WorldWideScience

Sample records for benin

  1. Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-01

    Focus in this discussion of Benin is on the following: the people; geography; history; government and political conditions; economy; defense; foreign relations; and relations between the US and Benin. The population totaled 3.8 million in 1983 with an annual growth rate of 2.6%. The infant mortality rate is 45/1000 and life expectancy 46.9 years. The population comprises about 20 sociocultural groups. 4 groups -- the Fon, Aja, Bariba, and Yoruba -- account for more than half of the population. The name was changed from Dahomey to the People's Republic of Benin in 1975. 2 years after the military coup d'etat in 1972, Marxism-Leninism was declared the guiding philosophy of the new government. Marxism-Leninism remains the official doctrine, but the government has moved to take account of popular resistance to a radical social transformation, as well as problems encountered in attempting to establish a centrally directed economy. Benin is ranked as 1 of the world's 35 poorest countries. The commercial, industrial, and agricultural sectors are all experiencing severe problems. The government's newest 5 year plan for 1983-88 places a stronger emphasis on developing agriculture. In so doing, the government hopes to assure its own domestic needs and to become a supplier of basic foodstuffs to the region. Benin's Armed Forces number about 3000 personnel. Benin is a member of the Non-Aligned Movement and the Organization of African Unity. Relations with France are important because of historical, cultural, economic, and aid links. After 1972, relations between the US and Benin became strained as Benin moved to strengthen its ties with the Soviet Union and other socialist countries and mounted harsh propaganda attacks on the US.

  2. Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    In 1988, Benin had a population of 4 million and an annual growth rate of 3.6%. Life expectancy was 49 years, and infant mortality stood at 116/1000 live births. Primary school enrollment is about 65%, with 6 years of compulsory education, and the adult literacy rate is only 11%. Of the labor force of 1.9 million, 72% are engaged in agriculture. Benin's gross domestic product was US$1497 million in 1987, with an annual growth rate of 7.1% and a per capita income of $374. Despite the Marxist-Leninist ideology of the Kerekou Government, many government-controlled sectors of the economy are being privatized and private foreign firms have been authorized to operate in Benin's transport sector. These changes have been necessitated by heavy losses suffered by nationalized industries and the worsening economic situation. Benin's economy, heavily dependent on regional trade and the export of cotton and crude oil, has been severely affected by ineffective government policies, regional recession, the collapse of world commodity prices, heavy external debt, balance of payment deficits, and very low foreign exchange reserves and liguidity. The 5-Year Plan (1983-88) emphasized the development of agriculture and the goal of becoming a supplier of basic foodstuffs to the region.

  3. Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J F

    1989-02-01

    In response to the acceleration of population growth in the People's Republic the Benin, the government there is now planning a comprehensive national population policy as well as practical plans to implement it. Benin is a country, slightly smaller than Pennsylvania, situated on the west coast of Africa. It has an estimated population of 4.5 million. Against the backdrop of the present bleak economic picture, Benin's demographic structure and trends are comparable to the situation of many sub-saharan countries. Since World War II, figures show a fairly rapid decline in mortality although mortality rates remain high. The lack of any fertility decline has resulted in a youthful age structure and, in conjunction with mortality decline, a rise in the rate of natural increase, from 2.7 in 1978 to 3.2 in 1987. The current rate of contraceptive prevalence is estimated at 6% of women at risk. The rapid population growth has led to increased demand for social services. However, given the poor economy the government is presently unable to satisfy these demands. If the population policy planned is successful, it could serve as a catalyst to redesign Benin's future development strategies.

  4. Benin - Access to Financial Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The performance evaluation undertaken included administrative financial data from MFIs and MSMEs which received grants under the Benin Compact as well as survey data...

  5. Benin - Access to Land - Urban

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This is not a performance evaluation by an independent evaluator, but rather a review by the MCC former Benin Access to Land Project Lead of project implementation,...

  6. Moose von Inselbergen in Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Frahm, Jan-Peter; Porembski, Stefan

    1998-01-01

    Acht Leber- und zehn Laubmoosarten werden von Inselbergen aus Benin angegeben. Fünf der Lebermoose (Acrolejeunea emergens, Riccia atropurpurea, R. congoana, R. discolor, R. moenkemeyeri) und alle Laubmoose (Archidium ohioense, Brachymenium acuminatum, B. exile, Bryum arachnoideum, B. argenteum, Bryum deperssum, Garckea moenkemeyeri, Hyophila involuta, Philonotis mniobryoides und Weissia cf. edentula) werden neu für Benin angegeben. Eight liverworts and ten mosses are reported from inselber...

  7. Benin - Transport Sector Investment Program

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan, P.C.

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this project (1997-2001) using $40 million of IDA funds were to: (i) safeguard the competitiveness of Benin's transport sector and of its transit corridor through open modal competition; (ii) improve government's capacity for planning, programming and managing transport sector investments; (iii) boost the allocation of resources to infrastructure maintenance; (iv) boost t...

  8. Characteristics of Commercial Motorcyclists in Benin City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the characteristics of commercial motorcyclists in Ugbowo, Benin-city. A cross-sectional and descriptive study was carried out among commercial motorcyclists in Ugbowo, Benin-city, Edo State. A total of 252 commercial motorcyclists were involved in the study. A cluster sampling method ...

  9. Benin | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... the country's decision-makers tools to design policies to combat poverty. ... Our funding in agricultural research in Benin has helped improve small farm operations. ... climate change on food security and rural poverty; reduce urban air pollution, ... research capabilities at Benin's Institute for Empirical Research in Political ...

  10. Vegetation patterns and environmental gradients in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adomou, A.

    2005-01-01

    Key words: West Africa, Benin, vegetation patterns, floristic areas, phytogeography, chorology, floristic gradients, climatic factors, water availability, Dahomey Gap, threatened plants, biodiversity, conservation.Understanding plant species distribution patterns and the underlying factors is a

  11. Exposition and Synthesis of Benin Bronze Casting: Emphasis on the Olotan Casters of Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifeta, Chris Funke

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of Western education to Nigeria has brought in its wake great strides toward development. Changes in Benin dates far back to the dawn of the 20th century. This paper investigates the critical role of education in development. The paper integrates interview data collected from bronze casters in Benin. The first section of the paper…

  12. Benin

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... in rainfall patterns and distribution. To better equip them for an uncertain future, a project led by Initiatives pour un développement intégré durable (IDID-ONG) is working to improve the quality and dissemination of forecasting information, pinpoint vulnerabilities to climate change, and develop and test adaptive practices.

  13. Informing and involving farmers in Benin

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC

    can do his or her part in addressing climate change.” The project is based on Benin's network of rural municipalities or “communes”. Meteorological pre-alert committees in. 35 municipalities will bring stakeholders together in collecting and sharing information on the risks of drought and tropical storms, among other hazards.

  14. Verbal art of the Fon (Benin)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalders Grool, Marjolijn Cornelia

    2013-01-01

    This publication aims at the analysis of the performance of a corpus of Fongbe stories that I collected in three villages in the south of Benin in 1976 and 1977. The corpus consists of 37 stories (57.000 words). The stories aim at children’s education. Seven stories in my corpus are similar,

  15. case study of ramat park benin city

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    SETTLEMENT: CASE STUDY OF RAMAT PARK BENIN CITY. E. S. Okonofua1, R. ... region on a daily basis. The movement of ... with major road networks [2]. In order to ease ... led to series of research and development of traffic noise models.

  16. Informing and involving farmers in Benin

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC

    développement économique et social, and the Groupe de recherche et d'appui aux initiatives de base pour un ... The project is based on Benin's network of rural municipalities or “communes”. Meteorological pre-alert ... the effects these climate extremes have on them,” explains agro-economist and project leader Saïd ...

  17. Analysis of pineapple production systems in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fassinou Hotegni, V.N.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Agbossou, E.K.; Struik, P.C.

    2012-01-01

    In Benin, pineapple is an important fruit crop, mainly grown in the Atlantic department. The overall quality of the two cultivars grown, ‘Sugarloaf’ and ‘Smooth Cayenne’, does not meet the requirements for some outlets and the heterogeneity in fruit quality within and between lots is high. This

  18. Benin Video-film: A Case for the Documentary Genre

    OpenAIRE

    Omoera, Osakue Stevenson

    2016-01-01

    Although Onions Edionwe’s films, such as Echoes of a Kingdom, Arousa N’ohuan-ren, and Aisiokuoba, are notable documentaries, they represent an “insignificant” component of the total number of movies that have been made in the Benin or Edo language film section of the Nigerian film culture (Nollywood). A critical review of the Benin video culture indicates that a majority of the Benin film content creators tend to ignore the documentary genre. This article explores the reasons Benin filmmakers...

  19. Main neurosurgical pathologies in Benin Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugues Jean Thierry Gandaho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Benin republic is a very low-income French-speaking country in West Africa The development of Neurosurgery in the Republic of Benin took off with the arrival of the first Beninese neurosurgeons in the year 2003. Aims: This study aims to evaluate patients' attendance in a public neurosurgical center, and appreciate populations' affordability to a new specialty. Settings and Design: In the year 2004, the Benin Armed Forces established the first Department of Neurosurgery in the Nation's Military Teaching Hospital. From the public authorities, that was a proof of motivation to develop this specialty in the Benin Republic. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional survey (September 2003 to December 2009 of the total neurosurgical patient population managed in a public pioneer hospital in a developing country. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were captured and analyzed with the SPSS software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA and presented in descriptive statistics such as frequencies and proportions. Results: 2908 new patients, civilians, and militaries were registered. The surgical treatment was offered adult (86% as well as pediatric (14% patients. Spinal degenerative diseases (52.1% were the most common pathology; neurotraumatology emergency cases (8.4% appeared low in representation. Three-quarters of patients experienced financial difficulties to procure the required radiologic investigations and although 609 (20.94% benefited from surgery, most patients could not pay for the surgical operations as well as the perioperative care. Conclusions: In spite of the great constraints of this country's privately-funded health-care delivery system on the affordability of neurosurgical treatment for the average Beninese, this study demonstrates a globally increasing attendance of the department.

  20. Solar retinopathy in Benin City, Nigeria | Ukponmwan | West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The case reports of three patients who were seen at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital Benin City with a diagnosis of solar maculopathy are presented. There was good visual recovery in two of the patients. This report shows the effect on the retina of direct sun gazing. The need to use protective filters is emphasized.

  1. Childhood vascular Tumours in Benin City, Nigeria | Igbe | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Vasoformative tumours are one of the commonest tumours in childhood. The patterns of these tumours in Benin City, however, are not known. Objective: To determine the incidence and morphological patterns of childhood vascular tumours as seen in the Department of Pathology University of Benin Teaching ...

  2. Presentation of colorectal cancers in Benin-City, Nigeria | Eze ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Colorectal cancer is a major cause of cancer death worldwide, and the prevalence in Nigeria appears to be increasing due to a shift to western diets. We undertook a retrospective analysis of colorectal cancers seen at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City from January 1983 to December 2002.

  3. Knowledge of Diabetes Mellitus among Registered Nurses in Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge of Diabetes Mellitus among Registered Nurses in Benin City. ... Although, nurses knew that diet plays a great role in management of diabetes mellitus, they were ... Keywords: Nurses, Health education, Understanding of diabetes.

  4. Microbiota of Tayohounta, a fermented baobab flavour food of Benin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2011-11-07

    Nov 7, 2011 ... 3Product Design and Quality Management Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen, the .... In Benin, thirty five baobab food products have been ..... Beverage-Nutrition/NutraIngredients-USA.com/Industry/Baobab-fruit-.

  5. Agricultural Production, Food and Nutrition Security in Rural Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural Production, Food and Nutrition Security in Rural Benin, Nigeria. ... that rural-urban migration results in shortage of manpower for agricultural activities. ... to support education, health care, sanitation and safe drinking water supply.

  6. Childhood urinary tract infection in Benin City: pathogens and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Childhood urinary tract infection in Benin City: pathogens and antimicrobial ... of bacterial isolates implicated in urinary tract infection (UTI) amongst children was ... There is also an emerging resistance of common pathogens to azithromycin ...

  7. Tourism and Facilities Development in Three Art Traditions of Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    some of the problems associated with the production of some Benin traditional art ... weather condition, facilities and patronage are important factors to be considered in .... vii. Ugie Ewere: This is the day the young ones in the City symbolically.

  8. Nutrition And The Eye | Iyasele | Benin Journal of Postgraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Benin Journal of Postgraduate Medicine ... pubmed/medline search using the words nutrition, eye, disease; journals, review ... in the pathogenesis of cataracts and age related macular degeneration. Good nutrition thus helps in preventing and

  9. A phytogeographic survey of Southern Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Paradis

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available Southern Benin has a dry subequatoriai climate with a rainfall gradient from 850 mm in the west to 1 500 mm in the east, the geomorphology is varied and the vegetation has been subjected to strong human influence. There are numerous plant formations, namely: 1, forest islands which are probably relics of the primitive vegetation and include (a dense semi-deciduous forests of several types, (b swamp forests of two types, (c periodically flooded forest of two types, (d Lophira lanceolata  (Hutchinson & Dalziel, 1954-72 woodlands and (e mangrove swamps; 2, formations which are probably derived and include (a thickets of several types, (b tree savannas and shrub savannas, (c grassy savannas and prairies varying according to soil characteristics and (d halophytic grasslands; and 3, floating vegetation on fresh-water lakes.

  10. Neonatal intestinal obstruction in Benin, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osifo Osarumwense

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intestinal obstruction is a life threatening condition in the newborn, with attendant high mortality rate especially in underserved subregion. This study reports the aetiology, presentation, and outcome of intestinal obstruction management in neonates. Materials and Methods: A prospective study of neonatal intestinal obstruction at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin, Nigeria, between January 2006-June 2008. Data were collated on a structured proforma and analysed for age, sex, weight, presentation, type/date of gestation/delivery, aetiology, clinical presentation, associated anomaly, treatment, and outcome. Results: There were 71 neonates, 52 were males and 19 were females (2.7:1. Their age range was between 12 hours and 28 days (mean, 7.9 ± 2.7 days and they weighed between 1.8 and 5.2 kg (average, 3.2 kg. The causes of intestinal obstruction were: Anorectal anomaly, 28 (39.4%; Hirschsprung′s disease, 8 (11.3%′ prematurity, 3 (4.2%; meconeum plug, 2 (2.8%; malrotation, 6 (8.5%; intestinal atresia, 8 (11.3%; necrotising enterocolitis (NEC, 4 (5.6%; obstructed hernia, 4 (5.6%; and spontaneous gut perforation, 3 (4.2%. Also, 27 (38% children had colostomy, 24 (33.8% had laparotomy, 9 (12.8% had anoplasty, while 11 (15.4% were managed nonoperatively. A total of 41 (57.7% neonates required incubator, 26 (36.6% needed total parenteral nutrition, while 15 (21.1% require d paediatric ventilator. Financial constraint, late presentation, presence of multiple anomalies, aspiration, sepsis, gut perforation, and bowel gangrene were the main contributors to death. Neonates with lower obstructions had a better outcome compared to those having upper intestinal obstruction ( P < 0.0001. Conclusion: Outcomes of intestinal obstruction are still poor in our setting; late presentation, financial constraints, poor parental motivation and lack of basic facilities were the major determinants of mortality.

  11. Application of Queuing Theory to Petrol Stations in Benin-City Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports on a study conducted on five petrol stations in Benin City, namely: Oando petrol station Akpakpava, AP petrol station Ugbowo, Total petrol station Iselu, NNPC petrol station Benin-Auchi Road and NNPC Mega filling station Benin-Sapele Road. The average arrival rate of customers per hour for the five ...

  12. The root causes of ineffective and inefficient healthcare technology management in Benin public health sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houngbo, T.; Zweekhorst, M.B.M.; Bunders- Aelen, J.G.F.; Coleman, H.L.S.; Medenou, D.; Dakpanon, L.Y.; de Cock Buning, Tjard

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to identify the root causes and solutions of main problems facing Healthcare Technology Management in Benin׳s public health sector. Conducted in Benin from 2008 to 2010, two surveys were used with key actors in Healthcare Technology Management. The first survey was based on 377

  13. Alternative method for vegetables cultivation in Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Recchia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the developing countries populations, which are already vulnerable and food insecure, are likely to be the most seriously affected by the effects of climate change, e.g. yield decreases and price increases for the most important agricultural crops. The IPCC’s Fourth Assessment Report for Africa describes a trend of warming at a rate faster than the global average and increasing aridity: in many parts of Africa, it seems that warmer climates and changes in precipitation will destabilise agricultural production and aggravates food security. The present work concerns the vegetables cultivation in the Parakou region in Benin, where agriculture employs approximately 70% of the active population and contributes to 36% of the Gross Domestic Product and 88% of export earnings. However, the agricultural sector has been regarded as unproductive with low adaptation capacities because of structural factors (e.g. high level of poverty among rural populations, weak mechanization and intensification of production modes, but also because of natural constraints (e.g. poor management of water and soils, leading to soil degradation. Considering the aridity, the low carbon content and the reduced level of nutrients available in the soil, the use of an hydroponic module has been hypothesised. In this way sufficient yields of the crops may be assured and no agricultural machines will be needed for the tillage operations. In addition, the nutrients can be added to the growing solution using residual materials as poultry manure, ashes and green wastes. In order to verify if some construction or maintenance problems can occur and if a growing solution can be easily obtained using agricultural wastes, some tests have been carried out. Moreover laboratory analyses have been done for different solutions that may be adopted with different shares of water, poultry manure, ashes and green wastes. The tests have indicated that the hydroponic module could be used in Benin

  14. Features and perceptions of menopausal women in Benin City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study of 533 randomly selected Nigerian women in Benin City, Edo State who had experienced at least 24 continuous months of amenorrhea using a structured questionnaire. Results: The ages of the women studied ranged between 47 and 78 years; mean 57.4 ± 6.3 years. The mean ...

  15. Informing and involving farmers in Benin | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-10

    Dec 10, 2010 ... In rural Benin, adapting to climate change will depend on improving farmers' ... But the rhythm of farm life is no longer set by these seasonal swings. ... This project stands out for its action research approach, which favours ...

  16. Assessment of groundwater quality of Benin City, Edo state, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality of groundwater of Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria was investigated between February and July 2008. Water samples were collected from functional bore holes from five locations (stations 1 – 5) and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters including heavy metals. Data obtained were compared with World ...

  17. Stem Cell Research-Concept And Controversies | Kalu | Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Benin Journal of Postgraduate Medicine. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8, No 1 (2006) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected ...

  18. Physico- Chemical characteristics of compost (Cotonou, Benin, West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work was led the town of Cotonou in Benin and particularly on the vegetable garden site of Houéyiho. It involved the valorization of the waste of this site by proceeding the aerobic composting of the biodegradable fraction of municipal solid waste collected in the markets. This consists among other rotten fruits of various ...

  19. All projects related to Benin | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: DIET, FOOD CROPS, CROP DIVERSIFICATION, MICRONUTRIENTS. Region: Benin, Kenya, South Africa, South of Sahara. Program: Food, Environment, and Health. Total Funding: CA$ 501,800.00. Ecosystem Approaches to Human Health Graduate Training Awards. Project. IDRC's Ecosystem Approaches to ...

  20. Parasitic contamination of fruits and vegetables in Benin city, Edo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables helps in protecting the human body from diseases and also has a positive impact on body-weight regulation and related conditions, including diabetes and hypertension. This study was conducted to determine the parasitic contamination of fruits and vegetables in Benin ...

  1. Microbiota of Tayohounta, a fermented baobab flavour food of Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chadare, F.J.; Jonkman, J.; Wolkers-Rooijackers, J.C.M.; Nout, M.J.R.; Hounhouigan, J.D.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    The present work provides data on the microbial composition of Tayohounta, a product of natural fermentation of baobab seed kernels. Samples were collected from 3 different small scale producers from Benin at the end of the fermentation process. Microorganisms were enumerated and identified using

  2. Glycaemic Control amongst Persons with Diabetes Mellitus in Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: This study has shown that poor glycaemic control is common amongst persons with diabetes mellitus in Benin City. Studies have shown that good glycaemic control prevents and delays the complications of diabetes mellitus. We therefore recommend that health education on the benefits of good glycaemic ...

  3. Availability and affordability of antiglaucoma drugs in Benin city ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness. Affordability and availability are key factors that determine access to effective treatment. The aim of this study is to investigate the availability and affordability of antiglaucoma medicines in Benin City. A cross sectional survey of the major drug distribution sectors was conducted.

  4. Gilles de la Tourette's Syndrome- A Case Report | Adayonfo | Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Benin Journal of Postgraduate Medicine. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 1 (2008) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected ...

  5. Pattern of Eye Injuries in Children in Benin City, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pattern of Eye Injuries in Children in Benin City, Nigeria. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... Majority of the eye injuries were lacerations (50%). ... It is also important to educate parents and caregivers on the likely risk of injury that ...

  6. Vertical price leadership on local maize markets in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, WE; Lutz, C; van Tilburg, A

    This paper considers vertical price relationships between wholesalers and retailers on five local maize markets in Benin. We show that the common stochastic trend and the long-run disequilibrium error must explicitly be considered to correctly interpret the restrictions on the error-correction

  7. A phytosociological study of riparian forests in Benin (West Africa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natta, A.K.; Sinsin, B.; Maesen, van der L.J.G.

    2004-01-01

    Floristic ordination and classification of riparian forests in Benin were derived from a comprehensive floristic inventory. TWINSPAN classification and DCA analysis of a data set of 818 plant species and 180 releve's yielded 12 plant communities. Importance of waterways, relief, topography, latitude

  8. Childhood vascular Tumours in Benin City, Nigeria | Igbe | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annals of Biomedical Sciences ... The patterns of these tumours in Benin City, however, are not known. ... This comprised 71 benign cases (56 haemangiomas, 15 lymphangiomas), 7 tumours of intermediate grade (5 haemangioendodethelioma and 2 haemangiopericytoma) and 4 malignant cases (Kaposi sarcoma).

  9. Governing the transnational organic cotton network from Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glin, L.C.; Mol, A.P.J.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.; Vodouhè, S.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we attempt to conceptualize the historical development and the governance structure of the transnational organic cotton network from Benin. We aim to discover how the organic cotton production-consumption network is governed locally and internationally. Existing bodies of literature

  10. Medicinal plants used to treat malaria in Southern Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maesen, van der L.J.G.

    2004-01-01

    People in Benin who cannot resort to allopathic medicines provided by the pharmaceutical industry use many species of plants to alleviate malaria symptoms. Complicated mixtures of different parts of several plant species are employed orally or as a bathing substance. The inventory of 85 species and

  11. Tourism and Facilities Development in Three Art Traditions of Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper therefore seeks to bring to the front burner some of the problems associated with the production of some Benin traditional art works,vis-a-vis sales, their studios, motivation of the artists and how their work environment can be improved upon in order to sustain the vocation using the art historical survey method.

  12. Knowledge of sickle cell disease among parturiant mothers in Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge of sickle cell disease among parturiant mothers in Benin City and their attitude to newborn screening. ... Abstract. BACKGROUND; Sickle cell disease is the commonest genetic disorder of the black race. A high ... They were assessed using a pretested questionnaire a sample of which will be shown in the text.

  13. Awareness and knowledge of prostate cancer among men in Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cancer of the prostate is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly male population. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge of prostate cancer among men in Benin City, Nigeria. This cross sectional study included 402 men above 40 years. A structured questionnaire was administered to each ...

  14. Psychological impact of infertility among women in Benin City, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infertility has profound negative consequences especially for women in developing countries. The study evaluated the psychological impact of infertility among women in Benin City, Nigeria. The study was conducted between October 2004 and April 2006. A total of the 312 women (mean age = 31.27 years, SEM ± 0.32) ...

  15. climate variability and implications for maize production in benin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    1971-1990, and (iv) that maize crop during its development in Benin is more likely to be subject to dry dekads successions than wet .... from the Atlantic Ocean to the Niger River. The ..... Ouagadougou, Burkina-Faso 18-23 Février. Pub. IWRA ...

  16. Synopsis Of Diabetes Mellitus | Ogedengbe | Benin Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Benin Journal of Postgraduate Medicine. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 11, No 1 (2009) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Synopsis Of Diabetes Mellitus. OS Ogedengbe ...

  17. Accidental childhood poisoning in Benin City: Still a problem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accidental poisoning (AP) is a leading cause of ill – health and deaths among. Nigerian children. Reports on AP are infrequent in Nigeria. This retrospective descriptive study examined the prevailing pattern of accidental childhood poisoning in Benin City. Accidental poisonings were identified in 226 (3.3%) of the cases ...

  18. Sources of Stress among Undergraduate Students in the University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria: Implications for Counselling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alika, Ijeoma Henrietta

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the role of inadequate facilities/accommodation, poor health, emotional problems, socio-economic status and poor time management as sources of stress among University of Benin undergraduates. The research instrument used was a questionnaire. The survey method was adopted for the study. Seven hundred and fifty respondents were…

  19. Emerging Trends in Blacksmithing in Benin City, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsley Osevwiyo Emeriewen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Blacksmithing in Benin City, Nigeria is of significant antiquity. The popularity and importance of the practice in the city is reinforced in the blacksmiths guild's attachment to the palace of the Oba, the traditional ruler of Benin people and their kingdom. This study examined the shift in paradigms and emerging trends in the practice. Based on the study of the blacksmiths and their products over a period of fourteen years, the study determined how the blacksmiths have responded to modern challenges. Findings indicate that a good number of the blacksmiths are multi-skilled in metal working and that they work with metals, other than iron, and employ modern tools and methodologies which were originally not traditional to blacksmithing.  The study also classified the blacksmiths’ products, most of which were also not traditional to their craft, into five categories: household utensils, farming implements, musical instruments, religious artefacts and decorative objects.

  20. [Differential mortality according to region of residence in Benin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laourou, H M

    1995-01-01

    "The first mortality tables of Benin elaborated by direct estimation for the whole country deal with relatively different regional realities. It is in this regard that the data, whether it is death from multiround surveys or information about survival of parents, allows one to distinguish between the North (with a higher mortality) and the South (which has a lower mortality). Moreover, this differential study reveals that the level of male adult mortality after 35 years in the South, is well above the national average, probably because of the increase in deaths through violence (road accident or victim of a fire) in this part of Benin....The originality of this study is to have highlighted the mortality differentials at almost all age groups of life...." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND ITA) excerpt

  1. Categorizing the Occult: Vodun, Sorcery and Religious Beliefs In Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandsbjerg, Camilla

    2011-01-01

    In everyday life in Benin as well as in academic research on the topic, the terms of vodun, witchcraft and the occult are often used in a non distinct way covering quite similar phenomena while at the same time referring to different kinds of beliefs and practices. The problem of understanding...... confronted with this difficulty. Both because the vodun, as a recognized religion in the country - equal to Islam and Christianity - , plays an important role in society as well as in individual life, but also because all area of social life are on one level or another influenced by beliefs and practices...... characterized as witchcraft or occult. Reflecting upon earlier research and particularly on the choice of terminology of the occult in writing on religion and political change in Benin (PhD thesis 2008), this paper seeks to clarify some of the epistemological, academic and historical reasons that have formed...

  2. Oral hygiene in primary schoolchildren in Benin City, Nigeria.

    OpenAIRE

    Alakija, W

    1981-01-01

    Oral hygiene was assessed in children from two primary schools in Benin City, Nigeria. Good oral hygiene was not related to the socioeconomic class of the children but to the method of cleaning the teeth. Girls had better oral hygiene than boys. It is suggested that the local method of using chewing sticks should be encouraged, and emphasis placed on frequency and thoroughness of use.

  3. Bacteriospermia and Sperm Quality in Infertile Male Patient at University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ibadin, O. K.; Ibeh, I. N.

    2008-01-01

    Male Urogenital tract infection plays an important role in men infertility. Asymptomtic bacteriospermia has been regarded as of the contributing factor to male infertility. In this study, 87 semen samples of infertile men attending the Human Reproduction Research Programme and Invitrofertilization unit (HRRP/IVF) of University Benin Teaching Hospital were evaluated Bacteriologically using standard Bacterial culture method. Standard semen analysis was performed according to WHO guidelines. Amo...

  4. Governance, marketing and innovations in Beninese pineapple supply chains : a survey of smallholder farmers in South Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arinloye, D.D.A.A.

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of the study was to identify an innovative approach that could overcome market quality and price information asymmetry issues in pineapple supply chain in Benin. Two case studies were conducted in Benin and Ghana, with an in-depth survey of 219 farmers in Benin. The study mapped

  5. Health and Environment Project In Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaël Edou

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In 1989, the Republic of Benin was facing great social and economic upheavals. In 1990, the Canadian and American Mennonite missionaries created the Bethesda Health Care Centre.  In 1993, assessment of the hospital activities showed that many people were coming back to the centre repeatedly with the same illnesses linked to sanitation aspects and living conditions. The Community Development and Environmental Protection Department (DCAM was thus established to face this great challenge. It quickly helped the community and the local authorities to establish a waste management system.  The Programme for Sanitation and Protection of the Environment (PrAPE was designed and funded by the French Embassy and Evangelische Entwicklungsdienst V.e (EED, a German Christian organization. Households then began to subscribe for the collection of their wastes. Bethesda began to assist other communities to put in place waste management systems. Today, it is working throughout the country with many municipalities. While the programme was being implemented, we discovered that the community needed to be supported in their revenue generating activities. We set up in 1996, a solidarity-based microfinance system. The savings of some people were used to grant credit to others. This community bank has developed into a large bank today. In 2006, a system of mutual insurance was put in place. A complete integrated system to address the basic needs of the community was thus set up.En 1989, la République du Bénin a été confrontée à d’importants bouleversements sociaux et économiques. En 1990, des missionnaires mennonites canadiens et américains ont créé le Centre de santé Bethesda. En 1993, l’évaluation des activités hospitalières a montré que de nombreuses personnes revenaient à plusieurs reprises au centre avec les mêmes maladies liées à des problèmes d’assainissement et aux conditions de vie. Le département Développement Communautaire et

  6. Household production of sorghum beer in Benin: technological and socio-economic aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayodé, A.P.P.; Hounhouigan, J.D.; Nout, M.J.R.; Niehof, A.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the sorghum brewing microenterprises in Benin with emphasis on the beer quality, the social significance of the product as well as the income generated. Tchoukoutou, the Benin opaque sorghum beer, has important social functions as it fosters the cooperative spirit and remains an

  7. Discourses of Education, Protection, and Child Labor: Case Studies of Benin, Namibia and Swaziland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordtveit, Bjorn Harald

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses discontinuities between local, national and international discourse in the fields of education, protection of children, and child labor, using Benin, Namibia and Swaziland as case studies. In Benin, child abuse and child labor are related to poverty, whereas in Namibia and Swaziland they are also interrelated with HIV/AIDS.…

  8. Benin things of the river: The art of Margaret Omoragbon and Rose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The history of Benin and its arts organizations, the predominantly patriarchal guilds of bronze and wood workers, has resulted in other art forms, especially those involving women, being marginalized in mainstream research. Female artists have also been ignored in Benin's art history, a problem of gender bias worthy of ...

  9. Clinicopathological features of inflammatory bowel disease in Benin City, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darlington Ewaen Obaseki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Conventionally, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is considered to be more common in western countries. Nevertheless, it is relatively rare in most developing countries. Aim: The purpose of this study is to determine the frequency and morphological patterns of IBD in Benin City, Nigeria, and to compare our findings with the reports from other centers. Materials and Methods: The study is a four-year analysis of 32 histologically confirmed cases of IBD, presenting at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH and a private specialist gastroenterology hospital, based in Benin City, Southern Nigeria. Both centers serve as referral centers to most hospitals in South-Southern Nigeria. All suspected patients were examined with rectosigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy after obtaining consent. These specimens were formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, sectioned at 3-5 microns, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H and E. Results: In this four-year study, there were a total of 78 suspected cases, of which 32 were histologically confirmed IBD cases. Among the 32 patients, 14 (43.8% were cases of Crohn′s disease (CD, while 12 (37.5% were cases of ulcerative colitis (UC. The remaining six patients (18.7% were with indeterminate colitis (IC. A total of 21 males and 11 females presented, giving a ratio of 1.9:1, with a mean age of 51.1 years ± 7.2 standard deviation (SD. In CD, seven cases constituting 53.9%, had ileocolonic involvement. In UC, six cases involved left-sided colitis, accounting for 50%. Conclusion: IBD was twice more common in males than females, with majority of involvement in both the colonic and ileo-colonic anatomic sites. However, there is a slight higher preponderance of CD than UC in this environment.

  10. Consumers’ preferences for “bicycle poultry” in Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodjinou, Epiphane; Henningsen, Arne; Koudande, Delphin O.

    2015-01-01

    Village poultry, also termed "bicycle poultry," is produced in scavenging farming systems and is a chewy meat with a low fat content, and constitutes an important source of meat in many African countries. This study investigates consumers’ preferences regarding the physical traits of these birds...... (notably chickens, ducks and guinea fowl) in the Republic of Benin. For this purpose, we applied the hedonic price method on field data collected from retailers in four urban and five rural markets. We found that meatier drake and meatier guinea fowl with white plumage are preferred by consumers who...

  11. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF A TINCTORIAL PLANT OF BENIN TRADITIONAL PHARMACOPOEIA: THE RED SORGHUM (Sorghum caudatum) OF BENIN

    OpenAIRE

    PASCAL D. C. AGBANGNAN; CHRISTINE TACHON; HELENE BONIN; ANNA CHROSTOWKA; ERIC FOUQUET; DOMINIQUE C. K. SOHOUNHLOUE

    2012-01-01

    The full phytochemical screening of red sorghum from Benin (Sorghum caudatum) achieved in this work reveals the presence of leucoanthocyanins, flavonoides, free quinones, combined anthracene derivatives, sterols and terpenes in higher concentration in the leaf sheath and marrow of stem than in the seed. Catechin tannin content is 11.4% in the leaf sheath (slightly higher than that of red wine), 5.8% in the marrow and 2.8% in the seed. Gallic tannins, saponins and the mucilage present in the l...

  12. A Conceptual Approach to the Study of Song and Music in Benin Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ighile

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to provide a theoretical framework for the appreciation of music among the Benin, a strategic ethnic group in Nigeria. It investigates how concepts such as folk and popular song, music, noise, speech and sound find their relevant expression and place in the socio-cultural, economic, moral and even psychological setting of the Benin world. Finally, it is discovered that a conceptual approach is crucial, not only to the situation of the Benin oral literary values within a Western ideological context, but also in the facilitation of an objective evaluation of critical aspects of the life of people.

  13. The attitudes of clergy in Benin City, Nigeria towards persons with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Clinical Services, Federal Psychiatric Hospital, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria ... Their attitudes concerning mental illnesses would influence community mental health ... distributed to ministers at convenient group meetings, e.g..

  14. Converging strategies by farmers and scientists to improve soil fertility and enhance crop production in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saidou, A.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords: Farmer perception, indigenous knowledge, extensive cassava, earthworm casts, arbuscular mycorrhiza, crop rotation, nutrient uptake, soil fertility, co-research, land tenure.Farmers in the transitional zone of Benin claim that extensive cassava cropping and prior cotton fertiliser enhance

  15. Kulturní kontakty a kolaps království Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbora Půtová

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with historic cultural contacts between Europeans and the Benin Empire, one of the most significant native African cultural centres between the 15th and the 17th century. The study focuses particularly on the development of the Benin Empire on the background of acculturation and diffusion of European cultural elements and complexes. The study describes the first contacts between Europeans and the Benin Empire and the subsequent business activities, including slave trade. Special attention is paid to European colonial expansion that culminated in the 1897 British invasion which led to the conquest of the Benin City. The aim of the study is to draw attention to the role of the exogenous cultural change and acculturation processes, which caused the fall of once a socially, economically, politically and culturally stable African empire.

  16. Factors Associated with Diabetic Foot Ulcers in Benin – City, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Associated with Diabetic Foot Ulcers in Benin – City, Nigeria. ... reported precipitating factors of DFU were puncture wounds (20.4%) and burns/scalds ... The most commonly identified risk factors for DFU were improper foot-care ...

  17. Impact of Public Market Information System (PMIS) on Farmers Food Marketing Decisions: Case of Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Kpenavoun Chogou, Sylvain; Lebailly, Philippe; Adegbidi, Anselme; Gandonou, Esaie

    2009-01-01

    To sell their surpluses of maize, the main staple in Benin, farmers may choose among three modes of transaction: they may sell under a contract with itinerant traders, or they may sell without a contract at the farmgate or on distant markets. It has been postulated that farmers may choose a profitable mode of transaction if they have good access to information on the prevailing market conditions. Using detailed farm household survey data from Benin, this paper applies the Nested Logit model t...

  18. Regional trade and border markets between Niger, Benin and Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier; Tenikué, Michel; Kuepié, Mathias

    The objective of this methodological paper is to identify a number of products or sectors whose trade is relevant for border regions in West Africa. Focusing on Niger, Benin and Nigeria, we start with contextualising the importance of border markets by quantifying the changes in the relative values...... and volumes of imports and exports passing through border posts. In a second step, we determine which are the products most commonly found among the imports and exports of the border posts. The study shows that seven products are recognised as being heavily imported, subject to significant trade from large...... traders, and considered as re-export products: building materials, cereals and flour, textile, used clothing, used vehicles, cigarettes and oil....

  19. Prevalence of trichomoniasis among pregnant women in Benin City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Olusegun Akinbo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trichomonas vaginalis has been recognized as a cosmopolitan parasite of male and female genital tract. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic trichomoniasis among pregnant women in Benin City, Edo State. Materials and Methods: A total of 300 patients and subjects consisting of 250 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics and 50 non-pregnant apparently healthy subjects who served as controls were recruited in this study. The age ranged from 20 to 40 years. High vaginal swab was collected from each participant and T. vaginalis was diagnosed by microscopy. Results: An overall prevalence of 2.8% of trichomoniasis was observed among pregnant women. Gestational age and educational status of pregnant women were significantly associated with the prevalence of trichomoniasis. Conclusion: Asymptomatic T. vaginalis infection is common in pregnancy. We recommend routine screening for this infection in order to reduce the potential adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  20. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF A TINCTORIAL PLANT OF BENIN TRADITIONAL PHARMACOPOEIA: THE RED SORGHUM (Sorghum caudatum OF BENIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PASCAL D. C. AGBANGNAN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The full phytochemical screening of red sorghum from Benin (Sorghum caudatum achieved in this work reveals the presence of leucoanthocyanins, flavonoides, free quinones, combined anthracene derivatives, sterols and terpenes in higher concentration in the leaf sheath and marrow of stem than in the seed. Catechin tannin content is 11.4% in the leaf sheath (slightly higher than that of red wine, 5.8% in the marrow and 2.8% in the seed. Gallic tannins, saponins and the mucilage present in the leaf sheath and marrow, are virtually absent in the seed. Marrow and leaf sheath extracts (1 g/50 mL showed a concentration of anthocyanins (147 mg/L and 213.5 mg/L similar to that of rosy wine and red wine with short maceration. The grain of sorghum is four times, respectively two times less rich in phenolic compounds than the leaf sheath and the marrow of stem.

  1. Bacteriospermia and Sperm Quality in Infertile Male Patient at University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibadin, O. K.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Male Urogenital tract infection plays an important role in men infertility. Asymptomtic bacteriospermia has been regarded as of the contributing factor to male infertility. In this study, 87 semen samples of infertile men attending the Human Reproduction Research Programme and Invitrofertilization unit (HRRP/IVF of University Benin Teaching Hospital were evaluated Bacteriologically using standard Bacterial culture method. Standard semen analysis was performed according to WHO guidelines. Among the total cases, 36 (41.4% showed at least one pathogen. Staphylococcus aureus (16.1%, Staphylococcus Saprophyticus (9.1%, Escherichia Coli (6.9% Proteus mirabilis (3.4% Klebsiella spp (2.3% Pseudomonas aerouginosa (1.1% and Proteus vulgaris (2.3%. There was a significant relation between bacteriospermia and the rate of number of total motility and morphologically abnormal sperms (p 0.05. It seems that leukocytopermia is not a good maker to predict bacteriospermia.

  2. Issues of Sustainability of Coastal Groundwater Resources: Benin, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Mullen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The largest city in Benin, West Africa (Cotonou, is reliant upon groundwater for its public water supply. This groundwater is derived from the Godomey well field which is located approximately 5 Km north of the coast of the Atlantic Ocean and in close proximity to Lake Nokoue—a shallow lake containing water with elevated concentration of chloride and other elements. Historical data indicate increased chloride concentration in a number of wells nearest to the lake, with unknown contribution from groundwater encroachment from the coastal area. Hence, there is substantial interest in better characterizing this groundwater system for the purpose of determining appropriate management practices and degree of sustainability. Among the efforts attempted to date are a series of numerical models ranging from assessment of flow to a recent effort to include density-dependent transport from the lake. In addition, substantial field characterization has been pursued including assessment of shallow water chemistry along the region of the coastal lagoon and border of the lake, characterization of hydraulic response to pumpage in the aquifer system, estimation of the distribution of electrical resistivity with depth along the coastal lagoons, and installation of multi-level piezometers at seven locations in the lake. When integrated across methods, these numerical and field results indicate that the lake remains a primary concern in terms of a source of salinity in the aquifer. Further, the coastal region appears to be more complex than previously suggested and may represent a future source of salt-water encroachment as suggested by current presence of saline waters at relatively shallow depths along the coast. Finally, hydraulic testing suggests that both natural and pumping-based fluctuations in water levels are present in this system. Substantial additional characterization and modeling efforts may provide a significantly greater understanding of the

  3. Village-Level Identification of Nitrate Sources: Collaboration of Experts and Local Population in Benin, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, P.; Silliman, S. E.; Boukari, M.; Atoro, I.; Azonsi, F.

    2005-12-01

    Deteriorating groundwater quality, as represented by high nitrates, in the Colline province of Benin, West Africa was identified by the Benin national water agency, Direction Hydraulique. For unknown reasons the Colline province had consistently higher nitrate levels than any other region of the country. In an effort to address this water quality issue, a collaborative team was created that incorporated professionals from the Universite d'Abomey-Calavi (Benin), the University of Notre Dame (USA), Direction l'Hydraulique (a government water agency in Benin), Centre Afrika Obota (an educational NGO in Benin), and the local population of the village of Adourekoman. The goals of the project were to: (i) identify the source of nitrates, (ii) test field techniques for long term, local monitoring, and (iii) identify possible solutions to the high levels of groundwater nitrates. In order to accomplish these goals, the following methods were utilized: regional sampling of groundwater quality, field methods that allowed the local population to regularly monitor village groundwater quality, isotopic analysis, and sociological methods of surveys, focus groups, and observations. It is through the combination of these multi-disciplinary methods that all three goals were successfully addressed leading to preliminary identification of the sources of nitrates in the village of Adourekoman, confirmation of utility of field techniques, and initial assessment of possible solutions to the contamination problem.

  4. Common causes of morbidity and mortality amongst diabetic admissions at the university of Benin teaching hospital, Benin city, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eregie, A.; Unadike, B.C.

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide and Nigeria is no exception. To determine the morbidity and mortality in patients admitted with Diabetes Mellitus in a tertiary teaching hospital of Nigeria, through retrospective analysis of admission and death records. Admission and death certificate records from the medical wards of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria, were retrospectively analysed from 1, August 2003 to 31, July 2004. Data included age, gender, total numbers of admissions and those due to Diabetes Mellitus, the indications for admissions, presenting symptoms and method of diagnoses in diabetic patients, mortality rates and causes of death. Data obtained were analysed using chi square. Out of 1567 medical admissions, 852(54.4%) were males and 715(45.6%) females. Diabetes was detected in 145(9.3%) patients [81(55.9%) males, 64(44.1%) females]. The mean age of diabetic patients was 53.6+16.1 years (range 18 - 94 years). Poor glycaemic control (29%) and diabetic foot syndrome (23.4%) were the most common reasons for admission in diabetic cases. The overall mortality rate among medical admissions was 21.8%, with diabetes accounting for 6.7% deaths. Within the cohort of diabetic cases, mortality was 15.9%, with significantly higher mortality in those aged > 65 years (p < 0.05). The most common causes of death in diabetic cases were Cerebrovascular disease and complications associated with the foot syndrome, accounting for 26.1% and 21.7% of deaths respectively; the least common causes of death in diabetic patients were Malaria, Hepatic Encephalopathy, and Carcinoma of the Cervix, accounting for 4.4% of deaths. Cerebrovascular disease was the most frequent cause of mortality among admitted diabetic patients with diabetic foot syndrome (a preventable complication) as the second most frequent cause of mortality. Increased screening for diabetes mellitus morbidities in the clinic and community

  5. Nutritional Characteristics of Forage Grown in South of Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Musco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to provide recommendations on the most useful forage species to smallholder farmers, eleven grass and eleven legume forages grown in Abomey-Calavi in Republic of Benin were investigated for nutritive value (i.e. chemical composition and energy content and fermentation characteristics (i.e. gas and volatile fatty acid production, organic matter degradability. The in vitro gas production technique was used, incubating the forages for 120 h under anaerobic condition with buffalo rumen fluid. Compared to legume, tropical grass forages showed lower energy (8.07 vs 10.57 MJ/kg dry matter [DM] and crude protein level (16.10% vs 19.91% DM and higher cell wall content (neutral detergent fiber: 63.8% vs 40.45% DM, respectively. In grass forages, the chemical composition showed a quite high crude protein content; the in vitro degradability was slightly lower than the range of tropical pasture. The woody legumes were richer in protein and energy and lower in structural carbohydrates than herbaceous plants, however, their in vitro results are influenced by the presence of complex compounds (i.e. tannins. Significant correlations were found between chemical composition and in vitro fermentation characteristics. The in vitro gas production method appears to be a suitable technique for the evaluation of the nutritive value of forages in developing countries.

  6. Physicochemical Characteristics and Microbiological Quality of Honey Produced in Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Ezin Azonwade

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Honey is a very complex biological product. It has great diversity, giving it a multitude of properties, both nutritionally and therapeutically. This study aimed to study the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of honeys collected during the dry and rainy seasons in the different phytogeographical areas of Benin. The study revealed that all honeys had pH, water content, electrical conductivity, ash content, free acidity, total sugars, and reducing sugars, respectively, ranging within 3.65–4.09; 12.07–13.16%; 530.25–698.50 μs/cm; 0.42–0.53%; 35.67–40.52 meq/kg; 60–70%; and 58–70%. Moisture content, total sugars, and reducing sugars varied very significantly (p0.05 between the zones or between the seasons was observed. The results of the microbiological characterization showed that there is heterogeneity in the microbial load. These results have shown that these honeys meet international standards and their characterization will make it possible to obtain Beninese quality labels.

  7. Geochronology and geochemistry of upper proterozoic granites from Southern Benin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordani, U.G.; Kawashita, K.; Vancini, K.R.B.; Cadoppi, P.; Sacchi, R.

    1993-01-01

    The Upper Proterozoic basement of Benin, like that of nearby Nigeria and like the polycyclic basement of Central Hoggar, belongs to the hinterland of the Pharusian Chain (Pan-African Trans-Saharan Belt) generated by the collision between the (passive) margin of the West African craton and the (reactivated) margin of the Tuareg Shield and its southern extension. Rb-Sr dating of sub alkaline, meta-aluminums, syn-Kinematic granite forming tabular bodies near Dassa-Zoume and near Save yielded two WR isochron ages of 650 ± 35 Ma (I.R. = 0.7043) and 705 ± 70 Ma (I.R. = 0.7045). Emplacement of these bodies was clearly controlled by trans current movements along the Kandi Fault System. The analyzed granites are comparable with those of Central Hoggar and North-Central Nigeria on the ground of field, geochronological and geochemical data; they also display some affinities with the late-tectonic granites of the Adrar des Iforas. They are expected to find their Brazilian continuation in the Chaval Granitoids west of Fortaleza, but data for comparison are inadequate. (author)

  8. The benefits of redesigning Benin's vaccine supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Shawn T; Schreiber, Benjamin; Cakouros, Brigid E; Wateska, Angela R; Dicko, Hamadou M; Connor, Diana L; Jaillard, Philippe; Mvundura, Mercy; Norman, Bryan A; Levin, Carol; Rajgopal, Jayant; Avella, Mélanie; Lebrun, Caroline; Claypool, Erin; Paul, Proma; Lee, Bruce Y

    2014-07-07

    New vaccine introductions have put strains on vaccine supply chains around the world. While increasing storage and transportation may be the most straightforward options, it is also important to consider what financial and operational benefits can be incurred. In 2012, suboptimal vaccine coverage and impending vaccine introductions prompted the Republic of Benin's Ministry of Health (MOH) to explore ways to improve their vaccine supply chain. Working alongside the Beninese MOH, we utilized our computational model, HERMES, to explore the impact on cost and vaccine availability of three possible options: (1) consolidating the Commune level to a Health Zone level, (2) removing the Commune level completely, and (3) removing the Commune level and expanding to 12 Department Stores. We also analyzed the impact of adding shipping loops during delivery. At baseline, new vaccine introductions without any changes to the current system increased the logistics cost per dose ($0.23 to $0.26) and dropped the vaccine availability to 71%. While implementing the Commune level removal scenario had the same capital costs as implementing the Health Zone scenario, the Health Zone scenario had lower operating costs. This increased to an overall cost savings of $504,255 when implementing shipping loops. The best redesign option proved to be the synergistic approach of converting to the Health Zone design and using shipping loops (serving ten Health Posts/loop). While a transition to either redesign or only adding shipping loops was beneficial, implementing a redesign option and shipping loops can yield both lower capital expenditures and operating costs. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Chemical composition and sources of atmospheric aerosols at Djougou (Benin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouafo-Leumbe, Marie-Roumy; Galy-Lacaux, Corinne; Liousse, Catherine; Pont, Veronique; Akpo, Aristide; Doumbia, Thierno; Gardrat, Eric; Zouiten, Cyril; Sigha-Nkamdjou, Luc; Ekodeck, Georges Emmanuel

    2017-06-01

    In the framework of the INDAAF (International Network to study Deposition and Atmospheric chemistry in AFrica) program, atmospheric aerosols were collected in PM2.5 and PM10 size fractions at Djougou, Benin, in the West Africa, from November, 2005 to October, 2009. Particulate carbon, ionic species, and trace metals were analyzed. Weekly PM2.5 and PM10 total mass concentrations varied between 0.7 and 47.3 µg m-3 and 1.4-148.3 µg m-3, respectively. We grouped the aerosol chemical compounds into four classes: dust, particulate organic matter (POM), elemental carbon (EC), and ions. We studied the annual variation of each class to determine their contribution in the total aerosol mass concentration and finally to investigate their potential emission sources. On an annual basis, the species presented a well-marked seasonality, with the peak of mass concentration for both sizes registered in dry season, 67 ± 2 to 86 ± 9 versus 14 ± 9 to 34 ± 5% in wet season. These values emphasized the seasonality of the emissions and the relative weak interannual standard deviation indicates the low variability of the seasonality. At the seasonal scale, major contributions to the aerosol chemistry in the dry season are: dust (26-59%), POM (30-59%), EC (5-9%), and ions (3-5%), suggesting a predominance of Sahelian and Saharan dust emissions and biomass burning source in this season. In the wet season, POM is predominant, followed by dust, EC, and ions. These results point out the contribution of surrounded biofuel combustion used for cooking and biogenic emissions during the wet season.

  10. Genetic and Environmental Impact on Iron, Zinc, and Phytate in Food Sorghum Grown in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayodé, A.P.P.; Linnemann, A.R.; Hounhouigan, J.D.; Nout, M.J.R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2006-01-01

    Seventy-six farmers' varieties of sorghum from Benin were distinguished by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and clustered into 45 distinct genotypes. The genotype clusters were evaluated for their Fe, Zn, and phytate concentrations to assess the impact of genetic and environmental

  11. The attitudes of clergy in Benin City, Nigeria towards persons with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The attitudes of clergy in Benin City, Nigeria towards persons with mental illness. ... in the care and pathways to orthodox mental health services of the mentally ill. ... that our mental hospitals seem more like prisons than where the mentally ill ...

  12. Formation a la securite routiere et permis de conduire au Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The only ticket that bestows the right to the automotive conduct in Benin is the driver's license. In spite of the proliferation of the driving school, and the gleaming result obtaining to the different exams of the driver's license, and in spite of the multiple efforts of the actors in charge of the road security, one notes an upsurge of ...

  13. Understanding complexity in managing agro-pastoral dams ecosystem services in Northern Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kpera, G.N.

    2015-01-01

    Key words: conflict, water quality, crocodile, fish diversity, vegetable, watershed management, institutional changes, innovation system.

    Understanding complexity in managing agro-pastoral dams ecosystem services in Northern Benin

    Gnanki

  14. People's response to policy change in agricultural development organization : the Benin case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tossou, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    This book is about change. It deals with the way in which social actors, be they individuals or groups, involved in the agricultural development of Benin reconstruct for themselves the new policy context in order to develop relevant strategies translating policy measures into practical

  15. Biodiversity and Status of Cetaceans in Benin, West Africa: an Initial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2001-09-17

    Sep 17, 2001 ... ... with Nigeria). Fig. 1. Coast of Benin as study area, situated in the northern Gulf of Guinea. ... Direction des Pêches,. Ministère de l'Agriculture, d'Elevage et de ..... between Conakry, Guinea and Cap Vert. Peninsula, Senegal ...

  16. Functional limitations after surgical or antibiotic treatment for buruli ulcer in benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barogui, Y.; Johnson, R.C.; van der Werf, T.S.; Sopoh, G.; Dossou, A.; Dijkstra, P.U.; Stienstra, Y.

    Almost half of patients have functional limitations after treatment of Buruli ulcer disease. Antibiotic treatment (along with surgery) was introduced in the National Program for Buruli ulcer in Benin in 2005. The aim of this study was to compare functional limitations in patients who were treated by

  17. Diversity of yeasts involved in the fermentation of tchoukoutou, an opaque sorghum beer from Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayode, A.P.P.; Vieira-Dalode, G.; Linnemann, A.R.; Kotchoni, S.O.; Hounhouigan, A.J.D.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2011-01-01

    Opaque sorghum beers are traditional alcoholic beverages in several African countries. Known as tchoukoutou in Benin, the beer is often obtained from an uncontrolled fermentation. It is consumed in an actively fermenting state and has a sour taste. The present study characterized and identified the

  18. Characteristics and Health of Turkey Husbandry in Ouaké, North-Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Attakpa, E.Y.; Aplogan, L.G.; Akossou, A.Y.J.; Bosma, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    Sanitary constraints of raising turkey in north-west Benin were studied by using a survey and Haemagglutination Inhibition Test (HIT) to detect antibodies of Newcastle Disease (ND) and Avian Influenza (AI). We tested 85 serums from 7- to 24-month-old turkeys raised in 19 farms. ND prevalence rate

  19. Volatile constituents of the peel and leaf oils of Citrus limon L. Burm. f. from Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayedoun, M.A.; Sossou, P.V.; Mardarowicz, M.; Leclercq, P.A.

    1996-01-01

    The peel and leaf oils ofCitrus limon L. from Benin were analyzed by capillary GC on two columns of different polarity, and by GCIMS. In these oils 42 and 27 components were identified, representing over 99.7% ofthe oils. The main constituents of the lemon peel oil were limonene (70.4%), y-terpinene

  20. Platform for resource management : case studies of success or failure in Benin and Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dangbegnon, C.

    1998-01-01

    The present book focuses on platforms for (natural) resource management. It analyses various case studies in Benin and Burkina Faso. Conditions for collective resource management in conflict and interdependent situations are the most critical issues. The present study raises the importance

  1. Weed flora of University of Benin in terms of diversity and richness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Weeds are as important as man to himself and its environment. Weed flora in terms of diversity and richness of University of Benin, Ugbowo campus were determined from four habitable parts using two ecological models: Margalef species richness (d) and Shannon-Wiener diversity (H). Primary data were collected from an ...

  2. study of the nature of urban flood in benin city, edo state; nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    In consonance with dominance of the clay soil in the study area, bulk density is high .... Table1: Mean Monthly/Annual Rainfall of Benin City Region ( 1997 - 2007) in Millimeters ..... There is good network of drainage network ... In the case of the Uselu-Ugbowo road (an ... poor integrations of landuse development control with.

  3. Study of the nature of urban flood in Benin City, Edo State; Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In consonance with dominance of the clay soil in the study area, bulk density is high. It is therefore concluded that the soil condition is a major determinant of flooding in Benin City. The flooding problems has resulted in traffic congestion and lost of man-hours giving rise to lopsided concentration of vehicular traffic.

  4. Poverty Of Parents And Child Labour In Benin City: A Preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work starts from the basic premise that poverty, a major problem of rapid urbanization in developing nations, is a major contributory factor in the growth and exacerbation of child labour. Child labour in Benin City reflect prevalent urban poverty which compel parents to send children of school age to work to boost family ...

  5. Increased incidence of gang rape in Benin-City, Nigeria: Is this a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increased incidence of gang rape in Benin-City, Nigeria: Is this a forensic epidemic? ... creates so much negative impact on the legal outcome. There is a need to provide a holistic support to the victims and to review Nigerian laws on sexual offences for the good of all. Keywords: Gang-Rape, Sexual violence, Forensic, Ep ...

  6. A Study of the Solid Waste Chain in Benin Metropolis, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Benin metropolis like other fast urbanizing towns and cities in Nigeria is faces with a solid waste management problem. Solid waste is seen in huge heaps on any piece of unused land, around buildings, in the open market places and in drainage and water ways. The work reported in this paper involves a study of the path ...

  7. Cervical vertebrae staging in pre-orthodontic patients in Benin City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: The first six cervical vertebrae of 105 untreated orthodontic patients attending the clinic of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital were assessed on the cephalometric radiograph to determine the stages of maturation. Correlations between age, gender, type of malocclusion and skeletal maturation stages were ...

  8. Democratic Decentralization Reforms and Their Unintended Consequences in Postslavery Northern Benin,

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahonou, Eric Komlavi

    2017-01-01

    The paper retraces the recent political emancipation of the Gando, a group of people from Northern Benin whose servile status had been an argument for placing them at the margins of their society and excluding them from political participation. Since the recent democratization process that took p...

  9. Iron Store of Pregnant Women with Hemoglobin SS and SC in Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reactive protein (CRP) was also assayed to rule out ... KEY WORDS: Benin City, iron status, pregnancy, sickle‑cell hemoglobin. Access this article online .... the determination of the hematological indices, and also put into a universal bottle for the ...

  10. Microbiological and physicochemical characterization of shea butter sold on Benin markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honfo, G.F.; Hell, K.; Akissoe, N.H.; Linnemann, A.R.; Coulibaly, O.

    2012-01-01

    Shea butter, a fat from the nuts of shea tree, is of great nutritional and commercial value for local communities of Africa. The sanitary and physicochemical qualities of shea butter sold in Benin markets are unknown. This study assesses the quality characteristics of 54 samples of shea butter

  11. Networking, social capital and gender roles in the cotton system in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maboudou Alidou, G.

    2014-01-01

    Cotton production in Benin, West Africa, is intertwined with colonialism, which contributed to the trans­formation of the crop’s production system from traditional to modern. Through­out the years, the importance of the crop for the stakeholders varied. The last decades have witnessed a growing

  12. Gender roles in cotton production and management of related organizations in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maboudou Alidou, G.; Niehof, A.

    2013-01-01

    Women’s productive roles have generated important debates, heuristic as well as practical, in the scientific and development community. In Benin, women farmers are playing a key role, particularly in agriculture and cotton production, where they are involved throughout the production process.

  13. Fatal gunshots to the head and neck regions in Benin City, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the magnitude of fatal gunshot injuries to the head and neck in Benin City. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a prospective study of fatal gun shots to the head and neck region with respect to age, sex, intent for the gunshots, type of gun, area of the head and neck affected and who did the ...

  14. Adolescents and HIV/AIDS: an update of cases seen in Benin City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and fifty four new glaucoma patients at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital were interviewed to determine the acceptance of surgery, reasons for refusal, and factors affecting acceptability of surgery as an initial treatment option. Fifty patients (32.5%) accepted surgery while 89 (57.8%) refused. The main ...

  15. Preventing teen pregnancy in Benin: development of a self-esteem ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Benin, adolescents and youth aged 10 to 24 make up 33% of the total population, and the teen fertility rate is high. This results in lower education rates, loss of economic potential, and short and long-term health consequences. Stopgap ...

  16. Essential oil of Hexalobus monopetalus (A. Rich) Engl. leaves from Benin : a new source of citral

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leclercq, P.A.; Ayedoun, M.A.; Sossou, P.V.; Houngnon, P.

    1997-01-01

    The leaf oil of Hexalobus monopetalus (Annonaceae) from Benin was analyzed by high resolution GC and GC/MS. Forty components were identified, representing more than 95% of the oiL The main constituents were geranial (37,9'lAl), neral (30,9%), linalool (35%), (E)-anethole (2.6%), selin-ll-en-4a-ol

  17. Management of agro-pastoral dams in Benin: stakeholders, institutions and rehabilitation research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kpéra, G.N.; Aarts, N.; Saïdou, A.; Tossou, R.C.; Eilers, C.H.A.M.; Mensah, G.A.; Sinsin, B.A.; Kossou, D.K.; van der Zijpp, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Agro-pastoral dams are waterholes constructed to provide water for livestock and for agricultural development. In Benin, agro-pastoral dams are managed by dam management committees. This study seeks to (1) characterize the stakeholders involved in agro-pastoral dam use and management, (2) identify

  18. Semi-deciduous forest remnants in Benin: patterns and floristic characterisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adomou, A.C.; Akoegninou, A.; Sinsin, B.; Foucault, de B.; Maesen, van der L.J.G.

    2009-01-01

    Patterns of semi-deciduous forest are investigated in Benin by means of phytosociological releves and multivariate analyses Species and family importance values are assessed for each forest type The classifications and DCA ordination of 176 semi-deciduous forest releves result in six forest types,

  19. Towards sustainable vegetable production around agro-pastoral dams in Northern Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kpéra, G.N.; Segnon, Alcade C.; Saïdou, Aliou; Mensah, Guy A.; Aarts, Noelle; Zijpp, van der Akke J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Rehabilitation and optimized utilization of agro-pastoral dams (APDs), especially for vegetable production, has been recently promoted to boost agricultural production and ensure food security in Benin. However, little information was available on APDs' agricultural potentials and

  20. Fitness to drive among commercial intercity drivers in Benin-City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Unfit drivers are prone to road traffic accident, therefore their health is paramount in ensuring the safety of road users. To determine the fitness to drive among commercial intercity bus drivers in Benin City, Edo State Material and methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 194 ...

  1. Using agronomic tools to improve pineapple quality and its uniformity in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fassinou Hotegni, V.N.

    2014-01-01

    Keywords: Ananas comosus; Benin; cultural practices; fruit quality; hapas; heterogeneity; planting material; slips; suckers; supply chain; variation in quality; variation within crop; vigour.

    Poor average quality and uniformity in quality have become major issues

  2. Bottlenecks and opportunities for quality improvement in fresh pineapple supply chains in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fassinou Hotegni, V.N.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Agbossou, E.K.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    This study mapped and diagnosed the fresh pineapple supply chains in Benin to identify bottlenecks in pineapple quality improvement for different markets. A research framework was defined that comprised all relevant aspects to be researched. After 54 semi-structured interviews with key informants,

  3. Gender discrimination and its impact on income, productivity, and technical efficiency: evidence from Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kinkingninhoun-Mêdagbé, F.M.; Diagne, A.; Simtowe, F.; Agboh-Noameshie, A.R.; Adegbola, P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the occurrence and impact of gender discrimination in access to production resources on the income, productivity, and technical efficiency of farmers. Through an empirical investigation of farmers from Koussin-Le´le´, a semi-collective irrigated rice scheme in central Benin, we

  4. Estimating farmers’ productive and marketing inefficiency: an application to vegetable producers in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singbo, A.G.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Emvalomatis, G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper estimates the technical and marketing inefficiency of a sample of urban vegetable producers in Benin. Marketing inefficiency is defined as the failure of farmers to achieve better marketing output and is reflected in lower output price indices. The study proposes a Russell-type measure of

  5. Morbidity And Mortality Among Road Users In Benin-City, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate patterns of morbidity and mortality among drivers and passengers of cars involved in road traffic accidents in Benin-City Nigeria from August 2002-July 2003 as a base line data. Methods: Eighty-seven car drivers and passengers who were studied were part of a larger study, involved in ...

  6. Are the Ukwuanis Benin or Igbo? a study of origin and migration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This method is most appropriate for this work because it offered the opportunity to interrogate the traditions of origins of the different Ukwuani clans. The findings indicate that Ukwuani people are Igbo in origin, and the claim of origin from Benin which textbook generalizations tended to portray is a recent contraption made ...

  7. Weeds as agricultural constraint in Benin: results of a diagnostic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissoh, P.V.; Gbèhounou, G.; Ahanchedé, A.; Kuyper, T.W.; Röling, N.G.

    2004-01-01

    Weeds are an emerging constraint on crop production, as a result of population pressure and more intensive use of cultivated land. A diagnostic study was carried out from June through August 2002 in the five agro-ecological zones of Benin (1) to identify the relative importance of weeds among major

  8. An institutional perspective on farmers’ water management and rice production practices in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Totin, G.G.E.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is part of the wider debate about the role of institutions in agricultural innovation processes. It

    investigates how institutions shape rice production in inland valleys in Benin. It starts from a scoping study

    (prior to this research) on smallholder irrigation in

  9. Adolescent and Adult Reasoning about Gender Roles and Fairness in Benin, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conry-Murray, Clare

    2009-01-01

    This study examined reasoning about gender roles in a traditional society in Benin, West Africa. Ninety-seven male and female adolescents and adults evaluated conflicts between a husband and a wife over gender norms to determine whether gender norms, are judged to be moral or conventional. Although most attributed decision-making power to the…

  10. Lifelong Learning as an Instrument for Human Capital Development in Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biao, Idowu

    2015-01-01

    A review of the Benin education system shows that it is still heavily school-based. Yet, a high level of wastage is currently being recorded at school level (about 50% success rate at primary level, about 40% success rate at high school level and about 1% enrolment rate of qualified candidates and success rate at tertiary level), leading to the…

  11. Socio-cultural factors influencing and maintaining yam and cowpea diversity in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zannou, A.; Tossou, R.C.; Vodouhè, S.; Richards, P.; Struik, P.C.; Zoundjihékpon, J.; Ahanchédé, A.; Agbo, V.

    2007-01-01

    Yam and cowpea are important elements in the food culture of local communities in the Transitional Guinea-Sudan Zone of Benin. Yam and cowpea serve to satisfy vital needs in households and in communities, but also play an essential role in the rituals and ceremonies of the agrarian civilizations of

  12. Control of pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes with chlorfenapyr in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N'Guessan, R.; Boko, P.; Odjo, A.; Knols, B.G.J.; Akogbeto, M.; Rowland, M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy of chlorfenapyr applied on mosquito nets and as an indoor residual spray against populations of Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus in an area of Benin that shows problematic levels of pyrethroid resistance. Method Eight-week trial conducted in experimental

  13. An analysis of the organizational linkages in the cotton industry in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinzogan, A.A.C.; Jiggins, J.; Vodouhè, S.; Kossou, D.; Totin, G.G.E.; Huis, van A.

    2007-01-01

    A study of the institutional context of the cotton industry in Benin was conducted in 2004, based on an analysis of stakeholders' interests and influence. The impacts on innovation processes and production systems are analysed with respect to farmers' organizations, the research and extension system

  14. Structure and floristic diversity of inselberg vegetation in south-central Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yedomonhan, H.; Houndagba, C.J.; Akoegninou, A.; Maesen, van der L.J.G.

    2008-01-01

    The inselberg vegetation in the southern part of Centre-Benin was investigated using floristic relevés within plots of 900 m2 each. A total of 108 floristic relevés were performed and 380 plant species recorded. Five types of vegetation were identified: dry forest, woodland, tree savannah, fallow,

  15. An Inquiry into Institutional Support for the Benin Video-Film Culture in Nollywood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.S. Omoera

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Today hundreds of indigenous movies are produced yearly in Benin, Ebira, Fulfulde, Ijaw, among other hinterland Nigerian languages, besides the so-called dominant Nollywood films of Igbo/English, Yoruba, and Hausa language expressions. Employing both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, this paper inquires into the level of institutional support the Benin language video-film industry gets from development agents, including the government. There are so many untapped cultural, artistic, and economic potentials for Nigeria’s movie-making and entertainment industry in the hinterlands which can further boost its Unique Selling Point in the national and global arenas. Regrettably, these micro-national film cultures remain largely under-explored and under-theorized, but have been demonstrated to be representationally consequential in terms of production output, audience reception, and opportunities for contending views, and voices. It is in this respect that a fuller reflection on, and influence of issues in Nollywood film cultures have become needful. This is to enable film scholars, enthusiasts, theorists, critics, and entrepreneurs to better understand and navigate the boundless cultural, artistic and economic potentials of Nollywood against the background of the kind of support it gets/should get from relevant development agents. Focusing on the Benin film industry situation, this paper finds that a significant percentage of the sampled audience holds that the support the Benin video-film enjoys is very marginal in spite of its noticeable potentials. Consequently, it recommends greater support from relevant authorities for the emergent industry by way of provision of accessible credit facilities, training schools, and requisite technologies to strengthen the capacities of its practitioners, and enhance the production of more culturally germane Benin video-films, and ultimately contribute to Nigeria’s gross domestic product (GDP.

  16. [Research Ethics in Partnership with Benin : A call for Solidarity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Michel

    2017-05-22

    Over the last decade, research ethics has developed in Benin partly through a partnership with Quebec. This partnership has evolved using TCPS2, the Canadian framework in research ethics. In doing so, three main values were put forward : respect for human dignity, respect for cultural diversity and solidarity. Over that time period, research ethics in Benin has structured through new Research Ethics Committees (REC) and though participation of those involved in research with human beings. REC members, researchers and students have acquired the needed tools to resolve most of the ethical dilemmas that could arise in the future making it one of the positive results of this partnership. Retrospectively, it has also been a situation where the Van Rensselaer Potter's perspective on bioethics has emerged in a French-speaking context where the spoken language and the French cultural approach is of great importance.

  17. [North-South cooperation on transfusion and hematology teaching: A Benin experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafia, E; Anani, L; Glitho, S; Bankole, C; Fachinan, H; Py, J-Y; Domenech, J; Martenot, B; Colombat, P; Chobli, M; Zohoun, I

    2015-06-01

    Hematologic diseases are a significant part of health disorders in Benin. As an example, anemia is the second cause of hospitalization, measuring up to 7.9% all over the country (National Plan of Sanitary Development, 2009-2018). By contrast, there is only one active hematologist in the country. Thanks to two partnerships, on one hand between the health sciences faculty in Cotonou (Benin) and the medicine one in Tours (France), and on the other hand between the Beninese Blood Transfusion National Agency and the French Blood Establishment, a first blood transfusion and hematology formation was held in Cotonou on December 2014. Among other benefits, was created an hematology-transfusion network in order to facilitate relations between Beninese hospital doctors, with the support of the two French partner institutions. The article describes this progress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Transactional sex and sexual harassment between professors and students at an urban university in Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, Amanda

    2016-07-01

    This paper adds to discussion of transactional sex relationships in Africa by examining the distinction between transactional sex and sexual harassment in the context of professor-student relationships and their inherent power dynamics. By exploring the ways in which female university students in urban Benin toe the line between empowered agent and victim, I show how the power differential between professor and student obstructs the professor's ability to objectively determine consent, and examine why, in spite of this differential, male professors are frequently perceived as the victims of these relationships. Ethnographic data were gathered through participant observation on a public university campus in Benin and in-depth interviews and focus groups with 34 students and 5 professors from that university. Findings suggest that the problem of sexual harassment on campus will be difficult to address so long as transactional sex relationships between professors and students are permitted to continue.

  19. Decision-making for the selection of sites and energy systems suited to Benin needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semassou, Clarence

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of the wind sites and the solar possibilities of Benin led the works towards the energy systems, of the autonomous photovoltaic type, coupled with batteries of storage. These appropriate energy systems were analyzed, modelled and optimized. The criteria of optimization arise from a survey realized in near the persons in charge who take care of questions of electrification in rural areas, of selected professionals who play a major role in the decision-making of the projects of electrification in rural areas, local associations which benefited from these projects in Benin, from technicians and from users of these systems. These criteria are organized into a hierarchy according to the method AMDEC. A method of adapted optimization was realized; she appeals to an original vision of levelheadedness. (author) [fr

  20. Effect of commercial diets quality on bio-economic performances of broilers in Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houndonougbo, F M; Chwalibog, André; Chrysostome, C A A M

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the quality of commercial poultry feeds in Benin. The performances of 396 unsexed broilers chickens Ross 308 fed with a control diet (R1) and five commercial diets (R2 to R6) were evaluated. Broilers fed commercial diets showed significantly low (P ....001) body weight gain (BWG) and economic feed efficiency (EFE) and significantly high (P cost (FC). At 42 days of age, the body weight of broilers fed control diet was 1662 g versus 838 to 1041 g for broilers fed commercial diets. In R1 diet, overall FC...... commercial diets. These results suggest the necessity to organize the market of poultry feed in Benin in the perspective to reduce the production cost by using more efficient and cheap commercial diets....

  1. People's response to policy change in agricultural development organization : the Benin case

    OpenAIRE

    Tossou, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    This book is about change. It deals with the way in which social actors, be they individuals or groups, involved in the agricultural development of Benin reconstruct for themselves the new policy context in order to develop relevant strategies translating policy measures into practical objectives and concrete actions. The main objectives of the study are to:

    (1) understand the official definitions of the changing conditions in each of the cases studied and the rationales supp...

  2. Diversity of yeasts involved in the fermentation of tchoukoutou, an opaque sorghum beer from Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Kayode, A.P.P.; Vieira-Dalode, G.; Linnemann, A.R.; Kotchoni, S.O.; Hounhouigan, A.J.D.; Boekel, van, M.A.J.S.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2011-01-01

    Opaque sorghum beers are traditional alcoholic beverages in several African countries. Known as tchoukoutou in Benin, the beer is often obtained from an uncontrolled fermentation. It is consumed in an actively fermenting state and has a sour taste. The present study characterized and identified the yeasts involved in the fermentation process of this type of beer using the phenotypical approach. Of 12 beers from 4 different locations, the mean values of the pH, titratable acidity, dry matter c...

  3. The prevalence of byssinosis among cotton workers in the north of Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, A V; Schlünssen, V; Agodokpessi, G; Sigsgaards, T; Fayomi, B

    2014-10-01

    Cotton is the main agricultural export product in Benin. Cotton dust is thus present in the air during the handling and processing of cotton. This dust contains a mixture of substances including ground up plant matter, fibres, bacteria, fungi, soil, pesticides, noncotton matter, and other contaminants. While cotton processing is decreasing in industrialized countries, it is increasing in developing countries. Cotton processing, particularly in the early processes of spinning, can cause byssinosis. To determine the respiratory effects of cotton dust exposure among cotton mill workers in Benin. In a cross-sectional study, 109 workers exposed to cotton dust and 107 unexposed workers were studied. The International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH) questionnaire was used for data collection on respiratory symptoms. For each worker, crossshift pulmonary function was performed with a dry spirometer. Based on the severity of respiratory symptoms and spirometry byssinosis was defined and classified according to the criteria of Schilling, et al. The mean ± SD age of the exposed and unexposed workers was 46.3 ± 7.8 and 37.0 ± 8.3 years, respectively (pcotton mill workers in Benin is high and needs prompt attention of health care workers and policymakers.

  4. Variations of wave energy power in shoaling zone of Benin coastal zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias A. Houekpoheha

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Today, we observe at the population level, that the improvement in comfort is accompanied by an increase in the electrical energy required. The predicted exhaustion of fossil energy resources maintains some speculation. Their unequal geographical distribution justifies the energy dependence of Benin overlooked from outside. So it is urgent to explore the various sources of renewable energy available to Benin. In this work, using measurements made ​​by the Millennium Challenge Account (MCA-Benin as part of the extension of the port of Cotonou, with Boussinesq equations (Peregrine and Stokes waves dispersion relation, we characterized the variations of various swell parameters (height, wavelength, velocities in the shoaling zone on the study site and proceeded to estimate variations in wave energy power from deep waters to the bathymetric breaking point. Finally, the zone with high energy power (where the conversion of this energy into electrical energy would be profitable of these waves is highlighted on the site, the local water depth at the point of breaking waves is evaluated and results obtained allowed to justify the very energetic character take by these swells on this coast when they are close to the beach.

  5. Assessment of the Contamination of Some Foodstuffs by Escherichia coli O157 in Benin, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honoré Sourou Bankole

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli O157 is a pathogenic bacterium causing haemorrhagic colitis. It represents a serious public health problem in Northern America and Europe, which can plague Africa. Most cases of mentioned poisoning were related to contaminated meat products and vegetables. The present work aimed to estimate the prevalence of E. coli O157 in meat and vegetables in Benin. For this purpose, 6 lots of faeces samples from pigs and 8 from cattle were collected at the farms on the outskirts of Cotonou. Similarly, 20 samples of carcasses, 20 samples of intestines and stomach, and 20 surfaces samples of slaughtering equipment were taken. Vegetables and environment materials in gardens have also been sampled for 84 samples. Bacteriological analyses revealed a percentage of contamination of 50% for pig faeces and 25% for cattle ones. All the meats from stalling parks have been contaminated by this bacterium. For vegetables, 14.6% of samples were contaminated by E. coli O157. The presence of this pathovar in animal breeding and slaughtering environment and in the gardens shows that Benin is not aware of the risks of foodborne illness associated with the consumption of contaminated products. Therefore, it urges including that germ in a systematic search during safety control of food products in Benin.

  6. System redesign of the immunization supply chain: Experiences from Benin and Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, Wendy; Jaillard, Philippe; Assy, Emmanuelle; Brown, Shawn T; Matsinhe, Graça; Dekoun, Mawutondji; Lee, Bruce Y

    2017-04-19

    Evidence suggests that immunization supply chains are becoming outdated and unable to deliver needed vaccines due to growing populations and new vaccine introductions. Redesigning a supply chain could result in meeting current demands. The Ministries of Health in Benin in Mozambique recognized known barriers to the immunization supply chain and undertook a system redesign to address those barriers. Changes were made to introduce an informed push system while consolidating storage points, introducing transport loops, and increasing human resource capacity for distribution. Evaluations were completed in each country. Evaluation in each country indicated improved performance of the supply chain. The Effective Vaccine Management (EVM) assessment in Benin documented notable improvements in the distribution criteria of the tool, increasing from 40% to 100% at the district level. In Mozambique, results showed reduced stockouts at health facility level from 79% at baseline to less than 1% at endline. Coverage rates of DTP3 also increased from 68.9% to 92.8%. Benin and Mozambique are undertaking system redesign in order to respond to constraints identified in the vaccine supply chain. Results and learnings show improvements in supply chain performance and make a strong case for system redesign. These countries demonstrate the feasibility of system redesign for other countries considering how to address outdated supply chains. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Lifelong learning as an instrument for human capital development in Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biao, Idowu

    2015-10-01

    A review of the Benin education system shows that it is still heavily school-based. Yet, a high level of wastage is currently being recorded at school level (about 50% success rate at primary level, about 40% success rate at high school level and about 1% enrolment rate of qualified candidates and success rate at tertiary level), leading to the unintentional creation of a large population of unskilled and unproductive youths and adults. Integrated education systems which hold great potential and opportunities for both initial and continuing education remain hardly explored and virtually untapped. Yet, the challenges of the 21st century are such that only the unveiling and continuous cultivation of multi-faceted human capital can help individual citizens lead both a productive and fulfilled life. Formal education alone or non-formal education alone, irrespective of how well each is delivered, is no longer sufficient in facing up to the multifarious challenges of the 21st century. If education is to serve Benin beneficially in this century, the current national system of education must be reoriented to free up citizens' human capital through the implementation of an integrated educational system. This article proposes a new national education system which is rooted in the concept of lifelong learning and combines formal and non-formal systems of education for Benin.

  8. Biodiversity of aerobic endospore-forming bacterial species occurring in Yanyanku and Ikpiru, fermented seeds of Hibiscus sabdariffa used to produce food condiments in Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agbobatinkpo, Pélagie B.; Thorsen, Line; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris

    2013-01-01

    Yanyanku and Ikpiru made by the fermentation of Malcavene bean (Hibiscus sabdariffa) are used as functional additives for Parkia biglobosa seed fermentations in Benin. A total of 355 aerobic endospore-forming bacteria (AEFB) isolated from Yanyanku and Ikpiru produced in northern and southern Benin...

  9. High rates of parasite recrudescence following intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine during pregnancy in Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moussiliou, Azizath; Sissinto-Savi De Tove, Yolande; Doritchamou, Justin

    2013-01-01

    the second dose. Women with persistent parasitaemia had an increased prevalence of anaemia (P = 0.03). CONCLUSION: The data presented here, highlight the inability of SP to ensure optimal antiplasmodial protection in late pregnancy, and invite urgent consideration of an alternative drug or strategy.......BACKGROUND: Despite widespread parasite resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) its use for intermittent preventative treatment during pregnancy remains the policy in Benin and throughout most of sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: In a prospective study, 982 pregnant women were recruited in Benin...

  10. Prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminthiasis in children living in orphanages in Benin City, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwaneri, D U; Omuemu, V O

    2012-09-01

    Orphans may be envisaged to have sub-optimal care and may be predisposed to high worm burden. This study was undertaken to determine prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminthiasis in children living in orphanages in Benin City, Nigeria. Fresh stool samples from 150 children (0-17 years) living in 10 orphanages in Benin City, were analyzed using the Kato-Katz technique for the detection of ova of helminths between January and April, 2011. The subjects consisted of 62 (41.3%) males and 88 (58.7%)females; mean age (+/- standard deviation SD) 7.0 +/- 4.6 years, and mean (+/- SD) years lived in the orphanage was 4.0 +/- 3.7 years. Prevalence of intestinal helminthiasis was 20.7% and this prevalence was highest in children ages 12-17years, children who had lived longer years in the orphanages and in orphanages with poor child/care-giver ratio (orphanage F = 12.0: 1 and orphanage H = 7.3: 1). Mean (+/- SD) age (8.7 +/- 4.5 years) of infected subjects was significantly higher than (6.6 +/- 4.5 years) observed in non-infected subjects (p = 0.023). Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura were the intestinal helminths isolated. Intensity of intestinal helminths was light in 24/31 (77.4%) and moderate in 7/31 (22.6%) infected subjects. Median egg per gram was 999 eggs per gram and range was 48-8000. Improved child/care-giver ratio in orphanages will reduce worm burden in orphanages in Benin City.

  11. Suicidal behaviour and related risk factors among school-aged youth in the Republic of Benin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason R Randall

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Research on factors associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts has been conducted largely in developed countries. Research on West African countries in particular is lacking. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Global School-based Health Survey conducted in Benin in 2009. This was a cross-sectional study of three grades, spanning Junior and Senior High, which sampled a total of 2,690 adolescents. Data on the occurrence of demographic, psycho-social and socio-environmental risk factors were tested using multinomial logistic regression for their association with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. RESULTS: The survey indicated that 23.2% had thought about suicide and 28.3% had made a suicide attempt in the previous year. Anxiety, loneliness, being bullied, alcohol misuse, illicit drug use, and lack of parental support were independently related to the ideation outcomes, suicidal ideation without planning and suicidal ideation with planning. Multinomial regression analysis, using one suicide attempt and multiple suicide attempts as outcomes, revealed that female sex, anxiety, loneliness, being physically attacked, and illicit drug use were associated these outcomes. DISCUSSION: The prevalence of suicide attempts reported in the survey is relatively high. It is possible that there are cultural factors that could explain this finding. Our research indicates that many factors are related to the occurrence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among youth in Benin. Illicit drug use and violence in particular are associated with a high rate of suicide attempts in Benin. Measures to address these issues may reduce the risk of self-inflicted violence.

  12. The Prevalence of Byssinosis among Cotton Workers in the North of Benin

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    AV Hinson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cotton is the main agricultural export product in Benin. Cotton dust is thus present in the air during the handling and processing of cotton. This dust contains a mixture of substances including ground up plant matter, fibres, bacteria, fungi, soil, pesticides, noncotton matter, and other contaminants. While cotton processing is decreasing in industrialized countries, it is increasing in developing countries. Cotton processing, particularly in the early processes of spinning, can cause byssinosis. Objective: To determine the respiratory effects of cotton dust exposure among cotton mill workers in Benin. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 109 workers exposed to cotton dust and 107 unexposed workers were studied. The International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH questionnaire was used for data collection on respiratory symptoms. For each worker, crossshift pulmonary function was performed with a dry spirometer. Based on the severity of respiratory symptoms and spirometry byssinosis was defined and classified according to the criteria of Schilling, et al. Results: The mean±SD age of the exposed and unexposed workers was 46.3±7.8 and 37.0±8.3 years, respectively (p<0.001. The mean FEV1 predicted value for the exposed and unexposed workers was 76.3% and 77.3%, respectively. The prevalence of grade 3 byssinosis was 21.1% (95% CI: 13.4–28.9 in exposed workers and 8.4% (95% CI: 3.1–13.7 in unexposed workers (p=0.006. On Mondays, the exposed workers had more respiratory symptoms than unexposed workers; for grade 3 byssinosis, the prevalence was 13.8% in exposed and 4.7% in unexposed workers (p=0.011. Conclusion: The prevalence of respiratory symptoms and byssinosis among cotton mill workers in Benin is high and needs prompt attention of health care workers and policymakers.

  13. Networking, social capital and gender roles in the cotton system in Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Maboudou Alidou, G.

    2014-01-01

    Cotton production in Benin, West Africa, is intertwined with colonialism, which contributed to the trans­formation of the crop’s production system from traditional to modern. Through­out the years, the importance of the crop for the stakeholders varied. The last decades have witnessed a growing interest in cotton of farmers, businessmen, and the State. From having a marginal status during the seventies and the first half of the eighties, cotton grew in importance during the nineties, both in ...

  14. The Quest for Honor and Citizenship in Post-Slavery Borgu (Benin)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahonou, Eric Komlavi

    2015-01-01

    that is increasingly being contested in a number of forms. The paper explores the heritage of slavery in its cultural, spatial, social, economic, and political dimensions. The author sheds light on the concept of honor that is a central dimension of social and political life in West Africa. In nowadays Benin, Gando...... peasants take pride in nourrishing a number of noble families and put at stake their honor in ostentatious competition. By doing so, they not only question the central idea that slaves are honorless but enact new conceptions and new practices of citizenship....

  15. VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF ESSENTIAL OIL FROM Securidaca longepedunculata Fers. GROWING IN BENIN

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    Dominique C.K. Sohounhloue

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of roots bark of Securidacaca longepedunculata Fers. (Polygalaceae growing in Savalou, Biguinan and Gbegrou (Benin were analyzed using capillary GC and GC/MS. Seven compounds representing (99.5%; 99.1%; 99.3% respectively of the oils were identified. The major compound was found to be methyl salicylate respectively (98.0%; 98.6%; 98.7%. The antimicrobial activity of these oils was found to be high, and medium antiradical activity was observed.

  16. A behavioral and serological survey on HIV prevalence among prisoners in Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hessou

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cases of HIV are common in Benin, with infection rates varying according to socioeconomic and cultural factors, and by region. Certain segments of the population, such as prison inmates, sex worker clients and truck drivers are at high risk for HIV/AIDS. The aim of this study is to identify which behavioral and serological indicators contribute to the spread of HIV among prisoners. A total of 496 inmates from prisons located in all major cities in Benin were surveyed. Data was collected through interview sessions carried out using a questionnaire and through blood samples. The results show that most inmates are Beninese (83.5%, and the average age is 33 years (range: 14-80 years. No prisoner reported using a condom the last time they engaged in sexual intercourse. Blood exposure was found in 14.6% of inmates and HIV was detected in 1.4% of cases. Our analysis indicates that the length of detention and gender are factors that influence HIV status. However, age, education, nationality and HIV awareness had no significant effect on HIV prevalence among inmates. The results highlight the need to raise awareness in prisons about HIV. This can be achieved by strengthening communication strategies and by organizing HIV and sexually transmitted diseases information sessions for both prison officers and inmates.

  17. [Exploratory analysis of work engagement: use of the Utrecht scale in Benin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahanhanzo, Yolaine Glèlè; Kittel, France; Paraïso, Noël Moussiliou; Godin, Isabelle; Wilmet-Dramaix, Michèle; Makoutodé, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Work engagement, an emerging concept in the field of positive psychology in the workplace is not well known in developing countries. Defined as a positive and and fulfilling mindset related to work, it recalls a positive attitude incentive of performance and need to be investigated. In the context of the socioeconomic crisis of health workers, and with the chronic issue of poor quality of data, this study was designed to identify the factors associated with work engagement among health workers. in charge of data collection in the Benin Routine Health Information System. This study was a cross-sectional and analytical study targeting health workers in charge of data collection in public and private health centres. The dependent variable was work engagement and independent variables were sociodemographic and professional features, personal and professional resources and perception of technical factors. Logistic regression was used. The adequacy of the model was tested with the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness of fit test. The results indicate that the level of work engagement is similar with that observed in previous studies. Predictors identified in logistic regression are perception of technical factors, location of the job, and personal resources, such as level of effort and overcommitment. This study identified factors associated with work engagement in a developing country, and adds to the knowledge concerning this new concept in Benin. The findings can contribute to research for improvement of human resources management in the health sector to achieve real performance and development.

  18. [Economic hardship and fallout on households of the management of hydrocephalus in Benin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandaho, Hugues Jean-Thierry; Hounton, Sennen Houesse; Kelani, Amina; Darga, Christian; Hoinsou-Hans, Isaac; Agbani, Florence; Lalya, Francis; Koumakpayi, Sikiratou; Ayivi, Blaise

    2017-04-27

    Objectives: The socioeconomic profile of households and families of children attending hospital for hydrocephalus were documented and analysed. Main costs related to diagnosis and care were reviewed. The emotional fallout and social well-being of families were also analysed. Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study (January 2006 to January 2015) was based on costs borne by households and families for neurosurgical care of children with hydrocephalus. Results: Sixty children (1 day to 12 years old) had been hospitalized for hydrocephalus in Cotonou-Benin. In 19 cases, the families were single-parent families. In 44 cases, the parents were self-employed workers or private company employees. Public servants, eligible for national health system assistance, accounted for a mere 16 cases. Twenty six children did not receive any financial support, whereas the total average care-related out-of-pocket expenditure for families during the hospital stay was approximately €1,777 (1,117,500 FCFA), i.e. almost 14 times the average monthly income reported by the parents (82,600 FCFA – approximately €120). After hospitalization, 31 mothers had lost their jobs and 21 couples experienced marital issues and their plans to have children. Twelve recent separations were recorded, as well as one indirect maternal death related to depression. Conclusion: In Benin Republic, surgical care for paediatric hydrocephalus represents catastrophic out-of-pocket expenditures for households and families and other living expenses. Families experience significant emotional fallout with effects on couple relationships and survival.

  19. Hunting, Sale, and Consumption of Bushmeat Killed by Lead-Based Ammunition in Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukrullah Ahmadi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Human consumption of animal meat killed by lead ammunition has been reported as a risk factor for elevated blood lead levels. However, little is known about how meat killed by lead ammunition is hunted, prepared, sold, and consumed. We explored the process from hunting to consumption within communities in Benin from the perspective of preventive measures. We conducted 38 semi-structured interviews with hunters (n = 9 and sellers (n = 8 of bushmeat and families (n = 21 as consumers of bushmeat killed by lead ammunition. Data were transcribed, translated, and coded for analysis. We conducted content analysis to identify and describe key themes and processes from hunting to consumption. Many hunters (n = 7/9 used lead-based ammunition. After the meat is hunted, market sellers often buy it directly from the hunters. Amongst the hunters and sellers, few (n = 4/17 acknowledged removing the meat impacted by lead shot prior to sale. Many families (n = 15/21 mentioned consumption of the hunted bushmeat. The meat is cooked before sharing with children. Many families (n = 19/21 mentioned they look for the remains of the lead shot or remove the meat impacted by the shot. The finding suggests that hunting, sale, and consumption of bushmeat killed by lead ammunition are well-known practices in Allada, Benin. The bushmeat often hunted illegally with lead shot is sold in the markets and eventually consumed by families who attempt to clean the meat impacted by the lead shot before cooking it.

  20. Family relationship, water contact and occurrence of Buruli ulcer in Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopoh, Ghislain Emmanuel; Barogui, Yves Thierry; Johnson, Roch Christian; Dossou, Ange Dodji; Makoutodé, Michel; Anagonou, Sévérin Y; Kestens, Luc; Portaels, Françoise

    2010-07-13

    Mycobacterium ulcerans disease (Buruli ulcer) is the most widespread mycobacterial disease in the world after leprosy and tuberculosis. How M. ulcerans is introduced into the skin of humans remains unclear, but it appears that individuals living in the same environment may have different susceptibilities. This study aims to determine whether frequent contacts with natural water sources, family relationship or the practice of consanguineous marriages are associated with the occurrence of Buruli ulcer (BU). Case control study. Department of Atlantique, Benin. BU-confirmed cases that were diagnosed and followed up at the BU detection and treatment center (CDTUB) of Allada (Department of the Atlantique, Benin) during the period from January 1st, 2006, to June 30th, 2008, with three matched controls (persons who had no signs or symptoms of active or inactive BU) for age, gender and village of residence per case. Contact with natural water sources, BU history in the family and the practice of consanguineous marriages. A total of 416 participants were included in this study, including 104 cases and 312 controls. BU history in the family (pconsanguineous marriage was not associated with the occurrence of BU (p = 0.40). Mendelian disorders could explain this finding, which may influence individual susceptibility by impairing immunity. This study suggests that a combination of genetic factors and behavioral risk factors may increase the susceptibility for developing BU.

  1. The Necessity of Mobile Phone Technologies for Public Health Surveillance in Benin

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    Yaovi M. G. Hounmanou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted in March 2016 to assess the need of mobile phone technologies for health surveillance and interventions in Benin. Questionnaires were administered to 130 individuals comprising 25 medical professionals, 33 veterinarians, and 72 respondents from the public. All respondents possess cell phones and 75%, 84%, and 100% of the public, medical professionals, and veterinarians, respectively, generally use them for medical purposes. 75% of respondents including 68% of medics, 84.8% of veterinarians, and 72.2% of the public acknowledged that the current surveillance systems are ineffective and do not capture and share real-time information. More than 92% of the all respondents confirmed that mobile phones have the potential to improve health surveillance in the country. All respondents reported adhering to a nascent project of mobile phone-based health surveillance and confirmed that there is no existing similar approach in the country. The most preferred methods by all respondents for effective implementation of such platform are phone calls (96.92% followed by SMS (49.23% and smart phone digital forms (41.53%. This study revealed urgent needs of mobile phone technologies for health surveillance and interventions in Benin for real-time surveillance and efficient disease prevention.

  2. Credit with Health Education in Benin: A Cluster Randomized Trial Examining Impacts on Knowledge and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlan, Dean; Thuysbaert, Bram; Gray, Bobbi

    2017-02-08

    We evaluate whether health education integrated into microcredit lending groups reduces health risks by improving health knowledge and self-reported behaviors among urban and rural borrowers in eastern Benin. In 2007, we randomly assigned 138 villages in the Plateau region of Benin to one of four variations of a group liability credit product, varying lending groups' gender composition and/or inclusion of health education using a 2 × 2 design. Women in villages receiving health education, regardless of gender composition of the groups, showed improved knowledge of malaria and of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), but not of childhood illness danger signs. No significant changes in health behavior were observed except an increase in HIV/AIDS prevention behavior, a result predominantly driven by an increase in respondents' self-reported ability to procure a condom, likely an indicator of increased perceived access rather than improved preventative behavior. Women in villages assigned to mixed-gender groups had significantly lower levels of social capital, compared with villages assigned to female-only groups. This suggests there may be an important trade-off to consider for interventions seeking improved health outcomes and social capital through provision of services to mixed-gender groups. Although bundling health education with microcredit can expand health education coverage and lower service-delivery costs, the approach may not be sufficient to improve health behaviors. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  3. SEMINAL PLASMA LEVELS OF LEAD AND MERCURY IN INFERTILE MALES IN BENIN CITY, NIGERIA

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    Emokpae MA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/objectives: Studies on environmental exposure to toxic metals and their effects on male reproductive function are scare in our setting. This study evaluates the levels of lead and mercury in seminal plasma of infertile males who are non-occupationally exposed in Benin City, Nigeria and to determine the relationship between seminal quality and these toxic metals. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 subjects participated in this study which includes 60 infertile males on routine visit to the infertility clinics in Benin City and 20 fertile males as controls. The concentration of lead in seminal plasma was assayed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer while the concentration of mercury was measured using inductively coupled plasma Mass spectrometry. Semen analyses were performed using standard techniques as recommended by World Health Organization. Results: Mean seminal plasma lead and mercury levels were significantly higher (p<0.001 in infertile males compared with controls. Mercury and lead correlated negatively (p<0.001 with sperm count, progressive motility, total motility and morphology but not with semen volume. There was no significant correlation between toxic metals and sperm indices in fertile males (controls. Conclusion: The levels of the studied toxic metals were higher in seminal plasma of infertile males and appear to have adverse effect on seminal indices in non -occupationally exposed males.

  4. The Dilemmas of Monogamy: Pleasure, Discipline and the Pentecostal Moral Self in the Republic of Benin

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    Sitna Quiroz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on ethnographic research in the Republic of Benin, this article explores how Pentecostal teachings on marriage and the management of sexual pleasure contribute to shaping converts’ moral selves. For Pentecostals, fidelity towards God, when single and fidelity between partners, once married, is presented as the ideal model of partnership to which every “Born-Again” should aspire. In the context where polygamous unions are socially accepted, Pentecostal pastors teach that a satisfactory sexual life restricted to marriage is the means of building successful monogamous unions. However, sexual satisfaction might not always guarantee marital success, especially when people face problems of infertility. The author suggests that the disciplinary regimes that these teachings promote contribute to shaping new modes of intimacy, which are compatible with societal changes but often contradict the extant social norms and ideals of reproduction. Moral dilemmas arising from this tension are the key to understanding how Pentecostal Christianity shapes the moral self. The article addresses how Pentecostals in Benin navigate and negotiate cultural continuities and discontinuities in relation to church authority and family life.

  5. Consumers’ Willingness to Pay for Cabbage with Minimized Pesticide Residues in Southern Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faustin Vidogbéna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cabbage (Brassicaceae is one of the most frequently consumed exotic vegetables in Benin and also the most affected by insects. To meet growing food demand, farmers rely heavily on synthetic pesticides that are harmful for themselves, consumers and the environment. Integrated pest management has been proposed as the means to improve vegetable productivity and quality in many developing countries. One approach is to substitute pesticides with physical barriers to insects, like nets. Here, we assess consumers’ perceptions about cabbage and their purchasing behavior towards cabbage that was produced using these nets in two major cities in Benin. Results indicate that consumers are aware of the health risks associated with intensive use of pesticides but were not able to recognize the quality difference between cabbage produced under nets from those using pesticides. All consumers were willing to pay a price premium for cabbage with minimized pesticides residues compared with conventionally produced cabbage, the average premium being 38%. Women, older, highly educated consumers and those able to distinguish cabbage qualities were willing to pay the most. We suggest that farmers will obtain higher prices if their production of cabbage with preferred characteristics is accompanied by an improved marketing strategy.

  6. Physical Science Teachers' Attitudes to and Factors Affecting Their Integration of Technology Education in Science Teaching in Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelani, Raphael R.; Gado, Issaou

    2018-01-01

    Following the calls of international conferences related to the teaching of science and technology, technology education (TE) was integrated as a component of physical sciences programmes in Benin, West Africa. This study investigates physical science teachers' attitudes towards the integration of TE topics in secondary school science curricula in…

  7. Earthworm activities in cassava and egusi melon fields in the transitional zone of Benin: linking farmers' perceptions with field studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saïdou, A.; Kossou, D.; Brussaard, L.; Richards, P.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2008-01-01

    Farmers' perceptions of earthworm activities were studied in the transitional zone of Benin and linked to scientific explanations of earthworm casting activities. Earthworm activity was assessed in farmers' fields with three different cassava cultivars and in a field experiment with three different

  8. Understanding the susceptibility to HIV of female and male students case study of LAMS school in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kissezounnon, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    This research project aims to understand the factors that influence susceptibility to HIV for female and male students in LAMS (Lycee Agricole Meidji o Sekou in Benin), in order to contribute to the reduction of the phenomenon. The results of questionnaires, group discussions and interviews show the

  9. Effect of hygiene and medication on preweaning survival and growth of Djallonké sheep in Atacora, Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doko, S.Y.; Edoun, G.O.; Gbedonou, E.J.; Degla, P.; Bosma, R.H.

    2012-01-01

    Low sheep productivity in North Benin hampers economic development, and improvement can contribute to reduction of rural poverty and food insecurity. To reduce one of the constraints to the productivity of Djallonké sheep, high mortality during suckling in full rainy and start dry season, we tested

  10. Water quality as an indicator of the health status of agro-pastoral dams' ecosystems in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kpéra, G.N.; Mensah, G.A.; Aarts, M.N.C.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Based on a study in three agro-pastoral dams in Nikki, Sakabansi and Fombawi in northern Benin, this article aims to characterize their physical, chemical and microbiological water quality. The ecosystem services framework underlies this article. Water of the three dams was sampled in the field and

  11. Effect of Participatory Research on Farmers' Knowledge and Practice of IPM: The Case of Cotton in Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togbé, Codjo Euloge; Haagsma, Rein; Aoudji, Augustin K. N.; Vodouhê, Simplice D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study assesses the effect of participatory research on farmers' knowledge and practice of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in Benin. The participatory field experiments were carried out during the 2011-2012 cotton growing season, and focused on the development and application of pest management knowledge. Methodology: A…

  12. What Makes Small-Scale Farmers Participate in Financing Agricultural Research and Extension? Analysis of Three Case Studies from Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moumouni, Ismail M.; Vodouhe, Simplice D.; Streiffeler, Friedhelm

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the organizational, financial and technological incentives that service organizations used to motivate farmers to finance agricultural research and extension in Benin. Understanding the foundations and implications of these motivation systems is important for improving farmer financial participation in agricultural research and…

  13. Peste des petits ruminants in Benin: Persistence of a single virus genotype in the country for over 42 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adombi, C.M.; Waqas, A.; Dundon, W.G.; Li, S.; Daojin, Y.; Kakpo, L.; Aplogan, G.L.; Diop, M.; Lo, M.M.; Silber, R.; Loitsch, A.; Diallo, A.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a contagious and often fatal disease affecting sheep and goats. Currently, it is endemic in Africa, the Middle and Near East, the Indian subcontinent and China. Understanding the molecular epidemiology and evolution of PPR virus (PPRV) can assist in the control of the transboundary spread of this economically important disease. We isolated PPRV from pathological and swab samples collected 42 years apart (1969 and 2011) in Benin, West Africa, and sequenced the full genome of two isolates (Benin/B1/1969 and Benin/ 10/2011). Phylogenetic analysis showed that all of the characterized isolates clustered within viral lineage II and that the 2011 isolates fell into two distinct subgroups. Comparison of the full genome sequences revealed a 95.3% identity at the nucleotide level, while at the protein level, the matrix protein was the most conserved between the two viruses with an identity of 99.7% and only one amino acid substitution over the 42-year sampling period. An analysis of specific amino acid residues of known or putative function did not identify any significant changes between the two viruses. A molecular clock analysis of complete PPRV genomes revealed that the lineage II viruses sampled here arose in the early 1960s and that these viruses have likely persisted in Benin since this time. (author)

  14. Farmers' knowledge and perception of cotton pests and pest control practices in Benin: results of a diagnostic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinzogan, A.A.C.; Huis, van A.; Kossou, D.K.; Jiggins, J.L.S.; Vodouhè, S.

    2004-01-01

    Cotton production constraints in Benin as perceived by farmers were studied from May to July 2003. The knowledge, perceptions and practices of farmers growing cotton under different pest management regimes were analysed. The methods used were open and semi-structured interviews with groups and

  15. Contribution to the development of a food guide in Benin: linear programming for the optimization of local diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Sarah; Delisle, Hélène; Agueh, Victoire

    2015-03-01

    Food guides are important tools for nutrition education. While developing a food guide in Benin, the objective was to determine the daily number of servings per food group and the portion sizes of common foods to be recommended. Linear programming (LP) was used to determine, for each predefined food group, the optimal number and size of servings of commonly consumed foods. Two types of constraints were introduced into the LP models: (i) WHO/FAO Recommended Nutrient Intakes and dietary guidelines for the prevention of chronic diseases; and (ii) dietary patterns based on local food consumption data recently collected in southern Benin in 541 adults. Dietary intakes of the upper tertile of participants for diet quality based on prevention and micronutrient adequacy scores were used in the LP algorithms. Southern area of the Republic of Benin. Local key-players in nutrition (n 30) from the government, academic institutions, international organizations and civil society were partners in the development of the food guide directed at the population. The number of servings per food group and the portion size for eight age-sex groups were determined. For four limiting micronutrients (Fe, Ca, folate and Zn), local diets could be optimized to meet only 70 % of the Recommended Nutrient Intakes, not 100 %. It was possible to determine the daily number of servings and the portion sizes of common foods that can be recommended in Benin with the help of LP to optimize local diets, although Recommended Nutrient Intakes were not fully met for a few critical micronutrients.

  16. Multi-governance choices by smallholder farmers in the pineapple supply chain in Benin: An application of transaction cost theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arinloye, A.A.D.D.; Hagelaar, J.L.F.; Linnemann, A.R.; Pascucci, S.; Coulibaly, O.; Omta, S.W.F.; Boekel, van T.

    2012-01-01

    The present study validates the new construct “Multi-governance choices”, to sharpen our understanding of how and why smallholder farmers select among alternative governance structures. Primary data were collected from a sample of 219 pineapple farmers in Southern Benin. Results from a multivariate

  17. The discursive construction of conflict in participatory forest management: the case of the Agoua forest restoration in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idrissou, L.; Aarts, N.; van Paassen, A.; Leeuwis, C.

    2011-01-01

    The Agoua Forest in Benin was declared a protected area in 1953 and subsequently managed by means of a coercion system, which, however, did not prevent its deforestation. In 2002, a participatory management process was designed to restore this forest. Although the project managers and local

  18. The Discursive Construction of Confl ict in Participatory Forest Management: The Case of the Agoua Forest Restoration in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idrissou Aboubacary, L.; Aarts, N.; Paassen, van A.; Leeuwis, C.

    2011-01-01

    The Agoua Forest in Benin was declared a protected area in 1953 and subsequently managed by means of a coercion system, which, however, did not prevent its deforestation. In 2002, a participatory management process was designed to restore this forest. Although the project managers and local

  19. Five Years After; the Impact of a Participatory Technology Development Programme as Perceived by Smallholder Farmers in Benin and Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, B.; Kobina, A.C.; Gogan, A.C.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.; Kossou, D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The article reports effects on livelihoods of a participatory technology development effort in Benin and Ghana (2001–2006), five years after it ended. Design: The study uses data from all smallholders who participated in seven experimental groups, each facilitated by a PhD researcher.

  20. Reconstituting a rainforest patch in southern Benin for the protection of threatened plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Neuenschwander

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In a twenty-year effort at Drabo, southern Benin, small remnant forests, young fallow and agricultural fields were linked and rehabilitated to develop a 14 ha forest reserve. Forest regrowth was encouraged by managing the natural growth of the local fallow vegetation and by bringing in seeds and other propagules from forest islands of Benin. The succession to shade-tolerant woody forest species of Guineo-Congolian origin at the expense of extra-regional herbs, the co-existence of species with slightly different requirements, and the fate of exotic trees in this natural forest are described. A quantitative assessment of a homogeneous lot indicated 397 trees per ha, with stem diameters >10 cm, 43.7% of them below 20 cm, and a rich undergrowth of 72600 smaller plants per ha, proof of active rejuvenation. Only 4.2% of all plants resulted from the 1041 introduction events, i.e., species per date, mostly of the 253 plant species that were new to Drabo. A total of 635 species were recorded, but 50 did not survive and four are yet to be identified. In June 2016, the total of 581 known living species included 224 trees. Among all plants, 244 hailed from the Guineo-Congolian zone with 17 of Upper Guinean and four of Lower Guinean origin, 113 from the three savannah zones, and 224 were of extra-regional origin. Overall, 72.8% of all woody plants, such as many climbers, all shrubs and trees, were of forest and savanna origin (GC, SG, SZ and S, whereas 70.4% of all herbs came from other regions (At, PAL and Pt. Only 7.0% of all species from the GC zone were in decline; but the further away the plants originated from, the larger the decline in numbers and vigour, up to 64.6% among plants of pan-tropical origin. Particularly pan-tropical herbs became ever rarer, with 80.0% of them declining and confined to the few open spaces along paths. In 2017 the forest harboured 52 threatened species, with threat categories EW, CR, EN or VU on the Red List of Benin, out

  1. Determinants of cord care practices among mothers in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhulimhen-Iyoha, B I; Ibadin, M O

    2012-01-01

    Mothers care for their infants' umbilical cord stump in various ways. Different cord care practices have been documented; some are beneficial while others are harmful. Who and what influence the cord care practiced by mothers have, however, not been fully explored particularly in the study locale. The objective of this study was to determine the factors that influence cord care practices among mothers in Benin City. The study subjects included 497 mothers who brought their babies to Well Baby/Immunization Clinic at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH), Benin City, Edo State, between July and August 2009. A structured questionnaire served as an instrument to extract information on their biodata and possible determinants of cord care practices. Significantly older women (P=0.023), educated mothers (P=0.029), and those who had male babies (P=0.013) practiced beneficial cord stump care practices. Beneficial cord care practice increased with increasing maternal educational status. The best predictors of beneficial cord care practices are maternal level of education (P=0.029) and infant's sex (P=0.013). The use of harmful cord care practices was more common among mothers who delivered outside the Teaching hospitals. Most (71.2%) of the mothers were aware of hygienic/beneficial cord care. The choices of cord care methods eventually practiced by mothers were influenced mainly by the disposition of nurses (51.3%), participants' mothers (32.0%), and their mothers-in-law (5.8%). There was no significant relationship between cord care practice on one hand and maternal parity, tribe, and socioeconomic classes on the other. The need for female education is again emphasized. The current findings strongly justify the need for public enlightenment programs, using the mass media and health talks in health facilities, targeting not only women of reproductive age but also secondary audience like their mothers, mothers-in-law, nurses, and attendants at health facilities

  2. Analysis of CDM experience in Morocco and lessons learnt for West African Economic and Monetary Union. Case study: Benin, Burkina Faso, Niger and Togo

    OpenAIRE

    Satoguina, Honorat

    2006-01-01

    This study assesses the CDM potential in Benin, Burkina Faso, Niger and Togo. Morocco has been used as an example, as it is quite advanced in developing an impressive CDM project portfolio. The study focuses not only on the absolute greenhouse gas abatement potential of these countries, but also assesses the comparative CDM endowment on the basis of an holistic analysis of each country, thereby highlighting the relative position of Benin, Burkina Faso, Niger and Togo in the global CDM market....

  3. Efficacy and safety of Camosunate for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Uyagu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In Nigeria, nearly 110 million clinical cases of malaria are diagnosed per year, thus being a major public health problem. The problems of resistance resulted in the introduction of the artemisinin based combinations (ACT by the WHO. Artesunate and amodiaquine (AS+AQ is at present the world’s second most widely used ACT. This study is an assessment of the efficacy and safety of Camosunate (a brand of AS+AQ; Geneith Pharmaceutical Ltd., Oshodi, Lagos in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria conducted at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH. A cross-sectional assessment of the efficacy and safety of Camosunate was conducted over a period of one year using 120 patients selected after stratification, by random sampling technique. All recruited patients had slide-proven uncom- plicated malaria and were followed up for 28 days on commencement of Camosunate. Data was collected using a structured interviewer- administered questionnaire and was analysed using SPSS version 15. The overall efficacy of Camosunate was found to be 95.8%. Treatment was well tolerated as testified by the fact that there was no case withdrawal due to adverse drug reaction (ADR or treatment emergent signs and symptoms (TESS. Also no evidence of toxicity was recorded. Camosunate is highly efficacious and well tolerated in this area of Nigeria and justifies its use as a first line treatment for uncomplicated malaria.

  4. Endogenous knowledge of four leafy vegetables used by rural populations in Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihotogbe-Sossa, Carole N A; Akissoe, Noël H; Anihouvi, Victor B; Ahohuendo, Bonaventure C; Ahanchede, Adam; Sanni, Ambaliou; Hounhouigan, D Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Leafy vegetables are sources of diet diversification and could contribute to food and nutritional security in African rural areas. However, in some places, little is known about if, how, and why leafy vegetables are consumed. Processing and preservation methods, food forms, and consumption determinants of four leafy vegetables (Sesamum radiatum, Ceratotheca sesamoïdes, Acmella uliginosa and Justicia tenella), known to contribute to the diet of rural populations in the Center and Northern parts of Benin, were investigated. Three hundred randomly selected households were investigated, using rapid appraisal and quantitative survey methods, descriptive statistics and correspondence analysis. Processing methods to prepare sauces varied depending on sociocultural groups. Cooking of fresh leaves predominated, while sun drying was the usual practice of preserving these leafy vegetables. Consumption frequencies were associated with sociocultural groups, food habits, and availability in living areas.

  5. Social structure of lions (Panthera leo) is affected by management in Pendjari Biosphere Reserve, Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogbohossou, Etotépé A; Bauer, Hans; Loveridge, Andrew; Funston, Paul J; De Snoo, Geert R; Sinsin, Brice; De Iongh, Hans H

    2014-01-01

    Lion populations have undergone a severe decline in West Africa. As baseline for conservation management, we assessed the group structure of lions in the Pendjari Biosphere Reserve in Benin. This reserve, composed of one National Park and two Hunting Zones, is part of the WAP transboundary complex of protected areas. Overall mean group size was 2.6±1.7 individuals (n = 296), it was significantly higher in the National Park (2.7±1.7, n = 168) than in the Hunting Zones (2.2±1.5, n = 128). Overall adult sex ratio was even, but significantly biased towards females (0.67) in the National Park and towards males (1.67) in the Hunting Zones. Our results suggest that the Pendjari lion population is affected by perturbations, such as trophy hunting.

  6. Social structure of lions (Panthera leo is affected by management in Pendjari Biosphere Reserve, Benin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etotépé A Sogbohossou

    Full Text Available Lion populations have undergone a severe decline in West Africa. As baseline for conservation management, we assessed the group structure of lions in the Pendjari Biosphere Reserve in Benin. This reserve, composed of one National Park and two Hunting Zones, is part of the WAP transboundary complex of protected areas. Overall mean group size was 2.6±1.7 individuals (n = 296, it was significantly higher in the National Park (2.7±1.7, n = 168 than in the Hunting Zones (2.2±1.5, n = 128. Overall adult sex ratio was even, but significantly biased towards females (0.67 in the National Park and towards males (1.67 in the Hunting Zones. Our results suggest that the Pendjari lion population is affected by perturbations, such as trophy hunting.

  7. Yeast dynamics during spontaneous fermentation of mawe and tchoukoutou, two traditional products from Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greppi, Anna; Rantisou, Kalliopi; Padonou, Wilfrid

    2013-01-01

    Mawe and tchoukoutou are two traditional fermented foods largely consumed in Benin, West Africa. Their preparations remain as a house art and they are the result of spontaneous fermentation processes. In this study, dynamics of the yeast populations occurring during spontaneous fermentations...... of mawe and tchoukoutou were investigated using both culture-dependent and -independent approaches. For each product, two productions were followed. Samples were taken at different fermentation times and yeasts were isolated, resulting in the collection of 177 isolates. They were identified by the PCR......-DGGE technique followed by the sequencing of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene. The predominant yeast species identified were typed by rep-PCR. Candida krusei was the predominant yeast species in mawe fermentation followed by Candida glabrata and Kluyveromyces marxianus. Other yeast species were detected...

  8. Using information technology for an improved pharmaceutical care delivery in developing countries. Study case: Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edoh, Thierry Oscar; Teege, Gunnar

    2011-10-01

    One of the problems in health care in developing countries is the bad accessibility of medicine in pharmacies for patients. Since this is mainly due to a lack of organization and information, it should be possible to improve the situation by introducing information and communication technology. However, for several reasons, standard solutions are not applicable here. In this paper, we describe a case study in Benin, a West African developing country. We identify the problem and the existing obstacles for applying standard ECommerce solutions. We develop an adapted system approach and describe a practical test which has shown that the approach has the potential of actually improving the pharmaceutical care delivery. Finally, we consider the security aspects of the system and propose an organizational solution for some specific security problems.

  9. The use of medicinal plants in self-care in the Agonlin region of Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allabi, Aurel Constant; Busia, Kofi; Ekanmian, Vital; Bakiono, Fidèle

    2011-01-07

    To investigate the extent and type of medicinal plants used in self-care by the inhabitants of the Agonlin community in the Republic of Benin. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview a total of one thousand mothers. The prevalence rate of the use of herbal medicines in self-care was found to be 51.04%. One hundred and fourteen (114) plant species belonging to 69 families were reported, each with their local names, medicinal use, and parts used. Of all the indications of the identified plants, fever, headache, abdominal pain, and vomiting were the most frequently reported, with malaria treatment recording the highest usage of plant remedies (22%). The plant part most frequently used was the leaves. This study showed that self-care using medicinal plants is a major part of health care in the Agonlin area. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Predictive factors of plasma HIV suppression during pregnancy: a prospective cohort study in Benin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Denoeud-Ndam

    Full Text Available To investigate the factors associated with HIV1 RNA plasma viral load (pVL below 40 copies/mL at the third trimester of pregnancy, as part of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT in Benin.Sub study of the PACOME clinical trial of malaria prophylaxis in HIV-infected pregnant women, conducted before and after the implementation of the WHO 2009 revised guidelines for PMTCT.HIV-infected women were enrolled in the second trimester of pregnancy. Socio-economic characteristics, HIV history, clinical and biological characteristics were recorded. Malaria prevention and PMTCT involving antiretroviral therapy (ART for mothers and infants were provided. Logistic regression helped identifying factors associated with virologic suppression at the end of pregnancy.Overall 217 third trimester pVLs were available, and 71% showed undetectability. Virologic suppression was more frequent in women enrolled after the change in PMTCT recommendations, advising to start ART at 14 weeks instead of 28 weeks of pregnancy. In multivariate analysis, Fon ethnic group (the predominant ethnic group in the study area, regular job, first and second pregnancy, higher baseline pVL and impaired adherence to ART were negative factors whereas higher weight, higher antenatal care attendance and longer ART duration were favorable factors to achieve virologic suppression.This study provides more evidence that ART has to be initiated before the last trimester of pregnancy to achieve an undetectable pVL before delivery. In Benin, new recommendations supporting early initiation were well implemented and, together with a high antenatal care attendance, led to high rate of virologic control.

  11. [Promotion of community-based care in Africa: example of community general practice in Benin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplain, Roland; Yacoubou, Ismaïl; Adedemy, Didier; Sani, Alidou; Takam, Sandrine; Desplats, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Considerable effort has been made to provide rural African populations with basic health care, but the quality of this care remains unsatisfactory due to the absence of first-line GPs. This is a paradoxical situation in view of the large number of physicians trained in medical schools in French-speaking Africa and Madagascar. of the lack of GPs working in rural areas is a real concern, as many young doctors remain unemployed in cities. For more than 20 years, the NGO Santé Sud has proposed a Community General Medicine concept, which, combined with a support system, has allowed the installation of more than 200 community GPs in Mali and Madagascar. The advantage of this concept is that it provides family medicine and primary health care in the same practice. Since 2009, Santé Sud supports an installation project in rural areas of northern Benin, where community GPs work independently, as a complementary partner of the public sector. Since 2013, the installation process comprises a university degree created with the University of Parakou Faculty of Medicine. Based on this experience in Benin, the authors show that the presence of a first-line general practitioner is an original strategy that provides a major contribution to health promotion : reducing health inequalities between rural and urban populations, allowing women to receive medically assisted childbirth close to home, developing family planning activities, education and health care for chronic diseases, strengthening health coverage by participating in vaccination campaigns, etc. Due to their functions and proximity, community GPs represent an added value for health promotion.

  12. Mapping of initiatives to increase membership in mutual health organizations in Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turcotte-Tremblay Anne-Marie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mutual health organizations (MHO have been implemented across Africa to increase access to healthcare and improve financial protection. Despite efforts to develop MHOs, low levels of both initial enrolment and membership renewals continue to threaten their financial viability. The purpose of this study was to map initiatives implemented to increase the pool of MHO members in Benin. Methods A multiple case study was conducted to assess MHOs supported by five major promoters in Benin. Three months of fieldwork resulted in 23 semi-structured interviews and two focus groups with MHO promoters, technicians, elected members, and health professionals affiliated with the MHOs. Fifteen non-structured interviews provided additional information and a valuable source of triangulation. Results MHOs have adopted a wide range of initiatives targeting different entry points and involving a variety of stakeholders. Initiatives have included new types of collective health insurance packages and efforts to raise awareness by going door-to-door and organizing health education workshops. Different types of partnerships have been established to strengthen relationships with healthcare professionals and political leaders. However, the selection and implementation of these initiatives have been limited by insufficient financial and human resources. Conclusions The study highlights the importance of prioritizing sustainable strategies to increase MHO membership. No single MHO initiative has been able to resolve the issue of low membership on its own. If combined, existing initiatives could provide a comprehensive and inclusive approach that would target all entry points and include key stakeholders such as household decision-makers, MHO elected members, healthcare professionals, community leaders, governmental authorities, medical advisors, and promoters. There is a need to evaluate empirically the implementation of these interventions. Mechanisms

  13. Family relationship, water contact and occurrence of Buruli ulcer in Benin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghislain Emmanuel Sopoh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium ulcerans disease (Buruli ulcer is the most widespread mycobacterial disease in the world after leprosy and tuberculosis. How M. ulcerans is introduced into the skin of humans remains unclear, but it appears that individuals living in the same environment may have different susceptibilities. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to determine whether frequent contacts with natural water sources, family relationship or the practice of consanguineous marriages are associated with the occurrence of Buruli ulcer (BU. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Department of Atlantique, Benin. SUBJECTS: BU-confirmed cases that were diagnosed and followed up at the BU detection and treatment center (CDTUB of Allada (Department of the Atlantique, Benin during the period from January 1st, 2006, to June 30th, 2008, with three matched controls (persons who had no signs or symptoms of active or inactive BU for age, gender and village of residence per case. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURED: Contact with natural water sources, BU history in the family and the practice of consanguineous marriages. RESULTS: A total of 416 participants were included in this study, including 104 cases and 312 controls. BU history in the family (p<0.001, adjusted by daily contact with a natural water source (p = 0.007, was significantly associated with higher odds of having BU (OR; 95% CI = 5.5; 3.0-10.0. The practice of consanguineous marriage was not associated with the occurrence of BU (p = 0.40. Mendelian disorders could explain this finding, which may influence individual susceptibility by impairing immunity. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that a combination of genetic factors and behavioral risk factors may increase the susceptibility for developing BU.

  14. Predictive factors of plasma HIV suppression during pregnancy: a prospective cohort study in Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denoeud-Ndam, Lise; Fourcade, Camille; Ogouyemi-Hounto, Aurore; Azon-Kouanou, Angèle; d'Almeida, Marcelline; Azondékon, Alain; Alao, Marouf J; Dossou-Gbété, Véronique; Afangnihoun, Aldric; Girard, Pierre-Marie; Cot, Michel; Zannou, Djimon-Marcel

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the factors associated with HIV1 RNA plasma viral load (pVL) below 40 copies/mL at the third trimester of pregnancy, as part of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) in Benin. Sub study of the PACOME clinical trial of malaria prophylaxis in HIV-infected pregnant women, conducted before and after the implementation of the WHO 2009 revised guidelines for PMTCT. HIV-infected women were enrolled in the second trimester of pregnancy. Socio-economic characteristics, HIV history, clinical and biological characteristics were recorded. Malaria prevention and PMTCT involving antiretroviral therapy (ART) for mothers and infants were provided. Logistic regression helped identifying factors associated with virologic suppression at the end of pregnancy. Overall 217 third trimester pVLs were available, and 71% showed undetectability. Virologic suppression was more frequent in women enrolled after the change in PMTCT recommendations, advising to start ART at 14 weeks instead of 28 weeks of pregnancy. In multivariate analysis, Fon ethnic group (the predominant ethnic group in the study area), regular job, first and second pregnancy, higher baseline pVL and impaired adherence to ART were negative factors whereas higher weight, higher antenatal care attendance and longer ART duration were favorable factors to achieve virologic suppression. This study provides more evidence that ART has to be initiated before the last trimester of pregnancy to achieve an undetectable pVL before delivery. In Benin, new recommendations supporting early initiation were well implemented and, together with a high antenatal care attendance, led to high rate of virologic control.

  15. Hypertension and Diabetes Self-care Activities: A Hospital Based Pilot Survey in Benin City, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbi, O G; Ofili, A N; Oviasu, E

    2015-06-01

    The burden of hypertension and diabetes is on the increase globally with its attendant complications. Although self-care activities are critical to the successful management of both conditions, there are only a few reports on such activities, especially in this part of the world. This pilot study was therefore undertaken to assess the self-care activities among hypertensive and diabetic patients in Benin City. Hypertensive and diabetic patients were consecutively recruited from the out- patient department of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital. The questionnaires were developed based on past assessment scales such as the Hypertension Self-Care Activity Level Effects (H-SCALE) and the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Assessment (SDSCA) for hypertensive and diabetic participants respectively. A total of 85(32 hypertensive, 24 diabetic and 29 co-morbid hypertensive diabetic) participants completed the study. Only 14 (16.5%) subjects had good self-care practice, 39 (45.9%) had fair practice while poor self-care practice was found in 32 (37.6%) subjects. Adherence to medications, clinic adherence, use of self-monitoring devices, regular exercising and dietician contact were generally low. However, only a relatively few subjects smoked tobacco or took significant alcohol. The health-related self-care practice among the patients was generally not good. There was no significant difference in the overall level of self-care among hypertensive, diabetic patients or those with co-morbid conditions. There is need for more aggressive health education aimed at improving the current health-related self-care habits among these patients.

  16. Farmers’ Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change and Their Implications in the Zou Department of South Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adégnandjou Mahouna Roland Fadina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a global phenomenon. Its impact on agricultural activities in developing countries has increased dramatically. Understanding how farmers perceive climate change and how they adapt to it is very important to the implementation of adequate policies for agricultural and food security. This paper aims to contribute to an understanding of farmers’ adaptation choices, determinants of the adaptation choices and the long-term implications of the adaptation choices. Data were collected from 120 respondents in the Zou Department of Benin. A binary logit model was used to analyze the factors influencing household decisions to adapt to climate change. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was estimated to analyze the factors influencing households’ choice of adaptation strategies to climate change. The results show that farmers have a developed perception of climate change. These changes are translated by rainfall disturbances (rainfall delays, early cessation, bad rainfall distribution etc., shortening of the small dry season, increasing of temperature and sometimes, violent winds. The survey reveals that Benin farmers adopt many strategies in response to climate change. These strategies include “Crop–livestock diversification and other good practices (mulching, organic fertilizer,” “Use of improved varieties, chemical fertilizers and pesticides,” “Agroforestry and perennial plantation” and “Diversification of income-generating activities.” The findings also reveal that most of the respondents use these strategies in combination. From the binary logit model, we know that “farming experience” and “educational level of household head” positively influence adaptation decisions. The result of the multinomial logit analysis shows that farming experience, educational level, farm size and gender have a significant impact on climate change adaptation strategies. Based on in-depth analysis of each strategy, we

  17. Variation and geographical distribution of ploidy levels in Pennisetum section Brevivalvula (Poaceae) in Burkina Faso, Benin and southern Niger

    OpenAIRE

    Renno, Jean-François; Schmelzer, G.; De Jong, J.H.

    1995-01-01

    #Pennisetum$ sect. #Brevivalvula$ is a species complex characterized by polyploidy and apoximis. Ploidy level was assessed by DAPI-flow cytometry for 304 plants of the section, originating from Burkina Faso, Benin and southern Niger. The results were confirmed for 54 plants based on chromosome counts. The samples show four euploidy levels (with x = 9) distributed among five species : #P. hordeoides$ (2n = 36, 54), #P. pedicellatum$ (2n = 36, 45, 54), #P. polystachion$ (2n = 18, 36, 45, 54), #...

  18. Precipitation chemistry and wet deposition in a remote wet savanna site in West Africa: Djougou (Benin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpo, A. B.; Galy-Lacaux, C.; Laouali, D.; Delon, C.; Liousse, C.; Adon, M.; Gardrat, E.; Mariscal, A.; Darakpa, C.

    2015-08-01

    In the framework of the IDAF (IGAC/DEBITS/AFrica) international program, this study aims to study the chemical composition of precipitation and associated wet deposition at the rural site of Djougou in Benin, representative of a West and Central African wet savanna. Five hundred and thirty rainfall samples were collected at Djougou, Benin, from July 2005 to December 2009 to provide a unique database. The chemical composition of precipitation was analyzed for inorganic (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, NH4+, K+, NO3-, Cl-, SO42-) and organic (HCOO-, CH3COO-, C2H5COO-, C2O42-) ions, using ion chromatography. The 530 collected rain events represent a total of 5706.1 mm of rainfall compared to the measured pluviometry 6138.9 mm, indicating that the collection efficiency is about 93%. The order of total annual loading rates for soluble cations is NH4+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+. For soluble anions the order of loading is carbonates > HCOO- > NO3- > CH3COO- > SO42- > Cl- > C2O42- > C2H5COO-. In the wet savanna of Djougou, 86% of the measured pH values range between 4.7 and 5.7 with a median pH of 5.19, corresponding to a VWM (Volume Weighed Mean) H+ concentration of 6.46 μeq·L-1. This acidity results from a mixture of mineral and organic acids. The annual sea salt contribution was computed for K+, Mg2+, Ca2+ and SO42- and represents 4.2% of K+, 41% of Mg2+, 1.3% of Ca2+, and 7.4% of SO42-. These results show that K+, Ca2+, SO42-, and Mg2+ were mainly of non-marine origin. The marine contribution is estimated at 9%. The results of the chemical composition of rainwater of Djougou indicates that, except for the carbonates, ammonium has the highest VWM concentration (14.3 μeq·L-1) and nitrate concentration is 8.2 μeq·L-1. The distribution of monthly VWM concentration for all ions is computed and shows the highest values during the dry season, comparing to the wet season. Identified nitrogenous compound sources (NOx and NH3) are domestic animals, natural emissions from savanna soils, biomass

  19. Performance-Based Financing to Strengthen the Health System in Benin: Challenging the Mainstream Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Paul

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Performance-based financing (PBF is often proposed as a way to improve health system performance. In Benin, PBF was launched in 2012 through a World Bank-supported project. The Belgian Development Agency (BTC followed suit through a health system strengthening (HSS project. This paper analyses and draws lessons from the experience of BTC-supported PBF alternative approach – especially with regards to institutional aspects, the role of demand-side actors, ownership, and cost-effectiveness – and explores the mechanisms at stake so as to better understand how the “PBF package” functions and produces effects. Methods An exploratory, theory-driven evaluation approach was adopted. Causal mechanisms through which PBF is hypothesised to impact on results were singled out and explored. This paper stems from the co-authors’ capitalisation of experiences; mixed methods were used to collect, triangulate and analyse information. Results are structured along Witter et al framework. Results Influence of context is strong over PBF in Benin; the policy is donor-driven. BTC did not adopt the World Bank’s mainstream PBF model, but developed an alternative approach in line with its HSS support programme, which is grounded on existing domestic institutions. The main features of this approach are described (decentralised governance, peer review verification, counter-verification entrusted to health service users’ platforms, as well as its adaptive process. PBF has contributed to strengthen various aspects of the health system and led to modest progress in utilisation of health services, but noticeable improvements in healthcare quality. Three mechanisms explaining observed outcomes within the context are described: comprehensive HSS at district level; acting on health workers’ motivation through a complex package of incentives; and increased accountability by reinforcing dialogue with demand-side actors. Cost-effectiveness and

  20. LANDSCAPE CHANGES IN A LOWLAND IN BENIN: ECOLOGICAL IMPACT ON PESTS AND NATURAL ENEMIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, A; Silvie, P; Menozzi, P; Adda, C; Auzoux, S; Jean, J; Huat, J

    2015-01-01

    Habitat management involving conservative biological control could be a good crop pest management option in poor African countries. A survey was conducted from August 2013 to July 2014 in a rainfed lowland region near Pélébina, northern Benin, in order to characterize spatiotemporal landscape changes and investigate their influence on the main crop pests and their associated natural enemies. The area was mapped mainly regarding crop fields and fallows. Visual observations were recorded and a database was compiled. Major landscape composition changes were noted between rainy and dry seasons, which affected the presence of both pests and natural enemies. Cereals (rice, maize and sorghum) and cotton were grown in the humid season, and then okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) was the dominant vegetable crop in dry season. These modifications impacted fallow abundance throughout the lowland. Different cotton (e.g. Helicoverpa armigera, Dysdercus sp., Zonocerus variegatus) or rice (e.g. Diopsis longicornis, D. apicalis) pests were observed during dry season in okra crops. Dry season surveys of Poaceae in two types of fallows ('humid', 'dry') revealed the presence of very few stem borers: only 0.04% of stems sampled were infested by stem borers, with a mean of 1.13 larvae per stem. Known cereal stem borer species such as Busseola fusco, Coniesta ignefusalis, Sesamia calamistis were not clearly identified among these larvae because of their diapausing stage and white color. Unexpected pollinators (Hymenoptera Apidae, genus Braunsapis, Ceratina and Xylocopa) and predators (Crabronidae, genus Dasyproctus) were found in the stems. Sweep-net collection of insects in humid fallows allowed us to describe for the first time in Benin seven Diopsidae species (23% of adults bearing Laboulbeniomycetes ectoparasitic fungi). Some of these species were captured in rice fields during rainy season. Parasitoids (adult Chalcidoidae and Ichneumonoidae) were observed during both seasons but their

  1. Farmers' perception of termites in agriculture production and their indigenous utilization in Northwest Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yêyinou Loko, Laura Estelle; Orobiyi, Azize; Agre, Paterne; Dansi, Alexandre; Tamò, Manuele; Roisin, Yves

    2017-11-21

    Although termites are considered as agricultural pests, they play an important role in maintaining the ecosystem. Therefore, it matters to investigate the farmers' perception of the impacts of the termites on the agriculture and their indigenous utilization. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview 94 farmers through 10 villages of Atacora department, in the northwestern region of Benin, to obtain information for the development of successful strategies of termite management and conservation. Their perceptions on the importance and management of termites along with the indigenous nomenclature and utilization of termite mounds were assessed. Termite species identified by farmers were collected and preserved in 80% alcohol for identification. Eight crops were identified by farmers as susceptible to termites with maize, sorghum, and yam as being the most susceptible. According to farmers, the susceptibility to termites of these crops is due to their high-water content and sweet taste. A total of 27 vernacular names of termites were recorded corresponding to 10 species, Amitermes evuncifer, Macrotermes subhyalinus, and Trinervitermes oeconomus being the most damaging termite species. All the names given to termite species had a meaning. The drought was identified by farmers as the main factor favouring termite attacks. Demolition of termite mounds in the fields was the most commonly reported control method. Salt and other pesticides were commonly used by farmers to protect stored farm products. The lack of effective control methods is the main constraint for termite management. In northwestern Benin, farmers reported different purpose utilizations of termite mounds and termites. The study has shown that farmers perceived termites as pests of several agricultural crops and apply various indigenous control practices whose efficiency need to be verified. Utilization of termites and termite mound soil as food and medicinal resources underlines the need for a

  2. Exploring implementation practices in results-based financing: the case of the verification in Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Matthieu; Bertone, Maria Paola; Barthes, Olivier

    2017-03-14

    Results-based financing (RBF) has been introduced in many countries across Africa and a growing literature is building around the assessment of their impact. These studies are usually quantitative and often silent on the paths and processes through which results are achieved and on the wider health system effects of RBF. To address this gap, our study aims at exploring the implementation of an RBF pilot in Benin, focusing on the verification of results. The study is based on action research carried out by authors involved in the pilot as part of the agency supporting the RBF implementation in Benin. While our participant observation and operational collaboration with project's stakeholders informed the study, the analysis is mostly based on quantitative and qualitative secondary data, collected throughout the project's implementation and documentation processes. Data include project documents, reports and budgets, RBF data on service outputs and on the outcome of the verification, daily activity timesheets of the technical assistants in the districts, as well as focus groups with Community-based Organizations and informal interviews with technical assistants and district medical officers. Our analysis focuses on the actual practices of quantitative, qualitative and community verification. Results show that the verification processes are complex, costly and time-consuming, and in practice they end up differing from what designed originally. We explore the consequences of this on the operation of the scheme, on its potential to generate the envisaged change. We find, for example, that the time taken up by verification procedures limits the time available for data analysis and feedback to facility staff, thus limiting the potential to improve service delivery. Verification challenges also result in delays in bonus payment, which delink effort and reward. Additionally, the limited integration of the verification activities of district teams with their routine tasks

  3. Utilization and farmers' knowledge on pigeonpea diversity in Benin, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayenan, Mathieu Anatole Tele; Danquah, Agyemang; Ahoton, Léonard Essehou; Ofori, Kwadwo

    2017-06-20

    Understanding factors driving farmers' uses of crop genetic resources is a key component not only to design appropriate conservation strategies but also to promote sustainable production. However, in Benin, limited information is available on farmers' knowledge related to pigeonpea uses and conservation. This study aimed at i) identifying and investigating the different uses of pigeonpea in relation with socio-cultural factors, namely age, gender, ethnic group and respondents' residence, ii) assessing pigeonpea varieties richness at household level and iii) evaluating the extent and distribution of pigeonpea varieties. Three hundred and two farmers were surveyed using structured questionnaire. Direct observation, field visit and focus group discussion were carried out. Association between number of varieties maintained at household level and socio-cultural variables was tested. Mann-Whitney test was used to assess whether the number of varieties held by households headed by men and women were different. Distribution and extent of diversity was assessed through four cells analysis. Farmers in Benin mainly grow pigeonpea for its grains for home consumption. Pigeonpea's stem and leaves are used for medicinal purposes to treat malaria, dizziness, measles, and eye infection. The ethnic group and the locality of residence of farmers influenced on the use of pigeonpea for medicinal purposes (P  0.05) between the number of varieties held by household and the age of the respondent, number of years of experience in pigeonpea cultivation, the size of household, number of family members engaged in agricultural activities and gender. Farmers used criteria including seed colors, seed size, plant height, maturity groups and cooking time to classify their varieties. Varieties with white seed coat color were the most grown while varieties with black, red or mottled seed coat color are being abandoned and deserve to be conserved. Knowledge on medicinal uses of pigeonpea is

  4. Insecticide dissipation from soil and plant surfaces in tropical horticulture of southern Benin, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosendahl, Ingrid; Laabs, Volker; Atcha-Ahowé, Cyrien; James, Braima; Amelung, Wulf

    2009-06-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, horticulture provides livelihood opportunities for millions of people, especially in urban and peri-urban areas. Although the vegetable agroecosystems are often characterized by intensive pesticide use, risks resulting therefrom are largely unknown under tropical horticultural conditions. The objective of this study therefore was to study the fate of pesticides in two representative horticultural soils (Acrisol and Arenosol) and plants (Solanum macrocarpon L.) after field application and thus to gain first insight on environmental persistence and dispersion of typical insecticides used in vegetable horticulture in Benin, West Africa. On plant surfaces, dissipation was rapid with half lives ranging from 2 to 87 h (alpha-endosulfan < beta-endosulfan < deltamethrin). Soil dissipation was considerably slower than dissipation from plant surfaces with half-lives ranging from 3 (diazinon) to 74 d (total endosulfan), but persistence of pesticides in soil was still reduced compared to temperate climates. Nevertheless, for deltamethrin and endosulfan, a tendency for mid-term accumulation in soil upon repeated applications was observed. The soil and plant surface concentrations of the metabolite endosulfan sulfate increased during the entire trial period, indicating that this compound is a potential long-term pollutant even in tropical environments.

  5. Indigenous food ingredients for complementary food formulations to combat infant malnutrition in Benin: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadare, Flora J; Madode, Yann E; Fanou-Fogny, Nadia; Kindossi, Janvier M; Ayosso, Juvencio Og; Honfo, S Hermann; Kayodé, Ap Polycarpe; Linnemann, Anita R; Hounhouigan, D Joseph

    2018-01-01

    This paper reviews indigenous Beninese food resources as potential ingredients for complementary infant foods with the aim to develop affordable formulations for low-income households in each agro-ecological zone of the country. Potential ingredients were selected on their documented nutritional value. The selected foods encompass 347 food resources, namely 297 plant products from home gardens or collected from natural vegetation and 50 animals, either domesticated or from the wild. The compiled data reveal that the distribution of the available food resources was unbalanced between agro-ecological zones. Only a few animal ingredients are obtainable in northern Benin. Most resources are seasonal, but their availability may be extended. A high variation was observed in energy and nutrient contents. Antinutritional factors were identified in some resources, but processing techniques were reported to reduce their presence in meals. In general, ingredients from local tree foods (Adansonia digitata, Parkia biglobosa) were adequate as sources of nutrients for complementary infant foods. Based on this review, local foods for the development of complementary food formulas for Beninese infants and children may be selected for each agro-ecological zone. The approach used is exemplary for other sub-Saharan African countries in need of complementary infant foods. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Sedimentary evolution and ecosystem change in Ahémé lake, south-west Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoussou, Ernest; Totin Vodounon, Henri S.; Vissin, Expédit W.; Mahé, Gil; Oyédé, Marc Lucien

    2018-04-01

    Tropical moist ecosystems, such as Ahémé lake, south-west Benin, are increasingly marked by water degradation, linked with the activities of increasing riparian populations. The objective of this study is to analyze sedimentary dynamics and its influence on the changing ecosystem of Ahémé lake from 1961-2010. Data used to carry out the study are records of precipitation, flows, turbidity, suspended sediment, mineral elements and bathymetry. Grain size data from the sieving of sediment samples were used to interpret suspended solids distribution in the lake. Linear correlation coefficients were used to assess the degree of dependence between rainfall and runoff inputs to the lake. Lake depth measurements in some areas of the lake serve to determine the rate of infilling. The sorting index was used to highlight the distribution and origin of sediments in the lake. The results show a degradation of the lake Ahémé ecosystem characterized by infilling of its bed, a high correlation (r = 0.90) between rainfall and runoff, seasonal change in physicochemical parameters (total suspended sediment decrease by -91 %) and decrease in fish production by 135.8 t yr-1. The highest mean suspended sediment concentrations in lake inputs occur during high water periods (123 mg L-1) compared to low water periods (11.2 mg L-1).

  7. [Coexistence of maternal overweight or obesity and stunted children in south-western Benin households].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembélé, Bernard; Sossa Jérôme, Charles; Saizonou, Jacques; Makoutodé, Patrick Charles; Mongbo Adé, Virginie; Guedègbé Capo-Chichi, Justine; Dona Ouendo, Marius-Edgard

    To determine the prevalence and determinants of coexistence of maternal overweight or obesity and stunted children (DBM / SCOM) in south-western Benin households. This cross-sectional study was carried out in June 2015 on 357 mother-child pairs randomly selected by a two-stage sampling technique in the city of Comè and its surroundings. Data on socio-economic factors, family, health care, dietary quality were collected by questionnaires, observation and documentary review. Anthropometric measurements were performed in mothers and children. A logistic regression analysis model was used to search for determinants of the coexistence of the two aspects of malnutrition. 19.3% of mothers were overweight and 5.7% were obese. 46% of children were stunted. The prevalence of DBM / SCOM was 11.5%. The main factors associated with DBM/SCOM were the child's age, the mother's occupation, ethnicity, social status and educational level, and the size, economic level, transportation means and food insecurity of the household. A high frequency of the coexistence of maternal overweight or obesity and stunting was observed in Comè households. Interventions based on the identified determinants are needed to act simultaneously on the double burden of malnutrition in Comè.

  8. Improved iodine status is associated with improved mental performance of schoolchildren in Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Briel, T; West, C E; Bleichrodt, N; van de Vijver, F J; Ategbo, E A; Hautvast, J G

    2000-11-01

    An adequate iodine supply in utero and shortly after birth is known to be crucial to an individual's physical and mental development. The question of whether iodine supplementation later in life can exert a favorable influence on the mental performance of iodine-deficient populations was addressed in various studies, but with contradictory results. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of an improvement in iodine status on mental and psychomotor performance of schoolchildren (7-11 y) who were moderately to severely iodine deficient. The study, which was originally planned as a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled intervention, was carried out in an iodine-deficient population of schoolchildren (n = 196) in northern Benin. As the population began to have access to iodized salt during the 1-y intervention period, the study population was split post hoc-on the basis of urinary iodine concentrations-into a group with improved iodine status and a group with unchanged iodine status. Changes in mental and psychomotor performance over the intervention period were compared. Children with increased urinary iodine concentrations had a significantly greater increase in performance on the combination of mental tests than did the group with no change in urinary iodine concentrations. An improvement in iodine status, rather than iodine status itself, determined mental performance in this population, which was initially iodine deficient. These findings suggest a "catch-up" effect in terms of mental performance.

  9. GIS Analysis of Flood Vulnerable Areas In Benin- Owena River Basin, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebayo Oluwasegun Hezekiah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The frequency and intensity of flood disasters have become serious issues in the national development process of Nigeria as flood disasters have caused serious environmental damages, loss of human lives and other heavy economic losses;  putting the issue of disaster reduction and risk management higher on the policy agenda of affected governments, multilateral agencies and NGOs. The starting point of concrete flood disaster mitigation efforts is to identify the areas with higher risk levels and fashion out appropriate preventive and response mechanisms. This research paper explored the potentials of Geographic Information System (GIS in data capture, processing and analysis in identifying flood-prone areas for the purpose of planning for disaster mitigation and preparedness, using Benin-Owena river basin of Nigeria as a unit of analysis. The data used in this study were obtained from FORMECU and were entered and use to develop a flood risk information system. Analysis and capability of the developed system was illustrated and shown graphically. The research showed that over one thousand settlements harbouring over ten million people located in the study area are at grave risk of flooding.   Key words: Flood, Risk, Vulnerability, Geographical Information System (GIS, River -Basin

  10. Characterisation of Blighia sapida (Sapindaceae) seed oil and defatted cake from Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djenontin, Sebastien Tindo; Wotto, Valentin D; Lozano, Paul; Pioch, Daniel; Sohounhloue, Dominique K C

    2009-01-01

    A sample of Blighia sapida seeds collected in Benin has been analysed and the results are compared to the scarcely available literature data. The chemical analysis of seed oil shows a saponification value of 145 and an iodine value of 66, consistent with the high mono-unsaturated fatty acids (FAs) content (63.8 wt%). The most interesting feature is the prominent concentration of eicosenoic acid (48.4 wt%). Arachidic acid being the main component within the saturated group, the C20 FAs fraction accounts for 68.4 wt%, thus making the peculiar composition of this oil. Among the unsaponifiable fraction (2.4 wt%), the major sterol is stigmasterol (54.6 wt%), surprisingly over passing beta-sitosterol. Tocols (338 ppm) contains mainly alpha- and gamma-tocopherol. Regarding the defatted cake, results show the prominent position of starch and a noticeable amount of proteins and fibers (44.2, 22.4, 15.6 wt%, respectively). Seventeen amino acids were identified together with valuable minerals (total ashes 3.5 wt%). Possible uses of oil and defatted cake are discussed.

  11. Why do households invest in sanitation in rural Benin: Health, wealth, or prestige?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Elena; Günther, Isabel

    2014-10-01

    Seventy percent of the rural population in sub-Saharan Africa does not use adequate sanitation facilities. In rural Benin, as much as 95% of the population does not use improved sanitation. By analyzing a representative sample of 2000 rural households, this paper explores why households remain without latrines. Our results show that wealth and latrine prices play the most decisive role for sanitation demand and ownership. At current income levels, sanitation coverage will only increase to 50% if costs for construction are reduced from currently 190 USD to 50 USD per latrine. Our analysis also suggests that previous sanitation campaigns, which were based on prestige and the allure of a modern lifestyle as motives for latrine construction, have had no success in increasing sanitation coverage. Moreover, improved public health, which is the objective of public policies promoting sanitation, will not be effective at low sanitation coverage rates. Fear at night, especially of animals, and personal harassment, are stated as the most important motivational factors for latrine ownership and the intention to build one. We therefore suggest changing the message of sanitation projects and introduce new low-cost technologies into rural markets; otherwise, marketing strategies will continue to fail in increasing sanitation demand.

  12. Smallholders' perceptions of goat farming in southern Benin and opportunities for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossa, L H; Wollny, C; Gauly, M

    2007-01-01

    To be successful, initiatives to improve smallholder's goat production should directly address the needs and objectives of the keepers while promoting rational use of local genetic resources. This paper identifies the objectives, constraints and needs of goat farmers in southern Benin and discusses their relevance to the development of improvement programmes. Between November and December 2005, structured questionnaires, focus group discussions and participant observation were used to collect information from 38 goat farmers in two selected locations. Goats were kept mainly for sale whenever cash was needed. Traits related to reproduction, to behaviour, to health and to meat production were considered equally important and were ranked very highly by goat keepers. Increased net income per flock through increased number of marketable animals is the derived breeding objective from the trait analysis. Disease outbreaks resulting in high mortality, poor housing, and feed shortages were, in descending order, the most important problems. It was concluded that the development of initiatives to improve management practices is an overriding priority. It will lead to increases in productivity in the short term and foster farmers' participation in the development of long-term improvement strategies, which should include selection and controlled mating.

  13. Formation des enseignants dans une perspective d'education permanente au benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agboton, Sébastien; Moussa, Yaya Mede

    1994-05-01

    The history of teacher training in Benin, which provides evidence of social and cultural change, suggests that a system of lifelong education should be introduced which unites formal, non-formal and informal education, all of which already exist in embryo. The education originally given to every member of society was a continuing progression from initiate to initiator, a lifelong education that involved, among other things, knowledge of agricultural production. This traditional system was disrupted by the reorganization of teacher training after 1945. Recurrent training of teachers remained inadequate because of limited external funding for in-service training, the lack of teachers, the suspension of recruitment and the closure of teacher training colleges. The 1975 reform, through the initiative known as Operation Education and Development, envisaged links between school and social environment, allying intellectual work with production. This meant a radical change in the role of the teacher, who was confronted with technical advance and was obliged to enter a difficult continuing process of self-training. Furthermore, population growth and the restrictions imposed by the World Bank have brought about developments in both lifelong learning and apprenticeship. These two elements are brought together under an initiative known as Production Scolaire Artisanale, designed for out-of-school learners and artisans. The author concludes that the creation of a coherent system of voluntary education would be possible in a society that was itself favourably disposed to education.

  14. Maize Fungal Growth Control with Scopoletin of Cassava Roots Produced in Benin

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    Rafiatou Ba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical contamination of food is among the main public health issues in developing countries. With a view to find new natural bioactive products against fungi responsible for chemical contamination of staple food such as maize, the antifungal activity tests of scopoletin extracted from different components of the cassava root produced in Benin were carried out. The dosage of scopoletin from parts of the root (first skin, second skin, whole root, and flesh was done by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. The scopoletin extract was used to assess the activity of 12 strains (11 strains of maize and a reference strain. The presence of scopoletin was revealed in all components of the cassava root. Scopoletin extracted from the first skin cassava root was the most active both as inhibition of sporulation (52.29 to 87.91% and the mycelial growth (36.51–80.41%. Scopoletin extract from the cassava root skins showed significant inhibitory activity on the tested strains with fungicide concentration (MFC between 0.0125 mg/mL and 0.1 mg/mL. The antifungal scopoletin extracted from the cassava root skins may be well beneficial for the fungal control of the storage of maize.

  15. Remaking Nigeria’s Urbanism: Assessing and Redressing the Dearth of Open Spaces in Benin City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndubisi Onwuanyi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Unplanned land use in most Nigerian cities has meant that all urban land needs are not adequately provided for within their landscapes. Open spaces are either conspicuously missing or inadequate. There is a tendency for existing open spaces to be lost to urban development pressure and a disregard for zoning. This paper identifies available and accessible open spaces in Benin City and assesses their adequacy using as a guide standards established in two selected international jurisdictions, discusses the potential benefits of open space to the city on the one hand and its residents on the other given the incipient impacts of global warming and climate change, and the prospects of mitigation by greening the city even in its already built-up state. Data is sourced from journals, reports, archival records and inspections of the urban environment. The findings confirm a great dearth of open spaces as well as deteriorating urban environmental conditions which have implications for health, well-being and urban sustainability. The recommendations are that future expansions of the city space incorporate adequate provisions for open spaces, whilst within the existing built-up city, solutions be sought in the creation of greenways, green paths, private green spaces, promoting street trees and the conversion of brownfield sites to green areas.

  16. A Healing Cult Met with the Baatombu from the North of Benin: The Kaawo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Mohamed

    2007-04-01

    Some remarkable studies have been devoted to the healing cults in Africa; but few of them focus on the role played by their therapeutic processes in the healing of the patient. This paper aims to show the real implication of the techniques mobilized in a healing process by a cult named Kaawo on the Baatombu in Northern Benin; and of which the data have been collected between 1995 and 2002. The outcomes of the study show the techniques used, such as prayer, sacrifice, divination, witchcraft, gesture and postures, as being real healing operators that have inductive properties with direct effect on the 'disease'. Here, the healing efficiency is all the more significant as the troubles from which the subjects suffer are either of psychosomatic or psychofunctional type, and relating rather to an existential malaise than an organic disorder. In this process, the priest/healer's conviction in the efficiency of the treatment prescribed to the patient, and the faith of the latter in the efficiency of the treatment received, maximize the potential of healing. It is clear that such results move away from the classical clinical approach that consists of assessing the consequences of a disease by examining symptoms it generates-and contributes to opening up some avenues for as yet fairly unexplored research opportunities.

  17. Farmers’ Responses to Changing Hydrological Trends in the Niger Basin Parts of Benin

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    Ganiyu Titilope Oyerinde

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sub-Saharan Africa is highly vulnerable to climate change given its low capacities of resilience to the enormous challenges climate change will pose. Research aimed at evaluating changes in hydrological trends and methods of adaptation was conducted in the Niger Basin parts of Benin at the peak of the rainy season in the year 2012. Rainfall and river discharge were analyzed from 1950–2010 in order to generate patterns of changes in the region. Structured questionnaires were used to evaluate the perceptions of 14 farming communities on climate-related issues and their methods of adaptations. Mann-Kendall and Pettit trend analyses were conducted for rainfall and river discharge. The findings indicated that significant decreases characterized rainfall and river discharge in the period of study. Flash flood was considered the major challenge faced in the region according to more than 90% of crop, animal, and fish farmers. Aside from that, decrease in water availability was identified as an additional challenge. Irrigation, diversification, water treatment, drainage, small dams, and dikes were reported as the common adaptation mechanisms in the catchments. This study will help in designing sustainable adaptation mechanisms to abrupt changes in the hydrology of the region.

  18. Demonstration of Neutron Resonance capture applied to a Cultural Heritage study of Antique Benin Bronzes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaauw, M.; Postma, H.; Mutti, P.

    2001-01-01

    In many cases of historical and archaeological studies physical techniques Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) are used to get information about the element composition of objects. INAA is usually carried out using small samples taken from the object . XRF and PIXE only yield surface information, and require cleaning of the surface to suppress the effect of external contamination. Such actions on artefacts are unwanted. Recently neutron capture resonances have been used to identify elements in artefacts using a set of γray detectors and a time-of flight system at the GELINA facility. This allows identification and quantification of elements of precious artefacts in an fully non-destructive way and with very little activation Because of the novelly of the method the principles of neutron resonance capture analysis (NRC A) will be discussed and the results of an applications to a comparative study of two Benin Bronzes presented

  19. Five thousand years of tropical lake sediment DNA records from Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremond, L.; Favier, C.; Ficetola, G. F.; Tossou, M. G.; Akouégninou, A.; Gielly, L.; Giguet-Covex, C.; Oslisly, R.; Salzmann, U.

    2017-08-01

    Until now, sedimentary DNA (sedDNA) studies have only focused on cold and temperate regions were DNA is relatively well preserved. Consequently, the tropics, where vegetation is hyperdiverse and natural archives are rare, have been neglected and deserve attention. In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to barcode sedDNA from Lake Sele, localized in the tropical lowlands of Benin (Africa), and compared the taxonomic diversity detected by DNA analyses with pollen assemblages. Plant sedDNA was successfully amplified from 33 of the 34 successfully extracted samples. In total, 43 taxa were identified along the 5000 years spanned by the sediment: 22 taxa were identified at the family level and 21 at the genus level. The plant diversity recovered through sedDNA from Lake Sele showed a specific local signal and limited overlapping with pollen. Introduced plants, grown and cultivated close to the water, such as sweet potato, were also well recorded by sedDNA. It appears, therefore, to be a promising approach to studying past diversity in tropical regions, and could help in tracking the introduction and history of agriculture. This is the first time this method has been used in the field of domestication and dissemination of several specific crops, and the results are very encouraging.

  20. Interest of LQAS method in a survey of HTLV-I infection in Benin (West Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houinato, Dismand; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Charriere, Bénédicte; Massit, Bruno; Avodé, Gilbert; Denis, François; Dumas, Michel; Boutros-Toni, Fernand; Salamon, Roger

    2002-02-01

    HTLV-I is heterogeneously distributed in Sub-Saharan Africa. Traditional survey methods as cluster sampling could provide information for a country or region of interest. However, they cannot identify small areas with higher prevalences of infection to help in the health policy planning. Identification of such areas could be done by a Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) method, which is currently used in industry to identify a poor performance in assembly lines. The LQAS method was used in Atacora (Northern Benin) between March and May 1998 to identify areas with a HTLV-I seroprevalence higher than 4%. Sixty-five subjects were randomly selected in each of 36 communes (lots) of this department. Lots were classified as unacceptable when the sample contained at least one positive subject. The LQAS method identified 25 (69.4 %) communes with a prevalence higher than 4%. Using stratified sampling theory, the overall HTLV-I seroprevalence was 4.5% (95% CI: 3.6-5.4%). These data show the interest of LQAS method application under field conditions to detect clusters of infection.

  1. Reparation a morale justice for Africa: the Benin (Nigeria in perspective

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    Stephen Osaherumwen Idahosa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper offered a review of Africa’s moral call for reparation. It emphasized among other things that the continued underdevelopment and marginalization of the African continent today, is not unconnected with the trilogy of slavery, imperialism and colonialism. From the perspective of the British expedition of the Great Benin Kingdom in 1897, the paper highlighted how the African continent had been brutalized to strengthen the economies of their colonial overlords. The paper anchored its call for reparation on the premise that, reparation is not only recognized in international law, it has been paid to countries of the world whose dehumanizing experiences are not even as pathetic as those of Africa’s over 500 years of abject treatment, damages and destruction occasioned by slavery, imperialism and colonialism. It unveiled also the scholarly argument opposed to reparation. The work thus proposes that reparations from the western countries to Africa should be on cooperative and partnership basis. This should be in favour of development through deliberate international efforts in recompensing Africa for all the ills visited on her by the west.

  2. The first phylogeographic population structure and analysis of transmission dynamics of M. africanum West African 1--combining molecular data from Benin, Nigeria and Sierra Leone.

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    Florian Gehre

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium africanum is an important cause of tuberculosis (TB in West Africa. So far, two lineages called M. africanum West African 1 (MAF1 and M. africanum West African 2 (MAF2 have been defined. Although several molecular studies on MAF2 have been conducted to date, little is known about MAF1. As MAF1 is mainly present in countries around the Gulf of Guinea we aimed to estimate its prevalence in Cotonou, the biggest city in Benin. Between 2005-06 we collected strains in Cotonou/Benin and genotyped them using spoligo- and 12-loci-MIRU-VNTR-typing. Analyzing 194 isolates, we found that 31% and 6% were MAF1 and MAF2, respectively. Therefore Benin is one of the countries with the highest prevalence (37% of M. africanum in general and MAF1 in particular. Moreover, we combined our data from Benin with publicly available genotyping information from Nigeria and Sierra Leone, and determined the phylogeographic population structure and genotypic clustering of MAF1. Within the MAF1 lineage, we identified an unexpected great genetic variability with the presence of at least 10 sub-lineages. Interestingly, 8 out of 10 of the discovered sub-lineages not only clustered genetically but also geographically. Besides showing a remarkable local restriction to certain regions in Benin and Nigeria, the sub-lineages differed dramatically in their capacity to transmit within the human host population. While identifying Benin as one of the countries with the highest overall prevalence of M. africanum, this study also contains the first detailed description of the transmission dynamics and phylogenetic composition of the MAF1 lineage.

  3. E-Learning and North-South collaboration: the experience of two public health schools in France and Benin

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    Guillemin Francis

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Distance learning (e-learning can facilitate access to training. Yet few public health E-learning experiments have been reported; institutes in developing countries experience difficulties in establishing on-line curricula, while developed countries struggle with adapting existing curricula to realities on the ground. In 2005, two schools of public health, one in France and one in Benin, began collaborating through contact sessions organised for Nancy University distance-learning students. This experience gave rise to a partnership aimed at developing training materials for e-Learning for African students. The distance-learning public health course at Nancy teaches public health professionals through a module entitled "Health and Development." The module is specifically tailored for professionals from developing countries. To promote student-teacher exchanges, clarify content and supervise dissertations, contact sessions are organized in centres proximate and accessible to African students. The Benin Institute's main feature is residential team learning; distance-learning courses are currently being prepared. Outcome: The two collaborating institutions have developed a joint distance-learning module geared toward developing countries. The collaboration provides for the development, diffusion, and joint delivery of teaching modules featuring issues that are familiar to African staff, gives the French Institute credibility in assessing research work produced, and enables modules on specific African issues and approaches to be put online. Lessons learned: While E-learning is a viable educational option for public health professionals, periodic contact can be advantageous. Our analysis showed that the benefit of the collaboration between the two institutions is mutual; the French Institute extends its geographical, cultural and contextual reach and expands its pool of teaching staff. The Benin Institute benefits from the technical

  4. E-Learning and North-South collaboration: the experience of two public health schools in France and Benin.

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    Edouard, Guévart; Dominique, Billot; Moussiliou, Paraïso Noël; Francis, Guillemin; Khaled, Bessaoud; Serge, Briançon

    2009-10-14

    Distance learning (e-learning) can facilitate access to training. Yet few public health E-learning experiments have been reported; institutes in developing countries experience difficulties in establishing on-line curricula, while developed countries struggle with adapting existing curricula to realities on the ground. In 2005, two schools of public health, one in France and one in Benin, began collaborating through contact sessions organised for Nancy University distance-learning students. This experience gave rise to a partnership aimed at developing training materials for e-Learning for African students. The distance-learning public health course at Nancy teaches public health professionals through a module entitled "Health and Development." The module is specifically tailored for professionals from developing countries. To promote student-teacher exchanges, clarify content and supervise dissertations, contact sessions are organized in centres proximate and accessible to African students. The Benin Institute's main feature is residential team learning; distance-learning courses are currently being prepared. The two collaborating institutions have developed a joint distance-learning module geared toward developing countries. The collaboration provides for the development, diffusion, and joint delivery of teaching modules featuring issues that are familiar to African staff, gives the French Institute credibility in assessing research work produced, and enables modules on specific African issues and approaches to be put online. While E-learning is a viable educational option for public health professionals, periodic contact can be advantageous. Our analysis showed that the benefit of the collaboration between the two institutions is mutual; the French Institute extends its geographical, cultural and contextual reach and expands its pool of teaching staff. The Benin Institute benefits from the technical partnership and expertise, which allow it to offer distance

  5. A Landscape-based model for predicting Mycobacterium ulcerans infection (Buruli Ulcer disease) presence in Benin, West Africa.

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    Wagner, Tyler; Benbow, M Eric; Burns, Meghan; Johnson, R Christian; Merritt, Richard W; Qi, Jiaguo; Small, Pamela L C

    2008-03-01

    Mycobacterium ulcerans infection (Buruli ulcer [BU] disease) is an emerging tropical disease that causes severe morbidity in many communities, especially those in close proximity to aquatic environments. Research and control efforts are severely hampered by the paucity of data regarding the ecology of this disease; for example, the vectors and modes of transmission remain unknown. It is hypothesized that BU presence is associated with altered landscapes that perturb aquatic ecosystems; however, this has yet to be quantified over large spatial scales. We quantified relationships between land use/land cover (LULC) characteristics surrounding individual villages and BU presence in Benin, West Africa. We also examined the effects of other village-level characteristics which we hypothesized to affect BU presence, such as village distance to the nearest river. We found that as the percent urban land use in a 50-km buffer surrounding a village increased, the probability of BU presence decreased. Conversely, as the percent agricultural land use in a 20-km buffer surrounding a village increased, the probability of BU presence increased. Landscape-based models had predictive ability when predicting BU presence using validation data sets from Benin and Ghana, West Africa. Our analyses suggest that relatively small amounts of urbanization are associated with a decrease in the probability of BU presence, and we hypothesize that this is due to the increased availability of pumped water in urban environments. Our models provide an initial approach to predicting the probability of BU presence over large spatial scales in Benin and Ghana, using readily available land use data.

  6. Assessment of water, sanitation, and hygiene practices and associated factors in a Buruli ulcer endemic district in Benin (West Africa).

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    Johnson, Roch Christian; Boni, Gratien; Barogui, Yves; Sopoh, Ghislain Emmanuel; Houndonougbo, Macaire; Anagonou, Esai; Agossadou, Didier; Diez, Gabriel; Boko, Michel

    2015-08-19

    Control of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) requires multiple strategic approaches including water, sanitation and hygiene services (WASH). Buruli ulcer (BU), one of the 17 NTDs, remains a public health issue in Benin particularly in the district of Lalo. The availability of water as well as good hygiene are important for the management of Buruli ulcer particularly in the area of wound care one of the main component of the treatment of BU lesions. Given the growing importance of WASH in controlling NTDs and in order to assess the baseline for future cross-cutting interventions, we report here on the first study evaluating the level of WASH and associated factors in Lalo, one of the most BU-endemic districts in Benin. A cross-sectional study was carried to assess WASH practices and associated factors in the district of Lalo. Data were collected from 600 heads of household using structured pretested questionnaire and observations triangulated with qualitative information obtained from in-depth interviews of patients, care-givers and community members. Univariate and multivariate analysis were carried to determine the relationships between the potential associated factors and the sanitation as well as hygiene status. BU is an important conditions in the district of Lalo with 917 new cases detected from 2006 to 2012. More than 49 % of the household surveyed used unimproved water sources for their daily needs. Only 8.7 % of the investigated household had improved sanitation facilities at home and 9.7 % had improved hygiene behavior. The type of housing as an indicator of the socioeconomic status, the permanent availability of soap and improved hygiene practices were identified as the main factors positively associated with improved sanitation status. In the district of Lalo in Benin, one of the most endemic for BU, the WASH indicators are very low. This study provides baseline informations for future cross-cutting interventions in this district.

  7. Ecological consequences of anthropogenic pressure in Wari-Maro Forest Reserve (Benin, West Africa

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    Aubin Guénolé Amagnide

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed ecological consequences of anthropogenic pressure on Wari-Maro Forest Reserve (WMFR. The dynamics of forest cover has been assessed using a diachronic analysis of land cover maps from the Landsat satellite images of 1986, 1995 and 2006. Structural patterns of the forest has been described using forest inventory data with twenty five 1ha plots having two 50 m x 30 m plots set up inside and positioned at the opposite corners of the leading diagonal within each 1 ha plot. Established plots allowed identifying the most targeted species in illegal logging. Plots of 0.15 ha established inside each 1 ha plot helped assessing the volume of trees from which we derived carbon stock and carbon loss using conversion and expansion factors. For the two periods 1986 to 1995 and 1995 to 2006, there was a decline in forest cover which slowed down in the second decade (0.196 %.year-1 and 0.083 %.year-1 respectively. The two vegetation types of the WMFR were mainly distinguished by Lorey's mean height (12.81 m in woodland and 12.44 m in tree-savannah. Top five targeted species in illegal logging activities were: Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir., Afzelia africana Sm., Isoberlinia spp., Anogeissus leiocarpa Guill. and Daniellia oliveri (Rolfe Hutch. & Dalziel. Results also showed mean values of carbon stock and carbon losses for the whole forest of 147.84 tons C.ha-1 and 17.57 tons C.ha-1 respectively and did not depend on vegetation type. Results from this study suggest that management strategies should focus on selectively logged species. Monitoring should also be enhanced to ensure conservation of resources of the reserve which are at high risks of extinction due to selective logging rates. Keywords: anthropogenic pressure, forest cover, structure, carbon stock, Wari-Maro forest reserve, Benin.

  8. Ethnic differences in use values and use patterns of Parkia biglobosa in Northern Benin

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    Koura Kourouma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African locust bean tree (Parkia biglobosa is a multipurpose species used widely in arid Africa by local communities. The present study focused on ethnic differences in use values and use patterns of P. biglobosa in Northern Benin, where the species widely grows. The use values according to the various ethnic groups in the study area have been evaluated in detail for P. biglobosa. Methods From 13 ethnic groups, 1587 people were interviewed in the study area using semi-structured questionnaires. Principal Component Analysis was applied to analyze the use value and the use patterns of P. biglobosa for the different ethnic groups. Results All interviewees in the study area knew at least one use of P. biglobosa. The various uses identified were medicinal (47%, handicraft and domestic (3%, medico-magic (1%, veterinary (1%, cultural (1%, food (25% and commercial (22%. The various parts involved in these types of uses were: fruits [shell (2%, pulp (22% and seeds (36%], bark (17%, leaves (9%, roots (3%, flowers (1% and branches (10%. The ethnic group consensus values for P. biglobosa parts showed that the seeds are used the most. The interviewees diversity value (ID and equitability value (IE indicated that knowledge concerning P. biglobosa use was distributed homogeneously among the ethnic groups. Conclusions P. biglobosa is well-known and used in different ways by the local populations in the study area. Local knowledge on the species is diversified and influenced by ethnic group. Ethnic differences in use values and use patterns of the species were evident in this study.

  9. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among HIV patients in Benin City, Nigeria

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    Frederick Olusegun Akinbo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the presence of intestinal parasites and their correlation with CD4+ T-cell counts and demographics among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive patients in Benin City, Nigeria. Stool specimens from 2,000 HIV-positive patients and 500 controls (HIV-negative individuals were examined for ova, cysts, or parasites, using standard procedures. In addition, patient's blood samples were analyzed for CD4 counts by flow cytometry. An overall prevalence rate of 15.3% was observed among HIV-positive patients while 6.2% was noted among non-HIV subjects. HIV status was a significant (P<0.0001 risk factor for acquiring intestinal parasitic infections. Male gender, CD4 count <200cell/µl, and diarrhea were significantly associated with an increased prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among HIV-positive patients. The level of education, occupation, and source of water among HIV patients significantly (P<0.0001 affected the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most predominant parasite in both HIV-positive patients and controls. A CD4 count <200 cells/µl was significantly associated with only Isospora belli and Cryptosporidium infections. The presence of pathogenic intestinal parasites such as A. lumbricoides, hookworm, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Trichuris trichiura, and Taenia species among HIV-infected persons should not be neglected. Cryptosporidium species and I. belli were the opportunistic parasites observed in this study. Routine screening for intestinal parasites in HIV-positive patients is advocated.

  10. Exploratory study of the impacts of Mutual Health Organizations on social dynamics in Benin.

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    Ridde, Valery; Haddad, Slim; Yacoubou, Moussa; Yacoubou, Ismaelou

    2010-08-01

    The primary aim of Mutual Health Organizations (MHOs) is the financial protection of their members. However, given their community-based, participative and voluntary nature, it is conceivable that MHOs, as social organizations, would affect social dynamics. In an exploratory study in Benin, we studied social dynamics related to mutual aid, relationships of trust, and empowerment. Four MHOs, as contrasted cases, were selected from among the 11 in the region. Focus groups (n = 20) and individual interviews (n = 29) were conducted with members, non-members, and elected leaders of the four MHOs, and with professionals from the health facilities concerned. We carried out a qualitative thematic analysis of the content. Mutual aid practices, which pre-date MHOs, can be mobilized to promote MHO membership. Mutual aid practices are based on relationships of trust. The primary reason for joining an MHO is to improve financial accessibility to health services. Non-members see that members have a strong sense of empowerment in this regard, based on a high level of trust in MHOs and their elected leaders, even if their trust in health professionals is not as strong. Non-members share these feelings of confidence in MHOs and their leadership, although they trust health professionals somewhat less than do the members. The MHOs' low penetration rate therefore cannot be explained by lack of trust, as this study shows that, even with some distrust of the professionals, the overall level of trust in MHOs is high and MHOs and their leaders function as intermediaries with health professionals. Other explanatory factors are the lack of information available to villagers and, most especially, the problems they face in being able to pay the MHO premiums. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Prevalence and characteristics of chronic pain with neuropathic component at Parakou in northern Benin in 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adoukonou, T; Gnonlonfoun, D; Kpozehouen, A; Adjien, C; Tchaou, B; Tognon-Tchegnonsi, F; Adechina, H; Covi, R; Houinato, D

    2014-11-01

    The burden of chronic and neuropathic pain is high making it an important public health problem. The epidemiology is not well known in the general population in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to determine the prevalence of chronic pain with a neuropathic component at Tititou in Parakou in northeastern Benin. A cross-sectional study was conducted from 1st April to 31 May 2012 and included 2314 people in a door-to-door survey. Chronic pain was defined as pain occurring for more than three months. Neuropathic pain was assessed with the DN4 score. A neurological exam was performed by a young physician for all people with chronic pain. During the interview, sociodemographic data, past medical history, weight and height were recorded. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to analyze the main associated factors. Among the 2314 people included in this survey, 49.7% were male. The mean age was 32.3 ± 13.1 years. Nine hundred seven reported pain occurring for more than 3 months. The prevalence of chronic pain was 39.2% (CI95%: 29.3-34.7). It was more frequent in females, older people, among diabetics, people with a history of any surgery, stroke, brain trauma, and alcoholism. The prevalence of chronic pain with a neuropathic component was 6.3% (CI95%: 5.0-7.9). The main associated factors were age, matrimonial status, professional occupation, body mass index, diabetes, history of zoster, history of any surgery, brain trauma. People with neuropathic pain often reported pain with burning (87.6%), prickling (82.8%), numbness (66.9%), tingling (63.4%), and lightning pain (48.3%). The main locations were the lower limbs and low back pain. This study suggested the high frequency of chronic neuropathic pain in the general population in Parakou compared with rates reported in western countries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of severe obstetric complications on women's health and infant mortality in Benin.

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    Filippi, Véronique; Goufodji, Sourou; Sismanidis, Charalambos; Kanhonou, Lydie; Fottrell, Edward; Ronsmans, Carine; Alihonou, Eusèbe; Patel, Vikram

    2010-06-01

    To document the impact of severe obstetric complications on post-partum health in mothers and mortality in babies over 12 months in Benin and to assess whether severe complications associated with perinatal death are particularly likely to lead to adverse health consequences. Cohort study which followed women and their babies after a severe complication or an uncomplicated childbirth. Women were selected in hospitals and interviewed at home at discharge, and at 6 and 12 months post-partum. Women were invited for a medical check-up at 6 months and 12 months. The cohort includes 205 women with severe complications and a live birth, 64 women with severe complications and perinatal death and 440 women with uncomplicated delivery. Women with severe complications and a live birth were not dissimilar to women with a normal delivery in terms of post-partum health, except for hypertension [adjusted OR = 5.8 (1.9-17.0)], fever [adjusted OR = 1.71 (1.1-2.8)] and infant mortality [adjusted OR = 11.0 (0.8-158.2)]. Women with complications and perinatal death were at increased risk of depression [adjusted OR = 3.4 (1.3-9.0)], urine leakages [adjusted OR = 2.7 (1.2-5.8)], and to report poor health [adjusted OR = 5.27 (2.2-12.4)] and pregnancy's negative effects on their life [adjusted OR = 4.11 (1.9-9.0)]. Uptake of post-natal services was poor in all groups. Women in developing countries face a high risk of severe complications during pregnancy and delivery. These can lead to adverse consequences for their own health and that of their offspring. Resources are needed to ensure that pregnant women receive adequate care before, during and after discharge from hospital. Near-miss women with a perinatal death appear a particularly high-risk group.

  13. An Evaluation of the Outcomes of Mutual Health Organizations in Benin

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    Haddad, Slim; Ridde, Valery; Yacoubou, Ismaelou; Mák, Geneviève; Gbetié, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Background Mutual health organizations (MHO) have been seen as a promising alternative to the fee-based funding model but scientific foundations to support their generalization are still limited. Very little is known about the extent of the impact of MHOs on health-seeking behaviours, quality and costs. Methodology/Principal Findings We present the results of an evaluation of the effects attributable to membership in an MHO in a rural region of Benin. Two prospective studies of users (parturients and hospitalized patients) were conducted on the territory of an inter-mutual consisting of 10 MHOs and as many healthcare centres (one, Ouessé, serving as a referral hospital) and one hospital (Papané). Members and non-members were matched (142 pairs of parturients and 109 triads of hospitalized patients) and multilevel multiple regression was used. Results show that member parturients went to healthcare centres sooner (p = 0.049) and were discharged more quickly after delivery (p = 0.001) than non-members. Length of stay in some cases was longer for hospitalized member parturients (+41%). Being a member did not shorten hospital stay, total length of episode of care, or time between appearance of symptoms and recourse to care. Regarding expenses, member parturients paid one-third less than non-members for a delivery. For hospitalized patients, the average savings for members was around $35 US. Total expenses incurred by patients hospitalized at Papané Hospital were higher than at Ouessé but the two hospitals’ relative advantages were comparable at −36% and −39%, respectively. Conclusion/Significance These results confirm mutual health organizations’ capacity to protect households financially, even if benefits for the poor have not been clearly determined. The search for scientific evidence should continue, to understand their impacts with regard to services obtained by their members. PMID:23077556

  14. An evaluation of the outcomes of mutual health organizations in Benin.

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    Slim Haddad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mutual health organizations (MHO have been seen as a promising alternative to the fee-based funding model but scientific foundations to support their generalization are still limited. Very little is known about the extent of the impact of MHOs on health-seeking behaviours, quality and costs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present the results of an evaluation of the effects attributable to membership in an MHO in a rural region of Benin. Two prospective studies of users (parturients and hospitalized patients were conducted on the territory of an inter-mutual consisting of 10 MHOs and as many healthcare centres (one, Ouessé, serving as a referral hospital and one hospital (Papané. Members and non-members were matched (142 pairs of parturients and 109 triads of hospitalized patients and multilevel multiple regression was used. Results show that member parturients went to healthcare centres sooner (p = 0.049 and were discharged more quickly after delivery (p = 0.001 than non-members. Length of stay in some cases was longer for hospitalized member parturients (+41%. Being a member did not shorten hospital stay, total length of episode of care, or time between appearance of symptoms and recourse to care. Regarding expenses, member parturients paid one-third less than non-members for a delivery. For hospitalized patients, the average savings for members was around $35 US. Total expenses incurred by patients hospitalized at Papané Hospital were higher than at Ouessé but the two hospitals' relative advantages were comparable at -36% and -39%, respectively. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results confirm mutual health organizations' capacity to protect households financially, even if benefits for the poor have not been clearly determined. The search for scientific evidence should continue, to understand their impacts with regard to services obtained by their members.

  15. Evaluating health worker performance in Benin using the simulated client method with real children.

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    Rowe, Alexander K; Onikpo, Faustin; Lama, Marcel; Deming, Michael S

    2012-10-08

    The simulated client (SC) method for evaluating health worker performance utilizes surveyors who pose as patients to make surreptitious observations during consultations. Compared to conspicuous observation (CO) by surveyors, which is commonly done in developing countries, SC data better reflect usual health worker practices. This information is important because CO can cause performance to be better than usual. Despite this advantage of SCs, the method's full potential has not been realized for evaluating performance for pediatric illnesses because real children have not been utilized as SCs. Previous SC studies used scenarios of ill children that were not actually brought to health workers. During a trial that evaluated a quality improvement intervention in Benin (the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness [IMCI] strategy), we conducted an SC survey with adult caretakers as surveyors and real children to evaluate the feasibility of this approach and used the results to assess the validity of CO. We conducted an SC survey and a CO survey (one right after the other) of health workers in the same 55 health facilities. A detailed description of the SC survey process was produced. Results of the two surveys were compared for 27 performance indicators using logistic regression modeling. SC and CO surveyors observed 54 and 185 consultations, respectively. No serious problems occurred during the SC survey. Performance levels measured by CO were moderately higher than those measured by SCs (median CO - SC difference = 16.4 percentage-points). Survey differences were sometimes much greater for IMCI-trained health workers (median difference = 29.7 percentage-points) than for workers without IMCI training (median difference = 3.1 percentage-points). SC surveys can be done safely with real children if appropriate precautions are taken. CO can introduce moderately large positive biases, and these biases might be greater for health workers exposed to quality improvement

  16. Density and spatial distribution of Parkia biglobosa pattern in Benin under climate change

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    Fafunkè Titilayo Dotchamou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Parkia biglobosa is an indigenous species which, traditionally contributes to the resilience of the agricultural production system in terms of food security, source of income, poverty reduction and ecosystem stability. Therefore, it is important to improve knowledge on its density, current and future spatial distribution. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the tree density, the climate change effects on the spatial distribution of the species in the future for better conservation. The modeling of the current and future geographical distribution of the species is based on the principle of Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt on a total of 286 occurrence points from field work and Global Biodiversity Information Facility GBIF-Data Portal-(www.gbif.org. Two climatic models (HadGEM2_ES and Csiro_mk3_6_0 have been used under two scenarios RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5 for the projection of the species distribution at the horizon 2050. The correlation analyses and Jackknife test have helped to identify seven variables which are less correlated (r < 0.80 with highest modeling participation. The soil, annual precipitation (BIO12 and temperature (diurnal average Deviation are the variables which have mostly contributed to performance of the models. Currently, 53% of national territory, spread from north to south is very suitable to the cultivation of P. biglobosa. The scenarios have predicted at the horizon 2050, a loss of the habitats which are currently very suitable for the cultivation and conservation of P. biglobosa, to the benefit of moderate and weak habitats. 51% and 57% are the highest proportion of this lost which will be registered with HadGEM2_ES model under two scenarios. These results revealed that the suitable habitat of the species is threatened by climate change in Benin. In order to limit damage such as decreased productivity, extinction of species, some appropriate solutions must be found.

  17. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of plants used in Benin in traditional medicine to treat malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bero, Joanne; Ganfon, Habib; Jonville, Marie-Caroline; Frédérich, Michel; Gbaguidi, Fernand; DeMol, Patrick; Moudachirou, Mansourou; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle

    2009-04-21

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the in vitro antiplasmodial activity of crude extracts of 12 plant species traditionally used in Benin for the treatment of malaria in order to validate their use. For each species, dichloromethane, methanol and total aqueous extracts were tested. The antiplasmodial activity of extracts was evaluated using the measurement of the plasmodial lactate dehydrogenase activity on chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) and resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. The selectivity of the different extracts was evaluated using the MTT test on J774 macrophage-like murine cells and WI38 human normal fibroblasts. The best growth inhibition of both strains of Plasmodium falciparum was observed with the dichloromethane extracts of Acanthospermum hispidum DC. (Asteraceae) (IC(50)=7.5 microg/ml on 3D7 and 4.8 microg/ml on W2), Keetia leucantha (K. Krause) Bridson (syn. Plectronia leucantha Krause) (Rubiaceae) leaves and twigs (IC(50)=13.8 and 11.3 microg/ml on 3D7 and IC(50)=26.5 and 15.8 microg/ml on W2, respectively), Carpolobia lutea G.Don. (Polygalaceae) (IC(50)=19.4 microg/ml on 3D7 and 8.1 microg/ml on W2) and Strychnos spinosa Lam. (Loganiaceae) leaves (IC(50)=15.6 microg/ml on 3D7 and 8.9 microg/ml on W2). All these extracts had a low cytotoxicity. Our study gives some justifications for the traditional uses of some investigated plants.

  18. Climate Change Sensitivity of Multi-Species Afforestation in Semi-Arid Benin

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    Florent Noulèkoun

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The early growth stage is critical in the response of trees to climate change and variability. It is not clear, however, what climate metrics are best to define the early-growth sensitivity in assessing adaptation strategies of young forests to climate change. Using a combination of field experiments and modelling, we assessed the climate sensitivity of two promising afforestation species, Jatropha curcas L. and Moringa oleifera Lam., by analyzing their predicted climate–growth relationships in the initial two years after planting on degraded cropland in the semi-arid zone of Benin. The process-based WaNuLCAS model (version 4.3, World Agroforestry Centre, Bogor, Indonesia was used to simulate aboveground biomass growth for each year in the climate record (1981–2016, either as the first or as the second year of tree growth. Linear mixed models related the annual biomass growth to climate indicators, and climate sensitivity indices quantified climate–growth relationships. In the first year, the length of dry spells had the strongest effect on tree growth. In the following year, the annual water deficit and length of dry season became the strongest predictors. Simulated rooting depths greater than those observed in the experiments enhanced biomass growth under extreme dry conditions and reduced sapling sensitivity to drought. Projected increases in aridity implied significant growth reduction, but a multi-species approach to afforestation using species that are able to develop deep-penetrating roots should increase the resilience of young forests to climate change. The results illustrate that process-based modelling, combined with field experiments, can be effective in assessing the climate–growth relationships of tree species.

  19. Vitiligo on black skin: epidemiological and clinical aspects in dermatology, Cotonou (Benin).

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    Dégboé, Bérénice; Atadokpèdé, Félix; Saka, Bayaki; Adégbidi, Hugues; Koudoukpo, Christiane; Yédomon, Hubert; do Ango-Padonou, Florencia

    2017-01-01

    Vitiligo is unsightly on darkly pigmented skin and leads important stigmatization because of the mix-up with leprosy. We analyzed retrospectively the epidemiological and clinical patterns of vitiligo on darkly pigmented skin between 1988 and 2008 in the Department of Dermatology in Cotonou (Benin). The diagnosis was made based on the clinical characteristics of vitiligo. Two hundred and forty-six patients were seen, representing 0.9% of new consultations. The gender ratio was 1 : 1, and the mean age of patients was 25.9 years. The mean duration of the lesions was 30.9 months. Among the 246 patients, an associated pathology was found in 26% of cases. These included atopy (23.2%), diabetes (1.6%), thyroid disease (0.8%), and alopecia (0.4%). A family history of vitiligo was present in 1.2% of cases. The sites of the lesions were in descending order of frequency: head (60.6%), lower limbs (40.2%), upper limbs (33.3%), trunk (22.4%), genitals (13.0%), and neck (8.9%). On the head, the most common sites affected were the lips (65.1%), cheek (20.8%), and ears (16.8%). According to the different clinical forms, vitiligo was achromic (76%), speckled (12.6%), and trichromic (11.4%). Vitiligo vulgaris was the commonest form of the disease (52.4%), followed by localized vitiligo (36.2%), segmental vitiligo (9.8%), and vitiligo universalis (1.6%). Triggering factors were identified in 4.5% of patients. Our survey shows that the patterns of vitiligo are similar to that reported from other African countries with a few distinguishing particularities. © 2016 The International Society of Dermatology.

  20. [Analysis of interventions designed to improve clinical supervision of student nurses in Benin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otti, André; Pirson, Magali; Piette, Danielle; Coppieters T Wallant, Yves

    2017-12-05

    The absence of an explicit and coherent conception of the articulation between theory and practice in the reform of nursing training in Benin has resulted in poor quality clinical supervision of student nurses. The objective of this article is to analyze two interventions designed to improve the quality of supervision. A student welcome booklet developed by means of a consultative and provocative participatory approach was tested with twelve student nurses versus a control group. Content analysis of the data collected by individual semi-directed interviews and during two focus groups demonstrated the value of this tool. Student nurses were also taught to use to training diaries inspired by the ?experiential learning? Training diaries were analysed using a grid based on the descriptive elements of the five types of Scheepers training diaries (2008). According to the student nurses, the welcome booklet provided them with structured information to be used as a reference during their training and a better understanding of their teachers, and allowed them to situate the resources of the training course with a lower level of stress. Fifty-eight per cent of the training diaries were are mosaics, reflecting the reflective practice and self-regulated learning of student nurses. This activity also promoted metacognitive dialogue with their supervisors. The student welcome booklet appeared to facilitate integration of student nurses into the clinical setting and promoted professional and organizational socialization. The training diary improved the quality of clinical learning by repeated reflective observation of student nurses and helped to maintain permanent communication with the supervisors.

  1. Evaluating health worker performance in Benin using the simulated client method with real children

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    Rowe Alexander K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The simulated client (SC method for evaluating health worker performance utilizes surveyors who pose as patients to make surreptitious observations during consultations. Compared to conspicuous observation (CO by surveyors, which is commonly done in developing countries, SC data better reflect usual health worker practices. This information is important because CO can cause performance to be better than usual. Despite this advantage of SCs, the method’s full potential has not been realized for evaluating performance for pediatric illnesses because real children have not been utilized as SCs. Previous SC studies used scenarios of ill children that were not actually brought to health workers. During a trial that evaluated a quality improvement intervention in Benin (the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness [IMCI] strategy, we conducted an SC survey with adult caretakers as surveyors and real children to evaluate the feasibility of this approach and used the results to assess the validity of CO. Methods We conducted an SC survey and a CO survey (one right after the other of health workers in the same 55 health facilities. A detailed description of the SC survey process was produced. Results of the two surveys were compared for 27 performance indicators using logistic regression modeling. Results SC and CO surveyors observed 54 and 185 consultations, respectively. No serious problems occurred during the SC survey. Performance levels measured by CO were moderately higher than those measured by SCs (median CO – SC difference = 16.4 percentage-points. Survey differences were sometimes much greater for IMCI-trained health workers (median difference = 29.7 percentage-points than for workers without IMCI training (median difference = 3.1 percentage-points. Conclusion SC surveys can be done safely with real children if appropriate precautions are taken. CO can introduce moderately large positive biases, and these biases might

  2. HLA Class II Allele, Haplotype, and Genotype Associations with Type 1 Diabetes in Benin: A Pilot Study

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    Kaossarath A. Fagbemi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Several studies have reported the implication of HLA-DR/DQ loci in the susceptibility to type 1 diabetes (T1D. Since no such study has yet been performed in Benin, this pilot one aimed at assessing HLA class II allele, haplotype, and genotype associations with T1D. Material and Methods. Class II HLA genotyping was performed in 51 patients with T1D and 51 healthy unrelated controls by means of the PCR-SSP method. The diagnosis of T1D was set up according to American Diabetes Association criteria. Odds ratio (OR and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI were calculated to assess the associations between T1D and HLA alleles, haplotypes, and genotypes. Results. Participants were aged 1–24 years. T1D was significantly associated with DR3, DQA1∗05:01, DQB1∗02:01, and DR3-DR4. No significant associations were observed with DR4, DQB1∗03:02, and DQB1∗06:02. Conclusion. Certain HLA class II alleles, haplotypes, and genotypes were related to T1D and may be used as genetic susceptibility markers to T1D in Benin.

  3. Characterization of Potential Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria Isolated from Maize (Zea mays L. in Central and Northern Benin (West Africa

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    Nadège A. Agbodjato

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our study aims to characterize Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR isolated from maize roots in five agroecological zones of central and northern Benin. Sixty samples were collected at the rate of four samples per village and three villages per agroecological zone. Rhizobacteria strains were isolated from these samples and biochemically characterized. These strains were analyzed for some of their PGPR traits like ammonia production and hydrogen cyanide following conventional methods. Microbiological investigation of these samples has shown that maize rhizospheres in central and northern Benin contain a high diversity of microorganisms. A total of nine species of maize Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria were identified. Those PGPR include five Bacillus species (B. polymyxa, B. pantothenticus, B. anthracis, B. thuringiensis, and B. circulans, three Pseudomonas species (P. cichorii, P. putida, and P. syringae, and Serratia marcescens. The microbial diversity does not depend on the soil types. The microbial density, generally high, varies according to both soil types and agroecological zones. All Serratia strains (100% have produced ammonia, whereas 80% of Bacillus and 77.77% of Pseudomonas produced this metabolite. The hydrogen cyanide was produced by all isolates (100% independent of their genus. These results suggest the possibility to use these rhizobacteria as biological fertilizers to increase maize production.

  4. First Insight into a Nationwide Genotypic Diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among Previously Treated Pulmonary Tuberculosis Cases in Benin, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affolabi, Dissou; Sanoussi, N'Dira; Codo, Sergio; Sogbo, Fréderic; Wachinou, Prudence; Massou, Faridath; Kehinde, Aderemi; Anagonou, Séverin

    2017-01-01

    Molecular studies on tuberculosis (TB) are rare in low-resource countries like Benin, where data on molecular study on previously treated TB cases is unavailable. From January to December 2014, all smear- and culture-positive previously treated pulmonary TB patients from all TB clinics were systematically recruited. Drug susceptibility testing and spoligotyping were performed on all isolates. Of the 100 patients recruited, 71 (71.0%) were relapse cases and 24 (24.0%) were failure cases, while 5 (5.0%) were default cases. Resistance rate to any first-line drug was 40.0%, while 12.0% of strains were multidrug-resistant (MDR) and no strain was extensively drug-resistant (XDR). A total of 40 distinct spoligotypes were found to be corresponding to a genotypic diversity of 40.0%. ST61 was the most predominant spoligotype with prevalence of 33.0%. In all, 31 single spoligotypes and nine clusters were observed with 2 to 33 strains per cluster giving a clustering rate of 69.0%. Euro-American (Lineage 4) was the most prevalent lineage (74.0%) and Lineage 2 was associated with resistance to streptomycin. This first insight into genetic diversity of previously treated pulmonary TB patients in Benin showed a relatively high genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis .

  5. First Insight into a Nationwide Genotypic Diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among Previously Treated Pulmonary Tuberculosis Cases in Benin, West Africa

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    Dissou Affolabi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Molecular studies on tuberculosis (TB are rare in low-resource countries like Benin, where data on molecular study on previously treated TB cases is unavailable. Materials and Methods. From January to December 2014, all smear- and culture-positive previously treated pulmonary TB patients from all TB clinics were systematically recruited. Drug susceptibility testing and spoligotyping were performed on all isolates. Results. Of the 100 patients recruited, 71 (71.0% were relapse cases and 24 (24.0% were failure cases, while 5 (5.0% were default cases. Resistance rate to any first-line drug was 40.0%, while 12.0% of strains were multidrug-resistant (MDR and no strain was extensively drug-resistant (XDR. A total of 40 distinct spoligotypes were found to be corresponding to a genotypic diversity of 40.0%. ST61 was the most predominant spoligotype with prevalence of 33.0%. In all, 31 single spoligotypes and nine clusters were observed with 2 to 33 strains per cluster giving a clustering rate of 69.0%. Euro-American (Lineage 4 was the most prevalent lineage (74.0% and Lineage 2 was associated with resistance to streptomycin. Conclusion. This first insight into genetic diversity of previously treated pulmonary TB patients in Benin showed a relatively high genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

  6. Knowledge and practice of food hygiene and safety among food handlers in fast food restaurants in Benin City, Edo State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isara, A R; Isah, E C

    2009-09-01

    To assess the knowledge and practice of food hygiene and safety among food handlers in fast food restaurants in Benin City, Edo State. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among 350 respondents who were selected by means of a systematic sampling method and interviewed using a semi-structured researcher-administered questionnaire. An observational checklist was thereafter used to inspect their personal hygiene status. The mean age of the food handlers was 26.4 +/- 6.1 years. Two hundred and twenty eight (65.1%) were females while 34.9% were males. A majority (98%) of the respondents had formal education. There was good knowledge and practice of food hygiene and safety among the respondents. Knowledge was significantly influenced by previous training in food hygiene and safety (p = 0.002). Food handlers who had worked for longer years in the fast food restaurants had better practice of food hygiene and safety (p = 0.036). The level of education of respondents did not significantly influenced their practice of food hygiene and safety (p = 0.084). Although, 299 (85.4%) food handlers were generally clean, skin lesions was seen in 4 (7.3%) of them. This study showed good knowledge and practice of food hygiene and safety by food handlers in the fast food restaurants in Benin City, but there is need for improvement through training and retraining of food handlers by the management of the restaurants and the local government authorities.

  7. National-level differences in the adoption of environmental health technologies: a cross-border comparison from Benin and Togo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendland, Kelly J; Pattanayak, Subhrendu K; Sills, Erin O

    2015-03-01

    Environmental health problems such as malaria, respiratory infections, diarrhoea and malnutrition pose very high burdens on the poor rural people in much of the tropics. Recent research on key interventions-the adoption and use of relatively cheap and effective environmental health technologies-has focused primarily on the influence of demand-side household-level drivers. Relatively few studies of the promotion and use of these technologies have considered the role of contextual factors such as governance, the enabling environment and national policies because of the challenges of cross-country comparisons. We exploit a natural experimental setting by comparing household adoption across the Benin-Togo national border that splits the Tamberma Valley in West Africa. Households across the border share the same culture, ethnicity, weather, physiographic features, livelihoods and infrastructure; however, they are located in countries at virtually opposite ends of the institutional spectrum of democratic elections, voice and accountability, effective governance and corruption. Binary choice models and rigorous non-parametric matching estimators confirm that households in Benin are more likely than households in Togo to plant soybeans, build improved cookstoves and purchase mosquito nets, ceteris paribus. Although we cannot identify the exact mechanism for the large and significant national-level differences in technology adoption, our findings suggest that contextual institutional factors can be more important than household characteristics for technology adoption. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2014; all rights reserved.

  8. Migration, Social Demands and Environmental Change amongst the Frafra of Northern Ghana and the Biali in Northern Benin

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    Papa Sow

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of environmental change and degradation on human populations, including the possibility of sharp increases in the number of people considered “environmental migrants” have gained considerable attention. Migrating communities may try to distribute their members along particular lines of kinship, gender, marriage and/or services linked to land exploitation and agriculture. This paper explores archives and narratives of African migrants in northwestern Benin and northeastern Ghana. These regions have been marked by severe ecological change and resource deterioration over the years, as well as changes in marital patterns, family relations and customary practices. In the case of Benin, the paper looks at different ethnic groups that migrated from neighboring countries to the study region. It then focuses on the Biali, who undertake marriage journeys after practicing rituals, which are often related to agricultural activities. The Frafra (Ghana, who, in their bid to out-migrate as a livelihood/coping strategy in the advent of environmental deterioration and rainfall variability, are confronted with high bride prices, changing family relations and customary practices. The paper concludes by highlighting socio-cultural changes that ensue in the face of outmigration among different ethnic groups, especially the Biali and Frafra, and the relationship between non-environmental and environmental factors, and mobility strategies.

  9. 'A pond with crocodiles never dries up’: a frame analysis of human-crocodile relationships in agro-pastoral dams in Northern Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kpéra, G.N.; Aarts, N.; Tossou, R.C.; Mensah, G.A.; Saïdou, A.; Kossou, D.K.; Sinsin, A.B.; van der Zijpp, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Crocodiles, a protected species, share ecosystem services with local communities in agro-pastoral dams in Northern Benin. Using a comparative case study conducted in three villages and a framing perspective, this study aims to elucidate how stakeholders frame the presence of crocodiles, and how they

  10. Effects of farmers' practices of fertilizer application and land use types on subsequent maize yield and nutrient uptake in central Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saidou, A.; Kossou, D.; Acakpo, K.; Richards, P.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2012-01-01

    Four on-farm experiments in central Benin examined whether land-use succession and fertilizer treatments for prior cotton would sustain subsequent maize crop yields and achieve balanced plant nutrition. Treatments consisted of three prior land use successions, i.e. before planting maize (egusi

  11. Violence Against Women at the Workplace in Honduraa, Benin, Moldova, Indonesia: a survey by CNV Internationaal, University of Amsterdam/AIAS, WageIndicator Foundation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijdens, K.; Besamusca, J.; van Klaveren, M.; Zerain, A.; Osse, P.; Ceccon, D.; Pralitasari, N.; Flores, A.; Sèna Alinsato, A.; Popescu, A.; Ahmad, A.

    2015-01-01

    The research focussed on violence against women at the workplace in four countries: Honduras, Indonesia, Moldova, and Benin. Each country report starts with an overview concerning the female workforce in that country, followed by a description of the legal framework concerning violence at work. It

  12. 'A pond with crocodiles never dries up'. A frame analysis of human –crocodile relationships in agro-pastoral dams in Northern Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kpera, G.N.; Aarts, N.; Tossou, R.C.; Mensah, G.A.; Saïdou, A.; Kossou, D.K.; Sinsin, A.B.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Crocodiles, a protected species, share ecosystem services with local communities in agro-pastoral dams in Northern Benin. Using a comparative case study conducted in three villages and a framing perspective, this study aims to elucidate how stakeholders frame the presence of crocodiles, and how they

  13. Functional diversity of home gardens and their agrobiodiversity conservation benefits in Benin, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbedomon, Rodrigue Castro; Salako, Valère Kolawolé; Fandohan, Adandé Belarmain; Idohou, Alix Frank Rodrigue; Glèlè Kakaї, Romain; Assogbadjo, Achille Ephrem

    2017-11-25

    Understanding the functional diversity of home gardens and their socio-ecological determinants is essential for mainstreaming these agroforestry practices into agrobiodiversity conservation strategies. This paper analyzed functional diversity of home gardens, identified the socio-ecological drivers of functions assigned to them, and assessed the agrobiodiversity benefits of home gardens functions. Using data on occurring species in home garden (HG) and functions assigned to each species by the gardeners, the study combined clustering and discriminant canonical analyses to explore the functional diversity of 360 home gardens in Benin, West Africa. Next, multinomial logistic models and chi-square tests were used to analyze the effect of socio-demographic characteristics of gardeners (age, gender, and education level), agro-ecological zones (humid, sub-humid, and semi-arid), and management regime (single and multiple managers) on the possession of a functional type of home gardens. Generalized linear models were used to assess the effect of the functions of home gardens and the determinant factor on their potential in conserving agrobiodiversity. Seven functional groups of home gardens, four with specific functions (food, medicinal, or both food and medicinal) and three with multiple functions (more than two main functions), were found. Women owned most of home gardens with primarily food plant production purpose while men owned most of home gardens with primarily medicinal plant production purposes. Finding also showed that multifunctional home gardens had higher plant species diversity. Specifically, crops and crop wild relatives occurred mainly in home gardens with food function while wild plant species were mostly found in home gardens with mainly medicinal function. Home gardening is driven by functions beyond food production. These functions are mostly related to direct and extractive values of home gardens. Functions of home gardens were gendered, with women

  14. Malaria infection and disease in an area with pyrethroid-resistant vectors in southern Benin

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    Akogbéto Martin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to investigate baseline data on malaria before the evaluation of new vector control strategies in an area of pyrethroid-resistance of vectors. The burden of malaria was estimated in terms of infection (prevalence and parasite density and of clinical episodes. Methods Between December 2007 and December 2008 in the health district of Ouidah - Kpomassè - Tori Bossito (southern Benin, a descriptive epidemiological survey of malaria was conducted. From 28 selected villages, seven were randomized from which a total of 440 children aged 0 to 5 years were randomly selected. Clinical and parasitological information was obtained by active case detection of malaria episodes carried out during eight periods of six consecutive days scheduled at six weekly intervals and by cross-sectional surveys of asymptomatic infection. Entomological information was also collected. The ownership, the use and the correct use of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs were checked over weekly-survey by unannounced visits at home in the late evening. Results Mean parasite density in asymptomatic children was 586 P. falciparum asexual forms per μL of blood (95%CI 504-680. Pyrogenic parasite cut-off was estimated 2,000 P. falciparum asexual blood forms per μL. The clinical incidence of malaria was 1.5 episodes per child per year (95%CI 1.2-1.9. Parasitological and clinical variables did not vary with season. Anopheles gambiae s.l. was the principal vector closely followed by Anopheles funestus. Entomological inoculation rate was 5.3 (95%CI 1.1-25.9 infective bites per human per year. Frequency of the L1014F kdr (West allele was around 50%. Annual prevalence rate of Plasmodium falciparum asymptomatic infection was 21.8% (95%CI 19.1-24.4 and increased according to age. Mean rates of ownership and use of LLINs were 92% and 70% respectively. The only correct use of LLINs (63% conferred 26% individual protection against only infection (OR

  15. Effects of severe obstetric complications on women’s health and infant mortality in Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, Véronique; Goufodji, Sourou; Sismanidis, Charalambos; Kanhonou, Lydie; Fottrell, Edward; Ronsmans, Carine; Alihonou, Eusèbe; Patel, Vikram

    2010-01-01

    Summary Objective To document the impact of severe obstetric complications on post-partum health in mothers and mortality in babies over 12 months in Benin and to assess whether severe complications associated with perinatal death are particularly likely to lead to adverse health consequences. Methods Cohort study which followed women and their babies after a severe complication or an uncomplicated childbirth. Women were selected in hospitals and interviewed at home at discharge, and at 6 and 12 months post-partum. Women were invited for a medical check-up at 6 months and 12 months. Results The cohort includes 205 women with severe complications and a live birth, 64 women with severe complications and perinatal death and 440 women with uncomplicated delivery. Women with severe complications and a live birth were not dissimilar to women with a normal delivery in terms of post-partum health, except for hypertension [adjusted OR = 5.8 (1.9–17.0)], fever [adjusted OR = 1.71 (1.1–2.8)] and infant mortality [adjusted OR = 11.0 (0.8–158.2)]. Women with complications and perinatal death were at increased risk of depression [adjusted OR = 3.4 (1.3–9.0)], urine leakages [adjusted OR = 2.7 (1.2–5.8)], and to report poor health [adjusted OR = 5.27 (2.2–12.4)] and pregnancy’s negative effects on their life [adjusted OR = 4.11 (1.9–9.0)]. Uptake of post-natal services was poor in all groups. Conclusion Women in developing countries face a high risk of severe complications during pregnancy and delivery. These can lead to adverse consequences for their own health and that of their offspring. Resources are needed to ensure that pregnant women receive adequate care before, during and after discharge from hospital. Near-miss women with a perinatal death appear a particularly high-risk group. PMID:20406426

  16. Magnitude of cardiovascular risk factors in rural and urban areas in Benin: findings from a nationwide steps survey.

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    Yessito Corine Nadège Houehanou

    Full Text Available To describe and compare the prevalences of CVRF in urban and rural populations of Benin.Subjects were drawn from participants in the Benin Steps survey, a nationwide cross-sectional study conducted in 2008 using the World Health Organisation (WHO stepwise approach to surveillance of chronic disease risk factors. Subjects aged above 24 and below 65 years were recruited using a five-stage random sampling process within households. Sociodemographic data, behavioral data along with medical history of high blood pressure and diabetes mellitus were collected in Step 1. Anthropometric parameters and blood pressure were measured in Step 2. Blood glucose and cholesterol levels were measured in Step 3. CVRF were defined according to WHO criteria. The prevalences of CVRF were assessed and the relationships between each CVRF and the area of residence (urban or rural, were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression models.Of the 6762 subjects included in the study, 2271 were from urban areas and 4491 were from rural areas. High blood pressure was more prevalent in urban than in rural areas, 29.9% (95% confidence intervals (95% CI: 27.4, 32.5 and 27.5% (95% CI: 25.6, 29.5 respectively, p = 0.001 (p-value after adjustment for age and gender. Obesity was more prevalent in urban than in rural areas, 16.4% (95% CI: 14.4, 18.4 and 5.9% (95% CI: 5.1, 6.7, p<0.001. Diabetes was more prevalent in urban than in rural areas, 3.3% (95% CI: 2.1, 4.5 and 1.8% (95% CI: 1.2, 2.4, p = 0.004. Conversely, daily tobacco smoking was more prevalent in rural than in urban areas, 9.3% (95% CI: 8.1, 10.4 and 4.3% (95% CI: 3.1, 5.6, p<0.001. No differences in raised blood cholesterol were noted between the two groups.According to our data, CVRF are prevalent among adults in Benin, and variations between rural and urban populations are significant. It may be useful to take account of the heterogeneity in the prevalence of CVRF when planning and implementing preventive

  17. The impact of the expansion of urban vegetable farming on malaria transmission in major cities of Benin

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    Kindé Gazard

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urban agricultural practices are expanding in several cities of the Republic of Benin. This study aims to assess the impact of such practices on transmission of the malaria parasite in major cities of Benin. Method A cross sectional entomological study was carried out from January to December 2009 in two vegetable farming sites in southern Benin (Houeyiho and Acron and one in the northern area (Azèrèkè. The study was based on sampling of mosquitoes by Human Landing Catches (HLC in households close to the vegetable farms and in others located far from the farms. Results During the year of study, 71,678 female mosquitoes were caught by HLC of which 25% (17,920/71,678 were Anopheles species. In the areas surveyed, the main malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum was transmitted in the south by Anopheles gambiae s.s. Transmission was high during the two rainy seasons (April to July and October to November but declined in the two dry seasons (December to March and August to September. In the north, transmission occurred from June to October during the rainy season and was vehicled by two members of the An. gambiae complex: Anopheles gambiae s.s. (98% and Anopheles arabiensis (2%. At Houeyiho, Acron and Azèrèkè, the Entomological Inoculation Rates (EIRs and the Human Biting Rates (HBRs were significantly higher during the dry season in Households Close to Vegetable Farms (HCVF than in those located far from the vegetable areas (HFVF (p 0.05. The knock-down resistance (kdr mutation was the main resistance mechanism detected at high frequency (0.86 to 0.91 in An. gambiae s.l. at all sites. The ace-1R mutation was also found but at a very low frequency ( Conclusion These findings showed that communities living close to vegetable farms are permanently exposed to malaria throughout the year, whereas the risk in those living far from such agricultural practices is limited and only critical during the rainy seasons. Measures must be

  18. Tectonometamorphic evolution of Ghana, Togo and Benin in the light of the Pan-African/Brasiliano orogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaing, C.; Triboulet, C.; Feybesse, J. L.; Chèvremont, P.

    1993-02-01

    The South Pan-African belt of West Africa (Ghana, Togo and Benin province) can be divided into three domains: (1) the external nappes thrust over the West African craton, derived from passive-margin sedimentary deposits (Middle to Late Proterozoic) and displaying middle- to high-pressure metamorphism, such as the Kanté and Atacora nappes; (2) the intermediate nappes including the suture-zone rocks with eclogitic assemblages (protoliths ca. 800 Ma), and mainly monocyclic metasedimentary rock and orthogneiss, that are found in central Togo and northwest Benin; (3) the internal nappes composed of high-grade commonly anatectic gneiss (anatexis ca. 600 Ma), including orthogneiss (Eburnian plutons), elongated granulite belts, reworked Archean basement, and an intrusive granite and charnockite association (ca. 600 Ma), which are exposed in Benin and Nigeria. The P- T- t- d paths calculated from rocks in these three domains show a prograde-retrograde evolution: (1) an initial clockwise evolution related to an early burial stage ( HP- HT in the intermediate nappes) followed by oblique thrusting in a SW direction, that caused nappe stacking and subsequent uplift; (2) a second anti-clockwise evolution with late temperature and pressure increases, only recorded in the more internal units. This temperature increase was a consequence of the previous crustal thickening with subsequent doming, extension and anatexis. The pressure increase was related to movement along the Kandi fault, working as a dextral strike-slip fault with a transpressional component under late E-W shortening. The retrograde trend corresponds to the final uplift. The evolution of the belt can thus be divided into three successive stages: (1) a first stage was characterized by an oblique collision inducing SW oblique thrusting with associated syn-foliation reverse metamorphism; (2) during a second stage anatectic doming took place; followed by (3) a third stage at still high temperature with dextral wrench

  19. Current floristic composition, life form and productivity of the grasslands in the Hunting Zone of Djona (Benin)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahoudji, Myrese C.; Teka, Oscar; Axelsen, Jørgen Aagaard

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This paper addressed temporal changes in floristic composition, plant communities’ structures and productivity of grasslands. The study was conducted in the Hunting zone of Djona in the Transboundary Biosphere Reserve of W (TBRW) Benin. Methodology and Results: For these purpose 30...... plots of 900m² were used and “phytosociological relevés” were done following ecological uniformity, floristic homogeneity and samples representativeness to established plants communities. Biomass was estimated in 30 plots of 100 m². Results showed that the greatest productivity value (8320 ± 0.21 kg DM...... with broad distribution. Conclusions and application of findings: The identified life forms and chorological types showed an evolution of the post farming pastures to woodlands and savannas vegetation, which explains the current floristic composition of the area. Moreover, it will be possible to model...

  20. Addressing diarrhea prevalence in the West African Middle Belt: social and geographic dimensions in a case study for Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, Saket; Keyzer, Michiel A; Arouna, Aminou; Sonneveld, Ben G J S

    2008-04-23

    In West Africa, the Northern Sahelian zone and the coastal areas are densely populated but the Middle Belt in between is in general sparsely settled. Predictions of climate change foresee more frequent drought in the north and more frequent flooding in the coastal areas, while conditions in the Middle Belt will remain moderate. Consequently, the Middle Belt might become a major area for immigration but there may be constraining factors as well, particularly with respect to water availability. As a case study, the paper looks into the capacity of the Middle Belt zone of Benin, known as the Oueme River Basin (ORB), to reduce diarrhea prevalence. In Benin it links to the Millennium Development Goals on child mortality and environmental sustainability that are currently farthest from realization. However, diarrhea prevalence is only in part due to lack of availability of drinking water from a safe source. Social factors such as hygienic practices and poor sanitation are also at play. Furthermore, we consider these factors to possess the properties of a local public good that suffers from under provision and requires collective action, as individual actions to prevent illness are bound to fail as long as others free ride. Combining data from the Demographic Health Survey with various spatial data sets for Benin, we apply mixed effect logit regression to arrive at a spatially explicit assessment of geographical and social determinants of diarrhea prevalence. Starting from an analysis of these factors separately at national level, we identify relevant proxies at household level, estimate a function with geo-referenced independent variables and apply it to evaluate the costs and impacts of improving access to good water in the basin. First, the study confirms the well established stylized fact on the causes of diarrhea that a household with access to clean water and with good hygienic practices will, irrespective of other conditions, not suffer diarrhea very often. Second

  1. Addressing diarrhea prevalence in the West African Middle Belt: social and geographic dimensions in a case study for Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arouna Aminou

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In West Africa, the Northern Sahelian zone and the coastal areas are densely populated but the Middle Belt in between is in general sparsely settled. Predictions of climate change foresee more frequent drought in the north and more frequent flooding in the coastal areas, while conditions in the Middle Belt will remain moderate. Consequently, the Middle Belt might become a major area for immigration but there may be constraining factors as well, particularly with respect to water availability. As a case study, the paper looks into the capacity of the Middle Belt zone of Benin, known as the Oueme River Basin (ORB, to reduce diarrhea prevalence. In Benin it links to the Millennium Development Goals on child mortality and environmental sustainability that are currently farthest from realization. However, diarrhea prevalence is only in part due to lack of availability of drinking water from a safe source. Social factors such as hygienic practices and poor sanitation are also at play. Furthermore, we consider these factors to possess the properties of a local public good that suffers from under provision and requires collective action, as individual actions to prevent illness are bound to fail as long as others free ride. Methods Combining data from the Demographic Health Survey with various spatial data sets for Benin, we apply mixed effect logit regression to arrive at a spatially explicit assessment of geographical and social determinants of diarrhea prevalence. Starting from an analysis of these factors separately at national level, we identify relevant proxies at household level, estimate a function with geo-referenced independent variables and apply it to evaluate the costs and impacts of improving access to good water in the basin. Results First, the study confirms the well established stylized fact on the causes of diarrhea that a household with access to clean water and with good hygienic practices will, irrespective of

  2. Scientific authorship and collaboration network analysis on malaria research in Benin: papers indexed in the web of science (1996-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azondekon, Roseric; Harper, Zachary James; Agossa, Fiacre Rodrigue; Welzig, Charles Michael; McRoy, Susan

    2018-01-01

    To sustain the critical progress made, prioritization and a multidisciplinary approach to malaria research remain important to the national malaria control program in Benin. To document the structure of the malaria collaborative research in Benin, we analyze authorship of the scientific documents published on malaria from Benin. We collected bibliographic data from the Web Of Science on malaria research in Benin from January 1996 to December 2016. From the collected data, a mulitigraph co-authorship network with authors representing vertices was generated. An edge was drawn between two authors when they co-author a paper. We computed vertex degree, betweenness, closeness, and eigenvectors among others to identify prolific authors. We further assess the weak points and how information flow in the network. Finally, we perform a hierarchical clustering analysis, and Monte-Carlo simulations. Overall, 427 publications were included in this study. The generated network contained 1792 authors and 116,388 parallel edges which converted in a weighted graph of 1792 vertices and 95,787 edges. Our results suggested that prolific authors with higher degrees tend to collaborate more. The hierarchical clustering revealed 23 clusters, seven of which form a giant component containing 94% of all the vertices in the network. This giant component has all the characteristics of a small-world network with a small shortest path distance between pairs of three, a diameter of 10 and a high clustering coefficient of 0.964. However, Monte-Carlo simulations suggested our observed network is an unusual type of small-world network. Sixteen vertices were identified as weak articulation points within the network. The malaria research collaboration network in Benin is a complex network that seems to display the characteristics of a small-world network. This research reveals the presence of closed research groups where collaborative research likely happens only between members. Interdisciplinary

  3. Ethno-botanical study of the African star apple (Chrysophyllum albidum G. Don in the Southern Benin (West Africa

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    Houessou Laurent G

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In addition to plant species biology and ecology, understanding the folk knowledge systems related to the use of plant species and how this knowledge system influences the conservation of plant species is an important issue in the implementation of sustainable strategies of biodiversity conservation programs. This study aimed at providing information on the use and local knowledge variation on Chrysophyllum albidum G. Don a multipurpose tree species widely used in southern Benin. Methods Data was collected through 210 structured interviews. Informants were randomly selected from ten villages. The fidelity level and use value of different plant parts of C. albidum were estimated. The variation in ethnobotanical knowledge was assessed by comparing the use value between ethnic, gender and age groups. In order to assess the use pattern of the different plant parts in folk medicine, a correspondence analysis was carried out on the frequency citation of plant parts. Results Four categories of use (food, medicine, firewood and timber were recorded for C. albidum. With respect to the different plant parts, the fleshy pulp of the African star apple fruit showed high consensus degree as food among the informants. Fifteen diseases were reported to be treated by the different parts of C. albidum in the region. Correspondence analysis revealed the specificity of each part in disease treatment. There was no significant difference among ethnic groups regarding the ethno-botanical use value of C. albidum. However, significant difference existed between genders and among age groups regarding the knowledge of the medical properties of this species. Conclusions C. albidum is well integrated in the traditional agroforestry system of the southern Benin. Despite its multipurpose character, this species remains underutilized in the region. Considering the current threat of habitat degradation, action is needed in order to ensure the long term

  4. Quantifying trade-offs between future yield levels, food availability and forest and woodland conservation in Benin.

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    Duku, Confidence; Zwart, Sander J; van Bussel, Lenny G J; Hein, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Meeting the dual objectives of food security and ecosystem protection is a major challenge in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). To this end agricultural intensification is considered desirable, yet, there remain uncertainties regarding the impact of climate change on opportunities for agricultural intensification and the adequacy of intensification options given the rapid population growth. We quantify trade-offs between levels of yield gap closure, food availability and forest and woodland conservation under different scenarios. Each scenario is made up of a combination of variants of four parameters i.e. (1) climate change based on Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs); (2) population growth based on Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs); (3) cropland expansion with varying degrees of deforestation; and (4) different degrees of yield gap closure. We carry out these analyses for three major food crops, i.e. maize, cassava and yam, in Benin. Our analyses show that in most of the scenarios, the required levels of yield gap closures required to maintain the current levels of food availability can be achieved by 2050 by maintaining the average rate of yield increases recorded over the past two and half decades in addition to the current cropping intensity. However, yields will have to increase at a faster rate than has been recorded over the past two and half decades in order to achieve the required levels of yield gap closures by 2100. Our analyses also show that without the stated levels of yield gap closure, the areas under maize, cassava and yam cultivation will have to increase by 95%, 102% and 250% respectively in order to maintain the current levels of per capita food availability. Our study shows that food security outcomes and forest and woodland conservation goals in Benin and likely the larger SSA region are inextricably linked together and require holistic management strategies that considers trade-offs and co-benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  5. Association Between Women's Empowerment and Maternal and Child Nutrition in Kalalé District of Northern Benin.

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    Alaofè, Halimatou; Zhu, Min; Burney, Jennifer; Naylor, Rosamond; Douglas, Taren

    2017-09-01

    Evidence on effectiveness of women's empowerment (WE) to reduce undernutrition is limited in sub-Sahara Africa, and few studies incorporate multidimensional measures of WE. To examine whether a WE status, in sum and across leadership, decision-making, mobility, economic security, male involvement in housework, and nonfamily group domains, is associated with women and their children nutritional status in Kalalé district of northern Benin. Data were obtained from the 2014 Solar Market Garden baseline study: 767 paired reproductive-age women aged 15 to 49 years and children 6 to 59 months old. Exploratory principal component (cross-validate with confirmatory) factor analysis was first conducted to identify the structure of empowerment. Then, using a new survey-based index, regression analysis was conducted to examine associations between WE measures and maternal dietary diversity score (DDS) and body mass index (BMI), as well as their child's DDS, height-for-age z score (HAZ), weight-for-height z score (WHZ), and weight-for-age z score (WAZ). Positive associations were observed between women's composite empowerment, leadership, maternal DDS and BMI, and female child's DDS. However, opposite signs were found between economic security and child's DDS. Mobility was positively associated with female children's WHZ and male children's HAZ and WAZ, while decision-making was correlated with male child's WHZ and female children's WAZ. Women's empowerment can be associated with undernutrition. Efforts to improve nutrition may benefit from empowerment initiatives that promote women's self-confidence and decision-making in Benin. However, additional qualitative and longitudinal research may enhance understanding of WE in the present area.

  6. [Place of vulvovaginal candidiasis in the lower genital tract infections and associated risk factors among women in Benin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogouyèmi-Hounto, A; Adisso, S; Djamal, J; Sanni, R; Amangbegnon, R; Biokou-Bankole, B; Kinde Gazard, D; Massougbodji, A

    2014-06-01

    Determine the place of vulvo-vaginal candidiasis (VVC) in the lower genital infections and seek risk factors among women in Benin. The study was conducted in the laboratory of mycology of Hôpital de la Mère et de l'Enfant Lagune (Homel) from 1st March to 31st July, 2013. It involved all the women who were asked a vaginal swab and gave their consent in written form. After administration of a questionnaire, the vaginal samples were collected with sterile cotton swabs for a test with potassium hydroxide, an estimation of vaginal pH, direct microscopic examination, fresh, and after a Gram stain and culture on Sabouraud-chloramphenicol, ordinary agar and fresh blood agar. One hundred and thirty-one women were included in the study period. Clinical signs were dominated by vaginal discharge (74.8%), followed by vulvar pruritus (51.9%) and dyspareunia (36.6%). Culture on Sabouraud was positive in 51 cases or 38.9%. Candida albicans was isolated in 96.1% of cases, against 3.9% of Candida glabrata. The risk factors involved were: pregnancy, antibiotics, synthetic underclothing and frequent wearing tight pants. In addition of Candida, Gardnerella vaginalis was found in 36.6% of samples with an association with C. albicans in 28.2% of cases. This study showed that vulvovaginal candidiasis is the leading cause of lower genital tract infections in women in Benin with involvement of several risk factors which research is needed to develop appropriate preventive measures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Liver Damage Risk Assessment Study in Workers Occupationally Exposed to E-waste in Benin City, South-South Nigeria

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    Osaretin God Igaro Igaro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available    Large volumes of mostly irreparable electronic waste (e-waste are shipped to Africa on a monthly basis, of which Nigeria receives the largest share. E-waste management practices in Nigeria have remained completely primitive until date; and e-waste workers have little or no occupational safety knowledge and devices. The thousands of chemicals in e-waste have been reported to be toxic to human health in any degree of exposure. The present study has assessed the risk of liver damage in workers occupationally exposed to e-waste in Benin City, South-south Nigeria in 2014. Serum activities of liver enzymes [alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP]; and levels albumin (ALB, total bilirubin (T/Bil and conjugated bilirubin (C/Bil were determined using standard colorimetric methods. Serum Alpha fetoprotein (AFP was determined using ELISA in Nigerian e-waste workers (n=63 and in age-matched unexposed participants (n=41 in Benin City. The results showed significantly raised activities of enzymatic biomarkers of liver damage (ALT, AST, ALP and GGT in the e-waste group compared with the unexposed participants. There was no significant difference in the levels of ALB, T/Bil and C/Bil between exposed and unexposed participants. AFP levels in e-waste workers (3.56 ± 0.34 ng/mL were significantly different compared with the unexposed group (2.14 ± 0.80 ng/mL (P< 0.045. The significantly elevated cancer risk biomarker (AFP and the enzymatic biomarkers of liver damage observed in the Nigerian e-waste workers studied may be associated with occupational exposure to known carcinogens and hepatotoxic metals in e-waste. 

  8. Cambiamenti nell’organizzazione territoriale in seguito alle migrazioni: La periferia del parco “W” – Benin, Burkina Faso, Niger

    OpenAIRE

    Ghisalberti, Alessandra

    2008-01-01

    La periferia del Parco Regionale “W” (Benin, Burkina Faso e Niger) è caratterizzata da una molteplicità etnica, oltre che da flussi migratori che generano mutazioni nell’organizzazione territoriale. L’obiettivo dell’articolo è di mostrare i cambiamenti determinati da tali processi migratori, in un contesto sprovvisto di dati diretti sulle migrazioni. La metodologia utilizzata si basa su una banca-dati di terreno, raccolti nel corso di una pluriannuale ricerca, e le analisi vengono presentate ...

  9. Analysis of CDM Projects' Portfolio in West African Economic and Monetary Union - Regional Baseline Assessment in Energy Sector. Case Study: Benin, Burkina Faso, Niger and Togo

    OpenAIRE

    Satoguina, Honorat

    2006-01-01

    This study analyses current energy projects in Benin, Burkina Faso, Niger and Togo. Based on the size of these projects, the study shows that currently, only small scale CDM projects can be developed in these countries in energy sectors. Moreover, baseline emissions factors are assessed for the different electricity grids. These baselines are very low in interconnected grids in cities, while they are relatively high for isolated and non-connected utilities in remote areas. Consequently, count...

  10. Virus surveys of Capsicum spp. in the Republic of Benin reveal the prevalence of pepper vein yellows virus and the identification of a previously uncharacterised polerovirus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afouda, Leonard; Kone, Daouda; Zinsou, Valerien; Dossou, Laurence; Kenyon, Lawrence; Winter, Stephan; Knierim, Dennis

    2017-06-01

    Surveys were conducted in 2014 and 2015 in Southern and Northern Benin, respectively, to identify the viruses infecting peppers (Capsicum spp.). The samples were screened by ELISA for cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), pepper veinal mottle virus (PVMV), potato virus Y (PVY) and tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). A generic reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) was used to test for the presence of poleroviruses. ELISA tests confirmed the prevalence of all viruses, while the RT-PCR detected pepper vein yellows virus (PeVYV) which is reported for the first time in Benin. A further, divergent polerovirus isolate was detected from a single pepper sample originating from southern Benin. Screening of samples collected from solanaceous plants during virus surveys in Mali (conducted in 2009) also detected this divergent polerovirus isolate in two samples from African eggplants. The complete genome sequence was obtained from the Mali isolate using transcriptome sequencing and by conventional Sanger sequencing of overlapping RT-PCR products. Based on the sequence characteristics of this isolate we propose a new polerovirus species, African eggplant yellowing virus (AeYV).

  11. Management of moderate malnutrition by the “the positive deviance” and “grand-mother” approaches in Benin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoussa Hounkpatin, Waliou; Edjekpoto, Castellie

    2014-01-01

    Full text: The malnutrition of young children is becoming more and more worrying and is today a major public health problem in developing countries in general and in Benin particularly. The positive deviance and grand-mother approach are two endogenous solutions jointly used to combat moderate malnutrition in rural communities in Benin in the framework of the Community Nutrition Program (PNC) implemented by the NGO PLAN-BENIN. The results of PNC’s interventions in 16 villages in the commune of “Ouinhi” show that, on 1494 children screened, 999 children (66.9 %) have good nutritional status; 492 Children (33%) are moderately underweighted and 03 children (0.2%) are severely underweighted. These results showing the nutritional situation of these communities are returned in general assembly. After this, exchanges are carried out with the community about the peremptory measures opening of “Homes of Learning and Nutritional Rehabilitation” (FARN) for the moderate malnourished children. The severe cases and those with complications are referred to the Health Center of Recovery and Nutritional Education. The FARN is organized for a period of 12 days (six days per week), in the houses of one of the community members or in public square. It admits to a maximum of 15 malnourished children who are registered on a sheet. The FARN organized at the location of moderately malnourished children have been already carried out in three villages (Ahicon, Gbokpago and Zaloko) just after the restitution of screening results and FARN preparation meetings. On 52 moderates malnourished children having participated to the FARN in these 3 villages, 41 children (78.8%) have a satisfactory weight gain ≥ 400 g, whereas 09 children are below (< 400 g) of weight gain required. Note that the weight of the children is taken the first day of opening of the FARN and the last day of the end of the FARN. In the objective to follow the children admitted to the FARN, home visits are organized

  12. The use of magnetic resonance sounding for quantifying specific yield and transmissivity in hard rock aquifers: The example of Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouillamoz, J. M.; Lawson, F. M. A.; Yalo, N.; Descloitres, M.

    2014-08-01

    Hundreds of thousands of boreholes have been drilled in hard rocks of Africa and Asia for supplying human communities with drinking water. Despite the common use of geophysics for improving the siting of boreholes, a significant number of drilled holes does not deliver enough water to be equipped (e.g. 40% on average in Benin). As compared to other non-invasive geophysical methods, magnetic resonance sounding (MRS) is selective to groundwater. However, this distinctive feature has not been fully used in previous published studies for quantifying the drainable groundwater in hard rocks (i.e. the specific yield) and the short-term productivity of aquifer (i.e. the transmissivity). We present in this paper a comparison of MRS results (i.e. the water content and pore-size parameter) with both specific yield and transmissivity calculated from long duration pumping tests. We conducted our experiments in six sites located in different hard rock groups in Benin, thus providing a unique data set to assess the usefulness of MRS in hard rock aquifers. We found that the MRS water content is about twice the specific yield. We also found that the MRS pore-size parameter is well correlated with the specific yield. Thus we proposed two linear equations for calculating the specific yield from the MRS water content (with an uncertainty of about 10%) and from the pore-size parameter (with an uncertainty of about 20%). The later has the advantage of defining a so-named MRS cutoff time value for indentifying non-drainable MRS water content and thus low groundwater reserve. We eventually propose a nonlinear equation for calculating the specific yield using jointly the MRS water content and the pore-size parameters, but this approach has to be confirmed with further investigations. This study also confirmed that aquifer transmissivity can be estimated from MRS results with an uncertainty of about 70%. We conclude that MRS can be usefully applied for estimating aquifer specific yield and

  13. Local Stakeholders’ Perceptions about the Introduction of Performance-Based Financing in Benin: A Case Study in Two Health Districts

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    Elisabeth Paul

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Performance-Based Financing (PBF has been advanced as a solution to contribute to improving the performance of health systems in developing countries. This is the case in Benin. This study aims to analyse how two PBF approaches, piloted in Benin, behave during implementation and what effects they produce, through investigating how local stakeholders perceive the introduction of PBF, how they adapt the different approaches during implementation, and the behavioural interactions induced by PBF. Methods The research rests on a socio-anthropological approach and qualitative methods. The design is a case study in two health districts selected on purpose. The selection of health facilities was also done on purpose, until we reached saturation of information. Information was collected through observation and semi-directive interviews supported by an interview guide. Data was analysed through contents and discourse analysis. Results The Ministry of Health (MoH strongly supports PBF, but it is not well integrated with other ongoing reforms and processes. Field actors welcome PBF but still do not have a sense of ownership about it. The two PBF approaches differ notably as for the organs in charge of verification. Performance premiums are granted according to a limited number of quantitative indicators plus an extensive qualitative checklist. PBF matrices and verification missions come in addition to routine monitoring. Local stakeholders accommodate theoretical approaches. Globally, staff is satisfied with PBF and welcomes additional supervision and training. Health providers reckon that PBF forces them to depart from routine, to be more professional and to respect national norms. A major issue is the perceived unfairness in premium distribution. Even if health staff often refer to financial premiums, actually the latter are probably too weak—and ‘blurred’—to have a lasting inciting effect. It rather seems that PBF motivates health

  14. Costing the supply chain for delivery of ACT and RDTs in the public sector in Benin and Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shretta, Rima; Johnson, Brittany; Smith, Lisa; Doumbia, Seydou; de Savigny, Don; Anupindi, Ravi; Yadav, Prashant

    2015-02-05

    Studies have shown that supply chain costs are a significant proportion of total programme costs. Nevertheless, the costs of delivering specific products are poorly understood and ballpark estimates are often used to inadequately plan for the budgetary implications of supply chain expenses. The purpose of this research was to estimate the country level costs of the public sector supply chain for artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) from the central to the peripheral levels in Benin and Kenya. A micro-costing approach was used and primary data on the various cost components of the supply chain was collected at the central, intermediate, and facility levels between September and November 2013. Information sources included central warehouse databases, health facility records, transport schedules, and expenditure reports. Data from document reviews and semi-structured interviews were used to identify cost inputs and estimate actual costs. Sampling was purposive to isolate key variables of interest. Survey guides were developed and administered electronically. Data were extracted into Microsoft Excel, and the supply chain cost per unit of ACT and RDT distributed by function and level of system was calculated. In Benin, supply chain costs added USD 0.2011 to the initial acquisition cost of ACT and USD 0.3375 to RDTs (normalized to USD 1). In Kenya, they added USD 0.2443 to the acquisition cost of ACT and USD 0.1895 to RDTs (normalized to USD 1). Total supply chain costs accounted for more than 30% of the initial acquisition cost of the products in some cases and these costs were highly sensitive to product volumes. The major cost drivers were found to be labour, transport, and utilities with health facilities carrying the majority of the cost per unit of product. Accurate cost estimates are needed to ensure adequate resources are available for supply chain activities. Product volumes should be considered when costing supply chain

  15. Buruli ulcer disease prevalence in Benin, West Africa: associations with land use/cover and the identification of disease clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Tyler; Benbow, M Eric; Brenden, Travis O; Qi, Jiaguo; Johnson, R Christian

    2008-01-01

    Background Buruli ulcer (BU) disease, caused by infection with the environmental mycobacterium M. ulcerans, is an emerging infectious disease in many tropical and sub-tropical countries. Although vectors and modes of transmission remain unknown, it is hypothesized that the transmission of BU disease is associated with human activities in or around aquatic environments, and that characteristics of the landscape (e.g., land use/cover) play a role in mediating BU disease. Several studies performed at relatively small spatial scales (e.g., within a single village or region of a country) support these hypotheses; however, if BU disease is associated with land use/cover characteristics, either through spatial constraints on vector-host dynamics or by mediating human activities, then large-scale (i.e., country-wide) associations should also emerge. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate associations between BU disease prevalence in villages in Benin, West Africa and surrounding land use/cover patterns and other map-based characteristics, and (2) identify areas with greater and lower than expected prevalence rates (i.e., disease clusters) to assist with the development of prevention and control programs. Results Our landscape-based models identified low elevation, rural villages surrounded by forest land cover, and located in drainage basins with variable wetness patterns as being associated with higher BU disease prevalence rates. We also identified five spatial disease clusters. Three of the five clusters contained villages with greater than expected prevalence rates and two clusters contained villages with lower than expected prevalence rates. Those villages with greater than expected BU disease prevalence rates spanned a fairly narrow region of south-central Benin. Conclusion Our analyses suggest that interactions between natural land cover and human alterations to the landscape likely play a role in the dynamics of BU disease. For example, urbanization

  16. [Evaluation of the performance of the logistics management system of malaria control resources in the Littoral Department, Benin, in 2017].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouro-Koura, Abdou-Rahim; Sopoh, Emmanuel Ghislain; Sossa, Jerôme Charles; Glèlè-Ahanhanzo, Yolaine; Agueh, Victoire; Ouendo, Edgard-Marius; Ouedraogo, Laurent

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the performance of the logistics management system (LMS) of malaria control (MC) resources in the Littoral Department, Benin, in 2017. In June 2017, we conducted a cross-sectional evaluative study focusing on the structures for the storage and the disposal of MC resources as well as on staff involved in their management. The performance of the the logistics management system was evaluated on the basis of the observed compliance of the components and sub-components of the "Structure", the "Process" and the "Results" with the norms and standards defined by the Ministry of Health. A total of 36 structures were investigated and secondary target was surveyed. It followed that 52,78% of the structures for the storage and the disposal of MC resources met the requirements for resources storage while only 33.33% of MC resources management staff were trained in logistics management. The performance of the logistics management system of MC resources was inadequate (compliance 59,13 % compared to the expected score). The structure, as well as the process were non-compliant with the standards ( 60,20% and 73.22% compared to the expected score respectively), leading to negative results (41.53% compared to the expected score). The most inadequate sub-component was the logistics management information system (LMIS). This study highlights the role of LMS for better performance of MC resources management. Particular attention should be given to this component.

  17. Tree Plantation Will not Compensate Natural Woody Vegetation Cover Loss in the Atlantic Department of Southern Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyi, MS.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with land use and land cover changes for a 33 years period. We assessed these changes for eight land cover classes in the south of Benin by using an integrated multi-temporal analysis using three Landsat images (1972 Landsat MSS, 1986 Landsat TM and 2005 Landsat ETM+. Three scenarios for the future were simulated using a first-order Markovian model based on annual probability matrices. The contribution of tree plantations to compensate forest loss was assessed. The results show a strong loss of forest and savanna, mainly due to increased agricultural land. Natural woody vegetation ("forest", "wooded savanna" and "tree and shrub savanna" will seriously decrease by 2025 due to the expansion of agricultural activities and the increase of settlements. Tree plantations are expected to double by 2025, but they will not compensate for the loss of natural woody vegetation cover. Consequently, we assist to a continuing woody vegetation area decrease. Policies regarding reforestation and forest conservation must be initiated to reverse the currently projected tendencies.

  18. Environmental Geophysical Study of the Groundwater Mineralization in a Plot of the Cotonou Littoral Zone (South Benin

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    Yalo Nicaise

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Geophysical investigations comprising electrical resistivity and electromagnetic conductivities methods were deployed in a 350 m2 sector, strewn with 11 wells. Within the framework of an environmental study on a small scale in the south of Benin, the water conductivity of these wells was measured to determine in a direct way mineralization of the coastal water table in the littoral zone. This environmental study aimed to prospect by the geophysical methods the space extension of the water table mineralization obtained by direct measurements of water conductivity in the well and the depth of the fresh water/salted water interface in the coastal aquifer. Electromagnetic measurements of conductivities made it possible to chart a gradient of mineralization in the northwest direction. The logs of vertical electric soundings showed a deepening of the fresh water/salted water interface in the southern part and its rupture in the northern part. The electrical resistivities of the interface are sensitive to the degree of its mineralization. It has been observed that the geophysical methods in electrical and electromagnetic prospection are a great contribution to the environmental study of the water table mineralization in the littoral zone for a sustainable management of the water resource.

  19. Modeling the influence of local environmental factors on malaria transmission in Benin and its implications for cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Gilles; Kouwaye, Bienvenue; Pierrat, Charlotte; le Port, Agnès; Bouraïma, Aziz; Fonton, Noël; Hounkonnou, Mahouton Norbert; Massougbodji, Achille; Corbel, Vincent; Garcia, André

    2012-01-01

    Malaria remains endemic in tropical areas, especially in Africa. For the evaluation of new tools and to further our understanding of host-parasite interactions, knowing the environmental risk of transmission--even at a very local scale--is essential. The aim of this study was to assess how malaria transmission is influenced and can be predicted by local climatic and environmental factors.As the entomological part of a cohort study of 650 newborn babies in nine villages in the Tori Bossito district of Southern Benin between June 2007 and February 2010, human landing catches were performed to assess the density of malaria vectors and transmission intensity. Climatic factors as well as household characteristics were recorded throughout the study. Statistical correlations between Anopheles density and environmental and climatic factors were tested using a three-level Poisson mixed regression model. The results showed both temporal variations in vector density (related to season and rainfall), and spatial variations at the level of both village and house. These spatial variations could be largely explained by factors associated with the house's immediate surroundings, namely soil type, vegetation index and the proximity of a watercourse. Based on these results, a predictive regression model was developed using a leave-one-out method, to predict the spatiotemporal variability of malaria transmission in the nine villages.This study points up the importance of local environmental factors in malaria transmission and describes a model to predict the transmission risk of individual children, based on environmental and behavioral characteristics.

  20. Prevalence of Malaria and Anemia among Pregnant Women Attending a Traditional Birth Home in Benin City, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bankole Henry Oladeinde

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the prevalence of malaria and anemia among pregnant women attending a traditional birth center as well as the effect of herbal remedies, gravidity, age, educational background and malaria prevention methods on their prevalence.Methods: Blood specimens were collected from 119 pregnant women attending a Traditional Birth Home in Benin City, Nigeria. Malaria parasitemia was diagnosed by microscopy while anemia was defined as hemoglobin concentration <11 g/dL.Results: The prevalence of malaria infection was (OR=4.35 95% CI=1.213, 15.600; p=0.016 higher among primigravidae (92.1%. Pregnant women (38.5% with tertiary level of education had significantly lower prevalence of malaria infection (p=0.002. Malaria significantly affected the prevalence of anemia (p<0.05. Anemia was associated with consumption of herbal remedies (OR=2.973; 95% CI=1.206, 7.330; p=0.017. The prevalence of malaria parasitemia and anemia were not affected by malaria prevention methods used by the participants.Conclusion: The overall prevalence of malaria infection and anemia observed in this study were 78.9% and 46.2%, respectively. Higher prevalence of malaria infection was associated with primigravidae and lower prevalence with tertiary education of subjects. Anemia was associated with consumption of herbal remedies. There is urgent need to control the prevalence of malaria and anemia among pregnant women attending traditional birth homes.

  1. Detection of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases Among Gram Negative Bacilli Recovered from Cattle Feces In Benin City, Nigeria

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    Helen Oroboghae OGEFERE

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL among Gram negative bacteria isolated from cattle feces in Benin City, Nigeria. A total of 250 Gram negative bacteria isolates were recovered from cattle feces and were processed microbiologically using standard techniques. Emergent colonies were identified and antibacterial susceptibility tests were determined using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. All bacterial isolates were screened for the presence of ESBL using the double-disc synergy method. A total of 37 (14.8% isolates were positive for ESBL, with 33 (13.2% indicated by ceftazidime, while only 4 (1.6% were indicated by both ceftazidime and cefotaxime (P < 0.0001. Of the Gram negative bacterial isolates recovered, Salmonella species was the most prevalent ESBL-producer with 55.0% prevalence (P = 0.0092, while no isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa produced ESBL. ESBL-positive isolates showed poor susceptibility to the tested antibacterial agents in comparison with non-ESBL-producers and imipenem was the most active antibiotic. The prevalence of ESBL among Gram negative bacilli recovered from cattle feces was 14.8%. The study advises prudent use of antibiotics in the treatment of cattle and harps on improved hygiene in managing cattle, as they are potential reservoirs of ESBL-producing organisms.

  2. Professional changes induced by a redesigned immunization supply chain in the Comé Health Zone, Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillermet, Elise; Alfa, Daleb Abdoulaye; Gbodja, Romule; Jaillard, Philippe

    2017-04-19

    At the end of 2013, the Government of Benin and Agence de Médecine Préventive (AMP) launched a demonstration project in Comé Health Zone (HZ) to optimize the vaccine supply chain. A key part of the demonstration project was the creation of an "informed push model" of vaccine distribution supported by a new logistician position at the health zone (district) level. At the conclusion of the demonstration project in 2015, the authors conducted an anthropological study consisting of semi-structured interviews with 62 participants to assess how the new model changed the professional identities, roles, responsibilities, and practices of personnel involved in vaccine management during and just after the demonstration project end in Comé HZ. The study found that health workers considered the logistician as a key player in enabling them to perform their public health mission, notably by improving knowledge and practices in vaccine management, providing supportive supervision, and improving the availability of vaccines and other supplies so that immunization sessions could occur more reliably and professionally within the communities they served. The demonstration project was widely accepted among study participants. The study was approved by the Cotonou Ethics Committee (CER-ISBA No. 56 dated 09/04/2015). Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Indoor NO/sub 2/ sampling in a large university campus in Benin city, southern Nigeria, using flames diffusion tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukpebor, E.E.; Sadiku, Y.T.; Ahonkhai, S.I.

    2005-01-01

    Monitoring of NO/sub 2/ in different indoor environments (without cooking and with cooking using different fuels) was done. Flames diffusion tubes were used for the monitoring. The sampling duration was two weeks. The highest NO/sub 2/ concentration of 38.61 ppb (73.74 mug/m3) was monitored in the room where the cooking was done with a gas burner. This was followed by the room with firewood cooking, where the concentration was 36.75 ppb (70.19 mug/m3) and the least concentration of 24.05 ppb (46.80 mug/m3) was noted in the room, where kerosene stove was used for cooking. It is of significance to observe that the WHO annual average guideline value of 40 mug/m3 was exceeded in al the rooms where cooking was done. Levels obtained in this study, therefore, suggest a need for precautionary mitigation. However, the outdoor concentration of NO/sub 2/ was almost the same as that obtained indoors in the rooms without cooking. This suggests high penetration indoors of outdoor NO/sub 2/. A background level of 3.40 ppb (6.49 mug/m3) was established for the environment in Ugbowo, Benin City, Nigeria. (author)

  4. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositivity and hepatitis B surface antigenemia (HBSAG) among blood donors in Benin city, Edo state, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umolu, Patience Idia; Okoror, Lawrence Ehis; Orhue, Philip

    2005-03-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis B virus are blood borne pathogens that can be transmitted through blood transfusion and could pose a huge problem in areas where mechanisms of ensuring blood safety are suspect. This study became necessary in a population where most of the blood for transfusion is from commercial blood donors. A total of 130 donors comprising 120 commercial donors and 10 voluntary donors were tested for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B surface antigen in Benin city using Immunocomb HIV - 1 and 2 Biospot kit and Quimica Clinica Aplicada direct latex agglutination method respectively. Thirteen (10%) samples were HIV seropositive and 7(5.8%) were HBsAg positive. The age bracket 18 - 25years had the highest numbers of donors and also had the highest number of HBsAg positive cases (7.8%) while the age group 29 - 38years had highest number of HIV seropositive cases. High prevalence of HIV antibodies and Hepatitis B surface antigen was found among commercial blood donors. Appropriate and compulsory screening of blood donors using sensitive methods, must be ensured to prevent post transfusion hepatitis and HIV.

  5. Management of information within emergencies departments in developing countries: analysis at the National Emergency Department in Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahanhanzo, Yolaine Glèlè; Kpozehouen, Alphonse; Sopoh, Ghislain; Sossa-Jérôme, Charles; Ouedraogo, Laurent; Wilmet-Dramaix, Michèle

    2016-01-01

    The management of health information is a key pillar in both emergencies reception and handling facilities, given the strategic position and the potential of these facilities within hospitals, and in the monitoring of public health and epidemiology. With the technological revolution, computerization made the information systems evolve in emergency departments, especially in developed countries, with improved performance in terms of care quality, productivity and patient satisfaction. This study analyses the situation of Benin in this field, through the case of the Academic Clinic of Emergency Department of the National University Teaching Hospital of Cotonou, the national reference hospital. The study is cross-sectional and evaluative. Collection techniques are literature review and structured interviews. The components rated are resources, indicators, data sources, data management and the use-dissemination of the information through a model adapted from Health Metrics Network framework. We used quantitative and qualitative analysis. The absence of a regulatory framework restricts the operation of the system in all components and accounts for the lack and inadequacy of the dedicated resources. Dedication of more resources for this system for crucial needs such as computerization requires sensitization and greater awareness of the administrative authorities about the fact that an effective health information management system is of prime importance in this type of facility.

  6. Clergy as collaborators in the delivery of mental health care: an exploratory survey from Benin City, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Bawo O; Igbinomwanhia, Nosa G; Omoaregba, Joyce O

    2014-08-01

    The paucity of skilled manpower in sub-Saharan Africa limits the delivery of effective interventions for the mentally ill. Individuals with mental disorders and their caregivers frequently consult clergy when mental symptoms cause distress. There is an urgent need for collaboration with nonprofessionals in order to improve mental health care delivery and close the widening treatment gap. Using a cross-sectional descriptive method, we explored clergy's (Christian and Muslim) aetiological attributions for common mental illness (schizophrenia and depression) from Benin City, Nigeria, as well as their willingness to collaborate with mainstream mental health services. We observed that a majority of clergy surveyed were able to correctly identify mental illnesses depicted in vignettes, embraced a multifactorial model of disease causation, and expressed willingness to collaborate with mental health care workers to deliver care. Clergy with a longer duration of formal education, prior mental health training, and Catholic/Protestant denomination expressed a greater willingness to collaborate. Educational interventions are urgently required to facilitate this partnership. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  7. Cotton Dust Exposure and Respiratory Disorders among Textile Workers at a Textile Company in the Southern Part of Benin

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    Antoine Vikkey Hinson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The textile industry sector occupies a prominent place in the economy of Benin. It exposes workers to several occupational risks, including exposure to cotton dust. To assess the effect of exposure to cotton dust on the health of workers, this study was initiated and conducted in a Beninese cotton industry company. The objective of the study was to evaluate the respiratory disorders among the textile workers exposed to cotton dust and the cross-sectional study involved 656 subjects exposed to cotton dust and 113 non-exposed subjects. The methods used are mainly based on a survey using a questionnaire of organic dust designed by the International Commission of Occupational Health (ICOH; and on the measures of lung function parameters (FEV1 and FVC. The main results of the different analyzes revealed that subjects exposed to cotton dust have more respiratory symptoms than unexposed subjects (36.9% vs. 21.2%. The prevalence of chronic cough, expectorations, dyspnoea, asthma and chronic bronchitis are 16.8%, 9.8%, 17.3%, 2.6%, and 5.9% respectively among the exposed versus 2.6%, 0.8%, 16.8%, 0% and 0.8% among the unexposed subjects. The prevalence of byssinosis is 44.01%.The prevalence of symptoms is dependent on the sector of activity and the age of the subject. These results should encourage medical interventions and technical prevention especially since the textile industry occupies an important place in the Benin’s economy.

  8. Pastoralists in a changing environment: The competition for grazing land in and around the W Biosphere Reserve, Benin Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamou, Charles; Ripoll-Bosch, Raimon; de Boer, Imke J M; Oosting, Simon J

    2018-04-01

    Pastoralists face increasing competition for land with crop farmers and nature in and around the W Biosphere Reserve (WBR) in Benin. Our aim was to describe and analyse land use changes in order to understand their drivers, and to describe and analyse the viewpoints of relevant stakeholders in order to understand the competition for land. To this end, remote sensing data, regional statistics, and survey data were collected. We found that crop land expansion around the WBR was the direct driver of decrease of the grazing land area. Population growth and rising demand for food crops, and government support to the cotton sector were indirect drivers of grazing land reduction. Furthermore, competing claims on land among users arose from the complex interaction of crop expansion, presence of WBR and the way it is governed, the lack of support to pastoralists, and the increasing shift of pastoralists' lifestyle into one of settled crop farmers. Pastoralism is under threat and its survival depends on the successful implementation of policies to support pastoralists and protect grazing lands.

  9. Effects of an African weaver ant, Oecophylla longinoda, in controlling mango fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Mele, Paul; Vayssières, Jean-François; Van Tellingen, Esther; Vrolijks, Jan

    2007-06-01

    Six mango, Mangifera indica L., plantations around Parakou, northern Benin, were sampled at 2-wk intervals for fruit fly damage from early April to late May in 2005. Mean damage ranged from 1 to 24% with a weaver ant, Oecophylla longinoda (Latreille), being either abundant or absent. The fruit fly complex is made up of Ceratitis spp. and Bactrocera invadens Drew et al., a new invasive species in West Africa. In 2006, Ceratitis spp. peaked twice in the late dry season in early April and early May, whereas B. invadens populations quickly increased at the onset of the rains, from mid-May onward. Exclusion experiments conducted in 2006 with 'Eldon', 'Kent', and 'Gouverneur' confirmed that at high ant abundance levels, Oecophylla significantly reduced fruit fly infestation. Although fruit fly control methods are still at an experimental stage in this part of the world, farmers who tolerated weaver ants in their orchard were rewarded by significantly better fruit quality. Conservation biological control with predatory ants such as Oecophylla in high-value tree crops has great potential for African and Asian farmers. Implications for international research for development at the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research level are discussed.

  10. Study on Strategic Planning of Road and Bridge Infrastructure Development in City Planning: Taking Porto-novo City of Benin Republic as Example

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    Boko-haya Dossa Didier

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Concern about the townlet infrastructure construction in developing country is one of the crucial part of county town planning and development. By taking the overall planning and design in a case study of Porto-novo city at Republic of Benin, this paper analyzes the characteristics and opportunities of Porto-novo city and puts forward corresponding infrastructure construction strategy. In the end, the paper comes up with specific plan of planning and design under the background of Porto-novo's planning of development strategy.

  11. Assessing the economic burden of illness for tuberculosis patients in Benin: determinants and consequences of catastrophic health expenditures and inequities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laokri, Samia; Dramaix-Wilmet, Michèle; Kassa, Ferdinand; Anagonou, Séverin; Dujardin, Bruno

    2014-10-01

    To inform policy-making, we measured the risk, causes and consequences of catastrophic expenditures for tuberculosis and investigated potential inequities. Between August 2008 and February 2009, a cross-sectional study was conducted among all (245) smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients of six health districts from southern Benin. A standardised survey questionnaire covered the period of time elapsing from onset of tuberculosis symptoms to completion of treatment. Total direct cost exceeding the conventional 10% threshold of annual income was defined as catastrophic and used as principal outcome in a multivariable logistic regression. A sensitivity analysis was performed while varying the thresholds. A pure gradient of direct costs of tuberculosis in relation to income was observed. Incidence (78.1%) and intensity (14.8%) of catastrophic expenditure were high; varying thresholds was insensitive to the intensity. Incurring catastrophic expenditure was independently associated with lower- and middle-income quintiles (adjusted odd ratio (aOR) = 36.2, 95% CI [12.3-106.3] and aOR = 6.4 [2.8-14.6]), adverse pre-diagnosis stage (aOR = 5.4 [2.2-13.3]) and less education (aOR = 4.1[1.9-8.7]). Households incurred important days lost due to TB, indebtedness (37.1%), dissaving (51.0%) and other coping strategies (52.7%). Catastrophic direct costs and substantial indirect and coping costs may persist under the 'free' tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment strategy, as well as inequities in financial hardship. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Impact Of Thermotherapy And Chlorothalonil On Plantlets Production Of Some Genotypes Of Cassava Manihot Esculenta Crantz Produce In Benin

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    J.A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava Manihot esculenta is a starchy root plant of great economic importance in sub-Saharan Africa and particularly in Benin. Its production is confronted to virus diseases which cause a considerable losses of yield. This work aims to determine the impact of thermotherapy and chlorothalonil in the production of cassava material of plantation. Cuttings of four varieties RB89509 BEN86052 9102319 92B0057 are cultivated under two conditions of thermotherapy and a control under greenhouse during 4 weeks. These different conditions are a closed drying oven with 16 hours photoperiod at 40 C the day and 36C the night a drying oven Binder with photoperiod of 12 hours at 38C the day and 28C the night and the control carried out under the conditions of the greenhouse. The media used was Murashige and Skoog MS added with various amounts of chlorothalonil 0.6 gl and 2gl and control without chlorothalonil. Both techniques of thermotherapy eliminate the virus symptoms of cassava at the rate of 0 seedling infected in thermotherapy against 16 seedlings in natural condition. The technique of closed drying oven significantly favors the production of nodes at 5 level p0.000 and shoots p0.02 on the other hand Binder drying oven has no significant effect on the production of shoots p0.68. The chlorothalonil had a positive effect on in vitro infestations elimination of cassava p0.05 but influenced the growth and development of cassava explants by reducing of nodes production p0.01 without a lethal effect on the plantlets until the dose of 2gl.

  13. Modeling the influence of local environmental factors on malaria transmission in Benin and its implications for cohort study.

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    Gilles Cottrell

    Full Text Available Malaria remains endemic in tropical areas, especially in Africa. For the evaluation of new tools and to further our understanding of host-parasite interactions, knowing the environmental risk of transmission--even at a very local scale--is essential. The aim of this study was to assess how malaria transmission is influenced and can be predicted by local climatic and environmental factors.As the entomological part of a cohort study of 650 newborn babies in nine villages in the Tori Bossito district of Southern Benin between June 2007 and February 2010, human landing catches were performed to assess the density of malaria vectors and transmission intensity. Climatic factors as well as household characteristics were recorded throughout the study. Statistical correlations between Anopheles density and environmental and climatic factors were tested using a three-level Poisson mixed regression model. The results showed both temporal variations in vector density (related to season and rainfall, and spatial variations at the level of both village and house. These spatial variations could be largely explained by factors associated with the house's immediate surroundings, namely soil type, vegetation index and the proximity of a watercourse. Based on these results, a predictive regression model was developed using a leave-one-out method, to predict the spatiotemporal variability of malaria transmission in the nine villages.This study points up the importance of local environmental factors in malaria transmission and describes a model to predict the transmission risk of individual children, based on environmental and behavioral characteristics.

  14. Intestinal helminthiasis in children with chronic neurological disorders in Benin City, Nigeria: intensity and behavioral risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwaneri, Damia Uchechukwu; Ibadin, Michael Okoeguale; Ofovwe, Gabriel Egberue; Sadoh, Ayebo Evawere

    2013-05-01

    Behavioral aberrations such as nail biting, finger sucking, and pica have been postulated as risk factors that enhance helminths ova transmission. These aberrations may present commonly in children with chronic neurological disorders and predispose them to heavy intensity of intestinal helminthiasis. This comparative cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence, intensity, and behavioral risk factors for intestinal helminthiasis in children with chronic neurological disorders and apparently healthy controls. Fresh stool samples from 155 children (2-17 years) with chronic neurological disorders seen at the child neurology clinic and 155 age and sex matched controls from nursery and primary schools in Benin City were analyzed using the Kato-Katz technique for detection of ova of helminths from November 2008 to April 2009. The prevalence of intestinal helminthiasis (31.0%) was significantly higher in children with chronic neurological disorders compared with the controls (19.4%) (P=0.03). The intensity of infections in both groups was light ranging 24-144 eggs per gram. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm were the intestinal helminths isolated in both groups. Behavioral aberrations were significantly more represented in the subjects than in the controls (Phelminthiasis (P=0.025 and 0.001, respectively) in the subjects only. Hand washing with water and soap after defecation and frequent de-worming exercise were practices significantly associated with decreased prevalence of intestinal helminthiasis in the subjects and controls. Behavioral modification in children with chronic neurological disorders should be an integral part of the control program for intestinal helminthiasis.

  15. Variation of heavy metal concentrations in water and freshwater fish in Niger Delta Waters - a case study of Benin river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, M.O.; Okolo, P.O.

    2003-01-01

    Levels of Cd, Cr, Fe, Pb and Zn were determined in water and fish samples from three different locations in the Benin river. The sampling points were chosen such that Gbokoda, a village between Koko and Ogheye where a flow station (Olague flow station or crude oil well) is situated serves as a pollution point source and Koko as a baseline concentration point. Three species of fish each, that are top feeder, Tilapia mariae (which is herbivorous and feeds mainly on floating phytoplankton), middle feeder, Pseudotolithus elongates (that is ominivorous) and bottom feeder, Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (also ominivorous) were used for the study. The mean wet weight of the species sampled at the different locations ranged between 385.17 - 417.44g. The maximum concentration levels observed in water samples for Cd, Cr, Fe, Pb and Zn were 3.50 x 10/sup -4/g.1, 1.24 x 10/sup -3/g/l, 3.10 x 10/sup -3/g/l and 1.50 x 10/sup -3/g/l, respectively. The mean concentration levels determined for the various species of fish are: for Cd, Tilapia mariae 7.30 x 10/sup -5/, Pseudotolithus elongates 8.67 x 10/sup -4/ nigrodigitatus 1.581 x 10/sup -4, for Fe, Tilapia mariae 5.500 x 10/sup -3/, Pseudotolithus elongates 4.700 x 10/sup -3/ and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus 3.9133 x 10/sup -3/ for Zn, Tilapia mariae 4.4240 x 10/sup -3/, Pseudotolithus elongates 3.4100 x 10/sup -3/ and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus 9.6730 x 10/sup -3/ for Zn, Tilapia mariae 5.467 x 10/sup -3/, Pseudotolithus elongates 5.067 x 10/sup -3/ and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus 8.833 x 10/sup -3/. (all values are g/g of fish).(author)

  16. Firewood yield and profitability of a traditional Daniellia oliveri short-rotation coppice on fallow lands in Benin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avohou, T. Hermane; Houehounha, Remy; Glele-Kakai, Romain; Assogbadjo, Achille Ephrem; Sinsin, Brice

    2011-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa has a great diversity of local coppicing species which are exploited in traditional short coppice systems for firewood. Biomass yield and profitability of these systems as well as their responses to silvicultural improvement are little known. This study evaluated the firewood yield and the profitability of a traditional Daniellia oliveri short-rotation coppice on fallow lands in central Benin. Two weed management options were considered: (1) the weedy option, usually practiced by locals, which experienced grass competition and bushfires, and (2) the weed-free option, which consisted in periodic removal of grasses and other species. Destructive measurements and allometric equations were used to estimate biomass yield in 12 plots over 42 months. A cost-benefit analysis model based on the net present value and the benefit-cost ratio was used to compare the profitability of the two management options. Biomass accumulation rate averaged 1.08 ± 0.20 tonnes of dry matter ha -1 year -1 (t DM ha -1 year -1 ) in weedy conditions. Weed removal improved 3.5 times this rate in weed-free plots (3.83 ± 0.47 t DM ha -1 year -1 ). After 42 months, total biomass reached 3.67 ± 0.65 t DM ha -1 in weedy plots and 11.63 ± 0.76 t DM ha -1 in weed-free plots. Most of the biomass (≥88%) was marketable in local markets. Coppice exploitation was profitable after 24 months for both management options. Weed removal improved the profits three times. A sensitivity analysis showed that both options were still profitable with up to 25% increase of labour and transport costs, 25% decrease of biomass price and 12% increase of the discount rate. (author)

  17. Distribution of ABO and Rh-D blood groups in the Benin area of Niger-Delta: Implication for regional blood transfusion

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    Enosolease Mathew

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available ABO and Rhesus (Rh blood group antigens are hereditary characters and are useful in population genetic studies, in resolving medico-legal issues and more importantly in compatibility test in blood transfusion practice. Data on frequency distribution of ABO and Rh-D in Niger-Delta region of Nigeria are not available; hence we made an attempt to retrospectively analyze the records on the blood donors, transfusion recipients and patients attending antenatal care or some other medical interventions. Over a twenty-year period between 1986 and 2005, a total of 160,431 blood samples were grouped for ABO and Rh-D at the blood bank of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. Blood group distribution among these samples showed phenotypes A, B, AB and O as 23.72%, 20.09%, 2.97% and 53.22%, respectively. The Rh-D negative phenotype was found among 6.01% of the samples tested.

  18. Managing the agricultural calendar as coping mechanism to climate variability: A case study of maize farming in northern Benin, West Africa

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    Rosaine N. Yegbemey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays climate variability and change are amongst the most important threats to sustainable development, with potentially severe consequences on agriculture in developing countries. Among many available coping mechanisms, farmers adjust some of their farming practices. This article aims at exploring observed changes in the agricultural calendar as a response to climate variability in northern Benin. Interviews with local experts (agricultural extension officers and local leaders such as heads of farmer and village organisations and group discussions with farmers were organised. A household survey was also conducted on 336 maize producers to highlight the factors affecting decisions to adjust the agricultural calendar as a coping mechanism against climate variability. As a general trend, the duration of the cropping season in northern Benin is getting longer with slight differences among and within agro-ecological zones, implying a higher risk of operating under time-inefficient conditions. Farmers receive very limited support from agricultural extension services and therefore design their agricultural calendar on the basis of personal experience. Socio-economic characteristics, maize farming characteristics as well as farm location determine the decision to adjust the agricultural calendar. Consequently, providing farmers with climate related information could ensure a rational and time-efficient management of the agricultural calendar. Moreover, research and extension institutions should help in establishing and popularising clear agricultural calendars while taking into account the driving forces of behaviours towards the adjustment of farming practices as a climate variability response.

  19. Implementation of a decentralized community-based treatment program to improve the management of Buruli ulcer in the Ouinhi district of Benin, West Africa.

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    Arnaud Setondji Amoussouhoui

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium ulcerans infection, commonly known as Buruli ulcer (BU, is a debilitating neglected tropical disease. Its management remains complex and has three main components: antibiotic treatment combining rifampicin and streptomycin for 56 days, wound dressings and skin grafts for large ulcerations, and physical therapy to prevent functional limitations after care. In Benin, BU patient care is being integrated into the government health system. In this paper, we report on an innovative pilot program designed to introduce BU decentralization in Ouinhi district, one of Benin's most endemic districts previously served by centralized hospital-based care.We conducted intervention-oriented research implemented in four steps: baseline study, training of health district clinical staff, outreach education, outcome and impact assessments. Study results demonstrated that early BU lesions (71% of all detected cases could be treated in the community following outreach education, and that most of the afflicted were willing to accept decentralized treatment. Ninety-three percent were successfully treated with antibiotics alone. The impact evaluation found that community confidence in decentralized BU care was greatly enhanced by clinic staff who came to be seen as having expertise in the care of most chronic wounds.This study documents a successful BU outreach and decentralized care program reaching early BU cases not previously treated by a proactive centralized BU program. The pilot program further demonstrates the added value of integrated wound management for NTD control.

  20. Asymptomatic urinary tract infection among pregnant women receiving ante-natal care in a traditional birth home in Benin City, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladeinde, Bankole H; Omoregie, Richard; Oladeinde, Oladapo B

    2015-01-01

    A good proportion of pregnant women patronize traditional birth homes in Nigeria for ante-natal care. This study aimed at determining the prevalence, risk factors, and susceptibility profile of etiologic agents of urinary tract infection among ante-natal attendees in a traditional birth home in Benin City, Nigeria. Clean-catch urine was collected from 220 pregnant women attending a traditional birth home in Benin City, Nigeria. Urine samples were processed, and microbial isolates identified using standard bacteriological procedures. A cross-sectional study design was used. The prevalence of urinary tract infection among pregnant women was 55.0%, significantly affected by parity and gestational age (Pinfection was recorded among 13(10.7%) pregnant women, and was unaffected by maternal age, parity, gravidity, gestational age, and educational status. Irrespective of trimester Escherichia coli was the most prevalent etiologic agent of urinary tract infection, followed by Staphylococcus aureus. The flouroquinolones were the most effective antibacterial agents, while Sulphamethoxazole-trimetoprim, Amoxicillin, Nalidixic acid, and Nitrofurantoin had poor activity against uropathogens isolated. The prevalence of urinary tract infection among pregnant women was 55.0% and significantly affected by gestational age and parity. The most prevalent etiologic agent observed was Escherichia coli. With the exception of the flouroquinolones, aminoglycoside, and Amoxicillin-cluvanate, the activity of other antibiotics used on uropathogens were poor. Health education of the traditional birth attendant and her clients by relevant intervention agencies is strongly advocated.

  1. Morphological Variation and Ecological Structure of Iroko (Milicia excelsa Welw. C.C. Berg) Populations across Different Bio geographical Zones in Benin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouinsavi, C.; Sokpon, N.

    2010-01-01

    Iroko (Milicia excelsa) is a commercially important timber tree species formerly known by local people in Benin. Because of the highly attractive technological properties of its wood and its multipurpose uses, the species was subjected to intensive human pressure. Apart from strong climate oscillation during the Pleistocene, human caused habitat fragmentation through continuous land clearing for agriculture, extensive forests exploitation and urbanization induced the occurrence of many isolated forest plots and trees species among which Milicia excelsa trees. As fragmentation was proved to have deleterious effects on genetic diversity within a species and its morphological structure, it was of interest to investigate the current demographic, morphological and genetic structure of M. excelsa before coming up with conservation strategies. In the current study, morphological variation and ecological structure of M. excelsa populations were assessed in Benin using transect sampling method and multivariate analyses including principal component, cluster and canonical discriminant analyses. On the basis of morphological parameters, M. excelsa individuals and populations were clustered into four and discrimination of groups indicated that most of variations were highly related to edaphic factors and annual rainfall. Erratic diameter distribution was found for many populations although most of them showed bell shaped diameter distribution.

  2. Groundwater contamination in relation with the increasing urbanization rate in Africa. Case of Cotonou and Porto Novo (Benin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeloui, Diane; Celle-Jeanton, Hélène; Huneau, Frédéric; Boukari, Moussa; Alassane, Abdelkarim; Garel, Emilie; Lavastre, Véronique; Bertrand, Guillaume

    2016-04-01

    More than one billion people in the world still have no access to sufficient resources in drinking water (United Nation, 2014). In particular, large cities in Africa have to face several problems: 1) population growth associated with the strongest urbanization rate increase (5% per year) of the world leading to a dramatic increase in good-quality water needs, 2) low levels of solid waste management and sanitation services, 3) insufficient or disconnected water supply services, 4) low knowledge of water resources availabilities. The situation in Benin is a relevant illustration of the problems that Africa has to face to. As many other coastal urban areas in Africa (Showers, 2002; Re et al., 2011), Cotonou and Porto Novo cities have seen a rapid increase of their population as these towns constitute a corridor of transit for the imports and the exports in the nearby countries. Hence, they are very attractive for job hunters, and constitute the administrative centers for the whole country. This rapid population growth amplifies the problem of water supply and may generate serious impacts on groundwater resources: depletion due to overexploitation, salinization due to seawater intrusion and pollution linked to human activities. In order to insure a safe water supply in the context of increasing urbanization and population in the coastal area of Cotonou and Porto Novo, the identification of the main sources of pollution is essential for the implementation of long-term water management procedures. Based on two field campaigns carried out in January-2012 (dry season) and August-2012 (rainy season), hydrochemical analysis have been realized on groundwater sampled from boreholes drilled in the CTA (Continental Terminal Aquifer) and wells dug in the QCA (Quaternary Coastal Aquifer) in order to investigate the origin of salinization and the present time extension of the nitrate contamination. Historical data have also been collected from previous studies in order to

  3. From novice to expert: agroecological competences of children orphaned by AIDS compared to non-orphans in Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Price Lisa L

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background AIDS has created new vulnerabilities for rural African households due to prime-age adult mortality and is assumed to lead to impairment of the intergenerational transfer of farming knowledge. There has been scant research to date, however, on the impacts of parental death on farming knowledge of children made orphans by AIDS. The question we investigate is if there is a difference in agricultural expertise between AIDS affected and non-affected adults and children. Methods The research was carried out in rural Benin with 77 informants randomly selected according to their AIDS status: 13 affected and 13 non-affected adults; 13 paternal, 13 maternal and 13 double orphans; and 12 non-orphan children. Informants descriptions from pile sorting exercises of maize and cowpea pests were categorized and then aggregated into descriptions based form (morphology and function (utility and used to determine whether the moving from novice to expert is impaired by children orphaned by AIDS. Differences and similarities in responses were determined using the Fischer exact test and the Cochran-Mantzel-Haenszel test. Results No significant differences were found between AIDS affected and non-affected adults. Results of the study do reveal differences in the use of form and function descriptors among the children. There is a statistically significant difference in the use of form descriptors between one-parent orphans and non-orphans and in descriptors of specific damages to maize. One-parent paternal orphans were exactly like non-affected adults in their 50/50 balanced expertise in the use of both form and function descriptors. One-parent orphans also had the highest number of descriptors used by children overall and these descriptors are spread across the various aspects of the knowledge domain relative to non-orphans. Conclusions Rather than a knowledge loss for one-parent orphans, particularly paternal orphans, we believe we are witnessing

  4. Effect of essential oil from fresh leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. on mycoflora during storage of peanuts in Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjou, Euloge S; Kouton, Sandrine; Dahouenon-Ahoussi, Edwige; Soumanou, Mohamed M; Sohounhloue, Dominique C K

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of essential oil from fresh leaves of Sweet Fennel (Ocimum gratissimum) on mycoflora and Aspergillus section Flavi populations in stored peanuts. Aspergillus, Fusarium and Mucor spp. were the most common genera identified from peanuts at post-harvest in Benin by using a taxonomic schemes primarily based on morphological characters of mycelium and conidia. The isolated fungi include Aspergillus niger, A. parasiticus, A. flavus, A. ochraceus, Fusarium graminearum, F. solani, F. oxysporum and Mucor spp. The most prevalent fungi recorded were A. niger (94.18 %), A. flavus (83.72 %), A. parasiticus (77.90 %), A. ochraceus (72.09 %), F. graminearum (59.30 %) and F. oxysporum (51.16 %). Antifungal assay, performed by the agar medium assay, indicated that essential oil exhibited high antifungal activity against the growth of A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. ochraceus and F. oxysporium. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the essential oil was found to be 7.5 μl/ml for A. flavus and A. parasiticus and 5.5 μl/ml for A. ochraceus and F. oxysporium. The minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) was recorded to be 8.0 μl/ml for A. flavus and A. parasiticus, 6,5 μl/ml for A. ochraceus and 6.0 μl/ml for F. oxysporium. The essential oil was found to be strongly fungicidal and inhibitory to aflatoxin production. Chemical analysis by GC/MS of the components of the oil led to the identification of 31 components characterized by myrcene (6.4 %), α-thujene (8.2 %), p-cymene (17.6 %), γ-terpinene (20.0 %), and thymol (26.9 %) as major components. The essential oil of Sweet Fennel, with fungal growth and mycotoxin inhibitory properties, offers a novel approach to the management of storage, thus opening up the possibility to prevent mold contamination in stored peanuts.

  5. The Paternal Landscape along the Bight of Benin - Testing Regional Representativeness of West-African Population Samples Using Y-Chromosomal Markers.

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    Maarten H D Larmuseau

    Full Text Available Patterns of genetic variation in human populations across the African continent are still not well studied in comparison with Eurasia and America, despite the high genetic and cultural diversity among African populations. In population and forensic genetic studies a single sample is often used to represent a complete African region. In such a scenario, inappropriate sampling strategies and/or the use of local, isolated populations may bias interpretations and pose questions of representativeness at a macrogeographic-scale. The non-recombining region of the Y-chromosome (NRY has great potential to reveal the regional representation of a sample due to its powerful phylogeographic information content. An area poorly characterized for Y-chromosomal data is the West-African region along the Bight of Benin, despite its important history in the trans-Atlantic slave trade and its large number of ethnic groups, languages and lifestyles. In this study, Y-chromosomal haplotypes from four Beninese populations were determined and a global meta-analysis with available Y-SNP and Y-STR data from populations along the Bight of Benin and surrounding areas was performed. A thorough methodology was developed allowing comparison of population samples using Y-chromosomal lineage data based on different Y-SNP panels and phylogenies. Geographic proximity turned out to be the best predictor of genetic affinity between populations along the Bight of Benin. Nevertheless, based on Y-chromosomal data from the literature two population samples differed strongly from others from the same or neighbouring areas and are not regionally representative within large-scale studies. Furthermore, the analysis of the HapMap sample YRI of a Yoruban population from South-western Nigeria based on Y-SNPs and Y-STR data showed for the first time its regional representativeness, a result which is important for standard population and forensic genetic applications using the YRI sample

  6. A Field Study in Benin to Investigate the Role of Mosquitoes and Other Flying Insects in the Ecology of Mycobacterium ulcerans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zogo, Barnabas; Djenontin, Armel; Carolan, Kevin; Babonneau, Jeremy; Guegan, Jean-François; Eyangoh, Sara; Marion, Estelle

    2015-01-01

    Buruli ulcer, the third mycobacterial disease after tuberculosis and leprosy, is caused by the environmental mycobacterium M. ulcerans. There is at present no clear understanding of the exact mode(s) of transmission of M. ulcerans. Populations affected by Buruli ulcer are those living close to humid and swampy zones. The disease is associated with the creation or the extension of swampy areas, such as construction of dams or lakes for the development of agriculture. Currently, it is supposed that insects (water bugs and mosquitoes) are host and vector of M. ulcerans. The role of water bugs was clearly demonstrated by several experimental and environmental studies. However, no definitive conclusion can yet be drawn concerning the precise importance of this route of transmission. Concerning the mosquitoes, DNA was detected only in mosquitoes collected in Australia, and their role as host/vector was never studied by experimental approaches. Surprisingly, no specific study was conducted in Africa. In this context, the objective of this study was to investigate the role of mosquitoes (larvae and adults) and other flying insects in ecology of M. ulcerans. This study was conducted in a highly endemic area of Benin. Mosquitoes (adults and larvae) were collected over one year, in Buruli ulcer endemic in Benin. In parallel, to monitor the presence of M. ulcerans in environment, aquatic insects were sampled. QPCR was used to detected M. ulcerans DNA. DNA of M. ulcerans was detected in around 8.7% of aquatic insects but never in mosquitoes (larvae or adults) or in other flying insects. This study suggested that the mosquitoes don't play a pivotal role in the ecology and transmission of M. ulcerans in the studied endemic areas. However, the role of mosquitoes cannot be excluded and, we can reasonably suppose that several routes of transmission of M. ulcerans are possible through the world.

  7. Good performances but short lasting efficacy of Actellic 50 EC Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) on malaria transmission in Benin, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aïkpon, Rock; Sèzonlin, Michel; Tokponon, Filémon; Okè, Mariam; Oussou, Olivier; Oké-Agbo, Frédéric; Beach, Raymond; Akogbéto, Martin

    2014-05-30

    The National Malaria Control Program (NMCP) has been using pirimiphos methyl for the first time for indoor residual spraying (IRS) in Benin. The first round was a success with a significant decrease of entomological indicators of malaria transmission in the treated districts. We present the results of the entomological impact on malaria transmission. Entomologic parameters in the control area were compared with those in intervention sites. Mosquito collections were carried out in three districts in the Atacora-Dongo region of which two were treated with pirimiphos methyl (Actellic 50EC) (Tanguiéta and Kouandé) and the untreated (Copargo) served as control. Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations were sampled monthly by human landing catch. In addition, window exit traps and pyrethrum spray catches were performed to assess exophagic behavior of Anopheles vectors. In the three districts, mosquito collections were organized to follow the impact of pirimiphos methyl IRS on malaria transmission and possible changes in the behavior of mosquitoes. The residual activity of pirimiphos methyl in the treated walls was also assessed using WHO bioassay test. A significant reduction (94.25%) in human biting rate was recorded in treated districts where an inhabitant received less than 1 bite of An. gambiae per night. During this same time, the entomological inoculation rate (EIR) dramatically declined in the treated area (99.24% reduction). We also noted a significant reduction in longevity of the vectors and an increase in exophily induced by pirimiphos methyl on An. gambiae. However, no significant impact was found on the blood feeding rate. Otherwise, the low residual activity of Actellic 50 EC, which is three months, is a disadvantage. Pirimiphos methyl was found to be effective for IRS in Benin. However, because of the low persistence of Actellic 50EC used in this study on the treated walls, the recourse to another more residual formulation of pirimiphos methyl is required.

  8. Falls from heights: epidemiology and pattern of injury at the accident and emergency centre of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osifo, Osarumwense David; Iribhogbe, Pius; Idiodi-Thomas, Hestia

    2010-05-01

    Knowledge of the epidemiology and the pattern of injury sustained following falls from heights may be crucial in formulating policy aimed at prevention and improved outcome of victims. This study aims to determine the epidemiology and the spectrum of injury sustained following falls from heights at a referral trauma centre in a developing country. This study is a retrospective analysis of cases of falls from heights between June 2007 and May 2008 at the Accident and Emergency Center of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital. Eighty-four patients aged between 1 and 60 years (median: 24 years) comprising 54 males and 30 females with a male/female ratio of 1.8:1 were managed. All the falls were accidental and occurred mainly among males aged between 18 and 30 years, with a peak incidence between March and May, which coincided with rainy and harvest seasons (Pconstruction sites, eight (9.5%), staircase, six (7.1%); and treetops, six (7.1%) were common. Children fell mainly indoors from relatively lower heights. Eighty (95.2%) patients sustained injury that ranged from minor abrasions (12; 14.3%) to severe life-threatening head injury (15; 17.9%), which resulted in one (1.2%) death. Sympathisers and passersby were rescuers who gave first aid and brought the patients to the centre using hazardous public transport with a mean time lag of 12h (range: 2-48 h) between the falls and presentation. Falls from heights were common in Benin. Health awareness programmes and a proper government policy will reduce incidences and improve outcome. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of vegetable farming: a cause of the emergence of insecticide resistance in populations of Anopheles gambiae in urban areas of Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadouleton, Anges William M; Asidi, Alex; Djouaka, Rousseau F; Braïma, James; Agossou, Christian D; Akogbeto, Martin C

    2009-01-01

    Background A fast development of urban agriculture has recently taken place in many areas in the Republic of Benin. This study aims to assess the rapid expansion of urban agriculture especially, its contribution to the emergence of insecticide resistance in populations of Anopheles gambiae. Methods The protocol was based on the collection of sociological data by interviewing vegetable farmers regarding various agricultural practices and the types of pesticides used. Bioassay tests were performed to assess the susceptibility of malaria vectors to various agricultural insecticides and biochemical analysis were done to characterize molecular status of population of An. gambiae. Results This research showed that: (1) The rapid development of urban agriculture is related to unemployment observed in cities, rural exodus and the search for a balanced diet by urban populations; (2) Urban agriculture increases the farmers' household income and their living standard; (3) At a molecular level, PCR revealed the presence of three sub-species of An. gambiae (An. gambiae s.s., Anopheles melas and Anopheles arabiensis) and two molecular forms (M and S). The kdr west mutation recorded in samples from the three sites and more specifically on the M forms seems to be one of the major resistance mechanisms found in An. gambiae from agricultural areas. Insecticide susceptibility tests conducted during this research revealed a clear pattern of resistance to permethrin (76% mortality rate at Parakou; 23.5% at Porto-Novo and 17% at Cotonou). Conclusion This study confirmed an increase activity of the vegetable farming in urban areas of Benin. This has led to the use of insecticide in an improper manner to control vegetable pests, thus exerting a huge selection pressure on mosquito larval population, which resulted to the emergence of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors. PMID:19442297

  10. An interdisciplinary scenario analysis to assess the water availability and water consumption in the Upper Ouémé catchment in Benin

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    S. Giertz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an interdisciplinary scenario analysis to assess the influence of global and regional change on future water availability and water consumption in the Upper Ouémé catchment in central Benin. For the region three development scenarios were evolved. These scenarios are combined with climate change scenarios based on the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. In the mo-delling approach the quantification of the land use/land cover change is performed by the cellular automata model CLUE-S. The future climate scenarios are computed with the regional climate model REMO driven by the global ECHAM model. Using this data different land use and climate change scenarios can be calculated with the conceptual hydrological model UHP-HRU to assess the effects of global changes on the future water availability in Benin. To analyse the future water availability also the water consumption has to be taken into account. Due to high population growth an increase in water need in the future is expected for the region. To calculate the future household water consumption data from a regional survey and demographic projections are used. Development of the water need for animal husbandry is also considered. The first test run of the modelling approach was performed for the development scenario 'business as usual' combined with the IPCC scenario B2 for the year 2025. This test demonstrates the applicability of the approach for an interdisciplinary scenario analysis. A continuous run from 2000–2025 will be simulated for different scenarios as soon as the input data concerning land use/land cover and climate are available.

  11. Chiese pentecostali, crisi e cambiamento. Il significato emico dell’idea di sviluppo presso le comunità pentecostali nel sud-ovest del Benin - Pentecostal churches, crisis and change. Emic signification of the notion of development among the Pentecostal communities in south-western Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Bertin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The explosion of Pentecostal churches in many countries of the world South has taken new social dimensions since 2000, with the foundation of religious NGOs, schools, orphanages, health centers, etc. This article questions Pentecostal activism in the development sector from the ethnographic case of Southern Benin, a region characterized by great inter-confessionality where Christian, Islamic and “traditional” religious (new and old voduns movements share and compete in the same spaces. After having introduced the ethnographic case of Benin, the first part of the article demonstrates how this religious activism is not only characterized by proselytism aims but also by – as the “development”’s definition of Olivier de Sardan suggests – a project of social transformation. But in what terms do Pentecostalists propose themselves as the motor of the social-economic developing process after the neo-liberal crises started during the ’90s? The second part explores the extent to which, behind the adoption of some stereotypes representing western professionals (the cliché of the Village, of the peasant mentality, the Pentecostal notion of development is in continuity with local conceptions of power: the religious salvation is tightly connected to social and economic successes. From cure to economic gains and moral changing, the displacement of “money” from the temptations’ sphere to divine blessings depends on the moral behaviour of the individual.

  12. African Journals Online: Benin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 - 2 of 2 Items. Annales des Sciences Agronomiques. Annals of Agronomic Sciences is a scientific review which goal is to publish original articles, technical notes, reviews of literature, scientific information, in all the fields of sciences and biological technology, ecology, biochemistry, biotechnology, geology, soil sciences, ...

  13. IDRC in Benin

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    in farming techniques and business. Research in Houéyiho, a district of the economic capital, Cotonou, made it possible to evaluate — and protect against — the health risks associated with small-scale market gardening. Urban market gardeners adopted simple measures, such as building ... their health and environment.

  14. Building capacity in Benin

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    natural resource management and food security in Africa www.leadinafrica.org/ ... of GIS tools for water management, ... the ICT4D program and the project being implemented by LHME ... and their use for integrated management and rational.

  15. Obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors in urban adults of Benin: Relationship with socio-economic status, urbanisation, and lifestyle patterns

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    Delisle Hélène

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a dearth of information on diet-related chronic diseases in West Africa. This cross-sectional study assessed the rate of obesity and other cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors in a random sample of 200 urban adults in Benin and explored the associations between these factors and socio-economic status (SES, urbanisation as well as lifestyle patterns. Methods Anthropometric parameters (height, weight and waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and serum lipids (HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were measured. WHO cut-offs were used to define CVD risk factors. Food intake and physical activity were assessed with three non-consecutive 24-hour recalls. Information on tobacco use and alcohol consumption was collected using a questionnaire. An overall lifestyle score (OLS was created based on diet quality, alcohol consumption, smoking, and physical activity. A SES score was computed based on education, main occupation and household amenities (as proxy for income. Results The most prevalent CVD risk factors were overall obesity (18%, abdominal obesity (32%, hypertension (23%, and low HDL-cholesterol (13%. Diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia were uncommon. The prevalence of overall obesity was roughly four times higher in women than in men (28 vs. 8%. After controlling for age and sex, the odds of obesity increased significantly with SES, while a longer exposure to the urban environment was associated with higher odds of hypertension. Of the single lifestyle factors examined, physical activity was the most strongly associated with several CVD risk factors. Logistic regression analyses revealed that the likelihood of obesity and hypertension decreased significantly as the OLS improved, while controlling for potential confounding factors. Conclusion Our data show that obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors are highly prevalent among urban adults in Benin, which calls for urgent measures to avert the

  16. Pilot Assessment of Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis in the Context of Transmission Assessment Surveys for Lymphatic Filariasis in Benin and Tonga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Brian K.; Gass, Katherine; Batcho, Wilfrid; 'Ake, Malakai; Dorkenoo, Améyo M.; Adjinacou, Elvire; Mafi, 'Eva; Addiss, David G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Mass drug administration (MDA) for lymphatic filariasis (LF) programs has delivered more than 2 billion treatments of albendazole, in combination with either ivermectin or diethylcarbamazine, to communities co-endemic for soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH), reducing the prevalence of both diseases. A transmission assessment survey (TAS) is recommended to determine if MDA for LF can be stopped within an evaluation unit (EU) after at least five rounds of annual treatment. The TAS also provides an opportunity to simultaneously assess the impact of these MDAs on STH and to determine the frequency of school-based MDA for STH after community-wide MDA is no longer needed for LF. Methodology/Principal Findings Pilot studies conducted in Benin and Tonga assessed the feasibility of a coordinated approach. Of the schools (clusters) selected for a TAS in each EU, a subset of 5 schools per STH ecological zone was randomly selected, according to World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, for the coordinated survey. In Benin, 519 children were sampled in 5 schools and 22 (4.2%) had STH infection (A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, or hookworm) detected using the Kato-Katz method. All infections were classified as light intensity under WHO criteria. In Tonga, 10 schools were chosen for the coordinated TAS and STH survey covering two ecological zones; 32 of 232 (13.8%) children were infected in Tongatapu and 82 of 320 (25.6%) in Vava'u and Ha'apai. All infections were light-intensity with the exception of one with moderate-intensity T. trichiura. Conclusions Synchronous assessment of STH with TAS is feasible and provides a well-timed evaluation of infection prevalence to guide ongoing treatment decisions at a time when MDA for LF may be stopped. The coordinated field experiences in both countries also suggest potential time and cost savings. Refinement of a coordinated TAS and STH sampling methodology should be pursued, along with further validation of alternative

  17. Pilot assessment of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in the context of transmission assessment surveys for lymphatic filariasis in Benin and Tonga.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian K Chu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mass drug administration (MDA for lymphatic filariasis (LF programs has delivered more than 2 billion treatments of albendazole, in combination with either ivermectin or diethylcarbamazine, to communities co-endemic for soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH, reducing the prevalence of both diseases. A transmission assessment survey (TAS is recommended to determine if MDA for LF can be stopped within an evaluation unit (EU after at least five rounds of annual treatment. The TAS also provides an opportunity to simultaneously assess the impact of these MDAs on STH and to determine the frequency of school-based MDA for STH after community-wide MDA is no longer needed for LF. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Pilot studies conducted in Benin and Tonga assessed the feasibility of a coordinated approach. Of the schools (clusters selected for a TAS in each EU, a subset of 5 schools per STH ecological zone was randomly selected, according to World Health Organization (WHO guidelines, for the coordinated survey. In Benin, 519 children were sampled in 5 schools and 22 (4.2% had STH infection (A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, or hookworm detected using the Kato-Katz method. All infections were classified as light intensity under WHO criteria. In Tonga, 10 schools were chosen for the coordinated TAS and STH survey covering two ecological zones; 32 of 232 (13.8% children were infected in Tongatapu and 82 of 320 (25.6% in Vava'u and Ha'apai. All infections were light-intensity with the exception of one with moderate-intensity T. trichiura. CONCLUSIONS: Synchronous assessment of STH with TAS is feasible and provides a well-timed evaluation of infection prevalence to guide ongoing treatment decisions at a time when MDA for LF may be stopped. The coordinated field experiences in both countries also suggest potential time and cost savings. Refinement of a coordinated TAS and STH sampling methodology should be pursued, along with further validation of

  18. Pilot assessment of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in the context of transmission assessment surveys for lymphatic filariasis in Benin and Tonga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Brian K; Gass, Katherine; Batcho, Wilfrid; 'Ake, Malakai; Dorkenoo, Améyo M; Adjinacou, Elvire; Mafi, 'Eva; Addiss, David G

    2014-02-01

    Mass drug administration (MDA) for lymphatic filariasis (LF) programs has delivered more than 2 billion treatments of albendazole, in combination with either ivermectin or diethylcarbamazine, to communities co-endemic for soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH), reducing the prevalence of both diseases. A transmission assessment survey (TAS) is recommended to determine if MDA for LF can be stopped within an evaluation unit (EU) after at least five rounds of annual treatment. The TAS also provides an opportunity to simultaneously assess the impact of these MDAs on STH and to determine the frequency of school-based MDA for STH after community-wide MDA is no longer needed for LF. Pilot studies conducted in Benin and Tonga assessed the feasibility of a coordinated approach. Of the schools (clusters) selected for a TAS in each EU, a subset of 5 schools per STH ecological zone was randomly selected, according to World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, for the coordinated survey. In Benin, 519 children were sampled in 5 schools and 22 (4.2%) had STH infection (A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, or hookworm) detected using the Kato-Katz method. All infections were classified as light intensity under WHO criteria. In Tonga, 10 schools were chosen for the coordinated TAS and STH survey covering two ecological zones; 32 of 232 (13.8%) children were infected in Tongatapu and 82 of 320 (25.6%) in Vava'u and Ha'apai. All infections were light-intensity with the exception of one with moderate-intensity T. trichiura. Synchronous assessment of STH with TAS is feasible and provides a well-timed evaluation of infection prevalence to guide ongoing treatment decisions at a time when MDA for LF may be stopped. The coordinated field experiences in both countries also suggest potential time and cost savings. Refinement of a coordinated TAS and STH sampling methodology should be pursued, along with further validation of alternative quantitative diagnostic tests for STH that can be used with

  19. Risk Factors of Pesticide Poisoning and Pesticide Users’ Cholinesterase Levels in Cotton Production Areas: Glazoué and Savè Townships, in Central Republic of Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikkey, Hinson Antoine; Fidel, Dossou; Pazou Elisabeth, Yehouenou; Hilaire, Hountikpo; Hervé, Lawin; Badirou, Aguèmon; Alain, Koudafoke; Parfait, Houngbégnon; Fabien, Gounongbé; Benjamin, Fayomi

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To assess the degree of poisoning in farmers using the erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE) test before and after the exposure to pesticides in townships in central Benin (Glazoué and Savè) and to identify the associated risk factors. Methods: Using a cross-sectional study design, we recruited 264 farm pesticide sprayers, who have been working for at least 5 years. They completed a questionnaire and underwent the AChE test using the Test-mate Model 400 device (EQM Research Inc.) with a photometric sensor, based on the works of Ellman. Results: Organophosphate/pyrethroids were the most common pesticides used by at least 72.96% of the farmworkers. We observed an inhibition of AChE between pre-exposure and post-exposure (P = .002) for 60.61% of the farmworkers. Among them, 11.88% displayed more than 20% AChE inhibition. Conclusions: Pesticide poisoning is a reality, and AChE monitoring is urgently needed for farmworker surveillance. PMID:28469452

  20. Risk Factors of Pesticide Poisoning and Pesticide Users' Cholinesterase Levels in Cotton Production Areas: Glazoué and Savè Townships, in Central Republic of Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikkey, Hinson Antoine; Fidel, Dossou; Elisabeth, Yehouenou Pazou; Hilaire, Hountikpo; Hervé, Lawin; Badirou, Aguèmon; Alain, Koudafoke; Parfait, Houngbégnon; Fabien, Gounongbé; Benjamin, Fayomi

    2017-01-01

    To assess the degree of poisoning in farmers using the erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE) test before and after the exposure to pesticides in townships in central Benin (Glazoué and Savè) and to identify the associated risk factors. Using a cross-sectional study design, we recruited 264 farm pesticide sprayers, who have been working for at least 5 years. They completed a questionnaire and underwent the AChE test using the Test-mate Model 400 device (EQM Research Inc.) with a photometric sensor, based on the works of Ellman. Organophosphate/pyrethroids were the most common pesticides used by at least 72.96% of the farmworkers. We observed an inhibition of AChE between pre-exposure and post-exposure ( P = .002) for 60.61% of the farmworkers. Among them, 11.88% displayed more than 20% AChE inhibition. Pesticide poisoning is a reality, and AChE monitoring is urgently needed for farmworker surveillance.

  1. Diversity, Physicochemical and Technological Characterization of Elite Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz Cultivars of Bantè, a District of Central Benin

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    Abadjayé Faouziath Sanoussi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is one of the staple food crops contributing significantly to food and nutrition security in Benin. This study aimed to assess the diversity of the elite cassava cultivars of Bantè district, determine the physicochemical properties of the most preferred ones as well as the sensory attributes of their major derived products (gari and tapioca, and compare them with the farmers’ and processors’ perception on their technological qualities. The ethnobotanical investigation revealed existence of 40 cultivars including 9 elites that were further classified into three groups based on agronomics and technological and culinary properties. Clustered together, cultivars Idilèrou, Monlèkangan, and Odohoungbo characterized by low fiber content, high yield of gari and tapioca, and good in-ground postmaturity storage were the most preferred ones. Their physicochemical analysis revealed good rate of dry matters (39.8% to 41.13%, starch (24.47% to 25.5% and total sugars (39.46% to 41.13%, low fiber (0.80% to 1.02%, and cyanide (50 mg/kg contents. The sensory analysis of their gari and tapioca revealed very well appreciated (taste, color, and texture products by the consumers. The confirmation by scientific analysis of the farmers’ perception on qualities of the most preferred cultivars indicated that they have good knowledge of their materials.

  2. The “Bringing into Cultivation” Phase of the Plant Domestication Process and Its Contributions to In Situ Conservation of Genetic Resources in Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vodouhè

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available All over the world, plant domestication is continually being carried out by local communities to support their needs for food, fibre, medicine, building materials, etc. Using participatory rapid appraisal approach, 150 households were surveyed in 5 villages selected in five ethnic groups of Benin, to investigate the local communities’ motivations for plant domestication and the contributions of this process to in situ conservation of genetic resources. The results indicated differences in plant domestication between agroecological zones and among ethnic groups. People in the humid zones give priority to herbs mainly for their leaves while those in dry area prefer trees mostly for their fruits. Local communities were motivated to undertake plant domestication for foods (80% of respondents, medicinal use (40% of respondents, income generation (20% of respondents and cultural reasons (5% of respondents. 45% of the species recorded are still at early stage in domestication and only 2% are fully domesticated. Eleven factors related to the households surveyed and to the head of the household interviewed affect farmers’ decision making in domesticating plant species. There is gender influence on the domestication: Women are keen in domesticating herbs while men give priority to trees.

  3. Proinflammatory effects and oxidative stress within human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to atmospheric particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM>2.5) collected from Cotonou, Benin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cachon, Boris Fresnel; Firmin, Stéphane; Verdin, Anthony; Ayi-Fanou, Lucie

    2014-01-01

    After particulate matter (PM) collection in Cotonou (Benin), a complete physicochemical characterization of PM 2.5 and PM >2.5 was led. Then, their adverse health effects were evaluated by using in vitro culture of human lung cells. BEAS-2B (bronchial epithelial cells) were intoxicated during short-term exposure at increasing PM concentrations (1.5–96 μg/cm 2 ) to determine global cytotoxicity. Hence, cells were exposed to 3 and 12 μg/cm 2 to investigate the potential biological imbalance generated by PM toxicity. Our findings showed the ability of both PM to induce oxidative stress and to cause inflammatory cytokines/chemokines gene expression and secretion. Furthermore, PM were able to induce gene expression of enzymes involved in the xenobiotic metabolism pathway. Strong correlations between gene expression of metabolizing enzymes, proinflammatory responses and cell cycle alteration were found, as well as between proinflammatory responses and cell viability. Stress oxidant parameters were highly correlated with expression and protein secretion of inflammatory mediators. Highlights: • The aim of this study was to investigate the toxic potential of collected particles. • Toxicological effects were determined by using human bronchial epithelial cells. • Both particles induced oxidative stress, proinflammatory response and cell alterations. • Metabolizing enzymes were linked to proinflammatory responses and cell alterations. • Oxidative stress was highly correlated to the proinflammatory mediators. -- This study evidences the toxic potential of African fine and coarse particulate matters on respiratory epithelial cells

  4. Sensitivity of Different Cattle Breeds to the Infestation of Cattle Ticks Amblyomma variegatum, Rhipicephalus microplus, and Hyalomma spp. on the Natural Pastures of Opkara Farm, Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Eric Yessinou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out on the Opkara (Benin cattle farm on 64 cattle of four different breeds (16 individuals per breed from June to December 2016. During this study, three tick species were found in different numbers, Amblyomma variegatum (732, Rhipicephalus microplus (8079, and Hyalomma spp. (208, with parasitic intensity of 11.90, 126.23, and 3.25, respectively. The interracial comparison of the tick infestation between the cattle showed a significant difference (P<0.001. However, Girolando was more infested than all the cattle breeds. Infestation of A. variegatum, R. microplus, and Hyalomma spp. on the Girolando was, respectively, 19.43 ± 2.71, 171.25 ± 23.50, and 7.12 ± 0.63, but the Borgou were less infested. Borgou breed females were more infested by A. variegatum (4.41 ± 1.14 than females Girolando (4.20 ± 0.90. The Crossbred and Azawak females were less infested (P<0.01. The mean of A. variegatum on Borgou, Azawak, Crossbred, and Girolando calves was 1.29 ± 0.35, 0.66 ± 0.26, 1.37 ± 0.37, and 2.25 ± 0.48 (P<0.01, respectively. The results of this study can be exploited to include genetic and nongenetic approaches to tick control.

  5. Pierre Bourdieu and transformative agency: a study of how patients in Benin negotiate blame and accountability in the context of severe obstetric events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béhague, Dominique P; Kanhonou, Lydie G; Filippi, Véronique; Lègonou, Solange; Ronsmans, Carine

    2008-05-01

    This paper explores the social and institutional processes that constrain and enable obstetric patients in Benin to critically evaluate quality of healthcare and to stimulate positive changes in the health system. Based on qualitative data collected as part of a hospital auditing system, the paper analyses semi-structured patient feedback interviews and their function as a primary mechanism through which critical patient evaluation can develop constructively. Using a Bourdieuan framework, we explore the dynamic social conditions that give rise to transformative agency and institutional change. Our results show that hospitals are often permeated with the habitus of employment, kinship and reproductive social fields, through which a number of social, economic and healthcare conflicts, power struggles and blame-inducing interactions emerge. These conflicts generally serve to keep patients quiescent and passive when it comes to developing critical statements of quality of care. In a subset of cases, however, these conflicts are transformed by patients and their family members into opportunities for modifying the values and practices of each habitus in new and creative ways. The active negotiation of social conflict and blame enabled a minority of patients actively to divert blame from themselves and to develop and maintain critical healthcare evaluations.

  6. C4 plant isotopic composition ((delta)13C) evidence for urban CO2 pollution in the city of Cotonou, Benin (West Africa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelome, Nelly C.; Leveque, Jean; Andreux, Francis; Milloux, Marie-Jeanne; Oyede, Lucien-Marc

    2006-01-01

    The carbon isotopic composition ((delta) 13 C) of plants can reveal the isotopic carbon content of the atmosphere in which they develop. The (delta) 13 C values of air and plants depend on the amount of atmospheric fossil fuel CO 2 , which is chiefly emitted in urban areas. A new indicator of CO 2 pollution is tested using the (delta) 13 C variation in a C 4 grass: Eleusine indica. A range of about 4%% delta units was observed at different sites in Cotonou, the largest city in the Republic of Benin. The highest (delta) 13 C values, from -12%% to -14%%, were found in low traffic zones; low (delta) 13 C values, from -14%% to -16%%, were found in high traffic zones. The amount of fossil fuel carbon assimilated by plants represented about 20% of the total plant carbon content. An overall decrease in plant (delta) 13 C values was observed over a four-year monitoring period. This decrease was correlated with increasing vehicle traffic. The (delta) 13 C dataset and the corresponding geographical database were used to map and define zones of high and low 13 C-depleted CO 2 emissions in urban and sub-urban areas. The spatial distribution follows dominant wind directions, with the lowest emission zones found in the southwest of Cotonou. High CO 2 emissions occurred in the north, the east and the center, providing evidence of intense anthropogenic activity related to industry and transportation. (author)

  7. C4 plant isotopic composition (delta13C) evidence for urban CO2 pollution in the city of Cotonou, Benin (West Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kèlomé, Nelly C; Lévêque, Jean; Andreux, Francis; Milloux, Marie-Jeanne; Oyédé, Lucien-Marc

    2006-08-01

    The carbon isotopic composition (delta13C) of plants can reveal the isotopic carbon content of the atmosphere in which they develop. The delta13C values of air and plants depend on the amount of atmospheric fossil fuel CO2, which is chiefly emitted in urban areas. A new indicator of CO2 pollution is tested using the delta13C variation in a C4 grass: Eleusine indica. A range of about 4 per thousand delta units was observed at different sites in Cotonou, the largest city in the Republic of Benin. The highest delta13C values, from -12 per thousand to -14 per thousand, were found in low traffic zones; low delta13C values, from -14 per thousand to -16 per thousand, were found in high traffic zones. The amount of fossil fuel carbon assimilated by plants represented about 20% of the total plant carbon content. An overall decrease in plant delta13C values was observed over a four-year monitoring period. This decrease was correlated with increasing vehicle traffic. The delta13C dataset and the corresponding geographical database were used to map and define zones of high and low 13C-depleted CO2 emissions in urban and sub-urban areas. The spatial distribution follows dominant wind directions, with the lowest emission zones found in the southwest of Cotonou. High CO2 emissions occurred in the north, the east and the center, providing evidence of intense anthropogenic activity related to industry and transportation.

  8. EPIVAC International Conference on Financial Sustainability of Immunization Programs in sub-Saharan Africa, February 16-18, 2012, Ouidah, Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drach, Marcel; Le Gargasson, Jean-Bernard; Mathonnat, Jacky; Da Silva, Alfred; Kaddar, Miloud; Colombini, Anaïs

    2013-09-23

    The introduction of new vaccines with much higher prices than traditional vaccines results in increasing budgetary pressure on immunization programs in GAVI-eligible countries, increasing the need to ensure their financial sustainability. In this context, the third EPIVAC (Epidemiology and Vaccinology) technical conference was held from February 16 to 18, 2012 at the Regional Institute of Public Health in Ouidah, Benin. Managers of ministries of health and finance from 11 West African countries (GAVI eligible countries), as well as former EPIVAC students and European experts, shared their knowledge and best practices on immunization financing at district and country level. The conference concluded by stressing five major priorities for the financial sustainability of national immunization programs (NIPs) in GAVI-eligible countries. - Strengthen public financing by increasing resources and fiscal space, improving budget processes, increasing contribution of local governments and strengthen efficiency of budget spending. - Promote equitable community financing which was recognized as a significant and essential contribution to the continuity of EPI operations. - Widen private funding by exploring prospects offered by sponsorship through foundations dedicated to immunization and by corporate social responsibility programs. - Contain the potential crowding-out effect of GAVI co-financing and ensure that decisions on new vaccine introductions are evidence-based. - Seek out innovative financing mechanisms such as taxes on food products or a national solidarity fund. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Risk Factors of Pesticide Poisoning and Pesticide Users’ Cholinesterase Levels in Cotton Production Areas: Glazoué and Savè Townships, in Central Republic of Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinson Antoine Vikkey

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the degree of poisoning in farmers using the erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE test before and after the exposure to pesticides in townships in central Benin (Glazoué and Savè and to identify the associated risk factors. Methods: Using a cross-sectional study design, we recruited 264 farm pesticide sprayers, who have been working for at least 5 years. They completed a questionnaire and underwent the AChE test using the Test-mate Model 400 device (EQM Research Inc. with a photometric sensor, based on the works of Ellman. Results: Organophosphate/pyrethroids were the most common pesticides used by at least 72.96% of the farmworkers. We observed an inhibition of AChE between pre-exposure and post-exposure ( P = .002 for 60.61% of the farmworkers. Among them, 11.88% displayed more than 20% AChE inhibition. Conclusions: Pesticide poisoning is a reality, and AChE monitoring is urgently needed for farmworker surveillance.

  10. Prevalence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Other Staphylococcus Species in Raw Meat Samples Intended for Human Consumption in Benin City, Nigeria: Implications for Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbinosa, Etinosa O; Beshiru, Abeni; Akporehe, Lucy U; Oviasogie, Faith E; Igbinosa, Owen O

    2016-09-24

    The present study was designed to characterize methicillin-resistant staphylococci from raw meat. A total of 126 meat samples were obtained from open markets between February and April, 2015. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out using the disc diffusion method. Molecular profiling was conducted using 16S rRNA, mecA, nuc, and PVL gene signatures were detected by polymerase chain reaction assay. Fifty isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. were detected in 26 (52%) pork, 14 (28%) beef and 10 (20%) chicken samples. The staphylococcal isolates were identified through partial 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (16S rRNA) nucleotide sequencing, and BLAST analysis of the gene sequence revealed 98%-100% staphylococcal similarity. All isolates from beef and chicken samples amplified the mecA gene, while 100% of the MRSA isolates amplified the PVL gene. The multidrug resistance profile (resistant to ≥1 antimicrobial agent in ≥3 classes of antimicrobial agents) of the staphylococcal isolates showed that 7 isolates were resistant to methicillin, penicillin, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, kanamycin, amoxicillin, cloxacillin, erythromycin, vancomycin, and gentamycin. There was a significant regression effect from the multidrug-resistant profile on the number of isolates (p resistant strains within bacterial populations. The findings of the present study indicate that raw meats in the Benin metropolis were possibly contaminated with pathogenic and multi-drug resistant staphylococci strains and therefore could constitute a risk to public health communities.

  11. Why 1D electrical resistivity techniques can result in inaccurate siting of boreholes in hard rock aquifers and why electrical resistivity tomography must be preferred: the example of Benin, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alle, Iboukoun Christian; Descloitres, Marc; Vouillamoz, Jean-Michel; Yalo, Nicaise; Lawson, Fabrice Messan Amen; Adihou, Akonfa Consolas

    2018-03-01

    Hard rock aquifers are of particular importance for supplying people with drinking water in Africa and in the world. Although the common use of one-dimensional (1D) electrical resistivity techniques to locate drilling site, the failure rate of boreholes is usually high. For instance, about 40% of boreholes drilled in hard rock aquifers in Benin are unsuccessful. This study investigates why the current use of 1D techniques (e.g. electrical profiling and electrical sounding) can result in inaccurate siting of boreholes, and checks the interest and the limitations of the use of two-dimensional (2D) Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT). Geophysical numerical modeling and comprehensive 1D and 2D resistivity surveys were carried out in hard rock aquifers in Benin. The experiments carried out at 7 sites located in different hard rock groups confirmed the results of the numerical modeling: the current use of 1D techniques can frequently leads to inaccurate siting, and ERT better reveals hydrogeological targets such as thick weathered zone (e.g. stratiform fractured layer and preferential weathering associated with subvertical fractured zone). Moreover, a cost analysis demonstrates that the use of ERT can save money at the scale of a drilling programme if ERT improves the success rate by only 5% as compared to the success rate obtained with 1D techniques. Finally, this study demonstrates, using the example of Benin, that the use of electrical resistivity profiling and sounding for siting boreholes in weathered hard rocks of western Africa should be discarded and replaced by the use of ERT technique, more efficient.

  12. Contribution of the clean development mechanism to sustainable energy production. The energy sector in the West African Economic and Monetary Union - Case study: Benin, Burkina Faso, Niger and Togo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoguina, H.

    2007-07-01

    This study assesses the contribution of the CDM to Sustainable Development in energy sectors in the West African Economic and Monetary Union, concentrating on Benin, Burkina Faso, Niger and Togo. Through a cross-sectional survey of different stakeholder groups, the prospective sustainable development criteria for the CDM are examined and prospective small-scale CDM projects are analysed. One efficient option to reduce transaction costs to small scale CDM projects is the creation of a regional centre for capacity building and project pre-validation. This study analyses how the WAEMU could be used as a vehicle to attract CDM financing. (orig.)

  13. A Model for Good Governance of Healthcare Technology Management in the Public Sector: Learning from Evidence-Informed Policy Development and Implementation in Benin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Th Houngbo

    Full Text Available Good governance (GG is an important concept that has evolved as a set of normative principles for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs to strengthen the functional capacity of their public bodies, and as a conditional prerequisite to receive donor funding. Although much is written on good governance, very little is known on how to implement it. This paper documents the process of developing a strategy to implement a GG model for Health Technology Management (HTM in the public health sector, based on lessons learned from twenty years of experience in policy development and implementation in Benin. The model comprises six phases: (i preparatory analysis, assessing the effects of previous policies and characterizing the HTM system; (ii stakeholder identification and problem analysis, making explicit the perceptions of problems by a diverse range of actors, and assessing their ability to solve these problems; (iii shared analysis and visioning, delineating the root causes of problems and hypothesizing solutions; (iv development of policy instruments for pilot testing, based on quick-win solutions to understand the system's responses to change; (v policy development and validation, translating the consensus solutions identified by stakeholders into a policy; and (vi policy implementation and evaluation, implementing the policy through a cycle of planning, action, observation and reflection. The policy development process can be characterized as bottom-up, with a central focus on the participation of diverse stakeholders groups. Interactive and analytical tools of action research were used to integrate knowledge amongst actor groups, identify consensus solutions and develop the policy in a way that satisfies criteria of GG. This model could be useful for other LMICs where resources are constrained and the majority of healthcare technologies are imported.

  14. Co-existence of urinary tract infection and malaria among children under five years old: A report from Benin City, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P O Okunola

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with fever are a majority in the various emergency rooms all over the world, and especially in the tropics. Most in sub-Saharan Africa will be treated for malaria, whether confirmed or not. It therefore follows that some of the morbidities other than malaria may go undiagnosed. The comorbidities with malaria that may have similar presentation among under-fives therefore are difficult to detect, and diseases like respiratory tract infections and urinary tract infections (UTI are left to debilitate affected children. The exact burden of UTI co-existing with malaria in Nigeria remains ill defined. This study looks at the co-existence of UTI in under- fives with a primary diagnosis of malaria. Well-nourished children aged less than five years with confirmed malaria seen at the Children Emergency Room of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital were recruited into a prospective cross-sectional study between June and August 2006. The prevalence of UTI was 9% (27 of 300 children, with those aged less than 24 months comprising the majority. The uropathogens isolated included Staphylococcus aureus (55.6%, Escherichia coli (29.6% and Kleibsiella pneumonia (14.8%. The isolates demonstrated high in vitro sensitivity to clavulanic acid-potentiated amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin, but were resistant to other commonly used antibiotics like amoxicillin and co-trimoxazole. The study indicates that UTI is a silent comorbidity in children aged less than 5 years with malaria and there is a need to evaluate these children in order to prevent the long-term morbidity of chronic renal diseases.

  15. Benefits of using vaccines out of the cold chain: delivering meningitis A vaccine in a controlled temperature chain during the mass immunization campaign in Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipursky, Simona; Djingarey, Mamoudou Harouna; Lodjo, Jean-Claude; Olodo, Laifoya; Tiendrebeogo, Sylvestre; Ronveaux, Olivier

    2014-03-14

    In October 2012, the Meningococcal A conjugate vaccine MenAfriVac was granted a label variation to allow for its use in a controlled temperature chain (CTC), at temperatures of up to 40°C for not more than four days. This paper describes the first field use of MenAfriVac in a CTC during a campaign in Benin, December 2012, and assesses the feasibility and acceptability of the practice. We implemented CTC in one selected district, Banikoara (target population of 147,207; 1-29 years of age), across 14 health facilities and 150 villages. We monitored the CTC practice using temperature indicators and daily monitoring sheets. At the end of the campaign we conducted a face-to-face survey to assess vaccinators' and supervisors' experience with CTC. A mix of strategies were implemented in the field to maximize the benefits from CTC practice, depending on the distance from health centre to populations and the availability of a functioning refrigerator in the health centre. Coverage across Banikoara was 105.7%. Over the course of the campaign only nine out of approx. 15,000 vials were discarded due to surpassing the 4 day CTC limit and no vial was discarded because of exposure to a temperature higher than 40°C or due to the Vaccine Vial Monitor (VVM) reaching its endpoint. Overall confidence and perceived usefulness of the CTC approach were very high among vaccinators and supervisors. Vaccinators and supervisors see clear benefits from the CTC approach in low income settings, especially in hard-to-reach areas or where cold chain is weak. Taking advantage of the flexibility offered by CTC opens the door for the implementation of new immunization strategies to ensure all those at risk are protected. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Determination of the silvo-melliferous regions of Benin: a nationwide categorisation of the land based on melliferous plants suitable for timber production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicien Amakpe

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Perennial plants are the main pollen and nectar sources for bees in the tropical areas where most of the annual flora are burned in dry seasons. Therefore perennial plants constitute the most reliable bio materials for determining and evaluating the beekeeping regions of the Republic of Benin. A silvo-melliferous region (S-MR is a geographical area characterised by a particular set of homogenous melliferous plants that can produce timber. Using both the prevailing climatic and the agro-ecological conditions six S-MRs could be identified, i.e. the South region, the Common Central region, the Central West region, the Central North region, the Middle North region and the Extreme North region. At the country level, the melliferous plants were dominated by Vitellaria paradoxa which is common to all regions. The most diversified family was the Caesalpiniaceae (12 species followed by the Combretaceae (10 species and Combretum being the richest genus. The effect of dominance is particularly high in the South region where Elaeis guineensis alone represented 72.6% of the tree density and 140% of the total plant importance. The total melliferous plant density varied from 99.3 plants ha^(−1 in the Common Central region to 178.0 plants ha^(−1 in the Central West region. On the basis of nectar and pollen source, the best region for beekeeping is the CentralWest region with 46.7% of nectar producing trees, 9.4% of pollen producing trees and 40.6% of plants that issue both, this in opposition to the South region which was characterised by an unbalanced distribution of melliferous trees.

  17. Olyset Duo® (a pyriproxyfen and permethrin mixture net: an experimental hut trial against pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus in Southern Benin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corine Ngufor

    Full Text Available Alternative compounds which can complement pyrethroids on long-lasting insecticidal nets (LN in the control of pyrethroid resistant malaria vectors are urgently needed. Pyriproxyfen (PPF, an insect growth regulator, reduces the fecundity and fertility of adult female mosquitoes. LNs containing a mixture of pyriproxyfen and pyrethroid could provide personal protection through the pyrethroid component and reduce vector abundance in the next generation through the sterilizing effect of pyriproxyfen.The efficacy of Olyset Duo, a newly developed mixture LN containing pyriproxyfen and permethrin, was evaluated in experimental huts in southern Benin against pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus. Comparison was made with Olyset Net® (permethrin alone and a LN with pyriproxyfen alone (PPF LN. Laboratory tunnel tests were performed to substantiate the findings in the experimental huts.Overall mortality of wild pyrethroid resistant An. gambiae s.s. was significantly higher with Olyset Duo than with Olyset Net (50% vs. 27%, P = 0.01. Olyset DUO was more protective than Olyset Net (71% vs. 3%, P<0.001. The oviposition rate of surviving blood-fed An. gambiae from the control hut was 37% whereas none of those from Olyset Duo and PPF LN huts laid eggs. The tunnel test results were consistent with the experimental hut results. Olyset Duo was more protective than Olyset Net in the huts against wild pyrethroid resistant Cx. quinquefasciatus although mortality rates of this species did not differ significantly between Olyset Net and Olyset Duo. There was no sterilizing effect on surviving blood-fed Cx. quinquefasciatus with the PPF-treated nets.Olyset Duo was superior to Olyset Net in terms of personal protection and killing of pyrethroid resistant An. gambiae, and sterilized surviving blood-fed mosquitoes. Mixing pyrethroid and pyriproxyfen on a LN shows potential for malaria control and management of pyrethroid resistant vectors by

  18. The importance of national political context to the impacts of international conservation aid: evidence from the W National Parks of Benin and Niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel C.; Minn, Michael; Sinsin, Brice

    2015-11-01

    National political context is widely understood to be an important factor shaping the ecological and socio-economic impacts of protected areas (PAs) and other conservation interventions. Despite broad recognition that national political context matters, however, there is little systematic understanding about how and why it matters, particularly in the context of PAs. This article seeks to advance empirical and theoretical understanding of the influence of national political context on the impacts of conservation interventions through study of an international aid project in a large transboundary PA in West Africa. It uses multilevel regression analysis to analyze the variable effects of changes in enforcement—a central mechanism through which the Protected Ecosystems in Sudano-Sahelian Africa project sought to achieve its objectives—in the W National Parks (WNP) of Benin and Niger. We find that differences in national political context relating to governance quality and extent of democratic decentralization moderated the social-ecological effects of enforcement. Increasing enforcement levels in Benin’s WNP were associated with significant increases in mammal species abundance while having little average effect on the incomes of households around the Park. By contrast, greater levels of enforcement in Niger’s WNP were associated with sharply decreasing income levels among Park neighbors but did not have a statistically significant effect on wildlife populations. These results highlight the importance of national political context to the outcomes of aid-funded conservation efforts. They suggest that state-led PA enforcement will have more positive social-ecological impacts in better-governed, more decentralized countries and that conservation policy centered on PAs should therefore devote greater attention to engagement with higher levels of governance.

  19. Accumulation patterns and risk assessment of metals and metalloid in muscle and offal of free-range chickens, cattle and goat in Benin City, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbomida, Emmanuel Temiotan; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Bortey-Sam, Nesta; Oroszlany, Balazs; Tongo, Isioma; Enuneku, Alex Ajeh; Ozekeke, Ogbeide; Ainerua, Martins Oshioriamhe; Fasipe, Iriagbonse Priscillia; Ezemonye, Lawrence Ikechukwu; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2018-04-30

    The use of free range animals for monitoring environmental health offers opportunities to detect exposure and assess the toxicological effects of pollutants in terrestrial ecosystems. Potential human health risk of dietary intake of metals and metalloid via consumption of offal and muscle of free range chicken, cattle and goats by the urban population in Benin City was evaluated. Muscle, gizzard, liver and kidney samples were analyzed for Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb concentrations using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) while Hg was determined using Hg analyzer. Mean concentrations of metals (mg/kg ww) varied significantly depending upon the tissues and animal species. Human health risk estimations for children and adults showed estimated daily intake (EDI) values of tissues below oral reference dose (RfD) threshold for non essential metals Cd, As, Pb and Hg thus strongly indicating no possible health risk via consumption of animal based food. Calculated Hazard quotient (THQ) was less than 1 (< 1) for all the metals analyzed for both adult and children. However, Cd and As had the highest value of THQ suggestive of possible health risk associated with continuous consumption of Cd and As contaminated animal based foods. Hazard Index (HI) for additive effect of metals was higher in chicken liver and gizzard for children and chicken liver for adults. Thus, HI indicated that chicken liver and gizzard may contribute significantly to adult and children dietary exposure to heavy metals. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed a clear species difference in metal accumulation between chickens and the ruminants. This study provides baseline data for future studies and also valuable evidence of anthropogenic impacts necessary to initiate national and international policies for control of heavy metal and metalloid content in food items. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. PHYTOCHEMISTRY, ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIRADICAL ACTIVITIES EVALUATION OF ESSENTIAL OILS, ETHANOLIC AND HYDROETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF THE LEAVES OF EUCALYPTUS CITRIODORA HOOK FROM BENIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaya A. Koudoro

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The precipitation and coloration reactions implemented in this study revealed in the leaves of E. citriodora (Myrtaceae of Benin the presence of polyphenols, anthocyanins, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, mucilages, anthraquinones, leucoanthocyanins, cardiac glycosides, coumarins, proteins, sterols and triterpenes. The essential oil from the leaves of this plant was extracted with a yield of 3% and then analyzed by GC/MS. Nine compounds, representing 94.46% of the chemical composition of the oil, were identified, three among them being majority: citronellal (65.45%, citronellol (13.5% and isopulegol (10.33%. The contents of polyphenolic compounds of ethanolic and hydroethanolic extracts were respectively 4.52 mg EAG.g-1 and 4.38 mg EAGg-1 for total polyphenols, 78.76 mg ECg-1 and 81.56 mg ECg-1 for total flavonoids and 62.62 mg ECg-1 and 67.09 mg ECg-1 for condensed tannins. The radical scavenging activity of hydroethanolic extract (IC50=0.23 mgmL-1 was more pronounced than that of ethanolic extract (IC50=0.42 mgmL-1 and essential oil (IC50=0.9 mgmL-1. Regarding antimicrobial activity, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans were sensitive to hydroethanolic extract of E. citriodora leaves while Escherichia coli developed resistance against this extract. As for the essential oil extracted from the leaves of Eucalyptus citriodora it showed fungicidal activity against Candida albicans and bacteriostatic with Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

  1. C{sub 4} plant isotopic composition ({delta}{sup 13}C) evidence for urban CO{sub 2} pollution in the city of Cotonou, Benin (West Africa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelome, Nelly C.; Leveque, Jean; Andreux, Francis; Milloux, Marie-Jeanne [UMR Microbiologie et Geochimie des Sols INRA, Universite de Bourgogne, Centre des Sciences de la Terre, 6 Bd Gabriel, 21000 Dijon (France); Oyede, Lucien-Marc [Departement des Sciences de la Terre, Universite d' Abomey-Calavi, 01 B.P. 526, Cotonou (Benin)

    2006-08-01

    The carbon isotopic composition ({delta}{sup 13}C) of plants can reveal the isotopic carbon content of the atmosphere in which they develop. The {delta}{sup 13}C values of air and plants depend on the amount of atmospheric fossil fuel CO{sub 2}, which is chiefly emitted in urban areas. A new indicator of CO{sub 2} pollution is tested using the {delta}{sup 13}C variation in a C{sub 4} grass: Eleusine indica. A range of about 4%% delta units was observed at different sites in Cotonou, the largest city in the Republic of Benin. The highest {delta}{sup 13}C values, from -12%% to -14%%, were found in low traffic zones; low {delta}{sup 13}C values, from -14%% to -16%%, were found in high traffic zones. The amount of fossil fuel carbon assimilated by plants represented about 20% of the total plant carbon content. An overall decrease in plant {delta}{sup 13}C values was observed over a four-year monitoring period. This decrease was correlated with increasing vehicle traffic. The {delta}{sup 13}C dataset and the corresponding geographical database were used to map and define zones of high and low {sup 13}C-depleted CO{sub 2} emissions in urban and sub-urban areas. The spatial distribution follows dominant wind directions, with the lowest emission zones found in the southwest of Cotonou. High CO{sub 2} emissions occurred in the north, the east and the center, providing evidence of intense anthropogenic activity related to industry and transportation. (author)

  2. C{sub 4} plant isotopic composition ((delta){sup 13}C) evidence for urban CO{sub 2} pollution in the city of Cotonou, Benin (West Africa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelome, Nelly C.; Leveque, Jean; Andreux, Francis; Milloux, Marie-Jeanne [UMR Microbiologie et Geochimie des Sols INRA, Universite de Bourgogne, Centre des Sciences de la Terre, 6 Bd Gabriel, 21000 Dijon (France); Oyede, Lucien-Marc [Departement des Sciences de la Terre, Universite d' Abomey-Calavi, 01 B.P. 526, Cotonou (Benin)

    2006-08-01

    The carbon isotopic composition ((delta){sup 13}C) of plants can reveal the isotopic carbon content of the atmosphere in which they develop. The (delta){sup 13}C values of air and plants depend on the amount of atmospheric fossil fuel CO{sub 2}, which is chiefly emitted in urban areas. A new indicator of CO{sub 2} pollution is tested using the (delta){sup 13}C variation in a C{sub 4} grass: Eleusine indica. A range of about 4%% delta units was observed at different sites in Cotonou, the largest city in the Republic of Benin. The highest (delta){sup 13}C values, from -12%% to -14%%, were found in low traffic zones; low (delta){sup 13}C values, from -14%% to -16%%, were found in high traffic zones. The amount of fossil fuel carbon assimilated by plants represented about 20% of the total plant carbon content. An overall decrease in plant (delta){sup 13}C values was observed over a four-year monitoring period. This decrease was correlated with increasing vehicle traffic. The (delta){sup 13}C dataset and the corresponding geographical database were used to map and define zones of high and low {sup 13}C-depleted CO{sub 2} emissions in urban and sub-urban areas. The spatial distribution follows dominant wind directions, with the lowest emission zones found in the southwest of Cotonou. High CO{sub 2} emissions occurred in the north, the east and the center, providing evidence of intense anthropogenic activity related to industry and transportation. (author)

  3. C{sub 4} plant isotopic composition ({delta} {sup 13}C) evidence for urban CO{sub 2} pollution in the city of Cotonou, Benin (West Africa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelome, Nelly C. [UMR Microbiologie et Geochimie des Sols INRA, Universite de Bourgogne, Centre des Sciences de la Terre, 6 Bd Gabriel, 21000 Dijon (France); Departement des Sciences de la Terre, Universite d' Abomey-Calavi, 01 B.P. 526, Cotonou (Benin); Leveque, Jean [UMR Microbiologie et Geochimie des Sols INRA, Universite de Bourgogne, Centre des Sciences de la Terre, 6 Bd Gabriel, 21000 Dijon (France)]. E-mail: jleveque@ubourgogne.fr; Andreux, Francis [UMR Microbiologie et Geochimie des Sols INRA, Universite de Bourgogne, Centre des Sciences de la Terre, 6 Bd Gabriel, 21000 Dijon (France); Milloux, Marie-Jeanne [UMR Microbiologie et Geochimie des Sols INRA, Universite de Bourgogne, Centre des Sciences de la Terre, 6 Bd Gabriel, 21000 Dijon (France); Oyede, Lucien-Marc [Departement des Sciences de la Terre, Universite d' Abomey-Calavi, 01 B.P. 526, Cotonou (Benin)

    2006-08-01

    The carbon isotopic composition ({delta} {sup 13}C) of plants can reveal the isotopic carbon content of the atmosphere in which they develop. The {delta} {sup 13}C values of air and plants depend on the amount of atmospheric fossil fuel CO{sub 2}, which is chiefly emitted in urban areas. A new indicator of CO{sub 2} pollution is tested using the {delta} {sup 13}C variation in a C{sub 4} grass: Eleusine indica. A range of about 4 per mille delta units was observed at different sites in Cotonou, the largest city in the Republic of Benin. The highest {delta} {sup 13}C values, from - 12 per mille to - 14 per mille , were found in low traffic zones; low {delta} {sup 13}C values, from - 14 per mille to - 16 per mille , were found in high traffic zones. The amount of fossil fuel carbon assimilated by plants represented about 20% of the total plant carbon content. An overall decrease in plant {delta} {sup 13}C values was observed over a four-year monitoring period. This decrease was correlated with increasing vehicle traffic. The {delta} {sup 13}C dataset and the corresponding geographical database were used to map and define zones of high and low {sup 13}C-depleted CO{sub 2} emissions in urban and sub-urban areas. The spatial distribution follows dominant wind directions, with the lowest emission zones found in the southwest of Cotonou. High CO{sub 2} emissions occurred in the north, the east and the center, providing evidence of intense anthropogenic activity related to industry and transportation.

  4. [Capacity of response of the health system to the expectations of populations in zones exposed to results-based financing in Benin in 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, Lamidhi; Dona Ouendo, Edgard-Marius; Fayomi, Benjamin

    2017-07-10

    Introduction: The increased use of results-based financing (RBF) services was the basis for this study designed to evaluate the contribution of RBF to the capacity of response of the health system to the population’s expectations. Methods: This study, conducted in six Benin health zones randomly selected in two strata exposed to RBF (FBR_PRPSS and FBR_PASS) and one zone not exposed to RBF (Non_FBR), examined the seven dimensions of reactivity. A score, followed by weighting of their attributes, was used to calculate the index of reactivity (IR). Results: Sixty-seven health care units and 653 people were observed and interviewed. The FBR_PRPSS and FBR_PASS strata, managed by the new provisions of RBF, displayed good performances for the “rapidity of management” (70% and 80%) and “quality of the health care environment” dimensions, with a more marked improvement for the PRPSS model, which provides greater resources. Poor access to social welfare networks in the three strata led to renouncing of health care. The capacity of response to expectations was moderate and similar in the Non_FBR (IR = 0.53), FBR_PASS (IR = 0.62) and FBR_PRPSS (IR = 0.61) strata (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The FBR_PRPSS and FBR_PASS models have a non-significant effect on the capacity of response. Their success probably depends on the health system context, the combination of targeted interventions, such as universal health insurance, but also the importance and the use of the new resources that they provide.

  5. [Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis among schoolchildren of Nikki and Pèrèrè, two northeastern towns of Benin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibikounlé, M; Gbédjissi, L G; Ogouyèmi-Hounto, A; Batcho, W; Kindé-Gazard, D; Massougbodji, A

    2014-08-01

    Infection with schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis are widespread in sub-Saharan Africa and the burden of disease associated with parasites is enormous. A study was performed to determine the transmission and prevalence of human schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis among school children of Nikki and Perere, two north eastern towns of Benin, bordering Republic of Nigeria. Parasitological investigations by urine filtration and Kato-Katz conducted on 1,344 school children indicated a mean prevalence of S. haematobium and S. mansoni 48.44% and 0%, respectively, in the children of Nikki area and 45.24% and 4.11% in Perere area. Only schoolchildren of Sonon locality were infected by S. mansoni with a mean prevalence rate of 36.24%. KatoKatz tests releaved five species of soil-transmitted helminths: Ankylostoma duodenale (8.16% and 6.73%), Ascaris lumbricoides (6.26% and 2.30%), Enterobius vermicularis (1.09% and 1.97%), Trichuris trichiura (1.97% and 1.90%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (2.04% and 0.99%), respectively, in the schoolchildren of Nikki and Perere areas. The malacological investigations carried out in the freshwater points of each visited locality highlighted the presence of four species of freshwater snails known as intermediate host of schistosome: Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Bulinus forskalii, B. globosus and B. truncatus.Two B. globosus and B. pfeifferi collected in Sonon locality were naturally infected by schistosome, indicated the importance of their two species of snail in schistosome transmission cycle.

  6. Rare earth and precious elements in the urban sewage sludge and lake surface sediments under anthropogenic influence in the Republic of Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yessoufou, Arouna; Ifon, Binessi Edouard; Suanon, Fidèle; Dimon, Biaou; Sun, Qian; Dedjiho, Comlan Achille; Mama, Daouda; Yu, Chang-Ping

    2017-11-09

    Nowadays, sewage sludge and water bodies are subjected to heavy pollution due to rapid population growth and urbanization. Heavy metal pollution represents one of the main challenges threatening our environment and the ecosystem. The present work aims to evaluate the contamination state of the sewage sludge and lake sediments in the Republic of Benin. Twenty metallic elements including 15 rare earth elements (Eu, Sb, Cs, Nd, Pr, Gd, La, Ce, Tb, Sm, Dy, Ho, Eu, Yb, and Lu) and five precious elements (Ag, Au, Pd, Pt, and Ru) were investigated using inductive plasma-mass spectrometry. Results showed broad range concentrations of the elements. Ce, La, and Nd were present in both sediments and sewage sludge at concentrations ranging 5.80-41.30 mg/kg dry matter (DM), 3.23-15.60 mg/kg DM, and 2.74-19.26 mg/kg DM, respectively. Pr, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Eu, Er, Yb, Cs, Ho, and Tm concentrations were lower (0.02-5.94 mg/kg DM). Among precious elements, Ag was detected at the highest concentration in all sites (0.43-4.72 mg/kg DM), followed by Pd (0.20-0.57 mg/kg DM) and Au (0.01-0.57 mg/kg DM). Ru and Pt concentrations were sewage sludge. This revealed a growing anthropogenic input which was also implied by principal component analysis. The evaluation of pollution loading index (PLI) indicated a moderate to strong contamination (0.12 ≤ PLI ≤ 0.58; 37 ≤ PLI ≤ 114, respectively, for rare earth elements and precious elements), while the degree of contamination indicated a moderate polymetallic contamination for rare earth elements and significant contamination for precious elements.

  7. What would PCR assessment change in the management of fevers in a malaria endemic area? A school-based study in Benin in children with and without fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faucher Jean-François

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A recent school-based study in Benin showed that applying a policy of anti-malarial prescriptions restricted to parasitologically-confirmed cases on the management of fever is safe and feasible. Additional PCR data were analysed in order to touch patho-physiological issues, such as the usefulness of PCR in the management of malaria in an endemic area or the triggering of a malaria attack in children with submicroscopic malaria. Methods PCR data were prospectively collected in the setting of an exposed (with fever/non exposed (without fever study design. All children had a negative malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT at baseline, were followed up to day 14 and did not receive drugs with anti-malarial activity. The index group was defined by children with fever at baseline and the control group by children without fever at baseline. Children with submicroscopic malaria in these two groups were defined by a positive PCR at baseline. Results PCR was positive in 66 (27% children of the index group and in 104 (44% children of the control group respectively. The only significant factor positively related to PCR positivity at baseline was the clinical status (control group. When definition of malaria attacks included PCR results, no difference of malaria incidence was observed between the index and control groups, neither in the whole cohort, nor in children with submicroscopic malaria. The rate of undiagnosed malaria at baseline was estimated to 3.7% at baseline in the index group. Conclusions Treating all children with fever and a positive PCR would have led to a significant increase of anti-malarial consumption, with few benefits in terms of clinical events. Non malarial fevers do not or do not frequently trigger malaria attacks in children with submicroscopic malaria.

  8. The indigenous Somba cattle of the hilly Atacora region in North-West Benin: threats and opportunities for its sustainable use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossa, Luc Hippolyte; Vanvanhossou, Fridaïus Ulrich Sèyi

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the declining Somba cattle population in its production system context. Two-hundred-twenty-four (224) cattle farm-households were surveyed in the Boukombe district, the natural habitat of the breed in North-West Benin. Information on their socioeconomic characteristics and on their herd management practices were recorded using a semi-structured questionnaire. In addition, 15 body measurements were recorded from 102 adult cattle. Three types of breeders were distinguished: the owners-herders (54.0 %); the absentee owners (40.2 %) and the professional herders (5.8 %). The average cattle herd sizes were 4.7 ± 3.70 and 58.6 ± 22.83 heads for owner-managed and entrusted herds, respectively. Offtakes were more associated with sociocultural purposes (75.5 %) than market. While crop farming was the main occupation and income source of their owners, the Somba cattle were used for ploughing during the rainy season. In contrast to the widely accepted belief that this indigenous genetic resource is mainly threatened by crossbreeding and/or replacement, our findings suggest high mortalities due to diseases, feed and water shortages and poor reproduction management as the main causes of the decline of this cattle population. Somba cattle generally have short horns and a small body size. However, bulls have significantly (P ≤ 0.05) longer horns (21.2 ± 16.44 cm against 13.9 ± 7.21 cm), higher height at withers (99.7 ± 6.97 cm against 95.9 ± 5.76 cm) and body length (149.7 ± 12.87 cm against 146.8 ± 11.01 cm) than cows. All surveyed farmers expressed their willingness and readiness to participate in and contribute materially or financially to any program towards a sustainable use and preservation of this breed which they perceived as hardy and embedded in their culture. We therefore argue that strategies for its sustainable use and conservation should consist of simultaneously

  9. Observations of biogenic isoprene emissions and atmospheric chemistry components at the Savé super site in Benin, West Africa, during the DACCIWA field campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambert, Corinne; Pacifico, Federica; Delon, Claire; Lohou, Fabienne; Reinares Martinez, Irene; Brilouet, Pierre-Etienne; Derrien, Solene; Dione, Cheikh; Brosse, Fabien; Gabella, Omar; Pedruzzo Bagazgoitia, Xavier; Durand, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    Tropospheric oxidation of VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds), including isoprene, in the presence of NOx and sunlight leads to the formation of O3 and Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOA). Changes in NO or VOCs sources will consequently modify their atmospheric concentrations and thus, the rate of O3 production and SOA formation. NOx have also an impact on the abundance of the hydroxyl radical (OH) which determines the lifetime of some pollutants and greenhouse gases. Anthropogenic emissions of pollutants from mega cities located on the Guinean coast in South West Africa are likely to increase in the next decades due to a strong anthropogenic pressure and to land use changes at the regional or continental scale. The consequences on regional air quality and on pollutant deposition onto surfaces may have some harmful effects on human and ecosystem health. Furthermore, the regional climate and water cycle are affected by changes in atmospheric chemistry. When transported northward on the African continent, polluted air masses meet biogenic emissions from rural areas which contributes to increase ozone and SOA production, in high temperature and solar radiation conditions, highly favourable to enhanced photochemistry. During the Dynamics-aerosol-chemistry-cloud interactions in West Africa (DACCIWA) field campaign, we measured the atmospheric chemical composition and the exchanges of trace components in a hinterland area of Benin, at the Savé super-site (8°02'03" N, 2°29'11″ E). The observations, monitored in June and July 2016, in a rural mixed agricultural area, include near surface concentrations of ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and isoprene, isoprene fluxes and meteorological parameters. We observed hourly average concentrations of O3 up to 50 ppb, low NOx concentrations (ca. 1 ppb and CO concentrations between 75 and 300 ppb. An 8 m tower was equipped with a Fast Isoprene Sensor and sonic anemometer to measure isoprene concentrations and

  10. Mass concentration, optical depth and carbon composition of particulate matter in the major southern West African cities of Cotonou (Benin) and Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djossou, Julien; Léon, Jean-François; Barthélemy Akpo, Aristide; Liousse, Cathy; Yoboué, Véronique; Bedou, Mouhamadou; Bodjrenou, Marleine; Chiron, Christelle; Galy-Lacaux, Corinne; Gardrat, Eric; Abbey, Marcellin; Keita, Sékou; Bahino, Julien; Touré N'Datchoh, Evelyne; Ossohou, Money; Awanou, Cossi Norbert

    2018-05-01

    Air quality degradation is a major issue in the large conurbations on the shore of the Gulf of Guinea. We present for the first time PM2.5 time series collected in Cotonou, Benin, and Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, from February 2015 to March 2017. Measurements were performed in the vicinity of major combustion aerosol sources: Cotonou/traffic (CT), Abidjan/traffic (AT), Abidjan/landfill (AL) and Abidjan/domestic fires (ADF). We report the weekly PM2.5 mass and carbonaceous content as elemental (EC) and organic (OC) carbon concentrations. We also measure the aerosol optical depth (AOD) and the Ångström exponent in both cities. The average PM2.5 mass concentrations were 32 ± 32, 32 ± 24 and 28 ± 19 µg m-3 at traffic sites CT and AT and landfill site AL, respectively. The domestic fire site shows a concentration of 145 ± 69 µg m-3 due to the contribution of smoking and roasting activities. The highest OC and EC concentrations were also measured at ADF at 71 ± 29 and 15 ± 9 µg m-3, respectively, while the other sites present OC concentration between 8 and 12 µg m-3 and EC concentrations between 2 and 7 µg m-3. The OC / EC ratio is 4.3 at CT and 2.0 at AT. This difference highlights the influence of two-wheel vehicles using gasoline in Cotonou compared to that of four-wheel vehicles using diesel fuel in Abidjan. AOD was rather similar in both cities, with a mean value of 0.58 in Cotonou and of 0.68 in Abidjan. The seasonal cycle is dominated by the large increase in surface mass concentration and AOD during the long dry season (December-February) as expected due to mineral dust advection and biomass burning activities. The lowest concentrations are observed during the short dry season (August-September) due to an increase in surface wind speed leading to a better ventilation. On the other hand, the high PM2.5 / AOD ratio in the short wet season (October-November) indicates the stagnation of local pollution.

  11. Clinical Epidemiology of Buruli Ulcer from Benin (2005-2013: Effect of Time-Delay to Diagnosis on Clinical Forms and Severe Phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Capela

    Full Text Available Buruli Ulcer (BU is a neglected infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans that is responsible for severe necrotizing cutaneous lesions that may be associated with bone involvement. Clinical presentations of BU lesions are classically classified as papules, nodules, plaques and edematous infiltration, ulcer or osteomyelitis. Within these different clinical forms, lesions can be further classified as severe forms based on focality (multiple lesions, lesions' size (>15 cm diameter or WHO Category (WHO Category 3 lesions. There are studies reporting an association between delay in seeking medical care and the development of ulcerative forms of BU or osteomyelitis, but the effect of time-delay on the emergence of lesions classified as severe has not been addressed. To address both issues, and in a cohort of laboratory-confirmed BU cases, 476 patients from a medical center in Allada, Benin, were studied. In this laboratory-confirmed cohort, we validated previous observations, demonstrating that time-delay is statistically related to the clinical form of BU. Indeed, for non-ulcerated forms (nodule, edema, and plaque the median time-delay was 32.5 days (IQR 30.0-67.5, while for ulcerated forms it was 60 days (IQR 20.0-120.0 (p = 0.009, and for bone lesions, 365 days (IQR 228.0-548.0. On the other hand, we show here that time-delay is not associated with the more severe phenotypes of BU, such as multi-focal lesions (median 90 days; IQR 56-217.5; p = 0.09, larger lesions (diameter >15 cm (median 60 days; IQR 30-120; p = 0.92 or category 3 WHO classification (median 60 days; IQR 30-150; p = 0.20, when compared with unifocal (median 60 days; IQR 30-90, small lesions (diameter ≤15 cm (median 60 days; IQR 30-90, or WHO category 1+2 lesions (median 60 days; IQR 30-90, respectively. Our results demonstrate that after an initial period of progression towards ulceration or bone involvement, BU lesions become stable regarding size and focal

  12. Measurements of NO and NH3 soil fluxes at the Savé super site in Benin, West Africa, during the DACCIWA field campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifico, Federica; Delon, Claire; Jambert, Corinne; Durand, Pierre; Lohou, Fabienne; Reinares Martinez, Irene; Brilouet, Pierre-Etienne; Brosse, Fabien; Pedruzo Bagazgoitia, Xabier; Dione, Cheikh; Gabella, Omar

    2017-04-01

    In the next decades South West Africa will be subject to a strong increase in anthropogenic emissions due to a massive growth in population and urbanization. The impact of global climate change, local or regional land use changes, and the strong sensitivity to the West African monsoon lead to complex interactions between surface emissions and atmospheric dynamics and chemistry. Anthropogenic pollutants are transported northward from the mega cities located on the coast, and react with biogenic emissions, leading to enhanced ozone (O3) production outside urban areas, as well as secondary organic aerosols formation, with detrimental effects on humans, animals, natural vegetation and crops. Nitrogen oxide (NO) emissions from soils, among other sources, directly influence NOx concentrations. Changes in NO sources will consequently modify the rate of O3 production. The largest source of ammonia (NH3) emissions is agriculture, via the application of synthetic fertilizer. When released into the atmosphere, NH3 increases the level of air pollution. Once deposited in water and soils, it can potentially cause two major types of environmental damage, acidification and eutrophication, both of which can harm sensitive vegetation systems, biodiversity and water quality. We investigate the role of soil fluxes of NO and NH3 on atmospheric chemistry in West Africa, making use of the observations taken in June and July 2016 at the Savé super-site, Benin (8°02'03" N, 2°29'11″ E), during the Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud Interactions in West Africa (DACCIWA) field campaign, which took place in June-July 2016. These observations also include meteorological and soil parameters such as air temperature and humidity (at 2 m height), radiation, soil temperature and moisture at different depths (5 cm and 10 cm). The climate in Savé is typical of a wet Guinea savanna, and the wet season takes place from June to October. Soil fluxes of NO and NH3 were measured on: bare soil, grassland

  13. Origins of streamflow in a crystalline basement catchment in a sub-humid Sudanian zone: The Donga basin (Benin, West Africa): Inter-annual variability of water budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séguis, L.; Kamagaté, B.; Favreau, G.; Descloitres, M.; Seidel, J.-L.; Galle, S.; Peugeot, C.; Gosset, M.; Le Barbé, L.; Malinur, F.; Van Exter, S.; Arjounin, M.; Boubkraoui, S.; Wubda, M.

    2011-05-01

    SummaryDuring the last quarter of the 20th century, West Africa underwent a particularly intense and generalized drought. During this period, the biggest drops in streamflow were observed in the Sudanian zone rather than in the Sahelian zone, but the reasons are still poorly understood. In 2000, a meso-scale hydrological observatory was set up in the sub-humid Sudanian zone of the Upper Ouémé Valley (Benin). Three embedded catchments of 12-586 km 2 located on a crystalline bedrock were intensively instrumented to document the different terms of the water budget and to identify the main streamflow generating processes and base-flow mechanisms at different scales. Geophysical, hydrological and geochemical data were collected throughout the catchments from 2002 to 2006. Crossing these data helped define their hydrological functioning. The region has seasonal streamflow, and the permanent groundwater in the weathered mantle does not drain to rivers, instead, seasonal perched groundwaters are the major contributor to annual streamflow. The perched groundwaters are mainly located in seasonally waterlogged sandy layers in the headwater bottom-lands called bas-fonds in French-speaking West Africa of 1st order streams. During the period 2003-2006, regolith groundwater recharge ranged between 10% and 15% of the annual rainfall depth. Depletion of permanent groundwater during the dry season is probably explained by local evapotranspiration which was seen not to be limited to gallery forests. During the 4-year study period, a reduction of 20% in annual rainfall led to a 50% reduction in streamflow. This reduction was observed in the two components of the flow: direct runoff and drainage of perched groundwater. Thanks to the comprehensive dataset obtained, the results obtained for the Donga experimental catchment are now being extrapolated to the whole upper Ouémé valley, which can be considered as representative of sub-humid Sudanian rivers flowing on a crystalline

  14. Insecticide resistance profile of Anopheles gambiae from a phase II field station in Cové, southern Benin: implications for the evaluation of novel vector control products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngufor, Corine; N'Guessan, Raphael; Fagbohoun, Josias; Subramaniam, Krishanthi; Odjo, Abibatou; Fongnikin, Augustin; Akogbeto, Martin; Weetman, David; Rowland, Mark

    2015-11-18

    Novel indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) products aimed at improving the control of pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors have to be evaluated in Phase II semi-field experimental studies against highly pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes. To better understand their performance it is necessary to fully characterize the species composition, resistance status and resistance mechanisms of the vector populations in the experimental hut sites. Bioassays were performed to assess phenotypic insecticide resistance in the malaria vector population at a newly constructed experimental hut site in Cové, a rice growing area in southern Benin, being used for WHOPES Phase II evaluation of newly developed LLIN and IRS products. The efficacy of standard WHOPES-approved pyrethroid LLIN and IRS products was also assessed in the experimental huts. Diagnostic genotyping techniques and microarray studies were performed to investigate the genetic basis of pyrethroid resistance in the Cové Anopheles gambiae population. The vector population at the Cové experimental hut site consisted of a mixture of Anopheles coluzzii and An. gambiae s.s. with the latter occurring at lower frequencies (23 %) and only in samples collected in the dry season. There was a high prevalence of resistance to pyrethroids and DDT (>90 % bioassay survival) with pyrethroid resistance intensity reaching 200-fold compared to the laboratory susceptible An. gambiae Kisumu strain. Standard WHOPES-approved pyrethroid IRS and LLIN products were ineffective in the experimental huts against this vector population (8-29 % mortality). The L1014F allele frequency was 89 %. CYP6P3, a cytochrome P450 validated as an efficient metabolizer of pyrethroids, was over-expressed. Characterizing pyrethroid resistance at Phase II field sites is crucial to the accurate interpretation of the performance of novel vector control products. The strong levels of pyrethroid resistance at the Cové experimental hut

  15. Improving pneumonia case-management in Benin: a randomized trial of a multi-faceted intervention to support health worker adherence to Integrated Management of Childhood Illness guidelines

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    Lama Marcel

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pneumonia is a leading cause of death among children under five years of age. The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness strategy can improve the quality of care for pneumonia and other common illnesses in developing countries, but adherence to these guidelines could be improved. We evaluated an intervention in Benin to support health worker adherence to the guidelines after training, focusing on pneumonia case management. Methods We conducted a randomized trial. After a health facility survey in 1999 to assess health care quality before Integrated Management of Childhood Illness training, health workers received training plus either study supports (job aids, non-financial incentives and supervision of workers and supervisors or "usual" supports. Follow-up surveys were conducted in 2001, 2002 and 2004. Outcomes were indicators of health care quality for Integrated Management-defined pneumonia. Further analyses included a graphical pathway analysis and multivariable logistic regression modelling to identify factors influencing case-management quality. Results We observed 301 consultations of children with non-severe pneumonia that were performed by 128 health workers in 88 public and private health facilities. Although outcomes improved in both intervention and control groups, we found no statistically significant difference between groups. However, training proceeded slowly, and low-quality care from untrained health workers diluted intervention effects. Per-protocol analyses suggested that health workers with training plus study supports performed better than those with training plus usual supports (20.4 and 19.2 percentage-point improvements for recommended treatment [p = 0.08] and "recommended or adequate" treatment [p = 0.01], respectively. Both groups tended to perform better than untrained health workers. Analyses of treatment errors revealed that incomplete assessment and difficulties processing clinical findings

  16. Mass concentration, optical depth and carbon composition of particulate matter in the major southern West African cities of Cotonou (Benin and Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Djossou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Air quality degradation is a major issue in the large conurbations on the shore of the Gulf of Guinea. We present for the first time PM2.5 time series collected in Cotonou, Benin, and Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, from February 2015 to March 2017. Measurements were performed in the vicinity of major combustion aerosol sources: Cotonou/traffic (CT, Abidjan/traffic (AT, Abidjan/landfill (AL and Abidjan/domestic fires (ADF. We report the weekly PM2.5 mass and carbonaceous content as elemental (EC and organic (OC carbon concentrations. We also measure the aerosol optical depth (AOD and the Ångström exponent in both cities. The average PM2.5 mass concentrations were 32 ± 32, 32 ± 24 and 28 ± 19 µg m−3 at traffic sites CT and AT and landfill site AL, respectively. The domestic fire site shows a concentration of 145 ± 69 µg m−3 due to the contribution of smoking and roasting activities. The highest OC and EC concentrations were also measured at ADF at 71 ± 29 and 15 ± 9 µg m−3, respectively, while the other sites present OC concentration between 8 and 12 µg m−3 and EC concentrations between 2 and 7 µg m−3. The OC ∕ EC ratio is 4.3 at CT and 2.0 at AT. This difference highlights the influence of two-wheel vehicles using gasoline in Cotonou compared to that of four-wheel vehicles using diesel fuel in Abidjan. AOD was rather similar in both cities, with a mean value of 0.58 in Cotonou and of 0.68 in Abidjan. The seasonal cycle is dominated by the large increase in surface mass concentration and AOD during the long dry season (December–February as expected due to mineral dust advection and biomass burning activities. The lowest concentrations are observed during the short dry season (August–September due to an increase in surface wind speed leading to a better ventilation. On the other hand, the high PM2.5 ∕ AOD ratio in the short wet season (October–November indicates the

  17. Current procedures of the integrated urban vector-mosquito control as an example in Cotonou (Benin, West Africa) and Wrocław area (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydzanicz, Katarzyna; Lonc, Elzbieta; Becker, Norbert

    2009-01-01

    Current strategy of Integrated Vector Management (IVM) comprises the general approach of environmentally friendly control measures. With regard to mosquitoes it includes first of all application of microbial insecticides based on Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) and B. sphaericus (Bs) delta-endotoxins as well as the reduction of breeding habitats and natural enemy augmentation. It can be achieved thorough implementation of the interdisciplinary program, i. e., understanding of mosquito vector ecology, the appropriate vector-diseases (e. g., malariometric) measurements and training of local personnel responsible for mosquito abatement activities, as well as community involvement. Biocontrol methods as an alternative to chemical insecticides result from the sustainability development concept, growing awareness of environmental pollution and the development of insecticide-resistant strains of vector-mosquito populations in many parts of the world. Although sustainable trends are usually considered in terms of the monetary and training resources within countries, environmental concerns are actually more limiting factors for the duration of an otherwise successful vector control effort. In order to meet these new needs, increasing efforts have been made in search of and application of natural enemies, such as parasites, bacterial pathogens and predators which may control populations of insect vectors. The biological control agent based on the bacterial toxins Bti and Bs has been used in the Wrocław's University and Municipal Mosquito Control Programs since 1998. In West-Africa biocontrol appears to be an effective and safe tool to combat malaria in addition to bed-nets, residual indoor spraying and appropriate diagnosis and treatment of malaria parasites which are the major tools in the WHO Roll Back Malaria Program. IVM studies carried out 2005-2008 in Cotonou (Benin) as well those in Wrocław Irrigated Fields during the last years include the following major

  18. Expression of the cytochrome P450s, CYP6P3 and CYP6M2 are significantly elevated in multiple pyrethroid resistant populations of Anopheles gambiae s.s. from Southern Benin and Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranson Hilary

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticide resistance in Anopheles mosquitoes is threatening the success of malaria control programmes. This is particularly true in Benin where pyrethroid resistance has been linked to the failure of insecticide treated bed nets. The role of mutations in the insecticide target sites in conferring resistance has been clearly established. In this study, the contribution of other potential resistance mechanisms was investigated in Anopheles gambiae s.s. from a number of localities in Southern Benin and Nigeria. The mosquitoes were sampled from a variety of breeding sites in a preliminary attempt to investigate the role of contamination of mosquito breeding sites in selecting for resistance in adult mosquitoes. Results All mosquitoes sampled belonged to the M form of An. gambiae s.s. There were high levels of permethrin resistance in an agricultural area (Akron and an urban area (Gbedjromede, low levels of resistance in mosquito samples from an oil contaminated site (Ojoo and complete susceptibility in the rural Orogun location. The target site mutation kdrW was detected at high levels in two of the populations (Akron f = 0.86 and Gbedjromede f = 0.84 but was not detected in Ojoo or Orogun. Microarray analysis using the Anopheles gambiae detox chip identified two P450s, CYP6P3 and CYP6M2 up regulated in all three populations, the former was expressed at particularly high levels in the Akron (12.4-fold and Ojoo (7.4-fold populations compared to the susceptible population. Additional detoxification and redox genes were also over expressed in one or more populations including two cuticular pre-cursor genes which were elevated in two of the three resistant populations. Conclusion Multiple resistance mechanisms incurred in the different breeding sites contribute to resistance to permethrin in Benin. The cytochrome P450 genes, CYP6P3 and CYP6M2 are upregulated in all three resistant populations analysed. Several additional potential

  19. Cellular responses to Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1: use of relatively conserved synthetic peptide pools to determine CD4 T cell responses in malaria-exposed individuals in Benin, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanni Ambaliou

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1, a variant antigen of the malaria parasite, is potentially a target for the immune response. It would be important to determine whether there are CD4 T cells that recognise conserved regions. However, within the relatively conserved region, there is variation. It is not possible to test T cell responses from small field samples with all possible peptides. Methods We have aligned sequences that are relatively conserved between several PfEMP1 molecules, and chosen a representative sequence similar to most of the PfEMP1 variants. Using these peptides as pools representing CIDRα, CIDRβ and DBLβ-δ domains, DBLα domain, and EXON 2 domain of PfEMP1, we measured the CD4 T cell responses of malaria-exposed donors from Benin, West Africa by a FACS based assay. Results All the three peptide pools elicited a CD4 T cell response in a proportion of malaria-exposed and non-exposed donors. CD4 T cell proliferation occurs at a relatively higher magnitude to peptide pools from the DBLα and EXON 2 in the malaria-exposed donors living in Benin than in the UK malaria-unexposed donors. Conclusions These findings suggest that an immunological recall response to conserved peptides of a variant antigen can be measured. Further testing of individual peptides in a positive pool will allow us to determine those conserved sequences recognised by many individuals. These types of assays may provide information on conserved peptides of PfEMP1 which could be useful for stimulating T cells to provide help to P. falciparum specific B cells.

  20. Emerging quinolones resistant transfer genes among gram-negative bacteria, isolated from faeces of HIV/AIDS patients attending some Clinics and Hospitals in the City of Benin, Edo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enabulele IO

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of 1431 gram-negative bacilli from June 2001 to September 2005 were obtained from the faeces of 920 HIV/AIDS patients attending some Clinics and Hospitals in Benin City, Nigeria, were screened for quinolones resistance gene. The HIV/AIDS patients CD4 cells range was ≤14/mm3 ≥800/mm3 of blood. Out of the 1431 isolates, 343 (23.9% were resistance to quinolones with a MIC ≥4μg/ml for norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and pefloxacin while a MIC of ≥32 µg/ml for nalidixic acid. The screened isolates include Pseudomonas aeruginosa 64(18.7%, E coli 92(26.8%, Klebsiella pneumoniae 53(15.4%, Salmonella typhi 39(11.4%, Shigella dysenteriae 36(10.5%, Proteus mirabilis 34(9.9% and Serratia marcescens 25(7.3%. The average resistance of the isolates to the various quinolones ranged from 42.7% to 66.7%. Klebsiella were the most resistant isolates with a mean resistance of 66.7% while Proteus were the less resistant isolates with a mean resistance of 42.7%. Most isolates were resistant to Nalidixic acid followed by norfloxacin while the less resistant were to the pefloxacin. The frequency of qnr genes transfer to EJRifr as recipient ranged from 2 x 10-2 to 6 x 10-6 with an average of 2 plasmids per cell. The molecular weight of the plasmids ranged from <2.9kbp to <5.5 kbp. This indicated that plasmids allowed the movement of genetic materials including qnr resistant genes between bacteria species and genera in Benin City, Nigeria.

  1. Department of Economics and Statistics, University of Benin, Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Siphambe H (Prof)

    BOJE: Botswana Journal of Economics. 40. Import Penetration, FDI Inflows and Non-Oil Export Performance in Nigeria (1981-2012): A .... enters the foreign market, which are demand factors and, inflation rate, exchange rate, import ... contribution to GDP, compared to the share and contribution of oil export in/to total export ...

  2. Steps Toward Creating A Therapeutic Community for Inpatients Suffering from Chronic Ulcers: Lessons from Allada Buruli Ulcer Treatment Hospital in Benin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Setondji Amoussouhoui

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Reducing social distance between hospital staff and patients and establishing clear lines of communication is a major challenge when providing in-patient care for people afflicted by Buruli ulcer (BU and chronic ulcers. Research on hospitals as therapeutic communities is virtually non-existent in Africa and is currently being called for by medical anthropologists working in the field of health service and policy planning. This paper describes a pioneering attempt to establish a therapeutic community for patients suffering from BU and other chronic ulcers requiring long term hospital care in Benin.A six-month pilot project was undertaken with the objectives of establishing a therapeutic community and evaluating its impact on practitioner and patient relations. The project was designed and implemented by a team of social scientists working in concert with the current and previous director of a hospital serving patients suffering from advanced stage BU and other chronic ulcers. Qualitative research initially investigated patients' understanding of their illness and its treatment, identified questions patients had about their hospitalization, and ascertained their level of social support. Newly designed question-answer health education sessions were developed. Following these hospital wide education sessions, open forums were held each week to provide an opportunity for patients and hospital staff to express concerns and render sources of discontent transparent. Patient group representatives then met with hospital staff to problem solve issues in a non-confrontational manner. Psychosocial support for individual patients was provided in a second intervention which took the form of drop-in counseling sessions with social scientists trained to serve as therapy facilitators and culture brokers.Interviews with patients revealed that most patients had very little information about the identity of their illness and the duration of their treatment. This

  3. Congenital Anophthalmos in Benin City

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tulyasys

    such as trisomy 13 and Klinefelter's syndrome.[3,11]. Most cases appear to occur sporadically, but certain modes of inheritance have been documented including autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive and. X-linked transmission.[3,11] Other factors implicated in the etiology of anophthalmos include physical agents,.

  4. Cas de Cotonou au Benin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Département de l'Aménagement et de la Gestion de l'Environnement/FSA Université ... véhicules neufs, la création et l'encouragement du transport en commun, etc. ..... en panne garés sur ces artères, l'exode rural et l'accroissement du parc ...

  5. Benin - Access to Land - Rural

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This evaluation presents evidence from the first large-scale randomized controlled trial of a land formalization program. This study examines the links between land...

  6. Specific cut-off points for waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio as predictors of cardiometabolic risk in Black subjects: a cross-sectional study in Benin and Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EL Mabchour A

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Asma EL Mabchour,1 Hélène Delisle,1 Colette Vilgrain,2 Philippe Larco,2 Roger Sodjinou,3 Malek Batal1 1Transition Nutritionnelle (TRANSNUT, WHO Collaborating Centre on Nutrition Changes and Development, Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 2Haitian Foundation for Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases (FHADIMAC, Port-au-Prince, Haiti; 3West Africa Health Organization (WAHO, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso Purpose: Waist circumference (WC and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR are widely used as indicators of abdominal adiposity and the cut-off values have been validated primarily in Caucasians. In this study we identified the WC and WHtR cut-off points that best predicted cardiometabolic risk (CMR in groups of African (Benin and African ancestry (Haiti Black subjects. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 452 apparently healthy subjects from Cotonou (Benin and Port-au-Prince (Haiti, 217 women and 235 men from 25 to 60 years. CMR biomarkers were the metabolic syndrome components. Additional CMR biomarkers were a high atherogenicity index (total serum cholesterol/high density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥4 in women and ≥5 in men; insulin resistance set at the 75th percentile of the calculated Homeostasis Model Assessment index (HOMA-IR; and inflammation defined as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP concentrations between 3 and 10 mg/L. WC and WHtR were tested as predictors of two out of the three most prevalent CMR biomarkers. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves, Youden's index, and likelihood ratios were used to assess the performance of specific WC and WHtR cut-offs. Results: High atherogenicity index (59.5%, high blood pressure (23.2%, and insulin resistance (25% by definition were the most prevalent CMR biomarkers in the study groups. WC and WHtR were equally valid as predictors of CMR. Optimal WC cut-offs were 80 cm and 94 cm in men and women, respectively, which is exactly

  7. A Case of Cyperus spp. and Imperata cylindrica Occurrences on Acrisol of the Dahomey Gap in South Benin as Affected by Soil Characteristics: A Strategy for Soil and Weed Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahima Kone

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the limiting efficacy of common weed control methods on Cyperus spp. and Imperata cylindrica their occurrences in tropical agroecologies and the effect of soil properties in suppressing these species were investigated in south Benin (Cotonou, a typical ecology of the Dahomey gap. Weeds and soil samples were collected twice early and later in the rainy season in 2009 at four topographic positions (summit, upper slope, middle slope, and foot slope. Sampling was done according to Braun-Blanquet abundance indices (3 and 5 and the absence (0 of Cyperus and Imperata in a quadrat, respectively. The relationship between their respective abundances and soil parameters (texture, C, N, P, K, Na, Ca, Mg, and Fe was explored. Weed occurrence was less related to soil texture, and Imperata growth was more influenced by soil nutrients (K, Ca, and Fe than Cyperus spp. Soil cation ratios of K : Mg and Ca : Mg were the main factors that could be changed by applying K and/or Mg fertilizers to reduce Cyperus and/or Imperata occurrence. Maintaining high Fe concentration in soil at hillside positions can also reduce Imperata abundance, especially in the Dahomey gap.

  8. Disease, religion and medicine: smallpox in nineteenth-century Benin Doenças, religião e medicina: a varíola no Benim, século XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisée Soumonni

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The essay examines, with special reference to smallpox, the perception and interpretation of disease in pre-colonial Dahomey, present-day Republic of Benin. Because disease is seen primarily as a punishment from the gods and not just as a medical problem or a bodily disorder, traditional cult priests play a leading role in making diagnoses and prescribing remedies, mostly based on medicinal plants. The prominence of Sakpata, god of smallpox, coupled with the influence of its priests is evaluated within the context of Dahomey's political history and the spread of the disease. This pivotal position was to constitute a challenge to the French colonial campaign to vaccinate against smallpox.O ensaio examina - com especial atenção à varíola - as percepções e interpretações das doenças no Daomé pré-colonial, atual República do Benim. Uma vez que as doenças eram vistas antes de tudo como punição divina, e não como problema ou distúrbio do corpo, os sacerdotes tradicionais exerciam papel central no seu diagnóstico e na prescrição de remédios, com base principalmente em plantas medicinais. A importância do culto a Sakpata, deus da varíola, juntamente com a influência dos sacerdotes é avaliada dentro do contexto da história política do Daomé e da disseminação das doenças. A posição crucial desse culto constituiu-se como um desafio para a campanha colonial francesa de vacinação contra a varíola.

  9. Indoor residual spraying with a mixture of clothianidin (a neonicotinoid insecticide and deltamethrin provides improved control and long residual activity against pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae sl in Southern Benin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corine Ngufor

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need for new insecticides for indoor residual spraying (IRS which can provide improved and prolonged control of malaria vectors that have developed resistance to existing insecticides. The neonicotinoid, clothianidin represents a class of chemistry new to public health. Clothianidin acts as an agonist on nicotinic acetyl choline receptors. IRS with a mixture of Clothianidin and another WHO approved insecticide such as deltamethrin could provide improved control of insecticide resistant malaria vector populations and serve as a tool for insecticide resistance management.The efficacy and residual activity of a novel IRS mixture of deltamethrin and clothianidin was evaluated against wild pyrethroid resistant An. gambiae sl in experimental huts in Cove, Benin. Two application rates of the mixture were tested and comparison was made with clothianidin and deltamethrin applied alone. To assess the residual efficacy of the treatments on different local wall substrates, the inner walls of the experimental huts were covered with either cement, mud or plywood.Clothianidin demonstrated a clear delayed expression in mortality of wild pyrethroid resistant An. gambiae sl in the experimental huts which reached its full effect 120 hours after exposure. Overall mortality over the 12-month hut trial was 15% in the control hut and 24-29% in the deltamethrin-treated huts. The mixture of clothianidin 200mg/m2 and deltamethrin 25mg/m2 induced high overall hut mortality rates (87% on mud walls, 82% on cement walls and 61% on wooden walls largely due to the clothianidin component and high hut exiting rates (67-76% mostly due to the deltamethrin component. Mortality rates remained >80% for 8-9 months on mud and cement walls. The residual activity trend was confirmed by results from monthly in situ cone bioassays with laboratory susceptible An. gambiae Kisumu strain.IRS campaigns with the mixture of clothianidin plus deltamethrin have the potential to

  10. Can hospital audit teams identify case management problems, analyse their causes, identify and implement improvements? A cross-sectional process evaluation of obstetric near-miss case reviews in Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borchert Matthias

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obstetric near-miss case reviews are being promoted as a quality assurance intervention suitable for hospitals in low income countries. We introduced such reviews in five district, regional and national hospitals in Benin, West Africa. In a cross-sectional study we analysed the extent to which the hospital audit teams were able to identify case management problems (CMPs, analyse their causes, agree on solutions and put these solutions into practice. Methods We analysed case summaries, women’s interview transcripts and audit minutes produced by the audit teams for 67 meetings concerning one woman with near-miss complications each. We compared the proportion of CMPs identified by an external assessment team to the number found by the audit teams. For the latter, we described the CMP causes identified, solutions proposed and implemented by the audit teams. Results Audit meetings were conducted regularly and were well attended. Audit teams identified half of the 714 CMPs; they were more likely to find managerial ones (71% than the ones relating to treatment (30%. Most identified CMPs were valid. Almost all causes of CMPs were plausible, but often too superficial to be of great value for directing remedial action. Audit teams suggested solutions, most of them promising ones, for 38% of the CMPs they had identified, but recorded their implementation only for a minority (8.5%. Conclusions The importance of following-up and documenting the implementation of solutions should be stressed in future audit interventions. Tools facilitating the follow-up should be made available. Near-miss case reviews hold promise, but their effectiveness to improve the quality of care sustainably and on a large scale still needs to be established.

  11. Can hospital audit teams identify case management problems, analyse their causes, identify and implement improvements? A cross-sectional process evaluation of obstetric near-miss case reviews in Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Obstetric near-miss case reviews are being promoted as a quality assurance intervention suitable for hospitals in low income countries. We introduced such reviews in five district, regional and national hospitals in Benin, West Africa. In a cross-sectional study we analysed the extent to which the hospital audit teams were able to identify case management problems (CMPs), analyse their causes, agree on solutions and put these solutions into practice. Methods We analysed case summaries, women’s interview transcripts and audit minutes produced by the audit teams for 67 meetings concerning one woman with near-miss complications each. We compared the proportion of CMPs identified by an external assessment team to the number found by the audit teams. For the latter, we described the CMP causes identified, solutions proposed and implemented by the audit teams. Results Audit meetings were conducted regularly and were well attended. Audit teams identified half of the 714 CMPs; they were more likely to find managerial ones (71%) than the ones relating to treatment (30%). Most identified CMPs were valid. Almost all causes of CMPs were plausible, but often too superficial to be of great value for directing remedial action. Audit teams suggested solutions, most of them promising ones, for 38% of the CMPs they had identified, but recorded their implementation only for a minority (8.5%). Conclusions The importance of following-up and documenting the implementation of solutions should be stressed in future audit interventions. Tools facilitating the follow-up should be made available. Near-miss case reviews hold promise, but their effectiveness to improve the quality of care sustainably and on a large scale still needs to be established. PMID:23057707

  12. Indoor residual spraying with a mixture of clothianidin (a neonicotinoid insecticide) and deltamethrin provides improved control and long residual activity against pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae sl in Southern Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngufor, Corine; Fongnikin, Augustin; Rowland, Mark; N'Guessan, Raphael

    2017-01-01

    There is an urgent need for new insecticides for indoor residual spraying (IRS) which can provide improved and prolonged control of malaria vectors that have developed resistance to existing insecticides. The neonicotinoid, clothianidin represents a class of chemistry new to public health. Clothianidin acts as an agonist on nicotinic acetyl choline receptors. IRS with a mixture of Clothianidin and another WHO approved insecticide such as deltamethrin could provide improved control of insecticide resistant malaria vector populations and serve as a tool for insecticide resistance management. The efficacy and residual activity of a novel IRS mixture of deltamethrin and clothianidin was evaluated against wild pyrethroid resistant An. gambiae sl in experimental huts in Cove, Benin. Two application rates of the mixture were tested and comparison was made with clothianidin and deltamethrin applied alone. To assess the residual efficacy of the treatments on different local wall substrates, the inner walls of the experimental huts were covered with either cement, mud or plywood. Clothianidin demonstrated a clear delayed expression in mortality of wild pyrethroid resistant An. gambiae sl in the experimental huts which reached its full effect 120 hours after exposure. Overall mortality over the 12-month hut trial was 15% in the control hut and 24-29% in the deltamethrin-treated huts. The mixture of clothianidin 200mg/m2 and deltamethrin 25mg/m2 induced high overall hut mortality rates (87% on mud walls, 82% on cement walls and 61% on wooden walls) largely due to the clothianidin component and high hut exiting rates (67-76%) mostly due to the deltamethrin component. Mortality rates remained >80% for 8-9 months on mud and cement walls. The residual activity trend was confirmed by results from monthly in situ cone bioassays with laboratory susceptible An. gambiae Kisumu strain. IRS campaigns with the mixture of clothianidin plus deltamethrin have the potential to provide

  13. Physico-chemical characterization of African urban aerosols (Abidjan in Cote d'Ivoire and Cotonou in Benin) and their toxic effects in human bronchial epithelial cells during the dry season 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adon, Jacques; Liousse, Cathy; Yoboue, Veronique; Baeza, Armelle; Akpo, Aristide; Bahino, Julien; Chiron, Christelle; Galy-Lacaux, Corinne; Keita, Sékou

    2017-04-01

    This study is a contribution to the WP2-DACCIWA program with the aim to characterize particulate pollution on domestic fire site, traffic sites and waste burning site of two West-African capitals (Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire and Cotonou, Benin) and to study aerosol biological impacts on lung inflammation. Such an impact is still largely unknown, especially for the particles emitted by intense African traffic sources and domestic fires. In this context, fundamental research of this study is centered on the following key scientific question: what is the link between aerosol size differentiated composition and inflammation markers for the main combustion sources prevailing in South West Africa during dry and wet seasons? To tackle this question, intensive campaigns in Abidjan and Cotonou have been conducted in July 2015, January and July 2016, and January 2017. In this paper, we will present our first results for the campaign of January 2016. In terms of aerosol size differentiated composition, main aerosol components (mass, black carbon, organic carbon, water soluble particles ...) were measured. We may notice that PM measured for all the sites is generally higher than WHO norms. Organic carbon and dust particles are the two more important contributors for the ultra-fine and fine particle sizes with more organic carbon in Abidjan and dust particles in Cotonou respectively. In terms of in vitro biological studies on sampled aerosols on these sites, size-fractionated PM from the different sampling sites were compared for their ability to induce a proinflammatory response characterized by the release of the cytokine IL-6 by human bronchial epithelial cells. PM from waste burning site did not induce significant IL-6 release whatever the size fraction whereas PM from domestic fire were the most reactive especially the ultra-fine fraction. Ultra-fine particles from traffic (Abidjan and Cotonou) always induced a dose-dependent IL-6 release. A tentative cross-analysis between

  14. Decreased proportions of indoor feeding and endophily in Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations following the indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated net interventions in Benin (West Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padonou, Gil Germain; Gbedjissi, Ghelus; Yadouleton, Anges; Azondekon, Roseric; Razack, Ossé; Oussou, Olivier; Gnanguenon, Virgile; Rock, Aikpon; Sezonlin, Michel; Akogbeto, Martin

    2012-11-14

    In many parts of Africa as in Benin, the main strategies of vector control are based on the scaling-up of Long Lasting Insecticide Treated Nets (LLITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS). The need to understand the biological implications of IRS in large scale and full coverage of LLITNs is paramount. It is in this context that the present study was conducted. It aims to evaluate the effect of a large scale IRS using a non-pyrethroid insecticide and full coverage of deltamethrin treated nets on the behavior of An. gambiae s.l. in the intervention areas compared to untreated areas used as controls. Mosquitoes were collected using human landing catches, pyrethrum spray catches and window exit traps to assess reduction of entry rate, endophily rate, endophagy rate and overall mortality rate in natural populations of An. gambiae s.l. before IRS and LLITNs intervention (2007) and after in 2008 and 2010. In the IRS arm, endophily rate was 67.13% before intervention and 4.5% after intervention, whereas in the control arm it was stable at 51.67% (P > 0 .05). In the LLITN arm endophily rates also decreased after intervention. After the IRS, no gravid mosquitoes were collected from all treated localities, but LLITN performance was not that spectacular. The proportion of mosquitoes biting indoors in the IRS arm decreased from 67.09% before intervention to 42.85% after intervention, compared to a low but significant decrease (71.31% to 57. 46%) in the LLITN arm.The use of vector control tools and behavior of the host would be the main factors that modify the behavior of taking a human blood meal observed on An. gambiae s.l. inside human dwellings. The impact on the behavior of An. gambiae s.l. observed with the bendiocarb used in IRS was highly effective compared with the free distribution of LLITNs in terms of mortality and the decrease of proportions of indoor feeding. Despite this efficacy, there is a need for complementary tools and research of alternative strategy

  15. Decreased proportions of indoor feeding and endophily in Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations following the indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated net interventions in Benin (West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padonou Gil

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many parts of Africa as in Benin, the main strategies of vector control are based on the scaling-up of Long Lasting Insecticide Treated Nets (LLITNs and indoor residual spraying (IRS. The need to understand the biological implications of IRS in large scale and full coverage of LLITNs is paramount. It is in this context that the present study was conducted. It aims to evaluate the effect of a large scale IRS using a non-pyrethroid insecticide and full coverage of deltamethrin treated nets on the behavior of An. gambiae s.l. in the intervention areas compared to untreated areas used as controls. Methods Mosquitoes were collected using human landing catches, pyrethrum spray catches and window exit traps to assess reduction of entry rate, endophily rate, endophagy rate and overall mortality rate in natural populations of An. gambiae s.l. before IRS and LLITNs intervention (2007 and after in 2008 and 2010. Results In the IRS arm, endophily rate was 67.13% before intervention and 4.5% after intervention, whereas in the control arm it was stable at 51.67% (P > 0 .05. In the LLITN arm endophily rates also decreased after intervention. After the IRS, no gravid mosquitoes were collected from all treated localities, but LLITN performance was not that spectacular. The proportion of mosquitoes biting indoors in the IRS arm decreased from 67.09% before intervention to 42.85% after intervention, compared to a low but significant decrease (71.31% to 57. 46% in the LLITN arm. The use of vector control tools and behavior of the host would be the main factors that modify the behavior of taking a human blood meal observed on An. gambiae s.l. inside human dwellings. Conclusion The impact on the behavior of An. gambiae s.l. observed with the bendiocarb used in IRS was highly effective compared with the free distribution of LLITNs in terms of mortality and the decrease of proportions of indoor feeding. Despite this efficacy, there is a need

  16. Ecological assessment of riparian forests in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natta, A.K.

    2003-01-01

    The present research deals with the flora, phytosociology and ecology of riparian forests. The overall objective of this research is to contribute to a better knowledge of the flora, diversity and ecology of riparian forests in

  17. Retinal Vein Occlusion in Benin City, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    risk factors, and treatment outcomes in a group of patients with. RVO seen in a ... There were 15 (68.2%) eyes with central RVO, 3 (13.6%) eyes with branch ... This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative. Commons ...

  18. Cotton in Benin: governance and pest management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Togbe, C.E.

    2013-01-01

    Key words: cotton, synthetic pesticides, neem oil (Azadirachta indica), Beauveria bassiana,

    Bacillus thuringiensis, field experiment, farmers’ participation

    Pests are one of the main factors limiting cotton production worldwide. Most of the pest

    control

  19. Benin Journal of Postgraduate Medicine: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The journal is an important source of information for any practicing doctor and ... This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that ... finished art works, biomedes, films or discs are to be supplied by advertisers.

  20. Associations between an IgG3 polymorphism in the binding domain for FcRn, transplacental transfer of malaria-specific IgG3, and protection against Plasmodium falciparum malaria during infancy: A birth cohort study in Benin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Dechavanne

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Transplacental transfer of maternal immunoglobulin G (IgG to the fetus helps to protect against malaria and other infections in infancy. Recent studies have emphasized the important role of malaria-specific IgG3 in malaria immunity, and its transfer may reduce the risk of malaria in infancy. Human IgGs are actively transferred across the placenta by binding the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn expressed within the endosomes of the syncytiotrophoblastic membrane. Histidine at position 435 (H435 provides for optimal Fc-IgG binding. In contrast to other IgG subclasses, IgG3 is highly polymorphic and usually contains an arginine at position 435, which reduces its binding affinity to FcRn in vitro. The reduced binding to FcRn is associated with reduced transplacental transfer and reduced half-life of IgG3 in vivo. Some haplotypes of IgG3 have histidine at position 435. This study examines the hypotheses that the IgG3-H435 variant promotes increased transplacental transfer of malaria-specific antibodies and a prolonged IgG3 half-life in infants and that its presence correlates with protection against clinical malaria during infancy.In Benin, 497 mother-infant pairs were included in a longitudinal birth cohort. Both maternal and cord serum samples were assayed for levels of IgG1 and IgG3 specific for MSP119, MSP2 (both allelic families, 3D7 and FC27, MSP3, GLURP (both regions, R0 and R2, and AMA1 antigens of Plasmodium falciparum. Cord:maternal ratios were calculated. The maternal IgG3 gene was sequenced to identify the IgG3-H435 polymorphism. A multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the association between maternal IgG3-H435 polymorphism and transplacental transfer of IgG3, adjusting for hypergammaglobulinemia, maternal malaria, and infant malaria exposure. Twenty-four percent of Beninese women living in an area highly endemic for malaria had the IgG3-H435 allele (377 women homozygous for the IgG3-R435 allele, 117 women heterozygous for the Ig

  1. Enseñanza y aprendizaje del ELE en Benín: ¿qué puede aportar la adaptación del MCER? / Teaching and learning of SFL in Benin: What can provide the adaptation of the CEFR?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent-Fidèle Sossouvi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El Marco Común Europeo de Referencia para las Lenguas (MCER funciona en Europa como una herramienta para resolver y mejorar las dificultades de los estados miembros en materia de enseñanza de lenguas extranjeras. Pese a su universalidad, su obligada referencia y gran importancia en el mundo, sigue siendo desconocido por los profesionales de la enseñanza de lenguas extranjeras, especialmente del castellano en Benín. En este trabajo se hace hincapié en las posibilidades que tiene este documento en este país. Por ello, se comienza presentando algunas realidades del contexto de aprendizaje para luego explicar en qué consiste este marco supranacional. Después, se explora su importancia para la mejora de la docencia, del aprendizaje y de la evaluación, para centrarse en sus posibles aportaciones en el aula de castellano. Abstract The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR works in Europe as a tool to solve and improve the plight of the state members relating to the foreign languages teaching. Despite the universality, obligatory reference and the great importance of this tool in the world, it remains unknown to foreign language teaching experts, especially those of Spanish as Foreign Language (SFL in Benin. This paper emphasizes the possibilities of this document in this country. Therefore, we start by presenting some realities of learning context and then we explain what this frame supranational is. Then, we explore its importance for improving teaching, learning and assessment, and focus on their possible contributions to the Spanish language classroom.

  2. Current Practices In Infant Nutrition In Benin City, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of the 780 mothers 432 (55.6%) had children who were less than 6 months while 348(44.6%) had older infants. About 98.0% of the mothers were practicing one form of breast-feeding or the other. The exclusive breastfeeding rate (EBR), predominant breastfeeding rate (PBR) and bottle-feed rates (BOTFR) were respectively ...

  3. Marche du foncier urbain et promotion du logement au Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le marché du foncier urbain au Bénin est un secteur qui met en jeu l'intervention de plusieurs acteurs publics et privés mais également de l'informel. La notion de « foncier urbain » utilisée dans cet article englobe les acceptions et les utilisations faites en architecture, en urbanisme, en aménagement et en gestion urbaine.

  4. Ophthalmic surgical procedures in children at the University of Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The second commonest indication for surgery was cataract (23.0%), while eyeball removal (9% of cases) due to tumours or infection was the third commonest surgical procedure. Strabismus and pterygium surgery were infrequently performed (0.9%). Late presentation for eye surgery was the pattern in most of the cases.

  5. Microbiota of Tayohounta , a fermented baobab flavour food of Benin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tayohounta was also investigated using culture independent techniques, direct DNA extraction, polymerase chain reaction - denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and cloning. Isolated microorganisms were tested for their functionality in baobab seed kernels fermentation. Total viable counts were around 9 ...

  6. Strategic Implications of Piracy in Benin’s Territorial Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    four linguistic groups, from the former colonial, British, Spanish, French and Portuguese overlay domestic languages like Hausa, Wolof, Yoruba , cover...a wide range of geological, geographical and cultural diversity in the region. Among the many rivers that drain into the Gulf are the Niger and the...Rising nationalism implies sovereignty, culture clashes and leadership conflicts among key countries in the Gulf of Guinea. Such an ambiguous

  7. Features and perceptions of menopausal women in Benin City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ramakantb

    Research priorities include the influence of socio-cultural beliefs on sexuality at menopause and evaluation of HRT benefits. ... physiological manifestation of the aging process and do not seek ..... and oestrogen replacement in older women.

  8. Depressed patients seen at the University of Benin Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    of 522 patients attended to in the mental health clinic of a teaching hospital, over a six-year period. .... Table 1 shows that there were more females (55.3%) than .... depression.22,23 These events include stress at work .... Prusoff B, et al.

  9. Childhood Acute Glomerulonephritis in Benin City | Ibadin | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , oliguria (47.6 percent) and pulmonary oedema (39.7 percent). Others were headache (11.1 percent) and convulsion (4.8 percent). Haematuria and proteinuria of varying degrees occurred in all the patients, while antecedent infections were ...

  10. Outcomes of medical management of thyrotoxicosis in Benin City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The frequency of symptoms were anterior neck mass 68.57%, weight loss 60%, palpitation 60%, heat intolerance 37.14%, bulging eyes 31.43%, hyperdefaecation 31.45%, and tremors of the hands 19.99%. Goiter was found in 27(77.14%), proptosis 16 (45.71%) and onycholysis 3(8.57%). Goiters persisted despite medical ...

  11. original article candida species amongst pregnant women in benin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Oboro VO

    was used to streak Sabouraud Dextrose. Agar SDA (Oxoid, England) plates containing 0.5ml Chloramphenicol. (500mg,Pfizer) and incubated at 370C in triplicates. Uninoculated plain agar plates served as control for the inoculated ones. Discrete yeast colonies were subcultured on fresh SDA slants in. McCarthney bottles ...

  12. Donor Blood Procurement and Utilisation at the University of Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les dossiers du service de la transfusion sanguine de l\\'hôpital ont été étudiés pour identifier les méthodes d\\'obtention et d\\'utilisation du sang à partir du 1er janvier 2000 jusqu\\'au 31 décembre 2002. Au total, 11,021 unités de sang ont été obtenu dans le service de transfusion sanguine au cours de la période.

  13. Daytime Sleepiness among Medical Students in University of Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of daytime sleepiness could be associated with underlying medical/ psychological disorders. There is a need for future studies to address these correlates of day time sleepiness. It is recommended that strategies to enlighten students on sleep hygiene should be pursued. Keywords: Day time sleepiness, medical students, ...

  14. Photovoltaics Application in Benin City | Apeh | Journal of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis was carried out considering a 25-year operational period for the system. It was observed that though initial system cost was high, operational and maintenance costs were significantly minimal to deflate the initial cost of setting up the systems. Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics, Volume 19 ...

  15. Maxillofacial trauma due to road traffic accidents in Benin City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Distribution of maxillofacial bone and soft tissue injuries by vehicle type as well as associated injuries were documented. Results: The minibus was the vehicle type most often involved (36.2%) and tyre blowout (21.2%) was identified as the most common contributory factor. Males 117 (37.5%) in the 21 – 30 year- age range ...

  16. La problematique du surpeuplement des maisons carcerales au Benin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the end of this work, it follows that the prison overpopulation is favored by the failure of the preventive mission of the security forces, the repeated strike of the actors of the justice, the deficit of the prisons and the abusive recourse to preventive detention. In addition, this endemic disease has serious consequences for the ...

  17. autism among primary school pupils in benin metropolis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emeka Egbochuku

    neuro-developmental disorder that affects a child's social interaction, communication and ... aggressive or quiet and withdrawn. Very often, teachers ... autism, and about six per 1,000 for mild autism spectrum disorder (ASD). He further found ...

  18. The Pattern and Frequency of Drowning Autopsies in Benin City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Drowning is a form of violent asphyxia death, where in the entry of air into the lungs, is prevented by water or other fluids due to the submersion of mouth and nostril (complex submersion of whole body is not necessary). Aim and objective: To determine profile/patterns of all drowning autopsies in our ...

  19. Birth Asphyxia in a Nigerian Mission Hospital in Benin City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Although birth asphyxia is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality in ... limited attention in terms of policy and funding priority partly because of lack robust perinatal statistics. ... Overall case fatality rate was 15.7%.

  20. Assessment of Facilities and Best Practices in Orphanages in Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adedamla

    Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), disasters (such as ... Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care. 28 (2) 69-76 ... practices, caregiver,. Nigeria, orphanage, orphans, over- crowding, standard. Correspondence to:.

  1. Adult malignant lymphomas in University of Benin Teaching Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: We conclude that NHL was the most common of the lymphoma seen in young adulthood in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. A positive correlation between survival and duration of illness at presentation and haematological counts was found. The 1year survival is still very poor and this may not be unconnected ...

  2. Market Sanitation: A Case Study of Oregbeni Market Benin - City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor market sanitation is an intractable problem in Nigeria and has contributed to the spread of infectious diseases and environmental degradation. This study was undertaken to determine the awareness and practice of solid waste management in market places among market users. It involved 180 store owners and ...

  3. Maternal Deaths Audit in Four Benin Referral Hospitals: Quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Direct obstetric causes were prevailing in 74% of cases and the leading specific causes were haemorrhage (32.2%), infection (31.6%). Deficiencies in health system, medicals errors in treatment and monitoring, patients\\' financial unavailability and inadequate management of septic abortions were the main contributing ...

  4. Menstrual hygiene among students of a tertiary institution in Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Menstrual hygiene refers to a constellation of personal sanitation during menstruation and it involves use of appropriate sanitary pads, regular bathing and changing of clothes. The sustenance of menstruation related monthly sanitation, places an extra burden on the socioeconomic status and academic activity of females.

  5. Utilisation de la telephonie mobile en republique du Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduite au Bénin en 1996, la téléphonie mobile de par ses multiples fonctions et l'accroissement de ses usagers, est devenue de nos jours un outil important dans le développement socioéconomique des populations. En effet, qu'il s'agisse de jeunes comme de vieux, de femmes comme d'hommes, des instruits comme ...

  6. Mycoflora of Some Smoked Fish Varieties in Benin City Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rhizopus sp. and Trichoderma sp. in their order of decreasing frequency in all the fish samples. The highest mean mycoflora count (17.833 x103cfu) was recorded in Tilapia sp., while the lowest mean value (11.16 x103cfu) was recorded in Drepane africana. Aspergillus species are known to produce aflatoxins which are ...

  7. Role of community forest reserves in wildlife conservation in Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sacred groves and community forests are common ways for local rural African people to conserve natural resources. The importance of traditional approach in wildlife conservation was evaluated with line transect method utilized to assess five community forests. Comparable species richness with similar size protected ...

  8. Putting tested options into practice in Benin | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-04-21

    Apr 21, 2011 ... ... of regenerating soil using planting pits; integrated crop management; and the use of organic fertilizers. ... When needed, the committee issues separate alerts that may warn of extreme weather events. ... Related articles ...

  9. Assessment of facilities and best practices in orphanages in Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care ... nutritional status, housing and security, the availability of potable water, playground/ playing materials and the adequacy of child-caregivers ratio was used to obtain information about the orphanages and the findings were compared with the standard practices.

  10. Occupational Health Problems of Welders in Benin City, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The average level of use of protective devices was generally low (35.9%) when compared to the levels of awareness of the workplace hazards (91.6%) and the work-related health complaints (96.4%). The most prevalent health complaints were arc eye injuries (75.7%) followed by foreign bodies in the eyes (70.0%), ...

  11. Organizational changes help Benin NGO better protect fragile ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-28

    Apr 28, 2016 ... ... climate change adaptation, and sustainable management of fragile ecosystems. ... build community-level capacity for sustainable development through ... solution is to build new houses in more secure areas and to relocate ...

  12. Emergency traumatic Diaphragmatic injuries in Benin city | Iribhogbe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diaphragmatic injuries (DI) frequently accompany thoracoabdominal trauma. The diagnosis remains a challenge to surgeons and radiologists worldwide but missed injuries to the diaphragm is associated with great morbidity and mortality. We aimed to determine the prevalence of this injury in acute trauma and in general ...

  13. Dynamique de l'entrepreneuriat feminin au Benin | ONIBON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most common mode of learning is traditional, based on family and ... Indeed, it came out from the study that women often undertake in handicraft and trade. ... The major challenges faced by women entrepreneurs are capital deficiency, ...

  14. Hydrodynamic Modeling of Nokoué Lake in Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josué Zandagba

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nokoué Lake is a complex ecosystem, the understanding of which requires control of physical processes that have occurred. For this, the Surface Water Modeling System (SMS hydrodynamic model was calibrated and validated on the water depth data. The results of these simulations show a good match between the simulated and observed data for bottom roughness and turbulent exchange coefficients, of 0.02 m−1/3·s and 20 m2/s respectively. Once the ability of the model to simulate the hydrodynamics of the lake is testified, the model is used to simulate water surface elevation, exchanged flows and velocities. The simulation shows that the tidal amplitude is maximum at the inlet of the channel and decreases gradually from the inlet towards the lagoon’s main body. The propagation of the tidal wave is characterized by the dephasing and the flattening of the amplitude tide, which increases as we move away from the channel. This dephasing is characterized by a high and low tides delay of about 1 or 4 h and also depends on the tide amplitude and location. The velocities inside the lake are very low and do not exceed 0.03 m/s. The highest are obtained at the entrance of the channel. In a flood period, in contrast with the low-water period, incoming flows are higher than outflows, reinforced by the amplitude of the tide. An average renewal time of the lake has been estimated and corresponds during a flood period to 30 days for an average amplitude tide and 26.3 days on a high amplitude tide. In a low water period it is 40.2 days for an average amplitude tide and 30 days for a high amplitude tide. From the results obtained, several measures must be taken into account for the rational management of the lake water resources. These include a dam construction at the lake upstream, to control the river flows, and the dredging of the channel to facilitate exchanges with the sea.

  15. Solar retinopathy in Benin City, Nigeria | Ukponmwan | West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West African Journal of Medicine. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 22, No 4 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should ...

  16. Intestinal Helminths in caregivers working in Orphanages in Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health knowledge and health care practices of caregivers are important determinants of quality of care of any child. These caregivers in closed institutions such as the orphanages could be a sourceof environmental contamination and transmission of diseases including intestinal helminthic infections.This study was carried ...

  17. Tetracycline tooth discolouration in Benin City | Sede | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research ... This retrospective study was conducted to examine the incidence and pattern of tetracycline-related tooth discolouration in patients seen at the restorative dental clinic of ... These patients accounted for 2.2% of the 3750 patients that were seen during the period under review.

  18. Prevalence Of Visual Disorders In Deaf Children In Benin City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most developed and most important of the special senses of the body is the sense of sight and hearing, both of which are predisposed to gradual impairment in the absence of the other. It has been shown that the occurrence of either visual impairment and deafness or hearing loss existing independently or ...

  19. HEDONIC DEMAND ANALYSIS FOR BEEF IN BENIN METROPOLIS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BIUAGRIC2

    2013-02-11

    Feb 11, 2013 ... implicit demand for beef within the framework of a hedonic analysis, and the implicit or shadow price of beef were examined. Primary data ... results of the Hedonic analysis showed that, with an average unit price of N836.57 for beef, a consumer is strongly willing to pay ... method and strategies. Lancaster ...

  20. Determinants of cord care practices among mothers in Benin City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-10-04

    Oct 4, 2011 ... Background: Mothers care for their infants' umbilical cord stump in various ways. Different cord care practices have been documented; some are beneficial while others are harmful. Who and what influence the cord care practiced by mothers have, however, not been fully explored particularly in the study ...

  1. All projects related to Benin | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-08-11

    This project aims to build the capacity of populations in the urban community of Cotonou to cope with flooding. Start Date: August 11, 2009. End Date: August 12, 2012. Topic: CLIMATE CHANGE, ADAPTATION TO CHANGE, URBAN AREAS, FLOODS, DISASTER PREPAREDNESS, DISASTER PREVENTION, DISASTER ...

  2. Early Management of Open Tibial Fractures in Benin - City - Result ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open fractures of the tibia shaft are caused by major musculoskeletal injury, most ... The determinants of a successful treatment outcome are effective infection control, ... 15.4% wounds in type II and III (4 and 2 respectively) treated by delayed ...

  3. GUINE TR NSITION ZONE OF BENIN REPUBLIC JOSEPH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2017-07-13

    Jul 13, 2017 ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies & Management 10(5): 691 ... the source of income and laccessibility are significantly influencing the rate of ... implemented an Integrated Regional ..... Management of Scarce Water.

  4. Le commerce des reptiles au Benin | Toudonou | Journal de la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the European, Asian and American countries, they are rather required at ends zoophiles, terrariophiles and leather workings. The demand for these animals is thus very keen. To satisfy this double (local and international) and keen demand of reptiles species, two important networks of marketing are developed and ...

  5. Benin Journal of Postgraduate Medicine - Vol 9, No 1 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Survey Of HIV-Related Knowledge And Attitude Among Dental Nursing Students In South Western Nigeria · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. C Azodo, A Umoh, E Ezeja, M Ukpebor. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bjpm.v9i1.47367 ...

  6. Market Sanitation: A Case Study of Oregbeni Market Benin - City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Basic, Applied and Innovative Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 2, No 2 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  7. Hepatitis-B Vaccination Status Among Dental Surgeons in Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hanumantp

    consensus about vaccination rates among dental professionals in the literature as dental surgeons ..... Research Category of the Hatton poster competition in the 3rd. African Middle East ... Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1987;15:125-7. 6.

  8. Modelling Effluent Assimilative Capacity of Ikpoba River, Benin City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sheer display of reprehensible propensity on the part of public hospitals, abattoirs, breweries and city dwellers at large to discharge untreated waste, debris, scum and, in particular, municipal and industrial effluents into Ikpoba River has morphed into a situation whereby the assimilative capacity of the river has reached ...

  9. Childhood Acute Bacterial Meningitis in Benin City, Nigeria | Ojide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eleven (47.8%) out of the 23 cases were caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, 7 (30.4%) Haemophilus influenzae type b, 3 (13.0%) Neisseria meningitidis and 2 (8.7%) for others comprising of Staphylocuccus aureus and Klebssiella pneumoniae. No statistically significant association was established between ABM and ...

  10. Retinal vein occlusion in Benin City, Nigeria | Uhumwangho ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eyes which had definitive treatment with intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factors and laser photocoagulation for macula edema and retinal neovascularization, respectively, had better visual acuity compared to eyes which did not receive these treatment, P = 0.002. Conclusion: The incidence and visual loss that ...

  11. Aetiology of blindness in Benin City, Nigeria | Omoti | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major causes of binocular blindness were cataract (34.4%), glaucoma (25%) and age related macula degeneration (8.59%). The main causes of uniocular blindness were cataract (23.79%), glaucoma (22.58%) and trauma (11.69%). Conclusion: Avoidable causes of blindness remain the leading causes of blindness ...

  12. Incidences des extremes pluviometriques au Benin Impact of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . These data were extracted from the file of ASECNA-Cotonou. In addition, surveys have been conducted to understand the impacts of these extreme rainfalls. The data and information collected was processed using descriptive statistics.

  13. Awareness of childhood pneumonia in Benin City, Nigeria | Nwaneri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Mortality from pneumonia can be prevented by prompt recognition of symptoms of pneumonia by caregivers at home and appropriate seeking for medical care in a health facility. Active participation in pneumonia control by caregivers is dependent on the extent to which the members of the community are ...

  14. monosymptomatic childhood nocturnal enuresis in Benin City, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Only children with a history of bed-wetting since birth were recruited. ... The parents of children in public primary and secondary schools in Egor local government area, Edo State, were interviewed ..... fertility control in a developing country.

  15. Prevalence of ototoxicity in University of Benin Teaching Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-01-23

    Jan 23, 2012 ... found in pilots who died in aviation accidents suggested that quinine toxicity may ... Mercury, lead (Industrial pollution, cosmetics). Toluene .... prevent quinine ototoxicity, quinine should be prescribed ... Walter E. Heck, MD; H. Corwin Hinshaw, MD; Harry G. and Parsons, MD. ... Lee CS, Heinrich J, Jung TT.

  16. Characterization of traditional maize populations cultivated in Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PTMB8) showed good husk cover. The populations gave relatively low grain yields (less than 4 t/ha) and were not significantly different for that trait. All the populations should be improved for grain yield. In addition, the populations PTMB4 and ...

  17. WEST AFRICAN TECHNOLOGY, EDUCATION AND RECIPROCITY (WATER) FOR BENIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Songhai Center has produced and tested over 300 fully functional point-of-use drinking water filters. The holistic approach of incorporated water treatment, waste reduction, economic development and promoted environmental and health awareness in the community. The ...

  18. Diseases of the thyroid gland in Benin City | Okobia | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 2 (2000) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access ...

  19. Knowledge, perception and attitude of infertile women in Benin City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With increasing utilization of Assisted Reproduction Technology (ART) in ... of 178 infertile patients attending the Human Reasearch and Reproduction (HRRP) unit ... Slightly more than half of the respondents (50.2%) perceived the cost of IVF ...

  20. epartment of hilosophy and Religions niversity of Benin, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tracie1

    authoritarian in their approach; if, on the other hand, they favour some .... scientific sphere, give up the principle that he should decide between .... from the fact that moral principles pick out features of situations .... on earth being what they are.

  1. Riparian forests, a unique but endangered ecosystem in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natta, A.K.; Sinsin, B.; Maesen, van der L.J.G.

    2002-01-01

    Riparian forests are often small in area, but are of extreme ecological and economic value for local people. The interest of riparian forests lies in their resources: basically fertile and moist soils, water, wood and non-timber forest products that are utilised by neighbouring populations to

  2. Penetrating abdominal injury cases admitted in University of Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of penetrating abdominal injuries especially through gunshot injuries is on the increase and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in our community. Control measures and ways of reducing morbidity and mortality are suggested. Keywords: penetrating abdominal injuries, gun shot injuries. Annals of ...

  3. Haemangiomas of the maxillofacial region in Benin City, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty-two patients with haemangiomas of the oro-facial region who presented at the department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, UBTH, were studied. There was a preponderance of females (72.7%) over males (27.3%) and most (59.1%) patients were in the 11-31-year age group, with a median age of 25.0 years.

  4. INEQUALITY PROFILE IN BENIN | Adebgidi | Annales des Sciences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inequality as one of the three dimensions of poverty is one of the main issues of the economic development. In fact whereas incentives are at the heart of market economics they come with a cost; inequality. This paper is concerned with the inequality of incomes or expenses. Several analytical tools were used: density ...

  5. Genetic variability of cultivated cowpea in Benin assessed by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... Res. Crop Evol. 48: 559-566. Mignouna HD, Ng NQ, Ikea J, Thottapilly G (1998). Genetic diversity in cowpea as revealed by random amplified polymorphic DNA. J. Gen. Breed. 52: 151-159. Nei M, Li WH (1979). Mathematical model for studying genetic variation in terms of restriction endonucleases. Proc.

  6. Iodine deficiency and functional performance of schoolchildren in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briel-van Ingen, van den T.

    2001-01-01

    The notion that iodine deficiency may lead not only to goiter and cretinism, but to a much wider range of disorders, from stillbirth and abortions, to hearing problems and mental and physical underdevelopment began to be accepted beyond the research community since the early 1980's. In 1990 it was

  7. Identification of Standards for Pharmaceutical Care in Benin City

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The goal of this study is to identify practice standards that can be effectively ... Pharmaceutical care evolved from clinical ... The specific objectives ..... The pharmacist should regularly run reports on their patients to see if they are ... Each pharmacist shall procure a certain amount of hours of continuing education on topics to.

  8. Seroevidence of Chlamydia Trachomatis Antibody in Infertile Women in University of Benin Teaching Hospital (Ubth Benin City, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibadin, K. O.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of Chlamydia trachomatis in the pathogenesis of Pelvic inflammatory disease and majority of cases of salpinigitis are well acknowledged in women. A total of 213 sera from infertile women were tested for antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis by using an indirect solid phases enzyme Immuno absorbent commercial ELISA test. Women with confirmed Hysterosalpinographic report suggesting tubal occlusion (tubal factor infertility had 92 (43.2% followed by 63 (29.6% infertile women with infertile male partner and 58 (27.2% were having unexplained infertility. Out of the tubal factor (TF infertile women 40 (18.8% were seropositive for Chlamydia trachomatis antibodies, as against 19 (8.9% in the group of women with normal patent tubes and 10 (4.6% women with infertile male partner. In this study there was a statistical significant correlation between the infertile women with tubal factor infertility in relation to seroevidence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection with p<0.05. There was no age bias in the serodetection of Chlamydia trachomatis antibodies. The seropositivity of Chlamydia trachomatis is an indication that the organism may be an independent risk factor in the development of an inflammatory process leading to scaring of the uterine tubes in women and thereby causing infertility.

  9. Gender Issues in Human trafficking in Edo State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Importantly, previous studies have utilized macro theoretical perspective in explaining the .... represent the territorial label in recent times as in Benin Division, Benin City, Benin. Kingdom. ..... and this was a psychological boost for the Benin.

  10. Wastewater Management in Third World Cities: Case Study of Cotonou, Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Hounkpe, Sena; Adjovi, Edmond; Crapper, Martin; Awuah, Esi

    2014-01-01

    Poor wastewater management coupled with lack of sanitation facilities has aggravated the sanitation challenges in developing countries. This study was aimed at providing information on the current state of sanitation in Cotonou City through surveys. The most common sanitation facilities in the city were septic tanks, latrines and soakaway pits. Mechanical desulging was mainly used (94%) for desludging latrines and septic tanks with a frequency of less than once a year for 73% of the houses; m...

  11. Biodiversity and Status of Cetaceans in Benin, West Africa: an Initial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Small cetaceans were also taken intentionally in the absence of efficient controls of landings or other management measures. Although presently at subsistence scale, the threat of wider commercialization exists. In view of the limited number of validated species, voucher specimens and scarce biological baseline ...

  12. L'organisation de la formation agricole au benin : quels nouveaux ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ingénierie des Dispositifs de Formation (DIF). Des investigations et analyses, il ressort que les formations offertes aux ruraux sont compatibles avec leurs besoins en formation mais l'élaboration de ces programmes est caractérisée par une forte ...

  13. Increasing access of female students to vocational education : a study of the Agricultural School LAMS, Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bio Yara, O.G.J.P.

    2008-01-01

    This research sets out to identify the factors that are enforcing gender inequality and influencing the increase of access of female students to vocational education. The study specifically sought to explore the external and internal factors influencing access of girls to agricultural education in

  14. Management of arterial hypertension in Cotonou city, Benin: general practitioners' knowledge, attitudes and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houenassi, Martin Dèdonougbo; Codjo, Léopold Houétondji; Dokoui, David; Dohou, Serge Hugues Mahougnon; Wanvoegbe, Armand; Agbodande, Anthelme; Attinsounon, Angelo Cossi; Alassani, Adebayo; Ahoui, Séraphin; Dovonou, Albert Comlan; Adoukonou, Thierry Armel

    2016-08-23

    We aimed to assess the management of hypertensive patients by general practitioners in Cotonou city. This was a cross-sectional study based on a multicentre survey conducted from 1 May to 31 July 2011. We recruited all consenting general practitioners who worked in public and private centres in Cotonou city. We used the 7th report of the Joint National Committee to assess the management of hypertension by general practitioners. A tested and validated self-questionnaire was used to collect the data on hypertension management by general practitioners. In eight centres that approved the study, 41 general practitioners were included. The definition of hypertension was known by 20 (48.8%) practitioners. Only 25 (61.0%) could describe the conditions for blood pressure measurement. Ten of them were unable to list half of the minimum recommended tests for hypertension, and the majority (92.7%) did not have any idea of global cardiovascular risk. The blood pressure goal was known by only 18 (43.9%) practitioners. Lifestyle (82.9%) and monotherapy (70.7%) were the therapeutic modalities most prescribed. Antihypertensive agents commonly used by practitioners were calcium channel blockers (82.9%), angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (53.7%) and diuretics (36.6%). The general practitioners referred their patients to cardiologists mainly for uncontrolled hypertension (63.4%) and the onset of acute complications (56.1%). The general practitioners' knowledge of hypertension was insufficient and their management did not reflect international guidelines.

  15. Fitness to Drive among Commercial Intercity Drivers in Benin-City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UNIBEN

    green, and yellow are the accepted .... they had headache, 95 (49.0%) had fever from other causes, 90 (46.4%) ... Fever (other than malaria). 95. 49.0 .... of Visual Impairment: Strategies for the ... 1998. 23. Centers for Disease Control and.

  16. hiv-aids related maternal mortality in benin city, ni- geria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    David Ofori-Adjei

    2011-06-01

    Jun 1, 2011 ... SUMMARY. Objective: To determine the causes and characteristics of maternal deaths in HIV-infected women. Design: A retrospective study of maternal deaths in a cohort of HIV-infected women. Setting: A facility-based maternal death review using case records and mortality summaries. Methods: Thirty ...

  17. The oral hygiene status of institution dwelling orphans in Benin City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Orphans like other vulnerable children face a number of challenges including limited or no access to basic health care including oral health care, which is one of their unmet health care needs. Neglected oral health care is associated with the development and progression of periodontal diseases among others.

  18. Petroleum and natural gas economy in Arab Countries and in Benin, Chad Cameroon, Namibia, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This paper gives informations on petroleum and natural gas industry, petroleum market and prices, trade and contracts, prospection and production. In Saudi Arabia, Saudi Aramco has begun the works to increase the production capacity of the petroleum refinery of Ras Tanura. In Kuwait, the cost of the retrofitting and development programs for the petroleum field is evaluated to 4 milliards $. Several contracts have been signed in Tunisia and in Nigeria for the attribution of exploration permits. A cooperation agreement has been signed, in Taiwan, between Total and Chinese Petroleum Corporation, which allows the establishment of joint ventures for the development of petroleum exploration in Far East. Petroleum exploration has begun in Namibia where Norsk Hydro has achieved the interpretation of seismic studies and will drill a first exploration well. In Egypt, petroleum production is stabilized at a level of 870000 barrels per day and the transport capacity of Sumed pipeline will increase from 80 to 117 millions tons per year in 1994

  19. Drinking water: a need met for the people of the commune of Bantè, Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Fousseni

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available RACINES (Recherches, Actions Communautaires, Initiatives pour un Nouvel ESpoir is a Beni¬nese non-governmental organization established in 1999 following the initiatives of young Beninese execu¬tives. A case study undertaken in 2003 in the villages of Galata and Agbon in the commune of Bantè identified the need for drinking water as the most urgent need. In response to this need, and with the financial support of Oxfam Québec, RACINES initiated a project for the installation of manual water pumps in the two villages. The development of this project involved three major phases: the mobilization of communities around this project, the installation of water pumps and the organization of socio-sanitary educational activities. Twenty months into the execution of the project, a local management committee was established and strengthened, a hand-operated water pump was installed and water-themed public awareness activities, such as water use, water sanitation and the dangers of drinking dirty or contaminated water, were organized every month or so in each of the two communities. Overall, this project has introduced a new type of leadership in the commune of Bantè, involving a high level of participation by young people working alongside the elders in the local management committees and ensuring the perpetuation of the systems installed.RACINES (Recherches, Actions Communautaires, Initiatives pour un Nouvel ESpoir est une organisation béninoise non gouvernementale créée en 1999 à l’initiative de jeunes cadres béninois. Au nombre des besoins identifiés en 2003 suite à une étude prospective, l’eau potable s’est révélée comme besoin prioritaire dans les villages de Galata et d’Agbon dans la commune de Bantè. En réponse à ce besoin, RACINES a initié, avec le soutien financier de Oxfam Québec, un projet pour l’installation de pompes d’eau manuelles dans les villages concernés. La mise en œuvre de ce projet comporte trois étapes majeures : la mobilisation sociale autour du projet, l’installation des pompes d’eau et les activités d’éducation socio-sanitaire. Après vingt mois d’exécution du projet, un comité local de gestion est mis en place et renforcé, une pompe à motricité humaine est forée et les activités de sensibilisation s’organisent chaque quinzaine de mois sur les thématiques liées à l’eau telles que l’utilité de l’eau, l’hygiène de l’eau, les dangers de la consommation d’eau sale ou souillée, dans chacune des deux localités. Au total, ce projet a introduit un nouveau type de leadership dans la commune de Bantè avec une forte participation des jeunes aux côtés des personnes âgées dans les comités locaux de gestion pour assurer la pérennisation des ouvrages installés.RACINES (Recherches, Actions Communautaires, Initiatives pour un Nouvel ESpoir  es una organización beninesa no gubernamental fundada en 1999 tras las iniciativas de jóvenes ejecutivos benineses. Un estudio de caso emprendido en 2003 en las aldeas de Galata y Agbon en la comuna de Bantè identificó la necesidad de agua potable como la necesidad más urgente. En respuesta a esta necesidad, y con el apoyo económico de Oxfam Quebec, RACINES inició un proyecto para la instalación de bombas de agua manuales en las dos aldeas. El desarrollo de este proyecto implicó tres fases principales: la movilización de las comunidades en torno a este proyecto, la instalación de bombas de agua y la organización de actividades educativas socio-sanitarias. Veinte meses después de la ejecución del proyecto, se creó y reforzó un comité directivo local, se instaló una bomba de agua manual y cada mes se organizaron en cada una de las dos aldeas actividades de concienciación pública sobre temas relacionados con el agua, como el uso de agua, saneamiento de agua y los peligros de beber agua sucia o contaminada. En términos generales, este proyecto ha introducido un nuevo tipo de liderazgo en la comuna de Bantè, implicando un alto nivel de participación por parte de jóvenes que trabajan junto a personas mayores en los comités directivos locales y asegurando la perpetuación de los sistemas instalados.

  20. Indigenous food ingredients for complementary food formulations to combat infant malnutrition in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chadare, Flora J.; Madode, Yann E.; Fanou-Fogny, Nadia; Kindossi, Janvier M.; Ayosso, Juvencio O.G.; Honfo, S.H.; Kayodé, A.P.P.; Linnemann, Anita R.; Hounhouigan, D.J.

    2018-01-01

    This paper reviews indigenous Beninese food resources as potential ingredients for complementary infant foods with the aim to develop affordable formulations for low-income households in each agro-ecological zone of the country. Potential ingredients were selected on their documented nutritional

  1. Nutritional and economic values of by-products used in poultry diets in Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houndonougbo, Mankpondji Frederic; Chwalibog, Andrzej; CHrysostome, C.A.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two soybean meals (S1, S2) and two palm meals (P1, P2) from solvent and expeller processing, and two cotton meals (C1, C2) both from solvent processing on the bioeconomic performances of broilers. 360 broilers Red Bro were fed six diets containi...

  2. Trend in asthma severity in steroid naive asthmatic children in Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Asthma imposes heavy health burden on children and families worldwide. It is a chronic inflammatory airway disease and as such, treatment of the asthmatics is aimed at relieve of bronchoconstriction and inflammation. Until about a decade ago, emphasis was on the bronchoconstriction rather than the ...

  3. L'amenagement du territoire au Benin : Les rendez-vous manques ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le leadership est une variable-clé de l'aménagement du territoire. L'histoire, à travers l'expérience de certains pays, en donne la démonstration. Le cas certainement le plus illustratif est celui de la France au sortir de la Seconde guerre mondiale. La « politique de reconstruction de la France libérée » a connu son ...

  4. Bladder tumors in Benin city: a 15 year histopathological study | Olu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malignant neoplasms (40 cases) accounted for 88.9% of the bladder tumours and 1.85% of all malignant neoplasms seen during the study period. Contrary to most reports, the malignant neoplasms were predominantly transitional cell carcinoma constituting 27(67.2%) cases, with peak in the 7th and 8th decades, mean age ...

  5. Gestion de classe dans l'enseignement secondaire au Benin: quels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La gestion de classe (GC) constitue la préoccupation majeure des enseignants débutants ainsi que leur principale source de difficultés. Le but de cette étude est triple à savoir l'exploration des perceptions des enseignants débutants relativement à la GC, la description des problèmes rencontrés par ces derniers au cours ...

  6. L'urbanisation sur le plateau d'allada au sud-Benin, agent des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La méthodologie adoptée pour mener à bien cette étude est basée d'une part, sur la revue documentaire et d'autre part, sur les enquêtes de terrain menées dans toutes les communes du département de l'Atlantique. La recherche documentaire a permis de cerner les contours de l'urbanisation et d'évaluer son ampleur ...

  7. Effect of anemia on hepatotoxicity of HAART in HIV patients in Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hepatotoxicity is a relevant adverse effect of highly active antiretroviral Treatment owing to its frequency, and it can cause interruption of therapy, hepatitis, and death. There is dearth of information on hepatotoxicity arising from highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in anemic patients. Anemia is the most ...

  8. Analyse anthropotechnique du port de charge sur la tete au Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les difficultés auxquelles les femmes marchandes ambulantes de Porto-Novo sont confrontées sont dues à la qualité et à l'efficacité des moyens et des techniques de transport de leurs marchandises dans les marchés. En effet, ces femmes ont choisi de porter leurs marchandises sur la tête à travers les cinq grands ...

  9. Innovating a system for producing and distributing hybrid oil palm seedlings to smallholder farmers in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissoh, Pierre V.; Tossou, Rigobert C.; Akpo, Essegbemon; Kossou, Dansou; Jiggins, Janice

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses the development of a system for producing and distributing hybrid oil palm seedlings to small-scale famers. The existing seed system had become so corrupted that the seedlings actually planted were largely of unimproved kinds. The article describes institutional experiments

  10. Perspectives du passage du secteur informel au secteur formel au Benin: cout de la legalite.

    OpenAIRE

    Attin SJ

    1990-01-01

    The informal sector is often seen as an unfair competition to the modern sector, and some call for a more stringent application of the legislation in the informal sector. In 1989, a survey of 92 informal sector enterprises in Cotonou was organised to investigate the nature and the extent of violation of the legislation by the informal sector. By comparing the legislation with the practices in the sector, it is shown that firms do not pay taxes, neither is labour paid according to the official...

  11. Use of job aids to improve facility-based postnatal counseling and care in rural Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, L; Yebadokpo, A; Affo, J; Agbogbe, M

    2015-03-01

    This study examined the effect of a job aids-focused intervention on quality of facility-based postnatal counseling, and whether increased communication improved in-hospital newborn care and maternal knowledge of home practices and danger signs requiring urgent care. Ensuring mothers and newborns receive essential postnatal services, including health counseling, is integral to their survival. Yet, quality of clinic-based postnatal services is often low, and evidence on effective improvement strategies is scarce. Using a pre-post randomized design, data were drawn from direct observations and interviews with 411 mother-newborn pairs. Multi-level regression models with difference-in-differences analyses estimated the intervention's relative effect, adjusting for changes in the comparison arm. The mean percent of recommended messages provided to recently-delivered women significantly improved in the intervention arm as compared to the control (difference-in-differences [∆i - ∆c] +30.9, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 19.3, 42.5), and the proportion of newborns thermally protected within the first hour (∆i - ∆c +33.7, 95 % CI 19.0, 48.4) and delayed for bathing (∆i - ∆c +23.9, 95 % CI 9.4, 38.4) significantly increased. No significant changes were observed in early breastfeeding (∆i - ∆c +6.8, 95 % CI -2.8, 16.4) which was nearly universal. Omitting traditional umbilical cord substances rose slightly, but was insignificant (∆i - ∆c +8.5, 95 % CI -2.8, 19.9). The proportion of mothers with correct knowledge of maternal (∆i - ∆c +27.8, 95 % CI 11.0, 44.6) and newborn (∆i - ∆c +40.3, 95 % CI 22.2, 58.4) danger signs grew substantially, as did awareness of several home-care practices (∆i - ∆c +26.0, 95 % CI 7.7, 44.3). Counseling job aids can improve the quality of postnatal services. However, achieving reduction goals in maternal and neonatal mortality will likely require more comprehensive approaches to link enhanced facility services with community-based initiatives.

  12. Understanding roles and functions of cattle breeds for pastoralists in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamou, Charles; Boer, de Imke J.M.; Ripoll-Bosch, Raimon; Oosting, Simon J.

    2018-01-01

    Animal genetic resources (AnGR) are essential for food security and the livelihoods of many pastoralists. However, the AnGR diversity is currently being eroded, as well as the traditional ecological knowledge associated to the use of indigenous breeds and their environment. The objectives of this

  13. Three Traditional Fermented Baobab Foods from Benin, Mutchayan, Dikouanyouri and Tayohounta: Preparation, Properties and Consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chadare, F.J.; Gayet, D.P.; Azokpota, P.; Nout, M.J.R.; Linnemann, A.R.; Hounhouigan, M.H.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Forest food resources contribute significantly to food supply in areas where they grow. Three fermented baobab foods were studied: Dikouanyouri (from seeds, pH = 6.5); Tayohounta (from seed kernels, pH = 7), and Mutchayan (from baobab pulp and sorghum, pH = 4.2). Bacillus spp. (8.5 and 9.5 Log cfu

  14. Thyrotoxicosis in Benin City: a study of surgical treatment of 50 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    up; few complications were associated with this procedure. The patients generally had good haemoglobin levels ≥ 10g% on admission and no blood transfusion was used in the series during or after surgery. There was no mortality.

  15. The design of a contextualized responsive evaluation framework for fishery management in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouevi, T.A.; Mierlo, van B.; Leeuwis, C.; Vodouhè, S.

    2013-01-01

    The main question addressed by this article is how to adapt the responsive evaluation (RE) approach to an intervention context characterized by repetition of ineffective interventions, ambiguous intervention action theories among stakeholders, and high complexity. The context is Grand-Popo, a

  16. Community survey of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder among primary school pupils in Benin City, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambuabunos, E A; Ofovwe, E G; Ibadin, M O

    2011-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood neuro-developmental condition with early onset. ADHD affects children worldwide. However, there is a variation in the prevalence across different countries. In Nigeria, there is paucity of information on the prevalence. To provide the relevant information, a cross-sectional study was conducted between February and August 2006 among 1473 public primary school pupils aged 6-12 years selected systematically among pupils in Egor Local Government Area of Edo State. All the 1473 pupils were screened with the Disruptive Behavior Disorder (DBD) Rating Scale to identify children who had ADHD symptoms as contained in the DSM -IV. Such children were compared with randomly selected controls. The academic records of both the groups were also compared. The prevalence of ADHD was 7.6%. The prevalence was higher in boys (9.4%) when compared to girls (5.5%) (P = 0.003). Of the three different subtypes of ADHD, the predominantly inattentive subtype (ADHD-I) was the most prevalent (47.3% of the ADHD population) followed by the combined type (ADHD-C; 31.3%), while the least prevalent was the hyperactive/impulsive subtype (ADHD-HI; 21.4%). There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of ADHD amongst the different age cohorts. The prevalence of ADHD was relatively high when compared to the figures available for other countries. For this reason, there is a need to pay increased attention to this condition in Nigeria. Community screening under the umbrella of the School Health Program could be of assistance.

  17. Old Wine in New Skins: The University of Benin Art Department and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria, many artists, critics and scholars of art have been quick to justify the preoccupation of Nigerian tertiary institutions Art Departments with the quest for an identity. Some Art Departments of Nigerian higher institutions have since been identified with one trait or the other and are also classified with one trait or the ...

  18. Craft Guilds and the Sustenance of Pre-Colonial Benin Monarchy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The resilience and sustenance of the kingdom and her monarchy for this long period has been attributed to several factors such as the successive line of capable and effective Oba (kings) and her trade with the Europeans – Portuguese, Dutch and British – which enabled her to acquire arms and ammunitions for the ...

  19. Rural people's response to soil fertility decline : the Adja case (Benin)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, J.H.A.M.

    1993-01-01

    This study examines rural people's knowledge in changing conditions such as decreasing soil fertility and increasing population. It explores how farmers, who depend on rainfed agriculture and are confronted with an ever increasing population, react. The study presents the case of an ethnic

  20. A Survey on Ophthalmia Neonatorum in Benin City, Nigeria (Emphasis on gonococcal ophthalmia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enabulele Onaiwu

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the incidence of gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum considering its ability to lead to childhood blindness through corneal ulceration and scarification. Eye swabs were obtained from 330 neonates of 1-5 days in the hospitals of study. Of these, 248 yielded growth and six bacterial genera were identified using standard techniques. Staphylococcus aureus was the most prevalent (60.5% while Neisseria gonorrhoeae accounted for 1.7%. Susceptibility patterns of bacterial isolates to four antibiotics were determined using Disk-diffusion tests. Staphylococcus aureus and Neisseria gonorrhoeae showed 62.5 and 100% susceptibility to Erythromycin while 66.7% of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella and 62.5% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were susceptible to Gentamicin. The incidence of gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum for the period of study was 8.9 (cases per 1,000 live births. Prevention is through ocular prophylaxis by the application of either 1% silver nitrate ophthalmic solution or 0.5% erythromycin ointment to the neonates? eyes some hours after birth. This would help to preserve vision and reduce to the barest minimum the incidence of childhood blindness.

  1. The Prospect of Animated Videos in Agriculture and Health: A Case Study in Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello-Bravo, Julia; Dannon, Elie; Agunbiade, Tolulope; Tamo, Manuele; Pittendrigh, Barry Robert

    2013-01-01

    Cell-phone ready educational videos, translated into local languages, are a recent phenomenon in developing nations. One of the reasons for the emergence of this approach is due to the scarcity of other forms of educational materials with appropriate content for low literate learners. Additionally, the World Wide Web (WWW) has very little to offer…

  2. Evaluation of physical and mechanical properties of quarry stones in the southern Republic of Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouraima Mouhamed Bayane

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Engineering properties of stones have a crucial importance when they are used for civil engineering works. In this study, the suitability of rocks blocks or stones as a construction material is established. Cove and Dan cities surroundings in the southern part of Zou Province have large blocks and aggregates quarries operated recently. In this study, laboratory tests were carried out to investigate the performance of rocks blocks and aggregates quarried in the region. For this purpose of the study, three wooden containers with rocks blocks and aggregates samples were collected from three different quarries, and so, laboratory tests including particle density and water absorption test, resistance to wear, magnesium sulfate test, compressive strength and methylene blue absorption test were performed in accordance with the international standards to explore the quality of stones to be used for modern construction. Concluding that rocks blocks and aggregates satisfy the relevant regulation (that is, a norm, European standard.

  3. Ischemic stroke due to embolic heart diseases and associated factors in Benin hospital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnonlonfoun, Dieudonné; Adjien, Constant; Gnimavo, Ronald; Goudjinou, Gérard; Hotcho, Corine; Nyangui Mapaga, Jennifer; Sowanou, Arlos; Gnigone, Pupchen; Domingo, Rodrigue; Houinato, Dismand

    2018-04-15

    Poor access to cardiovascular checkups is a major cause of ignorance of embolic heart diseases as the etiology for ischemic stroke. Study ischemic strokes due to embolic heart diseases and their associated factors. It was a cross-sectional, prospective, descriptive and analytical study conducted from November 1, 2014 to August 31, 2015 on 104 patients with ischemic stroke confirmed through brain imaging. Embolic heart diseases included arrhythmia due to atrial fibrillation (AF), atrial flutter, myocardial infarction (MI), heart valve diseases and atrial septal aneurysm (ASA). The dependent variable was embolic heart disease while independent variables encompassed socio-demographic factors, patients' history, and lifestyle. Data analysis was carried out through SAS 9.3. The rate of embolic heart diseases (EHD) as etiology for ischemic stroke was 26% (28/104). AF accounted for 69% of embolic heart diseases and 22.8% of etiologies for ischemic stroke. Ischemic strokes prevalence was 3.5%, 2.5% and 1.2% respectively for heart valve diseases, MI and ASA. The associated factor was age (p=0.000). The diagnosis of a potential cardiac source of embolism is essential because of therapeutic and prognostic implications. Wherefore, there is need for cardiovascular examination particularly Holter ECG and cardiac ultrasound examination which are not always accessible to our populations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Experts from necessity : agricultural knowledge of children orphaned by AIDS in the Couffo region, Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Fagbemissi, R.C.

    2010-01-01

    Chapter 1 sketches the general background of the study. The study tests the hypothesis that HIV and AIDS not only impairs or modifies farmers’ agroecological knowledge base, but also impairs or modifies their strategies to mobilize knowledge and resources. The research mainly aims to understand agricultural knowledge and practices among children orphaned by AIDS, consecutive to widespread interest in and concern about erosion of agricultural knowledge in AIDS-affected communities. Such ...

  5. Birth asphyxia in a mission hospital in Benin City, Nigeria | Onyiriuka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: In this descriptive (cross-sectional) study at St Philomena Catholic Hospital, the one-and-five-minute Apgar scores of 2,208 live-births were recorded. Those with low Apgar scores (6 at one minute) were studied and their data analyzed. Results: Birth asphyxia occurred in 83.8 per 1000 live-births with preterm and ...

  6. Assessment of water quality of Ikpoba River, Benin City using d.c. ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ascertaining the quality of the water. The d.c. conductivity of Ikpoba River ranges from 400ms/cm - 500ms/cm. This was compared to that of a popular brand of bottled water in the city which has a d.c conductivity of 180ms/cm (Table 3). The measurements show that a lot of ions are present in the river water. The origin of such ...

  7. Benign renal complex cysts: MR imaging. Kystes atypiques benins du rein: aspects IRM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, P.; Helenon, O.; Melki, P.; Paraf, F.; Chauveau, D.; Chretien, Y.; Moreau, J.F. (Hopital Necker-Enfants-Malades, 75 - Paris (France))

    1994-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of 13 benign complex renal cysts using T1 and T2-weighted images and contrast-enhanced images. The results have been compared to CT and ultrasonographic findings in all cases and correlated with histopathologic datas in 12 cases. Five groups have been defined according to the MR features. Group 1: homogeneous low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and homogeneous high signal intensity on T2-weighted images mimicking simple cyst (n = 2); group 2: homogeneous high signal intensity on both T1 and T2-weighted images mimicking hemorrhagic cyst (n = 1); group 3: characterized by high signal intensity on T1-weighted images and fluid-iron level on T2-weighted images (n = 3); group 4: characterized by fluid-iron level on both T1 and T2-weighted images (n = 3); group 5: pseudotumoral feature: heterogeneous signal intensity and/or wall contrast enhancement (n = 3). Among the 13 indeterminate lesions on ultrasonography and CT, MRI was of diagnostic value in 8 cases, whereas the 5 remaining cases remained indeterminate on MR images. Our results suggest that MRI can be useful in the diagnosis of benign complex cyst of the kidney presenting as indeterminate cystic lesion on other modalities. (authors). 40 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Experts from necessity : agricultural knowledge of children orphaned by AIDS in the Couffo region, Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fagbemissi, R.C.

    2010-01-01

    Chapter 1 sketches the general background of the study. The study tests
    the hypothesis that HIV and AIDS not only impairs or modifies farmers’
    agroecological knowledge base, but also impairs or modifies their strategies to
    mobilize knowledge and resources. The research mainly aims

  9. Perinatal Outcome in Patients With Pre-Eclampsia in Benin City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of pre-eclampsia and examine its influence on perinatal outcome among Nigerian women. Methods: Among 3780 deliveries over a two-and-half year period, 212 singleton infants were born after preeclamptic pregnancies. We compared the perinatal outcome with those of 636 control ...

  10. Making rural development work cultural hybridization of farmers' organizations : the Adja case in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vodouhe, S.D.

    1996-01-01

    This book analyses farmers' organizations with respect to trust and accountability, in order to contribute to the building of viable organizations. It argues that the lack of trust or of effective accountability mechanisms is one of the major factors which undermine the effectiveness of

  11. Local land management in Benin with special reference to pastoral groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. de Haan (Leo); T. Djedjebi

    2000-01-01

    textabstractA review of local land management experiences in West Africa reveals that the resolution of conflicts over the uses of resources between herders and farmers depends on factors like land and water rights, promotion of the interests of pastoral groups and the Intervention of

  12. 36 Mycoflora of Some Smoked Fish Varieties in Benin City Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    Six fungal isolates encountered in the study were Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Penicillium sp, Fusarium sp. Rhizopus sp. and Trichoderma sp. in their order of decreasing frequency in ... poured into petri dishes containing antibiotic mixture and ...

  13. 16 Benin Video Film Rising: Peddie Okao on “The Eye of the Sun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-03-08

    Mar 8, 2015 ... (Nollywood) is a story of technological innovation and the triumph ... developing talents, critical structures of distributing, marketing and ... touted as a strong small and medium enterprise (SME) gizmo.2 One ... The findings of that study ushered me ... to achieve stated objectives and placed milestones to.

  14. Protective antibodies against placental malaria and poor outcomes during pregnancy, Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ndam, Nicaise Tuikue; Denoeud-Ndam, Lise; Doritchamou, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Placental malaria is caused by Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes that bind to placental tissue. Binding is mediated by VAR2CSA, a parasite antigen coded by the var gene, which interacts with chondroitin sulfate A (CSA). Consequences include maternal anemia and fetal growth retardation....... Antibody-mediated immunity to placental malaria is acquired during successive pregnancies, but the target of VAR2CSA-specific protective antibodies is unclear. We assessed VAR2CSA-specific antibodies in pregnant women and analyzed their relationships with protection against placental infection, preterm...... birth, and low birthweight. Antibody responses to the N-terminal region of VAR2CSA during early pregnancy were associated with reduced risks for infections and low birthweight. Among women infected during pregnancy, an increase in CSA binding inhibition was associated with reduced risks for placental...

  15. Genetic variability of cultivated cowpea in Benin assessed by random amplified polymorphic DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zannou, A.; Kossou, D.K.; Ahanchédé, A.; Zoundjihékpon, J.; Agbicodo, E.; Struik, P.C.; Sanni, A.

    2008-01-01

    Characterization of genetic diversity among cultivated cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] varieties is important to optimize the use of available genetic resources by farmers, local communities, researchers and breeders. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to evaluate the

  16. prevalence of visual disorders in deaf children in benin city abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LIVINGSTON

    rise to disorders of the eye, as deafness does . ... abnormalities generally increased with the severity ... There are two major causes of visual disorders .... coloboma, cataract and strabismus. In a gross inspection of the appearance of these ...

  17. Quality challenges and opportunities in the pineapple supply chain in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arinloye, D.D.A.A.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2016-01-01

    Quality has become a key aspect for establishing international market access and improving competitiveness of (smallholder) producers in developing countries. This is especially the case for perishable tropical food products. This chapter explores the key quality issues of the Beninese pineapple

  18. Feeding practices in late infancy in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-13

    May 13, 2015 ... mum feeding in early infant feed- ing same ... basis of equal distribution of 68,748 women of child bearing age ... used by the Expanded Programme on Immunization. (EPI).14 All ..... Mothers Attitudes and Practices;. December ...

  19. Climate change sensitivity of multi-species afforestation in semi-arid Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noulèkoun, Florent; Khamzina, Asia; Naab, Jesse B.; Khasanah, N.; Noordwijk, van Meine; Lamers, John P.A.

    2018-01-01

    The early growth stage is critical in the response of trees to climate change and variability. It is not clear, however, what climate metrics are best to define the early-growth sensitivity in assessing adaptation strategies of young forests to climate change. Using a combination of field

  20. A Study of the Solid Waste Chain in Benin Metropolis, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    The work reported in this paper involves a study of the path traced by ... Most third world countries have worst ... budget, social issues such as hunger, unemployment ... has value to the owner, and the owner does not want ... about health.