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Sample records for benin

  1. Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-01

    Focus in this discussion of Benin is on the following: the people; geography; history; government and political conditions; economy; defense; foreign relations; and relations between the US and Benin. The population totaled 3.8 million in 1983 with an annual growth rate of 2.6%. The infant mortality rate is 45/1000 and life expectancy 46.9 years. The population comprises about 20 sociocultural groups. 4 groups -- the Fon, Aja, Bariba, and Yoruba -- account for more than half of the population. The name was changed from Dahomey to the People's Republic of Benin in 1975. 2 years after the military coup d'etat in 1972, Marxism-Leninism was declared the guiding philosophy of the new government. Marxism-Leninism remains the official doctrine, but the government has moved to take account of popular resistance to a radical social transformation, as well as problems encountered in attempting to establish a centrally directed economy. Benin is ranked as 1 of the world's 35 poorest countries. The commercial, industrial, and agricultural sectors are all experiencing severe problems. The government's newest 5 year plan for 1983-88 places a stronger emphasis on developing agriculture. In so doing, the government hopes to assure its own domestic needs and to become a supplier of basic foodstuffs to the region. Benin's Armed Forces number about 3000 personnel. Benin is a member of the Non-Aligned Movement and the Organization of African Unity. Relations with France are important because of historical, cultural, economic, and aid links. After 1972, relations between the US and Benin became strained as Benin moved to strengthen its ties with the Soviet Union and other socialist countries and mounted harsh propaganda attacks on the US. PMID:12178102

  2. Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    In 1988, Benin had a population of 4 million and an annual growth rate of 3.6%. Life expectancy was 49 years, and infant mortality stood at 116/1000 live births. Primary school enrollment is about 65%, with 6 years of compulsory education, and the adult literacy rate is only 11%. Of the labor force of 1.9 million, 72% are engaged in agriculture. Benin's gross domestic product was US$1497 million in 1987, with an annual growth rate of 7.1% and a per capita income of $374. Despite the Marxist-Leninist ideology of the Kerekou Government, many government-controlled sectors of the economy are being privatized and private foreign firms have been authorized to operate in Benin's transport sector. These changes have been necessitated by heavy losses suffered by nationalized industries and the worsening economic situation. Benin's economy, heavily dependent on regional trade and the export of cotton and crude oil, has been severely affected by ineffective government policies, regional recession, the collapse of world commodity prices, heavy external debt, balance of payment deficits, and very low foreign exchange reserves and liguidity. The 5-Year Plan (1983-88) emphasized the development of agriculture and the goal of becoming a supplier of basic foodstuffs to the region. PMID:12177990

  3. Benin: country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, A

    1987-10-01

    Since 1972, Benin has had an official Marxist-Leninist ideology; however, centralized state control contributed to economic stagnation and a search for capital investment. A special section of the World Bank is advising the Government of Benin on public sector reform and privatization, and an agreement with the International Monetary Fund seems likely. At present, 65% of Benin's labor force is engaged in subsistence agriculture, most of which is collectivized, and the gross national product per capita is US$260. The main cash crops are seed cotton and palm oil kernels used in soap and margarine. While women occupy key trade positions in the south of Benin, they are very oppressed in the north. Benin has a population of 4 million. The infant mortality rate is 115/1000 lives births and life expectancy is 43 years. Only 21% of the population has access to clean water. 40% of men, compared to just 17% of women, are literate.

  4. INTERNATIONALISATION OF BENIN ART WORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chika Joseph Ananwa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The artworks of Benin are all about events and achievements, actual or mythical that occurred in the past. These art works was grounded on traditional values and religious beliefs, which also displayed iconographic affinities. Until 15th century A.D, Benin art items were not known outside the ancient Benin kingdom and commanded very little monetary and aesthetic values.The internationalisation of Benin artworks first occurred by accident, because the Europeans that made it possible, were not aware of the art items before coming to the continent. The coming of the Portuguese in 1472 was the first of such event then the Benin artworks were used as exchange for Portuguese goods. The second was the looting of Benin art items, by the British soldiers, in 1897, in what was tagged Benin Punitive Expedition.Other aspects of internationalisation include the display of Benin art items at various museums across the world Benin artworks uploaded in the internet and artefacts on display at various private museums.The aim of this research is to find out why, when and how the Benin artworks became internationalised. This paper also looks at the extent, impact and significances of internationalisation of Benin artworks.

  5. Vegetation patterns and environmental gradients in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adomou, A.

    2005-01-01

    Key words: West Africa, Benin, vegetation patterns, floristic areas, phytogeography, chorology, floristic gradients, climatic factors, water availability, Dahomey Gap, threatened plants, biodiversity, conservation.Understanding plant species distribution patterns and the underlying factors is a cruc

  6. Retinal vein occlusion in Benin City, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Uhumwangho, Odarosa M.; Darlingtess Oronsaye

    2016-01-01

    Background: Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is the most common occlusive retinal vascular disorder and results in varying degrees of visual loss. Aim: To determine the pattern of presentation, risk factors, and treatment outcomes in a group of patients with RVO seen in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Medical records of patients who presented to the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria in whom a diagnosis of RVO was made over a 5 years period were revi...

  7. Ecological assessment of riparian forests in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natta, A.K.

    2003-01-01

    The present research deals with the flora, phytosociology and ecology of riparian forests. The overall objective of this research is to contribute to a better knowledge of the flora, diversity and ecology of riparian forests inBenin

  8. Verbal art of the Fon (Benin)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalders Grool, Marjolijn Cornelia

    2013-01-01

    This publication aims at the analysis of the performance of a corpus of Fongbe stories that I collected in three villages in the south of Benin in 1976 and 1977. The corpus consists of 37 stories (57.000 words). The stories aim at children’s education. Seven stories in my corpus are similar, althou

  9. Characteristics and Treatment Outcomes of Retreatment Tuberculosis Patients in Benin.

    OpenAIRE

    Serge Ade; Omer Adjibodé; Prudence Wachinou; Narcisse Toundoh; Bérénice Awanou; Gildas Agodokpessi; Dissou Affolabi; Gabriel Adè; Harries, Anthony D; Séverin Anagonou

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine among retreatment tuberculosis patients in Benin baseline characteristics, culture, and drug sensitivity testing (DST) results and treatment outcomes. Materials and Methods. A retrospective national cohort study of all retreatment tuberculosis patients in Benin in 2013 using registers and treatment cards. Results. Of 3957 patients with tuberculosis, 241 (6%) were retreatment cases. Compared to new pulmonary bacteriologically confirmed tuberculosis (NPBCT) patients, the...

  10. Insecticide resistance status in Anopheles gambiae in southern Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corbel Vincent

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence of pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae has become a serious concern to the future success of malaria control. In Benin, the National Malaria Control Programme has recently planned to scaling up long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs and indoor residual spraying (IRS for malaria prevention. It is, therefore, crucial to monitor the level and type of insecticide resistance in An. gambiae, particularly in southern Benin where reduced efficacy of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs and IRS has previously been reported. Methods The protocol was based on mosquito collection during both dry and rainy seasons across forty districts selected in southern Benin. Bioassay were performed on adults collected from the field to assess the susceptibility of malaria vectors to insecticide-impregnated papers (permethrin 0.75%, delthamethrin 0.05%, DDT 4%, and bendiocarb 0.1% following WHOPES guidelines. The species within An. gambiae complex, molecular form and presence of kdr and ace-1 mutations were determined by PCR. Results Strong resistance to permethrin and DDT was found in An. gambiae populations from southern Benin, except in Aglangandan where mosquitoes were fully susceptible (mortality 100% to all insecticides tested. PCR showed the presence of two sub-species of An. gambiae, namely An. gambiae s.s, and Anopheles melas, with a predominance for An. gambiae s.s (98%. The molecular M form of An. gambiae was predominant in southern Benin (97%. The kdr mutation was detected in all districts at various frequency (1% to 95% whereas the Ace-1 mutation was found at a very low frequency (≤ 5%. Conclusion This study showed a widespread resistance to permethrin in An. gambiae populations from southern Benin, with a significant increase of kdr frequency compared to what was observed previously in Benin. The low frequency of Ace-1 recorded in all populations is encouraging for the use of bendiocarb as an alternative insecticide to

  11. Retinal vein occlusion in Benin City, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odarosa M Uhumwangho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Retinal vein occlusion (RVO is the most common occlusive retinal vascular disorder and results in varying degrees of visual loss. Aim: To determine the pattern of presentation, risk factors, and treatment outcomes in a group of patients with RVO seen in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Medical records of patients who presented to the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria in whom a diagnosis of RVO was made over a 5 years period were reviewed. Data obtained were analyzed with the GraphPad Instat Software, Inc. version V2.05a program, San Diego, Califonia and a P < 0.05 considered significant. Results: There were 20 patients made of 14 (70.0% males and 6 (30.0% females with a mean age of 62.7 ± 10.4 years. There were 15 (68.2% eyes with central RVO, 3 (13.6% eyes with branch RVO, and 4 (18.2% eyes with hemi RVO. Bilateral involvement occurred in 2 (10.0% patients. Risk factors included hypertension 14 (70.0%, diabetes mellitus 9 (45.0%, and glaucoma 5 (22.7%. Multiple risk factors were present in 14 (70.0% patients. Complications included macula edema 15 (68.2%, retinal neovascularization 5 (22.7%, neovascular glaucoma 3 (13.6%, and vitreous hemorrhage 2 (9.1%. Eyes which had definitive treatment with intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factors and laser photocoagulation for macula edema and retinal neovascularization, respectively, had better visual acuity compared to eyes which did not receive these treatment, P = 0.002. Conclusion: The incidence and visual loss that occurs from RVO can be reduced by modifying known risk factors and early institution of appropriate therapy for complications that occur.

  12. Categorizing the Occult: Vodun, Sorcery and Religious Beliefs In Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandsbjerg, Camilla

    2011-01-01

    the popular and academic understanding of three key terms (vodun, sorcery and occult). The paper will thus both focus on the role of religious encounters during early Christian missions in Benin and on the recent expansion of evangelical churches and strengthen of neo vodun cults as well as on the dynamics...

  13. Enhancing Correctional Education through Community Theatre: The Benin Prison Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okhakhu, Marcel; Evawoma-Enuku, Usiwoma

    2011-01-01

    This paper seeks to establish the relationship between Popular Theatre and Correctional Education. The Benin Prison experiment is the springboard for this laudable and valuable link. The paper strives stridently to show the value of Popular Theatre as a vehicle for achieving correctional values in a Correction centre. More than anything else, it…

  14. Medicinal plants used to treat malaria in Southern Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maesen, van der L.J.G.

    2004-01-01

    People in Benin who cannot resort to allopathic medicines provided by the pharmaceutical industry use many species of plants to alleviate malaria symptoms. Complicated mixtures of different parts of several plant species are employed orally or as a bathing substance. The inventory of 85 species and

  15. Microbiota of Tayohounta, a fermented baobab flavour food of Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chadare, F.J.; Jonkman, J.; Wolkers-Rooijackers, J.C.M.; Nout, M.J.R.; Hounhouigan, J.D.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    The present work provides data on the microbial composition of Tayohounta, a product of natural fermentation of baobab seed kernels. Samples were collected from 3 different small scale producers from Benin at the end of the fermentation process. Microorganisms were enumerated and identified using ph

  16. Amenagement et politique linguistques: La politique des langues au Benin (Language Management and Language Policy: The Politics of Language in Benin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halaoui, Nazam

    2001-01-01

    Distinguishing between language management and language policy, examines the politics of language in Benin from independence to the present. Describes the politics of language in Dahomey, the early policies of Benin, and the Republican politics of language, arising from the national constitutional convention and striving to address the needs of…

  17. Sources of Stress among Undergraduate Students in the University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria: Implications for Counselling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alika, Ijeoma Henrietta

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the role of inadequate facilities/accommodation, poor health, emotional problems, socio-economic status and poor time management as sources of stress among University of Benin undergraduates. The research instrument used was a questionnaire. The survey method was adopted for the study. Seven hundred and fifty respondents were…

  18. Geology and Petroleum Systems of the Offshore Benin Basin (Benin Géologie et système pétrolier du bassin offshore du Benin (Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaki C.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the tectonosedimentary development and petroleum system of the Offshore Benin Basin (OBB. In accordance with structural development, the stratigraphic succession of this basin was divided into 4 sequences: pre-rift (up to Late Jurassic; rift (Neocomian to Lower Cretaceous; transitional (Cenomanian to Santonian and post-rift (Maastrichtian-Holocene sequences. Only one Upper Cretaceous petroleum system is well known within this basin. Source rocks of this system contain Type II-III kerogens with a TOC (Total Organic Carbon average of 2.9%. Oil is produced from sandstone facies within Abeokuta formation. Currently exploration data and geochemical characteristics of bituminous sands which outcrop in some onshore areas of the Dahomey Embayment point to the existence of another petroleum system of Lower Cretaceous age (Neocomian to Albian in this basin. Cet article résume l’évolution tectono-sédimentaire et le système pétrolier du Bassin Offshore du Bénin (BOB. Conformément à l’évolution structurale, la succession stratigraphique de ce bassin a été divisée en quatre séquences : anté-rift (allant jusqu’à la fin du Jurassique; rift (Néocomien-Crétacé inférieur; transitionnelle (Cénomanien-Santonien et post-rift (Maastrichtien-Holocène. Un seul système pétrolier d’âge Crétacé supérieur a été identifié avec certitude dans ce bassin. Les roches mères de ce système contiennent du kérogène de Type II-III, avec un COT (Carbone Organique Total moyen de 2,9 %. L’huile est produite à partir des faciès gréseux de la formation d’Abeokuta. Les données actuelles d’exploration et les caractéristiques géochimiques des sables bitumineux qui affleurent par endroits dans la partie continentale de la baie du Dahomey mettent en évidence l’existence d’un autre système pétrolier d’âge Crétacé inférieur (Néocomien à Albien dans ce bassin.

  19. Relationships between technological and nutritional meat quality parameters in local poultry populations (Gallus gallus) of Benin

    OpenAIRE

    P.U. Tougan; M. Dahouda; C.F.A. Salifou; G.S. Ahounou; Kossou, D.N.F.; Amenou, C.; Kogbeto, C.E.; Kpodekon, M. T.; G.A. Mensah; Lognay, Georges; Thewis, André; Youssao, I.A.K.

    2013-01-01

    The current work aims at determining relationships between technological and nutritional meat quality parameters in Holli, Fulani, Sahoue, North and South indigenous chicken ecotypes of Benin. Peer reviewed

  20. [Differential mortality according to region of residence in Benin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laourou, H M

    1995-01-01

    "The first mortality tables of Benin elaborated by direct estimation for the whole country deal with relatively different regional realities. It is in this regard that the data, whether it is death from multiround surveys or information about survival of parents, allows one to distinguish between the North (with a higher mortality) and the South (which has a lower mortality). Moreover, this differential study reveals that the level of male adult mortality after 35 years in the South, is well above the national average, probably because of the increase in deaths through violence (road accident or victim of a fire) in this part of Benin....The originality of this study is to have highlighted the mortality differentials at almost all age groups of life...." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND ITA) PMID:12291263

  1. Governance, marketing and innovations in Beninese pineapple supply chains : a survey of smallholder farmers in South Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arinloye, D.D.A.A.

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of the study was to identify an innovative approach that could overcome market quality and price information asymmetry issues in pineapple supply chain in Benin. Two case studies were conducted in Benin and Ghana, with an in-depth survey of 219 farmers in Benin. The study mapped the su

  2. Isolierung und Typisierung von Salmonellen aus Trinkwasserquellen in Benin, Westafrika

    OpenAIRE

    Uesbeck, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    Die Situation der Trinkwasserversorgung im ländlichen oberen Ouémé Einzugsgebiet in Benin, Westafrika, ist dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass viele Menschen keinen Zugang zu sicherem Trinkwasser haben. Am häufigsten stehen offene traditionelle und moderne Brunnen, die 90 % aller Wasserquellen ausmachen, zur Trinkwasserversorgung zur Verfügung. Bohrlöcher mit geschlossenen Pumpenanlagen, die bakteriologisch unbedenkliches Wasser liefern, machen nur 6 % aller Wasserstellen aus. Aufgrund unzureichende...

  3. Oral hygiene in primary schoolchildren in Benin City, Nigeria.

    OpenAIRE

    Alakija, W

    1981-01-01

    Oral hygiene was assessed in children from two primary schools in Benin City, Nigeria. Good oral hygiene was not related to the socioeconomic class of the children but to the method of cleaning the teeth. Girls had better oral hygiene than boys. It is suggested that the local method of using chewing sticks should be encouraged, and emphasis placed on frequency and thoroughness of use.

  4. Wound care in Buruli ulcer disease in Ghana and Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Velding, Kristien; Klis, Sandor-Adrian; Abass, Kabiru M.; Tuah, Wilson; Stienstra, Ymkje; van der Werf, Tjip

    2014-01-01

    Buruli ulcer (BU) is a disease affecting the skin, subcutaneous fat, and bone tissues. Wound care is important in the prevention of disabilities. Awareness of current wound care practices in BU-endemic regions is necessary for future wound care interventions. Thirty-one health care workers in Ghana and Benin were interviewed with a semi-structured interview, complemented by structural observations. Quantitative data were analyzed through t tests and one-way analysis of variance, and qualitati...

  5. Household production of sorghum beer in Benin: technological and socio-economic aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayodé, A.P.P.; Hounhouigan, J.D.; Nout, M.J.R.; Niehof, A.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the sorghum brewing microenterprises in Benin with emphasis on the beer quality, the social significance of the product as well as the income generated. Tchoukoutou, the Benin opaque sorghum beer, has important social functions as it fosters the cooperative spirit and remains an

  6. An institutional perspective on farmers’ water management and rice production practices in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Totin, G.G.E.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is part of the wider debate about the role of institutions in agricultural innovation processes. It investigates how institutions shape rice production in inland valleys in Benin. It starts from a scoping study (prior to this research) on smallholder irrigation in Benin, which indicate

  7. Health and Environment Project In Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaël Edou

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In 1989, the Republic of Benin was facing great social and economic upheavals. In 1990, the Canadian and American Mennonite missionaries created the Bethesda Health Care Centre.  In 1993, assessment of the hospital activities showed that many people were coming back to the centre repeatedly with the same illnesses linked to sanitation aspects and living conditions. The Community Development and Environmental Protection Department (DCAM was thus established to face this great challenge. It quickly helped the community and the local authorities to establish a waste management system.  The Programme for Sanitation and Protection of the Environment (PrAPE was designed and funded by the French Embassy and Evangelische Entwicklungsdienst V.e (EED, a German Christian organization. Households then began to subscribe for the collection of their wastes. Bethesda began to assist other communities to put in place waste management systems. Today, it is working throughout the country with many municipalities. While the programme was being implemented, we discovered that the community needed to be supported in their revenue generating activities. We set up in 1996, a solidarity-based microfinance system. The savings of some people were used to grant credit to others. This community bank has developed into a large bank today. In 2006, a system of mutual insurance was put in place. A complete integrated system to address the basic needs of the community was thus set up.En 1989, la République du Bénin a été confrontée à d’importants bouleversements sociaux et économiques. En 1990, des missionnaires mennonites canadiens et américains ont créé le Centre de santé Bethesda. En 1993, l’évaluation des activités hospitalières a montré que de nombreuses personnes revenaient à plusieurs reprises au centre avec les mêmes maladies liées à des problèmes d’assainissement et aux conditions de vie. Le département Développement Communautaire et

  8. Barriers to contraceptive use among women in Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Sophia; Woog, Vanessa; Zinsou, Cyprien; Wilson, Megan

    2015-01-01

    The Republic of Benin has made it a national priority to promote family planning as part of its efforts to reduce maternal and child mortality rates. In addition to preventing deaths, increased contraceptive use would help women and families achieve their desired number of children and have greater control over timing births. It would also help Benin meet its development goals, including reducing poverty and increasing women's education and earning levels, children's schooling and GDP per capita. Key Points. (1) Although Benin's government promotes family planning, more needs to be done to meet the country's goal of increasing contraceptive prevalence to 20% by 2018. (2) As of 2012, modern contraceptive use remains low. Only 7% of married women and 23% of unmarried sexually active women use modern methods. (3) Unmet need has increased since 2006, from 27% to 33% among married women and from 35% to 50% among sexually active unmarried women. (4) Among married women with unmet need, the most commonly cited reasons for contraceptive nonuse are fear of side effects/health concerns (22%) and opposition to use (22%). In contrast, never-married women with unmet need cite not being married (42%), infrequent or no sex (21%) and fear of side effects/health concerns (17%). (5) Among women currently using sterilization, IUDs, implants, injectables or the pill, 57% report having been told about side effects when they received their method; 88% of those who were told about side effects were given instructions on how to deal with them. (6) Strategies to increase contraceptive use include improving the availability and quality of contraceptive services, increasing knowledge of family planning, and addressing social and cultural barriers to contraception. PMID:26702466

  9. A Conceptual Approach to the Study of Song and Music in Benin Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ighile

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to provide a theoretical framework for the appreciation of music among the Benin, a strategic ethnic group in Nigeria. It investigates how concepts such as folk and popular song, music, noise, speech and sound find their relevant expression and place in the socio-cultural, economic, moral and even psychological setting of the Benin world. Finally, it is discovered that a conceptual approach is crucial, not only to the situation of the Benin oral literary values within a Western ideological context, but also in the facilitation of an objective evaluation of critical aspects of the life of people.

  10. Relationships between carcass traits and offal components in local poultry populations (gallus gallus) of Benin

    OpenAIRE

    P.U. Tougan; M. Dahouda; C.F.A. Salifou; G.S. Ahounou; Kpodekon, M. T.; G.A. Mensah; Kossou, D.N.F.; Kogbeto, C.E.; Lognay, Georges; Thewis, André; Youssao, I.A.K.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives : The current work was carried out to determine the relationships between live weight, carcass traits and the offal components traits in Holli, Fulani, Sahoue, North and Southe indigenous chicken ectoypes of Benin. Peer reviewed

  11. Kulturní kontakty a kolaps království Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbora Půtová

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with historic cultural contacts between Europeans and the Benin Empire, one of the most significant native African cultural centres between the 15th and the 17th century. The study focuses particularly on the development of the Benin Empire on the background of acculturation and diffusion of European cultural elements and complexes. The study describes the first contacts between Europeans and the Benin Empire and the subsequent business activities, including slave trade. Special attention is paid to European colonial expansion that culminated in the 1897 British invasion which led to the conquest of the Benin City. The aim of the study is to draw attention to the role of the exogenous cultural change and acculturation processes, which caused the fall of once a socially, economically, politically and culturally stable African empire.

  12. Insect fauna associated with Anacardium occidentale (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) in Benin, West Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Agboton, C.; Onzo, A.; Ouessou, F. I.; Goergen, G.; Vidal, S.; Tamò, M.

    2014-01-01

    Cashew, Anacardium occidentale L. (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae), is an important cash crop in Benin. However, its production is threatened by several biotic factors, especially insects. In Benin, very few studies have focused on insects and just listed species commonly found on cashew worldwide. The present investigation fills this gap by presenting an exhaustive inventory of insect species associated with this crop in the country. The survey was carried out from September 2009 to August 2010 i...

  13. Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Broiler Marketing in Benin City Metropolis, Edo State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Peter A. EKUNWE; FIONA O. OGBEIDE

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the socio-economic factors influencing broiler marketing in Benin City metropolis, Edo State, Nigeria. Purpose sampling of the three major markets (Oba, Oliha and New Benin markets) in the study area was carried out. Twenty broiler marketers were randomly selected from each of three markets from the sampling frame, making a total of 60 marketers. Questionnaire were administered and scheduled interview conducted to collect all the relevant information from the respondents. ...

  14. Agricultural innovation in Africa : from soil fertility to market integration. A case study from Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Jeannin, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    In Benin, in response to the declining soil fertility and its effects on food insecurity and natural resources, farmers supported by external agents such as researchers, extension services and NGOs have developed new soil fertility management practices. In this study, we trace the history of the development of Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM) initiatives in three different agro-ecological zones of Benin and highlight the different development phases and outcomes...

  15. Determinants of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] production system in Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Charlotte Carmelle Zoundji; Pascal Houngnandan; Houinsou Dedehouanou; Fatiou Toukourou

    2015-01-01

    Present study was conducted to analyze the soybean production system in Benin. Data were collected from 324 soybean producers selected from the three major soybean-producing agro-ecological areas i.e. agro-ecological zone 3 (southern Borgou), agro-ecological zone 4 (West Atacora) and agro-ecological zone 5 (Cotton zone of the Centre of Benin). A participatory research approach with group discussions followed by individual interviews was carried out for extracting the information f...

  16. Drivers of conservation and utilization of pineapple genetic resources in Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Achigan-Dako, Enoch G; Adjé, Charlotte Abike; N’Danikou, Sognigbé; Hotegni, Nicodème V Fassinou; Agbangla, Clément; Ahanchédé, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Valuation of farmer knowledge has been seen as a route to promote sustainable use of plant genetic resources. In pineapple production systems in Benin, inadequate knowledge of cultivation practices can lead to a number of inconveniences including abandon of some varieties and cultivars. To understand how farmer’s knowledge and cultivation practices impact the sustainable utilization of pineapple genetic resources, we surveyed 177 pineapple farmers in southern Benin. We assessed farmers’ knowl...

  17. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of plant essential oils from Benin against Anopheles gambiae (Giles)

    OpenAIRE

    Bossou, Annick; Mangelinckx, Sven; Yedomonhan, Hounnankpon; Boko, Pelagie M; Akogbeto, Martin C; De Kimpe, Norbert; Avlessi, Felicien; Sohounhloue, Dominique CK

    2013-01-01

    Background Insecticide resistance in sub-Saharan Africa and especially in Benin is a major public health issue hindering the control of the malaria vectors. Each Anopheles species has developed a resistance to one or several classes of the insecticides currently in use in the field. Therefore, it is urgent to find alternative compounds to conquer the vector. In this study, the efficacies of essential oils of nine plant species, which are traditionally used to avoid mosquito bites in Benin, we...

  18. Understanding complexity in managing agro-pastoral dams ecosystem services in Northern Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Kpera, G.N.

    2015-01-01

    Key words: conflict, water quality, crocodile, fish diversity, vegetable, watershed management, institutional changes, innovation system. Understanding complexity in managing agro-pastoral dams ecosystem services in Northern Benin Gnanki Nathalie KPERA Agro-pastoral dams (APDs) – water reservoirs constructed to provide water for livestock and for agricultural development – have been constructed all over Benin. These APDs face several conflicts (farmers versus herders, council vers...

  19. Monitoring water stock variations by gravimetry in Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguis, L.; Galle, S.; Descloitres, M.; Laurent, J.-P.; Grippa, M.; Pfeffer, J.; Luck, B.; Genthon, P.; Hinderer, J.

    2009-04-01

    In Central Benin (wet Soudanian climate), in the frame of the AMMA (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis) program, an hydrological observatory has been set up since 2000. It is based on embedded catchments from a few to twelve thousand squared kilometers. At the local scale, 3 hillslopes with contrasted vegetation covers were selected in 2005 to study the water redistribution processes. With the aim to close the water budget at this scale, the instrumentation device was composed of instruments which monitored the 1st meter of the vadoze zone (succion, humidetric and temperature probes), the groundwater (piezometers screened at different depths) and a flux station to control evapotranspiration. Seasonal water storage changes can be monitored at this local scale but determination of the water budget at catchment scale is still difficult and needs modelling. A promising method seems to be the monitoring of the gravimetric variations. The GHYRAF French project (Gravity and Hydrology in Africa) started in 2008. It is devoted to the water storage variation assessment in sub-saharian Africa. In this aim it carries detailed comparison between models and multidisciplinary observations (ground and satellite gravity, geodesy, hydrology, meteorology). To perform this intercomparison, the main surface gravity experiment consists in periodic absolute gravity measurements at specific points along a north-south monsoonal gradient of rainfall in West Africa (Tamanrasset (20 mm annual rainfall depth) in southern Algeria, Niamey (500 mm) and a Soudanian site in Central Benin (1200 mm). In Benin, three gravity measurements have been already done on the key periods of the water cycle (July 2008 : on-set of the groundwater recharge, September 2008 : highest water table and wettest state in the vadoze zone, January 2009, low water table and dry state in the vadoze zone). We present here the preliminary comparisons of the water storage variation estimations deduced from the

  20. Characteristics and Treatment Outcomes of Retreatment Tuberculosis Patients in Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Ade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine among retreatment tuberculosis patients in Benin baseline characteristics, culture, and drug sensitivity testing (DST results and treatment outcomes. Materials and Methods. A retrospective national cohort study of all retreatment tuberculosis patients in Benin in 2013 using registers and treatment cards. Results. Of 3957 patients with tuberculosis, 241 (6% were retreatment cases. Compared to new pulmonary bacteriologically confirmed tuberculosis (NPBCT patients, there were significantly higher numbers of males (P=0.04, patients from “Atlantique-Littoral” (P=0.006, patients aged 45–64 years (P=0.007, and HIV-positive patients (P=0.04 among those retreated. Overall, 171 (71% patients submitted sputum for DST, of whom (163 95% were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis on Xpert MTB/RIF and/or culture and 17 (10% were rifampicin resistant (9 with MDR-TB and 8 monoresistant to rifampicin. For those without MDR-TB (n=224, treatment success was 93%. Worse outcomes occurred in those with unknown HIV status (RR: 0.27; 0.05–1.45; P<0.01 while better outcomes occurred in those who relapsed (RR: 1.06, 95 CI: 1.02–1.10, P=0.04. Conclusion. In 2013, a high proportion of retreatment patients received DST. Treatment success was good although more needs to be done to systematically increase the final follow-up smear examination. Reasons of high losses to follow-up from “Oueme-Plateau” should be investigated.

  1. Bacteriospermia and Sperm Quality in Infertile Male Patient at University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibadin, O. K.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Male Urogenital tract infection plays an important role in men infertility. Asymptomtic bacteriospermia has been regarded as of the contributing factor to male infertility. In this study, 87 semen samples of infertile men attending the Human Reproduction Research Programme and Invitrofertilization unit (HRRP/IVF of University Benin Teaching Hospital were evaluated Bacteriologically using standard Bacterial culture method. Standard semen analysis was performed according to WHO guidelines. Among the total cases, 36 (41.4% showed at least one pathogen. Staphylococcus aureus (16.1%, Staphylococcus Saprophyticus (9.1%, Escherichia Coli (6.9% Proteus mirabilis (3.4% Klebsiella spp (2.3% Pseudomonas aerouginosa (1.1% and Proteus vulgaris (2.3%. There was a significant relation between bacteriospermia and the rate of number of total motility and morphologically abnormal sperms (p 0.05. It seems that leukocytopermia is not a good maker to predict bacteriospermia.

  2. Zinc phosphide toxicities among patients of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin city, Nigeria: A 10 year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S E Aghahowa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to the poor success rate associated with zinc phosphide ingestion, it became necessary to assess the incidence. Objective: To assess the incidence of zinc phosphide toxicities reported between June 2000 and June 2009 in the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. Material and Method : Data were sourced from the archives of casualties of zinc phosphide poisoning. These were entered into a generated case data form after obtaining an ethical permission. Results: All the ages of the 23 casualties reported were within 37.74±13.20 years. The male-female ratio was 4.75:1. Nineteen [78.26%] died after reporting 13.52±11.34 hours following single ingestion. Twenty cases were due to suicidal tendencies; the most common reason given was because of frustration in life related to marital affairs. Among the three unintentional, two were accidental while the other was due to assassination. Postmortem was refused in all the patients that died. One attempted herbal medication. Oil and milk were the most frequent solvents used at home as first-aid care therapy. Three were unintentional. Nine came with empty sachets and containers brought by relatives. Sodium chloride intravenous infusion was the most frequently used. Duration of hospitalization was 13.38±15.60 hours. Intravenous ciprofloxacin and metronidazole were the most common antibiotics used. Oxygen was instituted in 78.26% of the victims during respiratory distress. One ate meal prepared from poisoned rodent and died after reporting. One had alcohol along with the Zinc Phosphide ingestion. Nine were reported at the drug and poison information centre. Conclusion: Attention is needed by all for proper regulation in the handling of poisons and related substances to reduce burden minimally.

  3. Issues of Sustainability of Coastal Groundwater Resources: Benin, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Mullen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The largest city in Benin, West Africa (Cotonou, is reliant upon groundwater for its public water supply. This groundwater is derived from the Godomey well field which is located approximately 5 Km north of the coast of the Atlantic Ocean and in close proximity to Lake Nokoue—a shallow lake containing water with elevated concentration of chloride and other elements. Historical data indicate increased chloride concentration in a number of wells nearest to the lake, with unknown contribution from groundwater encroachment from the coastal area. Hence, there is substantial interest in better characterizing this groundwater system for the purpose of determining appropriate management practices and degree of sustainability. Among the efforts attempted to date are a series of numerical models ranging from assessment of flow to a recent effort to include density-dependent transport from the lake. In addition, substantial field characterization has been pursued including assessment of shallow water chemistry along the region of the coastal lagoon and border of the lake, characterization of hydraulic response to pumpage in the aquifer system, estimation of the distribution of electrical resistivity with depth along the coastal lagoons, and installation of multi-level piezometers at seven locations in the lake. When integrated across methods, these numerical and field results indicate that the lake remains a primary concern in terms of a source of salinity in the aquifer. Further, the coastal region appears to be more complex than previously suggested and may represent a future source of salt-water encroachment as suggested by current presence of saline waters at relatively shallow depths along the coast. Finally, hydraulic testing suggests that both natural and pumping-based fluctuations in water levels are present in this system. Substantial additional characterization and modeling efforts may provide a significantly greater understanding of the

  4. Effect of commercial diets quality on bio-economic performances of broilers in Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houndonougbo, F M; Chwalibog, André; Chrysostome, C A A M

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the quality of commercial poultry feeds in Benin. The performances of 396 unsexed broilers chickens Ross 308 fed with a control diet (R1) and five commercial diets (R2 to R6) were evaluated. Broilers fed commercial diets showed significantly low (P <0.001...... commercial diets. These results suggest the necessity to organize the market of poultry feed in Benin in the perspective to reduce the production cost by using more efficient and cheap commercial diets.......The objective of this study was to assess the quality of commercial poultry feeds in Benin. The performances of 396 unsexed broilers chickens Ross 308 fed with a control diet (R1) and five commercial diets (R2 to R6) were evaluated. Broilers fed commercial diets showed significantly low (P ....001) body weight gain (BWG) and economic feed efficiency (EFE) and significantly high (P commercial diets. In R1 diet, overall FC...

  5. Common causes of morbidity and mortality amongst diabetic admissions at the university of Benin teaching hospital, Benin city, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide and Nigeria is no exception. To determine the morbidity and mortality in patients admitted with Diabetes Mellitus in a tertiary teaching hospital of Nigeria, through retrospective analysis of admission and death records. Admission and death certificate records from the medical wards of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria, were retrospectively analysed from 1, August 2003 to 31, July 2004. Data included age, gender, total numbers of admissions and those due to Diabetes Mellitus, the indications for admissions, presenting symptoms and method of diagnoses in diabetic patients, mortality rates and causes of death. Data obtained were analysed using chi square. Out of 1567 medical admissions, 852(54.4%) were males and 715(45.6%) females. Diabetes was detected in 145(9.3%) patients [81(55.9%) males, 64(44.1%) females]. The mean age of diabetic patients was 53.6+16.1 years (range 18 - 94 years). Poor glycaemic control (29%) and diabetic foot syndrome (23.4%) were the most common reasons for admission in diabetic cases. The overall mortality rate among medical admissions was 21.8%, with diabetes accounting for 6.7% deaths. Within the cohort of diabetic cases, mortality was 15.9%, with significantly higher mortality in those aged > 65 years (p < 0.05). The most common causes of death in diabetic cases were Cerebrovascular disease and complications associated with the foot syndrome, accounting for 26.1% and 21.7% of deaths respectively; the least common causes of death in diabetic patients were Malaria, Hepatic Encephalopathy, and Carcinoma of the Cervix, accounting for 4.4% of deaths. Cerebrovascular disease was the most frequent cause of mortality among admitted diabetic patients with diabetic foot syndrome (a preventable complication) as the second most frequent cause of mortality. Increased screening for diabetes mellitus morbidities in the clinic and community

  6. Isoprene and monoterpene emissions from secondary forest in northern Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxton, J. E.; Lewis, A. C.; Kettlewell, J. H.; Ozel, M. Z.; Gogus, F.; Boni, Y.; Korogone, S. O. U.; Serça, D.

    2007-04-01

    The biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) composition of ambient air at a rural field site near Djougou, Benin has been studied as part of the AMMA (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis) project. Ambient air was sampled during day and night during the period 2 June 2006 to 13 June 2006. Gas samples from within the forest canopy and from branch and cuvette enclosure systems for four vegetation species were also obtained and emissions flux estimates made. All samples were analysed for the presence of isoprene, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes by either gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF/MS) or comprehensive gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-TOF/MS). Concentrations of isoprene ranged from a few tens of pptV to in excess of 3000 pptV. Similar concentration ranges for certain monoterpenes were also observed. Limonene was seen at a maximum concentration in ambient air of 5000 pptV. The combination of leaf-level observations and direct analysis of dried vegetation samples suggest that emissions of terpene species from indigenous species are unlikely to account for the unexpectedly high ambient concentrations of monoterpenes. Leaf scale emission measurements and biological sample analysis indicated that Anacardium occidentale, a non-native crop species found throughout the tropics, was the dominant source of monoterpenes at this location. These preliminary findings suggest that activities involving species replacement have potential implications for the chemistry of the African troposphere that have not been widely considered previously.

  7. Nutritional Characteristics of Forage Grown in South of Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musco, Nadia; Koura, Ivan B; Tudisco, Raffaella; Awadjihè, Ghislain; Adjolohoun, Sebastien; Cutrignelli, Monica I; Mollica, Maria Pina; Houinato, Marcel; Infascelli, Federico; Calabrò, Serena

    2016-01-01

    In order to provide recommendations on the most useful forage species to smallholder farmers, eleven grass and eleven legume forages grown in Abomey-Calavi in Republic of Benin were investigated for nutritive value (i.e. chemical composition and energy content) and fermentation characteristics (i.e. gas and volatile fatty acid production, organic matter degradability). The in vitro gas production technique was used, incubating the forages for 120 h under anaerobic condition with buffalo rumen fluid. Compared to legume, tropical grass forages showed lower energy (8.07 vs 10.57 MJ/kg dry matter [DM]) and crude protein level (16.10% vs 19.91% DM) and higher cell wall content (neutral detergent fiber: 63.8% vs 40.45% DM), respectively. In grass forages, the chemical composition showed a quite high crude protein content; the in vitro degradability was slightly lower than the range of tropical pasture. The woody legumes were richer in protein and energy and lower in structural carbohydrates than herbaceous plants, however, their in vitro results are influenced by the presence of complex compounds (i.e. tannins). Significant correlations were found between chemical composition and in vitro fermentation characteristics. The in vitro gas production method appears to be a suitable technique for the evaluation of the nutritive value of forages in developing countries. PMID:26732328

  8. Asymptomatic Malaria among Blood Donors in Benin City Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bankole Henry Oladeinde

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at determining the prevalence and associated risk factors for asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia and anemia among blood donors in a private medical laboratory in Benin City, Nigeria.Venous blood was collected from a total of 247 blood donors. Malaria status, ABO, Rhesus blood groups and hemoglobin concentration of all participants were determined using standard methods.The prevalence of asymptomatic malaria infection was higher among commercial blood donors than volunteer group (commercial vs volunteer donor: 27.5 %vs. 13.8%; OR = 2.373, 95% CI = 0.793, 7.107, P = 0.174. Asymptomatic malaria was not significantly affected by gender (P = 0.733, age (P = 0.581, ABO (P = 0.433 and rhesus blood groups (P = 0.806 of blood donors. Age was observed to significantly (P = 0.015 affect malaria parasite density with donors within the age group of 21-26 years having the highest risk. The prevalence of anemia was significantly higher among commercial donors (commercial vs volunteer donors: 23.4% vs 3.4%: OR = 8.551, 95% CI = 1.135, 64.437, P = 0.013 and donors of blood group O type (P = < 0.0001.Asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia and anemia was higher among commercial donors than voluntary donors. Mandatory screening of blood donors for malaria parasite is advocated to curb transfusion transmitted malaria and associated sequelae.

  9. Indigenous knowledge on landraces and fonio-based food in Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballogou, Vénérande Y; Soumanou, Mohamed M; Toukourou, Fatiou; Hounhouigan, Joseph D

    2014-01-01

    Fonio is a traditional cereal cultivated in many West African countries, where farmers are often the guardians of a rich diversity of landraces or traditional varieties. An investigation conducted in northwest of Benin on indigenous knowledge about fonio landraces and fonio-based traditional foods allowed us to inventory 35 landraces identified by the farmers. Ipormoa, Namba, Icantoni or Kopognakè or Icantoga and Iporhouwan landraces were good to cook paste and couscous and easy to dehusk. Besides, Ipormoa and Iporhouwan landraces had interesting agronomic characteristics. Paste, porridge, and couscous were the main fonio-based foods consumed by farmers in northwest of Benin. PMID:24884554

  10. The Quest for Honor and Citizenship in Post-Slavery Borgu (Benin)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahonou, Eric Komlavi

    2015-01-01

    Post-slavery refers here to the legacies of the institution of slavery while old forms of servile condition have mostly disappeared or are waning. In Northern Benin, past inequalities and hierarchies have been reversed in a mere century. What remains today is the heritage of an ideology...... that is increasingly being contested in a number of forms. The paper explores the heritage of slavery in its cultural, spatial, social, economic, and political dimensions. The author sheds light on the concept of honor that is a central dimension of social and political life in West Africa. In nowadays Benin, Gando...

  11. Monitoring and Threat Assessment of the Spotted-Necked Otter (Lutra maculicollis) in Southern Benin Wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Mensah, G A; Sinsin, B.; H.A. Akpona

    2011-01-01

    Otters are a very poorly studied species in most of Africa and Benin is no exception. This is due to their inaccessible habitat (river valleys), their retiring behaviour, and the difficulty of having no specific survey methods. An interview survey of local people was carried out in 2004 by the Laboratory of Applied Ecology in Southern Benin wetlands (6°28’N to 7°N; 2°23’E to 2°35’E) to assess the threats to spotted-necked otters. The results showed that yearlings dominated the demographic str...

  12. The impact of the expansion of urban vegetable farming on malaria transmission in major cities of Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Kindé Gazard; Padonou Gil; Osse Razack; Boko Michel; Asidi Alex; Allagbé Hyacinthe; N'Guessan Raphael; Yadouléton Anges; Akogbéto Martin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Urban agricultural practices are expanding in several cities of the Republic of Benin. This study aims to assess the impact of such practices on transmission of the malaria parasite in major cities of Benin. Method A cross sectional entomological study was carried out from January to December 2009 in two vegetable farming sites in southern Benin (Houeyiho and Acron) and one in the northern area (Azèrèkè). The study was based on sampling of mosquitoes by Human Landing Catch...

  13. The value of yam diversity in the transition Guinea Sudan zone of Benin : Market evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zannou, A.; Struik, P.C.; Richards, P.

    2009-01-01

    Preferences of traders and consumers for different yam varieties were analysed in Benin. Prices varied by variety, showing that the market valued distinct crop traits differently. These varietal price differentials were present throughout the year and across years. The use for which each variety was

  14. Functional limitations after surgical or antibiotic treatment for buruli ulcer in benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barogui, Y.; Johnson, R.C.; van der Werf, T.S.; Sopoh, G.; Dossou, A.; Dijkstra, P.U.; Stienstra, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Almost half of patients have functional limitations after treatment of Buruli ulcer disease. Antibiotic treatment (along with surgery) was introduced in the National Program for Buruli ulcer in Benin in 2005. The aim of this study was to compare functional limitations in patients who were treated by

  15. Control of pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes with chlorfenapyr in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N'Guessan, R.; Boko, P.; Odjo, A.; Knols, B.G.J.; Akogbeto, M.; Rowland, M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy of chlorfenapyr applied on mosquito nets and as an indoor residual spray against populations of Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus in an area of Benin that shows problematic levels of pyrethroid resistance. Method Eight-week trial conducted in experimental

  16. Social institutional dynamics of seed system reliability: the case of oil palm in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akpo, E.; Crane, T.A.; Stomph, T.J.; Tossou, C.R.; Kossou, D.; Vissoh, P.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Seed system reliability is of major importance in farming. Whereas earlier studies analysed mainly annuals, this study focuses on a perennial. Oil palm in Benin was chosen as a case study because farmers complained about non-hybrids (dura and pisifera) in plots allegedly planted with 100% hybrid (te

  17. Weeds as agricultural constraint in Benin: results of a diagnostic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissoh, P.V.; Gbèhounou, G.; Ahanchedé, A.; Kuyper, T.W.; Röling, N.G.

    2004-01-01

    Weeds are an emerging constraint on crop production, as a result of population pressure and more intensive use of cultivated land. A diagnostic study was carried out from June through August 2002 in the five agro-ecological zones of Benin (1) to identify the relative importance of weeds among major

  18. Indigenous knowledge and processing of Adansonia digitata L. food products in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chadare, F.J.; Hounhouigan, J.D.; Linnemann, A.R.; Nout, M.J.R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2008-01-01

    Indigenous knowledge related to baobab food products was investigated in Benin among 253 food processors from 15 ethnic groups. Descriptive statistics and correspondence analysis (CA) were used for data analysis. The following food categories were identified: dough, gruel, drinks (from pulp); sauces

  19. Regional trade and border markets between Niger, Benin and Nigeria: A methodological note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier; Tenikué, Michel; Kuepié, Mathias

    The objective of this methodological paper is to identify a number of products or sectors whose trade is relevant for border regions in West Africa. Focusing on Niger, Benin and Nigeria, we start with contextualising the importance of border markets by quantifying the changes in the relative values...

  20. Lifelong Learning as an Instrument for Human Capital Development in Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biao, Idowu

    2015-01-01

    A review of the Benin education system shows that it is still heavily school-based. Yet, a high level of wastage is currently being recorded at school level (about 50% success rate at primary level, about 40% success rate at high school level and about 1% enrolment rate of qualified candidates and success rate at tertiary level), leading to the…

  1. People's response to policy change in agricultural development organization. The Benin case.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tossou, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    This book is about change. It deals with the way in which social actors, be they individuals or groups, involved in the agricultural development of Benin reconstruct for themselves the new policy context in order to develop relevant strategies translating policy measures into practical objectives an

  2. Microbiological and physicochemical characterization of shea butter sold on Benin markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honfo, G.F.; Hell, K.; Akissoe, N.H.; Linnemann, A.R.; Coulibaly, O.

    2012-01-01

    Shea butter, a fat from the nuts of shea tree, is of great nutritional and commercial value for local communities of Africa. The sanitary and physicochemical qualities of shea butter sold in Benin markets are unknown. This study assesses the quality characteristics of 54 samples of shea butter colle

  3. Drivers of cooperative choice: canal maintenance in smallholder irrigated rice production in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Totin, G.G.E.; Leeuwis, C.; Mierlo, van B.C.; Mongbo, R.; Stroosnijder, L.; Kossou, D.K.

    2014-01-01

    Rice production in inland valleys in Southern Benin was initiated by the public sector. The subsequent devolution of responsibility for maintaining the collective irrigation infrastructure to farmers created an opportunity to study the factors that affect cooperation in canal maintenance. We used a

  4. Networking, social capital and gender roles in the cotton system in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maboudou Alidou, G.

    2014-01-01

    Cotton production in Benin, West Africa, is intertwined with colonialism, which contributed to the trans­formation of the crop’s production system from traditional to modern. Through­out the years, the importance of the crop for the stakeholders varied. The last decades have witnessed

  5. Platforms for resource management: case studies of success or failure in Benin and Burkina Faso.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dangbegnon, C.

    1998-01-01

    The present book focuses on platforms for (natural) resource management. It analyses various case studies in Benin and Burkina Faso. Conditions for collective resource management in conflict and interdependent situations are the most critical issues. The present study raises the importance of socio-

  6. Estimating farmers’ productive and marketing inefficiency: an application to vegetable producers in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singbo, A.G.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Emvalomatis, G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper estimates the technical and marketing inefficiency of a sample of urban vegetable producers in Benin. Marketing inefficiency is defined as the failure of farmers to achieve better marketing output and is reflected in lower output price indices. The study proposes a Russell-type measure of

  7. Diversity and mobility in households with children orphaned by AIDS in Couffo, Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fagbemissi, R.C.; Lie, R.; Leeuwis, C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper characterises children orphaned by AIDS in the Couffo region of Benin. A 2006 census conducted for the research revealed a total of 315 such orphans, aged 0 to 14 years, within 88 households. Seventy-one percent of these children were under the care of their mothers or grandmothers, 68% w

  8. Determinants of soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill] production system in Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Carmelle Zoundji

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Present study was conducted to analyze the soybean production system in Benin. Data were collected from 324 soybean producers selected from the three major soybean-producing agro-ecological areas i.e. agro-ecological zone 3 (southern Borgou, agro-ecological zone 4 (West Atacora and agro-ecological zone 5 (Cotton zone of the Centre of Benin. A participatory research approach with group discussions followed by individual interviews was carried out for extracting the information from respondents. Information mainly referred to the socio-demographic characteristics of soybean producers, production practices, extent of yields and constraints. Descriptive statistics were then used to analyze the data. Ordered Probit regression was further carried out to assess the determinants of soybean yield levels in Benin. Results of this study revealed that soybean producers of the three agro ecological zones have most of the common demographic characteristics. They equally revealed that farmers do not follow correct soybean cropping practices. Improved seeds, plant density, fertilizers, fallow, and sex of farmers have significantly (P<0.05, P<0.01, P<0.001 influenced the yields of soybean in Benin. Within the context of sustainable agricultural production practices, it is recommended to develop appropriate technologies for soybean cultivation. The extension services should focus more on the appropriate combination of input resources which are found to contribute more to the soybean production

  9. Semi-deciduous forest remnants in Benin: patterns and floristic characterisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adomou, A.C.; Akoegninou, A.; Sinsin, B.; Foucault, de B.; Maesen, van der L.J.G.

    2009-01-01

    Patterns of semi-deciduous forest are investigated in Benin by means of phytosociological releves and multivariate analyses Species and family importance values are assessed for each forest type The classifications and DCA ordination of 176 semi-deciduous forest releves result in six forest types, p

  10. Using agronomic tools to improve pineapple quality and its uniformity in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fassinou Hotegni, V.N.

    2014-01-01

    Keywords: Ananas comosus; Benin; cultural practices; fruit quality; hapas; heterogeneity; planting material; slips; suckers; supply chain; variation in quality; variation within crop; vigour. Poor average quality and uniformity in quality have become major issues in agri-food chains

  11. Notes on edible insects of South Benin: A source of protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tchibozo, S.; Huis, van A.; Paoletti, M.G.

    2005-01-01

    Insects have been and still are consumed in South Benin. They are a very important source of animal protein, able to successfully substitute some meats and improve the health of badly nourished children. Various aspects are investigated: the species eaten, techniques of gathering, culinary usages, c

  12. Gender roles in cotton production and management of related organizations in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maboudou Alidou, G.; Niehof, A.

    2013-01-01

    Women’s productive roles have generated important debates, heuristic as well as practical, in the scientific and development community. In Benin, women farmers are playing a key role, particularly in agriculture and cotton production, where they are involved throughout the production process. Howeve

  13. An Inquiry into Institutional Support for the Benin Video-Film Culture in Nollywood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.S. Omoera

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Today hundreds of indigenous movies are produced yearly in Benin, Ebira, Fulfulde, Ijaw, among other hinterland Nigerian languages, besides the so-called dominant Nollywood films of Igbo/English, Yoruba, and Hausa language expressions. Employing both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, this paper inquires into the level of institutional support the Benin language video-film industry gets from development agents, including the government. There are so many untapped cultural, artistic, and economic potentials for Nigeria’s movie-making and entertainment industry in the hinterlands which can further boost its Unique Selling Point in the national and global arenas. Regrettably, these micro-national film cultures remain largely under-explored and under-theorized, but have been demonstrated to be representationally consequential in terms of production output, audience reception, and opportunities for contending views, and voices. It is in this respect that a fuller reflection on, and influence of issues in Nollywood film cultures have become needful. This is to enable film scholars, enthusiasts, theorists, critics, and entrepreneurs to better understand and navigate the boundless cultural, artistic and economic potentials of Nollywood against the background of the kind of support it gets/should get from relevant development agents. Focusing on the Benin film industry situation, this paper finds that a significant percentage of the sampled audience holds that the support the Benin video-film enjoys is very marginal in spite of its noticeable potentials. Consequently, it recommends greater support from relevant authorities for the emergent industry by way of provision of accessible credit facilities, training schools, and requisite technologies to strengthen the capacities of its practitioners, and enhance the production of more culturally germane Benin video-films, and ultimately contribute to Nigeria’s gross domestic product (GDP.

  14. Competing conceptions of customary land rights registration (rural land maps PFRs in Benin) : methodological, policy and polity issues

    OpenAIRE

    Lavigne Delville, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The formalisation of local or customary land rights is often seen as a means of tackling insecurity of land tenure and encouraging investment. Several tools, such as the Rural Land Plans (PFRs) used in Benin, seem to resolve the tension between the logic of registering rights in order to increase productivity and the logic of securing complex local rights and reducing conflict. But while PFRs are potentially a good tool for dealing with complexity, current policy debate in Benin tends to focu...

  15. Farmers' use of wild relative and sexual reproduction in a vegetatively propagated crop. The case of yam in Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Scarcelli, Nora; Tostain, Serge; Vigouroux, Yves; Agbangla, C.; Dainou, O.; Pham, Jean-Louis

    2006-01-01

    The impact of traditional farmers' management on genetic diversity of vegetatively propagated crops is poorly documented. In this study, we analysed the impact of ennoblement of spontaneous yams, an original traditional farmers' practice, on the genetic diversity of yam (Dioscorea sp.) in Benin. We used 11 microsatellite markers on yam tubers from a small village in northern Benin and demonstrated that wild x cultivated hybrids are spontaneously formed. Many of the spontaneous yams collected ...

  16. Transactional sex and sexual harassment between professors and students at an urban university in Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, Amanda

    2016-07-01

    This paper adds to discussion of transactional sex relationships in Africa by examining the distinction between transactional sex and sexual harassment in the context of professor-student relationships and their inherent power dynamics. By exploring the ways in which female university students in urban Benin toe the line between empowered agent and victim, I show how the power differential between professor and student obstructs the professor's ability to objectively determine consent, and examine why, in spite of this differential, male professors are frequently perceived as the victims of these relationships. Ethnographic data were gathered through participant observation on a public university campus in Benin and in-depth interviews and focus groups with 34 students and 5 professors from that university. Findings suggest that the problem of sexual harassment on campus will be difficult to address so long as transactional sex relationships between professors and students are permitted to continue. PMID:26808397

  17. Proportion of Urinary Schistosomiasis among HIV-Infected Subjects in Benin City, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinbo Frederick Olusegun

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis, and the effect of CD4+ T cell counts and demographics on its prevalence among HIV-positive patients in Benin City, Nigeria.Methods: Urine and blood samples were collected from 2000 HIV-positive subjects. A wet preparation of the urine deposit was examined microscopically to identify ova of Schistosoma haematobium. The blood specimens were analyzed using the flow cytometry for CD4 + T-lymphocyte count.Results: An overall prevalence rate of 0.3% was reported. Gender and CD4 count <200 cells/µL did not affect the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis, while HIV patients that were single had significantly higher prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis (p=0.002.Conclusion: The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among HIV patients in Benin City is low. CD4+ count did not affect the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis.

  18. Genetic population study of Y-chromosome markers in Benin and Ivory Coast ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes-Lima, Cesar; Brucato, Nicolas; Croze, Myriam; Bellis, Gil; Schiavinato, Stephanie; Massougbodji, Achille; Migot-Nabias, Florence; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel

    2015-11-01

    Ninety-six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and seventeen short tandem repeat (STRs) were investigated on the Y-chromosome of 288 unrelated healthy individuals from populations in Benin (Bariba, Yoruba, and Fon) and the Ivory Coast (Ahizi and Yacouba). We performed a multidimensional scaling analysis based on FST and RST genetic distances using a large extensive database of sub-Saharan African populations. There is more genetic homogeneity in Ivory Coast populations compared with populations from Benin. Notably, the Beninese Yoruba are significantly differentiated from neighbouring groups, but also from the Yoruba from Nigeria (FST>0.05; P<0.01). The Y-chromosome dataset presented here provides new valuable data to understand the complex genetic diversity and human male demographic events in West Africa.

  19. Contract-farming in staple food chains: the case of rice in Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Vande Velde, Katrien; Maertens, Miet

    2014-01-01

    Supply chain upgrading in domestic and staple food chains in developing countries is important for a more efficient supply to growing urban markets. Little research is done on institutional innovations, such as contract-farming, in these chains. Research on the impact of smallholder contract-farming largely focuses on export-oriented high-value commodities. In this paper, we assess the welfare implications of smallholder contract-farming in the rice sector in Benin, using farm-household surve...

  20. The consequences of appointment policies for court legitimacy in Benin: A network analysis approach

    OpenAIRE

    Stroh, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The paper seeks to explain how courts in new and vulnerable democracies acquire legitimacy and thus become credible actors able to facilitate or even foster the consolidation of democracy. It analyses the case of the Constitutional Court of Benin (CCB), demonstrating that governmental appointment policies have had an important impact on the court's legitimacy. This West African country is considered to have been continuously democratic since 1991, and the court was established by consensus du...

  1. Ovarian tumors among Nigerian females: A private practice experience in Benin-City, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald Dafe Forae; Jonathan Umezulike Aligbe

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ovarian tumors ranked high among gynecological tumor globally. Reports have it that ovarian tumors cut across all age groups, but more common in adult females. Currently, ovarian cancer is the 4th most common cancer in terms of incidence and mortality patterns in women globally. To highlight the frequency and histological types of ovarian tumors in a private practice establishment in Benin-City, Southern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Hematoxylin and eosin stained-slides of ovari...

  2. A histopathological overview of ovarian lesions in Benin City, Nigeria: How common are the functional cysts?

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald Dafe Forae; Jonathan Umezulike Aligbe

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to highlight the histopathological synopsis of ovarian lesions with emphasis on functional ovarian cysts and to compare our study with findings of other centers. Materials and Methods: Hematoxylin and eosin stained-slides of ovarian biopsies diagnosed at the Ashamas Foundation Diagnostic Centre, Benin City for 10 years were archived, scrutinized, and studied. Request forms were analyzed for clinical biodata and diagnosis, and data were analyzed with Statistical P...

  3. Converging strategies by farmers and scientists to improve soil fertility and enhance crop production in Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Saidou, A.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords: Farmer perception, indigenous knowledge, extensive cassava, earthworm casts, arbuscular mycorrhiza, crop rotation, nutrient uptake, soil fertility, co-research, land tenure.Farmers in the transitional zone of Benin claim that extensive cassava cropping and prior cotton fertiliser enhance yield of subsequent maize. To cope with labour shortage, farmers have adapted fertiliser practices by mixing NPK-SB and urea. We agreed with farmers through a Stakeholder Learning Group to study the...

  4. Effects of Storage Losses and Grain Management Practices on Storage: Evidence from Maize Production in Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Kadjo, Didier; Ricker-Gilbert, Jacob E.; Alexander, Corinne E.; Tahirou, Abdoulaye

    2013-01-01

    This study uses nationally representative data from 360 farm households in Benin to estimate how access to storage technologies and storage losses from insects affects a smallholder African farmer’s decision to hold grain from production, in an environment of high price variability. We find that access to storage chemicals increases the average amount stored by 196 kilograms with results approaching statistical significance. Farmers who use plastic bags store 293 kilograms less grain on avera...

  5. Genetic nature of yams (Dioscorea sp.) domesticated by farmers in Benin (West Africa)

    OpenAIRE

    Scarcelli, Nora; Tostain, Serge; Mariac, Cédric; Agbangla, C.; Da, O.; Berthaud, Julien; Pham, Jean-Louis

    2006-01-01

    'Domestication' is a traditional farmers' practice reported for yams (Dioscorea sp.) in Benin (West Africa). It involves introducing 'spontaneous' (naturally occurring) yams, supposedly wild (D. abyssinica and D. praehensilis), in varieties of the D. cayenensis-D. rotundata cultivated species complex. In this study, we established the genetic nature of 'predomesticated' yam plants using the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique. A total of 213 accessions, consisting of 32 pr...

  6. Storage Insects on Yam Chips and Their Traditional Management in Northern Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Y. L. Loko; Dansi, A.; Tamo, M.; Bokonon-Ganta, A. H.; P. Assogba; Dansi, M.; R. Vodouhè; Akoegninou, A.; Sanni, A.

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-five villages of Northern Benin were surveyed to identify the constraints of yam chips production, assess the diversity of storage insects on yam chips, and document farmers' perception of their impacts on the stocks and their traditional management practices. Damages due to storage insects (63.9% of responses) and insufficiency of insect-resistant varieties (16.7% of responses) were the major constraints of yam chips production. Twelve insect pest species were identified among which D...

  7. Effects of severe obstetric complications on women’s health and infant mortality in Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Filippi, Véronique; Goufodji, Sourou; Sismanidis, Charalambos; Kanhonou, Lydie; Fottrell, Edward; Ronsmans, Carine; Alihonou, Eusèbe; Patel, Vikram

    2010-01-01

    Summary Objective To document the impact of severe obstetric complications on post-partum health in mothers and mortality in babies over 12 months in Benin and to assess whether severe complications associated with perinatal death are particularly likely to lead to adverse health consequences. Methods Cohort study which followed women and their babies after a severe complication or an uncomplicated childbirth. Women were selected in hospitals and interviewed at home at discharge, and at 6 and...

  8. Landscape changes in a lowland in Benin : ecological impact on pests and natural enemies

    OpenAIRE

    Boucher, A.; Silvie, Pierre; Menozzi, P; Adda, C.; Auzoux, S.; Jean, J.; Huat, J.

    2015-01-01

    Habitat management involving conservative biological control could be a good crop pest management option in poor African countries. A survey was conducted from August 2013 to July 2014 in a rainfed lowland region near Pélébina, northern Benin, in order to characterize spatiotemporal lanscape changes and investigate their influence on the main crop pests and their associated natural enemies. The area was mapped mainly regarding crop fields and fallows. Visual observations were recorded and a d...

  9. Shrimp quality and safety management along the supply chain in Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Dabade, D.S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This thesis focuses on quality and safety management of tropical shrimp (Penaeus spp.) using Benin (West Africa) as an example of a shrimp exporting country. The entire supply chain, from fishing areas (brackish waters) to shrimp processing plants, was investigated. The steps of the chain prior to shrimp processing at the freezer plants were critical for shrimp quality and safety because of prevailing temperature abuse and inappropriate hygienic conditions. Combining culture-dependen...

  10. Variations of wave energy power in shoaling zone of Benin coastal zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias A. Houekpoheha

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Today, we observe at the population level, that the improvement in comfort is accompanied by an increase in the electrical energy required. The predicted exhaustion of fossil energy resources maintains some speculation. Their unequal geographical distribution justifies the energy dependence of Benin overlooked from outside. So it is urgent to explore the various sources of renewable energy available to Benin. In this work, using measurements made ​​by the Millennium Challenge Account (MCA-Benin as part of the extension of the port of Cotonou, with Boussinesq equations (Peregrine and Stokes waves dispersion relation, we characterized the variations of various swell parameters (height, wavelength, velocities in the shoaling zone on the study site and proceeded to estimate variations in wave energy power from deep waters to the bathymetric breaking point. Finally, the zone with high energy power (where the conversion of this energy into electrical energy would be profitable of these waves is highlighted on the site, the local water depth at the point of breaking waves is evaluated and results obtained allowed to justify the very energetic character take by these swells on this coast when they are close to the beach.

  11. Lifelong learning as an instrument for human capital development in Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biao, Idowu

    2015-10-01

    A review of the Benin education system shows that it is still heavily school-based. Yet, a high level of wastage is currently being recorded at school level (about 50% success rate at primary level, about 40% success rate at high school level and about 1% enrolment rate of qualified candidates and success rate at tertiary level), leading to the unintentional creation of a large population of unskilled and unproductive youths and adults. Integrated education systems which hold great potential and opportunities for both initial and continuing education remain hardly explored and virtually untapped. Yet, the challenges of the 21st century are such that only the unveiling and continuous cultivation of multi-faceted human capital can help individual citizens lead both a productive and fulfilled life. Formal education alone or non-formal education alone, irrespective of how well each is delivered, is no longer sufficient in facing up to the multifarious challenges of the 21st century. If education is to serve Benin beneficially in this century, the current national system of education must be reoriented to free up citizens' human capital through the implementation of an integrated educational system. This article proposes a new national education system which is rooted in the concept of lifelong learning and combines formal and non-formal systems of education for Benin.

  12. Variabilité morphologiques et conservation des morphotypes de Jatropha curcas Linn. (Euphoriaceae au Benin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlemagne Judes Gbemavo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is a contribution to Jatropha curcas cultivation and seeks to analyze the morphological variability and identification of morphotypes of Jatropha curcas. The study was conducted in 44 communities equitably distributed among 22 towns (populations and geographically widespread in the 10 phytodistricts of Benin. Per population, at least 30 individuals of the species spaced at least 20 meters apart were randomly selected for the collection of morphological data. In total, 840 individuals, 714 leaves, 2294 fruits and 3465 seeds of Jatropha curcas were measured in all the country. The part of the variability of Jatropha curcas morphological traits due to individual, populations, phytodistricts, climatic zones were determined using the variance component analysis. The stepwise discriminant analysis was performed on Jatropha curcas populations to identify the morphological traits which discriminate them and the numeric classification was realized to regroup Jatropha curcas populations. The results show that variability of Jatropha curcas morphological traits is generally larger at individual level or between individuals of the same population than between populations, phytodistricts and climatic zones except fruits and seeds weight whose variability is larger between populations. Ten of twenty-one morphological traits studied were identified as the most discriminant variables of Jatropha curcas. Four morphological groups of Jatropha curcas were distinguished in Benin considering 10 discriminant variables. Keywords: morphological traits, variability, Jatropha curcas, Benin.

  13. Natural Interactions between S. haematobium and S. guineensis in the Republic of Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Moné

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease which affects millions of people around the world, particularly in Africa. In this continent, different species are able to interbreed, like Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma guineensis, two schistosome species infecting humans. The Republic of Benin is known to harbor S. haematobium, but its geographical situation in between Nigeria, Mali, and Burkina Faso, where S. guineensis was found, raises the question about the possible presence of S. haematobium/S. guineensis hybrids in this country. We conducted morphological analyses on schistosome eggs and molecular analyses on schistosome larvae (high resolution melting (HRM analysis and gene sequencing in order to detect any natural interaction between these two species of schistosomes. The morphological results showed the presence of three egg morphotypes (S. haematobium, S. guineensis, and intermediate. Three genotypes were detected by ITS2 rDNA HRM analysis: S. haematobium, S. guineensis, and hybrid, and their percentages confirmed the results of the morphological analysis. However, sequencing of the CO1 mtDNA gene showed that all the samples from Benin belonged to S. haematobium. Our results provide the first evidence of introgression of S. guineensis genes in S. haematobium in Benin.

  14. Natural Interactions between S. haematobium and S. guineensis in the Republic of Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moné, Hélène; Minguez, Stéphanie; Ibikounlé, Moudachirou; Allienne, Jean-François; Massougbodji, Achille; Mouahid, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease which affects millions of people around the world, particularly in Africa. In this continent, different species are able to interbreed, like Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma guineensis, two schistosome species infecting humans. The Republic of Benin is known to harbor S. haematobium, but its geographical situation in between Nigeria, Mali, and Burkina Faso, where S. guineensis was found, raises the question about the possible presence of S. haematobium/S. guineensis hybrids in this country. We conducted morphological analyses on schistosome eggs and molecular analyses on schistosome larvae (high resolution melting (HRM) analysis and gene sequencing) in order to detect any natural interaction between these two species of schistosomes. The morphological results showed the presence of three egg morphotypes (S. haematobium, S. guineensis, and intermediate). Three genotypes were detected by ITS2 rDNA HRM analysis: S. haematobium, S. guineensis, and hybrid, and their percentages confirmed the results of the morphological analysis. However, sequencing of the CO1 mtDNA gene showed that all the samples from Benin belonged to S. haematobium. Our results provide the first evidence of introgression of S. guineensis genes in S. haematobium in Benin.

  15. Assessment of the Contamination of Some Foodstuffs by Escherichia coli O157 in Benin, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honoré Sourou Bankole

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli O157 is a pathogenic bacterium causing haemorrhagic colitis. It represents a serious public health problem in Northern America and Europe, which can plague Africa. Most cases of mentioned poisoning were related to contaminated meat products and vegetables. The present work aimed to estimate the prevalence of E. coli O157 in meat and vegetables in Benin. For this purpose, 6 lots of faeces samples from pigs and 8 from cattle were collected at the farms on the outskirts of Cotonou. Similarly, 20 samples of carcasses, 20 samples of intestines and stomach, and 20 surfaces samples of slaughtering equipment were taken. Vegetables and environment materials in gardens have also been sampled for 84 samples. Bacteriological analyses revealed a percentage of contamination of 50% for pig faeces and 25% for cattle ones. All the meats from stalling parks have been contaminated by this bacterium. For vegetables, 14.6% of samples were contaminated by E. coli O157. The presence of this pathovar in animal breeding and slaughtering environment and in the gardens shows that Benin is not aware of the risks of foodborne illness associated with the consumption of contaminated products. Therefore, it urges including that germ in a systematic search during safety control of food products in Benin.

  16. Monitoring and Threat Assessment of the Spotted-Necked Otter (Lutra maculicollis in Southern Benin Wetlands

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    G.A. Mensah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Otters are a very poorly studied species in most of Africa and Benin is no exception. This is due to their inaccessible habitat (river valleys, their retiring behaviour, and the difficulty of having no specific survey methods. An interview survey of local people was carried out in 2004 by the Laboratory of Applied Ecology in Southern Benin wetlands (6°28’N to 7°N; 2°23’E to 2°35’E to assess the threats to spotted-necked otters. The results showed that yearlings dominated the demographic structure of the population (46.7% and that males outnumbered females.Eight hunting methods have been developed and improved each year by the local people in the study area and records of these were used to ascertain age and sex. Besides this deliberate hunting, should be added accidental capture and other threats linked to the habitat. Ponds were found to be polluted by chemicals used for fishing, together with exploitation of rivers and over fishing in competition with otters. Spotted-necked otters are highly endangered in Benin wetlands and extinction could occur if the current threats are maintained. A strategic and sustainable conservation and management program must be developed to safeguard the species and its habitat.

  17. Inheritance of the Bantu/Benin haplotype causes less severe hemolytic and oxidative stress in sickle cell anemia patients treated with hydroxycarbamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Jéssika V; Silva, Danilo G H; Torres, Lidiane S; Belini-Junior, Edis; Barberino, Willian M; Oliveira, Renan G; Carrocini, Gisele C S; Gelaleti, Gabriela B; Lobo, Clarisse L C; Bonini-Domingos, Claudia R

    2016-07-01

    Beta S-globin gene cluster haplotypes (β(S)-haplotypes) can modulate the response to hydroxycarbamide (HC) treatment in sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients. In Brazil, the most common haplotypes are Bantu and Benin, and both confer a poor prognosis for patients when untreated with HC. We evaluated oxidative and hemolytic biomarkers in 48 SCA patients undergoing HC treatment separated in three subgroups: Bantu/Bantu, Bantu/Benin and Benin/Benin haplotype. On the basis of reduced haptoglobin (HP) levels, patients with Bantu/Bantu haplotypes had 3.0% higher hemolysis degree when compared with those with Bantu/Benin haplotypes (P=0.01). The Benin/Benin patients had 53.6% greater lipid peroxidation index than the Bantu/Bantu patients (P=0.01) because of evaluated thiobarbituric acid reactive species levels. The Bantu/Benin subgroup had intermediate levels of hemolytic and oxidative stress markers compared with the homozygous subgroups. Through strict inclusion criteria adopted, as well as consolidated and well-described hemolytic and the oxidative parameters evaluated, we suggest a haplotype-interaction response to HC treatment mediated by a 'balance' between the genetic factors of each haplotype studied. PMID:26961071

  18. High rates of parasite recrudescence following intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine during pregnancy in Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moussiliou, Azizath; Sissinto-Savi De Tove, Yolande; Doritchamou, Justin;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite widespread parasite resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) its use for intermittent preventative treatment during pregnancy remains the policy in Benin and throughout most of sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: In a prospective study, 982 pregnant women were recruited in Benin...... the persistence of parasites and malaria consequences, were investigated. Recurrent parasites were genotyped to identify recrudescences from re-infections. RESULTS: The prevalence of pfdhfr/pfdhps quadruple mutants (triple pfdhfr + single pfdhps) was consistently above 80% while quintuple and sextuple mutants...

  19. Suicidal behaviour and related risk factors among school-aged youth in the Republic of Benin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason R Randall

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Research on factors associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts has been conducted largely in developed countries. Research on West African countries in particular is lacking. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Global School-based Health Survey conducted in Benin in 2009. This was a cross-sectional study of three grades, spanning Junior and Senior High, which sampled a total of 2,690 adolescents. Data on the occurrence of demographic, psycho-social and socio-environmental risk factors were tested using multinomial logistic regression for their association with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. RESULTS: The survey indicated that 23.2% had thought about suicide and 28.3% had made a suicide attempt in the previous year. Anxiety, loneliness, being bullied, alcohol misuse, illicit drug use, and lack of parental support were independently related to the ideation outcomes, suicidal ideation without planning and suicidal ideation with planning. Multinomial regression analysis, using one suicide attempt and multiple suicide attempts as outcomes, revealed that female sex, anxiety, loneliness, being physically attacked, and illicit drug use were associated these outcomes. DISCUSSION: The prevalence of suicide attempts reported in the survey is relatively high. It is possible that there are cultural factors that could explain this finding. Our research indicates that many factors are related to the occurrence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among youth in Benin. Illicit drug use and violence in particular are associated with a high rate of suicide attempts in Benin. Measures to address these issues may reduce the risk of self-inflicted violence.

  20. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Voluntary Blood Donation among Healthcare Workers at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedict Nwogoh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Adequate and safe blood supply has remained a challenge in developing countries like ours. There is a high dependency on family replacement and remunerated blood donors in our environment which carries an attendant increased risk of transfusion transmissible infection. Objectives. The objectives of this study were to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of voluntary blood donation among healthcare workers (nonphysicians and to identify and recruit potential voluntary blood donors. Methodology. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City. A total of 163 staffs were recruited. Pretest questionnaires were used to assess their knowledge, attitude, and practice of voluntary blood donation. Statistical Analysis. The responses were collated and analyzed with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 16. The association between blood donation practice and gender of respondents, category of staff, and level of education was tested using Chi-square and Fisher’s tests where appropriate. were considered statistically significant. Results. The median age of the respondents was 32 years (18–56 with females accounting for 55.6% (90. A total of 74.8% (122 attained tertiary education, and 55.8% (91 of respondents were senior staffs. The majority has good knowledge and positive attitude towards donation; however, only 22.1% (36 have donated blood with 41.7% (15 of these being voluntary. Male workers were more likely to donate (. There is no significant association between blood donation and level of education. Conclusion. There is a strong disparity between the knowledge, attitude, and practice of voluntary donation amongst healthcare workers.

  1. Determinants of Commitment to Agricultural Cooperatives: Cashew Nuts Farmers in Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Mensah, Edouard R.; Karantininis, Kostas; Adegbidi, Anselme; Okello, Julius Juma

    2012-01-01

    Forming and using cooperatives as marketing channel is usually advised to African smallholder farmers for overcoming the constraint of market access. However, limited evidence of cooperative behavior in marketing has been observed. In this paper, we estimate a two-stage model of commitment to cooperatives by cashew nut farmers in Benin, West Africa. In the first stage, we use data on 109 non-members and 168 members and estimate a binary Logit model of farmer’s discrete choice with respect to ...

  2. VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF ESSENTIAL OIL FROM Securidaca longepedunculata Fers. GROWING IN BENIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique C.K. Sohounhloue

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of roots bark of Securidacaca longepedunculata Fers. (Polygalaceae growing in Savalou, Biguinan and Gbegrou (Benin were analyzed using capillary GC and GC/MS. Seven compounds representing (99.5%; 99.1%; 99.3% respectively of the oils were identified. The major compound was found to be methyl salicylate respectively (98.0%; 98.6%; 98.7%. The antimicrobial activity of these oils was found to be high, and medium antiradical activity was observed.

  3. Evaluation of integrated crop management strategies employed to cope with Striga infestation in permanent land use systems in southern Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissoh, P.V.; Gbéhounou, G.; Ahanchéde, A.; Roling, N.G.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2008-01-01

    Striga hermonthica and S. gesnerioides pose serious threats to cereal and cowpea production, endangering peoples' livelihoods on the Abomey plateau, Benin. A 2-year joint experiment was undertaken with farmers in two hamlets to investigate the potential of managing sowing dates of cowpea, sorghum tr

  4. Fostering demand-oriented service delivery? A historical reconstruction of first experiences with 'private funding, public delivery' extension in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gbehi, C.; Leeuwis, C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines newly emerging patterns of agricultural extension in the context of wider liberalization of agricultural input supply, marketing and credit provision in Benin. It assesses whether the promises of privatisation were met in the case of the Sasakawa Global 2000 project. Thus, it ass

  5. Effect of participatory research on farmers' knowledge and practice of IPM: The case of cotton in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Togbe, C.E.; Haagsma, R.; Aoudji, A.K.N.; Vodouhe, S.D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study assesses the effect of participatory research on farmers’ knowledge and practice of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in Benin. The participatory field experiments were carried out during the 2011–2012 cotton growing season, and focused on the development and application of pest m

  6. Effects of soil properties, mulch and NPK fertilizer on maize yields and nutrient budgets on ferralitic soils in southern Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saidou, A.; Janssen, B.H.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Four on-farm experiments examined whether modest applications of fertilizers in combination with prunings from native agroforestry trees would be an alternative to maintain the fertility of ferralitic soils in Benin. An application of about 1.9tha-1dry matter of mulch of Senna siamea combined with 3

  7. Earthworm activities in cassava and egusi melon fields in the transitional zone of Benin: linking farmers' perceptions with field studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saïdou, A.; Kossou, D.; Brussaard, L.; Richards, P.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2008-01-01

    Farmers' perceptions of earthworm activities were studied in the transitional zone of Benin and linked to scientific explanations of earthworm casting activities. Earthworm activity was assessed in farmers' fields with three different cassava cultivars and in a field experiment with three different

  8. Trust and hidden conflict in participatory natural resources management: The case of the Pendjari national park (PNP) in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idrissou Aboubacary, L.; Paassen, van A.; Aarts, N.; Vodouhè, S.; Leeuwis, C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigated how and why the issue of trust building between the park direction and the local communities gave way to a hidden conflict in the participatory management of the Pendjari national park (PNP) in Benin, and how it was managed. The findings revealed that calculus-based trust was

  9. Five Years After; the Impact of a Participatory Technology Development Programme as Perceived by Smallholder Farmers in Benin and Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterk, B.; Christian, A. K.; Gogan, A. C.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.; Kossou, D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The article reports effects on livelihoods of a participatory technology development effort in Benin and Ghana (2001-2006), five years after it ended. Design: The study uses data from all smallholders who participated in seven experimental groups, each facilitated by a PhD researcher. Baseline data and controls were not available. In…

  10. The Dilemmas of Monogamy: Pleasure, Discipline and the Pentecostal Moral Self in the Republic of Benin

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    Sitna Quiroz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on ethnographic research in the Republic of Benin, this article explores how Pentecostal teachings on marriage and the management of sexual pleasure contribute to shaping converts’ moral selves. For Pentecostals, fidelity towards God, when single and fidelity between partners, once married, is presented as the ideal model of partnership to which every “Born-Again” should aspire. In the context where polygamous unions are socially accepted, Pentecostal pastors teach that a satisfactory sexual life restricted to marriage is the means of building successful monogamous unions. However, sexual satisfaction might not always guarantee marital success, especially when people face problems of infertility. The author suggests that the disciplinary regimes that these teachings promote contribute to shaping new modes of intimacy, which are compatible with societal changes but often contradict the extant social norms and ideals of reproduction. Moral dilemmas arising from this tension are the key to understanding how Pentecostal Christianity shapes the moral self. The article addresses how Pentecostals in Benin navigate and negotiate cultural continuities and discontinuities in relation to church authority and family life.

  11. Maternal migration and child health: An analysis of disruption and adaptation processes in Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Greenaway, Emily; Madhavan, Sangeetha

    2015-11-01

    Children of migrant mothers have lower vaccination rates compared to their peers with non-migrant mothers in low-income countries. Explanations for this finding are typically grounded in the disruption and adaptation perspectives of migration. Researchers argue that migration is a disruptive process that interferes with women's economic well-being and social networks, and ultimately their health-seeking behaviors. With time, however, migrant women adapt to their new settings, and their health behaviors improve. Despite prominence in the literature, no research tests the salience of these perspectives to the relationship between maternal migration and child vaccination. We innovatively leverage Demographic and Health Survey data to test the extent to which disruption and adaptation processes underlie the relationship between maternal migration and child vaccination in the context of Benin-a West African country where migration is common and child vaccination rates have declined in recent years. By disaggregating children of migrants according to whether they were born before or after their mother's migration, we confirm that migration does not lower children's vaccination rates in Benin. In fact, children born after migration enjoy a higher likelihood of vaccination, whereas their peers born in the community from which their mother eventually migrates are less likely to be vaccinated. Although we find no support for the disruption perspective of migration, we do find evidence of adaptation: children born after migration have an increased likelihood of vaccination the longer their mother resides in the destination community prior to their birth. PMID:26463540

  12. Consumers’ Willingness to Pay for Cabbage with Minimized Pesticide Residues in Southern Benin

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    Faustin Vidogbéna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cabbage (Brassicaceae is one of the most frequently consumed exotic vegetables in Benin and also the most affected by insects. To meet growing food demand, farmers rely heavily on synthetic pesticides that are harmful for themselves, consumers and the environment. Integrated pest management has been proposed as the means to improve vegetable productivity and quality in many developing countries. One approach is to substitute pesticides with physical barriers to insects, like nets. Here, we assess consumers’ perceptions about cabbage and their purchasing behavior towards cabbage that was produced using these nets in two major cities in Benin. Results indicate that consumers are aware of the health risks associated with intensive use of pesticides but were not able to recognize the quality difference between cabbage produced under nets from those using pesticides. All consumers were willing to pay a price premium for cabbage with minimized pesticides residues compared with conventionally produced cabbage, the average premium being 38%. Women, older, highly educated consumers and those able to distinguish cabbage qualities were willing to pay the most. We suggest that farmers will obtain higher prices if their production of cabbage with preferred characteristics is accompanied by an improved marketing strategy.

  13. AGROMORPHOLOGICAL VARIABILITY OF PEARL MILLET (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Br. CULTIVARS GROWN IN BENIN

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    Rollande Aladé Dagba

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The agromorphological variability between various pearl millet cultivars was evaluated to examine the structure of millet in Benin Republic. Therefore, Forty-two (42 cultivars of pearl millet were collected from four agro-ecological areas viz North Extreme Zone (AEZ1, cotton Zone of northern (AEZ2, Food Zone of South-Borgou (AEZ3 and West-Atacora Zone (AEZ4 of Benin Republic. The experimentation was conducted on Ahossougbéta farm in the town Abomey-Calaviby using alpha lattice design in order to access thirty-three (33 agromorphological characters (seventeen (17 quantitative and sixteen (16 qualitative characters. The canonical discriminant analysis, principal component analysis and hierarchical ascendant classification has identified three morphological classes based on 16 quantitative traits and 8 qualitative discriminating Wilks'Lambda (P<0.0001. According to vegetative cycle, agroecological zones and botanical race, the distribution of cultivars has regrouped the three classes in two great groups of importance for the improvement of the millet resources.The first one group established withthe early cultivars (58.33% to yellow grain (83.33%, long candle (58.23 cm Valeur test +5.23 with low seed production characteristics (P1000 = 8.68 g Vt – 4.64. Itresults from ZAE1 ( 83 % and ZAE2 ( 17% and belong to globosum, typhoides and leonis races.

  14. Pattern and outcome of children admitted for burns in Benin City, mid-western Nigeria

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    Oludiran O

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Children are a vulnerable to burns, an injury, which is often preventable. A study of the profile of cases of children admitted for burns will provide background information to suggest locally doable preventive strategies as well as supply basic information for future reference. We studied the records of 62 children aged 0-16 years, admitted for burns, at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, between January 2002 and December 2006. There were 34 male and 28 female children. Children under three years constituted 56.5%. Whereas the leading cause of burns in all the children was flame burns from kerosene explosions (52%, scalds were responsible for 68.6% of cases in those under three. The extent of burn injury ranged from 6 to 50% and most of them presented late. 64.6% were discharged within three weeks. Wound sepsis and post burn contractures were the most frequently encountered complications (19.4% and 9.7% respectively. There were two deaths (3.2% related to sepsis. Particular attention to burn safety precautions in children (especially, in the> 3 years age group, safer storage and dispensing of combustible chemicals particularly petroleum products is advocated. Fire safety awareness, correct first aid measures and early presentation in the hospital will reduce morbidity and mortality. Early physiotherapy and splinting strategies will reduce contractures. There is the need locally for the establishment of specialized burn centres both to treat these children and to stimulate interest in burn management.

  15. Political ecology in the oil palm-based cropping system on the Adja plateau in Benin: connecting soil fertility and land tenure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yemadje, H.R.M.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: Innovation system, Soil fertility management, Land reform, Participatory technology development, Social change, Agroforestry, Land access rights, Fallow, Agricultural intensification, Africa   On the Adja plateau (West Benin), multiple actors are involved in an intercropping system

  16. Search of Organochlorine Pesticide Residues (Pocs) in Bodies of Water in Cotton-Growing Area of Benin by GC-ECD

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. N. Gbaguidi; 2L. F. Dovonon; 1A. Youssao; 1R. Djibril; M. Saizonou; 1Y. I. Mohamed; H. H. Soclo; B. Fayomi

    2014-01-01

    Despite their incontestable services in agriculture, the use of pesticides is not without consequences on the environment. So, in an attempt to access the impacts of pesticides usage in agriculture in Benin, research of some residual organochloride pesticides have been conducted both in rainy and dry seasons in two cotton growing areas: the northern and central part of Benin. The analytical technique used is GC-ECD. During the dry season we notice that the DDT and its metabolites (DDE and DDD...

  17. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of plant essential oils from Benin against Anopheles gambiae (Giles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Insecticide resistance in sub-Saharan Africa and especially in Benin is a major public health issue hindering the control of the malaria vectors. Each Anopheles species has developed a resistance to one or several classes of the insecticides currently in use in the field. Therefore, it is urgent to find alternative compounds to conquer the vector. In this study, the efficacies of essential oils of nine plant species, which are traditionally used to avoid mosquito bites in Benin, were investigated. Methods Essential oils of nine plant species were extracted by hydrodistillation, and their chemical compositions were identified by GC-MS. These oils were tested on susceptible “kisumu” and resistant “ladji-Cotonou” strains of Anopheles gambiae, following WHO test procedures for insecticide resistance monitoring in malaria vector mosquitoes. Results Different chemical compositions were obtained from the essential oils of the plant species. The major constituents identified were as follows: neral and geranial for Cymbopogon citratus, Z-carveol, E-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol and E-p-mentha-2,8-dienol for Cymbopogon giganteus, piperitone for Cymbopogon schoenanthus, citronellal and citronellol for Eucalyptus citriodora, p-cymene, caryophyllene oxide and spathulenol for Eucalyptus tereticornis, 3-tetradecanone for Cochlospermum tinctorium and Cochlospermum planchonii, methyl salicylate for Securidaca longepedunculata and ascaridole for Chenopodium ambrosioides. The diagnostic dose was 0.77% for C. citratus, 2.80% for E. tereticornis, 3.37% for E. citriodora, 4.26% for C. ambrosioides, 5.48% for C. schoenanthus and 7.36% for C. giganteus. The highest diagnostic doses were obtained with S. longepedunculata (9.84%), C. tinctorium (11.56%) and C. planchonii (15.22%), compared to permethrin 0.75%. A. gambiae cotonou, which is resistant to pyrethroids, showed significant tolerance to essential oils from C. tinctorium and S. longepedunculata as expected but was

  18. Schistosomiasis and Soil Transmitted Helminths Distribution in Benin: A Baseline Prevalence Survey in 30 Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boko, Pelagie M.; Ibikounle, Moudachirou; Onzo-Aboki, Ablawa; Tougoue, Jean-Jacques; Sissinto, Yollande; Batcho, Wilfrid; Kinde-Gazard, Dorothe; Kabore, Achille

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, Benin developed strategies to control neglected tropical diseases and one of the first step was the disease mapping of the entire country in order to identify endemic districts of schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminths (STH). This study was carried out in 30 of the 77 districts of Benin. Of these 30 districts 22 were previously treated for Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) using the Ivermectin and Albendazole combination. In each district, five schools were selected and 50 children aged 8 to 14 years were sampled in each school, making a total of 250 children sampled in the district. The schools were selected mainly according to their proximity to lakes or any bodies of water that were likely to have been used by the children. Samples of faeces and urine were collected from each pupil. Urinary schistosomiasis was identified using the urine filtration technique while STH and intestinal schistosomiasis were identified through the Kato Katz method. Overall a total of 7500 pupils were surveyed across 150 schools with a gender ratio of 1:1. Hookworm was identified in all 30 districts with a prevalence ranging from 1.2% (95%CI: 0.0–2.5) to 60% (95%CI: 53.9–66.1). Ascaris lumbricoides was detected in 19 districts with a prevalence rate between 1% (95%CI: 0.0–2.2) and 39% (95%CI: 32.9–45.0). In addition to these common STH, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and Strongyloides stercoralis were found at low prevalence. Only 16 districts were endemic to Schistosoma mansoni, while 29 districts were endemic to S. haematobium. The S. haematobium prevalence ranged from 0.8% (95% CI: 0.0–1.9) to 56% (95% CI: 50.2–62.5) while the prevalence of S. mansoni varied from 0.4% (95%CI: 0.0–1.2) to 46% (95% CI: 39.8–52.2). The 22 districts, where LF was successfully eliminated, still require mass drug administration (MDA) of albendazole indicating that school-based MDA would be needed even after LF elimination in districts co-endemic to LF and STH in

  19. Compliance with chemotherapy in adult leukemia patients in Benin City, Nigeria / Cumplimiento con la quimioterapia en pacientes adultos con leucemia en Benin, Nigeria

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    Omoti CE

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the compliance rate, reasons for default and factors affecting compliance. One hundred and twenty patients on chemotherapy for leukaemia were followed up for between 6 months and 18 months at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital. The reasons for default were recorded. Compliant and noncompliant patients were compared in terms of survival and personal characteristics. The non-compliance rate was 65.8%. Major reasons for defaulting were high cost of drugs (35.3%, non-availability/scarcity of drugs (23.5% and side effects (17.6%. Compliance was significantly associated with higher levels of education (p= 0.0028 while higher levels of socioeconomic status were significantly associated with good compliance (p= 0.0001. Survival was found to be significantly associated with compliance in chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML (P = 0.006 while the relative risk (RR was below unity in all the chronic leukaemias. The level of compliance with medical therapy is still very poor. Health education and the provision of affordable, accessible and appropriate medical therapy are required. A multidisciplinary approach to improve compliance of patients with medical therapy is advocated.

  20. Efficacy and safety of Camosunate for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria

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    Damien Uyagu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In Nigeria, nearly 110 million clinical cases of malaria are diagnosed per year, thus being a major public health problem. The problems of resistance resulted in the introduction of the artemisinin based combinations (ACT by the WHO. Artesunate and amodiaquine (AS+AQ is at present the world’s second most widely used ACT. This study is an assessment of the efficacy and safety of Camosunate (a brand of AS+AQ; Geneith Pharmaceutical Ltd., Oshodi, Lagos in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria conducted at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH. A cross-sectional assessment of the efficacy and safety of Camosunate was conducted over a period of one year using 120 patients selected after stratification, by random sampling technique. All recruited patients had slide-proven uncom- plicated malaria and were followed up for 28 days on commencement of Camosunate. Data was collected using a structured interviewer- administered questionnaire and was analysed using SPSS version 15. The overall efficacy of Camosunate was found to be 95.8%. Treatment was well tolerated as testified by the fact that there was no case withdrawal due to adverse drug reaction (ADR or treatment emergent signs and symptoms (TESS. Also no evidence of toxicity was recorded. Camosunate is highly efficacious and well tolerated in this area of Nigeria and justifies its use as a first line treatment for uncomplicated malaria.

  1. Social structure of lions (Panthera leo is affected by management in Pendjari Biosphere Reserve, Benin.

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    Etotépé A Sogbohossou

    Full Text Available Lion populations have undergone a severe decline in West Africa. As baseline for conservation management, we assessed the group structure of lions in the Pendjari Biosphere Reserve in Benin. This reserve, composed of one National Park and two Hunting Zones, is part of the WAP transboundary complex of protected areas. Overall mean group size was 2.6±1.7 individuals (n = 296, it was significantly higher in the National Park (2.7±1.7, n = 168 than in the Hunting Zones (2.2±1.5, n = 128. Overall adult sex ratio was even, but significantly biased towards females (0.67 in the National Park and towards males (1.67 in the Hunting Zones. Our results suggest that the Pendjari lion population is affected by perturbations, such as trophy hunting.

  2. [Protein C deficiency in black African with venous thromboembolism in Cotonou, Benin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houénassi, D M; Bigot, A; Tchabi, Y; Vehounkpé-Sacca, J; Akindes-Dossou Yovo, R; Gbaguidi, L; d'Almeida-Massougbodji, M; Agboton, H

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the frequency of protein C deficiency in venous thromboembolism in black African patients of Benin. It is a descriptive study. Inclusion criteria were: acceptance- having a venous thromboembolism. No exlusion criteria was retained. Protein C deficiency was diagnosed by quantitative technic with a Minividas materiel in the blood. Protein C dosage has been done before antivitamin k therapy and a second dosage has been done if the first one demonstrated a low level of protein C. Acuired aetiology have been research. For the 54 patients of this study mean age was 52.7±14.1 and sex-ratio 1.08. The frequency of protein C deficiency was 9.3% in all patients and 12.5% in those with clinical thrombophily (p=1). No acquired deficit has been found.

  3. Social Structure of Lions (Panthera leo) Is Affected by Management in Pendjari Biosphere Reserve, Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogbohossou, Etotépé A.; Bauer, Hans; Loveridge, Andrew; Funston, Paul J.; De Snoo, Geert R.; Sinsin, Brice; De Iongh, Hans H.

    2014-01-01

    Lion populations have undergone a severe decline in West Africa. As baseline for conservation management, we assessed the group structure of lions in the Pendjari Biosphere Reserve in Benin. This reserve, composed of one National Park and two Hunting Zones, is part of the WAP transboundary complex of protected areas. Overall mean group size was 2.6±1.7 individuals (n = 296), it was significantly higher in the National Park (2.7±1.7, n = 168) than in the Hunting Zones (2.2±1.5, n = 128). Overall adult sex ratio was even, but significantly biased towards females (0.67) in the National Park and towards males (1.67) in the Hunting Zones. Our results suggest that the Pendjari lion population is affected by perturbations, such as trophy hunting. PMID:24416263

  4. Using information technology for an improved pharmaceutical care delivery in developing countries. Study case: Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edoh, Thierry Oscar; Teege, Gunnar

    2011-10-01

    One of the problems in health care in developing countries is the bad accessibility of medicine in pharmacies for patients. Since this is mainly due to a lack of organization and information, it should be possible to improve the situation by introducing information and communication technology. However, for several reasons, standard solutions are not applicable here. In this paper, we describe a case study in Benin, a West African developing country. We identify the problem and the existing obstacles for applying standard ECommerce solutions. We develop an adapted system approach and describe a practical test which has shown that the approach has the potential of actually improving the pharmaceutical care delivery. Finally, we consider the security aspects of the system and propose an organizational solution for some specific security problems.

  5. Using information technology for an improved pharmaceutical care delivery in developing countries. Study case: Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edoh, Thierry Oscar; Teege, Gunnar

    2011-10-01

    One of the problems in health care in developing countries is the bad accessibility of medicine in pharmacies for patients. Since this is mainly due to a lack of organization and information, it should be possible to improve the situation by introducing information and communication technology. However, for several reasons, standard solutions are not applicable here. In this paper, we describe a case study in Benin, a West African developing country. We identify the problem and the existing obstacles for applying standard ECommerce solutions. We develop an adapted system approach and describe a practical test which has shown that the approach has the potential of actually improving the pharmaceutical care delivery. Finally, we consider the security aspects of the system and propose an organizational solution for some specific security problems. PMID:21519942

  6. BTEX air concentrations and self-reported common health problems in gasoline sellers from Cotonou, Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohon, Honesty Gbèdolo; Fayomi, Benjamin; Valcke, Mathieu; Coppieters, Yves; Bouland, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    To examine the relation between BTEX exposure levels and common self-reported health problems in 140 gasoline sellers in Cotonou, Benin, a questionnaire documenting their socioeconomic status and their health problems was used, whereas 18 of them went through semi-directed qualitative individual interviews and 17 had air samples taken on their workplace for BTEX analysis. Median concentrations for BTEX were significantly lower on official (range of medians: 54-207 μg/m³, n = 9) vs unofficial (148-1449 μg/m³, n = 8) gasoline-selling sites (p sellers from unofficial vs official selling sites (p sellers, leading to their, in some cases, preoccupying BTEX exposure.

  7. Sellers to Preventive and Control Measures on Bird Flu, Benin City, Nigeria

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    V. Y. Adam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigated was the knowledge of preventive measures of avian influenza from farmers, live chicken sellers, and poultry veterinarian in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. A cross-sectional descriptive study using standardized questionnaire was conducted. Respondents included 236 poultry farmers, live chicken sellers (LCS, and veterinarian aged 12–70 years in contact with birds through husbandry. The study duration was from October 2010 to May 2011. Participants knowledge on transmission sources showed low understanding with highest being from bird-bird (57.3%. The medium most commonly utilized was electronic media (82.5% as information source. Respondents thought that vaccination of birds (80.6% would prevent infection. Farmers’ education on bird flu needs to be improved through veterinary public health and health promotion approach. Nonpharmaceutical preventive measures such as hand washing freely and avoidance of eye, nose, and mouth touching must be improved.

  8. Family relationship, water contact and occurrence of Buruli ulcer in Benin.

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    Ghislain Emmanuel Sopoh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium ulcerans disease (Buruli ulcer is the most widespread mycobacterial disease in the world after leprosy and tuberculosis. How M. ulcerans is introduced into the skin of humans remains unclear, but it appears that individuals living in the same environment may have different susceptibilities. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to determine whether frequent contacts with natural water sources, family relationship or the practice of consanguineous marriages are associated with the occurrence of Buruli ulcer (BU. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Department of Atlantique, Benin. SUBJECTS: BU-confirmed cases that were diagnosed and followed up at the BU detection and treatment center (CDTUB of Allada (Department of the Atlantique, Benin during the period from January 1st, 2006, to June 30th, 2008, with three matched controls (persons who had no signs or symptoms of active or inactive BU for age, gender and village of residence per case. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURED: Contact with natural water sources, BU history in the family and the practice of consanguineous marriages. RESULTS: A total of 416 participants were included in this study, including 104 cases and 312 controls. BU history in the family (p<0.001, adjusted by daily contact with a natural water source (p = 0.007, was significantly associated with higher odds of having BU (OR; 95% CI = 5.5; 3.0-10.0. The practice of consanguineous marriage was not associated with the occurrence of BU (p = 0.40. Mendelian disorders could explain this finding, which may influence individual susceptibility by impairing immunity. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that a combination of genetic factors and behavioral risk factors may increase the susceptibility for developing BU.

  9. Bendiocarb, a potential alternative against pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae in Benin, West Africa

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    Irish Seth

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles gambiae, the main malaria vector in Benin has developed high level of resistance to pyrethroid insecticides, which is a serious concern to the future use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN and indoor residual spraying (IRS. In this context, one of the pathways available for malaria vector control would be to investigate alternative classes of insecticides with different mode of action than that of pyrethroids. The goal of this study was to evaluate under field conditions the efficacy of a carbamate (bendiocarb and an organophosphate (fenitrothion against pyrethroid-resistant An. gambiae s.s. Methods Wild populations and females from laboratory colonies of five days old An. gambiae were bio-assayed during this study. Two pyrethroids (deltamethrin and alphacypermethrin, an organophosphate (fenitrothion, a carbamate (bendiocarb and a mixture of an organophosphate (chlorpyriphos + a pyrethroid deltamethrin were compared in experimental huts as IRS treatments. Insecticides were applied in the huts using a hand-operated compression sprayer. The deterrency, exophily, blood feeding rate and mortality induced by these insecticides against An. gambiae were compared to the untreated control huts. Results Deltamethrin, alphacypermethrin and bendiocarb treatment significantly reduced mosquito entry into the huts (p An. gambiae (in the first month and 77.8% (in the fourth month. Bendiocarb and the mixture chlorpyriphos/deltamethrin mortality rates ranged from 97.9 to 100% the first month and 77.7-88% the third month respectively. Conclusion After four months, fenitrothion, bendiocarb and the mixture chlorpyriphos/deltamethrin performed effectively against pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles. These results showed that bendiocarb could be recommended as an effective insecticide for use in IRS operations in Benin, particularly as the mixture chlorpyriphos/deltamethrin does not have WHOPES authorization and complaints were mentioned

  10. 9 Microorganisms Associated With Mutilated Naira Notes In Benin - City, Nigeria

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    Yakubu, J. M

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms associated with mutilated naira notes in Benin City, Nigeria were determined using 10-fold serial dilution tube method. This study was aimed at isolating, identifying and determining the level of contamination with microorganisms of mutilated naira notes in circulation in Benin City. A total of forty (40 samples of Nigerian naira notes consisting of five (5 pieces each of naira (# denominations (5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500 and 1, 000 notes were collected from volunteers (petty traders, b eggars, motor conductors, students and food vendors. The bacterial isolates had a total count of 147cfu/ml and the fungal isolates had a total count of 96cfu/ml. The total percentage occurrence of the bacteria isolate was 779% with 5 and 1000 naira notes having the highest total bacterial percentage occurrence of 100.1% and 200 naira note has the lowest total bacterial percentage occurrence of 79%. The total percentage occurrence of the fungal isolate was 721.2% with 10, 20, 200 and 500 naira notes having the highest total fungal percentage occurrence of 100.0% and 1000 naira notes has the lowest total fungal percentage occurrence of 75%. Escherichia coli had the highest bacterial percentage occurrence of 28.5% followed by Staphylococcus aureus (25.8%, Streptococcus sp. (16.2%, Pseudomonas sp. (18.3% and Bacillus sp. (11.5%. Aspergillus niger had the highest fungal percentage occurrence of 30.2% followed by Penicillium sp (29.5%, Rhizopus sp. (26.5% and Trichoderma sp. (13.8%. The contamination of naira notes with microorganisms showed that these organisms are widely distributed in the environment and are associated with humans. Personal hygiene of handling naira notes should be encouraged and the Nigeria CBN should put in place a retrieval system, which will ensure that mutilated notes do not remain in circulation for too long

  11. Serum lipid profile and uric acid levels in preeclampsia in University of Benin Teaching Hospital

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    Nosakhare O Enaruna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disease associated with significant maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. Lipid abnormality and elevated serum uric acid have been reported as early features of the disease. We aimed to detect the level of serum lipid profile and uric acid abnormalities in severe preeclamptics in Benin City and to measure their clinical significance. Materials and Methods: A prospective case-control study was conducted with subjects presenting with severe preeclampsia to the Obstetric Unit of the UBTH, Benin City. Fasting serum lipid profile and uric acid levels of 40 severe preeclamptic subjects and 80 gestation-matched normotensive controls were done at recruitment. The preeclamptic subjects were managed according to our departmental protocol which included stabilisation and delivery. Their sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were used to generate a database for analysis. Results: The mean serum uric acid level was 28% higher in severe preeclamptics than normotensive women (5.96 ± 2.54 mg/dl versus 4.30 ± 0.85; P = 0.005. There were statistically significant differences in levels of triglycerides (TG, low-density lipoprotein (LDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL between the preeclamptics and their normotensive controls (P = 0.006, P = 0.000, P = 0.000, respectively. Abnormal serum uric acid was associated with advanced maternal age (P = 0.000, early-onset preeclampsia (P = 0.000 and abnormal body mass index (BMI; P = 0.000. Low birth weight was more likely in preeclamptics with elevated serum uric acid levels (P = 0.041. Conclusion: Abnormality of serum uric acid in preeclampsia was significantly associated with increased frequency of complications but lipid profile abnormalities were not shown in the subjects studied. We recommend a larger scale study to determine lipid profile in normal and complicated pregnancies in our environment.

  12. Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Broiler Marketing in Benin City Metropolis, Edo State, Nigeria

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    PETER A. EKUNWE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the socio-economic factors influencing broiler marketing in Benin City metropolis, Edo State, Nigeria. Purpose sampling of the three major markets (Oba, Oliha and New Benin markets in the study area was carried out. Twenty broiler marketers were randomly selected from each of three markets from the sampling frame, making a total of 60 marketers. Questionnaire were administered and scheduled interview conducted to collect all the relevant information from the respondents. Analytical techniques used were percentages, frequency counts, gross margin,profitability and multiple regression analysis. The results of the data analysis showed that majority (93% of the broiler marketers werefemale. The average age of the respondents was 42 years and the mean number of schooling years of the respondents was 8 years. The mean marketing margin per week was N350 ($2.17 while the mean gross margin per week was N5, 150 ($32. However, the average net returns per week for the entire markets were N4, 600 ($28.6. The result of the multiple regression analysis showed that the semi-log model gave the best fit with an adjusted R2 of 0.857 (85.7% and a F-ratio of 70.245. The age of broiler marketers, level of education and marketers income had positive coefficients. Thus, increase in these variables will increase the number of broilers handled per purchase. Major problems faced were loss of weight of broilers and mortality of broilers. Finance and processing were minor constraints faced by the marketer. The study recommended adequate feeding of broilers to maintain market weight, proper weighing of broiler chicken during sales, increase awareness about the need to purchase live broilers instead of frozen chicken and encouraging marketers into backward integration to increase profitability of the business. These recommendations would help to develop the poultry industry and increase marketing efficiency.

  13. From local hydrological process analysis to regional hydrological model application in Benin: Concept, results and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormann, H.; Faß, T.; Giertz, S.; Junge, B.; Diekkrüger, B.; Reichert, B.; Skowronek, A.

    This paper presents the concept, first results and perspectives of the hydrological sub-project of the IMPETUS-Benin project which is part of the GLOWA program funded by the German ministry of education and research. In addition to the research concept, first results on field hydrology, pedology, hydrogeology and hydrological modelling are presented, focusing on the understanding of the actual hydrological processes. For analysing the processes a 30 km 2 catchment acting as a super test site was chosen which is assumed to be representative for the entire catchment of about 15,000 km 2. First results of the field investigations show that infiltration, runoff generation and soil erosion strongly depend on land cover and land use which again influence the soil properties significantly. A conceptual hydrogeological model has been developed summarising the process knowledge on runoff generation and subsurface hydrological processes. This concept model shows a dominance of fast runoff components (surface runoff and interflow), a groundwater recharge along preferential flow paths, temporary interaction between surface and groundwater and separate groundwater systems on different scales (shallow, temporary groundwater on local scale and permanent, deep groundwater on regional scale). The findings of intensive measurement campaigns on soil hydrology, groundwater dynamics and soil erosion have been integrated into different, scale-dependent hydrological modelling concepts applied at different scales in the target region (upper Ouémé catchment in Benin, about 15,000 km 2). The models have been applied and successfully validated. They will be used for integrated scenario analyses in the forthcoming project phase to assess the impacts of global change on the regional water cycle and on typical problem complexes such as food security in West African countries.

  14. Invertebrate diversity and the ecological role of decomposer assemblages in natural and plantation forests in Southern Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Attignon, Serge Eric Kokou

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate the diversity of invertebrates in natural semi-deciduous forest and plantation forests of the Lama forest reserve in Benin. Litter decomposi-tion, being a key ecosystem process, was studied, and the importance of decomposer assem-blages was investigated. An inventory of termite assemblages in semi-deciduous forest and teak plantations was conducted, and the effects of different forest types and seasons on the activity of termites and soil- and litter-...

  15. Prevalence of Malaria and Anemia among Pregnant Women Attending a Traditional Birth Home in Benin City, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Bankole Henry Oladeinde; Richard Omoregie; Ikponmwosa Odia; Oladapo Babatunde Oladeinde

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of malaria and anemia among pregnant women attending a traditional birth center as well as the effect of herbal remedies, gravidity, age, educational background and malaria prevention methods on their prevalence.Methods: Blood specimens were collected from 119 pregnant women attending a Traditional Birth Home in Benin City, Nigeria. Malaria parasitemia was diagnosed by microscopy while anemia was defined as hemoglobin concentration

  16. Land tenure and substainable soil fertility management in central Benin: towards the establishment of a cooperation space among stakeholders

    OpenAIRE

    Saidou, A.; Tossou, R.; Kossou, D.; Sambieni, S.; Richards, P.; Kuyper, T. W.

    2007-01-01

    Tenure arrangements were studied in central Benin, with special attention to factors diminishing or enhancing mutual trust between landowners and migrant farmers. Two contrasting tenure arrangement systems occur. The first is found in Ouoghi village, where landowners and villagers are organized around the Association de Développement Economique et Social du Village de Ouoghi (ADESVO). The second is found in the Boubouhou area, where land tenure is managed by landowner lineages. In both system...

  17. Association between Periodontal Status, Oral Hygiene Status and Tooth Wear among Adult Male Population in Benin City, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Umoh, AO; Azodo, CC

    2013-01-01

    Background: The association between periodontal status, oral hygiene status and severity of tooth wear lesion varies from community to community and also from occupation to occupation. Aim: To determine the association between periodontal status, oral hygiene status and tooth wear among the adult male population in Benin City, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: This study was conducted among 65 male drivers, aged 25-64 years, with a mean age of 48.6 (9.1) years in an organized private motor park ...

  18. Diversity patterns of indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with rhizosphere of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) in Benin, West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, J. M.; Houngnandan, P.; A. Kane; Sanon, K. B.; Neyra, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of diversity and understanding factors underlying species distribution are fundamental themes in ecology. However, the diversity of native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) species in African tropical agro-ecosystems remains weakly known. This research was carried out to assess the morphological diversity of indigenous AMF species associated with rhizosphere of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.) in different agro-ecological zones (AEZ) of Benin and to examine the effects of soil...

  19. Ethnic differences in use values and use patterns of Parkia biglobosa in Northern Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Koura Kourouma; Ganglo Jean C; Assogbadjo Achille E; Agbangla Clément

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background African locust bean tree (Parkia biglobosa) is a multipurpose species used widely in arid Africa by local communities. The present study focused on ethnic differences in use values and use patterns of P. biglobosa in Northern Benin, where the species widely grows. The use values according to the various ethnic groups in the study area have been evaluated in detail for P. biglobosa. Methods From 13 ethnic groups, 1587 people were interviewed in the study area using semi-str...

  20. Tuberculosis Case Finding in Benin, 2000-2014 and Beyond: A Retrospective Cohort and Time Series Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Serge Ade; Wilfried Békou; Mênonli Adjobimey; Omer Adjibode; Gabriel Ade; Harries, Anthony D; Séverin Anagonou

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine any changes in tuberculosis epidemiology in the last 15 years in Benin, seasonal variations, and forecasted numbers of tuberculosis cases in the next five years. Materials and Methods. Retrospective cohort and time series study of all tuberculosis cases notified between 2000 and 2014. The "R" software version 3.2.1 (Institute for Statistics and Mathematics Vienna Austria) and the Box-Jenkins 1976 modeling approach were used for time series analysis. Results. Of 246943 ...

  1. Risk of psychological distress following severe obstetric complications in Benin: the role of economics, physical health and spousal abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Fottrell, Edward; Kanhonou, Lydie; Goufodji, Sourou; P. Béhague, Dominique; Marshall, Tom; Patel, Vikram; Filippi, Véronique

    2010-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the impact of life-threatening obstetric complications ('near miss') on women's mental health in low- and middle-income countries. Aims: To examine the relationships between near miss and postpartum psychological distress in the Republic of Benin. Method: One-year prospective cohort using epidemiological and ethnographic techniques in a population of women delivering at health facilities. Results: In total 694 women contributed to the study. Except when assoc...

  2. The neem Azadirachta indica as a means to control soil nematodes and its application in vegetable cultures in Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin, JE.

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of neem extracts for pest control is less common in nematology than in entomology. The purpose of this paper is to make a short review of the agronomical potential of the neem tree, with particular emphasis on its role for the control of deleterious nematodes. A specifie case for the control of Meloidogyne, which was carried out in Benin, is presented.

  3. An investigation of human apolipoproteins B and E polymorphisms in two African populations from Ethiopia and Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbo, R.M.; Scacchi, R.; Rickards, O.; Martinez-Labarga, C.; De Stefano, G.F.

    1999-01-01

    Three polymorphisms (XbaI, EcoRI, and Ins/Del) of the apolipoprotein B (APOB) gene and the polymorphism of apolipoprotein E (APOE) were investigated in two population samples of Amhara and Oromo origin from Ethiopia, and in two population samples of Bariba and Berba origin from Benin. No heterogeneity was observed within each major group. The cumulated frequencies of the APOB X+, R+, and D alleles for the Ethiopia and the Benin groups were 0.268 and 0.133, 0.958 and 0.818, 0.206 and 0.223, respectively. Regarding APOE, the cumulated allele frequencies of Ethiopia and Benin were 0.031 and 0.103 for epsilon*2 allele, 0.811 and 0.742 for epsilon*3, and 0.143 and 0.155 for epsilon*4, respectively. APOE typing performed at the protein level only in the Ethiopians revealed a variant allele, epsilon*5, found at the polymorphic level both in the Amhara and in the Oromo (cumulated frequency: 0.015). A tentative explanation for the higher frequencies of epsilon*4 and epsilon*5 alleles was sought in relation to the lifestyle and ethnicity of the two populations. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 11:297-304, 1999. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Local cost sharing in Bamako Initiative systems in Benin and Guinea: assuring the financial viability of primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucat, A; Levy-Bruhl, D; Gbedonou, P; Drame, K; Lamarque, J P; Diallo, S; Osseni, R; Adovohekpe, P; Ortiz, C; Debeugny, C; Knippenberg, R

    1997-06-01

    The fourth in a series of five, this article presents and analyses data on cost recovery and community cost-sharing, two key aspects of the Bamako Initiative which have been implemented in Benin and Guinea since 1986. The data come from approximately 400 health centres and result from the six-monthly monitoring sessions conducted from 1989 to 1993. Community involvement in the financing of local operating costs in the two national scale programmes is also described. In Benin and Guinea, a user fee system generates the community financed revenue with the aim of covering local operating costs including drugs. Health worker salaries remain the responsibility of the government and donor funding covers vaccine and investment costs. Village health committees manage and control resources and revenue. The community is also involved in decision making, strategy definition and quality control. In Benin in 1993, community financing revenue amounted to about US$0.6 per capita per year and generally covered all local recurrent non salary costs except vaccines and left a surplus. Although total costs and revenues were slightly lower in Guinea for the same period, over-all user fee revenue (around US$0.3 per capita per year) covered local recurrent costs (not including salaries or vaccines). A comparison of costs and revenue between regions and individual health centres revealed important differences in cost recovery ratios. In Benin, some centres recovered more than twice the local costs targeted for community financing. Twenty-five per cent of centres in Guinea did not manage to cover their designated local recurrent costs. The longitudinal analysis showed that the level of cost recovery remained stable over time even as preventive care (and especially EPI) coverage rose significantly. To better understand the most important characteristics affecting cost recovery levels, best performing health centres in terms of cost-recovery levels in 1993 were compared to worst performing

  5. Precipitation chemistry and wet deposition in a remote wet savanna site in West Africa: Djougou (Benin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpo, A. B.; Galy-Lacaux, C.; Laouali, D.; Delon, C.; Liousse, C.; Adon, M.; Gardrat, E.; Mariscal, A.; Darakpa, C.

    2015-08-01

    In the framework of the IDAF (IGAC/DEBITS/AFrica) international program, this study aims to study the chemical composition of precipitation and associated wet deposition at the rural site of Djougou in Benin, representative of a West and Central African wet savanna. Five hundred and thirty rainfall samples were collected at Djougou, Benin, from July 2005 to December 2009 to provide a unique database. The chemical composition of precipitation was analyzed for inorganic (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, NH4+, K+, NO3-, Cl-, SO42-) and organic (HCOO-, CH3COO-, C2H5COO-, C2O42-) ions, using ion chromatography. The 530 collected rain events represent a total of 5706.1 mm of rainfall compared to the measured pluviometry 6138.9 mm, indicating that the collection efficiency is about 93%. The order of total annual loading rates for soluble cations is NH4+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+. For soluble anions the order of loading is carbonates > HCOO- > NO3- > CH3COO- > SO4,SUP>2- > Cl- > C2O42- > C2H5COO-. In the wet savanna of Djougou, 86% of the measured pH values range between 4.7 and 5.7 with a median pH of 5.19, corresponding to a VWM (Volume Weighed Mean) H+ concentration of 6.46 μeq·L-1. This acidity results from a mixture of mineral and organic acids. The annual sea salt contribution was computed for K+, Mg2+, Ca2+ and SO42- and represents 4.2% of K+, 41% of Mg2+, 1.3% of Ca2+, and 7.4% of SO42-. These results show that K+, Ca2+, SO42-, and Mg2+ were mainly of non-marine origin. The marine contribution is estimated at 9%. The results of the chemical composition of rainwater of Djougou indicates that, except for the carbonates, ammonium has the highest VWM concentration (14.3 μeq·L-1) and nitrate concentration is 8.2 μeq·L-1. The distribution of monthly VWM concentration for all ions is computed and shows the highest values during the dry season, comparing to the wet season. Identified nitrogenous compound sources (NOx and NH3) are domestic animals, natural emissions from savanna soils

  6. LANDSCAPE CHANGES IN A LOWLAND IN BENIN: ECOLOGICAL IMPACT ON PESTS AND NATURAL ENEMIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, A; Silvie, P; Menozzi, P; Adda, C; Auzoux, S; Jean, J; Huat, J

    2015-01-01

    Habitat management involving conservative biological control could be a good crop pest management option in poor African countries. A survey was conducted from August 2013 to July 2014 in a rainfed lowland region near Pélébina, northern Benin, in order to characterize spatiotemporal landscape changes and investigate their influence on the main crop pests and their associated natural enemies. The area was mapped mainly regarding crop fields and fallows. Visual observations were recorded and a database was compiled. Major landscape composition changes were noted between rainy and dry seasons, which affected the presence of both pests and natural enemies. Cereals (rice, maize and sorghum) and cotton were grown in the humid season, and then okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) was the dominant vegetable crop in dry season. These modifications impacted fallow abundance throughout the lowland. Different cotton (e.g. Helicoverpa armigera, Dysdercus sp., Zonocerus variegatus) or rice (e.g. Diopsis longicornis, D. apicalis) pests were observed during dry season in okra crops. Dry season surveys of Poaceae in two types of fallows ('humid', 'dry') revealed the presence of very few stem borers: only 0.04% of stems sampled were infested by stem borers, with a mean of 1.13 larvae per stem. Known cereal stem borer species such as Busseola fusco, Coniesta ignefusalis, Sesamia calamistis were not clearly identified among these larvae because of their diapausing stage and white color. Unexpected pollinators (Hymenoptera Apidae, genus Braunsapis, Ceratina and Xylocopa) and predators (Crabronidae, genus Dasyproctus) were found in the stems. Sweep-net collection of insects in humid fallows allowed us to describe for the first time in Benin seven Diopsidae species (23% of adults bearing Laboulbeniomycetes ectoparasitic fungi). Some of these species were captured in rice fields during rainy season. Parasitoids (adult Chalcidoidae and Ichneumonoidae) were observed during both seasons but their

  7. LANDSCAPE CHANGES IN A LOWLAND IN BENIN: ECOLOGICAL IMPACT ON PESTS AND NATURAL ENEMIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, A; Silvie, P; Menozzi, P; Adda, C; Auzoux, S; Jean, J; Huat, J

    2015-01-01

    Habitat management involving conservative biological control could be a good crop pest management option in poor African countries. A survey was conducted from August 2013 to July 2014 in a rainfed lowland region near Pélébina, northern Benin, in order to characterize spatiotemporal landscape changes and investigate their influence on the main crop pests and their associated natural enemies. The area was mapped mainly regarding crop fields and fallows. Visual observations were recorded and a database was compiled. Major landscape composition changes were noted between rainy and dry seasons, which affected the presence of both pests and natural enemies. Cereals (rice, maize and sorghum) and cotton were grown in the humid season, and then okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) was the dominant vegetable crop in dry season. These modifications impacted fallow abundance throughout the lowland. Different cotton (e.g. Helicoverpa armigera, Dysdercus sp., Zonocerus variegatus) or rice (e.g. Diopsis longicornis, D. apicalis) pests were observed during dry season in okra crops. Dry season surveys of Poaceae in two types of fallows ('humid', 'dry') revealed the presence of very few stem borers: only 0.04% of stems sampled were infested by stem borers, with a mean of 1.13 larvae per stem. Known cereal stem borer species such as Busseola fusco, Coniesta ignefusalis, Sesamia calamistis were not clearly identified among these larvae because of their diapausing stage and white color. Unexpected pollinators (Hymenoptera Apidae, genus Braunsapis, Ceratina and Xylocopa) and predators (Crabronidae, genus Dasyproctus) were found in the stems. Sweep-net collection of insects in humid fallows allowed us to describe for the first time in Benin seven Diopsidae species (23% of adults bearing Laboulbeniomycetes ectoparasitic fungi). Some of these species were captured in rice fields during rainy season. Parasitoids (adult Chalcidoidae and Ichneumonoidae) were observed during both seasons but their

  8. Vaccination of rabbits against coccidiosis using precocious lines of Eimeria magna and Eimeria media in Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpo, Y; Kpodékon, M T; Djago, Y; Licois, D; Youssao, I A K

    2012-02-28

    Three groups of twelve 35-day-old rabbits were used for the experiment. Two groups were vaccinated with a mixture of precocious lines of Eimeria magna and Eimeria media originating from corresponding wild strains isolated in Benin. One group benefited of a booster whereas the second one was kept without booster. A third non-vaccinated group was used as control. All groups were challenged per os with an equal mixture of the wild strains of E. magna and E. media at a dose of 104 oocysts per animal. Three weeks after the challenge inoculation, no case of diarrhoea was recorded in the two groups of vaccinated rabbits, as compared to the non-vaccinated rabbits that developed diarrhoea. No mortality was recorded in the three groups. During the patent period, oocyst output of vaccinated rabbits was significantly lower than that of control animals (Pvaccinated group. The daily weigh gain of the two groups of vaccinated rabbits was significantly higher than that of the non-vaccinated rabbits (Pvaccine production for this country. PMID:21890276

  9. Climatic variability and spatial distribution of herbaceous fodders in the Sudanian zone of Benin (West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrèse C. Ahoudji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on future spatial distributions of Andropogon gayanus, Loxodera ledermanii and Alysicarpus ovalifolius regarding bioclimatic variables in the Sudanian zone of Benin, particularly in the W Biosphere Reserve (WBR. These species were selected according to their importance for animals feed and the intensification of exploitation pressure induced change in their natural spatial distribution. Twenty (20 bioclimatic variables were tested and variables with high auto-correlation values were eliminated. Then, we retained seven climatic variables for the model. A MaxEnt (Maximum Entropy method was used to identify all climatic factors which determined the spatial distribution of the three species. Spatial distribution showed for Andropogon gayanus, a regression of high area distribution in detriment of low and moderate areas. The same trend was observed for Loxodera ledermannii spatial distribution. For Alysicarpus ovalifolius, currently area with moderate and low distribution were the most represented but map showed in 2050 that area with high distribution increased. We can deduce that without bioclimatic variables, others factors such as: biotic interactions, dispersion constraints, anthropic pressure, human activities and another historic factor determined spatial distribution of species. Modeling techniques that require only presence data are therefore extremely valuable.

  10. Audit of antibiotic therapy in surgical neonates in a tertiary hospital in Benin City, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osifo Osarumwense

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report the outcome of commonly used antibiotic combinations in surgical neonates in sub-Saharan African settings. Methods: A retrospective analysis that determines the outcome of commonly combined antibiotics in surgical neonates between January 2006 and December 2008 at two referral paediatric surgical centres in Benin city was carried out. Results: Ampicillin ampiclox, metronidazole, gentamicin, cefuroxime and ceftriaxone were variously combined in the management of 161 neonates with a mean age at presentation of 9.2 ± 2.6 days, mean weight 3.1 ± 1.4 kg and a male:female ratio 1.6:1. Polymicrobial postoperative wound infections and sepsis caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Neisseria meningitidis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeroginosa and anaerobes, were mainly encountered. The most common aerobes isolated from wound cultures were S. aureus and P. aeroginosa while the ones from that of blood cultures were E. coli and K. pneumonia. Overall postoperative infections recorded were: wound infection 19 (11.8%, sepsis 16 (9.9% and sepsis-related deaths 6 (3.7%. Conclusion: Combinations of gentamicin/metronidazole/cefuroxime and gentamicin/cefuroxime were adequate for gastrointestinal and extra-gastrointestinal neonatal operations, respectively, in these sub-Saharan African settings, which may be useful in similar regions.

  11. Health-risk market garden production linked to heavy metals in irrigation water in Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koumolou, Luc; Edorh, Patrick; Montcho, Sabine; Aklikokou, Kodjo; Loko, Frédéric; Boko, Michel; Creppy, Edmond E

    2013-01-01

    Heavy metals in the Benin market garden products: is irrigation water the first factor in question, and what is the level of health risk linked to the consumption of these vegetables? Such are the essential problems that this survey attempts to solve. Comparison of the level of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) pollution shows that all the vegetables taken from three market sites are differently contaminated, as well as their irrigation water and the soil. But establishing that water is the first factor responsible for the presence of heavy metals in market garden products is not so obvious. Otherwise, the health risk assessment revealed that the total daily exposure dose (DED) of Cd, namely 8.05μg/kg/day, is high compared to the daily dose defined by the WHO, which is 1μg/kg/day. Also, the ensuing quotient of danger (QD) is 8.05; such a value poses public health risks for the consumer.

  12. A histopathological overview of ovarian lesions in Benin City, Nigeria: How common are the functional cysts?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Dafe Forae

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to highlight the histopathological synopsis of ovarian lesions with emphasis on functional ovarian cysts and to compare our study with findings of other centers. Materials and Methods: Hematoxylin and eosin stained-slides of ovarian biopsies diagnosed at the Ashamas Foundation Diagnostic Centre, Benin City for 10 years were archived, scrutinized, and studied. Request forms were analyzed for clinical biodata and diagnosis, and data were analyzed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 17. Results: A total of 236 ovarian biopsies were reviewed. Of this, 121 (51.3% were nonneoplastic. Again 79 (33.5% were benign neoplastic tumors and 36 (15.6% were malignant tumors. Out of the 121 nonneoplastic (functional cysts lesions, corpus luteal cyst was the most commonly encountered, constituting 41 (33.9%. The peaks age incidence for nonneoplastic and benign neoplastic lesions occurred in the 3 rd decade. Two peaks age incidence was noted for malignant tumors-5 th and 7 th decades. Germ cell tumor constituted the most common neoplastic ovarian tumor (n = 59; 51.8% diagnosed. Conclusion: Functional ovarian cysts were the most commonly encountered ovarian lesions in our locality. The most common variety of functional cyst was corpus luteal cyst and hemorrhagic cyst with majority occurring in the reproductive age groups. Among the ovarian tumors, germ cell tumors were the most commonly seen.

  13. Evaluation of global rainfall Measurement for Hydrological Applications in West Africa : sensitivity tests in Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viarre, J.; Gosset, M.; Peugeot, C.

    2011-12-01

    We carried out an evaluation of currently available -real time or post-calibrated- rainfall products in West Africa. The work is oriented towards highlighting their skills and relevance from the view point of a hydrological end-user. The study is based on the densily instrumented meso-scale basins from the AMMA-CATCH hydrometeorological observing system. On these sites long term observations of the various term of the continental water budget and hydrological processes studies have been carried out for more than a decade. We focus here on the upper Oueme basin site in Benin (Sudanese climate - 1200 mm annual rainfall). A distributed hydrological model, developed in this framework is used to illustrate the effects of satellite based rainfall errors or uncertainty on the simulated outflow. Non linearities cause the rainfall bias to be enhanced through propagation in the model, leading to strong biases in the outflow. In addition to the biases the model response is very sensitive to the distortion in the rainfall intensities probability distribution, that some rainfall products exhibit. The AMMA-CATCH densified gages networks and hydrometeorological measurements will be integrated in the MeghaTropiques ground validation plan and used to asses the quality of MT products at the one degree one daily scale and below.

  14. Isoprene and monoterpene measurements in a secondary forest in northern Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxton, J. E.; Lewis, A. C.; Kettlewell, J. H.; Ozel, M. Z.; Gogus, F.; Boni, Y.; Korogone, S. O. U.; Serça, D.

    2007-08-01

    The biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) composition of ambient air at a rural field site near Djougou, Benin has been studied as part of the AMMA (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis) project. Ambient air was sampled during day and night during the period 2 June 2006 to 13 June 2006. Gas samples from within the forest canopy and from branch and cuvette enclosure systems for four vegetation species were also obtained and emissions flux estimates made. All samples were analysed for the presence of isoprene, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes by either gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF/MS) or comprehensive gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-TOF/MS). Concentrations of isoprene ranged from a few tens of pptV to in excess of 3000 pptV. Similar concentration ranges for certain monoterpenes were also observed. Limonene was seen at a maximum concentration in ambient air of 5000 pptV. The combination of leaf-level observations and direct analysis of dried vegetation samples suggests that emissions of terpene species from indigenous species are unlikely to account for the unexpectedly high ambient concentrations of monoterpenes. Leaf scale emission measurements and biological sample analysis indicated that textit{Anacardium occidentale}, a non-native crop species found throughout the tropics, was the dominant source of monoterpenes at this location. These preliminary findings suggest that activities involving species replacement have potential implications for the chemistry of the African troposphere that have not been widely considered previously.

  15. Pain Associated with Wound Care Treatment among Buruli Ulcer Patients from Ghana and Benin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marike Alferink

    Full Text Available Buruli ulcer (BU is a necrotizing skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. People living in remote areas in tropical Sub Saharan Africa are mostly affected. Wound care is an important component of BU management; this often needs to be extended for months after the initial antibiotic treatment. BU is reported in the literature as being painless, however clinical observations revealed that some patients experienced pain during wound care. This was the first study on pain intensity during and after wound care in BU patients and factors associated with pain. In Ghana and Benin, 52 BU patients above 5 years of age and their relatives were included between December 2012 and May 2014. Information on pain intensity during and after wound care was obtained during two consecutive weeks using the Wong-Baker Pain Scale. Median pain intensity during wound care was in the lower range (Mdn = 2, CV = 1, but severe pain (score > 6 was reported in nearly 30% of the patients. Nevertheless, only one patient received pain medication. Pain declined over time to low scores 2 hours after treatment. Factors associated with higher self-reported pain scores were; male gender, fear prior to treatment, pain during the night prior to treatment, and pain caused by cleaning the wound. The general idea that BU is painless is incorrect for the wound care procedure. This procedural pain deserves attention and appropriate intervention.

  16. Pain Associated with Wound Care Treatment among Buruli Ulcer Patients from Ghana and Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alferink, Marike; de Zeeuw, Janine; Sopoh, Ghislain; Agossadou, Chantal; Abass, Karibu M.; Phillips, Richard O.; Loth, Susanne; Jutten, Emma; Barogui, Yves T.; Stewart, Roy E.; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Stienstra, Ymkje; Ranchor, Adelita V.

    2015-01-01

    Buruli ulcer (BU) is a necrotizing skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. People living in remote areas in tropical Sub Saharan Africa are mostly affected. Wound care is an important component of BU management; this often needs to be extended for months after the initial antibiotic treatment. BU is reported in the literature as being painless, however clinical observations revealed that some patients experienced pain during wound care. This was the first study on pain intensity during and after wound care in BU patients and factors associated with pain. In Ghana and Benin, 52 BU patients above 5 years of age and their relatives were included between December 2012 and May 2014. Information on pain intensity during and after wound care was obtained during two consecutive weeks using the Wong-Baker Pain Scale. Median pain intensity during wound care was in the lower range (Mdn = 2, CV = 1), but severe pain (score > 6) was reported in nearly 30% of the patients. Nevertheless, only one patient received pain medication. Pain declined over time to low scores 2 hours after treatment. Factors associated with higher self-reported pain scores were; male gender, fear prior to treatment, pain during the night prior to treatment, and pain caused by cleaning the wound. The general idea that BU is painless is incorrect for the wound care procedure. This procedural pain deserves attention and appropriate intervention. PMID:26030764

  17. Storage insects on yam chips and their traditional management in Northern Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loko, Y L; Dansi, A; Tamo, M; Bokonon-Ganta, A H; Assogba, P; Dansi, M; Vodouhè, R; Akoegninou, A; Sanni, A

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-five villages of Northern Benin were surveyed to identify the constraints of yam chips production, assess the diversity of storage insects on yam chips, and document farmers' perception of their impacts on the stocks and their traditional management practices. Damages due to storage insects (63.9% of responses) and insufficiency of insect-resistant varieties (16.7% of responses) were the major constraints of yam chips production. Twelve insect pest species were identified among which Dinoderus porcellus Lesne (Coleoptera, Bostrichidae) was by far the most important and the most distributed (97.44% of the samples). Three predators (Teretrius nigrescens Lewis, Xylocoris flavipes Reuter, and Alloeocranum biannulipes Montrouzier & Signoret) and one parasitoid (Dinarmus basalis Rondani) all Coleoptera, Bostrichidae were also identified. The most important traditional practices used to control or prevent insect attack in yam chips were documented and the producers' preference criteria for yam cultivars used to produce chips were identified and prioritized. To further promote the production of yam chips, diversification of insect-resistant yam varieties, conception, and use of health-protective natural insecticides and popularization of modern storage structures were proposed.

  18. Storage Insects on Yam Chips and Their Traditional Management in Northern Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Loko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-five villages of Northern Benin were surveyed to identify the constraints of yam chips production, assess the diversity of storage insects on yam chips, and document farmers' perception of their impacts on the stocks and their traditional management practices. Damages due to storage insects (63.9% of responses and insufficiency of insect-resistant varieties (16.7% of responses were the major constraints of yam chips production. Twelve insect pest species were identified among which Dinoderus porcellus Lesne (Coleoptera, Bostrichidae was by far the most important and the most distributed (97.44% of the samples. Three predators (Teretrius nigrescens Lewis, Xylocoris flavipes Reuter, and Alloeocranum biannulipes Montrouzier & Signoret and one parasitoid (Dinarmus basalis Rondani all Coleoptera, Bostrichidae were also identified. The most important traditional practices used to control or prevent insect attack in yam chips were documented and the producers' preference criteria for yam cultivars used to produce chips were identified and prioritized. To further promote the production of yam chips, diversification of insect-resistant yam varieties, conception, and use of health-protective natural insecticides and popularization of modern storage structures were proposed.

  19. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among patients of a tertiary hospital in Benin city, Nigeria

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    Frederick Olusegun Akinbo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Intestinal parasitic infections have been described as constituting the greatest single worldwide cause of illness and disease. Aim : The objective of this study is to investigate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in relation to sex and age as well as seasons of the year in Benin city, Nigeria. Materials and Methods : The stool samples were processed using saline and iodine mounts and examined microscopically for ova and cysts of parasites. Results : The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was 3.9% while gender and season had no correlation with the prevalence of intestinal parasites (P = 0.548, P = 0.696. There was a significant relationship between intestinal parasitic infection and age (P < 0.033. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent (51.4% while Entamoeba histolytica had the least prevalence (5.4%. Conclusion : The results of this study concluded that 36 patients were infected with various intestinal parasites and that age significantly affected the prevalence of parasitic infections. Effective treatment of infected patients and improved sanitary habits is advocated.

  20. Why do households invest in sanitation in rural Benin: Health, wealth, or prestige?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Elena; Günther, Isabel

    2014-10-01

    Seventy percent of the rural population in sub-Saharan Africa does not use adequate sanitation facilities. In rural Benin, as much as 95% of the population does not use improved sanitation. By analyzing a representative sample of 2000 rural households, this paper explores why households remain without latrines. Our results show that wealth and latrine prices play the most decisive role for sanitation demand and ownership. At current income levels, sanitation coverage will only increase to 50% if costs for construction are reduced from currently 190 USD to 50 USD per latrine. Our analysis also suggests that previous sanitation campaigns, which were based on prestige and the allure of a modern lifestyle as motives for latrine construction, have had no success in increasing sanitation coverage. Moreover, improved public health, which is the objective of public policies promoting sanitation, will not be effective at low sanitation coverage rates. Fear at night, especially of animals, and personal harassment, are stated as the most important motivational factors for latrine ownership and the intention to build one. We therefore suggest changing the message of sanitation projects and introduce new low-cost technologies into rural markets; otherwise, marketing strategies will continue to fail in increasing sanitation demand.

  1. Physicochemical properties and composition of pignut (Jatropha curcas) non-conventional oil from different regions of Benin; Proprietes physico-chimiques et composition de l'huile non conventionnelle de pourghere (Jatropha curcas) de differentes regions du Benin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dossou Sika Salome, Kpoviessi; Accrombessi, G.C.; Kossouoh, C. [Universite d' Abomey-Calavi, Lab. de Chimie Organique, Faculte des Sciences et Technique, Cotonou (Benin); Soumanou, M.M. [Universite d' Abomey-Calavi, Lab. de Recherche en Chimie et Biologie Appliquees, College Polytechnique Universitaire, Cotonou (Benin); Moudachirou, M. [Universite d' Abomey-Calavi, Lab. de Pharmacognosie et des Huiles Essentielles(FSS/FAST/UAC), (Benin)

    2004-11-01

    The non-conventional oils extracted from pignut seeds in eight localities of Benin have been studied. Oil content of seeds was in the range of 40 to 60%. Oil samples of different localities showed liquid and unsaturated oils and contained mainly oleic acid (43 to 53%), linoleic acid (20 to 32%) and palmitic acid (13 to 15%). Un-saponifiable content of these samples did not exceed 4%, except at Bohicon (5,5%) and Akiza (8,4%). These oils are used in the formulation of biofuels for the energy production. (authors)

  2. E-Learning and North-South collaboration: the experience of two public health schools in France and Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillemin Francis

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Distance learning (e-learning can facilitate access to training. Yet few public health E-learning experiments have been reported; institutes in developing countries experience difficulties in establishing on-line curricula, while developed countries struggle with adapting existing curricula to realities on the ground. In 2005, two schools of public health, one in France and one in Benin, began collaborating through contact sessions organised for Nancy University distance-learning students. This experience gave rise to a partnership aimed at developing training materials for e-Learning for African students. The distance-learning public health course at Nancy teaches public health professionals through a module entitled "Health and Development." The module is specifically tailored for professionals from developing countries. To promote student-teacher exchanges, clarify content and supervise dissertations, contact sessions are organized in centres proximate and accessible to African students. The Benin Institute's main feature is residential team learning; distance-learning courses are currently being prepared. Outcome: The two collaborating institutions have developed a joint distance-learning module geared toward developing countries. The collaboration provides for the development, diffusion, and joint delivery of teaching modules featuring issues that are familiar to African staff, gives the French Institute credibility in assessing research work produced, and enables modules on specific African issues and approaches to be put online. Lessons learned: While E-learning is a viable educational option for public health professionals, periodic contact can be advantageous. Our analysis showed that the benefit of the collaboration between the two institutions is mutual; the French Institute extends its geographical, cultural and contextual reach and expands its pool of teaching staff. The Benin Institute benefits from the technical

  3. Distribution of HBV genotypes among HBV carriers in Benin:phylogenetic analysis and virological characteristics of HBV genotype E

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kei Fujiwara; Atsushi Ozasa; Yuko Sakamoto; Isao Arita; Ahmed El-Gohary; Agossou Benoit; Sophie I Ogoundele-Akplogan; Namiko Yoshihara; Ryuzo Ueda; Masashi Mizokami; Yasuhito Tanaka; Etsuro Orito; Tomoyoshi Ohno; Takanobu Kato; Kanji Sugihara; Izumi Hasegawa; Mayumi Sakurai; Kiyoaki Ito

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To determine the distribution of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes in Benin, and to clarify the virological characteristics of the dominant genotype.METHODS: Among 500 blood donors in Benin, 21 HBsAg-positive donors were enrolled in the study. HBV genotypes were determined by enzyme immunoassay and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Complete genome sequences were determined by PCR and direct sequencing.RESULTS: HBV genotype E (HBV/E) was detected in 20/21 (95.2%), and HBV/A in 1/21 (4.8%). From the age-specific prevalence of HBeAg to anti-HBe seroconversion (SC) in 19 HBV/E subjects, SC was estimated to occur frequently in late teens in HBV/E.The comparison of four complete HBV/E genomes from HBeAg-positive subjects in this study and five HBV/E sequences recruited from the database revealed that HBV/E was distributed throughout West Africa with very low genetic divers ity (nucleotide homology 96.7-99.2%).Based on the sequences in the basic core promoter (BCP)to precore region of the nine HBV/E isolates compared to those of the other genotypes, a nucleotide substitution in the BCP, G1757A, was observed in HBV/E.CONCLUSION: HBV/E is predominant in the Republic of Benin, and SC is estimated to occur in late teens in HBV/E. The specific nucleotide substitution G1757A in BCP, which might influence the virological characteristics,is observed in HBV/E.

  4. Accountable to Whom? Accountable for What? Understanding anti-child trafficking discourse and policy in southern Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Howard

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Benin, anti-child trafficking discourse misrepresents the nature of youth labour migration, while anti-child trafficking policy fails to protect those “beneficiaries” in whose name it is officially designed. Despite this, both have remained stable for over a decade. This paper attempts to explain why. It argues that, in contrast to claims made by many other critiques of anti-trafficking work that policy makers are either ignorant or malevolent, here discourse and policy are hampered more by the conceptual, institutional and political structures within which they are developed and articulated by individuals, thereby ensuring discursive and policy stability despite inaccuracy and failure.

  5. Structural characterization of the Nigerian sector of Benin Basin using geopotential field attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladele, S.; Ayolabi, E. A.; Dublin-Green, C. O.

    2016-09-01

    The structural dispositions of the Nigerian sector of the Benin Basin have been investigated using attributes of geomagnetic and gravimetric fields. Aeromagnetic anomalies were reduced to the equator to improve the correspondence of the anomalies with the causative bodies. The residual, upward continued, tilt and horizontal derivatives, and pseudogravity attributes and forward models of both geomagnetic and gravimetric anomalies were computed to accentuate geological features including shallow and regional faults, fracture network, basement block pattern and depth to magnetic basement. Three generations of sinistral faults were identified. The oldest generation of faults (F1) is the NE-SW trend corresponding to the oceanic fracture zones trend. The F1 is truncated by the second generation of faults (F2) with E-W trends. The third generation of faults (F3) assumes NW-SE trend and is offset by F2. Shallow and deep regional faults and fractures envisaged to play major role in migration and entrapment of hydrocarbons and localization of mineral resources in this area were imaged. The coastline, Lagos and Lekki Lagoons surface geometry showed high degree of similarity with their underlying basement block pattern, thus implying that these surface features are structurally controlled. The basement morphology is not flat but of horst and graben architecture in which sediment thickness attained about 4 km within the graben. Hence, the graben has significant hydrocarbon potential. This study has shown the capabilities of geopotential field attributes in providing information about the structural architecture of frontier basin. Such knowledge will aid the understanding of the geology of the basin and its resources.

  6. Ethnic differences in use values and use patterns of Parkia biglobosa in Northern Benin

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    Koura Kourouma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African locust bean tree (Parkia biglobosa is a multipurpose species used widely in arid Africa by local communities. The present study focused on ethnic differences in use values and use patterns of P. biglobosa in Northern Benin, where the species widely grows. The use values according to the various ethnic groups in the study area have been evaluated in detail for P. biglobosa. Methods From 13 ethnic groups, 1587 people were interviewed in the study area using semi-structured questionnaires. Principal Component Analysis was applied to analyze the use value and the use patterns of P. biglobosa for the different ethnic groups. Results All interviewees in the study area knew at least one use of P. biglobosa. The various uses identified were medicinal (47%, handicraft and domestic (3%, medico-magic (1%, veterinary (1%, cultural (1%, food (25% and commercial (22%. The various parts involved in these types of uses were: fruits [shell (2%, pulp (22% and seeds (36%], bark (17%, leaves (9%, roots (3%, flowers (1% and branches (10%. The ethnic group consensus values for P. biglobosa parts showed that the seeds are used the most. The interviewees diversity value (ID and equitability value (IE indicated that knowledge concerning P. biglobosa use was distributed homogeneously among the ethnic groups. Conclusions P. biglobosa is well-known and used in different ways by the local populations in the study area. Local knowledge on the species is diversified and influenced by ethnic group. Ethnic differences in use values and use patterns of the species were evident in this study.

  7. Structural Characterization of Prosopis africana Populations (Guill., Perrott., and Rich. Taub in Benin

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    Towanou Houètchégnon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The structural characterization of Prosopis africana of Benin was studied on the basis of forest inventory conducted in three different vegetation types (savannah, fallow, and field and three climate zones. The data collected in 139 plots of 1000 m2 each related to the diameter at breast (1.3 m above ground, total height, identification, and measurement of DBH related P. africana species height. Tree-ring parameters such as Blackman and Green indices, basal area, average diameter, height of Lorey, and density were calculated and interpreted. Dendrometric settings of vegetation type and climate zone (Guinea, Sudan-Guinea, and Sudan were compared through analysis of variance (ANOVA. There is a significant difference in dendrometric settings according to the type of vegetation and climate zone. Basal area, density, and average diameter are, respectively, 4.47 m2/ha, 34.95 stems/ha, and 37.02 cm in the fields; 3.01 m2/ha, 34.74 stems/ha, and 33.66 cm in fallows; 3.31 m2/ha, 52.39 stems/ha, and 29.61 cm in the savannahs. The diameter distribution and height observed at the theoretical Weibull distribution show that the diameter and height of the populations of the species are present in all positively skewed distributions or asymmetric left, a characteristic of single-species stands with predominance of young individuals or small diameters or heights.

  8. Exploratory study of the impacts of Mutual Health Organizations on social dynamics in Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridde, Valery; Haddad, Slim; Yacoubou, Moussa; Yacoubou, Ismaelou

    2010-08-01

    The primary aim of Mutual Health Organizations (MHOs) is the financial protection of their members. However, given their community-based, participative and voluntary nature, it is conceivable that MHOs, as social organizations, would affect social dynamics. In an exploratory study in Benin, we studied social dynamics related to mutual aid, relationships of trust, and empowerment. Four MHOs, as contrasted cases, were selected from among the 11 in the region. Focus groups (n = 20) and individual interviews (n = 29) were conducted with members, non-members, and elected leaders of the four MHOs, and with professionals from the health facilities concerned. We carried out a qualitative thematic analysis of the content. Mutual aid practices, which pre-date MHOs, can be mobilized to promote MHO membership. Mutual aid practices are based on relationships of trust. The primary reason for joining an MHO is to improve financial accessibility to health services. Non-members see that members have a strong sense of empowerment in this regard, based on a high level of trust in MHOs and their elected leaders, even if their trust in health professionals is not as strong. Non-members share these feelings of confidence in MHOs and their leadership, although they trust health professionals somewhat less than do the members. The MHOs' low penetration rate therefore cannot be explained by lack of trust, as this study shows that, even with some distrust of the professionals, the overall level of trust in MHOs is high and MHOs and their leaders function as intermediaries with health professionals. Other explanatory factors are the lack of information available to villagers and, most especially, the problems they face in being able to pay the MHO premiums.

  9. Exploratory study of the impacts of Mutual Health Organizations on social dynamics in Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridde, Valery; Haddad, Slim; Yacoubou, Moussa; Yacoubou, Ismaelou

    2010-08-01

    The primary aim of Mutual Health Organizations (MHOs) is the financial protection of their members. However, given their community-based, participative and voluntary nature, it is conceivable that MHOs, as social organizations, would affect social dynamics. In an exploratory study in Benin, we studied social dynamics related to mutual aid, relationships of trust, and empowerment. Four MHOs, as contrasted cases, were selected from among the 11 in the region. Focus groups (n = 20) and individual interviews (n = 29) were conducted with members, non-members, and elected leaders of the four MHOs, and with professionals from the health facilities concerned. We carried out a qualitative thematic analysis of the content. Mutual aid practices, which pre-date MHOs, can be mobilized to promote MHO membership. Mutual aid practices are based on relationships of trust. The primary reason for joining an MHO is to improve financial accessibility to health services. Non-members see that members have a strong sense of empowerment in this regard, based on a high level of trust in MHOs and their elected leaders, even if their trust in health professionals is not as strong. Non-members share these feelings of confidence in MHOs and their leadership, although they trust health professionals somewhat less than do the members. The MHOs' low penetration rate therefore cannot be explained by lack of trust, as this study shows that, even with some distrust of the professionals, the overall level of trust in MHOs is high and MHOs and their leaders function as intermediaries with health professionals. Other explanatory factors are the lack of information available to villagers and, most especially, the problems they face in being able to pay the MHO premiums. PMID:20580857

  10. Density and spatial distribution of Parkia biglobosa pattern in Benin under climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fafunkè Titilayo Dotchamou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Parkia biglobosa is an indigenous species which, traditionally contributes to the resilience of the agricultural production system in terms of food security, source of income, poverty reduction and ecosystem stability. Therefore, it is important to improve knowledge on its density, current and future spatial distribution. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the tree density, the climate change effects on the spatial distribution of the species in the future for better conservation. The modeling of the current and future geographical distribution of the species is based on the principle of Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt on a total of 286 occurrence points from field work and Global Biodiversity Information Facility GBIF-Data Portal-(www.gbif.org. Two climatic models (HadGEM2_ES and Csiro_mk3_6_0 have been used under two scenarios RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5 for the projection of the species distribution at the horizon 2050. The correlation analyses and Jackknife test have helped to identify seven variables which are less correlated (r < 0.80 with highest modeling participation. The soil, annual precipitation (BIO12 and temperature (diurnal average Deviation are the variables which have mostly contributed to performance of the models. Currently, 53% of national territory, spread from north to south is very suitable to the cultivation of P. biglobosa. The scenarios have predicted at the horizon 2050, a loss of the habitats which are currently very suitable for the cultivation and conservation of P. biglobosa, to the benefit of moderate and weak habitats. 51% and 57% are the highest proportion of this lost which will be registered with HadGEM2_ES model under two scenarios. These results revealed that the suitable habitat of the species is threatened by climate change in Benin. In order to limit damage such as decreased productivity, extinction of species, some appropriate solutions must be found.

  11. Contextual and sociopsychological factors in predicting habitual cleaning of water storage containers in rural Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Andrea; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2015-04-01

    Recontamination of drinking water occurring between water collection at the source and the point of consumption is a current problem in developing countries. The household drinking water storage container is one source of contamination and should therefore be cleaned regularly. First, the present study investigated contextual factors that stimulate or inhibit the development of habitual cleaning of drinking water storage containers with soap and water. Second, based on the Risk, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities, and Self-regulation (RANAS) Model of behavior, the study aimed to determine which sociopsychological factors should be influenced by an intervention to promote habitual cleaning. In a cross-sectional study, 905 households in rural Benin were interviewed by structured face-to-face interviews. A forced-entry regression analysis was used to determine potential contextual factors related to habitual cleaning. Subsequently, a hierarchical regression was conducted with the only relevant contextual factor entered in the first step (R2 = 6.7%) and the sociopsychological factors added in the second step (R2 = 62.5%). Results showed that households using a clay container for drinking water storage had a significantly weaker habit of cleaning their water storage containers with soap and water than did households using other types of containers (β = -0.10). The most important sociopsychological predictors of habitual cleaning were commitment (β = 0.35), forgetting (β = -0.22), and self-efficacy (β = 0.14). The combined investigation of contextual and sociopsychological factors proved beneficial in terms of developing intervention strategies. Possible interventions based on these findings are recommended.

  12. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among HIV patients in Benin City, Nigeria

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    Frederick Olusegun Akinbo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the presence of intestinal parasites and their correlation with CD4+ T-cell counts and demographics among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive patients in Benin City, Nigeria. Stool specimens from 2,000 HIV-positive patients and 500 controls (HIV-negative individuals were examined for ova, cysts, or parasites, using standard procedures. In addition, patient's blood samples were analyzed for CD4 counts by flow cytometry. An overall prevalence rate of 15.3% was observed among HIV-positive patients while 6.2% was noted among non-HIV subjects. HIV status was a significant (P<0.0001 risk factor for acquiring intestinal parasitic infections. Male gender, CD4 count <200cell/µl, and diarrhea were significantly associated with an increased prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among HIV-positive patients. The level of education, occupation, and source of water among HIV patients significantly (P<0.0001 affected the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most predominant parasite in both HIV-positive patients and controls. A CD4 count <200 cells/µl was significantly associated with only Isospora belli and Cryptosporidium infections. The presence of pathogenic intestinal parasites such as A. lumbricoides, hookworm, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Trichuris trichiura, and Taenia species among HIV-infected persons should not be neglected. Cryptosporidium species and I. belli were the opportunistic parasites observed in this study. Routine screening for intestinal parasites in HIV-positive patients is advocated.

  13. FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH THE UPTAKE OF SODIUM DICHLOROISOCYANURATE (NADCC) TABLETS AS HOUSEHOLD WATER-TREATMENT PRODUCT AMONG CAREGIVERS OF CHILDREN UNDER FIVE IN BENIN, WEST AFRICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inungu, Joseph N; Zinsou, Cyprien E; Mustafa, Younis; Singbo, Narcisse

    2016-01-01

    Improving access to safe drinking water is a critical step in mitigating diarrheal diseases that affect millions of children under 5 years throughout the developing world each year. While the delivery of safe water is out of the reach of many countries, the utilization of Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) is a proven cost-effective alternative to prevent diarrhea caused by waterborne pathogens. However, its uptake remains low in many developing countries, such as the Republic of Benin. This study examines the trends and the determinants of NaDCC uptake in Benin. Population Services International and its affiliate conducted two multistage household surveys among caregivers of children under five in Benin to examine the practices towards diarrheal disease in children under five and identify the factors associated with the use of NaDCC in this population. 2912 respondents/caregivers of children under five were interviewed in 2009 versus 3196 in 2011. The proportion of caregivers who reported ever treating water with NaDCC increased from 5.8% in 2009 to 11.5% in 2011, p product. In order to increase the use of NADCC among caregivers, the Government of Benin and its development partners should focus not only on making NADCC available in the community and informing the community members about the different points of sale, but also in building up the capacity and confidence of caregivers in utilizing it. PMID:27483977

  14. Violence Against Women at the Workplace in Honduraa, Benin, Moldova, Indonesia: a survey by CNV Internationaal, University of Amsterdam/AIAS, WageIndicator Foundation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Tijdens; J. Besamusca; M. van Klaveren; A. Zerain; P. Osse; D. Ceccon; N. Pralitasari; A. Flores; A. Sèna Alinsato; A. Popescu; A. Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    The research focussed on violence against women at the workplace in four countries: Honduras, Indonesia, Moldova, and Benin. Each country report starts with an overview concerning the female workforce in that country, followed by a description of the legal framework concerning violence at work. It t

  15. Effects of farmers' practices of fertilizer application and land use types on subsequent maize yield and nutrient uptake in central Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saidou, A.; Kossou, D.; Acakpo, K.; Richards, P.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2012-01-01

    Four on-farm experiments in central Benin examined whether land-use succession and fertilizer treatments for prior cotton would sustain subsequent maize crop yields and achieve balanced plant nutrition. Treatments consisted of three prior land use successions, i.e. before planting maize (egusi melon

  16. 'A pond with crocodiles never dries up’: a frame analysis of human-crocodile relationships in agro-pastoral dams in Northern Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.N. Kpéra; N. Aarts; R.C. Tossou; G.A. Mensah; A. Saïdou; D.K. Kossou; A.B. Sinsin; A.J. van der Zijpp

    2014-01-01

    Crocodiles, a protected species, share ecosystem services with local communities in agro-pastoral dams in Northern Benin. Using a comparative case study conducted in three villages and a framing perspective, this study aims to elucidate how stakeholders frame the presence of crocodiles, and how they

  17. Cotton Dust Exposure and Respiratory Disorders among Textile Workers at a Textile Company in the Southern Part of Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, Antoine Vikkey; Lokossou, Virgil K; Schlünssen, Vivi; Agodokpessi, Gildas; Sigsgaard, Torben; Fayomi, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The textile industry sector occupies a prominent place in the economy of Benin. It exposes workers to several occupational risks, including exposure to cotton dust. To assess the effect of exposure to cotton dust on the health of workers, this study was initiated and conducted in a Beninese cotton industry company. The objective of the study was to evaluate the respiratory disorders among the textile workers exposed to cotton dust and the cross-sectional study involved 656 subjects exposed to cotton dust and 113 non-exposed subjects. The methods used are mainly based on a survey using a questionnaire of organic dust designed by the International Commission of Occupational Health (ICOH); and on the measures of lung function parameters (FEV₁ and FVC). The main results of the different analyzes revealed that subjects exposed to cotton dust have more respiratory symptoms than unexposed subjects (36.9% vs. 21.2%). The prevalence of chronic cough, expectorations, dyspnoea, asthma and chronic bronchitis are 16.8%, 9.8%, 17.3%, 2.6%, and 5.9% respectively among the exposed versus 2.6%, 0.8%, 16.8%, 0% and 0.8% among the unexposed subjects. The prevalence of byssinosis is 44.01%.The prevalence of symptoms is dependent on the sector of activity and the age of the subject. These results should encourage medical interventions and technical prevention especially since the textile industry occupies an important place in the Benin's economy.

  18. National-level differences in the adoption of environmental health technologies: a cross-border comparison from Benin and Togo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendland, Kelly J; Pattanayak, Subhrendu K; Sills, Erin O

    2015-03-01

    Environmental health problems such as malaria, respiratory infections, diarrhoea and malnutrition pose very high burdens on the poor rural people in much of the tropics. Recent research on key interventions-the adoption and use of relatively cheap and effective environmental health technologies-has focused primarily on the influence of demand-side household-level drivers. Relatively few studies of the promotion and use of these technologies have considered the role of contextual factors such as governance, the enabling environment and national policies because of the challenges of cross-country comparisons. We exploit a natural experimental setting by comparing household adoption across the Benin-Togo national border that splits the Tamberma Valley in West Africa. Households across the border share the same culture, ethnicity, weather, physiographic features, livelihoods and infrastructure; however, they are located in countries at virtually opposite ends of the institutional spectrum of democratic elections, voice and accountability, effective governance and corruption. Binary choice models and rigorous non-parametric matching estimators confirm that households in Benin are more likely than households in Togo to plant soybeans, build improved cookstoves and purchase mosquito nets, ceteris paribus. Although we cannot identify the exact mechanism for the large and significant national-level differences in technology adoption, our findings suggest that contextual institutional factors can be more important than household characteristics for technology adoption. PMID:24436179

  19. Characterization of Potential Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria Isolated from Maize (Zea mays L. in Central and Northern Benin (West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadège A. Agbodjato

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our study aims to characterize Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR isolated from maize roots in five agroecological zones of central and northern Benin. Sixty samples were collected at the rate of four samples per village and three villages per agroecological zone. Rhizobacteria strains were isolated from these samples and biochemically characterized. These strains were analyzed for some of their PGPR traits like ammonia production and hydrogen cyanide following conventional methods. Microbiological investigation of these samples has shown that maize rhizospheres in central and northern Benin contain a high diversity of microorganisms. A total of nine species of maize Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria were identified. Those PGPR include five Bacillus species (B. polymyxa, B. pantothenticus, B. anthracis, B. thuringiensis, and B. circulans, three Pseudomonas species (P. cichorii, P. putida, and P. syringae, and Serratia marcescens. The microbial diversity does not depend on the soil types. The microbial density, generally high, varies according to both soil types and agroecological zones. All Serratia strains (100% have produced ammonia, whereas 80% of Bacillus and 77.77% of Pseudomonas produced this metabolite. The hydrogen cyanide was produced by all isolates (100% independent of their genus. These results suggest the possibility to use these rhizobacteria as biological fertilizers to increase maize production.

  20. INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE AND MANAGEMENT OF YAM (DIOSCOREA CAYENENSIS - DIOSCOREA ROTUNDATA COMPLEX PESTS AND DISEASES IN NORTHERN BENIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loko Y.L

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Yam (Dioscorea spp.production in Northern Benin is severely affected by pests and diseases resulting in poor yields and cultivars diversity loss in spite of the importanceof thiscommodity.In order to develop efficient integrated pestsand diseases management approaches, twenty seven (27 villages of the yam production zone of northern Benin were surveyed using participatory research appraisal to document farmers’indigenous knowledge, and traditional management practices of yam pests and diseases. Results indicated that farmers have good knowledge of the yam pests and diseases that were even reported as the third most important production constraints in the study area. Among the pests and diseases nematodes, termites, mealybugs and wilt diseases were the most signaled. Farmers surveyed have traditional methods for mealybugs but nothing for the other pests and diseases apart from the use of resistant/tolerant cultivars. An undetermined disease locally called Ban was reported as expanding at alarming rate throughout villages and yam fields seriously affecting the food quality of the tubers. Urgent intervention zones were identified with multivariate analysis and recommended to the national protection service. The sensitization of the yam producers of the necessity of treating both soil and tuber seeds before planting, the development and the use of pests and diseases tolerant cultivars were proposed as management strategies. Also, the extension of the study to other yam producing regions of the country for identifying more cultivars tolerant to pests and diseases was recommended.

  1. Mosquito fauna and perspectives for integrated control of urban vector-mosquito populations in Southern Benin (West Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingenfelser, Andre; Rydzanicz, Katarzyna; Kaiser, Achim; Becker, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at an integrated vector management (IVM) concept of implementing biological control agents against vector mosquito larvae as a cost-effective and scalable control strategy. In the first step, the mosquito species composition fauna of southern Benin was studied using standard entomological procedures in natural and man-made habitats. Altogether, 24 species belonging to 6 genera of mosquitoes Aedes, Anopheles, Culex, Mansonia, Uranotaenia, Ficalbia were recorded. Five species, Cx. thalassius, Cx. nebulosus, Cx. perfuscus, Cx. pocilipes and Fi. mediolineata are described the first time for Benin. The local mosquito species showed high susceptibility to a Bacillus sphaericus formulation (VectoLex(R) WDG ) in a standardized field test. A dosage of 1 g/m(2) was effective to achieve 100 percent mortality rate for Cx. quinquefasciatus late instar larvae in a sewage habitat, with a residual effect of up to 7 days. After more than 1 year of baseline data collection, operational larviciding with B. thuringiensis var. israelensis and B. sphaericus was commenced in 2006 in selected areas. Microbial insecticides products for larval control show great potential within IVM programmes and may augment control efforts against adult insects, such as the use of insecticide-treated bed nets or indoor wall spraying in many parts of Africa.

  2. Cotton Dust Exposure and Respiratory Disorders among Textile Workers at a Textile Company in the Southern Part of Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, Antoine Vikkey; Lokossou, Virgil K; Schlünssen, Vivi; Agodokpessi, Gildas; Sigsgaard, Torben; Fayomi, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The textile industry sector occupies a prominent place in the economy of Benin. It exposes workers to several occupational risks, including exposure to cotton dust. To assess the effect of exposure to cotton dust on the health of workers, this study was initiated and conducted in a Beninese cotton industry company. The objective of the study was to evaluate the respiratory disorders among the textile workers exposed to cotton dust and the cross-sectional study involved 656 subjects exposed to cotton dust and 113 non-exposed subjects. The methods used are mainly based on a survey using a questionnaire of organic dust designed by the International Commission of Occupational Health (ICOH); and on the measures of lung function parameters (FEV₁ and FVC). The main results of the different analyzes revealed that subjects exposed to cotton dust have more respiratory symptoms than unexposed subjects (36.9% vs. 21.2%). The prevalence of chronic cough, expectorations, dyspnoea, asthma and chronic bronchitis are 16.8%, 9.8%, 17.3%, 2.6%, and 5.9% respectively among the exposed versus 2.6%, 0.8%, 16.8%, 0% and 0.8% among the unexposed subjects. The prevalence of byssinosis is 44.01%.The prevalence of symptoms is dependent on the sector of activity and the age of the subject. These results should encourage medical interventions and technical prevention especially since the textile industry occupies an important place in the Benin's economy. PMID:27618081

  3. Prevalent Opportunistic Infections Associated with HIV-positive Children 0-5 years in Benin City, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imade, P. E.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 620 HIV positive children 0-5 years attending University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, were examined in this study. They were grouped into less than 1 year and 1-5 years based on CDC classification system. 218 children were under 1 year and 402 were 1-5 years. The overall results showed that malaria infection recorded the highest prevalence with 71.10% in less than 1 year and 76.37% in 1-5 years. This was followed by Oral Candidiasis 38.07% in less than 1 year and 50% in 1-5 years. Bacteraemia had 23.40% and 30.60% in less than 1 year and 1-5 years respectively. Diarrhoea, 14.22% in less than 1 year and 17.66% in 1-5 years. Otitis media had 10.55% and 10.95% in less than 1 year and 1-5 years respectively. Similarly, 590 apparently healthy HIV-negative children within the same age group were evaluated for the presence of these infections. There was a statistical significance between opportunistic infections and HIV infection (P < 0.001. Malaria infection was the most prevalent opportunistic infection in this population and may probably be due to environmental condition of this locality as well as the low immune status of the children.

  4. Mosquito fauna and perspectives for integrated control of urban vector-mosquito populations in Southern Benin (West Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingenfelser, Andre; Rydzanicz, Katarzyna; Kaiser, Achim; Becker, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at an integrated vector management (IVM) concept of implementing biological control agents against vector mosquito larvae as a cost-effective and scalable control strategy. In the first step, the mosquito species composition fauna of southern Benin was studied using standard entomological procedures in natural and man-made habitats. Altogether, 24 species belonging to 6 genera of mosquitoes Aedes, Anopheles, Culex, Mansonia, Uranotaenia, Ficalbia were recorded. Five species, Cx. thalassius, Cx. nebulosus, Cx. perfuscus, Cx. pocilipes and Fi. mediolineata are described the first time for Benin. The local mosquito species showed high susceptibility to a Bacillus sphaericus formulation (VectoLex(R) WDG ) in a standardized field test. A dosage of 1 g/m(2) was effective to achieve 100 percent mortality rate for Cx. quinquefasciatus late instar larvae in a sewage habitat, with a residual effect of up to 7 days. After more than 1 year of baseline data collection, operational larviciding with B. thuringiensis var. israelensis and B. sphaericus was commenced in 2006 in selected areas. Microbial insecticides products for larval control show great potential within IVM programmes and may augment control efforts against adult insects, such as the use of insecticide-treated bed nets or indoor wall spraying in many parts of Africa. PMID:20684480

  5. Migration, Social Demands and Environmental Change amongst the Frafra of Northern Ghana and the Biali in Northern Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papa Sow

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of environmental change and degradation on human populations, including the possibility of sharp increases in the number of people considered “environmental migrants” have gained considerable attention. Migrating communities may try to distribute their members along particular lines of kinship, gender, marriage and/or services linked to land exploitation and agriculture. This paper explores archives and narratives of African migrants in northwestern Benin and northeastern Ghana. These regions have been marked by severe ecological change and resource deterioration over the years, as well as changes in marital patterns, family relations and customary practices. In the case of Benin, the paper looks at different ethnic groups that migrated from neighboring countries to the study region. It then focuses on the Biali, who undertake marriage journeys after practicing rituals, which are often related to agricultural activities. The Frafra (Ghana, who, in their bid to out-migrate as a livelihood/coping strategy in the advent of environmental deterioration and rainfall variability, are confronted with high bride prices, changing family relations and customary practices. The paper concludes by highlighting socio-cultural changes that ensue in the face of outmigration among different ethnic groups, especially the Biali and Frafra, and the relationship between non-environmental and environmental factors, and mobility strategies.

  6. [Accidents linked to traditional treatment of convulsions of infants and children in Benin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayivi, B; Dan, V

    1990-02-01

    Convulsions represent a frequent pediatric emergency in southern Benin and Nigeria, where they are estimated to occur in 15% of hospitalizations. The principal cause is fever during a malarial attack. The health team provides symptomatic treatment and searches for the etiology so that adequate treatment can be provided. For the family faced with convulsions, the major concern is to bring the child out of the convulsive state at almost any price. The 3 products most commonly used by parents and other caretakers are cod liver oil, honey, and lemon, which are administered orally often in combination in hopes of provoking vomiting or stimulating the child to regain consciousness. Other substances sometimes administered include cow or cat urine, garlic or onion, and rubbing alcohol. Articles such as spoons or sticks or fingers may be used in attempts to loosen the jaws and avoid blockages. Flagellation may be used to revive the child. Scarification or fumigation may be done to combat sorcery or chase away evil spirits. A hand or leg may be plunged into boiling water or fire to revive the child from a postconvulsive coma. Use of these techniques explains the high rate of mortality or morbidity following convulsions, Morbid states induced by traditional treatments of convulsions may include false bronchial route, ocular or cutaneous burns buccal lesions, injuries to the nasal cavities or lips, and edema of the cheeks. A survey of parents indicated that 37% of families interviewed had been present at a convulsive crisis of their children or siblings. Convulsions were considered a natural ailment by only 55% and a sign of sorcery and malediction by 36%. 84% of parents surveyed knew about possible sequelae of traditional treatments and 40% used them. 90% of families knew about possible sequelae of traditional treatments but explained them by the seriousness of the convulsions or sorcery. 69% felt that more adequate treatment should be found. The best preventive measures

  7. Occupational radiation dose of staff and workplace assessment at service des radioimmunodosages in Benin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Occupational radiation dose of staff handling 125 I and workplace assessment in nuclear medicine unit at Service des Radioimmunodosages (SeRiD) in Benin have been undertaken to determine levels of radiation safety. Firstly, three permanent workers and two students were provided with finger ring thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) to wear at index finger base of both hands. Ring dosimeters were used for four month in two sequences of two months and were evaluated with HARSHAW 4500. Secondly, three permanent workers and three students were provided with TLD badge to wear at the chest level for skin and deep dose measurement. TLD badges were used for six months in six sequences of one month. The exposed TLDs were evaluated with HARSHAW 6600. Ambient equivalent dose rate (μSv/h) was measured using microsieverts model dose rate meter. Sixteen control points closed to the source or situated where staff are exposed to ionizing radiation were chosen. Fixed and removable contamination were surveyed at six and three controlled points respectively. Results from the study showed that permanent workers highest index finger base average equivalent dose was 142.75± 89.54μSv/2months, while that of students was 34.69 ± 29.23 µSv/2months. The maximum annual skin dose of Permanent workers represent 0.46% of dose limit (500mSv/yr), while that of the student represent 0.37%of dose limit (150mSv/yr). Average ambient equivalent dose rate from radiation survey was lower than 20μSv/h. It was noted that the freezer door plays an inportant role in shielding. The result in waste disposal room confirm the decay in storage of radioactive waste principle. Data on removable and fixed contamination value was below the limits of 0.33 dps/100cm2 and 8.33dps/100cm2 respectively. The study indicated that SeRiD staff are not exposed to ionizing radiation at work in safe working environment. (au)

  8. Energy fluxes and surface characteristics over a cultivated area in Benin: daily and seasonal dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Mamadou

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Latent and sensible heat fluxes are known as key factors in the West African monsoon dynamics. However, few long-term observations of these land surface fluxes are available to document their impact in the climate variability of this region. The present study took advantage of the Sudanian site of the AMMA-CATCH (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis – Coupling the Tropical Atmosphere and Hydrological Cycle observatory where turbulent fluxes were measured using the eddy covariance technique. One full year of data of energy budget over a cultivated site located in northern Benin was examined. Four contrasted seasons were identified and detailed focusing on their corresponding daily cycles. The flux partitioning was investigated through the evaporative fraction (EF and the Bowen ratio (β at both seasonal and daily scales. Finally, the surface conductance (Gs and the decoupling coefficient (Ω were calculated and confronted with specific bare soil or canopy models to identify the main processes for each season. The results pointed out the contrasted seasonal variations of sensible and latent heat fluxes due to changing atmospheric and surface conditions. During the wet season, surface conditions barely affected EF, which remained in steady regime (EF = 0.75, while latent heat flux was dominant and β was about 0.4. During the transitional periods, both EF and β were highly variable. A low but significant evapotranspiration was measured in the dry season (EF = 0.08 attributed to few scattered bushes, distributed on a bare area, possibly fed by the water table. Nevertheless, sensible heat fluxes were largely dominant (β ~ 10 during dry season. Moreover, β revealed the ligneous vegetation flowering dynamics during the dry season. The results also showed a strong surface atmosphere coupling, which suggests a systematic mixing of the flow within the canopy with the atmospheric surface layer whatever the atmospheric conditions and vegetation

  9. Magnitude of cardiovascular risk factors in rural and urban areas in Benin: findings from a nationwide steps survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yessito Corine Nadège Houehanou

    Full Text Available To describe and compare the prevalences of CVRF in urban and rural populations of Benin.Subjects were drawn from participants in the Benin Steps survey, a nationwide cross-sectional study conducted in 2008 using the World Health Organisation (WHO stepwise approach to surveillance of chronic disease risk factors. Subjects aged above 24 and below 65 years were recruited using a five-stage random sampling process within households. Sociodemographic data, behavioral data along with medical history of high blood pressure and diabetes mellitus were collected in Step 1. Anthropometric parameters and blood pressure were measured in Step 2. Blood glucose and cholesterol levels were measured in Step 3. CVRF were defined according to WHO criteria. The prevalences of CVRF were assessed and the relationships between each CVRF and the area of residence (urban or rural, were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression models.Of the 6762 subjects included in the study, 2271 were from urban areas and 4491 were from rural areas. High blood pressure was more prevalent in urban than in rural areas, 29.9% (95% confidence intervals (95% CI: 27.4, 32.5 and 27.5% (95% CI: 25.6, 29.5 respectively, p = 0.001 (p-value after adjustment for age and gender. Obesity was more prevalent in urban than in rural areas, 16.4% (95% CI: 14.4, 18.4 and 5.9% (95% CI: 5.1, 6.7, p<0.001. Diabetes was more prevalent in urban than in rural areas, 3.3% (95% CI: 2.1, 4.5 and 1.8% (95% CI: 1.2, 2.4, p = 0.004. Conversely, daily tobacco smoking was more prevalent in rural than in urban areas, 9.3% (95% CI: 8.1, 10.4 and 4.3% (95% CI: 3.1, 5.6, p<0.001. No differences in raised blood cholesterol were noted between the two groups.According to our data, CVRF are prevalent among adults in Benin, and variations between rural and urban populations are significant. It may be useful to take account of the heterogeneity in the prevalence of CVRF when planning and implementing preventive

  10. The impact of the expansion of urban vegetable farming on malaria transmission in major cities of Benin

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    Kindé Gazard

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urban agricultural practices are expanding in several cities of the Republic of Benin. This study aims to assess the impact of such practices on transmission of the malaria parasite in major cities of Benin. Method A cross sectional entomological study was carried out from January to December 2009 in two vegetable farming sites in southern Benin (Houeyiho and Acron and one in the northern area (Azèrèkè. The study was based on sampling of mosquitoes by Human Landing Catches (HLC in households close to the vegetable farms and in others located far from the farms. Results During the year of study, 71,678 female mosquitoes were caught by HLC of which 25% (17,920/71,678 were Anopheles species. In the areas surveyed, the main malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum was transmitted in the south by Anopheles gambiae s.s. Transmission was high during the two rainy seasons (April to July and October to November but declined in the two dry seasons (December to March and August to September. In the north, transmission occurred from June to October during the rainy season and was vehicled by two members of the An. gambiae complex: Anopheles gambiae s.s. (98% and Anopheles arabiensis (2%. At Houeyiho, Acron and Azèrèkè, the Entomological Inoculation Rates (EIRs and the Human Biting Rates (HBRs were significantly higher during the dry season in Households Close to Vegetable Farms (HCVF than in those located far from the vegetable areas (HFVF (p 0.05. The knock-down resistance (kdr mutation was the main resistance mechanism detected at high frequency (0.86 to 0.91 in An. gambiae s.l. at all sites. The ace-1R mutation was also found but at a very low frequency ( Conclusion These findings showed that communities living close to vegetable farms are permanently exposed to malaria throughout the year, whereas the risk in those living far from such agricultural practices is limited and only critical during the rainy seasons. Measures must be

  11. Addressing diarrhea prevalence in the West African Middle Belt: social and geographic dimensions in a case study for Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arouna Aminou

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In West Africa, the Northern Sahelian zone and the coastal areas are densely populated but the Middle Belt in between is in general sparsely settled. Predictions of climate change foresee more frequent drought in the north and more frequent flooding in the coastal areas, while conditions in the Middle Belt will remain moderate. Consequently, the Middle Belt might become a major area for immigration but there may be constraining factors as well, particularly with respect to water availability. As a case study, the paper looks into the capacity of the Middle Belt zone of Benin, known as the Oueme River Basin (ORB, to reduce diarrhea prevalence. In Benin it links to the Millennium Development Goals on child mortality and environmental sustainability that are currently farthest from realization. However, diarrhea prevalence is only in part due to lack of availability of drinking water from a safe source. Social factors such as hygienic practices and poor sanitation are also at play. Furthermore, we consider these factors to possess the properties of a local public good that suffers from under provision and requires collective action, as individual actions to prevent illness are bound to fail as long as others free ride. Methods Combining data from the Demographic Health Survey with various spatial data sets for Benin, we apply mixed effect logit regression to arrive at a spatially explicit assessment of geographical and social determinants of diarrhea prevalence. Starting from an analysis of these factors separately at national level, we identify relevant proxies at household level, estimate a function with geo-referenced independent variables and apply it to evaluate the costs and impacts of improving access to good water in the basin. Results First, the study confirms the well established stylized fact on the causes of diarrhea that a household with access to clean water and with good hygienic practices will, irrespective of

  12. Current floristic composition, life form and productivity of the grasslands in the Hunting Zone of Djona (Benin)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahoudji, Myrese C.; Teka, Oscar; Axelsen, Jørgen Aagaard;

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This paper addressed temporal changes in floristic composition, plant communities’ structures and productivity of grasslands. The study was conducted in the Hunting zone of Djona in the Transboundary Biosphere Reserve of W (TBRW) Benin. Methodology and Results: For these purpose 30....../ha) was observed in Andropogon gayanus-Schizachyrium sanguineum grassland. The dominant life forms in all plants communities of the study area are the phanerophytes followed by therophytes. For chorological types, all plants communities are dominated by the species of the Sudanian base element and species...... the impact of grasslands exploitation on the viability of the protected area particularly in the context of climate change and for this, it’s important to undertake a long-term study in order to take into account all variations and all causes of these variations...

  13. Development of vegetable farming: a cause of the emergence of insecticide resistance in populations of Anopheles gambiae in urban areas of Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Braïma James; Djouaka Rousseau F; Asidi Alex; Yadouleton Anges; Agossou Christian D; Akogbeto Martin C

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background A fast development of urban agriculture has recently taken place in many areas in the Republic of Benin. This study aims to assess the rapid expansion of urban agriculture especially, its contribution to the emergence of insecticide resistance in populations of Anopheles gambiae. Methods The protocol was based on the collection of sociological data by interviewing vegetable farmers regarding various agricultural practices and the types of pesticides used. Bioassay tests we...

  14. Impact of Insecticide Resistance on the Effectiveness of Pyrethroid-Based Malaria Vectors Control Tools in Benin: Decreased Toxicity and Repellent Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Agossa, Fiacre R; Virgile Gnanguenon; Rodrigue Anagonou; Roseric Azondekon; Nazaire Aïzoun; Arthur Sovi; Frédéric Oké-Agbo; Michel Sèzonlin; Akogbéto, Martin C.

    2015-01-01

    Since the first evidence of pyrethroids resistance in 1999 in Benin, mutations have rapidly increased in mosquitoes and it is now difficult to design a study including a control area where malaria vectors are fully susceptible. Few studies have assessed the after effect of resistance on the success of pyrethroid based prevention methods in mosquito populations. We therefore assessed the impact of resistance on the effectiveness of pyrethroids based indoor residual spraying (IRS) in semi-field...

  15. Farmer’s Knowledge and Perception of Diversified Farming Systems in Sub-Humid and Semi-Arid Areas in Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Alcade C. Segnon; Achigan-Dako, Enoch G; Orou G. Gaoue; Adam Ahanchédé

    2015-01-01

    Building on farmer’s agroecological knowledge to design environmental-friendly agricultural systems is crucial given the environmental impact of industrial agriculture. We investigated the drivers of farmers’ knowledge of agrobiodiversity management and analyzed how farmers’ knowledge and their current farming contexts may guide future farming systems in sub-humid (Bassila) and semi-arid (Boukoumbé) areas of Benin. We conducted structured interviews with 180 farmers and used generalized linea...

  16. Dominant viral pathologies in the extensive and semi-intensive animal breeding and their treatment mode in ethno veterinary medicine in Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Kpodékon, T. M.; Ogni, C. A.; H. Dassou; Dougnon, T. J.; Boko, C; Koutinhouin, G. B.; Goussanou, J. S. E.; Akoegninou, A.; I. Youssao

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study aims to identify the dominant viral animal pathologies and to list the traditional recipes used by the breeders for their treatment. Materials and Methods: The method of data collection was based on a retrospective survey. Thus, 787 breeders and agro-breeders scattered in the eight agro-ecological areas of Benin were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires. Results: In total, 5 pathologies were reported by breeders. Among those pathologies, foot and mouth diseas...

  17. Managing the agricultural calendar as coping mechanism to climate variability: A case study of maize farming in northern Benin, West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Rosaine N. Yegbemey; Humayun Kabir; Oyémonbadé H.R. Awoye; Yabi, Jacob A.; Armand A. Paraïso

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays climate variability and change are amongst the most important threats to sustainable development, with potentially severe consequences on agriculture in developing countries. Among many available coping mechanisms, farmers adjust some of their farming practices. This article aims at exploring observed changes in the agricultural calendar as a response to climate variability in northern Benin. Interviews with local experts (agricultural extension officers and local leaders such as hea...

  18. Sanitary Conditions of Food Vending Sites and Food Handling Practices of Street Food Vendors in Benin City, Nigeria: Implication for Food Hygiene and Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Okojie, P. W.; Isah, E C

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine the sanitary conditions of vending sites as well as food handling practices of street food vendors in Benin City, Nigeria. Methodology. A descriptive cross-sectional study was done using an observational checklist and researcher-administered questionnaire. 286 randomly selected vending units were surveyed, and their operators interviewed on their food handling practices. Results. A higher proportion, 259 (90.5%), of the observed vending sites appeared clean. The follow...

  19. Uses, traditional management, perception of variation and preferences in ackee (Blighia sapida K.D. Koenig) fruit traits in Benin: implications for domestication and conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Eyog-Matig Oscar; Sinsin Brice; Ekué Marius RM; Finkeldey Reiner

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Blighia sapida is a woody perennial multipurpose fruit tree species native to the Guinean forests of West Africa. The fleshy arils of the ripened fruits are edible. Seeds and capsules of the fruits are used for soap-making and all parts of the tree have medicinal properties. Although so far overlooked by researchers in the region, the tree is highly valued by farmers and is an important component of traditional agroforestry systems in Benin. Fresh arils, dried arils and so...

  20. Contribution of Inland Valleys Intensification to Sustainable Rice/vegetable Value Chain Development in Benin and Mali: Constraints, opportunities and profitable cropping systems

    OpenAIRE

    Adetonah, Sounkoura; Coulibaly, Ousmane; Sessou, E.; Padonou, S.; Dembele, U.; Adekambli, S.

    2010-01-01

    Intensifying inland valley systems will require the promotion of high value commodity chain system involving rice and vegetable with increased productivity and low per unit cost of production and natural resources. The objective aim to identify the current production systems assesses their constraints and analyzes the profitability of best bet rice and vegetable cropping systems under different levels of input use and access to market. A total of 235 producers selected in Benin and Mali accor...

  1. Multi-criteria assessment of the Representative Elementary Watershed approach on the Donga catchment (Benin) using a downward approach of model complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Varado, N.; Braud, I.; S. Galle; M. Le Lay; Séguis, L.; Kamagate, B.; Depraetere, C.

    2006-01-01

    This study is part of the AMMA - African Multidisciplinary Monsoon Analysis- project and aims at a better understanding and modelling of the Donga catchment (580 km2, Benin) behaviour in order to determine its spatially distributed water balance. For this purpose, we applied the REW concept proposed by Reggiani et al. (1998, 1999), which allows the description of the main local processes at the sub-watershed scale. Such distributed hydrological models, which represent hydrological proces...

  2. PHYTOCHEMISTRY, ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIRADICAL ACTIVITIES EVALUATION OF ESSENTIAL OILS, ETHANOLIC AND HYDROETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF THE LEAVES OF EUCALYPTUS CITRIODORA HOOK FROM BENIN

    OpenAIRE

    Yaya A. Koudoro; Cokou P. Agbangnan Dossa; Boniface B. Yèhouénou; Fidèle P. Tchobo; Guy A. Alitonou; Felicien Avlessi; Dominique C. K. Sohounhloué

    2014-01-01

    The precipitation and coloration reactions implemented in this study revealed in the leaves of E. citriodora (Myrtaceae) of Benin the presence of polyphenols, anthocyanins, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, mucilages, anthraquinones, leucoanthocyanins, cardiac glycosides, coumarins, proteins, sterols and triterpenes. The essential oil from the leaves of this plant was extracted with a yield of 3% and then analyzed by GC/MS. Nine compounds, representing 94.46% of the chemical composition of the o...

  3. Obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors in urban adults of Benin: Relationship with socio-economic status, urbanisation, and lifestyle patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Delisle Hélène; Agueh Victoire; Fayomi Benjamin; Sodjinou Roger

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background There is a dearth of information on diet-related chronic diseases in West Africa. This cross-sectional study assessed the rate of obesity and other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in a random sample of 200 urban adults in Benin and explored the associations between these factors and socio-economic status (SES), urbanisation as well as lifestyle patterns. Methods Anthropometric parameters (height, weight and waist circumference), blood pressure, fasting plasma glu...

  4. Buruli ulcer disease prevalence in Benin, West Africa: Associations with land use/cover and the identification of disease clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, T.; Benbow, M.E.; Brenden, T.O.; Qi, J.; Johnson, R.C.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Buruli ulcer (BU) disease, caused by infection with the environmental mycobacterium M. ulcerans, is an emerging infectious disease in many tropical and sub-tropical countries. Although vectors and modes of transmission remain unknown, it is hypothesized that the transmission of BU disease is associated with human activities in or around aquatic environments, and that characteristics of the landscape (e.g., land use/cover) play a role in mediating BU disease. Several studies performed at relatively small spatial scales (e.g., within a single village or region of a country) support these hypotheses; however, if BU disease is associated with land use/cover characteristics, either through spatial constraints on vector-host dynamics or by mediating human activities, then large-scale (i.e., country-wide) associations should also emerge. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate associations between BU disease prevalence in villages in Benin, West Africa and surrounding land use/cover patterns and other map-based characteristics, and (2) identify areas with greater and lower than expected prevalence rates (i.e., disease clusters) to assist with the development of prevention and control programs. Results: Our landscape-based models identified low elevation, rural villages surrounded by forest land cover, and located in drainage basins with variable wetness patterns as being associated with higher BU disease prevalence rates. We also identified five spatial disease clusters. Three of the five clusters contained villages with greater than expected prevalence rates and two clusters contained villages with lower than expected prevalence rates. Those villages with greater than expected BU disease prevalence rates spanned a fairly narrow region of south-central Benin. Conclusion: Our analyses suggest that interactions between natural land cover and human alterations to the landscape likely play a role in the dynamics of BU disease. For example

  5. Local and Catchment-Scale Water Storage Changes in Northern Benin Deduced from Gravity Monitoring at Various Time-Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinderer, J.; Hector, B.; Séguis, L.; Descloitres, M.; Cohard, J.; Boy, J.; Calvo, M.; Rosat, S.; Riccardi, U.; Galle, S.

    2013-12-01

    Water storage changes (WSC) are investigated by the mean of gravity monitoring in Djougou, northern Benin, in the frame of the GHYRAF (Gravity and Hydrology in Africa) project. In this area, WSC are 1) part of the control system for evapotranspiration (ET) processes, a key variable of the West-African monsoon cycle and 2) the state variable for resource management, a critical issue in storage-poor hard rock basement contexts such as in northern Benin. We show the advantages of gravity monitoring for analyzing different processes in the water cycle involved at various time and space scales, using the main gravity sensors available today (FG5 absolute gravimeter, superconducting gravimeter -SG- and CG5 micro-gravimeter). The study area is also part of the long-term observing system AMMA-Catch, and thus under intense hydro-meteorological monitoring (rain, soil moisture, water table level, ET ...). Gravity-derived WSC are compared at all frequencies to hydrological data and to hydrological models calibrated on these data. Discrepancies are analyzed to discuss the pros and cons of each approach. Fast gravity changes (a few hours) are significant when rain events occur, and involve different contributions: rainfall itself, runoff, fast subsurface water redistribution, screening effect of the gravimeter building and local topography. We investigate these effects and present the statistical results of a set of rain events recorded with the SG installed in Djougou since July 2010. The intermediate time scale of gravity changes (a few days) is caused by ET and both vertical and horizontal water redistribution. The integrative nature of gravity measurements does not allow to separate these different contributions, and the screening from the shelter reduces our ability to retrieve ET values. Also, atmospheric corrections are critical at such frequencies, and deserve some specific attention. However, a quick analysis of gravity changes following rain events shows that the

  6. Tuberculosis Case Finding in Benin, 2000–2014 and Beyond: A Retrospective Cohort and Time Series Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ade, Serge; Békou, Wilfried; Adjobimey, Mênonli; Adjibode, Omer; Ade, Gabriel; Harries, Anthony D.; Anagonou, Séverin

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine any changes in tuberculosis epidemiology in the last 15 years in Benin, seasonal variations, and forecasted numbers of tuberculosis cases in the next five years. Materials and Methods. Retrospective cohort and time series study of all tuberculosis cases notified between 2000 and 2014. The “R” software version 3.2.1 (Institute for Statistics and Mathematics Vienna Austria) and the Box-Jenkins 1976 modeling approach were used for time series analysis. Results. Of 246943 presumptive cases, 54303 (22%) were diagnosed with tuberculosis. Annual notified case numbers increased, with the highest reported in 2011. New pulmonary bacteriologically confirmed tuberculosis (NPBCT) represented 78%  ± SD 2%. Retreatment cases decreased from 10% to 6% and new pulmonary clinically diagnosed cases increased from 2% to 8%. NPBCT notification rates decreased in males from 2012, in young people aged 15–34 years and in Borgou-Alibori region. There was a seasonal pattern in tuberculosis cases. Over 90% of NPBCT were HIV-tested with a stable HIV prevalence of 13%. The ARIMA best fit model predicted a decrease in tuberculosis cases finding in the next five years. Conclusion. Tuberculosis case notifications are predicted to decrease in the next five years if current passive case finding is used. Additional strategies are needed in the country. PMID:27293887

  7. Prevalence of Malaria and Anemia among Pregnant Women Attending a Traditional Birth Home in Benin City, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bankole Henry Oladeinde

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the prevalence of malaria and anemia among pregnant women attending a traditional birth center as well as the effect of herbal remedies, gravidity, age, educational background and malaria prevention methods on their prevalence.Methods: Blood specimens were collected from 119 pregnant women attending a Traditional Birth Home in Benin City, Nigeria. Malaria parasitemia was diagnosed by microscopy while anemia was defined as hemoglobin concentration <11 g/dL.Results: The prevalence of malaria infection was (OR=4.35 95% CI=1.213, 15.600; p=0.016 higher among primigravidae (92.1%. Pregnant women (38.5% with tertiary level of education had significantly lower prevalence of malaria infection (p=0.002. Malaria significantly affected the prevalence of anemia (p<0.05. Anemia was associated with consumption of herbal remedies (OR=2.973; 95% CI=1.206, 7.330; p=0.017. The prevalence of malaria parasitemia and anemia were not affected by malaria prevention methods used by the participants.Conclusion: The overall prevalence of malaria infection and anemia observed in this study were 78.9% and 46.2%, respectively. Higher prevalence of malaria infection was associated with primigravidae and lower prevalence with tertiary education of subjects. Anemia was associated with consumption of herbal remedies. There is urgent need to control the prevalence of malaria and anemia among pregnant women attending traditional birth homes.

  8. Environmental Geophysical Study of the Groundwater Mineralization in a Plot of the Cotonou Littoral Zone (South Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalo Nicaise

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Geophysical investigations comprising electrical resistivity and electromagnetic conductivities methods were deployed in a 350 m2 sector, strewn with 11 wells. Within the framework of an environmental study on a small scale in the south of Benin, the water conductivity of these wells was measured to determine in a direct way mineralization of the coastal water table in the littoral zone. This environmental study aimed to prospect by the geophysical methods the space extension of the water table mineralization obtained by direct measurements of water conductivity in the well and the depth of the fresh water/salted water interface in the coastal aquifer. Electromagnetic measurements of conductivities made it possible to chart a gradient of mineralization in the northwest direction. The logs of vertical electric soundings showed a deepening of the fresh water/salted water interface in the southern part and its rupture in the northern part. The electrical resistivities of the interface are sensitive to the degree of its mineralization. It has been observed that the geophysical methods in electrical and electromagnetic prospection are a great contribution to the environmental study of the water table mineralization in the littoral zone for a sustainable management of the water resource.

  9. [Epidemiological observations on the first case of human paragonimiasis and potential intermediate hosts of Paragonimus sp. in Benin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aka, N A; Allabi, A C; Dreyfuss, G; Kinde-Gazard, D; Tawo, L; Rondelaud, D; Bouteille, B; Avodé, G; Anagonou, S Y; Gninafon, M; Massougbodji, A; Dumas, M

    1999-07-01

    Parasitological investigations were carried out for four months in 1998 in two Beninese centres of pneumo-phtisiology (Akpakpa, at Cotonou, and Akron, at Porto-Novo) to detect the patients harbouring eggs of Paragonimus sp. amongst the persons consulting for tuberculosis and showing a broncho-pneumopathy without mycobacteria. Eggs of Paragonimus sp. were detected in the sputum of a single patient out of 369 persons examined (prevalence, 0.2%). This patient had eaten crabs in the months preceding the date of diagnosis. A treatment using praziquantel has improved clinical symptomatology and biological signs found in this patient. These studies have been completed by visiting markets located in the coastal plain of Benin to identify the crabs that were sold and to find metacercariae of Paragonimus sp. Negative results were obtained when 126 Cardisoma armatum ("hole crab") were dissected. In contrast, the dissection of 176 Callinectes marginatus ("swimming crab") was successful, with 5% of crabs harbouring metacercariae of probably Paragonimus sp. Further studies are necessary to confirm these first results and to determine the global prevalence of Paragonimus infection in these definitive and intermediary hosts.

  10. Control of vegetable pests in Benin - Farmers' preferences for eco-friendly nets as an alternative to insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidogbéna, Faustin; Adégbidi, Anselme; Tossou, Rigobert; Assogba-Komlan, Françoise; Ngouajio, Mathieu; Martin, Thibaut; Simon, Serge; Parrot, Laurent; Zander, Kerstin K

    2015-01-01

    We investigated if eco-friendly nets (EFNs) are a viable and acceptable alternative to extremely high levels of insecticide use in vegetable production. Using a choice experiment, we found that vegetable producing farmers in Benin preferred all of the characteristics of EFNs except the higher labor requirements. The nets had been distributed in a trial phase for free but in the long run farmers would need to purchase the EFNs. The break-even point for investing in nets was found to vary with the lifespan of EFNs, their purchase price and potential health benefits from avoiding large quantities of insecticides. To break even the nets need to be used for at least two production cycles. To overcome risk-averse farmer's reluctance to adopt EFNs we propose a credit and warranty scheme along with the purchase of the nets. The study's findings can guide the implementation of EFNs in other African countries as part of integrated pest management with global benefits for the environment and human health.

  11. Some particularities of rainfall variability in a transition climate: case of the Department of the ZOU in Benin - West Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The field of study is located in the middle Benin. It corresponds to the field of transition between the subequatorial climate to the south and the Soudan ian climate in the north. The basic conviction is that to measure the climatic changes, which occur, it is necessary to look at the changes in the zones of margin. We thus examined some of meteorological events such as pluviometric regime, the monthly concentration of the rains, the beginning and end of the rainy season, events which contrast with those of the framing facies climatic, which enabled us to know in which direction the changes take place. The following reports were made: There is a greater concentration of the rains over the wet months (June, July, August and September) The inflection of the rains of August tends to disappear so that this month. It is wet This way, the bimodal style tends to disappear in favor of the unimodal, which confirms the CV (coefficient of variation) of which the low value shows a certain stability. The volume of the rains in beginning as at the end of the wet period decreased almost everywhere in the band. In fact there reports make think of the Soudanian climate and one can wonder whether the Soudanian does not tend to, impose its rate/rhythm on this latitude. Anyway the assumption of a climatic change rate tends to prove correct. One can wonder how long this tendency will last.(Author)

  12. Occurrence of free-living amoebae in communities of low and high endemicity for Buruli ulcer in southern Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddyani, Miriam; De Jonckheere, Johan F; Durnez, Lies; Suykerbuyk, Patrick; Leirs, Herwig; Portaels, Françoise

    2008-11-01

    Buruli ulcer or Mycobacterium ulcerans disease occurs mainly in areas in proximity to standing or slowly running freshwater, habitats in which free-living amoebae occur. For this reason, a possible link between the habitat of M. ulcerans and free-living amoebae was investigated. Free-living amoebae and mycobacteria were isolated from water and biofilm specimens taken from protected and unprotected sources of water in villages known to have either high or low endemicity for Buruli ulcer in Benin. Amoebae were isolated from 78.8% of samples. A greater proportion of water bodies in areas of high endemicity had amoebae than in areas of low endemicity (83.3% versus 66.7%). Protected sources of water were significantly more likely to contain amoebae in areas of high endemicity than in areas of low endemicity (88.0% versus 11.1%). Several pathogenic free-living amoebae and mycobacteria were isolated. However, no M. ulcerans was isolated and no specimen was positive for IS2404 PCR. Our results show that the study area has a water hygiene problem, which is greater in areas of high Buruli ulcer endemicity than in areas of low endemicity. Our observations indicate that additional studies are required to explore the possible link between free-living amoebae and mycobacteria.

  13. Vegetable Contamination by the Fecal Bacteria of Poultry Manure: Case Study of Gardening Sites in Southern Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atidégla, Séraphin C.; Huat, Joël; Agbossou, Euloge K.; Saint-Macary, Hervé; Glèlè Kakai, Romain

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted in southern Benin to assess the contamination of vegetables by fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and fecal streptococci as one consequence of the intensification of vegetable cropping through fertilization with poultry manure. For this purpose, on-farm trials were conducted in 2009 and 2010 at Yodo-Condji and Ayi-Guinnou with three replications and four fertilization treatments including poultry manure and three vegetable crops (leafy eggplant, tomato, and carrot). Sampling, laboratory analyses, and counts of fecal bacteria in the samples were performed in different cropping seasons. Whatever the fertilization treatment, the logs of mean fecal bacteria count per g of fresh vegetables were variable but higher than AFNOR criteria. The counts ranged from 8 to 10 fecal coliforms, from 5 to 8 fecal streptococci, and from 2 to 6 Escherichia coli, whereas AFNOR criteria are, respectively, 0, 1, and 0. The long traditional use of poultry manure and its use during the study helped obtain this high population of fecal pathogens. Results confirmed that the contamination of vegetables by fecal bacteria is mainly due to the use of poultry manure. The use of properly composted poultry manure with innovative cropping techniques should help reduce the number and incidence of pathogens. PMID:27069914

  14. Vegetable Contamination by the Fecal Bacteria of Poultry Manure: Case Study of Gardening Sites in Southern Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atidégla, Séraphin C; Huat, Joël; Agbossou, Euloge K; Saint-Macary, Hervé; Glèlè Kakai, Romain

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted in southern Benin to assess the contamination of vegetables by fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and fecal streptococci as one consequence of the intensification of vegetable cropping through fertilization with poultry manure. For this purpose, on-farm trials were conducted in 2009 and 2010 at Yodo-Condji and Ayi-Guinnou with three replications and four fertilization treatments including poultry manure and three vegetable crops (leafy eggplant, tomato, and carrot). Sampling, laboratory analyses, and counts of fecal bacteria in the samples were performed in different cropping seasons. Whatever the fertilization treatment, the logs of mean fecal bacteria count per g of fresh vegetables were variable but higher than AFNOR criteria. The counts ranged from 8 to 10 fecal coliforms, from 5 to 8 fecal streptococci, and from 2 to 6 Escherichia coli, whereas AFNOR criteria are, respectively, 0, 1, and 0. The long traditional use of poultry manure and its use during the study helped obtain this high population of fecal pathogens. Results confirmed that the contamination of vegetables by fecal bacteria is mainly due to the use of poultry manure. The use of properly composted poultry manure with innovative cropping techniques should help reduce the number and incidence of pathogens. PMID:27069914

  15. Vegetable Contamination by the Fecal Bacteria of Poultry Manure: Case Study of Gardening Sites in Southern Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séraphin C. Atidégla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in southern Benin to assess the contamination of vegetables by fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and fecal streptococci as one consequence of the intensification of vegetable cropping through fertilization with poultry manure. For this purpose, on-farm trials were conducted in 2009 and 2010 at Yodo-Condji and Ayi-Guinnou with three replications and four fertilization treatments including poultry manure and three vegetable crops (leafy eggplant, tomato, and carrot. Sampling, laboratory analyses, and counts of fecal bacteria in the samples were performed in different cropping seasons. Whatever the fertilization treatment, the logs of mean fecal bacteria count per g of fresh vegetables were variable but higher than AFNOR criteria. The counts ranged from 8 to 10 fecal coliforms, from 5 to 8 fecal streptococci, and from 2 to 6 Escherichia coli, whereas AFNOR criteria are, respectively, 0, 1, and 0. The long traditional use of poultry manure and its use during the study helped obtain this high population of fecal pathogens. Results confirmed that the contamination of vegetables by fecal bacteria is mainly due to the use of poultry manure. The use of properly composted poultry manure with innovative cropping techniques should help reduce the number and incidence of pathogens.

  16. Cotton Dust Exposure and Respiratory Disorders among Textile Workers at a Textile Company in the Southern Part of Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, Antoine Vikkey; Lokossou, Virgil K.; Schlünssen, Vivi; Agodokpessi, Gildas; Sigsgaard, Torben; Fayomi, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The textile industry sector occupies a prominent place in the economy of Benin. It exposes workers to several occupational risks, including exposure to cotton dust. To assess the effect of exposure to cotton dust on the health of workers, this study was initiated and conducted in a Beninese cotton industry company. The objective of the study was to evaluate the respiratory disorders among the textile workers exposed to cotton dust and the cross-sectional study involved 656 subjects exposed to cotton dust and 113 non-exposed subjects. The methods used are mainly based on a survey using a questionnaire of organic dust designed by the International Commission of Occupational Health (ICOH); and on the measures of lung function parameters (FEV1 and FVC). The main results of the different analyzes revealed that subjects exposed to cotton dust have more respiratory symptoms than unexposed subjects (36.9% vs. 21.2%). The prevalence of chronic cough, expectorations, dyspnoea, asthma and chronic bronchitis are 16.8%, 9.8%, 17.3%, 2.6%, and 5.9% respectively among the exposed versus 2.6%, 0.8%, 16.8%, 0% and 0.8% among the unexposed subjects. The prevalence of byssinosis is 44.01%.The prevalence of symptoms is dependent on the sector of activity and the age of the subject. These results should encourage medical interventions and technical prevention especially since the textile industry occupies an important place in the Benin’s economy. PMID:27618081

  17. Tree Plantation Will not Compensate Natural Woody Vegetation Cover Loss in the Atlantic Department of Southern Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyi, MS.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with land use and land cover changes for a 33 years period. We assessed these changes for eight land cover classes in the south of Benin by using an integrated multi-temporal analysis using three Landsat images (1972 Landsat MSS, 1986 Landsat TM and 2005 Landsat ETM+. Three scenarios for the future were simulated using a first-order Markovian model based on annual probability matrices. The contribution of tree plantations to compensate forest loss was assessed. The results show a strong loss of forest and savanna, mainly due to increased agricultural land. Natural woody vegetation ("forest", "wooded savanna" and "tree and shrub savanna" will seriously decrease by 2025 due to the expansion of agricultural activities and the increase of settlements. Tree plantations are expected to double by 2025, but they will not compensate for the loss of natural woody vegetation cover. Consequently, we assist to a continuing woody vegetation area decrease. Policies regarding reforestation and forest conservation must be initiated to reverse the currently projected tendencies.

  18. Tuberculosis Case Finding in Benin, 2000–2014 and Beyond: A Retrospective Cohort and Time Series Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Ade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine any changes in tuberculosis epidemiology in the last 15 years in Benin, seasonal variations, and forecasted numbers of tuberculosis cases in the next five years. Materials and Methods. Retrospective cohort and time series study of all tuberculosis cases notified between 2000 and 2014. The “R” software version 3.2.1 (Institute for Statistics and Mathematics Vienna Austria and the Box-Jenkins 1976 modeling approach were used for time series analysis. Results. Of 246943 presumptive cases, 54303 (22% were diagnosed with tuberculosis. Annual notified case numbers increased, with the highest reported in 2011. New pulmonary bacteriologically confirmed tuberculosis (NPBCT represented 78%  ± SD 2%. Retreatment cases decreased from 10% to 6% and new pulmonary clinically diagnosed cases increased from 2% to 8%. NPBCT notification rates decreased in males from 2012, in young people aged 15–34 years and in Borgou-Alibori region. There was a seasonal pattern in tuberculosis cases. Over 90% of NPBCT were HIV-tested with a stable HIV prevalence of 13%. The ARIMA best fit model predicted a decrease in tuberculosis cases finding in the next five years. Conclusion. Tuberculosis case notifications are predicted to decrease in the next five years if current passive case finding is used. Additional strategies are needed in the country.

  19. Tuberculosis Case Finding in Benin, 2000-2014 and Beyond: A Retrospective Cohort and Time Series Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ade, Serge; Békou, Wilfried; Adjobimey, Mênonli; Adjibode, Omer; Ade, Gabriel; Harries, Anthony D; Anagonou, Séverin

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine any changes in tuberculosis epidemiology in the last 15 years in Benin, seasonal variations, and forecasted numbers of tuberculosis cases in the next five years. Materials and Methods. Retrospective cohort and time series study of all tuberculosis cases notified between 2000 and 2014. The "R" software version 3.2.1 (Institute for Statistics and Mathematics Vienna Austria) and the Box-Jenkins 1976 modeling approach were used for time series analysis. Results. Of 246943 presumptive cases, 54303 (22%) were diagnosed with tuberculosis. Annual notified case numbers increased, with the highest reported in 2011. New pulmonary bacteriologically confirmed tuberculosis (NPBCT) represented 78%  ± SD 2%. Retreatment cases decreased from 10% to 6% and new pulmonary clinically diagnosed cases increased from 2% to 8%. NPBCT notification rates decreased in males from 2012, in young people aged 15-34 years and in Borgou-Alibori region. There was a seasonal pattern in tuberculosis cases. Over 90% of NPBCT were HIV-tested with a stable HIV prevalence of 13%. The ARIMA best fit model predicted a decrease in tuberculosis cases finding in the next five years. Conclusion. Tuberculosis case notifications are predicted to decrease in the next five years if current passive case finding is used. Additional strategies are needed in the country. PMID:27293887

  20. Insecticide residues in bats along a land use-gradient dominated by cotton cultivation in northern Benin, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stechert, Christin; Kolb, Marit; Bahadir, Müfit; Djossa, Bruno A; Fahr, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Many regions in Africa are currently being converted from subsistence to cash crop farming such as cotton. Agricultural intensification is usually accompanied by increased use of pesticides, which can have an impact on non-target organisms. Bats are particularly sensitive to insecticide loads while providing substantial ecosystem services as predators of herbivorous insects. In this study, pesticide residues in bats in a landscape in northern Benin were investigated, which spanned a land use gradient from an agricultural zone dominated by cotton farms, through a buffer zone, and into a national park. Insecticides used in cotton cultivation, such as endosulfan, chlorpyrifos, flubendiamide, and spirotetramat, as well as persistent insecticides such as bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDT), lindane, and aldrine, were analysed. Insecticide residues detected in bats comprised DDT, endosulfan, and their corresponding transformation products. Maximum concentrations in the sampled bats were 11.2 mg/kg lipid of p,p'-DDE (median: 0.0136 mg/kg lipid) and 0.797 mg/kg lipid of β-endosulfan (median: below detection limit [DL]). While insecticide concentrations were below lethal concentrations our data suggest that DDT had probably been recently used in the study region, and larger scale use would pose an increased risk for bat populations due to the high biomagnification of DDT.

  1. Clergy as collaborators in the delivery of mental health care: an exploratory survey from Benin City, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Bawo O; Igbinomwanhia, Nosa G; Omoaregba, Joyce O

    2014-08-01

    The paucity of skilled manpower in sub-Saharan Africa limits the delivery of effective interventions for the mentally ill. Individuals with mental disorders and their caregivers frequently consult clergy when mental symptoms cause distress. There is an urgent need for collaboration with nonprofessionals in order to improve mental health care delivery and close the widening treatment gap. Using a cross-sectional descriptive method, we explored clergy's (Christian and Muslim) aetiological attributions for common mental illness (schizophrenia and depression) from Benin City, Nigeria, as well as their willingness to collaborate with mainstream mental health services. We observed that a majority of clergy surveyed were able to correctly identify mental illnesses depicted in vignettes, embraced a multifactorial model of disease causation, and expressed willingness to collaborate with mental health care workers to deliver care. Clergy with a longer duration of formal education, prior mental health training, and Catholic/Protestant denomination expressed a greater willingness to collaborate. Educational interventions are urgently required to facilitate this partnership. PMID:24599283

  2. Benin; Fifth Review Under the Three-Year Arrangement Under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility and Request for Waiver of Nonobservance of Performance Criteria-Staff Report; Staff Supplement; Press Release on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for Benin

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2008-01-01

    Benin’s Fifth Review under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility and request for waiver of Nonobservance of Performance Criteria are discussed. The main challenge ahead is to limit inflation pressures from higher food and fuel prices while sustaining medium-term fiscal consolidation and accelerating structural reforms to increase the sustainable growth rate. The authorities have taken actions to address the food and fuel crisis and accelerate structural reforms. They have allowed the fu...

  3. Benin; Third Review Under the Three-Year Arrangement Under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility, Request for Waiver of Nonobservance of a Performance Criterion, and Request for Extension of the Arrangement: Staff Report; Staff Supplement; Press Release on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for Benin

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2008-01-01

    Benin showed good macroeconomic performance under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF) program. Executive Directors agreed that strong revenue performance helped to underpin improvement in public finances and economic growth while keeping inflation low. They stressed the need to adhere to prudent fiscal and monetary policies and also to build a sound banking system. They welcomed reforms to enhance the efficiency and competitiveness of the Port of Cotonou. They emphasized the need...

  4. Dominant viral pathologies in the extensive and semi-intensive animal breeding and their treatment mode in ethno veterinary medicine in Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Kpodékon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aims to identify the dominant viral animal pathologies and to list the traditional recipes used by the breeders for their treatment. Materials and Methods: The method of data collection was based on a retrospective survey. Thus, 787 breeders and agro-breeders scattered in the eight agro-ecological areas of Benin were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires. Results: In total, 5 pathologies were reported by breeders. Among those pathologies, foot and mouth disease was reported by all of the breeders of the southern part of Borgou compared with the other areas (p<0.05 and treated by 25 species of medicinal plants. African swine fever was the main pathology reported (22.92% (p<0.05 in the fishery areas which is controlled by 7 medicinal plants. Pseudorinderpest was more reported (33.78% (p<0.05 in the cotton area of central Benin and treated by 8 medicinal plants. There is also Newcastle disease that was mostly reported in the Western Atacora and treated by 32 medicinal plants as well as fowl pox which was a more reported in the lands of the bar area and the low-pressure area about 34.48% and 36.17% proportions, respectively, and treated by eight medicinal plants. Conclusion: The breeders in Benin possess rich ethno veterinary knowledge on medicinal plants and their uses in the treatment of livestock. A total of 57 medicinal plants have been inventoried to fight against five major viral diseases as African swine fever, pseudorinderpest and foot and mouth disease. The common plants used to treat viral disease in general were Euphorbia unispina, Euphorbia poissonii, Lannea acida, and Mangifera indica. The most harvested organs on the plants reported in this survey were the barks, the leaves, and the whole plants. To better develop our indigenous resources, it would be important to expand this ethno-pharmacological investigation to other diseases category.

  5. Moderating Effect of Cyber Bullying on the Psychological Well-Being of In-School Adolescents in Benin Edo State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Okoiye, O.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study adopted a descriptive survey research design of ex-post factor type to determine the moderating effect of cyber bullying on the psychological well-being of in-school adolescents in Benin Edo State Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 300 in-school adolescents from fifteen randomly selected secondary schools in Benin Edo state. Four instruments used were: Cyber Bullying Prevalence Questionnaire (CBPQ (α= 0.84; Rosenberg's self-esteem scale (RSE (α= 0.88; Self-Concept Clarity Scale: (α= 0.88 and General Self-Efficacy (GSE scale (α= 0.90. Two research questions were answered and three hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance. Data were analysed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation and Multiple Regression. The measures of association between the variables identified in the study revealed that there was significant relationship between the variables (self-esteem, self-concept, self-efficacy and cyber bullying. The study produced an F-Ratio (3/296 = 10.451which implies that the consequence of cyber bullying has impact on in-school adolescent’s self-esteem, self-concept and self-efficacy.  Also, self-esteem correlate with cyber bullying of-in school adolescents, r (298 = .289, p< .05. Likewise, self-concept correlates significantly with cyber bullying of in-school adolescents, r (298 = .457, p< .05. Furthermore, self-efficacy correlate significantly with cyber bullying of in-school adolescents, r (298 = .261, p< .05. Therefore, it is recommended that adolescents should be taught moral instructions in school as it would help them be of good character and develop the ability to negotiate relationships positively with significant other in the society.Keywords: Adolescent, Cyber Bullying, Self-esteem, Self-concept, Self-efficacy, Benin and Nigeria.

  6. Factors in the Effective Utilization of a LANDSAT Related Inventory in West Africa. [resource management in onchocerciasis-free Benin, Upper Volta, and Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, L.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive LANDSAT related resource inventory was performed in parts of Ghana, Benin, and Upper Volta to determine resource development potential in areas freed of the disease onchocerciasis. The ultimate success of the project lies in the effective use of the data by host country personnel in resource development projects. This requires project follow-through, adequate training of regional counterparts, and integration of the data into an easily used framework. Present levels of support systems and technical expertise in West Africa indicate that an automated system for natural resource data is not currently appropriate. Suggestions for the greater implementation of such inventories are explored.

  7. The influence of storage practices on aflatoxin contamination in maize in four agroecological zones of Benin, west Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hell; Cardwell; Setamou; Poehling

    2000-10-15

    Aflatoxin level in 300 farmers' stores in four agro-ecological zones in Benin, a west African coastal country, were determined over a period of 2 years. At sampling a questionnaire was used to evaluate maize storage practices. Farmers were asked what storage structure they used, their storage form, storage period, pest problems in storage and what was done against them. Beninese farmers often changed their storage structures during the storage period, transfering the maize from a drying or temporary store to a more durable one. Most of the farmers complained about insects damaging stored maize. Often, storage or cotton insecticides were utilized against these pests. Regression analysis identified those factors that were associated with increased or reduced aflatoxin.Maize samples in the southern Guinea and Sudan savannas were associated with higher aflatoxin levels and the forest/savanna mosaic was related to lower toxin levels. Factors associated with higher aflatoxin were: storage for 3-5 months, insect damage and use of Khaya senegalensis-bark or other local plants as storage protectants. Depending on the agroecological zone, storage structures that had a higher risk of aflatoxin development were the "Ago", the "Secco", the "Zingo" or storing under or on top of the roof of the house. Lower aflatoxin levels were related to the use of storage or cotton insecticides, mechanical means or smoke to protect against pests or cleaning of stores before loading them with the new harvest. Fewer aflatoxins were found when maize was stored in the "Ago" made from bamboo or when bags were used as secondary storage containers. PMID:10880814

  8. Firewood yield and profitability of a traditional Daniellia oliveri short-rotation coppice on fallow lands in Benin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avohou, T. Hermane [Laboratory of Applied Ecology, University of Abomey Calavi, 01 BP 526 Cotonou (Benin); Bioversity International, West and Central Africa Office, 08 BP 0932 Cotonou (Benin); Houehounha, Remy; Glele-Kakai, Romain; Assogbadjo, Achille Ephrem; Sinsin, Brice [Laboratory of Applied Ecology, University of Abomey Calavi, 01 BP 526 Cotonou (Benin)

    2011-01-15

    Sub-Saharan Africa has a great diversity of local coppicing species which are exploited in traditional short coppice systems for firewood. Biomass yield and profitability of these systems as well as their responses to silvicultural improvement are little known. This study evaluated the firewood yield and the profitability of a traditional Daniellia oliveri short-rotation coppice on fallow lands in central Benin. Two weed management options were considered: (1) the weedy option, usually practiced by locals, which experienced grass competition and bushfires, and (2) the weed-free option, which consisted in periodic removal of grasses and other species. Destructive measurements and allometric equations were used to estimate biomass yield in 12 plots over 42 months. A cost-benefit analysis model based on the net present value and the benefit-cost ratio was used to compare the profitability of the two management options. Biomass accumulation rate averaged 1.08 {+-} 0.20 tonnes of dry matter ha{sup -1} year{sup -1} (t DM ha{sup -1} year{sup -1}) in weedy conditions. Weed removal improved 3.5 times this rate in weed-free plots (3.83 {+-} 0.47 t DM ha{sup -1} year{sup -1}). After 42 months, total biomass reached 3.67 {+-} 0.65 t DM ha{sup -1} in weedy plots and 11.63 {+-} 0.76 t DM ha{sup -1} in weed-free plots. Most of the biomass ({>=}88%) was marketable in local markets. Coppice exploitation was profitable after 24 months for both management options. Weed removal improved the profits three times. A sensitivity analysis showed that both options were still profitable with up to 25% increase of labour and transport costs, 25% decrease of biomass price and 12% increase of the discount rate. (author)

  9. Plasmodium falciparum Polymorphisms associated with ex vivo drug susceptibility and clinical effectiveness of artemisinin-based combination therapies in Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlström, Sabina; Aubouy, Agnès; Maïga-Ascofaré, Oumou; Faucher, Jean-François; Wakpo, Abel; Ezinmègnon, Sèm; Massougbodji, Achille; Houzé, Pascal; Kendjo, Eric; Deloron, Philippe; Le Bras, Jacques; Houzé, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are the main option to treat malaria, and their efficacy and susceptibility must be closely monitored to avoid resistance. We assessed the association of Plasmodium falciparum polymorphisms and ex vivo drug susceptibility with clinical effectiveness. Patients enrolled in an effectiveness trial comparing artemether-lumefantrine (n = 96), fixed-dose artesunate-amodiaquine (n = 96), and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (n = 48) for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria 2007 in Benin were assessed. pfcrt, pfmdr1, pfmrp1, pfdhfr, and pfdhps polymorphisms were analyzed pretreatment and in recurrent infections. Drug susceptibility was determined in fresh baseline isolates by Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A majority had 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) estimates (the concentration required for 50% growth inhibition) lower than those of the 3D7 reference clone for desethylamodiaquine, lumefantrine, mefloquine, and quinine and was considered to be susceptible, while dihydroartemisinin and pyrimethamine IC50s were higher. No association was found between susceptibility to the ACT compounds and treatment outcome. Selection was observed for the pfmdr1 N86 allele in artemether-lumefantrine recrudescences (recurring infections) (4/7 [57.1%] versus 36/195 [18.5%]), and of the opposite allele, 86Y, in artesunate-amodiaquine reinfections (new infections) (20/22 [90.9%] versus 137/195 [70.3%]) compared to baseline infections. The importance of pfmdr1 N86 in lumefantrine tolerance was emphasized by its association with elevated lumefantrine IC50s. Genetic linkage between N86 and Y184 was observed, which together with the low frequency of 1246Y may explain regional differences in selection of pfmdr1 loci. Selection of opposite alleles in artemether-lumefantrine and artesunate-amodiaquine recurrent infections supports the strategy of multiple first-line treatment. Surveillance based on clinical, ex

  10. [The determinants of the low case fatality rate of the cholera epidemic in the Littoral department of Benin in 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbary, Akpa Raphaël; Sossou, Roch Aristide; Dossou, Jean-Paul; Mongbo, Virginie; Massougbodji, Achille

    2011-01-01

    The 2008 cholera outbreak in Benin was characterized by a low case fatality rate (0.39 p.100) in the Littoral department, where 502 cases were recorded between July and December. The aim of this study was to identify the key factors associated with the low case fatality rate within the department. The cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study conducted as part of this research used 404 patient records, focus group discussions with ten former patients, in-depth interviews with 8 health authorities involved in the response and structured face-to-face interviews with 12 health personnel involved in the treatment of patients. The data were analyzed using qualitative and quantitative content analysis based on EPIINFO 3.3.2 and EXCEL 2007 software. The results from several sources were cross-checked through triangulation. The mean age of patients was 23.72 ± 14.8 years. 39.35% patients were admitted with severe dehydration. Oral rehydration, intravenous rehydration and antibiotic therapy were given to 99.5%, 85% and 97.77% of patients, respectively. Only one hospital death was noted. The low case fatality rate was mainly due to the following factors: the high quality of care provided in a center with qualified personnel and available and free of charge treatment kits, protocols based on massive rehydration and appropriate hygiene measures, and patient compliance with the treatment plan. The response was also characterized by good coordination, wide mass and local health promotion, and selective antibiotic prophylaxis, which contributed significantly to reducing the spread of the infection. PMID:22177702

  11. Response of the Bight of Benin (Gulf of Guinea, West Africa) coastline to anthropogenic and natural forcing, Part1: Wave climate variability and impacts on the longshore sediment transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almar, R.; Kestenare, E.; Reyns, J.; Jouanno, J; Anthony, E.; Laibi, R.; Hemer, M.; Du Penhoat, Y.; Ranasinghe, R.W.M.R.J.

    2015-01-01

    The short, medium and long-term evolution of the sandy coastline of the Bight of Benin in the Gulf of Guinea, West Africa, has become a major regional focal point due to the rapid socio-economic development that is occurring in the region, including rapid urbanization and a sharp increase in harbor-

  12. Managing the agricultural calendar as coping mechanism to climate variability: A case study of maize farming in northern Benin, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaine N. Yegbemey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays climate variability and change are amongst the most important threats to sustainable development, with potentially severe consequences on agriculture in developing countries. Among many available coping mechanisms, farmers adjust some of their farming practices. This article aims at exploring observed changes in the agricultural calendar as a response to climate variability in northern Benin. Interviews with local experts (agricultural extension officers and local leaders such as heads of farmer and village organisations and group discussions with farmers were organised. A household survey was also conducted on 336 maize producers to highlight the factors affecting decisions to adjust the agricultural calendar as a coping mechanism against climate variability. As a general trend, the duration of the cropping season in northern Benin is getting longer with slight differences among and within agro-ecological zones, implying a higher risk of operating under time-inefficient conditions. Farmers receive very limited support from agricultural extension services and therefore design their agricultural calendar on the basis of personal experience. Socio-economic characteristics, maize farming characteristics as well as farm location determine the decision to adjust the agricultural calendar. Consequently, providing farmers with climate related information could ensure a rational and time-efficient management of the agricultural calendar. Moreover, research and extension institutions should help in establishing and popularising clear agricultural calendars while taking into account the driving forces of behaviours towards the adjustment of farming practices as a climate variability response.

  13. Investigation on Bridges Connection to Network Carrefour in Existing Roads in Africa Big Cities: The Case of Cotonou in Benin Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier D. Boko-haya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The rapid and continuous growth of populations and vehicles has caused very big traffic volume in most of African big cities. In order to ensure a better distribution of traffic and enables quick access to vehicles, reasonable interchange can be designed to allow greater connection and realizes rapid dividing of vehicles at existing road network carrefour. This paper uses Cotonou, which is the largest urban and economic city of Benin Republic as a case study. Firstly, the paper reviews literatures on history and development of interchanges bridge systems. Based on the case study, the paper then mainly introduces a typical interchange at Godomey carrefour, explains difficulties encountered in engineering design and realizes rapid dividing of vehicles by designing reasonable interchange at Godomey carrefour, so as to accumulate certain experience in the construction of interchange at existing road network carrefour. By studying this case, the research seeks to identify and expand on lessons learned under the first interchange bridge design in Benin. Using the lessons learned government agencies, engineering and construction communities could adopt reasonable structure and construction method according to local conditions based on current situations.

  14. Biodiversity of aerobic endospore-forming bacterial species occurring in Yanyanku and Ikpiru, fermented seeds of Hibiscus sabdariffa used to produce food condiments in Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbobatinkpo, Pélagie B; Thorsen, Line; Nielsen, Dennis S; Azokpota, Paulin; Akissoe, Noèl; Hounhouigan, Joseph D; Jakobsen, Mogens

    2013-05-15

    Yanyanku and Ikpiru made by the fermentation of Malcavene bean (Hibiscus sabdariffa) are used as functional additives for Parkia biglobosa seed fermentations in Benin. A total of 355 aerobic endospore-forming bacteria (AEFB) isolated from Yanyanku and Ikpiru produced in northern and southern Benin were identified using phenotypic and genotypic methods, including GTG5-PCR, M13-PCR, 16S rRNA, gyrA and gyrB gene sequencing. Generally, the same 5-6 species of the genus Bacillus predominated: Bacillus subtilis (17-41% of isolates), Bacillus cereus (8-39%), Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (9-22%), Bacillus licheniformis (3-26%), Bacillus safensis (8-19%) and Bacillus altitudinis (0-19%). Bacillus aryabhattai, Bacillus flexus, and Bacillus circulans (0-2%), and species of the genera Lysinibacillus (0-14%), Paenibacillus (0-13%), Brevibacillus (0-4%), and Aneurinibacillus (0-3%) occurred sporadically. The diarrheal toxin encoding genes cytK-1, cytK-2, hblA, hblC, and hblD were present in 0%, 91% 15%, 34% and 35% of B. cereus isolates, respectively. 9% of them harbored the emetic toxin genetic determinant, cesB. This study is the first to identify the AEFB of Yanyanku and Ikpiru to species level and perform a safety evaluation based on toxin gene detections. We further suggest, that the gyrA gene can be used for differentiating the closely related species Bacillus pumilus and B. safensis.

  15. From novice to expert: agroecological competences of children orphaned by AIDS compared to non-orphans in Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Price Lisa L

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background AIDS has created new vulnerabilities for rural African households due to prime-age adult mortality and is assumed to lead to impairment of the intergenerational transfer of farming knowledge. There has been scant research to date, however, on the impacts of parental death on farming knowledge of children made orphans by AIDS. The question we investigate is if there is a difference in agricultural expertise between AIDS affected and non-affected adults and children. Methods The research was carried out in rural Benin with 77 informants randomly selected according to their AIDS status: 13 affected and 13 non-affected adults; 13 paternal, 13 maternal and 13 double orphans; and 12 non-orphan children. Informants descriptions from pile sorting exercises of maize and cowpea pests were categorized and then aggregated into descriptions based form (morphology and function (utility and used to determine whether the moving from novice to expert is impaired by children orphaned by AIDS. Differences and similarities in responses were determined using the Fischer exact test and the Cochran-Mantzel-Haenszel test. Results No significant differences were found between AIDS affected and non-affected adults. Results of the study do reveal differences in the use of form and function descriptors among the children. There is a statistically significant difference in the use of form descriptors between one-parent orphans and non-orphans and in descriptors of specific damages to maize. One-parent paternal orphans were exactly like non-affected adults in their 50/50 balanced expertise in the use of both form and function descriptors. One-parent orphans also had the highest number of descriptors used by children overall and these descriptors are spread across the various aspects of the knowledge domain relative to non-orphans. Conclusions Rather than a knowledge loss for one-parent orphans, particularly paternal orphans, we believe we are witnessing

  16. Groundwater contamination in relation with the increasing urbanization rate in Africa. Case of Cotonou and Porto Novo (Benin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeloui, Diane; Celle-Jeanton, Hélène; Huneau, Frédéric; Boukari, Moussa; Alassane, Abdelkarim; Garel, Emilie; Lavastre, Véronique; Bertrand, Guillaume

    2016-04-01

    More than one billion people in the world still have no access to sufficient resources in drinking water (United Nation, 2014). In particular, large cities in Africa have to face several problems: 1) population growth associated with the strongest urbanization rate increase (5% per year) of the world leading to a dramatic increase in good-quality water needs, 2) low levels of solid waste management and sanitation services, 3) insufficient or disconnected water supply services, 4) low knowledge of water resources availabilities. The situation in Benin is a relevant illustration of the problems that Africa has to face to. As many other coastal urban areas in Africa (Showers, 2002; Re et al., 2011), Cotonou and Porto Novo cities have seen a rapid increase of their population as these towns constitute a corridor of transit for the imports and the exports in the nearby countries. Hence, they are very attractive for job hunters, and constitute the administrative centers for the whole country. This rapid population growth amplifies the problem of water supply and may generate serious impacts on groundwater resources: depletion due to overexploitation, salinization due to seawater intrusion and pollution linked to human activities. In order to insure a safe water supply in the context of increasing urbanization and population in the coastal area of Cotonou and Porto Novo, the identification of the main sources of pollution is essential for the implementation of long-term water management procedures. Based on two field campaigns carried out in January-2012 (dry season) and August-2012 (rainy season), hydrochemical analysis have been realized on groundwater sampled from boreholes drilled in the CTA (Continental Terminal Aquifer) and wells dug in the QCA (Quaternary Coastal Aquifer) in order to investigate the origin of salinization and the present time extension of the nitrate contamination. Historical data have also been collected from previous studies in order to

  17. Factors associated with the problematical of quality drinking water and public health in the municipality of Abomey-calavi in Benin/Facteurs associés à la problématique de la qualité de l’eau de boisson et la santé des populations dans la commune d’Abomey-calavi au Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Degbey, Cyriaque

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research is double: 1) to study the factors associated with the problems of quality with drinking water on the physicochemical and biological level in the municipality of Abomey-Calavi in Benin ; 2)to study its relationships with public health. The goal is to bring on one hand, the tools of improvement to the quality of water and public health in this commune. In addition, to contribute to the reduction of the rate of morbidity and mortality generated by the dis...

  18. Dynamics of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors in Benin: first evidence of the presence of L1014S kdr mutation in Anopheles gambiae from West Africa

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    Ranson Hilary

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticide resistance monitoring is essential to help national programmers to implement more effective and sustainable malaria control strategies in endemic countries. This study reported the spatial and seasonal variations of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors in Benin, West Africa. Methods Anopheles gambiae s.l populations were collected from October 2008 to June 2010 in four sites selected on the basis of different use of insecticides and environment. WHO susceptibility tests were carried out to detect resistance to DDT, fenitrothion, bendiocarb, permethrin and deltamethrin. The synergist piperonyl butoxide was used to assess the role of non-target site mechanisms in pyrethroid resistance. Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes were identified to species and to molecular M and S forms using PCR techniques. Molecular and biochemical assays were carried out to determine kdr and Ace.1R allelic frequencies and activity of the detoxification enzymes. Results Throughout the surveys very high levels of mortality to bendiocarb and fenitrothion were observed in An. gambiae s.l. populations. However, high frequencies of resistance to DDT and pyrethroids were seen in both M and S form of An. gambiae s.s. and Anopheles arabiensis. PBO increased the toxicity of permethrin and restored almost full susceptibility to deltamethrin. Anopheles gambiae s.l. mosquitoes from Cotonou and Malanville showed higher oxidase activity compared to the Kisumu susceptible strain in 2009, whereas the esterase activity was higher in the mosquitoes from Bohicon in both 2008 and 2009. A high frequency of 1014F kdr allele was initially showed in An. gambiae from Cotonou and Tori-Bossito whereas it increased in mosquitoes from Bohicon and Malanville during the second year. For the first time the L1014S kdr mutation was found in An. arabiensis in Benin. The ace.1R mutation was almost absent in An. gambiae s.l. Conclusion Pyrethroid and DDT resistance is

  19. Uses, traditional management, perception of variation and preferences in ackee (Blighia sapida K.D. Koenig fruit traits in Benin: implications for domestication and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyog-Matig Oscar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blighia sapida is a woody perennial multipurpose fruit tree species native to the Guinean forests of West Africa. The fleshy arils of the ripened fruits are edible. Seeds and capsules of the fruits are used for soap-making and all parts of the tree have medicinal properties. Although so far overlooked by researchers in the region, the tree is highly valued by farmers and is an important component of traditional agroforestry systems in Benin. Fresh arils, dried arils and soap are traded in local and regional markets in Benin providing substantial revenues for farmers, especially women. Recently, ackee has emerged as high-priority species for domestication in Benin but information necessary to elaborate a clear domestication strategy is still very sketchy. This study addresses farmers' indigenous knowledge on uses, management and perception of variation of the species among different ethnic groups taking into account also gender differences. Methods 240 randomly selected persons (50% women belonging to five different ethnic groups, 5 women active in the processing of ackee fruits and 6 traditional healers were surveyed with semi-structured interviews. Information collected refer mainly to the motivation of the respondents to conserve ackee trees in their land, the local uses, the perception of variation, the preference in fruits traits, the management practices to improve the production and regenerate ackee. Results People have different interests on using ackee, variable knowledge on uses and management practices, and have reported nine differentiation criteria mainly related to the fruits. Ackee phenotypes with preferred fruit traits are perceived by local people to be more abundant in managed in-situ and cultivated stands than in unmanaged wild stands, suggesting that traditional management has initiated a domestication process. As many as 22 diseases have been reported to be healed with ackee. In general, indigenous

  20. Contribution to the Analysis Cost/Benefit of Scenarios to Control Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis in West Africa (Data Study Area in Benin)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trypanosomiasis and animal sleeping sickness is a major constraint for Africa south of Sahara. Nearly a century of struggle was not enough to contain tsetse infestations or reduce the impact of Trypanosomiasis in Africa. So that the socioeconomic development of third of the continent is severely compromised by the consequences of this debilitating often fatal disease that affects humans and animals. It is painful to note that the country's poorest continent through a crisis period (armed conflict, population movements) are most severely affected by the sleeping sickness making interventions of medical teams difficult and dangerous. Sixty (60) million men, women and children in 22 of 36 countries in sub-Saharan Africa live under the threat of sleeping sickness. About half a million men are affected by sleeping sickness. 45,000 new cases were recorded according to WHO in 1999. Forty four (44) million cattle besides other domestic animals are in infested areas of tsetse flies. The disease causes a loss of 3 million cattle a year, a loss of 26% milk yield, a 50% reduction in the number of herds in areas with high agricultural potential (PLTA, 1999). This report has been prepared to provide the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) data on the various study area in Benin for a cost / benefit analysis of any program against tsetse flies and trypanosomiasis in Sudanian and Sudanian Sahel of West Africa. The study area located in Benin covers the departments of Alibori and Borgou. After presenting general information on Benin, this report focuses on: - The evolution of the human population in the study area, - The health situation, - The size and productivity of livestock, - The development achievements of major crops - Natural resources and soil quality. In conclusion, it was noted the positive impact of a regional program to fight against Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis based on the integrated use of different control methods non pollutant to the environment (traps and

  1. Land use scenarios development and impacts assessment on vegetation carbon/nitrogen sequestration in the West African Sudan savanna watershed, Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabi, A.

    2015-12-01

    ackground: Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+), being developed through the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) requires information on the carbon/nitrogen stocks in the plant biomass for predicting future climate under scenarios development. The development of land use scenarios in West Africa is needed to predict future impacts of change in the environment and the socio-economic status of rural communities. The study aims at developing land use scenario based on mitigation strategy to climate change as an issue of contributing for carbon and nitrogen sequestration, the condition 'food focused' as a scenario based crop production and 'financial investment' as scenario based on an economic development pathway, and to explore the possible future temporal and spatial impacts on vegetation carbon/nitrogen sequestration/emission and socio-economic status of rural communities. Preliminary results: BEN-LUDAS (Benin-Land Use DyNamic Simulator) model, carbon and nitrogen equations, remote sensing and socio-economic data were used to predict the future impacts of each scenario in the environment and human systems. The preliminary results which are under analysis will be presented soon. Conclusion: The proposed BEN-LUDAS models will help to contribute to policy decision making at the local and regional scale and to predict future impacts of change in the environment and socio-economic status of the rural communities. Keywords: Land use scenarios development, BEN-LUDAS, socio-economic status of rural communities, future impacts of change, assessment, West African Sudan savanna watershed, Benin

  2. Search of Organochlorine Pesticide Residues (Pocs in Bodies of Water in Cotton-Growing Area of Benin by GC-ECD

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    *M. A. N. Gbaguidi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite their incontestable services in agriculture, the use of pesticides is not without consequences on the environment. So, in an attempt to access the impacts of pesticides usage in agriculture in Benin, research of some residual organochloride pesticides have been conducted both in rainy and dry seasons in two cotton growing areas: the northern and central part of Benin. The analytical technique used is GC-ECD. During the dry season we notice that the DDT and its metabolites (DDE and DDD represent 36% of all organochlorine pesticides (POCs against 64 % of cyclodiens. Endosulfan comes first representing 57% of all organochlorine pesticides (POCs, then follows DDT with 17 %. During the rainy season these two types of organochlorine pesticides (POCs represent 73% for cyclodiens and 23% for DDT and its by-products. Endosulfan comes first by representing 47% of all organochlorine pesticides (POCs followed by DDT representing 12%. In the sediments and regardless of the season, the cyclodiens come first by representing 70% of all organochlorine pesticides (POCs and then follows the DDT and its by-products which represent 30%. Since in the water column, the sediments are more contaminated in rainy season than in dry season (25273 ppb of all organochlorine pesticide (POCs in rainy season against 2.256 ppb in dry season, it is derived from this study that northern areas are more contaminated than the central areas. Also a strong correlation has been established between the content of different moleculars of organochlorine pesticide (POCs. This means that the famers still use prohibited pesticides in the two areas despite existing laws like “Stockholm convention” which strictly ban the usage of those moleculars.

  3. An interdisciplinary scenario analysis to assess the water availability and water consumption in the Upper Ouémé catchment in Benin

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    S. Giertz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an interdisciplinary scenario analysis to assess the influence of global and regional change on future water availability and water consumption in the Upper Ouémé catchment in central Benin. For the region three development scenarios were evolved. These scenarios are combined with climate change scenarios based on the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. In the mo-delling approach the quantification of the land use/land cover change is performed by the cellular automata model CLUE-S. The future climate scenarios are computed with the regional climate model REMO driven by the global ECHAM model. Using this data different land use and climate change scenarios can be calculated with the conceptual hydrological model UHP-HRU to assess the effects of global changes on the future water availability in Benin. To analyse the future water availability also the water consumption has to be taken into account. Due to high population growth an increase in water need in the future is expected for the region. To calculate the future household water consumption data from a regional survey and demographic projections are used. Development of the water need for animal husbandry is also considered. The first test run of the modelling approach was performed for the development scenario 'business as usual' combined with the IPCC scenario B2 for the year 2025. This test demonstrates the applicability of the approach for an interdisciplinary scenario analysis. A continuous run from 2000–2025 will be simulated for different scenarios as soon as the input data concerning land use/land cover and climate are available.

  4. Chiese pentecostali, crisi e cambiamento. Il significato emico dell’idea di sviluppo presso le comunità pentecostali nel sud-ovest del Benin - Pentecostal churches, crisis and change. Emic signification of the notion of development among the Pentecostal communities in south-western Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Bertin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The explosion of Pentecostal churches in many countries of the world South has taken new social dimensions since 2000, with the foundation of religious NGOs, schools, orphanages, health centers, etc. This article questions Pentecostal activism in the development sector from the ethnographic case of Southern Benin, a region characterized by great inter-confessionality where Christian, Islamic and “traditional” religious (new and old voduns movements share and compete in the same spaces. After having introduced the ethnographic case of Benin, the first part of the article demonstrates how this religious activism is not only characterized by proselytism aims but also by – as the “development”’s definition of Olivier de Sardan suggests – a project of social transformation. But in what terms do Pentecostalists propose themselves as the motor of the social-economic developing process after the neo-liberal crises started during the ’90s? The second part explores the extent to which, behind the adoption of some stereotypes representing western professionals (the cliché of the Village, of the peasant mentality, the Pentecostal notion of development is in continuity with local conceptions of power: the religious salvation is tightly connected to social and economic successes. From cure to economic gains and moral changing, the displacement of “money” from the temptations’ sphere to divine blessings depends on the moral behaviour of the individual.

  5. Cotton pest management practices and the selection of pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae population in Northern Benin

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    Yadouleton Anges

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pyrethroid insecticides, carbamate and organophosphate are the classes of insecticides commonly used in agriculture for crop protection in Benin. Pyrethroids remain the only class of insecticides recommended by the WHO for impregnation of bed nets. Unfortunately, the high level of pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae s.l., threatens to undermine the success of pyrethroid treated nets. This study focuses on the investigation of agricultural practices in cotton growing areas, and their direct impact on larval populations of An. gambiae in surrounding breeding sites. Methods The protocol was based on the collection of agro-sociological data where farmers were subjected to semi-structured questionnaires based on the strategies used for crop protection. This was complemented by bioassay tests to assess the susceptibility of malaria vectors to various insecticides. Molecular analysis was performed to characterize the resistance genes and the molecular forms of An. gambiae. Insecticide residues in soil samples from breeding sites were investigated to determine major factors that can inhibit the normal growth of mosquito larvae by exposing susceptible and resistant laboratory strains. Results There is a common use by local farmers of mineral fertilizer NPK at 200 kg/ha and urea at 50 kg/hectare following insecticide treatments in both the Calendar Control Program (CCP and the Targeted Intermittent Control Program (TICP. By contrast, no chemicals are involved in Biological Program (BP where farmers use organic and natural fertilizers which include animal excreta. Susceptibility test results confirmed a high resistance to DDT. Mean mortality of An. gambiae collected from the farms practicing CCP, TICP and BP methods were 33%, 42% and 65% respectively. An. gambiae populations from areas using the CCP and TICP programs showed resistance to permethrin with mortality of 50% and 58% respectively. By contrast, bioassay test results of

  6. Expression of the cytochrome P450s, CYP6P3 and CYP6M2 are significantly elevated in multiple pyrethroid resistant populations of Anopheles gambiae s.s. from Southern Benin and Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ranson Hilary; Akogbeto Martin C; Coulibaly Ousmane N; Bakare Adekunle A; Djouaka Rousseau F; Hemingway Janet; Strode Clare

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Insecticide resistance in Anopheles mosquitoes is threatening the success of malaria control programmes. This is particularly true in Benin where pyrethroid resistance has been linked to the failure of insecticide treated bed nets. The role of mutations in the insecticide target sites in conferring resistance has been clearly established. In this study, the contribution of other potential resistance mechanisms was investigated in Anopheles gambiae s.s. from a number of loc...

  7. Facteurs géographiques et sociaux de la diversité des ignames cultivées au Nord Bénin = Geographical and social factors of cultivated yam diversity in northern Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Baco, Mohamed; Biaou, G.; Pham, Jean-Louis; Lescure, Jean-Paul

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed at contributing to the sustainable management of yam (Dioscorea sp.) diversity. It was carried out in northern Benin on 220 farms and in 8 villages. The main hypothesis considers that varietal diversity is influenced by ethnic diversity and the market. Results show that diversity remains high with 182 landraces observed in the fields. The study underlines the major role of cultivation practices and of socio-cultural determinants that depend on the history of each ethnic group...

  8. Can hospital audit teams identify case management problems, analyse their causes, identify and implement improvements? A cross-sectional process evaluation of obstetric near-miss case reviews in Benin.

    OpenAIRE

    Borchert Matthias; Goufodji Sourou; Alihonou Eusèbe; Delvaux Thérèse; Saizonou Jacques; Kanhonou Lydie; Filippi Véronique

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Obstetric near-miss case reviews are being promoted as a quality assurance intervention suitable for hospitals in low income countries. We introduced such reviews in five district, regional and national hospitals in Benin, West Africa. In a cross-sectional study we analysed the extent to which the hospital audit teams were able to identify case management problems (CMPs), analyse their causes, agree on solutions and put these solutions into practice. Methods We analysed ca...

  9. Impact of three years of large scale Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS and Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs interventions on insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae s.l. in Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padonou Gil

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Benin, Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs are the cornerstones of malaria prevention. In the context of high resistance of Anopheles gambiae to pyrethroids, The National Malaria Control Program (NMCP has undertaken a full coverage of IRS in a no-flood zone in the Oueme region, coupled with the distribution of LLINs in a flood zone. We assessed the impact of this campaign on phenotypic resistance, kdr (knock-down resistance and ace-1R (insensitive acetylcholinesterase mutations. Methods Insecticides used for malaria vector control interventions were bendiocarb WP (0.4 g/m2 and deltamethrin (55 mg/m2, respectively for IRS and LLINs. Susceptibility status of An. gambiae was assessed using World Health Organization bioassay tests to DDT, permethrin, deltamethrin and bendiocarb in the Oueme region before intervention (2007 and after interventions in 2008 and 2010. An. gambiae specimens were screened for identification of species, molecular M and S forms and for the detection of the West African kdr (L1014F as well as ace-1R mutations using PCR techniques. Results The univariate logistic regression performed showed that kdr frequency has increased significantly during the three years in the intervention area and in the control area. Several factors (LLINs, IRS, mosquito coils, aerosols, use of pesticides for crop protection could explain the selection of individual resistant An. gambiae. The Kdr resistance gene could not be the only mechanism of resistance observed in the Oueme region. The high susceptibility to bendiocarb is in agreement with a previous study conducted in Benin. However, the occurrence of ace-1R heterozygous individuals even on sites far from IRS areas, suggests other factors may contribute to the selection of resistance other than those exerted by the vector control program. Conclusion The results of this study have confirmed that An.gambiae have maintained and developed

  10. Pilot assessment of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in the context of transmission assessment surveys for lymphatic filariasis in Benin and Tonga.

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    Brian K Chu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mass drug administration (MDA for lymphatic filariasis (LF programs has delivered more than 2 billion treatments of albendazole, in combination with either ivermectin or diethylcarbamazine, to communities co-endemic for soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH, reducing the prevalence of both diseases. A transmission assessment survey (TAS is recommended to determine if MDA for LF can be stopped within an evaluation unit (EU after at least five rounds of annual treatment. The TAS also provides an opportunity to simultaneously assess the impact of these MDAs on STH and to determine the frequency of school-based MDA for STH after community-wide MDA is no longer needed for LF. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Pilot studies conducted in Benin and Tonga assessed the feasibility of a coordinated approach. Of the schools (clusters selected for a TAS in each EU, a subset of 5 schools per STH ecological zone was randomly selected, according to World Health Organization (WHO guidelines, for the coordinated survey. In Benin, 519 children were sampled in 5 schools and 22 (4.2% had STH infection (A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, or hookworm detected using the Kato-Katz method. All infections were classified as light intensity under WHO criteria. In Tonga, 10 schools were chosen for the coordinated TAS and STH survey covering two ecological zones; 32 of 232 (13.8% children were infected in Tongatapu and 82 of 320 (25.6% in Vava'u and Ha'apai. All infections were light-intensity with the exception of one with moderate-intensity T. trichiura. CONCLUSIONS: Synchronous assessment of STH with TAS is feasible and provides a well-timed evaluation of infection prevalence to guide ongoing treatment decisions at a time when MDA for LF may be stopped. The coordinated field experiences in both countries also suggest potential time and cost savings. Refinement of a coordinated TAS and STH sampling methodology should be pursued, along with further validation of

  11. Pilot Assessment of Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis in the Context of Transmission Assessment Surveys for Lymphatic Filariasis in Benin and Tonga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Brian K.; Gass, Katherine; Batcho, Wilfrid; 'Ake, Malakai; Dorkenoo, Améyo M.; Adjinacou, Elvire; Mafi, 'Eva; Addiss, David G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Mass drug administration (MDA) for lymphatic filariasis (LF) programs has delivered more than 2 billion treatments of albendazole, in combination with either ivermectin or diethylcarbamazine, to communities co-endemic for soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH), reducing the prevalence of both diseases. A transmission assessment survey (TAS) is recommended to determine if MDA for LF can be stopped within an evaluation unit (EU) after at least five rounds of annual treatment. The TAS also provides an opportunity to simultaneously assess the impact of these MDAs on STH and to determine the frequency of school-based MDA for STH after community-wide MDA is no longer needed for LF. Methodology/Principal Findings Pilot studies conducted in Benin and Tonga assessed the feasibility of a coordinated approach. Of the schools (clusters) selected for a TAS in each EU, a subset of 5 schools per STH ecological zone was randomly selected, according to World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, for the coordinated survey. In Benin, 519 children were sampled in 5 schools and 22 (4.2%) had STH infection (A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, or hookworm) detected using the Kato-Katz method. All infections were classified as light intensity under WHO criteria. In Tonga, 10 schools were chosen for the coordinated TAS and STH survey covering two ecological zones; 32 of 232 (13.8%) children were infected in Tongatapu and 82 of 320 (25.6%) in Vava'u and Ha'apai. All infections were light-intensity with the exception of one with moderate-intensity T. trichiura. Conclusions Synchronous assessment of STH with TAS is feasible and provides a well-timed evaluation of infection prevalence to guide ongoing treatment decisions at a time when MDA for LF may be stopped. The coordinated field experiences in both countries also suggest potential time and cost savings. Refinement of a coordinated TAS and STH sampling methodology should be pursued, along with further validation of alternative

  12. Multi-criteria assessment of the Representative Elementary Watershed approach on the Donga catchment (Benin using a downward approach of model complexity

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    N. Varado

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is part of the AMMA - African Multidisciplinary Monsoon Analysis- project and aims at a better understanding and modelling of the Donga catchment (580 km2, Benin behaviour in order to determine its spatially distributed water balance. For this purpose, we applied the REW concept proposed by Reggiani et al. (1998, 1999, which allows the description of the main local processes at the sub-watershed scale. Such distributed hydrological models, which represent hydrological processes at various scales, should be evaluated not only on the discharge at the outlet but also on each of the represented processes and in several points of the catchment. This multi-criteria approach is required in order to assess the global behaviour of hydrological models. We applied such multi-criteria strategy to the Donga catchment (586 km2, in Benin. The work was supported by an observation set up, undertaken since 1998 consisting in a network of 20 rain gauges, an automatic meteorological station, 6 discharge stations and 18 wells. The main goal of this study was to assess the model's ability to reproduce the discharge at the outlet, the water table dynamics in several points of the catchment and the vadose zone dynamics at the sub-catchment scale. We tested two spatial discretisations of increasing resolution. To test the internal structure of the model, we looked at its ability to represent also the discharge at intermediate stations. After adjustment of soil parameters, the model is shown to accurately represent discharge down to a drainage area of 100 km2, whereas poorer simulation is achieved on smaller catchments. We introduced the spatial variability of rainfall by distributing the daily rainfall over the REW and obtained a very low sensitivity of the model response to this variability. Simulation of groundwater levels was poor and our results, in conjunction with new data available at the local scale, suggest that the representation of the processes

  13. Multi-criteria assessment of the Representative Elementary Watershed approach on the Donga catchment (Benin using a downward approach of model complexity

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    N. Varado

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is part of the AMMA – African Multidisciplinary Monsoon Analysis – project and aims at a better understanding and modelling of the Donga catchment (580 km2, Benin behaviour. For this purpose, we applied the REW concept proposed by Reggiani et al. (1998, 1999, which allows the description of the main local processes at the sub-watershed scale. Such distributed hydrological models, which represent hydrological processes at various scales, should be evaluated not only on the discharge at the outlet but also on each of the represented processes and in several points of the catchment. This kind of multi-criteria evaluation is of importance in order to assess the global behaviour of the models. We applied such multi-criteria strategy to the Donga catchment (586 km2, in Benin. The work is supported by a strategy of observation, undertaken since 1998 consisting in a network of 20 rain gauges, an automatic meteorological station, 6 discharge stations and 18 wells.

    The first goal of this study is to assess the model ability to reproduce the discharge at the outlet, the water table dynamics in several points of the catchment and the vadose zone dynamics at the sub-catchment scale. We tested two spatial discretisations of increasing resolution. To test the internal structure of the model, we looked at its ability to represent also the discharge at intermediary stations. After adjustment of soil parameters, the model is shown to accurately represent discharge down to a drainage area of 100 km2, whereas poorer simulation is achieved on smaller catchments. We introduced the spatial variability of rainfall by distributing the daily rainfall over the REW and obtained a very low sensitivity of the model response to this variability. Our results suggest that processes in the unsaturated zone should first be improved, in order to better simulate soil water dynamics and represent perched water tables which

  14. Reducing Soil CO2 Emission and Improving Upland Rice Yield with no-Tillage, Straw Mulch and Nitrogen Fertilization in Northern Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossou-Yovo, E.; Brueggemann, N.; Naab, J.; Huat, J.; Ampofo, E.; Ago, E.; Agbossou, E.

    2015-12-01

    To explore effective ways to decrease soil CO2 emission and increase grain yield, field experiments were conducted on two upland rice soils (Lixisols and Gleyic Luvisols) in northern Benin in West Africa. The treatments were two tillage systems (no-tillage, and manual tillage), two rice straw managements (no rice straw, and rice straw mulch at 3 Mg ha-1) and three nitrogen fertilizers levels (no nitrogen, recommended level of nitrogen: 60 kg ha-1, and high level of nitrogen: 120 kg ha-1). Potassium and phosphorus fertilizers were applied to be non-limiting at 40 kg K2O ha-1 and 40 kg P2O5 ha-1. Four replications of the twelve treatment combinations were arranged in a randomized complete block design. Soil CO2 emission, soil moisture and soil temperature were measured at 5 cm depth in 6 to 10 days intervals during the rainy season and every two weeks during the dry season. Soil moisture was the main factor explaining the seasonal variability of soil CO2 emission. Much larger soil CO2 emissions were found in rainy than dry season. No-tillage planting significantly reduced soil CO2 emissions compared with manual tillage. Higher soil CO2 emissions were recorded in the mulched treatments. Soil CO2 emissions were higher in fertilized treatments compared with non fertilized treatments. Rice biomass and yield were not significantly different as a function of tillage systems. On the contrary, rice biomass and yield significantly increased with application of rice straw mulch and nitrogen fertilizer. The highest response of rice yield to nitrogen fertilizer addition was obtained for 60 kg N ha-1 in combination with 3 Mg ha-1 of rice straw for the two tillage systems. Soil CO2 emission per unit grain yield was lower under no-tillage, rice straw mulch and nitrogen fertilizer treatments. No-tillage combined with rice straw mulch and 60 kg N ha-1 could be used by smallholder farmers to achieve higher grain yield and lower soil CO2 emission in upland rice fields in northern Benin.

  15. Obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors in urban adults of Benin: Relationship with socio-economic status, urbanisation, and lifestyle patterns

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    Delisle Hélène

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a dearth of information on diet-related chronic diseases in West Africa. This cross-sectional study assessed the rate of obesity and other cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors in a random sample of 200 urban adults in Benin and explored the associations between these factors and socio-economic status (SES, urbanisation as well as lifestyle patterns. Methods Anthropometric parameters (height, weight and waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and serum lipids (HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were measured. WHO cut-offs were used to define CVD risk factors. Food intake and physical activity were assessed with three non-consecutive 24-hour recalls. Information on tobacco use and alcohol consumption was collected using a questionnaire. An overall lifestyle score (OLS was created based on diet quality, alcohol consumption, smoking, and physical activity. A SES score was computed based on education, main occupation and household amenities (as proxy for income. Results The most prevalent CVD risk factors were overall obesity (18%, abdominal obesity (32%, hypertension (23%, and low HDL-cholesterol (13%. Diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia were uncommon. The prevalence of overall obesity was roughly four times higher in women than in men (28 vs. 8%. After controlling for age and sex, the odds of obesity increased significantly with SES, while a longer exposure to the urban environment was associated with higher odds of hypertension. Of the single lifestyle factors examined, physical activity was the most strongly associated with several CVD risk factors. Logistic regression analyses revealed that the likelihood of obesity and hypertension decreased significantly as the OLS improved, while controlling for potential confounding factors. Conclusion Our data show that obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors are highly prevalent among urban adults in Benin, which calls for urgent measures to avert the

  16. Integration of Optical and Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery for Improving Crop Mapping in Northwestern Benin, West Africa

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    Gerald Forkuor

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Crop mapping in West Africa is challenging, due to the unavailability of adequate satellite images (as a result of excessive cloud cover, small agricultural fields and a heterogeneous landscape. To address this challenge, we integrated high spatial resolution multi-temporal optical (RapidEye and dual polarized (VV/VH SAR (TerraSAR-X data to map crops and crop groups in northwestern Benin using the random forest classification algorithm. The overall goal was to ascertain the contribution of the SAR data to crop mapping in the region. A per-pixel classification result was overlaid with vector field boundaries derived from image segmentation, and a crop type was determined for each field based on the modal class within the field. A per-field accuracy assessment was conducted by comparing the final classification result with reference data derived from a field campaign. Results indicate that the integration of RapidEye and TerraSAR-X data improved classification accuracy by 10%–15% over the use of RapidEye only. The VV polarization was found to better discriminate crop types than the VH polarization. The research has shown that if optical and SAR data are available for the whole cropping season, classification accuracies of up to 75% are achievable.

  17. Diversity, Physicochemical and Technological Characterization of Elite Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz Cultivars of Bantè, a District of Central Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abadjayé Faouziath Sanoussi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is one of the staple food crops contributing significantly to food and nutrition security in Benin. This study aimed to assess the diversity of the elite cassava cultivars of Bantè district, determine the physicochemical properties of the most preferred ones as well as the sensory attributes of their major derived products (gari and tapioca, and compare them with the farmers’ and processors’ perception on their technological qualities. The ethnobotanical investigation revealed existence of 40 cultivars including 9 elites that were further classified into three groups based on agronomics and technological and culinary properties. Clustered together, cultivars Idilèrou, Monlèkangan, and Odohoungbo characterized by low fiber content, high yield of gari and tapioca, and good in-ground postmaturity storage were the most preferred ones. Their physicochemical analysis revealed good rate of dry matters (39.8% to 41.13%, starch (24.47% to 25.5% and total sugars (39.46% to 41.13%, low fiber (0.80% to 1.02%, and cyanide (50 mg/kg contents. The sensory analysis of their gari and tapioca revealed very well appreciated (taste, color, and texture products by the consumers. The confirmation by scientific analysis of the farmers’ perception on qualities of the most preferred cultivars indicated that they have good knowledge of their materials.

  18. Prevalence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Other Staphylococcus Species in Raw Meat Samples Intended for Human Consumption in Benin City, Nigeria: Implications for Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbinosa, Etinosa O; Beshiru, Abeni; Akporehe, Lucy U; Oviasogie, Faith E; Igbinosa, Owen O

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to characterize methicillin-resistant staphylococci from raw meat. A total of 126 meat samples were obtained from open markets between February and April, 2015. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out using the disc diffusion method. Molecular profiling was conducted using 16S rRNA, mecA, nuc, and PVL gene signatures were detected by polymerase chain reaction assay. Fifty isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. were detected in 26 (52%) pork, 14 (28%) beef and 10 (20%) chicken samples. The staphylococcal isolates were identified through partial 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (16S rRNA) nucleotide sequencing, and BLAST analysis of the gene sequence revealed 98%-100% staphylococcal similarity. All isolates from beef and chicken samples amplified the mecA gene, while 100% of the MRSA isolates amplified the PVL gene. The multidrug resistance profile (resistant to ≥1 antimicrobial agent in ≥3 classes of antimicrobial agents) of the staphylococcal isolates showed that 7 isolates were resistant to methicillin, penicillin, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, kanamycin, amoxicillin, cloxacillin, erythromycin, vancomycin, and gentamycin. There was a significant regression effect from the multidrug-resistant profile on the number of isolates (p < 0.05) suggesting a consequence of the dissemination of resistant strains within bacterial populations. The findings of the present study indicate that raw meats in the Benin metropolis were possibly contaminated with pathogenic and multi-drug resistant staphylococci strains and therefore could constitute a risk to public health communities. PMID:27669285

  19. The “Bringing into Cultivation” Phase of the Plant Domestication Process and Its Contributions to In Situ Conservation of Genetic Resources in Benin

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    R. Vodouhè

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available All over the world, plant domestication is continually being carried out by local communities to support their needs for food, fibre, medicine, building materials, etc. Using participatory rapid appraisal approach, 150 households were surveyed in 5 villages selected in five ethnic groups of Benin, to investigate the local communities’ motivations for plant domestication and the contributions of this process to in situ conservation of genetic resources. The results indicated differences in plant domestication between agroecological zones and among ethnic groups. People in the humid zones give priority to herbs mainly for their leaves while those in dry area prefer trees mostly for their fruits. Local communities were motivated to undertake plant domestication for foods (80% of respondents, medicinal use (40% of respondents, income generation (20% of respondents and cultural reasons (5% of respondents. 45% of the species recorded are still at early stage in domestication and only 2% are fully domesticated. Eleven factors related to the households surveyed and to the head of the household interviewed affect farmers’ decision making in domesticating plant species. There is gender influence on the domestication: Women are keen in domesticating herbs while men give priority to trees.

  20. Impact of Insecticide Resistance on the Effectiveness of Pyrethroid-Based Malaria Vectors Control Tools in Benin: Decreased Toxicity and Repellent Effect.

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    Fiacre R Agossa

    Full Text Available Since the first evidence of pyrethroids resistance in 1999 in Benin, mutations have rapidly increased in mosquitoes and it is now difficult to design a study including a control area where malaria vectors are fully susceptible. Few studies have assessed the after effect of resistance on the success of pyrethroid based prevention methods in mosquito populations. We therefore assessed the impact of resistance on the effectiveness of pyrethroids based indoor residual spraying (IRS in semi-field conditions and long lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs in laboratory conditions. The results observed showed low repulsion and low toxicity of pyrethroids compounds in the test populations. The toxicity of pyrethroids used in IRS was significantly low with An. gambiae s.l (< 46% but high for other predominant species such as Mansonia africana (93% to 97%. There were significant differences in terms of the repellent effect expressed as exophily and deterrence compared to the untreated huts (P<0.001. Furthermore, mortality was 23.71% for OlyseNet® and 39.06% for PermaNet®. However, with laboratory susceptible "Kisumu", mortality was 100% for both nets suggesting a resistance within the wild mosquito populations. Thus treatment with pyrethroids at World Health Organization recommended dose will not be effective at reducing malaria in the coming years. Therefore it is necessary to study how insecticide resistance decreases the efficacy of particular pyrethroids used in pyrethroid-based vector control so that a targeted approach can be adopted.

  1. Value Added and Equity in the Smallholder-produced Teak (Tectona grandis L.f. Poles Value Chain in Southern Benin

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    Agbo, V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses the value added created, and equity in the smallholder-produced teak poles value chain in Southern Benin. The questions intended to be addressed were as follows: how well does the value chain contribute to create wealth? How fairly is the value added shared among chain participants? What are the opportunities for smallholder farmers to capture a wider share of the value added? The study was based on data from 103 teak planters surveyed in the Atlantic Department, and 89 teak poles traders operating in five major cities. The consolidated production-trading account of the value chain was elaborated. The level of equity in the value chain was analysed based on the costs borne, the contribution to the value added, and the share of value added received by each stakeholder. The value chain generated a positive value added. Traders were the main contributors, and the first beneficiaries of the value added. However, there was no sufficient evidence of inequity to the disadvantage of farmers. There is avenue for farmers to upgrade in the value chain by acquiring new functions, to increase the farm gate value of timber. The related policy implications were discussed.

  2. Cotton fertilization using PGPR Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 and compost: Impact on insect density and cotton yield in North Benin, West Africa

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    Thiery B. Charles Alavo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work has compared the effects of the biofertilizer Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 with that of compost for cotton production. The population dynamics of pests and predators have been studied in order to check whether the use of both fertilization materials can contribute to pest management in cotton. Three treatments were considered: (i dressing of seeds in rhizobacteria suspension, (ii introduction of rhizobacterial suspension directly in the pocket, same time with the seeds, and (iii fertilization with compost. The study was carried out in northwest Benin (West Africa. Results showed that cotton aphids, Aphis gossypii, pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella, leaf roller, Sylepta derogata, and cotton bugs, Dysdercus sp. are the major insect pests encountered in the experimental plots. Cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, was present but under the economic threshold. The coccinellid predators, Cheilomenes spp., occurred in the experimental plots and almost suppressed aphid proliferation. Other natural enemies such as chrysopids and ant species also occurred and probably contributed to maintain the cotton bollworm under the economic threshold. The treatment with seeds dressed with the rhizobacteria suspension yielded 39% more cotton compared to the compost fertilization. The use of both fertilization materials without application of chemicals can contribute to pest management in cotton.

  3. C4 plant isotopic composition (delta13C) evidence for urban CO2 pollution in the city of Cotonou, Benin (West Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kèlomé, Nelly C; Lévêque, Jean; Andreux, Francis; Milloux, Marie-Jeanne; Oyédé, Lucien-Marc

    2006-08-01

    The carbon isotopic composition (delta13C) of plants can reveal the isotopic carbon content of the atmosphere in which they develop. The delta13C values of air and plants depend on the amount of atmospheric fossil fuel CO2, which is chiefly emitted in urban areas. A new indicator of CO2 pollution is tested using the delta13C variation in a C4 grass: Eleusine indica. A range of about 4 per thousand delta units was observed at different sites in Cotonou, the largest city in the Republic of Benin. The highest delta13C values, from -12 per thousand to -14 per thousand, were found in low traffic zones; low delta13C values, from -14 per thousand to -16 per thousand, were found in high traffic zones. The amount of fossil fuel carbon assimilated by plants represented about 20% of the total plant carbon content. An overall decrease in plant delta13C values was observed over a four-year monitoring period. This decrease was correlated with increasing vehicle traffic. The delta13C dataset and the corresponding geographical database were used to map and define zones of high and low 13C-depleted CO2 emissions in urban and sub-urban areas. The spatial distribution follows dominant wind directions, with the lowest emission zones found in the southwest of Cotonou. High CO2 emissions occurred in the north, the east and the center, providing evidence of intense anthropogenic activity related to industry and transportation.

  4. Pierre Bourdieu and transformative agency: a study of how patients in Benin negotiate blame and accountability in the context of severe obstetric events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béhague, Dominique P; Kanhonou, Lydie G; Filippi, Véronique; Lègonou, Solange; Ronsmans, Carine

    2008-05-01

    This paper explores the social and institutional processes that constrain and enable obstetric patients in Benin to critically evaluate quality of healthcare and to stimulate positive changes in the health system. Based on qualitative data collected as part of a hospital auditing system, the paper analyses semi-structured patient feedback interviews and their function as a primary mechanism through which critical patient evaluation can develop constructively. Using a Bourdieuan framework, we explore the dynamic social conditions that give rise to transformative agency and institutional change. Our results show that hospitals are often permeated with the habitus of employment, kinship and reproductive social fields, through which a number of social, economic and healthcare conflicts, power struggles and blame-inducing interactions emerge. These conflicts generally serve to keep patients quiescent and passive when it comes to developing critical statements of quality of care. In a subset of cases, however, these conflicts are transformed by patients and their family members into opportunities for modifying the values and practices of each habitus in new and creative ways. The active negotiation of social conflict and blame enabled a minority of patients actively to divert blame from themselves and to develop and maintain critical healthcare evaluations.

  5. Lifestyle and Dietary Factors Associated with the Evolution of Cardiometabolic Risk over Four Years in West-African Adults: The Benin Study

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    Charles Sossa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess in adults from Benin changes in cardiometabolic risk (CMR using both the Framingham risk score (FRS and metabolic syndrome (MetS and to examine the effects of diet, and lifestyles, controlling for location and socioeconomic status. Methods. Apparently healthy subjects (n=541 aged 25–60 years and randomly selected in the largest city, a small town, and rural areas were included in the four-year longitudinal study. Along with CMR factors, socioeconomic, diet and lifestyle data were collected in individual interviews. A food score based on consumption frequency of four “sentinel” food groups (meat and poultry, dairy, eggs, and vegetables was developed. Lifestyle included physical activity, alcohol and tobacco use. Education and income (proxy were the socioeconomic variables. Results. Among the subjects with four-year follow-up data (n=416, 13.5% were at risk at baseline, showing MetS or FRS ≥ 10%. The incidence of MetS and FRS ≥ 10% during follow-up was 8.2% and 5%, respectively. CMR deteriorated in 21% of subjects. Diet and lifestyle mediated location and income effects on CMR evolution. Low food scores and inactivity increased the likelihood of CMR deterioration. Conclusion. Combining MetS and FRS might be appropriate for surveillance purposes in order to better capture CMR and inform preventive measures.

  6. Diversity, Physicochemical and Technological Characterization of Elite Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Cultivars of Bantè, a District of Central Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanoussi, Abadjayé Faouziath; Loko, Laura Yéyinou; Ahissou, Hyacinthe; Adjahi, Adidjath Koubourath; Orobiyi, Azize; Agré, Angelot Paterne; Azokpota, Paulin; Dansi, Alexandre; Sanni, Ambaliou

    2015-01-01

    Cassava is one of the staple food crops contributing significantly to food and nutrition security in Benin. This study aimed to assess the diversity of the elite cassava cultivars of Bantè district, determine the physicochemical properties of the most preferred ones as well as the sensory attributes of their major derived products (gari and tapioca), and compare them with the farmers' and processors' perception on their technological qualities. The ethnobotanical investigation revealed existence of 40 cultivars including 9 elites that were further classified into three groups based on agronomics and technological and culinary properties. Clustered together, cultivars Idilèrou, Monlèkangan, and Odohoungbo characterized by low fiber content, high yield of gari and tapioca, and good in-ground postmaturity storage were the most preferred ones. Their physicochemical analysis revealed good rate of dry matters (39.8% to 41.13%), starch (24.47% to 25.5%) and total sugars (39.46% to 41.13%), low fiber (0.80% to 1.02%), and cyanide (50 mg/kg) contents. The sensory analysis of their gari and tapioca revealed very well appreciated (taste, color, and texture) products by the consumers. The confirmation by scientific analysis of the farmers' perception on qualities of the most preferred cultivars indicated that they have good knowledge of their materials.

  7. [Serological evidence of the existence of a wild reservoir of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in the Pendjari biosphere reservation in the Republic of Benin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedegbe, B; Verhulst, A; Van Meirvenne, N; Pandey, V S; Doko, A

    1992-06-01

    In the national park of Pendjari, situated in the North-West of Benin, 91 wild animals, belonging to seven species, were darted. Thick and thin blood smears were examined for trypanosomes and plasma for trypanolytic antibodies against 6 antigenic variants of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. Parasites were found in 13.92% and trypanolytic antibodies in 20.88% of the samples. A total of 28.57% of animals were positive by at least one of the two test systems used. Morphologically Trypanosoma congolense, T. vivax and T. brucei were identified. Overall prevalence was 40% in Adenota kob (n: 50), 13.63% in Alcelaphus buselaphus (n: 22), 10% in Hippotragus equinus (n: 10), 33% in Kobus defassa (n: 3), 0% in Phacochoerus aethiopicus (n: 3) and in Syncerus caffer (n: 2). The only lion (Panthera leo) examined was serologically positive. The results indicate that the wild animals are reservoirs of animal trypanosomes and suggest that among them Adenota kob and Panthera leo are carriers of T. brucei gambiense, one of the etiological aspects of human trypanosomiasis. PMID:1417158

  8. EPIVAC International Conference on Financial Sustainability of Immunization Programs in sub-Saharan Africa, February 16-18, 2012, Ouidah, Benin.

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    Drach, Marcel; Le Gargasson, Jean-Bernard; Mathonnat, Jacky; Da Silva, Alfred; Kaddar, Miloud; Colombini, Anaïs

    2013-09-23

    The introduction of new vaccines with much higher prices than traditional vaccines results in increasing budgetary pressure on immunization programs in GAVI-eligible countries, increasing the need to ensure their financial sustainability. In this context, the third EPIVAC (Epidemiology and Vaccinology) technical conference was held from February 16 to 18, 2012 at the Regional Institute of Public Health in Ouidah, Benin. Managers of ministries of health and finance from 11 West African countries (GAVI eligible countries), as well as former EPIVAC students and European experts, shared their knowledge and best practices on immunization financing at district and country level. The conference concluded by stressing five major priorities for the financial sustainability of national immunization programs (NIPs) in GAVI-eligible countries. - Strengthen public financing by increasing resources and fiscal space, improving budget processes, increasing contribution of local governments and strengthen efficiency of budget spending. - Promote equitable community financing which was recognized as a significant and essential contribution to the continuity of EPI operations. - Widen private funding by exploring prospects offered by sponsorship through foundations dedicated to immunization and by corporate social responsibility programs. - Contain the potential crowding-out effect of GAVI co-financing and ensure that decisions on new vaccine introductions are evidence-based. - Seek out innovative financing mechanisms such as taxes on food products or a national solidarity fund. PMID:23892101

  9. Farmer’s Knowledge and Perception of Diversified Farming Systems in Sub-Humid and Semi-Arid Areas in Benin

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    Alcade C. Segnon

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Building on farmer’s agroecological knowledge to design environmental-friendly agricultural systems is crucial given the environmental impact of industrial agriculture. We investigated the drivers of farmers’ knowledge of agrobiodiversity management and analyzed how farmers’ knowledge and their current farming contexts may guide future farming systems in sub-humid (Bassila and semi-arid (Boukoumbé areas of Benin. We conducted structured interviews with 180 farmers and used generalized linear models and correlation analyses to understand the spatio-temporal dynamics of farmers’ knowledge and perception. Land tenure, ecological conditions and sociolinguistic membership were the main drivers of farmers’ knowledge of agroforestry systems, practices, species diversity and current farming systems. Sociolinguistic membership also significantly predicted farmers’ knowledge of livestock management. Farmers in the semi-arid area were more involved in integrated crop-tree-livestock systems than those in the sub-humid area. However, all farmers indicated a willingness to adopt this integrated farming system regardless of socioeconomic and ecological factors. Farmer’s knowledge of agrobiodiversity (crops, agroforestry species and livestock diversity management was correlated with the involvement in integrated crop-livestock-tree and agroforestry systems. These findings provide insights into how farmers’ knowledge can serve as basis in optimizing agricultural and livelihoods systems. Investigating the ecological, economic and social performance of the most desired integration/diversification options using a system approach involving a co-innovation process can further our mechanistic understanding of farmers decision making process.

  10. Impact of land use change on hydrological processes and water resources in Benin - from local scale measurements to interdisciplinary scenario modeling on regional scale

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    Diekkrüger, Bernd; Giertz, Simone; Steup, Gero

    2010-05-01

    In the past 50 years, West Africa has experienced large land-use changes including deforestation, overgrazing and land reclamation. Land use change may have both immediate and long-lasting impacts on hydrological processes and the local and regional water balance. With the ongoing population growth and socio-economic problems in the region this land use change trend will continue or even aggravate in future. Therefore an assessment of the impact of future land use change on the hydrological process is of utmost importance, especially in combination with climate change impact studies. A prerequisite for this assessment is that the hydrologic processes in the region have to be understood in detail and calibrated and validated models for a scenario analyses are available. In recent years large progress in assessing land use change impacts on hydrological processes has been achieved with experimental studies and scenario analysis using hydrological models. While the bulk of investigations has been carried out in the temperate climate zones, only few field studies and very few model applications have been performed in the tropical environment. The region of the sub-humid tropical West Africa, has been rarely investigated in terms of hydrological processes and land use change impacts. In the presented study the impact of land use change on the hydrological processes and the water balance in central Benin (Upper Ouémé catchment) is analyzed using a multiscale approach. First, local scale investigations (field and laboratory investigations, physically-based modeling) were carried out intensively in a well equipped experimental catchment to get a thorough understanding of the hydrological processes in the region. Using the findings a conceptual model (UHP-HRU) was developed and applied on regional scale. The model was validated in catchments with different land use conditions in order to proof its applicably for a land use change scenario analysis. The validated model was

  11. What would PCR assessment change in the management of fevers in a malaria endemic area? A school-based study in Benin in children with and without fever

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    Faucher Jean-François

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A recent school-based study in Benin showed that applying a policy of anti-malarial prescriptions restricted to parasitologically-confirmed cases on the management of fever is safe and feasible. Additional PCR data were analysed in order to touch patho-physiological issues, such as the usefulness of PCR in the management of malaria in an endemic area or the triggering of a malaria attack in children with submicroscopic malaria. Methods PCR data were prospectively collected in the setting of an exposed (with fever/non exposed (without fever study design. All children had a negative malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT at baseline, were followed up to day 14 and did not receive drugs with anti-malarial activity. The index group was defined by children with fever at baseline and the control group by children without fever at baseline. Children with submicroscopic malaria in these two groups were defined by a positive PCR at baseline. Results PCR was positive in 66 (27% children of the index group and in 104 (44% children of the control group respectively. The only significant factor positively related to PCR positivity at baseline was the clinical status (control group. When definition of malaria attacks included PCR results, no difference of malaria incidence was observed between the index and control groups, neither in the whole cohort, nor in children with submicroscopic malaria. The rate of undiagnosed malaria at baseline was estimated to 3.7% at baseline in the index group. Conclusions Treating all children with fever and a positive PCR would have led to a significant increase of anti-malarial consumption, with few benefits in terms of clinical events. Non malarial fevers do not or do not frequently trigger malaria attacks in children with submicroscopic malaria.

  12. PHYTOCHEMISTRY, ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIRADICAL ACTIVITIES EVALUATION OF ESSENTIAL OILS, ETHANOLIC AND HYDROETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF THE LEAVES OF EUCALYPTUS CITRIODORA HOOK FROM BENIN

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    Yaya A. Koudoro

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The precipitation and coloration reactions implemented in this study revealed in the leaves of E. citriodora (Myrtaceae of Benin the presence of polyphenols, anthocyanins, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, mucilages, anthraquinones, leucoanthocyanins, cardiac glycosides, coumarins, proteins, sterols and triterpenes. The essential oil from the leaves of this plant was extracted with a yield of 3% and then analyzed by GC/MS. Nine compounds, representing 94.46% of the chemical composition of the oil, were identified, three among them being majority: citronellal (65.45%, citronellol (13.5% and isopulegol (10.33%. The contents of polyphenolic compounds of ethanolic and hydroethanolic extracts were respectively 4.52 mg EAG.g-1 and 4.38 mg EAGg-1 for total polyphenols, 78.76 mg ECg-1 and 81.56 mg ECg-1 for total flavonoids and 62.62 mg ECg-1 and 67.09 mg ECg-1 for condensed tannins. The radical scavenging activity of hydroethanolic extract (IC50=0.23 mgmL-1 was more pronounced than that of ethanolic extract (IC50=0.42 mgmL-1 and essential oil (IC50=0.9 mgmL-1. Regarding antimicrobial activity, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans were sensitive to hydroethanolic extract of E. citriodora leaves while Escherichia coli developed resistance against this extract. As for the essential oil extracted from the leaves of Eucalyptus citriodora it showed fungicidal activity against Candida albicans and bacteriostatic with Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

  13. Prevalence and etiologic agents of female reproductive tract infection among in-patients and out-patients of a tertiary hospital in Benin city, Nigeria

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    Christopher Aye Egbe

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reproductive tract infections are public health problems in women of reproductive age and can result in serious consequences if not treated. Aims: To determine the prevalence and causes of reproductive tract infections among in-patients and out-patients attending a tertiary health institution in Benin City. The antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of bacterial agents will also be determined. Patients and Methods: High vaginal swabs or endocervical swabs and blood were collected from 957 patients consisting of 755 out-patients and 202 in-patients. The swabs were processed and microbial isolates identified using standard technique. Disc susceptibility tests were also performed on microbial isolates. The blood samples were used for serological diagnosis of syphilis. Results: There was no significant difference in the prevalence of female reproductive tract infections between in-patients (52.48% and out-patients (47.02%, although in-patients showed a significantly higher risk of developing mixed infections (in-patients vs. out-patients; 34.91% vs. 22.25%, OR = 1.873 95% CI = 1.169, 3.001; P = 0.01. Candida albicans was the most prevalent etiologic agent among out-patients studied while Staphylococcus aureus was the most prevalent etiologic agent among in-patients. Trichomonas vaginalis was observed only among out-patients. Ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin were the most active antibacterial agents. Syphilis was not detected in any patient. Conclusion: An overall prevalence of 48.17% of female reproductive tract infection was observed among the study population. Although there was no significant difference between in-patients and out-patients, in-patients appeared to have 1-3-fold increase risk of developing mixed infections. The most prevalent etiologic agent differs between in-patients and out-patients. Despite the high activity of ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin against bacterial isolates from both in-patients and out

  14. Prevalence and etiologic agents of female reproductive tract infection among in-patients and out-patients of a tertiary hospital in Benin city, Nigeria

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    Richard Omoregie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reproductive tract infections are public health problems in women of reproductive age and can result in serious consequences if not treated. Aims: To determine the prevalence and causes of reproductive tract infections among in-patients and out-patients attending a tertiary health institution in Benin City. The antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of bacterial agents will also be determined. Patients and methods: High vaginal swabs or endocervical swabs and blood were collected from 957 patients consisting of 755 out-patients and 202 in-patients. The swabs were processed and microbial isolates identified using standard technique. Disc susceptibility tests were also performed on microbial isolates. The blood samples were used for serological diagnosis of syphilis. Results: There was no significant difference in the prevalence of female reproductive tract infections between in-patients (52.48% and out-patients (47.02%, although in-patients showed a significantly higher risk of developing mixed infections (in-patients vs. out-patients; 34.91% vs. 22.25%, OR = 1.873 95% CI = 1.169, 3.001; P = 0.01. Candida albicans was the most prevalent etiologic agent among out-patients studied while Staphylococcus aureus was the most prevalent etiologic agent among in-patients. Trichomonas vaginalis was observed only among out-patients. Ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin were the most active antibacterial agents. Syphilis was not detected in any patient. Conclusion: An overall prevalence of 48.17% of female reproductive tract infection was observed among the study population. Although there was no significant difference between in-patients and out-patients, in-patients appeared to have 1-3-fold increase risk of developing mixed infections. The most prevalent etiologic agent differs between in-patients and out-patients. Despite the high activity of ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin against bacterial isolates from both in-patients and out

  15. Psychometric properties of teacher-made science tests used in national examinations for middle-grade students in Benin (West Africa): A longitudinal study

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    Gado, Issaou

    The purpose of this study was to determine the psychometric properties (item difficulty, item discrimination, internal consistency reliability, content validity and construct validity) of teacher-made science tests used in national examinations for Middle Grade students in Benin (West Africa) for three consecutive years. The study also described the assessment methods used in science classrooms. Research data were collected from two sources: first, a survey questionnaire administered to 250 secondary school teachers purposively selected; second, a total of 630 graded physical science copies for three consecutive years of national examinations randomly selected from the Service of Examination and Testing data sources. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the survey questionnaire. Factor analysis was used to explore construct validity of the measurements. Classical test theory methods were used to explore item difficulty, item discrimination, and reliability of examination scores. Generalizability theory provided estimate of variance components and proportions of total variance accounted for by sources of error related to persons, items, and person-by-item interaction. The result of this study shows that teacher-made tests used in large scale high-stakes examination for three consecutive years are highly reliable and have a satisfactory level of difficulty and discrimination. However, even though the items of teacher-made tests are associated with the objectives of the national curriculum standards, the proportion of objectives tested in national examinations and the number of items across three consecutive years show a non uniform and inconsistent distribution of items across years, content domains, and within the fields of chemistry and physics. Therefore, teacher-made tests used in national examinations for three consecutive years lack content validity. Discussion of the results and suggestions about constructing exam items with high validity are provided.

  16. Determination of the silvo-melliferous regions of Benin: a nationwide categorisation of the land based on melliferous plants suitable for timber production

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    Felicien Amakpe

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Perennial plants are the main pollen and nectar sources for bees in the tropical areas where most of the annual flora are burned in dry seasons. Therefore perennial plants constitute the most reliable bio materials for determining and evaluating the beekeeping regions of the Republic of Benin. A silvo-melliferous region (S-MR is a geographical area characterised by a particular set of homogenous melliferous plants that can produce timber. Using both the prevailing climatic and the agro-ecological conditions six S-MRs could be identified, i.e. the South region, the Common Central region, the Central West region, the Central North region, the Middle North region and the Extreme North region. At the country level, the melliferous plants were dominated by Vitellaria paradoxa which is common to all regions. The most diversified family was the Caesalpiniaceae (12 species followed by the Combretaceae (10 species and Combretum being the richest genus. The effect of dominance is particularly high in the South region where Elaeis guineensis alone represented 72.6% of the tree density and 140% of the total plant importance. The total melliferous plant density varied from 99.3 plants ha^(−1 in the Common Central region to 178.0 plants ha^(−1 in the Central West region. On the basis of nectar and pollen source, the best region for beekeeping is the CentralWest region with 46.7% of nectar producing trees, 9.4% of pollen producing trees and 40.6% of plants that issue both, this in opposition to the South region which was characterised by an unbalanced distribution of melliferous trees.

  17. The importance of national political context to the impacts of international conservation aid: evidence from the W National Parks of Benin and Niger

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    Miller, Daniel C.; Minn, Michael; Sinsin, Brice

    2015-11-01

    National political context is widely understood to be an important factor shaping the ecological and socio-economic impacts of protected areas (PAs) and other conservation interventions. Despite broad recognition that national political context matters, however, there is little systematic understanding about how and why it matters, particularly in the context of PAs. This article seeks to advance empirical and theoretical understanding of the influence of national political context on the impacts of conservation interventions through study of an international aid project in a large transboundary PA in West Africa. It uses multilevel regression analysis to analyze the variable effects of changes in enforcement—a central mechanism through which the Protected Ecosystems in Sudano-Sahelian Africa project sought to achieve its objectives—in the W National Parks (WNP) of Benin and Niger. We find that differences in national political context relating to governance quality and extent of democratic decentralization moderated the social-ecological effects of enforcement. Increasing enforcement levels in Benin’s WNP were associated with significant increases in mammal species abundance while having little average effect on the incomes of households around the Park. By contrast, greater levels of enforcement in Niger’s WNP were associated with sharply decreasing income levels among Park neighbors but did not have a statistically significant effect on wildlife populations. These results highlight the importance of national political context to the outcomes of aid-funded conservation efforts. They suggest that state-led PA enforcement will have more positive social-ecological impacts in better-governed, more decentralized countries and that conservation policy centered on PAs should therefore devote greater attention to engagement with higher levels of governance.

  18. Olyset Duo® (a pyriproxyfen and permethrin mixture net: an experimental hut trial against pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus in Southern Benin.

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    Corine Ngufor

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alternative compounds which can complement pyrethroids on long-lasting insecticidal nets (LN in the control of pyrethroid resistant malaria vectors are urgently needed. Pyriproxyfen (PPF, an insect growth regulator, reduces the fecundity and fertility of adult female mosquitoes. LNs containing a mixture of pyriproxyfen and pyrethroid could provide personal protection through the pyrethroid component and reduce vector abundance in the next generation through the sterilizing effect of pyriproxyfen. METHOD: The efficacy of Olyset Duo, a newly developed mixture LN containing pyriproxyfen and permethrin, was evaluated in experimental huts in southern Benin against pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus. Comparison was made with Olyset Net® (permethrin alone and a LN with pyriproxyfen alone (PPF LN. Laboratory tunnel tests were performed to substantiate the findings in the experimental huts. RESULTS: Overall mortality of wild pyrethroid resistant An. gambiae s.s. was significantly higher with Olyset Duo than with Olyset Net (50% vs. 27%, P = 0.01. Olyset DUO was more protective than Olyset Net (71% vs. 3%, P<0.001. The oviposition rate of surviving blood-fed An. gambiae from the control hut was 37% whereas none of those from Olyset Duo and PPF LN huts laid eggs. The tunnel test results were consistent with the experimental hut results. Olyset Duo was more protective than Olyset Net in the huts against wild pyrethroid resistant Cx. quinquefasciatus although mortality rates of this species did not differ significantly between Olyset Net and Olyset Duo. There was no sterilizing effect on surviving blood-fed Cx. quinquefasciatus with the PPF-treated nets. CONCLUSION: Olyset Duo was superior to Olyset Net in terms of personal protection and killing of pyrethroid resistant An. gambiae, and sterilized surviving blood-fed mosquitoes. Mixing pyrethroid and pyriproxyfen on a LN shows potential for malaria control and

  19. Co-existence of urinary tract infection and malaria among children under five years old: A report from Benin City, Nigeria

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    P O Okunola

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with fever are a majority in the various emergency rooms all over the world, and especially in the tropics. Most in sub-Saharan Africa will be treated for malaria, whether confirmed or not. It therefore follows that some of the morbidities other than malaria may go undiagnosed. The comorbidities with malaria that may have similar presentation among under-fives therefore are difficult to detect, and diseases like respiratory tract infections and urinary tract infections (UTI are left to debilitate affected children. The exact burden of UTI co-existing with malaria in Nigeria remains ill defined. This study looks at the co-existence of UTI in under- fives with a primary diagnosis of malaria. Well-nourished children aged less than five years with confirmed malaria seen at the Children Emergency Room of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital were recruited into a prospective cross-sectional study between June and August 2006. The prevalence of UTI was 9% (27 of 300 children, with those aged less than 24 months comprising the majority. The uropathogens isolated included Staphylococcus aureus (55.6%, Escherichia coli (29.6% and Kleibsiella pneumonia (14.8%. The isolates demonstrated high in vitro sensitivity to clavulanic acid-potentiated amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin, but were resistant to other commonly used antibiotics like amoxicillin and co-trimoxazole. The study indicates that UTI is a silent comorbidity in children aged less than 5 years with malaria and there is a need to evaluate these children in order to prevent the long-term morbidity of chronic renal diseases.

  20. Microbiological and chemical changes during the fermentation of African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa) to produce afitin, iru and sonru, three traditional condiments produced in Benin.

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    Azokpota, P; Hounhouigan, D J; Nago, M C

    2006-04-01

    African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa) was processed to produce afitin, iru and sonru, three different types of condiment from Benin. Whereas the fermentation of African locust bean to produce afitin is carried out for 24 h without using any additive, the fermentation for iru and sonru production takes place for 48 h with adding respectively "iku-iru" and "yanyanku" two traditional malvacene bean-based (Hibiscus sabdariffa) additives. The main microorganisms involved in the fermentation of the three condiments were Bacillus spp., although Staphylococcus spp. was found in lower number. The use of additive seems to enhance the initial Bacillus counts in iru and sonru, but also a slightly higher Staphylococcus count was observed. The number of staphylococci did not exceed 10(2) cfu/g and it was below the detection level at the end of the fermentation (24 h) in afitin; it reached a level of about 10(6) cfu/g at 12-18 h in iru and sonru followed by a decrease to about 5 x 10(4) cfu/g after 48 h of fermentation. The final pH and total basic volatile nitrogen content of iru and sonru are higher than those of afitin. Proximate composition changes are similar in both fermenting iru and sonru, but different in afitin, the latter showing a slight decrease of proteins of about 5% whereas for iru and sonru they increased to about 6%. Ash, crude fat and fibre contents also increased during the fermentation in the three products whereas total carbohydrates decreased significantly. Due to their long fermentation time, iru and sonru are very soft products as they are preferred by some consumers whereas afitin is preferred with cotyledons having less soft texture.

  1. Caractéristiques structurales et écologiques des populations d'espèces commerciales de bois: une base pour la sylviculture dans les peuplements forestiers de Niaouli (Sud-Benin

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    Agbangla, MM.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural and Ecological Characteristics of Commercial Timber species' population: a Basis for Silviculture in Niaouli Forest Stands (Southern Benin. This study was carried out to provide silvicultural guidance in the Niaouli forest (6°43'- 6°44'N and 2°07'- 2°08'E, Southern Benin, based on commercial species. Twenty-three 0.25 ha plots (50 m x 50 m were set to characterize the structure and the ecology of these species' populations. Within each plot of 0.25 ha, three 100 m² sub-plots (10 m × 10 m were set for the assessment of regeneration. A multidimensional scaling was performed with SPSS 16.0 on presence-absence data of species, and led to the identification of four forest stands. Overall, the number of species and their abundance in the stands were linked to the presence of water. Diameter structure and regeneration revealed that the populations of the studied species were not at equilibrium. The silvicultural interventions suggested to equilibrate them were as follows: enrichment of the forest stands with the studied species; removal of liana and clearing of the undergrowth to enable the germination of seeds and the growth of the seedlings of commercial species, and the protection of the forest from illegal logging by improving security.

  2. Clinical Epidemiology of Buruli Ulcer from Benin (2005-2013: Effect of Time-Delay to Diagnosis on Clinical Forms and Severe Phenotypes.

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    Carlos Capela

    Full Text Available Buruli Ulcer (BU is a neglected infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans that is responsible for severe necrotizing cutaneous lesions that may be associated with bone involvement. Clinical presentations of BU lesions are classically classified as papules, nodules, plaques and edematous infiltration, ulcer or osteomyelitis. Within these different clinical forms, lesions can be further classified as severe forms based on focality (multiple lesions, lesions' size (>15 cm diameter or WHO Category (WHO Category 3 lesions. There are studies reporting an association between delay in seeking medical care and the development of ulcerative forms of BU or osteomyelitis, but the effect of time-delay on the emergence of lesions classified as severe has not been addressed. To address both issues, and in a cohort of laboratory-confirmed BU cases, 476 patients from a medical center in Allada, Benin, were studied. In this laboratory-confirmed cohort, we validated previous observations, demonstrating that time-delay is statistically related to the clinical form of BU. Indeed, for non-ulcerated forms (nodule, edema, and plaque the median time-delay was 32.5 days (IQR 30.0-67.5, while for ulcerated forms it was 60 days (IQR 20.0-120.0 (p = 0.009, and for bone lesions, 365 days (IQR 228.0-548.0. On the other hand, we show here that time-delay is not associated with the more severe phenotypes of BU, such as multi-focal lesions (median 90 days; IQR 56-217.5; p = 0.09, larger lesions (diameter >15 cm (median 60 days; IQR 30-120; p = 0.92 or category 3 WHO classification (median 60 days; IQR 30-150; p = 0.20, when compared with unifocal (median 60 days; IQR 30-90, small lesions (diameter ≤15 cm (median 60 days; IQR 30-90, or WHO category 1+2 lesions (median 60 days; IQR 30-90, respectively. Our results demonstrate that after an initial period of progression towards ulceration or bone involvement, BU lesions become stable regarding size and focal

  3. Pilot survey of oral health-related quality of life: a cross-sectional study of adults in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria

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    Lugo R Iván

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral health studies conducted so far in Nigeria have documented prevalence and incidence of dental disease using traditional clinical measures. However none have investigated the use of an oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL instrument to document oral health outcomes. The aims of this study are: to describe how oral health affects and impacts quality of life (QoL and to explore the association between these affects and the oral health care seeking behavior of adults in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional survey recruited 356 adults aged 18–64 years from two large hospital outpatient departments and from members of a university community. Closed-ended oral health questionnaire with "effect and impact" item-questions from OHQoL-UK© instrument was administered by trained interviewers. Collected data included sociodemographic, dental visits, and effects and impact of oral health on QoL. Univariate and bivariable analyses were done and a chi-square test was used to test differences in proportions. Multivariable analyses using ANOVA examined the association between QoL factors and visits to a dentist. Results Complete data was available for 83% of the participants. About 62% of participants perceived their oral health as affecting their QoL. Overall, 82%, 63%, and 77% of participants perceived that oral health has an effect on their eating or enjoyment of food, sleep or ability to relax, and smiling or laughing, respectively. Some 46%, 36%, and 25% of participants reported that oral health impact their daily activities, social activities, and talking to people, respectively. Dental visits within the last year was significantly associated with eating, speech, and finance (P F = 0.0111. The mean of effects sum score for those with secondary/tertiary education levels (mean = 61.8; 95% CI: 60.6, 62.9 was significantly higher than those with less than secondary level of education (mean = 57.2; 95% CI

  4. The indigenous Somba cattle of the hilly Atacora region in North-West Benin: threats and opportunities for its sustainable use.

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    Dossa, Luc Hippolyte; Vanvanhossou, Fridaïus Ulrich Sèyi

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the declining Somba cattle population in its production system context. Two-hundred-twenty-four (224) cattle farm-households were surveyed in the Boukombe district, the natural habitat of the breed in North-West Benin. Information on their socioeconomic characteristics and on their herd management practices were recorded using a semi-structured questionnaire. In addition, 15 body measurements were recorded from 102 adult cattle. Three types of breeders were distinguished: the owners-herders (54.0 %); the absentee owners (40.2 %) and the professional herders (5.8 %). The average cattle herd sizes were 4.7 ± 3.70 and 58.6 ± 22.83 heads for owner-managed and entrusted herds, respectively. Offtakes were more associated with sociocultural purposes (75.5 %) than market. While crop farming was the main occupation and income source of their owners, the Somba cattle were used for ploughing during the rainy season. In contrast to the widely accepted belief that this indigenous genetic resource is mainly threatened by crossbreeding and/or replacement, our findings suggest high mortalities due to diseases, feed and water shortages and poor reproduction management as the main causes of the decline of this cattle population. Somba cattle generally have short horns and a small body size. However, bulls have significantly (P ≤ 0.05) longer horns (21.2 ± 16.44 cm against 13.9 ± 7.21 cm), higher height at withers (99.7 ± 6.97 cm against 95.9 ± 5.76 cm) and body length (149.7 ± 12.87 cm against 146.8 ± 11.01 cm) than cows. All surveyed farmers expressed their willingness and readiness to participate in and contribute materially or financially to any program towards a sustainable use and preservation of this breed which they perceived as hardy and embedded in their culture. We therefore argue that strategies for its sustainable use and conservation should consist of simultaneously

  5. Statistical postprocessing of precipitation generated with the mesoscale model FOOT3DK for the rainy season 2002 in Benin (West Africa)

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    Ludwig, P.; Krüger, A.; Born, K.; Kerschgens, M.

    2009-04-01

    The presented study deals with various aspects of mesoscale modelling of precipitation in the Sudanian Region at the West African subcontinent and is imbedded into an interdisciplinary research project called IMPETUS. Environmental conditions of synoptic-scale features, being responsible regarding generation and propagation of several precipitation systems, are mostly influenced by the West African Monsoon system. For investigations of precipitation events during the rainy season of 2002, a total number of 40 precipitation episodes, with durations ranging from 54 to 72 hours for each episode, were simulated using the non-hydrostatic model FOOT3DK. While the spatial resolution is 3 km, the temporal resolution accounts for 1 hour. Input data for these simulations is provided using a model chain consisting GME-analysis, Lokal-Modell (0.25° resolution) and FOOT3DK (9 km resolution). The investigated area covers a region of 105 km x 105 km (35 x 35 grid points) and is situated in the upper river catchment of the Ouémé in Benin. On basis of a total number of 50 rainfall recording stations comparisons between simulated and observed precipitation within this study has been carried out. The recording stations are irregularly spaced across the investigated area. The accomplished comparison of precipitation adverts to the necessity for an adjustment of simulated rainfall by FOOT3DK. Therefore, an adjustment technique has been developed and is presented within this study. Based on the 1225 grid points this method fits the hourly simulated towards the hourly observed rainfall rates using a mapping function. In a first step the station data has to be interpolated to the same underlying model grid. Afterwards, the desired relation between simulated and observed precipitation can be established by fitting a sigmoidal curve to the precipitation data using the Levenberg-Marquardt-Algorithm. For every single grid mesh a separate Gompertz function can be found and employed. The

  6. Land cover change assessment using object-oriented classification based on image segmentation in the Binah river watershed (Togo and Benin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badjana, M. H.; Helmschrot, J.; Wala, K.; Flugel, W. A.; Afouda, A.; Akpagana, K.

    2014-12-01

    Assessing and monitoring land cover changes over time, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa characterized by both a high population growth and the highest rate of land degradation in the world is of high relevance for sustainable land management, water security and food production. In this study, land cover changes between 1972 and 2013 were investigated in the Binah river watershed (North of Togo and Benin) using advanced remote sensing and GIS technologies to support sustainable land and water resources management efforts. To this end, multi-temporal satellite images - Landsat MSS (1972), TM (1987) and ETM+ (2013) were processed using object-oriented classification based on image segmentation and post-classification comparison methods. Five main land cover classes namely agricultural land, forest land, savannah, settlements and water bodies have been identified with overall accuracies of 75.11% (1972), 81.82% (1987), and 86.1% (2013) and respective Kappa statistics of 0.67, 0.76 and 0.83. These classification results helped to explicitly assess the spatio-temporal pattern of land cover within the basin. The results indicate that savannah as the main vegetation type in the basin has decreased from 63.3% of the basin area in 1972 to 60.4% in 1987 and 35.6% in 2013. Also the forest land which covered 20.7% in 1972 has decreased to 12.7% in 1987 and 11.7% in 2013. This severe decrease in vegetation mainly resulted from the extension of agricultural areas and settlements, which is, thus, considered as the main driving force. In fact, agricultural land increased of 61.4% from 1972 to 1987, 81.4% from 1987 to 2013 and almost twice from 1972 to 2013 while human settlements increased from 0.8% of the basin area in 1972 to 2.5% in 1987 and 7.7% in 2013. The transition maps illustrate the conversion of savannah to agricultural land at each time step relating to slash and burn agriculture, but also demonstrate the threat of environmental degradation of the savannah biome

  7. Expression of the cytochrome P450s, CYP6P3 and CYP6M2 are significantly elevated in multiple pyrethroid resistant populations of Anopheles gambiae s.s. from Southern Benin and Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranson Hilary

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticide resistance in Anopheles mosquitoes is threatening the success of malaria control programmes. This is particularly true in Benin where pyrethroid resistance has been linked to the failure of insecticide treated bed nets. The role of mutations in the insecticide target sites in conferring resistance has been clearly established. In this study, the contribution of other potential resistance mechanisms was investigated in Anopheles gambiae s.s. from a number of localities in Southern Benin and Nigeria. The mosquitoes were sampled from a variety of breeding sites in a preliminary attempt to investigate the role of contamination of mosquito breeding sites in selecting for resistance in adult mosquitoes. Results All mosquitoes sampled belonged to the M form of An. gambiae s.s. There were high levels of permethrin resistance in an agricultural area (Akron and an urban area (Gbedjromede, low levels of resistance in mosquito samples from an oil contaminated site (Ojoo and complete susceptibility in the rural Orogun location. The target site mutation kdrW was detected at high levels in two of the populations (Akron f = 0.86 and Gbedjromede f = 0.84 but was not detected in Ojoo or Orogun. Microarray analysis using the Anopheles gambiae detox chip identified two P450s, CYP6P3 and CYP6M2 up regulated in all three populations, the former was expressed at particularly high levels in the Akron (12.4-fold and Ojoo (7.4-fold populations compared to the susceptible population. Additional detoxification and redox genes were also over expressed in one or more populations including two cuticular pre-cursor genes which were elevated in two of the three resistant populations. Conclusion Multiple resistance mechanisms incurred in the different breeding sites contribute to resistance to permethrin in Benin. The cytochrome P450 genes, CYP6P3 and CYP6M2 are upregulated in all three resistant populations analysed. Several additional potential

  8. Emerging quinolones resistant transfer genes among gram-negative bacteria, isolated from faeces of HIV/AIDS patients attending some Clinics and Hospitals in the City of Benin, Edo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enabulele IO

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of 1431 gram-negative bacilli from June 2001 to September 2005 were obtained from the faeces of 920 HIV/AIDS patients attending some Clinics and Hospitals in Benin City, Nigeria, were screened for quinolones resistance gene. The HIV/AIDS patients CD4 cells range was ≤14/mm3 ≥800/mm3 of blood. Out of the 1431 isolates, 343 (23.9% were resistance to quinolones with a MIC ≥4μg/ml for norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and pefloxacin while a MIC of ≥32 µg/ml for nalidixic acid. The screened isolates include Pseudomonas aeruginosa 64(18.7%, E coli 92(26.8%, Klebsiella pneumoniae 53(15.4%, Salmonella typhi 39(11.4%, Shigella dysenteriae 36(10.5%, Proteus mirabilis 34(9.9% and Serratia marcescens 25(7.3%. The average resistance of the isolates to the various quinolones ranged from 42.7% to 66.7%. Klebsiella were the most resistant isolates with a mean resistance of 66.7% while Proteus were the less resistant isolates with a mean resistance of 42.7%. Most isolates were resistant to Nalidixic acid followed by norfloxacin while the less resistant were to the pefloxacin. The frequency of qnr genes transfer to EJRifr as recipient ranged from 2 x 10-2 to 6 x 10-6 with an average of 2 plasmids per cell. The molecular weight of the plasmids ranged from <2.9kbp to <5.5 kbp. This indicated that plasmids allowed the movement of genetic materials including qnr resistant genes between bacteria species and genera in Benin City, Nigeria.

  9. Steps Toward Creating A Therapeutic Community for Inpatients Suffering from Chronic Ulcers: Lessons from Allada Buruli Ulcer Treatment Hospital in Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoussouhoui, Arnaud Setondji; Johnson, Roch Christian; Sopoh, Ghislain Emmanuel; Agbo, Ines Elvire; Aoulou, Paulin; Houezo, Jean-Gabin; Tingbe-Azalou, Albert; Boyer, Micah; Nichter, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Background Reducing social distance between hospital staff and patients and establishing clear lines of communication is a major challenge when providing in-patient care for people afflicted by Buruli ulcer (BU) and chronic ulcers. Research on hospitals as therapeutic communities is virtually non-existent in Africa and is currently being called for by medical anthropologists working in the field of health service and policy planning. This paper describes a pioneering attempt to establish a therapeutic community for patients suffering from BU and other chronic ulcers requiring long term hospital care in Benin. Methods A six-month pilot project was undertaken with the objectives of establishing a therapeutic community and evaluating its impact on practitioner and patient relations. The project was designed and implemented by a team of social scientists working in concert with the current and previous director of a hospital serving patients suffering from advanced stage BU and other chronic ulcers. Qualitative research initially investigated patients’ understanding of their illness and its treatment, identified questions patients had about their hospitalization, and ascertained their level of social support. Newly designed question–answer health education sessions were developed. Following these hospital wide education sessions, open forums were held each week to provide an opportunity for patients and hospital staff to express concerns and render sources of discontent transparent. Patient group representatives then met with hospital staff to problem solve issues in a non-confrontational manner. Psychosocial support for individual patients was provided in a second intervention which took the form of drop-in counseling sessions with social scientists trained to serve as therapy facilitators and culture brokers. Results Interviews with patients revealed that most patients had very little information about the identity of their illness and the duration of their

  10. Coastal and Marine Ecosystems-- Benin

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO),Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), World Resources Institute, International Food Policy Research Institute, Global Maritime Boundaries Database (GMBD),World Conservation Monitoring Centre(WCMC),The International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems (ISME)

  11. Response of the Bight of Benin (Gulf of Guinea, West Africa) coastline to anthropogenic and natural forcing, Part1: Wave climate variability and impacts on the longshore sediment transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almar, R.; Kestenare, E.; Reyns, J.; Jouanno, J.; Anthony, E. J.; Laibi, R.; Hemer, M.; Du Penhoat, Y.; Ranasinghe, R.

    2015-11-01

    The short, medium and long-term evolution of the sandy coastline of the Bight of Benin in the Gulf of Guinea, West Africa, has become a major regional focal point due to the rapid socio-economic development that is occurring in the region, including rapid urbanization and a sharp increase in harbor-based trade. Harbors have a significant impact on the present evolution of this coast, notably by affecting longshore sediment transport. However, little is known of the environmental drivers, notably the wave climate, that governs longshore sediment transport and the ensuing pattern of shoreline evolution of this coastal zone. This article aims to address this important knowledge gap by providing a general overview of coastal evolution in the Bight of Benin and the physical processes that control this evolution. Here, the 1979-2012 ERA-Interim hindcast is used to understand the temporal dynamics of longshore sediment transport. Oblique waves (annual average Hs=1.36 m, Tp=9.6 s, S-SW incidence) drive an eastward drift of approximately 500,000 m3/yr. The waves driving this large longshore transport can be separated into two components with distinct origins and behavior: wind waves generated locally in the Gulf of Guinea and swell waves generated in the southern hemisphere sub- (30-35°S), and extra-tropics (45-60°S). The analysis undertaken here shows that the contribution to the gross annual longshore transport from swell wave-driven longshore currents is an order of magnitude larger than the local wind wave-driven longshore currents. Swell waves are dominantly generated by westerlies in the 40-60°S zone and to a lesser extent by trade winds at 30-35°S. The longshore sediment drift decay (-5% over 1979-2012) is found to be linked with a decrease in the intensity of westerly winds associated with their southward shift, in addition to a strengthening of the trade winds, which reduces the eastward sediment transport potential. The equatorial fluctuation of the Inter

  12. Occurrence of Aspergillus section Flavi and section Nigri and aflatoxins in raw cashew kernels (Anacardium occidentale L.) from Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamboni, Yendouban; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Hell, Kerstin;

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of Aspergillus section Flavi and A. section Nigri in cashew nuts harvested in the Northern Guinea (NG) and Southern Sudanian (SS) agro-ecological zones of Benin. Also, the presence of aflatoxins was investigated. For detection of fungal......-MS/MS). The average water content and the cashew nuts count were respectively 8.6% and 172 nuts/kg in NG and 8.7% and 174 nuts/kg in SS. Significant differences between villages in both zones were found for both water content and nuts count. In disinfected samples, strains of Aspergillus section Nigri were...... predominant, in NG and SS zones (90.2% and 87.2%) respectively. When non disinfected kernels were plated, A. section Nigri was predominant in both NG and SS zones, with percentages of 89.7% and 93.4%, respectively. None of the 84 nuts samples were positive for natural occurrence of aflatoxins with a detection...

  13. Can hospital audit teams identify case management problems, analyse their causes, identify and implement improvements? A cross-sectional process evaluation of obstetric near-miss case reviews in Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borchert Matthias

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obstetric near-miss case reviews are being promoted as a quality assurance intervention suitable for hospitals in low income countries. We introduced such reviews in five district, regional and national hospitals in Benin, West Africa. In a cross-sectional study we analysed the extent to which the hospital audit teams were able to identify case management problems (CMPs, analyse their causes, agree on solutions and put these solutions into practice. Methods We analysed case summaries, women’s interview transcripts and audit minutes produced by the audit teams for 67 meetings concerning one woman with near-miss complications each. We compared the proportion of CMPs identified by an external assessment team to the number found by the audit teams. For the latter, we described the CMP causes identified, solutions proposed and implemented by the audit teams. Results Audit meetings were conducted regularly and were well attended. Audit teams identified half of the 714 CMPs; they were more likely to find managerial ones (71% than the ones relating to treatment (30%. Most identified CMPs were valid. Almost all causes of CMPs were plausible, but often too superficial to be of great value for directing remedial action. Audit teams suggested solutions, most of them promising ones, for 38% of the CMPs they had identified, but recorded their implementation only for a minority (8.5%. Conclusions The importance of following-up and documenting the implementation of solutions should be stressed in future audit interventions. Tools facilitating the follow-up should be made available. Near-miss case reviews hold promise, but their effectiveness to improve the quality of care sustainably and on a large scale still needs to be established.

  14. Microdistribution of the resistance of malaria vectors to deltamethrin in the region of Plateau (southeastern Benin) in preparation for an assessment of the impact of resistance on the effectiveness of Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aims to research two areas, one with a resistant and the other with a susceptible profile of An. gambiae to deltamethrin in the region of Plateau (southern Benin). In each area, eight localities were sought. Both areas were needed for the assessment of the impact of malaria vector resistance to pyrethroids on the effectiveness of Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs). The susceptible area of An. gambiae to deltamethrin was used as a control. Methods In total, 119 localities in the region of Plateau were screened by sampling An. gambiae s.l larvae. Female mosquitoes resulting from these larvae were exposed to 0.05% deltamethrin following WHO standards. PCR was used to identify species and molecular forms of the dead and alive mosquitoes. Finally, we identified kdr mutations (1014 F and1014S) using the HOLA technique. Results Fifty-six out of 119 prospected localities tested positive for Anopheles gambae s.l breeding sites. The results showed that An. gambiae was resistant to deltamethrin in 39 localities and susceptible in only 2 localities; resistance to deltamethrin was suspected in 15 localities. The HOLA technique confirmed the presence of kdr 1014 F mutation and the absence of kdr 1014S mutation. The kdr 1014 F mutation was found in both M and S molecular forms at relatively high frequencies therefore confirming the susceptibility tests. Conclusion We were unable to identify the eight susceptible areas due to the overall resistance of An. gambiae to deltamethrin in the region of Plateau. To implement the study, we kept two areas, one with high resistance (R+++) and the other with low resistance (R+) of An. gambiae to deltamethrin. PMID:24564260

  15. Benin - Access to Land Project (Rural)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millenium Challenge Corporation — This evaluation presents evidence from the first large-scale randomized controlled trial of a land formalization program. This study examines the links between land...

  16. Cotton in Benin: governance and pest management

    OpenAIRE

    Togbe, C.E.

    2013-01-01

    Key words: cotton, synthetic pesticides, neem oil (Azadirachta indica), Beauveria bassiana, Bacillus thuringiensis, field experiment, farmers’ participation   Pests are one of the main factors limiting cotton production worldwide. Most of the pest control strategies in cotton production rely heavily on the application of synthetic pesticides. The recurrent use of synthetic pesticides has large consequences for the environment (air, water, fauna, and flora) and human health. In cott...

  17. Cotton in Benin: governance and pest management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Togbe, C.E.

    2013-01-01

    Key words: cotton, synthetic pesticides, neem oil (Azadirachta indica), Beauveria bassiana, Bacillus thuringiensis, field experiment, farmers’ participation   Pests are one of the main factors limiting cotton production worldwide. Most of the pest control strategies in cotton producti

  18. Enseñanza y aprendizaje del ELE en Benín: ¿qué puede aportar la adaptación del MCER? / Teaching and learning of SFL in Benin: What can provide the adaptation of the CEFR?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent-Fidèle Sossouvi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El Marco Común Europeo de Referencia para las Lenguas (MCER funciona en Europa como una herramienta para resolver y mejorar las dificultades de los estados miembros en materia de enseñanza de lenguas extranjeras. Pese a su universalidad, su obligada referencia y gran importancia en el mundo, sigue siendo desconocido por los profesionales de la enseñanza de lenguas extranjeras, especialmente del castellano en Benín. En este trabajo se hace hincapié en las posibilidades que tiene este documento en este país. Por ello, se comienza presentando algunas realidades del contexto de aprendizaje para luego explicar en qué consiste este marco supranacional. Después, se explora su importancia para la mejora de la docencia, del aprendizaje y de la evaluación, para centrarse en sus posibles aportaciones en el aula de castellano. Abstract The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR works in Europe as a tool to solve and improve the plight of the state members relating to the foreign languages teaching. Despite the universality, obligatory reference and the great importance of this tool in the world, it remains unknown to foreign language teaching experts, especially those of Spanish as Foreign Language (SFL in Benin. This paper emphasizes the possibilities of this document in this country. Therefore, we start by presenting some realities of learning context and then we explain what this frame supranational is. Then, we explore its importance for improving teaching, learning and assessment, and focus on their possible contributions to the Spanish language classroom.

  19. Consumers’ preferences for “bicycle poultry” in Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodjinou, Epiphane; Henningsen, Arne; Koudande, Delphin O.;

    2015-01-01

    Village poultry, also termed "bicycle poultry," is produced in scavenging farming systems and is a chewy meat with a low fat content, and constitutes an important source of meat in many African countries. This study investigates consumers’ preferences regarding the physical traits of these birds ...

  20. WEST AFRICAN TECHNOLOGY, EDUCATION AND RECIPROCITY (WATER) FOR BENIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Songhai Center has produced and tested over 300 fully functional point-of-use drinking water filters. The holistic approach of incorporated water treatment, waste reduction, economic development and promoted environmental and health awareness in the community. The ...

  1. Consumers’ preferences for “bicycle poultry” in Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodjinou, Epiphane; Henningsen, Arne; Koudande, Delphin O.;

    Village poultry, also termed "bicycle poultry," is produced in scavenging farming systems and is a chewy meat with a low fat content, and constitutes an important source of meat in many African countries. This study investigates consumers’ preferences regarding the physical traits of these birds...... are willing to pay a premium for these types of birds. The factors which significantly influence the price of chicken are the breed of the bird, the plumage color, the meatiness and the age of the bird. Consumers are willing to pay a price premium for meatier birds of traditional breeds with white plumage...... color and aged between six and twelve months. Thus, efforts to improve local breeds should stress these preferred traits....

  2. [Caesarean section in the context of free policy in Benin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahieu, Céline

    2016-01-01

    Caesarean section was well appreciated by most beneficiaries. However, an audit of caesarean sections would ensure compliance with the principles of free care and better management of women at all levels of the health system.. PMID:27531438

  3. Iodine deficiency and functional performance of schoolchildren in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briel-van Ingen, van den T.

    2001-01-01

    The notion that iodine deficiency may lead not only to goiter and cretinism, but to a much wider range of disorders, from stillbirth and abortions, to hearing problems and mental and physical underdevelopment began to be accepted beyond the research community since the early 1980's. In 1990 it was e

  4. Wound care in Buruli ulcer disease in Ghana and Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velding, Kristien; Klis, Sandor-Adrian; Abass, Kabiru M.; Tuah, Wilson; Stienstra, Ymkje; van der Werf, Tjip

    2014-01-01

    Buruli ulcer (BU) is a disease affecting the skin, subcutaneous fat, and bone tissues. Wound care is important in the prevention of disabilities. Awareness of current wound care practices in BU-endemic regions is necessary for future wound care interventions. Thirty-one health care workers in Ghana

  5. Seroevidence of Chlamydia Trachomatis Antibody in Infertile Women in University of Benin Teaching Hospital (Ubth Benin City, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibadin, K. O.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of Chlamydia trachomatis in the pathogenesis of Pelvic inflammatory disease and majority of cases of salpinigitis are well acknowledged in women. A total of 213 sera from infertile women were tested for antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis by using an indirect solid phases enzyme Immuno absorbent commercial ELISA test. Women with confirmed Hysterosalpinographic report suggesting tubal occlusion (tubal factor infertility had 92 (43.2% followed by 63 (29.6% infertile women with infertile male partner and 58 (27.2% were having unexplained infertility. Out of the tubal factor (TF infertile women 40 (18.8% were seropositive for Chlamydia trachomatis antibodies, as against 19 (8.9% in the group of women with normal patent tubes and 10 (4.6% women with infertile male partner. In this study there was a statistical significant correlation between the infertile women with tubal factor infertility in relation to seroevidence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection with p<0.05. There was no age bias in the serodetection of Chlamydia trachomatis antibodies. The seropositivity of Chlamydia trachomatis is an indication that the organism may be an independent risk factor in the development of an inflammatory process leading to scaring of the uterine tubes in women and thereby causing infertility.

  6. Urogenital Tract Infection in Asymptomatic Male Patients with Infertility in University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Edo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibadin, K. O.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Urogenital tract infection (UTI contributes to the commonest single defined cause of infertility worldwide. To evaluate the role of urogenital tract infection in male with infertility and its association with sperm quality. Methodology and Results: Three hundred and twenty three (323 samples from infertile male subject were screened microbiologically for microorganisms associated with urogenital tract infection with seventy-two (72 age-matched male as controls using microbiological standard procedure. 164 (50.8% infection rate was recorded. The dorminant uropathogen detected or isolated were Staphylococcus aureus (14.0%, Chlamydia trachomatis (11.4%, Escherichia coli (4.3%, Micoplasma genitalium (4.0% Klebsielli aerogenes (4.0%. Others were Staphylococus saprophyticus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Protein mirabilis with 2.7% each respectively, Protein vulgaria treponema pallidum (2.1%, Schistosoma haematobium (0.9% Wulchereria Bancrofti (0.3%, Human immune virus (2.7%. Semen profile of the male patients with urogenital tract infection had abnormal semen quality in this study P<0.05. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Oligospermic infertile male subjects should be screened for urogenital tract infection to further enhance good quality sperms and functions.

  7. A Survey of ICT Competencies among Students in Teacher Preparation Programmes at the University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, R. B.; Pessu, C. O. A.

    2013-01-01

    Today's fast-paced world is becoming increasingly characterized by technology driven communication, which has transformed the world into a large global connected community with ever-increasing outreach of information and communication technology (ICT). Technology plays an increasingly important role in people's lives, and it is envisaged…

  8. Compliance with new drugs in glaucoma therapy in Benin-city, Nigeria / Cumplimiento con los nuevos medicamentos antiglaucoma en Benin City - (Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omoti AE

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the compliance rate, reasons for default and factors affecting compliance with new drugs in glaucoma therapy. Method: Fifty-six new patients on medical therapy with the recent drugs for primary open-angle glaucoma were followed-up for a minimum duration of 3 months and a maximum of 9 months. The number of drug doses missed per week as well as the reasons for default were recorded. Compliant and non-compliant patients were also compared in terms of prescribed treatment and personal characteristics. Results: The most commonly prescribed drugs were topical dorzolamide, brinzolamide, latanoprost, apraclonidine and travoprost. The non-compliance rate was 66.1%. Major reasons for defaulting were side effects (36.6%, scarcity of drugs (22% and high cost of drugs (12.2%. Knowledge of glaucoma was significantly associated with good compliance (p<0.01. Conclusion: The level of compliance with new drugs in glaucoma therapy is very poor. Health education and the provision of affordable, accessible and appropriate medical therapy are required.

  9. Compliance with new drugs in glaucoma therapy in Benin-city, Nigeria / Cumplimiento con los nuevos medicamentos antiglaucoma en Benin City - (Nigeria)

    OpenAIRE

    Omoti AE; Ukponmwan CU

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the compliance rate, reasons for default and factors affecting compliance with new drugs in glaucoma therapy. Method: Fifty-six new patients on medical therapy with the recent drugs for primary open-angle glaucoma were followed-up for a minimum duration of 3 months and a maximum of 9 months. The number of drug doses missed per week as well as the reasons for default were recorded. Compliant and non-compliant patients were also compared in terms of prescribed treatment...

  10. Petroleum and natural gas economy in Arab Countries and in Benin, Chad Cameroon, Namibia, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives informations on petroleum and natural gas industry, petroleum market and prices, trade and contracts, prospection and production. In Saudi Arabia, Saudi Aramco has begun the works to increase the production capacity of the petroleum refinery of Ras Tanura. In Kuwait, the cost of the retrofitting and development programs for the petroleum field is evaluated to 4 milliards $. Several contracts have been signed in Tunisia and in Nigeria for the attribution of exploration permits. A cooperation agreement has been signed, in Taiwan, between Total and Chinese Petroleum Corporation, which allows the establishment of joint ventures for the development of petroleum exploration in Far East. Petroleum exploration has begun in Namibia where Norsk Hydro has achieved the interpretation of seismic studies and will drill a first exploration well. In Egypt, petroleum production is stabilized at a level of 870000 barrels per day and the transport capacity of Sumed pipeline will increase from 80 to 117 millions tons per year in 1994

  11. Revisiting land reform: land rights, access, and soil fertility management on the Adja Plateau in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yemadje, H.R.M.; Crane, T.; Mongbo, R.L.; Saidou, A.; Azontond, H.A.; Kossou, D.K.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2014-01-01

    In the oil palm-based cropping system on the Adja Plateau, land titling plays an important role. Landowners argue that oil palm fallow (dekan) restores soil fertility, but in the long-term it is also an instrument in the struggle for control over land. A land-titling programme in the study area allo

  12. Making School Safe for Girls: Combating Gender-Based Violence in Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wible, Brent

    2004-01-01

    Gender-based violence is a global problem that causes more poor health and death than a host of other physical and psychological maladies combined, but it is only slowly being addressed by national public health policies and actions. Even more difficult to bring to the forefront is the issue of gender-based violence and sexual harassment in the…

  13. Protective Antibodies against Placental Malaria and Poor Outcomes during Pregnancy, Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ndam, Nicaise Tuikue; Denoeud-Ndam, Lise; Doritchamou, Justin;

    2015-01-01

    Placental malaria is caused by Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes that bind to placental tissue. Binding is mediated by VAR2CSA, a parasite antigen coded by the var gene, which interacts with chondroitin sulfate A (CSA). Consequences include maternal anemia and fetal growth retardation....... Antibody-mediated immunity to placental malaria is acquired during successive pregnancies, but the target of VAR2CSA-specific protective antibodies is unclear. We assessed VAR2CSA-specific antibodies in pregnant women and analyzed their relationships with protection against placental infection, preterm...... infection, preterm birth, and low birthweight. These data suggest that antibodies against VAR2CSA N-terminal region mediate immunity to placental malaria and associated outcomes. Our results validate current vaccine development efforts with VAR2CSA N-terminal constructs....

  14. Drinking water: a need met for the people of the commune of Bantè, Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Fousseni

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available RACINES (Recherches, Actions Communautaires, Initiatives pour un Nouvel ESpoir is a Beni¬nese non-governmental organization established in 1999 following the initiatives of young Beninese execu¬tives. A case study undertaken in 2003 in the villages of Galata and Agbon in the commune of Bantè identified the need for drinking water as the most urgent need. In response to this need, and with the financial support of Oxfam Québec, RACINES initiated a project for the installation of manual water pumps in the two villages. The development of this project involved three major phases: the mobilization of communities around this project, the installation of water pumps and the organization of socio-sanitary educational activities. Twenty months into the execution of the project, a local management committee was established and strengthened, a hand-operated water pump was installed and water-themed public awareness activities, such as water use, water sanitation and the dangers of drinking dirty or contaminated water, were organized every month or so in each of the two communities. Overall, this project has introduced a new type of leadership in the commune of Bantè, involving a high level of participation by young people working alongside the elders in the local management committees and ensuring the perpetuation of the systems installed.RACINES (Recherches, Actions Communautaires, Initiatives pour un Nouvel ESpoir est une organisation béninoise non gouvernementale créée en 1999 à l’initiative de jeunes cadres béninois. Au nombre des besoins identifiés en 2003 suite à une étude prospective, l’eau potable s’est révélée comme besoin prioritaire dans les villages de Galata et d’Agbon dans la commune de Bantè. En réponse à ce besoin, RACINES a initié, avec le soutien financier de Oxfam Québec, un projet pour l’installation de pompes d’eau manuelles dans les villages concernés. La mise en œuvre de ce projet comporte trois étapes majeures : la mobilisation sociale autour du projet, l’installation des pompes d’eau et les activités d’éducation socio-sanitaire. Après vingt mois d’exécution du projet, un comité local de gestion est mis en place et renforcé, une pompe à motricité humaine est forée et les activités de sensibilisation s’organisent chaque quinzaine de mois sur les thématiques liées à l’eau telles que l’utilité de l’eau, l’hygiène de l’eau, les dangers de la consommation d’eau sale ou souillée, dans chacune des deux localités. Au total, ce projet a introduit un nouveau type de leadership dans la commune de Bantè avec une forte participation des jeunes aux côtés des personnes âgées dans les comités locaux de gestion pour assurer la pérennisation des ouvrages installés.RACINES (Recherches, Actions Communautaires, Initiatives pour un Nouvel ESpoir  es una organización beninesa no gubernamental fundada en 1999 tras las iniciativas de jóvenes ejecutivos benineses. Un estudio de caso emprendido en 2003 en las aldeas de Galata y Agbon en la comuna de Bantè identificó la necesidad de agua potable como la necesidad más urgente. En respuesta a esta necesidad, y con el apoyo económico de Oxfam Quebec, RACINES inició un proyecto para la instalación de bombas de agua manuales en las dos aldeas. El desarrollo de este proyecto implicó tres fases principales: la movilización de las comunidades en torno a este proyecto, la instalación de bombas de agua y la organización de actividades educativas socio-sanitarias. Veinte meses después de la ejecución del proyecto, se creó y reforzó un comité directivo local, se instaló una bomba de agua manual y cada mes se organizaron en cada una de las dos aldeas actividades de concienciación pública sobre temas relacionados con el agua, como el uso de agua, saneamiento de agua y los peligros de beber agua sucia o contaminada. En términos generales, este proyecto ha introducido un nuevo tipo de liderazgo en la comuna de Bantè, implicando un alto nivel de participación por parte de jóvenes que trabajan junto a personas mayores en los comités directivos locales y asegurando la perpetuación de los sistemas instalados.

  15. Effect of anemia on hepatotoxicity of HAART in HIV patients in Benin city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose A Ugiagbe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepatotoxicity is a relevant adverse effect of highly active antiretroviral Treatment owing to its frequency, and it can cause interruption of therapy, hepatitis, and death. There is dearth of information on hepatotoxicity arising from highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in anemic patients. Anemia is the most common symptom in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. We studied the effect of anemia on hepatotoxicity in HIV patients who were about to start HAART, attending clinic, or in the medical wards. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study in which patients were recruited consecutively and followed up for 24 weeks. Results: In all, 84 patients were recruited and 42 were enrolled as controls. The mean ages of the cases and controls were 35.2΁9.9 and 35.5΁9.0 years, respectively. The age range of the cases was 18-68 years with a median age of 31.5 years, whereas the mean age of the controls was 20-57 years with a median age of 33.5 years. There was no difference (t=0.197, df=124, and P=0.844. There were 61 females (72.6% and 23 males (27.4% in the cases, whereas in the controls, there were 34 females (81.0% and 8 males (19.0%. Among the cases, 30 (35.7% were anemic, while 54 (64.3% were not anemic. Six (20% of the anemic patients had hepatotoxicity, and 9 (16.7% of the patients with normal packed cell volume had hepatotoxicity. Among the controls, all 42 (100% patients had normal packed cell volume. Four (9.5% of the patients had hepatotoxicity. There was no association between hepatotoxicity and anemia (χ2 =3.243, df=2, P=0.198. Conclusion: Anemia did not affect hepatotoxicity of HAART in this study.

  16. Future of television between survival and increasing: comparison between France, Belgium and Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellarminus Gildas KAKPOVI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the first experiment of transmitting television pictures in 1926 by Scottish Baird, things have changed exponentially in the television industry. It all really started by the American Zworykin who in 1929 devised the first electronic television set. From images in black and white, we got to color televisions. A feat of new technologies, but some will predict through this encounter the television’s death. Unlike them, we see in this marriage, a new era of the television industry. This article proposes to explore the issue since the "coopetition" between television and ICT, to the current state of television, and futurists’ predictions.

  17. Eating Disorders and Personality Profile of Female Secondary Schools Students in Benin Metropolis, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izevbigie, T. I.; Owie, I.

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigated the prevalence of eating disorders of female students and the consequence on their personality profile. Three research questions were raised and one hypothesis formulated. One thousand seven hundred and sixteen (1716) students whose ages ranged from 13-17 years were drawn from secondary school female students in Benin…

  18. Ovarian tumors among Nigerian females: A private practice experience in Benin-City, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Dafe Forae

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Germ cell tumor was the most common with the majority occurring in reproductive age. Our finding is a reversal of what obtains in the western countries where surface epithelial tumor was the most common with the majority occurring in elderly females.

  19. Impact Ex-ante de la Strategie Nationale pour le Developpement de la Riziculture au Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Amos, Allodehou; Aliou, Diagne; Gauthier, Biaou; Florent, Kinkingninhoun-Medagbé

    2013-01-01

    La production locale de riz peine à satisfaire la demande de riz au Bénin. En 2011, le gouvernement du Bénin a élaboré une Stratégie Nationale pour le Développement de la Riziculture (SNDR) en vue d’accroître la production, améliorer les revenus des riziculteurs et dégager des surplus pour l’exportation. Ce papier se propose d’évaluer l’impact ex-ante de la SNDR sur la production de riz et sur le revenu des riziculteurs. Les résultats des estimations économétriques montrent que l’offre totale...

  20. Use of job aids to improve facility-based postnatal counseling and care in rural Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, L; Yebadokpo, A; Affo, J; Agbogbe, M

    2015-03-01

    This study examined the effect of a job aids-focused intervention on quality of facility-based postnatal counseling, and whether increased communication improved in-hospital newborn care and maternal knowledge of home practices and danger signs requiring urgent care. Ensuring mothers and newborns receive essential postnatal services, including health counseling, is integral to their survival. Yet, quality of clinic-based postnatal services is often low, and evidence on effective improvement strategies is scarce. Using a pre-post randomized design, data were drawn from direct observations and interviews with 411 mother-newborn pairs. Multi-level regression models with difference-in-differences analyses estimated the intervention's relative effect, adjusting for changes in the comparison arm. The mean percent of recommended messages provided to recently-delivered women significantly improved in the intervention arm as compared to the control (difference-in-differences [∆i - ∆c] +30.9, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 19.3, 42.5), and the proportion of newborns thermally protected within the first hour (∆i - ∆c +33.7, 95 % CI 19.0, 48.4) and delayed for bathing (∆i - ∆c +23.9, 95 % CI 9.4, 38.4) significantly increased. No significant changes were observed in early breastfeeding (∆i - ∆c +6.8, 95 % CI -2.8, 16.4) which was nearly universal. Omitting traditional umbilical cord substances rose slightly, but was insignificant (∆i - ∆c +8.5, 95 % CI -2.8, 19.9). The proportion of mothers with correct knowledge of maternal (∆i - ∆c +27.8, 95 % CI 11.0, 44.6) and newborn (∆i - ∆c +40.3, 95 % CI 22.2, 58.4) danger signs grew substantially, as did awareness of several home-care practices (∆i - ∆c +26.0, 95 % CI 7.7, 44.3). Counseling job aids can improve the quality of postnatal services. However, achieving reduction goals in maternal and neonatal mortality will likely require more comprehensive approaches to link enhanced facility services with community-based initiatives. PMID:24916207

  1. Analysis of the essential oil from leaves of Croton zambesicus Muell. Arg. growing in Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Block, Sébastien; Flamini, G; Brkic, D.; I. Morelli; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle

    2006-01-01

    The leaves of Croton zambesicus are widely used in African folk medicine as a water decoction to treat hypertension, microbial infections and fever associated with malaria. Cytotoxic trachylobane and pimarane diterpenes have been isolated from a dichloromethane extract of the leaves. In order to check whether these compounds are present in the essential oil, we have analysed its composition by GC-FID and GC-MS. The major constituents of the oil are caryophyllene oxide (19.5%), beta-caryophyll...

  2. Nutritional and economic values of by-products used in poultry diets in Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houndonougbo, Mankpondji Frederic; Chwalibog, Andrzej; CHrysostome, C.A.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    ). On the contrary, no significant effect of the processing technolkogy was noticed on the FC and the EFE with palm meals and cotton meals diets. The metabolizability of energy was affected by the diet, while it was the contrary for nitrogen. Computed per kg of metabolic body size (kg0.75), the daily intake......The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two soybean meals (S1, S2) and two palm meals (P1, P2) from solvent and expeller processing, and two cotton meals (C1, C2) both from solvent processing on the bioeconomic performances of broilers. 360 broilers Red Bro were fed six diets containing...... diets at each phase. The body weight was significantly lower in S2 at d 21 (419 g in S1 vs 320 g in S2) and at d 49 (1531 g in S1 vs 1374 g in S2). At d 49, the highest average body weight (1543 g in C1) was significantly different from the lowest weight (1374 g in S2). However, the daily body weight...

  3. Benin; Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper—2005 Progress Report

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2008-01-01

    This Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) was developed based on a long participatory process based on an institutional mechanism involving all socioeconomic development actors in the country. The annual review of the PRSP seeks to assess the results achieved in the implementation of the poverty reduction strategy by analyzing the evolution of the performance indicators retained and the level of execution of the matrix of measures retained in the PRSP. This study is based on the reports of...

  4. Rural Credit and Farms Efficiency: Modelling Farmers Credit Allocation Decisions, Evidences from Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comlan Hervé Sossou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses farmers’ credit allocation behaviors and their effects on technical efficiency. Data were collected from 476 farmers using the multistage sampling procedure. The stochastic frontier truncated-normal with conditional mean model is used to assess allocation schemes effects on technical efficiency. Tobit model reveals the impact of farmers’ sociodemographic characteristics on efficiency scores. Results reveal that farm revenue (about 2,262,566 Fcfa on average is positively correlated with land acreage, quantity of labour, and costs of fertilizers and insecticides. Farmers’ behaviors respond to six schemes which are categorized in two allocations contexts: out-farm and in-farm allocations. The model shows that only scheme (e positively impacts technical efficiency. This scheme refers to the decision to invest credit to purchase better quality of pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers, and so forth. The positive effect of the scheme (c may be significant under conditions of farmers’ education level improvement. Then, scheme (e is a better investment for all farmers, but effect of credit allocation to buy agricultural materials is positive only for educated farmers. Efficiency scores are reduced by household size and gender of the household head. Therefore a household with more than 10 members and a woman as head is likely to not be technically efficient.

  5. National profile and treatment outcomes of patients with extrapulmonary tuberculosis in Benin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Ade

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, there is a dearth of published literature on extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB. OBJECTIVE: To describe demographic, diagnostic and HIV-status characteristics of patients with EPTB in Bénin, their treatment outcomes, and among those who completed their treatment in the Centre National Hospitalier de Pneumo-Phtisiologie (CNHP-P, the proportion whose bodyweight increased during treatment. MATERIAL AND FINDINGS: This was a retrospective cohort study with comparisons made between EPTB and new smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (NPTB patients diagnosed in the country from January to December 2011. There were 383 EPTB patients (9% of all TB cases with a mean age of 35 years, male/female ratio of 1.3 and important regional variation. There were significantly more females (p = 0.001, children <15 years (p<0.001 and HIV-positive patients (p = 0.005 with EPTB compared with NPTB. Pleural effusion, spinal and lymph node tuberculosis accounted for 66% of all EPTB. Children <15 years represented 16% of cases, with lymph node disease being most common among them (p<0.001. Of 130 EPTB patients registered in CNHP-P, 7% had a confirmed bacteriological/histological diagnosis. There were 331 (86% patients who successfully completed treatment. More patients with EPTB were lost-to-follow-up compared with NPTB (p<0.001 with all these patients from one region. The best treatment completion rates were in children <15 years (OR:3.5, 95%CI:1.0-14.8 while patients with pleural effusion and ascites had the worst outcomes. Of 72 HIV-coinfected patients, 88% were on antiretroviral therapy (ART. HIV-positive status was associated with poor outcomes while those on ART fared better. In the CNHP-P, more than 80% who completed their treatment showed an increase in bodyweight and this was more evident in HIV-positive compared with HIV-negative patients (p = 0.03. CONCLUSION: Patients with EPTB generally do well in Bénin, although the TB Programme would benefit through more attention to accurate diagnosis and earlier start of ART in HIV-infected patients.

  6. Patterns of Adolescent Psychoactive Substance Use and Abuse in Benin City, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pela, Ona A.

    1989-01-01

    Used unobtrusive methods to collect data on substance use from 320 Nigerian partygoers aged 14 through 25. Found that adolescents tended to use following drugs in decreasing order of frequency: alcohol, cigarettes. stimulants, cannabis, and sedative-hypnotics. Polydrug use, especially of alcohol, stimulants, and cigarettes, was common. (Author/NB)

  7. Model representation of the Sudanian hydrological processes: Application on the Donga catchment (Benin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Lay, M.; Saulnier, G.-M.; Galle, S.; Seguis, L.; Métadier, M.; Peugeot, Ch.

    2008-12-01

    SummaryDuring the AMMA (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis) program, intensive field experiments were conducted on the Donga catchment (586 km 2), which is part of the Ouémé surveyed hydrological watershed (14,400 km 2). Based on these studies, a number of general hydrological assumptions were derived to explain the hydrological functioning of catchments located in the Sudanian hydrological area of West Africa. To take advantage of this field-acquired knowledge in the study of the impacts of climate and anthropogenic changes in these catchments, a model (TOPAMMA) was derived based on these hydrological assumptions. Subsurface lateral fluxes were described in the model using the TOPMODEL framework. The recharge of the deep water table was also modelled, taking into account its disconnection from the river network. Simple geomorphologic approaches were used to estimate the time-transfer of both surface and subsurface water fluxes. Finally, to be consistent with the available meteorological data, a simple parameterization of evapotranspiration was added to the model. This paper details this modelisation as well as its corroboration on the Donga catchment. The data collected over the catchment during the 2002-2004 periods was therefore used at different scales, within either a quantitative or qualitative perspective. The results show that the model representation of the water cycle is quite realistic, which allows the AMMA community to have a useful tool available for water balance studies on the Sudanian region. However, further field investigations are necessary to confirm main model assumptions. Finally, the process representation in the model is now improved, especially with regard to the description of spatial land-surface heterogeneities and surface-atmosphere interactions.

  8. Modeling and bio-economic analysis of broilers' performance in Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houndonougbo, Mankpondji Frederic; Chwalibog, André; Chrysostome, C.A.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to model bio-economic variables in broilers feeding. During 7 weeks, 120 broilers Red Bro were fed with diets containing soybean meals from solvent (Ss) or expeller (Se) processing. At grower phase (d 22 to d 49) the diets were switched for half of broilers in each...

  9. HIV/AIDS orphans as farmers: uncovering pest knowledge differences through an ethnobiological approach in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fagbémissi, R.C.; Price, L.L.

    2008-01-01

    The erosion of local/indigenous firming knowledge in the face of HIV/AIDS deaths in Africa has been noted as a point of concerti in the literature and by organizations such as the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. These concerns are about a break in the transmission of knowled

  10. An appropriate tool for appetite testing and evaluation in young children in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dossa, R.A.; Ategbo, E.A.; Raaij, van J.M.; Graaf, de C.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    2002-01-01

    Appetite measurements were performed in 109 Beninese children aged 18–30 months to develop a tool for appetite evaluation in young children in nutritional intervention programmes. Two test foods were identified as appropriate for these children: a maize porridge (aklui) and rice (riz-au-gras). Ad li

  11. Air pollution and respiratory diseases in African big cities : the case of Cotonou in Benin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotonou is one of the most polluted cities in west Africa because of its preferred mode of transportation for residents, the zemidjan. The zemidjan is a two-wheeled vehicle taxi whose motorcycle exhaust emits air pollution, creating health risks for drivers, passengers and residents. The pollution contributes to respiratory diseases and other ailments such as respiratory infection, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. This paper describes and statistically analyses the pollution problem in Cotonou by presenting information on the city of Cotonou, examining environment quality indicators (such as air quality) and presenting an overview of the situation. It also estimates and forecasts the human health risks to Cotonou residents. It reviews the measures taken by central and local governments to protect citizens against these risks. The paper also makes several recommendations including: organize a permanent and formal monitoring system for air quality management in the city; create stronger local laws and rules to regulate air pollution in the city; involve the population living in the city in decision making processes; and, conduct research studies on the perception and behaviour of the population towards environmental issues such as air pollution and air quality. 6 tabs., 1 fig., 11 refs

  12. Experts from necessity : agricultural knowledge of children orphaned by AIDS in the Couffo region, Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fagbemissi, R.C.

    2010-01-01

    Chapter 1 sketches the general background of the study. The study tests the hypothesis that HIV and AIDS not only impairs or modifies farmers’ agroecological knowledge base, but also impairs or modifies their strategies to mobilize knowledge and resources. The research mainly aims to understand

  13. Candida colonisation in asymptomatic HIV patients attending a tertiary hospital in Benin City, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton O. Esebelahie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candidiasis is the commonest opportunistic fungal infection in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. CD4+ lymphocyte counts have been found to be a marker of HIV disease progression. Aim: This study focused on determining the spectrum of Candida isolates in urine, stool, and oral specimens among HIV patients in a tertiary hospital. Methods: A total of 300 subjects comprising of 200 HIV patients and 100 non-HIV subjects were used for this study. Three samples (urine, stool, and oral swab were collected from each subject. Each specimen was processed using standard microbiological techniques and emergent Candida isolates were identified with CHROMagar™ Candida and sugar fermentation tests. Results: The overall prevalence of Candida colonisation among HIV patients was 52.5%. HAART-naive patients had a significantly higher prevalence (OR = 3.65; 95% CI = 2.03–6.56; p<0.0001 than their counterpart on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART (OR = 1.99; 95% CI = 1.13–3.50; p=0.0232. Female gender was a significant risk factor for acquiring Candida infection (OR = 3.40; 95% CI = 1.14–10.13; p=0.0289. The effect of age on prevalence of candidiasis was observed among HIV patients on HAART (p=0.0161. A CD4+ count <200 cells/µl was a significant risk factor for acquiring candidal infection only among HAART-naive patients (OR = 4.37; 95% CI = 1.60–11.95; p=0.0042. The five species of Candida recovered from this study were C. albicans, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, and C. glabrata. Conclusion: There is a significant relationship between antiretroviral therapy, CD4+ counts, and the prevalence of candidiasis.

  14. Exploring the Rhythmic Timelines of Southern Benin in the General Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellizo, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    The inclusion of world music from a variety of cultures and traditions within the general music curriculum creates valuable opportunities for students to experience music in ways that are both culturally and pedagogically beneficial. By exploring the connection between the fields of ethnomusicology and music education, we can expand our current…

  15. Improving village poultry's survival rate through community-based poultry health management: evidence from Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodjinou, Epiphane; Henningsen, Arne; Koudande, Olorounto Delphin

    2013-01-01

    Community-based poultry health management (CBM) is a strategy for village poultry improvement based on the installment of "poultry interest groups" in experimental villages. These groups serve as a channel for the dissemination of village poultry improvement technologies. The use of CBM is due to the fact that village poultry farming is practiced in a total or partial scavenging system which gives the impression that all the birds in the village belong to the same flock. Accordingly, actions that target all farmers of the same village may have a larger impact on the village poultry's survival rate than actions that target individual producers. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of CBM on the survival rate of village poultry. Based on data collected on 353 poultry keepers, the study shows that CBM significantly improves the survival rate of village poultry. The adoption of technologies--poultry vaccination, construction of henhouses, and improved feed--disseminated through the CBM also significantly improves the survival rate. The access to markets for inputs and veterinary services is also important in improving the survival rate of poultry. Finally, the study suggests that governments and development agencies can improve village poultry survival rates by investing in the dissemination of information regarding best husbandry management practices through approaches that rely on the community such as CBM because CBM groups serve as channels for the dissemination of village poultry improvement technologies. PMID:22618192

  16. Making rural development work: cultural hybridization of farmers' organizations. The Adja case in Benin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vodouhê, S.D.

    1996-01-01

    This book analyses farmers' organizations with respect to trust and accountability, in order to contribute to the building of viable organizations. It argues that the lack of trust or of effective accountability mechanisms is one of the major factors which undermine the effectiveness of farmers' org

  17. Three Traditional Fermented Baobab Foods from Benin, Mutchayan, Dikouanyouri and Tayohounta: Preparation, Properties and Consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chadare, F.J.; Gayet, D.P.; Azokpota, P.; Nout, M.J.R.; Linnemann, A.R.; Hounhouigan, M.H.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Forest food resources contribute significantly to food supply in areas where they grow. Three fermented baobab foods were studied: Dikouanyouri (from seeds, pH = 6.5); Tayohounta (from seed kernels, pH = 7), and Mutchayan (from baobab pulp and sorghum, pH = 4.2). Bacillus spp. (8.5 and 9.5 Log cfu /

  18. Treatment of hypercholesterolemia: screening of Solanum macrocarpon Linn (Solanaceae as a medicinal plant in Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamègnon Victorien Dougnon

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Hypercholesterolemia is the greatest risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The present study is conducted to evaluate the lipid lowering activity of leaves and fruits of Solanum macrocarpon, a vegetable, on Wistar rats experimentally rendered hypercholesterolemic by Triton X-100. Materials and Methods: The leaves and fruits were administered (p.o. for 7 days to rats at doses of 400 and 800 mg/kg of body weight. Atorvastatin was used as reference treatment drug. The data were analyzed by the Brown-Forsythe ANOVA, Dunnett’s T3 multiple comparison test, and Dunnett’s t test. All tests were done at the 5% significance level. Results: Administration of S. macrocarpon (fruits as well as leaves resulted in a statistically significant decrease in total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides in the treated groups compared with the untreated hypercholesterolemic group, regardless of the administrated doses. A significant increase in HDL-cholesterol was observed in the treated groups. Hepatic disorders due to the Triton have been corrected by S. macrocarpon. Conclusions: This vegetable effectively suppresses experimental hypercholesterolemia in Wistar rats, suggesting a protective role in cardiovascular diseases. Its use by individuals at risk should be promoted.

  19. Pain Associated with Wound Care Treatment among Buruli Ulcer Patients from Ghana and Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alferink, Marike; de Zeeuw, Janine; Sopoh, Ghislain; Agossadou, Chantal; Abass, Karibu M.; Phillips, Richard O.; Loth, Susanne; Jutten, Emma; Barogui, Yves T.; Stewart, Roy E.; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Stienstra, Ymkje; Ranchor, Adelita V.

    2015-01-01

    Buruli ulcer (BU) is a necrotizing skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. People living in remote areas in tropical Sub Saharan Africa are mostly affected. Wound care is an important component of BU management; this often needs to be extended for months after the initial antibiotic treatment

  20. Yeast dynamics during spontaneous fermentation of mawe and tchoukoutou, two traditional products from Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greppi, Anna; Rantisou, Kalliopi; Padonou, Wilfrid;

    2013-01-01

    yeast species were detected in the early stages of fermentation. For the predominant species a succession of biotypes was demonstrated by rep-PCR for the fermentation of both products. The direct analysis at DNA and RNA levels in the case of mawe did not reveal any other species except those already...

  1. Local land management in Benin with special reference to pastoral groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. de Haan (Leo); T. Djedjebi

    2000-01-01

    textabstractA review of local land management experiences in West Africa reveals that the resolution of conflicts over the uses of resources between herders and farmers depends on factors like land and water rights, promotion of the interests of pastoral groups and the Intervention of traditional an

  2. A Survey on Ophthalmia Neonatorum in Benin City, Nigeria (Emphasis on gonococcal ophthalmia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enabulele Onaiwu

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the incidence of gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum considering its ability to lead to childhood blindness through corneal ulceration and scarification. Eye swabs were obtained from 330 neonates of 1-5 days in the hospitals of study. Of these, 248 yielded growth and six bacterial genera were identified using standard techniques. Staphylococcus aureus was the most prevalent (60.5% while Neisseria gonorrhoeae accounted for 1.7%. Susceptibility patterns of bacterial isolates to four antibiotics were determined using Disk-diffusion tests. Staphylococcus aureus and Neisseria gonorrhoeae showed 62.5 and 100% susceptibility to Erythromycin while 66.7% of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella and 62.5% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were susceptible to Gentamicin. The incidence of gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum for the period of study was 8.9 (cases per 1,000 live births. Prevention is through ocular prophylaxis by the application of either 1% silver nitrate ophthalmic solution or 0.5% erythromycin ointment to the neonates? eyes some hours after birth. This would help to preserve vision and reduce to the barest minimum the incidence of childhood blindness.

  3. Schwannome benin primitif retrovesical: une tumeur très rare à propos d'un cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddouche, Ali; Fahsi, Othemane; Kallat, Adil; El Bote, Hicham; Ziani, Idriss; El Sayegh, Hachem; Iken, Ali; Benslimane, Lounis; Nouini, Yassine

    2016-01-01

    Le schwannome est une tumeur le plus souvent bénigne, d'origine nerveuse se développant à partir des cellules de la gaine de Schwann. C'est une tumeur très rare tant par sa fréquence que par sa localisation rétrovésicale. L'examen anatomopathologique et immunohistochimique confirme le type histologique ainsi que le caractère bénin ou malin du schwannome. En raison des récidives, et du risque de transformation maligne, l'exérèse doit être complète. Nous rapportons le cas d'un patient âgé de 39 ans, admis pour une douleur pelvienne chronique à type de pesanteur, des signes irritatifs du bas appareil urinaire, et des troubles de transit. L'imagerie (échographie, TDM, IRM) a révélé la présence d'une masse pelvienne rétrovésicale, à paroi fine, latéralisée à gauche, mesurant 68x70x70 mm, exerçant un effet de masse sur la vessie et le sigmoïde. L'intervention chirurgicale menée par une laparotomie médiane a permis l'exérèse d'une masse retrovésicale bien encapsulée. L'examen anatomopathologique et immunohistochimique ont conclu à un schwannome bénin. La récidive et la transformation maligne bien que rare après chirurgie impose une surveillance post opératoire clinique et tomodensitométrique annuelle. PMID:27217902

  4. The Adaptability of Marketing Systems to Interventions in Developing Countries: Evidence from the Pineapple System in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hounhouigan, M.H.; Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Lans, van der I.A.; Trijp, van H.C.M.; Linnemann, A.R.

    2014-01-01

    In general marketing theory, marketing systems are assumed to adapt to facilitate further economic development. However, such adaptability may be less obvious in the context of developing countries due to features in the social matrix of these countries. The present study explores adaptation in the

  5. Sanitary Risks Connected to the Consumption of Infusion from Senna rotundifolia L. Contaminated with Lead and Cadmium in Cotonou (Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Montcho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study carried out an assessment of sanitary risks connected to the consumption of Senna rotundifolia Linn. contaminated with lead and cadmium. This plant was collected and analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results revealed a contamination of plants from markets of Dantokpa, Vossa, and Godomey with heavy metals. Senna from Vossa was higher in cadmium and lead levels (Pb: 2.733 mg/kg ± 0.356 mg/kg; Cd: 0.58 mg/kg ± 0.044 mg/kg compared to the two other places (Pb: 1.825 mg/kg ± 0.133 mg/kg, Cd: 0.062 mg/kg ± 0.015 mg/kg and Pb: 1.902 mg/kg ± 0.265 mg/kg, Cd: 0.328 mg/kg ± 0.024 mg/kg, respectively, for Dantokpa and Godomey. In terms of risk assessment through the consumption of Senna, the values recorded for lead were nine times higher with children and six times higher with adults than the daily permissive intake (Pb: 3.376 × 10−2 mg/kg/day for children and 2.105 × 10−2 mg/kg/day for adults versus 3.6 × 10−3 mg/kg/day for DPI. With respect to cadmium, there was no significant difference between the recorded values and the DPI (Cd: 1 × 14 10−3 mg/ kg/day for children and Cd: 0.71 × 10−3 mg/ kg/day for adults versus Cd: 1 × 10−3 mg/kg/day for adults. This exposure of the population to lead and cadmium through the consumption of antimalarial healing plants could pose public health problems.

  6. Ethno-food knowledge of baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) and characterisation of its traditional fermented novel foods from Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chadare, F.J.; Nout, M.J.R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2013-01-01

    Adansonia digitata is a key economic tree used daily by local populations in Africa for food, medicines and cultural purposes. The aim of the study was to record the ethno-food knowledge on baobab processing and derived foods, and to further provide the properties of traditional fermented foods, for

  7. Déterminants socioéconomique du profit des exploitants des bas-fonds au Sud-Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Adegbola, Patrice Ygue; Saloufou, Moussabihatou R.; Adekambi, Souleimane Adeyemi; Coulibaly, Ousmane; Adetonah, Sounkoura; Huat, Joël

    2012-01-01

    Bon nombre d’études ont abordé les déterminants du profit dans les bas-fonds en se basant sur la fonction de production. Ces études ont été critiquées du fait de l’endogénéité des inputs. Le présent article se propose de prendre en compte cette critique. Ce qui permettra aux usagers des bas-fonds de réorienter leur choix par rapport aux cultures à pratiquer. Les données utilisées proviennent d’enquêtes réalisées dans le cadre du projet RAP par le Programme Analyse de la Politique Agricole. La...

  8. From Novice to Expert: Agroecological Competencies of Children Orphaned by AIDS Compared to Non-orphans in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fagbémissi, C.O.R.; Price, L.L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: AIDS has created new vulnerabilities for rural African households due to prime-age adult mortality and is assumed to lead to impairment of the intergenerational transfer of farming knowledge. There has been scant research to date, however, on the impacts of parental death on farming know

  9. Wild plants, pregnancy, and the food-medicine continuum in the southern regions of Ghana and Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Towns, A.M.; Andel, Van Tinde

    2016-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance In West Africa, women utilize wild plant species to maintain and enhance their health throughout the duration of pregnancy. These plants are a culturally resilient and financially accessible form of nourishment for pregnant women in the region, many of whom are maln

  10. Expression of the domain cassette 8 Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 is associated with cerebral malaria in Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertin, Gwladys I; Lavstsen, Thomas; Guillonneau, François;

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1 (PfEMP-1) is a highly polymorphic adherence receptor expressed on the surface of infected erythrocytes. Based on sequence homology PfEMP-1 variants have been grouped into three major groups A-C, the highly conserved VAR2CSA variants, and semi......-conserved types defined by tandem runs of specific domains ("domain cassettes" (DC)). The PfEMP-1 type expressed determines the adherence phenotype, and is associated with clinical outcome of infection....

  11. Propagation of Black Plum (Vitex donania Sweet) Using Stem and Root Cuttings in the Ecological Conditions of South-Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Sanoussi, A.; Ahoton, LE.; Odjo, T.

    2012-01-01

    The black plum is a multi-purpose tree well known to the rural and urban populations of tropical Africa. Its uses are well documented, but its regeneration possibilities have not yet been studied, despite the importance of this species. The objective of this study is to ensure that this tree can be propagated from other organs instead of seeds. In order to achieve this, a trial propagation, using stem and root cuttings, was conducted on two types of substrate: topsoil at the planting site (sa...

  12. The appropriation and dismembering of development intervention: policy, discourse and practice in the field of rural development in Benin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mongbo, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    This book concerns a Community Development Programme which provides a vehicle for a theoretical discussion of the reproduction of the discourse and practice of development intervention in general, and the concept of rural development as a field of social interaction in particular. The actions on whi

  13. Implications of future climate change on agricultural production in tropical West Africa: evidence from the Republic of Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Awoye, Oyémonbadé Hervé Rodrigue

    2015-01-01

    Environmental interlinked problems such as human-induced land cover change, water scarcity, loss in soil fertility, and anthropogenic climate change are expected to affect the viability of agriculture and increase food insecurity in many developing countries. Climate change is certainly the most serious of these challenges for the twenty-first century. The poorest regions of the world – tropical West Africa included – are the most vulnerable due to their high dependence on climate and weather...

  14. The appropriation and dismembering of development intervention: policy, discourse and practice in the field of rural development in Benin.

    OpenAIRE

    Mongbo, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    This book concerns a Community Development Programme which provides a vehicle for a theoretical discussion of the reproduction of the discourse and practice of development intervention in general, and the concept of rural development as a field of social interaction in particular. The actions on which the theoretical discussion is based took place in various settings: in ministry offices, within the development intervention institution (the CARDER) and at village level. The Community Developm...

  15. OPTIMIZATION OF YAM IN VITRO GENEBANKING: EFFECTS OF ACTIVATED CHARCOAL AND DARKNESS ON PLANTLETS OF THREE ACCESSIONS FROM BENIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agbidinoukoun Arnaud

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to optimize the in vitro preservation of yam genetic resources through reduction of the number of subcultures. Effects of different concentrations of activated charcoal (1 g.l-1, 2 g.l-1and 3 g.l-1 and temporary darkness were tested on the in vitro morphogenesis of three beninese yam accessions (Dcr28, Dcr164 and Da93G1. Galzy glutamine was used as basis culture medium and explants were microcuttings obtained from four months old plantlets. The results indicated that the activated charcoal, alone or combined with temporary darkness has an inhibitory effect on the aerial organs formation but favors root development with a greater mean number of root shoots (9.3±1.67 with 3 g.l-1 of activated charcoal than the subtract without activated charcoal (2.5±0.17. A significant interaction was noted between accessions and concentration of activated charcoal indicating genotypic variability from the activated charcoal effect. The different accession plantlets growing in high concentration of activated charcoal culture media combined with temporary darkness were vigorous after eight month without subculture and subsequently allow doing one subculture per year

  16. Threat of the Health Quality of Garden Produces Linked to Pollution by Toxic Metals on Some Gardening Sites of Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Koumolou Luc; Edorh A. Patrick; Agbandji Lucien; Hounkpatin S. Armelle; Elegbede Bernadin

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: Water and soil are vital resources used in agriculture. Current data establish a link between the pollution of soil, water and public health. For this reason, this study attempted to establish a link between the level of pollution of garden sites in lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd) and Arsenic (As) and the health quality of vegetables grown there, through the quality of soil and of the irrigation water. Approach: Composite samples of vegetables, irrigation water and soil taken in th...

  17. Population dynamics of freshwater oyster Etheria elliptica (Bivalvia: Etheriidae in the Pendjari River (Benin-Western Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akélé G.D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Etheria elliptica (Bivalvia: Etheriidae is the only freshwater oyster occurring in Africa. The current study provides the first data on the population structure, growth, age, mortality and exploitation status of this species in the Pendjari River. E. elliptica length-frequency data were collected monthly from January to December 2009 and analyzed with FiSAT software. Population parameters including the asymptotic length (L∞ and growth coefficient (K were assessed to evaluate the stock status. The recruitment pattern was modeled with a FiSAT routine. The asymptotic length (L∞ was 14.75 cm, while the growth coefficient (K was 0.38 year-1. The growth performance index (ø′ reached 1.92. Specimens of Etheria elliptica reached a mean size of 4.66 cm and 6.41 cm at the end of one year and 1.5 years, respectively. We estimated total mortality (Z, natural mortality (M and fishing mortality (F to be 2.90 year-1, 1.16 year-1 and 1.74 year-1, respectively. The recruitment pattern was continuous over the year with one major peak event during the rainy season (July. The exploitation rate (E = 0.60 revealed that the freshwater oyster was probably facing overexploitation due to lack of a minimum limit size and also due to an increase in the harvesting effort. Therefore, efficient management methods were urgently required to conserve the species. The return of empty shells into the water to increase the recruitment surface, rotation planning among harvesting sites and the imposition of a minimum limit size were recommendations made in order to ensure the sustainable exploitation of wild stocks.

  18. Threat of the Health Quality of Garden Produces Linked to Pollution by Toxic Metals on Some Gardening Sites of Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koumolou Luc

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Water and soil are vital resources used in agriculture. Current data establish a link between the pollution of soil, water and public health. For this reason, this study attempted to establish a link between the level of pollution of garden sites in lead (Pb, Cadmium (Cd and Arsenic (As and the health quality of vegetables grown there, through the quality of soil and of the irrigation water. Approach: Composite samples of vegetables, irrigation water and soil taken in the same periods at two garden sites in the city of Cotonou and another one in the village of Aplahoue, were analyzed for Pb, Cd and As by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The amounts (average ± SD have been compared by the statistical Student p test (T>t = 0.05. Results: The results show that all the vegetables grown on the three sites are differently contaminated with Pb, Cd and As, as well as their irrigation water and the soil. However, the link attempted to be established between pollution of soil, irrigation water and quality of vegetables, could not be obvious, it has been discussed. Soil pollution with toxic metals seems to be of minor importance and does not directly influence the contamination of vegetables Conversely to soil pollution, the levels of contamination of irrigation water by trace metals (Cd and As are much closer to that of vegetables, apart Pb. However, the high urban and atmospheric pressures in Cotonou have significantly influenced the contamination. For, it is in Aplahoue, farming environment, that the lowest amounts of metals in water and in the vegetables have been recorded. Conclusion/Recommendations: There is a risk of contamination in the food chain by heavy metals whose consumption through these gardening products could cause public health problems. Thus, the adoption of reasonable behavior and the development of new technologies are needed to associate food security, economic development, the preservation of the environment and public health.

  19. Coping with household food insecurity: a longitudinal and seasonal study among the Otammari in North-Western Benin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liere, van M.J.

    1993-01-01

    A longitudinal and seasonal study was designed to examine the relationships between, at one hand, coping with food insecurity and socio-economic characteristics at household level and, at the other hand, food consumption, time allocation and nutritional status at individual level in a unimodal clima

  20. Securite fonciere et gestion de la fertilite des sols: etudes de cas au Ghana et au Benin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saidou, A.; Adjei-Nsiah, S.; Kossou, D.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2007-01-01

    Dans le cadre d¿un programme interuniversitaire de recherche, Convergence des Sciences (CoS), une étude a été conduite sur les stratégies de gestion de la fertilité du sol dans les régions centrales du Ghana (Wenchi) et du Bénin (Savè) où des pratiques variables de gestion de la fertilité du sol son

  1. Effects of Protein Supplementation During the Dry Season on Feed Intake and the Performance of Borgou Cows in Benin Republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkoiret, I.T.; Akouedegni, G.C.; Toukourou, Y.; Bosma, R.H.; Mensah, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of dry season protein supplementation of Borgou cows on feed intake, milk production, body weight and calves growth performance. Animals (24 cows) were all given a basal diet of straw bush ad libitum. Cows of 1st group (8 cows in each group) were co

  2. Testing for the law of one price and identifying price-leading markets : An application to corn markets in benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutz, Clemens; Kuiper, Erno W; Tilburg, Aad van

    1999-01-01

    A data-determined method is proposed to test for the law of one price as a long-run equilibrium condition and to identify which markets in a network of spatially dispersed commodity markets quote the reference price. The method consists of supplementing Johansen's FIML cointegration procedure with a

  3. Healthcare seeking behaviour for Buruli ulcer in Benin : a model to capture therapy choice of patients and healthy community members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Annelies A.; Boerma, Roelien P.; Barogui, Yves; Zinsou, Claude; Johnson, R. Christian; Gbovi, Jules; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Stienstra, Ymkje

    2008-01-01

    Buruli ulcer is a devastating condition emerging in West Africa. We investigated why patients often report late to the hospital. Health seeking behaviour determinants and stigma were studied by in-depth interviews in patients treated in hospital (n = 107), patients treated traditionally (n = 46) of

  4. Federal Government Funding of Research in Universities in Nigeria, the University of Benin as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osagie, Roseline O.

    2012-01-01

    It is increasingly evident that research is extremely critical and important if universities are to serve as engines of development in their areas of locations. For a knowledge-driven world, investment in research and development (R&D) is a sine qua non for a nation. Few studies have examined the federal government's investment in research in…

  5. Expression of the domain cassette 8 Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 is associated with cerebral malaria in Benin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwladys I Bertin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1 (PfEMP-1 is a highly polymorphic adherence receptor expressed on the surface of infected erythrocytes. Based on sequence homology PfEMP-1 variants have been grouped into three major groups A-C, the highly conserved VAR2CSA variants, and semi-conserved types defined by tandem runs of specific domains ("domain cassettes" (DC. The PfEMP-1 type expressed determines the adherence phenotype, and is associated with clinical outcome of infection. METHODS: Parasite isolates from Beninese children or women presenting with, respectively, CM or PAM were collected along with samples from patients with uncomplicated malaria (UM. We assessed the transcript level of var genes by RT-qPCR and the expression of PfEMP-1 proteins by LC-MS/MS. RESULTS: Var genes encoding DC8 and Group A PfEMP-1 were transcribed more often and at higher levels in cerebral malaria vs. uncomplicated malaria patients. LC-MS/MS identified peptides from group A, DC8 PfEMP-1 more frequently in cerebral malaria than in uncomplicated malaria and pregnancy-associated malaria samples. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to show association between PfEMP-1 subtype and disease outcome by direct analysis of parasites proteome. The results corroborate that group A and specifically the PfEMP-1 types DC8 are universally associated with cerebral malaria. This is a crucial observation for promoting studies on malaria pathogenesis.

  6. Food and nutrition insecurity in northern Benin: impact on growth performance of children and on year to year nutritional status of adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ategbo, E.A.D.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the consequences of a substantial nutritional stress, created by an unimodal climate on the energy balance of adults and on children's growth. Coping strategies of adults, at an individual level, with the seasonal fluctuations in food availability were also co

  7. Response of promiscuous soybean to rhizobial inoculation and fertilization treatments and their effects on subsequent maize yields in degraded 'Terre de Barre' in Benin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poor adoption of green manures and agroforestry systems for the sustainable intensification of agricultural production in the moist savannah of West Africa, and the low contribution of the traditional grain legumes such as groundnuts, cowpea and common bean have prompted the search for alternative socio-economic solutions for the smallholders such as the development the N2 fixation of promiscuous soybean to increase food production and improve soil fertility status, in particular in the degraded lands. Twenty one and fifteen farmers' fields were selected in 2001 and 2002 respectively and again in 2002 and 2003 for the trials. Each farmer's field represented one replication. The 15N isotope dilution method was used to assess symbiotic N2 fixation of the IITA promiscuous soybean variety TGX 1448 2E and its response to inoculation and fertilization. In both years 2001 and 2002, the application of 20 kg N did not affect nodulation, biomass production and N accumulation of soybean uninoculated in 2001, or inoculated in 2002. However, inoculation produced the highest nodule number and nodule weight in 2002. The highest values of biomass production and N accumulation were found with soybean that received poultry manure in 2001 and 100 kg N ha-1 as urea in 2002. The highest biomass and N accumulation in 2001 was 1600 kg ha-1 and 41 kg N ha-1 with soybean amended with poultry manure. Shoot N production in 2002 averaged only 25 kg N ha-1, while the average N accumulation in soybean seed was 64 kg N ha-1. The best percentage of N derived from atmosphere (54%) amounting only 13 kg N ha-1 was obtained with soybean fertilized with 20 kg N ha-1 and inoculated treatment. These values are too low indicating that soybean cultivated in the study area is far from satisfying its N requirements through N fixation. The N balance calculated on the basis of the amount of N fixed removed in the grain is negative (-48 kg N ha-1). In the season 2002, it was observed that maize yields in the plots previously cropped to soybean did not show any significant difference from the plots previously cropped to maize. Significant increase occurred only when plots were previously grown to soybean and fertilized with poultry manure being 5124 and 2311 kg DM ha-1 for maize shoot and grain respectively. Total N yield in shoots was significantly higher in plots previously cropped to soybean than those of maize. The contribution of soybean to maize yield was not significantly different from the contribution of maize-to-maize in 2003. Soybean development in West Africa is a promising technology that has multiple benefits. However substantial inputs and important investments are required to remove severe soil constraints affecting its growth and grain yield potential before these benefits can be fully achieved. (author)

  8. Predictions of sea-level rise for coastal geosystem of Togo (between Volta and Mono Rivers in the Gulf of Benin/West Africa); Physical and economic manifestations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coastal zone of Togo is very narrow and covers an area of 1,710 square kilometers. It constitutes an essential economic potential of the country due to the concentration of more than 90% of its economic activities, more than 42% of its whole population and of that of Lome. The coastal landscape encompasses the delta system of the Volta river in Ghana to which are adjoined the clearly differentiated offshore bars, parallel to the coast and the uninterrupted lagoon systems which run into the alluvial plain of the Mono River. The coastline is located in the current offshore bar at a mean of 2 and 3 meters above average sea level. It is lower, at 1 meter in the barrier crossbar at the level of the lagoon and river mouths. The climatic regime of the coastal zone depends upon two air currents with two contrasted seasons during the year. The temperatures are constant throughout the year and vary between 25 deg. and 28 deg. C. The coastal geosystem is fed by the Volta and Mono Rivers. The dams built on the two rivers put a limit on the sedimentary volume drift to the sea: this accentuates the sedimentary loss and erosion in the lagoon zone and around the mouths of the rivers. The hydrodynamic regime is conditioned by local and regional meteorological elements, namely the marine winds of the Southern Ocean which generate swells and waves. These waves create on the coast a current of coastal drifting west to east, which activates the mechanism of the coastal morphosedimentary process. An examination of the sandy coasts where a current withdrawal of the seashore is noticed in West and Central Africa shows that this dynamic process is generally the result of human action. It is not linked to the sea transgression correlative to the greenhouse effect. Scientific research as regards climate confirms the greenhouse effect linked to the increase of the CO2 content in the atmosphere which could probably be the cause of climatic change with subsequent rise in temperature from 1 to 3 deg. 5 C. This phenomenon will lead, among others to a partial fusion of glaciers of the Antarctic and Greenland which will in its turn lead to the rise in the sea level up to many centimeters even to a meter with biophysical consequences in coastal zones. The statistical analysis of available maregraphic data on marshes and ponds, though relatively limited, of the coastal stations of Abidjan, Takoradi and Tema, enable us to prove, basing especially on the data of Takoradi, a secular trend, holding the year 1930 as a reference of sea level rise along the West African coasts that could reach 30 cm in 2030. Working from sea level rise data (from 1930 to 1969) of the station of Takoradi, and based on the hypothesis of rhythm regularity of meteorological and oceanographic phenomena of which data are not available, we discovered that the rate of mean annual rise is 0.34 cm. We foresaw three scenarios of sea level rise: one with the current trend (annual rise of 0.34 cm); another one, with climatic change, assuming an acceleration rhythm of the sea level twice higher than the current trend (mean hypothesis); and a scenario of acceleration rhythm of the sea level four times higher than the current trend (high hypothesis). The gradual sea level rise will be remarked in the zone of lagoon and river mouths of the Volta and the Mono. These two zones, low enough, will be rapidly submerged under the influence of the simple process of sea level and the sea waters will climb up the plains, the lagoon systems, the valleys up to the steep slopes, and the coming in waters by diffusion under the influence of the tides. Along the coast, submersion by amplified waves will be frequent with restructuring of the coastal profile and lowering of the coastline. They will provoke breaks in short segments of the barrier crossbar because of the strong lamination. The salinisation of the lands, of underground and surface waters will constitute one of the characteristics. The other direct effect corresponding to these manifestations of coastal physical oceanography is the accentuat ion of the speed of the coastal erosion. The data pertaining to the coastal erosion in the current conditions indicate an annual mean of 5 meters. It is certain that this retreat value of the coastline, in the perspective of climatic changes, will progressively increase to 10 meters per year. The consequences in terms of area of lost land will be important

  9. Use of starter cultures of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts as inoculum enrichment for the production of gowé, a sour beverage from Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vieira-Dalodé, G.; Madodé, Y.E.; Hounhouigan, J.;

    2008-01-01

    evaluation. Growth of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts were verified by determination of colony forming units (CFU) and molecular biology techniques. A significant decrease in pH from 6.1 to 3.3, with a concomitant increase in titratable acidity (11 to 60 g/kg as lactic acid, dry weight...... during the fermentation confirmed the dominance of the added LAB strains. Sensory evaluation revealed that the product fermented for 7 h with L. fermentum alone or in combination with K. marxianus was as acceptable as the traditional product normally obtained after a minimum of 24 h of fermentation...

  10. Software libre en países en vías de desarrollo de África Subsahariana: el caso de Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Simó Reigadas, Francisco Javier

    2004-01-01

    Los programas libres han pasado en los últimos años de ser una iniciativa interesante en el seno de las comunidades científica y académica a convertirse en todo un fenómeno socio-económico. Se habla cada vez más de los programas libres o de fuente abierta, de su Coste Total de Propiedad (TCO en sus siglas en inglés), de los modelos de negocio que resultan de la adopción de este paradigma, etc. Pero, en general, se asumen condiciones de entorno que corresponden a las de los países desarrollado...

  11. Identification of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Market Garden Products and Irrigation Water in Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussé, Wassiyath; Sina, Haziz; Baba-Moussa, Farid; Noumavo, Pacôme A; Agbodjato, Nadège A; Adjanohoun, Adolphe; Baba-Moussa, Lamine

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed at biochemical and molecular characterization of Escherichia coli strains isolated from horticultural products and irrigation water of Cotonou. The samples were collected from 12 market gardeners of 4 different sites. Rapid' E. coli medium was used for identification of E. coli strains and the antimicrobial susceptibility was performed by the agar disk diffusion method. The β-lactamases production was sought by the liquid acidimetric method. The genes coding for β-lactamases and toxins were identified by PCR method. The results revealed that about 34.95% of the analyzed samples were contaminated by E. coli. Cabbages were the most contaminated by E. coli (28.26%) in dry season. All isolated strains were resistant to amoxicillin. The penicillinase producing E. coli carried blaTEM (67.50%), blaSHV (10%), and blaCTX-M (22.50%) genes. The study revealed that the resistance genes such as SLTI (35.71%), SLTII (35.71%), ETEC (7.15%), and VTEC (21.43%) were carried. Openly to the found results and considering the importance of horticultural products in Beninese food habits, it is important to put several strategies aiming at a sanitary security by surveillance and sensitization of all the actors on the risks of some practices.

  12. Relation entre les caractéristiques des table-bancs et les mesures anthropométriques des écoliers au Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falola, Stève Marjelin; Gouthon, Polycarpe; Falola, Jean-Marie; Fiogbe, Michel Armand; Nigan, Issiako Bio

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Le mobilier scolaire et la posture assise en classe sont souvent impliqués dans l'apparition des douleurs rachidiennes, influant de fait sur la qualité des tâches réalisées par les apprenants. Aucune étude n'a encore vérifié le degré d'adéquation entre les caractéristiques du mobilier et celles des écoliers au Bénin. L'objectif de cette étude transversale est donc de déterminer la relation entre les dimensions des table-bancs utilisées en classe et les mesures anthropométriques des écoliers au Bénin. Methods Elle a été réalisée avec un échantillon probabiliste de 678 écoliers, âgés de 4 à 17 ans. Les mesures anthropométriques des écoliers et les mensurations relatives aux longueurs, largeurs et hauteurs des table-bancs ont été mesurées, puis intégrées aux équations proposées dans la littérature. Les pourcentages des valeurs situées hors des limitesacceptables, dérivées de l'application des équations ont été calculés. Results La largeur et la hauteur des table-bancs utilisées par les écoliers étaient plus élevées (p hauteur de la table et la distance coude-bancdes écoliers. Conclusion Les résultats suggèrent de prendre en compte l’évolution des mesures anthropométriques des écoliers dans la confection des table-bancs, afin de promouvoir de bonnes postures assises en classe et de réduire le risque de troubles du rachis. PMID:25317232

  13. Natural infection of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) by toxigenic fungi and mycotoxin contamination in Benin, West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houssou, P.A.; Ahohuendo, B.C.; Fandohan, P.;

    2009-01-01

    for the two periods. About 23 fungal species were identified on cowpea seed samples across zones of which Aspergillus flavus, a fungus that produces aflatoxins, was most frequently encountered. Fusarium species shown to produce fumonisins were not recorded from cowpea seeds. Overall incidence of A. flavus...... infection was found to increase after storage from 7.6% at T0 to 28.25% at T3. In spite of this natural infection of cowpea, very low levels of fumonisin and aflatoxin were detected. Only three out of the 92 cowpea samples, all collected at T0, were found to be fumonisin B1 positive with a mean level of 0.......03 mg/g. Similarly, only six samples out of the 92, all collected at T3, were aflatoxin B1 positive with mean levels of 3.58 µg/kg. Fumonisin (B2 and B3) and aflatoxin (B2, G1 and G2) were not detected in any of the samples. Contrary to the situation with maize and groundnut where high levels of toxin...

  14. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana reduces instantaneous blood feeding in wild multi-insecticide-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes in Benin, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Annabel FV

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquito-borne diseases are still a major health risk in many developing countries, and the emergence of multi-insecticide-resistant mosquitoes is threatening the future of vector control. Therefore, new tools that can manage resistant mosquitoes are required. Laboratory studies show that entomopathogenic fungi can kill insecticide-resistant malaria vectors but this needs to be verified in the field. Methods The present study investigated whether these fungi will be effective at infecting, killing and/or modifying the behaviour of wild multi-insecticide-resistant West African mosquitoes. The entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana were separately applied to white polyester window netting and used in combination with either a permethrin-treated or untreated bednet in an experimental hut trial. Untreated nets were used because we wanted to test the effect of fungus alone and in combination with an insecticide to examine any potential additive or synergistic effects. Results In total, 1125 female mosquitoes were collected during the hut trial, mainly Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Unfortunately, not enough wild Anopheles gambiae Giles were collected to allow the effect the fungi may have on this malaria vector to be analysed. None of the treatment combinations caused significantly increased mortality of Cx. quinquefasciatus when compared to the control hut. The only significant behaviour modification found was a reduction in blood feeding by Cx. quinquefasciatus, caused by the permethrin and B. bassiana treatments, although no additive effect was seen in the B. bassiana and permethrin combination treatment. Beauveria bassiana did not repel blood foraging mosquitoes either in the laboratory or field. Conclusions This is the first time that an entomopathogenic fungus has been shown to reduce blood feeding of wild mosquitoes. This behaviour modification indicates that B. bassiana could potentially be a new mosquito control tool effective at reducing disease transmission, although further field work in areas with filariasis transmission should be carried out to verify this. In addition, work targeting malaria vector mosquitoes should be carried out to see if these mosquitoes manifest the same behaviour modification after infection with B. bassiana conidia.

  15. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana reduces instantaneous blood feeding in wild multi-insecticide-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes in Benin, West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F.V. Howard; R. N'Guessan; C.J.M. Koenraadt; A. Asidi; M. Farenhorst; M. Akogbeto; M.B. Thomas; B.G.J. Knols; W. Takken

    2010-01-01

    Background: Mosquito-borne diseases are still a major health risk in many developing countries, and the emergence of multi-insecticide-resistant mosquitoes is threatening the future of vector control. Therefore, new tools that can manage resistant mosquitoes are required. Laboratory studies show tha

  16. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana reduces instantaneous blood feeding in wild multi-insecticide-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes in Benin, West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howard, A.F.V.; N'Guessan, R.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Asidi, A.; Farenhorst, M.; Akogbéto, M.; Thomas, M.B.; Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Mosquito-borne diseases are still a major health risk in many developing countries, and the emergence of multi-insecticide-resistant mosquitoes is threatening the future of vector control. Therefore, new tools that can manage resistant mosquitoes are required. Laboratory studies show that

  17. Importance and practices of Egusi crops (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai, Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin and Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl. cv. 'Aklamkpa' in sociolinguistic areas in Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coulibaly O.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance et culture de Egusi (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai, Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin et Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl. cv ' Aklamkpa ' dans les régions sociolinguistiques du Bénin. Les légumes traditionnels africains sont considérés comme potentiellement utiles pour contribuer à la sécurité alimentaire et à la génération de revenu au niveau des communautés locales. Cependant, Egusi (Citrullus lanatus subsp. mucosospermus, Cucumeropsis mannii et Lagenaria siceraria cv. ' Aklamkpa ' a rarement fait l'objet de recherche et de promotion alors que sa culture persiste dans les systèmes de production de plusieurs pays de l'Afrique de l'Ouest. Cette étude met l'accent sur le rôle social des cultures de Egusi et leur importance dans le système de production des groupes sociolinguistiques au Bénin. En 2005, une investigation des systèmes de production et de culture de cinq régions socioculturelles prédominantes indique que la culture de Egusi est classée parmi les dix premières spéculations, selon la perception des ménages interrogés. Le rang attribué aux cultures de Egusi est relatif au genre mais pas à l'âge. Les agriculteurs allouent en moyenne 0,74 ha pour la production de Egusi, avec une différence significative d'une région sociolinguistique à une autre. Dans la communauté Mahi-Fon du centre Bénin, par exemple, nous avons observé des champs de production de Egusi allant jusqu'à 5 ha. L'espèce la plus cultivée est C. lanatus subsp. mucosospermus. Cependant, dans la communauté Adja du sud Bénin, la préférence des agriculteurs est pour L. siceraria cv. ' Aklamkpa '. Egusi se cultive au champ et en jardin de case, soit en association ou en monoculture. C. mannii est généralement cultivée en association et joue un rôle social très important dans les communautés Nagot-Yoruba. Bien que Egusi ne soit pas une culture réservée aux femmes, ces dernières réalisent la plupart des activités post-récolte. Les utilisations associées à la culture de Egusi varient d'un groupe sociolinguistique à un autre et constituent une base essentielle de promotion de la culture.

  18. Lions of West Africa : ecology of lion (Panthera leo Linnaeus 1975) populations and human-lion conflicts in Pendjari Biosphere Reserve, North Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sogbohossou, Etotépé Aïkpémi

    2011-01-01

    The Earth’s biodiversity is disappearing at an alarming rate in the last decades. Many species, including carnivores, are becoming endangered. The lion was one of the most widely distributed terrestrial mammals and is today restricted to Gir ecosystem in India and to more or less fragmented populati

  19. Lions of West Africa: ecology of lion (Panthera leo Linnaeus 1975) populations and human-lion conflicts in Pendjari Biosphere Reserve, North Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Sogbohossou, Etotépé Aïkpémi

    2011-01-01

    The Earth’s biodiversity is disappearing at an alarming rate in the last decades. Many species, including carnivores, are becoming endangered. The lion was one of the most widely distributed terrestrial mammals and is today restricted to Gir ecosystem in India and to more or less fragmented populations in sub-saharan Africa. The species is considered as Vulnerable on IUCN Red List. In West Africa, due to its small and fragmented populations, the species is listed as Regionally Endangered. Whi...

  20. Assimilation of SMOS soil moisture into a distributed hydrological model and impacts on the water cycle variables over the Ouémé catchment in Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, Delphine J.; Pellarin, Thierry; Vischel, Théo; Cohard, Jean-Martial; Gascon, Tania; Gibon, François; Mialon, Arnaud; Galle, Sylvie; Peugeot, Christophe; Seguis, Luc

    2016-07-01

    Precipitation forcing is usually the main source of uncertainty in hydrology. It is of crucial importance to use accurate forcing in order to obtain a good distribution of the water throughout the basin. For real-time applications, satellite observations allow quasi-real-time precipitation monitoring like the products PERSIANN (Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks, TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) or CMORPH (CPC (Climate Prediction Center) MORPHing). However, especially in West Africa, these precipitation satellite products are highly inaccurate and the water amount can vary by a factor of 2. A post-adjusted version of these products exists but is available with a 2 to 3 month delay, which is not suitable for real-time hydrologic applications. The purpose of this work is to show the possible synergy between quasi-real-time satellite precipitation and soil moisture by assimilating the latter into a hydrological model. Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) soil moisture is assimilated into the Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM) model. By adjusting the soil water content, water table depth and streamflow simulations are much improved compared to real-time precipitation without assimilation: soil moisture bias is decreased even at deeper soil layers, correlation of the water table depth is improved from 0.09-0.70 to 0.82-0.87, and the Nash coefficients of the streamflow go from negative to positive. Overall, the statistics tend to get closer to those from the reanalyzed precipitation. Soil moisture assimilation represents a fair alternative to reanalyzed rainfall products, which can take several months before being available, which could lead to a better management of available water resources and extreme events.

  1. Task shifting in maternal and newborn care: a non-inferiority study examining delegation of antenatal counseling to lay nurse aides supported by job aids in Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Affo Jean

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shifting the role of counseling to less skilled workers may improve efficiency and coverage of health services, but evidence is needed on the impact of substitution on quality of care. This research explored the influence of delegating maternal and newborn counseling responsibilities to clinic-based lay nurse aides on the quality of counseling provided as part of a task shifting initiative to expand their role. Methods Nurse-midwives and lay nurse aides in seven public maternities were trained to use job aids to improve counseling in maternal and newborn care. Quality of counseling and maternal knowledge were assessed using direct observation of antenatal consultations and patient exit interviews. Both provider types were interviewed to examine perceptions regarding the task shift. To compare provider performance levels, non-inferiority analyses were conducted where non-inferiority was demonstrated if the lower confidence limit of the performance difference did not exceed a margin of 10 percentage points. Results Mean percent of recommended messages provided by lay nurse aides was non-inferior to counseling by nurse-midwives in adjusted analyses for birth preparedness (β = -0.0, 95% CI: -9.0, 9.1, danger sign recognition (β = 4.7, 95% CI: -5.1, 14.6, and clean delivery (β = 1.4, 95% CI: -9.4, 12.3. Lay nurse aides demonstrated superior performance for communication on general prenatal care (β = 15.7, 95% CI: 7.0, 24.4, although non-inferiority was not achieved for newborn care counseling (β = -7.3, 95% CI: -23.1, 8.4. The proportion of women with correct knowledge was significantly higher among those counseled by lay nurse aides as compared to nurse-midwives in general prenatal care (β = 23.8, 95% CI: 15.7, 32.0, birth preparedness (β = 12.7, 95% CI: 5.2, 20.1, and danger sign recognition (β = 8.6, 95% CI: 3.3, 13.9. Both cadres had positive opinions regarding task shifting, although several preferred 'task sharing' over full delegation. Conclusions Lay nurse aides can provide effective antenatal counseling in maternal and newborn care in facility-based settings, provided they receive adequate training and support. Efforts are needed to improve management of human resources to ensure that effective mechanisms for regulating and financing task shifting are sustained.

  2. Pilot Assessment of Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis in the Context of Transmission Assessment Surveys for Lymphatic Filariasis in Benin and Tonga

    OpenAIRE

    Brian K Chu; Katherine Gass; Wilfrid Batcho; Malakai 'Ake; Améyo M Dorkenoo; Elvire Adjinacou; 'Eva Mafi; Addiss, David G.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mass drug administration (MDA) for lymphatic filariasis (LF) programs has delivered more than 2 billion treatments of albendazole, in combination with either ivermectin or diethylcarbamazine, to communities co-endemic for soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH), reducing the prevalence of both diseases. A transmission assessment survey (TAS) is recommended to determine if MDA for LF can be stopped within an evaluation unit (EU) after at least five rounds of annual treatment. The TAS ...

  3. Assimilation of SMOS soil moisture into a distributed hydrological model and impacts on the water cycle variables over the Ouémé catchment in Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Leroux

    2016-07-01

    the products PERSIANN (Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks, TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission or CMORPH (CPC (Climate Prediction Center MORPHing. However, especially in West Africa, these precipitation satellite products are highly inaccurate and the water amount can vary by a factor of 2. A post-adjusted version of these products exists but is available with a 2 to 3 month delay, which is not suitable for real-time hydrologic applications. The purpose of this work is to show the possible synergy between quasi-real-time satellite precipitation and soil moisture by assimilating the latter into a hydrological model. Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS soil moisture is assimilated into the Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM model. By adjusting the soil water content, water table depth and streamflow simulations are much improved compared to real-time precipitation without assimilation: soil moisture bias is decreased even at deeper soil layers, correlation of the water table depth is improved from 0.09–0.70 to 0.82–0.87, and the Nash coefficients of the streamflow go from negative to positive. Overall, the statistics tend to get closer to those from the reanalyzed precipitation. Soil moisture assimilation represents a fair alternative to reanalyzed rainfall products, which can take several months before being available, which could lead to a better management of available water resources and extreme events.

  4. Gender Issues in Parenting Cleft Lip and Palate Babies in Southern Nigeria: A Study of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umweni, A. A.; Okeigbemen, S. A.

    2009-01-01

    There is a scarcity of studies on gender issues in parenting cleft lip and palate (CLAP) babies. The birth of a CLAP child presents an immediate visible handicap that is distressing to parents. The aims and objectives of this study are to determine the influence of gender on the attitude of parents on the birth of CLAP babies, to articulate the…

  5. Comparative susceptibility to permethrin of two Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations from Southern Benin, regarding mosquito sex, physiological status, and mosquito age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nazaire Azoun; Rock Akpon; Roseric Azondekon; Alex Asidi; Martin Akogbto

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate what kind of mosquito sample is necessary for the determination of insecticide susceptibility in malaria vectors. Methods:Larvae and pupae of Anopheles gambiae s.l. (An. gambiae) mosquitoes were collected from the breeding sites in Littoral and Oueme departments. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) susceptibility tests were conducted on unfed male and female mosquitoes aged 2-5 days old. CDC susceptibility tests were also conducted on unfed, blood fed and gravid female mosquitoes aged 2-5 days old. These susceptibility tests were also conducted on unfed and blood fed female mosquitoes aged 2-5 days old and 20 days old. CDC biochemical assay using synergist was also carried out to detect any increase in the activity of enzyme typically involved in insecticide metabolism. Results:Female An. gambiae Ladji and Sekandji populations were more susceptible than the males when they were unfed and aged 2-5 days old. The mortality rates of blood fed female An. gambiae Ladji and Sekandji populations aged 2-5 days old were lower than those obtained when females were unfed. In addition, the mortality rates of gravid female An. gambiae Ladji and Sekandji populations aged 2-5 days old were lower than those obtained when they were unfed. The mortality rate obtained when female An. gambiae Sekandji populations were unfed and aged 20 days old was higher than the one obtained when these populations were unfed and aged 2-5 days old. The results obtained after effects of synergist penicillin in beeswax on F1 progeny of An. gambiae Ladji populations resistant to permethrin showed that mono-oxygenases were involved in permethrin resistant F1 progeny from Ladji. Conclusions: The resistance is a hereditary and dynamic phenomenon which can be due to metabolic mechanisms like overproduction of detoxifying enzymes activity. Many factors influence vector susceptibility to insecticide. Among these factors, there are mosquito sex, mosquito age, its physiological status. Therefore, it is useful to respect the World Health Organization criteria in the assessment of insecticide susceptibility tests in malaria vectors. Otherwise, susceptibility testing is conducted using unfed female mosquitoes aged 3-5 days old. Tests should also be carried out at (25±2) °C and (80±10)% relative humidity.

  6. Socio-economic, agronomic and molecular analysis of yam and cowpea diversity in the Guinea-Sudan transition zone of Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zannou, A.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords: Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata(L.) Walp.),Quantification of the efficiency of treatment of Anopheles gambiae breeding sites with petroleum products by local communities in areas of insecticide resistance in the Republic of Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doannio Julien MC MC

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence of Anopheles populations capable of withstanding lethal doses of insecticides has weakened the efficacy of most insecticide based strategies of vector control and, has highlighted the need for developing new insecticidal molecules or, improving the efficacy of existing insecticides or abandoning those to which resistance has emerged. The use of petroleum products (PP against mosquito larvae had an immense success during early programmes of malaria control, but these compounds were abandoned and replaced in the 1950s by synthetic insecticides probably because of the high performances given by these new products. In the current context of vector resistance, it is important to elucidate the empirical use of PP by quantifying their efficiencies on resistant strains of Anopheles. Methods Larvae of Anopheles Ladji a local resistant strain were exposed to increasing concentrations of various PP (kerosene, petrol and engine oils for 24 hours and the lethal activities recorded. The highest concentration (HiC having no lethal activity (also referred as the NOEL or no effect level and the lowest concentration (LoC100 yielding 100% mortality were rated for each PP on the Ladji strain. Prior to laboratory analysis, KAP studies were conducted in three traditional communities were insecticide resistance is clearly established to confirm the use of PP against mosquitoes. Results Laboratory analysis of petrol, kerosene and engine oils, clearly established their lethal activities on resistant strains of Anopheles larvae. Contrary to existing references, this research revealed that exposed larvae of Anopheles were mostly killed by direct contact toxicity and not by suffocation as indicated in some earlier reports. Conclusion This research could serve as scientific basis to backup the empirical utilisation of PP on mosquito larvae and to envisage possibilities of using PP in some traditional settings where Anopheles have developed resistance to currently used insecticides.

  7. Performance d'un hôpital de zone sanitaire au Benin: un exemple de modèle d’évaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahanhanzo, Yolaine Glèlè; Ouédraogo, Landaogo Soutongonoma Lionel; Saizonou, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Premier niveau de référence de la pyramide sanitaire du Bénin, les hôpitaux de zone sanitaire s'acquittent de leurs missions dans un contexte difficile. L'objectif de la présente étude a été d’évaluer la performance de l'hôpital de la zone sanitaire de Comè en 2013. Méthodes L’étude était transversale, descriptive et évaluative. Les services retenus ont été sélectionnés par choix raisonné du fait de leur contribution au paquet d'activités de l'hôpital. Les clients externes et internes ont été sélectionnés par commodité. Les membres du conseil de gestion de l'hôpital de zone, les responsables d'organisation à base communautaire, les partenaires techniques et financiers ainsi que des chefs d'arrondissement ont été sélectionné par choix raisonné. La performance de l'hôpital a été mesurée à travers trois critères que sont la qualité des prestations, leur équité d'accès et leur pérennité. L'analyse des données a été faite sur la base de critères en utilisant une cotation analytique puis temporelle. Résultats La performance de l'hôpital de la zone sanitaire de Comè était très faible au premier semestre 2013 avec une qualité des prestations cotée à 35%, une équité d'accès cotée à 50% et une pérennité des actions cotée à 11%. Seul le niveau d'application de la fonction gouvernance était moyen. La méconnaissance des attributions des représentants de la communauté dans les instances de l'hôpital a constitué une limite à leur implication dans l'exercice des fonctions de l'hôpital. Les partenaires techniques et financiers ont participé au renforcement institutionnel de l'hôpital en termes d'amélioration du plateau technique. Conclusion L'application des fonctions de l'hôpital et une meilleure implication de la communauté ainsi que des partenaires contribueront à l'amélioration de la performance de l'hôpital de la zone sanitaire de Comè. PMID:25400830

  8. Dry Matter Production, Nutrient Cycled and Removed, and Soil Fertility Changes in Yam-Based Cropping Systems with Herbaceous Legumes in the Guinea-Sudan Zone of Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliki, Raphiou; Sinsin, Brice; Floquet, Anne; Cornet, Denis; Malezieux, Eric; Vernier, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Traditional yam-based cropping systems (shifting cultivation, slash-and-burn, and short fallow) often result in deforestation and soil nutrient depletion. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of yam-based systems with herbaceous legumes on dry matter (DM) production (tubers, shoots), nutrients removed and recycled, and the soil fertility changes. We compared smallholders' traditional systems (1-year fallow of Andropogon gayanus-yam rotation, maize-yam rotation) with yam-based systems integrated herbaceous legumes (Aeschynomene histrix/maize intercropping-yam rotation, Mucuna pruriens/maize intercropping-yam rotation). The experiment was conducted during the 2002 and 2004 cropping seasons with 32 farmers, eight in each site. For each of them, a randomized complete block design with four treatments and four replicates was carried out using a partial nested model with five factors: Year, Replicate, Farmer, Site, and Treatment. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the general linear model (GLM) procedure was applied to the dry matter (DM) production (tubers, shoots), nutrient contribution to the systems, and soil properties at depths 0-10 and 10-20 cm. DM removed and recycled, total N, P, and K recycled or removed, and soil chemical properties (SOM, N, P, K, and pH water) were significantly improved on yam-based systems with legumes in comparison with traditional systems. PMID:27446635

  9. Impact of acadja fisheries on the population dynamics of Sarotherodon melanotheron and Hemichromis fasciatus in a Lake Nokoué (Benin, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyonkuru C.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In Lake Nokoué fishermen have developed the acadjas system which operates as an extensive aquaculture practice. Little is known about the population dynamics of fish fauna which colonizes those acadjas. Therefore, population parameters of two cichlids of Lake Nokoué, Sarotherodon melanotheron and Hemichromis fasciatus, sampled in areas within and without acadjas were investigated using length-frequency data collected between June 2003 and December 2004. For the two species, asymptotic length, L∞ was higher within than without acadjas (26.8 cm and 24.1 cm respectively for S. melanotheron; 18.5 cm and 16.5 cm respectively for H. faciatus. K and Φ′ values recorded outside acadjas were higher than inside acadjas for H. fasciatus whereas the same values were very slightly different without and within acadjas for S. melanotheron. H. fasciatus is a fish predator and branches or woody debris of acadjas are not favourable for its hunting activities.The total and natural mortality rates for the two species were higher outside than inside acadjas showing so the role of protection insured by acadjas systems. Acadjas have more impact on H. fasciatus than on S. melanotheron. A possibility of management is to reorganize the distribution of acadjas over Lake Nokoué in order to keep some areas in which no acadjas would be allowed for fish species that growth is better without acadjas.

  10. Dry Matter Production, Nutrient Cycled and Removed, and Soil Fertility Changes in Yam-Based Cropping Systems with Herbaceous Legumes in the Guinea-Sudan Zone of Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsin, Brice; Floquet, Anne; Cornet, Denis; Malezieux, Eric; Vernier, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Traditional yam-based cropping systems (shifting cultivation, slash-and-burn, and short fallow) often result in deforestation and soil nutrient depletion. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of yam-based systems with herbaceous legumes on dry matter (DM) production (tubers, shoots), nutrients removed and recycled, and the soil fertility changes. We compared smallholders' traditional systems (1-year fallow of Andropogon gayanus-yam rotation, maize-yam rotation) with yam-based systems integrated herbaceous legumes (Aeschynomene histrix/maize intercropping-yam rotation, Mucuna pruriens/maize intercropping-yam rotation). The experiment was conducted during the 2002 and 2004 cropping seasons with 32 farmers, eight in each site. For each of them, a randomized complete block design with four treatments and four replicates was carried out using a partial nested model with five factors: Year, Replicate, Farmer, Site, and Treatment. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the general linear model (GLM) procedure was applied to the dry matter (DM) production (tubers, shoots), nutrient contribution to the systems, and soil properties at depths 0–10 and 10–20 cm. DM removed and recycled, total N, P, and K recycled or removed, and soil chemical properties (SOM, N, P, K, and pH water) were significantly improved on yam-based systems with legumes in comparison with traditional systems. PMID:27446635

  11. Comparative susceptibility to permethrin of two Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations from Southern Benin, regarding mosquito sex, physiological status, and mosquito age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazaire Aïzoun

    2014-04-01

    Conclusions: The resistance is a hereditary and dynamic phenomenon which can be due to metabolic mechanisms like overproduction of detoxifying enzymes activity. Many factors influence vector susceptibility to insecticide. Among these factors, there are mosquito sex, mosquito age, its physiological status. Therefore, it is useful to respect the World Health Organization criteria in the assessment of insecticide susceptibility tests in malaria vectors. Otherwise, susceptibility testing is conducted using unfed female mosquitoes aged 3-5 days old. Tests should also be carried out at (25±2 °C and (80±10% relative humidity.

  12. The Effect of Labour Turnover in Brewery Industries in Nigeria (A Study of Guinness Brewery Industries Plc and Bendel Brewery Ltd in Benin City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Akpeti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This research study investigated the effect of labour turnover in Brewery industries in Nigeria. Labour turnover is a costly problem and an economic drain to Brewing Industries. Labour turnover costs Brewing industries in Nigeria huge sum of money in recruiting and training replacements. Additional costs are incured through new employees that are more subject to accidents, causes more breakages and make more errors than experienced worker. Brewing industries incur losses through reduced production, work disruption and increases scrap and over-time as a result of departed workers. A cross-sectional survey was utilized to collect data for answering research questionnaires and testing hypothesis in this research work. The data collected from questionnaire instrument were also analyzed using percentage. The research finding showed that the effect of labour turnover were reduced production, increase cost of recruitment, work disruption, increased scrap and overtime and additional labour turnover. Reduced production was found to have the foremost effect on labour turnover and this affects output and profit. A comparison of the effect of labour turnover between Bendel Brewery and Guinness Brewery showed that Bendel Brewery rated increase cost of recruitment and training replacements as the major effect of labour turnover while Guineas Brewery rated reduced production. The variables that were hypothetically tested as the causes of turnover had significant effect on brewery industries in Nigeria.

  13. Dry Matter Production, Nutrient Cycled and Removed, and Soil Fertility Changes in Yam-Based Cropping Systems with Herbaceous Legumes in the Guinea-Sudan Zone of Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphiou Maliki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional yam-based cropping systems (shifting cultivation, slash-and-burn, and short fallow often result in deforestation and soil nutrient depletion. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of yam-based systems with herbaceous legumes on dry matter (DM production (tubers, shoots, nutrients removed and recycled, and the soil fertility changes. We compared smallholders’ traditional systems (1-year fallow of Andropogon gayanus-yam rotation, maize-yam rotation with yam-based systems integrated herbaceous legumes (Aeschynomene histrix/maize intercropping-yam rotation, Mucuna pruriens/maize intercropping-yam rotation. The experiment was conducted during the 2002 and 2004 cropping seasons with 32 farmers, eight in each site. For each of them, a randomized complete block design with four treatments and four replicates was carried out using a partial nested model with five factors: Year, Replicate, Farmer, Site, and Treatment. Analysis of variance (ANOVA using the general linear model (GLM procedure was applied to the dry matter (DM production (tubers, shoots, nutrient contribution to the systems, and soil properties at depths 0–10 and 10–20 cm. DM removed and recycled, total N, P, and K recycled or removed, and soil chemical properties (SOM, N, P, K, and pH water were significantly improved on yam-based systems with legumes in comparison with traditional systems.

  14. A Survey of the Perception of the Services of Micro Finance Institutions by the Female Service Users in Benin City, South-South, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Osas Ugiagbe

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the perceptions of the services of the micro finance Institutions by the women service users, and how the services of micro Institutions affect businesses of the beneficiaries of the micro credit loans. The research design for the study was the survey method. The instruments of data collection were structured questionnaires and in-depth interview. A total of 450 questionnaires were administered to the female participants, and senior management personnel of the micro credit institutions were interviewed. The cluster and simple random sampling were used to select the participants for the study. The leaders of registered unions were the informants.  The result reveals that the poor services and attitude of officials of micro finance institutions and other problems like the regressive tax regimes, harsh economic climate and patriarchy are negatively affecting the business ventures of the loan beneficiaries and by implication the goals of poverty reduction via micro credit scheme . The women beneficiaries are groaning under the burden of loan repayment and meeting other obligations as mothers and wives. This study is applicable in the context of social policy development at this time when social services delivery is not only poor but at dismal level. The need for gender sensitive and social development becomes imperative. It is critical to social work practice in the context of advocacy, empowerment programs, facilitating and initiating service delivery and Community organizing by social workers that will enhance the war against Poverty and other social impediments against women empowerment in Nigeria.  Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE

  15. Governance of Protected Areas in West Africa - The case of the W-Arly-Pendjari (WAP) Complex in Benin and Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Konrad, Tillmann

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas are the central strategy for preserving biodiversity in the face of overexploitation and global change. To ensure their long-term survival, however, these areas may not be regarded as last havens of wilderness, but as complex social-ecological systems. Modern approaches of protected area (PA) management support this view by balancing conservation and development issues in a sustainable way and adapted to the local context. However, success of these strategies in achieving thei...

  16. Conference Report: “Thirty Years of German–Beninese Cooperation in Social Science Research on Benin: Topics, Conclusions, Future Prospects” – Thurnau/Bayreuth, 8–10 March 2012 Konferenzbericht: “30 Jahre sozialwissenschaftliche Benin-Forschung in deutsch-beninischer Zusammenarbeit: Themen, Ergebnisse, Ausblicke” – Thurnau/Bayreuth, 8.-10. März 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannett Martin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This report summarizes the contributions and debates from a conference on German–Beninese cooperation in social science research (8–10 March 2012, University of Bayreuth. In drawing on the experiences from more than three decades of social science research on this West African country, it refers to examples from the past and present of African Studies in Germany, as well as describing the potential for German–African cooperation in this field in the future. Aside from this, it raises the question of whether and how social science cooperation is possible given the economic and power disparities. It is argued that cooperation “on equal terms” will not be easy to achieve but must be consistently striven for – personally as well as politically.Dieser Bericht fasst die Beiträge und Debatten einer Konferenz zur deutsch-beninischen Kooperation in der Sozialforschung (Universität Bayreuth, 8.-10. März 2012 zusammen. Indem Erfahrungen aus drei Jahrzehnten Sozialforschung zu diesem westafrikanischen Land skizziert werden, entsteht beispielhaft ein Bild der Afrikaforschung in Deutschland. Die Potenziale deutsch-afrikanischer Zusammenarbeit in diesem Bereich werden deutlich. Gleichzeitig wird die Frage beleuchtet, ob und wie angesichts der vorhandenen wirtschaftlichen Unterschiede und hierarchischen Strukturen eine Kooperation in der sozialwissenschaftlichen Forschung möglich ist. Die Autorinnen halten eine Zusammenarbeit zu gleichen Bedingungen für schwer erreichbar, plädieren aber dafür, sich kontinuierlich dafür einzusetzen – persönlich und politisch.

  17. Electricity consumption and GDP in an electricity community: Evidence from bound testing cointegration and Granger-causality tests

    OpenAIRE

    Alinsato, Alastaire Sèna

    2009-01-01

    This study probes nexus between electricity consumption and GDP for the electricity community of Togo and Benin using ARDL bounds testing approach of cointegration. Long-run equilibrium has been established among these variables for Benin. The study further establishes long- and short-run Granger causality running from GDP to electricity consumption for Benin and short-run Granger causality running from GDP to electricity consumption for Togo. The results of the cointegration test and the cau...

  18. Amélioration des ovins dans l'Ouémé et le Plateau en République du Bénin. Enjeux de croisement des ovins Djallonké avec les moutons du Sahel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salifou, S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Sheep Management in Oueme and Plateau Departments of Republic of Benin. Stakes of Djallonke Crossbreeding with Sahelian Sheep. The present study is a reflection through bibliographical review and on the current situation of sheep breeding in Oueme and Plateau of Benin. This study situates the crossbreeding of Djallonke with Sahelian sheep and prospects some strategies that could be adopted in the context of sheep breeding in Oueme and Plateau of Benin.

  19. Is the nutritional value of grains in broiler chickens' diets affected by environmental factors of soybean (Glycine max) growing and the variety of maize (Zea maize) in Benin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houndonougbo, Mankpondji Frederic; Chwalibog, Andrzej; Chrysostome, C.A.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    -ecological zones and two varieties of white maize grains (Local and DMR-ESRW) produced in the same environmental conditions were compared. These grains were used in four balanced diets for unsexed broiler chickens (Re Bro) from 8 to 49 days of age. Per kg of dry matter (DM), a difference of about 0.396 MJ...... of metabolisable energy and 27 g of crude protein content were found between varieties of maize. Crude protein content was identical in both soybean grains, while a difference of 16 g/kg DM was found between them in crude fibre content. In spite of these differences in chemical components, there was no significant...... by soybean grains to supply mainly the dietary energy did not show an adverse effect of the diet on these variables. However, the variety of maize affected significantly the feed cost and the economic feed efficiency at starter phase. It can be concluded that under the particular conditions...

  1. Diversity in Secondary Metabolites Including Mycotoxins from Strains of Aspergillus Section Nigri Isolated from Raw Cashew Nuts from Benin, West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamboni, Leo Yendouban; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Linnemann, Anita R.;

    2016-01-01

    .7%) ochratoxin A (13.3%), and secalonic acids (2%), indicating that these mycotoxins could occur in raw cashew nuts. Thirty strains of black Aspergilli were randomly sampled for verification of species identity based on sequences of β-tubulin and calmodulin genes. Among them, 27 isolates were positive...

  2. Facteurs associes a l'asthme sévère chez les patients asthmatiques suivis au Centre National Hospitalier de Pneumo-phtisiologie de Cotonou (Benin) en 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Bella Adodo Hounkpe–Dos; Gbary, Akpa Raphaël; Kpozehouen, Alphonse; Kassa, Ferdinand

    2015-01-01

    Introduction la présente étude vise à déterminer la fréquence de l'asthme sévère chez les patients asthmatiques suivis au Centre National Hospitalier de Pneumo-Phtisiologie (CNHPP) de Cotonou et identifier les facteurs de risque qui lui sont associés Méthodes l’étude transversale, descriptive et analytique a porté sur 213 patients asthmatiques de la file active 2013 du CNHPP. Les données ont été collectées par l'exploitation des dossiers et l'entretien individuel avec les patients. Elles ont été traitées et analysées à l'aide des logiciels EPIINFO7 et STATA11. Le test Chi2 de Pearson, la régression logistique uni variée et multi variée ont été utilisés au seuil de signification de 0,05 Résultats au total, 154 patients asthmatiques soit 72,7% ont répondu au questionnaire. Parmi eux 20,8% (IC95%:(14,67; 28,05)) souffraient d'asthme sévère. L’âge des patients s’étendait de 10 à 76 ans avec une médiane de 41 ans; 51,3% étaient de sexe féminin, 79,9% avaient des antécédents d'allergie, 61,7% ont commencé leur asthme après l’âge de 12 ans et seuls 11% ont consommé ou consommaient du tabac. Les facteurs associés à la survenue de l'asthme sévère étaient: l’âge de 46 à 55 ans (p = 0,04); les troisième et quatrième quintiles du bien-être économique (p = 0,01) et le début de l'asthme après l’âge de 12 ans (p < 0,001) Conclusion l’étude a montré une fréquence élevée de l'asthme sévère au Bénin et permettra d'améliorer sa prise en charge au CNHPP. PMID:26600910

  3. Biodiversity of aerobic endospore-forming bacterial species occurring in Yanyanku and Ikpiru, fermented seeds of Hibiscus sabdariffa used to produce food condiments in Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agbobatinkpo, Pélagie B.; Thorsen, Line; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris;

    2013-01-01

    were identified using phenotypic and genotypic methods, including GTG5-PCR, M13-PCR, 16S rRNA, gyrA and gyrB gene sequencing. Generally, the same 5-6 species of the genus Bacillus predominated: Bacillus subtilis (17-41% of isolates), Bacillus cereus (8-39%), Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (9-22%), Bacillus...

  4. Ex-ante analysis of economic returns from biological control of coconut mite in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Oleke; V. Manyong; D. Mignouna; A. Isinika; K. Mutabazi; R. Hanna; M. Sabelis

    2013-01-01

    The coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer, has been identified as one of the pests that pose a threat to the coconut industry in Benin. The study presents the simulation results of the economic benefits of the biological control of coconut mites in Benin using a standard economic surplus model. In

  5. Sub-Saharan Africa : Strengthening Community Participation

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2000-01-01

    About two years ago, an effort was launched to try and harmonize the World Bank's considerable experience with community participation in a number of African countries. This effort was initiated by a group of organizations including the Benin National Research Institute, the Benin National Extension Service, the Royal Institute for the Tropics, and the World Bank. Very quickly, this group ...

  6. Cultivating Hope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toni; Bacala

    2011-01-01

    Empowered Benin farmers benefit from the economic and nutritional value of the moringa tree by Toni Bacala IN the fields of Benin,a green revolution has placed local farmers at the forefront of the battle against malnutrition.With the establishment of Association Beninoise du

  7. Características fenotípicas dos pacientes com anemia falciforme de acordo com os haplótipos do gene da βS-globina em Fortaleza, Ceará Phenotypic characteristics of patients with sickle cell anemia related to βS-Globin gene haplotypes in Fortaleza, Ceara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilianne B. Silva

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisados 47 pacientes com diagnóstico clínico, laboratorial e molecular de anemia falciforme, residentes em Fortaleza, Ceará, com a finalidade de fornecer informações sobre a influência dos haplótipos do gene da βS- globina nas características fenotípicas desta doença. A determinação dos valores hematológicos foi realizada em contador automático de células sanguíneas, e os níveis de HbF foram determinados pela técnica da desnaturação alcalina. O DNA foi isolado de leucócitos, a partir de amostras de sangue total. A análise dos haplótipos da mutação βS foi realizada por PCR-RFLP (Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Lenght Polymorphism, sendo analisados seis sítios polimórficos de restrição. Os pacientes foram divididos em cinco grupos, de acordo com o tipo de haplótipo: Bantu/Bantu, Benin/Benin, Bantu/Benin, Bantu/Atípico e Benin/Atípico. O nível de significância considerado nas análises foi pWe analyzed 47 patients living in Fortaleza, Ceará with clinical, laboratory and molecular diagnosis of sickle cell anemia, in order to provide information on the influence of the βS-globin gene haplotypes on the phenotypic characteristics of this disease. The evaluation of hematological values was performed using an automated blood cell counter and the levels of HbF were determined by the alkali denaturation technique. The DNA was isolated from leukocytes from a whole blood sample. The analysis of the haplotypes of the βS mutation was achieved by PCR-RFLP, with an assessment of six polymorphic restriction sites. The patients were divided in 5 groups according to the type of haplotype: Bantu/Bantu, Benin/Benin, Bantu/Benin, Bantu/Atypical and Benin/Atypical. The level of significance was set for a p-value < 0.05. In the comparison between the haplotypes and the hematological characteristics, statistically significant differences were seen only for the values of HbF and Ht. The levels of HbF were

  8. Unravelling institutional determinants affecting change in agriculture in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struik, P.C.; Klerkx, L.W.A.; Hounkonnou, D.

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares lessons learned from nine studies that explored institutional determinants of innovation towards sustainable intensification of West African agriculture. The studies investigated issues relating to crop, animal, and resources management in Benin, Ghana, and Mali. The constraints

  9. Between script and improvisation: institutional conditions and their local operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mierlo, van B.; Totin, E.

    2014-01-01

    In Benin, a combination of governmental programmes effectively stimulated rice intensification by providing relevant institutional arrangements such as subsidized seed, credit and a market outlet. In this paper, the authors investigate the institutional character of these programmes by unpacking the

  10. 76 FR 46209 - Importation of Tomatoes From the Economic Community of West African States Into the Continental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ...: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Niger..., Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Niger,...

  11. L'écodéveloppement africain en question

    OpenAIRE

    Heymans, JC.; Sinsin, B.

    1988-01-01

    African eco-development problems. The authors emphasise the importance of ecological factors in any land management policy. Agrosylvopastoralism balance is presented as an essential factor of ecodevelopment in the rural regions of North-Benin (West-Africa).

  12. Abstracts of the communications

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    (P) paper, (A) abstract only Dietary patterns and habitat of the Grimm’s duiker, Sylvicapra grimmia in Benin, (P)Abdoul Razack Adjibi Oualiou, Jean Claude Codjia, Guy Apollinaire Mensah The distribution of protected areas and conservation of flora in the republic of Benin, (P)Aristide Adomou, Hounnankpon Yedomonhan, Brice Sinsin, Laurentius Josephus and Gerardus Van Der Maesen The problem of invasive plants in protected areas. Chromolaena odorata in the regeneration process of the dense, semi...

  13. Adhesive Capabilities of Staphylococcus Aureus and Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Isolated from Tears of HIV/AIDS Patients to Soft Contact Lenses

    OpenAIRE

    B. O., Ajayi; F.E., Kio; F.D., Otajevwo

    2012-01-01

    Fifty conjunctival swab samples collected from ELISA confirmed HIV/AIDS seropositive patients who were referred to the HIV/AIDS laboratories of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital and Central Hospital both based in Benin City, Nigeria were aseptically cultured on appropriate media by standard methods. The resulting isolates/strains, after identification by standard methods, were tested for their ability to adhere to two hydrophobic non-ionic daily wear silicone hydrogel soft contact len...

  14. Awareness of link between smoking and periodontal disease in Nigeria: a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Nwhator, Solomon; Ayanbadejo,P O; AKHIOBARE,; Oginni,Adeleke; Lung,Z H; Arowojolu,Modupe Olayinka

    2010-01-01

    Solomon O Nwhator1, Patricia O Ayanbadejo2, Modupe O Arowojolu3, Osagie Akhionbare4, Adeleke O Oginni51Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife; 2Department of Preventive Dentistry, University of Lagos, 3Dental School University College Hospital Ibadan, 4Department of Periodontics, School of Dentistry, College of Medical Sciences, University of Benin, Benin City; 5Department of Restorative Dentistry, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, NigeriaObje...

  15. Les savoirs paysans traditionnels conservent-ils encore l’agrobiodiversité au Bénin ?

    OpenAIRE

    Florence Pinton; Mohamed Nasser Baco; Gauthier Biaou; Jean-Paul Lescure

    2007-01-01

    Can local knowledge still maintain agrobiodiversity in Benin ? Agrobiodiversity, key component of food security is nowadays confronting many global, regional and local changes of agriculture. This study has been conducted to evaluate the impact of those changes on the agrobiodiversiy in developing countries. The study is undertaken especially in Benin (West Africa) where 60% of people rely upon agriculture for their daily life. Observations were based only on national and local changes. Four ...

  16. La situation des légumes feuilles dans la production maraîchère au Sud-Bénin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin, JE.

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available The situation of tropical leafy vegetables in the vegetable production in the South-Benin. The importance of tropical leafy vegetables among the vegetable production in the South-Benin is shown. The produced and consumed quantifies are notable and the productions have a great value despite their low level in the producers incomes. The problems of their production are evoked, and ways to improve the sanitary state of those cultures are proposed.

  17. Contribution des innovations technologiques agricoles à l’amélioration de la productivité : cas des variétés améliorées de manioc au Bénin

    OpenAIRE

    Adekambi, Souleimane Adeyemi; Adegbola, Patrice Ygue; Glele, Eugene K.A.; Agli, Charles K.; Tamegnon, Bertin A.

    2010-01-01

    Cassava production in Benin is still characterized by low productivity compared to those of sub regional countries. Improved cassava varieties have been then developed. They have been promised to raise the productivity and thereby the income of farmers. This study examines the relationship between agricultural technology adoption and productivity improvement with focusing on high yield cassava varieties. The data used were collected from 267 randomly selected cassava producers in Benin. The p...

  18. Anti-tuberculosis drug resistance among new and previously treated pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Cotonou, Benin%贝宁-科托努地区初治和复治肺结核患者抗结核药物耐药研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D. Affolabi; O.A.B.G.Adjagba; B. Tanimomo-Kledjo; M. Gninafon; S.Y. Anagonou; F. Portaels; 徐彩红

    2008-01-01

    目的:评估贝宁最大的结核病中心科托努地区目前抗结核药物的耐药形势.方法:共计分析从肺结核患者分离出的 470 株结核分枝杆菌复合群:其中 244 株来自新病人,226 株来自复治病人.使用比例法对分离菌株进行一线药物的敏感性试验.结果:原发耐多药情况与患者的来源有关:若分析所有的患者,则新病人中耐多药相对较高(1.6%);若仅考虑贝宁常住人口,该比例则较低(0.5%),并与 1994 年国家的耐药监测结果比较.复治患者的耐多药率(11.1%),也与贝宁1994年的耐药监测结果持平.没有发现合并感染人类免疫缺陷病毒与抗结核药物的耐药性相关.结论:本研究表明在流行病学调查中正确的区分患者的重要性,研究人口不同,结果就可能不相同.

  19. Luz, leis e livre-concorrência: conflitos em torno das concessões de energia elétrica na cidade de São Paulo no início do século XX Light, laws and liberalism: conflicts in the São Paulo's electric light sector during the beninning of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Macchione Saes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute o processo de introdução da energia elétrica na cidade de São Paulo no início do século XX. A Proclamação da República marcou o início da modernização das empresas de serviços urbanos, com a introdução da eletricidade. Foi neste contexto que dois grupos iniciaram uma intensa batalha no setor elétrico paulista: o grupo nacional da Companhia Brasileira de Energia Elétrica (CBEE - conhecido também como Docas de Santos - e o canadense Light. A falta de uma legislação federal para o setor de energia elétrica legou às Câmaras Municipais o poder concedente para os serviços de eletricidade, garantindo que as relações políticas entre vereadores e empresários tivessem decisivo papel na instalação de tais serviços. Assim, o artigo descreve o processo de introdução da eletricidade em São Paulo mediante os debates sobre a regulamentação dos serviços públicos, desvendando os critérios políticos ou ideológicos que levaram a conformação de tais leis.This paper discusses the introduction of electric power in the city of São Paulo during the beginning of the 20th century. The Brazilian Republic Proclamation (1889 established the beginning of the public services companies' modernization, which through the enterprises fusion and the arrival of foreign capital allowed the electric power introduction in the main Brazilian cities. Two rival groups started a competition in the São Paulo's electric sector: the national enterprise Companhia Brasileira de Energia Elétrica (CBEE - so called as Docas de Santos - and the Canadian company Light. The inexistence of a federal legislation to electric power services had transformed municipal decisions in deterministic guidelines for utility bids, making municipal lobbying a key instrument in utility concessions. Hence, this paper issues describe the electric power introduction in the city through the debates about the utilities' rules, analyzing the political or ideological criteria that build the São Paulo's laws for electricity sector.

  20. Indigence et soins de santé primaires en République de Bénin :approche de solutions au problème d'identification des indigents dans les formations sanitaires publiques/Indigence and primary health care in Republic of Benin :approach of solution to the problem of targeting of indigents in the public medical centre

    OpenAIRE

    Ouendo, Edgard-Marius D.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: Du fait des faibles résultats enregistrés par différents systèmes de santé dans le monde, la conférence d'Alma Ata de 1978 avait préconisé l’approche des Soins de Santé Primaires. Pour renforcer cette approche et faciliter l’accessibilité universelle aux soins, l’Initiative de Bamako fut adoptée en 1987. Cette initiative se fonde sur la participation financière des patients aux soins. L'une des conséquences est le coût financier des soins pour les bénéficiaires avec un risque d'...

  1. Características fenotípicas dos pacientes com anemia falciforme de acordo com os haplótipos do gene da βS-globina em Fortaleza, Ceará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilianne B. Silva

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisados 47 pacientes com diagnóstico clínico, laboratorial e molecular de anemia falciforme, residentes em Fortaleza, Ceará, com a finalidade de fornecer informações sobre a influência dos haplótipos do gene da βS- globina nas características fenotípicas desta doença. A determinação dos valores hematológicos foi realizada em contador automático de células sanguíneas, e os níveis de HbF foram determinados pela técnica da desnaturação alcalina. O DNA foi isolado de leucócitos, a partir de amostras de sangue total. A análise dos haplótipos da mutação βS foi realizada por PCR-RFLP (Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Lenght Polymorphism, sendo analisados seis sítios polimórficos de restrição. Os pacientes foram divididos em cinco grupos, de acordo com o tipo de haplótipo: Bantu/Bantu, Benin/Benin, Bantu/Benin, Bantu/Atípico e Benin/Atípico. O nível de significância considerado nas análises foi p<0,05. Na comparação entre os haplótipos e as características hematológicas estudadas, apenas os valores de HbF e Ht apresentaram diferença estatisticamente significativa. Os níveis de HbF foram maiores no haplótipo Benin, seguido do haplótipo Bantu, o que está em conformidade com os dados da literatura. Foram demonstrados maior presença de crises vaso-oclusivas e episódios de pneumonia no haplótipo Benin/Atípico do que no haplótipo Bantu/Atípico; e maior presença de crises de infecção urinária no haplótipo Benin/Atípico do que no haplótipo Benin/Benin. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os haplótipos Bantu/Bantu e Benin/Benin em relação às complicações clínicas; entretanto, foi observado que o haplótipo Bantu/Bantu tem uma maior frequência em todos os eventos clínicos estudados quando comparado ao Benin/Benin. Os resultados demonstram que o tipo de haplótipo do gene da βS-globina influencia as características fenotípicas dos pacientes com

  2. Chronic inflammatory state in sickle cell anemia patients is associated with HBB(*)S haplotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandeira, Izabel C J; Rocha, Lillianne B S; Barbosa, Maritza C; Elias, Darcielle B D; Querioz, José A N; Freitas, Max Vitor Carioca; Gonçalves, Romélia P

    2014-02-01

    The chronic inflammatory state in sickle cell anemia (SCA) is associated with several factors such as the following: endothelial damage; increased production of reactive oxygen species; hemolysis; increased expression of adhesion molecules by leukocytes, erythrocytes, and platelets; and increased production of proinflammatory cytokines. Genetic characteristics affecting the clinical severity of SCA include variations in the hemoglobin F (HbF) level, coexistence of alpha-thalassemia, and the haplotype associated with the HbS gene. The different haplotypes of SCA are Bantu, Benin, Senegal, Cameroon, and Arab-Indian. These haplotypes are associated with ethnic groups and also based on the geographical origin. Studies have shown that the Bantu haplotype is associated with higher incidence of clinical complications than the other haplotypes and is therefore considered to have the worst prognosis. This study aimed to evaluate the profile of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-17 in patients with SCA and also to assess the haplotypes associated with beta globin cluster S (HBB(*)S). We analyzed a total of 62 patients who had SCA and had been treated with hydroxyurea; they had received a dose ranging between 15 and 25 (20.0±0.6)mg/kg/day for 6-60 (18±3.4)months; their data were compared with those for 30 normal individuals. The presence of HbS was detected and the haplotypes of the beta S gene cluster were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Our study demonstrated that SCA patients have increased inflammatory profile when compared to the healthy individuals. Further, analysis of the association between the haplotypes and inflammatory profile showed that the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were greater in subjects with the Bantu/Bantu haplotype than in subjects with the Benin/Benin haplotype. The Bantu/Benin haplotype individuals had lower levels of cytokines than those with

  3. DNA damage in leukocytes of sickle cell anemia patients is associated with hydroxyurea therapy and with HBB*S haplotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Rocha, Lilianne Brito; Dias Elias, Darcielle Bruna; Barbosa, Maritza Cavalcante; Bandeira, Izabel Cristina Justino; Gonçalves, Romélia Pinheiro

    2012-12-12

    Hydroxyurea (HU) is the primary pharmacologic agent for preventing the complications and improving the quality of life of sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients. Although HU has been associated with an increased risk of leukemia in some patients with myeloproliferative disorders, the mutagenic and carcinogenic potential of HU has not been established. This study used the alkaline comet assay to investigate DNA damage in peripheral blood leukocytes from 41 individuals with SCA treated with HU (SCAHU) and from 26 normal individuals. The presence of HbS and the analysis of the haplotypes of the beta S gene cluster were done by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The damage index (DI) in the SCAHU group was significantly higher than in controls (p20kg/m(2). No significant influence of mean HU dose was observed on DI (p=0.950). However, individuals who received a mean HU dose≥20mg/kg showed a higher DI than those who received less. Furthermore, an association was observed between DI damage and HBB*S gene haplotypes. DI values for the Bantu/Bantu haplotype was greater when compared to the Benin/Benin haplotype; and the Bantu/Benin haplotype had a DI lower than the Bantu/Bantu haplotype and greater than the Benin/Benin haplotype. Our results show that DNA damage in sickle cell anemia is associated not only with treatment with HU but also with genotype. PMID:22918118

  4. Ex-ante analysis of economic returns from biological control of coconut mite in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Oleke, J.M.; Manyong, V.; Mignouna, D.; Isinika, A.; Mutabazi, K.; Hanna, R.(DSM/IRFU (Institut de Recherches sur les Lois Fondamentales de l’Univers), CEA Saclay (Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives), Gif-sur-Yvette, France); Sabelis, M.

    2013-01-01

    The coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer, has been identified as one of the pests that pose a threat to the coconut industry in Benin. The study presents the simulation results of the economic benefits of the biological control of coconut mites in Benin using a standard economic surplus model. In the least optimistic scenario, the economy would derive an overall net gain of US$155,213.40. Considered at a discount rate of 12% for the period 2008-2027, net present value was about $207,721, w...

  5. Rentabilité d'un biogaz de type chinois au Bénin

    OpenAIRE

    Vorsters, A.

    1994-01-01

    Profitability of a Chinese-Model Biogas in Benin. A 20 m3 digestor of Chinese type is fed by water hyacinth Eichornia crassipes and pig droppings. Enough gas is produced to cook three meals a day for 50 students, which means that wood is no more used. The efficient is used for vegetable cultivation.

  6. American cars in Cotonou: Culture in African entrepreneurship and the making of a globalising trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuving, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Traders in Cotonou (Benin), a prominent hub in the Euro-West African second-hand car trade, traditionally sold cars imported from Europe. Since the 2000s however, more and more cars are being imported from the US. Anthropological study of one group of entrepreneurs active in this new business, trade

  7. Rentabilité d'un biogaz de type chinois au Bénin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorsters, A.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Profitability of a Chinese-Model Biogas in Benin. A 20 m3 digestor of Chinese type is fed by water hyacinth Eichornia crassipes and pig droppings. Enough gas is produced to cook three meals a day for 50 students, which means that wood is no more used. The efficient is used for vegetable cultivation.

  8. What does an inventory of recent innovation experiences tell us about agricultural innovation in Africa?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Triomphe, B.; Floquet, A.; Kamau, G.; Letty, B.; Vodouche, S.D.; Ng’ang’a, T.; Stevens, J.; Berg, van den J.; Selemna, N.; Bridier, B.; Crane, T.A.; Almekinders, C.J.M.; Waters-Bayer, A.; Hocdé, H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Within the context of the European-funded JOLISAA project (JOint Learning in and about Innovation Systems in African Agriculture), an inventory of agricultural innovation experiences was made in Benin, Kenya and South Africa. The objective was to assess multi-stakeholder agricultural innova

  9. Why a twin is not a child : symbols in Kapsiki birth rituals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van W.E.A.

    2002-01-01

    On no continent are there as many twins as in Africa, and in no other area of Africa does the rate of twin births come near to that of West African countries like Nigeria, Benin and Togo, where the rate of twin births is over 2.5 per 1000. This article examines the position of twins among the Kapsik

  10. Higher Education and Employment: An International Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Bikas C.

    The relationship between higher education and employment (particulary underemployment and unemployment) is discussed in terms of a synthesis of 21 case studies of developing and developed nations. The countries discussed are: Bangladesh, Benin, Botswana, Egypt, Federal Republic of Germany, Malaysia, Pakistan, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen,…

  11. Food Safety Is a Key Determinant of Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in Urban Beninese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nago, Eunice S.; Verstraeten, Roosmarijn; Lachat, Carl K.; Dossa, Romain A.; Kolsteren, Patrick W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify the determinants of fruit and vegetable consumption in urban Beninese adolescents and elements to develop a school-based fruit and vegetable program. Design: Sixteen focus groups conducted with a key word guide. Setting and Participants: Two private and 2 public secondary schools in Cotonou, Benin. One hundred fifty-three…

  12. The Niger River Basin : A Vision for Sustainable Management

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Inger; Dione, Ousmane; Jarosewich-Holder, Martha; Olivry, Jean-Claude; Golitzen, Katherin George

    2008-01-01

    The Niger River Basin Authority (NBA) brings together nine countries to promote integrated water resources management across political borders. The nine - Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, Mali, Niger, and Nigeria have embraced a shared vision to build institutional capacity, political agreement, and public support for cooperation. The countries agree that sustain...

  13. Past and present African citizenships of slave descent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahonou, Eric Komlavi

    2011-01-01

    This paper takes up the notion of citizenship and ethnicity as forms of belonging in the context of globalisation. The discussion draws on a case study focusing on a Fulfuldephone servile group from Northern Benin called the Gando. Since pre-colonial times, their servile status ascribed by birth ...

  14. 75 FR 47839 - Notice of Quarterly Report (January 1, 2010-March 31, 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    ... the subsequent quarter(s) and reported as such in subsequent quarterly report(s). *** Negative... year. Number of Information, Education and Communication Campaign (IEC) sessions hosted by Chamber of... registration center (CFE) information and outreach campaign executed throughout Benin. Access to Land...

  15. The supply of bioavailable iron and zinc may be affected by phytate in Beninese children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitchikpe, C.E.S.; Dossa, R.A.M.; Ategbo, E.A.D.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Hulshof, P.J.M.; Kok, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    Food composition data are important for estimating energy and nutrient intakes. The objectives of this study were, first, to evaluate the proximate and inorganic composition of foods eaten in northern Benin and second, to estimate the potentially inhibiting effect of phytate on iron and zinc bioavai

  16. The social construction of weeds: different reactions to an emergent problem by famers, officials and researchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissoh, P.V.; Mongbo, R.; Gbèhounou, G.; Hounkonnou, D.; Ahanchédé, A.; Roling, N.G.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2007-01-01

    Rapid population increase in southern Benin has changed the prevailing system of shifting cultivation into one of more permanent land use. New herbaceous weeds exacerbated rural poverty through crop failure, higher labour inputs, rising costs of production and reduced availability of suitable land.

  17. Forest Genetic Resources Conservation and Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ukendt, FAO; Ukendt, DFSC; Ukendt, ICRAF

    FAO, IPGRI/SAFORGEN, DFSCand ICRAF have cooperated on the compilation of17 booklets on the state of Forest Genetic Resources for thecountries listed below. When ordering your book please remember to write the country required on the email. Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d\\Ivoire, Ethiopia, Gambia...

  18. Natural Resources Management

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad C. Mohan

    1996-01-01

    Participatory community-based Natural Resources Management (NRM) Projects have been implemented over the last 5-6 years in Benin, Burkina Faso, Mali, and Niger with the support of France, Germany, Norway, the United States, and the World Bank's International Development Association facility. Furthermore, pilot operation concentrating on specific NRM issues are underway in Chad (pastoral pe...

  19. Morphological, molecular and cross-breeding analysis of geographic populations of coconut-mite associated predatory mites identified as Neoseiulus baraki: evidence for cryptic species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famah Sourassou, Nazer; Hanna, Rachid; Zannou, Ignace; Breeuwer, Johannes A J; de Moraes, Gilberto; Sabelis, Maurice W

    2012-05-01

    Surveys were conducted in Brazil, Benin and Tanzania to collect predatory mites as candidates for control of the coconut mite Aceria guerreronis Keifer, a serious pest of coconut fruits. At all locations surveyed, one of the most dominant predators on infested coconut fruits was identified as Neoseiulus baraki Athias-Henriot, based on morphological similarity with regard to taxonomically relevant characters. However, scrutiny of our own and published descriptions suggests that consistent morphological differences may exist between the Benin population and those from the other geographic origins. In this study, we combined three methods to assess whether these populations belong to one species or a few distinct, yet closely related species. First, multivariate analysis of 32 morphological characters showed that the Benin population differed from the other three populations. Second, DNA sequence analysis based on the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) showed the same difference between these populations. Third, cross-breeding between populations was unsuccessful in all combinations. These data provide evidence for the existence of cryptic species. Subsequent morphological research showed that the Benin population can be distinguished from the others by a new character (not included in the multivariate analysis), viz. the number of teeth on the fixed digit of the female chelicera.

  20. Morphological, molecular and cross-breeding analysis of geographic populations of coconut-mite associated predatory mites identified as Neoseiulus baraki: evidence for cryptic species?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.F. Sourassou; R. Hanna; I. Zannou; J.A.J. Breeuwer; G. de Moraes; M.W. Sabelis

    2012-01-01

    Surveys were conducted in Brazil, Benin and Tanzania to collect predatory mites as candidates for control of the coconut mite Aceria guerreronis Keifer, a serious pest of coconut fruits. At all locations surveyed, one of the most dominant predators on infested coconut fruits was identified as Neosei

  1. Path-average rainfall estimation from optical extinction measurements using a large-aperture scintillometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijlenhoet, R.; Cohard, J.M.; Gosset, M.

    2011-01-01

    The potential of a near-infrared large-aperture boundary layer scintillometer as path-average rain gauge is investigated. The instrument was installed over a 2.4-km path in Benin as part of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) Enhanced Observation Period during 2006 and 2007. Measur

  2. Effects of volatiles from Maruca vitrata larvae and caterpillar-infested flowers of their host plant Vigna unguiculata on the foraging behavior of the parasitoid Apanteles taragamae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dannon, A.E.; Tamò, M.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.

    2010-01-01

    The parasitoid wasp Apanteles taragamae is a promising candidate for the biological control of the legume pod borer Maruca vitrata, which recently has been introduced into Benin. The effects of volatiles from cowpea and peabush flowers and Maruca vitrata larvae on host selection behavior of the para

  3. Assessing non-target effects and host feeding of the exotic parasitoid Apanteles taragamae, a potential biological control agent of the cowpea pod borer Maruca vitrata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dannon, A.E.; Tamo, M.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.

    2012-01-01

    Apanteles taragamae Viereck is a larval parasitoid introduced in Benin for classical biological control of the cowpea pod borer Maruca vitrata Fabricius. In the laboratory, we evaluated the effects of A. taragamae on non-target herbivore species, and on another parasitoid of M. vitrata, i.e. the egg

  4. Impact of brewing process operations on phytate, phenolic compounds and in vitro solubility of iron and zinc in opaque sorghum beer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayodé, A.P.P.; Hounhouigan, J.D.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2007-01-01

    Opaque sorghum beer is a significant component of the diet of millions of poor people in rural Africa. This study reports the effect of traditional brewing operations on its level of micronutrients, especially iron and zinc. The example of a West African sorghum beer, tchoukoutou, in Northern Benin

  5. Breast tumours of adolescents in an African population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umanah Ivy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tumours of the breast are uncommon in childhood and adolescence. Patients in this age group often require a different approach to diagnosis and treatment. The purpose of this study is to highlight the clinicopathologic features of breast tumours in adolescents in a Nigerian city. Materials and Methods: Eighty-four breast tumour materials from patients aged 10-19 years were analyzed over a 10-year period at the Department of Pathology, University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH, Benin City, Edo State, Benin City, Nigeria. Results: A majority of the breast tumours were benign. Fibroadenoma was the most common tumour with 46 cases (54.8%, followed by fibrocystic changes with 15 cases (17%. Malignancy was extremely rare in this group, with only one case (1.2% of an invasive ductal carcinoma. Histologically, most tumours were indistinguishable from the adult types. Conclusion: Fibroadenoma is the most common breast tumour in adolescents in Benin City, Nigeria. Breast cancer and male breast tumours are rare in this age group. Routine complete physical examination of children and adolescents should include breast examination.

  6. Past and present African citizenships of slave descent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahonou, Eric Komlavi

    2011-01-01

    has been an argument for placing them at the margins of their society and excluding them from political participation. While still claiming their belonging to the nation-state of Benin and the Fulbe's culture, the Gando have progressively built a new social identity that is showing to be a new ethnic...

  7. Micronutrient supplementation of young stunted Beninese children: effects on appetite and growth performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dossa, R.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Linear growth retardation (stunting) still has a high prevalence rate in developing countries (ACC/SCN, 2000). In the republic of Benin reported prevalence rates range from 25% to 40%. In malnourished children it is quite common to observe a combination of multiple micronutrient deficiency, loss of

  8. What Does an Inventory of Recent Innovation Experiences Tell Us about Agricultural Innovation in Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triomphe, Bernard; Floquet, Anne; Kamau, Geoffrey; Letty, Brigid; Vodouhe, Simplice Davo; Ng'ang'a, Teresiah; Stevens, Joe; van den Berg, Jolanda; Selemna, Nour; Bridier, Bernard; Crane, Todd; Almekinders, Cornelia; Waters-Bayer, Ann; Hocde, Henri

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Within the context of the European-funded JOLISAA project (JOint Learning in and about Innovation Systems in African Agriculture), an inventory of agricultural innovation experiences was made in Benin, Kenya and South Africa. The objective was to assess multi-stakeholder agricultural innovation processes involving smallholders. Approach:…

  9. Formation of cereulide and enterotoxins by Bacillus cereus in fermented African locust beans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Line; Azokpota, Paulin; Munk Hansen, Bjarne;

    2011-01-01

    Afitin, iru and sonru are three spontaneously fermented African locust bean Benin condiments. The fermentation processes are exothermic, with temperatures mostly being above 40 °C. A total of 19 predominant Bacillus cereus isolates from afitin, iru and sonru, were investigated. The enterotoxin ge...

  10. Toxin profiles of Bacillus cereus occurring in high numbers in spontaneously fermented African locust beans (Parkia biglobosa)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Line; Azokpota, Paulin; Hansen, Bjarne Munk;

    The microbiology of the naturally fermented African condiments Afiitin, iru and sonru produced in Benin from locust beans, has recently been studied showing high Bacillus cereus counts of log7CFU/g (Azokpota, 2005). A total of 19 B. cereus strains isolated from the three condiments showed to be p...

  11. Identification, genetic diversity and cereulide producing ability of Bacillus cereus group strains isolated from Beninese traditional fermented food condiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Line; Azokpota, Paulin; Hansen, Bjarne Munk;

    2010-01-01

    . In the present study, a total of 19 Bacillus cereus group spp. isolated from afitin, iru and sonru, three spontaneously fermented African locust (Parkia biglobosa) bean based condiments produced in Benin, were investigated. The strains were isolated at 6, 12, 18, 24 and 48 h fermentation time. By using...

  12. Toxin profiles of Bacillus cereus occurring in high numbers in spontaneously fermented African locust beans (Parkia biglobosa)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Line; Azokpota, Paulin; Hansen, Bjarne Munk;

    Bacillus cereus was reported to occur in high numbers (up to 107 CFU/g) during spontaneous fermentation of three different traditional Benin condiments; afitin, iru and sonru made from African locust beans. A total of nineteen B. cereus isolates from the ferments, were examined for the presence o...

  13. Prevalence of β(S)-globin gene haplotypes, α-thalassemia (3.7 kb deletion) and redox status in patients with sickle cell anemia in the state of Paraná, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimauti, Eliana LitsukoTomimatsu; Silva, Danilo Grunig Humberto; de Souza, Eniuce Menezes; de Almeida, Eduardo Alves; Leal, Francismar Prestes; Bonini-Domingos, Claudia Regina

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of beta S-globin gene (β(S) globin) haplotypes and alpha thalassemia with 3.7 kb deletion (-α(3.7kb) thalassemia) in the northwest region of Paraná state, and to investigate the oxidative and clinical-hematological profile of β(S) globin carriers in this population. Of the 77 samples analyzed, 17 were Hb SS, 30 were Hb AS and 30 were Hb AA. The β(S)globin haplotypes and -α(3.7kb) thalassemia were identified using polymerase chain reaction.Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were assessed spectophotometrically. Serum melatonin levels were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to coulometric electrochemical detection. The haplotype frequencies in the SS individuals were as follows: Bantu- 21 (62%), Benin - 11 (32%) and Atypical- 2 (6%). Bantu/Benin was the most frequent genotype. Of the 47 SS and AS individuals assessed, 17% (n = 8) had the -α(3.7kb) mutation. Clinical manifestations, as well as serum melatonin, TEAC and LPO levels did not differ between Bantu/Bantu and Bantu/Benin individuals (p > 0.05). Both genotypes were associated with high LPO and TEAC levels and decreased melatonin concentration. These data suggest that the level of oxidative stress in patients with Bantu/Bantu and Bantu/Benin genotypes may overload the antioxidant capacity. PMID:26500435

  14. Prevalence of βS-globin gene haplotypes, α-thalassemia (3.7 kb deletion and redox status in patients with sickle cell anemia in the state of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana LitsukoTomimatsu Shimauti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of beta S-globin gene (βS globin haplotypes and alpha thalassemia with 3.7 kb deletion (−α3.7kb thalassemia in the northwest region of Paraná state, and to investigate the oxidative and clinical-hematological profile of βS globin carriers in this population. Of the 77 samples analyzed, 17 were Hb SS, 30 were Hb AS and 30 were Hb AA. The βSglobin haplotypes and −α3.7kb thalassemia were identified using polymerase chain reaction.Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC and lipid peroxidation (LPO were assessed spectophotometrically. Serum melatonin levels were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to coulometric electrochemical detection. The haplotype frequencies in the SS individuals were as follows: Bantu- 21 (62%, Benin - 11 (32% and Atypical- 2 (6%. Bantu/Benin was the most frequent genotype. Of the 47 SS and AS individuals assessed, 17% (n = 8 had the −α3.7kb mutation. Clinical manifestations, as well as serum melatonin, TEAC and LPO levels did not differ between Bantu/Bantu and Bantu/Benin individuals (p > 0.05. Both genotypes were associated with high LPO and TEAC levels and decreased melatonin concentration. These data suggest that the level of oxidative stress in patients with Bantu/Bantu and Bantu/Benin genotypes may overload the antioxidant capacity.

  15. Notes on the frugivorous fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae fauna of western Africa, with description of a new Dacus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim F.M. Goodger

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The species richness of the frugivorous fruit fly fauna of western African (in particular of Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin and Nigeria is discussed. The diversity is compared at a national level and between the ecoregions within the national boundaries of the study area. A new species, Dacus goergeni sp. nov. is described and additional taxonomic notes are presented.

  16. Quality perceptions of stakeholders in Beninese export-oriented shrimp chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dabade, D.S.; Besten, den H.M.W.; Azokpota, P.; Nout, M.J.R.; Hounhouigan, D.J.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the Beninese shrimp sector has faced a ban on export to the European Union due to lack of compliance with food safety standards. The present study aimed at obtaining insight into the factors that determine shrimp quality and safety in Benin. A survey was conducted to investigate the

  17. Arican Friends Happily Gather Together in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>In the summer of 2009,the CPAFFC held the first training course for leading members of the African friendship-with-China organizations. A total of 36 trainees came from 19 countries,namely Djibouti,Togo, Benin,Democratic Republic of Congo, Mauritania,Mali,Algeria, Guinea-Bissau,Guinea,Senegal,Burundi, Cote d’Ivoire,Morocco,

  18. An Ode to Ancestors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallanian, Susanne

    2005-01-01

    The Fon live in the southern part of the People's Republic of Benin. They inhabit an area about the size of Connecticut. To this day, many Fon are farmers. They plant yams, corn, and cotton, and cultivate palm trees that produce palm oil. Ancient beliefs in spirits and natural powers (called vodun) that govern the world and provide a spiritual…

  19. The impacts of education, vocational tenure and career opportunities on job satisfaction, organizational commitment and intent to leave: Security sector analysisEğitimin, mesleki tecrübenin ve terfi imkanlarının iş tatmini, örgütsel bağlılık ve işten ayrılma niyeti üzerine etkisi: Güvenlik sektörü analizi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Kula

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates whether job satisfaction, organizational commitment and turnover intention levels of four-year university graduates and two-year police vocational school graduates are different from each other. A sample of 394 police officers working in seven provinces of seven different geographical regions in Turkey was analyzed. The results of t test and correlation analysis obtained indicated that the university degree holders indicated a lower level of organizational commitment and higher level of turnover intention than their non-degree holder colleagues. It was found that there is no statistically significant difference between job satisfaction levels of two groups. Career opportunities increased job satisfaction and organizational commitment while tenure reduced turnover intention. The findings of the study illustrate a need for internal policy reform in how the executives of TNP organize their employment and human resource management policies Based on the study results, recommendations were made on human resources management policies.   ÖzetBu araştırmada dört yıllık üniversite eğitimi almış polis memurları (POMEM ile iki yıllık polis meslek yüksekokulu mezunu polis memurlarının (PMYO iş tatmini, örgütsel bağlılık ve işten ayrılma niyeti düzeylerinin farklılık gösterip göstermediği araştırılmıştır. Türkiye’nin yedi coğrafi bölgesinde yer alan yedi ildeki POMEM ve PMYO mezunlarından alınan 394 kişilik örneklem üzerinde çalışma yapılmıştır. Elde edilen verilerin t testi ve korelasyon analizleri sonucunda, üniversite mezunu polis memurlarının, üniversite mezunu olmayan meslektaşlarına göre daha düşük seviyede örgütsel bağlılık gösterdikleri ve daha yüksek seviyede işten ayrılma eğilimi gösterdikleri bulunmuştur. İş tatmini açısından iki grup arasında istatistiki olarak anlamlı bir fark bulunmamıştır. Meslekte ilerleme imkânlarının iş tatmini ve örgütsel bağlılığı arttığı, POMEM mezunları için meslekte geçen sürenin artması ile örgüte olan bağlılığın azaldığı tespit edilmiştir. Araştırma sonuçları insan kaynakları yönetimi ve işa alma politikaları ile ilgili politika reformu ihtiyacını ortaya koymuştur. Araştırma sonuçları doğrultusunda, insan kaynakları yönetim politikalarına dair önerilerde bulunulmuştur.

  20. Impacts des activités d'extraction de gravier au Sud du Bénin et leur perception par la population locale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aïtondji, AL.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Impacts of gravel extraction activities in Southern Benin: Residents' perception. Gravel extraction activities in Southern Benin are carried out without formal license from the state authorities. The majority of sites are rented from landowners and located near other forms of land use including human settlements. This study aims at assessing the perception by the residents of these gravel extraction operations. The results show the social services and damages of this industry. An ordinal logit regression revealed significant influences of the respondents' ethnic group, occupation, education level, marital status and age on the perception of road infrastructure, dust pollution, loss of agricultural land and school drop-out. Therefore, it is important that the local authorities undertake mitigation actions in particular in order to prevent road dust occurrence and to restore abandoned sites so that these sites are again available for agriculture.

  1. Absence of atypical haplotype and presence of Senegal haplotype sickle cell disease in African-descent population in the northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael E. Nascimento

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sickle cell anemia (SCA is the most severe form of sickle cell disease; it presents variants that are called haplotypes βS. There are five major haplotypes βS gene: Arab-Indian/Saudi, Senegal, Benin, Bantu, and Camaroon. Objective: Characterize the presence of haplotypes in patients with SCA in Amapá. Methods: 46 sample were studied, all samples were amplified and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP. Results: Bantu (61.2%, followed by Benin (26.5% and Senegal (12.2%. Conclusion: We identified three haplotypes characteristic of African ethnicity, with the presence of Senegal. In our study we found the presence of atypical haplotype, suggesting concentration and semi-isolation of the founding groups with little mixing.

  2. The money of the State or the meaning of impersonal money: wealth, credit and debt in the age of micro credit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandsbjerg, Camilla

    2011-01-01

    This papers deals with local categorizations of money and wealth in Benin. It focuses on how global economic changes characterized by the expansion of neo-liberal market ideology and novel practices of development aid, especially the emphasis placed on micro credit as a new cure against poverty...... in everyday life have increased significantly during the last three decades. In particular since 1990 when the state-controlled economy was replaced by a liberal market ideology promoting privatization and a strengthening of civil society. As a result, Benin, has experienced rapid economic growth, and seen...... an important development of the banking system and private market activities. At the same time, the successful democratic process stimulated a massive involvement of external donor agencies, and the country has since 1990 received a considerable amount of development aid every year predominately from European...

  3. Reducing losses inflicted by insect pests on cashew, using weaver ants as a biological control agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anato, Florence; Wargui, Rosine; Sinzogan, Antonio;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cashew (Anacardium occidentale Linnaeus) is the largest agricultural export product in Benin. However, yields and quality are lost due to inefficient pest control. Weaver ants (Oecophylla spp.) may control pests in this crop as they eat and deter pests. In Benin, cashew pest damages......, nut quality and yield were compared among: (i) trees with weaver ant (Oecophylla longinoda Latreille), (ii) trees where weaver ants were fed sugar, (iii) IPM trees with weaver ants combined with GF-120 (a natural insecticide), and (iv) control trees receiving no control measures. RESULTS: Thrips...... damages on nuts were higher than other damage symptoms and significantly lower on control trees compared to other treatments. Percentage of first quality nuts was higher in the control compared to ants treatments, but not different from the IPM-treatment. However, compared to the control treatment, ants...

  4. Mechanical and Microstructural Properties of Low Alloy-Treated Steel Used in Reinforced Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Niang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this communication is a comparative study of various types of reinforcements made of mild steel used in reinforced concretes in Senegal and Benin, in order to evaluate their standards. This benchmarking is based on the study of the mechanical and microstructural properties of the various selected products. The results obtained show that the ferrous alloys, used as reinforcing bars in Senegal and Benin, do not respect the performance criteria recommended in the building sector (standard NF has 35-016. In fact, the yield point, the elongation at rupture as well as the geometrical tolerances remain overall lower than the recommended values. The conclusions proposed prospects for heat treatments that should ensure optimization of the properties of the low alloy-treated steel used in the building sector.

  5. Self-medication practices among dental, midwifery and nursing students

    OpenAIRE

    Osarobo Ehigiator; Azodo, Clement C; Ehizele, Adebola O.; Ezeja, Ejike B; Laura Ehigiator; Ikechukwu U Madukwe

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the pattern of self-medication among dental, midwifery and nursing students and to evaluate the factors associated with self-medication. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional of dental, nursing and midwifery students undergoing clinical training in University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria was conducted in 2010. The elicited data include demography, use of drug without doctor′s prescription, type of drug used (pain relievers, antibiotics, an...

  6. Understanding learning in natural resource management : experiences with a contextualised responsive evaluation approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kouévi, T.A.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation may be located in the wide debate on the effectiveness of policy interventions in developing countries, in the field of natural resource management (NRM). It is especially concerned with contributing to the understanding of the limited effectiveness of fishery management interventions in the municipality of Grand-Popo in Benin, where fishing people face fishery resource depletion and livelihood degradation. It looks at this topic from a learning perspective, and explores a w...

  7. Farmer-Researcher Networks in West African Organic Value Chains. Economic and Sociological Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolay, Gian L.

    2014-01-01

    Farming in tropical Africa is getting more and more complex. Land shortages often lead to soil fertility decline, as the usual fallow can’t be practiced anymore. Organic farmers have to compete additionally with subsidized synthetic fertilizer programs, cost-rising GMO competition and policy preferences for conventional and non-organic practices. The EuropeAid funded Syprobio project in West Africa (Mali, Burkina Faso and Benin) involves organic farmers, researchers and technicians from farm ...

  8. Evidence of a link between taboos and sacrifices and resource scarcity of ritual plants

    OpenAIRE

    Quiroz, Diana; Andel, van, Tinde

    2015-01-01

    Background One of the main obstacles for the mainstreaming of religious traditions as tools for the conservation of nature is the limited applicability of research results in this field. We documented two different restrictions implemented by local people (taboos and sacrifices) related to the use of ritual plants in Benin (West Africa) and Gabon (Central Africa). Methods To see whether these restrictions reflected plant scarcity from an etic perspective (official threat status) and an emic v...

  9. Home-based malaria management in children by women: Evidence from a malaria endemic community in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Eugene-Ezebilo, Doreen N.; Ezebilo, Eugene Ejike

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the medicines and dosage that mothers who engage in home-based malaria management administer to children aged ≤ 5 years having signs and symptoms associated with malaria and to discuss the possibilities of designing an effective home-based malaria management strategy. Methods: The data were obtained from face-to-face semi-structured interviews conducted with mothers in the Ugbowo Community of Benin City, Nigeria who were selected using multi-stage systematic random s...

  10. Molecular analysis and association with clinical and laboratory manifestations in children with sickle cell anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Faria Camilo-Araújo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To analyze the frequency of βS-globin haplotypes and alpha-thalassemia, and their influence on clinical manifestations and the hematological profile of children with sickle cell anemia. Method: The frequency of βS-globin haplotypes and alpha-thalassemia and any association with clinical and laboratorial manifestations were determined in 117 sickle cell anemia children aged 3–71 months. The confirmation of hemoglobin SS and determination of the haplotypes were achieved by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, and alpha-thalassemia genotyping was by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (single-tube multiplex-polymerase chain reaction. Results: The genotype distribution of haplotypes was 43 (36.7% Central African Republic/Benin, 41 (35.0% Central African Republic/Central African Republic, 20 (17.0% Rare/atypical, and 13 (11.1% Benin/Benin. The frequency of the α3.7 deletion was 1.71% as homozygous (−α3.7/−α3.7 and 11.9% as heterozygous (−α3.7/αα. The only significant association in respect to haplotypes was related to the mean corpuscular volume. The presence of alpha-thalassemia was significantly associated to decreases in mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and reticulocyte count and to an increase in the red blood cell count. There were no significant associations of βS-globin haplotypes and alpha-thalassemia with clinical manifestations. Conclusions: In the study population, the frequency of alpha-thalassemia was similar to published data in Brazil with the Central African Republic haplotype being the most common, followed by the Benin haplotype. βS-globin haplotypes and interaction between alpha-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia did not influence fetal hemoglobin concentrations or the number of clinical manifestations.

  11. Assessment of job satisfaction, job stress and psychological health of journalists in South-South, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ofili A.N; Tobin E.A; Ilombu M.A; Igbinosun E.O; Iniomor I.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The relationship that exists between job stress and job satisfaction has been investigated across several professional groups. Aim: The study assessed the job satisfaction, perception of job stress and psychological morbidity among journalists in a state in the Southern part of Nigeria. Methods: The cross-sectional study was carried out in Benin city, the capital of Edo state in Nigeria. Three hundred and twenty consenting journalists from 5 media corporations in...

  12. Small Hydropower in Benin(2004 TCDC Training Workshop on SHP Equipment Hangzhou, China)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EdounClaudiusE.A

    2004-01-01

    The Republic of Benin is situated on the coast of West Africa, in the tropical zone, between the Equator and the Tropics of Cancer (between the 6°30 and 12°30 parallels of Northern latitude and 1°and 30°40 meridians of Eastern longitude). It is bordered, in the North, by the river Niger that separates it from the Republic of Niger,

  13. First Report of FVC and FEV1 Reference Values for Beninese Children Aged 11–16 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Folly Messan; Pierre Dansou; Tanguy Marqueste; Patrick Decherchi; Richard Tossou; Toussaint Amoussou; Bénoîte Sovi-Guidi

    2013-01-01

    Background. The diagnosis of obstructive ventilatory disorders in children in Benin is not reliable despite the inclusion of ethnic correction factors for European standards (ERS-93) and the use of African-American standards (ITS-Black). Objectives. (1) Define standard values for forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) and (2) compare the FVC and FEV1 values observed in study subjects to those calculated by the ERS-93 and ITS-Black equations. Method...

  14. Traumatic brain injuries in children: A hospital-based study in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    David O Udoh; Adeyemo, Adebolajo A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Our previous studies showed a high frequency of motor vehicle accidents among neurosurgical patients. However, there is a dearth of data on head injuries in children in Nigeria. Aims: To determine the epidemiology of paediatric traumatic brain injuries. Setting and Design: This is a prospective analysis of paediatric head trauma at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, a major referral c...

  15. Biological control of water hyacinth on Lake Victoria, Kenya.

    OpenAIRE

    Ochiel, G.R.S.; Mailu, A.M.; Gitonga, W.; Njoka, S.W.

    1998-01-01

    The Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) imported 12 800 curculionid weevils (Neochetina spp.) from Benin, Uganda, South Africa and Australia for biological control of water hyacinth between 1993 and1998. In 1996, KARI’s rearing and quarantine facility at the National Agricultural Research Centre, Muguga, provided initial “breeding stock” to another rearing facility at the National Fibre Research Centre, Kibos, near Lake Victoria. To date, 36 500 weevils and 42 000 w...

  16. Le domaine margino-littoral du Bénin (Golfe de Guinée - Afrique de l'Ouest): âge holocène et mise en place marine des ``Sables jaunes''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, J.; Paradis, G.; Oyede, M.

    The formation "Sables jaunes" occurs along the littoral margin of the Benin. Their age, determined by means of Carbon 14, is comprised between 19573 ± 500 BP (DAK 207) and 2674 ± 120 BP (DAK 199). Their morphological and sedimentological characteristics lead to regard them as resulting from a marine sedimentation, then followed by an eolian reworking which affects only the upper part of the Sands.

  17. Estimating aboveground biomass of oil palm : allometric equations for estimating frond biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Aholoukpe, H.; Dubos, B.; Flori, A.; Deleporte, P.; Amadji, G.; Chotte, Jean-Luc; Blavet, Didier

    2013-01-01

    Allometric equations were developed to estimate the biomass of oil palm frond with nontree-lethal methods. The study was conducted in oil palm plantations belonging to the Oil Palm Research Center of the Institut National de Recherches Agricoles du Benin (INRAB) and to neighboring smallholders oil palm plantations. Complete measurements of individual fronds biomass and measurements of predictor variables were made by two methods: (1) a tree-lethal (destructive) method and (2) a nontree-lethal...

  18. Isoke: "Adesso finalmente sono intera. E libera"

    OpenAIRE

    Giuliana Nuvoli

    2013-01-01

    In assenza di Isoke Aikpitany, che non aveva potuto raggiungere Milano, Giuliana Nuvoli narra la sua storia e presenta il suo libro: Le ragazze di Benin- City. È un testo in cui si fondono più generi letterari: romanzo, autobiografia, confessione, documentario, testimonianza. E nel quale la protagonista/narratrice compie un percorso di formazione che la porta a una visione complessa del fenomeno della tratta delle ragazze nigeriane e alla necessità della denuncia.Un libro anomalo, diviso tra ...

  19. The ears of the African elephant: unexpected high seroprevalence of Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae in healthy populations in Western Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Doderer-Lang, Cécile; Atchade, Pascal S; Meckert, Lydia; Haar, Elodie; Perrotey, Sylvie; Filisetti, Denis; Aboubacar, Ahmed; Alexander W Pfaff; Brunet, Julie; Chabi, Nicodème W; Akpovi, Casimir D; Anani, Ludovic; Bigot, André; Sanni, Ambaliou; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria Is A Life-Threatening Pathology In Africa. Plasmodium Falciparum And Plasmodium Vivax Attract The Most Focus Because Of Their High Prevalence And Mortality. Knowledge About The Prevalence Of The Cryptic Pathogens Plasmodium Ovale And Plasmodium Malariae Is Limited. Thanks To Recombinant Tools, Their Seroprevalence Was Measured For The First Time, As Well As The Prevalence Of Mixed Infections In A Malaria-Asymptomatic Population In Benin, A Malaria-Endemic Country. Methods A...

  20. DISCUSSANT'S COMMENTS FOR AMERICAN AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS ASSOCIATION ANNUAL MEETING, SELECTED PAPERS SESSION SP-10S, "FARM-LEVEL ANALYSES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES"

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, John H; Ahmed, Mohamed A. M.

    1998-01-01

    Micro and farm level data are used to analyze issues of pesticide use, declining fertilized grass-legume pastures, land resource degradation, and intensification and specialization. Health Costs and Externalities of Pesticide Use in Locust and Grasshopper Control in the Sahel Victorin Houndekon, Universite National de Benin; Hugo De Groote, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture. Investment Effects of Endogenous and Exogenous Depreciation: Improved Pastures in Uruguay Javier Ekboir, ...

  1. Effects of volatiles from Maruca vitrata larvae and caterpillar-infested flowers of their host plant Vigna unguiculata on the foraging behavior of the parasitoid Apanteles taragamae

    OpenAIRE

    Dannon, A.E.; Tamò, M.; Huis, van, A.; Dicke, M.

    2010-01-01

    The parasitoid wasp Apanteles taragamae is a promising candidate for the biological control of the legume pod borer Maruca vitrata, which recently has been introduced into Benin. The effects of volatiles from cowpea and peabush flowers and Maruca vitrata larvae on host selection behavior of the parasitoid Apanteles taragamae were investigated under laboratory conditions by using a Y-tube olfactometer. Naïve and oviposition-experienced female wasps were given a choice between several odor sour...

  2. Providing New Financing to Low-Income Countries with High Levels of Debt: Some considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Chiang, H.; Radelet, S.

    2003-01-01

    This paper outlines the experiences of eight countries that have met their debt relief under the enhanced Debt Initiative for Heavily Indebted poor Countries (HIPC) program: Benin, Bolivia, Burkina Faso, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Tanzania, and Uganda. The first part focuses on new financing following debt relief; secondly, it analyzes projections versus outcomes in the 8 countries already mentioned; and finally, it examines ways in which several structural characteristics of low-income ...

  3. Medical Doctors' Knowledge of Dental Specialty: Implication for Referral

    OpenAIRE

    C.C. Azodo; Ehigiator, O; A.O. Ehizele; O. Ololo

    2010-01-01

    The research goal is to assess Medical Doctors' knowledge of the various dental specialties and to determine if their past dental experience affects their level of knowledge. Resident Doctors and Medical Officers working in the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria were surveyed with self-administered questionnaire in 2008. A total of 142 doctors responded to the questionnaire, giving a response rate of 71%. The female: male ratio was approximately 1:2.5. The designations of res...

  4. Information Technology and the Business Communities: A Case Study of Small-scale

    OpenAIRE

    I.F. Anyasi

    2010-01-01

    The world is fast becoming a global village and a necessary tool for this process is informationtechnology. Thus, this study examined the impact of information technology on the economies of small-scalebusiness enterprises, specifically on business growth and income flow, job creation, efficient businessmanagement and crime rate reduction. Survey approach was adopted and data was collected from 1000respondents randomly selected from some commercial communities in Nigeria; Lagos, Abuja, Benin,...

  5. Community wildlife management in west africa : a regional overview

    OpenAIRE

    Zeba, S.

    1998-01-01

    This report is intended to be a West African contribution to a global study of IIED on community wildlife management issues. Its geographic focus is the 16 member countries of the Economic Community Of West African States (ECOWAS), including 9 francophone countries (Benin, Burkina Faso, Niger, Mali, Ivory-Coast, Mauritania, Senegal, Guinea,Togo), 5 anglophone countries (Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, The Gambia) and 2 lusophone countries (Guinea Bissau, Cape Verde). This region has mo...

  6. Reforming State-Dominated Banking Systems in Africa : Financial Adjustment and Technical Assistance Programs

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the reforms is to improve the capacity of financial institutions to serve the needs of economic agents and the population at large. In Cote d'Ivoire, downsizing, reorganization and (as required) privatization and liquidation of key banks and insurance companies, in the early 1990s led to the establishment of a more efficient and competitive banking system. In Benin, all st...

  7. The imprint of the Slave Trade in an African American population: mitochondrial DNA, Y chromosome and HTLV-1 analysis in the Noir Marron of French Guiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larrouy Georges

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retracing the genetic histories of the descendant populations of the Slave Trade (16th-19th centuries is particularly challenging due to the diversity of African ethnic groups involved and the different hybridisation processes with Europeans and Amerindians, which have blurred their original genetic inheritances. The Noir Marron in French Guiana are the direct descendants of maroons who escaped from Dutch plantations in the current day Surinam. They represent an original ethnic group with a highly blended culture. Uniparental markers (mtDNA and NRY coupled with HTLV-1 sequences (env and LTR were studied to establish the genetic relationships linking them to African American and African populations. Results All genetic systems presented a high conservation of the African gene pool (African ancestry: mtDNA = 99.3%; NRY = 97.6%; HTLV-1 env = 20/23; HTLV-1 LTR = 6/8. Neither founder effect nor genetic drift was detected and the genetic diversity is within a range commonly observed in Africa. Higher genetic similarities were observed with the populations inhabiting the Bight of Benin (from Ivory Coast to Benin. Other ancestries were identified but they presented an interesting sex-bias. Whilst male origins spread throughout the north of the bight (from Benin to Senegal, female origins were spread throughout the south (from the Ivory Coast to Angola. Conclusions The Noir Marron are unique in having conserved their African genetic ancestry, despite major cultural exchanges with Amerindians and Europeans through inhabiting the same region for four centuries. Their maroon identity and the important number of slaves deported in this region have maintained the original African diversity. All these characteristics permit to identify a major origin located in the former region of the Gold Coast and the Bight of Benin; regions highly impacted by slavery, from which goes a sex-biased longitudinal gradient of ancestry.

  8. Essai sur l'effet de la densité sur la production de biomasse d'escargots géants africains (Archachatina marginata au Bénin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koudandé, OD.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of the Density on the Biomass Production on African Giant Snails Archatina marginata in Benin. Under variable densities (4, 8, 15 et 22 animals per m2, young african giant snails fed with a diet of papaya leaves had a growth rate linked to the rearing density. In fact, the weight gains were respectively 112 %, 114 %, 76 % and 64 %. However the biomass production increased with the density, this enhancement followed a logarithmic curve.

  9. Survival of Coelaenomenodera lameensis (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Relation to the Physical Characteristics of Different Oil Palm (Elaeis sp.) Breeding Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Beaudoin-Ollivier, L.; Flori, A.; Coffi, A.; Cros, D.; Glitho, I.; Nodichao, L.

    2015-01-01

    The edibility of different Elaeis sp. breeding populations present in Benin was tested for the leaf miner Coelaenomenodera lameensis Berti (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a major oil palm pest in Africa. Experiments carried out in sleeves revealed the oviposition capacities of females and the mortality rates for the different developmental stages by comparing the populations found on two breeding populations of Elaeis oleifera (HBK) Cortes, four of Elaeis guineensis Jacquin and four (E. guineens...

  10. Long-term observations of turbulent fluxes over heterogeneous vegetation using scintillometry and additional observations : a contribution to AMMA under Sudano-Sahelian climate

    OpenAIRE

    Guyot, A; J. M. Cohard; Anquetin, S.; Galle, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    Based on a 3-year period of infrared scintillometry, soil and meteorological measurements, this study presents an analysis of the surface energy balance partitioning over a heterogeneous savannah, in the Sudano-Sahelian region. The site is located in Northern Benin, meso-site of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (AMMA) project. The 3-year period enables an analysis of several alternate dry and wet periods, as well as the intermediate dry-to-wet and wet-to-dry periods. Infrared sc...

  11. Socio-economic impacts and determinants of parasitic weed infestation in rainfed rice systems of sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    N'cho, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Keywords: rice; weed; weed management practices, adoption, impact, parasitic weeds; Rhamphicarpa fistulosa; Striga asiatica; Striga hermonthica, double hurdle model; multivariate probit, productivity, stochastic frontier analysis, data envelopment analysis, directional distance function, sub-Saharan Africa, Benin, Cote d’Ivoire, Tanzania. Socio-economic impacts and determinants of parasitic weed infestation in rainfed rice systems of sub-Saharan Africa Simon A. N’cho Abstract Ric...

  12. Micronutrient supplementation of young stunted Beninese children: effects on appetite and growth performance

    OpenAIRE

    Dossa, R.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Linear growth retardation (stunting) still has a high prevalence rate in developing countries (ACC/SCN, 2000). In the republic of Benin reported prevalence rates range from 25% to 40%. In malnourished children it is quite common to observe a combination of multiple micronutrient deficiency, loss of appetite and growth retardation. However, possible interactions between these parameters are not yet adequately mapped.The research presented in this thesis was performed to examine whether micronu...

  13. Factors Associated with Early Introduction of Formula and/or Solid, Semi-Solid or Soft Foods in Seven Francophone West African Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abukari I. Issaka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with early introduction of formula and/or solid, semi-solid or soft foods to infants aged three to five months in seven Francophone West African countries. The sources of data for the analyses were the most recent Demographic and Health Survey datasets of the seven countries, namely Benin (BDHS, 2012, Burkina Faso (BFDHS, 2010, Cote d’Ivoire (CIDHS, 2011–2012, Guinea (GDHS, 2012, Mali (MDHS, 2012–2013, Niger (NDHS, 2012 and Senegal (SDHS, 2010. The study used multiple logistic regression methods to analyse the factors associated with early introduction of complementary feeding using individual-, household- and community-level determinants. The sample was composed of 4158 infants aged between three and five months with: 671 from Benin, 811 from Burkina Faso, 362 from Cote d’Ivoire, 398 from Guinea, 519 from Mali, 767 from Niger and 630 from Senegal. Multiple analyses indicated that in three of the seven countries (Benin, Guinea and Senegal, infants who suffered illnesses, such as diarrhoea and acute respiratory infection, were significantly more likely to be introduced to formula and/or solid, semi-solid or soft foods between the age of three and five months. Other significant factors included infants who: were born in second to fourth position (Benin, whose mothers did not attend any antenatal clinics (Burkina Faso and Niger, were male (Cote d’Ivoire and Senegal, lived in an urban areas (Senegal, or were delivered by traditional birth attendants (Guinea, Niger and Senegal. Programmes to discourage early introduction of formula and/or solid, semi-solid or soft foods in these countries should target the most vulnerable segments of the population in order to improve exclusive breastfeeding practices and reduce infant mortality.

  14. Animal traction in Ghana:

    OpenAIRE

    Houssou, Nazaire; Kolavalli, Shashidhara; Bobobee, Emmanuel; Owusu, Victor

    2013-01-01

    The recent interest of the government of Ghana in agricultural mechanization has largely focused on the provision of tractors and imported machinery to the farming population. Animal traction has not received much attention from the country’s policymakers. The strong demand for mechanization services (Houssou et al., 2012; Benin et al., 2012) and inadequate number of tractors to meet the demand in the country call for more effective use of other power sources for the agriculture sector. Usi...

  15. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document lists the 128 Member States of the Agency as of 18 September 1998. The new Member since the last issue of the list (INFCIRC/2/50) is Burkina Faso. In an attachment the dates on which the present 128 states became Members, and the state (Benin) whose application for membership of the Agency has been recommended by the Board of Governors to be considered at the 42nd session of the General Conference are given

  16. Knowledge, attitudes and practice of breast cancer screening among female health workers in a Nigerian urban city

    OpenAIRE

    Omuemu Vivian O; Akhigbe Adenike O

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Late presentation has been observed as the hallmark of breast cancer in Nigerian women and an earlier onset has been reported in this population. This study was designed to assess the awareness of female health workers about risk factors and screening methods for early detection of breast cancer. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out among female health workers in the two major government health institutions in Benin City, Edo State capital in Nigeria...

  17. DPA1*02012: A DPA1*0201-related Mhc class II allele in West Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, C.G.; May, J.; Spauke, D.; Schnittger, L. [Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, Hamburg (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    DNA techniques such as sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe (SSOP) hybridizations, restriction-fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses, and DNA sequencing have greatly supported the characterization of Mhc class II allelic polymorphism. Here the authors describe a DPA 1 allele which has been identified in two male individuals from Liberia and Benin, West Africa, during a survey study on Mhc class II associations with the different manifestations after infection with Onchocerca volvulus. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Effects of Indole-3-Acetic Acid on Germination in Lead Polluted Petri Dish of Citrullus lanatus (Thunberg) Matsumura and Nakai, Cucurbitaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Chidozie Ogwu; Aiwansoba Raymond Osas; Osawaru Moses Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Watermelon, Citrullus lanatus (Thunberg) Matsumura and Nakai is a tropical fruit vegetable. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is a popular phytohormone while lead (Pb) is a common environmental pollutant in urban and sub-urban centers. C. lanatus were obtained from Benin City with a view to study the effects of IAA on their germination in Pb polluted environment.  Germination percentage without IAA and Pb treatment in petri dish was significant after ten days. Hastened germination was observed when ...

  19. Etude chimique de colorants naturels et matériaux résineux traditionnels au Bénin dans le domaine artisanal

    OpenAIRE

    Fagbohoun, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Molecular plant wealth is an important source of dyes and naturally occurring bioactive molecules, have always been used by artisans and crafts and traditional healers in the therapeutic field. This work contributes mainly to the chemical study of five dye plants: T. grandis, L. inermis, K. senegalensis, I. tinctoria and P. cyanescens, which represent the most used by the artisans at from a ethnobotanical study conducted in southeastern Benin. An optimization of the extraction conditions dyes...

  20. Using grey literature in informal information service in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    P. Sturges; GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    1994-01-01

    There are increasing numbers of experiments (in countries as diverse as Sierra Leone, Sudan, Benin, Senegal, Botswana and Zimbabwe) with informal community information services dealing with health, hygiene, child care, cultivation, stock-rearing, trades, crafts and repair work, in the way in which surveys show that citizens require. Conventionally published material is in very short supply and seldom has relevant content. Services make use of such specially prepared materials as are available...