62 FR 38856) and PM 2.5 (62 FR 38652). We are taking... 1997 PM 2.5 NAAQS in any other State, as required by CAA section 110(a)(2)(D)(i)(I). See 76 FR...

  9. Petrochemical characterization of gneissic rocks from Colmeia Complex -Colmeia region - Tocantins State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gneissic rocks of the Colmeia Complex from the surrounding of the Colmeia City (Tocantins State) have been analysed in terms of their petrochemical aspects. The major and trace element chemistry has been treated through several compositional diagrams. The oxygen isotope data for whole rocks and separate minerals have also been investigated. They showed a very good isotopic equilibrium and they permit to associate these rocks to the I type granites. They also suggest no post-metamorphic isotope exchange of these rocks. (author)

  10. Structure of high-spin states in A {approx} 60 region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakada, Hitoshi [Chiba Univ. (Japan); Furutaka, K.; Hatsukawa, Y. [and others

    1998-03-01

    High-spin states in the proton-rich Cu-Zn nuclei are investigated by the experiments at JAERI. New levels and {gamma}-rays are identified by the particle-{gamma}-{gamma} coincidence, and J{sup P} assignments are made via the DCO ratio analysis. Yrast sequences are observed up to J {approx} 18 for {sup 62}Zn, and {sup 64}Zn, J {approx} 27/2 for {sup 61}Cu and J {approx} 23/2 for {sup 63}Cu. Though we cannot settle new J{sup P} values for {sup 61,63}Zn, their yrast sequence is also extended. In {sup 64}Zn, a doublet of {gamma}-rays is discovered at 1315 keV, clarifying the similarity in the level scheme between {sup 62}Zn and {sup 64}Zn. We reproduce the yrast levels by a shell-model calculation, by which structure of the high-spin states is further studied. A parity change in the yrast sequence is established, in which the unique-parity orbit 0g{sub 9/2} plays an essential role; one nucleon excitation to g{sub 9/2} gains high angular momentum with low seniority, at the cost of the single-parity energy. Second parity-change is also suggested by the calculation. Such parity change seems characteristic to spherical or nearly spherical nuclei. In {sup 61}Cu, concentration of the {gamma}-ray intensity is observed. This happens because a stretched 3-quasiparticle configuration including 0g{sub 9/2} is relatively stable, similarly to some isomers. Thus, by studying the structure of the high-spin states of the A {approx} 60 nuclei, we have clarified the role of unique-parity orbit in high-spin states, which may be generic to spherical and nearly spherical nuclei. (J.P.N.)

  11. College-Bound Seniors, 1979. [College Board ATP Summary Reports for: National, New England, Middle States, Southern, Midwestern, Southwestern, Rocky Mountain, and Western Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    College Entrance Examination Board, Princeton, NJ.

    The Admissions Testing Program (ATP) is a service of the College Board. The 1979 ATP summary reports on college-bound seniors were produced for each region of the United States, including New England, the Middle, Southern, Midwestern, Southwestern, Rocky Mountain, and Western States. The national and each regional report are in separate booklets.…

  12. Tendencies of mortality by prostate cancer in the states of the Central-West Region of Brazil, 1980-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, João Francisco Santos; Mattos, Inês Echenique; Aydos, Ricardo Dutra

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at analyzing the pattern of prostate cancer mortality in the Central-West Region, in the period 1980 - 2011. The quadrennial and annual mortality rates, age-standardized by the world population, were calculated. Polynomial regression models were estimated to analyze trends of mortality in Brazilian regions and in the states of the Central-West Region. Throughout Brazil there was an increase in the magnitude of mortality rates during the study's period. In the Central-West Region, mortality rates from prostate cancer increased from 7.65/100,000 in the period 1980 - 1983, to 14.36/100,000 in the last four years, exceeding the national average. For Mato Grosso do Sul, an increased trend, although not constant, was observed for prostate mortality rates, while those rates showed stability for Mato Grosso and presented a constant trend of increment for Goiás along the studied period. There was a statistically significant negative correlation between mortality rates from prostate cancer and the proportional mortality from ill-defined causes of death in the three states, but no correlations were observed between these rates and the ratios of Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) tests realized. Difficulties in the access to the health services network, better quality of death records with reduction of ill-defined causes and increased use of PSA may have contributed to the mortality pattern observed in the Central-West Region. Further studies are needed to investigate these relationships in order, to better understand the patterns of mortality from this cancer in the Central-West population.

  13. Solving the Problems of Physical and Economic Accessibility of Foodstuff in the Region by Means of AIC State Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babich Tatyana Vladimirovna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the physical and economic accessibility to foodstuff in the region. The effects of economic sanctions are analyzed, the main types of risks of the domestic agricultural producers’ competitiveness are described, and the methods of their reduction are identified. The concept of food security in terms of physical and economic accessibility is considered. The analysis of the Volgograd region data on the development of agricultural production let conclude that there is the problem of ensuring the physical availability of foodstuff in the region. The state regulation of agricultural production is identified as an important factor of food security in the modern world. The authors identified the basic problems of agricultural production, including the problem of irrigation, economic accessibility of food products, depreciation of fixed assets, the use of obsolete and resource-intensive technologies of production, decline in qualification level of staff employed in the industry, underfunding of agricultural science, low competitiveness of agricultural and food policy. Moreover, in the current situation the further growth of food prices and reduced purchasing power of the population, as a result of inflation, would further reduce the economic affordability of food and decrease food security in the region and in the country, as a whole. As a result, аs part of the solution to the problem of providing physical and economic access to food, the authors offered and proved complex measures on improving state regulation of agro-industrial complex. These measures include conducting large-scale works on restoration of the complex reclamation of the region; implementation of technical and technological modernization of agriculture, food industry and agrobusiness production services; formation of the system of professional agricultural education; formation of modern social infrastructure in rural areas; development of the program of food

  14. Mycoplasmal mastitis in dairy cows in the Moghan region of Ardabil State, Iran : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ghazaei

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasmas are an important and economically significant cause of mastitis in dairy cows in various parts of the world. The organisms are highly contagious, with the main reservoir of infection originating from cows with subclinical mastitis. In 1998 the 1st cases of bovine mastitis due to Mycoplasma bovis were diagnosed in Ardabil State, Iran. An investigation was carried out with the aim of establishing the extent of mycoplasma infections in dairy cows in Ardabil State. Milk samples obtained from 80 cows with clinical mastitis were cultured in the laboratory for the presence of mycoplasmas. Similarly, 48 bulk-tank milk samples were examined for the presence of mycoplasmas. A modified Hayflick broth was used to isolate the mycoplasmas and an immunoperoxidase test used for the species identification of the isolates. Mycoplasma bovis was isolated from 39 (48.75 % of the clinical mastitis samples and from 48 of the bulk-tank milk samples tested. This indicated that mycoplasma udder infections were more prevalent in dairy cows in Ardabil State than previously thought.

  15. Production systems and reproductive performances of Camelus dromedarius in Somali regional state, eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simenew Keskes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Across-sectional questionnaire survey and focused group discussions were conducted to characterize camel production systems and to evaluate reproductive performances of camels at their natural pastoralist management systems of Somali region. A total of 100 households were included in the study during the period of October 2012 to March 2013. About 98% of Somali pastoralists preferred camels as their first choice over other livestock species and mainly kept in the society for milk and meat production. The camel management dominating in the study areas of Somali region is traditional nomadic. Camel is one of the most important livestock for Somali pastoralists’ livelihood as a source of milk, meat and draught power. Mature female camels were dominant (54.87% in the camel herd. The ratio of male to female camel was 1:13. Mean age at first calving and calving interval were 62.16±10.44 and 23.28±3.36 months respectively. Age at first calving and calving interval can be minimized to 57±5.52 and 21.84±4.8 months by proper husbandry and health care. The mean lactation length was 11.51±1.91 months. Diseases and predators were reported as the main causes of calf mortality. In the herd dynamic simulation calf mortality rate can be reduced at least to 7% only by preventing predators attack. Diseases (66%, lack of pasture (59% and security (47% were the main constraints in camel production of the study areas. For the better productivity of camels, the major constraints such as disease problems, lack of pasture and tribal conflicts should be mitigated. Proper husbandry and health services can play significant roles in the long term improvement of camel production and productivity of the region.  

  16. Modeling Groundwater Depletion at Regional and Global Scales: Present State and Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yoshihide

    2016-03-01

    Except for frozen water in ice and glaciers, groundwater is the world's largest distributed store of freshwater and has strategic importance to global food and water security. In this paper, the most recent advances quantifying groundwater depletion (GWD) are comprehensively reviewed. This paper critically evaluates the recently advanced modeling approaches estimating GWD at regional and global scales, and the evidence of feedbacks to the Earth system including sea-level rise associated with GWD. Finally, critical challenges and opportunities in the use of groundwater are identified for the adaption to growing food demand and uncertain climate.

  17. State dilemmas in applying the Previous Consultation Law in the Andean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Barrio de Mendoza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Peruvian government enacted a new law granting consultation rights to indigenous peoples as a mechanism to enhance social inclusion in the country. The law generated debates about the criteria to identify indigenous population in the Andean region. Why does this law have problems granting consultation rights to Andean people? This paper aims to answer the question by reviewing historically the different Andean identities and analyzing the current international debate on indigenity. Our main argument is that the government intrying to apply the law is structuring a restrictive model that is hardlyable to grasp the complexity and dynamism of Andean identities.

  18. Modelling Groundwater Depletion at Regional and Global Scales: Present State and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yoshihide

    2015-01-01

    Except for frozen water in ice and glaciers, groundwater is the world's largest distributed store of freshwater and has strategic importance to global food and water security. In this paper, the most recent advances quantifying groundwater depletion (GWD) are comprehensively reviewed. This paper critically evaluates the recently advanced modeling approaches estimating GWD at regional and global scales, and the evidence of feedbacks to the Earth system including sea-level rise associated with GWD. Finally, critical challenges and opportunities in the use of groundwater are identified for the adaption to growing food demand and uncertain climate.

  19. Water quality indicators in the Mantiqueira Range region, Minas Gerais state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Campos Pinto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining the quality of water resources is of great importance for environmental preservation and the quality of life of consumers, and is one of the greatest challenges facing humanity today. Land-use for agriculture and animal farming significantly changes the biological, physical and chemical characteristics of natural systems. This study comprised monitoring of two subbasins located in the Mantiqueira Range region, from which water samples were collected on a monthly basis between June 2010 and May 2011 for analysis. Each subbasin has a distinct vegetation cover, one being predominantly covered by pastureland and the other being entirely covered by Atlantic Forest. The following water quality indicators were analyzed: turbidity, pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, temperature, nitrate, phosphate, BOD,COD, total and fecal coliforms, and respective discharge measurement. The results showed that water quality degradation in both environments coincided with the local rainy season and was influenced by transport of organic material to watercourses by direct surface runoff. The high concentrations of fecal coliforms found affected the water quality, particularly in the rainy season, and are associated with agriculture and animal farming, the main economic activities in the region. The Atlantic Forest environment, however, had statistically better water quality over time in relation to the pastureland environment, due to the buffering it provides to direct surface runoff.

  20. Physical culture in life of Eastern-European region students: modern state and prospects of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iermakov S.S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: analysis of researches on physical culture problems among students in countries of Easter-European region (2013-2015. Material: As sources of information we chose data base of Russia, Poland and Ukraine. Besides, we used sites of the most known journals of Easter-European region. When choosing journals we based on rating of Russia (RISC, Poland (Index Copernicus and Ukraine (bibliometryka of Ukrainian science data bases. Results: thematic focus of researches on different physical education, sports and students health aspects was determined. The promising directions of researches are as follows: re-organization of system of students’ physical education; interconnection of life quality and organism’s resistance to environmental impacts; dependence of students’ motor functioning on bad habits’ presence; determination of factors, facilitating motivation for sport games in system of students’ health related trainings; perceiving of life quality by disabled students; competence and professional skillfulness of specialists in physical culture and sports. Conclusions: it is recommended to use new, attractive forms of students’ motor functioning. It is necessary to regulate students’ motor functioning, considering motivation for success and for avoiding failures as well as to increase students’ psycho-physiological stresses’ resistance and to form students’ culture of health.

  1. Downscaling global land-use/land-cover projections for use in region-level state-and-transition simulation modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason T. Sherba

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Global land-use/land-cover (LULC change projections and historical datasets are typically available at coarse grid resolutions and are often incompatible with modeling applications at local to regional scales. The difficulty of downscaling and reapportioning global gridded LULC change projections to regional boundaries is a barrier to the use of these datasets in a state-and-transition simulation model (STSM framework. Here we compare three downscaling techniques to transform gridded LULC transitions into spatial scales and thematic LULC classes appropriate for use in a regional STSM. For each downscaling approach, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP LULC projections, at the 0.5 × 0.5 cell resolution, were downscaled to seven Level III ecoregions in the Pacific Northwest, United States. RCP transition values at each cell were downscaled based on the proportional distribution between ecoregions of (1 cell area, (2 land-cover composition derived from remotely-sensed imagery, and (3 historic LULC transition values from a LULC history database. Resulting downscaled LULC transition values were aggregated according to their bounding ecoregion and “cross-walked” to relevant LULC classes. Ecoregion-level LULC transition values were applied in a STSM projecting LULC change between 2005 and 2100. While each downscaling methods had advantages and disadvantages, downscaling using the historical land-use history dataset consistently apportioned RCP LULC transitions in agreement with historical observations. Regardless of the downscaling method, some LULC projections remain improbable and require further investigation.

  2. Equation of State of Dense Liquid Nitrogen in the Region of the Dissociative Phase Transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟川民; 施尚春; 董石; 孙悦; 焦荣珍; 杨向东

    2002-01-01

    We have measured the equation of state for liquid nitrogen compressed dynamically to a pressure of 10-60 GPa by employing a two-stage light-gas gun. The data show a continuous phase transition above the shock pressure of 33 GPa, as indicated previously by shock wave experiments. A theoretical model has been derived to examine the experimental data by inducing a molecular dissociative fraction. According to theoretical and experimental data the phase transition was thought to be a molecular dissociative phase transition.

  3. Excited states of aniline by photoabsorption spectroscopy in the 30,000-90,000 cm(-1) region using synchrotron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekhar, B N; Veeraiah, A; Sunanda, K; Jagatap, B N

    2013-08-14

    The photoabsorption spectrum of aniline (C6H5NH2) in gas phase in the 30,000-90,000 cm(-1) (3.7-11.2 eV) region is recorded at resolution limit of 0.008 eV using synchrotron radiation source for the first time to comprehend the nature of the excited valence and Rydberg states. The first half of the energy interval constitutes the richly structured valence transitions from the ground to excited states up to the first ionization potential (IP) at 8.02 eV. The spectrum in the second half consists of vibrational features up to second IP (9.12 eV) and structureless broad continuum up to the third IP (10.78 eV). The electronic states are assigned mainly to the singlets belonging to π → π* transitions. A few weak initial members of Rydberg states arising from π → 4s, np or nd transitions are also identified. Observed vibrational features are assigned to transitions from the ground state A' to the excited states 1A", 3A', 5A", 6A', and 10A" in C(s) symmetry. Time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations at B3LYP level of theory are employed to obtain the vertical excitation energies and the symmetries of the excited states in equilibrium configuration. The computed values of the transition energies agree fairly well with the experimental data. Further the calculated oscillator strengths are used to substantiate the assignments of the bands. The work provides a comprehensive picture of the vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption spectrum of aniline up to its third ionization limit. PMID:23947851

  4. Excited states of aniline by photoabsorption spectroscopy in the 30 000-90 000 cm-1 region using synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekhar, B. N.; Veeraiah, A.; Sunanda, K.; Jagatap, B. N.

    2013-08-01

    The photoabsorption spectrum of aniline (C6H5NH2) in gas phase in the 30 000-90 000 cm-1 (3.7-11.2 eV) region is recorded at resolution limit of 0.008 eV using synchrotron radiation source for the first time to comprehend the nature of the excited valence and Rydberg states. The first half of the energy interval constitutes the richly structured valence transitions from the ground to excited states up to the first ionization potential (IP) at 8.02 eV. The spectrum in the second half consists of vibrational features up to second IP (9.12 eV) and structureless broad continuum up to the third IP (10.78 eV). The electronic states are assigned mainly to the singlets belonging to π → π* transitions. A few weak initial members of Rydberg states arising from π → 4s, np or nd transitions are also identified. Observed vibrational features are assigned to transitions from the ground state A' to the excited states 1A″, 3A', 5A,″ 6A', and 10A″ in Cs symmetry. Time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations at B3LYP level of theory are employed to obtain the vertical excitation energies and the symmetries of the excited states in equilibrium configuration. The computed values of the transition energies agree fairly well with the experimental data. Further the calculated oscillator strengths are used to substantiate the assignments of the bands. The work provides a comprehensive picture of the vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption spectrum of aniline up to its third ionization limit.

  5. Serological evidence of hantavirus infection in rural and urban regions in the state of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Bosco Lima Gimaque

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Hantavirus disease is caused by the hantavirus, which is an RNA virus belonging to the family Bunyaviridae. Hantavirus disease is an anthropozoonotic infection transmitted through the inhalation of aerosols from the excreta of hantavirus-infected rodents. In the county of Itacoatiara in the state of Amazonas (AM, Brazil, the first human cases of hantavirus pulmonary and cardiovascular syndrome were described in July 2004. These first cases were followed by two fatal cases, one in the municipality of Maués in 2005 and another in Itacoatiara in 2007. In this study, we investigated the antibody levels to hantavirus in a population of 1,731 individuals from four different counties of AM. Sera were tested by IgG/IgM- enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay using a recombinant nucleocapsid protein of the Araraquara hantavirus as an antigen. Ten sera were IgG positive to hantavirus (0.6%. Among the positive sera, 0.8% (1/122, 0.4% (1/256, 0.2% (1/556 and 0.9% (7/797 were from Atalaia do Norte, Careiro Castanho, Itacoatiara and Lábrea, respectively. None of the sera in this survey were IgM-positive. Because these counties are distributed in different areas of AM, we can assume that infected individuals are found throughout the entire state, which suggests that hantavirus disease could be a local emerging health problem.

  6. Behavior of the aggregate wind resource in the ISO regions in the United States

    KAUST Repository

    Gunturu, Udaya

    2015-04-01

    The collective behavior of wind farms in seven Independent System Operator (ISO) areas has been studied. The generation duration curves for each ISO show that there is no aggregated power for some fraction of time. Aggregation of wind turbines mitigates intermittency to some extent, but in each ISO there is considerable fraction of time when there is less than 5% capacity. The hourly wind power time series show benefit of aggregation but the high and low wind events are lumped in time, thus indicating that intermittency is synchronized in each region. The timeseries show that there are instances when there is no wind power in most ISOs because of large-scale high pressure systems. An analytical consideration of the collective behavior of aggregated wind turbines shows that the benefit of aggregation saturates beyond a certain number of generating units asymptotically. Also, the benefit of aggregation falls rapidly with temporal correlation between the generating units.

  7. Landslide susceptibility mapping in the coastal region in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvala, R. C.; Camarinha, P. I.; Canavesi, V.

    2013-05-01

    The exposure of populations in risk areas is a matter of global concern, because it is a determining factor for the natural disasters occurrences. Furthermore, it has also been observed an intensification of extreme hydrometeorological events that has triggered disasters in various parts of the globe, further increasing the need for monitoring and alerting for natural disasters, aiming the safeguarding of life and minimize economic losses. Accordingly, different methodologies for risk assessment have been proposed, focusing on the specific natural hazards. Particularly for Brazil, which has economic axis of development in the regions near the coast, it is common to observe the process of urbanization advancing on steep slopes of the mountain regions. This characteristic causes the population exposure to the natural hazards related to the mass movements, which the landslides stood out as the cause of many deaths and economic losses every year. Thus, prior to risk analysis (when human occupation intersect with natural hazard), it is essential to analyze the susceptibility, which reflects the physical and environmental conditions that trigger for such phenomena. However, this task becomes a major challenge due to the difficulty of finding databases with good quality. In this context, this paper presents a methodology based only on spatial information in the public domain, integrated into a Geographic Information System free, in order to analyze the landslides susceptibility. In a first effort, we evaluated four counties of Southeastern Brazil - Santos, Cubatão, Caraguatatuba and Ubatuba - located in a region that includes the rugged reliefs of Serra do Mar and the transition to the coastal region, that have historic of disasters related. It is noteworthy that the methodology takes into account many variables that was weighted and crossed by Fuzzy Gamma technique, such as: topography (horizontal and vertical curvature of the slopes), geology, geomorphology, slope

  8. In search of Archean basement from Rio Maria region, southeastern of Para State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rio Maria Region, southeastern part of the Amazonian craton (Brazil), displays a typical Archaean granite-greenstone association intruded by Proterozoic granites. The greenstone is crosscut by Archaean granitoids, such as the Rio Maria granodiorite. Clear field contacts between the Xingu gneisses and the granodiorite are lacking, making it difficult to determine the stratigraphic sequence. U-Pb data for zircons from the Xingu gneiss and the Rio Maria granodiorite provide upper intercept ages of 2971 +30/ -28 Ma and 2874 +9/ -10 Ma respectively on the Concordia diagram. 2.97 Ga is the most ancient age ever obtained on zircons from gneisses of the Amazonian craton. It provides an upper limit for the beginning of the continental crust formation in this part of the craton. (author)

  9. Neurotrophin-receptor immunoreactive neurons in mesopontine regions involved in the control of behavioral states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamuy, J; Sampogna, S; Chase, M H

    2000-06-01

    The microinjection of nerve growth factor (NGF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) into the rostral pontine tegmentum of adult cats rapidly induces long-lasting episodes of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep [J. Yamuy, F.R. Morales, M.H. Chase, Induction of rapid eye movement sleep by the microinjection of nerve growth factor into the pontine reticular formation of the cat, Neuroscience 66 (1995) 9-13]. Because this effect may be mediated by neurotrophin receptors, we sought to determine the distribution of neurons that contain low- and high-affinity neurotrophin receptors in regions of the feline pons and mesencephalon which are involved in the generation of REM sleep as well as neuronal groups that are involved in the control of REM sleep-related patterns of physiological activity. Using antibodies directed against p75, trkA, trkB and trkC, immunolabeled neurons were present in the latero-dorsal and pedunculo-pontine tegmental nuclei, the peribrachial nuclei, medial and lateral pontine reticular formation, the raphe nuclei, and the locus coeruleus. Giant reticular cells and large neurons in the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus were immunoreactive for p75 and all trk receptors. Neurons that were devoid of neurotrophin-receptor immunoreactivity were intermingled with immunostained neurons in all explored structures. Thus, both low- and high-affinity neurotrophin receptors are conspicuously present in neurons located in mesopontine regions of adult cats. These data underscore the importance of neurotrophin-induced trophic actions on mesopontine neurons. Furthermore, the results support the hypothesis that NGF and NT-3 may modulate the electrical activity of neurons in the rostral pontine tegmentum that are responsible for the generation of REM sleep by acting on one or more of the neurotrophin receptors. PMID:10825475

  10. Hydrogeologic controls of surface-water chemistry in the Adirondack region of New York State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, N.E.; Driscoll, C.T.

    1987-01-01

    Relationships between surface-water discharge, water chemistry, and watershed geology were investigated to evaluate factors affecting the sensitivity of drainage waters in the Adirondack region of New York to acidification by atmospheric deposition. Instantaneous discharge per unit area was derived from relationships between flow and staff-gage readings at 10 drainage basins throughout the region. The average chemical composition of the waters was assessed from monthly samples collected from July 1982 through July 1984. The ratio of flow at the 50-percent exceedence level to the flow at the 95-percent exceedence level of flow duration was negatively correlated with mean values of alkalinity or acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC), sum of basic cations (SBC), and dissolved silica, for basins containing predominantly aluminosilicate minerals and little or no carbonate-bearing minerals. Low ratios are indicative of systems in which flow is predominately derived from surface- and ground-water storage, whereas high ratios are characteristic of watersheds with variable flow that is largely derived from surface runoff. In an evaluation of two representative surface-water sites, concentrations of ANC, SBC, and dissolved silica, derived primarily from soil mineral weathering reactions. decreased with increasing flow. Furthermore, the ANC was highest at low flow when the percentage of streamflow derived from ground water was maximum. As flow increased, the ANC decreased because the contribution of dilute surface runoff and lateral flow through the shallow acidic soil horizons to total flow increased. Basins having relatively high ground-water contributions to total flow, in general, have large deposits of thick till or stratified drift. A major factor controlling the sensitivity of these streams and lakes to acidification is the relative contribution of ground water to total discharge. ?? 1987 Martinus Nijhoff/Dr W. Junk Publishers.

  11. The State and the Ways of Modernization of the Agricultural Landscapes in the Danubian Region of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Goloborodko

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the consequences of global climatic changes on the state of Ukrainian Danube region agrolandscapes. The influence of weather climatic conditions on change of water balance of the regional ecological systems was studied by definition of three main indicators: evaporability, deficiency of water consumption and moistening coefficient. Experimental information was given according to supervision of Danube Hydrometeorological Observatory (Izmail, Ukraine. In comparison with the statistics of weather conditions for 1961-1990 and 1991-2000 the climatic situation in 2001-2012 testifies to significant increase in an evaporability (19, 5 % and deficiency of water consumption of the soil (41, 9 %. As a result some changes of agrolandscapes were noticed in the region, connected with mass emergence of weeds, which are atypical for the region: Ambrosia artemisifolia L. Lactuca tatarica L, Anisantha tectorum Nevski, Cyclachaena Xantifolia L. etc. Due to the high competitive capacity of weed plants, they began to occupy in the cultivated cultural plants a dominant position that led to decrease of fertility of soils and crops. Thus agrolandscapes traditionally created on arable lands became now unstable and are in great need in their arrangement.

  12. Integrated energy resources planning for Sao Paulo state region; Proposicao para o interior paulista do planejamento integrado de recursos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udaeta, Miguel Edgar Morales; Ino, William Takanori; Grimoni, Jose Aquiles Baeso; Galvao, Luiz Claudio Ribeiro [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Energia e Automacao Eletricas. Grupo de Energia], e-mail: udaeta@pea.usp.br

    2004-07-01

    The present work has in view the elaboration of projections based on IRP (Integrated Energy Resources Planning) in order to propose an alternative of sustainable development to one region of the State of Sao Paulo. Using the data of the region, gathered in the past years by several researches of the GEPEA-USP, scenarios of the development and consume of energy have been created. In these scenarios, two possibilities to supply the demand of the region were considered: energy of clean sources and/or renewable as well as energy of sources that have lower costs. In order to simulate the behavior of several factors of the offer and demand, the LEAP (Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning) has been used. Both scenarios have vantages and disadvantages, but the clean sources scenario certainly could supply the needs of the region for the next twenty years. Uncertainties in longer periods make the forecasts no much reliable, because changes in both, demand and offer, could invalidate the study. The best is an accompaniment of the sector's behavior in order to make shorter projections, ten years for example, to set the generator estate and policies of consumption. Long forecasts are good to show the limits of the system and the reserve to preview emergency situations as occurred in 2001 with shortness of water supply and consequently broke of energy catering. (author)

  13. Regional monitoring programs in the United States: Synthesis of four case studies from Pacific, Atlantic, and Gulf Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tango, Peter J.; Schiff, K.; Trowbridge, P.R.; Sherwood, E.T.; Batiuk, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    Water quality monitoring is a cornerstone of environmental protection and ambient monitoring provides managers with the critical data they need to take informed action. Unlike site-specific monitoring that is at the heart of regulatory permit compliance, regional monitoring can provide an integrated, holistic view of the environment, allowing managers to obtain a more complete picture of natural variability and cumulative impacts, and more effectively prioritize management actions. By reviewing four long-standing regional monitoring programs that cover portions of all three coasts in the United States – Chesapeake Bay, Tampa Bay, Southern California Bight, and San Francisco Bay – important insights can be gleaned about the benefits that regional monitoring provides to managers. These insights include the underlying reasons that make regional monitoring programs successful, the challenges to maintain relevance and viability in the face of ever-changing technology, competing demands and shifting management priorities. The lessons learned can help other managers achieve similar successes as they seek to establish and reinvigorate their own monitoring programs.

  14. Endoparasites of horses from the Formiga city, located in center-west region of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weslen Fabricio Pires Teixeira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of studying the endoparasite fauna of horses from the Formiga city, located in center-west region of the state of Minas Gerais, 25 animals that were naturally infected with helminths were evaluated. By means of parasitological necropsies, different endoparasites were found. The subfamily Cyathostominae presented the highest incidence, followed by Trichostrongylus axei, Oxyuris equi, Triodontophorus serratus, Strongyloides westeri, Strongylus edentatus, Habronema muscae, Parascaris equorum, Probstmayria vivipara, Strongylus vulgaris, Gasterophilus nasalis, Anoplocephala magna and Anoplocephala perfoliata. In the present study, if the species Probstmayria vivipara was not considered in the prevalence, the frequency of Cyathostominae was equivalent to 94.85%. The results obtained in this study allowed us to detect and identify different species of helminths in horses, and confirmed the high incidence of nematodes belonging to the subfamily Cyathostominae in the center-west region of Minas Gerais.

  15. Geochemical and isotopic features of groundwater in the Villa Ahumada-Samalayuca region, state of Chihuahua, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Villa Ahumada - Samalayuca region is located in the Basins and Ranges Province of the Chihuahua State, Mexico, Its climate is arid and semidesertic, with a mean annual precipitation of 258 mm. The geology is characterized by the presence of sandstones, shales and limestones, from Cretassic-Jurassic; there exists a composition of gravel, sand, silt, clay and gypsum, from Terciary-Quaternary. The major ionic chemical data indicate that the groundwater flow, in the region, is S-NW direction; the content of stable isotopes from the shallow and deep groundwater is homogeneous, which supports the existence of one aquifer system, with a recharge from a common origin. 17 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs

  16. Evidence for an increase in the ozone photochemical lifetime in the eastern United States using a regional air quality model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Daniel L.; Vinciguerra, Timothy P.; Hosley, Kyle M.; Loughner, Christopher P.; Canty, Timothy P.; Salawitch, Ross J.; Dickerson, Russell R.

    2015-12-01

    Measures to control surface ozone rely on quantifying production attributable to local versus regional (upwind) emissions. Here we simulate the relative contribution of local (i.e., within a particular state) and regional sources of surface ozone in the eastern United States (66-94°W longitude) for July 2002, 2011, and 2018 using the Comprehensive Air-quality Model with Extensions (CAMx). To determine how emissions and chemistry within the domain affect the production, loss, lifetime, and transport of trace gases, we initialize our model with identical boundary conditions in each simulation. We find that the photochemical lifetime of ozone has increased as emissions have decreased. The contribution of ozone from outside the domain (boundary condition ozone, BCO3) to local surface mixing ratios increases in an absolute sense by 1-2 ppbv between 2002 and 2018 due to the longer lifetime of ozone. The photochemical lifetime of ozone lengthens because the two primary gas phase sinks for odd oxygen (Ox ≈ NO2 + O3)—attack by hydroperoxyl radicals (HO2) on ozone and formation of nitrate—weaken with decreasing pollutant emissions. The relative role of BCO3 will also increase. For example, BCO3 represents 34.5%, 38.8%, and 43.6% of surface ozone in the Baltimore, MD, region during July 2002, 2011, and 2018 means, respectively. This unintended consequence of air quality regulation impacts attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for surface ozone because the spatial and temporal scales of photochemical smog increase; the influence of pollutants transported between states and into the eastern U.S. will likely play a greater role in the future.

  17. Deposition of 236U from atmospheric nuclear testing in Washington state (USA) and the Pechora region (Russian Arctic)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratospheric fallout-derived 236U has been detected by sector field ICPMS at two field locations for which our laboratory possessed available archived samples: A) four soil cores from Washington state (northwestern USA) and B) sediment cores from three small lakes in the Pechora region (Russian Arctic). Four Washington state soil cores exhibit 236U inventories of 8.1 ± 1.3, 11.1 ± 0.9, 18 ± 2, and 30.2 ± 3.9 Tatoms/m2; the respective 239Pu contents are 52.9 ± 3.5, 67 ± 3, 71 ± 2, and 151 ± 2 Tatoms/m2. A 236U/239Pu atom ratio of 0.19 ± 0.04 (1 SD) has been determined from the Washington state soil cores. The three Pechora region lake cores each exhibit coincident maxima in their 236U and 239Pu atom concentration profiles. The 236U/238U atom ratios are controlled by two independent factors; 236U is from fallout deposition and 238U concentrations are a property of the geochemical distribution of naturally occurring U. A 236U/238U atom ratio as high as 8.9 × 10−6 has been observed for acid-leached soils containing Pu solely derived from bomb-test fallout. Accordingly, a non-zero 236U background from stratospheric fallout must be recognized and taken into account when detectable 236U is used to infer specific local or regional influences of reactor-irradiated U. -- Highlights: ► The isotope 236U, originating from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests, has been identified at two locations in the Northern Hemisphere. ► Peak 236U concentrations match peak 239Pu concentrations in sediment cores. ► The 236U/239Pu atom ratio is 0.19 ± 0.04

  18. Improved Analysis of Long-Term Monitoring Data Demonstrates Marked Regional Declines of Bat Populations in the Eastern United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E Ingersoll

    Full Text Available Bats are diverse and ecologically important, but are also subject to a suite of severe threats. Evidence for localized bat mortality from these threats is well-documented in some cases, but long-term changes in regional populations of bats remain poorly understood. Bat hibernation surveys provide an opportunity to improve understanding, but analysis is complicated by bats' cryptic nature, non-conformity of count data to assumptions of traditional statistical methods, and observation heterogeneities such as variation in survey timing. We used generalized additive mixed models (GAMMs to account for these complicating factors and to evaluate long-term, regional population trajectories of bats. We focused on four hibernating bat species - little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus, tri-colored bat (Perimyotis subflavus, Indiana myotis (M. sodalis, and northern myotis (M. septentrionalis - in a four-state region of the eastern United States during 1999-2011. Our results, from counts of nearly 1.2 million bats, suggest that cumulative declines in regional relative abundance by 2011 from peak levels were 71% (with 95% confidence interval of ±11% in M. lucifugus, 34% (±38% in P. subflavus, 30% (±26% in M. sodalis, and 31% (±18% in M. septentrionalis. The M. lucifugus population fluctuated until 2004 before persistently declining, and the populations of the other three species declined persistently throughout the study period. Population trajectories suggest declines likely resulted from the combined effect of multiple threats, and indicate a need for enhanced conservation efforts. They provide strong support for a change in the IUCN Red List conservation status in M. lucifugus from Least Concern to Endangered within the study area, and are suggestive of a need to change the conservation status of the other species. Our modeling approach provided estimates of uncertainty, accommodated non-linearities, and controlled for observation heterogeneities, and

  19. Climatic regions as an indicator of forest coarse and fine woody debris carbon stocks in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liknes Greg C

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coarse and fine woody debris are substantial forest ecosystem carbon stocks; however, there is a lack of understanding how these detrital carbon stocks vary across forested landscapes. Because forest woody detritus production and decay rates may partially depend on climatic conditions, the accumulation of coarse and fine woody debris carbon stocks in forests may be correlated with climate. This study used a nationwide inventory of coarse and fine woody debris in the United States to examine how these carbon stocks vary by climatic regions and variables. Results Mean coarse and fine woody debris forest carbon stocks vary by Köppen's climatic regions across the United States. The highest carbon stocks were found in regions with cool summers while the lowest carbon stocks were found in arid desert/steppes or temperate humid regions. Coarse and fine woody debris carbon stocks were found to be positively correlated with available moisture and negatively correlated with maximum temperature. Conclusion It was concluded with only medium confidence that coarse and fine woody debris carbon stocks may be at risk of becoming net emitter of carbon under a global climate warming scenario as increases in coarse or fine woody debris production (sinks may be more than offset by increases in forest woody detritus decay rates (emission. Given the preliminary results of this study and the rather tenuous status of coarse and fine woody debris carbon stocks as either a source or sink of CO2, further research is suggested in the areas of forest detritus decay and production.

  20. Training, health and functional state of the schoolboys living in regions of radiation contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The psycho physiological feature of a personality of schoolboys of different age groups living on contaminated territories were studied. The children suffer from consequences of the Chernobyl accident more than the adults, because they are more sensitive for action of the various factors of an environment due to a change of an organism reactivity, strengthening of an growing asynchronism of separate systems and functions and etc. As a rule, the people of all surveyed schools have the complaints on increased fatigue, somnolence at the afternoon, head aches, vertigo, irritant, aches in the field of heart, aches in a stomach, bleeding from nose, often common cold, loss of an appetite, low serviceability. All interrogated schoolboys complain on a health state, at the same time the chronic diseases are revealed at 36% of surveyed ones. The observable schoolboys, living on contaminated territories, have significant psycho emotional pressure and suffer from a distortion of a normal mode of life. 9 refs., 2 tabs

  1. An Integral Evaluation of the Financial State of the Regional Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Panteleyevich Kyurdzhiev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of the article is the development of theoretical positions and methodical approaches to the integral evaluation of the financial state of the region’s metallurgical enterprises. The purpose is to show the possibility of dividing the integral evaluation into separate elements for using this tool to build individual models based on the forecasting of the various coordinates of the financial position of enterprise. The hypothesis of the study is based on the objective need to improve the integral evaluation of the financial position of enterprises. This involves the modernization of existing theoretical and methodological approaches to the increase of the quality of analysis by eliminating certain shortcomings of discriminant models in order to clarify the algorithm of constructing the integral index. The methodological bases of systemic approach and mathematical modelling in economics are applied: the methods of financial analysis, grouping, abstraction, comparison which give the possibility of determining the financial indicators needed to build the predictive models of financial state; the methods of correlation and regression analysis, which allow to improve the integral value and to build the mathematical forecasting models. With the purpose of improving the integral evaluation of the financial condition of enterprise, the geometric interpretation is used, which involves the dividing of the integral indicator on the individual elements. The special feature of the proposed methodological approach consists in the implementation rules for the certain procedures of the evaluation of financial position and generalization of the analysis results. The proposed approach can be used by financial analysts to elaborate the strategic plans of company development and structure optimization of financial resources. This research allows to define the quantitative influence of separate parameters on the general assessment of the financial

  2. A simple and consistent equation of state for sodium in the single phase and two phase regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An equation of state valid over an extended temperature and density range has been derived. Then, the following properties have been deduced : coefficient of thermal expansion, isothermal coefficient of bulk compressibility, thermal pressure coefficient, heat capacity at constant pressure, at constant volume, along the saturation curve for liquid, for vapor, heat of vaporization, speed of sound, and finally the Mollier diagram and the entropy diagram. All the obtained properties are thermodynamically consistent and satisfy the basic relations of thermodynamics for both single phase and two-phase regions. Experimental results were always used when available. (auth.)

  3. Final-state interaction correction to the electromagnetic nucleon form factors in the time-like region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Wiele, Jacques; Ong, Saro [Universite de Paris-Sud, Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay (UMR 8608), IN2P3-CNRS, Orsay Cedex (France)

    2015-10-15

    We study the strong energy dependence of the proton electromagnetic form factors in the time-like region, taking into account the one-pion-exchange final-state interaction in a covariant way. This effect is quantified in terms of the corrected Dirac F{sub 1} and Pauli F{sub 2} form factors and in the commonly used electric G{sub E} and magnetic G{sub M} ones. Our results on the ratio G{sub E} /G{sub M} depend only on the values of two free parameters and allow significant comparisons with the BaBar data. (orig.)

  4. Final-state interaction correction to the electromagnetic nucleon form factors in the time-like region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the strong energy dependence of the proton electromagnetic form factors in the time-like region, taking into account the one-pion-exchange final-state interaction in a covariant way. This effect is quantified in terms of the corrected Dirac F1 and Pauli F2 form factors and in the commonly used electric GE and magnetic GM ones. Our results on the ratio GE /GM depend only on the values of two free parameters and allow significant comparisons with the BaBar data. (orig.)

  5. The effects of global changes upon regional ozone pollution in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Avise, J.; Lamb, B.; Salathé, E.; Mass, C.; Guenther, A.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Lamarque, J.-F.; O'Neill, S.; McKenzie, D.; Larkin, N.

    2009-02-01

    A comprehensive numerical modeling framework was developed to estimate the effects of collective global changes upon ozone pollution in the US in 2050. The framework consists of the global climate and chemistry models, PCM (Parallel Climate Model) and MOZART-2 (Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers v.2), coupled with regional meteorology and chemistry models, MM5 (Mesoscale Meteorological model) and CMAQ (Community Multi-scale Air Quality model). The modeling system was applied for two 10-year simulations: 1990-1999 as a present-day base case and 2045-2054 as a future case. For the current decade, the daily maximum 8-h moving average (DM8H) ozone mixing ratio distributions for spring, summer and fall showed good agreement with observations. The future case simulation followed the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) A2 scenario together with business-as-usual US emission projections and projected alterations in land use, land cover (LULC) due to urban expansion and changes in vegetation. For these projections, US anthropogenic NOx (NO+NO2) and VOC (volatile organic carbon) emissions increased by approximately 6% and 50%, respectively, while biogenic VOC emissions decreased, in spite of warmer temperatures, due to decreases in forested lands and expansion of croplands, grasslands and urban areas. A stochastic model for wildfire emissions was applied that projected 25% higher VOC emissions in the future. For the global and US emission projection used here, regional ozone pollution becomes worse in the 2045-2054 period for all months. Annually, the mean DM8H ozone was projected to increase by 9.6 ppbv (22%). The changes were higher in the spring and winter (25%) and smaller in the summer (17%). The area affected by elevated ozone within the US continent was projected to increase; areas with levels exceeding the 75 ppbv ozone standard at least once a year increased by 38%. In addition, the length of the ozone season was projected to increase with

  6. A maximum likelihood QTL analysis reveals common genome regions controlling resistance to Salmonella colonization and carrier-state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh-Son Tran

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium of the Gram-negative bacterium Salmonella enterica are significant causes of human food poisoning. Fowl carrying these bacteria often show no clinical disease, with detection only established post-mortem. Increased resistance to the carrier state in commercial poultry could be a way to improve food safety by reducing the spread of these bacteria in poultry flocks. Previous studies identified QTLs for both resistance to carrier state and resistance to Salmonella colonization in the same White Leghorn inbred lines. Until now, none of the QTLs identified was common to the two types of resistance. All these analyses were performed using the F2 inbred or backcross option of the QTLExpress software based on linear regression. In the present study, QTL analysis was achieved using Maximum Likelihood with QTLMap software, in order to test the effect of the QTL analysis method on QTL detection. We analyzed the same phenotypic and genotypic data as those used in previous studies, which were collected on 378 animals genotyped with 480 genome-wide SNP markers. To enrich these data, we added eleven SNP markers located within QTLs controlling resistance to colonization and we looked for potential candidate genes co-localizing with QTLs. Results In our case the QTL analysis method had an important impact on QTL detection. We were able to identify new genomic regions controlling resistance to carrier-state, in particular by testing the existence of two segregating QTLs. But some of the previously identified QTLs were not confirmed. Interestingly, two QTLs were detected on chromosomes 2 and 3, close to the locations of the major QTLs controlling resistance to colonization and to candidate genes involved in the immune response identified in other, independent studies. Conclusions Due to the lack of stability of the QTLs detected, we suggest that interesting regions for further studies are those that were

  7. Light Absorption by Soil Dust in Regional Haze over the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, W. H.; Trzepla, K.; Hyslop, N. P.

    2014-12-01

    The IMPROVE network (Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments) monitors regional haze at about 170 sites throughout the U.S. About 20,000 samples of fine particulate matter (Dp atmosphere, and is not easily reproduced in controlled laboratory settings. Absorption by a collected sample depends additionally on the filter, sample loading, and heterogeneity of the particle population. Absorption by a filter deposit is thus likely to differ quantitatively from that of the suspended particles in the air column from which it was sampled. This is a recognized limitation of any filter-based absorption measurement, but is widely tolerated in return for the huge increase that filtration provides in sample concentration. Tailoring the absorption measurement to the samples routinely analyzed by XRF does allow us to observe aspects of the absorption-composition relationship in the real world. Newly calibrated measurements from the HIPS system yield a consistent record of light absorption throughout the IMPROVE monitoring network since 2003. Comparisons with IMPROVE chemical data identify both carbon soot and iron-bearing dust as significant contributors to light absorption by particulate matter.

  8. Regional homogeneity on resting state fMRI in patients with tinnitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haidi Yang; Yiqing Zheng; Yongkang Ou; Xiayin Huang

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study central functional network connections and their alterations in tinnitus patients using fMRI. Methods: Regional homogeneity (ReHo) values on fMRI were obtained from 18 tinnitus patients and 20 age and gender-matched control subjects. ReHo values were compared between tinnitus patients and control subjects to evaluate functional network connection differences. Results:Tinnitus patients showed increased ReHo values in gyrus frontalis inferior and decreased ReHo values in the anterior lobe of cerebellum in comparison with the controls. Analysis of functional network connection from the gyrus frontalis interior shows stronger connections to the middle brain (FWE, P<0.001) and right ventral striatum (FEW, P<0.05, small volume correction). Conclusions: The fMRI results indicate that both auditory and non-auditory centers play important roles in tinnitus. Functional connections among the auditory cortex, thalamus, medial temporal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus and insula may be an underlying cause for the development of tinnitus.

  9. Clinical and cytogenetic analysis of human anemias from Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Anemias are the blood disorders characterized by reduction in the number of circulating red blood cells, the amount of hemoglobin, or the volume of packed red cells in blood. Chromosomal aberrations have often been reported from the bone marrow as well as cultured lymphocytes of the anemic patients. Aims: The aims of the study were to find out the commonest type of anemia occurring in the population of Jammu, India and to find out the chromosomal changes involved in the disorder. Material and Methods: Present study has been carried out on the bone marrow samples from 53 clinically diagnosed anemic patients. Cytogenetic study was carried out on slides prepared from these samples. Noncytogenetic factors like age, sex, religion, blood groups, family history of anemia, socioeconomic status, etc. have also been included in the study. Results: Megaloblastic anemia was found to be the commonest type of anemia. Centromere stretching, chromatid breaks, gaps, and elongation of chromosomes were recorded in patients with megaloblastic anemia and combined deficiency anemia. However, structural changes and numerical changes were totally absent. Conclusion: The commonest anemia among the people of Jammu region is megaloblastic anemia and its prevalence is increasing every year. Also, megaloblastic anemia is always associated with reversible cytogenetic changes.

  10. Prevalence of Haemoprotozoan infections in bovines of Shimoga region of Karnataka state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Murthy, C M; Ananda, K J; Adeppa, J

    2016-09-01

    A study was conducted to record the prevalence of Haemoprotozoan infections in bovines of Shimoga region for a period of 1 year from April 2012 to March 2013. A total of 300 blood samples were examined for the presence of haemoprotozoan parasites, of which 215 from cattle and 85 from buffaloes were examined by Giemsa staining technique. Out of 300 blood samples examined, 130 (43.3 %) were found positive for Haemoprotozoan infections. Out of 215 cattle blood samples examined, 62 (28.8 %) were positive for Theileria annulata, 27 (12.5 %) were harbored Babesia bigemina, 15 (6.9 %) were found positive for Trypanosoma evansi and 06 (2.7 %) samples showed Anaplasma marginale. Among 85 buffalo samples examined, 11 (12.9 %) were showed Theileria spp, 04 (4.7 %) found positive for B. bigemina, 03 (3.5 %) were found positive for T. evansi and 02 (2.3 %) were positive for A. marginale. Among haemoprotozoan parasites, the highest prevalence was observed with T. annulata followed by B. bigemina and T. evansi infection. The lowest prevalence was observed with A. marginale infection. PMID:27605804

  11. Stream flow regime of springs in the Mantiqueira Mountain Range region, Minas Gerais State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Souza de Oliveira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The stream flow regime of four springs located in the Mantiqueira Mountain Range region (MG was evaluated and correlated to the respective recharge area, relief characteristics, land cover and physical and hydrologic soil characteristics. The streamflow regime was characterized by monitoring of discharges, calculating the surface runoff and specific discharge and by modeling the discharge over the recession period using the Maillet method. As all recharge areas have similar relief the effect of it on the streamflow was not possible to identify. Analysis included determining the effect of drainage area size, soil characteristics and land cover on the indicators of the streamflow regime. Size of the recharge area had a positive influence on the indicators mean discharge and surface runoff volume and on the regulation of the streamflow regime (springs L4 and L1. The spring under the smallest area of influence provided the worst results for the above mentioned indicators (spring L3. The effect of forest cover (natural and planted, associated with soil characteristics, was evidenced by the indicators surface runoff (in depth and specific yield, both independent of the recharge area size (springs L4 and L2. The interaction of area size, soil characteristics and forest cover (natural and planted provided the best results for all indicators of streamflow regime in the springs studied in the Mantiqueira Mountain Range (spring L4.

  12. SECURITY RISKS, MYTHS IN A TRANSITIONING SUB-NATIONAL REGIONAL ECONOMY (CROSS RIVER STATE AND IMAGINATIVE GEOGRAPHIES OF NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. UKWAYI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of an “international community” through accumulation of perceived risks that contrasts with those risks (of considerably lower levels of seriousness compared to those perceived constitutes one of the interesting (or intriguing subjects of risks and disaster studies surrounding the 9/11 era. The constructions of “imaginative geographies”, have frequently been biased in the practices that underlie the mapping of the foreign places tend to put-down the affected regions in their “paintings” for the global community. The latter are subsequently “demonized” in their ratings of competence for participating in world trade, tourism, travel, among other social/cultural, and economic and political activities. The objective of this article is to highlight how the exaggeration of risks (contrasted to actually existing/lived risks, practices that are frequently associated with such adverse “imaginative geographies” poses sub-national regional development dilemma in Nigeria’s Niger Delta. We trace the roots of adverse “imaginative geographies” of Nigeria to the Abacha dictatorship (1993-1997. Then we highlight the mixed characteristics of the Niger Delta conditions during the “return of positive image recapture” by Nigeria’s federal government (re-democratisation of the Fourth Republic, 1999-present, re-branding campaigns; as well as adverse conditions present. Most significantly, we show that despite these adversities, a combination of favorable geographical size, differentiation, sub-national regional security programme formulation and management taking aims at diversification have created “large oases” of peace and security in Cross River State, a part of the Niger Delta that has been completely unscathed by insurgencies of the nearby sub-national region and further away national origin. Apart from identifying sub-national regions qualifying for delisting from “adverse imaginative geographies” due to

  13. Natural radionuclides in the Brazilian coast region: 1. Estuarine complex Cananeia-Iguape, Sao Paulo State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangrove forests are of utmost important ecosystems for biogeochemical transport processes in a global scale because of the preferential transport via sediments and organic matter from continents to oceans. Such ecosystems are the richest biodiversity areas, in which bioaccumulation of chemical substances can be expected for some species, in this case, there is a lack of knowledge of natural radionuclides accumulation in mangrove vegetation. This work encompasses the first results obtained for the Estuarine Complex Cananeia-Iguape, a peculiar coast area of the Sao Paulo State, Brazil. In 2011, leaf samples of Rhyzophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa trees with perimeter at the breast height higher than 15 cm were collected in the conservation unit Parque Estadual Ilha do Cardoso. Sample preparation consisted of leaf washing, oven-drying, milling in porcelain mortar at the particle size lower than 0.5 mm. Portions of 10 g were transferred to polyethylene vials of appropriate geometry for the analysis by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Reference materials were analyzed together to evaluate the quality of the analytical procedure. K-40 was preferentially allocated in leaves. Some accumulation in leaves was noticed for Pb-210 and Ac-228 depending on the species, indicating differences of radionuclide distribution in the mangrove vegetation. (author)

  14. STATE OF THE RIGHT BANK OF THE CHELBAS RIVER IN CHELBASSKAYA VILLAGE IN THE KRASNODAR REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamas N. N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The river Chelbas – is the steppe river passing through all Chelbasskaya village of the Kanevsky area. Selting of small rivers leads to rise in level of ground waters and bogging of flood plains which become unsuitable for any use. Harmful influence can conduce coming in a reservoir of a large number of suspensions. Suspensions increase water turbidity, reduce depth of penetration of sunshine, i.e. reduce a layer in which there is a photosynthesis that conducts to decrease of primary production of a waterway and deficiency of oxygen. The increase in ground rainfall can lead to change of fauna of a benthos, a silting of spawning areas, death from suffocation of have already spawned caviar of fishes. Research of the right river bank of Chelbas in the territory of stanitsa Chelbasskaya included studying of qualitative structure of wood, shrubby and grassy vegetation of a coastal strip, visual assessment of its state and definition of the general projective covering. In the lower current of these rivers the mineralization raises to 3-5 g/l. It speaks, apparently, by that the water containing alluvial deposits in the top parts of valleys have higher filtrational properties better are washed out, than on surrounding watersheds and slopes, and also down valleys. Works on bank protection will improve a condition of a right-bank strip of river Chelbas

  15. Natural radionuclides in the Brazilian coast region: 1. Estuarine complex Cananeia-Iguape, Sao Paulo State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franca, E.J. de; Ferreira, Fabiano S.; Silva Neto, Paulo C.; Farias, Emerson E.G. de; Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Ribeiro, Andreza P., E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: biologofabiano10@gmail.com, E-mail: ptpoli@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: emersonemiliano@yahoo.com.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Mangrove forests are of utmost important ecosystems for biogeochemical transport processes in a global scale because of the preferential transport via sediments and organic matter from continents to oceans. Such ecosystems are the richest biodiversity areas, in which bioaccumulation of chemical substances can be expected for some species, in this case, there is a lack of knowledge of natural radionuclides accumulation in mangrove vegetation. This work encompasses the first results obtained for the Estuarine Complex Cananeia-Iguape, a peculiar coast area of the Sao Paulo State, Brazil. In 2011, leaf samples of Rhyzophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa trees with perimeter at the breast height higher than 15 cm were collected in the conservation unit Parque Estadual Ilha do Cardoso. Sample preparation consisted of leaf washing, oven-drying, milling in porcelain mortar at the particle size lower than 0.5 mm. Portions of 10 g were transferred to polyethylene vials of appropriate geometry for the analysis by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Reference materials were analyzed together to evaluate the quality of the analytical procedure. K-40 was preferentially allocated in leaves. Some accumulation in leaves was noticed for Pb-210 and Ac-228 depending on the species, indicating differences of radionuclide distribution in the mangrove vegetation. (author)

  16. Performance of School Principal at State Islamic Senior High School in Ex-Surakarta Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahab Wahab

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to identify the percentage of the influence of school Organization and motivation atmosphere on Principal’s performance at Madrasah Aliyah (state Islamic  senor  high  school.  This  study  employs  a  co-relational  survey  method. Results of the research show that: (1 average performance of the school principals is good especially on doing their main job and function; (2 the atmosphere of school organization influence significantly on the principal’s performance, the percentage of this influence to Principal performance is 71.30%; (3 work motivation affects significantly to principal performance, the percentage of this influence to principal’s performance is 73.80%; (4 Both school organization atmosphere and work motivation are significantly influential to principal’s performance, the percentage of these to principal’s performance is 78.70%, and (5 work motivation variable is the strongest contribution to influence principal’s performance at 51.60%.

  17. Regional Hydraulic Geometry Curves of the Northern Cascade Mountains, Chelan and King Counties, Washington State, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasperi, J. T.; McClung, J. M.; Hanson, D. L.

    2006-12-01

    The USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service has developed regional hydraulic geometry curves relating drainage area to bankfull top width, mean depth and cross-sectional area for the east and west sides of the northern Cascade Mountains in Chelan and King Counties, Washington. NRCS surveyed 10 channel reaches with drainage areas from 1 to 1000 square miles within the Wenatchee River drainage of Chelan County and 10 channel reaches with drainage areas of 1 to 100 square miles within the Cedar and Green River drainages of King County. Selection criteria for stream reaches required a minimum of 20 years of USGS stream gage discharge records, unregulated flows and safe access. Survey data were collected with a Sokkia Total Station during low flow conditions from August 2004 to September 2005. NRCS measured a channel cross-section at each of the USGS stream gage sites and two or three additional cross-sections up and downstream. The authors also collected samples of bed material for gradation analysis and estimation of Manning's roughness coefficient, n. Bankfull elevations were estimated based on visual identification of field indicators and USGS flood discharges for the 50% exceedance probability event. Field data were evaluated with the Ohio DNR Reference Reach spreadsheet to determine bankfull top width, mean depth and cross-sectional area. We applied a simple linear regression to the data following USGS statistical methods to evaluate the closeness of fit between drainage area and bankfull channel dimensions. The resulting R2 values of 0.83 to 0.93 for the eastern Cascade data of Chelan County and 0.71 to 0.88 for the western Cascade data of King County indicate a close association between drainage area and bankfull channel dimensions for these two sets of data.

  18. Art state of radioprotection laboratory of Centro Regional de Referencia para la Dosimetria: CNEA, CAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    External radiation quantity can be measured in terms of, for example exposure, air kerma, ambient dose equivalent and personal dose equivalent by using radiation measuring instruments. Radiation survey instruments and dosimeters are usually used to determine the amount of radiation from exposure to ionizing radiation and they need to be calibrated to ensure that they give accurate reading with a certain uncertainties. Dosimetry Calibration Laboratories have to be able to fulfil the requirements for traceable and reliable calibrations. A way to demonstrate it is through comparisons with primary or accredited laboratories and the establishment of a quality system following the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Guide 17025. The Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) of the Argentina 'Centro Regional de Referencia para la Dosimetria (CRRD)', C.N.E.A, is the national centre for the calibration of measuring instruments used in radiation protection and radiotherapy. The main facilities related to radioprotection include a constant potential X-ray system with a 300 kV tube and a new Hopewell Designs, Inc. Irradiator gamma Model G10-2-2600 (lead attenuator of 2, 4 and 6cm). Reference standard dosimeters traceable to the BIPM Dosimetry Laboratory and the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) Dosimetry Laboratory are used in the calibration procedures by comparison with points calibrated. In this work a compilation of data obtained from instruments calibration and dosimeters irradiation that were carried on in CRRD during the last years is presented. Reported data are: amount of instruments calibrated per month, per kind, manufacturer and model. At the end of the year is planning to do the first internal audit to could accredit the Radioprotection procedures next year. (author)

  19. StateRegion — Field — Enterprise: Framework of Economics System Stability of Russia Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgy Borisovich Kleiner

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the factors of a stability of the Russian economy are investigated from the systematic positions as a multilevel, multisubject and multidimensional socio-economic system. The concept of economics system stability as abilities to keep prerequisites for growth with the support and effective use of system structure of economy is formulated. The leading role of all economic subjects of different levels (including government as a subject of the international relations, regions as the subjects of Federation, enterprises as economic entities in economic stability is shown. The need of "extension" of a network of subjects due to strengthening of the subjectivity of economic fields is emphasized. Research of an internal basic system structure of an economic subject and external structure of its immediate environment in socioeconomic, administrative-and-managerial, and market spaces with the use of the results of the new theory of economic systems leads to a conclusion of similarity of these structures. It is shown that each of these system complexes includes (together with a subject four systems of various types — object, environmental, processed, and designed. The system environment of a subject in the administrative-and-managerial space of inter-level interactions has the same structure. It gives the chance to reduce a problem of subjects’ resistance to a question of balance of system structures of the complexes forming an internal filling and an external environment of subjects. The method of balance index of similar complexes is given. Recommendations on a choice of the measures of economic policy for providing economics system stability of Russia during the crisis are formulated. It is shown that such policy has to be developed with the principles of a subject-preservation, system balance of internal filling and external environment of subjects, a corporate solidarity of subjects despite their level in the administrative

  20. StateRegion — Field— Enterprise: Framework of Economics System Stability of Russia Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgy Borisovich Kleyner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the factors of a stability of the Russian economy are investigated from the systematic positions as a multilevel, multisubject and multidimensional socio-economic system. The concept of economics system stability as abilities to keep prerequisites for growth with the support and effective use of system structure of economy is formulated. The leading role of all economic subjects of different levels (including government as a subject of the international relations, regions as subjects of Federation, enterprises as economic entities in economic stability is shown. The need of «extension» of a network of subjects due to strengthening of the subjectivity of economic fields is emphasized. Research of an internal basic system structure of an economic subject and external structure of its immediate environment in socioeconomic, administrative-and-managerial, and market spaces with the use of the results of the new theory of economic systems leads to a conclusion of similarity of these structures. It is shown that each of these system complexes includes (together with a subject four systems of various types — object, environmental, processed, and designed. The system environment of a subject in the administrative-and-managerial space of inter-level interactions has the same structure. It gives the chance to reduce a problem of subjects’ resistance to a question of balance of system structures of the complexes forming an internal filling and an external environment of subjects. The method of balance index of similar complexes is given. Recommendations on a choice of the measures of economic policy for providing economics system stability of Russia during the crisis are formulated. It is shown that such policy has to be developed with the principles of a subject-preservation, system balance of internal filling and external environment of subjects, a corporate solidarity of subjects despite their level in the administrative hierarchy

  1. Urbanization Trends (2001-2006) In The Conterminous United States And Regional Climate Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, G. Z.; Homer, C.

    2011-12-01

    More than 50% of the world population now lives in urban and suburban areas. The rate of urbanization in the world is expected to continue to accelerate in the near future. As urban areas expand by transforming the surrounding landscape into impervious surface, the changes of urban land cover (ULC) have significant implications for wide range consequences. Monitoring changes in large urban areas becomes increasingly important. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently published the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2006 products including land cover and percent impervious surface area (ISA) for the conterminous United States (CONUS). The percent ISA, which represents the fraction of impervious area in a 30 m grid, was estimated using regression tree algorithms with both Landsat and nighttime lights imagery. Generally, the approach comprises four major procedures: creating a training dataset, modeling a synthetic impervious surface, comparing model outputs for optimal selection and final product clean up. The ISA product was used to define four different ULC types by categorizing percent ISA and quantitatively determining the extent of ULC. We analyzed 2001 and 2006 imperviousness variations to summarize two areal increments: ISA, which calculates the area of imperviousness proportion in every 30 m pixels, and urban area, which totals the number of 30 m pixels that contain any impervious surface. The new ISA in 2006 increases 4.1% (4095 km2) from the 2001 base amount across the CONUS. The growth of ISA reached approximately 819 km2 per year during the period. The total ISA in 2006 reached 103,615 km2, which is slightly smaller than the state of Kentucky. The new urban area in 2006 was 12,365 km2 and the total urban area reached 500,153 km2, which is close to the size of California and Indiana combined. To analyze the interactions between ULC change and climate systems, we used both the gridded climate data from the Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent

  2. Conformational Transformation Exhibited by the Peptide Extracted from Crystalline Region of Bombyx mori Silk Fibroin in Solid and Solution States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Ju-Ming; ZHANG Guo-Qing; LEI Cai-Hong

    2006-01-01

    The conformational transformation of a 30-residue peptide H(Ala-Gly-Ser-Gly-Ala-Gly)5OH, i.e., (AGSGAG)5,extracted from highly crystalline region of Bombyx mori (B. mori) silk fibroin was described by using the high resolution solid state 13C NMR, and CD spectroscopies. Based on the conformation-dependent 13C NMR chemical shifts of the Ala, Gly and Ser residues and the line-shape analysis of the conformation sensitive Ala Cβ resonance,the peptide revealed a strong preference for silk Ⅱ structural form, i.e., an antiparallel β-sheet structure (φ=-140±20° and ψ= 135±20°) in solid state. On the contrary, the CD spectra of this peptide in the two non-native hexafluorinated fibre spinning solvents, hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) and hexafluoroacetone (HFA), exhibited the existence of an unusual tightly-folded conformation resembling 310-helix (φ=-60±20° and ψ=- 30 ± 20°), as judged from the R ratio of [θ]222/[θ]203 in HFIP solution, whereas a dynamically averaged unordered structure in HFA. Taken together, the information inclined to hypothesis that the primary structure of the highly crystalline regions of B. mori silk fibroin may be easily accessible to the large conformational changes, which in turn may be critical for facilitating the structural transformation from unprocessed silk fibroin (silk Ⅰ form) to processed silk fiber (silk Ⅱ form).

  3. Altered regional homogeneity in post-traumatic stress disorder: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Yin; Baoci Shan; Qiyong Gong; Lingjiang Li; Changfeng Jin; Lisa T.Eyler; Hua Jin; Xiaolei Hu; Lian Duan; Huirong Zheng; Bo Feng; Xuanyin Huang

    2012-01-01

    Objective Little is known about the brain systems that contribute to vulnerability to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).Comparison of the resting-state patterns of intrinsic functional synchronization,as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI),between groups with and without PTSD following a traumatic event can help identify the neural mechanisms of the disorder and targets for intervention.Methods Fifty-four PTSD patients and 72 matched traumatized subjects who experienced the 2008 Sichuan earthquake were imaged with blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI and analyzed using the measure of regional homogeneity (ReHo) during the resting state.Results PTSD patients presented enhanced ReHo in the left inferior parietal lobule and right superior frontal gyrus,and reduced ReHo in the right middle temporal gyrus and lingual gyrus,relative to traumatized individuals without PTSD.Conclusion Our findings showed that abnormal brain activity exists under resting conditions in PTSD patients who had been exposed to a major earthquake.Alterations in the local functional connectivity of cortical regions are likely to contribute to the neural mechanisms underlying PTSD.

  4. Decreased Regional Homogeneity in Patients With Acute Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Resting-State fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Jie; Gao, Lei; Zhou, Fuqing; Kuang, Hongmei; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Siyong; He, Laichang; Zeng, Xianjun; Gong, Honghan

    2015-10-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is characterized by structural disconnection and large-scale neural network dysfunction in the resting state. However, little is known concerning the intrinsic changes in local spontaneous brain activity in patients with mTBI. The aim of the current study was to assess regional synchronization in acute mTBI patients. Fifteen acute mTBI patients and 15 sex-, age-, and education-matched healthy controls (HCs) were studied. We used the regional homogeneity (ReHo) method to map local connectivity across the whole brain and performed a two-sample t-test between the two groups. Compared with HCs, patients with acute mTBI showed significantly decreased ReHo in the left insula, left precentral/postcentral gyrus, and left supramarginal gyrus (p Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores across all acute mTBI patients (p < 0.05, uncorrected). The ReHo method may provide an objective biomarker for evaluating the functional abnormity of mTBI in the acute setting. PMID:26348589

  5. Regional forecasting system of marine state and variability of dynamical processes in the easternmost part of the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordzadze, Avtandil; Demetrashvili, Demuri

    2014-05-01

    The regional forecasting system for the easternmost part of the Black Sea developed at M. Nodia Institute of Geophysics of I. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University under the EU framework projects ARENA and ECOOP is a part of the Black Sea basin-scale Nowcasting/Forecasting System. A core of the regional forecasting system is a baroclinic regional model of Black Sea dynamics with 1 km spacing based on hydrostatic primitive equations of ocean hydrothermodynamics, which are written in z-coordinates for deviations of thermodynamic values from their standard vertical distributions. To solve the problem the two-cycle method of splitting the model equation system with respect to both physical processes and coordinate planes and lines is used. The regional model of M. Nodia Institute of Geophysics is nested in the basin-scale model of Black Sea dynamics of Marine Hydrophysical Institute (Sevastopol/Ukraine). The regional forecasting system provides 3 days' forecasts of current, temperature and salinity for the easternmost part of the Black Sea, which is limited to the Caucasian and Turkish coastal lines and the western liquid boundary coinciding with the meridian 39.080E. Data needed on liquid and upper boundaries, also the 3-D initial hydrophysical fields for the easternmost regional area are provided in near operative mode from Marine hydrophysical Institute via Internet. These data on the liquid boundary are values of velocity components, temperature and salinity predicted by the basin-scale model of Black Sea dynamics of Marine Hydrophysical Institute and on the sea surface 2-D meteorological boundary fields - wind stress, heat fluxes, evaporation and precipitation rates predicted by the regional atmospheric model ALADIN are used. The analysis of the results of modeling and forecast of dynamic processes developed for 2010-2014 showed that the easternmost water area of the Black Sea is a dynamically very active zone, where continuously there are processes of generation

  6. Altered connectivity of the dorsal and ventral visual regions in dyslexic children: a resting-state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Xia, Zhichao; Bi, Yanchao; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    While there is emerging evidence from behavioral studies that visual attention skills are impaired in dyslexia, the corresponding neural mechanism (i.e., deficits in the dorsal visual region) needs further investigation. We used resting-state fMRI to explore the functional connectivity (FC) patterns of the left intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and the visual word form area (VWFA) in dyslexic children (N = 21, age mean = 12) and age-matched controls (N = 26, age mean = 12). The results showed that the left IPS and the VWFA were functionally connected to each other in both groups and that both were functionally connected to left middle frontal gyrus (MFG). Importantly, we observed significant group differences in FC between the left IPS and the left MFG and between the VWFA and the left MFG. In addition, the strengths of the identified FCs were significantly correlated with the score of fluent reading, which required obvious eye movement and visual attention processing, but not with the lexical decision score. We conclude that dyslexics have deficits in the network composed of the prefrontal, dorsal visual and ventral visual regions and may have a lack of modulation from the left MFG to the dorsal and ventral visual regions. PMID:26441595

  7. Urban vegetation and income segregation in drylands: a synthesis of seven metropolitan regions in the southwestern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To better understand how urbanization affects the amount and timing of urban vegetation in drylands we investigated remotely sensed vegetation patterns across seven large metropolitan regions in the southwestern United States. We asked (1) how low density urban land cover differed from adjacent wildland grass, herb, and shrub land covers in both the amount of vegetation and the length of the growing season, (2) how neighborhood income affected patterns of vegetation within low density urban cover, and (3) how cities differed from one another in their vegetation patterns. We found that urbanization generally has a strong influence on vegetation compared to adjacent wildlands. In four of the metropolitan regions the cumulative enhanced vegetation index (EVI) and growing season length in low density developments were higher than grass, herb, and shrub land covers. Within all metropolitan regions, there was a significant socioeconomic effect where higher income areas had a higher cumulative EVI than lower income areas. The large differences in urban vegetation among cities were related to precipitation and total domestic water use. These findings help to identify how urbanization influences vegetation, with implications for the availability of ecosystem services and requirements for irrigation in hot dryland cities. (letter)

  8. Identification and analysis of local and regional impacts from the introduction of biodiesel production in the state of Piaui

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent moves towards the insertion of biofuels in the energy matrix of a number of countries are opening new prospects for agricultural production and for agroindustrial chains. The emergence of this new productive base raises new research issues: in what circumstances are the structuring, organization and implementation of these biodiesel productive chains taking place in Brazil? What are the effects of biodiesel production on local economies? Hence, the central objective of this study is identifying their economic and social impacts at the regions where they are installed. The analytical structure was constructed based on theories of regional and spatial economy: location coefficient, shift-share, theories of industrial location. A preliminary analysis identified that a biodiesel productive arrangement is emerging in the State of Piaui, Northeastern Brazil, with the purpose of stimulating regional development using alternative oil-bearing crops. However, the agricultural project in the town of Canto do Buriti/PI has faced problems of both a cultural and productive nature. Preliminary findings reveal productive, organizational, managerial and governance related difficulties and challenges that need to be faced when establishing a new productive base in a location that up to that point lacks a productive tradition.

  9. Framework for regional synthesis of water-quality data for the glacial aquifer system in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Kelly L.; Arnold, Terri L.

    2005-01-01

    The glacial aquifer system is the largest principal aquifer in aerial extent and ground-water use for public supply in the United States. A principal aquifer is defined as a regionally extensive aquifer or aquifer system that has the potential to be used as a source of potable water (U.S. Geological Survey, 2003). Multiple aquifers often are grouped into large, extensive aquifer systems such as the glacial aquifer system. The glacial aquifer system is considered here to include all unconsolidated aquifers above bedrock north of the line of continental glaciation throughout the country (fig. 1). Total withdrawals from the glacial aquifer system were 3,560 million gallons per day in 2000, which constitutes almost 5 percent of total withdrawals from all aquifers in the United States (Maupin and Barber, 2005). Approximately 41 million people relied on the glacial aquifer for public supply and domestic use in 2000. The U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program began assessing the glacial aquifer system in 1991. The assessment of water-quality data on a regional scale, such as the glacial aquifer system, is coincident with the regional framework established by the Regional Aquifer-System Analysis Program (RASA) (Sun and others, 1997). From 1978 to 1995, the RASA Program systematically evaluated 25 of the Nation's most important groundwater systems including studies in the glacial aquifer system in the northeast, Midwest, and northern Midwest United States. The NAWQA Program is building on the work of the RASA Program to study the water quality of 16 of the most important ground-water systems (Lapham and others, 2005). Over 1,700 water-quality samples have been collected by the NAWQA Program from 1991 to 2004 to assess the glacial aquifer system. This large data set is unique in that the samples have been collected using a consistent sampling protocol, and multiple nested samples. The nested samples address the recently recharged shallow

  10. Empirical evidence for the effect of airline travel on inter-regional influenza spread in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S Brownstein

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The influence of air travel on influenza spread has been the subject of numerous investigations using simulation, but very little empirical evidence has been provided. Understanding the role of airline travel in large-scale influenza spread is especially important given the mounting threat of an influenza pandemic. Several recent simulation studies have concluded that air travel restrictions may not have a significant impact on the course of a pandemic. Here, we assess, with empirical data, the role of airline volume on the yearly inter-regional spread of influenza in the United States. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We measured rate of inter-regional spread and timing of influenza in the United States for nine seasons, from 1996 to 2005 using weekly influenza and pneumonia mortality from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Seasonality was characterized by band-pass filtering. We found that domestic airline travel volume in November (mostly surrounding the Thanksgiving holiday predicts the rate of influenza spread (r(2 = 0.60; p = 0.014. We also found that international airline travel influences the timing of influenza mortality (r(2 = 0.59; p = 0.016. The flight ban in the US after the terrorist attack on September 11, 2001, and the subsequent depression of the air travel market, provided a natural experiment for the evaluation of flight restrictions; the decrease in air travel was associated with a delayed and prolonged influenza season. CONCLUSIONS: We provide the first empirical evidence for the role of airline travel in long-range dissemination of influenza. Our results suggest an important influence of international air travel on the timing of influenza introduction, as well as an influence of domestic air travel on the rate of inter-regional influenza spread in the US. Pandemic preparedness strategies should account for a possible benefit of airline travel restrictions on influenza spread.

  11. STATE FARMS AND MTS OF MOSCOW REGION BEFORE AND AT THE BEGINNING OF THE GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Anatolyevich Androsov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the article on the basis of previously unknown archival materials for the first time in the national historiography a public way in Soviet agriculture of Moscow region in the period 1940-1942 yy. is considered. Particular attention is paid to the historiography of this problem, new methods of modern historians in the study of the rural economy of this period are marked. Different approaches in the analysis of the results of collectivization and the appearance in the USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics new sectors of agricultural production - the state and the collective are compared. Features of the state agricultural production plants and the legal status of their workers in the state farms and machine and tractor stations (MTS are pointed. Specific difficulties encountered in the process and as a result of the evacuation of the property of state farms and MTS, preparing for spring sowing in the implementation of the directive of All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks of self-reliance are examined in details. The dedication of staff rear structures in the rescue of the property entrusted to them, the preparation of the spring sowing campaign, raising funds and manpower in extreme conditions is marked. Relationship of the status on the front and readiness of rear workers to work in the changed circumstances is traced. The difference between subjective difficulties associated with defects of command-administrative system, which prevailed in government and objective hardship arising from the outbreak of hostilities is taken into account. Much attention is paid to the description of the technical condition of the machine and tractor fleet of state farms and MTS as the main means of agricultural production. The conclusion about the causes and consequences of unavailability governance structures to conduct evacuation and preparation of the spring sowing are made.

  12. Prevalence and risk factors for Leptospira spp. in cattle herds in the south central region of Paraná state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Y Hashimoto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies and the risk factors for Leptospira spp. infection in breeding cattle herds in the south central region of Paraná state. It was based on the statistic delineation/serological samples and information regarding the selected farms employed in the study of bovine brucellosis for Paraná state in the context of National Program for Control and Eradication of Brucellosis and Tuberculosis. A total of 1.880 females aged >24 months from 274 non vaccinated herds were studied. Serum samples were tested for antibodies against Leptospira spp. using microscopic agglutination test (MAT with 22 Leptospira serovars. The epidemiological questionnaire was applied on all the selected farms and aimed to obtain epidemiological data. Hundred eighty one of 274 herds were positive for Leptospira spp./presenting prevalence of positive herds of 66.06% (IC95%=60.12-71,65%. Presence of >43 cattle (OR=3.120; IC=1.418-6.867/animal purchase (OR=2.010; IC=1.154-3.500/rent of pastures (OR=2.925; IC=1.060-8.068 and presence of maternity paddock (OR=1.981; IC=1,068-3,676 were identified as risk factors for leptospirosis due to any serovar in the multivariate logistic regression. Risk factors for leptospirosis due to serovar Hardjo were presence of >43 cattle (OR=3.622; IC=1.512-8,677/animal purchase (OR=3.143; IC=1.557-6.342/rent of pastures (OR=4.070; IC=1.370-12.087 and presence of horses (OR=2.981; IC=1.321-6.726. These results indicate that Leptospira spp. infection is widespread in the south central region of Paraná state and that factors related to the herd characteristic and management are associated with the infection.

  13. The demographic problems of the Pskov region and the main approaches to solving them at the level of the regional state authorities

    OpenAIRE

    Yelsukov M. Yu.; Kashina M. A.; Klyuyev A. V.

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the demographic problems of the Pskov region. The authors propose a system of government regulation of demographic processes in view of the functions of the regional executive authorities.

  14. Effect of oxidation state on Bi mineral speciation in oxidized and reduced granitoids from the Uetsu region, NE Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumino, Yuya; Maruoka, Teruyuki; Nakashima, Kazuo

    2016-06-01

    The relationship between bismuth (Bi) mineral speciation and redox state in three types of granitoids from the Uetsu region, northeast Japan is investigated. Electron microprobe analysis of Bi minerals, sphalerite, Mg-Fe-bearing carbonate minerals, and muscovite, as well as sulfur isotope analysis of sulfide minerals and microthermometric study of fluid inclusions reveal that Bi mineral speciation varies according to the redox state of the granitoids. For example, native bismuth and bismuthinite are abundant and Bi sulfosalts are rare in the lowest fS2 and fO2 mineralized zones of the reduced Iwafune granite (S-type, ilmenite-series) while Bi sulfosalts (Bi3+) are abundant and trace amounts of native bismuth (Bi0) and bismuthinite are found in the highest fS2 and fO2 mineralized zones of the oxidized Wasada granodiorite (I-type, magnetite-series). Bismuthinite is a major Bi mineral, and native bismuth and Bi sulfosalts occur in only minor amounts in the mineralized zones of the Nishitagawa granodiorite (I-type, ilmenite-series), which has intermediate fS2 and fO2 to that of the Iwafune and Wasada samples. Our study indicates that Bi mineral speciation related to granitic intrusive activity is controlled by the redox state of the magmatism, such that native bismuth is typical of reducing conditions, whereas Bi sulfosalts are typical of oxidizing conditions.

  15. Aberrant regional neural fluctuations and functional connectivity in generalized anxiety disorder revealed by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Hou, Jingming; Qian, Shaowen; Liu, Kai; Li, Bo; Li, Min; Peng, Zhaohui; Xin, Kuolin; Sun, Gang

    2016-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the neural activity and functional connectivity in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) during resting state, and how these alterations correlate to patients' symptoms. Twenty-eight GAD patients and 28 matched healthy controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) scans. Amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) were computed to explore regional activity and functional integration, and were compared between the two groups using the voxel-based two-sample t test. Pearson's correlation analyses were performed to examine the neural relationships with demographics and clinical symptoms scores. Compared to controls, GAD patients showed functional abnormalities: higher ALFF in the bilateral dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and left precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex; lower connectivity in prefrontal gyrus; lower in prefrontal-limbic and cingulate RSFC and higher prefrontal-hippocampus RSFC were correlated with clinical symptoms severity, but these associations were unable to withstand correction for multiple testing. These findings may help facilitate further understanding of the potential neural substrate of GAD. PMID:27163197

  16. Mortality trends and risk of dying from breast cancer in the 32 states and 7 socioeconomic regions of Mexico, 2002-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Jesús Sánchez-Barriga

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine mortality trends from breast cancer in Mexico nationwide, by state, by socioeconomic region, and to establish an association between education, state of residence, and socioeconomic region with mortality from breast cancer in 2002–2011.Methods. Records of mortality associated with breast cancer were obtained. Rates of mortality nationwide, by state, and by socioeconomic region were calculated. The strength of association between states where women resided, socioeconomic regions, and education with mortality from breast cancer was determined.Results. Women who completed elementary school had a higher risk of dying from breast cancer than people with more education [relative risk (RR 2.58, 95% confidence interval (CI 2.49–2.67]. Mexico City had the strongest association with dying from breast cancer as state and as socioeconomic region 7 [Mexico City: RR 3.47, CI95% 2.7-4.46 (2002 and RR 3.33, CI95% 2.66-4.15 (2011 and region 7: RR 3.72, CI 95%: 3.15-4.38 (2002 and RR 2.87, CI 95%: 2.51-3.28 (2011].Conclusions. In Mexico, the raw mortality rates per 100 000 women who died from breast cancer increased. Mortality was higher in women who had elementary school than in those with more education. The strongest association was in Mexico City as state and as region 7. 

  17. State of neonatal health care in eight countries of the SAARC region, South Asia: how can we make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Jai K; Rizvi, Arjumand; Bhatti, Zaid; Paul, Vinod; Bahl, Rajiv; Shahidullah, Mohammod; Manandhar, Dharma; Stanekzai, Hedayatullah; Amarasena, Sujeewa; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2015-08-01

    The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) is an organization of eight countries--Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, the Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Afghanistan. The major objectives of this review are to examine trends and progress in newborn and neonatal health care in the region. A landscape analysis of the current state of neonatal mortality, stillbirths and trends over the years for each country and the effective interventions to reduce neonatal mortality and stillbirths was undertaken. A modelling exercise using the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) was also undertaken to determine the impact of scaling up a set of essential interventions on neonatal mortality and stillbirths. The findings demonstrate that there is an unacceptably high and uneven burden of neonatal mortality and stillbirths in the region which together account for 39% of global neonatal deaths and 41% of global stillbirths. Progress is uneven across countries in the region, with five of the eight SAARC countries having reduced their neonatal mortality rate by more than 50% since 1990, while India (43%), Afghanistan (29%) and Pakistan (25%) have made slower progress and will not reach their MDG4 targets. The major causes of neonatal mortality are intrapartum-related deaths, preterm birth complications and sepsis which account for nearly 80% of all deaths. The LiST analysis shows that a gradual increase in coverage of proven available interventions until 2020 followed by a uniform scale-up to 90% of all interventions until 2030 could avert 52% of neonatal deaths (0.71 million), 29% of stillbirths (0.31 million) and achieve a 31% reduction in maternal deaths (0.25 million). The analysis demonstrates that the Maldives and Sri Lanka have done remarkably well while other countries need greater attention and specific focus on strategies to improve neonatal health. PMID:26212573

  18. Prevalence, population dynamics and host preferences of Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae of livestock in Marathwada region of Maharashtra State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. W. Narladkar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study is a part of a research project on integrated pest management of livestock pests with reference to Culicoides spp. Study of prevalence, population dynamics and host preferences are the important benchmarks essential for chalking out the strategies of integrated pest management of Culicoides, thus the study was aimed. Materials and Methods: Light trap collections of Culicoides midges and other tiny flies from animal shed from seventeen centers representing entire Maharashtra state were conducted. Similarly, year round collections from host sheds were envisaged to work out host preferences and population dynamics of Culicoides spp. locally prevalent. Multiple regression analysis was employed to define the environmental predictors responsible for ups and downs during different seasons occurring in the geographic region of the present study. Results: Study revealed the prevalence of Culicoides spp., Phlebotomus spp. and Simulium spp. Simultaneous study undertaken by the aid of hand net, collections of fly species from Marathwada region of Maharashtra state yielded additionally, Tabanus spp., Pangonia spp., mosquitoes and other cyclorrhaphan flies. Some of the species are vectors of livestock diseases hence map of the distribution of these pest species is for to reckon risk areas. Population dynamics study on Culicoides spp. in Marathwada region indicated that, (a Culicoides population were persistent throughout the year; (b Two peaks of population, one in the monsoon (August-September and another minor peak occurred during post monsoon/beginning of winter (November of the year. Drastic reduction in the population occurred during the month of May, which is the hottest month in the year. Culicoides collections from the sheds of different host species indicated the preferences for feeding in the ascending order of preference as cattle, sheep, buffaloes and then goats. Conclusion: Prevalence of Culicoides schultzei, Culicoides

  19. Scaling net ecosystem production and net biome production over a heterogeneous region in the western United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Turner

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Bottom-up scaling of net ecosystem production (NEP and net biome production (NBP was used to generate a carbon budget for a large heterogeneous region (the state of Oregon, 2.5×105 km2 in the western United States. Landsat resolution (30 m remote sensing provided the basis for mapping land cover and disturbance history, thus allowing us to account for all major fire and logging events over the last 30 years. For NEP, a 23-year record (1980–2002 of distributed meteorology (1 km resolution at the daily time step was used to drive a process-based carbon cycle model (Biome-BGC. For NBP, fire emissions were computed from remote sensing based estimates of area burned and our mapped biomass estimates. Our estimates for the contribution of logging and crop harvest removals to NBP were from the model simulations and were checked against public records of forest and crop harvesting. The predominately forested ecoregions within our study region had the highest NEP sinks, with ecoregion averages up to 197 gC m−2 yr−1. Agricultural ecoregions were also NEP sinks, reflecting the imbalance of NPP and decomposition of crop residues. For the period 1996–2000, mean NEP for the study area was 17.0 TgC yr−1, with strong interannual variation (SD of 10.6. The sum of forest harvest removals, crop removals, and direct fire emissions amounted to 63% of NEP, leaving a mean NBP of 6.1 TgC yr−1. Carbon sequestration was predominantly on public forestland, where the harvest rate has fallen dramatically in the recent years. Comparison of simulation results with estimates of carbon stocks, and changes in carbon stocks, based on forest inventory data showed generally good agreement. The carbon sequestered as NBP, plus accumulation of forest products in slow turnover pools, offset 51% of the annual emissions of fossil fuel CO2 for the state. State-level NBP dropped below zero in 2002

  20. Scaling net ecosystem production and net biome production over a heterogeneous region in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, D. P.; Ritts, W. D.; Law, B. E.; Cohen, W. B.; Yang, Z.; Hudiburg, T.; Campbell, J. L.; Duane, M.

    2007-08-01

    Bottom-up scaling of net ecosystem production (NEP) and net biome production (NBP) was used to generate a carbon budget for a large heterogeneous region (the state of Oregon, 2.5×105 km2) in the western United States. Landsat resolution (30 m) remote sensing provided the basis for mapping land cover and disturbance history, thus allowing us to account for all major fire and logging events over the last 30 years. For NEP, a 23-year record (1980-2002) of distributed meteorology (1 km resolution) at the daily time step was used to drive a process-based carbon cycle model (Biome-BGC). For NBP, fire emissions were computed from remote sensing based estimates of area burned and our mapped biomass estimates. Our estimates for the contribution of logging and crop harvest removals to NBP were from the model simulations and were checked against public records of forest and crop harvesting. The predominately forested ecoregions within our study region had the highest NEP sinks, with ecoregion averages up to 197 gC m-2 yr-1. Agricultural ecoregions were also NEP sinks, reflecting the imbalance of NPP and decomposition of crop residues. For the period 1996-2000, mean NEP for the study area was 17.0 TgC yr-1, with strong interannual variation (SD of 10.6). The sum of forest harvest removals, crop removals, and direct fire emissions amounted to 63% of NEP, leaving a mean NBP of 6.1 TgC yr-1. Carbon sequestration was predominantly on public forestland, where the harvest rate has fallen dramatically in the recent years. Comparison of simulation results with estimates of carbon stocks, and changes in carbon stocks, based on forest inventory data showed generally good agreement. The carbon sequestered as NBP, plus accumulation of forest products in slow turnover pools, offset 51% of the annual emissions of fossil fuel CO2 for the state. State-level NBP dropped below zero in 2002 because of the combination of a dry climate year and a large (200 000 ha) fire. These results highlight

  1. Scaling net ecosystem production and net biome production over a heterogeneous region in the western United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Turner

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Bottom-up scaling of net ecosystem production (NEP and net biome production (NBP was used to generate a carbon budget for a large heterogeneous region (the state of Oregon, 2.5×105 km2 in the western United States. Landsat resolution (30 m remote sensing provided the basis for mapping land cover and disturbance history, thus allowing us to account for all major fire and logging events over the last 30 years. For NEP, a 23-year record (1980–2002 of distributed meteorology (1 km resolution at the daily time step was used to drive a process-based carbon cycle model (Biome-BGC. For NBP, fire emissions were computed from remote sensing based estimates of area burned and our mapped biomass estimates. Our estimates for the contribution of logging and crop harvest removals to NBP were from the model simulations and were checked against public records of forest and crop harvesting. The predominately forested ecoregions within our study region had the highest NEP sinks, with ecoregion averages up to 197 gC m−2 yr−1. Agricultural ecoregions were also NEP sinks, reflecting the imbalance of NPP and decomposition of crop residues. For the period 1996–2000, mean NEP for the study area was 17.0 TgC yr−1, with strong interannual variation (SD of 10.6. The sum of forest harvest removals, crop removals, and direct fire emissions amounted to 63% of NEP, leaving a mean NBP of 6.1 TgC yr−1. Carbon sequestration was predominantly on public forestland, where the harvest rate has fallen dramatically in the recent years. Comparison of simulation results with estimates of carbon stocks, and changes in carbon stocks, based on forest inventory data showed generally good agreement. The carbon sequestered as NBP, plus accumulation of forest products in slow turnover pools, offset 51% of the annual emissions of fossil fuel CO2 for the state. State-level NBP dropped below zero in 2002

  2. State-dependent pattern of Fos protein expression in regionally-specific sites within the preoptic area of the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torterolo, Pablo; Benedetto, Luciana; Lagos, Patricia; Sampogna, Sharon; Chase, Michael H

    2009-04-24

    Clinical and experimental data have shown that the preoptic area of the hypothalamus (POA) is involved in the generation and maintenance of NREM sleep. However, the activity of specific populations of POA neurons during REM sleep, NREM sleep and different waking conditions is still not firmly established. Consequently, we performed a quantitative, regionally-specific analysis of the Fos immunoreactivity of neurons in the POA of the cat during NREM sleep and REM sleep induced by microinjections of carbachol into the nucleus pontis oralis (REMc), as well as during quiet and alert wakefulness. We observed that while the total number of Fos immunoreactive neurons in the POA did not change as a function of these behavioral states, state-specific differences in neuronal activity were detected in restricted regions of the POA. An increase in the number of Fos+ neurons was observed in the rostral tip of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) during NREM (83.4+/-25.6) compared to quiet wakefulness (5.1+/-1.3, p<0.05) but not with the other behavioral states. In the median preoptic nucleus (MnPN), the number of Fos immunoreactive neurons was greater during NREM sleep (39.5+/-6.1) compared with quiet wakefulness (13.5+/-1.4, p<0.05) and REMc (16.2+/-2.0, p<0.05). State-specific Fos immunoreactive neurons were not observed in the ventro-lateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO). Finally, there was no significant increase in the number of Fos+ neurons during REMc in any of the subregions of the POA. In conclusion, within the POA, a selective neuronal activation during NREM sleep was found only in the MnPN. In addition, our data suggest a potential role of the SCN in NREM sleep. Finally, based on the distribution of Fos+ neurons in the entire POA, we conclude that the neuronal network involved in the regulation of NREM sleep is dispersed and intermingled with waking-related neurons. PMID:19269274

  3. In pursuit of clean air: a data book of problems and strategies at the state level. Volume 4. Federal Regions V and VII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garvey, D.B.; Streets, D.G.

    1980-02-01

    The following material is provided for each state in Federal Regions V and VII: state title page lists nonattainment areas for each pollutant, the number of monitors with valid readings for a particular averaging time for a pollutant, and the number of monitors that recorded a violation of the standard); revised State Implementation Plan (SIP) outline (covers sources of the problems, the proposed strategies for achieving attainment, and new state review procedures); maps of nonattainment areas, as designated; SAROAD (Storage and Retrieval of Aerometric Data) data; SAROAD data maps; power plant data; power plant maps; and county maps. States in Federal Region V are Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin. Federal Region VII includes Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, and Nebraska. (JGB)

  4. SITE INDEX CURVES AND HYPSOMETRIC RELATIONSHIP FOR Eucalyptus grandis PLANTATIONS FOR THE CAMPOS GERAIS REGION, PARANA STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Aparecida de Souza Retslaff

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to fit mathematical models for the construction of Site Index curves and to estimate heights at different ages for Eucalyptus grandis in the Campos Gerais region, Parana State. The data used to fit the models came from permanent, temporary plots and pre-harvesting inventory, covering ages from 2.5 to 26.5 years. Several models were tested to represent the sites and the hypsometric relationship. The Site Index curves were constructed by the guide-curve method. For the Site Index, the Chapman-Richards model showed the best fit and precision statistics, generating 5 Site Index curves (range of 5 m with the Chapman-Richards model. The four hypsometric models tested showed satisfactory performance and similar statistics and the inclusion of the variables dominant height or site index did not substantially improve the goodness of fit statistics, but the residues were more homogeneous and closer to zero.

  5. Estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from the United States forest service northern region, 1906-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stockmann Keith D

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Global forests capture and store significant amounts of CO2 through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood products (HWP to meet greenhouse gas monitoring commitments and climate change adaptation and mitigation objectives. This paper uses the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC production accounting approach and the California Forest Project Protocol (CFPP to estimate HWP carbon storage from 1906 to 2010 for the USFS Northern Region, which includes forests in northern Idaho, Montana, South Dakota, and eastern Washington. Results Based on the IPCC approach, carbon stocks in the HWP pool were increasing at one million megagrams of carbon (MgC per year in the mid 1960s, with peak cumulative storage of 28 million MgC occurring in 1995. Net positive flux into the HWP pool over this period is primarily attributable to high harvest levels in the mid twentieth century. Harvest levels declined after 1970, resulting in less carbon entering the HWP pool. Since 1995, emissions from HWP at solid waste disposal sites have exceeded additions from harvesting, resulting in a decline in the total amount of carbon stored in the HWP pool. The CFPP approach shows a similar trend, with 100-year average carbon storage for each annual Northern Region harvest peaking in 1969 at 937,900 MgC, and fluctuating between 84,000 and 150,000 MgC over the last decade. Conclusions The Northern Region HWP pool is now in a period of negative net annual stock change because the decay of products harvested between 1906 and 2010 exceeds additions of carbon to the HWP pool through harvest. However, total forest carbon includes both HWP and ecosystem carbon, which may have increased over the study

  6. Modernization of the Mechanism of State Regulation of Regional Russian Agro-Industrial Complex Under New Social and Economic Constructs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babich Tatyana Vladimirovna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the obstacles in building the necessary amount of food and in ensuring the full import substitution based on the efficient use of the available resources: Russia’s lagging behind economically developed countries in the technical and technological modernization of agricultural sectors; low-rate processes of production intensification in the ongoing targeted programs; insufficient use of existing competitive advantages of individual regions. Consequently, in the current environment of increased competition between agricultural commodity producers of different countries, the mechanism of Russian agriculture state support needs to be improved. Based on the analysis of threats due to Russia’s entry into the WTO in terms of sanctions imposed by the European Union in relation to the events in Ukraine, the authors proposed and justified measures aimed at modernizing the mechanism of state regulation of regional agriculture of Russia in the new economic and social constructs. In order to develop a high-tech industrial chain in agricultural business, the authors have developed the mechanism of functioning production and logistics agrocenter organized to bring together competences and cooperation between enterprises in different industries. Agrocenter is a special investment area, which should be provided with all necessary infrastructure and professional management for subsequent placement on the same territory: commercial resident working in the agricultural sector; commercial residents working in the transport and warehouse complex; financial market enterprises and organizations for quality control and certification; consulting firms for the development and promotion agrocenter; consumers of agricultural products: manufacturing, wholesale and retail, commercial enterprises, social sphere.

  7. GIS and remote sensing techniques for measuring agriculture land loss in Balik Pulau region of Penang state, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Sabbar Mohammed

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently, Malaysia like other Asian countries has experienced rapid expansion of urbanization due to economic development, industrialization, massive migrations as well as natural population growth. This expansion particularly unplanned consumed a huge amount of arable land in the urban milieu and in its surrounding areas. This paper aims to measure arable land loss due to massive urbanization in Balik Pulau region of Penang State, Malaysia. Landsat TM (Thematic Mapper images of 1992 and 2002 at the resolution of 30 m and Landsat ETM (Enhanced Thematic Mapper 2010 have been used to measure the rate of urban expansion and its impact on agricultural land. The integration of Remote Sensing and Geographical information system GIS were used to quantify the conversion of arable land to built-up areas in Penang State. The result reveals that built-up areas have expanded rapidly during the last four decades at the expense of agricultural land in Balik Pulau Region. Built-up areas had increased from 1793.22 ha in 1992 to 3235.38 ha in 2002, while agricultural areas decreased from 6171.32 to 4727.83 ha during the same period. The expansion of Built-up area is directed towards low-lying areas with less topographical barrier causing heavy loss in productive land and environmental degradation. In order to safeguard the environment and maintain arable land, urbanization should be controlled and rationalized through legislative measures, wise policy and public awareness. More attention should be given to the areas that have witnessed massive urbanization and coordination between various sectors involved in development is a must.

  8. Clinico-epidemiological study on canine toxicosis in Effurun/Warri Municipality region of Delta State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kundu F. Shima

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to provide fundamental information on both the common toxicants and poisoning episodes in dogs within Effurun/Warri municipality region of Delta State of Nigeria from 2011 to 2014. The collected data were grouped according to age, sex, breed, year of occurrence, and toxicant type. The study revealed that a total of 76 dogs comprising 12 breeds were poisoned by several toxicants such as pesticides (69%; n=52/76, household products (12%; n=9/76, food and ndash;poisons (9%; n=7/76, and snakebite envenomation (3%; n=2/76. Mixed breeds (29%; n=22/76, Alsatian (25%; n=19/76, Rottweiler (16%; n=12/76 and indigenous breed (7%; n=5/76 ranked the topmost breeds accounted for most poison emergencies with human and ndash;related factors incriminated. This study provides useful information on episodes of poisoning in dogs in the studied region. The knowledge of agents involved can help veterinarians for accurate diagnosis, and pet owners to cautiously protect their pets from potentially poisonous substances. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 357-361

  9. Convergence and divergence between the local and regional state around solid waste management. An unresolved problem in the Sacred Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Tupayachi Mar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article and the following «The Material Politics of Waste Disposal - decentralization and integrated systems» from Penelope Harvey are published as complementary accounts on the management of solid waste in the Vilcanota Valley in Cusco. Penelope Harvey and Teresa Tupayachi worked together on this theme. In this paper, Tupayachi introduces the legal framing for the politics of waste disposal in the region. She also presents two studies that were commissioned in order to find solutions to the problem of waste disposal. The first was carried out in 2003, with finance from Finnish development cooperation funds, in co-ordination with technical experts from various universities, NGOs and state agencies, including the municipality of Urubamba. The second, a component of the Vilcanota project, was completed in 2011. The studies have things in common. Both involve regional and local government as central agents in the process, both focus their efforts to resolve the problem of solid waste management on possible technical solutions, and both are well resourced in both financial and human terms. However neither succeed in finding a way to accommodate the diverse interests and perceptions of the municipalities and of the general public. Faced with this situation local government officials, and people in general act on their own initiative, finding decentralized, and at times informal solutions to the problem, taking advantage of market opportunities.

  10. Personal income tax non-standard reliefs in European Union member states, Croatia and countries of the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasa Drezgic

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an overview of the current situation in personal income tax non-standard reliefs for the EU-15, most of the EU-12, Croatia and countries of the region, as well as a comparison of them for 2006-2011. A review of personal income tax relief issues in last twenty years is given, especially concerning the reaction of the entire personal income tax system to the economic and financial crises. It is followed by comparative analysis of non-standard tax reliefs in the stated period. Despite the mostly negative attitude of tax theory (and policy, economic crisis and fiscal consolidation, they still play very significant role. The EU-15 actually broadened these reliefs in the period observed, while the analyzed EU-12, Croatia and countries of the region with less developed non-standard tax reliefs have reduced them significantly. Many of these countries, accordingly, have none today. Since the introduction of the new personal income tax system in 1994 Croatia has gone a long way, from their complete exclusion to the inclusion of almost all of them and in the end the exclusion of almost all of them.

  11. Faunistic survey of sandstone caves from Altinópolis region, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Zeppelini Filho

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The fauna of eight sandstone caves of the region of Altinópolis, (Serra Geral Arenitic Speleological province, São Paulo State, Southeastern Brazil was surveyed. Our results improve the previous faunistic knowledge of the region, recording 15 new occurrences for Brazilian caves and 26 for Brazilian sandstone caves. The fauna is characterized by a large number of detritivores/omnivores such as crickets and cockroaches, and several predators like spiders and heteropterans in bat guano.A fauna de oito cavernas areníticas da região de Altinópolis (província espeleológica arenítica da Serra Geral, Estado de São Paulo, Sudeste do Brasil foi amostrada. Nossos resultados aumentaram o conhecimento faunístico prévio da região, com o registro de 15 novas ocorrências para cavernas brasileiras e 26 para cavernas brasileiras em arenito. A fauna é caracterizada por um grande número de detritívoros/carnívoros tais como grilos e baratas, diversos predadores tais como aranhas e heterópteros no guano de morcego.

  12. Southeast Regional Assessment Study: an assessment of the opportunities of solar electric power generation in the Southeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    The objective of this study was to identify and assess opportunities for demonstration and large scale deployment of solar electric facilities in the southeast region and to define the technical, economic, and institutional factors that can contribute to an accelerated use of solar energy for electric power generation. Graphs and tables are presented indicating the solar resource potential, siting opportunities, energy generation and use, and socioeconomic factors of the region by state. Solar electric technologies considered include both central station and dispersed solar electric generating facilities. Central stations studied include solar thermal electric, wind, photovoltaic, ocean thermal gradient, and biomass; dispersed facilities include solar thermal total energy systems, wind, and photovoltaic. The value of solar electric facilities is determined in terms of the value of conventional facilities and the use of conventional fuels which the solar facilities can replace. Suitable cost and risk sharing mechanisms to accelerate the commercialization of solar electric technologies in the Southeast are identified. The major regulatory and legal factors which could impact on the commercialization of solar facilities are reviewed. The most important factors which affect market penetration are reviewed, ways to accelerate the implementation of these technologies are identified, and market entry paths are identified. Conclusions and recommendations are presented. (WHK)

  13. Relict nebkhas (pimple mounds) record prolonged late Holocene drought in the forested region of south-central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Christopher L.; Cox, Randel Tom; Forman, Steven L.; Foti, Tom L.; Wasklewicz, Thad A.; McColgan, Andrew T.

    2009-05-01

    The origin and significance of pimple mounds (low, elliptical to circular dune-like features found across much of the south-central United States) have been debated for nearly two centuries. We cored pimple mounds at four sites spanning the Ozark Plateau, Arkansas River Valley, and Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain and found that these mounds have a regionally consistent textural asymmetry such that there is a significant excess of coarse-grained sediment within their northwest flanks. We interpret this asymmetry as evidence of an eolian depositional origin of these mounds and conclude they are relict nebkhas (coppice dunes) deposited during protracted middle to late Holocene droughts. These four mounds yield optically stimulated luminescence ages between 2400 and 700 yr that correlate with well-documented periods of eolian activity and droughts on the southern Great Plains, including the Medieval Climate Anomaly. We conclude vegetation loss during extended droughts led to local eolian deflation and pimple mound deposition. These mounds reflect landscape response to multi-decadal droughts for the south-central U.S. The spatial extent of pimple mounds across this region further underscores the severity and duration of late Holocene droughts, which were significantly greater than historic droughts.

  14. Management and control of parasites on dairy farms in northwestern region of São Paulo state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veríssimo, Cecília José; Vasques, Flávia; Duarte, Keila Maria Roncato; Paulino, Valdinei Tadeu; Ambrósio, Luis Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Dairy cattle farming is of great economic and social importance in all Brazilian's regions. Parasites can reduce milk productivity, especially the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. This study consisted of a questionnaire answered by 40 milk producers in the northwestern region of the State of São Paulo. The aim was to ascertain how these producers controlled ticks and other parasites. Very many of them knew nothing about the biological cycle of the cattle tick or about strategic control or acaricide efficacy tests. The majority (87.5%) controlled ticks at a high frequency, without technical criteria and care to apply the acaricide. Spraying was the most used mode of acaricide application (95%) and endectocides were used by 45%. Cattle tick fever was the harm most associated with ticks (87.5%) followed closely by screwworm (77.5%). However, 65% were satisfied with their tick control. About the control of others parasites, all dewormed at least twice a year their animals; 65% were controlling horn fly; 40% had problems with screwworm. The interviewers had in general good level of education and the farms generally exhibited a high degree of technology for milk production on pasture because half of them received technical assistance frequently.

  15. A Compilation of Provisional Karst Geospatial Data for the Interior Low Plateaus Physiographic Region, Central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Charles J.; Nelson, Hugh L.

    2008-01-01

    Geospatial data needed to visualize and evaluate the hydrogeologic framework and distribution of karst features in the Interior Low Plateaus physiographic region of the central United States were compiled during 2004-2007 as part of the Ground-Water Resources Program Karst Hydrology Initiative (KHI) project. Because of the potential usefulness to environmental and water-resources regulators, private consultants, academic researchers, and others, the geospatial data files created during the KHI project are being made available to the public as a provisional regional karst dataset. To enhance accessibility and visualization, the geospatial data files have been compiled as ESRI ArcReader data folders and user interactive Published Map Files (.pmf files), all of which are catalogued by the boundaries of surface watersheds using U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) eight-digit hydrologic unit codes (HUC-8s). Specific karst features included in the dataset include mapped sinkhole locations, sinking (or disappearing) streams, internally drained catchments, karst springs inventoried in the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) database, relic stream valleys, and karst flow paths obtained from results of previously reported water-tracer tests.

  16. Concept and Progress of a Regional Effort to Improve Blood Lead Reporting to Six Western States by Incorporating Electronic Laboratory Reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Magnuson, J A; Leiker, Richard D.

    2003-01-01

    While electronic laboratory reporting (ELR) has the potential to be both more timely and complete than non-electronic data transmission1, 2 and direct electronic data transfer can also reduce data input errors3, these benefits are often underutilized. A survey of states in HHS Regions IX and X (Alaska, Arizona, California, Hawaii, Oregon, Washington) led to collaborative efforts to maximize ELR benefits on a regional scale. Collaboration outcomes included the ratification of a regional blood ...

  17. Regional and local phenomena influencing the thermal state in the Flysch belt of the northeastern part of Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majcin, Dušan; Bilčík, Dušan; Kutas, Roman; Hlavňová, Petra; Bezák, Vladimír; Kucharič, Ľudovít

    2014-12-01

    The locality of the northeastern most part of Slovakian Flysch belt belongs to interesting areas in terms of the interpretation of geothermal conditions in mutual relation with the lithosphere structure and their tectonic development. The evaluation of the geothermal energy sources parameters of this locality is likewise worthwhile. The region under study has the centre in position of the borehole Zboj ZB-1 and spreads out Slovakia also in Poland and Ukraine. Our contribution provides the analyses of existing geothermal data enhanced by the construction of temperature field models corresponding to the global and local aspects that influence the temperature and heat flow density distributions. The analyses are related to the structures and effects of separate phenomena along as well as across the Carpathian arc. The model calculations were carried out both by analytical and numerical methods of solving the heat transfer equations including their steady state forms and transient cases too. Besides the regional trend of thermal activity decrease in direction from East-Slovakian Basin to the outer Carpathian units the combined local influences are applied: subsurface thermophysical parameters of rock complexes distributions, non-stationary sources from supposed subvolcanic bodies in close surroundings of borehole Zboj ZB-1, and the effects of the hydrological factors. Considering the observed higher thermal activity in arched zone along the Carpathian structures we discussed the thermal effects of rock complexes supposed as a source of regional Carpathian Conductivity Anomaly and the transfer of heat from East-Slovakian Basin to Outer Carpathian Flysch units. The analysis and the modelling results suggest that the mentioned activity is caused by the influences of source type phenomena mainly related to deep fault systems at the margin of the European Platform. That means the anomalies in heat flow density distribution can reach the value 70 mW/m2 and more in the zone

  18. Regional hydrologic response to climate change in the conterminous United States using high-resolution hydroclimate simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Bibi S.; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Ashfaq, Moetasim; Rastogi, Deeksha; Mei, Rui; Bowling, Laura C.

    2016-08-01

    Despite the fact that Global Climate Model (GCM) outputs have been used to project hydrologic impacts of climate change using off-line hydrologic models for two decades, many of these efforts have been disjointed - applications or at least calibrations have been focused on individual river basins and using a few of the available GCMs. This study improves upon earlier attempts by systematically projecting hydrologic impacts for the entire conterminous United States (US), using outputs from ten GCMs from the latest Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) archive, with seamless hydrologic model calibration and validation techniques to produce a spatially and temporally consistent set of current hydrologic projections. The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model was forced with ten-member ensemble projections of precipitation and air temperature that were dynamically downscaled using a regional climate model (RegCM4) and bias-corrected to 1/24° (~ 4 km) grid resolution for the baseline (1966-2005) and future (2011-2050) periods under the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5. Based on regional analysis, the VIC model projections indicate an increase in winter and spring total runoff due to increases in winter precipitation of up to 20% in most regions of the US. However, decreases in snow water equivalent (SWE) and snow-covered days will lead to significant decreases in summer runoff with more pronounced shifts in the time of occurrence of annual peak runoff projected over the eastern and western US. In contrast, the central US will experience year-round increases in total runoff, mostly associated with increases in both extreme high and low runoff. The projected hydrological changes described in this study have implications for various aspects of future water resource management, including water supply, flood and drought preparation, and reservoir operation.

  19. Comparison of aerosol hygroscopicity and mixing state between winter and summer seasons in Pearl River Delta region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rongxin; Tan, Haobo; Tang, Lili; Cai, Mingfu; Yin, Yan; Li, Fei; Liu, Li; Xu, Hanbing; Chan, P. W.; Deng, Xuejiao; Wu, Dui

    2016-03-01

    environment. Hence, only assuming a constant mixing state of soot particles, such as pure external or internal for the regional climate model and air quality model is still not realistic and may lead to uncertainties for the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region which is one of the three major economic regions in China. Comparing the diurnal variation of NFNH in both seasons, it seems that such a diurnal cycle was mainly related to the differences in evolution of mixing layer between two seasons. Such quantitative hygroscopic properties of sub-micro particles are essential in assessing their impact on weather-climate effect and atmospheric visibility.

  20. State and Development:Changes in Livelihood Strategies in Garhwal with Special Reference to Ecotourism in the Gangotri Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gitanjali Chaturvedi

    2004-01-01

    The object of the paper is to provide an insight into the changes in livelihood strategies of the people in the Garhwal Himalayas over time. From sustaining an economy based on transit trade and subsistence agriculture, there has been a shift towards tourism in recent times. This shift has been due to the tradition of pilgrimage to the higher reaches and also due to promotion by the state by developing infrastructure and providing incentives. The paper is divided into four parts. In the first part, the policies of the colonial state and the events leading to the destruction of forests and the impoverishment of the self-sustaining semi-pastoral economy in the Garhwal Himalayas are outlined. It is argued that the destruction of forests and subsequently, the economy of the Himalayas were directly responsible for the large-scale migration to the plains. This also led to further exploitation of forests by the people who were unfamiliar with any other form of livelihood. The paper also discusses the policies of the newly independent Indian state and sees them as an extension of the British policy of large-scale exploitation of Himalayan forests for the purpose of development and economic growth. In the third section, the growth of ecotourism as a direct outcome of the process of deforestation and as resultingfrom the need of society to conserve and yet to earn a livelihood is discussed. The case study of the Gangotri region examines the dilemma faced by the people of Garhwal in sustaining their livelihood, income or the development in the area. In addition, tourism has fostered monopolies of groups external to the region thereby contributing neither to the income or the development in the area. In addition, there is an added threat to the environment-deforestation, and erosion-a direct outcome of increased and unplanned tourism. Such problems demand state intervention and management of tourism. The conclusion to the paper asserts that in order that the requirements of

  1. Clinical study of regional ventilation and perfusion of pulmonary disease by ventilatory steady state measurement with Xe-133

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventilatory steady state measurement with Xe-133 were performed to evaluate regional ventilation (V radical) and perfusion (Q radical) in 60 cases of primary lung cancer and 39 cases of pulmonary diseases-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pulmonary fibrosis, sarcoidosis, mitral stenosis with pulmonary hypertension (PH), pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, bronchial adenoma and pulmonary embolism. Of 60 cases of lung cancer, 11 cases showed V radicalQ radical mismatch (18%). Even in the V radicalQ radical matched defect cases, a different grade of disorder was seen in V radical and Q radical and the grade of Q radical was severer than the grade of V radical. Of 38 cases irradiated by Linac X-ray, 3 cases whose V radical, Q radical were disordered a little before irradiation recovered completely to normal range after irradiadiation. Of 38 cases who performed the radiation therapy, radiation injury of lung was recognized in 22 cases. In the cases of recovered V radical, Q radical after irradiation, radiation injury of lung occurred, and then V radical, Q radical disordered and returned to pre-irradiation value. In the cases that recovered little in V radical, Q radical, radiation injury of lung occurred, and then V radical, Q radical could not return to pre-irradiation value. In 39 cases of pulmonary diseases, 7 cases of sarcoidosis showed normal V radical and Q radical value. 13 cases of COPD was available to evaluate the regional pulmonary function in MTT (Mean Transit Time). V radical, Q radical were slightly disordered and MTT proloned slightly in 10 cases of diffuse pulmonary fibrosis where a marked fibrosis lesion was remarkable. Six cases of PH showed significant correlation between the left ventricular mean pressure and the perfusion ratio of upper and lower lung field. (J.P.N.)

  2. Integrated evaluation of aerosols from regional brown hazes over northern China in winter: Concentrations, sources, transformation, and mixing states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weijun; Zhou, Shengzhen; Wang, Xinfeng; Xu, Zheng; Yuan, Chao; Yu, Yangchun; Zhang, Qingzhu; Wang, Wenxing

    2011-05-01

    To evaluate the wintertime regional brown haze in northern China, trace gases and aerosols were measured at an urban site between 9 and 20 November 2009. Ion chromatography and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to investigate soluble ions in PM2.5 and the mixing state of individual particles. The contrasts between clear and hazy days were examined in detail. Concentrations of the primary gases including NO (55.62 ppbv), NO2 (54.86 ppbv), SO2 (83.03 ppbv), and CO (2.07 ppmv) on hazy days were 2 to 6 times higher than those on clear days. In contrast, concentrations of O3 remained low (5.71 ppbv) on hazy days. Mass concentrations of PM2.5 (135.90 μg m-3) and BC (7.85 μg m-3) were 3 times higher on hazy days than on clear days. Based on the estimations from TEM analysis, fractions of both ammoniated sulfate (AS)-soot (20%) and AS-soot/organic matter/fly ash (20%) were larger on hazy days than on clear days (13% and 12%), implying that coagulation is an important mixing process in the polluted air. The SO2 emissions from coal combustion for power plants, industrial activities, and household heating led to high concentrations. Also, high concentrations of secondary sulfates significantly formed in the haze. Therefore, high concentrations of acidic gases contributed to the increased mass and number of secondary aerosols. Our study indicates that metal-catalyzed oxidation in the aqueous phase is a major pathway of sulfate formation. The mixtures of aerosol particles, together with MODIS images, suggest that the hazes covered not only the industrial cities, but extended into the neighboring rural regions.

  3. Clinical study of regional ventilation and perfusion of pulmonary disease by ventilatory steady state measurement with Xe-133

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishi, Fumiaki

    1984-12-01

    Ventilatory steady state measurement with Xe-133 were performed to evaluate regional ventilation (V radical) and perfusion (Q radical) in 60 cases of primary lung cancer and 39 cases of pulmonary diseases-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pulmonary fibrosis, sarcoidosis, mitral stenosis with pulmonary hypertension (PH), pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, bronchial adenoma and pulmonary embolism. Of 60 cases of lung cancer, 11 cases showed V radicalQ radical mismatch (18%). Even in the V radicalQ radical matched defect cases, a different grade of disorder was seen in V radical and Q radical and the grade of Q radical was severer than the grade of V radical. Of 38 cases irradiated by Linac X-ray, 3 cases whose V radical, Q radical were disordered a little before irradiation recovered completely to normal range after irradiadiation. Of 38 cases subjected to radiation therapy, radiation injury of lung was recognized in 22 cases. In the cases of recovered V radical, Q radical after irradiation, radiation injury of lung occurred, and then V radical, Q radical disordered and returned to pre-irradiation value. In the cases that recovered little in V radical, Q radical, radiation injury of lung occurred, and then V radical, Q radical could not return to pre-irradiation value. In 39 cases of pulmonary diseases, 7 cases of sarcoidosis showed normal V radical and Q radical value. 13 cases of COPD was available to evaluate the regional pulmonary function in MTT (Mean Transit Time). V radical, Q radical were slightly disordered and MTT proloned slightly in 10 cases of diffuse pulmonary fibrosis where a marked fibrosis lesion was remarkable. Six cases of PH showed significant correlation between the left ventricular mean pressure and the perfusion ratio of upper and lower lung field. (J.P.N.).

  4. Utah Southwest Regional Geothermal Development Operations Research Project. Appendix 10 of regional operations research program for development of geothermal energy in the Southeast United States. Final technical report, June 1977--August 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Stanley; Wagstaff, Lyle W.

    1979-01-01

    The Southwest Regional Geothermal Operations/Research project was initiated to investigate geothermal development in the five states within the region: Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah. Although the region changed during the first year to include Idaho, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming, the project objectives and procedures remained unchanged. The project was funded by the DOE/DGE and the Four Corners Regional Commission with participation by the New Mexico Energy Resources Board. The study was coordinated by the New Mexico Energy Institute at New Mexico State University, acting through a 'Core Team'. A 'state' team, assigned by the states, conducted the project within each state. This report details most of the findings of the first year's efforts by the Utah Operations/Research team. It is a conscientious effort to report the findings and activities of the Utah team, either explicitly or by reference. The results are neither comprehensive nor final, and should be regarded as preliminary efforts to much of what the Operations/Research project was envisioned to accomplish. In some cases the report is probably too detailed, in other cases too vague; hopefully, however, the material in the report, combined with the Appendices, will be able to serve as source material for others interested in geothermal development in Utah.

  5. Regional statistical assessment of WRF-Hydro and IFC Model stream Flow uncertainties over the State of Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElSaadani, M.; Quintero, F.; Goska, R.; Krajewski, W. F.; Lahmers, T.; Small, S.; Gochis, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    This study examines the performance of different Hydrologic models in estimating peak flows over the state of Iowa. In this study I will compare the output of the Iowa Flood Center (IFC) hydrologic model and WRF-Hydro (NFIE configuration) to the observed flows at the USGS stream gauges. During the National Flood Interoperability Experiment I explored the performance of WRF-Hydro over the state of Iowa using different rainfall products and the resulting hydrographs showed a "flashy" behavior of the model output due to lack of calibration and bad initial flows due to short model spin period. I would like to expand this study by including a second well established hydrologic model and include more rain gauge vs. radar rainfall direct comparisons. The IFC model is expected to outperform WRF-Hydro's out of the box results, however, I will test different calibration options for both the Noah-MP land surface model and RAPID, which is the routing component of the NFIE-Hydro configuration, to see if this will improve the model results. This study will explore the statistical structure of model output uncertainties across scales (as a function of drainage areas and/or stream orders). I will also evaluate the performance of different radar-based Quantitative Precipitation Estimation (QPE) products (e.g. Stage IV, MRMS and IFC's NEXRAD based radar rainfall product. Different basins will be evaluated in this study and they will be selected based on size, amount of rainfall received over the basin area and location. Basin location will be an important factor in this study due to our prior knowledge of the performance of different NEXRAD radars that cover the region, this will help observe the effect of rainfall biases on stream flows. Another possible addition to this study is to apply controlled spatial error fields to rainfall inputs and observer the propagation of these errors through the stream network.

  6. Study on variation of indoor radon concentration and its concentration in ground water in granite regions of Karnataka State, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J, D.S.; DR, R. [Kuvempu University (India); Nagaraj, S. [Department of Physics, Govt. First grade college, Malleswaram, Bangalore (India); C, D.N. [Department of Physics, Vidya Vikas Institute of Engineering and Technology Mysore (India); E, S. [I D S G Govt. College Chickmagalore (India)

    2014-07-01

    Environmental pollution and management of water is a national and international priority today. Our environment is continuously irradiated by naturally occurring radioactive elements and their decay products found in the earth's crust. {sup 222}Rn, a noble radioactive gas produced by decay of {sup 226}Ra, is a member of the {sup 238}U series. Radon concentration measurements in water and atmosphere are necessary to understand the effect of {sup 222}Rn on human health. Epidemiological studies reveal that the exposure to radon and its progeny is the one of the main causes of lung cancer after smoking. The high concentration of radon in ground water poses a potential health risks in two ways by inhalation and ingestion. In the present study, the radon concentration in indoor air atmosphere and in drinking water have been determined by collecting various drinking water samples from bore well, tank, tap and river water from different locations in granite regions of Karnataka state and were estimated by using Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (SSNTD) technique and Emanometry technique. The radon concentration in indoor atmosphere is depends mainly on radon emanation from ground water used for domestic purposes, ventilation condition, type of building materials used for construction. The present study highlights the variation of indoor radon concentration with water used for different purposes and estimates the dose to the publics of this study area. The estimated total equivalent effective dose is higher than the global average. According to US EPA and WHO report majority of the drinking water samples and their radon concentration exceeds the reference levels. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  7. Root caries in areas with and without fluoridated water at the Southeast region of São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Berta Rihs

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate root caries prevalence in areas with and without water fluoridation at the Southeast region of São Paulo State, in the adult population, employees of public and private schools, and elderly population. Epidemiological surveys were conducted according to the World Health Organization guidelines (1997, including 1,475 dentate individuals aged 35 to 44 years and 65 to 74 years, living in cities representing the southeast of São Paulo State, with (n=872 or without (n=603 fluoridated water supply. Statistical analysis was performed by Mann-Whitney and Chi-square tests at a significance level of 5%. The prevalence of root caries was 15.6% for the 35-44-year-old age group and 31.8% for the 65-74-year-old age group . There were no statistically significant differences (p>0.05 in the occurrence of root caries according to water fluoridation, although individuals living at non-fluoridated areas presented higher percentage of missing teeth; also, there was higher mean number of intact roots at fluoridated areas (p<0.05. Most individuals with gingival recession, both adults and elderly, did not have root caries experience. In this study, root caries prevalence was lower in areas with fluoridated water. Due to the reduced prevalence of edentulism and increased number of people keeping their natural teeth for a longer period, a future increase in root caries is expected, highlighting the importance of studies related to water fluoridation and its relationship with the oral health of adults and elderly, especially referring to tooth root.

  8. Study on variation of indoor radon concentration and its concentration in ground water in granite regions of Karnataka State, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental pollution and management of water is a national and international priority today. Our environment is continuously irradiated by naturally occurring radioactive elements and their decay products found in the earth's crust. 222Rn, a noble radioactive gas produced by decay of 226Ra, is a member of the 238U series. Radon concentration measurements in water and atmosphere are necessary to understand the effect of 222Rn on human health. Epidemiological studies reveal that the exposure to radon and its progeny is the one of the main causes of lung cancer after smoking. The high concentration of radon in ground water poses a potential health risks in two ways by inhalation and ingestion. In the present study, the radon concentration in indoor air atmosphere and in drinking water have been determined by collecting various drinking water samples from bore well, tank, tap and river water from different locations in granite regions of Karnataka state and were estimated by using Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (SSNTD) technique and Emanometry technique. The radon concentration in indoor atmosphere is depends mainly on radon emanation from ground water used for domestic purposes, ventilation condition, type of building materials used for construction. The present study highlights the variation of indoor radon concentration with water used for different purposes and estimates the dose to the publics of this study area. The estimated total equivalent effective dose is higher than the global average. According to US EPA and WHO report majority of the drinking water samples and their radon concentration exceeds the reference levels. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  9. Armed conflicts have an impact on the spread of tuberculosis: the case of the Somali Regional State of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gele Abdi A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A pessimistic view of the impact of armed conflicts on the control of infectious diseases has generated great interest in the role of conflicts on the global TB epidemic. Nowhere in the world is such interest more palpable than in the Horn of Africa Region, comprising Ethiopia, Somalia, Eritrea, Djibouti, Kenya and Sudan. An expanding literature has demonstrated that armed conflicts stall disease control programs through distraction of health system, interruption of patients' ability to seek health care, and the diversion of economic resources to military ends rather than health needs. Nonetheless, until very recently, no research has been done to address the impact of armed conflict on TB epidemics in the Somali Regional State (SRS of Ethiopia. Methods This study is based on the cross-sectional data collected in 2007, utilizing structured questionnaires filled-out by a sample of 226 TB patients in the SRS of Ethiopia. Data was obtained on the delay patients experienced in receiving a diagnosis of TB, on the biomedical knowledge of TB that patients had, and the level of self-treatment by patients. The outcome variables in this study are the delay in the diagnosis of TB experienced by patients, and extent of self-treatment utilized by patients. Our main explanatory variable was place of residence, which was dichotomized as being in 'conflict zones' and in 'non-conflict zones'. Demographic data was collected for statistical control. Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests were used on calculations of group differences. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the association between outcome and predictor variables. Results Two hundred and twenty six TB patients were interviewed. The median delay in the diagnosis of TB was 120 days and 60 days for patients from conflict zones and from non-conflict zones, respectively. Moreover, 74% of the patients residing in conflict zones undertook self-treatment prior to their diagnosis. The

  10. SIMULATION FRAMEWORK FOR REGIONAL GEOLOGIC CO{sub 2} STORAGE ALONG ARCHES PROVINCE OF MIDWESTERN UNITED STATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sminchak, Joel

    2012-09-30

    This report presents final technical results for the project Simulation Framework for Regional Geologic CO{sub 2} Storage Infrastructure along Arches Province of the Midwest United States. The Arches Simulation project was a three year effort designed to develop a simulation framework for regional geologic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage infrastructure along the Arches Province through development of a geologic model and advanced reservoir simulations of large-scale CO{sub 2} storage. The project included five major technical tasks: (1) compilation of geologic, hydraulic and injection data on Mount Simon, (2) development of model framework and parameters, (3) preliminary variable density flow simulations, (4) multi-phase model runs of regional storage scenarios, and (5) implications for regional storage feasibility. The Arches Province is an informal region in northeastern Indiana, northern Kentucky, western Ohio, and southern Michigan where sedimentary rock formations form broad arch and platform structures. In the province, the Mount Simon sandstone is an appealing deep saline formation for CO{sub 2} storage because of the intersection of reservoir thickness and permeability. Many CO{sub 2} sources are located in proximity to the Arches Province, and the area is adjacent to coal fired power plants along the Ohio River Valley corridor. Geophysical well logs, rock samples, drilling logs, and geotechnical tests were evaluated for a 500,000 km{sup 2} study area centered on the Arches Province. Hydraulic parameters and historical operational information was also compiled from Mount Simon wastewater injection wells in the region. This information was integrated into a geocellular model that depicts the parameters and conditions in a numerical array. The geologic and hydraulic data were integrated into a three-dimensional grid of porosity and permeability, which are key parameters regarding fluid flow and pressure buildup due to CO{sub 2} injection. Permeability data

  11. SIMULATION FRAMEWORK FOR REGIONAL GEOLOGIC CO{sub 2} STORAGE ALONG ARCHES PROVINCE OF MIDWESTERN UNITED STATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sminchak, Joel

    2012-09-30

    This report presents final technical results for the project Simulation Framework for Regional Geologic CO{sub 2} Storage Infrastructure along Arches Province of the Midwest United States. The Arches Simulation project was a three year effort designed to develop a simulation framework for regional geologic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage infrastructure along the Arches Province through development of a geologic model and advanced reservoir simulations of large-scale CO{sub 2} storage. The project included five major technical tasks: (1) compilation of geologic, hydraulic and injection data on Mount Simon, (2) development of model framework and parameters, (3) preliminary variable density flow simulations, (4) multi-phase model runs of regional storage scenarios, and (5) implications for regional storage feasibility. The Arches Province is an informal region in northeastern Indiana, northern Kentucky, western Ohio, and southern Michigan where sedimentary rock formations form broad arch and platform structures. In the province, the Mount Simon sandstone is an appealing deep saline formation for CO{sub 2} storage because of the intersection of reservoir thickness and permeability. Many CO{sub 2} sources are located in proximity to the Arches Province, and the area is adjacent to coal fired power plants along the Ohio River Valley corridor. Geophysical well logs, rock samples, drilling logs, and geotechnical tests were evaluated for a 500,000 km{sup 2} study area centered on the Arches Province. Hydraulic parameters and historical operational information was also compiled from Mount Simon wastewater injection wells in the region. This information was integrated into a geocellular model that depicts the parameters and conditions in a numerical array. The geologic and hydraulic data were integrated into a three-dimensional grid of porosity and permeability, which are key parameters regarding fluid flow and pressure buildup due to CO{sub 2} injection. Permeability data

  12. Teaching Methods and Tools Used In Food Safety Extension Education Programs in the North Central Region of the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Martin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the ways to ensure food safety is to educate thepublic. Of the organizations providing food safety educationin the United States (U.S., the Cooperative Extension System(CES is one of the most reliable. The effectiveness CESprograms depends not only on what is being taught but also onhow it is taught. Both a needs-based curriculum and how thatcurriculum is delivered are equally important. This descriptivecross-sectional study using a disproportional stratified randomsample identified the teaching methods and tools being used byfood safety extension educators of the CES of North CentralRegion (NCR. A Likert-type scale administered to extensioneducators revealed that they were adopting a balanced use ofteaching methods and tools, and using learner-centered teachingmethods in their programs. However, distance education, casestudies and podcasts, which are commonly used in educationprograms, were not being used extensively. We recommend thatfood safety extension educators of NCR should increase the useof these two teaching methods and tool while continuing to usethe current ones. This study has implications for improving foodsafety education delivery to clients in the NCR and for designinginservice education for food safety extension educators

  13. Fitting mathematical models to lactation curves from holstein cows in the southwestern region of the state of Parana, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abílio G.T. Ferreira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate four mathematical models with regards to their fit to lactation curves of Holstein cows from herds raised in the southwestern region of the state of Parana, Brazil. Initially, 42,281 milk production records from 2005 to 2011 were obtained from "Associação Paranaense de Criadores de Bovinos da Raça Holandesa (APCBRH". Data lacking dates of drying and total milk production at 305 days of lactation were excluded, resulting in a remaining 15,142 records corresponding to 2,441 Holstein cows. Data were sorted according to the parity order (ranging from one to six, and within each parity order the animals were divided into quartiles (Q25%, Q50%, Q75% and Q100% corresponding to 305-day lactation yield. Within each parity order, for each quartile, four mathematical models were adjusted, two of which were predominantly empirical (Brody and Wood whereas the other two presented more mechanistic characteristics (models Dijkstra and Pollott. The quality of fit was evaluated by the corrected Akaike information criterion. The Wood model showed the best fit in almost all evaluated situations and, therefore, may be considered as the most suitable model to describe, at least empirically, the lactation curves of Holstein cows raised in Southwestern Parana.

  14. Photofragmentation of tetrahydrofuran molecules in the vacuum-ultraviolet region via superexcited states studied by fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasowicz, Tomasz J.; Kivimäki, Antti; Dampc, Marcin; Coreno, Marcello; de Simone, Monica; Zubek, Mariusz

    2011-03-01

    Photofragmentation of tetrahydrofuran molecules in the vacuum-ultraviolet region, producing excited atomic and molecular fragments, has been studied over the energy range 14-68 eV using photon-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Excited hydrogen atoms H(n), n = 3-11, have been detected by observation of the Hα to Hı lines of the Balmer series. The diatomic CH(A2Δ), CH(B2Σ-) and C2(d3Πg) fragments, which are excited to low vibrational and high rotational levels are identified by their A2Δ→X2Πr, B2Σ-→X2Πr and d3Πg→a3Πu emission bands, respectively. Dissociation efficiency curves for CH(A2Δ) and H(n), n = 3-7, have been obtained in the photon energy ranges from their appearance thresholds up to 68 eV. The appearance energies for CH(A2Δ) and H(n), n = 3-7, have been determined and are compared with estimated fragmentation energy limits in order to discuss the possible fragmentation processes. In the present studies, superexcited states of tetrahydrofuran are found, which dissociate into the above excited atomic and molecular fragments.

  15. Molecular characterisation of Cryptosporidium spp. in lambs in the South Central region of the State of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Zucatto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Considering the proximity of sheep farmers to animals that are possibly diseased or releasing fecal oocysts into the environment and the marked pathogenicity in lambs, the aim of this study was to determine the occurrence and to molecularly characterize the infection by Cryptosporidium spp. in lambs in the South Central region of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 193 fecal samples were collected from sheep of several breeds, males and females, aged up to one year. Polymerase chain reaction (nested-PCR was used to amplify DNA fragments from the subunit 18S rRNA gene and indicated 15% positivity; sequencing of amplified fragments was possible for 19 samples. Analysis of the obtained sequences showed that the identified species were Cryptosporidium xiaoi for 15 samples, constituting thus the first molecular characterization study of this Cryptosporidium species in Brazil. Cryptosporidium ubiquitum was identified for three samples and Cryptosporidium meleagridis for one sample; the latter two are considered zoonotic species.

  16. ACCUMULATION LEVEL AND POLLUTION STATE OF ZINC (Zn WITHIN MANGROVE FOREST SEDIMENT AND WATER OF DEMAK COASTAL REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endah Dwi Hastuti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn is essential heavy metal for plant growth, but could be lethal for some aquatic organisms. While its accumulation in mangrove ecosystem increased along with the increasing input to the river runoff. This research aimed to observe the concentration of Zn in mangrove sediment and water within mangrove ecosystem in Demak coastal area and its pollution state. This research was conducted through observation involving 4 sampling stations and 3 sampling transects at each station. Data collection including mangrove structure and concentration of Zn in mangrove sediment and water. The result showed that mangrove distribution along Demak coastal area varied among stations. Station 1 and station 2 consist of Avicennia marina only, while station 3 consist of Avicennia marina and Rhizophora mucronata and station 4 consist of Avicennia marina, Rhizophora mucronata and Rhizophora stylosa. Average sediment heavy metal concentration at each station was: 415.81 mg/kg; 561.15 mg/kg; 486.23 mg/kg and 11,507.18 mg/kg respectively. While average heavy metal concentration in mangrove water was 0.12 mg/l; 0.12 mg/l; 0.09 mg/l and 0.17 mg/l respectively. The concentration of heavy metal in mangrove water of Demak region had exceed the maximum limit allowed by the government; while the sediment concentration of heavy metal had exceed tha suitable concentration for organisms.

  17. Determinants of Occupational Injury: A Case Control Study among Textile Factory Workers in Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zewdie Aderaw

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Occupational injuries pose major public health and socioeconomic developmental problems. However, efforts towards investigation of determinants among factory workers are very minimal in developing countries. Thus, this study aimed at to identify determinants of occupational injury among textile factory workers in Amahara regional state in Ethiopia. Methods. A case control study was done among 456 textile factory workers (152 cases and 304 controls. Self-reported data from workers and document review from factories clinics were used to ascertain occupational injury status within one-year period. Data was collected using pretested and structured questionnaire by trained data collectors. Odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was used to assess level significance. Results. Young age (<30 years (AOR 1.90, 95% CI (1.22, 2.94, male gender (AOR 2.54, 95% CI (1.58, 4.07, health and safety training (AOR 1.85, 95% CI (1.17, 2.91, sleeping disturbance (AOR 1.99, 95% CI (1.30, 3.04, and job stress (AOR 2.25, 95% CI (1.15, 4.41 were significant predictors of occupation injury. Conclusion. Lack of training, sleeping disturbance, and job stress increased the risk of occupational injury. So, providing basic health and safety training with special emphasis on younger and male workers, reducing stressors, and providing sleep health education were recommended.

  18. Assessment of Copper and Zinc in Soils of a Vineyard Region in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Cecília Gabrielli dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This soil acidification may increase the bioavailability of copper (Cu and zinc (Zn in soils. The objective of this study was to verify the concentrations of Cu and Zn in soils of a vineyard region, including sample acidification, to simulate acid rain. The study was developed in an area of vineyard cultivation, with an adjacent land having other crops grown, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Soil samples were collected and GPS located under different uses and coverings. The extracted solutions used to determine the available Cu and Zn forms were diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA, pH 7.3, and calcium chloride 0.01 M. The total forms were obtained by HNO3 digestion. The amounts of Cu and Zn extracted using DTPA were considered high in most of the samples and were greater in the areas cultivated with vineyards that had received fungicide applications for several decades. The total forms were higher in vineyard soils. The amounts of Cu and Zn extracted using CaCl2 did not have good correlation with vineyards or with other metals' forms. The results confirmed that the soil was enriched with Cu and Zn due to the management of the vineyards with chemicals for several decades.

  19. Management of environmental risks associated with landfills in seismically active regions in the New Independent States of Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sustainable waste management and disposal is a societal challenge in terms of economics, public health and environmental impact. The situation in developing countries, and in particular those subject to extreme natural hazards, results in increased overall risk as governments prioritize investments to issues of perceived higher economic importance. This dissertation investigates environmental risks associated with landfills in seismically active regions in the New Independent States of Central Asia. Environmental risk from municipal solid waste landfill sites encompasses a wide range of topics within socio-economics, physical sciences and engineering and therefore necessitates a multi-disciplinary approach. The underlying study is an accumulative result of a three-year collaborative research project (Contract No. INCO-CT-2005-516732) funded within the Eu Sixth Framework Programme (FP6). The international cooperation involved European, Russian and Central Asian research partners forming a multi-disciplinary consortium covering: GIS technologies, geology / hydrogeology geophysics and geotechnical engineering; landfill design and operation and waste management. understanding the relevant socio-economic aspects and legislative frameworks was necessary to prepare results and recommendations to address stakeholders in the Central Asian countries: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan,Tajikistan,Turkmenistan and uzbekistan. (author)

  20. Total Mercury and Methylmercury Dynamics; stream export in an upland forested watershed in the Adirondack region of New York State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleton, W.; Vidon, P.; Mitchell, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    Although levels of mercury and acid rain deposition have greatly declined in recent years due to legislation controls on industry emissions, their legacy has had a lasting effect on the Adirondack region of New York State. This historical mercury deposition is of concern because of the high chance for methylmercury production and export to occur. The impact of forested uplands on methylmercury export remains poorly understood in relation to other ecosystems. Research indicates that sulfate dynamics play a large role in regulating the production of methylmercury in the presence of inorganic mercury; however the relationship between methylmercury production and nitrate availability at various times of the year is less understood, yet, hypothesized to potentially impact sulfate reduction and ultimately methylmercury production in a variety of ecosystems. In this study, mercury and water quality (including sulfate and nitrate) will be monitored in spring, summer and fall of 2012 at 7 locations in Arbutus Watershed, Adirondacks, NY. Proxies (UV absorbance, Fluorescence indices) for total mercury and methylmercury will be utilized to predict export. The main objectives of this research are to determine the relevance of forested uplands in methylmercury export, as well as gain further understanding of mercury dynamics and associated proxies in relation to nitrate and sulfate availability. Photo courtesy of the Adirondack Ecological Center

  1. An entomoepidemiological investigation of Chagas disease in the state of Ceará, Northeast Region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Carolina Fausto de Souza; Souza-Santos, Reinaldo; Teixeira, Natalia Faria Daflon; Georg, Ingebourg; Gomes, Taís Ferreira; Boia, Marcio Neves; dos Reis, Neilane Bertoni; Maia, Alexander de Oliveira; Lima, Marli Maria

    2014-04-01

    The seroprevalence of Chagas disease in humans and the presence of triatomines were investigated in a rural locality in the State of Ceará, Brazil, an historically endemic region. Approximately 80% of the surveyed residents agreed to undergo serological tests. Intradomestic and peridomestic environments were searched for triatomines in both the dry and rainy seasons. The prevalence rate of Chagas disease was 1.2% and the majority of individuals confirmed with the disease over 50 years of age. A total of 761 specimens of triatomines were captured, most of which were from colonies composed of nymphs and adult bugs, and the majority of specimens were obtained in the dry season. Triatoma brasiliensis was the predominant species. Analysis using light microscopy revealed that 28.6% of the insects were Trypanosoma cruzi positive. Results suggest that peridomestic man-made structures, such as animal shelters, improper storage of timber and uninhabited dwellings contribute to the high rate of triatomine infestation in the area. PMID:24896053

  2. An entomoepidemiological investigation of Chagas disease in the state of Ceará, Northeast Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Fausto de Souza Coutinho

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The seroprevalence of Chagas disease in humans and the presence of triatomines were investigated in a rural locality in the State of Ceará, Brazil, an historically endemic region. Approximately 80% of the surveyed residents agreed to undergo serological tests. Intradomestic and peridomestic environments were searched for triatomines in both the dry and rainy seasons. The prevalence rate of Chagas disease was 1.2% and the majority of individuals confirmed with the disease over 50 years of age. A total of 761 specimens of triatomines were captured, most of which were from colonies composed of nymphs and adult bugs, and the majority of specimens were obtained in the dry season. Triatoma brasiliensis was the predominant species. Analysis using light microscopy revealed that 28.6% of the insects were Trypanosoma cruzi positive. Results suggest that peridomestic man-made structures, such as animal shelters, improper storage of timber and uninhabited dwellings contribute to the high rate of triatomine infestation in the area.

  3. The Economic Impact of Productive Safety Net Program on Poverty: Microeconometrics Analysis, Tigrai National Regional State, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibrah Hagos Gebresilassie

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at evaluating the impact of productive safety net program on poverty using primary data from randomly selected 600 households in central zone of Tigrai National Regional State, Ethiopia. Propensity Score Matching and Foster-Greer-Thorbecke were used to evaluate impact of the program and poverty, respectively. The paper revealed that the program has positive and significant effect on consumption, livestock holdings, and productive assets. Moreover, impact of the program on total consumption expenditure per adult equivalent was found to be positive and significant. Using total poverty line, poverty rate was lowest among program participants (30.33% than non-participants (31.1%. Highest poverty rate was found among households headed by women (38.42% while households headed by men (23.1%. The study also revealed that the program has positive and significant effect on poverty reduction and protecting productive assets. Finally, it was recommended that female headed program participants based programs should be provided to help boost their agricultural output and reduce endemic poverty.

  4. Size-appropriate radiation doses in pediatric body CT: a study of regional community adoption in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last decade, there has been a movement in the United States toward utilizing size-appropriate radiation doses for pediatric body CT, with smaller doses given to smaller patients. This study assesses community adoption of size-appropriate pediatric CT techniques. Size-specific dose estimates (SSDE) in pediatric body scans are compared between community facilities and a university children's hospital that tailors CT protocols to patient size as advocated by Image Gently. We compared 164 pediatric body scans done at community facilities (group X) with 466 children's hospital scans. Children's hospital scans were divided into two groups: A, 250 performed with established pediatric weight-based protocols and filtered back projection; B, 216 performed with addition of iterative reconstruction technique and a 60% reduction in volume CT dose index (CTDIvol). SSDE was calculated and differences among groups were compared by regression analysis. Mean SSDE was 1.6 and 3.9 times higher in group X than in groups A and B and 2.5 times higher for group A than group B. A model adjusting for confounders confirmed significant differences between group pairs. Regional community hospitals and imaging centers have not universally adopted child-sized pediatric CT practices. More education and accountability may be necessary to achieve widespread implementation. Since even lower radiation doses are possible with iterative reconstruction technique than with filtered back projection alone, further exploration of the former is encouraged. (orig.)

  5. Fitting mathematical models to lactation curves from Holstein cows in the southwestern region of the state of Parana, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Abílio G T; Henrique, Douglas S; Vieira, Ricardo A M; Maeda, Emilyn M; Valotto, Altair A

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate four mathematical models with regards to their fit to lactation curves of Holstein cows from herds raised in the southwestern region of the state of Parana, Brazil. Initially, 42,281 milk production records from 2005 to 2011 were obtained from "Associação Paranaense de Criadores de Bovinos da Raça Holandesa (APCBRH)". Data lacking dates of drying and total milk production at 305 days of lactation were excluded, resulting in a remaining 15,142 records corresponding to 2,441 Holstein cows. Data were sorted according to the parity order (ranging from one to six), and within each parity order the animals were divided into quartiles (Q25%, Q50%, Q75% and Q100%) corresponding to 305-day lactation yield. Within each parity order, for each quartile, four mathematical models were adjusted, two of which were predominantly empirical (Brody and Wood) whereas the other two presented more mechanistic characteristics (models Dijkstra and Pollott). The quality of fit was evaluated by the corrected Akaike information criterion. The Wood model showed the best fit in almost all evaluated situations and, therefore, may be considered as the most suitable model to describe, at least empirically, the lactation curves of Holstein cows raised in Southwestern Parana.

  6. DISTRIBUITION OF 226Ra AND 228Ra IN UNDERGROUND WATER INTO THE SOUTH REGION OF SAO PAULO STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARVALHO DE JESUS, Sueli; CHIRINOS, Hugo;

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Monitor of natural radionuclides in aquatic raw is very important to guaranty the normal control level inthe environmental medium and the human. In this report were available the concentration of 226Ra and 228Ra inCananeia’s underground water, Iguape and Comprida Island into the south region of Sao Paulo state, by grossalpha and beta counting method. The concentration of 226Ra was variety into the interval 0.80 to 23 mBqL-1 inApril/2009 (rain period and into the interval 0.63 to 12 mBqL -1in August/2009 (dried period. The concentrationof 228Ra was variety into the interval 18 to 39 mBqL-1 in April/2009 and into the interval 15 to 72 mBqL-1 inAugust/2009. The Activities ratio of 228Ra/226Ra was variety into the interval 3.3 to 31.7 at rain period and 1.1 to26.7 at dried period. To compare the yield values of 226Ra and 228Ra these show high activity of the 228Raisotope. The calculate dose no arising the reference of effective dose level available by WHO.

  7. Experience with WASP among IAEA Member States participating in the Regional Co-operative Agreement (RCA) in Asia and the Pacific Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document contains the proceedings and the 15 papers presented during the Regional Co-operative Agreement (RCA) Workshop on the WASP Computer Program held in Jakarta, Indonesia, 7-11 December 1987. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper. Refs, figs and tabs

  8. 76 FR 35017 - United States et al. v. United Regional Health Care System; Public Comments and Response on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ... effectively prevented insurers from contracting with United Regional's competitors (``exclusionary contracts... entry of its competitors, likely leading to higher health-care costs and higher health insurance... competitors. The Complaint sought to enjoin United Regional from entering exclusionary contracts with...

  9. Knowledge and use of wildlife by hunters in the Brazilian semiarid region: a case study in Paraíba State

    OpenAIRE

    José Aécio Alves Barbosa; José Otávio Aguiar

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken in a traditional community in the semiarid region of Paraíba State, Northeastern Brazil, with the purpose of registering the main animal species hunted and evaluating the implications of these practices in terms of the conservation of local fauna. A total of 78 species of wild tetrapod vertebrates were cited by 24 interviewees as being hunted in the region. These animals were separated into four different animals groups (mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians...

  10. Demograficheskie problemy Pskovskoj oblasti i osnovnye napravlenija ih reshenija regional'nymi organami gosudarstvennoj vlasti [The demographic problems of the Pskov region and the main approaches to solving them at the level of the regional state authorities

    OpenAIRE

    Yelsukov Mikhail; Kashina Marina; Klyuev Anatoli

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the demographic problems of the Pskov region. The authors propose a system of government regulation of demographic processes in view of the functions of the regional executive authorities.

  11. Current State of Economic Returns from Education in China's Ethnic Regions and Explorations into Ways of Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lijun, Zhang; Fei, Wang

    2010-01-01

    Economic development and social progress in China's ethnic minority regions depend on improvements in population attributes brought about by education. Developing education in China's ethnic regions is a project of fundamental significance for realizing sustainable economic and social development in the ethnic regions. Improving the economic…

  12. The Common Occurrence of Highly Supercooled Drizzle and Rain near the Coastal Regions of the Western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenfeld, Daniel; Chemke, Rei; DeMott, Paul J.; Sullivan, Ryan C.; Rasmussen, R M.; McDonough, Frank; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Jonsson, Haf; Suski, Kaitlyn; Cazorla, Alberto; Prather, Kimberly

    2013-09-05

    The formation of highly supercooled rain was documented by aircraft observations in clouds at a wide range of conditions near the coastal region of the western United States. Several case studies are described in detail using combined cloud and aerosol measurements to document both the highly super-cooled condition and the relatively pristine aerosol conditions under which it forms. The case studies include: (1) Marine convective clouds over the coastal waters of northern California, as measured by cloud physics probes flown on a Gulfstream-1 aircraft during the CALWATER campaign in February and early March 2011. The clouds had extensive drizzle in their tops, which extended downward to the 0°C isotherm as supercooled rain. Ice multiplication was observed only in mature parts of the clouds where cloud water was already depleted. (2) Orographically triggered convective clouds in marine air mass over the foothills of the Sierra Nevada to the east of Sacramento, as measured in CALWATER. Supercooled rain was observed down to -21°C. No indications for ice multiplication were evident. (3) Orographic layer clouds over Yosemite National Park, also measured in CALWATER. The clouds had extensive drizzle at -21°C, which intensified with little freezing lower in the cloud, and (4) Supercooled drizzle drops in layer clouds near Juneau, Alaska, as measured by the Wyoming King Air as part of a FAA project to study aircraft icing in this region. Low concentrations of CCN was a common observation in all these clouds, allowing for the formation of clouds with small concentration of large drops that coalesced into supercooled drizzle and raindrops. Another common observation was the absence of ice nuclei and/or ice crystals in measurable concentrations was associated with the persistent supercooled drizzle and rain. Average ice crystal concentrations were 0.007 l-1 at the top of convective clouds at -12°C and 0.03 l-1 in the case of layer clouds at -21°C. In combination these

  13. Pennsylvanian mixed plataform deposits of the Amazonas Basin, Uruará region, state of Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Augusto Santos da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbonate rocks are widely reported in the west and center-west regions of the state of Pará, south edge of the Amazon Basin, corresponding to the Neocarboniferous period. These deposits are included in the Pennsylvanian-Permian sequence, corresponding to a second order super sequence represented by the Tapajós Group. The Itaituba Formation corresponds to the transgressive portion preceding the expressive continentalization and formation of Pangaea. The unit consists of fossiliferous carbonates, cross-stratified sandstones and subordinate shales and evaporites, associated with coastal marine environments. Nineteen facies and microfacies were grouped into five facies associations corresponding to tidal flat deposits (FA1, tidal channel (FA2, lagoon (FA3, bioclastic bar (FA4 and outer platform (FA5. The FA1 comprises cycles of subaerial exposure with formation of mud cracks and subaqueous deposition, composed of dolomitic breccia, laminated fine dolostone and terrigenous dolomudstone, separated by a layer of pyritic massive sandstone and thin dolomite silicified. The FA2 is composed of fine sandstone with cross rolling straight base and pelitic coating on the sets with synsedimentary faulting, siltstones cross-lamination with a predominance of mud and synsedimentary faulting, marl with cross-lamination and cross-bedded coarse sandstones with politic coating on the sets. The FA3 consists of massive reddish siltstones, mudstones fossiliferous, brachiopods floatstone and black shale massive with pyrite. The FA4 is mainly represented by fossiliferous oolitic grainstone and grainstone with terrigenous with abundant fossils of brachiopods, echinoderms, bivalves, mollusks, and secondly by arthropods, bryozoans and foraminifera. The FA5 is associated with a platform, composed of fossiliferous wackestone, fossiliferous wackestone with terrigenous and massive mudstone. The fossiliferous assembly is represented by foraminifera, brachiopods, bivalves and

  14. Clinical indicators of child development in the capitals of nine Brazilian states: the influence of regional cultural factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Laranjeira de Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Evaluating the interaction between mother or caregiver and infant through the Clinical Indicators of Risks in Infant Development and investigating whether local and cultural influences during infant development affect these clinical indicators. INTRODUCTION: The Clinical Indicators of Risks in Infant Development was created in order to fully assess infants' development and the subjective relationship between the babies and their caregivers. The absence of two or more Clinical Indicators of Risks in Infant Developments suggests a possibly inadequate mental development. Given the continental size of Brazil and its accentuated cultural differences, one might question how trustworthy these indicators can be when applied to each of the geographical regions of the country. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study with 737 infants from the capitals of 9 Brazilian states. The size of the initial sample population was based on a pilot study carried out in the cities of São Paulo and Brasília. The ages of children were grouped: 0-3 months, 4-7 months, 8-11 months and 12-18 months. The chi-square test was used together with analyses by the statistical software SPSS 13.0. RESULTS: Statistical analysis of results from the different municipalities against the total sample did not reveal any statistically significant differences. Municipalities represented were Belém (p=0.486, Brasília (p=0.371, Porto Alegre (p=0.987, Fortaleza (p=0.259, Recife (p=0.630, Salvador (0.370, São Paulo (p=0.238, Curitiba (p=0.870, and Rio de Janeiro (p= 0.06. DISCUSSION: Care for mental development should be considered a public health issue. Its evaluation and follow-up should be part of the already available mother-child assistance programs, which would then be considered to provide "full" care to children. CONCLUSIONS: Local habits and culture did not affect the results of the Clinical Indicators of Risks in Infant Development indicators. Clinical Indicators of

  15. The regional distribution and correlates of an entrepreneurship-prone personality profile in the United States, Germany, and the United Kingdom: a socioecological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obschonka, Martin; Schmitt-Rodermund, Eva; Silbereisen, Rainer K; Gosling, Samuel D; Potter, Jeff

    2013-07-01

    In recent years the topic of entrepreneurship has become a major focus in the social sciences, with renewed interest in the links between personality and entrepreneurship. Taking a socioecological perspective to psychology, which emphasizes the role of social habitats and their interactions with mind and behavior, we investigated regional variation in and correlates of an entrepreneurship-prone Big Five profile. Specifically, we analyzed personality data collected from over half a million U.S. residents (N = 619,397) as well as public archival data on state-level entrepreneurial activity (i.e., business-creation and self-employment rates). Results revealed that an entrepreneurship-prone personality profile is regionally clustered. This geographical distribution corresponds to the pattern that can be observed when mapping entrepreneurial activity across the United States. Indeed, the state-level correlation (N = 51) between an entrepreneurial personality structure and entrepreneurial activity was positive in direction, substantial in magnitude, and robust even when controlling for regional economic prosperity. These correlations persisted at the level of U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (N = 15) and were replicated in independent German (N = 19,842; 14 regions) and British (N = 15,617; 12 regions) samples. In contrast to these profile-based analyses, an analysis linking the individual Big Five dimensions to regional measures of entrepreneurial activity did not yield consistent findings. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings for interdisciplinary theory development and practical applications. PMID:23586410

  16. The regional distribution and correlates of an entrepreneurship-prone personality profile in the United States, Germany, and the United Kingdom: a socioecological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obschonka, Martin; Schmitt-Rodermund, Eva; Silbereisen, Rainer K; Gosling, Samuel D; Potter, Jeff

    2013-07-01

    In recent years the topic of entrepreneurship has become a major focus in the social sciences, with renewed interest in the links between personality and entrepreneurship. Taking a socioecological perspective to psychology, which emphasizes the role of social habitats and their interactions with mind and behavior, we investigated regional variation in and correlates of an entrepreneurship-prone Big Five profile. Specifically, we analyzed personality data collected from over half a million U.S. residents (N = 619,397) as well as public archival data on state-level entrepreneurial activity (i.e., business-creation and self-employment rates). Results revealed that an entrepreneurship-prone personality profile is regionally clustered. This geographical distribution corresponds to the pattern that can be observed when mapping entrepreneurial activity across the United States. Indeed, the state-level correlation (N = 51) between an entrepreneurial personality structure and entrepreneurial activity was positive in direction, substantial in magnitude, and robust even when controlling for regional economic prosperity. These correlations persisted at the level of U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (N = 15) and were replicated in independent German (N = 19,842; 14 regions) and British (N = 15,617; 12 regions) samples. In contrast to these profile-based analyses, an analysis linking the individual Big Five dimensions to regional measures of entrepreneurial activity did not yield consistent findings. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings for interdisciplinary theory development and practical applications.

  17. Regional homogeneity changes in hemodialysis patients with end stage renal disease: in vivo resting-state functional MRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Li

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To prospectively investigate and detect early cerebral regional homogeneity (ReHo changes in neurologically asymptomatic patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD using in vivo resting-state functional MR imaging (Rs-fMRI. METHODS: We enrolled 20 patients (15 men, 5 women; meanage, 37.1 years; range, 19-49 years with ESRD and 20 healthy controls (15 men, 5 women; mean age, 38.3 years; range, 28-49 years. The mean duration of hemodialysis for the patient group was 10.7±6.4 monthes. There was no significant sex or age difference between the ESRD and control groups. Rs-fMRI was performed using a gradient-echo echo-planar imaging sequence. ReHo was calculated using software (DPARSF. Voxel-based analysis of the ReHo maps between ESRD and control groups was performed with a two-samples t test. Statistical maps were set at P value less than 0.05 and were corrected for multiple comparisons. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE was administered to all participants at imaging. RESULTS: ReHo values were increased in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus and left medial frontal gyrus in the ERSD group compared with controls, but a significantly decreased ReHo value was found in the right middle temporal gyrus. There was no significant correlation between ReHo values and the duration of hemodialysis in the ESRD group. Both the patients and control subjects had normal MMSE scores (≥28. CONCLUSIONS: Our finding revealed that abnormal brain activity was distributed mainly in the memory and cognition related cotices in patients with ESRD. The abnormal spontaneous neuronal activity in those areas provide information on the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive impairment in patients with ESRD, and demonstrate that Rs-fMRI with ReHo analysis is a useful non-invasive imaging tool for the detection of early cerebral ReHo changes in hemodialysis patients with ESRD.

  18. Regional Reproducibility of BOLD Calibration Parameter M, OEF and Resting-State CMRO2 Measurements with QUO2 MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajoie, Isabelle; Tancredi, Felipe B.; Hoge, Richard D.

    2016-01-01

    The current generation of calibrated MRI methods goes beyond simple localization of task-related responses to allow the mapping of resting-state cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) in micromolar units and estimation of oxygen extraction fraction (OEF). Prior to the adoption of such techniques in neuroscience research applications, knowledge about the precision and accuracy of absolute estimates of CMRO2 and OEF is crucial and remains unexplored to this day. In this study, we addressed the question of methodological precision by assessing the regional inter-subject variance and intra-subject reproducibility of the BOLD calibration parameter M, OEF, O2 delivery and absolute CMRO2 estimates derived from a state-of-the-art calibrated BOLD technique, the QUantitative O2 (QUO2) approach. We acquired simultaneous measurements of CBF and R2* at rest and during periods of hypercapnia (HC) and hyperoxia (HO) on two separate scan sessions within 24 hours using a clinical 3 T MRI scanner. Maps of M, OEF, oxygen delivery and CMRO2, were estimated from the measured end-tidal O2, CBF0, CBFHC/HO and R2*HC/HO. Variability was assessed by computing the between-subject coefficients of variation (bwCV) and within-subject CV (wsCV) in seven ROIs. All tests GM-averaged values of CBF0, M, OEF, O2 delivery and CMRO2 were: 49.5 ± 6.4 mL/100 g/min, 4.69 ± 0.91%, 0.37 ± 0.06, 377 ± 51 μmol/100 g/min and 143 ± 34 μmol/100 g/min respectively. The variability of parameter estimates was found to be the lowest when averaged throughout all GM, with general trends toward higher CVs when averaged over smaller regions. Among the MRI measurements, the most reproducible across scans was R2*0 (wsCVGM = 0.33%) along with CBF0 (wsCVGM = 3.88%) and R2*HC (wsCVGM = 6.7%). CBFHC and R2*HO were found to have a higher intra-subject variability (wsCVGM = 22.4% and wsCVGM = 16% respectively), which is likely due to propagation of random measurement errors, especially for CBFHC due to the low

  19. [Impact and state of the art of regional healthcare planning and management guidelines in a local health authority of the Lazio region (Italy)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priori, Maria Rosaria; Barbato, Angelo

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of health care planning and management guidelines, elaborated by the Lazio regional healthcare authority, on the organizational structure and operational processes of local health authorities and, more specifically, of the Roma C local health authority. The guidelines are made up of three volumes and mainly describe an operational model, rather than being a set of standard references aimed at standardizing the quality of information low systems in local healthcare authorities. The guidelines are essentially a didactic text, and were elaborated by a consulting firm, Engineering Management Consulting, on behalf of the Lazio regional authority. In the first section, the main concepts are defined, while in subsequent sections, detailed models regarding the specific subject matter are described. Although the guidelines represent a useful tool in the process of converting local health authorities of the Lazio region into "business" organizations, so far they have been of use only in the first phase of assessment of different organizational models for healthcare planning and management. There is still a long way ahead towards defining standard procedures and references for describing activities and costs. This is what should hopefully be achieved briefly and which will necessarily require the introduction of a data warehouse and business intelligence software that will allow monitoring of activities and making short term predictions through the use balanced scorecards and data mining. PMID:18084348

  20. Sources of atmospheric acidity in an agricultural-industrial region of São Paulo State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Rocha, G. O.; Franco, A.; Allen, A. G.; Cardoso, A. A.

    2003-04-01

    Surface-based measurements of atmospheric formic acid (HCOOH), acetic acid (CH3COOH), sulfur dioxide (SO2), hydrogen chloride (HCl), and nitric acid (HNO3) were made in central São Paulo State, Brazil, between April 1999 and March 2000. Mean concentrations were 9.0 ppb (HCOOH), 1.3 ppb (CH3COOH), 4.9 ppb (SO2), 0.3 ppb (HCl), and 0.5 ppb (HNO3). Concentrations in sugar cane burning plumes were 1160-4230 ppb (HCOOH), 360-1750 ppb (CH3COOH), 10-630 ppb (SO2), 4-210 ppb (HCl), and 14-90 ppb (HNO3). Higher ambient concentrations of SO2, HCl and HNO3 were measured during the burning season (May-November). Concentrations of SO2 and HCl increased during the evening, and of HCOOH and CH3COOH were lowest in the morning, with peak levels in the afternoon. Ratios obtained between different species showed either nighttime maxima (SO2/HCOOH, SO2/CH3COOH, SO2/HNO3, CH3COOH/HNO3, SO2/HCl and HCOOH/HNO3), daytime maxima (HCOOH/HCl, CH3COOH/HCl and HNO3/HCl), or no clear trends (HCOOH/CH3COOH). Correlation analysis showed that SO2 and HCl were primary emissions from biomass burning and road transport; HCOOH, HNO3 and CH3COOH were products of photochemistry; HCOOH and CH3COOH were emitted directly during combustion as well as from biogenic sources. Biomass burning affected atmospheric acidity on a regional scale, while vehicular emissions had greater impact in urban and adjacent areas. Atmospheric ammonia levels were insufficient to neutralize atmospheric acidity, which was mainly removed by deposition to the surface.

  1. Regional flexibility in the S4-S5 linker regulates hERG channel closed-state stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Christina M; Sokolov, Stanislav; Van Slyke, Aaron C; Claydon, Tom W

    2014-10-01

    hERG K(+) channel function is vital for normal cardiac rhythm, yet the mechanisms underlying the unique biophysical characteristics of the channel, such as slow activation and deactivation gating, are incompletely understood. The S4-S5 linker is thought to transduce voltage sensor movement to opening of the pore gate, but may also integrate signals from cytoplasmic domains. Previously, we showed that substitutions of G546 within the S4-S5 linker destabilize the closed state of the channel. Here, we present results of a glycine-scan in the background of 546L. We demonstrate site-specific restoration of WT-like activation which suggests that flexibility in the N-terminal portion of the S4-S5 linker is critical for the voltage dependence of hERG channel activation. In addition, we show that the voltage dependence of deactivation, which was recently shown to be left-shifted from that of activation due to voltage sensor mode-shift, is also modulated by the S4-S5 linker. The G546L mutation greatly attenuated the coupling of voltage sensor mode-shift to the pore gate without altering the mode-shift itself. Indeed, all of the S4-S5 linker mutations tested similarly reduced coupling of the mode-shift to the pore gate. These data demonstrate a key role for S4-S5 linker in the unique activation and deactivation gating of hERG channels. Furthermore, uncoupling of the mode-shift to the pore by S4-S5 linker mutations parallels the effects of mutations in the N-terminus suggestive of functional interactions between the two regions.

  2. Plant community and ecological analysis of woodland vegetation in Metema Area, Amhara National Regional State, Northwestern Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haile Adamu Wale; Tamrat Bekele; Gemedo Dalle

    2012-01-01

    We studied woodland vegetation in broad-leaved deciduous woodlands of Metema in northwestern Amhara regional state,Ethiopia to determine plant community types and species distribution patterns and their relationships with environmental variables,including altitude,pH,cation exchange capacity,electrical conductivity (EC),and moisture.We used a selective approach with a systematic sampling design.A total of 74 quadrats,each 25m × 25m at intervals of 150-200 m were sampled along the established transect lines.For herbaceous vegetation and soil data collection,five subquadrats each 1m × 1m were established at the four corners and the center of each quadrat.Three community types were identified using TWINSPAN analysis.All three community types showed high diversity (Shannon-Weiner index),the highest in community type Ⅱ at 3.55.The highest similarity coefficient was 0.49 (49%) between community types Ⅱ and Ⅲ,reflecting 0.51 (51%) dissimilarity in their species richness.The canonical correspondence ordination diagram revealed that the distribution pattern of community type Ⅰ was explained by moisture while that of community types Ⅲ and Ⅱ was explained by EC and altitude and moisture,respectively.Altitude was the most statistically significant environmental variable,followed by moisture and EC in determining the total variation in species composition and distribution patterns while pH and cation exchange capacity were non significant.In conclusion,we recommend that any intervention should take into account these three discrete community types and their environmental settings to make the intervention more successful.

  3. Floristic diversity, regeneration status, and vegetation structure of woodlands in Metema Area, Amhara National Regional State, Northwestern Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haile Adamu Wale; Tamrat Bekele; Gemedo Dalle

    2012-01-01

    We studied woodland vegetation in broad-leaved deciduous woodlands of Metema in northwestern Amhara regional state,Ethiopia Our objective was to describe plant species composition,diversity,regeneration status,and population structure by a selective approach with a systematic sampling design.A total of 74 quadrats (each for 25 m × 25 m,spaced at intervals of 150-200 m) were sampled along established transect lines following the homogeneity of the vegetation.Vegetation data including cover-abundance,height,diameter at breast height (DBH),and numbers of seedlings and saplings of woody species were analyzed using Excel spreadsheet,Shannon Weiner diversity index,and PAST version 1.62.A total of 87 vascular plant species of 74 genera and 36 families were recorded.The dominant family was Fabaceae represented by 16 (18.39 %) species of 13 genera.Shannon Weiner diversity and evenness were 3.67 and 0.82,respectively,which showed that the area was endowed with rich floral diversity evenly distributed.The vegetation structure,as quantified by cumulative diameter class frequency distribution,plotted as an interrupted inverted-J- shape pattern with a sharp decrease in the 2nd diameter class.This indicated poor vegetation structure.The diameter classes frequency distributions of selected species plotted in four general patterns i.e.,interrupted Inverted-J-shape,J-shape,Bell-shape and Irregular-shape.In conclusion,although the area showel high floral diversity and evenness,woody species including Sterculea setigera,Boswellia papyrifera,and Pterocarpus lucens showed lowest recruitment of seedlings and saplings.

  4. Cost-Effectiveness of Blood Donor Screening for Babesia microti in Endemic Regions of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Matthew S.; Leff, Jared A.; Pandya, Ankur; Cushing, Melissa; Shaz, Beth H.; Calfee, David P.; Schackman, Bruce R.; Mushlin, Alvin I.

    2014-01-01

    Background Babesia microti is the leading reported cause of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion-transmitted infection in the United States (US). Donor screening assays are in development. Study Design and Methods A decision analytic model estimated the cost-effectiveness of screening strategies for preventing transfusion-transmitted babesiosis (TTB) in a hypothetical cohort of transfusion recipients in Babesia-endemic areas of the US. Strategies included: (1) No screening, (2) Uniform Donor Health History Questionnaire (UDHQ), “status quo”, (3) Recipient risk-targeting using donor antibody (Ab) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening, (4) Universal endemic donor Ab screening, (5) Universal endemic donor Ab and PCR screening. Outcome measures were TTB cases averted, costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios ($/QALY). We assumed a societal willingness to pay of $1 million/QALY based on screening for other transfusion-transmitted infections. Results Compared to no screening, the UDHQ avoids 0.02 TTB cases per 100,000 RBC transfusions at an incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $160,000/QALY whereas recipient risk-targeted strategy using Ab/PCR avoids 1.62 TTB cases per 100,000 RBC transfusions at an ICER of $713,000/QALY compared to the UDHQ. Universal endemic Ab screening avoids 3.39 cases at an ICER of $760,000/QALY compared to the recipient-risk targeted strategy. Universal endemic Ab/PCR screening avoids 3.60 cases and has an ICER of $8.8 million/QALY compared to universal endemic Ab screening. Results are sensitive to blood donor Babesia prevalence, TTB transmission probability, screening test costs, risk and severity of TTB complications, and impact of babesiosis diagnosis on donor quality of life. Conclusion Antibody screening for Babesia in endemic regions is appropriate from an economic perspective based on the societal willingness to pay for preventing infectious threats to blood safety. PMID

  5. Examination of the Regional Supply and Demand Balance for Renewable Electricity in the United States through 2015: Projecting from 2009 through 2015 (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Hurlbut, D.; Donohoo, P.; Cory, K.; Kreycik, C.

    2010-06-01

    This report examines the balance between the demand and supply of new renewable electricity in the United States on a regional basis through 2015. It expands on a 2007 NREL study that assessed the supply and demand balance on a national basis. As with the earlier study, this analysis relies on estimates of renewable energy supplies compared to demand for renewable energy generation needed to meet existing state renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies in 28 states, as well as demand by consumers who voluntarily purchase renewable energy. However, it does not address demand by utilities that may procure cost-effective renewables through an integrated resource planning process or otherwise.

  6. Turkey's role as a regional and global player and its power capacity: Turkey's engagement with other emerging states

    OpenAIRE

    Aylin Gürzel

    2014-01-01

    Turkey's role as a regional power has increased since Justice and Development Party (AKP) came to power. AKP leadership not only aspired to become a regional power but also a global player. Turkey has, therefore, assumed different roles: the "natural leader" of the region; a historical "big brother;" and the "protector" of the Muslim minorities. Turkey has also assumed a "mediator" and a "facilitator" role by trying to negotiate a deal with an emerging power such as Brazil in order to attempt...

  7. Origin of late dolomite cement by CO2-saturated deep basin brines: evidence from the Ozark region, central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, D.L.; Plumlee, G.S.; Hofstra, A.H.; Landis, G.P.; Rowan, E.L.; Viets, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    Studies of fluid inclusions in regionally extensive late dolomite cement (LDC) throughout the Ozark region show that CO2 effervescence was widespread during dolomite precipitation. LDC with trace amounts of sulfides can be deposited by effervescences of a CO2-saturated basin brine as it migrates to shallower levels and lower conifning pressures. This precipitation mechanism best explains occurrences of LDC in the Ozark region and may account for LDC in the Ozark region and may account for LDC found in sedimentary basins worldwide. -from Authors

  8. Online Course Use in New York High Schools: Results from a Survey in the Greater Capital Region. REL 2015-074. Stated Briefly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Margaret; Pazzaglia, Angela M.; Zweig, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    This "Stated Briefly" report is a companion piece that summarizes the results of another report of the same name. The goal of the study conducted by the Regional Educational Laboratory Northeast and Islands' Northeast Rural Districts Research Alliance (NRDRA) was to provide information about how and why high schools in the Greater…

  9. The Effects of a Parenting Program on Parenting Practices and Student Misconduct in a Low Performing Elementary School in the Northeastern Region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louissaint, Guirlene

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a parent-training program on parenting practices and children's misconduct in a predominately low performing school in the Northeastern region of the United States. The study included 26 parents of children in kindergarten through third grade. The participants were predominately African…

  10. Quantification of regional ventilation in humans using a short-lived radiotracer--theoretical evaluation of the steady-state model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accuracy of the steady-state measurement of ventilation by means of a short-lived insoluble inert gas tracer rests with the validity of the steady-state flow equation. This has previously been applied to the qualitative assessment of regional ventilation using krypton-81m, but may potentially be used for the calculation of regional alveolar ventilation per unit alveolar gas volume--(VA/VA)cal--from measurements of the alveolar concentration of the tracer. The steady-state alveolar tracer concentration was calculated for the course of a breathing cycle, using a lung model featuring airways dead space and tidal gas flow. The calculations were made by computer simulations of a lung, characterized by predefined values of parameters describing the lung structure and the mode of ventilation. In the normal lung of supine man at rest (specific alveolar ventilation, ranging from 1.0 to 3.5 min-1) the errors of (VA/VA)cal relative to the predefined true values range from an overestimation by some 3% in the low ventilation regions to an underestimation by 8% in the best ventilated regions. The errors mainly result from ventilation of the airways dead space, which will influence the distribution of tracer in the lung by the transfer of tracer between regions by way of the common dead space and by the decay of tracer during its transport through the bronchial tree

  11. New Mexico Southwest Regional Geothermal Development Operations Research Project. Appendix 9 of regional operations research program for development of geothermal energy in the Southwest United States. Final technical report, June 1977--August 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Thomas A.; Fedor, Dennis

    1979-01-01

    This final report describes the findings and conclusions of the New Mexico Team during the first project year of the Southwest Regional Geothermal Development Operations Research Project. The purpose of this project is to help realize a goal of the USDOE , Division of Geothermal Energy (DOE/DGE), to accelerate the actual commercial utilization of geothermal energy. This was done by: (1) identifying the potential for development of geothermal energy in the five-state regions of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Nevada and Utah; and (2) identifying the actions needed to accomplish that development.

  12. Problem of two-level hierarchical minimax program control the final state of regional social and economic system in the presence of risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discusses a discrete-time dynamical system consisting of a set a controllable objects (region and forming it municipalities). The dynamics each of these is described by the corresponding vector nonlinear discrete-time recurrent vector equations and its control system consist from two levels: basic (control level I) that is dominating and subordinate level (control level II). Both levels have different criterions of functioning and united a priori by determined informational and control connections defined in advance. In this paper we study the problem of optimization of guaranteed result for program control by the final state of regional social and economic system in the presence of risks. For this problem we proposed in this work an economical and mathematical model of two-level hierarchical minimax program control the final state of regional social and economic system in the presence of risks and the general scheme for its solving

  13. Problem of two-level hierarchical minimax program control the final state of regional social and economic system in the presence of risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shorikov, A. F., E-mail: afshorikov@mail.ru [Ural Federal University, 19 S. Mira, Ekaterinburg, 620002, Russia Institute of Mathematics and Mechanics, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 16 S. Kovalevskaya, Ekaterinburg, 620990 (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-30

    This article discusses a discrete-time dynamical system consisting of a set a controllable objects (region and forming it municipalities). The dynamics each of these is described by the corresponding vector nonlinear discrete-time recurrent vector equations and its control system consist from two levels: basic (control level I) that is dominating and subordinate level (control level II). Both levels have different criterions of functioning and united a priori by determined informational and control connections defined in advance. In this paper we study the problem of optimization of guaranteed result for program control by the final state of regional social and economic system in the presence of risks. For this problem we proposed in this work an economical and mathematical model of two-level hierarchical minimax program control the final state of regional social and economic system in the presence of risks and the general scheme for its solving.

  14. Comparison of dietary selenium fed to grower-finisher pigs from various regions of the United States on resulting tissue Se and loin mineral concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, D C; Brendemuhl, J H; Carter, S D; Chiba, L I; Crenshaw, T D; Cromwell, G L; Dove, C R; Harper, A F; Hill, G M; Hollis, G R; Kim, S W; Lindemann, M D; Maxwell, C V; Miller, P S; Nelssen, J L; Richert, B T; Southern, L L; Stahly, T S; Stein, H H; van Heugten, E; Yen, J T

    2005-04-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the mineral content of pork tissue with particular emphasis on Se between various states (regions) having different diet (grain) indigenous Se concentrations. The study involved 19 states in the north, central, and southern regions of the United States, with committee members of NCR-42 and S-1012 (formerly S-288). A total of 62 pigs were used, with collaborators sending 100-g samples each of loin, heart, and liver, and a 3- to 4-g sample of hair (collected along the topline) from two to five market-weight pigs to a common laboratory for analysis. Diets at each station were formulated with locally purchased soybean meal and grain that was either grown or normally fed to pigs within their state. Tissues were analyzed for Se, but only the loin was analyzed for the macro- and micromineral elements. Correlation of dietary minerals to the tissue element was determined. The results demonstrated differences in tissue Se among states (P 0.90; P United States and west of the Mississippi river had higher dietary Se and tissue Se concentrations than states in the eastern section of the Corn Belt, east of the Mississippi river, and along the East Coast. Generally, states did not differ greatly in their loin macro- and micromineral concentrations. The simple correlation of dietary minerals to their corresponding loin mineral concentration was generally non-significant, but most macrominerals had decreasing mineral concentrations when the dietary mineral level was higher. These results indicate that regional differences in tissue Se were influenced more by the indigenous Se content of the diet (grain) fed to the pigs than from sodium selenite. PMID:15753340

  15. Regional cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in patients with ischemic stroke studied with high resolution pet and the O-15 labelled gas steady-state method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) studies have considerably increased pathophysiological knowledge in ischemic cerebrovascular disease, sometimes the results of such studies do not correlate with neurological abnormalities observed in the subjects being examined. Because regional neuronal activities always couple to the regional energy metabolism of brain tissue, simultaneous observation of rCBF and regional energy metabolism, such as regional oxygen consumption (rCMRO/sub 2/) and regional glucose consumption (rCMRG1), will provide greater understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease than rCBF study alone. Positron emission tomography (PET) using the 0-15 labelled gas steady-state method offers simultaneous measurement of rCBF and rCMRO/sub 2/ in vivo, and demonstrates imbalance between rCBF and rCMRO/sub 2/ in an ischemic lesion in a human brain. However, clinical PET studies in ischemic cerebrovascular disease reported previously, have been carried out using low resolution (more than 15 mm in the full width at half maximum; FWHM) PET. This report presents preliminary results using a high resolution tomograph; Headtome III and 0-15 labelled gas steady state method to investigate ischemic cerebrovascular disease

  16. Markov models of the apo-MDM2 lid region reveal diffuse yet two-state binding dynamics and receptor poses for computational docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sudipto; Pantelopulos, George A; Voelz, Vincent A

    2016-01-01

    MDM2 is a negative regulator of p53 activity and an important target for cancer therapeutics. The N-terminal lid region of MDM2 modulates interactions with p53 via competition for its binding cleft, exchanging slowly between docked and undocked conformations in the absence of p53. To better understand these dynamics, we constructed Markov State Models (MSMs) from large collections of unbiased simulation trajectories of apo-MDM2, and find strong evidence for diffuse, yet two-state folding and binding of the N-terminal region to the p53 receptor site. The MSM also identifies holo-like receptor conformations highly suitable for computational docking, despite initiating trajectories from closed-cleft receptor structures unsuitable for docking. Fixed-anchor docking studies using a test set of high-affinity small molecules and peptides show simulated receptor ensembles achieve docking successes comparable to cross-docking studies using crystal structures of receptors bound by alternative ligands. For p53, the best-scoring receptor structures have the N-terminal region lid region bound in a helical conformation mimicking the bound structure of p53, suggesting lid region association induces receptor conformations suitable for binding. These results suggest that MD + MSM approaches can sample binding-competent receptor conformations suitable for computational peptidomimetic design, and that inclusion of disordered regions may be essential to capturing the correct receptor dynamics. PMID:27538695

  17. Markov models of the apo-MDM2 lid region reveal diffuse yet two-state binding dynamics and receptor poses for computational docking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sudipto; Pantelopulos, George A.; Voelz, Vincent A.

    2016-08-01

    MDM2 is a negative regulator of p53 activity and an important target for cancer therapeutics. The N-terminal lid region of MDM2 modulates interactions with p53 via competition for its binding cleft, exchanging slowly between docked and undocked conformations in the absence of p53. To better understand these dynamics, we constructed Markov State Models (MSMs) from large collections of unbiased simulation trajectories of apo-MDM2, and find strong evidence for diffuse, yet two-state folding and binding of the N-terminal region to the p53 receptor site. The MSM also identifies holo-like receptor conformations highly suitable for computational docking, despite initiating trajectories from closed-cleft receptor structures unsuitable for docking. Fixed-anchor docking studies using a test set of high-affinity small molecules and peptides show simulated receptor ensembles achieve docking successes comparable to cross-docking studies using crystal structures of receptors bound by alternative ligands. For p53, the best-scoring receptor structures have the N-terminal region lid region bound in a helical conformation mimicking the bound structure of p53, suggesting lid region association induces receptor conformations suitable for binding. These results suggest that MD + MSM approaches can sample binding-competent receptor conformations suitable for computational peptidomimetic design, and that inclusion of disordered regions may be essential to capturing the correct receptor dynamics.

  18. State Boundaries, Kauai State and Regional Land, Published in 2004, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, U.S. Geological Survey.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This State Boundaries dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2004. It is described as...

  19. State Boundaries, Hawaii (Big Island) State and Regional Land, Published in 2004, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, U.S. Geological Survey.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This State Boundaries dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2004. It is described as...

  20. Bovine cysticercosis and its food safety implications in Harari People’s National Regional State, eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yitagele Terefe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Taenia saginata cysticercosis is one of the zoonotic diseases that threaten food safety and food security, particularly in developing countries. A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and cyst distribution in infected cattle, and food safety implications of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in Harari People’s National Regional State, eastern Ethiopia. Post-mortem inspection of carcasses and organs of slaughtered cattle in Harar Municipal Abattoir, cyst viability tests and interviews with randomly selected meat consumers were undertaken. The post-mortem inspection showed that of the 898 local zebu cattle slaughtered for human consumption and examined for the presence of cysticerci of T. saginata, 19.7% (177/898; 95% CI = 17.2–22.5 harboured at least one cyst in the muscles or organs inspected. Of the edible anatomical sites with cysticerci, shoulder muscle, liver and heart together represented 65.4%, 66.0% and 65.4% respectively of relative prevalence, total cyst count and cyst viability. These edible sites are preferred above others by local people for preparation and consumption of raw or inadequately cooked meat dishes that are locally served as kurt, kitffo and dullet. The interviews revealed that among the 300 study participants, 182 (60.7% had been infected by taeniosis at least once during the previous year and of these 99.0% had eaten raw or undercooked beef, the majority (88.3% obtained from butchers assumed to provide officially inspected meat that was fit for consumption. This indicated that existing meat inspection processes were inadequate to prevent carcasses infected with T. saginata cysticerci from reaching consumers. The high prevalence of viable cysts in the edible parts of beef together with the widespread consumption of raw or undercooked beef indicated the importance of T. saginata cysticercosis as a food safety problem in eastern Ethiopia. The promotion of policies to upgrade existing meat

  1. Dynamic model of minimax control over economic security state of the region in the presence of risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Fedorovich Shorikov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigation and solution of management of economic security state in the region (MESSR requires development of a dynamic economic-mathematical model that takes into account the presence of control actions, uncontrolled parameters (risk modeling errors, etc. and availability of information deficit. At the same time, the existing approaches to solving such problems are based primarily on static models and the use of stochastic modeling of the device, which is required for the application of knowledge of the probability characteristics of the main model parameters and special conditions for the realization of the process. We should note that to use the apparatus of stochastic modeling, very strict conditions are required, which in practice are usually not feasible in advance In this paper, we propose to use a deterministic approach for modeling and solving the original problem in the form of a dynamic programming problem of minimax control (optimization of a guaranteed result MESSR at the determined point of time, taking into account the availability of risks of deterministic and stochastic nature (combined risks model. At thesametime, under therisks in thesocial and economic system we understand thefactors that negatively catastrophically affect the results of the reviewed processes inside it. For an effective use, a technique of prediction and assessment of time rows and stochastic risks in MESSR optimization process is presented, which can serve as a basis for the development of appropriate computer software. To solve the problem of program minimax control MESSR in the presence of risks, we propose a method which is reduced to the realization of a finite number of solutions of linear and convex mathematical programming and discrete optimization problem. The proposed method makes it possible to develop efficient numerical procedures to implement computer simulation of the dynamics of the problem, build program minimax control and gain optimal

  2. Northeast regional and state trends in anuran occupancy from calling survey data (2001-2011) from the North American Amphibian Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Linda A.; Royle, Andy; Gazenski, Kimberly D.; Villena Carpio, Oswaldo

    2014-01-01

    We present the first regional trends in anuran occupancy from North American Amphibian Monitoring Program (NAAMP) data from 11 northeastern states using an 11 years of data. NAAMP is a long-term monitoring program where observers collect data at assigned random roadside routes using a calling survey technique. We assessed occupancy trends for 17 species. Eight species had statistically significant regional trends, of these seven were negative (Anaxyrus fowleri, Acris crepitans, Pseudacris brachyphona, Pseudacris feriarum-kalmi complex, Lithobates palustris, Lithobates pipiens, and Lithobates sphenocephalus) and one was positive (Hyla versicolor-chrysoscelis complex). We also assessed state level trends for 101 species/state combinations, of these 29 showed a significant decline and nine showed a significant increase in occupancy.

  3. Physicochemical analysis of clays and ceramics of the regional state of Calakmul: production models, distribution and consumption; Analisis fisicoquimico de arcillas y ceramicos del estado regional de Calakmul: modelos de produccion, distribucion y consumo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez C, M.R.; Folan, W.J. [Centro de Investigaciones Historicas y Sociales, Universidad Autonoma de Campeche, Campeche (Mexico); Espinosa P, M.E. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Rodriguez L, V. [CUV, BUAP, 72000 Puebla (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    This work presents the final results of the research project 'Sources, production and consumption of ceramics in the regional state of Calakmul: a socio-political approach', with the proposal of models of production and ceramic specialization as well as of distribution and consumption of these goods in the territory that occupied the regional state of Calakmul, with base in the typological analysis of the ceramics of Calakmul and 72 sites registered in its environs as well as in comparative studies with ceramics of other greater sites near Calakmul and complemented with the application of analytical techniques in the study of clays and sherds diagnoses of the Mayan Classic period. These models were proposed also, according to a socio-political approach based on the social and political relations that Calakmul maintained with other political entities of diverse ranks derived from the obtained epigraphic evidences. (Author)

  4. Rim versus Non-Rim States in the Arctic Region: Prospects for a Zero-Sum Game or a Win-Win One?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Ghimiş

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to develop a critical approach on one of the most urgent energy security challenges: the Arctic region. Until recently, it was considered to be a frozen desert, upon which no one raised any legal demands or interests. The global warming, the technological development and the increased need for energy resources had transformed the frozen High North into a very hot spot, where states like US, Canada, Norway, Denmark or Russia started an energy race that threatens to escalate. The Arctic became a strategic area given its opportunities: besides the energy resources, new commercial routes could become available for a longer period of time. But, due to legal uncertainties, the lack of coherent and direct legal procedures of international law, the Arctic game is an open one, in which any state can intervene and ask for a solution that is suitable for its interests. This aspect complicates even further the already unstable region. Some of the actors see the region as an international area, as a common good, where everyone has the right to explore or exploit, while the rim states see the Arctic in sovereign rights terms. Therefore, the game tends to complicate as non-rim players (the EU, China, Japan, NATO and South Korea want to intervene in the region and try to influence its development.

  5. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2001 to 2006 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  6. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1992 to 2001 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  7. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1975 to 2001 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  8. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1992 to 1996 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  9. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1975 to 2010 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  10. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1975 to 2006 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  11. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1985 to 1996 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  12. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1996 to 2010 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  13. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1992 to 2010 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  14. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1992 to 2006 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  15. Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2015/2016 Regional Land Cover Data - Contiguous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and land change information for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP...

  16. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1996 to 2001 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  17. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1985 to 2010 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  18. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1975 to 1996 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  19. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1985 to 2006 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  20. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2001 to 2010 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...