WorldWideScience

Sample records for benefits review program

  1. Benefits of Campus Outdoor Recreation Programs: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Elizabeth K.; Williams, Nathan; Schwartz, Forrest; Bullard, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Campus outdoor recreation programs and facilities have faced a number of public attacks questioning their value for students. Climbing walls in particular have become, to some, emblematic of waste and financial excess in higher education. Despite these claims, this literature review uncovers numerous benefits for participants and schools provided…

  2. Consumer perspectives of the Australian Home Medicines Review Program: benefits and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lesley; Klinner, Christiane; Carter, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The Australian Home Medicines Review (HMR) is a free consumer service to assist individuals living at home to maximize the benefits of their medicine regimen and prevent medication-related problems. It consists of a pharmacist reviewing a person's medicines and collaborating with the general practitioner to optimize the individual's medicine management. The uptake of this service has remained below the projected use, although the program has shown to successfully identify medication-related problems and improve drug knowledge and adherence of the patient. This study investigates the perceived benefits and barriers of the patients regarding the HMR service who have used the service and who are eligible for it but have never used it. Consumer perceptions were drawn from 14 semistructured focus groups, with patients and carers belonging to the general HMR target population and consumer segments that have been postulated to be underrepresented with regard to this service. The major benefits reported were acquisition of medicine information, reassurance, feeling valued and cared for, and willingness to advocate medication changes to the general practitioner. Perceived barriers were concerns regarding upsetting the general practitioner, pride and independence, confidence issues with an unknown pharmacist, privacy and safety concerns regarding the home visit, and lack of information about the program. Participants agreed that the potential benefits of the service outweighed its potential barriers. It is expected that direct-to-consumer promotion of HMRs would increase the uptake of this valuable service. It would be necessary to ensure that the process and benefits of the service are communicated clearly and sensitively to eligible patients and their carers to obviate common consumer misconceptions and/or barriers regarding the HMR service. Furthermore, any direct-to-consumer promotion of the service must enable patient/carer self-identification of eligibility. Copyright

  3. Health benefits of aerobic training programs in adults aged 70 and over: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaziz, Walid; Vogel, Thomas; Schmitt, Elise; Kaltenbach, Georges; Geny, Bernard; Lang, Pierre Olivier

    Aging is intrinsically associated with a progressive decline in muscle strength and mass, and aerobic capacity. This contributes to reduced mobility and impaired quality of life (QoL) among seniors. Regular physical activity, and more particularly aerobic training (AT), has demonstrated benefits on adults' health. The aim of this review was to assess the current level of evidence regarding the health benefits of AT in the population aged 70 years and over. A comprehensive, systematic database search for manuscripts was performed. Two reviewers independently assessed interventional studies for potential inclusion. Cardiovascular, metabolic, functional, cognitive, and QoL outcomes were targeted. Fifty-three studies were included totalling 2051 seniors aged 70 years and over. Studies selected were divided into 5 categories according to their main outcomes: cardiovascular function (34 studies), metabolic outcomes (26 studies), functional fitness (19 studies), cognitive functions (8 studies), and QoL (3 studies). With a good level of evidence but a wide heterogeneity between study designs, a significant and beneficial effect of AT was measured on the 5 outcomes. For QoL results showed a significant but slighter improvement. This systematic review highlights the benefits of AT on seniors' health outcome such as cardiovascular, functional, metabolic, cognitive, and QoL outcomes although the optimal program remains unclear. When more studies regarding this specific population are needed to determine the most favourable exercise program, clinicians should nevertheless encourage older adults over 70 to participate in AT programs to favour active and healthy ageing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Transit Benefit Program Data -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This data set contains information about any US government agency participating in the transit benefits program, funding agreements, individual participating Federal...

  5. A cost benefit review of applying quality assurance principles to project management of environmental cleanup programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakes, T.W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper shows the cost/benefit mechanism used for applying the theory and practical aspects of QA principles as a management tool to project management of environmental cleanup projects. This includes reviewing and guidelines and requirements to determine the practical aspects of applying these requirements to environmental project management. Thus, there is a feedback loop for comparison of the cost/benefits of application of each stage of the project. The project's major stages include planning, environmental sampling, analysis of data samples, data/information management to include reporting, and follow- up, post-cleanup sampling with continued data management. A comparison is also made of the theory with the practical aspects of each of these stages

  6. Benefits of a working memory training program for inattention in daily life: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Spencer-Smith

    Full Text Available Many common disorders across the lifespan feature impaired working memory (WM. Reported benefits of a WM training program include improving inattention in daily life, but this has not been evaluated in a meta-analysis. This study aimed to evaluate whether one WM training method has benefits for inattention in daily life by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis.We searched Medline and PsycINFO, relevant journals and contacted authors for studies with an intervention and control group reporting post-training estimates of inattention in daily life. To reduce the influence of different WM training methods on the findings, the review was restricted to trials evaluating the Cogmed method. A meta-analysis calculated the pooled standardised difference in means (SMD between intervention and control groups.A total of 622 studies were identified and 12 studies with 13 group comparisons met inclusion criteria. The meta-analysis showed a significant training effect on inattention in daily life, SMD=-0.47, 95% CI -0.65, -0.29, p<.00001. Subgroup analyses showed this significant effect was observed in groups of children and adults as well as users with and without ADHD, and in studies using control groups that were active and non-adaptive, wait-list and passive as well as studies using specific or general measures. Seven of the studies reported follow-up assessment and a meta-analysis showed persisting training benefits for inattention in daily life, SMD=-0.33, 95% CI -0.57 -0.09, p=.006. Additional meta-analyses confirmed improvements after training on visuospatial WM, SMD=0.66, 95% CI 0.43, 0.89, p<.00001, and verbal WM tasks, SMD=0.40, 95% CI 0.18, 0.62, p=.0004.Benefits of a WM training program generalise to improvements in everyday functioning. Initial evidence shows that the Cogmed method has significant benefits for inattention in daily life with a clinically relevant effect size.

  7. Childcare Programs Benefit Employers, Too.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Donald J.; Massengill, Douglas

    1988-01-01

    The person selecting a childcare program should consider how various plans would benefit employers as well as employees. The needs of the employees and the company must be considered and the options, benefits, and drawbacks of programs must be studied. (JOW)

  8. Benefits and Challenges of Developing a Customized Rubric for Curricular Review of a Residency Program in Laboratory Animal Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcomb, Tiffany L; Wilson, Ronald P

    Rigorous curricular review of post-graduate veterinary medical residency programs is in the best interest of program directors in light of the requirements and needs of specialty colleges, graduate school administrations, and other stakeholders including prospective students and employers. Although minimum standards for training are typically provided by specialty colleges, mechanisms for evaluation are left to the discretion of program directors. The paucity of information available describing best practices for curricular assessment of veterinary medical specialty training programs makes resources from other medical fields essential to informing the assessment process. Here we describe the development of a rubric used to evaluate courses in a 3-year American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine (ACLAM)-recognized residency training program culminating in a Master of Science degree. This rubric, based on examples from medical education and other fields of graduate study, provided transparent criteria for evaluation that were consistent with stakeholder needs and institutional initiatives. However, its use caused delays in the curricular review process as two significant obstacles to refinement were brought to light: variation in formal education in curriculum design and significant differences in teaching philosophies among faculty. The evaluation process was able to move forward after institutional resources were used to provide faculty development in curriculum design. The use of a customized rubric is recommended as a best practice for curricular refinement for residency programs because it results in transparency of the review process and can reveal obstacles to change that would otherwise remain unaddressed.

  9. A scoping review of the literature on benefits and challenges of participating in patient education programs aimed at promoting self-management for people living with chronic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenberg, Una; Haaland-Øverby, Mette; Fredriksen, Kari; Westermann, Karl Fredrik; Kvisvik, Toril

    2016-11-01

    To give a comprehensive overview of benefits and challenges from participating in group based patient education programs that are carried out by health care professionals and lay participants, aimed at promoting self-management for people living with chronic illness. We searched 8 literature databases. Full text articles meeting the inclusion criteria were retrieved and reviewed. Arksey and O'Malley's framework for scoping studies guided the review process and thematic analysis was undertaken to synthesize extracted data. Of the 5935 titles identified, 47 articles were included in this review. The participants experienced the programs as beneficial according to less symptom distress and greater awareness of their own health, improved self-management strategies, peer support, learning and hope. A substantial evidence base supports the conclusion that group based self-management patient education programs in different ways have been experienced as beneficial, but more research is needed. The insights gained from this review can enable researchers, health care professionals, and participants to understand the complexity in evaluating self-management patient education programs, and constitute a basis for a more standardized and systematic evaluation. The results may also encourage health care professionals in planning and carrying out programs in cooperation with lay participants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Exploring Pair Programming Benefits for MIS Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongo, Tendai; Reed, April H.; O'Hara, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Pair programming is a collaborative programming practice that places participants in dyads, working in tandem at one computer to complete programming assignments. Pair programming studies with Computer Science (CS) and Software Engineering (SE) majors have identified benefits such as technical productivity, program/design quality, academic…

  11. Is willingness to exercise programmed in utero? Reviewing sedentary behavior and the benefits of physical activity in intrauterine growth restricted individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Adrianne Rahde; Cunha, Fábio da Silva; Dalle Molle, Roberta; Maróstica, Paulo José Cauduro; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo

    2018-02-22

    The literature suggests that a fetus will adapt to surrounding adversities by optimizing its use of energy to improve survival, ultimately leading to the programming of the individual's energy intake and expenditure. While recent reviews focused on the fetal programming of energy intake and food preferences, there is also some evidence that fetal adversity is associated with diminished physical activity levels. Therefore, we aimed to review (a) the evidence for an association between being born with intrauterine growth restriction and sedentarism over the life-course and (b) the potential benefits of physical activity over cardiometabolic risk factors for this population. PubMed, Scielo, Scopus and Embase. Most clinical studies that used objective measures found no association between intrauterine growth restriction and physical activity levels, while most studies that used self-reported questionnaires revealed such relationships, particularly leisure time physical activity. Experimental studies support the existence of fetal programming of physical activity, and show that exposure to exercise during IUGR individuals' life improves metabolic outcomes but less effect was seen on muscle architecture or function. Alterations in muscle strength and metabolism, as well as altered aerobic performance, may predispose IUGR individuals to be spontaneously less physically active, suggesting that this population may be an important target for preventive interventions. Although very heterogeneous, the different studies allow us to infer that physical activity may have beneficial effects especially for individuals that are more vulnerable to metabolic modifications such as those with IUGR. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Exploring Pair Programming Benefits for MIS Majors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April H. Reed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pair programming is a collaborative programming practice that places participants in dyads, working in tandem at one computer to complete programming assignments. Pair programming studies with Computer Science (CS and Software Engineering (SE majors have identified benefits such as technical productivity, program/design quality, academic performance, and increased satisfaction for their participants. In this paper, pair programming is studied with Management Information Systems (MIS majors, who (unlike CS and SE majors taking several programming courses typically take only one programming course and often struggle to develop advanced programming skills within that single course. The researchers conducted two pair programming experiments in an introductory software development course for MIS majors over three semesters to determine if pair programming could enhance learning for MIS students. The program results, researchers’ direct observations, and participants’ responses to a survey questionnaire were analyzed after each experiment. The results indicate that pair programming appears to be beneficial to MIS students’ technical productivity and program design quality, specifically the ability to create programs using high-level concepts. Additionally, results confirmed increased student satisfaction and reduced frustration, as the pairs worked collaboratively to produce a program while actively communicating and enjoying the process.

  13. Benefits of a formal waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, R.A.

    1974-01-01

    The proper management of waste is of vital importance in the conservation of our environment. Mound Laboratory, which is operated by Monsanto Research Corporation for the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission, has embarked upon a waste management program designed to assure that the generation, processing, storage, and disposal of waste is conducted in such a manner as to have a minimum impact on the environment. The organizational approach taken toward waste management is discussed and some of the benefits of the waste management program at Mound Laboratory are described. Ithas been shown that the utilization of proper waste management techniques can have economic, as well as environmental protection, benefits. (U.S.)

  14. Mutual benefits in academic-service partnership: An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghnezhad, Maliheh; Heshmati Nabavi, Fatemeh; Najafi, Fereshteh; Kareshki, Hossein; Esmaily, Habibollah

    2018-05-30

    Academic and service institutions involve with many challenges. Partnership programs are a golden opportunity to achieve mutual benefits to overcome these challenges. Identifying mutual benefits is the cornerstone of forming a successful partnership and guarantee to its continuity. There are definitions and instances of mutual benefits in the literature related to partnership programs, but there is no coherent evidence and clear picture of these benefits. This study is conducted to identify mutual benefits in academic-service partnership by analyzing the definitions and instances of it in the literature. An integrative review of key papers regarding mutual benefits in academic-service partnership was undertaken. This review was guided by the framework described by Whittemore and Knafl. Search of the following databases was conducted: MEDLINE, ERIC, Google Scholar, Emerald Insight and Science Direct. The search terms were mutual benefits, mutual gains, mutual interest, mutual expectations, mutual goals, mutual demand, partnership, collaboration, academic-service partnership and academic service collaboration. Cooper's five-stage integrative review method was used. Quality evaluation of articles was conducted. Data were abstracted from included articles. The analysis was conducted based on the qualitative content analysis of the literature suggested by Zhang and Wildemuth. 28 articles were included in this review. Mutual benefits are described in four categories include: synergy in training and empowerment of human resources, education improvement, access to shared resources, facilitate production and application of beneficial knowledge into practice. Mutual benefits in the academic-service partnership include a range of goals, interests, expectations, and needs of partner organizations that is achievable and measurable through joint planning and collaboration. We suggest academic and service policymakers to consider these benefits in the planning and evaluating

  15. Research Review: Harnessing the power of individual participant data in a meta-analysis of the benefits and harms of the Incredible Years parenting program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijten, Patty; Gardner, Frances; Landau, Sabine; Harris, Victoria; Mann, Joanna; Hutchings, Judy; Beecham, Jennifer; Bonin, Eva-Maria; Scott, Stephen

    2018-02-01

    Parenting programs aim to reduce children's conduct problems through improvement of family dynamics. To date, research on the precise benefits and possible harms of parenting programs on family well-being has been unsystematic and likely to be subject to selective outcome reporting and publication bias. Better understanding of program benefits and harms requires full disclosure by researchers of all included measures, and large enough numbers of participants to be able to detect small effects and estimate them precisely. We obtained individual participant data for 14 of 15 randomized controlled trials on the Incredible Years parenting program in Europe (total N = 1,799). We used multilevel modeling to estimate program effects on 13 parent-reported outcomes, including parenting practices, children's mental health, and parental mental health. Parental use of praise, corporal punishment, threats, and shouting improved, while parental use of tangible rewards, monitoring, or laxness did not. Children's conduct problems and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms improved, while emotional problems did not. Parental mental health (depressive symptoms, self-efficacy, and stress) did not improve. There was no evidence of harmful effects. The Incredible Years parenting program improves the aspects of family well-being that it is primarily designed to improve: parenting and children's conduct problems. It also improves parent-reported ADHD symptoms in children. Wider benefits are limited: the program does not improve children's emotional problems or parental mental health. There are no signs of harm on any of the target outcomes. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  16. Country program review Myanmar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussaha, A.; Naqvi, S.H.M.; Poshyachinda, M.; Con, T.T.; Nemoto, S.

    1994-03-01

    Review of the past and present IAEA technical cooperation activities in the field of repair and maintenance of nuclear instrumentation and sectoral programs and institutional review in the same field are presented

  17. Country program review Myanmar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boussaha, A; Naqvi, S H.M.; Poshyachinda, M; Con, T T; Nemoto, S

    1994-03-01

    Review of the past and present IAEA technical cooperation activities in the field of repair and maintenance of nuclear instrumentation and sectoral programs and institutional review in the same field are presented.

  18. Health effects of unemployment benefit program generosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cylus, Jonathan; Glymour, M Maria; Avendano, Mauricio

    2015-02-01

    We assessed the impact of unemployment benefit programs on the health of the unemployed. We linked US state law data on maximum allowable unemployment benefit levels between 1985 and 2008 to individual self-rated health for heads of households in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and implemented state and year fixed-effect models. Unemployment was associated with increased risk of reporting poor health among men in both linear probability (b=0.0794; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.0623, 0.0965) and logistic models (odds ratio=2.777; 95% CI=2.294, 3.362), but this effect is lower when the generosity of state unemployment benefits is high (b for interaction between unemployment and benefits=-0.124; 95% CI=-0.197, -0.0523). A 63% increase in benefits completely offsets the impact of unemployment on self-reported health. Results suggest that unemployment benefits may significantly alleviate the adverse health effects of unemployment among men.

  19. Disease management programs: barriers and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnezi, Racheli; Kaufman, Galit; Ziv, Arnona; Kalter-Leibovici, Ofra; Reuveni, Haim

    2013-04-01

    The healthcare system in Israel faces difficulties similar to those of most industrialized countries, including limited resources, a growing chronically ill population, and demand for high quality care. Disease management programs (DMPs) for patients with a chronic illness aim to alleviate some of these problems, primarily by improving patient self-management skills and quality of care. This study surveyed the opinions of senior healthcare administrators regarding barriers, benefits, and support for implementing DMPs. Cross-sectional survey. A 21-item questionnaire was self-completed by 87 of 105 (83%) healthcare administrators included in the study. Participants were 65.5% male and 47% physicians, 25.3% nurses, 17.3% administrators, and 10.3% other healthcare professionals. The main perceived benefit of DMPs among all respondents was improving quality of care. Other benefits noted were better contact with patients (81.6%) and better compliance with treatment (75.9%). Efficient long-term utilization of system resources was perceived as a benefit by only 58.6%. The main perceived barriers to implementing DMPs were lack of budgetary resources (69%) and increased time required versus financial compensation received (63.2%). The benefits of DMPs were patient oriented; barriers were perceived as financial and limiting professional autonomy. Information regarding long-term benefits (better patient outcomes) that ultimately provide better value for the system versus short-term barriers (increased costs and expenditures of time without compensation) might encourage the implementation of DMPs in countries faced with a growing population of patients with at least 1 chronic illness.

  20. Properties and benefits of kefir -A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Moses John

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Kefir is becoming increasingly popular as a result of new research into its health benefits. It is a fermented milk drink which has its origin in the Caucasus Mountains of Russia. Kefir is prepared by inoculating milk with kefir grains which are a combination of bacteria and yeasts in a symbiotic matrix. The common microorganisms present are non-pathogenic bacteria, especially Lactobacillus sp. and yeasts. Kefir has a long history of health benefits in Eastern European countries. It is believed that kefir has therapeutic effects, thus it is important to study the various properties contained in, and exhibited by it. This review includes a critical revision of the antimicrobial, anti-carcinogenic, probiotic and prebiotic properties of kefir. Other health benefits, like reducing cholesterol and improving lactose tolerance are also discussed.

  1. State Program Integrity Reviews

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — State program integrity reviews play a critical role in how CMS provides effective support and assistance to states in their efforts to combat provider fraud and...

  2. Online benefits solutions--a new trend in managing employee benefits programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ala, Mohammad; Brunaczki, Bernadette

    2003-01-01

    This article focuses on the array of online benefits solutions offered by technology companies and reports the benefits to both employers and employees. Some of the benefits include reduced paperwork, reduced errors, and reduced administration costs. Companies that can deliver these benefits will be in great demand to help manage benefits programs and streamline the administrative processes.

  3. Appendix C: Biomass Program inputs for FY 2008 benefits estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    Document summarizes the results of the benefits analysis of EERE’s programs, as described in the FY 2008 Budget Request. EERE estimates benefits for its overall portfolio and nine Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD3) programs.

  4. Local government household battery collection programs: Costs and benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapek, Raymond A [Department of Public Administration, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Nearly three billion dry-cell household batteries are discarded in the municipal waste stream annually. While the mercury content of newer batteries has been reduced, older batteries and the accumulated total of mercury and cadmium, as well as other metals in the newer batteries still constitute a potential health risk. Many communities have initiated collection programs to remove this source of contamination from the municipal waste stream, but most have not. Fourteen states have enacted legislation regulating the disposal of household batteries, while nine states require the collection of rechargeable batteries. This article describes the potential health risks associated with continued disposal and incineration of household dry-cell batteries, reviews a sampling of existing municipal collection programs in US communities, and examines the costs and benefits and program options of collection programs

  5. Nuclear program review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, S.; Rosa, L.P.; Carvalho, Joaquim de; Simon, D.N.

    1985-01-01

    A review of the Brazilian Nuclear Program based in Brazilian energy perspectives, in world-wide technology evolution and in international and national economic context is done. The objetive is look for subsidies for new decisions related to the future of program, taking in account the acquired experience and new data created by evolution of internal and external political and technological conjuncture. (M.C.K.) [pt

  6. Geothermal Technologies Program Overview - Peer Review Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milliken, JoAnn [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-06-06

    This Geothermal Technologies Program presentation was delivered on June 6, 2011 at a Program Peer Review meeting. It contains annual budget, Recovery Act, funding opportunities, upcoming program activities, and more.

  7. Defining the Benefits, Outputs, and Knowledge Elements of Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Rochelle; Perrin, Burt; McGuire, Martha; Long, Bud; Lee, Linda

    2002-01-01

    The Canadian Evaluation Society explored the benefits that can be attributed to program evaluation, the outputs necessary to achieve those benefits, and the knowledge and skills needed to produce outputs. Findings, which articulate benefits, outputs, and skills, can be used by evaluation organizations to support advocacy and professional…

  8. Cost-benefit analysis of FBR program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, S [Japan Energy Economic Research Inst., Tokyo

    1975-07-01

    In several countries of the world, both financial and human resources are being invested to the development of fast breeder reactors. Quantitative determination of the benefit which will be expected as the reqard to these efforts of research and development - this is the purpose of the present study. It is cost-benefit analysis. The instances of this analysis are given, namely the work in The Institute of Energy Economics in Japan, and also the one by U.S.AEC. The effect of the development of fast breeder reactors is evaluated in this way ; and problems in the analysis method are indicated. These two works in Japan and the U.S. were performed before the so-called oil crisis.

  9. Cost-benefit analysis of FBR program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shinji

    1975-01-01

    In several countries of the world, both financial and human resources are being invested to the development of fast breeder reactors. Quantitative determination of the benefit which will be expected as the reqard to these efforts of research and development - this is the purpose of the present study. It is cost-benefit analysis. The instances of this analysis are given, namely the work in The Institute of Energy Economics in Japan, and also the one by U.S.AEC. The effect of the development of fast breeder reactors is evaluated in this way ; and problems in the analysis method are indicated. These two works in Japan and the U.S. were performed before the so-called oil crisis. (Mori, K.)

  10. Corporate Benefits of Employee Recreation Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finney, Craig

    1984-01-01

    Employee recreation programs have been shown to reduce absenteeism, increase performance and productivity, reduce stress levels, and increase job satisfaction. Studies that present positive results of employee recreation are discussed. (DF)

  11. Loyalty Programs. Role, Structure and Potential Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Alina Filip

    2011-01-01

    A loyalty program consists of an integrated system of marketing activities, aimed at increasing members’ loyalty by rewarding customers according to their purchasing frequency and amount spent. Loyalty schemes, customer clubs and sales promotion techniques are the most common relationship tools used in marketing practice. To join the program and receive a card, consumers must fill in a registration form, providing demographic, behavioural or even psychographic data. Loyalty schemes and custom...

  12. Minority students benefit from mentoring programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, D L; Rodak, B; Fitzgerald, N; Baker, S

    1993-01-01

    Mentoring has been proposed as one strategy to attract minority students to the radiologic sciences profession. This case study describes a minority mentoring program conducted for pre-radiologic science students at a Midwestern university during the 1991-92 academic year. Ten minority radiologic science students enrolled in the mentoring program. The study showed that mentoring may be a viable option to serve the special needs of minorities for recruitment and retention.

  13. Proposed plan for public benefit programs funded by System Benefits Charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    As the electric industry in New York State moves through deregulation toward retail competition, it will be important to ensure the vital public benefit programs of energy efficiency, research and development, low income services, and environmental protection. The Public Service Commission's (PSC) Opinion No. 98-3, effective January 30, 1998, established a system for funding such programs with a non-passable System Benefits Charge (SBC) and designated the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) as the administrator of the statewide SBC-funded public benefit programs

  14. Program Evaluation in Cost Benefit Terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, C. Kenneth

    This paper advances a model, called the expected opportunity loss model, for curriculum evaluation. This decision-making technique utilizes subjective data by ranking courses according to their expected contributions to the primary objective of the total program. The model also utilizes objective data in the form of component costs, and differs…

  15. A Review of the Social Benefits of Joint Farming Ventures

    OpenAIRE

    Áine Macken Walsh

    2010-01-01

    This paper will review some of the main benefits arising from farmers’ working together, whether through Farm Partnerships or Share Farming arrangements. First, some of the general social benefits are overviewed, and then brief case-studies are presented of the specific benefits that have been experienced by farmers working together in the UK and Norway.

  16. 78 FR 5781 - Cost-Sharing Rates for Pharmacy Benefits Program of the TRICARE Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Cost-Sharing Rates for Pharmacy Benefits Program of... to cost-sharing rates to the TRICARE Pharmacy Benefits Program. SUMMARY: This notice is to advise interested parties of cost-sharing rate change for the Pharmacy Benefits Program. DATES: The cost-sharing...

  17. ECOTOURISM CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS: STANDARDS AND BENEFITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariia Holub

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The problem of researching the ecotourism certification processes in the world is very up-to-date nowadays. The relevance of the research is stipulated by current state of environ-mental pollutants, the development of sustainable politics implementation and the fact that now people aware of real danger of environmental catastrophe that threatens the survival of civilization. That’s why the purpose of the article is conducting a complex analysis of foreign ecotourism certi-fication programs. Moreover, it is necessary to study the evolution of ecotourism development to understand the key issues of this problem. The object of this article is the analysis of ecotourism certification worldwide. The subject of the article is the detection of theoretical, methodological and practical aspects of implementation of effective ecotourism certification programs in Ukraine. To clarify all aspects of studying this issue it is necessary to use such theoretical and methodological basis as: modern theories of the genesis and evolution of ecological tourism, logical and analogy analysis, historical method, hypothetical method, classification and graphical method. Using such methods it was found that the development of ecotourism formation has taking three evolutionary steps, which affected the creation of its definition. This fact reveals the classification of different types of sustainable tourism and provides an impetus of ecotourism certification studies. Moreover, it was identified that there is a logical regularity in ecotourism certification programs all over the world. As the result, it was found that practically all the ecotourism certification processes are functioning successfully nowadays. By the way, it can be observed the rapid increase in the amount of ecocertified companies. Moreover, the programs which were analyzed in this article were divided into several steps (depends on the ecotourism certification program following which a company can

  18. Benefit-cost assessment programs: Costa Rica case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, A.L.; Trocki, L.K.

    1991-01-01

    An assessment of mineral potential, in terms of types and numbers of deposits, approximate location and associated tonnage and grades, is a valuable input to a nation's economic planning and mineral policy development. This study provides a methodology for applying benefit-cost analysis to mineral resource assessment programs, both to determine the cost effectiveness of resource assessments and to ascertain future benefits to the nation. In a case study of Costa Rica, the benefit-cost ratio of a resource assessment program was computed to be a minimum of 4:1 ($10.6 million to $2.5 million), not including the economic benefits accuring from the creation of 800 mining sector and 1,200 support services jobs. The benefit-cost ratio would be considerably higher if presently proposed revisions of mineral policy were implemented and benefits could be defined for Costa Rica

  19. Geothermal Program Review IV: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The research and development program of DOE's Geothermal Technology Division is reviewed in separate presentations according to program area. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual papers. (ACR)

  20. Federal Employees Health Benefits Program (FEHBP) Plan Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — A list of all Federal Employees Health Benefits Program (FEHBP) plans available in each state, as well as links to the plan brochures, changes for each plan from the...

  1. Can Household Benefit from Stochastic Programming Models?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kourosh Marjani; Madsen, Claus A.; Poulsen, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    The Danish mortgage market is large and sophisticated. However, most Danish mortgage banks advise private home-owners based on simple, if sensible, rules of thumb. In recent years a number of papers (from Nielsen and Poulsen in J Econ Dyn Control 28:1267–1289, 2004 over Rasmussen and Zenios in J...... Risk 10:1–18, 2007 to Pedersen et al. in Ann Oper Res, 2013) have suggested a model-based, stochastic programming approach to mortgage choice. This paper gives an empirical comparison of performance over the period 2000–2010 of the rules of thumb to the model-based strategies. While the rules of thumb.......3–0.9 %-points (depending on the borrower’s level of conservatism) compared to the rules of thumb without increasing the risk. The answer to the question in the title is thus affirmative....

  2. Krsko NPP Periodic Safety Review program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic, I.; Spiler, J.; Novsak, M.

    2001-01-01

    The need for conducting a Periodic Safety Review for the Krsko NPP has been clearly recognized both by the NEK and the regulator (SNSA). The PSR would be highly desirable both in the light of current trends in safety oversight practices and because of many benefits it is capable to provide. On January 11, 2001 the SNSA issued a decision requesting the Krsko NPP to prepare a program and determine a schedule for the implementation of the program for 'Periodic Safety Review of NPP Krsko'. The program, which is required to be in accordance with the IAEA safety philosophy and with the EU practice, was submitted for the approval to the SNSA by the end of March 2001. The paper summarizes Krsko NPP Periodic Safety Review Program [1] including implemented SNSA and IAEA Expert Mission comments.(author)

  3. Nonenergy Benefits from the Weatherization Assistance Program: A Summary of Findings from the Recent Literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweitzer, M.

    2002-04-25

    The purpose of this project is to summarize findings reported in the recent literature on nonenergy benefits attributable to the weatherizing of low income homes. This study is a follow-up to the seminal research conducted on the nonenergy benefits attributable to the Department of Energy's national Weatherization Assistance Program by Brown et al. (1993). For this review, nonenergy benefits were broken into three major categories: (1) ratepayer benefits; (2) household benefits; and (3) societal benefits. The ratepayer benefits can be divided into two main subcategories: payment-related benefits and service provision benefits. Similarly, there are two key types of household benefits: those associated with affordable housing and those related to safety, health, and comfort. Societal benefits can be classified as either environmental, social, or economic. Fig. E.S. 1 presents point estimates of the average lifetime monetary value per weatherized home resulting from low income weatherization programs for the key benefit types listed above. These benefits represent net present value estimates (i.e., estimates of the current worth of all benefits expected over the lifetime of the weatherization measures), assuming a 20-year lifetime for installed energy efficiency measures and a 3.2% discount rate. Overall, societal benefits are estimated to be substantially larger than ratepayer and household benefits. Ranges for the societal benefits are also much greater than for the other two categories of nonenergy benefits. The total monetized value for all nonenergy benefit categories associated with weatherizing a home is estimated to be $3346, in 2001 dollars. This represents a national average which, like any point estimate, has considerable uncertainty associated with it. This figure is substantially higher than the total value of nonenergy benefits presented a decade ago in the national weatherization evaluation (Brown et al. 1993) because the current study quantified a

  4. Employee assistance programs: a preventive, cost-effective benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, G S; Gard, L H; Heffernan, W R

    1998-01-01

    Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs) provide a much-needed service to the employees of corporations. In these times of reduced benefits and diminished community resources, EAPs can dramatically compensate for those shortages. This article will explore the role of an EAP, the models of service available, and the selection process for choosing a program.

  5. Tools and benefits of „Partnership for Peace” program for the Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae ŢÂU

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the tools and mechanisms of the „Partnership for Peace” Program and its benefits for our country. Among the main benefits, the authors mention: reforming the defense and security sector, ensuring the interoperability of its own forces with those of the allied and partner countries with regard to participate in NATO PfP multinational exercises and operations, protecting the environment by destroying and neutralizing expired ammunition stocks, neutralization and disposal of pesticide and chemical stocks.

  6. Annual review in automatic programming

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Annual Review in Automatic Programming, Volume 4 is a collection of papers that deals with the GIER ALGOL compiler, a parameterized compiler based on mechanical linguistics, and the JOVIAL language. A couple of papers describes a commercial use of stacks, an IBM system, and what an ideal computer program support system should be. One paper reviews the system of compilation, the development of a more advanced language, programming techniques, machine independence, and program transfer to other machines. Another paper describes the ALGOL 60 system for the GIER machine including running ALGOL pro

  7. The Benefits of High Intensity Functional Training (HIFT) Fitness Programs for Military Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Christopher K.; Poston, Walker S.C.; Heinrich, Katie M.; Jahnke, Sara A.; Jitnarin, Nattinee

    2016-01-01

    High intensity functional training (HIFT) programs are designed to address multiple fitness domains, potentially providing improved physical and mental readiness in a changing operational environment. Programs consistent with HIFT principals such as CrossFit, SEALFIT and the US Marine Corps’ High Intensity Tactical Training (HITT) program are increasingly popular among military personnel. This article reviews the practical, health, body composition, and military fitness implications of HIFT exercise programs. We conclude that, given the unique benefits of HIFT, the military should consider evaluating whether these programs should be the standard for military fitness training. PMID:27849484

  8. Do the benefits outweigh the side effects of colorectal cancer surveillance? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augestad, Knut Magne; Rose, Johnie; Crawshaw, Benjamin; Cooper, Gregory; Delaney, Conor

    2014-05-15

    Most patients treated with curative intent for colorectal cancer (CRC) are included in a follow-up program involving periodic evaluations. The survival benefits of a follow-up program are well delineated, and previous meta-analyses have suggested an overall survival improvement of 5%-10% by intensive follow-up. However, in a recent randomized trial, there was no survival benefit when a minimal vs an intensive follow-up program was compared. Less is known about the potential side effects of follow-up. Well-known side effects of preventive programs are those of somatic complications caused by testing, negative psychological consequences of follow-up itself, and the downstream impact of false positive or false negative tests. Accordingly, the potential survival benefits of CRC follow-up must be weighed against these potential negatives. The present review compares the benefits and side effects of CRC follow-up, and we propose future areas for research.

  9. Previous ISD Program Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    report. The detail required for such a review would be unwieldy and would comsume inordinate amounts of time. The result of the document review will...attempts have been made at writing specific behavioral objectives (SBOs). These, however, have proven to be inadequate in that they are not stated in... behavioral terms (e.g., "will understand," "will have a knowledge of," etc.). C. Development of CRO/CRTs? In nearly all cases, ISD teams are just

  10. Science Educational Outreach Programs That Benefit Students and Scientists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Clark

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Both scientists and the public would benefit from improved communication of basic scientific research and from integrating scientists into education outreach, but opportunities to support these efforts are limited. We have developed two low-cost programs--"Present Your PhD Thesis to a 12-Year-Old" and "Shadow a Scientist"--that combine training in science communication with outreach to area middle schools. We assessed the outcomes of these programs and found a 2-fold benefit: scientists improve their communication skills by explaining basic science research to a general audience, and students' enthusiasm for science and their scientific knowledge are increased. Here we present details about both programs, along with our assessment of them, and discuss the feasibility of exporting these programs to other universities.

  11. Cost benefit analysis of the demand side management programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schechtman, R.; Baum, M.

    1989-01-01

    The several cost and benefit components of the demand side management programs for the society groups, including the concessionaire, consumers and society as a whole are studied. The rule evaluations of management programs by demand side, used by North American concessionaire are also discussed. Finally, the numerical examples, that consolidating the concepts and rules evaluation are presented. (C.G.C.). 5 refs, 1 fig, 3 tabs

  12. The domestic benefits of tropical forests: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomitz, K M; Kumari, K

    1998-02-01

    This review focuses on forests in the humid tropics and on two of their potentially most important benefits. These include hydrological benefits, such as erosion control and regulation of stream flows, and non-timber forest products, such as rubber, rattan, fruits, and nuts. The first benefit is motivational. Host countries capture only a small proportion of the global benefits, which stem from biodiversity conservation. Demonstration of palpable local benefits could help to build support for biodiversity-oriented projects. The second benefit is the magnitude of domestic benefits that could influence project financing. Sufficiently large net domestic benefits could justify financing of a project on narrow economic grounds, with biodiversity conservation as a by-product. Overall, it is noted that the quantifiable benefits of forest preservation in providing hydrological services and non-timber forest products are highly variable. These classes of domestic benefits may in general be smaller than popularly supposed. In view of this, the need for financing conservation from the Global Environmental Facility or other global sources is emphasized rather than placing the burden on domestic resources.

  13. 78 FR 68905 - Agency Information Collection (Wrist Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... Number: 2900-NEW (Wrist Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire). Type of Review: New data... Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration...- NEW (Wrist Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire)'' in any correspondence. FOR FURTHER...

  14. 78 FR 68908 - Agency Information Collection (Ankle Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ...: 2900--NEW (Ankle Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire). Type of Review: New data collection... Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration...-- NEW (Ankle Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire)'' in any correspondence. FOR FURTHER...

  15. Research on the Academic Benefits of the Advanced Placement Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell T. Warne

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With more than 3 million participants per year, the Advanced Placement (AP program is one of the most popular programs in the United States for exposing high-achieving high school students to advanced academic content. Sponsored by the College Board, the AP program provides a framework in which high school teachers can teach introductory college-level courses to high school students. These students then take one of 34 standardized tests at the end of the year, and students who score well on their course’s AP test can receive college credit from their university in which they later enroll. Despite the popularity of the AP program, remarkably little independent research has been conducted on the academic benefits of AP. In this article, I summarize the state of knowledge about the academic benefits of AP. Previous research and descriptive data indicate that AP students outperform non-AP students on a variety of academic measures, but many other aspects of the program are poorly understood, partially due to variability across AP subjects. These aspects include the causal impact of AP, which components of the program are most effective in boosting academic achievement, and how students engage with the AP program. I also conclude by making suggestions for researchers to use new methodologies to investigate new scientific and policy questions and new student populations to improve the educational scholars’ and practitioners’ understanding of the AP program.

  16. A Program Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jale Aldemir

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to discover the transformation preschool teacher candidates go through in their perceptions about teacher and teaching during their teacher education program. The participants of the study were 35 senior students enrolled in the preschool teacher education program at a university located in the Eastern Anatolian Region of Turkey. A qualitative survey instrument was conducted to examine the preservice teachers’ perceptions. The data collected from the survey were analyzed by adopting a constant comparative coding method. The study revealed a change in the participants’ perceptions about preschool education before and after they enrolled in the program. The hardest parts of teaching in preschool were the need of high level of energy, patience, and skills to manage the classroom while the most pleasurable sides were having fun, play opportunities, and the positive impact teachers make on children. The qualities of an ideal preschool program listed by the participants involved curriculum, physical environment, and social-emotional atmosphere while the themes regarding the ideal preschool teacher were revolved around the personal qualities, professional attitude, and professional knowledge and skills. Hence, the findings of this qualitative study can only be generalized in the context the study was conducted; however, the study could have important implications for preschool teacher education in Turkey and in other countries, and help the international readers perceive preschool teacher education from a different perspective.

  17. Exploring the Educational Benefits of Introducing Aspect-Oriented Programming Into a Programming Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boticki, I.; Katic, M.; Martin,S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the educational benefits of introducing the aspect-oriented programming paradigm into a programming course in a study on a sample of 75 undergraduate software engineering students. It discusses how using the aspect-oriented paradigm, in addition to the object-oriented programming paradigm, affects students' programs, their exam…

  18. Science Educational Outreach Programs That Benefit Students and Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enyeart, Peter; Gracia, Brant; Wessel, Aimee; Jarmoskaite, Inga; Polioudakis, Damon; Stuart, Yoel; Gonzalez, Tony; MacKrell, Al; Rodenbusch, Stacia; Stovall, Gwendolyn M.; Beckham, Josh T.; Montgomery, Michael; Tasneem, Tania; Jones, Jack; Simmons, Sarah; Roux, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    Both scientists and the public would benefit from improved communication of basic scientific research and from integrating scientists into education outreach, but opportunities to support these efforts are limited. We have developed two low-cost programs—"Present Your PhD Thesis to a 12-Year-Old" and "Shadow a Scientist”—that combine training in science communication with outreach to area middle schools. We assessed the outcomes of these programs and found a 2-fold benefit: scientists improve their communication skills by explaining basic science research to a general audience, and students' enthusiasm for science and their scientific knowledge are increased. Here we present details about both programs, along with our assessment of them, and discuss the feasibility of exporting these programs to other universities. PMID:26844991

  19. Annual review in automatic programming

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Annual Review in Automatic Programming focuses on the techniques of automatic programming used with digital computers. Topics covered range from the design of machine-independent programming languages to the use of recursive procedures in ALGOL 60. A multi-pass translation scheme for ALGOL 60 is described, along with some commercial source languages. The structure and use of the syntax-directed compiler is also considered.Comprised of 12 chapters, this volume begins with a discussion on the basic ideas involved in the description of a computing process as a program for a computer, expressed in

  20. An In-Depth Review of the Current Practica, Associated with Early Childhood through Twelfth Grade Special Education Programs, for the Benefit of Higher Education Programs, with an Emphasis in Obtaining a M.Ed. in Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    In order to guide organizational growth in the Master's in Education with an emphasis in Special Education program, offered at Southwestern College, an in-depth qualitative study was conducted with participants from three specific realms located in the state of Kansas. Participants from the Kansas State Department of Education, Southwestern…

  1. Near-term benefits of the plant life extension program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushansky, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    The aging process can be expected to reduce the availability and increase the production costs of nuclear power plants over time. To mitigate this process and recover or enhance plant availability, capacity, thermal efficiency, and maintenance expenditures, the utility must dedicate increased attention and commitment to a comprehensive plant life extension (PLEX) program. Improvements must be justified by balancing the cost of the recommended modifications with the economic value of benefits obtained from its implementation. It is often extremely difficult for utility management to make an optimal selection from among hundreds of proposed projects, most of which are cost-effective. A properly structured PLEX program with an emphasis on near-term benefits should provide the utility with a means of evaluating proposed projects, thus determining the optimum combination for authorization and implementation

  2. Assessing Costs and Benefits of Early Childhood Intervention Programs. Overview and Applicaton to the Starting Early Starting Smart Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karoly, Lynn

    2001-01-01

    Agency and program administrators and decisionmakers responsible for implementing early childhood intervention programs are becoming more interested in quantifying the costs and benefits of such programs...

  3. 76 FR 54599 - Medicare Program; Medicare Advantage and Prescription Drug Benefit Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ...), prescription drug benefit program (Part D) and section 1876 cost plans including conforming changes to the MA... accounts (MSA) plans, cost-sharing for dual-eligible enrollees in the MA program and prescription drug pricing, coverage, and payment processes in the Part D program, and requirements governing the marketing...

  4. [Disease management programs: Difficulties in the analysis of benefit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Roland; Horenkamp-Sonntag, D; Bestmann, B; Battmer, U; Heilmann, T; Verheyen, F

    2015-04-01

    After an introduction to the theme with an overview of the implementation of the Disease Management Programs (DMP), accompanying documentation, present utilization and costs of the programs, the present article is primarily devoted to the issue of the analysis of the benefits of DMP. Following an assessment of the legally specified evaluation requirements, in the absence of a prospective, randomized, controlled trial (RCT), the results of three studies are first summarized, which, with the application of propensity score matching, utilize the routine data of the statutory health insurance schemes to form a control group. The overview concludes with a look at the planned changes in evaluation and the intended expansion of the DMP to programs for other chronic illnesses.

  5. Effectiveness and Cost-Benefit of an Influenza Vaccination Program for Health Care Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalee Yassi

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available This study retrospectively reviewed the effectiveness of a vaccination program for hospital workers in a large tertiary care hospital, quantified influenza-induced absenteeism, and examined the factors determining the costs and benefits of this program. Absenteeism among high risk hospital workers was increased by 35% (P=0.001 during the virulent influenza epidemic of 1987–88. Benefits, measured as the value of sick time avoided, compared with costs, including materials, occupational nursing staff time, employee time during vaccination, and time lost due to adverse reactions, revealed a net benefit of $39.23 per vaccinated employee. Sensitivity analyses highlighted vaccine efficacy and absenteeism due to influenza and adverse reactions to vaccination as the most important factors; with time lost due to adverse reactions as much as 0.013 days per vaccinated employee and a vaccine efficacy of 70%, net positive benefits could be achieved if influenza-induced absenteeism is 0.5% or greater of paid employee time during the epidemic season. The results suggested that the net cost-benefit of a hospital employee vaccination program to decrease both employee morbidity and nosocomial influenza among patients, would be increased by active promotion of the vaccination program, especially for employees in high risk areas.

  6. 20 CFR 422.512 - Applications and related forms used in the black lung benefits program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... black lung benefits program. 422.512 Section 422.512 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... black lung benefits program. (a) Application forms. The following forms are prescribed for use in... Act of 1969, as amended by the Black Lung Benefits Act of 1972: SSA-46—Application for Benefits Under...

  7. 76 FR 40453 - Agency Information Collection (Application for VA Education Benefits) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... (Application for VA Education Benefits) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration... Education Benefits, VA Form 22-1990. b. Application for Family Member to Use Transferred Benefits, VA Form 22-1990E. [[Page 40454

  8. Benefits of Giving (A Book Review Using Islamic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hamdar Arraiyyah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This writing is a book review. It discusses a book entitled Give and Take. The book introduces a new approach to success. It makes three categories of people in doing interaction or communication. They are takers, matchers, and givers. The writer of the book, Adam Grant, explains the principles and characteristics of each category. He shows a lot of facts to prove that being a giver brings benefits for people and the doer as well. The objects of giving here comprise different kinds help like wealth, ideas, knowledge, skills and information. Therefore, he motivates people to become givers. In this connection, the reviewer would like to show that Islamic religion also motivates its followers to give helps to others. Though, there are some similarities and differences between the benefits of giving mentioned in the book and the verses of the Holy Qur’an and the sayings of Prophet Muhammad Peace be upon him.

  9. Meta-Review: Systematic Assessment of Program Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlan, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Over 20 years ago, Robert J. Barak and Barbara E. Breier suggested incorporating a regular assessment of the entire program review system into the review schedule in order to ensure that the system itself is as efficient and effective as the programs under review. Barak and Breier's seminal book on the goals and processes of program review has…

  10. Citrus medica: nutritional, phytochemical composition and health benefits - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhikara, Navnidhi; Kour, Ragni; Jaglan, Sundeep; Gupta, Pawan; Gat, Yogesh; Panghal, Anil

    2018-04-25

    Citrus medica (Citron) is an underutilized fruit plant having various bioactive components in all parts of the plant. The major bioactive compounds present are iso-limonene, citral, limonene, phenolics, flavonones, vitamin C, pectin, linalool, decanal, and nonanal, accounting for several health benefits. Pectin and heteropolysachharides also play a major role as dietary fibers. The potential impact of citron and its bioactive components to prevent or reverse destructive deregulated processes responsible for certain diseases has attracted different researchers' attention. The fruit has numerous nutraceutical benefits, proven by pharmacological studies; for example, anti-catarrhal, capillary protector, anti-hypertensive, diuretic, antibacterial, antifungal, anthelmintic, antimicrobial, analgesic, strong antioxidant, anticancerous, antidiabetic, estrogenic, antiulcer, cardioprotective, and antihyperglycemic. The present review explores new insights into the benefits of citron in various body parts. Throughout the world, citron has been used in making carbonated drinks, alcoholic beverages, syrup, candied peels, jams, marmalade, cordials, and many other value added products, which suggests it is an appropriate raw material to develop healthy processed food. In the present review, the fruit taxonomical classification, beneficial phytochemicals, antioxidant activities, and health benefits are discussed.

  11. Enhanced oil recovery program review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    Canada accounts for 40% of the global resources in heavy oils and oil sands bitumen, however, more than 90% of these resources need new and innovative technologies if they are to be made available at a competitive price. CANMET's Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) program was created in the late 1970s in response to the drive for energy self-sufficiency. Funding of the project is highly leveraged; industry funding towards projects supported under the CANMET Energy Conversion Program averaged over 300% annually since the previous review in 1990. Multi-client EOR technology projects include horizontal well technology, development of the vapour extraction process, and field testing of oil sands extraction technology. Direction and priorities of the program are established in consultation with the Minister's Advisory Council to CANMET (MNACC), industry and other performers and sponsors of enhanced oil recovery R and D. This review, including client feedback from interviews with several industry spokespersons, concluded that the program was well managed, and of high priority. Various options capable of meeting future needs were examined. Continuation of the current program, incorporating a number of significant changes, was recommended

  12. Private lands habitat programs benefit California's native birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan T. DiGaudio

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To address the loss of wetlands and riparian forests in California, private lands habitat programs are available through U.S. federal and state government agencies to help growers, ranchers and other private landowners create and enhance wildlife habitat. The programs provide financial and technical assistance for implementing conservation practices. To evaluate the benefits of these programs for wildlife, we examined bird use of private wetlands, postharvest flooded croplands and riparian forests enrolled in habitat programs in the Central Valley and North Coast regions of California. We found that private Central Valley wetlands supported 181 bird species during the breeding season. During fall migration, postharvest flooded croplands supported wetland-dependent species and a higher density of shorebirds than did semipermanent wetlands. At the riparian sites, bird species richness increased after restoration. These results demonstrated that the programs provided habitat for the species they were designed to protect; a variety of resident and migratory bird species used the habitats, and many special status species were recorded at the sites.

  13. Programs with societal benefits at the Cornell University TRIGA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.D.; Aderhold, H.C.; Hossain, T.Z.

    1993-01-01

    In its 30 yr of operation, the Cornell TRIGA reactor has been used for many educational and research programs that provide general benefits to society. In addition to supporting graduate-level education of nuclear scientists and engineers, it has been extensively used in undergraduate and graduate courses and research by nonspecialists and, through the medium of tours, in education of the general public. Some educational functions have been described previously. In this paper, examples are presented of research of societal interest in nonnuclear fields. The first two rely mainly on radiography, and the remaining five on neutron activation analysis (NAA)

  14. Annual review in automatic programming

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Annual Review in Automatic Programming, Volume 2 is a collection of papers that discusses the controversy about the suitability of COBOL as a common business oriented language, and the development of different common languages for scientific computation. A couple of papers describes the use of the Genie system in numerical calculation and analyzes Mercury autocode in terms of a phrase structure language, such as in the source language, target language, the order structure of ATLAS, and the meta-syntactical language of the assembly program. Other papers explain interference or an ""intermediate

  15. 48 CFR 519.7016 - Program review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program review. 519.7016 Section 519.7016 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS GSA Mentor-Protégé Program 519.7016 Program review. At the conclusion of...

  16. Optimizing Cardiovascular Benefits of Exercise: A Review of Rodent Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Brittany; Moriguchi, Takeshi; Sumpio, Bauer

    2013-01-01

    Although research unanimously maintains that exercise can ward off cardiovascular disease (CVD), the optimal type, duration, intensity, and combination of forms are yet not clear. In our review of existing rodent-based studies on exercise and cardiovascular health, we attempt to find the optimal forms, intensities, and durations of exercise. Using Scopus and Medline, a literature review of English language comparative journal studies of cardiovascular benefits and exercise was performed. This review examines the existing literature on rodent models of aerobic, anaerobic, and power exercise and compares the benefits of various training forms, intensities, and durations. The rodent studies reviewed in this article correlate with reports on human subjects that suggest regular aerobic exercise can improve cardiac and vascular structure and function, as well as lipid profiles, and reduce the risk of CVD. Findings demonstrate an abundance of rodent-based aerobic studies, but a lack of anaerobic and power forms of exercise, as well as comparisons of these three components of exercise. Thus, further studies must be conducted to determine a truly optimal regimen for cardiovascular health. PMID:24436579

  17. Backpack Programs and the Crisis Narrative of Child Hunger-A Critical Review of the Rationale, Targeting, and Potential Benefits and Harms of an Expanding but Untested Model of Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Maryah S; Frongillo, Edward A

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, school-based food backpack programs (BPPs) have come into national prominence as a response to a perceived crisis of child hunger in America. Distributing bags of free food directly to schoolchildren for their own personal consumption each weekend, BPPs bring together private donors, faith communities, and public schools around an intuitively appealing project: children are hungry, and so we give them food. Perhaps because of their intuitive appeal, BPPs have expanded rapidly, without rigorous evaluation to determine their impacts on children, families, and schools. This Perspective aims to open up thinking about BPPs, first articulating the implicit conceptual model that undergirds BPPs, drawing on documentation offered by major program providers and on our own experience working with several schools implementing BPPs, to provide a window into what BPPs do and how and why they do it. We focus in particular on how the crisis narrative of child hunger has shaped the BPP model and on the related interplay between public sympathy and the neoliberal climate in which structural solutions to family poverty are eschewed. We then assess the BPP model in light of existing knowledge, concluding that BPPs fit poorly with the needs of the majority of children living in food-insecure households in the United States and consequently put children at risk of negative consequences associated with worry, shame, stigma, and disruptions to family functioning. Finally, we provide recommendations for practice and research, emphasizing the importance of 1) responding to children's actual needs throughout program implementation, 2) avoiding unnecessary risks by effective targeting of services to only those children who need them, and 3) rigorously evaluating program outcomes and unintended consequences to determine whether, even for the small number of US children who experience hunger, the benefits of the BPP model outweigh its psychosocial costs. © 2018 American

  18. Appendix E: Wind Technologies Program inputs for FY 2008 benefits estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    Document summarizes the results of the benefits analysis of EERE’s programs, as described in the FY 2008 Budget Request. EERE estimates benefits for its overall portfolio and nine Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD3) programs.

  19. Appendix B: Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program inputs for FY 2008 benefits estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    Document summarizes the results of the benefits analysis of EERE’s programs, as described in the FY 2008 Budget Request. EERE estimates benefits for its overall portfolio and nine Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD3) programs.

  20. Appendix G: Building Technologies Program inputs for FY 2008 benefits estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    Document summarizes the results of the benefits analysis of EERE’s programs, as described in the FY 2008 Budget Request. EERE estimates benefits for its overall portfolio and nine Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD3) programs.

  1. Appendix J: Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program (WIP) inputs for FY 2008 benefits estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    Document summarizes the results of the benefits analysis of EERE’s programs, as described in the FY 2008 Budget Request. EERE estimates benefits for its overall portfolio and nine Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD3) programs.

  2. Appendix F: FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program inputs for FY 2008 benefits estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    Document summarizes the results of the benefits analysis of EERE’s programs, as described in the FY 2008 Budget Request. EERE estimates benefits for its overall portfolio and nine Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD3) programs.

  3. WANO peer review. Organization and benefits as seen by WANO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haferburg, Manfred

    2010-01-01

    The World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO) was founded in May 1989. 144 enterprises operating nuclear power plants signed the WANO Charter in Moscow as a response of industry to the Chernobyl disaster. The Association now comprises the operators of more than 430 nuclear power plants in more than 32 countries. WANO performs its activities through regional centers in Atlanta, Moscow, Paris, and Tokyo. The Coordination Center of WANO is located in London. Each regional WANO Center handles the four most important programs: - Peer Reviews, - exchanges of operating experience, - specialized and technical development, - technical service and exchange. The technical support and exchange program comprises proven processes, such as performance indicators, operator networks, technical support missions. WANO peer reviews are conducted on a voluntary basis and upon request by the licensees. By the end of 2008, WANO had run 388 peer reviews in 31 countries. Peer reviews serve to compare the practical operation of a nuclear power plant with the best international standards. This in-depth examination is carried out by an international, independent team of experts on an optimized objective basis. Peer reviews are conducted not only to examine compliance with all pertinent rules and regulations, but also to strive for excellent performance results. (orig.)

  4. Bell Moore Group Inc. Review: Benefits of Visiting Malls

    OpenAIRE

    Maclntyre, Cailin

    2017-01-01

    Modern malls have become a vital part of today’s society. Most communities have malls which not only provides convenient shopping but also a wonderful opportunity to have fun and relax. Bellmoore Group Inc review few benefits of modern malls in today’s modern world. All in one location Who would not want to have a place where your needs can access all within one location right? Malls incorporate a large number of stores that sell diverse products and services. From restaurants, clothi...

  5. 77 FR 42914 - Federal Employees Health Benefits Program and Federal Employees Dental and Vision Insurance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... Federal Flexible Benefits Plan: Pre-Tax Payment of Health Benefits Premiums AGENCY: Office of Personnel... this proposed rule; and (4) update the Federal Flexible Benefits Plan: Pre-Tax Payment of Health...--FEDERAL FLEXIBLE BENEFITS PLAN: PRE-TAX PAYMENTS OF HEALTH BENEFITS PREMIUMS PROGRAM 8. The authority...

  6. Review of the health benefits of peas (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Wendy J; Foster, Lauren M; Tyler, Robert T

    2012-08-01

    Pulses, including peas, have long been important components of the human diet due to their content of starch, protein and other nutrients. More recently, the health benefits other than nutrition associated with pulse consumption have attracted much interest. The focus of the present review paper is the demonstrated and potential health benefits associated with the consumption of peas, Pisum sativum L., specifically green and yellow cotyledon dry peas, also known as smooth peas or field peas. These health benefits derive mainly from the concentration and properties of starch, protein, fibre, vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals in peas. Fibre from the seed coat and the cell walls of the cotyledon contributes to gastrointestinal function and health, and reduces the digestibility of starch in peas. The intermediate amylose content of pea starch also contributes to its lower glycaemic index and reduced starch digestibility. Pea protein, when hydrolysed, may yield peptides with bioactivities, including angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitor activity and antioxidant activity. The vitamin and mineral contents of peas may play important roles in the prevention of deficiency-related diseases, specifically those related to deficiencies of Se or folate. Peas contain a variety of phytochemicals once thought of only as antinutritive factors. These include polyphenolics, in coloured seed coat types in particular, which may have antioxidant and anticarcinogenic activity, saponins which may exhibit hypocholesterolaemic and anticarcinogenic activity, and galactose oligosaccharides which may exert beneficial prebiotic effects in the large intestine.

  7. Geothermal Technologies Program 2011 Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollett, Douglas [Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Stillman, Greg [Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-06-01

    On June 6-10, 2011, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP or the Program) conducted its annual program peer review in Bethesda, Maryland. In accordance with the EERE Peer Review Guide, the review provides an independent, expert evaluation of the strategic goals and direction of the program and is a forum for feedback and recommendations on future program planning. The purpose of the review was to evaluate DOE-funded projects for their contribution to the mission and goals of the Program and to assess progress made against stated objectives.

  8. Health benefits of Kung Fu: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Tracey Wai Man; Kohn, Michael; Chow, Chin Moi; Singh, Maria Fiatarone

    2008-10-01

    The Chinese martial arts (Kung Fu) have existed for centuries and are generally accepted as being beneficial for health without much empirical data. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the health effects of "hard" Kung Fu styles by performing electronic and manual searches of the literature. The aspects of health and the Kung Fu style examined varied between most studies; in some cases, the martial art group consisted of practitioners of other martial art styles also. Of 2103 references identified, only nine papers were eligible and reviewed. All were observational studies, observing a range of health aspects possibly related to Kung Fu training or performance. Our findings suggest that there is no evidence that Kung Fu practice is associated with the prevention or treatment of any health condition. However, as a moderate- to high-intensity form of aerobic exercise, it may confer benefits similar to those attributed to other aerobic training modalities. However, this hypothesis remains to be tested in clinical trials. Physiological benefits (e.g., aerobic capacity and bone density) may be associated with long-term Kung Fu practice. Future research in this area should adopt experimental designs, clearly identifying eligibility criteria, testing and training protocols, and include health-related outcomes and documentation of adverse events, to advance knowledge in this field.

  9. Extreme Conditioning Programs: Potential Benefits and Potential Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Joseph J

    2015-01-01

    CrossFit, Insanity, Gym Jones, and P90X are examples of extreme conditioning programs (ECPs). ECPs typically involve high-volume and high-intensity physical activities with short rest periods between movements and use of multiple joint exercises. Data on changes in fitness with ECPs are limited to CrossFit investigations that demonstrated improvements in muscle strength, muscular endurance, aerobic fitness, and body composition. However, no study has directly compared CrossFit or other ECPs to other more traditional forms of aerobic and resistance training within the same investigation. These direct comparisons are needed to more adequately evaluate the effectiveness of ECPs. Until these studies emerge, the comparisons with available literature suggest that improvements in CrossFit, in terms of muscular endurance (push-ups, sit-ups), strength, and aerobic capacity, appear to be similar to those seen in more traditional training programs. Investigations of injuries in ECPs are limited to two observational studies that suggest that the overall injury rate is similar to that seen in other exercise programs. Several cases of rhabdomyolysis and cervical carotid artery dissections have been reported during CrossFit training. The symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of these are reviewed here. Until more data on ECPs emerge, physical training should be aligned with US Army doctrine. If ECPs are included in exercise programs, trainers should (1) have appropriate training certifications, (2) inspect exercise equipment regularly to assure safety, (3) introduce ECPs to new participants, (4) ensure medical clearance of Soldiers with special health problems before participation in ECPs, (4) tailor ECPs to the individual Soldier, (5) adjust rest periods to optimize recovery and reduce fatigue, (6) monitor Soldiers for signs of overtraining, rhabdomyolysis, and other problems, and (7) coordinate exercise programs with other unit training activities to eliminate redundant activities

  10. 75 FR 65511 - Employee Benefits Security Administration; Submission for OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Secretary Employee Benefits Security Administration; Submission...--Employee Benefits Security Administration (EBSA), Office of Management and Budget, Room 10235, Washington...: Employee Benefits Security Administration. Type of Review: Extension without change of a currently approved...

  11. Benefits and costs of integrating technology into undergraduate nursing programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, Mary Ellen Smith; Cornelius, Frances H

    2005-01-01

    Advances in technology over the last decade have resulted in increased opportunities for educators to become more innovative in classroom and clinical teaching. These innovations have allowed students and faculty to access essential clinical information at the point of care/need. By capitalizing on technologies such as personal digital assistants and course delivery shells, faculty and students have both portable and remote access to information that can guide practice and learning activities in clinical, classroom, and distance settings. For instance, a student can use a personal digital assistant to research a patient's new medication at the bedside, study course information, access references during class in response to a question, or download clinical materials from home. Although the benefits of having ready access to information seem obvious, there are costs and strategic planning activities associated with implementing these projects. Clearly, the objective of any academic nursing program is to develop skills among students so they can efficiently access information and use that information to guide their nursing practice. To do so, academic nursing administrators must have the forethought to envision how new technologies can support achieving this goal as well as the ability to put in place the infrastructure supports needed for success. This article presents a case study of how one institution developed the necessary infrastructure and garnished the appropriate resources to implement an ambitious technology initiative integrated throughout a large undergraduate nursing program. In addition, how the integration of technology, online and mobile, can enhance clinical learning will be discussed.

  12. Economic Benefits of Investing in Women's Health: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Husøy Onarheim

    Full Text Available Globally, the status of women's health falls short of its potential. In addition to the deleterious ethical and human rights implications of this deficit, the negative economic impact may also be consequential, but these mechanisms are poorly understood. Building on the literature that highlights health as a driver of economic growth and poverty alleviation, we aim to systematically investigate the broader economic benefits of investing in women's health.Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA guidelines, we systematically reviewed health, gender, and economic literature to identify studies that investigate the impact of women's health on micro- and macroeconomic outcomes. We developed an extensive search algorithm and conducted searches using 10 unique databases spanning the timeframe 01/01/1970 to 01/04/2013. Articles were included if they reported on economic impacts stemming from changes in women's health (table of outcome measures included in full review, Table 1. In total, the two lead investigators independently screened 20,832 abstracts and extracted 438 records for full text review. The final review reflects the inclusion of 124 articles.The existing literature indicates that healthier women and their children contribute to more productive and better-educated societies. This study documents an extensive literature confirming that women's health is tied to long-term productivity: the development and economic performance of nations depends, in part, upon how each country protects and promotes the health of women. Providing opportunities for deliberate family planning; healthy mothers before, during, and after childbirth, and the health and productivity of subsequent generations can catalyze a cycle of positive societal development.This review highlights the untapped potential of initiatives that aim to address women's health. Societies that prioritize women's health will likely have better

  13. Economic Benefits of Investing in Women's Health: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onarheim, Kristine Husøy; Iversen, Johanne Helene; Bloom, David E

    2016-01-01

    Globally, the status of women's health falls short of its potential. In addition to the deleterious ethical and human rights implications of this deficit, the negative economic impact may also be consequential, but these mechanisms are poorly understood. Building on the literature that highlights health as a driver of economic growth and poverty alleviation, we aim to systematically investigate the broader economic benefits of investing in women's health. Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, we systematically reviewed health, gender, and economic literature to identify studies that investigate the impact of women's health on micro- and macroeconomic outcomes. We developed an extensive search algorithm and conducted searches using 10 unique databases spanning the timeframe 01/01/1970 to 01/04/2013. Articles were included if they reported on economic impacts stemming from changes in women's health (table of outcome measures included in full review, Table 1). In total, the two lead investigators independently screened 20,832 abstracts and extracted 438 records for full text review. The final review reflects the inclusion of 124 articles. The existing literature indicates that healthier women and their children contribute to more productive and better-educated societies. This study documents an extensive literature confirming that women's health is tied to long-term productivity: the development and economic performance of nations depends, in part, upon how each country protects and promotes the health of women. Providing opportunities for deliberate family planning; healthy mothers before, during, and after childbirth, and the health and productivity of subsequent generations can catalyze a cycle of positive societal development. This review highlights the untapped potential of initiatives that aim to address women's health. Societies that prioritize women's health will likely have better population health

  14. The benefits and risks of testosterone replacement therapy: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazem Bassil

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Nazem Bassil1, Saad Alkaade2, John E Morley1,31Division of Geriatric Medicine; 2Internal Medicine, Saint Louis University Health Sciences Center, St. Louis, Missouri, USA; 3GRECC, VA Medical Center, St. Louis, Missouri, USAAbstract: Increased longevity and population aging will increase the number of men with late onset hypogonadism. It is a common condition, but often underdiagnosed and undertreated. The indication of testosterone-replacement therapy (TRT treatment requires the presence of low testosterone level, and symptoms and signs of hypogonadism. Although controversy remains regarding indications for testosterone supplementation in aging men due to lack of large-scale, long-term studies assessing the benefits and risks of testosterone-replacement therapy in men, reports indicate that TRT may produce a wide range of benefits for men with hypogonadism that include improvement in libido and sexual function, bone density, muscle mass, body composition, mood, erythropoiesis, cognition, quality of life and cardiovascular disease. Perhaps the most controversial area is the issue of risk, especially possible stimulation of prostate cancer by testosterone, even though no evidence to support this risk exists. Other possible risks include worsening symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy, liver toxicity, hyperviscosity, erythrocytosis, worsening untreated sleep apnea or severe heart failure. Despite this controversy, testosterone supplementation in the United States has increased substantially over the past several years. The physician should discuss with the patient the potential benefits and risks of TRT. The purpose of this review is to discuss what is known and not known regarding the benefits and risks of TRT.Keywords: hypogonadism, testosterone replacement therapy, erectile dysfunction, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease

  15. Unique programming: an examination of the benefits of a free choice program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorothy L. Schmalz; Deborah L. Kerstetter; Harry C. Zinn

    2002-01-01

    This study was an investigation of a free choice program and the benefits free choice yields on the developing characteristics of self-esteem and intrinsic motivation among adolescent girls. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected at Brown Ledge Camp, an all girls summer camp outside of Burlington, Vermont, during the summer of 2000. Quantitative results...

  16. Biomass Program 2007 Program Peer Review - Thermochemical Conversion Platform Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-27

    This document discloses the comments provided by a review panel at the U.S. Department of Energy Office of the Biomass Program Peer Review held on November 15-16, 2007 in Baltimore, MD and the Biomass Program Peer Review for the Thermochemical Platform, held on July 9th and 10th in Golden, Colorado.

  17. 2012 Wind Program Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zayas, Jose [Energy Efficiencey and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Higgins, Mark [Energy Efficiencey and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This report summarizes the proceedings of the 2012 Wind Program Peer Review, the goals of which were to review and evaluate the strategy and goals of the Wind Program; review and evaluate the progress and accomplishments of the program's projects funded in fiscal year (FY) 2010 and FY 2011; and foster interactions among the national laboratories, industry, and academic institutions conducting research and development on behalf of the program.

  18. Evidence for benefits from treating cervical ectopy: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Carlos Machado Junior

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND PURPOSE: Uterine cervical ectopy (cervical erosion is today considered to be a physiological condition, but there still seems to be a strong tendency towards treating it. The purpose of this study was to review the medical literature for evidence regarding benefits from treating cervical ectopy. METHODS: The following databases were reviewed: Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (Medline, Excerpta Medica Database (Embase, Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (Lilacs and Cochrane Library databases. In addition, six medical textbooks were consulted. RESULTS: The review showed that: 1 there is probably an association between ectopy and higher risk of Chlamydia trachomatis, human papillomavirus and human immunodeficiency virus infection; 4 there is probably an association between ectopy and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia; 5 there is an association between ectopy and mucous discharge and nocturia; and 6 there is no evidence of an association between ectopy and cervical cancer, or of protection against cervical cancer associated with ectopy treatment. CONCLUSIONS: 1 No data were found in the medical literature to support routine treatment for ectopy; 2 Treatment could be recommended for symptom relief, but more symptoms are attributed to ectopy than could be demonstrated in a controlled study; 3 Further studies to test the hypothesis of protection against cervical cancer associated with treatment are necessary.

  19. 76 FR 61149 - Agency Information Collection (Disability Benefits Questionnaires-Group 4) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... Collection (Disability Benefits Questionnaires--Group 4) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... INFORMATION: Titles: Cranial Nerve Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire, VA Form 21- 0960C3. Narcolepsy Disability Benefits Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0960C6. Fibromyalgia Disability Benefits...

  20. 75 FR 76081 - Agency Information Collection (Disability Benefits Questionnaires) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... (Disability Benefits Questionnaires) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration... Disease (IHD) Disability Benefits Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0960a-1. b. Hairy Cell and Other B-Cell Leukemias Disability Benefits Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0960b-1. c. Parkinson's Disease Disability Benefits...

  1. The Effectiveness of Parenting Programs: A Review of Campbell Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Jane; Coren, Esther

    2018-01-01

    Parenting practices predict important outcomes for children, and parenting programs are potentially effective means of supporting parents to promote optimal outcomes for children. This review summarizes findings of systematic reviews of parenting programs published in the Campbell Library. Six reviews evaluated the effectiveness of a range of…

  2. The role of risk and cost benefit in program budgeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, C.J.; Alchowiak, J.

    1995-01-01

    The primary Environmental Management (EM) program mission is protecting human health and the environment. EM is currently facing a decreasing budget while still having to deal with competing requirements and risks to workers, public, and environment. There has been no consistent framework for considering in an integrated fashion the multiple types of risks and hazards present in the nuclear weapons complex. Therefore, to allocate resources during the budget process, EM is using risk, long term costs, mortgage reduction, compliance issues, and stakeholders concerns to prioritize the funding of activities. Risk and cost-benefit analysis are valuable tools to help make decisions to reduce risks to health, safety, and the environment in a sensible and cost-effective manner. Principles for priority setting using risk analysis are to seek to compare risks by grouping them into broad categories of concern (e.g., high, medium, and low); to set priorities in managing risks to account for relevant management and social considerations; to inform priorities by as broad a range of views as possible, ideally with consensus; and, to try to coordinate risk reduction efforts among programs. The Draft Risk Report to Congress, Risks and the Risk Debate: Searching for Common Ground open-quote The First Step,close-quote provides the first link between budget, compliance requirements, and risk reduction/pollution prevention activities. The process used for the report provides an initial framework to capture the spectrum of risks associated with environmental management activities and to link these risks in a qualitative fashion to compliance and the budget

  3. The role of risk and cost benefit in program budgeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, C.J.; Alchowiak, J. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The primary Environmental Management (EM) program mission is protecting human health and the environment. EM is currently facing a decreasing budget while still having to deal with competing requirements and risks to workers, public, and environment. There has been no consistent framework for considering in an integrated fashion the multiple types of risks and hazards present in the nuclear weapons complex. Therefore, to allocate resources during the budget process, EM is using risk, long term costs, mortgage reduction, compliance issues, and stakeholders concerns to prioritize the funding of activities. Risk and cost-benefit analysis are valuable tools to help make decisions to reduce risks to health, safety, and the environment in a sensible and cost-effective manner. Principles for priority setting using risk analysis are to seek to compare risks by grouping them into broad categories of concern (e.g., high, medium, and low); to set priorities in managing risks to account for relevant management and social considerations; to inform priorities by as broad a range of views as possible, ideally with consensus; and, to try to coordinate risk reduction efforts among programs. The Draft Risk Report to Congress, Risks and the Risk Debate: Searching for Common Ground {open_quote}The First Step,{close_quote} provides the first link between budget, compliance requirements, and risk reduction/pollution prevention activities. The process used for the report provides an initial framework to capture the spectrum of risks associated with environmental management activities and to link these risks in a qualitative fashion to compliance and the budget.

  4. Applying the chronic care model to an employee benefits program: a qualitative inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Gillian L; Wilson, Mark; Barrett, Barbara; Honeycutt, Sally; Hermstad, April K; Kegler, Michelle C

    2013-12-01

    To assess how employee benefits programs may strengthen and/or complement elements of the chronic care model (CCM), a framework used by health systems to improve chronic illness care. A qualitative inquiry consisting of semi-structured interviews with employee benefit administrators and partners from a self-insured, self-administered employee health benefits program was conducted at a large family-owned business in southwest Georgia. Results indicate that the employer adapted and used many health system-related elements of the CCM in the design of their benefit program. Data also suggest that the employee benefits program contributed to self-management skills and to informing and activating patients to interact with the health system. Findings suggest that employee benefits programs can use aspects of the CCM in their own benefit design, and can structure their benefits to contribute to patient-related elements from the CCM.

  5. Potential Health Benefits of Deep Sea Water: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samihah Zura Mohd Nani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep sea water (DSW commonly refers to a body of seawater that is pumped up from a depth of over 200 m. It is usually associated with the following characteristics: low temperature, high purity, and being rich with nutrients, namely, beneficial elements, which include magnesium, calcium, potassium, chromium, selenium, zinc, and vanadium. Less photosynthesis of plant planktons, consumption of nutrients, and organic decomposition have caused lots of nutrients to remain there. Due to this, DSW has potential to become a good source for health. Research has proven that DSW can help overcome health problems especially related to lifestyle-associated diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, cancer, and skin problems. This paper reviews the potential health benefits of DSW by referring to the findings from previous researches.

  6. Benefits of music training in child development: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Angélica Benítez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There are evidences that establish that from early childhood musical education has a positive effect on the cognitive development of the child, as well as different musical components contribute to the development of psychomotor, emotional and social skills. The musical processing is a complex issue. From a cognitive point of view production, music perception and aspects of the musical discourse, such as timbre, intensity, pace, and tonality, are processed in different parts of the brain and their structure may vary from one person to another, depending on their musical experience. Throughout this review, we will present the background related to the benefits of musical training in cognitive development of children during early childhood, emphasizing differences that involves receptive training compared to active, extending the effects to the field of music therapy and the use of techniques with therapeutic purposes.

  7. Photovoltaics (PV) as an Eligible Measure in Residential PACE Programs: Benefits and Challenges (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, J.

    2010-06-01

    Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) financing is one of several new financial models broadening access to clean energy by addressing the barrier of initial capital cost. The majority of the PACE programs in the market today include PV as an eligible measure. PV appeals to homeowners as a way to reduce utility bills, self-generate sustainable power, increase energy independence and demonstrate a commitment to the environment. If substantial state incentives for PV exist, PV projects can be economic under PACE, especially when partnered with good net metering policies. At the same time, PV is expensive relative to other eligible measures with a return on investment horizon that might exceed program targets. This fact sheet reviews the benefits and potential challenges of including PV in PACE programs.

  8. The Impact of Active Labor Market Programs and Benefit Entitlement Rules on the Duration of Unemployment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lalive, R.; van Ours, J.C.; Zweimüller, J.

    2000-01-01

    Swiss policy makers created a unique link between unemployment benefits and active labor market programs (ALMPs) by making benefit payments conditional on program attendance after 7 months of unemployment duration. We evaluate the effect of ALMPs and benefit entitlement on the duration of

  9. 78 FR 6275 - Medicaid, Children's Health Insurance Programs, and Exchanges: Essential Health Benefits in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... Medicaid, Children's Health Insurance Programs, and Exchanges: Essential Health Benefits in Alternative...'s Health Insurance Programs, and Exchanges: Essential Health Benefits in Alternative Benefit Plans... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services 42 CFR Parts 430...

  10. Preparing a Programmed Review in Accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Connie Remaly

    1975-01-01

    The programed review illustrated in this article was prepared for beginning accounting students to be used as a review of the basic accounting cycle before starting on the first practice set. (Author)

  11. State Program Integrity Review Reports List

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Comprehensive state program integrity (PI) review reports (and respective follow-up review reports) provide CMS assessment of the effectiveness of the states PI...

  12. External Program Reviews (2012) | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-24

    Jun 24, 2016 ... These final evaluations are our primary accountability mechanism in terms of the results, effectiveness, and relevance of program spending. External program reviews aim to: account to IDRC's Board of Governors for the implementation of the program prospectus; provide input into programming for learning ...

  13. 78 FR 4593 - Medicaid, Children's Health Insurance Programs, and Exchanges: Essential Health Benefits in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ...'s Health Insurance Programs, and Exchanges: Essential Health Benefits in Alternative Benefit Plans...-2334-P] RIN 0938-AR04 Medicaid, Children's Health Insurance Programs, and Exchanges: Essential Health... 2010 (collectively referred to as the Affordable Care Act), and the Children's Health Insurance Program...

  14. Perceived Benefits and Barriers of a Community-Based Diabetes Prevention and Management Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawley-Brzoska, Samantha; Misra, Ranjita

    2018-03-13

    This study examined the perceptions of benefits of and barriers to participating in a community-based diabetes program to improve program effectiveness. The Diabetes Prevention and Management (DPM) program was a twenty-two session, 1-year program, modeled after the evidence-based National Diabetes Prevention Program and AADE7 Self-Care Behaviors framework. Community-based participatory research approach was used to culturally tailor the curriculum. Participants included overweight or obese adults with dysglycemia. A benefits and barriers survey was developed to gather information on participants' perception of the program, as well as information on demographics and health literacy levels. Eighty-nine adults participated in the DPM program (73% females; 62% diabetic; 77% had adequate health literacy); 79% of participants completed the benefits and barriers survey. Principal component analysis indicated two components representing benefits (Cronbach's α = 0.83) and barriers (α = 0.65). The majority perceived high benefits and low barriers to program participation; benefits included helpful interaction with health coach or program leader (73%), improved lifestyle modification (65%) due to the program, and satisfaction with the program (75%). Open-ended questions confirmed themes related to benefits of program participation, suggestion for programmatic improvements as well as barriers to participation. Participant feedback could be used to guide interventions and tailor future program implementation.

  15. Biomass Program 2007 Program Peer Review - Feedstock Platform Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-27

    This document discloses the comments provided by a review panel at the U.S. Department of Energy Office of the Biomass Program Peer Review held on November 15-16, 2007 in Baltimore, MD and the Feedstock Platform Portfolio Peer Review held on August 21st through 23rd in Washington D.C.

  16. The Benefits of High-Intensity Functional Training Fitness Programs for Military Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Christopher K; Poston, Walker S C; Heinrich, Katie M; Jahnke, Sara A; Jitnarin, Nattinee

    2016-11-01

    High intensity functional training (HIFT) programs are designed to address multiple fitness domains, potentially providing improved physical and mental readiness in a changing operational environment. Programs consistent with HIFT principals such as CrossFit, SEALFIT and the US Marine Corps' High Intensity Tactical Training (HITT) are increasingly popular among military personnel. The goal of HIFT programs is to produce high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness, endurance and strength that exceed those achieved by following current physical activity recommendations. Given the investment in and popularity of HIFT in the military, it is important to consider the potential impact of this approach to fitness training for the health of military personnel and their risk of training injury. In a previous report in this journal, we addressed the question of whether HIFT was associated with higher injury rates compared to other exercise programs. We argued that concerns about the injury potential of HIFT exercise programs were not supported by the scientific literature to date, although additional research was needed to directly compare injury rates in approaches such as CrossFit to traditional military fitness programs. In this article we will review the scientific data on the practical, health and fitness benefits of HIFT exercise programs for military populations. Practical benefits to HIFT exercise programs include shorter training times and volumes, exercises which simulate combat tasks, lower equipment costs, reduced potential for boredom and adaptation as a result of constant variation, less injury potential compared to high volume endurance training, and scalability to all fitness levels and rehabilitation needs. For instance, HIFT training volumes are typically between 25% to nearly 80% less than traditional military fitness programs without reductions in fitness outcomes. HIFT program also provide an impressive range of health benefits such as the promotion of

  17. 76 FR 33029 - Agency Information Collection (Disability Benefits Questionnaires-Group 1) Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... Collection (Disability Benefits Questionnaires--Group 1) Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... Benefits Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0960B-2. b. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's Disease) Disability Benefits Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0960C-2. c. Peripheral Nerve Conditions (Not Including Diabetic...

  18. 76 FR 35950 - Agency Information Collection (Disability Benefits Questionnaires-Group 3) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... Collection (Disability Benefits Questionnaires--Group 3) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0960C-5. b. Headaches (Including Migraine Headaches), Disability Benefits Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0960C-8. c. Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Disability Benefits Questionnaire, VA Form 21...

  19. 78 FR 59099 - Agency Information Collection (Disability Benefits Questionnaires) Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... (Disability Benefits Questionnaires) Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration, Department of... INFORMATION: Titles: a. Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD) Disability Benefits Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0960a-1. b. Hairy Cell and Other B-Cell Leukemias Disability Benefits Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0960b-1. c...

  20. 76 FR 33417 - Agency Information Collection (Disability Benefits Questionnaires-Group 2) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... Collection (Disability Benefits Questionnaires--Group 2) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0960A-2. b. Hypertension Disability Benefits Questionnaire, VA Form 21- 0960A-3. c. Non-ischemic Heart Disease (including Arrhythmias and Surgery, Disability Benefits Questionnaire, VA...

  1. Academic Program Review--Concerns and Justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldman, D. R.

    Academic program review should not be considered a new phenomenon in higher education; reviews of various types have been conducted on a continuing basis. The renewed importance of an organized effort has been stimulated by the inability of funding sources to maintain levels of support required to insure quality in all on-going programs. Current…

  2. A Review of Undergraduate Mentoring Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershenfeld, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes published studies on undergraduate mentoring programs from 2008 to 2012. Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria, which included empirical research on formal mentoring programs with undergraduate students as mentees or mentors. Each study was assessed based on limitations identified in two earlier reviews of the mentoring…

  3. Health benefits of Nordic walking: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschentscher, Marcus; Niederseer, David; Niebauer, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Modern lifestyle, with its lack of everyday physical activity and exercise training, predisposes people to chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypertension, and coronary artery diseases. Brisk walking as a simple and safe form of exercise is undisputedly an effective measure to counteract sedentary lifestyle risks even in the most unfit and could lead to a reduction of the prevalence of chronic diseases in all populations. The purpose of this review is to systematically summarize, analyze, and interpret the health benefits of Nordic walking (walking with poles), and to compare it to brisk walking and jogging. A systematic and comprehensive literature search was performed between November 2010 and May 2012. Data were analyzed between April 2011 and May 2012. Sixteen RCTs with a total of 1062 patients and 11 observational studies with 831 patients were identified. The current analysis revealed that with regard to short- and long-term effects on heart rate, oxygen consumption, quality of life, and other measures, Nordic walking is superior to brisk walking without poles and in some endpoints to jogging. Nordic walking exerts beneficial effects on resting heart rate, blood pressure, exercise capacity, maximal oxygen consumption, and quality of life in patients with various diseases and can thus be recommended to a wide range of people as primary and secondary prevention. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Benefits and implementation of home hemodialysis: A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Karkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Home hemodialysis (HD is a modality of renal replacement therapy that can be safely and independently performed at home by end-stage renal disease (ESRD patients. Home HD can be performed at the convenience of the patients on a daily basis, every other day and overnight (nocturnal. Despite the great and many perceived benefits of home HD, including the significant improvements in health outcomes and resource utilization, the adoption of home HD has been limited; lack or inadequate pre-dialysis education and training constitute a major barrier. The lack of self-confidence and/or self-efficacy to manage own therapy, lack of family and/or social support, fear of machine and cannulation of blood access and worries of possible catastrophic events represent other barriers for the implementation of home HD besides inadequate competence and/or expertise in caring for home HD patients among renal care providers (nephrologists, dialysis nurses, educators. A well-studied, planned and prepared and carefully implemented central country program supported by adequate budget can play a positive role in overcoming the challenges to home HD. Healthcare authorities, with the increasingly financial and logistic demands and the relatively higher mortality and morbidity rates of the conventional in-center HD, should tackle home HD as an attractive and cost-effective modality with more freedom, quality of life and improvement of clinical outcomes for the ESRD patients.

  5. 2014 Wind Program Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-10-01

    The Wind Program Peer Review Meeting was held March 24-28, 2014 in Arlington, VA. Principle investigators from the Energy Department, National Laboratories, academic, and industry representatives presented the progress of their DOE-funded research. This report documents the formal, rigorous evaluation process and findings of nine independent reviewers who examined the technical, scientific, and business results of Wind Program funded projects, as well as the productivity and management effectiveness of the Wind Program itself.

  6. Vogtle Unit 1 readiness review: Assessment of Georgia Power Company readiness review pilot program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, G.

    1987-09-01

    Georgia Power Company (GPC) performed a readiness review at Vogtle Unit 1 as a pilot program. The pilot program was a new and innovative approach for the systematic and disciplined review, with senior management involvement, of GPC's implementation of design, construction, and operational readiness processes. The program's principal objective was to increase the level of assurance that quality programs at Vogtle Unit 1 have been accomplished in accordance with regulatory requirements. This report assesses the effectiveness of the GPC's readiness review pilot program (RRPP) at Vogtle Unit 1. It includes (1) an overview of what was experienced during the program's implementation, (2) an assessment of how well program objectives were met, and (3) lessons learned on the future use of the readiness review concept. Overall, GPC and the NRC staff believe that the RRPP at Vogtle Unit 1 was a success and that the program provided significant added assurance that Vogtle Unit 1 licensing commitments and NRC regulations have been adequately implemented. Although altering the NRC licensing review process for the few plants still in the construction pipeline may not be appropriate, licensees may benefit significantly by performing readiness reviews on their own initiative as GPC did for Vogtle. (7 refs.)

  7. Biomass Program 2007 Program Peer Review - Program Summary Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-27

    This document summarizes the comments provided by the peer reviewers at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Biomass Program’s Peer Review meeting, held on November 14-15, 2007 in Baltimore, MD and Platform Reviews conducted over the summer of 2007. The Platform Reviews provide evaluations of the Program’s projects in applied research, development, and demonstration.

  8. 76 FR 38281 - Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: New Premium Rating Method for Most Community Rated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... CFR Parts 1602, 1615, et al. Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: New Premium Rating Method for... Part 890; 48 CFR Parts 1602, 1615, 1632, and 1652 RIN 3206-AM39 Federal Employees Health Benefits..., 2011 (76 FR 36857). The document amends the Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) regulations at 5...

  9. Benefits of Wine Polyphenols on Human Health: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Banc

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents  an overview of the health benefits of wine polyphenols, induced by a moderate consumption. Several studies have shown that moderate wine intake may have many beneficial effects on human health and these effects are mainly attributed to the phenolic derivatives, especially flavonoids. Beside flavonoid compounds, phenolic acids (hydroxybenzoic acids and hydroxycinnamic acids and stilbenes are important non-flavonoid compounds present in grapes and wine. In the present review, the biological role of these classes of polyphenols in wine is briefly introduced, together with the knowledge on their bioavailability. The health-protective properties of wines are mainly due to antioxidant activities and capability to eliminate free radicals of the phenolic compounds. Additionally, these compounds (e.g. catechin and their oligomers and proanthocyanidins, quercetin, resveratrol have been reported to have multiple biological activities, including cardioprotective, anti-carcinogenic, anti-atherogenic, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and antibacterial properties. Epidemiological and clinical studies have pointed out that regular and moderate red wine consumption (one to two glasses a day is associated with decreased incidence of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, and certain types of cancer, including lung, esophagus, stomach, colon, endometrium, ovarian and prostate cancer. The bioavailability of phenolic compounds differs largely among different polyphenol molecules, thus the most abundant polyphenols in wines are not necessarily those leading to the highest levels of active metabolites in target tissues. Therefore, since wine is a complex mixture, it is likely that a multitude of chemical constituents, as well as their metabolites, act synergistically on human health.

  10. Annual review in automatic programming

    CERN Document Server

    Halpern, Mark I; Bolliet, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Computer Science and Technology and their Application is an eight-chapter book that first presents a tutorial on database organization. Subsequent chapters describe the general concepts of Simula 67 programming language; incremental compilation and conversational interpretation; dynamic syntax; the ALGOL 68. Other chapters discuss the general purpose conversational system for graphical programming and automatic theorem proving based on resolution. A survey of extensible programming language is also shown.

  11. Cost/benefit and risk/benefit analyses in LMFBR program planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, S.T.; Benson, R.A.; Palmer, R.S.

    1978-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the following headings: incentives analyses, uranium availability, electrical demand, the present value of future savings, alternatives to the breeder, environmental considerations, development program risks, results and conclusions. (U.K.)

  12. 76 FR 31998 - Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: Medically Underserved Areas for 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: Medically Underserved... Underserved Areas under the Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Program for calendar year 2012. This is... certain FEHB plans who receive covered health services in States with critical shortages of primary care...

  13. 75 FR 32972 - Federal Employees Health Benefits Program; Medically Underserved Areas for 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Federal Employees Health Benefits Program; Medically Underserved... Underserved Areas under the Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Program for calendar year 2011. This is... certain FEHB plans who receive covered health services in States with critical shortages of primary care...

  14. Review of fusion research program: historical summary and program projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, E.S.

    1976-09-01

    This report provides a brief review of the history and current status of fusion research in the United States. It also describes the Federally funded program aimed at the development of fusion reactors for electric power generation.

  15. Cost benefit analysis of the California HVS program

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, L

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available aimed at defining an appropriate method of measuring the impact of and the benefits to be gained from HVS testing by the UC-PRC. This approach has also been tested through the evaluation of a recent HVS study in California. The pilot study included...

  16. 75 FR 20314 - Federal Employees Health Benefits Program; Miscellaneous Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... employees of the Senate Restaurants after the operations of the Senate Restaurants are contracted to be... business concern to which the Senate Restaurants' food service operations were transferred as described in... continuation of Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) coverage for certain former Senate Restaurant...

  17. 75 FR 76615 - Federal Employees Health Benefits Program Miscellaneous Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... employees of the Senate Restaurants after the operations of the Senate Restaurants are contracted to be... which the Senate Restaurants' food service operations were transferred as described in section 1 of... continuation of Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) coverage for certain former Senate Restaurant...

  18. The Generalized Roy Model and the Cost-Benefit Analysis of Social Programs*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhauer, Philipp; Heckman, James J.; Vytlacil, Edward

    2015-01-01

    The literature on treatment effects focuses on gross benefits from program participation. We extend this literature by developing conditions under which it is possible to identify parameters measuring the cost and net surplus from program participation. Using the generalized Roy model, we nonparametrically identify the cost, benefit, and net surplus of selection into treatment without requiring the analyst to have direct information on the cost. We apply our methodology to estimate the gross benefit and net surplus of attending college. PMID:26709315

  19. The Generalized Roy Model and the Cost-Benefit Analysis of Social Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhauer, Philipp; Heckman, James J; Vytlacil, Edward

    2015-04-01

    The literature on treatment effects focuses on gross benefits from program participation. We extend this literature by developing conditions under which it is possible to identify parameters measuring the cost and net surplus from program participation. Using the generalized Roy model, we nonparametrically identify the cost, benefit, and net surplus of selection into treatment without requiring the analyst to have direct information on the cost. We apply our methodology to estimate the gross benefit and net surplus of attending college.

  20. Benefit-analysis of accomplishments from the magnetic fusion energy (MFE) research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lago, A.M.; Weinblatt, H.; Hamilton, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study commissioned by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Program Analysis to examine benefits from selected accomplishments of DOE's Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) Research Program. The study objectives are presented. The MFE-induced innovation and accomplishments which were studied are listed. Finally, the benefit estimation methodology used is described in detail. The next seven chapters document the results of benefit estimation for the MFE accomplishments studied

  1. Projected Benefits of Federal Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Programs - FY 2008 Budget Request

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-03-01

    This document summarizes the results of the benefits analysis of EERE's programs, as described in the FY 2008 Budget Request. EERE estimates benefits for its overall portfolio and for each of its nine Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD3) programs. Benefits for the FY 2008 budget request are estimated for the midterm (2008-2030) and long term (2030-2050).

  2. A Review of the Latent and Manifest Benefits (LAMB) Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Juanita; Waters, Lea

    2012-01-01

    The latent and manifest benefits (LAMB) scale (Muller, Creed, Waters & Machin, 2005) was designed to measure the latent and manifest benefits of employment and provide a single scale to test Jahoda's (1981) and Fryer's (1986) theories of unemployment. Since its publication in 2005 there have been 13 studies that have used the scale with 5692…

  3. The Benefits and Risks of CrossFit: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jena; Morrison, Janet; Zuniga, Julie

    2017-12-01

    With the increase in popularity of the CrossFit exercise program, occupational health nurses may be asked questions about the appropriateness of CrossFit training for workers. This systematic literature review was conducted to analyze the current research on CrossFit, and assess the benefits and risks of this exercise strategy. Thirteen studies ( N = 2,326 participants) examined the use of CrossFit training among adults; CrossFit is comparable to other exercise programs with similar injury rates and health outcomes. Occupational health nurses should assess previous injuries prior to recommending this form of exercise. Ideal candidates for CrossFit are adults who seek high-intensity exercise with a wide variety of exercise components.

  4. Dolphin shows and interaction programs: benefits for conservation education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L J; Zeigler-Hill, V; Mellen, J; Koeppel, J; Greer, T; Kuczaj, S

    2013-01-01

    Dolphin shows and dolphin interaction programs are two types of education programs within zoological institutions used to educate visitors about dolphins and the marine environment. The current study examined the short- and long-term effects of these programs on visitors' conservation-related knowledge, attitude, and behavior. Participants of both dolphin shows and interaction programs demonstrated a significant short-term increase in knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions. Three months following the experience, participants of both dolphin shows and interaction programs retained the knowledge learned during their experience and reported engaging in more conservation-related behaviors. Additionally, the number of dolphin shows attended in the past was a significant predictor of recent conservation-related behavior suggesting that repetition of these types of experiences may be important in inspiring people to conservation action. These results suggest that both dolphin shows and dolphin interaction programs can be an important part of a conservation education program for visitors of zoological facilities. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Review of EPRI Nuclear Human Factors Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanes, L.F.; O'Brien, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Human Factors Program, which is part of the EPRI Nuclear Power Group, was established in 1975. Over the years, the Program has changed emphasis based on the shifting priorities and needs of the commercial nuclear power industry. The Program has produced many important products that provide significant safety and economic benefits for EPRI member utilities. This presentation will provide a brief history of the Program and products. Current projects and products that have been released recently will be mentioned

  6. Defining the benefits and challenges of stakeholder engagement in systematic reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cottrell EK

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Erika K Cottrell,1 Evelyn P Whitlock,2 Elisabeth Kato,3 Stacey Uhl,4 Suzanne Belinson,5 Christine Chang,3 Ties Hoomans,5,6 David O Meltzer,5,7 Hussein Noorani,5 Karen A Robinson,8 Makalapua Motu'apuaka,9 Johanna Anderson,9 Robin A Paynter,9 Jeanne-Marie Guise9 1Oregon Health and Sciences University, Portland, OR, USA; 2Kaiser Evidence-based Practice Center, Portland, OR, USA; 3Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD, USA; 4ECRI-Penn Evidence-based Practice Center, Plymouth Meeting, PA, USA; 5Office of Clinical Affairs, Blue Cross Blue Shield Association, Chicago, IL, USA; 6Institute of Health Policy and Management, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; 7University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; 8Johns Hopkins University Evidence-based Practice Center, Baltimore, MD, USA; 9Scientific Resource Center for the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ Effective Health Care Program, Portland Veterans Affairs (VA Research Foundation, Portland VA Medical Center, Portland, OR, USA Background: Although there is a growing literature on the process of engaging stakeholders in medical research, there are a lack of clearly-defined measures for reporting and evaluation, which limits the ability to learn from past experience, understand the effectiveness of engagement, or identify which approaches work best. Clearly defining the benefits and challenges of engaging stakeholders in the systematic review process is an integral first step toward developing a set of criteria that can be used to evaluate the impact and effectiveness on the conduct, quality, and dissemination of systematic reviews. Methods: We utilized two complementary approaches to examine the benefits and challenges of engaging stakeholders in the systematic review process: 1 a literature scan to understand the overall state of the field; and 2 a series of key informant interviews with systematic reviewers, program/policy officials, and stakeholders

  7. Calendar Year 2009 Program Benefits for ENERGY STAR Labeled Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homan, Gregory K; Sanchez, Marla C.; Brown, Richard E.

    2010-11-15

    ENERGY STAR is a voluntary energy efficiency labeling program operated jointly by the Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE), designed to identify and promote energy-efficient products, buildings and practices. Since the program inception in 1992, ENERGY STAR has become a leading international brand for energy efficient products, and currently labels more than thirty products, spanning office equipment, heating, cooling and ventilation equipment, commercial and residential lighting, home electronics, and major appliances. ENERGY STAR's central role in the development of regional, national and international energy programs necessitates an open process whereby its program achievements to date as well as projected future savings are shared with stakeholders. This report presents savings estimates from the use ENERGY STAR labeled products. We present estimates of energy, dollar, and carbon savings achieved by the program in the year 2009, annual forecasts for 2010 and 2011, and cumulative savings estimates for the period 1993 through 2009 and cumulative forecasts for the period 2010 through 2015. Through 2009 the program saved 9.5 Quads of primary energy and avoided the equivalent of 170 million metric tons carbon (MMTC). The forecast for the period 2009-2015 is 11.5 Quads or primary energy saved and 202 MMTC emissions avoided. The sensitivity analysis bounds the best estimate of carbon avoided between 110 MMTC and 231 MMTC (1993 to 2009) and between 130 MMTC and 285 MMTC (2010 to 2015).

  8. Calendar Year 2007 Program Benefits for ENERGY STAR Labeled Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Marla Christine; Homan, Gregory; Brown, Richard

    2008-10-31

    ENERGY STAR is a voluntary energy efficiency-labeling program operated jointly by the United States Department of Energy and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Since the program inception in 1992, ENERGY STAR has become a leading international brand for energy efficient products. ENERGY STAR's central role in the development of regional, national, and international energy programs necessitates an open process whereby its program achievements to date as well as projected future savings are shared with committed stakeholders. Through 2007, the program saved 7.1 Quads of primary energy and avoided 128 MtC equivalent. The forecast shows that the program is expected to save 21.2 Quads of primary energy and avoid 375 MtC equivalent over the period 2008-2015. The sensitivity analysis bounds the best estimate of carbon avoided between 84 MtC and 172 MtC (1993 to 2007) and between 243 MtC and 519 MtC (2008 to 2015).

  9. Assessing Costs and Benefits of Early Childhood Intervention Programs. Overview and Application to the Starting Early Starting Smart Program. Executive Summary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karoly, Lynn

    2001-01-01

    Agency and program administrators and decisionmakers responsible for implementing early childhood intervention programs are becoming more interested in quantifying the costs and benefits of such programs...

  10. 2014 Water Power Program Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-08-18

    The Water Power Peer Review Meeting was held February 24-28, 2014 in Arlington, VA. Principle investigators from the Energy Department National Laboratories, academic, and industry representatives presented the progress of their DOE-funded research. This report documents the formal, rigorous evaluation process and findings of nine independent reviewers who examined the technical, scientific, and business results of 96 projects of the Water Power Program, as well as the productivity and management effectiveness of the Water Power Program itself.

  11. A conceptual framework for ERP benefit classification: Results of a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eckartz, S.M.; Daneva, Maia; Wieringa, Roelf J.; van Hillegersberg, Jos

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a detailed literature review on enterprise resource planning (ERP) benefits, carried out according to the guidelines by Webster et al. (2002). The identified benefits are mapped onto previously identified benefit categories. Based on this mapping a list of

  12. Risk/Benefit Communication about Food—A Systematic Review of the Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Brennan, M.; Bánáti, D.; Lion, R.; Meertens, R.M.; Rowe, G.; Siegrist, M.; Verbeke, W.; Vereijken, C.M.J.L.

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review relevant to the following research questions was conducted (1) the extent to which different theoretical frameworks have been applied to food risk/benefit communication and (2) the impact such food risk/benefit communication interventions have had on related risk/benefit

  13. 20 CFR 408.933 - When will we begin cross-program recovery from your current monthly benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When will we begin cross-program recovery... Title II Benefits § 408.933 When will we begin cross-program recovery from your current monthly benefits... notice, we will not begin cross-program recovery from your current monthly benefits. (b) If within that...

  14. Collateral benefits: Unintended consequences of the Roots of Empathy program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy Fransoo

    2017-04-01

    These findings provide intriguing evidence suggesting beneficial impacts in several longer-term health and social outcomes that could feasibly be related to participation in the Roots of Empathy program. The multi-variable propensity scores and hard-matching algorithms used on this large group provide considerable confidence in attributing group differences to program participation. Results from the full sample will provide more conclusive results, and allow sub-group analyses. The linkage of databases from health, education, social service and justice systems provides a unique opportunity to examine the truly multi-dimensional long-term impacts of a program already proven to provide dramatic improvements in short and medium-term outcomes.

  15. Calendar Year 2008 Program Benefits for ENERGY STAR Labeled Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homan, GregoryK; Sanchez, Marla; Brown, RichardE; Lai, Judy

    2010-08-24

    This paper presents current and projected savings for ENERGY STAR labeled products, and details the status of the model as implemented in the September 2009 spreadsheets. ENERGY STAR is a voluntary energy efficiency labeling program operated jointly by the Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE), designed to identify and promote energy-efficient products, buildings and practices. Since the program inception in 1992, ENERGY STAR has become a leading international brand for energy efficient products, and currently labels more than thirty products, spanning office equipment, heating, cooling and ventilation equipment, commercial and residential lighting, home electronics, and major appliances. ENERGY STAR's central role in the development of regional, national and international energy programs necessitates an open process whereby its program achievements to date as well as projected future savings are shared with stakeholders. This report presents savings estimates for ENERGY STAR labeled products. We present estimates of energy, dollar, and carbon savings achieved by the program in the year 2008, annual forecasts for 2009 and 2010, and cumulative savings estimates for the period 1993 through 2008 and cumulative forecasts for the period 2009 through 2015. Through 2008 the program saved 8.8 Quads of primary energy and avoided the equivalent of 158 metric tones carbon (MtC). The forecast for the period 2009-2015 is 18.1 Quads or primary energy saved and 316 MtC emissions avoided. The sensitivity analysis bounds the best estimate of carbon avoided between 104 MtC and 213 MtC (1993 to 2008) and between 206 MtC and 444 MtC (2009 to 2015). In this report we address the following questions for ENERGY STAR labeled products: (1) How are ENERGY STAR impacts quantified; (2) What are the ENERGY STAR achievements; and (3) What are the limitations to our method?

  16. Needs-Based Programs: Eligibility and Benefit Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    of m- Allm Veto= Nwftal Famt- Dim- IbWAd- amw- -m SSM - f~l dd __ s Bt p !Iidtt a m ablt Wind a aftim Ya LAWr Ibsh laD adi Grata 1 I I 1 I Pasta " I I...administration* refers to the level of government or the organization level responsible for day-to-day program administration. When "state" is shown...preschool program health, educational, nutri- are primarily for young offers educational, tional, social and other children (ages 3 to that age dental

  17. Software Reviews. Programs Worth a Second Look.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Roxanne; Eiser, Leslie

    1989-01-01

    Reviewed are three computer software packages for use in middle/high school classrooms. Included are "MacWrite II," a word-processing program for MacIntosh computers; "Super Story Tree," a word-processing program for Apple and IBM computers; and "Math Blaster Mystery," for IBM, Apple, and Tandy computers. (CW)

  18. Who Benefits from an Intensive Comprehensive Aphasia Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbitt, Edna M.; Worrall, Linda; Cherney, Leora R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This article summarizes current outcomes from intensive comprehensive aphasia programs (ICAPs) and examines data from one ICAP to identify those who respond and do not respond to treatment. Methods: Participants were divided into 2 groups, responders and nonresponders, based on ±5-point change score on the Western Aphasia Battery-Revised…

  19. 77 FR 16485 - Compensation, Retirement Programs, and Related Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... disclosures to shareholders and investors. The proposed rule would require enhanced reporting of senior officer compensation and retirement programs and reporting to shareholders of significant events that... nonbinding, advisory vote on senior officer compensation. To allow interested parties additional time to...

  20. The IR-4 Program - how it can benefit nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Ray Frank

    2002-01-01

    The Interregional Research Project 4 (IR-4) was initiated in 1963 to obtain national pesticide label regsitrations for use on food and fiber. This program has an emphasis on minor uses or specialty crops. In this arena in the United States today it includes 600 crops.

  1. TRU partnership-benefits to the national TRU program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippis, J.; Lott, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    Because increased regulatory authority has been given to the states, the management of transuranic (TRU) wastes varies considerably. One effective tool for facilitating better communications, coordination, and cooperation among the generator/storage sites is the formation of topic specific interface working groups. The National TRU Program supports these groups, and in 1994, a policy was adopted to manage these interface working groups

  2. Value-chain analysis of a rural health program: toward understanding the cost benefit of telemedicine applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, John E; Savage, Grant T; Icenogle, Marjorie L

    2004-01-01

    While telemedicine's clinical effectiveness and educational benefits are accepted, its cost-effectiveness is controversial. This study focuses on telemedicine's cost-effectiveness from a provider's perspective. Reviews of the cost-effectiveness literature in telemedicine are critical of past studies' (a) methodological and analytical weaknesses; (b) focus on answering "Can we do this?" rather than "Should we do this?"; and (c) emphasis on patient benefits. Value chain analysis examines structural and executional cost drivers; a self-sustaining business model balances the cost and value associated with each telemedicine activity. We illustrate this analysis in a rural health program, examining teleradiography and telerehabilitation.

  3. Review of existing residential energy efficiency certification and rating programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, P.L.

    1986-11-01

    This report was prepared for the Office of Buildings and Community Systems, US Department of Energy (DOE). The principal objective of the report is to present information on existing Home Energy Rating Systems (HERS) and their features. Much of the information in this report updates a 1982 report (PNL-4359), also prepared by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for DOE. Secondary objectives of the report are to qualitatively examine the benefits and costs of HERS programs, review survey results on the attitudes of various user groups toward the programs, and discuss selected design and implementation issues.

  4. Techniques for getting the most from an evaluation: Review of methods and results for attributing progress, non-energy benefits, net to gross, and cost-benefit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skumatz, Lisa A.

    2005-01-01

    As background for several evaluation and attribution projects, the authors conducted research on best practices in a few key areas of evaluation. We focused on techniques used in measuring market progress, enhanced techniques in attributing net energy impacts, and examining omitted program effects, particularly net non-energy benefits. The research involved a detailed literature review, interviews with program managers and evaluators across the US, and refinements of techniques used by the authors in conducting evaluation work. The object of the research was to uncover successful (and unsuccessful) approaches being used for key aspects of evaluation work. The research uncovered areas of tracking that are becoming more commonly used by agencies to assess progress in the market. In addition, detailed research by the authors on a number of impact and attribution evaluations have also led to recommendations on key practices that we believe comprise elements of best practices for assessments of attributable program effects. Specifically, we have identified a number of useful steps to improve the attribution of impacts to program interventions. Information on techniques for both attribution/causality work for a number of programs are presented - including market transformation programs that rely on marketing, advertising, training, and mid-stream incentives and work primarily with a network of participating mid-market actors. The project methods and results are presented and include: Theory-based evaluation, indicators, and hypothesis testing; Enhanced measurement of free riders, spillover, and other effects, and attribution of impacts using distribution and ranges of measure and intervention impacts, rather than less reliable point estimates; Attribution of program-induced non-energy benefits; Net to gross, benefit cost analysis, and incorporation of scenario/risk analysis of results; Comparison of net to gross results across program types to explore patterns and

  5. Techniques for getting the most from an evaluation: Review of methods and results for attributing progress, non-energy benefits, net to gross, and cost-benefit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skumatz, Lisa A. [Skumatz Economic Research Associates, Inc., Superior, CO (United States)

    2005-07-01

    As background for several evaluation and attribution projects, the authors conducted research on best practices in a few key areas of evaluation. We focused on techniques used in measuring market progress, enhanced techniques in attributing net energy impacts, and examining omitted program effects, particularly net non-energy benefits. The research involved a detailed literature review, interviews with program managers and evaluators across the US, and refinements of techniques used by the authors in conducting evaluation work. The object of the research was to uncover successful (and unsuccessful) approaches being used for key aspects of evaluation work. The research uncovered areas of tracking that are becoming more commonly used by agencies to assess progress in the market. In addition, detailed research by the authors on a number of impact and attribution evaluations have also led to recommendations on key practices that we believe comprise elements of best practices for assessments of attributable program effects. Specifically, we have identified a number of useful steps to improve the attribution of impacts to program interventions. Information on techniques for both attribution/causality work for a number of programs are presented - including market transformation programs that rely on marketing, advertising, training, and mid-stream incentives and work primarily with a network of participating mid-market actors. The project methods and results are presented and include: Theory-based evaluation, indicators, and hypothesis testing; Enhanced measurement of free riders, spillover, and other effects, and attribution of impacts using distribution and ranges of measure and intervention impacts, rather than less reliable point estimates; Attribution of program-induced non-energy benefits; Net to gross, benefit cost analysis, and incorporation of scenario/risk analysis of results; Comparison of net to gross results across program types to explore patterns and

  6. Renewable Energy Price-Stability Benefits in Utility Green Power Programs. 36 pp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cory, Karlynn S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Swezey, Blair G. [Applied Materials, Santa Clara, CA (United States)

    2008-08-01

    This paper examines utility experiences when offering the fixed-price benefits of renewable energy in green pricing programs, including the methods utilized and the impact on program participation. It focuses primarily on utility green pricing programs in states that have not undergone electric industry restructuring.

  7. Renewable Energy Price-Stability Benefits in Utility Green Power Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L. A.; Cory, K. S.; Swezey, B. G.

    2008-08-01

    This paper examines utility experiences when offering the fixed-price benefits of renewable energy in green pricing programs, including the methods utilized and the impact on program participation. It focuses primarily on utility green pricing programs in states that have not undergone electric industry restructuring.

  8. Religious Challenges to School Voucher and Tax Benefit/Scholarship Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Martha

    2016-01-01

    A key component of current school reform efforts focuses on increasing parental choice through voucher systems and programs that provide tax benefits for contributions to scholarship programs for private school tuition. Indeed, proposals to adopt such programs have been or currently are being considered in four-fifths of the states, and about half…

  9. Peer Review in Scientific Publications: Benefits, Critiques, & A Survival Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jacalyn; Sadeghieh, Tara

    2014-01-01

    Peer review has been defined as a process of subjecting an author’s scholarly work, research or ideas to the scrutiny of others who are experts in the same field. It functions to encourage authors to meet the accepted high standards of their discipline and to control the dissemination of research data to ensure that unwarranted claims, unacceptable interpretations or personal views are not published without prior expert review. Despite its wide-spread use by most journals, the peer review process has also been widely criticised due to the slowness of the process to publish new findings and due to perceived bias by the editors and/or reviewers. Within the scientific community, peer review has become an essential component of the academic writing process. It helps ensure that papers published in scientific journals answer meaningful research questions and draw accurate conclusions based on professionally executed experimentation. Submission of low quality manuscripts has become increasingly prevalent, and peer review acts as a filter to prevent this work from reaching the scientific community. The major advantage of a peer review process is that peer-reviewed articles provide a trusted form of scientific communication. Since scientific knowledge is cumulative and builds on itself, this trust is particularly important. Despite the positive impacts of peer review, critics argue that the peer review process stifles innovation in experimentation, and acts as a poor screen against plagiarism. Despite its downfalls, there has not yet been a foolproof system developed to take the place of peer review, however, researchers have been looking into electronic means of improving the peer review process. Unfortunately, the recent explosion in online only/electronic journals has led to mass publication of a large number of scientific articles with little or no peer review. This poses significant risk to advances in scientific knowledge and its future potential. The current

  10. Alcohol fuels program technical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-07-01

    The last issue of the Alcohol Fuels Process R/D Newsletter contained a work breakdown structure (WBS) of the SERI Alcohol Fuels Program that stressed the subcontracted portion of the program and discussed the SERI biotechnology in-house program. This issue shows the WBS for the in-house programs and contains highlights for the remaining in-house tasks, that is, methanol production research, alcohol utilization research, and membrane research. The methanol production research activity consists of two elements: development of a pressurized oxygen gasifier and synthesis of catalytic materials to more efficiently convert synthesis gas to methanol and higher alcohols. A report is included (Finegold et al. 1981) that details the experimental apparatus and recent results obtained from the gasifier. The catalysis research is principally directed toward producing novel organometallic compounds for use as a homogeneous catalyst. The utilization research is directed toward the development of novel engine systems that use pure alcohol for fuel. Reforming methanol and ethanol catalytically to produce H/sub 2/ and CO gas for use as a fuel offers performance and efficiency advantages over burning alcohol directly as fuel in an engine. An application of this approach is also detailed at the end of this section. Another area of utilization is the use of fuel cells in transportation. In-house researchers investigating alternate electrolyte systems are exploring the direct and indirect use of alcohols in fuel cells. A workshop is being organized to explore potential applications of fuel cells in the transportation sector. The membrane research group is equipping to evaluate alcohol/water separation membranes and is also establishing cost estimation and energy utilization figures for use in alcohol plant design.

  11. Psychosocial Benefits of Cooking Interventions: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Nicole; Touchton-Leonard, Katherine; Ross, Alyson

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: Cooking interventions are used in therapeutic and rehabilitative settings; however, little is known about the influence of these interventions on psychosocial outcomes. This systematic review examines the research evidence regarding the influence of cooking interventions on psychosocial outcomes. Methods: A systematic review of the…

  12. Cost-benefit analysis of comprehensive mental health prevention programs in Japanese workplaces: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Sachiko; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Kitamura, Fumihiko; Fukuda, Takashi; Inaba, Ryoichi

    2013-01-01

    We examined the implementation of mental health prevention programs in Japanese workplaces and the costs and benefits. A cross-sectional survey targeting mental health program staff at 11 major companies was conducted. Questionnaires explored program implementation based on the guidelines of the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. Labor, materials, outsourcing costs, overheads, employee mental discomfort, and absentee numbers, and work attendance were examined. Cost-benefit analyses were conducted from company perspectives assessing net benefits per employee and returns on investment. The surveyed companies employ an average of 1,169 workers. The implementation rate of the mental health prevention programs was 66% for primary, 51% for secondary, and 60% for tertiary programs. The program's average cost was 12,608 yen per employee and the total benefit was 19,530 yen per employee. The net benefit per employee was 6,921 yen and the return on investment was in the range of 0.27-16.85. Seven of the 11 companies gained a net benefit from the mental health programs.

  13. Dilute chemical decontamination program review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anstine, L.D.; Blomgren, J.C.; Pettit, P.J.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of the Dilute Chemical Decontamination Program is to develop and evaluate a process which utilizes reagents in dilute concentrations for the decontamination of BWR primary systems and for the maintenance of dose rates on the out-of-core surfaces at acceptable levels. A discussion is presented of the process concept, solvent development, advantages and disadvantages of reagent systems, and VNC loop tests. Based on the work completed to date it is concluded that (1) rapid decontamination of BWRs using dilute reagents is feasible; (2) reasonable reagent conditions for rapid chemical decontamination are: 0.01M oxalic acid + 0.005M citric acid, pH3.0, 90/degree/C, 0.5 to 1.0 ppm dissolved oxygen; (3) control of dissolved oxygen concentration is important, since high levels suppress the rate of decontamination and low levels allow precipitation of ferrous oxalate. 4 refs

  14. Human factors engineering program review model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The staff of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission is performing nuclear power plant design certification reviews based on a design process plan that describes the human factors engineering (HFE) program elements that are necessary and sufficient to develop an acceptable detailed design specification and an acceptable implemented design. There are two principal reasons for this approach. First, the initial design certification applications submitted for staff review did not include detailed design information. Second, since human performance literature and industry experiences have shown that many significant human factors issues arise early in the design process, review of the design process activities and results is important to the evaluation of an overall design. However, current regulations and guidance documents do not address the criteria for design process review. Therefore, the HFE Program Review Model (HFE PRM) was developed as a basis for performing design certification reviews that include design process evaluations as well as review of the final design. A central tenet of the HFE PRM is that the HFE aspects of the plant should be developed, designed, and evaluated on the basis of a structured top-down system analysis using accepted HFE principles. The HFE PRM consists of ten component elements. Each element in divided into four sections: Background, Objective, Applicant Submittals, and Review Criteria. This report describes the development of the HFE PRM and gives a detailed description of each HFE review element

  15. Senior Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information Medicaid Public Health Centers Temporary "Cash" Assistance Senior Benefits Program GovDelivery Skip Navigation Links Health and Social Services > Public Assistance > Senior Benefits Page Content Senior Benefits Senior Benefits Logo Senior Benefits Fact Sheet - June, 2016 Reduction Information

  16. School-Based First Aid Training Programs: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveruzzi, Bianca; Buckley, Lisa; Sheehan, Mary

    2016-04-01

    This review examines the breadth of first aid training delivered to school students and the components that are age appropriate to adolescents. Eligible studies included school-based first aid interventions targeting students aged between 10 and 18 years. Online databases were searched, for peer-reviewed publications available as at August 2014. A total of 20 journal articles were relevant to the review. Research supported programs with longer durations (3 hours or more). Most programs taught resuscitation alone and few included content that was context-specific and relevant to the target group. The training experience of the facilitator did not appear to impact on student outcomes. Incorporating both practical and didactic components was found to be an important factor in delivering material and facilitating the retention of knowledge. Educational resources and facilitator training were found to be common features of effective programs. The review supports first aid in school curriculum and provides details of key components pertinent to design of school-based first aid programs. The findings suggest that first aid training may have benefits wider than the uptake and retention of knowledge and skills. There is a need for future research, particularly randomized controlled trials to aid in identifying best practice approaches. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  17. Do health benefits outweigh the costs of mass recreational programs? An economic analysis of four Ciclovía programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Felipe; Sarmiento, Olga L; Zarama, Roberto; Pratt, Michael; Wang, Guijing; Jacoby, Enrique; Schmid, Thomas L; Ramos, Mauricio; Ruiz, Oscar; Vargas, Olga; Michel, Gabriel; Zieff, Susan G; Valdivia, Juan Alejandro; Cavill, Nick; Kahlmeier, Sonja

    2012-02-01

    One promising public health intervention for promoting physical activity is the Ciclovía program. The Ciclovía is a regular multisectorial community-based program in which streets are temporarily closed for motorized transport, allowing exclusive access to individuals for recreational activities and physical activity. The objective of this study was to conduct an analysis of the cost-benefit ratios of physical activity of the Ciclovía programs of Bogotá and Medellín in Colombia, Guadalajara in México, and San Francisco in the U.S.A. The data of the four programs were obtained from program directors and local surveys. The annual cost per capita of the programs was: U.S. $6.0 for Bogotá, U.S. $23.4 for Medellín, U.S. $6.5 for Guadalajara, and U.S. $70.5 for San Francisco. The cost-benefit ratio for health benefit from physical activity was 3.23-4.26 for Bogotá, 1.83 for Medellín, 1.02-1.23 for Guadalajara, and 2.32 for San Francisco. For the program of Bogotá, the cost-benefit ratio was more sensitive to the prevalence of physically active bicyclists; for Guadalajara, the cost-benefit ratio was more sensitive to user costs; and for the programs of Medellín and San Francisco, the cost-benefit ratios were more sensitive to operational costs. From a public health perspective for promoting physical activity, these Ciclovía programs are cost beneficial.

  18. 20 CFR 404.545 - When will we begin cross-program recovery from current monthly benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When will we begin cross-program recovery from current monthly benefits? 404.545 Section 404.545 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... we begin cross-program recovery from current monthly benefits? (a) We will begin collecting the...

  19. [Cost-benefit analysis of primary prevention programs for mental health at the workplace in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Kensuke; Kawakami, Norito; Tsusumi, Akizumi; Inoue, Akiomi; Kobayashi, Yuka; Takeuchi, Ayano; Fukuda, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    To determine the cost-benefits of primary prevention programs for mental health at the workplace, we conducted a meta-analysis of published studies in Japan. We searched the literature, published as of 16 November 2011, using the Pubmed database and relevant key words. The inclusion criteria were: conducted in the workplace in Japan; primary prevention focus; quasi-experimental studies or controlled trials; and outcomes including absenteeism or presenteeism. Four studies were identified: one participatory work environment improvement, one individual-oriented stress management, and two supervisor education programs. Costs and benefits in yen were estimated for each program, based on the description of the programs in the literature, and additional information from the authors. The benefits were estimated based on each program's effect on work performance (measured using the WHO Health and Work Performance Questionnaire in all studies), as well as sick leave days, if available. The estimated relative increase in work performance (%) in the intervention group compared to the control group was converted into labor cost using the average bonus (18% of the total annual salary) awarded to employees in Japan as a base. Sensitive analyses were conducted using different models of time-trend of intervention effects and 95% confidence limits of the relative increase in work performance. For the participatory work environment improvement program, the cost was estimated as 7,660 yen per employee, and the benefit was 15,200-22,800 yen per employee. For the individual-oriented stress management program, the cost was 9,708 yen per employee, and the benefit was 15,200-22,920 yen per employee. For supervisor education programs, the costs and benefits were respectively 5,209 and 4,400-6,600 yen per employee, in one study, 2,949 and zero yen per employee in the other study. The 95% confidence intervals were wide for all these studies. For the point estimates based on these cases, the

  20. Pregnancy after bariatric surgery - a review of benefits and risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Mette Karie Mandrup; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    in restriction of food intake and/or malabsorption leading to weight loss, but may induce a risk for malnutrition and pregnancy complications. Method. Systematically conducted review addressing pregnancy after bariatric surgery using the PubMed and Cochrane databases. Main Outcome Measures. Birthweight...

  1. Searching for Grey Literature for Systematic Reviews: Challenges and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahood, Quenby; Van Eerd, Dwayne; Irvin, Emma

    2014-01-01

    There is ongoing interest in including grey literature in systematic reviews. Including grey literature can broaden the scope to more relevant studies, thereby providing a more complete view of available evidence. Searching for grey literature can be challenging despite greater access through the Internet, search engines and online bibliographic…

  2. Academic Program Approval and Review Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don G. Creamer

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available This report outlines general and specific processes for both program approval and program review practices found in 50 states and eight foreign countries and regions.  Models that depict these procedures are defined and the strengths and weakness of each are discussed.  Alternatives to current practice by state agencies in the U.S. are described that might provide for greater decentralization of these practices while maintaining institutional accountability.

  3. Disability and employee benefits receipt: evidence from the U.S. Vocational Rehabilitation Services Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosulski, Marya R; Donnell, Chandra; Kim, Woo Jong

    2012-01-01

    Studies indicate positive effects of the U.S. Vocational Rehabilitation Services (VRS) in assisting people with disabilities to find independent employment. Underemployment continues to impact access to adequate health care and other benefits. Workers with disabilities receive fewer benefits, overall. With data from the Longitudinal Study of Vocational Rehabilitation Services Program (LSVRSP), the authors compare the rates of receipt of 6 types of benefits for people with physical, mental, and sensory impairments. Although those with physical disabilities are most likely to receive benefits, all groups lack adequate access to health care, sick leave, and vacation. The authors discuss implications for services provision in the current job market.

  4. Reviewing a Reading Program: Professional Development Module. Facilitator's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosanovich, Marcia; Jordan, Georgia; Arndt, Elissa; VanSciver, Mary; Wahl, Michelle; Rissman, Lila

    2008-01-01

    This "Facilitator's Guide" has been prepared for presenters of the Reviewing a Reading Program professional development training. It is one of three pieces comprising a suite of materials on reviewing reading programs: this "Guide", the "Reviewing a Reading Program Participant's Guide" and the "Reviewing a Reading Program" Professional Development…

  5. Potential biodiversity benefits from international programs to reduce carbon emissions from deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siikamäki, Juha; Newbold, Stephen C

    2012-01-01

    Deforestation is the second largest anthropogenic source of carbon dioxide emissions and options for its reduction are integral to climate policy. In addition to providing potentially low cost and near-term options for reducing global carbon emissions, reducing deforestation also could support biodiversity conservation. However, current understanding of the potential benefits to biodiversity from forest carbon offset programs is limited. We compile spatial data on global forest carbon, biodiversity, deforestation rates, and the opportunity cost of land to examine biodiversity conservation benefits from an international program to reduce carbon emissions from deforestation. Our results indicate limited geographic overlap between the least-cost areas for retaining forest carbon and protecting biodiversity. Therefore, carbon-focused policies will likely generate substantially lower benefits to biodiversity than a more biodiversity-focused policy could achieve. These results highlight the need to systematically consider co-benefits, such as biodiversity in the design and implementation of forest conservation programs to support international climate policy.

  6. A unique approach to mental health services in an HMO: indemnity benefit and service program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, T J; Patterson, D Y

    1981-02-01

    Three years' experience with a unique combination of an indemnity benefit plus an in-house service program in a prepaid group practice plan's psychiatric department demonstrates enhanced accessibility and increased utilization among formerly unserved segments of the membership plus the flexibility of freedom of choice in choosing service provider and the ability to tailor treatment to patient needs. Overall costs were similar to those reported for other prepaid plans despite the addition of benefits for long-term therapy outside the plan. Flexible use of inpatient and day hospital services enabled the program to migrate, to a large extent, major increases in hospital charges while providing greater continuity of care. This combination of benefits offers the advantages of both an indemnity benefit (Freedom of choice in treatment) and an in-house service program (greater continuity of care, more flexible use of resources, reduction of reliance on hospital care).

  7. 20 CFR 416.575 - When will we begin cross-program recovery from your current monthly benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When will we begin cross-program recovery... benefits? (a) We will begin collecting the overpayment balance by cross-program recovery from your current... monthly benefits than the amount stated in the notice, we will not begin cross-program recovery until we...

  8. Uncovering the benefits of participatory research: implications of a realist review for health research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagosh, Justin; Macaulay, Ann C; Pluye, Pierre; Salsberg, Jon; Bush, Paula L; Henderson, Jim; Sirett, Erin; Wong, Geoff; Cargo, Margaret; Herbert, Carol P; Seifer, Sarena D; Green, Lawrence W; Greenhalgh, Trisha

    2012-06-01

    partnerships but were contingent on key aspects of context. We used a realist approach to embrace the heterogeneity and complexity of the PR literature. This theory-driven synthesis identified mechanisms by which PR may add value to the research process. Using the middle-range theory of partnership synergy, our review confirmed findings from previous PR reviews, documented and explained some negative outcomes, and generated new insights into the benefits of PR regarding conflicts and negotiation between stakeholders, program sustainability and advancement, unanticipated project activity, and the generation of systemic change. © 2012 Milbank Memorial Fund.

  9. Value Added: The Costs and Benefits of College Preparatory Programs. American Higher Education Report Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swail, Watson Scott

    2004-01-01

    Rarely do stakeholders ask about the effectiveness of outreach programs or whether they are an efficient use of tax dollars and philanthropic funds. As government budgets continue to be constrained and philanthropic investment gets more competitive, there is a growing acknowledgment of the need to look at the cost/benefit of these programs and…

  10. Beyond Strength: Participant Perspectives on the Benefits of an Older Adult Exercise Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Marlana; Belza, Basia; Petrescu-Prahova, Miruna; Miyawaki, Christina E.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the expected and experienced benefits among participants in Enhance®Fitness (EF), an evidence-based group physical activity program for older adults. We also describe the implications for program dissemination (reach, implementation, and maintenance) within the RE-AIM (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and…

  11. 78 FR 42159 - Medicaid and Children's Health Insurance Programs: Essential Health Benefits in Alternative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ... and 156 Medicaid and Children's Health Insurance Programs: Essential Health Benefits in Alternative... Secretary 45 CFR Parts 155 and 156 [CMS-2334-F] RIN 0938-AR04 Medicaid and Children's Health Insurance... Medicaid and the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) eligibility notices, delegation of appeals, and...

  12. Benefits and challenges of electrical demand response: A critical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Pinson, Pierre; Madsen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    and challenges of demand response. These benefits include the ability to balance fluctuations in renewable generation and consequently facilitate higher penetrations of renewable resources on the power system, an increase in economic efficiency through the implementation of real-time pricing, and a reduction...... in generation capacity requirements. Nevertheless, demand response is not without its challenges. The key challenges for demand response centre around establishing reliable control strategies and market frameworks so that the demand response resource can be used optimally. One of the greatest challenges...... for demand response is the lack of experience, and the consequent need to employ extensive assumptions when modelling and evaluating this resource. This paper concludes with an examination of these assumptions, which range from assuming a fixed linear price–demand relationship for price responsive demand...

  13. BENEFITS OF HERBAL EXTRACTS IN COSMETICS: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Amreen Fatima*, Shashi Alok, Parul Agarwal, Prem Prakash Singh and Amita Verma

    2013-01-01

    Herbal extracts are primarily added to the cosmetic formulations due to several associated properties such as antioxidant, anti inflammatory, antiseptic and antimicrobial properties. Even today, people in rural and urban areas depend upon herbs for traditional cosmetics. Information on the herbal cosmetics was collected via electronic search (using pub med, scifinder, Google Scholar and web of science) and library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Furthermore, informati...

  14. University Research Consortium annual review meeting program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    This brochure presents the program for the first annual review meeting of the University Research Consortium (URC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). INEL is a multiprogram laboratory with a distinctive role in applied engineering. It also conducts basic science research and development, and complex facility operations. The URC program consists of a portfolio of research projects funded by INEL and conducted at universities in the United States. In this program, summaries and participant lists for each project are presented as received from the principal investigators

  15. University Research Consortium annual review meeting program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This brochure presents the program for the first annual review meeting of the University Research Consortium (URC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). INEL is a multiprogram laboratory with a distinctive role in applied engineering. It also conducts basic science research and development, and complex facility operations. The URC program consists of a portfolio of research projects funded by INEL and conducted at universities in the United States. In this program, summaries and participant lists for each project are presented as received from the principal investigators.

  16. 78 FR 52580 - Submission for Review: Request for Case Review for Enhanced Disability Annuity Benefit, RI 20-123

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... Disability Annuity Benefit, RI 20-123 AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: 60-Day notice and... Disability Annuity Benefit, RI 20-123. As required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, (Pub. L. 104-13... review the computations of disability annuities to include the formulae provided in law for individuals...

  17. 76 FR 77543 - Quantitative Summary of the Benefits and Risks of Prescription Drugs: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... psychology'' (section 3507(b), Pub. L. 111-148, 124 Stat. 530), and to consult manufacturers and consumers... communication of quantitative benefit and risk information. FDA is making available the literature review report...

  18. Guide for Conducting Benefit-Cost Evaluation of Realized Impacts of Public R&D Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruegg, Rosalie [TIA Consulting, Inc., Emerald Isle, NC (United States); Jordan, Gretchen B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2011-08-01

    This document provides guidance for evaluators who conduct impact assessments to determine the “realized” economic benefits and costs, energy, environmental benefits, and other impacts of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s (EERE) R&D programs. The focus of this Guide is on realized outcomes or impacts of R&D programs actually experienced by American citizens, industry, and others. Retrospective evaluations may be contrasted to prospective evaluations that reflect expected or potential outcomes only if assumptions hold. The retrospective approach described in this Guide is based on realized results only and the extent they can be attributed to the efforts of an R&D program. While it has been prepared specifically to guide retrospective benefit-cost analysis of EERE R&D Programs, this report may be used for similar analysis of other public R&D organizations.

  19. The Benefits of Part-Time Undergraduate Study and UK Higher Education Policy: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennion, Alice; Scesa, Anna; Williams, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Part-time study in the UK is significant: nearly 40 per cent of higher education students study part-time. This article reports on a literature review that sought to understand the economic and social benefits of part-time study in the UK. It concludes that there are substantial and wide-ranging benefits from studying part-time. The article also…

  20. A Review of Global Learning & Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    review (Yoder et al., 2008) of the GPO performance, NASA continued the cooperative agreement with UCAR. Another external review ( Bybee et al., 2008) of...Submitted by the Program Office External Review Committee. Bybee , Rodger W. (Chair), 2008. NASA External Review of a GLOBE Proposal, The Globe

  1. Challenges in Measuring Benefit of Clinical Research Training Programs--the ASH Clinical Research Training Institute Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Lillian; Crowther, Mark; Byrd, John; Gitlin, Scott D; Basso, Joe; Burns, Linda

    2015-12-01

    The American Society of Hematology developed the Clinical Research Training Institute (CRTI) to address the lack of training in patient-oriented research among hematologists. As the program continues, we need to consider metrics for measuring the benefits of such a training program. This article addresses the benefits of clinical research training programs. The fundamental and key components are education and mentorship. However, there are several other benefits including promotion of collaboration, job and advancement opportunities, and promotion of work-life balance. The benefits of clinical research training programs need to be measured so that funders and society can judge if they are worth the investment in time and resources. Identification of elements that are important to program benefit is essential to measuring the benefit of the program as well as program planning. Future work should focus on the constructs which contribute to benefits of clinical research training programs such as CRTI.

  2. Potential Benefit of Singing for People with Parkinson's Disease: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnish, Jean; Atkinson, Rachel A; Barran, Susannah M; Barnish, Maxwell S

    2016-06-03

    There is evidence that participation in performing arts brings psychosocial benefits in the general population and in recent years there has been substantial interest in the potential therapeutic benefit of performing arts, including singing, for people with chronic medical conditions including those of neurological aetiology. To systematically review the existing body of evidence regarding the potential benefit of singing on clinical outcomes of people with PD. Seven online bibliographic databases were systematically searched in January 2016 and supplementary searches were conducted. Full-text original peer-reviewed scientific papers that investigated the potential benefit of singing on at least one of speech, functional communication, cognitive status, motor function and quality of life in human participants with PD were eligible for inclusion. 449 unique records were identified, 25 full-text articles were screened and seven studies included in the review. All seven studies assessed the impact of singing on speech, five found partial evidence of benefit and two found no evidence of benefit. One study assessed each of functional communication and quality of life and no significant benefit was found. No included study assessed the impact of singing on motor function or cognitive status. Singing may benefit the speech of people with PD, although evidence is not unequivocal. Further research is required to assess wider benefits including on functional communication, cognitive status, motor function and quality of life. Substantial methodological limitations were identified in the existing literature. Recommendations are made for advancing the state of the literature.

  3. 2012 DOE Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-10-26

    The 2012 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting was held May 14-18, 2012 in Crystal City, Virginia. The review encompassed all of the work done by the Hydrogen Program and the Vehicle Technologies Program: a total of 309 individual activities were reviewed for Vehicle Technologies, by a total of 189 reviewers. A total of 1,473 individual review responses were received for the technical reviews.

  4. Projected Benefits of Federal Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Programs: FY 2005 Budget Request

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2004-05-01

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) leads the Federal Government's efforts to provide reliable, affordable, and environmentally sound energy for America, through its 11 research, development, demonstration, and deployment (RDD&D) programs. EERE invests in high-risk, high-value research and development (R&D) that, conducted in partnership with the private sector and other government agencies, accelerates the development and facilitates the deployment of advanced clean energy technologies and practices. This document summarizes the results of the benefits analysis of EERE's programs, as described in the FY 2005 Budget Request. EERE has adopted a benefits framework developed by the National Research Council (NRC) to represent the various types of benefits resulting from the energy efficiency technology improvements and renewable energy technology development prompted by EERE programs. EERE's benefits analysis focuses on three main categories of energy-linked benefits-economic, environmental, and security. These metrics are not a complete representation of the benefits or market roles of efficiency and renewable technologies, but provide an indication of the range of benefits provided. EERE has taken steps to more fully represent the NRC framework, including two key improvements to the FY 2005 analysis-adding an electricity security metric and extending the analysis through the year 2050.

  5. Environmental Measurements Laboratory program review, December 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volchok, H.L.; de Planque, G.

    1984-03-01

    This volume contains all of the written material that was submitted to the panel of Reviewers in advance of a Program Review conducted by the US Department of Energy, Office of Health and Environmental Research at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) December 7-9, 1983. In addition to a general introduction there are nineteen papers grouped into the five broad program categories covering all of the scientific and engineering projects of the Laboratory: Natural Radioactivity and Radiation, Anthropogenic Radioactivity and Radiation, Non-nuclear, Quality Assurance, and Development and Support. These short articles, for the most part, focus on the rationale for EML's involvement in each project, emphasizing their relevance to the EML and Department of Energy missions. Project results and their interpretation were presented at the Review and can be found in the material referenced in this volume

  6. Review and analysis of the Mental Health Nurse Incentive Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happell, Brenda; Platania-Phung, Chris

    2017-09-04

    Objective The aim of the present study was to review and synthesise research on the Mental Health Nurse Incentive Program (MHNIP) to ascertain the benefits and limitations of this initiative for people with mental illness, general practitioners, mental health nurses and the wider community. Methods An electronic and manual search was made of the research literature for MHNIP in May 2017. Features of studies, including cohorts and findings, were tabulated and cross-study patterns in program processes and outcomes were closely compared. Results Seventeen reports of primary research data have been released. Triangulation of data from different cohorts, regions and design show that the program has been successful on the primary objectives of increased access to primary mental health care, and has received positive feedback from all major stakeholders. Although the program has been broadly beneficial to consumer health, there are inequities in access for people with mental illness. Conclusions The MHNIP greatly benefits the health of people with mental illness. Larger and more representative sampling of consumers is needed, as well as intensive case studies to provide a more comprehensive and effective understanding of the benefits and limitations of the program as it evolves with the establishment of primary health networks. What is known about the topic? The MHNIP is designed to increase access to mental health care in primary care settings such as general practice clinics. Studies have reported favourable views about the program. However, research is limited and further investigation is required to demonstrate the strengths and limitations of the program. What does this paper add? All studies reviewed reported that the MHNIP had positive implications for people with severe and persistent mental illness. Qualitative research has been most prevalent for mental health nurse views and research on Health of the Nation Outcome Scale scores for recipients of the program

  7. Do asthmatics benefit from music therapy? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwka, Agnieszka; Wloch, Tomasz; Tynor, Dariusz; Nowobilski, Roman

    2014-08-01

    To determine the effectiveness of music therapy in asthma. Searches for experimental and observational studies published between 01.01.92 and 31.12.13 were conducted through electronic databases: Medline/PubMed, Embase, SportDiscus, Cochrane Library, Teacher Reference Centre, Web of Science, Academic Search Complete, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, PEDro and Scopus. The selection criteria included any method of music therapy applied to patients with asthma, with respect to asthma symptoms and lung function. Two reviewers screened the records independently. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool. Strength of recommendation was graded according to GRADE recommendation. The literature search identified 867 citations, from which 8 (three RCTs and five nRCTs) low and high risk of bias studies were included in the review. All RCTs used music listening as a form of complementary treatment. One RCT of the low risk of bias indicated positive effects on lung function in mild asthma. In two others, despite the decrease in asthma symptoms, music was not more effective than the control condition. In two nRCTs a decrease in asthma symptoms was reported as an effect of playing a brass or wind instrument; in two nRCTs the same effect was observed after music assisted vocal breathing exercises and singing. Mood improvement, decrease of depression and anxiety were also observed. The paucity, heterogeneity, and significant methodological limitations of available studies allow for only a weak recommendation for music therapy in asthma. This study highlights the need for further research of mixed methodology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mall Walking Program Environments, Features, and Participants: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farren, Laura; Belza, Basia; Allen, Peg; Brolliar, Sarah; Brown, David R; Cormier, Marc L; Janicek, Sarah; Jones, Dina L; King, Diane K; Marquez, David X; Rosenberg, Dori E

    2015-08-13

    Walking is a preferred and recommended physical activity for middle-aged and older adults, but many barriers exist, including concerns about safety (ie, personal security), falling, and inclement weather. Mall walking programs may overcome these barriers. The purpose of this study was to summarize the evidence on the health-related value of mall walking and mall walking programs. We conducted a scoping review of the literature to determine the features, environments, and benefits of mall walking programs using the RE-AIM framework (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance). The inclusion criteria were articles that involved adults aged 45 years or older who walked in indoor or outdoor shopping malls. Exclusion criteria were articles that used malls as laboratory settings or focused on the mechanics of walking. We included published research studies, dissertations, theses, conference abstracts, syntheses, nonresearch articles, theoretical papers, editorials, reports, policy briefs, standards and guidelines, and nonresearch conference abstracts and proposals. Websites and articles written in a language other than English were excluded. We located 254 articles on mall walking; 32 articles met our inclusion criteria. We found that malls provided safe, accessible, and affordable exercise environments for middle-aged and older adults. Programmatic features such as program leaders, blood pressure checks, and warm-up exercises facilitated participation. Individual benefits of mall walking programs included improvements in physical, social, and emotional well-being. Limited transportation to the mall was a barrier to participation. We found the potential for mall walking programs to be implemented in various communities as a health promotion measure. However, the research on mall walking programs is limited and has weak study designs. More rigorous research is needed to define best practices for mall walking programs' reach, effectiveness, adoption

  9. Compost benefits for agriculture evaluated by life cycle assessment. A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez-Blanco, Julie; Lazcano, Cristina; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2013-01-01

    not available. (4) Weed suppression was not proved. Different research efforts are required for a full assessment of the benefits, apart from nutrient supply and carbon sequestration; additional impact categories—dealing with phosphorus resources, biodiversity, soil losses, and water depletion—may be needed...... assessment (LCA). A total of nine environmental benefits were identified in an extensive literature review and quantitative figures for each benefit were drawn and classified into short-, mid-, and long-term. The major findings are the following: (1) for nutrient supply and carbon sequestration, the review...

  10. Benefits, costs, and livelihood implications of a regional payment for ecosystem service program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hua; Robinson, Brian E; Liang, Yi-Cheng; Polasky, Stephen; Ma, Dong-Chun; Wang, Feng-Chun; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Ouyang, Zhi-Yun; Daily, Gretchen C

    2013-10-08

    Despite broad interest in using payment for ecosystem services to promote changes in the use of natural capital, there are few expost assessments of impacts of payment for ecosystem services programs on ecosystem service provision, program cost, and changes in livelihoods resulting from program participation. In this paper, we evaluate the Paddy Land-to-Dry Land (PLDL) program in Beijing, China, and associated changes in service providers' livelihood activities. The PLDL is a land use conversion program that aims to protect water quality and quantity for the only surface water reservoir that serves Beijing, China's capital city with nearly 20 million residents. Our analysis integrates hydrologic data with household survey data and shows that the PLDL generates benefits of improved water quantity and quality that exceed the costs of reduced agricultural output. The PLDL has an overall benefit-cost ratio of 1.5, and both downstream beneficiaries and upstream providers gain from the program. Household data show that changes in livelihood activities may offset some of the desired effects of the program through increased expenditures on agricultural fertilizers. Overall, however, reductions in fertilizer leaching from land use change dominate so that the program still has a positive net impact on water quality. This program is a successful example of water users paying upstream landholders to improve water quantity and quality through land use change. Program evaluation also highlights the importance of considering behavioral changes by program participants.

  11. 2009 Biomass Program Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, John [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program‘s 2009 peer review meeting, held on July 14–15, 2009, in Arlington, Virginia. The document also includes summary information from the six separate platform reviews conducted between March and April 2009 in the Washington, D.C., and Denver, Colorado, areas. The platform reviews provide evaluations of the program‘s projects in applied research, development, and demonstration as well as analysis and deployment activities. The July program peer review was an evaluation of the program‘s overall strategic planning, management approach, priorities across research areas, and resource allocation.

  12. Counting the cost: estimating the economic benefit of pedophile treatment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, M; Donato, R

    2001-04-01

    The principal objective of this paper is to identify the economic costs and benefits of pedophile treatment programs incorporating both the tangible and intangible cost of sexual abuse to victims. Cost estimates of cognitive behavioral therapy programs in Australian prisons are compared against the tangible and intangible costs to victims of being sexually abused. Estimates are prepared that take into account a number of problematic issues. These include the range of possible recidivism rates for treatment programs; the uncertainty surrounding the number of child sexual molestation offences committed by recidivists; and the methodological problems associated with estimating the intangible costs of sexual abuse on victims. Despite the variation in parameter estimates that impact on the cost-benefit analysis of pedophile treatment programs, it is found that potential range of economic costs from child sexual abuse are substantial and the economic benefits to be derived from appropriate and effective treatment programs are high. Based on a reasonable set of parameter estimates, in-prison, cognitive therapy treatment programs for pedophiles are likely to be of net benefit to society. Despite this, a critical area of future research must include further methodological developments in estimating the quantitative impact of child sexual abuse in the community.

  13. China-Venezuela Space Cooperation Benefits and Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mariano Imbert

    2016-01-01

    For the last 10 years,the Venezuelan aerospace industry has been constantly growing,and it is to be expected to continue in the same way in the future.China and its space industry,as the main partner for most of the ongoing Venezuelan space projects from their beginning,has been an important player in their development and may continue acting as one of the most important partners not only for the Venezuelan aerospace industry but also for other Latin-American countries' aerospace industries.ABAE (Bolivarian Agency for Space Activities) together with the related Chinese aerospace companies,with the guidance and help of CGWIC,has been constantly improving its cooperation methods,regarding technical work flows as well as management activities,especially for the latest's space projects under development,namely the CIDE (Venezuelan Design,Assembly,Integration and Testing Center) and VRSS-2 (Venezuelan Remote Sensing Satellite-2) programs.Provided that there is a deeper and stronger cooperation in the future,partnership and friendship of the different scientists,experts and leaders from the space sectors of both countries,will be improved and strengthened for the development of both nations social welfare.

  14. Benefits of a Game-Based Review Module in Chemistry Courses for Nonmajors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringfield, Thomas W.; Kramer, Eugene F.

    2014-01-01

    Review sessions provide an opportunity for students to reflect on the material they have learned. Game shows can grab the students' interest and make them invested in the outcomes of their learning. A module developed around game show review was studied in chemistry courses for nonmajors to determine whether benefits could be found in…

  15. Effect of Distributive Justice on The Relationship between The Forms of Benefit Program and Job Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azman Ismail

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine the moderating effect of distributive justice in the relationship between the forms of benefits program and job commitment. A survey research method was used to gather 150 usable questionnaires from employees who have worked in Malaysian federal government linked companies in Sarawak (MFGLS. The outcomes of testing moderating model using a hierarchical regression analysis showed two major findings: (1 distributive justice had not increased the effect of physical and safety benefits (i.e., health care, insurance, loan and claim on job commitment, and (2 distributive justice had increased the effect of self-satisfaction benefits (i.e., promotion opportunity and training on job commitment. This result confirms that distributive justice does act as a partial moderating variable in the benefit program models of the organizational sector sample. In addition, the implications of this study to benefit system theory and practice, methodological and conceptual limitations, and directions for future research are also discussed. Keywords: Forms of Benefits Program, Distributive Justice and Job Commitment

  16. 32 CFR 2400.45 - Information Security Program Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information Security Program Review. 2400.45... SECURITY PROGRAM Office of Science and Technology Policy Information Security Program Management § 2400.45 Information Security Program Review. (a) The Director, OSTP, shall require an annual formal review of the OSTP...

  17. 1974 review of the research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The role of the Research Program in Controlled Thermonuclear Research, the activities that are contained within the Research Program, and summaries of the reports prepared by the study groups that analyzed the six activity areas that make up the Research Program are described. The recommendations by an ''Overview Panel'' are given. The recommendations are based on an analysis of the individual study group reports, consultations with CTR staff and field scientists, and on independent review of CTR program plans and needs. In some cases the recommendations of the Overview Panel are identical with study group recommendations and in other cases they are not. Some recommendations by the Overview Panel take into account factors and information that go beyond that available to the study groups. The five-year budget needed to accomplish the recommended Research Program is discussed. The Overview Panel chose to normalize its budget recommendations to the actual FY 1975 Research Program budget, reflecting the fact that this is already determined. The budgets for subsequent years are then based on this starting point. The complete reports prepared by the six study groups are given. Each report is based on an analysis of the needs as dictated by the Magnetic Confinement Systems and Development and Technology Program Plans. (U.S.)

  18. Pulmonary rehabilitation programs in lung transplant: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Maria de Sousa Pinto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze, using a literature review, Pulmonary Rehabilitation (RP Programs in lung transplant. Methods: A literature review in July 2014 in Ebsco Host, Periódicos Capes, BVS and Science Direct data bases using descriptors in English (“lung transplantation”, “lung transplant” AND/OR “rehabilitation” and Portuguese (“reabilitação” AND/OR “transplante pulmonar”. The eligibility criterions were interventional studies of PR before and/or after lung transplant; participants who were candidates to lung transplant or lung transplant recipients; studies that applied any kind of PR program (hospital-based, homebased or outpatient and articles published in English, Spanish or Portuguese. Literature reviews, guidelines and case reports were excluded. The search process yielded 46 articles of which two were duplicated. After title and abstract screening 13 articles remained for full text reading. Six studies met the inclusion eligibility and were included in the review. Results: The studies involved patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Cystic Fibrosis, Pulmonary Hypertension, Interstitial Lung Disease and Pulmonary Fibrosis. Pulmonary function, exercise capacity, quality of life (QoL and quadriceps force were evaluated. Most interventions were outpatient programs with three months duration, three times a week and session with at least one hour. Protocols included physical training, educational approach and just one included nutritional, psychiatric and social assistant follow-up. The studies presented significant change in the six-minute walking distance, QoL and quadriceps force after PR programs. Conclusion: This review showed the benefits of the PR in the QoL and exercise capacity contributing to the Health Promotion of the patients.

  19. Does advanced practice in radiography benefit the healthcare system? A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, S E

    2018-02-01

    With ever-increasing demands on the National Health Service (NHS), members of staff are blurring their professional boundaries in the attempt to benefit the healthcare system. This review aims to establish whether advancing practice within radiography does benefit the healthcare system by examining published literature. Key words were input into databases such as: CINAHL, Science Direct and PubMed. Various filters were applied to narrow down the articles. Key themes were identified within the literature: cost, job satisfaction, patient benefits, restrictions and workload. Having advanced practitioners undertake some of the radiologists' workload was potentially cost effective whilst continuing/increasing the standard of quality. Patients benefitted from the quality of their examinations, the high accuracy of their reports and the speed those reports were attained. Evidence within the literature emphasises that advanced practice does benefit the healthcare system by means of: cost reduction, job satisfaction, patient benefits and workload. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: Removal of Eligible and Ineligible Individuals From Existing Enrollments. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-23

    The United States Office of Personnel Management (OPM) is issuing a final rule amending Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Program regulations to provide a process for removal of certain identified individuals who are found not to be eligible as family members from FEHB enrollments. This process would apply to individuals for whom there is a failure to provide adequate documentation of eligibility when requested. This action also amends Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Program regulations to allow certain eligible family members to be removed from existing self and family or self plus one enrollments.

  1. Resource allocation decision modeling for a Louisiana Public Benefit Fund program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Mark J.; Pulsipher, Allan G.

    2003-01-01

    A simulation model is developed to value energy efficiency improvement programs in Louisiana proposed to be delivered through a Public Benefits Fund. A uniform 1 mill/kW h non-bypassable surcharge on the electric rates of all electricity users is proposed to be distributed for low-income bill assistance, low-income weatherization, and energy efficiency programs across the residential and commercial sector of Louisiana. The economic and environmental impact of the energy improvement programs is coupled to a stochastic linear program to specify the resource allocation subject to policy and system constraints. The model is illustrated through a realistic policy scenario. (Author)

  2. 38 CFR 21.21 - Election of benefits under education programs administered by the Department of Veterans Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 21.21 Election of benefits under education programs administered by the Department of Veterans... education programs administered by VA must make an election of benefits between chapter 31 and any other VA... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Election of benefits...

  3. Review of the ISTC innovative nuclear programs (information review)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tocheny, L. V. [ISTC - International Science and Technology Center, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2006-07-01

    The information will be included in the review, with special attention on details of corresponding experimental programs: Novel reactor concepts, fit with GIF and INPRO: Supercritical Pressure Water aspects, Heavy metals (Lead, Lead-Bismuth) technology, HTGR critical modeling, engineering. Molten salts. Reactor data benchmarking, Accelerator Driven Systems (experimental modelling), Nuclear data measurements, Severe accident study (corium modelling, QUENCH, Chernobyl), Experimental Analysis of Hydraulically Induced Vibrations in Compact Curling Tube Steam Generators. (authors)

  4. Cost-benefit analysis of Hydro-Quebec's energy conservation programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenault, E.

    1993-09-01

    A cost-benefit analysis is presented of the energy conservation programs of Hydro-Quebec for 1991 to 2010. Three possible scenarios are simulated. In the first scenario, Hydro-Quebec data are used without modification. In the second, the simulation is carried out in the absence of the Hydro-Quebec programs, and in the third, it is assumed that any economies achieved are only for the short term. A comparison between these simulations allows determination of results concerning the advantages and the costs which the programs introduce for the three groups comprising society: the consumer, the producer, and the government. The results of these comparisons show that the consumer, the producer, and the whole society gain benefits from the energy conservation programs, while the government loses. 13 refs., 13 figs., 14 tabs

  5. Benefits and risks of using smart pumps to reduce medication error rates: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Kumiko; Dalleur, Olivia; Dykes, Patricia C; Bates, David W

    2014-12-01

    Smart infusion pumps have been introduced to prevent medication errors and have been widely adopted nationally in the USA, though they are not always used in Europe or other regions. Despite widespread usage of smart pumps, intravenous medication errors have not been fully eliminated. Through a systematic review of recent studies and reports regarding smart pump implementation and use, we aimed to identify the impact of smart pumps on error reduction and on the complex process of medication administration, and strategies to maximize the benefits of smart pumps. The medical literature related to the effects of smart pumps for improving patient safety was searched in PUBMED, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2000-2014) and relevant papers were selected by two researchers. After the literature search, 231 papers were identified and the full texts of 138 articles were assessed for eligibility. Of these, 22 were included after removal of papers that did not meet the inclusion criteria. We assessed both the benefits and negative effects of smart pumps from these studies. One of the benefits of using smart pumps was intercepting errors such as the wrong rate, wrong dose, and pump setting errors. Other benefits include reduction of adverse drug event rates, practice improvements, and cost effectiveness. Meanwhile, the current issues or negative effects related to using smart pumps were lower compliance rates of using smart pumps, the overriding of soft alerts, non-intercepted errors, or the possibility of using the wrong drug library. The literature suggests that smart pumps reduce but do not eliminate programming errors. Although the hard limits of a drug library play a main role in intercepting medication errors, soft limits were still not as effective as hard limits because of high override rates. Compliance in using smart pumps is key towards effectively preventing errors. Opportunities for improvement include upgrading drug

  6. Projected Benefits of Federal Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Programs: FY 2006 Budget Request

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norland, D.; Jenkin, T.

    2005-05-01

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) leads the Federal Government's efforts to provide reliable, affordable, and environmentally sound energy for America, through its 11 research, development, demonstration, and deployment (RDD&D) programs. EERE invests in high-risk, high-value research and development (R&D) that, conducted in partnership with the private sector and other government agencies, accelerates the development and facilitates the deployment of advanced clean energy technologies and practices. EERE designs its RDD&D activities to improve the Nation's readiness for addressing current and future energy needs. This document summarizes the results of the benefits analysis of EERE's programs, as described in the FY 2006 Budget Request. EERE has adopted a benefits framework developed by the National Research Council (NRC) to represent the various types of benefits resulting from the energy efficiency technology improvements and renewable energy technology development supported by EERE programs. Specifically, EERE's benefits analysis focuses on three main categories of energy-linked benefits--economic, environmental, and security.

  7. Quantifying Carbon and distributional benefits of solar home system programs in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Limin; Bandyopadhyay, Sushenjit; Cosgrove-Davies, Mac; Samad, Hussain

    2011-01-01

    Scaling-up adoption of renewable energy technology, such as solar home systems, to expand electricity access in developing countries can accelerate the transition to low-carbon economic development. Using a purposely collected national household survey, this study quantifies the carbon and distributional benefits of solar home system programs in Bangladesh. Three key findings are generated...

  8. Public Value Posters: Conveying Societal Benefits of Extension Programs through Evaluation Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazdon, Scott; Meyer, Nathan; Mohr, Caryn; Troschinetz, Alexis

    2017-01-01

    The public value poster session is a new tool for effectively demonstrating and reporting the public value of Extension programming. Akin to the research posters that have long played a critical role in the sharing of findings from academic studies, the public value poster provides a consistent format for conveying the benefits to society of…

  9. 77 FR 43127 - Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: Medically Underserved Areas for 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: Medically Underserved... determination of the States that qualify as Medically Underserved Areas under the Federal Employees Health... law that mandates special consideration for enrollees of certain FEHB plans who receive covered health...

  10. 78 FR 50119 - Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: Medically Underserved Areas for 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: Medically Underserved... determination of the states that qualify as Medically Underserved Areas under the Federal Employees Health... law that mandates special consideration for enrollees of certain FEHB plans who receive covered health...

  11. Public attitudes toward programs designed to enhance forest related benefits on private lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald F. Dennis; Mark J. Twery; Michael A. Rechlin; Bruce Hansen

    2003-01-01

    Public agencies may at times provide education, technical help, tax incentives, or other forms of aid to private landowners to help them enhance their land in ways that benefit the public. Since public funds are used to pay these expenses, it is important that program goals be correlated with underlying public values and concerns. We used a conjoint ranking survey to...

  12. 78 FR 12245 - Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Suspension of SNAP Benefit Payments to Retailers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ..., national origin, gender, age, disability, marital or family status. Regulations at 7 CFR 272.6.... Discrimination in any aspect of the program administration is prohibited by these regulations, according to the... SNAP benefits at the location, store inventory, and the SNAP history of the store owners. For example...

  13. Evaluating the economic benefits of nonmotorized transportation : case studies and methods for the nonmotorized transportation pilot program communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report examines potential methods for evaluating the economic benefits from nonmotorized transportation investments. The variety of potential economic benefits of bicycle and pedestrian infrastructure and programming investments discussed includ...

  14. Effectiveness of mentoring programs for youth: a meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, David L; Holloway, Bruce E; Valentine, Jeffrey C; Cooper, Harris

    2002-04-01

    We used meta-analysis to review 55 evaluations of the effects of mentoring programs on youth. Overall, findings provide evidence of only a modest or small benefit of program participation for the average youth. Program effects are enhanced significantly, however, when greater numbers of both theory-based and empirically based "best practices" are utilized and when strong relationships are formed between mentors and youth. Youth from backgrounds of environmental risk and disadvantage appear most likely to benefit from participation in mentoring programs. Outcomes for youth at-risk due to personal vulnerabilities have varied substantially in relation to program characteristics, with a noteworthy potential evident for poorly implemented programs to actually have an adverse effect on such youth. Recommendations include greater adherence to guidelines for the design and implementation of effective mentoring programs as well as more in-depth assessment of relationship and contextual factors in the evaluation of programs.

  15. Personal and social benefits:consumer beliefs towards product review blogs

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazisaeedi, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    Online blogs that offer reviews of products, services and technologies increasingly attract interest among public relations practitioners, as well as academic scholars. This paper reports on blog readers’ perceptions of the personal and social benefits offered by these specialized blogs as a new communication medium. The study surveyed 169 Australian online consumers. A personal and social benefits (PSB) multi-item scale, traditionally employed in an advertising research context, is adapted a...

  16. A Systematic Review of the Benefits of Hiring People with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Sally; Cagliostro, Elaine; Albarico, Mikhaela; Mortaji, Neda; Karon, Leora

    2018-02-01

    Purpose We reviewed literature on the benefits of hiring people with disabilities. Increasing attention is being paid to the role of people with disabilities in the workplace. Although most research focuses on employers' concerns, many companies are now beginning to share their successes. However, there is no synthesis of the peer-reviewed literature on the benefits of hiring people with disabilities. Methods Our team conducted a systematic review, completing comprehensive searches of seven databases from 1997 to May 2017. We selected articles for inclusion that were peer-reviewed publications, had a sample involving people with disabilities, conducted an empirical study with at least one outcome focusing on the benefits of hiring people with disabilities, and focused on competitive employment. Two reviewers independently applied the inclusion criteria, extracted the data, and rated the study quality. Results Of the 6176 studies identified in our search, 39 articles met our inclusion criteria. Findings show that benefits of hiring people with disabilities included improvements in profitability (e.g., profits and cost-effectiveness, turnover and retention, reliability and punctuality, employee loyalty, company image), competitive advantage (e.g., diverse customers, customer loyalty and satisfaction, innovation, productivity, work ethic, safety), inclusive work culture, and ability awareness. Secondary benefits for people with disabilities included improved quality of life and income, enhanced self-confidence, expanded social network, and a sense of community. Conclusions There are several benefits to hiring people with disabilities. Further research is needed to explore how benefits may vary by type of disability, industry, and job type.

  17. Review of defense display research programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulis, Robert W.; Hopper, Darrel G.; Morton, David C.; Shashidhar, Ranganathan

    2001-09-01

    Display research has comprised a substantial portion of the defense investment in new technology for national security for the past 13 years. These investments have been made by the separate service departments and, especially, via several Defense Research Projects Agency (DARPA) programs, known collectively as the High Definition Systems (HDS) Program (which ended in 2001) and via the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) Defense Production Act (DPA) Title III Program (efforts ended in 2000). Using input from the Army, Navy, and Air Force to focus research and identify insertion opportunities, DARPA and the Title III Program Office have made investments to develop the national technology base and manufacturing infrastructure necessary to meet the twin challenge of providing affordable displays in current systems and enabling the DoD strategy of winning future conflicts by getting more information to all participants during the battle. These completed DARPA and DPA research and infrastructure programs are reviewed. Service investments have been and are being made to transition display technology; examples are described. Display science and technology (S&T) visions are documented for each service to assist the identification of areas meriting consideration for future defense research.

  18. A review of ecosystem service benefits from wild bees across social contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Denise Margaret S; Leventon, Julia; Rau, Anna-Lena; Borgemeister, Christian; von Wehrden, Henrik

    2017-05-01

    In order to understand the role of wild bees in both social and ecological systems, we conducted a quantitative and qualitative review of publications dealing with wild bees and the benefits they provide in social contexts. We classified publications according to several attributes such as services and benefits derived from wild bees, types of bee-human interactions, recipients of direct benefits, social contexts where wild bees are found, and sources of changes to the bee-human system. We found that most of the services and benefits from wild bees are related to food, medicine, and pollination. We also found that wild bees directly provide benefits to communities to a greater extent than individuals. In the social contexts where they are found, wild bees occupy a central role. Several drivers of change affect bee-human systems, ranging from environmental to political drivers. These are the areas where we recommend making interventions for conserving the bee-human system.

  19. Benefits, costs, and livelihood implications of a regional payment for ecosystem service program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hua; Robinson, Brian E.; Liang, Yi-Cheng; Polasky, Stephen; Ma, Dong-Chun; Wang, Feng-Chun; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Ouyang, Zhi-Yun; Daily, Gretchen C.

    2013-01-01

    Despite broad interest in using payment for ecosystem services to promote changes in the use of natural capital, there are few expost assessments of impacts of payment for ecosystem services programs on ecosystem service provision, program cost, and changes in livelihoods resulting from program participation. In this paper, we evaluate the Paddy Land-to-Dry Land (PLDL) program in Beijing, China, and associated changes in service providers’ livelihood activities. The PLDL is a land use conversion program that aims to protect water quality and quantity for the only surface water reservoir that serves Beijing, China’s capital city with nearly 20 million residents. Our analysis integrates hydrologic data with household survey data and shows that the PLDL generates benefits of improved water quantity and quality that exceed the costs of reduced agricultural output. The PLDL has an overall benefit–cost ratio of 1.5, and both downstream beneficiaries and upstream providers gain from the program. Household data show that changes in livelihood activities may offset some of the desired effects of the program through increased expenditures on agricultural fertilizers. Overall, however, reductions in fertilizer leaching from land use change dominate so that the program still has a positive net impact on water quality. This program is a successful example of water users paying upstream landholders to improve water quantity and quality through land use change. Program evaluation also highlights the importance of considering behavioral changes by program participants. PMID:24003160

  20. Benefit and risk information in prescription drug advertising: review of empirical studies and marketing implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, S W; Bang, H K

    2000-01-01

    As pharmaceutical companies began to advertise prescription drugs directly to consumers as well as to physicians, understanding the impact of benefit and risk information in drug advertising on physicians and consumers has become more critical. This paper reviews previous empirical studies that examined the content of benefit and risk information in drug advertising and its potential effects on physicians' subsequent prescribing behaviors. It also reviews studies that investigated how consumers process information on a drug's efficacy and side effects. Based on the findings of these studies, implications are discussed for effective marketing information development as well as for government regulation.

  1. Benefits of Hippotherapy and Horse Riding Simulation Exercise on Healthy Older Adults: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliere, Camille; Collado-Mateo, Daniel; Villafaina, Santos; Duque-Fonseca, Paulo; Parraça, José A

    2018-04-05

    To provide an up-to-date research analysis on equine-assisted therapies and horse riding simulation exercise in older adults, and to suggest future directions in clinical practice and research. TYPE: Systematic review. A comprehensive search of studies was performed in 4 electronic databases (Cochrane, PubMed, PEDro, and Web of Science) regarding the effects of equine-assisted therapies and horse riding simulation exercise in older adults. Eight articles were selected, 5 of them focused on hippotherapy, 2 on horse riding simulation, and a single article that used the 2 types of therapy. PRISMA guidelines were followed for the data extraction process. The studies were all randomized controlled trials, but not double-blind, so they were classified as level of evidence B. Duration of hippotherapy programs ranged from 8-12 weeks. Sessions lasted between 15 and 60 minutes and were performed 2-5 times per week. Interventions using a horse simulator spanned 8 weeks and were conducted for 20 minutes 5 times per week. Results indicate that hippotherapy might improve balance, mobility, gait ability, and muscle strength, as well as could induce hormonal and cerebral activity changes in healthy older adults. Benefits of horse riding simulation could be limited to physical fitness and muscular activity. ▪▪▪. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. State Level Review of Doctoral Programs in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Nil

    Review of doctoral degree programs in Texas public colleges and universities is discussed. Attention is directed to review procedures and strengths and weaknesses in the state's doctoral programs in educational psychology, counseling and guidance, and student personnel services. Doctoral programs were reviewed because of their high cost and a…

  3. Vehicle Technologies and Fuel Cell Technologies Program: Prospective Benefits Assessment Report for Fiscal Year 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, T. S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Taylor, C. H. [TA Engineering, Inc., Catonsville, MD (United States); Moore, J. S. [TA Engineering, Inc., Catonsville, MD (United States); Ward, J. [United States Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

    2016-02-23

    Under a diverse set of programs, the Vehicle Technologies and Fuel Cell Technologies offices of DOE’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy invest in research, development, demonstration, and deployment of advanced vehicle, hydrogen production, delivery and storage, and fuel cell technologies. This report estimates the benefits of successfully developing and deploying these technologies (a “Program Success” case) relative to a base case (the “No Program” case). The Program Success case represents the future with completely successful deployment of Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) and Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) technologies. The No Program case represents a future in which there is no contribution after FY 2016 by the VTO or FCTO to these technologies. The benefits of advanced vehicle, hydrogen production, delivery and storage, and fuel cell technologies were estimated on the basis of differences in fuel use, primary energy use, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from light-, medium- and heavy-duty vehicles, including energy and emissions from fuel production, between the base case and the Program Success case. Improvements in fuel economy of various vehicle types, growth in the stock of fuel cell vehicles and other advanced technology vehicles, and decreased GHG intensity of hydrogen production and delivery in the Program Success case over the No Program case were projected to result in savings in petroleum use and GHG emissions. Benefits were disaggregated by individual program technology areas, which included the FCTO program and the VTO subprograms of batteries and electric drives; advanced combustion engines; fuels and lubricants; materials (for reduction in vehicle mass, or “lightweighting”); and, for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles, reduction in rolling and aerodynamic resistance. Projections for the Program Success case indicate that by 2035, the average fuel economy of on-road, light-duty vehicle stock could be 47% to 76

  4. Technology-Enhanced Peer Review: Benefits and Implications of Providing Multiple Reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.; Lagkas, Thomas D.; Demetriadis, Stavros N.

    2017-01-01

    This study analyses the impact of self and peer feedback in technology-enhanced peer review settings. The impact of receiving peer comments (“receiver” perspective) is compared to that of reaching own insights by reviewing others’ work (“giver” perspective). In this study, 38 sophomore students...... were randomly assigned in two conditions and engaged in peer review activity facilitated by a web-based learning environment asking them to provide multiple reviews. In the Peer Reviewed (PR) condition students both reviewed peer work and received peer comments for their own work. By contrast......, in the Self Reviewed (SR) condition students provided peer reviews, but did not receive any. Instead, they were asked to perform self reviewing, before proceeding to any revisions of their work. Result showed that the two groups were comparable in all aspects, suggesting that the lack of getting peer reviews...

  5. Consequences of co-benefits for the efficient design of carbon sequestration programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, H.; Kling, C.L.

    2005-01-01

    The social efficiency of private carbon markets that also included trading in agricultural soil carbon sequestration with significant associated co-benefits were considered. Three topics related to the presence of co-benefits that sequester carbon were examined: (1) the consequences of co-benefits from carbon sinks and carbon abatement technology on the efficiency of carbon markets; (2) the efficient supply of carbon sequestration and co-benefits when there is spatial heterogeneity; and (3) the consequences of the presence of a carbon market when there is also a government supported conservation program. Co-benefits from carbon sinks and abatement were considered in relation to the socially efficient level of sequestration. The supply of carbon sequestration and co-benefits were then considered when fields differed in their potential to provide carbon and other environmental benefits. An empirical example of the economic characteristics of carbon sequestration and co-benefits in the Upper Mississippi River Basin was presented, in which the sequestration practice of land retirement with planting of perennial grasses was examined. Two sets of figures were used to illustrate the relationship between the cost of carbon sequestration and its marginal co-benefits: the marginal cost and the marginal co-benefits of carbon sequestration in a carbon market; and the marginal cost of carbon sequestration under a policy designed to maximize a bundle of environmental benefits. It was demonstrated that the relationship between carbon and its associated co-benefits will affect the efficiency of policy instruments designed for carbon sequestration. It was recommended that policy-makers consider that there are already a multitude of existing conservation programmes that result in significant carbon sequestration in many countries, and that nascent carbon markets are emerging in countries that have not ratified the Kyoto Protocol. The efficient level and location of carbon

  6. NRC systematic evaluation program: seismic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, H.A.

    1980-01-01

    The NRC Systematic Evaluation Program is currently making an assessment of the seismic design safety of 11 older nuclear power plant facilities. The general review philosophy and review criteria relative to seismic input, structural response, and equipment functionability are presented, including the rationale for the development of these guidelines considering the significant evolution of seismic design criteria since these plants were originally licensed. Technical approaches thought more realistic in light of current knowledge are utilized. Initial findings for plants designed to early seismic design procedures suggest that with minor exceptions, these plants possess adequate seismic design margins when evaluated against the intent of current criteria. However, seismic qualification of electrical equipment has been identified as a subject which requires more in-depth evaluation

  7. Risk/Benefit Communication about Food-A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frewer, L J; Fischer, A R H; Brennan, M; Bánáti, D; Lion, R; Meertens, R M; Rowe, G; Siegrist, M; Verbeke, W; Vereijken, C M J L

    2016-07-26

    A systematic review relevant to the following research questions was conducted (1) the extent to which different theoretical frameworks have been applied to food risk/benefit communication and (2) the impact such food risk/benefit communication interventions have had on related risk/benefit attitudes and behaviors. Fifty four papers were identified. The analysis revealed that (primarily European or US) research interest has been relatively recent. Certain food issues were of greater interest to researchers than others, perhaps reflecting the occurrence of a crisis, or policy concern. Three broad themes relevant to the development of best practice in risk (benefit) communication were identified: the characteristics of the target population; the contents of the information; and the characteristics of the information sources. Within these themes, independent and dependent variables differed considerably. Overall, acute risk (benefit) communication will require advances in communication process whereas chronic communication needs to identify audience requirements. Both citizen's risk/benefit perceptions and (if relevant) related behaviors need to be taken into account, and recommendations for behavioral change need to be concrete and actionable. The application of theoretical frameworks to the study of risk (benefit) communication was infrequent, and developing predictive models of effective risk (benefit) communication may be contingent on improved theoretical perspectives.

  8. Standard Review Plan Update and Development Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This implementing procedures document (IPD) was prepared for use in implementing tasks under the standard review plan update and development program (SRP-UDP). The IPD provides comprehensive guidance and detailed procedures for SRP-UDP tasks. The IPD is mandatory for contractors performing work for the SRP-UDP. It is guidance for the staff. At the completion of the SRP-UDP, the IPD will be revised (to remove the UDP aspects) and will replace NRR Office Letter No. 800 as long-term maintenance procedures

  9. Standard Review Plan Update and Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    This implementing procedures document (IPD) was prepared for use in implementing tasks under the standard review plan update and development program (SRP-UDP). The IPD provides comprehensive guidance and detailed procedures for SRP-UDP tasks. The IPD is mandatory for contractors performing work for the SRP-UDP. It is guidance for the staff. At the completion of the SRP-UDP, the IPD will be revised (to remove the UDP aspects) and will replace NRR Office Letter No. 800 as long-term maintenance procedures.

  10. Federal Employees Health Benefits Program and Federal Employees Dental and Vision Insurance Program: eligibility for Pathway Programs participants. Interim final rule with request for comments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-06

    The U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) is issuing an interim final regulation to update the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program (FEHBP) and the Federal Employees Dental and Vision Insurance Program (FEDVIP) regulations to reflect updated election opportunities for participants in the Pathways Programs. The Pathways Programs were created by Executive Order (E.O.) 13562, signed by the President on December 27, 2010, and are designed to enable the Federal Government to compete effectively for students and recent graduates by improving its recruitment efforts through internships and similar programs with Federal agencies. This interim final rule furthers these recruitment and retention efforts by providing health insurance, as well as dental and vision benefits, to eligible program participants and their families.

  11. Participant Satisfaction with a Food Benefit Program with Restrictions and Incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydell, Sarah A; Turner, Rachael M; Lasswell, Tessa A; French, Simone A; Oakes, J Michael; Elbel, Brian; Harnack, Lisa J

    2018-02-01

    Policy makers are considering changes to the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). Proposed changes include financially incentivizing the purchase of healthier foods and prohibiting the use of funds for purchasing foods high in added sugars. SNAP participant perspectives may be useful in understanding the consequences of these proposed changes. To determine whether food restrictions and/or incentives are acceptable to food benefit program participants. Data were collected as part of an experimental trial in which lower-income adults were randomly assigned to one of four financial food benefit conditions: (1) Incentive: 30% financial incentive on eligible fruits and vegetables purchased using food benefits; (2) Restriction: not allowed to buy sugar-sweetened beverages, sweet baked goods, or candies with food benefits; (3) Incentive plus Restriction; or (4) Control: no incentive/restriction. Participants completed closed- and open-ended questions about their perceptions on completion of the 12-week program. Adults eligible or nearly eligible for SNAP were recruited between 2013 and 2015 by means of events or flyers in the Minneapolis/St Paul, MN, metropolitan area. Of the 279 individuals who completed baseline measures, 265 completed follow-up measures and are included in these analyses. χ 2 analyses were conducted to assess differences in program satisfaction. Responses to open-ended questions were qualitatively analyzed using principles of content analysis. There were no statistically significant or meaningful differences between experimental groups in satisfaction with the program elements evaluated in the study. Most participants in all conditions found the food program helpful in buying nutritious foods (94.1% to 98.5%) and in buying the kinds of foods they wanted (85.9% to 95.6%). Qualitative data suggested that most were supportive of restrictions, although a few were dissatisfied. Participants were uniformly supportive of incentives. Findings

  12. Perceived barriers, benefits, and motives for physical activity: two primary-care physical activity prescription programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Asmita; Schofield, Grant M; Kolt, Gregory S; Keogh J, W L

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether perceived barriers, benefits, and motives for physical activity differed based on allocation to 2 different types of primary-care activity-prescription programs (pedometer-based vs. time-based Green Prescription). Eighty participants from the Healthy Steps study completed a questionnaire that assessed their perceived barriers, benefits, and motives for physical activity. Factor analysis was carried out to identify common themes of barriers, benefits, and motives for physical activity. Factor scores were then used to explore between-groups differences for perceived barriers, benefits, and motives based on group allocation and demographic variables. No significant differences were found in factor scores based on allocation. Demographic variables relating to the existence of chronic health conditions, weight status, and older age were found to significantly influence perceived barriers, benefits, and motives for physical activity. Findings suggest that the addition of a pedometer to the standard Green Prescription does not appear to increase perceived motives or benefits or decrease perceived barriers for physical activity in low-active older adults.

  13. Benefits, challenges and critical factors of success for Zero Waste: A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietzsch, Natália; Ribeiro, José Luis Duarte; de Medeiros, Janine Fleith

    2017-09-01

    Considering the growing concern with solid wastes problems and the pressing need for a holistic approach to their management, this study developed a literature review about the subject "Zero Waste". To that end, a systematic literature review was executed, through which 102 published articles were analyzed with the aim to, initially, comprehend the concept of Zero Waste, and, then, map its benefits, challenges, and critical success factors. The results show that scholars have not reached a consensus regarding the concept of ZW. While some studies fully address this philosophy, other studies are based on just one or on some of its topics. The benefits were grouped and organized into four dimensions: benefits to the community, financial-economic benefits, benefits to the environment and benefits to the industry and stakeholders. As to the challenges, barriers were identified both in the macro environment (mainly political and cultural) and in the meso and micro environments (stakeholders, industries, and municipalities). The analysis of the articles enabled listing critical success factors, supported by a set of activities that must be carried out. Regarding future studies, it is worth noting that more empirical studies about ZW implementation are necessary, particularly with regard to educational practices designed to promote changes in user behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 76 FR 18810 - Submission for Review: Request To Change Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Enrollment for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Request To Change Federal Employees Health...) 3206-0202, Request to Change Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Enrollment for Spouse Equity... faxed to (202) 606-0910. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Request to Change Federal Employees Health...

  15. Instruments used to assess functional limitations in workers applying for disability benefit : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjer, Jerry; Groothoff, Johan W.; Brouwer, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To systematically review the quality of the psychometric properties of instruments for assessing functional limitations in workers applying for disability benefit. Method. Electronic searches of Medline, Embase, CINAHL and PsycINFO were performed to identify studies focusing on the

  16. Costs and financial benefits of video communication compared to usual care at home: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, J.M.; Mistiaen, P.; Francke, A.L.

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review of video communication in home care to provide insight into the ratio between the costs and financial benefits (i.e. cost savings). Four databases (PUBMED, EMBASE, COCHRANE LIBRARY, CINAHL) were searched for studies on video communication for patients living at home

  17. The Educational Benefits Claimed for Physical Education and School Sport: An Academic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Richard; Armour, Kathleen; Kirk, David; Jess, Mike; Pickup, Ian; Sandford, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    This academic review critically examines the theoretical and empirical bases of claims made for the educational benefits of physical education and school sport (PESS). An historical overview of the development of PESS points to the origins of claims made in four broad domains: physical, social, affective and cognitive. Analysis of the evidence…

  18. A Systematic Review to Define the Speech and Language Benefit of Early (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijnzeel, Hanneke; Ziylan, Fuat; Stegeman, Inge; Topsakal, Vedat; Grolman, Wilko

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This review aimed to evaluate the additional benefit of pediatric cochlear implantation before 12 months of age considering improved speech and language development and auditory performance. Materials and Methods: We conducted a search in PubMed, EMBASE and CINAHL databases and included

  19. Diverse Delivery Methods and Strong Psychological Benefits: A Review of Online Formative Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, T.; Yan, Z.

    2017-01-01

    This article is a review of literature on online formative assessment (OFA). It includes a narrative summary that synthesizes the research on the diverse delivery methods of OFA, as well as the empirical literature regarding the strong psychological benefits and limitations. Online formative assessment can be delivered using many traditional…

  20. A review of shampoo surfactant technology: consumer benefits, raw materials and recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwell, P A

    2018-02-01

    Surfactants form the core of all shampoo formulations, and contribute to a wide range of different benefits, including cleansing, foaming, rheology control, skin mildness and the deposition of benefit agents to the hair and scalp. The purpose of this review was to assist the design of effective, modern, shampoo surfactant technologies. The mechanisms through which surfactants help deliver their effects are presented, along with the appraisal techniques through which surfactant options can be tested and screened for product development. The steps that should be taken to select the most appropriate blend of surfactants are described, and useful information on the most widely used surfactants is provided. The review concludes with an examination of recent developments in 'greener' surfactants, 'sulphate-free' technologies and structured liquid phases for novel sensory properties and for suspending benefit agents. © 2017 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  1. Cost-benefit comparisons of investments in improved water supply and cholera vaccination programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeuland, Marc; Whittington, Dale

    2009-05-18

    This paper presents the first cost-benefit comparison of improved water supply investments and cholera vaccination programs. Specifically, we compare two water supply interventions -- deep wells with public hand pumps and biosand filters (an in-house, point-of-use water treatment technology) -- with two types of cholera immunization programs with new-generation vaccines -- general community-based and targeted and school-based programs. In addition to these four stand-alone investments, we also analyze five combinations of water and vaccine interventions: (1) borehole+hand pump and community-based cholera vaccination, (2) borehole+hand pump and school-based cholera vaccination, (3) biosand filter and community-based cholera vaccination, (4) biosand filter and school-based cholera vaccination, and (5) biosand filter and borehole+hand pump. Using recent data applicable to developing country locations for parameters such as disease incidence, the effectiveness of vaccine and water supply interventions against diarrheal diseases, and the value of a statistical life, we construct cost-benefit models for evaluating these interventions. We then employ probabilistic sensitivity analysis to estimate a frequency distribution of benefit-cost ratios for all four interventions, given a wide variety of possible parameter combinations. Our results demonstrate that there are many plausible conditions in developing countries under which these interventions will be attractive, but that the two improved water supply interventions and the targeted cholera vaccination program are much more likely to yield attractive cost-benefit outcomes than a community-based vaccination program. We show that implementing community-based cholera vaccination programs after borehole+hand pump or biosand filters have already been installed will rarely be justified. This is especially true when the biosand filters are already in place, because these achieve substantial cholera risk reductions on their own

  2. Effects of Subsidies and Prohibitions on Nutrition in a Food Benefit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnack, Lisa; Oakes, J. Michael; Elbel, Brian; Beatty, Timothy; Rydell, Sarah; French, Simone

    2018-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Strategies to improve the nutritional status of those participating in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) are of interest to policymakers. OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether the proposed policy of incentivizing the purchase of fruits and vegetables and prohibiting the purchase of less nutritious foods in a food benefit program improves the nutritional quality of participants’ diets. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Lower income participants (n = 279) not currently enrolled in SNAP were randomized to 1 of 4 experimental financial food benefit conditions: (1) incentive (30% financial incentive for fruits and vegetables purchased using food benefits); (2) restriction (not allowed to buy sugar sweetened beverages, sweet baked goods, or candies with food benefits); (3) incentive plus restriction (30% financial incentive on fruits and vegetables and restriction of purchase of sugar sweetened beverages, sweet baked goods, or candy with food benefits); or (4) control (no incentive or restrictions on foods purchased with food benefits). Participants in all conditions were given a study-specific debit card where funds were added every 4 weeks for a 12-week period. Outcome measures were collected at baseline and in the final 4 weeks of the experimental period. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Primary outcomes (from 24-hour dietary recalls) included intake of energy, discretionary calories, and overall diet quality. RESULTS A number of favorable changes were observed in the incentive plus restriction condition that were significantly different from changes in the control condition. These included (1) reduced intake of energy (−96 kcal/d, standard error [SE], 59.9); (2) reduced intake of discretionary calories (−64 kcal/d, SE 26.3); (3) reduced intake of sugar sweetened beverages, sweet baked goods, and candies (−0.6 servings/d, SE 0.2); (4) increased intake of solid fruit (0.2 servings/d, SE 0.1); and (5) improved Healthy Eating Index score (4

  3. Increases in Sugary Drink Marketing During Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Benefit Issuance in New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Alyssa J; Musicus, Aviva; Gorski Findling, Mary T; Brissette, Ian F; Lowenfels, Ann A; Subramanian, S V; Roberto, Christina A

    2018-05-15

    The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) is the largest federal food assistance program, providing $67 billion in benefits to 44 million Americans. Some states distribute SNAP benefits over one or a few days each month, which may create an incentive for retailers to heavily promote top-selling products, like sugar-sweetened beverages, when benefits are disbursed. A beverage environment scan assessing presence of displays, advertisements, and price promotions for sugar-sweetened, low-calorie, and unsweetened beverages was administered in a census of SNAP-authorized beverage retailers (n=630) in three cities in New York from November to September 2011. Multilevel regression models controlling for store type; county; and percentage SNAP enrollment, poverty, and non-Hispanic white population in the store's census tract were used to estimate the odds of in-store beverage marketing during the SNAP benefit issuance period compared to other days of the month. Data were analyzed in 2016. There were higher odds of in-store sugar-sweetened beverage marketing during SNAP benefit issuance days (first to ninth days of the month) compared with other days of the month, particularly for sugar-sweetened beverage advertisements (OR=1.66, 95% CI=1.01, 2.72) and displays (OR=1.88, 95% CI=1.16, 3.03). In census tracts with high SNAP enrollment (>28%), the odds of a retailer having sugar-sweetened beverage displays were 4.35 times higher (95% CI=1.93, 9.98) during issuance compared with non-issuance days. There were no differences in marketing for low-calorie or unsweetened beverages. Increases in sugar-sweetened beverage marketing during issuance may exacerbate disparities in diet quality of households participating in SNAP. Policy changes, like extending SNAP benefit issuance, may mitigate these effects. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Does Head Start differentially benefit children with risks targeted by the program's service model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth B; Farkas, George; Duncan, Greg J

    Data from the Head Start Impact Study ( N = 3540) were used to test for differential benefits of Head Start after one program year and after kindergarten on pre-academic and behavior outcomes for children at risk in the domains targeted by the program's comprehensive services. Although random assignment to Head Start produced positive treatment main effects on children's pre-academic skills and behavior problems, residualized growth models showed that random assignment to Head Start did not differentially benefit the pre-academic skills of children with risk factors targeted by the Head Start service model. The models showed detrimental impacts of Head Start for maternal-reported behavior problems of high-risk children, but slightly more positive impacts for teacher-reported behavior. Policy implications for Head Start are discussed.

  5. When Veterinarians Support Canine Therapy: Bidirectional Benefits for Clinics and Therapy Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John-Tyler Binfet

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a mutually beneficial model of collaboration between veterinarians and canine therapy programs. Veterinarians and the clinics for whom they work routinely establish collaborations with multiple and varied stakeholders. This might include a laboratory for processing samples and the corresponding courier company needed to deliver samples to the lab or a partnership with a local dog rescue organization for whom discounted rates are offered. One community partnership that stands to benefit both the clinic and the community agency, is for veterinarians to work in tandem with a local canine-assisted therapy program. The benefits to such an alliance are multifold and address aspects of veterinary medicine including client recruitment, community education, and access to a network of devoted dog enthusiasts.

  6. The Measurable Benefits of a Workplace Wellness Program in Canada: Results After One Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowensteyn, Ilka; Berberian, Violette; Belisle, Patrick; DaCosta, Deborah; Joseph, Lawrence; Grover, Steven A

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of an employee wellness program in Canada. A comprehensive program including web-based lifestyle challenges was evaluated with annual health screenings. Among 730 eligible employees, 688 (94%) registered for the program, 571 (78%) completed a health screening at baseline, and 314 (43%) at 1 year. Most (66%) employees tracked their activity for more than 6 weeks. At 1-year follow-up, there were significant clinical improvements in systolic blood pressure -3.4 mm Hg, and reductions in poor sleep quality (33% to 28%), high emotional stress (21% to 15%), and fatigue (11% to 6%). A positive dose-response was noted where the greatest improvements were observed among those who participated the most. The program had high employee engagement. After 1 year, the benefits included clinically important improvements in physical and mental health.

  7. Educating patients about the benefits of physical activity and exercise for their hip and knee osteoarthritis. Systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, C; Chabaud, A; Guilley, E; Coudeyre, E

    2016-06-01

    Highlight the role of patient education about physical activity and exercise in the treatment of hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA). Systematic literature review from the Cochrane Library, PubMed and Wiley Online Library databases. A total of 125 items were identified, including 11 recommendations from learned societies interested in OA and 45 randomized controlled trials addressing treatment education and activity/exercise for the treatment of hip and knee osteoarthritis. In the end, 13 randomized controlled trials and 8 recommendations were reviewed (1b level of evidence). Based on the analysis, it was clear that education, exercise and weight loss are the pillars of non-pharmacological treatments. These treatments have proven to be effective but require changes in patient behaviour that are difficult to obtain. Exercise and weight loss improve function and reduce pain. Education potentiates compliance to exercise and weight loss programs, thereby improving their long-term benefits. Cost efficiency studies have found a reduction in medical visits and healthcare costs after 12 months because of self-management programs. Among non-surgical treatment options for hip and knee osteoarthritis, the most recent guidelines focus on non-pharmacological treatment. Self-management for general physical activity and exercise has a critical role. Programs must be personalized and adjusted to the patient's phenotype. This development should help every healthcare professional adapt the care they propose to each patient. Registration number for the systematic review: CRD42015032346. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Incentives for healthy behaviors: experience from Florida Medicaid's Enhanced Benefit Rewards program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Allyson G; Lemak, Christy Harris; Landry, Amy Yarbrough; Duncan, R Paul

    2013-04-01

    Engaging individuals in their own health care proves challenging for policy makers, health plans, and providers. Florida Medicaid introduced the Enhanced Benefits Rewards (EBR) program in 2006, providing financial incentives as rewards to beneficiaries who engage in health care seeking and healthy behaviors. This study analyzed beneficiary survey data from 2009 to determine predictors associated with awareness of and participation in the EBR program. Non-English speakers, those in a racial and ethnic minority group, those with less than a high school education, and those with limited or no connection to a health care provider were associated with lower awareness of the program. Among those aware of the program, these factors were also associated with reduced likelihood of engaging in the program. Individuals in fair or poor health were also less likely to engage in an approved behavior. Individuals who speak Spanish at home and those without a high school diploma were more likely than other groups to spend their earned program credits. Findings underscore the fact that initial engagement in such a program can prove challenging as different groups are not equally likely to be aware of or participate in an approved activity or redeem a credit. Physicians may play important roles in encouraging participation in programs to incentivize healthy behaviors.

  9. Nurse-midwives in federally funded health centers: understanding federal program requirements and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Martha

    2012-01-01

    Midwives are working in federally funded health centers in increasing numbers. Health centers provide primary and preventive health care to almost 20 million people and are located in every US state and territory. While health centers serve the entire community, they also serve as a safety net for low-income and uninsured individuals. In 2010, 93% of health center patients had incomes below 200% of the Federal Poverty Guidelines, and 38% were uninsured. Health centers, including community health centers, migrant health centers, health care for the homeless programs, and public housing primary care programs, receive grant funding and enjoy other benefits due to status as federal grantees and designation as federally qualified health centers. Clinicians working in health centers are also eligible for financial and professional benefits because of their willingness to serve vulnerable populations and work in underserved areas. Midwives, midwifery students, and faculty working in, or interacting with, health centers need to be aware of the regulations that health centers must comply with in order to qualify for and maintain federal funding. This article provides an overview of health center regulations and policies affecting midwives, including health center program requirements, scope of project policy, provider credentialing and privileging, Federal Tort Claims Act malpractice coverage, the 340B Drug Pricing Program, and National Health Service Corps scholarship and loan repayment programs. © 2012 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  10. A Benefit-Cost Analysis of the Tulsa Universal Pre-K Program. Upjohn Institute Working Paper 16-261

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartik, Timothy J.; Belford, Jonathan A.; Gormley, William T.; Anderson, Sara

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, benefits and costs are estimated for a universal pre-K program, provided by Tulsa Public Schools. Benefits are derived from estimated effects of Tulsa pre-K on retention by grade 9. Retention effects are projected to dollar benefits from future earnings increases and crime reductions. Based on these estimates, Tulsa pre-K has…

  11. Recommended methods for evaluating the benefits of ECUT Program outputs. [Energy Conversion and Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, L.O.; Winter, C.

    1986-03-01

    This study was conducted to define and develop techniques that could be used to assess the complete spectrum of positive effects resulting from the Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies (ECUT) Program activities. These techniques could then be applied to measure the benefits from past ECUT outputs. In addition, the impact of future ECUT outputs could be assessed as part of an ongoing monitoring process, after sufficient time has elapsed to allow their impacts to develop.

  12. Assessing the co-benefits of greenhouse gas reduction: Health benefits of particulate matter related inspection and maintenance programs in Bangkok, Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ying; Crawford-Brown, Douglas J.

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1990s, the capital city of Thailand, Bangkok has been suffering from severe ambient particulate matter (PM) pollution mainly attributable to its wide use of diesel-fueled vehicles and motorcycles with poor emission performance. While the Thai government strives to reduce emissions from transportation through enforcing policy measures, the link between specific control policies and associated health impacts is inadequately studied. This link is especially important in exploring the co-benefits of greenhouse gas emissions reductions, which often brings reduction in other pollutants such as PM. This paper quantifies the health benefits potentially achieved by the new PM-related I/M programs targeting all diesel vehicles and motorcycles in the Bangkok Metropolitan Area (BMA). The benefits are estimated by using a framework that integrates policy scenario development, exposure assessment, exposure-response assessment and economic valuation. The results indicate that the total health damage due to the year 2000 PM emissions from vehicles in the BMA was equivalent to 2.4% of Thailand's GDP. Under the business-as-usual (BAU) scenario, total vehicular PM emissions in the BMA will increase considerably over time due to the rapid growth in vehicle population, even if the fleet average emission rates are projected to decrease over time as the result of participation of Thailand in post-Copenhagen climate change strategies. By 2015, the total health damage is estimated to increase by 2.5 times relative to the year 2000. However, control policies targeting PM emissions from automobiles, such as the PM-oriented I/M programs, could yield substantial health benefits relative to the BAU scenario, and serve as co-benefits of greenhouse gas control strategies. Despite uncertainty associated with the key assumptions used to estimate benefits, we find that with a high level confidence, the I/M programs will produce health benefits whose economic impacts considerably outweigh

  13. Cost-Benefit Analysis applied to the natural gas program for vehicles in the Metropolitan Area of the Aburra Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldarriaga Isaza, Carlos Adrian; Vasquez Sanchez, Edison; Chavarria Munera, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the evaluation of the natural gas program for vehicles applied in Metropolitan Area of the Aburra Valley. By using the Cost- Benefit Analysis method, four cost variables were identified: private, fiscal, gas tax, and conversion tax; and three types of benefits: private, fiscal and social. For the environmental social benefit estimation the benefit transfer technique was employed, carrying out meta-analysis function estimation. The cost-benefit net outcome is positive and favors the program application in the study site; in real terms the total profits are about COP$ 803265 million for the complete eight year period it took place (2001- 2008).

  14. Benefit-Cost Analysis of Undergraduate Education Programs: An Example Analysis of the Freshman Research Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, Rebecca L; Corso, Phaedra S; Rodenbusch, Stacia E; Dolan, Erin L

    2018-01-01

    Institutions and administrators regularly have to make difficult choices about how best to invest resources to serve students. Yet economic evaluation, or the systematic analysis of the relationship between costs and outcomes of a program or policy, is relatively uncommon in higher education. This type of evaluation can be an important tool for decision makers considering questions of resource allocation. Our purpose with this essay is to describe methods for conducting one type of economic evaluation, a benefit-cost analysis (BCA), using an example of an existing undergraduate education program, the Freshman Research Initiative (FRI) at the University of Texas Austin. Our aim is twofold: to demonstrate how to apply BCA methodologies to evaluate an education program and to conduct an economic evaluation of FRI in particular. We explain the steps of BCA, including assessment of costs and benefits, estimation of the benefit-cost ratio, and analysis of uncertainty. We conclude that the university's investment in FRI generates a positive return for students in the form of increased future earning potential. © 2018 R. L. Walcott et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2018 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  15. The distribution over time of costs and social net benefits for pertussis immunization programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Dorota Zdanowska

    2010-03-01

    The cost of a six-dose pertussis immunization programs for children and adolescents is investigated in relation to estimators of the price of acellular vaccine, the value of a child's life, levels of vaccination rate and discount rates. We compare the cost of the program maintained over time at 90% with three alternative strategies, each involving a decrease in vaccination coverage. Data from England and Wales, 1966-2005, is used to formalize a delay in occurrence of pertussis cases as a result of a fall in coverage. We first apply the criterion of minimization of the total social cost of pertussis to identify the best cost saving immunization strategy. The results are also discussed in form of the discounted present value of the total social net benefits. We find that the discounted present value of the total social net benefit is maximized when a stable vaccination program at 90% is compared to a gradual decrease in vaccination coverage leading to the lowest vaccination rate. The benefits to society of providing sustained immunization strategy, vaccinating the highest proportion of children and adolescents, are systematically proved on the basis of the second optimisation criterion, independently of the level of estimators applied during economic evaluation for the cost variables.

  16. What benefits does team sport hold for the workplace? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkley, Andrew; McDermott, Hilary; Munir, Fehmidah

    2017-01-01

    Physical inactivity is proven to be a risk factor for non-communicable diseases and all-cost mortality. Public health policy recommends community settings worldwide such as the workplace to promote physical activity. Despite the growing prevalence of workplace team sports, studies have not synthesised their benefits within the workplace. A systematic review was carried out to identify articles related to workplace team sports, including intervention, observational and qualitative studies. Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria. The findings suggest team sport holds benefits not only for individual health but also for group cohesion and performance and organisational benefits such as the increased work performance. However, it is unclear how sport is most associated with these benefits as most of the studies included poorly described samples and unclear sports activities. Our review highlights the need to explore and empirically understand the benefits of workplace team sport for individual, group and organisational health outcomes. Researches carried out in this field must provide details regarding their respective samples, the sports profile and utilise objective measures (e.g., sickness absence register data, accelerometer data).

  17. Emotional benefit of cosmetic camouflage in the treatment of facial skin conditions: personal experience and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Lauren L; Emer, Jason J

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies highlighting the psychological benefits of medical treatment for dermatological skin conditions have demonstrated a clear role for medical therapy in psychological health. Skin conditions, particularly those that are overtly visible, such as those located on the face, neck, and hands, often have a profound effect on the daily functioning of those affected. The literature documents significant emotional benefits using medical therapy in conditions such as acne, psoriasis, vitiligo, and rosacea, but there is little evidence documenting similar results with the use of cosmetic camouflage. Here we present a review highlighting the practical use of cosmetic camouflage makeup in patients with facial skin conditions and review its implications for psychological health. A search of the Medline and Scopus databases was performed to identify articles documenting the emotional benefit of cosmetic camouflage. Cosmetic camouflage provides a significant emotional benefit for patients with facial skin conditions, and this is substantiated by a literature review and personal experience. More clinical studies are needed to assess and validate the findings reported here. Patients with visible skin conditions have increased rates of depression, anxiety, and decreased self-esteem. It is prudent for us to consider therapies that can offer rapid and dramatic results, such as cosmetic camouflage.

  18. USDA Section 9006 Program: Status and Energy Benefits of Grant Awards in FY 2003-2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, T.; Savage, S.; Brown, J.

    2006-08-01

    At the request of the U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Rural Development, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory reviewed projects awarded in the Section 9006 Program: Renewable Energy Systems and Energy Efficiency Improvements Program. This report quantifies federal and private investment, outlines project status based on recent field updates, and calculates the effects on energy and emissions of energy efficiency and renewable energy projects awarded grants in FY 2003, FY 2004, and FY 2005. An overview of the program challenges and modifications in the first three years of operation is also included.

  19. 2013 Building Technologies Office Program Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-11-01

    The 2013 Building Technologies Office Program Peer Review Report summarizes the results of the 2013 Building Technologies Office (BTO) peer review, which was held in Washington, D.C., on April 2–4, 2013. The review was attended by over 300 participants and included presentations on 59 BTO-funded projects: 29 from BTO’s Emerging Technologies Program, 20 from the Commercial Buildings Integration Program, 6 from the Residential Buildings Integration Program, and 4 from the Building Energy Codes Program. This report summarizes the scores and comments provided by the independent reviewers for each project.

  20. Cost-benefit analysis of childhood asthma management through school-based clinic programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Teresa; Bame, Sherry I

    2011-04-01

    Asthma is a leading chronic illness among American children. School-based health clinics (SBHCs) reduced expensive ER visits and hospitalizations through better healthcare access and monitoring in select case studies. The purpose of this study was to examine the cost-benefit of SBHC programs in managing childhood asthma nationwide for reduction in medical costs of ER, hospital and outpatient physician care and savings in opportunity social costs of lowing absenteeism and work loss and of future earnings due to premature deaths. Eight public data sources were used to compare costs of delivering primary and preventive care for childhood asthma in the US via SBHC programs, including direct medical and indirect opportunity costs for children and their parents. The costs of nurse staffing for a nationwide SBHC program were estimated at $4.55 billion compared to the estimated medical savings of $1.69 billion, including ER, hospital, and outpatient care. In contrast, estimated total savings for opportunity costs of work loss and premature death were $23.13 billion. Medical savings alone would not offset the expense of implementing a SBHC program for prevention and monitoring childhood asthma. However, even modest estimates of reducing opportunity costs of parents' work loss would be far greater than the expense of this program. Although SBHC programs would not be expected to affect the increasing prevalence of childhood asthma, these programs would be designed to reduce the severity of asthma condition with ongoing monitoring, disease prevention and patient compliance.

  1. A Perspective on a Management Information Systems (MIS) Program Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, Bee K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper highlights relevant curriculum issues that were identified in a Management Information Systems (MIS) program review undertaken by a group of business faculty in a small regional university. The program review was initiated to improve job marketability of graduates and student enrollment. The review process is described as a collective…

  2. Identifying Local Benefits of Early Childhood Development Programs Using Regional Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Judy A.; Rolnick, Arthur J.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a review of "Investing in Kids: Early Childhood Programs and Local Economic Development" by Timothy J. Bartik. Timothy Bartik's timely book contributes to an important conversation about the role of government in promoting investments in children in the years before traditional public schooling typically begins. Until…

  3. Decentralization of operating reactor licensing reviews: NRR Pilot Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannon, J.N.

    1984-07-01

    This report, which has incorporated comments received from the Commission and ACRS, describes the program for decentralization of selected operating reactor licensing technical review activities. The 2-year pilot program will be reviewed to verify that safety is enhanced as anticipated by the incorporation of prescribed management techniques and application of resources. If the program fails to operate as designed, it will be terminated

  4. A cost benefit analysis of an enhanced seat belt enforcement program in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, G T; Olukoga, I A

    2005-04-01

    To examine whether a program to increase the wearing of seat belts in a South African urban area would be worthwhile in societal terms. A cost benefit analysis of a one year enhanced seat belt enforcement program in eThekwini (Durban) Municipality. Data were drawn from two main sources--a 1998 study of the cost of road crashes in South Africa and, given the absence of other data, a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of various types of interventions to reduce road crash casualties in the United States--and were analyzed using cost benefit analysis. A program designed to enforce greater wearing of seat belts, estimated to cost 2 million rand in one year, could be reasonably expected to increase seat belt usage rates by 16 percentage points and reduce fatalities and injuries by 9.5%. This would result in saved social costs of 13.6 million rand in the following year or a net present value of 11.6 million rand. There would also be favorable consequences for municipal finances. Investment in a program to increase seat belt wearing rates is highly profitable in societal terms.

  5. Pilates program design and health benefits for pregnant women: A practitioners' survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarino, Melissa; Kerr, Debra; Morris, Meg E

    2018-04-01

    Little is known about recommendations for safe and appropriate instruction of Pilates exercises to women during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to examine Pilates practitioners' perspectives regarding Pilates program design for pregnant women. We also sought to elucidate their views on the potential benefits, restrictions and contraindications on Pilates in pregnancy. A cross-sectional survey was performed. Pilates practitioners were invited to participate via email. Participants were surveyed about their experience and views on: screening processes in alignment with The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) (2002) guidelines; (ii) optimal exercise program features and (iii) physical and mental health benefits of Pilates for pregnant women. The survey was completed by 192 Pilates practitioners from a range of settings. Practitioners reported conducting formal screening (84%) for safety in pregnant women prior to commencing Pilates classes. Most did not routinely seek medical approval from the woman's general practitioner. Divergent views emerged regarding the safety and benefits of Pilates exercises in the supine position. Mixed opinions were also generated regarding the effects of spinal flexion exercises, single-leg stance exercises and breathing manoeuvres. There was little agreement on the optimal frequency or dosage of exercises. Views regarding absolute contraindications to exercise differed from The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) (2002) guidelines which cautioned about the dangers of persistent bleeding, premature labour, pre-eclampsia, placental praevia and incompetent cervix. The most frequent reported physical and psychological benefit of Pilates was improving pelvic floor strength (12%) and improved social wellbeing (23%). The study highlighted wide variations in practice for Pilates exercises with pregnant woman as well as low adherence to clinical practice guidelines. Further evidence is required to

  6. Nutrition Program Quality Assurance through a Formalized Process of On-Site Program Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddock, Joan Doyle; Dollahite, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    A protocol for a systematic onsite review of the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education was developed to support quality programming and ensure compliance with state guidelines and federal regulations. Onsite review of local nutrition program operations is one strategy to meet this…

  7. Feasibility, physical capacity, and health benefits of a multidimensional exercise program for cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, Lis; Midtgaard, Julie; Rorth, Mikael

    2003-01-01

    Cancer patients frequently experience considerable loss of physical capacity and general wellbeing when diagnosed and treated for their disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, physical capacity, and health benefits of a multidimensional exercise program for cancer patients...... during advanced stages of disease who are undergoing adjuvant or high-dose chemotherapy. The supervised program included high- and low-intensity activities (physical exercise, relaxation, massage, and body-awareness training). A total of 23 patients between 18 and 65 years of age (median 40 years...... significance. It is concluded that an exercise program, which combines high- and low-intensity physical activities, may be used to prevent and/or minimize physical inactivity, fatigue, muscle wasting and energy loss in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy....

  8. [Children with Multiple Risk Factor Exposition Benefit from the German "Strengthening Families Program"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröning, Sonja; Sack, Peter-Michael; Thomsen, Monika; Thomasius, Rainer

    2016-09-01

    Children with Multiple Risk Factor Exposition Benefit from the German "Strengthening Families Program" The German adaptation of the substance use-preventive family-based Strengthening Families Program 10-14 (SFP, Iowa version) was evaluated in a longitudinal two-year follow-up trial. Participants were N = 292 children with a mean age of twelve years at baseline, and N = 292 parents. We employed a multi-centric, randomized-controlled, two-armed (SFP vs. minimal control condition) study design. Following a "risk moderation hypothesis", we assumed that children with an elevated risk-exposition R(+) would benefit more than children with a low risk-exposition R(-) irrespective of the preventive intervention, and that R(+) under SFP would benefit more than R(+) under the minimal control condition. "Risk-exposition" was measured in correspondence with the Communities That Care Youth Survey-questionnaire. A total of 28 % of children were classified with an elevated risk level. Children's reports confirmed our hypothesis: R(+) report a total of eleven improvements, four of these being significantly more distinct than in the other groups (Anxiety-Depressivity, Punitive Parenting of mother, Punitive Parenting of father, Unbalanced family functioning). In three measures an improvement appears solely in R(+) under SFP (Satisfaction with family functioning, School Attachment and Peer Relationship Quality, Quality of Life). Parents' reports showed a similar tendency, but were less pronounced.

  9. Benefits and challenges of cloud ERP systems – A systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Abd Elmonem

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP systems provide extensive benefits and facilities to the whole enterprise. ERP systems help the enterprise to share and transfer data and information across all functions units inside and outside the enterprise. Sharing data and information between enterprise departments helps in many aspects and aims to achieve different objectives. Cloud computing is a computing model which takes place over the internet and provides scalability, reliability, availability and low cost of computer reassures. Implementing and running ERP systems over the cloud offers great advantages and benefits, in spite of its many difficulties and challenges. In this paper, we follow the Systematic Literature Review (SLR research method to explore the benefits and challenges of implementing ERP systems over a cloud environment.

  10. Observational studies in systematic [corrected] reviews of comparative effectiveness: AHRQ and the Effective Health Care Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Susan L; Atkins, David; Bruening, Wendy; Fox, Steven; Johnson, Eric; Kane, Robert; Morton, Sally C; Oremus, Mark; Ospina, Maria; Randhawa, Gurvaneet; Schoelles, Karen; Shekelle, Paul; Viswanathan, Meera

    2011-11-01

    Systematic reviewers disagree about the ability of observational studies to answer questions about the benefits or intended effects of pharmacotherapeutic, device, or procedural interventions. This study provides a framework for decision making on the inclusion of observational studies to assess benefits and intended effects in comparative effectiveness reviews (CERs). The conceptual model and recommendations were developed using a consensus process by members of the methods workgroup of the Effective Health Care Program of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. In considering whether to use observational studies in CERs for addressing beneficial effects, reviewers should answer two questions: (1) Are there gaps in the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs)? (2) Will observational studies provide valid and useful information? The latter question involves the following: (a) refocusing the study questions on gaps in the evidence from RCTs, (b) assessing the risk of bias of the body of evidence of observational studies, and (c) assessing whether available observational studies address the gap review questions. Because it is unusual to find sufficient evidence from RCTs to answer all key questions concerning benefit or the balance of benefits and harms, comparative effectiveness reviewers should routinely assess the appropriateness of inclusion of observational studies for questions of benefit. Furthermore, reviewers should explicitly state the rationale for inclusion or exclusion of observational studies when conducting CERs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Psychotherapy for depression in claimants receiving wage replacement benefits: review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahim, Shanil

    2014-01-01

    To review the evidence on the provision of psychotherapy for claimants who are suffering from depression and receiving wage replacement benefits. A literature review was performed using PubMed and EMBASE. Results from three studies are discussed. The first is a systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to assess the relative effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression in patients receiving disability benefits. A non-significant trend showed that the effect of CBT was greater in patients receiving benefits (34 patients) than those not receiving disability benefits (193 patients) on the Beck Depression Inventory; mean difference (95% confidence interval [CI]) = -4.46 (-12.21 to 3.30). The second study is an analysis of a large insurance administrative database consisting of 10,338 long-term disability claims for depression. Receipt of psychotherapy was associated with faster claim closure (hazard ratio = 1.42; 95% CI = 1.33 to 1.52). The third study evaluated the effectiveness of standard CBT vs work-focused CBT in 168 employees with common mental health problems (depression, anxiety and adjustment disorders). Employees receiving work-focused CBT returned to work 65 days earlier on average than those receiving standard CBT. Limited evidence shows that psychotherapy is effective in claimants suffering from depression who are in receipt of wage replacement benefits. At this time, clinicians and insurers should continue to recommend psychotherapy as a treatment management strategy for claimants with depression. Larger comparative trials, conducted in collaboration with disability insurers, will lead to increased confidence in estimates.

  12. The Costs and Benefits of Employing an Adult with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Jacob

    Full Text Available Despite an ambition from adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD to be employed, there are limited opportunities for competitive employment for this group. Employment is not only an entitlement enjoyed by others in society, but employing adults with ASD also has economic benefits by decreasing lost productivity and resource costs for this group. Few studies have explored the cost-benefit ratio for employing adults with ASD and even fewer have taken the viewpoint of the employer, particularly applying this situation to ASD. Until such study occurs, employers may continue to be reluctant to employ adults from this group.This review aimed to examine the costs, benefits and the cost-benefit ratio of employing adults with ASD, from a societal perspective and from the perspective of employers.Eight databases were searched for scientific studies within defined inclusion criteria. These databases included CINAHL Plus, Cochrane Library, Emerald, Ovid Medline, ProQuest, PsycINFO, Scopus and Web of Science.Enhancing the opportunities for adults with ASD to join the workforce is beneficial from a societal perspective, not only from an inclusiveness viewpoint, but also from a strict economic standpoint. Providing supported employment services for adults with ASD does not only cut the cost compared with providing standard care, it also results in better outcomes for adults with ASD. Despite the fact that ASD was the most expensive group to provide vocational rehabilitation services for, adults with ASD have a strong chance of becoming employed once appropriate measures are in place. Hence, rehabilitation services could be considered as a worthwhile investment. The current systematic review uncovered the fact that very few studies have examined the benefits, the costs and the cost-benefit ratio of employing an adult with ASD from the perspective of employers indicating a need for this topic to be further explored.

  13. Biomass Program 2007 Program Peer Review - Full Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-27

    This document summarizes the comments provided by the peer reviewers at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Biomass Program’s Peer Review meeting, held on November 14-15, 2007 in Baltimore, MD and Platform Reviews conducted over the summer of 2007. The Platform Reviews provide evaluations of the Program’s projects in applied research, development, and demonstration.

  14. Concentrating Solar Power Program Review 2013 (Book) (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-06-01

    This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Concentrating Solar Power Program Review Meeting booklet will be provided to attendees at the Concentrating Solar Power Review Meeting in Phoenix, Arizona on April 23-25, 2013.

  15. Investigating Employee-Reported Benefits of Participation in a Comprehensive Australian Workplace Health Promotion Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Michelle; Blizzard, Leigh; Sanderson, Kristy; Teale, Brook; Nelson, Mark; Chappell, Kate; Venn, Alison

    2016-05-01

    To investigate employee-reported benefits of participation, employee organizational commitment, and health-related behaviors and body mass index (BMI) following implementation of a comprehensive workplace health promotion (WHP) program. State government employees from Tasmania, Australia, completed surveys in 2010 (n = 3408) and 2013 (n = 3228). Repeated cross-sectional data were collected on sociodemographic, health, and work characteristics. Participation in WHP activities, employee-reported organizational commitment, and benefits of participation were collected in 2013. Respondents who participated in multiple activities were more likely to agree that participation had motivated them, or helped them to address a range of health and work factors (trends: P employee organizational commitment. No differences were observed in health-related behaviors and BMI between 2010 and 2013. Healthy@Work (pH@W) was either ineffective, or insufficient time had elapsed to detect a population-level change in employee lifestyle factors.

  16. Re-evaluating your nuclear program needs: how to benefit from your vendor's Q.A. program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cocoros, A.E.

    1979-01-01

    The quality assurance component control and verification program to be presented provides a cost effective approach to monitoring and controlling the implementation of the design, fabrication, inspection and shipping plans of a supplier. It attempts to coordinate and integrate quality control and verification effort of a supplier with the control and verification effort of the purchaser to obtain a composite which accomplishes a total need. Based on the competency and capabilities of the supplier the purchaser can either maximize the effort the supplier performs or he must maximize his effort to obtain an optimum mix. The ultimate goal is to utilize the supplier's quality assurance program to the greatest benefit in assuring maximum quality

  17. A review of the costs and benefits of demand response for electricity in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, Peter; Leach, Matthew; Torriti, Jacopo

    2013-01-01

    The recent policy discussion in the UK on the economic case for demand response (DR) calls for a reflection on available evidence regarding its costs and benefits. Existing studies tend to consider the size of investments and returns of certain forms of DR in isolation and do not consider economic welfare effects. From review of existing studies, policy documents, and some simple modelling of benefits of DR in providing reserve for unforeseen events, we demonstrate that the economic case for DR in UK electricity markets is positive. Consideration of economic welfare gains is provided. - Highlights: ► The paper clearly articulates the range of benefits and costs from demand response. ► Estimates for benefits and costs are converted into a broadly comparable basis. ► It is found that a positive case exists for demand response in the UK. ► New quantitative modelling is provided for one UK benefit not found in the literature. ► Economic welfare gain is considered in assessment; other UK papers do not consider such effects.

  18. Performance and Health Benefits of Dietary Nitrate Supplementation in Older Adults: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Stanaway

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Supplementation with nitrate (NO3−-rich beetroot juice has been shown to improve exercise performance and cardiovascular (CV responses, due to an increased nitric oxide (NO availability. However, it is unclear whether these benefits are greater in older adults who have an age-related decrease in NO and higher risk of disease. This systematic review examines 12 randomised, crossover, control trials, investigating food-based NO3− supplementation in older adults and its potential benefits on physiological and cognitive performances, and CV, cerebrovascular and metabolic health. Four studies found improvements in physiological performance (time to exhaustion following dietary NO3− supplementation in older adults. Benefits on cognitive performance were unclear. Six studies reported improvements in CV health (blood pressure and blood flow, while six found no improvement. One study showed improvements in cerebrovascular health and two found no improvement in metabolic health. The current literature indicates positive effects of dietary NO3− supplementation in older adults on physiological performance, with some evidence indicating benefits on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular health. Effects on cognitive performance were mixed and studies on metabolic health indicated no benefit. However, there has been limited research conducted on the effects of dietary NO3− supplementation in older adults, thus, further study, utilising a randomised, double-blind, control trial design, is warranted.

  19. Balancing the benefits and detriments among women targeted by the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofvind, Solveig; Román, Marta; Sebuødegård, Sofie; Falk, Ragnhild S

    2016-12-01

    To compute a ratio between the estimated numbers of lives saved from breast cancer death and the number of women diagnosed with a breast cancer that never would have been diagnosed during the woman's lifetime had she not attended screening (epidemiologic over-diagnosis) in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. The Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program invites women aged 50-69 to biennial mammographic screening. Results from published studies using individual level data from the programme for estimating breast cancer mortality and epidemiologic over-diagnosis comprised the basis for the ratio. The mortality reduction varied from 36.8% to 43% among screened women, while estimates on epidemiologic over-diagnosis ranged from 7% to 19.6%. We computed the average estimates for both values. The benefit-detriment ratio, number of lives saved, and number of women over-diagnosed were computed for different scenarios of reduction in breast cancer mortality and epidemiologic over-diagnosis. For every 10,000 biennially screened women, followed until age 79, we estimated that 53-61 (average 57) women were saved from breast cancer death, and 45-126 (average 82) were over-diagnosed. The benefit-detriment ratio using average estimates was 1:1.4, indicating that the programme saved about one life per 1-2 women with epidemiologic over-diagnosis. The benefit-detriment ratio estimates of the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program, expressed as lives saved from breast cancer death and epidemiologic over-diagnosis, should be interpreted with care due to substantial uncertainties in the estimates, and the differences in the scale of values of the events compared. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. The risks and benefits of running barefoot or in minimalist shoes: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kyle P; Hanney, William J; Rothschild, Carey E

    2014-11-01

    The popularity of running barefoot or in minimalist shoes has recently increased because of claims of injury prevention, enhanced running efficiency, and improved performance compared with running in shoes. Potential risks and benefits of running barefoot or in minimalist shoes have yet to be clearly defined. To determine the methodological quality and level of evidence pertaining to the risks and benefits of running barefoot or in minimalist shoes. In September 2013, a comprehensive search of the Ovid MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, and CINAHL databases was performed by 2 independent reviewers. Included articles were obtained from peer-reviewed journals in the English language with no limit for year of publication. Final inclusion criteria required at least 1 of the following outcome variables: pain, injury rate, running economy, joint forces, running velocity, electromyography, muscle performance, or edema. Systematic review. Level 3. Two reviewers appraised each article using the Downs and Black checklist and appraised each for level of evidence. Twenty-three articles met the criteria for this review. Of 27 possible points on the Downs and Black checklist, articles scored between 13 and 19 points, indicating a range of evidence from very limited to moderate. Moderate evidence supports the following biomechanical differences when running barefoot versus in shoes: overall less maximum vertical ground reaction forces, less extension moment and power absorption at the knee, less foot and ankle dorsiflexion at ground contact, less ground contact time, shorter stride length, increased stride frequency, and increased knee flexion at ground contact. Because of lack of high-quality evidence, no definitive conclusions can be drawn regarding specific risks or benefits to running barefoot, shod, or in minimalist shoes.

  1. Assessing the co-benefits of greenhouse gas reduction: health benefits of particulate matter related inspection and maintenance programs in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Crawford-Brown, Douglas J

    2011-04-15

    Since the 1990s, the capital city of Thailand, Bangkok has been suffering from severe ambient particulate matter (PM) pollution mainly attributable to its wide use of diesel-fueled vehicles and motorcycles with poor emission performance. While the Thai government strives to reduce emissions from transportation through enforcing policy measures, the link between specific control policies and associated health impacts is inadequately studied. This link is especially important in exploring the co-benefits of greenhouse gas emissions reductions, which often brings reduction in other pollutants such as PM. This paper quantifies the health benefits potentially achieved by the new PM-related I/M programs targeting all diesel vehicles and motorcycles in the Bangkok Metropolitan Area (BMA). The benefits are estimated by using a framework that integrates policy scenario development, exposure assessment, exposure-response assessment and economic valuation. The results indicate that the total health damage due to the year 2000 PM emissions from vehicles in the BMA was equivalent to 2.4% of Thailand's GDP. Under the business-as-usual (BAU) scenario, total vehicular PM emissions in the BMA will increase considerably over time due to the rapid growth in vehicle population, even if the fleet average emission rates are projected to decrease over time as the result of participation of Thailand in post-Copenhagen climate change strategies. By 2015, the total health damage is estimated to increase by 2.5 times relative to the year 2000. However, control policies targeting PM emissions from automobiles, such as the PM-oriented I/M programs, could yield substantial health benefits relative to the BAU scenario, and serve as co-benefits of greenhouse gas control strategies. Despite uncertainty associated with the key assumptions used to estimate benefits, we find that with a high level confidence, the I/M programs will produce health benefits whose economic impacts considerably outweigh

  2. How does the employer contribution for the federal employees health benefits program influence plan selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florence, Curtis S; Thorpe, Kenneth E

    2003-01-01

    Market reform of health insurance is proposed to increase coverage and reduce growth in spending by providing an incentive to choose low-cost plans. However, having a choice of plans could result in risk segmentation. Risk-adjusted payments have been proposed to address risk segmentation but are criticized as ineffective. An alternative to risk adjustment is to subsidize premiums, as in the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program (FEHBP). Subsidizing premiums may also increase total premium spending. We find that there is little risk segmentation in the FEHBP and that reducing the premium subsidy would lower government premium spending and slightly increase risk segmentation.

  3. Delivering Summer Electronic Benefit Transfers for Children through the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program or the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children: Benefit Use and Impacts on Food Security and Foods Consumed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Anne R; Briefel, Ronette R; Collins, Ann M; Rowe, Gretchen M; Klerman, Jacob A

    2017-03-01

    The Summer Electronic Benefit Transfers for Children (SEBTC) demonstration piloted summer food assistance through electronic benefit transfers (EBTs), providing benefits either through the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) or the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) EBT. To inform food assistance policy and describe how demonstrations using WIC and SNAP models differed in benefit take-up and impacts on food security and children's food consumption. Sites chose to deliver SEBTC using the SNAP or WIC EBT system. Within each site, in 2012, households were randomly assigned to a benefit group or a no-benefit control group. Grantees (eight states and two Indian Tribal Organizations) selected school districts serving many low-income children. Schoolchildren were eligible in cases where they had been certified for free or reduced-price meals during the school year. Before the demonstration, households in the demonstration sample had lower incomes and lower food security, on average, than households with eligible children nationally. Grantees provided selected households with benefits worth $60 per child per summer month using SNAP or WIC EBT systems. SNAP-model benefits covered most foods. WIC-model benefits could only be used for a specific package of foods. Key outcomes were children's food security (assessed using the US Department of Agriculture food security scale) and food consumption (assessed using food frequency questions). Differences in mean outcomes between the benefit and control groups measured impact, after adjusting for household characteristics. In WIC sites, benefit-group households redeemed a lower percentage of SEBTC benefits than in SNAP sites. Nonetheless, the benefit groups in both sets of sites had similar large reductions in very low food security among children, relative to no-benefit controls. Children receiving benefits consumed more healthful foods, and these impacts were larger in WIC

  4. The development of a parenting program for incarcerated mothers in Australia: a review of prison-based parenting programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Claire; Fowler, Cathrine; Cashin, Andrew

    2011-08-01

    The increasing population of children with an incarcerated parent is a significant public health issue. A literature search highlighted that children of incarcerated parents experience psychological stressors that may potentially impact on health and behavioural outcomes. Parenting programs for prisoners may be of benefit as early parenting experiences during childhood have a significant impact on a child's future experiences as an adolescent and adult. A review of identified evaluation-based studies of parenting programs for prisoners (N = 11), although varied in program delivery approaches and evaluation methods, suggest that such programs have the potential to improve the parenting skills, knowledge and confidence of incarcerated parents. Finally, this paper provides an outline of the development of an Australian based parenting program for incarcerated mothers and their young children.

  5. Benefits of sensory garden and horticultural activities in dementia care: a modified scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Marianne T; Kirkevold, Marit

    2014-10-01

    To provide a review on the benefits associated with the use of sensory gardens and horticultural activities in dementia care. Maintaining quality of life is important in dementia care. Sensory gardens and horticultural activities are increasingly used in dementia care, yet their benefits are uncertain. A modified scoping review with descriptive analysis of selected empirical studies. Systematic searches in Amed, CINAHL, MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, Embase and Scopus were used. Search terms were the free-text concepts 'healing garden', 'horticultural therapy', 'restorative garden' and 'wander garden' which were combined with dementia and Alzheimer. Sixteen studies were included with included participants ranging from eight to 129 participants. Research designs were case studies (n = 2), survey (n = 1), intervention studies with pretest/post-test design (n = 11) and randomised controlled studies (n = 2). Of these 16 studies, eight examined the benefits of sensory gardens, seven examined horticultural therapy or therapeutic horticulture and one examined the use of plants indoors. This study offers a review of the research addressing benefits of sensory gardens, therapeutic horticulture, horticultural therapy and other purposeful use of plants in dementia care. The reported findings are mainly on issues related to behaviour, affect and well-being. The findings are in general mutually supportive, however, with some contradictory findings. In addition, sleep pattern, well-being and functional level seem to improve. These types of nonpharmacological interventions may improve well-being and affect and reduce the occurrence of disruptive behaviour. Additionally, the use of psychotropic drugs, incidents of serious falls, sleep and sleep pattern also seem to improve. To further improve the use of the existing or planned gardens, an educational programme for staff that also includes skill training is recommended. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Evaluation of the Benefits Attributable to Automotive Lightweight Materials Program Research and Development Projects; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to identify and test methods appropriate for estimating the benefits attributable to research and development (R and D) projects funded by the Automotive Lightweight Materials (ALM) Program of the Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies (OAAT) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Funded projects range from basic materials science research to applied research in production environments. Collaborators on these projects include national laboratories, universities, and private sector firms, such as leading automobile manufacturers and their suppliers. Three ALM R and D projects were chosen for this pilot evaluation: Low-Cost, Continuous Cast Aluminum Sheet; Advanced Forming Technologies for Aluminum; and Manufacturing of Composite Automotive Structures. These projects were chosen because they represent a range of benefits evaluation situations. The first project resulted in an improved process that may be commercialized. The second project is on going and has two distinct components. The third project has yielded an improved technology that has been commercialized. This completed project also benefited from numerous complementary projects

  7. Literature review of visual representation of the results of benefit-risk assessments of medicinal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgreen, Christine E; Mt-Isa, Shahrul; Lieftucht, Alfons; Phillips, Lawrence D; Hughes, Diana; Talbot, Susan; Asiimwe, Alex; Downey, Gerald; Genov, Georgy; Hermann, Richard; Noel, Rebecca; Peters, Ruth; Micaleff, Alain; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Ashby, Deborah

    2016-03-01

    The PROTECT Benefit-Risk group is dedicated to research in methods for continuous benefit-risk monitoring of medicines, including the presentation of the results, with a particular emphasis on graphical methods. A comprehensive review was performed to identify visuals used for medical risk and benefit-risk communication. The identified visual displays were grouped into visual types, and each visual type was appraised based on five criteria: intended audience, intended message, knowledge required to understand the visual, unintentional messages that may be derived from the visual and missing information that may be needed to understand the visual. Sixty-six examples of visual formats were identified from the literature and classified into 14 visual types. We found that there is not one single visual format that is consistently superior to others for the communication of benefit-risk information. In addition, we found that most of the drawbacks found in the visual formats could be considered general to visual communication, although some appear more relevant to specific formats and should be considered when creating visuals for different audiences depending on the exact message to be communicated. We have arrived at recommendations for the use of visual displays for benefit-risk communication. The recommendation refers to the creation of visuals. We outline four criteria to determine audience-visual compatibility and consider these to be a key task in creating any visual. Next we propose specific visual formats of interest, to be explored further for their ability to address nine different types of benefit-risk analysis information. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Fundamental movement skills in children and adolescents: review of associated health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubans, David R; Morgan, Philip J; Cliff, Dylan P; Barnett, Lisa M; Okely, Anthony D

    2010-12-01

    The mastery of fundamental movement skills (FMS) has been purported as contributing to children's physical, cognitive and social development and is thought to provide the foundation for an active lifestyle. Commonly developed in childhood and subsequently refined into context- and sport-specific skills, they include locomotor (e.g. running and hopping), manipulative or object control (e.g. catching and throwing) and stability (e.g. balancing and twisting) skills. The rationale for promoting the development of FMS in childhood relies on the existence of evidence on the current or future benefits associated with the acquisition of FMS proficiency. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the relationship between FMS competency and potential health benefits in children and adolescents. Benefits were defined in terms of psychological, physiological and behavioural outcomes that can impact public health. A systematic search of six electronic databases (EMBASE, OVID MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus and SportDiscus®) was conducted on 22 June 2009. Included studies were cross-sectional, longitudinal or experimental studies involving healthy children or adolescents (aged 3-18 years) that quantitatively analysed the relationship between FMS competency and potential benefits. The search identified 21 articles examining the relationship between FMS competency and eight potential benefits (i.e. global self-concept, perceived physical competence, cardio-respiratory fitness [CRF], muscular fitness, weight status, flexibility, physical activity and reduced sedentary behaviour). We found strong evidence for a positive association between FMS competency and physical activity in children and adolescents. There was also a positive relationship between FMS competency and CRF and an inverse association between FMS competency and weight status. Due to an inadequate number of studies, the relationship between FMS competency and the remaining benefits was classified as

  9. The IROC Houston Quality Assurance Program: Potential benefits of 3D dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Followill, D S; Molineu, H A; Lafratta, R; Ibbott, G S

    2017-01-01

    The IROC Houston QA Center has provided QA core support for NCI clinical trials by ensuring that radiation doses delivered to trial patients are accurate and comparable between participating institutions. Within its QA program, IROC Houston uses anthropomorphic QA phantoms to credential sites. It is these phantoms that have the highest potential to benefit from the use of 3D dosimeters. Credentialing is performed to verify that institutions that are using advanced technologies to deliver complex treatment plans that conform to targets. This makes it increasingly difficult to assure the intended calculated dose is being delivered correctly using current techniques that are 2D-based. A 3D dosimeter such as PRESAGE® is able to provide a complete 3D measured dosimetry dataset with one treatment plan delivery. In our preliminary studies, the 3D dosimeters in our H and N and spine phantoms were found to be appropriate for remote dosimetry for relative dose measurements. To implement 3D dosimetry in IROC Houston’s phantoms, the benefit of this significant change to its current infrastructure would have to be assessed and further work would be needed before bringing 3D dosimeters into the phantom dosimetry program. (paper)

  10. Assessing the Costs and Benefits of the Superior Energy Performance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Therkelsen, Peter; McKane, Aimee; Sabouini, Ridah; Evans, Tracy

    2013-07-01

    Industrial companies are seeking to manage energy consumption and costs, mitigate risks associated with energy, and introduce transparency into reports of their energy performance achievements. Forty industrial facilities are participating in the U.S. DOE supported Superior Energy Performance (SEP) program in which facilities implement an energy management system based on the ISO 50001 standard, and pursue third-party verification of their energy performance improvements. SEP certification provides industrial facilities recognition for implementing a consistent, rigorous, internationally recognized business process for continually improving energy performance and achievement of established energy performance improvement targets. This paper focuses on the business value of SEP and ISO 50001, providing an assessment of the costs and benefits associated with SEP implementation at nine SEP-certified facilities across a variety of industrial sectors. These cost-benefit analyses are part of the U.S. DOE?s contribution to the Global Superior Energy Performance (GSEP) partnership, a multi-country effort to demonstrate, using facility data, that energy management system implementation enables companies to improve their energy performance with a greater return on investment than business-as-usual (BAU) activity. To examine the business value of SEP certification, interviews were conducted with SEP-certified facilities. The costs of implementing the SEP program, including internal facility staff time, are described and a marginal payback of SEP certification has been determined. Additionally, more qualitative factors with regard to the business value and challenges related to SEP and ISO 50001 implementation are summarized.

  11. Early infant male circumcision: Systematic review, risk-benefit analysis, and progress in policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Brian J; Kennedy, Sean E; Wodak, Alex D; Mindel, Adrian; Golovsky, David; Schrieber, Leslie; Lumbers, Eugenie R; Handelsman, David J; Ziegler, John B

    2017-02-08

    To determine whether recent evidence-based United States policies on male circumcision (MC) apply to comparable Anglophone countries, Australia and New Zealand. Articles in 2005 through 2015 were retrieved from PubMed using the keyword "circumcision" together with 36 relevant subtopics. A further PubMed search was performed for articles published in 2016. Searches of the EMBASE and Cochrane databases did not yield additional citable articles. Articles were assessed for quality and those rated 2+ and above according to the Scottish Intercollegiate Grading System were studied further. The most relevant and representative of the topic were included. Bibliographies were examined to retrieve further key references. Randomized controlled trials, recent high quality systematic reviews or meta-analyses (level 1++ or 1+ evidence) were prioritized for inclusion. A risk-benefit analysis of articles rated for quality was performed. For efficiency and reliability, recent randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, high quality systematic reviews and large well-designed studies were used if available. Internet searches were conducted for other relevant information, including policies and Australian data on claims under Medicare for MC. Evidence-based policy statements by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) support infant and later age male circumcision (MC) as a desirable public health measure. Our systematic review of relevant literature over the past decade yielded 140 journal articles that met our inclusion criteria. Together, these showed that early infant MC confers immediate and lifelong benefits by protecting against urinary tract infections having potential adverse long-term renal effects, phimosis that causes difficult and painful erections and "ballooning" during urination, inflammatory skin conditions, inferior penile hygiene, candidiasis, various sexually transmissible infections in both sexes, genital

  12. Perceived benefits and barriers of implementing nursing residency programs in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbuAlRub, R F; Abu Alhaija'a, M G

    2018-03-02

    To explore the challenges that face Jordanian nurses in the first year of employment; and understand the benefits and barriers of implementing a Nursing Residency Program from the perspectives of nurses and key informants. Many researchers reported that novice nurses do not have an adequate level of competence needed in the real clinical practice to meet the increasing demands of healthcare systems. A descriptive qualitative approach using individual interviews and focus group discussions was utilized. The sample was a purposive one that consisted of 30 Jordanian nurses and six key informants. Data were recorded and then transcribed. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. The results revealed several challenges that face nurses in their first year of experience such as reality shock, lack of self-confidence, and burnout and intent to leave. Some of the perceived barriers of implementing the Program were issues concerned with the responsible regulatory body, payment, and monitoring and evaluation. The findings asserted that the implementation of the Nursing Residency Program for new practicing nurses would enhance their competencies and self- confidence; and decrease the rate of reality shock and turnover within the first year of employment. Policy makers, nurse educators, and nurse administrators and clinical nurses need to collaborate to develop a formal system with binding policies and regulations concerning the implementation of Nursing Residency Program. There is also a need to address and modify current orientation programmes offered by hospitals for novice nurses to enhance their transition into clinical practice. © 2018 International Council of Nurses.

  13. Cyberbullying Prevention and Intervention Programs in Schools: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanrikulu, Ibrahim

    2018-01-01

    This article presents a systematic review of school-based cyberbullying prevention and intervention programs. Research presenting empirical evidence about the effectiveness of a school-based cyberbullying prevention or intervention program published before August 2016 was searched. Seventeen studies were obtained and reviewed. The findings showed…

  14. Contraceptive Health Programs for Adolescents: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagana, Luciana; Hayes, David M.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews some contraceptive education programs designed for adolescents that differ in educational process based on delivery setting. Reviews school-based, community-based, and college/university-based programs and discusses them in terms of their effectiveness, potential, and limitations. Notes that educational accountability in each setting…

  15. Reviewing a Reading Program: Professional Development Module. Participant's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosanovich, Marcia; Jordan, Georgia; Arndt, Elissa; Van Sciver, Mary; Wahl, Michelle; Rissman, Lila

    2008-01-01

    The Curriculum and Instructional Projects Team at the Florida Center for Reading Research (FCRR) developed "Guidelines for Reviewing a Reading Program" ("Guidelines") to assist reviewers in determining if a program is consistent with the scientific research on reading. Based on that work, the Center on Instruction Reading Strand developed this…

  16. 2009 DOE Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-01

    Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting to review the FY2008 accomplishments and FY2009 plans for the Vehicle Technologies Program, and provide an opportunity for industry, government, and academic to give inputs to DOE on the Program with a structured and formal methodology.

  17. The Costs and Benefits of Compliance with Renewable Portfolio Standards: Reviewing Experience to Date

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, Jenny; Barbose, Galen; Bird, Lori; Weaver, Samantha; Flores, Francisco; Kuskova-Burns, Ksenia; Wiser, Ryan

    2014-03-12

    More than half of U.S. states have renewable portfolio standards (RPS) in place and have collectively deployed approximately 46,000 MW of new renewable energy capacity through year-end 2012. Most of these policies have five or more years of implementation experience, enabling an assessment of their costs and benefits. Understanding RPS benefits and costs is essential for policymakers evaluating existing RPS policies, assessing the need for modifications, and considering new policies. A key aspect of this study is the comprehensive review of existing RPS cost and benefit estimates, in addition to an examination of the variety of methods used to calculate such estimates. Based on available data and estimates reported by utilities and regulators, this study summarizes RPS costs to date. The study considers how those costs may evolve going forward, given scheduled increases in RPS targets and cost containment mechanisms incorporated into existing policies. The report also summarizes RPS benefits estimates, based on published studies for individual states, and discusses key methodological considerations.

  18. A Review of the Benefits of Nature Experiences: More Than Meets the Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Lara S; Shanahan, Danielle F; Fuller, Richard A

    2017-08-01

    Evidence that experiences of nature can benefit people has accumulated rapidly. Yet perhaps because of the domination of the visual sense in humans, most research has focused on the visual aspects of nature experiences. However, humans are multisensory, and it seems likely that many benefits are delivered through the non-visual senses and these are potentially avenues through which a physiological mechanism could occur. Here we review the evidence around these lesser studied sensory pathways-through sound, smell, taste, touch, and three non-sensory pathways. Natural sounds and smells underpin experiences of nature for many people, and this may well be rooted in evolutionary psychology. Tactile experiences of nature, particularly beyond animal petting, are understudied yet potentially fundamentally important. Tastes of nature, through growing and consuming natural foods, have been linked with a range of health and well-being benefits. Beyond the five senses, evidence is emerging for other non-visual pathways for nature experiences to be effective. These include ingestion or inhalation of phytoncides, negative air ions and microbes. We conclude that (i) these non-visual avenues are potentially important for delivering benefits from nature experiences; (ii) the evidence base is relatively weak and often based on correlational studies; and (iii) deeper exploration of these sensory and non-sensory avenues is needed.

  19. A Review of the Benefits of Nature Experiences: More Than Meets the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Lara S.; Shanahan, Danielle F.

    2017-01-01

    Evidence that experiences of nature can benefit people has accumulated rapidly. Yet perhaps because of the domination of the visual sense in humans, most research has focused on the visual aspects of nature experiences. However, humans are multisensory, and it seems likely that many benefits are delivered through the non-visual senses and these are potentially avenues through which a physiological mechanism could occur. Here we review the evidence around these lesser studied sensory pathways—through sound, smell, taste, touch, and three non-sensory pathways. Natural sounds and smells underpin experiences of nature for many people, and this may well be rooted in evolutionary psychology. Tactile experiences of nature, particularly beyond animal petting, are understudied yet potentially fundamentally important. Tastes of nature, through growing and consuming natural foods, have been linked with a range of health and well-being benefits. Beyond the five senses, evidence is emerging for other non-visual pathways for nature experiences to be effective. These include ingestion or inhalation of phytoncides, negative air ions and microbes. We conclude that (i) these non-visual avenues are potentially important for delivering benefits from nature experiences; (ii) the evidence base is relatively weak and often based on correlational studies; and (iii) deeper exploration of these sensory and non-sensory avenues is needed. PMID:28763021

  20. Do Generous Unemployment Benefit Programs Reduce Suicide Rates? A State Fixed-Effect Analysis Covering 1968–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cylus, Jonathan; Glymour, M. Maria; Avendano, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    The recent economic recession has led to increases in suicide, but whether US state unemployment insurance programs ameliorate this association has not been examined. Exploiting US state variations in the generosity of benefit programs between 1968 and 2008, we tested the hypothesis that more generous unemployment benefit programs reduce the impact of economic downturns on suicide. Using state linear fixed-effect models, we found a negative additive interaction between unemployment rates and benefits among the US working-age (20–64 years) population (β = −0.57, 95% confidence interval: −0.86, −0.27; P unemployment rates on suicide is offset by the presence of generous state unemployment benefit programs, though estimated effects are small in magnitude. PMID:24939978

  1. Do generous unemployment benefit programs reduce suicide rates? A state fixed-effect analysis covering 1968-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cylus, Jonathan; Glymour, M Maria; Avendano, Mauricio

    2014-07-01

    The recent economic recession has led to increases in suicide, but whether US state unemployment insurance programs ameliorate this association has not been examined. Exploiting US state variations in the generosity of benefit programs between 1968 and 2008, we tested the hypothesis that more generous unemployment benefit programs reduce the impact of economic downturns on suicide. Using state linear fixed-effect models, we found a negative additive interaction between unemployment rates and benefits among the US working-age (20-64 years) population (β = -0.57, 95% confidence interval: -0.86, -0.27; P unemployment rates on suicide is offset by the presence of generous state unemployment benefit programs, though estimated effects are small in magnitude. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: Enrollment Options Following the Termination of a Plan or Plan Option. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-28

    The U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) is issuing a final rule to amend the Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Program regulations regarding enrollment options following the termination of a plan or plan option.

  3. Cost-benefit analysis simulation of a hospital-based violence intervention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purtle, Jonathan; Rich, Linda J; Bloom, Sandra L; Rich, John A; Corbin, Theodore J

    2015-02-01

    Violent injury is a major cause of disability, premature mortality, and health disparities worldwide. Hospital-based violence intervention programs (HVIPs) show promise in preventing violent injury. Little is known, however, about how the impact of HVIPs may translate into monetary figures. To conduct a cost-benefit analysis simulation to estimate the savings an HVIP might produce in healthcare, criminal justice, and lost productivity costs over 5 years in a hypothetical population of 180 violently injured patients, 90 of whom received HVIP intervention and 90 of whom did not. Primary data from 2012, analyzed in 2013, on annual HVIP costs/number of clients served and secondary data sources were used to estimate the cost, number, and type of violent reinjury incidents (fatal/nonfatal, resulting in hospitalization/not resulting in hospitalization) and violent perpetration incidents (aggravated assault/homicide) that this population might experience over 5 years. Four different models were constructed and three different estimates of HVIP effect size (20%, 25%, and 30%) were used to calculate a range of estimates for HVIP net savings and cost-benefit ratios from different payer perspectives. All benefits were discounted at 5% to adjust for their net present value. Estimates of HVIP cost savings at the base effect estimate of 25% ranged from $82,765 (narrowest model) to $4,055,873 (broadest model). HVIPs are likely to produce cost savings. This study provides a systematic framework for the economic evaluation of HVIPs and estimates of HVIP cost savings and cost-benefit ratios that may be useful in informing public policy decisions. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of a walking program on perceived benefits and barriers to exercise in postmenopausal African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Bernadette R; Bezner, Janet; Chesbro, Steven B; Leavitt, Ronnie

    2006-01-01

    Rates of exercise participation among African Americans is low. Identifying and overcoming perceived benefits/ barriers unique to African American women (AAW) may increase their exercise participation. The purpose of this study was to describe perceived benefits/barriers to exercise in AAW before and after participation in a walking program. Thirty-five postmenopausal AAW participated in a 7-week structured walking program with 2 walking goals. Perceived benefits and barriers to exercise were assessed using the Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale at the beginning and end of the program. Participants engaged in a postintervention interview to further assess benefits/barriers to exercise participation. Perceived benefits/barriers to exercise did not change significantly with participation in a walking program. Lack of time due to work and family responsibilities affected achievement of the brisk walking goal. Postmenopausal AAW in this study strongly believed in the benefits of exercising and had increased levels of participation in a walking program when lack of time was not a barrier. Overcoming this barrier is the true challenge to health care professionals.

  5. 2010 Wind Program Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swisher, Randy [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Clark, Charlton [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Beaudry-Losique, Jacques [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-12-01

    This report documents the evaluation of the technical, scientific, and business results of over 80 projects of the Wind Program, as well as the productivity and management effectiveness of the Wind Program itself.

  6. The health benefits of yoga and exercise: a review of comparison studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Alyson; Thomas, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Exercise is considered an acceptable method for improving and maintaining physical and emotional health. A growing body of evidence supports the belief that yoga benefits physical and mental health via down-regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). The purpose of this article is to provide a scholarly review of the literature regarding research studies comparing the effects of yoga and exercise on a variety of health outcomes and health conditions. Using PubMed((R)) and the key word "yoga," a comprehensive search of the research literature from core scientific and nursing journals yielded 81 studies that met inclusion criteria. These studies subsequently were classified as uncontrolled (n = 30), wait list controlled (n = 16), or comparison (n = 35). The most common comparison intervention (n = 10) involved exercise. These studies were included in this review. In the studies reviewed, yoga interventions appeared to be equal or superior to exercise in nearly every outcome measured except those involving physical fitness. The studies comparing the effects of yoga and exercise seem to indicate that, in both healthy and diseased populations, yoga may be as effective as or better than exercise at improving a variety of health-related outcome measures. Future clinical trials are needed to examine the distinctions between exercise and yoga, particularly how the two modalities may differ in their effects on the SNS/HPA axis. Additional studies using rigorous methodologies are needed to examine the health benefits of the various types of yoga.

  7. Overview of four prescription monitoring/review programs in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Andrea D; MacDougall, Peter; Pellerin, Denise; Shaw, Karen; Spitzig, Doug; Wilson, Galt; Wright, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Prescription monitoring or review programs collect information about prescription and dispensing of controlled substances for the purposes of monitoring, analysis and education. In Canada, it is the responsibility of the provincial institutions to organize, maintain and run such programs. To describe the characteristics of four provincial programs that have been in place for >6 years. The managers of the prescription monitoring⁄review programs of four provinces (British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan and Nova Scotia) were invited to present at a symposium at the Canadian Pain Society in May 2012. In preparation for the symposium, one author collected and summarized the information. Three provinces have a mix of review and monitoring programs; the program in British Columbia is purely for review and education. All programs include controlled substances (narcotics, barbiturates and psychostimulants); however, other substances are differentially included among the programs: anabolic steroids are included in Saskatchewan and Nova Scotia; and cannabinoids are included in British Columbia and Nova Scotia. Access to the database is available to pharmacists in all provinces. Physicians need consent from patients in British Columbia, and only professionals registered with the program can access the database in Alberta. The definition of inappropriate prescribing and dispensing is not uniform. Double doctoring, double pharmacy and high-volume dispensing are considered to be red flags in all programs. There is variability among Canadian provinces in managing prescription monitoring⁄review programs.

  8. Broadening Your Employee Benefit Portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaski, Nancy J.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Cost increases and realization of the diverse needs of employees have prompted organizations to review the cost and value of employee benefits. Examines alternatives including "cafeteria plans," managed care programs, and disability income plans. (MLF)

  9. WANO peer review. Organization and benefits as seen by WANO; WANO Peer Review. Durchfuehrung und Nutzen aus Sicht der WANO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haferburg, Manfred [WANO-Paris Centre, Neuilly sur Seine (France)

    2010-02-15

    The World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO) was founded in May 1989. 144 enterprises operating nuclear power plants signed the WANO Charter in Moscow as a response of industry to the Chernobyl disaster. The Association now comprises the operators of more than 430 nuclear power plants in more than 32 countries. WANO performs its activities through regional centers in Atlanta, Moscow, Paris, and Tokyo. The Coordination Center of WANO is located in London. Each regional WANO Center handles the four most important programs: - Peer Reviews, - exchanges of operating experience, - specialized and technical development, - technical service and exchange. The technical support and exchange program comprises proven processes, such as performance indicators, operator networks, technical support missions. WANO peer reviews are conducted on a voluntary basis and upon request by the licensees. By the end of 2008, WANO had run 388 peer reviews in 31 countries. Peer reviews serve to compare the practical operation of a nuclear power plant with the best international standards. This in-depth examination is carried out by an international, independent team of experts on an optimized objective basis. Peer reviews are conducted not only to examine compliance with all pertinent rules and regulations, but also to strive for excellent performance results. (orig.)

  10. Exercise program for children and adolescents with leukemia and lymphoma during treatment: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchetti, Giulia; Rossi, Francesca; Chamorro Vina, Carolina; Bertorello, Nicoletta; Fagioli, Franca

    2018-05-01

    An exercise program (EP) during cancer treatment seems to be a valid strategy against physiological and quality-of-life impairments, but scientific evidence of benefits among pediatric patients is still limited. This review summarizes the literature focused on randomized controlled trials of EP offered to patients during leukemia and lymphoma treatment. Studies published up to June 2017 were selected from multiple databases and assessed by three independent reviewers for methodological validity. The review identified eight studies, but several types of bias have to be avoided to provide evidence-based recommendations accessible to patients, families, and professionals. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Use of benefit-cost analysis in establishing Federal radiation protection standards: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, L.E.

    1979-10-01

    This paper complements other work which has evaluated the cost impacts of radiation standards on the nuclear industry. It focuses on the approaches to valuation of the health and safety benefits of radiation standards and the actual and appropriate processes of benefit-cost comparison. A brief historical review of the rationale(s) for the levels of radiation standards prior to 1970 is given. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established numerical design objectives for light water reactors (LWRs). The process of establishing these numerical design criteria below the radiation protection standards set in 10 CFR 20 is reviewed. EPA's 40 CFR 190 environmental standards for the uranium fuel cycle have lower values than NRC's radiation protection standards in 10 CFR 20. The task of allocating EPA's 40 CFR 190 standards to the various portions of the fuel cycle was left to the implementing agency, NRC. So whether or not EPA's standards for the uranium fuel cycle are more stringent for LWRs than NRC's numerical design objectives depends on how EPA's standards are implemented by NRC. In setting the numerical levels in Appendix I to 10 CFR 50 and 40 CFR 190 NRC and EPA, respectively, focused on the costs of compliance with various levels of radiation control. A major portion of the paper is devoted to a review and critique of the available methods for valuing health and safety benefits. All current approaches try to estimate a constant value of life and use this to vaue the expected number of lives saved. This paper argues that it is more appropriate to seek a value of a reduction in risks to health and life that varies with the extent of these risks. Additional research to do this is recommended. (DC)

  12. Use of benefit-cost analysis in establishing Federal radiation protection standards: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, L.E.

    1979-10-01

    This paper complements other work which has evaluated the cost impacts of radiation standards on the nuclear industry. It focuses on the approaches to valuation of the health and safety benefits of radiation standards and the actual and appropriate processes of benefit-cost comparison. A brief historical review of the rationale(s) for the levels of radiation standards prior to 1970 is given. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established numerical design objectives for light water reactors (LWRs). The process of establishing these numerical design criteria below the radiation protection standards set in 10 CFR 20 is reviewed. EPA's 40 CFR 190 environmental standards for the uranium fuel cycle have lower values than NRC's radiation protection standards in 10 CFR 20. The task of allocating EPA's 40 CFR 190 standards to the various portions of the fuel cycle was left to the implementing agency, NRC. So whether or not EPA's standards for the uranium fuel cycle are more stringent for LWRs than NRC's numerical design objectives depends on how EPA's standards are implemented by NRC. In setting the numerical levels in Appendix I to 10 CFR 50 and 40 CFR 190 NRC and EPA, respectively, focused on the costs of compliance with various levels of radiation control. A major portion of the paper is devoted to a review and critique of the available methods for valuing health and safety benefits. All current approaches try to estimate a constant value of life and use this to vaue the expected number of lives saved. This paper argues that it is more appropriate to seek a value of a reduction in risks to health and life that varies with the extent of these risks. Additional research to do this is recommended

  13. Benefits of a Biological Monitoring Program for Assessing Remediation Performance and Long-Term Stewardship - 12272

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Mark [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) is a long-running program that was designed to evaluate biological conditions and trends in waters downstream of Department of Energy (DOE) facilities in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. BMAP monitoring has focused on aquatic pathways from sources to biota, which is consistent with the sites' clean water regulatory focus and the overall cleanup strategy which divided remediation areas into watershed administrative units. Specific programmatic goals include evaluating operational and legacy impacts to nearby streams and the effectiveness of implemented remediation strategies at the sites. The program is characterized by consistent, long-term sampling and analysis methods in a multidisciplinary and quantitative framework. Quantitative sampling has shown conclusively that at most Oak Ridge stream sites, fish and aquatic macro-invertebrate communities have improved considerably since the 1980s. Monitoring of mercury and PCBs in fish has shown that remedial and abatement actions have also improved stream conditions, although in some cases biological monitoring suggests further actions are needed. Follow-up investigations have been implemented by BMAP to identify sources or causes, consistent with an adaptive management approach. Biological monitoring results to date have not only been used to assess regulatory compliance, but have provided additional benefits in helping address other components of the DOE's mission, including facility operations, natural resource, and scientific goals. As a result the program has become a key measure of long-term trends in environmental conditions and of high value to the Oak Ridge environmental management community, regulators, and the public. Some of the BMAP lessons learned may be of value in the design, implementation, and application of other long-term monitoring and stewardship programs, and assist environmental managers in the assessment and prediction of the effectiveness of

  14. Biomass Program 2007 Peer Review - Integrated Biorefinery Platform Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-27

    This document discloses the comments provided by a review panel at the U.S. Department of Energy Office of the Biomass Program Peer Review held on November 15-16, 2007 in Baltimore, MD and the Integrated Biorefinery Platform Review held on August 13-15, 2007 in Golden, Colorado.

  15. Assessing the effects of employee assistance programs: a review of employee assistance program evaluations.

    OpenAIRE

    Colantonio, A.

    1989-01-01

    Employee assistance programs have grown at a dramatic rate, yet the effectiveness of these programs has been called into question. The purpose of this paper was to assess the effectiveness of employee assistance programs (EAPs) by reviewing recently published EAP evaluations. All studies evaluating EAPs published since 1975 from peer-reviewed journals in the English language were included in this analysis. Each of the articles was assessed in the following areas: (a) program description (subj...

  16. Family support programs and adolescent mental health: review of evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuhn ES

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Emily S Kuhn, Robert D Laird Department of Psychology, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA, USA Abstract: Family support programs aim to improve parent wellbeing and parenting as well as adolescent mental and behavioral health by addressing the needs of parents of adolescents experiencing or at risk for mental health problems. Family support programs can be part of the treatment for adolescents diagnosed with mental or behavioral health problems, or family support programs can be delivered as prevention programs designed to prevent the onset or escalation of mental or behavioral health problems. This review discusses the rationale for family support programs and describes the range of services provided by family support programs. The primary focus of the review is on evaluating the effectiveness of family support programs as treatments or prevention efforts delivered by clinicians or peers. Two main themes emerged from the review. First, family support programs that included more forms of support evidenced higher levels of effectiveness than family support programs that provided fewer forms of support. Discussion of this theme focuses on individual differences in client needs and program adaptions that may facilitate meeting diverse needs. Second, family support prevention programs appear to be most effective when serving individuals more in need of mental and behavioral health services. Discussion of this theme focuses on the intensity versus breadth of the services provided in prevention programs. More rigorous evaluations of family support programs are needed, especially for peer-delivered family support treatments. Keywords: intervention, parent, mental and behavioral health

  17. State technical review of the HLNW program and the peer review process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    Millions of dollars are being spent on state governments' review of the Department of Energy (DOE) high level waste (HLW) repository program. A significant portion of the review efforts focus on technical issues surrounding the development and installment of HLW disposal technologies. Some view the states' technical review efforts as part of a peer review process. However, this interpretation reveals a misunderstanding of the concept of peer review and the purposes of state technical review

  18. A systematic review of online learning programs for nurse preceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xi Vivien; Chan, Yah Shih; Tan, Kimberlyn Hui Shing; Wang, Wenru

    2018-01-01

    Nurse preceptors guide students to integrate theory into practice, teach clinical skills, assess clinical competency, and enhance problem solving skills. Managing the dual roles of a registered nurse and preceptor poses tremendous challenges to many preceptors. Online learning is recognized as an effective learning approach for enhancing nursing knowledge and skills. The systematic review aims to review and synthesise the online learning programs for preceptors. A systematic review was designed based on the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Programs. Articles published between January 2000 and June 2016 were sought from six electronic databases: CINAHL, Medline OVID, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, and Web of Science. All papers were reviewed and quality assessment was performed. Nine studies were finally selected. Data were extracted, organized and analysed using a narrative synthesis. The review identified five overarching themes: development of the online learning programs for nurse preceptors, major contents of the programs, uniqueness of each program, modes of delivery, and outcomes of the programs. The systematic review provides insightful information on educational programs for preceptors. At this information age, online learning offers accessibility, convenience, flexibility, which could of great advantage for the working adults. In addition, the online platform provides an alternative for preceptors who face challenges of workload, time, and support system. Therefore, it is paramount that continuing education courses need to be integrated with technology, increase the flexibility and responsiveness of the nursing workforce, and offer alternative means to take up courses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Heavy water production benefits of a supporting r and d program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bancroft, A.R.; Chuang, K.T.; Dalrymple, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    Considerable economic benefit was obtained from an active R and D program while the Canadian heavy water plants were brought to mature operation during the 1970s. The introduction to Canada of this new chemical processing industry led to unexpected process, equipment and materials problems. Having a small team of technical experts already working on heavy water processes and a much larger R and D team working in related fields allowed a rapid response to the problems that limited production. The number of engineers and scientists working on the GS process rose rapidly from a skeleton team in 1970 to 54 during 1974. Effort declined steadily as the major problems were solved and reached 22 by 1980. Cumulative effort over the decade was 264 man-years at a cost of 3.3 percent of the value of the heavy water produced. The new production benefits have lagged behind the R and D expenditure by a few years and the current spending rate is 1.2 percent of product value. Important contributions were made in the areas of process simulation, process chemistry, materials of construction, sieve trays, and mechanical equipment

  20. Comparison of benefit between dabigatran and warfarin among patients with atrial fibrillation: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal K Sulieman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Warfarin is recognized as the standard antithrombotic agent for stroke prevention. However, new oral anticoagulant such as dabigatran constitutes huge improvement to compensate for the limitation of warfarin. A literature review was performed to compare and contrast the overall benefit of dabigatran and warfarin among patients with atrial fibrillation. We utilized HighWire as the data source for randomized controlled trials based on inclusion and exclusion criteria (from January 2007 to September 2013. Descriptive and quantitative information related to stroke and major bleeding were extracted from each trial. After a comprehensive screening of 298 search results, 17 studies which enrolled a total of 127,594 patients were included. Warfarin was found to have higher mean event rates for incidence of stroke, major bleeding, and net clinical benefit compared to dabigatran 110 mg and dabigatran 150 mg. Dabigatran 110 mg has higher rate of stroke and net clinical benefit than dabigatran 150 mg with less major hemorrhage. Overall, dabigatran had higher efficacy and safety profile than warfarin. Further research is required to determine the clinical feasibility of dabigatran in real-life practice.

  1. Health benefits of finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) polyphenols and dietary fiber: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Palanisamy Bruntha; Vijayabharathi, Rajendran; Sathyabama, Sathyaseelan; Malleshi, Nagappa Gurusiddappa; Priyadarisini, Venkatesan Brindha

    2014-06-01

    The growing public awareness of nutrition and health care research substantiates the potential of phytochemicals such as polyphenols and dietary fiber on their health beneficial properties. Hence, there is in need to identify newer sources of neutraceuticals and other natural and nutritional materials with the desirable functional characteristics. Finger millet (Eleusine coracana), one of the minor cereals, is known for several health benefits and some of the health benefits are attributed to its polyphenol and dietary fiber contents. It is an important staple food in India for people of low income groups. Nutritionally, its importance is well recognised because of its high content of calcium (0.38%), dietary fiber (18%) and phenolic compounds (0.3-3%). They are also recognized for their health beneficial effects, such as anti-diabetic, anti-tumerogenic, atherosclerogenic effects, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. This review deals with the nature of polyphenols and dietary fiber of finger millet and their role with respect to the health benefits associated with millet.

  2. Educational benefits of Internet and computer-based programmes for prostate cancer patients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Anne; Ryhänen, Anne M; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to review systematically the available literature on Internet and computer-based patient education programmes, assess the quality of these studies and analyze the benefit of these programmes for prostate cancer patients. Complete databases were searched. Studies were included if they concerned patient education of prostate cancer patients, were qualitative or quantitative and examined Internet or interactive CD-ROM use. Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria. The majority of the studies reported a significant increase in the knowledge of the disease, satisfaction with treatment options and support for men. The benefit of the programmes was that the patients felt more empowered and obtained a heightened sense of control over their disease. The Internet or computer-based programmes had a positive impact on prostate cancer patient education. Most papers reported that the programmes were beneficial, but few presented data from studies with rigorous research methodologies to support these claims. Internet and computer-based programmes can be useful tools in prostate cancer patient education. In order to improve the benefits of the programmes, more Internet and computer-based programmes need to be developed and studied. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Honey, Propolis, and Royal Jelly: A Comprehensive Review of Their Biological Actions and Health Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visweswara Rao Pasupuleti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There are several health benefits that honeybee products such as honey, propolis, and royal jelly claim toward various types of diseases in addition to being food. Scope and Approach. In this paper, the effects of honey, propolis, and royal jelly on different metabolic diseases, cancers, and other diseases have been reviewed. The modes of actions of these products have also been illustrated for purposes of better understanding. Key Findings and Conclusions. An overview of honey, propolis, and royal jelly and their biological potentials was highlighted. The potential health benefits of honey, such as microbial inhibition, wound healing, and its effects on other diseases, are described. Propolis has been reported to have various health benefits related to gastrointestinal disorders, allergies, and gynecological, oral, and dermatological problems. Royal jelly is well known for its protective effects on reproductive health, neurodegenerative disorders, wound healing, and aging. Nevertheless, the exact mechanisms of action of honey, propolis, and royal jelly on the abovementioned diseases and activities have not been not fully elucidated, and further research is warranted to explain their exact contributions.

  4. Health benefits of hard martial arts in adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Origua Rios, Sandra; Marks, Jennifer; Estevan, Isaac; Barnett, Lisa M

    2018-07-01

    Participation in organized sports is promoted as a means of increasing physical activity levels and reducing chronic disease risk in adults. Hard martial arts practice (i.e. using body contact techniques), has gained in popularity over time. This review explores the evidence for health benefits of "hard" martial arts practice within the adult population. A systematic electronic database search was conducted, and quality assessments applied the Effective Public Health Practice Project tool. Twenty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria, examining balance, cognitive function, muscular skeletal status, psychological, cardiovascular fitness, and metabolic effects. The majority of studies reported positive effects resulting from hard martial arts practice, showing some improvement and maintenance of balance, cognitive function and psychological health. Benefits may be obtained regardless of the age of practice commencement. However, quality of the evidence is affected by methodological weaknesses across the studies. "Hard" martial arts seem to have potential to improve balance and cognitive functions that decline with age, which can lead to poorer health outcomes among the elderly (e.g. cognitive decline, falls and fractures). Benefits should be further investigated with improved intervention studies, representative samples and longer follow-up periods in order to establish associations with morbidity and mortality in the long term.

  5. Early Child Development and Nutrition: A Review of the Benefits and Challenges of Implementing Integrated Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Kristen M; Yousafzai, Aisha K; Lopez-Boo, Florencia

    2016-03-01

    Poor nutrition (substandard diet quantity and/or quality resulting in under- or overnutrition) and the lack of early learning opportunities contribute to the loss of developmental potential and life-long health and economic disparities among millions of children aged early child development (ECD) or nutrition have been linked to positive child development and/or nutritional status, and recommendations currently advocate for the development and testing of integrated interventions. We reviewed the theoretical and practical benefits and challenges of implementing integrated nutrition and ECD interventions along with the evidence for best practice and benefit-cost and concluded that the strong theoretical rationale for integration is more nuanced than the questions that the published empirical evidence have addressed. For example, further research is needed to 1) answer questions related to how integrated messaging influences caregiver characteristics such as well-being, knowledge, and behavior and how these influence early child nutrition and development outcomes; 2) understand population and nutritional contexts in which integrated interventions are beneficial; and 3) explore how varying implementation processes influence the efficacy, uptake, and cost-benefit of integrated nutrition and ECD interventions. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. The High/Scope Perry Preschool Program: Cost-Benefit Analysis Using Data from the Age-40 Followup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfield, Clive R.; Nores, Milagros; Barnett, Steve; Schweinhart, Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an updated cost-benefit analysis of the High/Scope Perry preschool Program, using data on individuals aged 40. Children were randomly assigned to a treatment or control group. Program costs are compared against treatment impacts on educational resources, earnings, criminal activity, and welfare receipt. Net present values are…

  7. A Comprehensive Review of Selected Business Programs in Community Colleges and Area Vocational-Technical Centers. Program Review Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

    In 1988, a review was conducted of the business component of associate in arts and associate in science (AS) degree programs, and of the certificate programs in business in Florida community colleges and area vocational-technical centers. Focusing primarily on business programs in marketing, general business management, and small business…

  8. Can athletes benefit from difficulty? A systematic review of growth following adversity in competitive sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howells, Karen; Sarkar, Mustafa; Fletcher, David

    2017-01-01

    Research points to the notion that athletes have the potential to benefit from difficulty. This phenomenon-otherwise known as growth following adversity-has attracted increasing attention from sport psychology scholars. In this paper, we systematically review and synthesize the findings of studies in this area to better understand: (a) how growth has been conceptualized in competitive sport, (b) the theory underpinning the study of growth in sport performers, (c) the nature of research conducted in this area, and (d) the adversity- and growth-related experiences of competitive athletes. Following the application of inclusion criteria and methodological quality assessment, 17 studies were deemed suitable for inclusion in the systematic review. The findings of these studies are reviewed and synthesized in relation to study characteristics (viz. growth terminology, theoretical underpinning, study design, participant details, and data analysis), quality appraisal, adversity-related experiences (viz. negative events and experiences, and response to negative events and experiences), and growth-related experiences (viz. mechanisms of growth and indicators of growth). To facilitate understanding of growth following adversity in competitive sport, we address the definitions and theories that have informed the body of research, discuss the associated findings related to the adversity- and growth-related experiences of competitive athletes, and outline avenues for future research. It is hoped that this review and synthesis will facilitate understanding and inform practice in this area. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Potential medicinal benefits of Cosmos caudatus (Ulam Raja: A scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Hui Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cosmos caudatus is widely used as a traditional medicine in Southeast Asia. C. caudatus has been reported as a rich source of bioactive compounds such as ascorbic acid, quercetin, and chlorogenic acid. Studies have shown that C. caudatus exhibits high anti-oxidant capacity and various medicinal properties, including anti-diabetic activity, anti-hypertensive properties, anti-inflammatory responses, bone-protective effect, and anti-microbial activity. This review aims to present the potential medicinal benefits of C. caudatus from the available scientific literature. We searched PubMed and ScienceDirect database for articles published from 1995 to January 2015. Overall, 15 articles related to C. caudatus and its medicinal benefits are reviewed. All these studies demonstrated that C. caudatus is effective, having demonstrated its anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory, bone-protective, anti-microbial, and anti-fungal activity in both in vitro and animal studies. None of the studies showed any negative effect of C. caudatus related to medicinal use. Currently available evidence suggests that C. caudatus has beneficial effects such as reducing blood glucose, reducing blood pressure, promoting healthy bone formation, and demonstrating anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial properties. However, human clinical trial is warranted.

  10. Generic drug discount programs: are prescriptions being submitted for pharmacy benefit adjudication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tungol, Alexandra; Starner, Catherine I; Gunderson, Brent W; Schafer, Jeremy A; Qiu, Yang; Gleason, Patrick P

    2012-01-01

      In 2006, pharmacies began offering select generic prescription drugs at discount prices (e.g., $4 for a 30-day supply) through nonmembership and membership programs. As part of the contract in membership generic drug discount programs, the member agrees to forgo submission of the claim to the insurance company. Claims not submitted for insurance adjudication may result in incomplete pharmacy benefit manager (PBM) and health plan data, which could negatively influence adherence reporting and clinical programs. To address potentially missing claims data, the Centers for Medicare Medicaid Services (CMS) encourages Medicare Part D sponsors to incentivize network pharmacies to submit claims directly to the plan for drugs dispensed outside of a member's Part D benefit, unless a member refuses. The extent of PBM and health plan claims capture loss due to generic drug discount programs is unknown. To identify changes in levothyroxine utilizers' prescription claims capture rate following the advent of generic drug discount membership and nonmembership programs. This retrospective concurrent cohort study used claims data from 3.5 million commercially insured members enrolled in health plans located in the central and southern United States with Prime Therapeutics pharmacy benefit coverage. Members were required to be 18 years or older and younger than 60 years as of January 1, 2006, and continuously enrolled from January 1, 2006, through December 31, 2010. Members utilizing generic levothyroxine for at least 120 days during January 1, 2006, through June 30, 2006 (baseline period) from the same pharmacy group with supply on July 1, 2006, were placed into 1 of 3 pharmacy groups: (1) nonmembership (Walmart, Sam's Club, Target, Kroger, City Market, and King Soopers pharmacies), (2) membership (Walgreens, CVS, Albertsons, and Savon pharmacies), or (3) the reference group of all other pharmacies. The index date was defined as July 1, 2006. The levothyroxine claim providing

  11. Research Review: Laboratory Student Magazine Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Tom

    1994-01-01

    Explores research on student-produced magazines at journalism schools, including the nature of various programs and curricular structures, ethical considerations, and the role of faculty advisors. Addresses collateral sources that provide practical and philosophical foundations for the establishment and conduct of magazine production programs.…

  12. 78 FR 71676 - Submission for Review: 3206-0201, Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Open Season Express...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: 3206-0201, Federal Employees Health Benefits... opportunity to comment on a revised information collection request (ICR) 3206-0201, Federal Employees Health... ; or faxed to (202) 606-0910. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Open...

  13. Economic Benefits of Investing in Women’s Health: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally, the status of women’s health falls short of its potential. In addition to the deleterious ethical and human rights implications of this deficit, the negative economic impact may also be consequential, but these mechanisms are poorly understood. Building on the literature that highlights health as a driver of economic growth and poverty alleviation, we aim to systematically investigate the broader economic benefits of investing in women’s health. Methods Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, we systematically reviewed health, gender, and economic literature to identify studies that investigate the impact of women’s health on micro- and macroeconomic outcomes. We developed an extensive search algorithm and conducted searches using 10 unique databases spanning the timeframe 01/01/1970 to 01/04/2013. Articles were included if they reported on economic impacts stemming from changes in women’s health (table of outcome measures included in full review, Table 1). In total, the two lead investigators independently screened 20,832 abstracts and extracted 438 records for full text review. The final review reflects the inclusion of 124 articles. Results The existing literature indicates that healthier women and their children contribute to more productive and better-educated societies. This study documents an extensive literature confirming that women’s health is tied to long-term productivity: the development and economic performance of nations depends, in part, upon how each country protects and promotes the health of women. Providing opportunities for deliberate family planning; healthy mothers before, during, and after childbirth, and the health and productivity of subsequent generations can catalyze a cycle of positive societal development. Conclusions This review highlights the untapped potential of initiatives that aim to address women’s health. Societies that prioritize women

  14. The benefits associated with volunteering among seniors: a critical review and recommendations for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Nicole D; Damianakis, Thecla; Kröger, Edeltraut; Wagner, Laura M; Dawson, Deirdre R; Binns, Malcolm A; Bernstein, Syrelle; Caspi, Eilon; Cook, Suzanne L

    2014-11-01

    There is an urgent need to identify lifestyle activities that reduce functional decline and dementia associated with population aging. The goals of this article are to review critically the evidence on the benefits associated with formal volunteering among older adults, propose a theoretical model of how volunteering may reduce functional limitations and dementia risk, and offer recommendations for future research. Database searches identified 113 papers on volunteering benefits in older adults, of which 73 were included. Data from descriptive, cross-sectional, and prospective cohort studies, along with 1 randomized controlled trial, most consistently reveal that volunteering is associated with reduced symptoms of depression, better self-reported health, fewer functional limitations, and lower mortality. The extant evidence provides the basis for a model proposing that volunteering increases social, physical, and cognitive activity (to varying degrees depending on characteristics of the volunteer placement) which, through biological and psychological mechanisms, leads to improved functioning; we further propose that these volunteering-related functional improvements should be associated with reduced dementia risk. Recommendations for future research are that studies (a) include more objective measures of psychosocial, physical, and cognitive functioning; (b) integrate qualitative and quantitative methods in prospective study designs; (c) explore further individual differences in the benefits associated with volunteering; (d) include occupational analyses of volunteers' specific jobs in order to identify their social, physical, and cognitive complexity; (e) investigate the independent versus interactive health benefits associated with volunteering relative to engagement in other forms of activity; and (f) examine the relationship between volunteering and dementia risk. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. A systematic review of the health benefits of exercise rehabilitation in persons living with atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomantonio, Nicholas B; Bredin, Shannon S D; Foulds, Heather J A; Warburton, Darren E R

    2013-04-01

    This systematic review sought to evaluate critically the health benefits of physical activity among persons with atrial fibrillation (AF). AF is increasing in Western society. While health benefits of physical activity are well established, benefits of physical activity among individuals with AF are not clearly identified. Literature was retrieved systematically through searching electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane), cross-referencing, and drawing on the authors' knowledge. Identified original research articles evaluated health benefits of physical activity among persons with AF or effects of physical activity on AF incidence. From 1056 individual citations, 36 eligible articles were identified. Moderate-intensity physical activity was found to improve exercise capacity, quality of life, and the ability to carry out activities of daily living among persons with AF (n = 6). Increased incidence of AF was not associated with physical activity among the general population (n = 2), although long-term vigorous endurance exercise may be associated with increased incidence of AF (n = 7), and greater risks may be associated with high-intensity physical activity among those with AF (n = 2). Moderate-intensity physical activity among individuals with AF does not adversely alter training outcomes, functional capacity, morbidity, or mortality compared with those in sinus rhythm (n = 12). Physical activity may improve management and treatment of AF (n = 6) and, among at-risk populations, may reduce incidence of AF (n = 3). In conclusion, moderate-intensity physical activity should be encouraged among persons with or at risk of AF. Further research is needed. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Increasing health insurance coverage through an extended Federal Employees Health Benefits Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, B C

    2001-01-01

    The Federal Employees Health Benefits Program (FEHBP) could be combined with health insurance tax credits to extend coverage to the uninsured. An extended FEHBP, or "E-FEHBP," would be open to all individuals who were not covered through work or public programs and who also were eligible for the tax credits on the basis of income. E-FEHBP also would be open to employees of very small firms, regardless of their eligibility for tax credits. Most plans available to FEHBP participants would be required to offer enrollment to E-FEHBP participants, although premiums would be rated separately. High-risk individuals would be diverted to a separate high-risk pool, the cost of which would be subsidized by the federal government. E-FEHBP would be administered by the states, or if a state declined, by an entity that contracted with the Office of Personnel Management. While E-FEHBP would provide group insurance to people who otherwise could not get it, premiums could exceed the tax-credit amount and some people still might find the coverage unaffordable.

  17. Evaluation of the Benefits Attributable to Automotive Lighweight Materials Program Research and Development Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S.

    2002-01-11

    The purpose of this project is to identify and test methods appropriate for estimating the benefits attributable to research and development (R and D) projects funded by the Automotive Lightweight Materials (ALM) Program of the Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies (OAAT) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The program focuses on the development and validation of advanced lightweight materials technologies to significantly reduce automotive vehicle body and chassis weight without compromising other attributes such as safety, performance, recyclability, and cost. The work supports the goals of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). Up to thirty percent of the improvement required to meet the PNGV goal of tripling vehicle fuel economy and much of its cost, safety, and recyclability goal depend on the lightweight materials. Funded projects range from basic materials science research to applied research in production environments. Collaborators on these projects include national laboratories, universities, and private sector firms, such as leading automobile manufacturers and their suppliers.

  18. A cost-benefit analysis of the Mexican Social Security Administration's family planning program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nortman, D L; Halvas, J; Rabago, A

    1986-01-01

    A cost-benefit analysis of the family planning program of the Mexican Social Security System (IMSS) was undertaken to test the hypothesis that IMSS's family planning services yield a net savings to IMSS by reducing the load on its maternal and infant care service. The cost data are believed to be of exceptionally high quality because they were empirically ascertained by a retrospective and prospective survey of unit time and personnel costs per specified detailed type of service in 37 IMSS hospitals and 16 clinics in 13 of Mexico's 32 states. Based on the average cost per case, the analysis disclosed that for every peso (constant 1983 currency) that IMSS spent on family planning services to its urban population during 1972-1984 inclusive, the agency saved nine pesos. The article concludes by raising the speculative question as to the proportion of the births averted by the IMSS family planning program that would have been averted in the absence of IMSS's family planning services.

  19. Organisational benefits of a strong research culture in a health service: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Katherine; Lynch, Lauren; Porter, Judi; Taylor, Nicholas F

    2017-03-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to determine whether there is an association between having research culture in a health service and better organisational performance. Methods Using systematic review methods, databases were searched, inclusion criteria applied and study quality appraised. Data were extracted from selected studies and the results were synthesised descriptively. Results Eight studies were selected for review. Five studies compared health services with high versus low levels of research activity among the workforce. Three studies evaluated the effect of specific interventions focused on the health workforce. All studies reported a positive association between research activity and organisational performance. Improved organisational performance included lower patient mortality rates (two of two studies), higher levels of patient satisfaction (one of one study), reduced staff turnover (two of two studies), improved staff satisfaction (one of two studies) and improved organisational efficiency (four of five studies). Conclusions A stronger research culture appears to be associated with benefits to patients, staff and the organisation. What is known about this topic? Research investment in the health workforce can increase research productivity of the health workforce. In addition, investment in clinical research can lead to positive health outcomes. However, it is not known whether a positive research culture among the health workforce is associated with improved organisational performance. What does this paper add? The present systematic review of the literature provides evidence that a positive research culture and interventions directed at the health workforce are associated with patient, staff and organisational benefits. What are the implications for practitioners? For health service managers and policy makers, one interpretation of the results could be to provide support for initiatives directed at the health workforce to increase a

  20. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review. Sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eng, Alison Goss [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Sustainability Platform Review meeting.

  1. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCann, Laura [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Feedstock Platform Review meeting.

  2. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review. Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindauer, Alicia [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Infrastructure Platform Review meeting.

  3. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Joyce [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Algae Platform Review meeting.

  4. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haq, Zia [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Analysis Platform Review meeting.

  5. A systematic review of school-based suicide prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Cara; Bolton, Shay-Lee; Katz, Laurence Y; Isaak, Corinne; Tilston-Jones, Toni; Sareen, Jitender

    2013-10-01

    Suicide is one of the leading causes of death among youth today. Schools are a cost-effective way to reach youth, yet there is no conclusive evidence regarding the most effective prevention strategy. We conducted a systematic review of the empirical literature on school-based suicide prevention programs. Studies were identified through MEDLINE and Scopus searches, using keywords such as "suicide, education, prevention and program evaluation." Additional studies were identified with a manual search of relevant reference lists. Individual studies were rated for level of evidence, and the programs were given a grade of recommendation. Five reviewers rated all studies independently and disagreements were resolved through discussion. Sixteen programs were identified. Few programs have been evaluated for their effectiveness in reducing suicide attempts. Most studies evaluated the programs' abilities to improve students' and school staffs' knowledge and attitudes toward suicide. Signs of Suicide and the Good Behavior Game were the only programs found to reduce suicide attempts. Several other programs were found to reduce suicidal ideation, improve general life skills, and change gatekeeper behaviors. There are few evidence-based, school-based suicide prevention programs, a combination of which may be effective. It would be useful to evaluate the effectiveness of general mental health promotion programs on the outcome of suicide. The grades assigned in this review are reflective of the available literature, demonstrating a lack of randomized controlled trials. Further evaluation of programs examining suicidal behavior outcomes in randomized controlled trials is warranted. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Health Benefits of Digital Videogames for Older Adults: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Amanda K; Chavarria, Enmanuel; Maneeratana, Vasana; Chaney, Beth H; Bernhardt, Jay M

    2012-12-01

    This article is a systematic review conducted of the research literature on digital videogames played by older adults and health outcomes associated with game play. Findings from each study meeting the inclusion criteria were analyzed and summarized into emergent themes to determine the impact of digital games in promoting healthy behaviors among older adults. A systematic review of the research literature was conducted through multiple academic databases for works, published between the years 2000 and 2011, looking at digital videogame interventions with adults 65 years of age and older. Multiple combinations of search terms and Boolean operators relevant to digital videogames and older adults were queried. A criteria matrix was created to code and evaluate studies. Thirteen studies met specific criteria for inclusion and were analyzed in the final review. Significant mental, physical, and social health factors, type of digital game platform, study design, and measurements are among emergent themes summarized from the reviewed research literature. Significant mental health outcomes of digital game interventions were found in the majority of the reviewed studies, followed by physical and lastly social health outcomes in older adults. A majority of the studies revealed significant positive effects on health outcomes associated with digital videogame play among older adults. With current advancements in technology, including advanced motion sensing, digital game platforms have significant potential for positive health impact among older populations. More robust and rigorous research designs are needed to increase validity and reliability of results and establish stronger causal relationships on the health benefits of digital videogame play for older adults.

  7. Development of Foot Massage Program on Nausea and Vomiting for Cancer Patients: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Ketut Guru Prapti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to develop a foot massage program to support care activity in reducing nausea and vomiting for cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Two phases, a literature review and the development of a foot massage program were conducted. The literature review was to analyze state of the art massage techniques by reviewing problems, related theories and supporting evidence. Method: Eight published studies in the English language were reviewed. A massage can be performed for different durations, from 10 minutes up to 60 minutes for three to six weeks and can be applied on various body areas. We found that the soft stroke/effleurage seems to be the best method and is most suitable for patients with cancer. It is also evident that foot massaging can be applied as a modality to reduce nausea and vomiting for cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Result: We developed a foot massage program specifically for patients with cancer. The foot massage program comprised of three sessions, including 1 education session, 2 preparation session, and 3 foot massage session. In the education session, patients obtain brief information about the definition of a foot massage, the benefits and contraindication of foot massaging. During the preparation phase, foot soaking and warming up are performed. Subsequently, the foot massage is applied and should last for 30 minutes. Further research is recommended to test the effectiveness of the proposed foot massage program for nausea and vomiting in cancer patients across countries including Indonesia. Key Words: Foot massage program, chemotherapy, nausea and vomiting

  8. Escitalopram—translating molecular properties into clinical benefit: reviewing the evidence in major depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Brian; Taylor, David

    2010-01-01

    The majority of currently marketed drugs contain a mixture of enantiomers; however, recent evidence suggests that individual enantiomers can have pharmacological properties that differ importantly from enantiomer mixtures. Escitalopram, the S-enantiomer of citalopram, displays markedly different pharmacological activity to the R-enantiomer. This review aims to evaluate whether these differences confer any significant clinical advantage for escitalopram over either citalopram or other frequently used antidepressants. Searches were conducted using PubMed and EMBASE (up to January 2009). Abstracts of the retrieved studies were reviewed independently by both authors for inclusion. Only those studies relating to depression or major depressive disorder were included. The search identified over 250 citations, of which 21 studies and 18 pooled or meta-analyses studies were deemed suitable for inclusion. These studies reveal that escitalopram has some efficacy advantage over citalopram and paroxetine, but no consistent advantage over other selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Escitalopram has at least comparable efficacy to available serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, venlafaxine XR and duloxetine, and may offer some tolerability advantages over these agents. This review suggests that the mechanistic advantages of escitalopram over citalopram translate into clinical efficacy advantages. Escitalopram may have a favourable benefit-risk ratio compared with citalopram and possibly with several other antidepressant agents. PMID:20147575

  9. Escitalopram--translating molecular properties into clinical benefit: reviewing the evidence in major depression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leonard, Brian

    2010-08-01

    The majority of currently marketed drugs contain a mixture of enantiomers; however, recent evidence suggests that individual enantiomers can have pharmacological properties that differ importantly from enantiomer mixtures. Escitalopram, the S-enantiomer of citalopram, displays markedly different pharmacological activity to the R-enantiomer. This review aims to evaluate whether these differences confer any significant clinical advantage for escitalopram over either citalopram or other frequently used antidepressants. Searches were conducted using PubMed and EMBASE (up to January 2009). Abstracts of the retrieved studies were reviewed independently by both authors for inclusion. Only those studies relating to depression or major depressive disorder were included. The search identified over 250 citations, of which 21 studies and 18 pooled or meta-analyses studies were deemed suitable for inclusion. These studies reveal that escitalopram has some efficacy advantage over citalopram and paroxetine, but no consistent advantage over other selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Escitalopram has at least comparable efficacy to available serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, venlafaxine XR and duloxetine, and may offer some tolerability advantages over these agents. This review suggests that the mechanistic advantages of escitalopram over citalopram translate into clinical efficacy advantages. Escitalopram may have a favourable benefit-risk ratio compared with citalopram and possibly with several other antidepressant agents.

  10. Human factors engineering plan for reviewing nuclear plant modernization programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, John; Higgins, James

    2004-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate reviews the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of nuclear power plants (NPPs) involved in the modernization of the plant systems and control rooms. The purpose of a HFE review is to help ensure personnel and public safety by verifying that accepted HFE practices and guidelines are incorporated into the program and nuclear power plant design. Such a review helps to ensure the HFE aspects of an NPP are developed, designed, and evaluated on the basis of a structured top-down system analysis using accepted HFE principles. The review addresses eleven HFE elements: HFE Program Management, Operating Experience Review, Functional Requirements Analysis and Allocation, Task Analysis, Staffing, Human Reliability Analysis, Human-System Interface Design, Procedure Development, Training Program Development, Human Factors Verification and Validation, and Design Implementation

  11. Human factors engineering plan for reviewing nuclear plant modernization programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, John; Higgins, James [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    2004-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate reviews the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of nuclear power plants (NPPs) involved in the modernization of the plant systems and control rooms. The purpose of a HFE review is to help ensure personnel and public safety by verifying that accepted HFE practices and guidelines are incorporated into the program and nuclear power plant design. Such a review helps to ensure the HFE aspects of an NPP are developed, designed, and evaluated on the basis of a structured top-down system analysis using accepted HFE principles. The review addresses eleven HFE elements: HFE Program Management, Operating Experience Review, Functional Requirements Analysis and Allocation, Task Analysis, Staffing, Human Reliability Analysis, Human-System Interface Design, Procedure Development, Training Program Development, Human Factors Verification and Validation, and Design Implementation.

  12. Benefits and harms of CT screening for lung cancer: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Peter B; Mirkin, Joshua N; Oliver, Thomas K; Azzoli, Christopher G; Berry, Donald A; Brawley, Otis W; Byers, Tim; Colditz, Graham A; Gould, Michael K; Jett, James R; Sabichi, Anita L; Smith-Bindman, Rebecca; Wood, Douglas E; Qaseem, Amir; Detterbeck, Frank C

    2012-06-13

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death. Most patients are diagnosed with advanced disease, resulting in a very low 5-year survival. Screening may reduce the risk of death from lung cancer. To conduct a systematic review of the evidence regarding the benefits and harms of lung cancer screening using low-dose computed tomography (LDCT). A multisociety collaborative initiative (involving the American Cancer Society, American College of Chest Physicians, American Society of Clinical Oncology, and National Comprehensive Cancer Network) was undertaken to create the foundation for development of an evidence-based clinical guideline. MEDLINE (Ovid: January 1996 to April 2012), EMBASE (Ovid: January 1996 to April 2012), and the Cochrane Library (April 2012). Of 591 citations identified and reviewed, 8 randomized trials and 13 cohort studies of LDCT screening met criteria for inclusion. Primary outcomes were lung cancer mortality and all-cause mortality, and secondary outcomes included nodule detection, invasive procedures, follow-up tests, and smoking cessation. Critical appraisal using predefined criteria was conducted on individual studies and the overall body of evidence. Differences in data extracted by reviewers were adjudicated by consensus. Three randomized studies provided evidence on the effect of LDCT screening on lung cancer mortality, of which the National Lung Screening Trial was the most informative, demonstrating that among 53,454 participants enrolled, screening resulted in significantly fewer lung cancer deaths (356 vs 443 deaths; lung cancer−specific mortality, 274 vs 309 events per 100,000 person-years for LDCT and control groups, respectively; relative risk, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.73-0.93; absolute risk reduction, 0.33%; P = .004). The other 2 smaller studies showed no such benefit. In terms of potential harms of LDCT screening, across all trials and cohorts, approximately 20% of individuals in each round of screening had positive results requiring

  13. Hood River Production Program Review, Final Report 1991-2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underwood, Keith; Chapman, Colin; Ackerman, Nicklaus

    2003-12-01

    This document provides a comprehensive review of Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funded activities within the Hood River Basin from 1991 to 2001. These activities, known as the Hood River Production Program (HRPP), are intended to mitigate for fish losses related to operation of federal dams in the Columbia River Basin, and to contribute to recovery of endangered and/or threatened salmon and steelhead, as directed by Nation Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration - Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries). The Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the HRPP, which authorized BPA to fund salmon and steelhead enhancement activities in the Hood River Basin, was completed in 1996 (BPA 1996). The EIS specified seven years of monitoring and evaluation (1996-2002) after program implementation to determine if program actions needed modification to meet program objectives. The EIS also called for a program review after 2002, that review is reported here.

  14. A Double-Edged Sword: A Review of Benefits and Risks of Online Nonsuicidal Self-Injury Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Stephen P; Seko, Yukari

    2016-03-01

    This review aimed to synthesize current evidence on the perceived benefits and risks of online activity pertinent to nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). A systematic literature search was conducted to identify peer-reviewed articles, which yielded a total of 27 articles published between 2005 and 2015. Following this, a thematic analysis was employed to identify perceived benefits and risks of online NSSI activity. Our thematic analysis identified 4 potential benefits (mitigation of social isolation, recovery encouragement, emotional self-disclosure, curbing NSSI urges) and 3 potential risks (NSSI reinforcement, triggering NSSI urges, stigmatization of NSSI) associated with online NSSI activities. Given the double-edged effect of online NSSI activities, clinicians may benefit from incorporating clients' online NSSI activity in the context of NSSI assessment and treatment. Future research ought to directly examine the link between online NSSI activity and NSSI behavior to better understand the nature of these benefits and risks. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Biomass Program 2007 Program Peer Review - Biochemical and Products Platform Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-27

    This document discloses the comments provided by a review panel at the U.S. Department of Energy Office of the Biomass Program Peer Review held on November 15-16, 2007 in Baltimore, MD and the Biochemical and Products Platform Review held on August 7-9, 2007 in Denver, Colorado.

  16. A Review of Generic Program Visualization Systems for Introductory Programming Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorva, Juha; Karavirta, Ville; Malmi, Lauri

    2013-01-01

    This article is a survey of program visualization systems intended for teaching beginners about the runtime behavior of computer programs. Our focus is on generic systems that are capable of illustrating many kinds of programs and behaviors. We inclusively describe such systems from the last three decades and review findings from their empirical…

  17. Proceedings of the 1994 DOE/NREL Hydrogen Program Review, April 18--21, 1994, Livermore, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The US Department of Energy has conducted programs of research and development in hydrogen and related technologies since 1975. The current program, conducted in accordance with the DOE Hydrogen Program Plan FY 1993--FY 1997 published in June 1992, establishes program priorities and guidance for allocating funding. The core program, currently under the Office of Energy Management, supports projects in the areas of hydrogen production, storage, and systems research. At an annual program review, each research project is evaluated by a panel of technical experts for technical quality, progress, and programmatic benefit. This Proceedings of the April 1994 Hydrogen Program Review compiles all research projects supported by the Hydrogen Program during FY 1994. For those people interested in the status of hydrogen technologies, we hope that the Proceedings will serve as a useful technical reference. Individual reports are processed separately.

  18. Consumer evaluation of food with nutritional benefits: a systematic review and narrative synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogendi, Joseph Birundu; De Steur, Hans; Gellynck, Xavier; Makokha, Anselimo

    2016-06-01

    As a consequence of the growing interest in, and development of, various types of food with nutritional benefits, the modern consumer views their kitchen cabinet more and more as a medicine cabinet. Given that consumer evaluation of food is considered key to the successful production, marketing and finally consumption of food, a procedure commonly used in medical fields was employed to systematically review and summarize evidence of consumer evaluation studies on nutritious foods. The focus is primarily on consumer understanding of nutritious food and the underlying determinants of consumer evaluation. Our results highlight four groups of key determinants: (1) nutrition knowledge and information; (2) attitudes, beliefs, perceptions and behavioural determinants; (3) price, process and product characteristics; and (4) socio-demographics. The findings also point to the importance of understanding consumer acceptance as one many concepts in the consumer evaluation process, and provide support for developing appropriate strategies for improving health and well-being of consumers.

  19. A review of evidence of health benefit from artificial neural networks in medical intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisboa, P J G

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to assess the evidence of healthcare benefits involving the application of artificial neural networks to the clinical functions of diagnosis, prognosis and survival analysis, in the medical domains of oncology, critical care and cardiovascular medicine. The primary source of publications is PUBMED listings under Randomised Controlled Trials and Clinical Trials. The rĵle of neural networks is introduced within the context of advances in medical decision support arising from parallel developments in statistics and artificial intelligence. This is followed by a survey of published Randomised Controlled Trials and Clinical Trials, leading to recommendations for good practice in the design and evaluation of neural networks for use in medical intervention.

  20. What are the health benefits of active travel? A systematic review of trials and cohort studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda E Saunders

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increasing active travel (primarily walking and cycling has been widely advocated for reducing obesity levels and achieving other population health benefits. However, the strength of evidence underpinning this strategy is unclear. This study aimed to assess the evidence that active travel has significant health benefits. METHODS: The study design was a systematic review of (i non-randomised and randomised controlled trials, and (ii prospective observational studies examining either (a the effects of interventions to promote active travel or (b the association between active travel and health outcomes. Reports of studies were identified by searching 11 electronic databases, websites, reference lists and papers identified by experts in the field. Prospective observational and intervention studies measuring any health outcome of active travel in the general population were included. Studies of patient groups were excluded. RESULTS: Twenty-four studies from 12 countries were included, of which six were studies conducted with children. Five studies evaluated active travel interventions. Nineteen were prospective cohort studies which did not evaluate the impact of a specific intervention. No studies were identified with obesity as an outcome in adults; one of five prospective cohort studies in children found an association between obesity and active travel. Small positive effects on other health outcomes were found in five intervention studies, but these were all at risk of selection bias. Modest benefits for other health outcomes were identified in five prospective studies. There is suggestive evidence that active travel may have a positive effect on diabetes prevention, which may be an important area for future research. CONCLUSIONS: Active travel may have positive effects on health outcomes, but there is little robust evidence to date of the effectiveness of active transport interventions for reducing obesity. Future evaluations of such

  1. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Annual Program Review 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-05-01

    This book is submitted as one written part of the 1999 Annual DOE High Energy Physics Program Review of Fermilab, scheduled May 5-7,1999. This book should be read in conjunction with the 1999 Fermilab Workbook and the review presentations.

  2. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Annual Program Review 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    This book is submitted as a written adjunct to the 1993 Annual DOE High Energy Physics Program Review of Fermilab, scheduled for March 31-April 3. In it are described the functions and activities of the various Laboratory Divisions and Sections plus statements of plans and goals for the coming year. The Review Committee, as this goes to press, consists of·

  3. Benefits and harms of direct to consumer advertising: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbody, S; Wilson, P; Watt, I

    2005-08-01

    Direct to consumer advertising is increasingly used by the pharmaceutical industry, but its benefits and harms have yet to be summarised in a comprehensive and rigorous manner. A systematic review was conducted of robust evaluations of the impact (positive and negative) of direct to consumer advertising. A broad range of databases and data sources (including Cinahl, Embase, HMIC, HSRProj, Medline, PsycInfo, and the internet) were searched from inception to 2004. From 2853 citations only four reports were found that met the strict inclusion criteria and provided usable results. Direct to consumer advertising is associated with increased prescription of advertised products and there is substantial impact on patients' request for specific drugs and physicians' confidence in prescribing. No additional benefits in terms of health outcomes were demonstrated. Direct to consumer advertising is banned in most countries, and the research evidence tends to support the negative impact that is feared by those who support a legislative ban. Further research is needed into the clinical and economic impact of direct to consumer advertising in healthcare systems.

  4. The role and benefits of accessing primary care patient records during unscheduled care: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Tom; Coiera, Enrico

    2017-09-22

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of accessing primary care records on unscheduled care. Unscheduled care is typically delivered in hospital Emergency Departments. Studies published to December 2014 reporting on primary care record access during unscheduled care were retrieved. Twenty-two articles met inclusion criteria from a pool of 192. Many shared electronic health records (SEHRs) were large in scale, servicing many millions of patients. Reported utilization rates by clinicians was variable, with rates >20% amongst health management organizations but much lower in nation-scale systems. No study reported on clinical outcomes or patient safety, and no economic studies of SEHR access during unscheduled care were available. Design factors that may affect utilization included consent and access models, SEHR content, and system usability and reliability. Despite their size and expense, SEHRs designed to support unscheduled care have been poorly evaluated, and it is not possible to draw conclusions about any likely benefits associated with their use. Heterogeneity across the systems and the populations they serve make generalization about system design or performance difficult. None of the reviewed studies used a theoretical model to guide evaluation. Value of Information models may be a useful theoretical approach to design evaluation metrics, facilitating comparison across systems in future studies. Well-designed SEHRs should in principle be capable of improving the efficiency, quality and safety of unscheduled care, but at present the evidence for such benefits is weak, largely because it has not been sought.

  5. Literature review of the benefits and obstacle of horizontal directional drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norizam, M. S. Mohd; Nuzul Azam, H.; Helmi Zulhaidi, S.; Aziz, A. Abdul; Nadzrol Fadzilah, A.

    2017-11-01

    In this new era the construction industry not only need to be completed within budget, timely, at acceptable quality and safety but the stakeholders especially the local authorities and the public realises for the important need of sustainable construction method to be used for our younger generation to heritage if not better a safer world for them to live and raise up their children’s. Horizontal Directional Drilling method is the most commonly recognised trenchless utilities method as a preferred construction method in this age. Among the reasons HDD method offers less disturbance on traffic, the public, business activities and neighbourhood, lower restoration cost, less noise, dust and minimum import/export of the construction materials. In addition HDD method can drill through congested utilities areas with minimum cutting and shorter time. This paper aims to appraise the benefits and obstacle of HDD method in construction industry. It is an endeavour to fulfil the local authorities cry for alternative method that less damages to the roads, road furniture’s and public complaints compared to the conventional open cut method. In addition HDD method is seem to be in line with sustainable development requirements e.g. reduce, reuse, recycle and etc. Hence, it is important to determine the benefits and obstacle factors of HDD implementation. The factors are based on the literature review conducted by the author on the subject matters gathered from previous studies, journals, text books, guidelines, magazine articles, newspaper cutting and etc.

  6. Institutional framework for integrated Pharmaceutical Benefits Management: results from a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Roman Hermanowski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In this paper, we emphasised that effective management of health plans beneficiaries access to reimbursed medicines requires proper institutional set-up. The main objective was to identify and recommend an institutional framework of integrated pharmaceutical care providing effective, safe and equitable access to medicines. Method: The institutional framework of drug policy was derived on the basis of publications obtained by systematic reviews. A comparative analysis concerning adaptation of coordinated pharmaceutical care services in the USA, the UK, Poland, Italy, Denmark and Germany was performed. Results: While most European Union Member States promote the implementation of selected e-Health tools, like e-Prescribing, these efforts do not necessarily implement an integrated package. There is no single agent who would manage an insured patients’ access to medicines and health care in a coordinated manner, thereby increasing the efficiency and safety of drug policy. More attention should be paid by European Union Member States as to how to integrate various e-Health tools to enhance benefits to both individuals and societies. One solution could be to implement an integrated “pharmacy benefit management” model, which is well established in the USA and Canada and provides an integrated package of cost-containment methods, implemented within a transparent institutional framework and powered by strong motivation of the agent.

  7. The Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Fruit-A Review of Characteristic Components and Health Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qingxia; Zhao, Longyan

    2017-12-06

    Mulberry (Morus alba L.) fruit has a high yield in one fruiting season in many countries, especially in Asia, and a long history of use as an edible fruit and traditional medicine. A great diversity of nutritive compounds such as fatty acids, amino acids, vitamins, minerals, and bioactive compounds, including anthocyanins, rutin, quercetin, chlorogenic acid, and polysaccharides have been found in mulberry fruit depending on the cultivars and maturity stages. Furthermore, the extracts and active components of mulberry fruit have demonstrated numerous biological activities, including antioxidant, neuroprotective, antiatherosclerosis, immunomodulative, antitumor, antihyperglycemic, and hypolipidemic activities in in vitro and in vivo studies, and they have received increasing interest from researchers and pharmaceutical companies. Although some mechanistic studies further substantiate these potential health benefits of mulberry fruit, a need exists to make a better understanding of the roles of these compounds in traditional medicine and the diet. This review provides recent findings regarding the chemical constituents and biological activities of mulberry fruit, which may be useful for stimulating deep research of mulberry fruit and for predicting their uses as important and safe contributors to benefit human health.

  8. The balance of benefit: a review of intergenerational transfers in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legge, V; O'Loughlin, K

    2000-10-01

    This article reviews the financial and nonfinancial transfers taking place intergenerationally and between older people and the community. Secondary data were used in the analysis and discussion to provide an overview of the Australian context. Within the public arena, governments provide major financial contributions through money transfers and the provision of residential support. Older people provide considerable community support by undertaking voluntary services. This article concludes that the balance of benefit is difficult to determine; however, in terms of public expenditure older people are major recipients. Within the family, the balance of benefit is reversed. Older people are major monetary contributors to adult children and their families in the transition to an independent status. Older people are also the principal carers of their frail-aged partners, thus reducing both the burden of care on their adult children and government institutions. The analysis reported here has major implications for the development of policy and structural change and for reducing negative stereotypes of dependency in old age.

  9. Review on water leakage control in distribution networks and the associated environmental benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiang; Liu, Ruiping; Chen, Qiuwen; Li, Ruonan

    2014-05-01

    Water supply is the primary element of an urban system. Due to rapid urbanization and water scarcity, maintaining a stable and safe water supply has become a challenge to many cities, whereas a large amount of water is lost from the pipes of distribution systems. Water leakage is not only a waste of water resources, but also incurs great socio-economic costs. This article presents a comprehensive review on the potential water leakage control approaches and specifically discusses the benefits of each to environmental conservation. It is concluded that water leakage could be further reduced by improving leakage detection capability through a combination of predictive modeling and monitoring instruments, optimizing pipe maintenance strategy, and developing an instant pressure regulation system. The environment could benefit from these actions because of water savings and the reduction of energy consumption as well as greenhouse gas emissions. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. 76 FR 65428 - Classification and Program Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... inmate refuses to appear at a review, the inmate may be subject to disciplinary action. However, the... understanding of the inmate's refusal will preserve that information for any subsequent disciplinary action that... statute, but that refusal to participate may result in disciplinary action. Executive Order 12866 This...

  11. China Green Lights Program: A Review and Recommendations; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Jiang

    1999-01-01

    This report reviews the development of China's Green Lights Program in the last two years, and discusses the remaining barriers to the widespread adoption of efficient lighting technologies in China: chiefly quality, high initial costs, and lack of accurate information. A variety of policy options are recommended for the future expansion of China's Green Lights Program

  12. Review of biological monitoring programs at nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintana, L.R.; Oakes, T.W.; Shank, K.E.

    Biological monitoring programs, as well as relevant radioecological research studies, are reviewed at specific Department of Energy facilities; the program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is discussed in detail. The biological measurements that are being used for interpreting the impact of a facility on its surrounding environment and nearby population are given. Suggestions which could facilitate interlaboratory comparison studies are presented

  13. China Green Lights Program: A Review and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jiang

    1999-06-10

    This report reviews the development of China's Green Lights Program in the last two years, and discusses the remaining barriers to the widespread adoption of efficient lighting technologies in China: chiefly quality, high initial costs, and lack of accurate information. A variety of policy options are recommended for the future expansion of China's Green Lights Program.

  14. Preventing Occupational Skin Disease: A Review of Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zack, Bethany; Arrandale, Victoria H; Holness, D Linn

    Occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) is a common occupational disease that impacts a variety of worker groups. Skin protection and disease prevention training programs have shown promise for improving prevention practices and reducing the incidence of OCD. This review details the features of training programs for primary prevention of OCD and identifies gaps in the literature. Twelve studies were identified for in-depth review: many studies included wet workers employed in health care, hairdressing, cleaning, and food preparation; 1 program featured manufacturing workers. Few programs provided content on allergic contact dermatitis, and only 1 was evaluated for long-term effectiveness. Effective programs were similar in content, delivery method, and timing and were characterized by industry specificity, multimodal learning, participatory elements, skin care resource provision, repeated sessions, and management engagement. Long-term effectiveness, generalizability beyond OCD, workplace health and safety culture impact, and translation of programs in the North American context represent areas for future research.

  15. Primary prevention research: a preliminary review of program outcome studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaps, E; Churgin, S; Palley, C S; Takata, B; Cohen, A Y

    1980-07-01

    This article reviews 35 drug abuse prevention program evaluations employing drug-specific outcome measures. Many of these evaluations assessed the effects of "new generation" prevention strategies: affective, peer-oriented, and multidimensional approaches. Only 14 studies evaluated purely informational programs. Evaluations were analyzed to ascertain (1) characteristics of the programs under study, (2) characteristics of the research designs, and (3) patterns among findings. This review provides some evidence that the newer prevention strategies may produce more positive and fewer negative outcomes than did older drug information approaches. Over 70% of the programs using the newer strategies produced some positive effects; only 29% showed negative effects. In contrast, 46% of informational programs showed positive effects; 46% showed negative effects. These findings must be approached with great caution, since the research was frequently scientifically inadequate, and since rigor of research was negatively correlated with intensity and duration of program services.

  16. A systematic review of evidence for the added benefits to health of exposure to natural environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight Teri M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing interest in the potential role of the natural environment in human health and well-being. However, the evidence-base for specific and direct health or well-being benefits of activity within natural compared to more synthetic environments has not been systematically assessed. Methods We conducted a systematic review to collate and synthesise the findings of studies that compare measurements of health or well-being in natural and synthetic environments. Effect sizes of the differences between environments were calculated and meta-analysis used to synthesise data from studies measuring similar outcomes. Results Twenty-five studies met the review inclusion criteria. Most of these studies were crossover or controlled trials that investigated the effects of short-term exposure to each environment during a walk or run. This included 'natural' environments, such as public parks and green university campuses, and synthetic environments, such as indoor and outdoor built environments. The most common outcome measures were scores of different self-reported emotions. Based on these data, a meta-analysis provided some evidence of a positive benefit of a walk or run in a natural environment in comparison to a synthetic environment. There was also some support for greater attention after exposure to a natural environment but not after adjusting effect sizes for pretest differences. Meta-analysis of data on blood pressure and cortisol concentrations found less evidence of a consistent difference between environments across studies. Conclusions Overall, the studies are suggestive that natural environments may have direct and positive impacts on well-being, but support the need for investment in further research on this question to understand the general significance for public health.

  17. Benefits and Risks of Antithrombotic Therapy in Essential Thrombocythemia: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Derek K; Hillis, Christopher M; Leong, Darryl P; Anand, Sonia S; Siegal, Deborah M

    2017-08-01

    Patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET) are at high risk for both thrombosis and hemorrhage. To evaluate the risks and benefits of antithrombotic therapy in adults with ET. Multiple databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, through 4 March 2017. Randomized and observational studies of antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy, published in any language and reporting thrombotic or hemorrhagic events. Two reviewers independently extracted data, assessed risk of bias, and graded certainty of evidence. No relevant randomized trials were identified. Twenty-four observational studies (18 comparative and 6 single-group) involving 6153 patients followed for 31 711 patient-years were reviewed; most were deemed to have high risk of bias. Most patients receiving antiplatelet therapy (3613 of 4527 [80%]) received low-dose aspirin (50 to 150 mg/d); 914 (20%) received high-dose aspirin (300 to 600 mg/d), dipyridamole, or other agents. Overall, findings were inconsistent and imprecise. The reported incidence rates of thrombosis, any bleeding, and major bleeding without antiplatelet therapy ranged from 5 to 110 (median, 20), from 3 to 39 (median, 8), and from 2 to 53 (median, 6) cases per 1000 patient-years, respectively. The reported relative risks for thrombosis, any bleeding, and major bleeding with antiplatelet therapy compared with none ranged from 0.26 to 3.48 (median, 0.74), from 0.48 to 11.04 (median, 1.95), and from 0.48 to 5.17 (median, 1.30), respectively. Certainty of evidence was rated low or very low for all outcomes. No randomized trials, no extractable data on anticoagulants, lack of uniform bleeding definitions, and systematic reporting of outcomes. Available evidence about the risk-benefit ratio of antiplatelet therapy in adults with ET is highly uncertain. Regional Medical Associates. (PROSPERO: CRD42015027051).

  18. International Experiences with Quantifying the Co-Benefits of Energy-Efficiency and Greenhouse-Gas Mitigation Programs and Policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Christopher [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wu, Grace [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-09-30

    Improving the efficiency of energy production and consumption and switching to lower carbon energy sources can significantly decrease carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and reduce climate change impacts. A growing body of research has found that these measures can also directly mitigate many non-climate change related human health hazards and environmental damage. Positive impacts of policies and programs that occur in addition to the intended primary policy goal are called co-benefits. Policy analysis relies on forecasting and comparing the costs of policy and program implementation and the benefits that accrue to society from implementation. GHG reduction and energy efficiency policies and programs face political resistance in part because of the difficulty of quantifying their benefits. On the one hand, climate change mitigation policy benefits are often global, long-term, and subject to large uncertainties, and subsidized energy pricing can reduce the direct monetary benefits of energy efficiency policies to below their cost. On the other hand, the co-benefits that accrue from these efforts’ resultant reductions in conventional air pollution (such as improved health, agricultural productivity, reduced damage to infrastructure, and local ecosystem improvements) are generally near term, local, and more certain than climate change mitigation benefits and larger than the monetary value of energy savings. The incorporation of co-benefits into energy efficiency and climate mitigation policy and program analysis therefore might significantly increase the uptake of these policies. Faster policy uptake is especially important in developing countries because ongoing development efforts that do not consider co-benefits may lock in suboptimal technologies and infrastructure and result in high costs in future years. Over the past two decades, studies have repeatedly documented that non-climate change related benefits of energy efficiency and fuel conversion efforts, as a part

  19. Appropriate methodologies for assessing the societal cost and benefits of conservation programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power, J.M.; Gill, G.S.; Harvey, K.M.

    1983-01-01

    The use of cost-benefit analysis for assessing the societal cost and benefits of conservation programmes is discussed. It is concluded that it should not be the sole criterion for project choice. (U.K.)

  20. An effectiveness and cost-benefit analysis of a hospital-based discharge transition program for elderly Medicare recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Shadi S; Freire, Chris; Morris-Dickinson, Gwendolyn; Shannon, Trip

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the business case of postdischarge care transition (PDCT) among Medicare beneficiaries by conducting a cost-benefit analysis. Randomized controlled trial. A general hospital in upstate New York State. Elderly Medicare beneficiaries being treated from October 2008 through December 2009 were randomly selected to receive services as part of a comprehensive PDCT program (intervention--173 patients) or regular discharge process (control--160 patients) and followed for 12 months. The intervention comprised five activities: development of a patient-centered health record, a structured discharge preparation checklist of critical activities, delivery of patient self-activation and management sessions, follow-up appointments, and coordination of data flow. Cost-benefit ratio of the PDCT program; self-management skills and abilities. The 1-year readmission analysis revealed that control participants were more likely to be readmitted than intervention participants (58.2% vs 48.2%; P = .08); with most of that difference observed in the 91 to 365 days after discharge. Findings from the cost-benefit analysis revealed a cost-benefit ratio of 1.09, which indicates that, for every $1 spent on the program, a saving of $1.09 was realized. In addition, participating in a care transition program significantly enhanced self-management skills and abilities. Postdischarge care transition programs have a dual benefit of enhancing elderly adults' self-management skills and abilities and producing cost savings. This study builds a case for the inclusion of PDCT programs as a reimbursable service in benefit packages. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, The American Geriatrics Society.

  1. Promoting professional identity, motivation, and persistence: Benefits of an informal mentoring program for female undergraduate students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R Hernandez

    Full Text Available Women are underrepresented in a number of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM disciplines. Limited diversity in the development of the STEM workforce has negative implications for scientific innovation, creativity, and social relevance. The current study reports the first-year results of the PROmoting Geoscience Research, Education, and SuccesS (PROGRESS program, a novel theory-driven informal mentoring program aimed at supporting first- and second-year female STEM majors. Using a prospective, longitudinal, multi-site (i.e., 7 universities in Colorado/Wyoming Front Range & Carolinas, propensity score matched design, we compare mentoring and persistence outcomes for women in and out of PROGRESS (N = 116. Women in PROGRESS attended an off-site weekend workshop and gained access to a network of volunteer female scientific mentors from on- and off-campus (i.e., university faculty, graduate students, and outside scientific professionals. The results indicate that women in PROGRESS had larger networks of developmental mentoring relationships and were more likely to be mentored by faculty members and peers than matched controls. Mentoring support from a faculty member benefited early-undergraduate women by strengthening their scientific identity and their interest in earth and environmental science career pathways. Further, support from a faculty mentor had a positive indirect impact on women's scientific persistence intentions, through strengthened scientific identity development. These results imply that first- and second- year undergraduate women's mentoring support networks can be enhanced through provision of protégé training and access to more senior women in the sciences willing to provide mentoring support.

  2. Promoting professional identity, motivation, and persistence: Benefits of an informal mentoring program for female undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Paul R; Bloodhart, Brittany; Barnes, Rebecca T; Adams, Amanda S; Clinton, Sandra M; Pollack, Ilana; Godfrey, Elaine; Burt, Melissa; Fischer, Emily V

    2017-01-01

    Women are underrepresented in a number of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines. Limited diversity in the development of the STEM workforce has negative implications for scientific innovation, creativity, and social relevance. The current study reports the first-year results of the PROmoting Geoscience Research, Education, and SuccesS (PROGRESS) program, a novel theory-driven informal mentoring program aimed at supporting first- and second-year female STEM majors. Using a prospective, longitudinal, multi-site (i.e., 7 universities in Colorado/Wyoming Front Range & Carolinas), propensity score matched design, we compare mentoring and persistence outcomes for women in and out of PROGRESS (N = 116). Women in PROGRESS attended an off-site weekend workshop and gained access to a network of volunteer female scientific mentors from on- and off-campus (i.e., university faculty, graduate students, and outside scientific professionals). The results indicate that women in PROGRESS had larger networks of developmental mentoring relationships and were more likely to be mentored by faculty members and peers than matched controls. Mentoring support from a faculty member benefited early-undergraduate women by strengthening their scientific identity and their interest in earth and environmental science career pathways. Further, support from a faculty mentor had a positive indirect impact on women's scientific persistence intentions, through strengthened scientific identity development. These results imply that first- and second- year undergraduate women's mentoring support networks can be enhanced through provision of protégé training and access to more senior women in the sciences willing to provide mentoring support.

  3. How Much Can Non-industry Standard Measurement Methodologies Benefit Methane Reduction Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risk, D. A.; O'Connell, L.; Atherton, E.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, energy sector methane emissions have been recorded in large part by applying modern non-industry-standard techniques. Industry may lack the regulatory flexibility to use such techniques, or in some cases may not understand the possible associated economic advantage. As progressive jurisdictions move from estimation and towards routine measurement, the research community should provide guidance to help regulators and companies measure more effectively, and economically if possible. In this study, we outline a modelling experiment in which we explore the integration of non-industry-standard measurement techniques as part of a generalized compliance measurement program. The study was not intended to be exhaustive, or to recommend particular combinations, but instead to explore the inter-relationships between methodologies, development type, compliance practice. We first defined the role, applicable scale, detection limits, working distances, and approximate deployment cost of several measurement methodologies. We then considered a variety of development types differing mainly in footprint, density, and emissions "profile". Using a Monte Carlo approach, we evaluated the effect of these various factors on the cost and confidence of the compliance measurement program. We found that when added individually, some of the research techniques were indeed able to deliver an improvement in cost and/or confidence when used alongside industry-standard Optical Gas Imaging. When applied in combination, the ideal fraction of each measurement technique depended on development type, emission profile, and whether confidence or cost was more important. Results suggest that measurement cost and confidence could be improved if energy companies exploited a wider range of measurement techniques, and in a manner tailored to each development. In the short-term, combining clear scientific guidance with economic information could benefit immediate mitigation efforts over

  4. Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Implementation of an Enhanced Recovery Program in Liver Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joliat, Gaëtan-Romain; Labgaa, Ismaïl; Hübner, Martin; Blanc, Catherine; Griesser, Anne-Claude; Schäfer, Markus; Demartines, Nicolas

    2016-10-01

    Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programs have been shown to ease the postoperative recovery and improve clinical outcomes for various surgery types. ERAS cost-effectiveness was demonstrated for colorectal surgery but not for liver surgery. The present study aim was to analyze the implementation costs and benefits of a specific ERAS program in liver surgery. A dedicated ERAS protocol for liver surgery was implemented in our department in July 2013. The subsequent year all consecutive patients undergoing liver surgery were treated according to this protocol (ERAS group). They were compared in terms of real in-hospital costs with a patient series before ERAS implementation (pre-ERAS group). Mean costs per patient were compared with a bootstrap T test. A cost-minimization analysis was performed. Seventy-four ERAS patients were compared with 100 pre-ERAS patients. There were no significant pre- and intraoperative differences between the two groups, except for the laparoscopy number (n = 18 ERAS, n = 9 pre-ERAS, p = 0.010). Overall postoperative complications were observed in 36 (49 %) and 64 patients (64 %) in the ERAS and pre-ERAS groups, respectively (p = 0.046). The median length of stay was significantly shorter for the ERAS group (8 vs. 10 days, p = 0.006). The total mean costs per patient were €38,726 and €42,356 for ERAS and pre-ERAS (p = 0.467). The cost-minimization analysis showed a total mean cost reduction of €3080 per patient after ERAS implementation. ERAS implementation for liver surgery induced a non-significant decrease in cost compared to standard care. Significant decreased complication rate and hospital stay were observed in the ERAS group.

  5. The Threat Effect of Active Labor Market Programs: A Systematic Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Hansen, Anne Toft

    2017-01-01

    This paper is a systematic review of the threat effect of active labor market programs for unemployed individuals. The threat effect is the induced change in the hazard rate of leaving unemployment prior to program participation. Studies included in the review all estimated a threat effect...... a hazard rate of 1.27 for the pooled estimate. It has thus been concluded that active labor market programs constitute a significant threat effect......., with the participants in all cases being unemployed individuals in receipt of benefit of some kind during their tenure of unemployment. Seven of these studies have been included in a meta-analysis: The meta-analysis, which has been carried out using a random effects model to account for heterogeneity, indicated...

  6. Increasing self-efficacy in learning to program: exploring the benefits of explicit instruction for problem solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Govender

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The difficulty of learning to program has long been identified amongst novices. This study explored the benefits of teaching a problem solving strategy by comparing students’ perceptions and attitudes towards problem solving before and after the strategy was implemented in secondary schools. Based on self-efficacy theory, students’ problem solving self-efficacy as well as teachers’ self-efficacy were investigated, showing that both students’ and teachers’ self-efficacy may have benefited from the explicit instruction. This would imply that teaching problem solving explicitly should be encouraged to increase self-efficacy to program.

  7. 78 FR 78369 - Submission for OMB Review; 30-Day Comment Request: Early Career Reviewer Program Online...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Submission for OMB Review; 30-Day Comment Request: Early Career Reviewer Program Online Application System--Center for Scientific Review (CSR) SUMMARY: Under the provisions of Section 3507(a)(1)(D) of the Paperwork Reduction Act...

  8. Review and summary of Solar Thermal Conversion Program planning assistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-06-01

    The Solar Thermal Conversion Program comprises a major part of the national solar energy program which must be continuously reviewed and modified where necessary. Modifications are typically required to reflect technical achievements and uncertainties which arise from within the program or from other technical programs, changes in budgets available for supporting the program as well as internal program funding priorities, changing goals such as through acceleration or stretch-out of the program schedule, significant organizational changes involving responsible governmental agencies, the introduction of new project management support contractors, and required budget or schedule changes occurring within individual projects that make up the Solar Thermal Conversion Program. The Aerospace Corporation has provided data to assist in planning, review, coordination, and documentation of the overall Solar Thermal Conversion Program. The Solar Thermal Conversion Program Plan is described in detail. Sections 2.0 through 5.0 cover the discussion and detail planning covering the objectives, justification, basic and alternative plans, budgets, and schedules for the Solar Thermal sub-unit portion of the Solar Electric Applications effort. Appendices B1, B2, and B3 include the March 21, March 28, and April 5, 1975, Program Plan submissions of the complete Solar Electric Applications effort. In Appendix B the Solar Thermal, Solar Photovoltaic, Wind Energy, and Ocean Thermal sub-unit texts have been condensed and formatted for integration in the overall ERDA budget package. (WHK)

  9. [Patients' intervention in a therapeutic education program dedicated to systemic lupus: definitions, setting and benefits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervier, B; Magar, Y; Allab, F; Richard, K; Neves, Y; Danjou, S; Amoura, Z; Ayçaguer, S

    2015-10-01

    Though recommended, participation of patients with specific expertise in therapeutic education programs (TEP) is rare. This work reports the experience of a national reference centre for rare systemic diseases. Involvement of "expert patients" (EP) has been planned from the development of a TEP dedicated to systemic lupus: patients' roles and required expertise have been defined and linked to the pedagogical tools. Such patients have been recruited during individual interviews and called to participate to specific pedagogical training. EP intervention have been evaluated by questionnaire to EP and health care providers. Three EP's functions have been identified: sharing experiences, giving "tips and tricks" and promoting dialogue. EP's interventions has been organised into a hierarchy (from sharing to co-animation). Among 298 patients enrolled in the TEP, 25 (8.4%) have been identified as possible EP. Eight of them (32%) benefited from a specific training of 12 hours. Among these patients, two (25%) regularly participate to the education sessions. For EP as well as for health care providers, EP's intervention seems beneficial (visual scale scores of 7.5 and 9.5, respectively). Though difficult to organise, EP's intervention in TEP dedicated to rare systemic diseases seems useful and would earn to be increase. Copyright © 2015 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. A heuristic ranking approach on capacity benefit margin determination using Pareto-based evolutionary programming technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Muhammad Murtadha; Abd Rahman, Nurulazmi; Musirin, Ismail; Fotuhi-Firuzabad, Mahmud; Rajabi-Ghahnavieh, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel multiobjective approach for capacity benefit margin (CBM) assessment taking into account tie-line reliability of interconnected systems. CBM is the imperative information utilized as a reference by the load-serving entities (LSE) to estimate a certain margin of transfer capability so that a reliable access to generation through interconnected system could be attained. A new Pareto-based evolutionary programming (EP) technique is used to perform a simultaneous determination of CBM for all areas of the interconnected system. The selection of CBM at the Pareto optimal front is proposed to be performed by referring to a heuristic ranking index that takes into account system loss of load expectation (LOLE) in various conditions. Eventually, the power transfer based available transfer capability (ATC) is determined by considering the firm and nonfirm transfers of CBM. A comprehensive set of numerical studies are conducted on the modified IEEE-RTS79 and the performance of the proposed method is numerically investigated in detail. The main advantage of the proposed technique is in terms of flexibility offered to an independent system operator in selecting an appropriate solution of CBM simultaneously for all areas.

  11. A Heuristic Ranking Approach on Capacity Benefit Margin Determination Using Pareto-Based Evolutionary Programming Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Murtadha Othman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel multiobjective approach for capacity benefit margin (CBM assessment taking into account tie-line reliability of interconnected systems. CBM is the imperative information utilized as a reference by the load-serving entities (LSE to estimate a certain margin of transfer capability so that a reliable access to generation through interconnected system could be attained. A new Pareto-based evolutionary programming (EP technique is used to perform a simultaneous determination of CBM for all areas of the interconnected system. The selection of CBM at the Pareto optimal front is proposed to be performed by referring to a heuristic ranking index that takes into account system loss of load expectation (LOLE in various conditions. Eventually, the power transfer based available transfer capability (ATC is determined by considering the firm and nonfirm transfers of CBM. A comprehensive set of numerical studies are conducted on the modified IEEE-RTS79 and the performance of the proposed method is numerically investigated in detail. The main advantage of the proposed technique is in terms of flexibility offered to an independent system operator in selecting an appropriate solution of CBM simultaneously for all areas.

  12. Benefits and harms of screening for and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelescu, Konstanze; Nussbaumer-Streit, Barbara; Sieben, Wiebke; Scheibler, Fülöp; Gartlehner, Gerald

    2016-11-02

    Most European and North American clinical practice guidelines recommend screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) as a routine pregnancy test. Antibiotic treatment of ASB in pregnant women is supposed to reduce maternal upper urinary tract infections (upper UTIs) and preterm labour. However, most studies supporting the treatment of ASB were conducted in the 1950s to 1980s. Because of subsequent changes in treatment options for ASB and UTI, the applicability of findings from these studies has come into question. Our systematic review had three objectives: firstly, to assess the patient-relevant benefits and harms of screening for ASB versus no screening; secondly, to compare the benefits and harms of different screening strategies; and thirdly, in case no reliable evidence on the overarching screening question was identified, to determine the benefits and harms of treatment of ASB. We systematically searched several bibliographic databases, trial registries, and other sources (up to 02/2016) for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and prospective non-randomised trials. Two authors independently reviewed abstracts and full-text articles and assessed the risk of bias of the studies included. As meta-analyses were not possible, we summarised the results qualitatively. We did not identify any eligible studies that investigated the benefits and harms of screening for ASB versus no screening or that compared different screening strategies. We identified four RCTs comparing antibiotics with no treatment or placebo in 454 pregnant women with ASB. The results of 2 studies published in the 1960s showed a statistically significant reduction in rates of pyelonephritis (odds ratio [OR] = 0.21, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.07-0.59) and lower UTI (OR = 0.10, 95 % CI 0.03-0.35) in women treated with antibiotics. By contrast, event rates reported by a recent study were not statistically significantly different, neither regarding pyelonephritis (0 % vs. 2.2 %; OR

  13. Organizational participatory research: a systematic mixed studies review exposing its extra benefits and the key factors associated with them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Paula L; Pluye, Pierre; Loignon, Christine; Granikov, Vera; Wright, Michael T; Pelletier, Jean-François; Bartlett-Esquilant, Gillian; Macaulay, Ann C; Haggerty, Jeannie; Parry, Sharon; Repchinsky, Carol

    2017-10-10

    In health, organizational participatory research (OPR) refers to health organization members participating in research decisions, with university researchers, throughout a study. This non-academic partner contribution to the research may take the form of consultation or co-construction. A drawback of OPR is that it requires more time from all those involved, compared to non-participatory research approaches; thus, understanding the added value of OPR, if any, is important. Thus, we sought to assess whether the OPR approach leads to benefits beyond what could be achieved through traditional research. We identified, selected, and appraised OPR health literature, and at each stage, two team members independently reviewed and coded the literature. We used quantitative content analysis to transform textual data into reliable numerical codes and conducted a logistic regression to test the hypothesis that a co-construction type OPR study yields extra benefits with a greater likelihood than consultation-type OPR studies. From 8873 abstracts and 992 full text papers, we distilled a sample of 107 OPR studies. We found no difference between the type of organization members' participation and the likelihood of exhibiting an extra benefit. However, the likelihood of an OPR study exhibiting at least one extra benefit is quadrupled when the impetus for the study comes from the organization, rather than the university researcher(s), or the organization and the university researcher(s) together (OR = 4.11, CI = 1.12-14.01). We also defined five types of extra benefits. This review describes the types of extra benefits OPR can yield and suggests these benefits may occur if the organization initiates the OPR. Further, this review exposes a need for OPR authors to more clearly describe the type of non-academic partner participation in key research decisions throughout the study. Detailed descriptions will benefit others conducting OPR and allow for a re-examination of the

  14. Investigating the benefits of sport participation for individuals with schizophrenia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soundy, Andrew; Roskell, Carolyn; Stubbs, Brendon; Probst, Michel; Vancampfort, Davy

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this review was to consider the impact of being introduced to a sport and sport participation on (a) weight loss and psychiatric symptoms, (b) any other health benefits in people with schizophrenia, supported by quantitative and qualitative findings. A systematic review in accordance with the PRISMA statement was conducted. Searches were undertaken in January 2014. Articles were eligible that (1) considered the effect (quantitative studies) and experience (qualitative and case studies) of either; being introduced to a 'sport' or undertaking a sport activity, (2) included >85% of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizo-affective spectrum disorders according to recognised criteria. A total of 10 studies including 5 trials (2*pre-experimental, 2*controlled trials, 1*randomised control trial), 2 qualitative studies and 3 case studies were included (n=185). Two out of 3 studies that considered weight as an outcome measure reported significant reductions in weight and psychiatric symptoms following sports participation. The mean reduction in body mass index (BMI) ranged from -0.7kg.m2 (pschizophrenia. Sport has the potential to improve an individual's quality of life through providing a meaningful normalizing activity that leads to achievement, success and satisfaction. Well-designed randomised controlled trials are required to fully determine the health effects of sports participation in schizophrenia.

  15. The indoor UV tanning industry: a review of skin cancer risk, health benefit claims, and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Jody A; Sorace, Michael; Spencer, James; Siegel, Daniel M

    2005-12-01

    Nearly 30 million people tan indoors in the United States annually, including 2.3 million adolescents. Despite increased evidence on the dangers of artificial UV radiation, the popularity of indoor tanning is growing. We aim to assess the following 3 entities: (1) the association of indoor tanning with skin cancer; (2) statements regarding the health benefits of indoor tanning, especially regarding the production of vitamin D; and (3) current regulation of the tanning industry in the United States. We conducted a narrative review of the literature. Indoor tanning poses great risks. Studies support the role of artificial UV radiation in cutaneous carcinogenesis. Despite claims by the tanning industry, artificial tanning is not a safe or necessary way to increase systemic vitamin D levels. The National Institutes of Health and the World Health Organization have acknowledged the risks of indoor tanning. Nonetheless, regulations limiting tanning in the United States are surprisingly sparse. Systematic review of the literature was not performed. Health care providers must increase efforts to warn and educate the public and government about the dangers of UV radiation.

  16. Tai chi for health benefits in patients with multiple sclerosis: A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liye Zou

    Full Text Available The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the existing evidence on the effectiveness and safety of Tai chi, which is critical to provide guidelines for clinicians to improve symptomatic management in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. After performing electronic and manual searches of many sources, ten relevant peer-reviewed studies that met the inclusion criteria were retrieved. The existing evidence supports the effectiveness of Tai chi on improving quality of life (QOL and functional balance in MS patients. A small number of these studies also reported the positive effect of Tai chi on flexibility, leg strength, gait, and pain. The effect of Tai chi on fatigue is inconsistent across studies. Although the findings demonstrate beneficial effects on improving outcome measures, especially for functional balance and QOL improvements, a conclusive claim should be made carefully for reasons such as methodological flaws, small sample size, lack of specific-disease instruments, unclear description of Tai chi protocol, unreported safety of Tai chi, and insufficient follow-up as documented by the existing literature. Future research should recruit a larger number of participants and utilize the experimental design with a long-term follow-up to ascertain the benefits of Tai chi for MS patients.

  17. A Review of Offset Programs: Trading Systems, Funds, Protocols, Standards and Retailers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kollmuss, Anja; Lazarus, Michael; Lee, Carrie; Polycarp, Clifford

    2008-11-15

    Carbon or greenhouse gas (GHG) offsets have long been promoted as an important element of a comprehensive climate policy approach. Offset programs can reduce the overall cost of achieving a given emission goal by enabling emission reductions to occur where costs are lower. Furthermore, offsets have the potential to deliver sustainability co-benefits, spurred through technology development and transfer, and to develop human and institutional capacity for reducing emissions in sectors and locations not included in a cap and trade or a mandatory government policy. However, offsets can pose a risk to the environmental integrity of climate actions, especially if issues surrounding additionality, permanence, leakage, quantification and verification are not adequately addressed. The challenge for policymakers is clear: to design offset programs and policies that can maximize their potential benefits while minimizing their potential risks. The goal of this review is to provide an up-to-date analysis and synthesis of the most influential offset programs and activities, to reflect on lessons learned, and thus to inform participants and designers of current and future offset programs. Our intention is to periodically update this review to stay abreast of ongoing developments, and to develop a website portal to make this information more accessible. This version targets programs that meet one or more of the following criteria: - a significant volume of credit transactions occurring or anticipated; - an established set of rules or protocols - path-breaking, novel or otherwise notable initiatives or important lessons learned

  18. A systematic review on clinical benefits of continuous administration of beta-lactam antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jason A; Webb, Steven; Paterson, David; Ho, Kwok M; Lipman, Jeffrey

    2009-06-01

    The clinical benefits of extended infusion or continuous infusion of beta-lactam antibiotics remain controversial. We systematically reviewed the literature to determine whether any clinical benefits exist for administration of beta-lactam antibiotics by extended or continuous infusion. PubMed (January 1950 to November 2007), EMBASE (1966 to November 2007), and the Cochrane Controlled Trial Register were searched (updated November 2007). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were meta-analyzed, and observational studies were described by two unblinded reviewers. A total of 846 patients from eligible prospective randomized controlled studies were included in the meta-analysis. Two observational studies were deemed appropriate for description. A meta-analysis of prospective RCTs was undertaken using Review Manager. Among a total of 59 potentially relevant studies, 14 RCTs involving a total of 846 patients from nine countries were deemed appropriate for meta-analysis. The use of continuous infusion of a beta-lactam antibiotic was not associated with an improvement in clinical cure (n = 755 patients; odds ratio: 1.04, 95% confidence interval: 0.74-1.46, p = 0.83, I = 0%) or mortality (n = 541 patients; odds ratio: 1.00, 95% confidence interval: 0.48-2.06, p = 1.00, I = 14.8%). All RCTs except one used a higher antibiotic dose in the bolus administration group. Two observational studies, not pooled because they did not meet the a priori criteria for meta-analysis, showed that beta-lactam administration by extended or continuous infusion was associated with an improvement in clinical cure. The difference in the results between the meta-analysis results and the observational studies could be explained by the bias created by a higher dose of antibiotic in the bolus group in the RCTs and because many of the RCTs only recruited patients with a low acuity of illness. The limited data available suggest that continuous infusion of beta-lactam antibiotics leads to the same

  19. Chyawanprash: A review of therapeutic benefits as in authoritative texts and documented clinical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, D B Anantha; Durg, Sharanbasappa; Manohar, P Ram; Mahapatra, Anita; Aramya, A R

    2017-02-02

    Chyawanprash (CP), a traditional immune booster recipe, has a long history of ethnic origin, development, household preparation and usage. There are even mythological stories about the origin of this recipe including its nomenclature. In the last six decades, CP, because of entrepreneurial actions of some research Vaidyas (traditional doctors) has grown to industrial production and marketing in packed forms to a large number of consumers/patients like any food or health care product. Currently, CP has acquired a large accepted user base in India and in a few countries out-side India. Authoritative texts, recognized by the Drugs and Cosmetics Act of India, describe CP as an immunity enhancer and strength giver meant for improving lung functions in diseases with compromised immunity. This review focuses on published clinical efficacy and safety studies of CP for correlation with health benefits as documented in the authoritative texts, and also briefs on its recipes and processes. Authoritative texts were searched for recipes, processes, and other technical details of CP. Labels of marketing CP products (Indian) were studied for the health claims. Electronic search for studies of CP on efficacy and safety data were performed in PubMed/MEDLINE and DHARA (Digital Helpline for Ayurveda Research Articles), and Ayurvedic books were also searched for clinical studies. The documented clinical studies from electronic databases and Ayurvedic books evidenced that individuals who consume CP regularly for a definite period of time showed improvement in overall health status and immunity. However, most of the clinical studies in this review are of smaller sample size and short duration. Further, limitation to access and review significant data on traditional products like CP in electronic databases was noted. Randomized controlled trials of high quality with larger sample size and longer follow-up are needed to have significant evidence on the clinical use of CP as immunity

  20. The Curtin Coaches: Benefits of an outreach tutoring program for first year pre-service teachers. A Practice Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saul Karnovsky

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Curtin Coaches program represents a dynamic outreach opportunity for pre-service teachers enrolled in their first year of study at Curtin University to engage with school-aged students as classroom tutors. Research has shown that cross-age tutoring experiences in schools can benefit both the students receiving support and those who tutor, particularly in settings where individuals are engaging in community support work. According to program feedback, participants were able to develop a range of profession-related skills such as relationship building and gain new knowledge such as understanding how students learn. These competencies are salient as they align with the newly implemented standards for graduate teachers. Understanding the benefits such outreach programs bring pre-service teachers is vital as the future of HEPPP funded programs such as the Curtin Coaches is uncertain but the importance of Work Integrated Learning is increasing.

  1. Review of the Advanced Toroidal Facility program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, J.F.; Murakami, M.

    1987-01-01

    This report summarizes the history and design goals of the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF). The ATF is nearing completion at ORNL with device completion expected in May 1987 and first useful plasma operation in June/July 1987. ATF is a moderate-aspect-ratio torsatron, the world's largest stellarator facility with R = 2.1 m, α bar = 0.3 m and B = 2 T (5-s pulse) or 1 T (steady-state capability). It has been specifically designed to support the US tokamak program by studying important toroidal confinement issues in a similar magnetic geometry that allows external control of the magnetic configuration properties and their radial profiles: transform, shear, well depth, shaping, axis topology, etc. ATF will operate in a current-free model which allows separation of current-driven and pressure-driven plasma behavior. It also complements the world stellarator program in its magnetic configuration (between Heliotron-E and W VII-AS) and its capabilities (large size, good access, steady state capability, second stability access, etc.). For both roles ATF will require high-power long-pulse heating to carry out its physics goals since the high power NBI pulse is limited to 0.3 s. The ATF program focuses on demonstrating the principles of high-beta, steady-state operation in toroidal geometry through its study of: (1) scaling of beta limits with magnetic configuration properties and the plasma behavior in the second stability regime; (2) transport scaling at low collisionality and the role/control of electric field; (3) control of plasma density and impurities using divertors; (4) plasma heating with NBI, ECH, ICH, and plasma fueling with gas puffing and pellet injection; and (5) optimization of the magnetic configuration

  2. A review of the EPRI hydroloads program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehlberg, R.N.

    1983-01-01

    For a large, rapid, close-to-the-vessel break of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) inlet pipe, hydrodynamic loads in the primary system were speculated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to have licensing significance during the subcooled portions of a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The analytical methods which are used to analyze hydroloads for licensing submittals rely on one-dimensional modeling techniques and require significant engineering judgement to couple the internal structures, such as the core support barrel, and the adjacent fluid. These analysis methods are expected to overestimate the acceleration and impact forces on primary system components. Methodology enhancements were made in a stepwise fashion, (1D, 2D, then 3D). The modified computer programs were then assessed by comparing calculated results with analytical solutions and experimental data. The calculated results compared favorably with the analytical and experimental results. Furthermore, the calculation of HDR tests V31.3 and V32 proved to be valuable for understanding the fundamental mechanics of fluid-structure interaction in large-scale systems during subcooled blowdown. The final stage of the EPRI program was to apply the coupled, 3D fluid-structure interaction methodology to the calculation of the hydrodynamic loads in a modified HDR model having a dynamic axially distributed core. EPRI's fluid-structure interaction program has resulted in state-of-the-art technology which can be applied to both nuclear licensing and engineering problems without the significant engineering judgment required of less sophisticated methods. Realistics loads can be obtained to quantify conservatisms in current licensing approaches. (orig./GL)

  3. Review of the WECC EDT phase 2 EIM benefits analysis and results report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veselka, T.D.; Poch, L.A.; Botterud, A. (Decision and Information Sciences)

    2012-04-05

    A region-wide Energy Imbalance Market (EIM) was recently proposed by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC). In order for the Western Area Power Administration (Western) to make more informed decisions regarding its involvement in the EIM, Western asked Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to review the EIM benefits study (the October 2011 revision) performed by Energy and Environmental Economics, Inc. (E3). Key components of the E3 analysis made use of results from a study conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); therefore, we also reviewed the NREL work. This report examines E3 and NREL methods and models used in the EIM study. Estimating EIM benefits is very challenging because of the complex nature of the Western Interconnection (WI), the variability and uncertainty of renewable energy resources, and the complex decisions and potentially strategic bidding of market participants. Furthermore, methodologies used for some of the more challenging aspects of the EIM have not yet matured. This review is complimentary of several components of the EIM study. Analysts and modelers clearly took great care when conducting detailed simulations of the WI using well-established industry tools under stringent time and budget constraints. However, it is our opinion that the following aspects of the study and the interpretation of model results could be improved upon in future analyses. The hurdle rate methodology used to estimate current market inefficiencies does not directly model the underlying causes of sub-optimal dispatch and power flows. It assumes that differences between historical flows and modeled flows can be attributed solely to market inefficiencies. However, flow differences between model results and historical data can be attributed to numerous simplifying assumptions used in the model and in the input data. We suggest that alternative approaches be explored in order to better estimate the benefits of introducing market

  4. Medication safety programs in primary care: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Hanan; Shahid, Monica; Roughead, Libby

    2017-10-01

    Medication safety plays an essential role in all healthcare organizations; improving this area is paramount to quality and safety of any wider healthcare program. While several medication safety programs in the hospital setting have been described and the associated impact on patient safety evaluated, no systematic reviews have described the impact of medication safety programs in the primary care setting. A preliminary search of the literature demonstrated that no systematic reviews, meta-analysis or scoping reviews have reported on medication safety programs in primary care; instead they have focused on specific interventions such as medication reconciliation or computerized physician order entry. This scoping review sought to map the current medication safety programs used in primary care. The current scoping review sought to examine the characteristics of medication safety programs in the primary care setting and to map evidence on the outcome measures used to assess the effectiveness of medication safety programs in improving patient safety. The current review considered participants of any age and any condition using care obtained from any primary care services. We considered studies that focussed on the characteristics of medication safety programs and the outcome measures used to measure the effectiveness of these programs on patient safety in the primary care setting. The context of this review was primary care settings, primary healthcare organizations, general practitioner clinics, outpatient clinics and any other clinics that do not classify patients as inpatients. We considered all quantitative studied published in English. A three-step search strategy was utilized in this review. Data were extracted from the included studies to address the review question. The data extracted included type of medication safety program, author, country of origin, aims and purpose of the study, study population, method, comparator, context, main findings and outcome

  5. Standard Review Plan for Environmental Restoration Program Quality Management Plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    The Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) Manual Environmental Restoration Program Quality System Requirements (QSR) for the Hanford Site, defines all quality requirements governing Hanford Environmental Restoration (ER) Program activities. The QSR requires that ER Program participants develop Quality Management Plans (QMPs) that describe how the QSR requirements will be implemented for their assigned scopes of work. This standard review plan (SRP) describes the ER program participant responsibilities for submittal of QMPs to the RL Environmental Restoration Division for review and the RL methodology for performing the reviews of participant QMPS. The SRP serves the following functions: acts as a guide in the development or revision of QMPs to assure that the content is complete and adequate; acts as a checklist to be used by the RL staff in their review of participant QMPs; acts as an index or matrix between the requirements of the QSR and implementing methodologies described in the QMPs; decreases the time and subjectivity of document reviews; and provides a formal, documented method for describing exceptions, modifications, or waivers to established ER Program quality requirements

  6. Review of endoscopic radiofrequency in biliopancreatic tumours with emphasis on clinical benefits, controversies and safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Sánchez, María-Victoria; Napoléon, Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    Most pancreatic cancers and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas are unresectable at the time of diagnosis, and even in case of a resectable cancer, for elderly or patients with coexistent comorbidities, surgery is not an option. Current treatment alternatives in these scenarios are very limited. Biliary stenting with self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) is the mainstay palliative treatment of biliary obstruction due to unresectable pancreatic cancer or cholangiocarcinoma. Nevertheless, more than 50% of SEMS become occluded after 6 mo due to tumour over- and ingrowth, leading to hospital readmissions and reinterventions that significantly impair quality of life. Regimes of chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy also provide minimal survival benefits. Therefore, novel therapies are eagerly awaited. Radiofrequency (RF) energy causes coagulative necrosis leading to local destruction of the accessed malignant tissue and has an established role in the treatment of malignancies in several solid organs, especially liver cancers. However, pancreatic and extrahepatic biliary cancers are not easily accessed by a percutaneous route, making the procedure dangerous. Over the past five years, the development of dedicated devices compatible with endoscopic instruments has offered a minimally invasive option for RF energy delivery in biliopancreatic cancers. Emerging experience with endoscopic RF ablation (RFA) in this setting has been reported in the literature, but little is known about its feasibility, efficacy and safety. A literature review makes it clear that RFA in biliopancreatic tumours is feasible with high rates of technical success and acceptable safety profile. Although available data suggest a benefit of survival with RFA, there is not enough evidence to draw a firm conclusion about its efficacy. For this reason, prospective randomized trials comparing RFA with standard palliative treatments with quality-of-life and survival endpoints are required. Anecdotal reports have also

  7. A Graduate Program in Toxicology: Administrative and Educational Benefits of Interdepartmental Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masten, Lawrence W.

    1979-01-01

    The University of Mississippi School of Pharmacy's Department of Pharmacology offers masters and doctoral programs in toxicology. Its programs and toxicology courses are described, and the administration of these interdisciplinary programs within one department is discussed. (JMD)

  8. Developing a Leadership Development Program for the Veterans Benefits Administration within the Department of Veterans Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    highest priorities: Veteran homelessness, “ VBA access ” to allow improved awareness of available VA services and benefits, and the backlog of benefits...Veterans by 2015. VBA access refers to improved Veteran awareness of the various VA benefits and services available, particularly through outreach and...claim completion time. While all three of these priorities impact VBA , the second two--increased access and decreased backlog--directly relate to

  9. Projected Benefits of Federal Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Programs. FY 2005 - FY 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2004-05-01

    This report describes a benefits analysis undertaken by EERE to better understand the extent to which the technologies and market improvements funded by its FY 2005 budget request will make energy more affordable, cleaner, and more reliable. It summarizes the results of the analysis, which focused on economic, environmental, and security benefits related to energy. The report identifies specific measures or indicators of estimated benefits for FY 2005.

  10. The Effect of Disability Insurance on Health Investment: Evidence from the Veterans Benefits Administration's Disability Compensation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Perry

    2009-01-01

    I examine whether individuals respond to monetary incentives to detect latent medical conditions. The effect is identified by a policy that deemed diabetes associated with herbicide exposure a compensable disability under the Veterans Benefits Administration's Disability Compensation program. Since a diagnosis is a requisite for benefit…

  11. Effectiveness and Cost-benefit Evaluation of a Comprehensive Workers' Health Surveillance Program for Sustainable Employability of Meat Processing Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holland, van Berry J.; Reneman, Michiel F; Soer, Remko; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a comprehensive workers' health surveillance (WHS) program on aspects of sustainable employability and cost-benefit. Methods A cluster randomized stepped wedge trial was performed in a Dutch meat processing company from february 2012 until march 2015. In

  12. Effectiveness and Cost-benefit Evaluation of a Comprehensive Workers' Health Surveillance Program for Sustainable Employability of Meat Processing Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Holland, Berry J; Reneman, Michiel F; Soer, Remko; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a comprehensive workers' health surveillance (WHS) program on aspects of sustainable employability and cost-benefit. Methods A cluster randomized stepped wedge trial was performed in a Dutch meat processing company from february 2012 until march 2015. In

  13. Perceived benefits and barriers and self-efficacy affecting the attendance of health education programs among uninsured primary care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Akiko; Nourian, Maziar M; Jess, Allison; Chernenko, Alla; Assasnik, Nushean; Ashby, Jeanie

    2016-12-01

    Lifestyle interventions have shown to be effective in improving health status, health behaviors, and self-efficacy. However, recruiting participants to health education programs and ensuring the continuity of health education for underserved populations is often challenging. The goals of this study are: to describe the attendance of health education programs; to identify stages of change to a healthy lifestyle; to determine cues to action; and to specify factors affecting perceived benefits and barriers to healthy food choices and physical activity among uninsured primary care patients. Uninsured primary care patients utilizing a free clinic (N=621) completed a self-administered survey from September to December of 2015. US born English speakers, non-US born English speakers, and Spanish speakers reported different kinds of cues to action in attending health education programs. While self-efficacy increases perceived benefits and decreases perceived barriers for physical activity, it increases both perceived benefits and perceived barriers for healthy food choices. The participants who had attended health education programs did not believe that there were benefits for healthy food choices and physical activity. This study adds to the body of literature on health education for underserved populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Benefits of a Classroom Based Instrumental Music Program on Verbal Memory of Primary School Children: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Nikki S.; Vasquez, Jorge T.; Murphy, Fintan; Gill, Anneliese; Toukhsati, Samia R.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated a benefit of music training on a number of cognitive functions including verbal memory performance. The impact of school-based music programs on memory processes is however relatively unknown. The current study explored the effect of increasing frequency and intensity of classroom-based instrumental training…

  15. Increasing self-efficacy in learning to program : Exploring the benefits of explicit instruction for problem solving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Govender, I.; Govender, D.; Havenga, M.; Mentz, E.; Breed, B.; Dignum, F.; Dignum, V.

    2014-01-01

    The difficulty of learning to program has long been identified amongst novices. This study explored the benefits of teaching a problem solving strategy by comparing students’ perceptions and attitudes towards problem solving before and after the strategy was implemented in secondary schools. Based

  16. Who Does Not Benefit from Federal and State Financial Aid Programs? Information Brief. Volume 7, Issue 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida Board of Governors, State University System, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This brief presents statistics showing that many students from middle-income and lower-income Florida families do not qualify for federal or state grants and scholarships, and that nearly half of state university system middle- and lower-income families do not receive benefits from federal or state financial aid programs. (Contains technical…

  17. Alcohol Fuels Program technical review, Spring 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-01

    The alcohol fuels program consists of in-house and subcontracted research for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fuel alcohols via thermoconversion and bioconversion technologies. In the thermoconversion area, the SERI gasifier has been operated on a one-ton per day scale and produces a clean, medium-Btu gas that can be used to manufacture methanol with a relatively small gas-water shift reaction requirement. Recent research has produced catalysts that make methanol and a mixture of higher alcohols from the biomass-derived synthetic gas. Three hydrolysis processes have emerged as candidates for more focused research. They are: a high-temperature, dilute-acid, plug-flow approach based on the Dartmouth reactor; steam explosion pretreatment followed by hydrolysis using the RUT-C30 fungal organism; and direct microbial conversion of the cellulose to ethanol using bacteria in a single or mixed culture. Modeling studies, including parametric and sensitivity analyses, have recently been completed. The results of these studies will lead to a better definition of the present state-of-the-art for these processes and provide a framework for establishing the research and process engineering issues that still need resolution. In addition to these modeling studies, economic feasibility studies are being carried out by commercial engineering firms. Their results will supplement and add commercial validity to the program results. The feasibility contractors will provide input at two levels: Technical and economic assessment of the current state-of-the-art in alcohol production from lignocellulosic biomass via thermoconversion to produce methanol and higher alcohol mixtures and bioconversion to produce ethanol; and identification of research areas having the potential to significantly reduce the cost of production of alcohols.

  18. Apoptotic-like programmed cell death in fungi: the benefits in filamentous species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neta eShlezinger

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies conducted in the early 1990's showed for the first time that Saccahromyces cerevisiae can undergo cell death with hallmarks of animal apoptosis. These findings came as a surprise, since suicide machinery was unexpected in unicellular organisms. Today, apoptosis in yeast is well documented. Apoptotic death of yeast cells has been described under various conditions and S. cerevisiae homologues of human apoptotic genes have been identified and characterized. These studies also revealed fundamental differences between yeast and animal apoptosis; in S. cerevisiae apoptosis is mainly associated with ageing and stress adaptation, unlike animal apoptosis, which is essential for proper development. Further, many apoptosis regulatory genes are either missing, or highly divergent in S. cerevisiae. Therefore, in this review we will use the term apoptosis-like programmed cell death (PCD instead of apoptosis. Despite these significant differences, S. cerevisiae has been instrumental in promoting the study of heterologous apoptotic proteins, particularly from human. Work in fungi other than S. cerevisiae revealed differences in the manifestation of PCD in single cell (yeasts and multi-cellular (filamentous species. Such differences may reflect the higher complexity level of filamentous species, and hence the involvement of PCD in a wider range of processes and life styles. It is also expected that differences might be found in the apoptosis apparatus of yeast and filamentous species. In this review we focus on aspects of PCD that are unique or can be better studied in filamentous species. We will highlight the similarities and differences of the PCD machinery between yeast and filamentous species and show the value of using S. cerevisiae along with filamentous species to study apoptosis.

  19. Apoptotic-like programed cell death in fungi: the benefits in filamentous species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlezinger, Neta; Goldfinger, Nir; Sharon, Amir

    2012-01-01

    Studies conducted in the early 1990s showed for the first time that Saccharomyces cerevisiae can undergo cell death with hallmarks of animal apoptosis. These findings came as a surprise, since suicide machinery was unexpected in unicellular organisms. Today, apoptosis in yeast is well-documented. Apoptotic death of yeast cells has been described under various conditions and S. cerevisiae homologs of human apoptotic genes have been identified and characterized. These studies also revealed fundamental differences between yeast and animal apoptosis; in S. cerevisiae apoptosis is mainly associated with aging and stress adaptation, unlike animal apoptosis, which is essential for proper development. Further, many apoptosis regulatory genes are either missing, or highly divergent in S. cerevisiae. Therefore, in this review we will use the term apoptosis-like programed cell death (PCD) instead of apoptosis. Despite these significant differences, S. cerevisiae has been instrumental in promoting the study of heterologous apoptotic proteins, particularly from human. Work in fungi other than S. cerevisiae revealed differences in the manifestation of PCD in single cell (yeasts) and multicellular (filamentous) species. Such differences may reflect the higher complexity level of filamentous species, and hence the involvement of PCD in a wider range of processes and life styles. It is also expected that differences might be found in the apoptosis apparatus of yeast and filamentous species. In this review we focus on aspects of PCD that are unique or can be better studied in filamentous species. We will highlight the similarities and differences of the PCD machinery between yeast and filamentous species and show the value of using S. cerevisiae along with filamentous species to study apoptosis.

  20. Apoptotic-like programed cell death in fungi: the benefits in filamentous species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shlezinger, Neta; Goldfinger, Nir; Sharon, Amir, E-mail: amirsh@ex.tau.ac.il [Department of Molecular Biology and Ecology of Plants, Tel Aviv University,, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2012-08-07

    Studies conducted in the early 1990s showed for the first time that Saccharomyces cerevisiae can undergo cell death with hallmarks of animal apoptosis. These findings came as a surprise, since suicide machinery was unexpected in unicellular organisms. Today, apoptosis in yeast is well-documented. Apoptotic death of yeast cells has been described under various conditions and S. cerevisiae homologs of human apoptotic genes have been identified and characterized. These studies also revealed fundamental differences between yeast and animal apoptosis; in S. cerevisiae apoptosis is mainly associated with aging and stress adaptation, unlike animal apoptosis, which is essential for proper development. Further, many apoptosis regulatory genes are either missing, or highly divergent in S. cerevisiae. Therefore, in this review we will use the term apoptosis-like programed cell death (PCD) instead of apoptosis. Despite these significant differences, S. cerevisiae has been instrumental in promoting the study of heterologous apoptotic proteins, particularly from human. Work in fungi other than S. cerevisiae revealed differences in the manifestation of PCD in single cell (yeasts) and multicellular (filamentous) species. Such differences may reflect the higher complexity level of filamentous species, and hence the involvement of PCD in a wider range of processes and life styles. It is also expected that differences might be found in the apoptosis apparatus of yeast and filamentous species. In this review we focus on aspects of PCD that are unique or can be better studied in filamentous species. We will highlight the similarities and differences of the PCD machinery between yeast and filamentous species and show the value of using S. cerevisiae along with filamentous species to study apoptosis.

  1. Is there evidence that walking groups have health benefits? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Sarah; Jones, Andy

    2015-06-01

    To assess the health benefits of outdoor walking groups. Systematic review and meta-analysis of walking group interventions examining differences in commonly used physiological, psychological and well-being outcomes between baseline and intervention end. Seven electronic databases, clinical trial registers, grey literature and reference lists in English language up to November 2013. Adults, group walking outdoors with outcomes directly attributable to the walking intervention. Forty-two studies were identified involving 1843 participants. There is evidence that walking groups have wide-ranging health benefits. Meta-analysis showed statistically significant reductions in mean difference for systolic blood pressure -3.72 mm Hg (-5.28 to -2.17) and diastolic blood pressure -3.14 mm Hg (-4.15 to -2.13); resting heart rate -2.88 bpm (-4.13 to -1.64); body fat -1.31% (-2.10 to -0.52), body mass index -0.71 kg/m(2) (-1.19 to -0.23), total cholesterol -0.11 mmol/L (-0.22 to -0.01) and statistically significant mean increases in VO(2max) of 2.66 mL/kg/min (1.67-3.65), the SF-36 (physical functioning) score 6.02 (0.51 to 11.53) and a 6 min walk time of 79.6 m (53.37-105.84). A standardised mean difference showed a reduction in depression scores with an effect size of -0.67 (-0.97 to -0.38). The evidence was less clear for other outcomes such as waist circumference fasting glucose, SF-36 (mental health) and serum lipids such as high-density lipids. There were no notable adverse side effects reported in any of the studies. Walking groups are effective and safe with good adherence and wide-ranging health benefits. They could be a promising intervention as an adjunct to other healthcare or as a proactive health-promoting activity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Tree Mortality Undercuts Ability of Tree-Planting Programs to Provide Benefits: Results of a Three-City Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Widney

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Trees provide numerous benefits for urban residents, including reduced energy usage, improved air quality, stormwater management, carbon sequestration, and increased property values. Quantifying these benefits can help justify the costs of planting trees. In this paper, we use i-Tree Streets to quantify the benefits of street trees planted by nonprofits in three U.S. cities (Detroit, Michigan; Indianapolis, Indiana, and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania from 2009 to 2011. We also use both measured and modeled survival and growth rates to “grow” the tree populations 5 and 10 years into the future to project the future benefits of the trees under different survival and growth scenarios. The 4059 re-inventoried trees (2864 of which are living currently provide almost $40,000 (USD in estimated annual benefits ($9–$20/tree depending on the city, the majority (75% of which are increased property values. The trees can be expected to provide increasing annual benefits during the 10 years after planting if the annual survival rate is higher than the 93% annual survival measured during the establishment period. However, our projections show that with continued 93% or lower annual survival, the increase in annual benefits from tree growth will not be able to make up for the loss of benefits as trees die. This means that estimated total annual benefits from a cohort of planted trees will decrease between the 5-year projection and the 10-year projection. The results of this study indicate that without early intervention to ensure survival of planted street trees, tree mortality may be significantly undercutting the ability of tree-planting programs to provide benefits to neighborhood residents.

  3. Wineries Evaluation of Costs and Benefits of Sustainability Certification Program: The Case of Terra Vitis in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourjon, Frederique; Chou, Hsia-Chi; Gezart, Anna; Kadison, Amy E; Martinat, Lea; Pomarici, Eugenio; Vecchio, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    The current paper analyses the evaluation of the costs and benefits of French wineries (N=69) participating in the sustainability program Terra Vitis, a widespread environmental certification scheme within the French wine industry. An online questionnaire was sent to all Terra Vitis participants, in order to analyse the evaluation of economic costs and benefits (together with environmental benefits) as perceived by wineries. Our findings reveal that older participants in the scheme (over 5 years), firms with higher export share (>40% of annual turnover) and cooperative wineries tend to be keener to assign a positive evaluation to the benefits/costs ratio in both the vineyard and the winery. In the context of increasing concerns regarding the economic and environmental performance of the French agricultural sector, such findings and also the patent research could be useful for policy makers and entrepreneurs in defining mainstream normative and corporate strategies. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Understanding how environmental enhancement and conservation activities may benefit health and wellbeing: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Rebecca; Husk, Kerryn; Cooper, Chris; Stahl-Timmins, Will; Garside, Ruth

    2015-09-07

    Action taken to enhance or conserve outdoor environments may benefit health and wellbeing through the process of participation but also through improving the environment. There is interest, amongst both health and environmental organisations, in using such activities as health promotion interventions. The objective of this systematic review was to investigate the health and wellbeing impacts of participation in environmental enhancement and conservation activities and to understand how these activities may be beneficial, to whom and in what circumstances or contexts. A theory-led mixed-method systematic review was used to assess evidence of effect and to identify pathways to change (protocol: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/ 10.1002/14651858.CD010351/full ). Due to the multi-disciplinary, dispersed and disparate body of evidence an extensive multi-stage search strategy was devised and undertaken. Twenty-seven databases and multiple sources of grey literature were searched and over 200 relevant organisations were contacted. The heterogenous evidence was synthesised using a narrative approach and a conceptual model was developed to illustrate the mechanisms of effect. Due to the limited nature of the evidence additional higher order evidence was sought to assess the plausibility of the proposed mechanisms of effect through which health and wellbeing may accrue. The majority of the quantitative evidence (13 studies; all poor quality and lower-order study designs) was inconclusive, though a small number of positive and negative associations were observed. The qualitative evidence (13 studies; 10 poor quality, 3 good) indicated that the activities were perceived to have value to health and wellbeing through a number of key mechanisms; including exposure to natural environments, achievement, enjoyment and social contact. Additional high level evidence indicated that these pathways were plausible. Despite interest in the use of environmental enhancement activities as a

  5. Are There Benefits from Teaching Yoga at Schools? A Systematic Review of Randomized Control Trials of Yoga-Based Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ferreira-Vorkapic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Yoga is a holistic system of varied mind-body practices that can be used to improve mental and physical health and it has been utilized in a variety of contexts and situations. Educators and schools are looking to include yoga as a cost-effective, evidence-based component of urgently needed wellness programs for their students. Objectives. The primary goal of this study was to systematically examine the available literature for yoga interventions exclusively in school settings, exploring the evidence of yoga-based interventions on academic, cognitive, and psychosocial benefits. Methods. An extensive search was conducted for studies published between 1980 and October 31, 2014 (PubMed, PsycInfo, Embase, ISI, and the Cochrane Library. Effect size analysis, through standardized mean difference and Hedges’g, allowed for the comparison between experimental conditions. Results and Conclusions. Nine randomized control trials met criteria for inclusion in this review. Effect size was found for mood indicators, tension and anxiety in the POMS scale, self-esteem, and memory when the yoga groups were compared to control. Future research requires greater standardization and suitability of yoga interventions for children.

  6. Are There Benefits from Teaching Yoga at Schools? A Systematic Review of Randomized Control Trials of Yoga-Based Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Vorkapic, C.; Feitoza, J. M.; Marchioro, M.; Simões, J.; Telles, S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Yoga is a holistic system of varied mind-body practices that can be used to improve mental and physical health and it has been utilized in a variety of contexts and situations. Educators and schools are looking to include yoga as a cost-effective, evidence-based component of urgently needed wellness programs for their students. Objectives. The primary goal of this study was to systematically examine the available literature for yoga interventions exclusively in school settings, exploring the evidence of yoga-based interventions on academic, cognitive, and psychosocial benefits. Methods. An extensive search was conducted for studies published between 1980 and October 31, 2014 (PubMed, PsycInfo, Embase, ISI, and the Cochrane Library). Effect size analysis, through standardized mean difference and Hedges'g, allowed for the comparison between experimental conditions. Results and Conclusions. Nine randomized control trials met criteria for inclusion in this review. Effect size was found for mood indicators, tension and anxiety in the POMS scale, self-esteem, and memory when the yoga groups were compared to control. Future research requires greater standardization and suitability of yoga interventions for children. PMID:26491461

  7. Review of the Inertial Fusion Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2004-03-29

    Igniting fusion fuel in the laboratory remains an alluring goal for two reasons: the desire to study matter under the extreme conditions needed for fusion burn, and the potential of harnessing the energy released as an attractive energy source for mankind. The inertial confinement approach to fusion involves rapidly compressing a tiny spherical capsule of fuel, initially a few millimeters in radius, to densities and temperatures higher than those in the core of the sun. The ignited plasma is confined solely by its own inertia long enough for a significant fraction of the fuel to burn before the plasma expands, cools down and the fusion reactions are quenched. The potential of this confinement approach as an attractive energy source is being studied in the Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) program, which is the subject of this report. A complex set of interrelated requirements for IFE has motivated the study of novel potential solutions. Three types of “drivers” for fuel compression are presently studied: high-averagepower lasers (HAPL), heavy-ion (HI) accelerators, and Z-Pinches. The three main approaches to IFE are based on these drivers, along with the specific type of target (which contains the fuel capsule) and chamber that appear most promising for a particular driver.

  8. Gas Hydrates Research Programs: An International Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge Gabitto; Maria Barrufet

    2009-12-09

    Gas hydrates sediments have the potential of providing a huge amount of natural gas for human use. Hydrate sediments have been found in many different regions where the required temperature and pressure conditions have been satisfied. Resource exploitation is related to the safe dissociation of the gas hydrate sediments. Basic depressurization techniques and thermal stimulation processes have been tried in pilot efforts to exploit the resource. There is a growing interest in gas hydrates all over the world due to the inevitable decline of oil and gas reserves. Many different countries are interested in this valuable resource. Unsurprisingly, developed countries with limited energy resources have taken the lead in worldwide gas hydrates research and exploration. The goal of this research project is to collect information in order to record and evaluate the relative strengths and goals of the different gas hydrates programs throughout the world. A thorough literature search about gas hydrates research activities has been conducted. The main participants in the research effort have been identified and summaries of their past and present activities reported. An evaluation section discussing present and future research activities has also been included.

  9. Review of the Inertial Fusion Energy Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Igniting fusion fuel in the laboratory remains an alluring goal for two reasons: the desire to study matter under the extreme conditions needed for fusion burn, and the potential of harnessing the energy released as an attractive energy source for mankind. The inertial confinement approach to fusion involves rapidly compressing a tiny spherical capsule of fuel, initially a few millimeters in radius, to densities and temperatures higher than those in the core of the sun. The ignited plasma is confined solely by its own inertia long enough for a significant fraction of the fuel to burn before the plasma expands, cools down and the fusion reactions are quenched. The potential of this confinement approach as an attractive energy source is being studied in the Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) program, which is the subject of this report. A complex set of interrelated requirements for IFE has motivated the study of novel potential solutions. Three types of @@@drivers@@@ for fuel compression are presently studied: high-averagepower lasers (HAPL), heavy-ion (HI) accelerators, and Z-Pinches. The three main approaches to IFE are based on these drivers, along with the specific type of target (which contains the fuel capsule) and chamber that appear most promising for a particular driver.

  10. 75 FR 71171 - Social Security Disability Program Demonstration Project: Benefit Offset National Demonstration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... project. Stage 2 Offset and Enhanced Benefits Counseling Treatment Group--We will assign approximately 3... treatment of earnings and the enhanced benefits counseling, depending on their treatment group. Alternate... Treatment Group be eligible for counseling services? A beneficiary assigned to this Stage 2 treatment group...

  11. 78 FR 60653 - Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: Members of Congress and Congressional Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... authority to administer health benefits to Federal employees (as defined in 5 U.S.C. 8901(1)). Because..., in essence, an employer contribution, the final rule clarifies that Members of Congress and... paragraph (c), but may purchase health benefit plans, as defined in 5 U.S.C. 8901(6), that are offered by an...

  12. Biomass Program 2007 Program Peer Review - Biodiesel and Other Technologies Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-28

    This document discloses the comments provided by a review panel at the U.S. Department of Energy Office of the Biomass Program Peer Review held on November 15-16, 2007 in Baltimore, MD and the Biodiesel and Other Technologies, held on August 14th and 15th in Golden, Colorado.

  13. Fifth parabolic dish solar thermal power program annual review: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1984-03-01

    The primary objective of the Review was to present the results of activities within the Parabolic Dish Technology and Module/Systems Development element of the Department of Energy's Solar Thermal Energy Systems Program. The Review consisted of nine technical sessions covering overall Project and Program aspects, Stirling and Brayton module development, concentrator and engine/receiver development, and associated hardware and test results to date; distributed systems operating experience; international dish development activities; and non-DOE-sponsored domestic dish activities. A panel discussion concerning business views of solar electric generation was held. These Proceedings contain the texts of presentations made at the Review, as submitted by their authors at the beginning of the Review; therefore, they may vary slightly from the actual presentations in the technical sessions.

  14. Two Decades of Employee-Benefit Plans, 1950-1970: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodrubetz, Walter W.

    This article discusses the long-term growth of employee-benefit plans (which have grown tremendously since 1950) and assesses this trend in terms of real gains. The article states that contributions, by 1970, were nine times greater and benefit outlays 14 times greater than in 1950, and the number of persons covered by most types of benefits grew…

  15. Program and Abstracts: DOE Solar Program Review Meeting 2004, 25--28 October 2004, Denver, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-10-01

    This booklet contains the agenda and abstracts for the 2004 U.S. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program Review Meeting. The meeting was held in Denver, Colorado, October 25-28, 2004. More than 240 abstracts are contained in this publication. Topic areas for the research papers include laboratory research, program management, policy analysis, and deployment of solar technologies.

  16. THE ROLE OF SERVANT LEADERSHIP IN FACULTY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS: A Review of The Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric James RUSSELL

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The following note is that a review of existing literature pertaining to servant leadership and faculty development. Specifically, this work discussed delivering servant leadership to online faculty through the utilization of a faculty development program. The idea for this literature review stemmed from the author asking how an online academic administrator could utilize the practice of servant leadership in order to improve the overall online academic experience. The intent of the review involved discovering, through a review of the literature, a way of opening up a dialogue that can possibly drive future research studies regarding the practice of servant leadership to improve of the overall online academic teaching experience. In this work, the author conducted a literature review that identified strengths in both faculty development as well as practicing servant leadership within the online education modality. The literature identified the issue of faculty isolation as challenge for academic administrators and offered up faculty development as a possible solution to overcoming it. The findings of the work showed a benefit to bringing servant leadership practices into faculty development programs in order to improve the overall online teaching environment. The work generates future empirical research ideas regarding building community, the use of servant leadership, and faculty development programs.

  17. Standard Review Plan Maintenance Program implementing procedures document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The implementing Procedures Document (IPD) was developed by the Inspection Program Projects Branch, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, with assistance from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, for the Standard Review Plan Maintenance Program (SRP-MP). The SRP-MP was established to maintain the Standard Review Plan (SRP) on an on-going basis. The IPD provides guidance, including an overall approach and procedures, for SRP-MP tasks. The objective of the IPD is to ensure that modifications to SRP need to reflect current NRC requirements and guidance are identified and that a consistent methodology is used to develop and revise SRP sections

  18. Physicochemical Properties, Biological Activity, Health Benefits, and General Limitations of Aged Black Garlic: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Ji Hyeon; Kang, Dawon

    2017-06-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) has been used as a medicinal food since ancient times. However, some people are reluctant to ingest raw garlic due to its unpleasant odor and taste. Therefore, many types of garlic preparations have been developed to reduce these attributes without losing biological functions. Aged black garlic (ABG) is a garlic preparation with a sweet and sour taste and no strong odor. It has recently been introduced to Asian markets as a functional food. Extensive in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that ABG has a variety of biological functions such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-obesity, anti-diabetic, anti-allergic, cardioprotective, and hepatoprotective effects. Recent studies have compared the biological activity and function of ABG to those of raw garlic. ABG shows lower anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulation, immunomodulatory, and anti-allergic effects compared to raw garlic. This paper reviews the physicochemical properties, biological activity, health benefits, adverse effects, and general limitations of ABG.

  19. Solar Energy Potentials and Benefits in the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries: A Review of Substantial Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi Abubakar Mas’ud

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available It is a well-known fact that the fossil fuel industry has dominated the economy of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC countries during the last few decades. However, recent developments show that most of the GCC countries plan to increase the share of renewable energy (RE in their future electrical power production. To ensure realistic increase in the share of RE in the production of electricity in the future, firm policies must be laid down with the objective to promote and market the benefit of RE to their citizens. Due to the high-solar radiation in the GCC region, the focus is now on solar energy development. This paper presents an up-to-date review of the progress made on solar energy in the GCC together with the challenges and the way forward. Some of the challenges and barriers hindering the development of RE in the GCC are in the area of technological know-how, policy development, and insufficient application of RE technology integrated in the buildings among others. Areas of improvement include promoting research and development, public/private initiatives, legislation and regulatory framework, solutions to technical issues and exchange of knowledge, scientific advice, and last but not the least is the issue of building integration with RE.

  20. Phytochemistry and gastrointestinal benefits of the medicinal spice, Capsicum annuum L. (Chilli): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maji, Amal K; Banerji, Pratim

    2016-06-01

    Dietary spices and their active constituents provide various beneficial effects on the gastrointestinal system by variety of mechanisms such as influence of gastric emptying, stimulation of gastrointestinal defense and absorption, stimulation of salivary, intestinal, hepatic, and pancreatic secretions. Capsicum annuum (Solanaceae), commonly known as chilli, is a medicinal spice used in various Indian traditional systems of medicine and it has been acknowledged to treat various health ailments. Therapeutic potential of chilli and capsaicin were well documented; however, they act as double-edged sword in many physiological circumstances. In traditional medicine chilli has been used against various gastrointestinal complains such as dyspepsia, loss of appetite, gastroesophageal reflux disease, gastric ulcer, and so on. In chilli, more than 200 constituents have been identified and some of its active constituents play numerous beneficial roles in various gastrointestinal disorders such as stimulation of digestion and gastromucosal defense, reduction of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms, inhibition of gastrointestinal pathogens, ulceration and cancers, regulation of gastrointestinal secretions and absorptions. However, further studies are warranted to determine the dose ceiling limit of chilli and its active constituents for their utilization as gastroprotective agents. This review summarizes the phytochemistry and various gastrointestinal benefits of chilli and its various active constituents.

  1. Physicochemical Properties, Biological Activity, Health Benefits, and General Limitations of Aged Black Garlic: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hyeon Ryu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum has been used as a medicinal food since ancient times. However, some people are reluctant to ingest raw garlic due to its unpleasant odor and taste. Therefore, many types of garlic preparations have been developed to reduce these attributes without losing biological functions. Aged black garlic (ABG is a garlic preparation with a sweet and sour taste and no strong odor. It has recently been introduced to Asian markets as a functional food. Extensive in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that ABG has a variety of biological functions such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-obesity, anti-diabetic, anti-allergic, cardioprotective, and hepatoprotective effects. Recent studies have compared the biological activity and function of ABG to those of raw garlic. ABG shows lower anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulation, immunomodulatory, and anti-allergic effects compared to raw garlic. This paper reviews the physicochemical properties, biological activity, health benefits, adverse effects, and general limitations of ABG.

  2. 1988 Monitoring Activities Review (MAR) of the environmental monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    The EGandG Idaho Environmental Monitoring (EM) Unit is responsible for coordinating and conducting environmental measurements of radioactive and hazardous contaminants around facilities operated by EGandG Idaho. The EM Unit has several broad program objectives, which include complying with regulatory standards and developing a basis for estimating future impacts of operations at EGandG Idaho facilities. To improve program planning and to provide bases for technical improvement of the monitoring program, the EGandG Environmental Monitoring organization has regularly used the Monitoring Activities Review (MAR) process since 1982. Each MAR is conducted by a committee of individuals selected for their experience in the various types of monitoring performed by the EM organization. Previous MAR studies have focused on procedures for all currently monitored media except biota. Biotic monitoring was initiated following the last MAR. This report focuses on all currently monitored media, and includes the first review of biotic monitoring. The review of biotic monitoring has been conducted at a level of detail consistent with initial MAR reports for other parts of the Waste Management Program Facilities Environmental Monitoring Program. The review of the biotic monitoring activities is presented in Section 5.5 of this report. 21 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  3. [German Prevention Programs for Eating Disorders - A Systematic Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickhardt, Mara; Adametz, Luise; Richter, Felicitas; Strauß, Bernhard; Berger, Uwe

    2018-02-13

    In the past years a considerable amount of primary and secondary prevention programs for eating disorders was developed in German speaking countries. However, up to now there has been no systematic review of contents and evaluation studies. The main objective of the present systematic review is to identify and outline German prevention programs for eating disorders. This should facilitate the selection of appropriate and effective interventions for medical experts, other professionals and teachers. A systematic literature research was conducted and 22 German-language primary and secondary prevention programs were identified. Half of them were evaluated. The programs were conducted either in school, on the internet or in a group setting. The findings show that throughout almost all programs a reduction in weight and shape concerns and drive for thinness as well as an increase of (body) self-esteem could be observed in either the total sample or the high-risk sample. However, programs were inconsistently effective in reducing disordered eating behavior in the target population. All studies were effective in reducing at least one risk factor. Overall, higher effect sizes were found for secondary prevention programs than for primary prevention programs. Lastly, limitations of the studies and suggestions for future prevention efforts are discussed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Annual Program Review 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2000-03-01

    This book is submitted as one written part of the 2000 Annual DOE High Energy Physics Program Review of Fermilab, scheduled March 22-24, 2000. In it are Director's Overview, some experimental highlights, discussions of several projects, and descriptions of the functions and activities of the four laboratory divisions. This book should be read in conjunction with the 2000 Fermilab Workbook and the review presentations (both in formal sessions and at the poster session).

  5. Opinion Mining in Online Reviews About Distance Education Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Jaskolski, Janik; Siegberg, Fabian; Tibroni, Thomas; Cimiano, Philipp; Klinger, Roman

    2016-01-01

    The popularity of distance education programs is increasing at a fast pace. En par with this development, online communication in fora, social media and reviewing platforms between students is increasing as well. Exploiting this information to support fellow students or institutions requires to extract the relevant opinions in order to automatically generate reports providing an overview of pros and cons of different distance education programs. We report on an experiment involving distance e...

  6. Structured Annual Faculty Review Program Accelerates Professional Development and Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley J. Robboy MD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective observational study on faculty development analyzes the Duke University Pathology Department’s 18-year experience with a structured mentoring program involving 51 junior faculty members. The majority had MD degrees only (55%. The percentage of young women faculty hires before 1998 was 25%, increasing to 72% after 2005. Diversity also broadened from 9% with varied heritages before 1998 to 37% since then. The mentoring process pivoted on an annual review process. The reviews generally helped candidates focus much earlier, identified impediments they individually felt, and provided new avenues to gain a national reputation for academic excellence. National committee membership effectively helped gain national exposure. Thirty-eight percent of the mentees served on College of American Pathologists (CAP committees, exponential multiples of any other national society. Some used CAP resources to develop major programs, some becoming nationally and internationally recognized for their academic activities. Several faculty gained national recognition as thought leaders for publishing about work initiated to serve administrative needs in the Department. The review process identified the need for more protected time for research, issues with time constraints, and avoiding exploitation when collaborating with other departments. This review identified a rigorous faculty mentoring and review process that included annual career counseling, goal-oriented academic careers, monitored advancement to promotion, higher salaries, and national recognition. All contributed to high faculty satisfaction and low faculty turnover. We conclude that a rigorous annual faculty review program and its natural sequence, promotion, can greatly foster faculty satisfaction.

  7. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Baduanjin Qigong for Health Benefits: Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liye Zou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the effects of practicing Baduanjin Qigong on different health outcomes. Methods. Six electronic databases were used for literature search through entering the following key words: Baduanjin Qigong, quality of life, sleep quality, and health-related outcomes. Results. Nineteen randomized controlled trials were used for meta-analysis. The aggregated results from this systematic review have shown significant benefits in favour of Baduanjin Qigong on quality of life (SMD, −0.75; 95% CI −1.26 to −0.24; P=0.004, sleep quality (SMD, −0.55; 95% CI −0.97 to −0.12; P=0.01, balance (SMD, −0.94; 95% CI −1.59 to 0.30; P=0.004, handgrip strength (SMD, -0.69; 95% CI −1.2 to −0.19; P=0.007, trunk flexibility (SMD, −0.66; 95% CI −1.13 to −0.19; P=0.006, systolic (SMD, −0.60; 95% CI −0.94 to −0.27; P=0.0004 and diastolic blood pressure (SMD, −0.46; 95% CI −0.73 to −0.20; P=0.0005, and resting heart rate (SMD, −0.87; 95% CI −1.47 to −0.27; P=0.005. The aggregated results of meta-analyses examining the effect of Baduanjin Qigong on leg power, cardiopulmonary endurance, and pulmonary function remain unclear because of a small number of studies. Conclusions. The aggregated results from this systematic review show that Baduanjin Qigong practice is beneficial for quality of life, sleep quality, balance, handgrip strength, trunk flexibility, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and resting heart rate. Further studies are necessary to confirm the effects of Baduanjin Qigong on leg power, cardiopulmonary endurance, and pulmonary function (e.g., vital capacity, while considering a long-term follow-up. Registration Number. This trial is registered with International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO: CRD42016036966.

  8. The benefit of the doubt or doubts over benefits? A systematic literature review of perceived risks of vaccines in European populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karafillakis, Emilie; Larson, Heidi J

    2017-09-05

    The success of vaccination strategies depends in part on population perceptions of benefits and risks of vaccines and related confidence in vaccination. Better knowledge of public concerns about vaccines and what is driving them is needed to inform vaccination strategies and communications. This literature reviewer examined studies on vaccine and vaccination risk perceptions and concerns across European populations. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify studies published between 2004 and 2014 in Europe. A descriptive analysis was performed. A total of 145 articles were selected, most of which were conducted in the UK, the Netherlands and France and studied seasonal influenza, HPV and pandemic influenza vaccination. Across all countries and vaccines, the primary area of concern was vaccine safety, followed by perceptions of low likelihood of contracting vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs), perceived low severity of VPDs, beliefs that vaccines do not work, and overall lack of information. Concerns were found to be vaccine-, country- and population-specific. In addition to identifying concerns about vaccination in Europe, this study confirmed the notion that individuals have many safety concerns about vaccination and often believe that the risks of vaccination outweigh their benefits. More research needs to be conducted to explore the impact of different types of communication strategies, which would frame the benefits of vaccination as well as risks of not vaccinating. Strategies to better inform public perceptions of vaccines should include the provision of unbiased, comprehensive information tailored to population information needs, and delivered using multiple and new communication technologies such as social media. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Economic analysis of measles elimination program in the Republic of Korea, 2001: a cost benefit analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Geun-Ryang; Choe, Young June; Go, Un Yeong; Kim, Yong-Ik; Lee, Jong-Koo

    2013-05-31

    In this study, we modeled the cost benefit analysis for three different measles vaccination strategies based upon three different measles-containing vaccines in Korea, 2001. We employed an economic analysis model using vaccination coverage data and population-based measles surveillance data, along with available estimates of the costs for the different strategies. In addition, we have included analysis on benefit of reduction of complication by mumps and rubella. We evaluated four different strategies: strategy 1, keep-up program with a second dose measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine at 4-6 years without catch-up campaign; strategy 2, additional catch-up campaign with measles (M) vaccine; strategy 3, catch-up campaign with measles-rubella (MR) vaccine; and strategy 4, catch-up campaign with MMR vaccine. The cost of vaccination included cost for vaccines, vaccination practices and other administrative expenses. The direct benefit of estimated using data from National Health Insurance Company, a government-operated system that reimburses all medical costs spent on designated illness in Korea. With the routine one-dose MMR vaccination program, we estimated a baseline of 178,560 measles cases over the 20 years; when the catch-up campaign with M, MR or MMR vaccines was conducted, we estimated the measles cases would decrease to 5936 cases. Among all strategies, the two-dose MMR keep-up program with MR catch-up campaign showed the highest benefit-cost ratio of 1.27 with a net benefit of 51.6 billion KRW. Across different vaccination strategies, our finding suggest that MR catch-up campaign in conjunction with two-dose MMR keep-up program was the most appropriate option in terms of economic costs and public health effects associated with measles elimination strategy in Korea. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Family planning program: world review 1974. Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, W B; Lapham, R J

    1975-08-01

    The 1974 Population Conference at Bucharest was marked with controversy between developed and developing countries, with the latter strongly critical of aid for population control but less for social and economic development. The Plan of Action which was finally approved emphasized the importance of social and economic factors in relation to population growth while recommending that couples in all nations should have access to family planning information. Different regions of the world, however, have widely divergent population policies and goals. The Asia-Pacific region of the developing world, which has 3/4 of the population of the developing world, has articulated a strong stance in favor of reducing birth rates at Post-Bucharest Consultation. Government-supported family planning programs are seen as a high priority item to reduce rapid population growth. Rapid population growth is not seen as a high-priority problem in most African, Arab, and Latin American countries. Population problems will be solved with economic and social advancement. There is more concern in Latin America for family planning as a "human right" issue than to promote demographic goals. Latin America was also concerned with migration/urbanization issues. All of the Regional Consultations after Bucharest favored a greater emphasis on population in development planning, concern for the problems caused by migration and urbanization, improvement in the status of women, and support for the reduction of mortality levels. Some 74 countries containing 93% of the population of the developing world, supported family planning, with only 4 populous countries -- Burma, Ethiopia, Peru, and North Korea not in support. More than 98% of the population of Asia lives in countries which support family planning; the figures are 94% for Latin America, 90% for the Middle East and North Africa and 64% for Sub-Saharan Africa. The governments of 39 countries with a combined population of 2.3 billion have stated that

  11. Summary of DOE/PERF water program review.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J.; Gasper, J.; Puder, M.; Leath, P.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-01-31

    For many years, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has supported and sponsored various types of water research relating to the oil and gas industry through its Office of Fossil Energy and its National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). In early 2005, the Petroleum Environmental Research Forum (PERF) submitted a proposal to DOE for funding an upcoming PERF meeting that would feature water research in the petroleum industry. PERF is a nonprofit organization created in 1986 to provide a stimulus to and a forum for the collection, exchange, and analysis of research information related to the development of technology concerning the petroleum industry, and a mechanism for establishing joint research projects in that field. Additional information on PERF can be accessed at http://www.perf.org. DOE agreed to provide funding to hold a review of its water research program in conjunction with the fall 2005 PERF meeting. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) was asked to coordinate and host the meeting, which was referred to as the DOE/PERF Water Program Review. The program review was held on November 1-4, 2005, in Annapolis, Maryland, at the Historic Inns of Annapolis. The purpose of the program review was to provide a forum for sharing information, reviewing current programs (especially recent unpublished research), and reviewing industry and regulatory needs regarding water use and reuse issues. PERF and DOE/NETL can use this information to plan for future water-related research projects. The water program review provided a unique opportunity in several ways. First, DOE was able to have all of the contractors currently receiving DOE funds for water research present in one room at the same time. Each contractor described his or her research and was able to learn about the research being conducted by the other researchers. Second, this forum allowed representatives of many large oil and gas companies to hear about the DOE research projects and offer their reactions to DOE

  12. "I sleep better at night:" How peer review of radiation treatment plans indirectly improves quality of care across radiation treatment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundage, Michael D; Hart, Margaret; O'Donnell, Jennifer; Reddeman, Lindsay; Gutierrez, Eric; Foxcroft, Sophie; Warde, Padraig

    Peer review of radiation oncology treatment plans is increasingly recognized as an important component of quality assurance in radiation treatment planning and delivery. Peer review of treatment plans can directly improve the quality of those plans and can also have indirect effects on radiation treatment programs. We undertook a systematic, qualitative approach to describing the indirect benefits of peer review, factors that were seen to facilitate or act as barriers to the implementation of peer review, and strategies to address these barriers across a provincial jurisdiction of radiation oncology programs (ROPs). Semistructured qualitative interviews were held with radiation oncology department heads and radiation therapy managers (or delegates) in all 14 ROPs in Ontario, Canada. We used a theoretically guided phenomenological qualitative approach to design and analyze the interview content. Themes were recorded by 2 independent reviewers, and any discordance was resolved by consensus. A total of 28 interviews were completed with 32 interviewees. Twenty-two unique themes addressed perceived benefits of peer review, relating to either peer review structure (n = 3), process (n = 9), or outcome (n = 10). Of these 22 themes, 19 related to indirect benefits to ROPs. In addition, 18 themes related to factors that facilitated peer review activities and 30 themes related to key barriers to implementing peer review were identified. Findings were consistent with, and enhanced the understanding of, previous survey-based assessments of the benefits and challenges of implementing peer review programs. Although challenges and concerns regarding the implementation of peer review were evident, the indirect benefits to radiation programs are numerous, far outweigh the implementation challenges, and strongly complement the direct individual-patient benefits that result from peer review quality assurance of radiation treatment plans. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. A Review of Recent RTO Benefit-Cost Studies: Toward MoreComprehensive Assessments of FERC Electricity RestructuringPolicies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Lesieutre, Bernard C.

    2005-12-01

    During the past three years, government and private organizations have issued more than a dozen studies of the benefits and costs of Regional Transmission Organizations (RTOs). Most of these studies have focused on benefits that can be readily estimated using traditional production-cost simulation techniques, which compare the cost of centralized dispatch under an RTO to dispatch in the absence of an RTO, and on costs associated with RTO start-up and operation. Taken as a whole, it is difficult to draw definitive conclusions from these studies because they have not examined potentially much larger benefits (and costs) resulting from the impacts of RTOs on reliability management, generation and transmission investment and operation, and wholesale electricity market operation. This report: (1) Describes the history of benefit-cost analysis of FERC electricity restructuring policies; (2)Reviews current practice by analyzing 11 RTO benefit-cost studies that were published between 2002 and 2004 and makes recommendations to improve the documentation of data and methods and the presentation of findings in future studies that focus primarily on estimating short-run economic impacts; and (3) Reviews important impacts of FERC policies that have been overlooked or incompletely treated by recent RTO benefit-cost studies and the challenges to crafting more comprehensive assessments of these impacts based on actual performance, including impacts on reliability management, generation and transmission investment and operation, and wholesale electricity market operation.

  14. Monitoring Activities Review action report for the Environmental Monitoring Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelmsen, R.N.; Wright, K.C.

    1990-12-01

    To improve program planning and to provide bases for technical improvement of the monitoring program, the EG ampersand G Environmental Monitoring (EM) organization has regularly used the Monitoring Activities Review (MAR) process since 1982. Each MAR is conducted by a committee of individuals selected for their experience in the various types of monitoring performed by the EM organization. An MAR of the Environmental Monitoring Program was conducted in 1988. This action report identifies and discusses the recommendations of this MAR committee. This action report also identifies the actions already taken by the EM Unit in response to these recommendations, as well as the actions and schedules to be taken. 10 refs

  15. Review of the nuclear fuel waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatcher, S.R.

    1980-06-01

    Progress over the previous year in the nuclear fuel waste management program is reviewed. Universities, industry and consultants have become increasingly involved, and the work is being overseen by a Technical Advisory Committee. The program has also been investigated by Ontario's Porter Commission and Select Committe on Ontario Hydro Affairs. A public information program has been extended to cover most of the Canadian Shield region of Ontario. Ontario Hydro is studying spent fuel storage and transportation, while AECL is covering immobilization of spent fuel or processing wastes, geotechnical and geochemical research in the laboratory and in the field, design of disposal facilities, and environmental and safety assessments. (L.L.)

  16. Technical review of the Sandia Laboratories' Particle Beam Fusion Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This report considers the technical aspects of Sandia Laboratories' Particle Beam Fusion Program and examines the program's initial goals, the progress made to date towards reaching those goals, and the future plans or methods of reaching those original or modified goals. A summary of Sandia Laboratories' effort, which seeks to demonstrate that high voltage pulsed power generated high-current electron or light ion beams can be used to ignite a deuterium or tritium pellet, is provided. A brief review and assessment of the Sandia Pulse Power Program is given. Several critical issues and summaries of the committee members' opinions are discussed

  17. Methods for Estimating the Social Benefits of EPA Land Cleanup and Reuse Programs (2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Policy, Economics and Innovation’s National Center for Environmental Economics, and the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response’s Land Revitalization Office convened a workshop on risk assessment and benefit estimation methods in 2006.

  18. Examining the Benefits and Barriers of Instructional Gardening Programs to Increase Fruit and Vegetable Intake among Preschool-Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen L. Davis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Research exists on using instructional gardening programs with school age children as a means of improving dietary quality and for obesity prevention. This article examines the potential use of instructional gardens in childcare settings to improving fruit and vegetable intake in young children. A qualitative study was conducted with childcare providers. Participants (n=20 were recruited via e-mails, letters, and follow-up phone calls. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded to identify themes within two areas (1 childcare providers perceptions of children’s fruit and vegetable consumption and (2 components necessary to initiate or improve instructional gardening programs. Themes associated with provider’s perceptions of child fruit and vegetable consumption included benefits of consumption, willingness to try fruits and vegetables, meeting recommendations, and influence of the home and childcare environments on child eating. Benefits, barriers, and resources needed were identified as themes related to starting or improving instructional gardening programs. Benefits to gardening with preschoolers are consistent with those found in school-age populations. While several barriers exist, resources are available to childcare providers to address these barriers. Increased knowledge and awareness of resources are necessary to improve the success of gardening programs in the childcare setting with the goal of improving child diet quality.

  19. Examining the Benefits and Barriers of Instructional Gardening Programs to Increase Fruit and Vegetable Intake among Preschool-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kristen L; Brann, Lynn S

    2017-01-01

    Research exists on using instructional gardening programs with school age children as a means of improving dietary quality and for obesity prevention. This article examines the potential use of instructional gardens in childcare settings to improving fruit and vegetable intake in young children. A qualitative study was conducted with childcare providers. Participants ( n = 20) were recruited via e-mails, letters, and follow-up phone calls. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded to identify themes within two areas (1) childcare providers perceptions of children's fruit and vegetable consumption and (2) components necessary to initiate or improve instructional gardening programs. Themes associated with provider's perceptions of child fruit and vegetable consumption included benefits of consumption, willingness to try fruits and vegetables, meeting recommendations, and influence of the home and childcare environments on child eating. Benefits, barriers, and resources needed were identified as themes related to starting or improving instructional gardening programs. Benefits to gardening with preschoolers are consistent with those found in school-age populations. While several barriers exist, resources are available to childcare providers to address these barriers. Increased knowledge and awareness of resources are necessary to improve the success of gardening programs in the childcare setting with the goal of improving child diet quality.

  20. Conservation reserve program: benefit for grassland birds in the northern plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, R.E.; Shaffer, T.L.; Sauer, J.R.; Peterjohn, B.G.

    1994-01-01

    During the past few decades numbers of some species of upland-nesting birds in North America have declined. Duck species such as mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), northern pintail (A. acuta) and blue-winged teal (A. discors) have declined since the early 1970s and have remained low since 1985 (Caithamer et al. 1993). Some grassland-dependent nonwaterfowl species also have declined since 1966, as indicated by the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) (Robbins et al. 1986). For prairie-nesting ducks, population declines can be attributed mostly to low recruitment, partially as a result of low nest success. Klett et al. (1988) concluded that nest success (probability of ≥1 egg of clutch hatches) in much of the U.S. Prairie Pothole Region was inadequate to maintain populations of the five most common upland-nesting duck species studied, and that predators were the most important cause of nest failure. Over the years, as grassland areas have been converted to cropland, ducks have concentrated their nesting in the remaining areas of available habitat, where predators such as red fox (Vulpes vulpes), striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) and badger (Taxidea taxus) forage (Cowardin et al. 1983). The reasons for declining populations of grassland nonwaterfowl birds are not clear but the loss of suitable grassland-nesting habitat probably is an important factor. Currently, approximately 95 percent of the land in North Dakota is used for agricultural purposes, of which over 60 percent is used for annual crop production (Haugse 1990). Of the grassland that remains, 95 percent is used for livestock production. This probably had a severe impact on grassland bird species that seek idle grass cover for nesting. The 1985 and 1990 U.S. Farm Bills include provisions under the Food Security Act to fund a cropland-idling program called the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). Over 36 million acres have been enrolled nationwide in the CRP since 1985 (Osborn 1993), and up to 25 percent of

  1. 45 CFR 2540.670 - Will my qualification to participate or eligibility for benefits be suspended during the review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Will my qualification to participate or eligibility for benefits be suspended during the review process? 2540.670 Section 2540.670 Public Welfare... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS False or Misleading Statements § 2540.670 Will my qualification to participate or...

  2. Academic Benefits of Transitional Bilingual Education: A Literary Review, Staff Development, and Guidebook for Elementary Administrators and Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, Jean Ann; Karr-Kidwell, PJ

    This paper provides a literature review, staff development information, and a guidebook for elementary administrators and educators that explains the academic benefits of Transitional Bilingual Education (TBE) for prekindergarten through fifth grade students. TBE allows limited English speaking students to learn a second language while being…

  3. A review of graduate nurse transition programs in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levett-Jones, Tracy; FitzGerald, Mary

    Despite nearly two decades of experience with graduate transition programs in Australia little evidence exists regarding the effectiveness of these programs as interventions that enhance the transition from nursing student to professional practitioner. There is general acknowledgement that this is a crucial time for people entering the profession and yet there is little agreement on what constitutes best practice for nurses' transition to the workforce. This paper challenges the status quo through a review of current programs and questions whether primacy should be given to formal transition programs or to the development of educationally supportive clinical learning environments. There is sufficient doubt in the efficacy of formal transition programs to at least investigate potential alternatives such as concentration on the development of a supportive practice culture conducive to learning. Indeed, the type of learning environment suitable for graduate nurses is likely to be one that will also facilitate the continued development and enhanced job satisfaction of the rest of the nursing team.

  4. Peer mentoring programs benefits in terms of civic engagement and social capital

    OpenAIRE

    Šedinová, Petra

    2014-01-01

    The main goal this diploma thesis is to explore the influence of peer mentoring programs as a tool of community intervention for children and adolescents from the point of view of civic engagement and social capital. The influence is assessed to the recipients of mentoring programs care- to children and adolescents exposed to risk factors or risk environment. This thesis is secondary analysis of Mentoring programs evaluating research in mentoring programs Big Brother Big Sisters- Pět P in Cze...

  5. A Cost-Benefit Analysis of a State-Funded Healthy Homes Program for Residents With Asthma: Findings From the New York State Healthy Neighborhoods Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Marta; Reddy, Amanda L; Dixon, Sherry L; Wilson, Jonathan; Jacobs, David E

    Despite considerable evidence that the economic and other benefits of asthma home visits far exceed their cost, few health care payers reimburse or provide coverage for these services. To evaluate the cost and savings of the asthma intervention of a state-funded healthy homes program. Pre- versus postintervention comparisons of asthma outcomes for visits conducted during 2008-2012. The New York State Healthy Neighborhoods Program operates in select communities with a higher burden of housing-related illness and associated risk factors. One thousand households with 550 children and 731 adults with active asthma; 791 households with 448 children and 551 adults with asthma events in the previous year. The program provides home environmental assessments and low-cost interventions to address asthma trigger-promoting conditions and asthma self-management. Conditions are reassessed 3 to 6 months after the initial visit. Program costs and estimated benefits from changes in asthma medication use, visits to the doctor for asthma, emergency department visits, and hospitalizations over a 12-month follow-up period. For the asthma event group, the per person savings for all medical encounters and medications filled was $1083 per in-home asthma visit, and the average cost of the visit was $302, for a benefit to program cost ratio of 3.58 and net benefit of $781 per asthma visit. For the active asthma group, per person savings was $613 per asthma visit, with a benefit to program cost ratio of 2.03 and net benefit of $311. Low-intensity, home-based, environmental interventions for people with asthma decrease the cost of health care utilization. Greater reductions are realized when services are targeted toward people with more poorly controlled asthma. While low-intensity approaches may produce more modest benefits, they may also be more feasible to implement on a large scale. Health care payers, and public payers in particular, should consider expanding coverage, at least for

  6. Benefits, Costs, and Explanation of the High/Scope Perry Preschool Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweinhart, Lawrence J.

    The High/Scope Perry Preschool Study is a study of the effects of a high-quality preschool program for children born in poverty. Following 123 children randomly assigned to program or no-program control groups, the study has had little attrition on a variety of measures from age 3 to age 41. The study has found evidence of preschool program…

  7. Co-benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation: a review and classification by type, mitigation sector, and geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hong-Mei; Liang, Qiao-Mei; Liu, Li-Jing; Diaz Anadon, Laura

    2017-12-01

    The perceived inability of climate change mitigation goals alone to mobilize sufficient climate change mitigation efforts has, among other factors, led to growing research on the co-benefits of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This study conducts a systematic review (SR) of the literature on the co-benefits of mitigating GHG emissions resulting in 1554 papers. We analyze these papers using bibliometric analysis, including a keyword co-occurrence analysis. We then iteratively develop and present a typology of co-benefits, mitigation sectors, geographic scope, and methods based on the manual double coding of the papers resulting from the SR. We find that the co-benefits from GHG mitigation that have received the largest attention of researchers are impacts on ecosystems, economic activity, health, air pollution, and resource efficiency. The co-benefits that have received the least attention include the impacts on conflict and disaster resilience, poverty alleviation (or exacerbation), energy security, technological spillovers and innovation, and food security. Most research has investigated co-benefits from GHG mitigation in the agriculture, forestry and other land use (AFOLU), electricity, transport, and residential sectors, with the industrial sector being the subject of significantly less research. The largest number of co-benefits publications provide analysis at a global level, with relatively few studies providing local (city) level analysis or studying co-benefits in Oceanian or African contexts. Finally, science and engineering methods, in contrast to economic or social science methods, are the methods most commonly employed in co-benefits papers. We conclude that given the potential mobilizing power of understudied co-benefits (e.g. poverty alleviation) and local impacts, the magnitude of GHG emissions from the industrial sector, and the fact that Africa and South America are likely to be severely affected by climate change, there is an opportunity

  8. Fermi National Acceleator Laboratory Annual Program Review 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appel, Jeffrey A.; Jovanovic, Drasko; Pordes, Stephen [Fermilab

    1992-01-01

    This book is submitted as a written adjunct to the Annual DOE High Energy Physics Program Review of Fermilab, scheduled this year for March 31 - April 2, 1992. In it are described the functions and activities of the various Laboratory areas plus statements of plans and goals for the coming year.

  9. Interior-Point Methods for Linear Programming: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J. N.; Singh, D.

    2002-01-01

    The paper reviews some recent advances in interior-point methods for linear programming and indicates directions in which future progress can be made. Most of the interior-point methods belong to any of three categories: affine-scaling methods, potential reduction methods and central path methods. These methods are discussed together with…

  10. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Annual Program Review 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appel, Jeffrey A. [Fermilab; Jovanovic, Drasko [Fermilab; Pordes, Stephen [Fermilab

    1991-01-01

    This book is submitted as a written adjunct to the Annual DOE High Energy Physics Program Review of Fermilab, scheduled this year for April 10-12, 1991. In it are described the functions and activities of the various Laboratory areas plus statements of plans and goals for the coming year.

  11. Cost-benefit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A critical review of the cost benefit analysis is given for the LMFBR-type reactor development program given in an environmental impact statement of AEC. Several methodological shortcomings are signalled. As compared with a HTGR-type/LWR-type mix of reactors the LMFBR-type reactor will not be competitive until the U 3 O 8 prices reach a level of $ 50/lb which is not likely to happen before the year 2020. It is recommended to review the draft of the ZEC document and include timing as one of the issues. Deferal of the LMFBR-type reactor development program if necessary will not be intolerably costly

  12. Does mitigation save? Reviewing cost-benefit analyses of disaster risk reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Shreve, Cheney M.; Kelman, Ilan

    2014-01-01

    The benefit-cost-ratio (BCR), used in cost-benefit analysis (CBA), is an indicator that attempts to summarize the overall value for money of a project. Disaster costs continue to rise and the demand has increased to demonstrate the economic benefit of disaster risk reduction (DRR) to policy makers. This study compiles and compares original CBA case studies reporting DRR BCRs, without restrictions as to hazard type, location, scale, or other parameters. Many results were identified supporting ...

  13. Unraveling the metabolic health benefits of fasting related to religious beliefs: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persynaki, Angeliki; Karras, Spyridon; Pichard, Claude

    2017-03-01

    Periodic fasting, under a religious aspect, has been adopted by humans for centuries as a crucial pathway of spiritual purification. Caloric restriction, with or without exclusion of certain types of food, is often a key component. Fasting varies significantly among different populations according to cultural habits and local climate conditions. Religious fasting in terms of patterns (continuous versus intermittent) and duration can vary from 1 to 200 d; thus, the positive and negative impact on health can be considerable. Advantages of religious fasting are claimed by many but have been explored mainly by a limited number of studies conducted in Buddhist, Christian, or Muslim populations. These trials indicate that religious fasting has beneficial effects on body weight and glycemia, cardiometabolic risk markers, and oxidative stress parameters. Animals exposed to a diet mimicking fasting have demonstrated weight loss as well as lowered plasma levels of glucose, triacylglycerols, and insulin growth factor-1, although lean body mass remained stable. Diabetic mice on repeated intermittent fasting had less insulin resistance that mice fed ad libitum. The long-term significance of such changes on global health remains to be explored. This review summarizes the data available with regard to benefits of fasting followed for religious reasons on human health, body anthropometry, and cardio-metabolic risk markers; aims to bridge the current knowledge gap on available evidence and suggests considerations for the future research agenda. Future studies should explore every type of religious fasting, as well as their consequences in subpopulations such as children, pregnant women, and the elderly, or patients with chronic metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Review of nanomaterials in dentistry: interactions with the oral microenvironment, clinical applications, hazards, and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besinis, Alexandros; De Peralta, Tracy; Tredwin, Christopher J; Handy, Richard D

    2015-03-24

    Interest in the use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) as either nanomedicines or dental materials/devices in clinical dentistry is growing. This review aims to detail the ultrafine structure, chemical composition, and reactivity of dental tissues in the context of interactions with ENMs, including the saliva, pellicle layer, and oral biofilm; then describes the applications of ENMs in dentistry in context with beneficial clinical outcomes versus potential risks. The flow rate and quality of saliva are likely to influence the behavior of ENMs in the oral cavity, but how the protein corona formed on the ENMs will alter bioavailability, or interact with the structure and proteins of the pellicle layer, as well as microbes in the biofilm, remains unclear. The tooth enamel is a dense crystalline structure that is likely to act as a barrier to ENM penetration, but underlying dentinal tubules are not. Consequently, ENMs may be used to strengthen dentine or regenerate pulp tissue. ENMs have dental applications as antibacterials for infection control, as nanofillers to improve the mechanical and bioactive properties of restoration materials, and as novel coatings on dental implants. Dentifrices and some related personal care products are already available for oral health applications. Overall, the clinical benefits generally outweigh the hazards of using ENMs in the oral cavity, and the latter should not prevent the responsible innovation of nanotechnology in dentistry. However, the clinical safety regulations for dental materials have not been specifically updated for ENMs, and some guidance on occupational health for practitioners is also needed. Knowledge gaps for future research include the formation of protein corona in the oral cavity, ENM diffusion through clinically relevant biofilms, and mechanistic investigations on how ENMs strengthen the tooth structure.

  15. A scoping review of the experiences, benefits, and challenges involved in volunteer work among youth and young adults with a disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Sally

    2016-08-01

    To develop a better understanding of the experiences of volunteer work among youth with disabilities. A scoping review was undertaken to assess the benefits and challenges of volunteering among youth with disabilities. Comprehensive searches using six international databases were conducted. Eligible articles included: (a) youth aged 30 or younger, with a disability; (b) empirical research on the benefits or challenges of volunteering; (c) published in a peer-reviewed journal between 1980 and 2014. Of the 1558 articles identified, 20 articles - involving 1409 participants, aged 12-30, across five countries - met the inclusion criteria. Studies linked volunteering to the development of human capital (i.e. practical experience, improved self-determination, self-confidence, coping), enhanced social capital (i.e. social and communication skills, social inclusion) and improved cultural capital (i.e. helping others, contributing to community). Many youth with disabilities also encountered challenges - including lack of accessible volunteer opportunities, difficulties arranging transportation, and negative attitudes from potential supervisors. Young people with disabilities are willing and able to volunteer, and they report benefits of volunteering; however, they face many challenges in finding suitable volunteer positions. More rigorous research is needed to understand the health and social benefits of volunteering and how it can help youth develop career pathways. Implications for Rehabilitation Clinicians, educators and parents should discuss the benefits of volunteering with youth with disabilities and assist them in finding placements that match their interests and abilities. Managers and clinicians should consider incorporating volunteering into vocational rehabilitation programming (i.e. addressing how to find placements and connecting youth to organisations). Clinicians should encourage youth to take part in social and extracurricular activities to help build their

  16. Review of US utility demand-side bidding programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, C.A.; Kito, M.S.

    1995-01-01

    In this study, we review utility experiences with demand-side management (DSM) bidding programs. Since 1987, about 35 US utilities have signed long-term contracts with developers of DSM resources (ie energy service companies and customers) to provide a quantity of demand and energy savings at specified prices. Total resource costs range between 5.4 and 8 cents/kWh for DSM bidding programs where complete information on program costs is available. Almost all DSM bidding programs have been cost-effective compared with the utility's own supply-side alternatives, although there is substantial disagreement regarding the value of these programs compared with the utility's own DSM programs. In most bidding programs, payments to bidders account for between 70 and 90% of total program costs. Variation in winning bid prices is influenced primarily by DSM bid ceiling prices, differences in the mix of measures and markets targeted by developers, and the degree of performance risk borne by the DSM developer. Bids targeting residential customers averaged 6.2 cents/kWh compared with about 5.0 cents/kWh for commercial/industrial bids. We also compared the costs of acquiring lighting savings in DSM bidding contracts with a sample of 20 utility sponsored commercial/industrial lighting programs. We found that, on average total resource costs were slightly higher in bidding programs (6.1 vs 5.6 cents/kWh), although ratepayers bear significantly less performance risk in bidding programs compared with traditional utility-sponsored DSM programs. (author)

  17. Self-management programs for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples with chronic conditions: A rapid review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ellie; Lawn, Sharon; Oster, Candice; Morello, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Review the evidence for the effectiveness of chronic condition self-management programs applied to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples. Methods A rapid review methodology was followed to develop an evidence summary from peer-reviewed and grey literature. Results Only seven peer-reviewed studies were identified. The evidence indicated that group programs, particularly the Stanford Program, and structured individual chronic condition self-management programs were of good quality for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples, although these need to be integrated into practice in order to see the greatest benefits. The Flinders Program showed promise as a standardised program with content designed specifically with and for these populations. Numerous grey literature sources were identified, many using strong participatory approaches developed locally within Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples. However, few of these programs have been subject to rigorous evaluation. Discussion Despite the significant focus on chronic condition self-management programs to help address the burden of disease for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples, few studies exist that have been properly evaluated. The Closing the Gap Principles developed by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare offer important guidance for how to proceed to maximise engagement, cultural appropriateness and ownership of program initiatives.

  18. Do health partnerships with organisations in lower income countries benefit the UK partner? A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Felicity Ae; Knights, Daniel Ph; Sinclair, Vita Fe; Baraitser, Paula

    2013-08-30

    Health partnerships between institutions in the UK and Low or Lower- middle Income Countries are an increasingly important model of development, yet analysis of partnerships has focused on benefits and costs to the Low and Lower- Middle Income partner. We reviewed the evidence on benefits and costs of health partnerships to UK individuals, institutions & the NHS and sought to understand how volunteering within partnerships might impact on workforce development and service delivery. A systematic review of both published literature and grey literature was conducted. Content relating to costs or benefits to the UK at an individual, institutional or system level was extracted and analysed by thematic synthesis. The benefits of volunteering described were mapped to the key outcome indicators for five different UK professional development structures. A framework was developed to demonstrate the link between volunteer experience within partnerships and improved UK service delivery outcomes. The literature review (including citation mapping) returned 9 published papers and 32 pieces of grey literature that met all inclusion criteria. 95% of sources cited benefits and 32% cited costs. Most literature does not meet high standards of formal academic rigor. Forty initial individual benefits codes were elicited. These were then grouped into 7 key domains: clinical skills; management skills; communication & teamwork; patient experience & dignity; policy; academic skills; and personal satisfaction & interest. A high degree of concordance was shown between professional benefits cited and professional development indicators within UK work force development frameworks. A theoretical trajectory from volunteer experience to UK service delivery outcomes was demonstrated in most areas, but not all. 32% of sources cited costs, yielding 15 initial codes which were grouped into 5 domains: financial; reputational; health & security; loss of staff; and opportunity costs. There is little

  19. SEASAT economic assessment. Volume 1: Summary and conclusions. [management analysis of the economic benefits of the SEASAT program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A summary is presented of the economic benefits that can be derived from using the SEASAT Satellite System. A statement of the major findings of case studies of the practical applications of the SEASAT program to the following areas is given: (1) offshore oil and natural gas industry, (2) ocean mining, (3) coastal zones, (4) oil exploration in Arctic regions, (5) ocean fishing, and (6) ports and harbors. Also given is a description of the SEASAT System and its performance. A computer program, used to optimize SEASAT System's costs and operational requirements, is also considered.

  20. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Interpersonal Process in Homeless Veterans Participating in a Peer Mentoring Intervention: Associations With Program Benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E; Resnik, Linda; Johnson, Erin; O'Toole, Thomas

    2018-01-25

    Homelessness among veterans has dropped dramatically since the expansion of services for homeless veterans in 2009, and now engaging homeless veterans in existing programs will be important to continuing to make progress. While one promising approach for engaging homeless veterans in care is involving peer mentors in integrated services, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may diminish the effects of peer mentorship. This mixed methods study examined how interpersonal and emotional processes in homeless veterans with and without PTSD impacted their capacity to engage in relationships with peer mentors. Four focus groups of 5-8 homeless male veterans (N = 22) were drawn from a larger multisite randomized trial. Qualitative analysis identified five primary themes: disconnectedness; anger, hostility, or resentment; connecting with others; positive view of self; and feeling like an outsider. Thematic comparisons between participants with and without a self-reported PTSD diagnosis, and between those who did and did not benefit from the peer mentor program, were validated by using quantitative methods. Disconnectedness was associated with self-reported PTSD diagnosis and with lack of program benefit; feeling like an outsider was associated with program benefit. Results suggest that disruption to the capacity to develop and maintain social bonds in PTSD may interfere with the capacity to benefit from peer mentorship. Social rules and basic strategies for navigating interpersonal relationships may differ somewhat within the homeless community and outside of it; for veterans who feel disconnected from the domiciled community, a formerly homeless veteran peer may serve as a critical "bridge" between the two social worlds. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).