Sample records for bengt sundn elmrs

  1. NOAA's Estuarine Living Marine Resources (ELMR) Data Base

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1985, NOAA launched the Estuarine Living Marine Resources (ELMR) Program to develop a consistent data base on the distribution, relative abundance, and life...

  2. Bengt Saltin and exercise physiology: a perspective.

    Joyner, Michael J


    This perspective highlights some of the key contributions of Professor Bengt Saltin (1935-2014) to exercise physiology. The emergence of exercise physiology from work physiology as his career began is discussed as are his contributions in a number of areas. Saltin's open and question-based style of leadership is a model for the future of our field.

  3. Bengt Strömgren: Growing up with astronomy, 1908-1932

    Rebsdorf, S.O.


    Bengt Strömgren's (1908-1987) early career is examined down to 1932, the year of his first landmark article on astrophysics, in which, continuing the numerical tradition at the Copenhagen Observatory, Strömgren applied the still novel quantum mechanics with great faith in its validity. In additio...

  4. MO-D-BRD-01: Memorial to Bengt Bjarngard - Memorial Lecture

    Das, I [Indiana University- School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)


    We lost a legendary medical physicist, Dr. Bengt Erik Bjarngard, to angiosarcoma an aggressive type of cancer. He devoted his life to providing improved methods of radiation treatment for this devastating disease over the last 36 years. Bengt was born in a rural village of Bjarnum in southern Sweden, located near forest and is known for its furniture making. He migrated to USA at the age of 35 and was recruited by Dr. Samuel Hellman to lead a group of physicists that became the “mecca of medical physics” known as the Joint Center of Radiation Therapy (JCRT) at Harvard Medical School in Boston. Bengt mentored some of the best physicists in the country, and many of our modern treatments go back to the early days of research at the JCRT. These accomplishments, dating from 1969–1989, include: dose optimization using computer control; soft wedges; stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS); total-body irradiation (TBI); CT-planning; and radiation dosimetry. Bengt worked at Brown University in Rhode Island and at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, where he provided major contributions in radiation dosimetry, specifically with the head scatter model. He advocated superior calculation algorithm through the Helax treatment planning system that was on par from most commercial systems. Bengt served as AAPM president in 1979 and was a recipient of the Coolidge Award in 1998. He had a lifelong love of nature, retiring in 2000 from the University of Pennsylvania to take care of his 200 acres of homestead forest in Maine. His legacy continues through his contributions to radiation dosimetry. This session, on small field dosimetry, is a small tribute to his memory. Further details can be found in his obituary in Med Phy, 41(4), 040801, 2014.

  5. Along paths converging to Bengt Saltin’s early contributions in exercise physiology

    Schantz, P


    A fascinating chain of events led in 1941 to the formation of the Department of Physiology at the Royal Gymnastic Central Institute (GCI) in Stockholm, Sweden. Erik Hohwü Christensen, from the scientifically advanced Lindhard School in Copenhagen became its first professor. A central research question for him concerned determining the limiting factors for maximal physical performance in man. This was the academic setting where the sports interested medical student Bengt Saltin was introduced to exercise physiology. In the summer of 1959, he became involved in a study on intermittent vs continuous running. A doctoral project, with Per-Olof Åstrand as his tutor, resulted in 1964 as the thesis “Aerobic work capacity and circulation at exercise in man. With special reference to the effect of prolonged exercise and/or heat exposure”. In the decade that followed, Saltin continued along that path. However, he also added a vital research line involving pioneering studies on skeletal muscles in the exercising man, a series of novel studies on the physiological demands in various sports, and studies of the effects of physical training within the general population. PMID:26589112

  6. Along paths converging to Bengt Saltin's early contributions in exercise physiology.

    Schantz, P


    A fascinating chain of events led in 1941 to the formation of the Department of Physiology at the Royal Gymnastic Central Institute (GCI) in Stockholm, Sweden. Erik Hohwü Christensen, from the scientifically advanced Lindhard School in Copenhagen became its first professor. A central research question for him concerned determining the limiting factors for maximal physical performance in man. This was the academic setting where the sports interested medical student Bengt Saltin was introduced to exercise physiology. In the summer of 1959, he became involved in a study on intermittent vs continuous running. A doctoral project, with Per-Olof Åstrand as his tutor, resulted in 1964 as the thesis "Aerobic work capacity and circulation at exercise in man. With special reference to the effect of prolonged exercise and/or heat exposure". In the decade that followed, Saltin continued along that path. However, he also added a vital research line involving pioneering studies on skeletal muscles in the exercising man, a series of novel studies on the physiological demands in various sports, and studies of the effects of physical training within the general population. © 2015 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. MO-D-BRD-02: In Memoriam of Bengt Bjarngard: SBRT II: Small Field Dosimetry - TG155

    Das, I; Reft, C


    Specialized radiation treatment such as SRS/SRT. SBRT, IMRT, VMAT, Tomotherapy, CyberKnife and Gamma Knife use small fields or combination of small fields where dosimetry is challenging and uncertain due to non-equilibrium conditions such as longitudinal and lateral disequilibrium. Additionally the primary photon fluence is greatly affected by the obstruction of the source size by the jaws creating a large dose gradient across the field. Electronic equilibrium is a phenomenon associated with the range of secondary particles which depend on the beam energy, photon spectrum and the composition of the medium. Additionally, the finite size of detectors creates volume averaging and fluence perturbations especially in small fields. The IAEA/AAPM has provided a frame work for non-compliant reference dosimetry in small fields1. The AAPM TG-1552 has adopted this frame work to provide guidelines in relative dosimetry. This course provides the insight of TG-155 that defines small field, provides recommendations for suitable detectors and associated correction factors to convert reading to dose. Recommendations of a good working practice for relative dosimetry measurements (PDD, TMR, output factor, etc.) and dose calculations based on the new formulation is are elaborated. It also discusses beam modeling and dose calculations as a critical step in clinical utilization of small field radiotherapy. Small errors in beam data, approximations in dose algorithms, or misaligned of detectors and field settings can propagate into large errors in planned and delivered dose. The modeling and treatment planning aspects of small field dosimetry are reviewed with emphasis on the most critical parts for ensuring accurate and safe radiation therapy. Discussion on k(fmsr, fclin) for commercially available detectors are also provided.1 P. Alfonso, P. Andreo, R. Capote, M. S. Huq, W. Kilby, P. Kjall, T. R. Mackie, H. Palmans, K. Rosser, J. Seuntjens, W. Ullrich and S. Vatnitsky, “A new formalism for reference dosimetry of small and nonstandard fields,” Med Phys 35, 5179–5186 (2008).2 I. J. Das, P. Francescon, A. Ahnesjo, M. M. Aspradakis, C. W. Cheng, G. X. Ding, G. S. Ibbott, M. Oldham, M. S. Huq, C. S. Reft and S. O.A., “Task Group 155 report: Small fields and non-equilibrium condition photon beam dosimetry,” Med Phys (under review). Learning Objectives: Physics of cavity theory for non-equilibrium condition and definition of small fields Description of absolute and relative dosimetry in the context of TG-155 Choice of detector in small field dosimetry, perturbations and corrections (K(fmsr, fclin)) for accurate dosimetry Understand the advantages and limitations of commercially available detectors for small field dosimetry

  8. Estuarine Living Marine Resources: Mid-Atlantic Regional Distribution and Abundance (NCEI Accession 0162403)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is the Mid-Atlantic regional component of NOAA’s Estuarine Living Marine Resources (ELMR) Project, a national database of ecologically and economically...

  9. Estuarine Living Marine Resources: Southeast Regional Distribution and Abundance (NCEI Accession 0163992)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is the original (1991) Southeast regional component of NOAA's Estuarine Living Marine Resources (ELMR) Project, a national database of ecologically and...

  10. Estuarine Living Marine Resources: West Coast Regional Distribution and Abundance (NCEI Accession 0161540)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is the West Coast regional component of NOAA’s Estuarine Living Marine Resources (ELMR) Project, a national database of ecologically and economically...

  11. Estuarine Living Marine Resources: North Atlantic Regional Distribution and Abundance (NCEI Accession 0162402)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is the North Atlantic regional component of NOAA’s Estuarine Living Marine Resources (ELMR) Project, a national database of ecologically and economically...

  12. Estuarine Living Marine Resources: Gulf of Mexico Regional Distribution and Abundance (NCEI Accession 0163993)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is the original (1992) Gulf of Mexico regional component of NOAA's Estuarine Living Marine Resources (ELMR) Project, a national database of ecologically and...

  13. 75 FR 32780 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Applicants


    .../Secretary, (Qualifying Individual), Bengt R. Anderson, President, Application Type: QI Change. Cargomar... Corp. (OFF & NVO), 6301 E. 10th Avenue, Hialeah, FL 33013, Officers: Marjorie E. Morales, Operation...

  14. Konstrueeritud Forselius : kroonikast Kalevipojani ja edasi / Aivar Põldvee

    Põldvee, Aivar


    Bengt Gottfried Forseliuse (u. 1660-1688) trükitud tekstidest, tema tegevust kajastavatest kroonikalistest teadetest ja käsitlustest elu ja tegevuse kohta. Pikemalt Villem Reimani uurimusest "Bengt Gottfried Forselius", Eesti Üliõpilaste Seltsi Album, Kolmas leht. Tartu, 1895

  15. Analytical heat transfer

    Han, Je-Chin


    … it will complete my library … [and] complement the existing literature on heat transfer. It will be of value for both graduate students and faculty members.-Bengt Sunden, Lund University, Sweden

  16. PREFACE: A Stellar Journey A Stellar Journey

    Asplund, M.


    The conference A Stellar Journey was held in Uppsala, Sweden, 23 27June 2008, in honour of Professor Bengt Gustafsson's 65th birthday. The choice of Uppsala as the location for this event was obvious given Bengt's long-standing association with the city stemming back to his school days. With the exception of a two-year postdoc stint in Copenhagen, five years as professor at Stockholm University and two years as director of the Sigtuna foundation, Bengt has forged his illustrious professional career at Uppsala University. The symposium venue was Museum Gustavianum, once the main building of the oldest university in Scandinavia. The title of the symposium is a paraphrasing of Bengt's popular astronomy book Kosmisk Resa (in English: Cosmic Journey) written in the early eighties. I think this aptly symbolizes his career that has been an astronomical voyage from near to far, from the distant past to the present. The original book title was modified slightly to reflect that most of his work to date has dealt with stars in one way or another. In addition it also gives credit to Bengt's important role as a guiding light for a very large number of students, colleagues and collaborators, indeed for several generations of astronomers. For me personally, the book Kosmisk Resa bears particular significance as it has shaped my life rather profoundly. Although I had already decided to become an astronomer, when I first read the book as a 14-year-old I made up my mind then and there that I would study under Bengt Gustafsson and work on stars. Indeed I have remained true to this somewhat audacious resolution. I suspect that a great number of us have similar stories how Bengt has had a major influence on our lives, whether on the professional or personal level. Perhaps Bengt's most outstanding characteristic is his enthralling enthusiasm. This is equally true whether he is pondering some scientific conundrum, supervising students or performing in front of an audience, be it an

  17. Six Memos for a Curious and Imaginative Future Scholarship in Entrepreneurship Studies

    Steyaert, Chris; Hjorth, Daniel; Gartner, William B.


    In this introductory article, we explain the purpose of this special issue that is set up as a Festschrift in honour of the (editorial) work of Bengt Johannisson. Inspired by Italo Calvino's Six Memos for the Next Millennium, the special issue is structured along six essays that are both commemor...

  18. Chromate Dissociation from Primer Paint in Simulated Lung Fluid.


    and simulated interstitial lung fluid is surface active component (dipalmitoyl lecithin : DPL) in simulated surfactant lung fluid (Dennis, 1982:470...Biology in Health and Disease Vol 84: Surfactant Therapy for Lung Disease. Ed. Bengt Robertson and H. William Taeusch. New York, NY: Mrecel Dekker inc

  19. Three Forms of the Knowledge Economy: Learning, Creativity and Openness

    Peters, Michael A.


    This paper outlines and reviews three forms and associated discourses of the "knowledge economy": the "learning economy", based on the work of Bengt-Ake Lundvall; the "creative economy" based on the work of Charles Landry, John Howkins and Richard Florida; and the "open knowledge economy" based on the work of Yochai Benkler and others. Arguably,…

  20. Exercise physiology

    Kiens, Bente; Richter, Erik; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen


    The passing of Professor Bengt Saltin on September 12, 2014 truly marks the end of an era. As editor of the Journal of Applied Physiology and one of Bengt’s many collaborators and colleagues, I wanted the Journal to celebrate his many seminal contributions by means of an Editorial. Professor Bent...

  1. Baltic financial markets attractive


    Tallinnas toimunud konverentsil East Baltic Summit tõdesid eksperdid, et Balti riikidel on välisinvestorite silmis positiivne maine. Esinejate hulgas olid Rootsi endine peaminister Carl Bildt, Baltimaade juhtivaid eksperte Bengt Dennis, investeerimispankur Rain Lõhmus, East Capitali president Peter Elam Hakansson

  2. Reflections on the 2016 Nobel Memorial Prize for Contract Theory

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.


    We briefly summarize the contributions of Oliver Hart and Bengt Holmström, two key founders of modern contract theory, and describe their significance for the analysis of organizations and institutions. We then discuss the foundations of modern contract theory and review some criticisms related t...

  3. Thomas Hiärne - nimi Rootsi Läänemereprovintside varasest ajalookirjutusest / Piret Lotman

    Lotman, Piret, 1950-


    Thomase isa Erlandi karjäärist. Thomas Hiärne headest suhetest Eestimaa kindralkuberneri Bengt Horniga. Thomas Hiärne kandideerimisest Ingerimaa rüütelkonna sekretäri kohale. Tema tegevusest Virtsu mõisa inspektorina. Hiärne kroonikast ja ajalookäsitlusest

  4. Identity formation in the New Testament | Cromhout | HTS ...

    Abstract. This article is a review of the book entitled Identity Formation in the New Testament (edited by Bengt Holmberg and Mikael Winninge, Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, 2008). It is a collection of various articles using intertextuality, literary theory (and social identity approaches), gender studies and postcolonial theory when ...

  5. Eesti Kindlustuse peahoone V korruse renoveerimine esindusruumideks / Aivar Habakukk

    Habakukk, Aivar


    Lahendus on valminud vastavalt ajaloolaste Leo Gensi ja Toivo Tinti poolt koostatud eritingimustele. 1925. a. valminud hoones oli juba algselt V korrus kavandatud kõige esinduslikumana. Projekt nägi ette esinduslikkuse taastamise. Korrusele olid ette nähtud direktsiooni kabinetid ja esindusruumid koos abiruumidega. Projekt : Stuudio Habakukk & Kivi, 1997. Autorid Aivar Habakukk, Enn Kivi. Ehituse peatöövõtt : AS Gustaf. Restaureerimine : AS KAR Grupp. Mööbel : esindusruumides Kinnarps, Bengt Olof (AS Santor), tööruumides A & A.S.A.. Valgustid : Steel Line AS. Valmis 1998.

  6. The converged Sn algorithm for nuclear criticality

    Ganapol, B. D.; Hadad, K.


    A new discrete ordinates algorithm to determine the multiplication factor of a 1D nuclear reactor, based on Bengt Carlson's S n method, is presented. The algorithm applies the Romberg and Wynn-epsilon accelerators to accelerate a 1D, one-group S n solution to its asymptotic limit. We demonstrate the feasibility of the Converged Sn (CSn) solution on several one-group criticality benchmark compilations. The new formulation is especially convenient since it enables highly accurate critical fluxes and eigenvalues using the most fundamental transport algorithm. (authors)

  7. Punanahklusest: Majakovskist indiaanlasteni / Vaapo Vaher

    Vaher, Vaapo, 1945-


    Tutvustus: Jangfeldt, Bengt. Mäng elu peale : Vladimir Majakovski ja tema lähikond / tõlkinud Anu Saluäär. Tallinn : Varrak, 2011 ; Céline, Louis-Ferdinand. Reis öö lõppu / tõlkinud Heli Allik. Tallinn : Varrak, 2010 ; Simone, Claude. Flandria tee / tõlkinud Leena Tomasberg. Tallinn : Eesti Raamat, 2011 ; Härm, Tiiu. Jää voolab : Eesti polaarränduri August Masiku maailm. Tallinn : Eesti Raamat, 2010 ; Page, Jake. Suure vaimu rüpes : Ameerika indiaanlaste 20 000-aastane ajalugu / tõlkinud Matti Piirimaa. Tallinn : Tänapäev, 2011

  8. Harmful algal blooms and climate change: Learning from the past and present to forecast the future

    Wells, ML


    Full Text Available Harmful algal blooms and climate change: Learning from the past and present to forecast the future Mark L. Wellsa,*, Vera L. Trainerb, Theodore J. Smaydac, Bengt S.O. Karlsond, Charles G. Tricke, Raphael M. Kudelaf, Akira Ishikawag, Stewart Bernardh... and Atmospheric Administration, 2725 Montlake Blvd. E., Seattle, WA 98112, USA c Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881, USA d SMHI Research & Development, Oceanography, Sven Ka¨llfelts gata 15, 426 71 Va¨stra Fro...

  9. Heat transfer enhancement with nanofluids

    Bianco, Vincenzo; Nardini, Sergio; Vafai, Kambiz


    Properties of NanofluidSamuel Paolucci and Gianluca PolitiExact Solutions and Their Implications in Anomalous Heat TransferWenhao Li, Chen Yang and Akira NakayamaMechanisms and Models of Thermal Conductivity in NanofluidsSeung-Hyun Lee and Seok Pil JangExperimental Methods for the Characterization of Thermophysical Properties of NanofluidsSergio Bobbo and Laura FedeleNanofluid Forced ConvectionGilles RoyExperimental Study of Convective Heat Transfer in NanofluidsEhsan B. Haghighi, Adi T. Utomo, Andrzej W. Pacek and Björn E. PalmPerformance of Heat Exchangers Using NanofluidsBengt Sundén and Za

  10. Kjell Johnsen 1921-2007


    Kjell Johnsen (right) with Mervyn Hine in the PS control room in 1960. Both of them have been major contributors to the development of this accelerator, the first ambitious and innovative big project of the young laboratory. (Photo : Bengt Sagnell) On 27 January 1971, Kjell Johnsen, who led the project of the Intersecting Storage Rings, announced that the first ever interactions from colliding proton beams had been recorded. Kjell Johnsen passed away at his home in La Rippe (VD) on Wednesday 18 July following a long battle with cancer. Kjell was born in Norway in June 1921 and studied Electrical Engineering at the Technical University of Trondheim. He was selected by Professor Odd Dahl of Bergen, one of the founding fathers of CERN, to take part in the early studies for the accelerators of the future European physics centre. Kjell joined CERN in 1952 and took part in the design of the most ambitious project of the newly born ...

  11. Policy Learning and Organizational Capacities in Innovation Policies

    Borrás, Susana


    Bengt-Åke Lundvall’s work has underlined the importance of policy learning for inducing innovation systems’ adaptability. In spite of his efforts and of the general interest in this topic, studies of policy learning in innovation policy continue to be scarce. Elaborating from recent theoretical...... advances, the paper identifies three levels of policy learning and argues that their effects on innovation systems are related to specific capacities of the relevant organizations implementing change. This analytical framework is used in the study of trans-national policy learning in Europe in the area...... of science–industry relations, showing the importance of capacities (or lack thereof). This calls for the practical need of addressing organizational capacity-building, in particular of analytical capacity, for truly strategic innovation policy-making....

  12. History of EISCAT – Part 2: The early history of EISCAT in Finland

    J. Oksman


    Full Text Available The idea of a Nordic incoherent scatter facility, proposed by Bengt Hultqvist, was for the first time discussed among representatives of the three Nordic countries Norway, Sweden and Finland in 1969 in Oulu, Finland. In the years to follow, when other countries joined in and the plans of the facility to be built gradually received concrete forms, Finland participated in the planning work, in spite of the large costs to be expected. When in negotiations with the Nordic partners in 1975 the share of Finland in EISCAT was reduced to five per cent and when the existing facilities and personnel at Sodankylä could be taken into account in the Finnish share, the Academy of Finland was finally ready to join EISCAT.

  13. The institutionalization of Jesus' charismatic authority, Part 1: Indirect Christology - direct Christology1

    Yolanda Dreyer


    Full Text Available This study concerns an investigation of the evolution of the Jesus tradition. Christological titles are studied in terms of the social theory of the institutionalization of charismatic authority. It makes use of Anthony Thiselton's and Bengt Holmberg's application of Max Weber's social theory. It is argued that the followers of Jesus acknowledged and expressed his authority by means of naming. These "names" developed into "titles" when the post-Easter followers of Jesus allocated power to him. The process of the institutionalization of Jesus' charismatic authority relates to the transmission from the oral tradition of Jesus' sayings and deeds to the written evidence. The article emphasizes the work done by the Jesus Seminar. The following "rules of written evidence" are considered: clustering and contexting; revision and commentary; false attribution; difficult sayings and the process of christianising. In Part 2 of the study, Weber,s social theory is applied to the Christological title "Son of Man".

  14. Danish Folkloristics: between Philology and Ethnology

    Simonsen, Michèle


    Aquest article ofereix una visió general dels estudiosos més importants del folklore danès —Svend Grundtvig, Axel Olrik, Evald Tang Kristensen, Bengt Holbek, Iørn Piø— i sosté que, encara que la majoria d’ells van ser formats originalment en filologia i sobretot es van interessar per la literatura oral, estaven tots, cadascú a la seva manera, d’acord amb l’«ecologia» del folklore: és a dir, la seva interacció amb l’entorn. Què era el «poble» (folk) i què era la «saviesa» (lore) per a aq...

  15. The August Krogh Institute

    Sjøgaard, G


    Bengt Saltin knew very well the history and work of the giants whose shoulders he was standing upon, such as August Krogh and Johannes Lindhard. He was basically a physiologist interested in physical activity and exercise, particularly in the cardiovascular and muscular responses. Some of his major...... original contributions were (a) the human muscle model in terms of the one-legged, knee extensor quantifying work by the high-precision Krogh ergometer and, using this, challenging Krogh's proposed autoregulation of capillary blood flow during exercise; (b) the electrolyte fluxes quantification on an intra......- and extra-cellular level in human muscle during exercise to reveal such changes as possible fatigue mechanisms; and (c) the evidence presented that underlined the health-enhancing effect of physical exercise training from bedside to workplace....

  16. Gender Stereotypes in Cinderella (ATU 510A and The Princess on the Glass Mountain (ATU 530

    Kärri Toomeos-Orglaan


    Full Text Available One of the best-known role-based stereotypes in European fairy tales is that of an active male and a passive female. Awareness of such a stereotype is connected with the feminist approach that criticises the domination of the male point of view in fairy tales and the depiction of women from the position of men. The article focuses on analysing if and how the stereotype is realised in the context of two fairy tale types – Cinderella (ATU 510A and The Princess on the Glass Mountain (ATU 530. According to Bengt Holbek, fairy tales as symbolic texts are closely connected to the real world as they refer to the latter through fantastic phenomena and events. Holbek is interested in the meaning of magical elements in the living tradition: according to him the world of fairy tales does not reflect the real world directly, but reveals the storytellers’ and their audiences’ ideas of what the latter should be like. What emerges as an important question is whose vision is transmitted by such fairy tale interpretations; whether researchers are able to interpret the meanings the tales might have had for the storytellers, or whether it is just the viewpoint of the researcher that is reflected.

  17. The elite cross-country skier provides unique insights into human exercise physiology.

    Holmberg, H-C


    Successful cross-country skiing, one of the most demanding of endurance sports, involves considerable physiological challenges posed by the combined upper- and lower-body effort of varying intensity and duration, on hilly terrain, often at moderate altitude and in a cold environment. Over the years, this unique sport has helped physiologists gain novel insights into the limits of human performance and regulatory capacity. There is a long-standing tradition of researchers in this field working together with coaches and athletes to improve training routines, monitor progress, and refine skiing techniques. This review summarizes research on elite cross-country skiers, with special emphasis on the studies initiated by Professor Bengt Saltin. He often employed exercise as a means to learn more about the human body, successfully engaging elite endurance athletes to improve our understanding of the demands, characteristics, and specific effects associated with different types of exercise. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Third ATLAS Physics Workshop in Lund

    Gianotti, F

    The 3rd ATLAS Physics Workshop was held in Lund (Sweden) on September 12-16 2001. It was a very successful meeting, attended by more than 170 people and characterised by an impressive amount of work presented and discussed. The meeting was opened by the Dean of the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Prof. Bengt Söderström. We were all in a shocked state of mind because of the attacks the previous day on the WTC in New York. The Dean therefore asked us to observe a minute of silence to express our sorrow over the event, and sympathy to all the victims and their families. He then welcomed the ATLAS collaboration to Lund University. He explained the broad range of activities at the University, and also its history. The Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences has a strong research profile and an international orientation through collaborations, visitors and many students from outside Sweden. He expressed his satisfaction with Lund University hosting our workshop, and wished us an inspiring meet...

  19. Anselm Citron (1923 - 2014)


    Anselm Citron, one of CERN’s pioneers, an enthusiastic scholar and internationally renowned researcher, passed away on 8 December at the age of 91.   Anselm Citron, front, looks at a quadrupole for the muon beam at the SC with, left to right, Bengt Hedin, Marinus van Gulik and Pierre Lapostolle. Born in Germany, Citron went to high school in the Netherlands, where he had been sent to escape the persecution of people with Jewish roots. After abitur and a short period at a technical high school, he took part in the last stages of the Second World War before returning to Freiburg in 1945. There, he studied physics under Wolfgang Gentner, and obtained his PhD. Citron then joined the Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge, in 1952, to take part in research on accelerator physics. A year later, he came to the newly founded CERN as one of its first 12 staff physicists and contributed to the construction of the Proton Synchrotron, for which he was responsible for the high-frequency powe...

  20. Applying the Theory of the Firm to Examine a Technology Startup at the Investment Stage

    Michael Ayukawa


    Full Text Available The investment stage of a new technology firm is when resources, opportunities, investors, and early customers first converge. Currently, technology entrepreneurs make many expensive mistakes. They invest in assets and develop capabilities that prove to have limited value. They take too long to discover and validate the product-market fit for their firms during the investment stage and run out of time and money. Understanding how theory can help entrepreneurs make decisions during the investment stage is important to accelerate new-firm formation and growth as well as to reduce the uncertainty of founders and stakeholders of technology firms. This article introduces a model developed to examine deal making during the investment stage of a new technology firm. It is an extension of a model of lateral firm scope proposed by Oliver Hart and Bengt Holmstrom. The extensions come from considering a technology firm as being both a deal-making entity and a pool of resources during the investment stage. A deal is the result of a decision the entrepreneur and others make to coordinate (i.e., work together to achieve a common objective. Benefits from a deal include cash profits for the firm and private benefits for the entrepreneur. This extended model is then applied to examine the author’s firm which is still in the investment stage. Application of the extended model to a real-life situation generated two important insights: i when private benefits include learning from experimentation, the number of deals increases and ii at the start of the investment stage, private benefits drive deal-making, whereas at the end of the investment stage, cash profits derived from asset ownership drive deal-making.

  1. Teaching and learning science in linguistically diverse classrooms

    Moore, Emilee; Evnitskaya, Natalia; Ramos-de Robles, S. Lizette


    In this paper we reflect on the article, Science education in a bilingual class: problematising a translational practice, by Zeynep Ünsal, Britt Jakobson, Bengt-Olav Molander and Per-Olaf Wickman (Cult Stud Sci Educ, 10.1007/s11422-016-9747-3). In their article, the authors present the results of a classroom research project by responding to one main question: How is continuity between everyday language and the language of science construed in a bilingual science classroom where the teacher and the students do not speak the same minority language? Specifically, Ünsal et al. examine how bilingual students construe relations between everyday language and the language of science in a class taught in Swedish, in which all students also spoke Turkish, whereas the teacher also spoke Bosnian, both being minority languages in the context of Swedish schools. In this forum, we briefly discuss why close attention to bilingual dynamics emerging in classrooms such as those highlighted by Ünsal et al. matters for science education. We continue by discussing changing ontologies in relation to linguistic diversity and education more generally. Recent research in bilingual immersion classroom settings in so-called "content" subjects such as Content and Language Integrated Learning, is then introduced, as we believe this research offers some significant insights in terms of how bilingualism contributes to knowledge building in subjects such as science. Finally, we offer some reflections in relation to the classroom interactional competence needed by teachers in linguistically diverse classrooms. In this way, we aim to further the discussion initiated by Ünsal et al. and to offer possible frameworks for future research on bilingualism in science education. In their article, Ünsal et al. conclude the analysis of the classroom data by arguing in favor of a translanguaging pedagogy, an approach to teaching and learning in which students' whole language repertoires are used as

  2. Origin and Evolution of the Elements

    McWilliam, Andrew; Rauch, Michael


    Introduction; List of participants; 1. Mount Wilson Observatory contributions to the study of cosmic abundances of the chemical elements George W. Preston; 2. Synthesis of the elements in stars: B2FH and beyond E. Margaret Burbidge; 3. Stellar nucleosynthesis: a status report 2003 David Arnett; 4. Advances in r-process nucleosynthesis John J. Cowan and Christopher Sneden; 5. Element yields of intermediate-mass stars Richard B. C. Henry; 6. The impact of rotation on chemical abundances in red giant branch stars Corinne Charbonnel; 7. s-processing in AGB stars and the composition of carbon stars Maurizio Busso, Oscar Straniero, Roberto Gallino, and Carlos Abia; 8. Models of chemical evolution Francesca Matteucci; 9. Model atmospheres and stellar abundance analysis Bengt Gustafsson; 10. The light elements: lithium, beryllium, and boron Ann Merchant Boesgaard; 11. Extremely metal-poor stars John E. Norris; 12. Thin and thick galactic disks Poul E. Nissen; 13. Globular clusters and halo field stars Christopher Sneden, Inese I. Ivans and Jon P. Fulbright; 14. Chemical evolution in ω Centauri Verne V. Smith; 15. Chemical composition of the Magellanic Clouds, from young to old stars Vanessa Hill; 16. Detailed composition of stars in dwarf spheroidal galaxies Matthew D. Shetrone; 17. The evolutionary history of Local Group irregular galaxies Eva K. Grebel; 18. Chemical evolution of the old stellar populations of M31 R. Michael Rich; 19. Stellar winds of hot massive stars nearby and beyond the Local Group Fabio Bresolin and Rolf P. Kudritzki; 20. Presolar stardust grains Donald D. Clayton and Larry R. Nittler; 21. Interstellar dust B. T. Draine; 22. Interstellar atomic abundances Edward B. Jenkins; 23. Molecules in the interstellar medium Tommy Wiklind; 24. Metal ejection by galactic winds Crystal L. Martin; 25. Abundances from the integrated light of globular clusters and galaxies Scott C. Trager; 26. Abundances in spiral and irregular galaxies Donald R. Garnett; 27

  3. Factors associated with failure to achieve remission and with relapse after remission in patients with major depressive disorder in the PERFORM study

    Saragoussi D


    Full Text Available Delphine Saragoussi,1 Maëlys Touya,2 Josep Maria Haro,3 Bengt Jönsson,4 Martin Knapp,5 Bastien Botrel,6 Ioana Florea,7 Henrik Loft,8 Benoît Rive9 1Real-World Evidence and Epidemiology, Lundbeck SAS, Issy-les-Moulineaux, France; 2Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Lundbeck, Deerfield, IL, US; 3Research and Teaching Unit, Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Deu, CIBERSAM, University of Barcelona, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain; 4Department of Economics, Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden; 5Department of Health Policy, London School of Economics and Political Science, London, UK; 6Biostatistics, Inferential, Paris, France; 7Clinical Research Paediatrics, H. Lundbeck A/S, Valby, Denmark; 8Biometrics, H. Lundbeck A/S, Valby, Denmark; 9Global Analytics, Lundbeck SAS, Issy-les-Moulineaux, France Background: The Prospective Epidemiological Research on Functioning Outcomes Related to Major Depressive Disorder (PERFORM study has been initiated to better understand the course of a depressive episode and its impact on patient functioning. This analysis aimed to identify sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with failure to achieve remission at month 2 after initiating or switching antidepressant monotherapy and with subsequent relapse at month 6 for patients in remission at month 2. Materials and methods: This was a 2-year observational cohort study in 1,159 outpatients aged 18–65 years with major depressive disorder initiating or undergoing the first switch of antidepressant monotherapy. Factors with P<0.20 in univariate logistic regression analyses were combined in a multiple logistic regression model to which backward variable selection was applied (ie, sequential removal of the least significant variable from the model and recomputation of the model until all remaining variables have P<0.05. Results: Baseline factors significantly associated with lower odds of remission at month 2 were body-mass index ≥30 kg/m2 (OR 0

  4. Admission of new oncological drugs to the Slovenian health care system and their accessibility to the patients

    Mitja Kos


    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study is to analyze the admission of anticancer drugs to the Slovenian healthcare system, and to evaluate patients’ accessibility to these medications.Methods: Admission and accessibility to anticancer drugs was evaluated by analysing: differences in registration time among USA, selected member states of EU, and Slovenia; time from the registration to the first use in Slovenia; differences between the first use in Slovenia and the first use in selected member states of EU and by analysing the market of oncology drugs. The study included drugs of the ATC groups such as Antitumor medications (cytostatics (ATC = L01 and Endocrine treatment (ATC = L02 that were used in Slovenia for the first time between 1999 to 2005. Registration data for Slovenia and EU was obtained from the registration documention of selected drugs at the Agency for Medicinal Products and Medical Devices of the Republic of Slovenia, and the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products (EMEA. Registration data for USA was obtained from the registration documention of selected drugs at the Food and Drug Administration (FDA. The information upon the first use of drugs in Slovenia was acquired from the PharMIS system, and the information upon the first use of drugs in selected member states of EU was obtained from the study on patients’ access to oncology drugs by Nils Wilking and Bengt Jönsson, performed from 2005. Data for the market analysis of oncology drugs was obtained from the PharMIS system.Results: In previous years a delay in registration time between Slovenia and compared states was present for some oncology drugs. Along with the acceptance of Slovenia as a new member state of EU, on 1st May 2004, registration process in Slovenia became a part of the registration system of the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products (EMEA. Majority of drugs had a time difference between the registration and the first use

  5. ZZ HATCHES-18, Database for radiochemical modelling

    Heath, T.G.


    1 - Description of program or function: HATCHES is a referenced, quality assured, thermodynamic database, developed by Serco Assurance for Nirex. Although originally compiled for use in radiochemical modelling work, HATCHES also includes data suitable for many other applications e.g. toxic waste disposal, effluent treatment and chemical processing. It is used in conjunction with chemical and geochemical computer programs, to simulate a wide variety of reactions in aqueous environments. The database includes thermodynamic data (the log formation constant and the enthalpy of formation for the chemical species) for the actinides, fission products and decay products. The datasets for Ni, Tc, U, Np, Pu and Am are based on the NEA reviews of the chemical thermodynamics of these elements. The data sets for these elements with oxalate, citrate and EDTA are based on the NEA-selected values. For iso-saccharinic acid, additional data (non-selected values) have been included from the NEA review as well as data derived from other sources. HATCHES also includes data for many toxic metals and for elements commonly found in groundwaters or geological materials. HARPHRQ operates by reference to the PHREEQE master species list. Thus the thermodynamic information supplied is: a) the log equilibrium constant for the formation reaction of the requested species from the PHREEQE master species for the corresponding elements; b) the enthalpy of reaction for the formation reaction of the requested species from the PHREEQE master species for the corresponding elements. This version of HATCHES has been updated since the previous release to provide consistency with the selected data from two recent publications in the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency series on chemical thermodynamics: Chemical Thermodynamics Series Volume 7 (2005): Chemical Thermodynamics of Selenium by Aeke Olin (Chairman), Bengt Nolaeng, Lars-Olof Oehman, Evgeniy Osadchii and Erik Rosen and Chemical Thermodynamics Series Volume 8

  6. LHC Nobel Symposium Proceedings

    Ekelöf, Tord


    referees of these Proceedings and to the staff at Uppsala University, in particular my Administrative Assistant for the Symposium, Marja Fahlander, at the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, at the Nobel Foundation and at the Institute of Physics Publishing Company for Physica Scripta for realizing this enlightening Symposium at its proceedings. The Nobel Symposium was financed by the Nobel Foundation. Tord Ekelöf Chair of the LHC Nobel Symposium Local Organizing Committee and LHC Nobel Guest Editor for the Symposium Proceedings Members of the Local Organizing Committee of the LHC Nobel Symposium Tord Ekelöf (Uppsala University, Chair) Kerstin Jon-And (Stockholms University) Bengt Lund-Jensen (Royal Institute of Technology) Anders Oskarsson (Lunds University) Torsten Åkesson (Lund University) Barbro Åsman (Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences) Members of the International Advisory Committee of the LHC Nobel Symposium Pierluigi Campana (INFN Frascati) Fabiola Gianotti (CERN) Paolo Giubellino (INFN-Torino) Joe Incandela (UC Santa Barbara) Young-Kee Kim (FNAL) Michelangelo Mangano (CERN) Lisa Randall (Harvard University)

  7. A Glimpse of the Young Milky Way


    Uppsala (Sweden) and at the Munich University Observatory (Germany) were able to determine the chemical composition of the star. The implications HE 0107-5240 turns out to be the most metal-poor star known to date . " This is, in a way, the closest we have ever come to the conditions directly after the Big Bang by studying stars ", says Norbert Christlieb . " But obviously, a lot must have happened between the Big Bang and the formation of this star. In spite of its extreme metal-poorness, it evidently contains some metals, and they were most probably formed in a even earlier, massive star that exploded as a supernova ". Bengt Gustafsson from the University of Uppsala, who lead the chemical analysis jointly with Christlieb, adds that " this star also has an abnormally large content of carbon and nitrogen. Those elements may possibly have been formed by nuclear reactions with helium and hydrogen deep inside the star and subsequently transported upwards to the stellar surface where they can now be observed. It is also possible that a neigbouring star at the end of its life 'polluted' our star by transferring some of its enriched material to HE 0107-5240 at that moment. The ongoing observations with UVES will help us to decide which scenario is the most probable ." Renewed hope to find first-generation stars The mass of HE 0107-5240 is about 80% of that of the Sun. This discovery thus clearly demonstrates that stars with masses slightly less than the Sun can form from very metal-poor gas. This is unexpected, as most current theoretical calculations indicate that it is very difficult to form low-mass stars shortly after the Big Bang, because metals are needed to efficiently cool gas clouds as they contract into stars. But now HE 0107-5240 reveals that Nature has found a way to achieve the necessary cooling. It therefore appears that many of the model calculations must be refined. Equally important: if a star like HE 0107-5240 , with about 0.8 solar mass and 1/200,000 of the

  8. Milky Way Past Was More Turbulent Than Previously Known


    been removed here. These observations provide the long-sought missing pieces of the puzzle to get a clear overview of the solar neighbourhood. They effectively mark the conclusion of a project started more than twenty years ago.. In fact, this work marks the fulfilment of an old dream by Danish astronomer Bengt Strömgren (1908-1987), who pioneered the study of the history of the Milky Way through systematic studies of its stars. Already in the 1950's he designed a special system of colour measurements to determine the chemical composition and ages of many stars very efficiently. And the Danish 50-cm and 1.5-m telescopes at the ESO La Silla Observatory (Chile) were constructed to make such projects possible. Another Danish astronomer, Erik Heyn Olsen made the first step in the 1980's by measuring the flux (light intensity) in several wavebands (in the "Strömgren photometric system") of 30,000 A, F and G stars over the whole sky to a fixed brightness limit. Next, ESA's Hipparcos satellite determined precise distances and velocities in the plane of the sky for these and many other stars. The missing link was the motions along the line of sight (the so-called radial velocities). They were then measured by the present team from the Doppler shift of spectral lines of the stars (the same technique that is used to detect planets around other stars), using the specialized CORAVEL instrument. Stellar orbits in the Milky Way ESO PR Video Clip 04/04 ESO Video Clip 04/04 Motions of the observed stars in the Milky Way [MPG - 1.3Mb] [Quick Time Video - 248k] [Animated GIF - 128k] Caption: ESO PR Video Clip 04/04 shows the stars studied during the present programme making their most recent orbital revolution around the Galactic centre before converging into the small volume where they were observed by the team. The duration of the video corresponds to about 250 million years. The yellow dot and white curve show how the Sun moved during this last of its about 20 laps around our

  9. Obituary: Donald Edward Osterbrock, 1924-2007

    Veilleux, Sylvain


    Donald Edward Osterbrock, one of the leading figures of post-World War II astronomy, died suddenly of a heart attack on 11 January 2007, while walking near his office at the University of California, Santa Cruz. He was 82 years old. His initials spelled D.E.O. (God in latin!), but he was known simply as Don to his many friends and colleagues. Don's long and productive career spanned five decades. His scientific work helped shape our understanding of lower main-sequence stars, the ionized interstellar medium, and active galactic nuclei. He was also a highly respected historian of astronomy who shed new light on 19th- and 20th-century astronomy. Don was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, on 13 July 1924. Both of his parents were of German descent and valued hard work, education, and science. They both completed their high-school education at night while working full-time during the day. His father eventually became a professor of electrical engineering at the University of Cincinnati. Don's plan to become an astronomer was put on hold when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor in 1941. After graduation from high school, Don joined the United States Army and trained as a meteorologist, taking all of the physics and mathematics courses required for a bachelor's degree in physics from the University of Chicago. He was eventually sent to islands in the Pacific Ocean but never was in harm's way. After three years of service, Don returned to Chicago to obtain his bachelor's degree in 1948, his M.S. in astronomy in 1949, and a Ph.D. in astronomy in 1952. Don's years at the University of Chicago and the University's Yerkes Observatory in Williams Bay, Wisconsin, were pivotal for his career and personal life. He came in contact with such luminaries as Otto Struve, Bengt Strömgren, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, and William W. Morgan. At Yerkes, he also met and married Irene L. Hansen, a native of Williams Bay, who was employed as a member of the Yerkes staff. They had a son, William, now

  10. EDITORIAL: Van der Waals interactions in advanced materials, in memory of David C Langreth Van der Waals interactions in advanced materials, in memory of David C Langreth

    Hyldgaard, Per; Rahman, Talat S.


    sufficiently close to any corrugated—and/or any smooth—surface and thus enforce a strong vdW-type adhesion; it exploits what is then essentially a contact force (dominated by the attraction exerted in the near-surface regions) to defy the pull of gravity on its own bulk. This Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter special issue is dedicated to the memory of David C Langreth. David is a dearly missed friend and mentor who inspired many of us. He was an outstanding condensed matter theorist and a scholar who greatly influenced us through his many-particle-physics based insights into density functional theory (DFT), surface science and related areas. His seminal works range from conserving formulations of interacting nonequilibrium transport [1] and formal-scattering theory [2] to an explicit formulation [3] of the exact DFT exchange-correlation energy in the adiabatic connection formula (ACF), the latter also being derived independently by Gunnarsson and Lundqvist [4]. David's portfolio also includes an analysis [5] that helped catalyze and guide the development of DFT from the local-density approximation (LDA) to the formulations of generalized gradient approximations (GGAs). Another salient contribution of David's is in the area of vdW interactions in materials. He was a key architect of the vdW density functional (vdW-DF) method [6, 7]. This method was developed in a long-standing Rutgers-Chalmers collaboration between David's group and that of Bengt I Lundqvist, later extending to a wider group of researchers on both sides of the Atlantic. Plasmons are collective excitations that depend on electron-density variation. The plasmon response can be seen as defining the nature of the LDA [4] and their description can thus also be seen as contributing to the success of GGA. The vdW-DF method is a regular constraint-based density functional (for ground-state DFT) which is derived within the ACF framework and which emphasizes the electrodynamical nature of the coupling between

  11. Young and Exotic Stellar Zoo


    constellation Ara (the Altar). It was discovered in 1961 from Australia by Swedish astronomer Bengt Westerlund, who later moved from there to become ESO Director in Chile (1970 - 74). This cluster is behind a huge interstellar cloud of gas and dust, which blocks most of its visible light. The dimming factor is more than 100,000 - and this is why it has taken so long to uncover the true nature of this particular cluster. In 2001, the team of astronomers identified more than a dozen extremely hot and peculiar massive stars in the cluster, so-called "Wolf-Rayet" stars. They have since studied Westerlund 1 extensively with various ESO telescopes. They used images from the Wide Field Imager (WFI) attached to the 2.2-m ESO/MPG as well as from the SUperb Seeing Imager 2 (SuSI2) camera on the ESO 3.5-m New Technology Telescope (NTT). From these observations, they were able to identify about 200 cluster member stars. To establish the true nature of these stars, the astronomers then performed spectroscopic observations of about one quarter of them. For this, they used the Boller & Chivens spectrograph on the ESO 1.52-m telescope and the ESO Multi-Mode Instrument (EMMI) on the NTT. An Exotic Zoo These observations have revealed a large population of very bright and massive, quite extreme stars. Some would fill the solar system space within the orbit of Saturn (about 2,000 times larger than the Sun!), others are as bright as a million Suns. Westerlund 1 is obviously a fantastic stellar zoo, with a most exotic population and a true astronomical bonanza. All stars identified are evolved and very massive, spanning the full range of stellar oddities from Wolf-Rayet stars, OB supergiants, Yellow Hypergiants (nearly as bright as a million Suns) and Luminous Blue Variables (similar to the exceptional Eta Carinae object - see ESO PR 31/03). All stars so far analysed in Westerlund 1 weigh at least 30-40 times more than the Sun. Because such stars have a rather short life - astronomically speaking

  12. Interesantes hitos de las Ciencias Médicas en marzo

    José Suárez Lezcano


    Limitados Físicos y Motores. El 24 de marzo de 1882  Robert Koch, médico alemán, descubre el bacilo que ocasiona la tuberculosis. La OMS instituye esta fecha como Día Mundial de la tuberculosis. El 26 de marzo de 1885 se otorga por primera vez en Cuba el título de Cirugía Dental a una mujer, Serafina Daumy Martínez. En  1911 nace en Leipzig el bioquímico alemán Bernard Katz. Comparte el premio Nobel de Medicina y Fisiología de 1970 con el estadounidense Julius Axelrod y el fisiólogo sueco Ulf Svante von Euler. Los tres se destacaron por los hallazgos relativos a los trasmisores humorales en las terminales nerviosas y al mecanismo que interviene en su almacenamiento, liberación e inactivación. El 27 de marzo de 1845 nace en Nennep, Alemania, Guillermo Roentgen, descubridor de los rayos X. El 28 de marzo de 1892 nace el premio Nobel de Medicina y Fisiología de 1938, Corneille Jean Francoise Heymans. Farmacólogo y fisiólogo belga nacido en Gent y fallecido en Knokke en 1968. Obtuvo el premio por el descubrimiento de la función que desempeñan los mecanismos sinusal y aórtico en la regulación de la respiración. El 29 de marzo de 1909 es elegida la primera directiva de la Asociación Nacional de Enfermeras de la República de Cuba en el Hospital No. 1 (General Calixto García en La Habana. En 1927 nace en Tardebigg el químico y farmacólogo inglés John R. Vane. Compartió el premio Nobel de Medicina y Fisiología de 1982 con los bioquímicos suecos Sune K. Bergström y Bengt I. Samuelsson. Los tres se hicieron acreedores del premio por los nuevos conocimientos que aportaron sobre las funciones de las prostaglandinas y de las sustancias biológicamente activas. El 30 de marzo de 1849 muere en La Habana el doctor Tomás Romay Chacón, introductor, aplicador y propagador de la vacuna antivariólica en Cuba. El 31 de marzo de 1847,  Vicente Antonio de Castro da a conocer el aparato para inhalaciones de éter de Charriere. Interesante, ¿verdad?

  13. Exciting Message from a Dying Monster Star


    this is radiation from a SiO maser in the atmosphere of the star. If it would not have been a maser, it would have been far too weak to have been detected. Although we know several hundred masers of this type in the Milky Way, this is the first discovery of a SiO maser in another galaxy than our own . Since then, the observations have been continued in collaboration with Australian astronomers, using radio telescopes at Parkes and Mopra on that continent. A most unusual star When Swedish astronomer Bengt Westerlund and his colleagues first observed this LMC maser star in 1981 with optical telescopes, they thought that it was a rather normal, cool and not particularly bright star. However, a few years later, the Dutch-British-USA InfraRed Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) revealed its true nature. The IRAS measurements showed that the star radiates most of its light in the form of infrared radiation [4], making it one of the most powerful stars in the LMC; in fact, it emits about half a million times more energy than the Sun. On this occasion, it was given the designation IRAS 04553-6825 , the number indicating its position in the sky. IRAS 04553-6825 is unusual in other ways. It is some fifty times as heavy as our Sun, and it is the biggest known star in the LMC: if it were to take the place of our Sun, it would fill the solar system out to the planet Neptune, thirty times the distance from the Earth to the Sun. It is rather cool when compared to other stars - although it still has a temperature of about 2,000 C - and it therefore has a very red colour [5]. This Press Release is accompanied by ESO Press Photo 15/96 which demonstrates that while the star is hardly visible in blue light, it shines brightly in red and infrared light. Stars like IRAS 04553-6825 are known as red supergiants. It has been unofficially dubbed `The Monster', and having reached the end of a short and hectic life, it is now dying. The nuclear reactions deep inside are undergoing important changes at

  14. The Glory of a Nearby Star


    , 1999. Two years ago, on August 11, 1999, the shadow of the Moon moved rapidly across Europe and millions of eager observers experienced a total solar eclipse , many for the first time in their lives. Those who had a clear view during the 2-min phase of totality were able to see the glorious solar corona , a shimmering halo of light around the eclipsed solar disk, cf. PR Photo 24a/01 . Some 130 years earlier, during a total solar eclipse on August, 7, 1869, American astronomers William Harkness and Charles Young observed a weak spectral emission line from the solar corona in the green region of the spectrum; it was visible for a couple of minutes. However, despite an enormous amount of work, both at the telescope during subsequent eclipses and in the laboratory, this emission line could not be attributed to any known chemical element. As the years passed, the mystery of the origin of this emission line deepened and some astronomers went as far as introducing an entirely new element named 'coronium' [1]. As better instruments became available, more coronal lines were seen during later solar eclipses. A hot corona It was only after 70 years that the coronium mystery was finally solved by two astrophysicists, Walter Grotrian from Germany and Bengt Edlén from Sweden. They showed that two observed emission lines arise from iron atoms which have lost about half their 26 electrons . By 1941, all of the coronal lines had been found to originate from such highly 'ionized atoms' . The successful identification created, however, another puzzle: in order to strip iron atoms of half of their electrons, temperatures of more than one million degrees are required, yet the temperature of the surface of the Sun is only of the order of 5500 °C! The astronomers in the 1940's were well aware that the Sun's energy is produced in the interior and that heat flows outwards from hotter to cooler regions. So how could there be a much hotter corona above the cooler photosphere? Since then, much