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Sample records for benefits physiological effects

  1. Physiological effects in aromatherapy

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The effects of aromas on humans are divided into physiological and psychological effects. The physiological effect acts directly on the physical organism, the psychological effect acts via the sense of smell or olfactory system, which in turn may cause a physiological effect. This paper reviews on the physiological effects which are used for the evaluation of the effects of aromas. Physiological parameters, i.e. heart rate blood pressure, electrodermal activity, electroencephalogram, slow pot...

  2. Physiological effects in aromatherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapanee Hongratanaworakit

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of aromas on humans are divided into physiological and psychological effects. The physiological effect acts directly on the physical organism, the psychological effect acts via the sense of smell or olfactory system, which in turn may cause a physiological effect. This paper reviews on the physiological effects which are used for the evaluation of the effects of aromas. Physiological parameters, i.e. heart rate blood pressure, electrodermal activity, electroencephalogram, slow potential brain waves (contingent negativevariation, and eye blink rate or pupil functions, are used as indices for the measurement of the aroma effects

  3. Physiological benefits of nectar-feeding by a predatory beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extrafloral nectar is an important food source for many animals, including predatory lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), although the physiological benefits of nectar consumption are poorly understood for most consumers. Under laboratory conditions, we confined new females of Coleomegilla macu...

  4. Benefits of fundamental modelling : the case of physiological disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konopacki, P.; Tijskens, L.M.M.

    2005-01-01

    A model was developed assuming that the occurrence and the development of physiological disorders are effects of a balance between processes of disorder formation and scavenging of initiating compounds. Based on this (simplified) mechanism and applying the fundamental rules of chemical kinetics, the

  5. Review article: health benefits of some physiologically active ingredients and their suitability as yoghurt fortifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Fayed, A. E

    2014-01-01

    The article is concerned with health benefits of two main physiologically active ingredients namely, Isoflavones and γ-Aminobutyric acid, with emphasis on their fitness for fortification of yoghurt to be consumed as a functional food. Isoflavones (ISO) are part of the diphenol compounds, called “phytoestrogens,” which are structurally and functionally similar to estradiol, the human estrogen, but much less potent. Because of this similarity, ISO were suggested to have preventive effects for m...

  6. Polydextrose: Physiological Function, and Effects on Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane Moreira Ramiro do Carmo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Polydextrose (PDX is a non-digestible oligosaccharide used widely across most sectors of the food industry. It is a randomly linked glucose oligomer containing small amounts of sorbitol and citric acid. The random bonds in PDX prevent mammalian digestive enzymes from readily hydrolyzing the molecule and it has a reported energy value of 1 kcal/g. These properties have led to the acceptance in many countries that PDX provides similar physiological effects as other dietary fibers and has shown prebiotic potential. Dietary intervention with prebiotics has been shown to selectively stimulate the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of intestinal bacteria associated with several physiological benefits on health. Therefore, the objective of this review was a survey of the literature on the effect of supplementation with PDX in health, and to list the benefits for maintaining health and/or reducing the development of diseases.

  7. Polydextrose: Physiological Function, and Effects on Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Carmo, Mariane Moreira Ramiro; Walker, Julia Clara Leite; Novello, Daiana; Caselato, Valeria Maria; Sgarbieri, Valdemiro Carlos; Ouwehand, Arthur C.; Andreollo, Nelson Adami; Hiane, Priscila Aiko; dos Santos, Elisvânia Freitas

    2016-01-01

    Polydextrose (PDX) is a non-digestible oligosaccharide used widely across most sectors of the food industry. It is a randomly linked glucose oligomer containing small amounts of sorbitol and citric acid. The random bonds in PDX prevent mammalian digestive enzymes from readily hydrolyzing the molecule and it has a reported energy value of 1 kcal/g. These properties have led to the acceptance in many countries that PDX provides similar physiological effects as other dietary fibers and has shown prebiotic potential. Dietary intervention with prebiotics has been shown to selectively stimulate the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of intestinal bacteria associated with several physiological benefits on health. Therefore, the objective of this review was a survey of the literature on the effect of supplementation with PDX in health, and to list the benefits for maintaining health and/or reducing the development of diseases. PMID:27618093

  8. Polydextrose: Physiological Function, and Effects on Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Carmo, Mariane Moreira Ramiro; Walker, Julia Clara Leite; Novello, Daiana; Caselato, Valeria Maria; Sgarbieri, Valdemiro Carlos; Ouwehand, Arthur C; Andreollo, Nelson Adami; Hiane, Priscila Aiko; Dos Santos, Elisvânia Freitas

    2016-09-08

    Polydextrose (PDX) is a non-digestible oligosaccharide used widely across most sectors of the food industry. It is a randomly linked glucose oligomer containing small amounts of sorbitol and citric acid. The random bonds in PDX prevent mammalian digestive enzymes from readily hydrolyzing the molecule and it has a reported energy value of 1 kcal/g. These properties have led to the acceptance in many countries that PDX provides similar physiological effects as other dietary fibers and has shown prebiotic potential. Dietary intervention with prebiotics has been shown to selectively stimulate the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of intestinal bacteria associated with several physiological benefits on health. Therefore, the objective of this review was a survey of the literature on the effect of supplementation with PDX in health, and to list the benefits for maintaining health and/or reducing the development of diseases.

  9. Exercise Effects on Sleep Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunao eUchida

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This mini-review focuses on the effects of exercise on sleep. In its early days, sleep research largely focused on central nervous system (CNS physiology using standardized tabulations of several sleep-specific landmark electroencephalogram (EEG waveforms. Though coarse, this method has enabled the observation and inspection of numerous uninterrupted sleep phenomena. Thus, research on the effects of exercise on sleep began, in the 1960’s, with a focus primarily on sleep EEG (CNS sleep changes. Those early studies found only small effects of exercise on sleep. More recent sleep research has explored not only CNS functioning, but somatic physiology as well. As physical exercise mostly affects somatic functions, endocrine and autonomic nervous system (ANS changes that occur during sleep should be affected by daytime exercise. Since endocrinological, metabolic and autonomic changes can be measured during sleep, it should be possible to assess exercise effects on somatic physiology in addition to CNS sleep quality, building from standard polysomnographic (PSG techniques. Incorporating measures of somatic physiology in the quantitative assessment of sleep could further our understanding of sleep's function as an auto-regulatory, global phenomenon.

  10. The benefits of basic research: advances in reproductive physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-01

    At the Population Council's Center for Biomedical Research basic research is being conducted on the reproductive system with a view to develop new contraceptive and reproductive health technologies. Research in the Reproductive Physiology Program at the Center is carried out by reproductive endocrinologists, molecular biologists, and biochemists working in eight laboratories. In several of the laboratories the function of hormones that regulate spermatogenesis is studied. Scientists in Milan Bagchi's laboratory have developed a model system, composed of cellular components in a test tube, that allows them to study the full sequence of events involved in signal transduction. In James Catterall's laboratory, scientists study how androgens regulate sexual development at the molecular level. The steroid hormones cortisol and corticosterone play critical roles in mammalian fetal development. Scientists in several laboratories study the function of two specialized testicular cells: the Leydig and Sertoli cells. The Leydig cell synthesizes and secretes testosterone, an androgen that regulates spermatogenesis. The Sertoli cell maintains the environment in which spermatogenesis occurs. Researchers in Glen Gunsalus's laboratory study an androgen-binding protein secreted by the Sertoli cell. In collaboration with scientists at the Shanghai Research Center of Biotechnology, they used advanced genetic techniques to create a biologically active form of the protein in silk worm larvae. Scientists in Patricia Morris's laboratory recently identified molecular signals that control the interactions between developing sperm and Sertoli and Leydig cells. In the laboratory of David Phillips, scientists are investigating how the HIV virus penetrates the outer layer of cells in the genital tract and infects underlying cells. In 1994 a vaginally applied microbicide was developed that may inhibit infection by sexually transmitted diseases including HIV. Applications of basic research such

  11. [C-peptide physiological effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpakov, A O; Granstrem, O K

    2013-02-01

    In the recent years there were numerous evidences that C-peptide, which was previously considered as a product of insulin biosynthesis, is one of the key regulators of physiological processes. C-peptide via heterotrimeric G(i/o) protein-coupled receptors activates a wide range of intracellular effector proteins and transcription factors and, thus, controls the inflammatory and neurotrophic processes, pain sensitivity, cognitive function, macro- and microcirculation, glomerular filtration. These effects of C-peptide are mainly expressed in its absolute or relative deficiency occurred in type 1 diabetes mellitus and they are less pronounced when the level of C-peptide is close to normal. Replacement therapy with C-peptide prevents many complications of type 1 diabetes, such as atherosclerosis, diabetic peripheral neuropathy, and nephropathy. C-peptide interacts with the insulin hexamer complexes and induces their dissociation and, as a result, regulates the functional activity of the insulin signaling system. At the same time, C-peptide at the concentrations above physiological may demonstrate pro-inflammatory effects on the endothelial cells and cause atherosclerotic changes in the vessels, which should be considered in the study of pathogenic mechanisms of complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus, where the level of C peptide is increased, as well as in the development of approaches for C-peptide application in clinic. This review is devoted contemporary achievements and unsolved problems in the study of C-peptide, as an important regulator of physiological and biochemical processes.

  12. Physiological Effects of Touching Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harumi Ikei

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to clarify the physiological effects of touching wood with the palm, in comparison with touching other materials on brain activity and autonomic nervous activity. Eighteen female university students (mean age, 21.7  ±  1.6 years participated in the study. As an indicator of brain activity, oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb concentrations were measured in the left/right prefrontal cortex using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy. Heart rate variability (HRV was used as an indicator of autonomic nervous activity. The high-frequency (HF component of HRV, which reflected parasympathetic nervous activity, and the low-frequency (LF/HF ratio, which reflected sympathetic nervous activity, were measured. Plates of uncoated white oak, marble, tile, and stainless steel were used as tactile stimuli. After sitting at rest with their eyes closed, participants touched the materials for 90 s. As a result, tactile stimulation with white oak significantly (1 decreased the oxy-Hb concentration in the left/right prefrontal cortex relative to marble, tile, and stainless steel and (2 increased ln(HF-reflected parasympathetic nervous activity relative to marble and stainless steel. In conclusion, our study revealed that touching wood with the palm calms prefrontal cortex activity and induces parasympathetic nervous activity more than other materials, thereby inducing physiological relaxation.

  13. Review article: health benefits of some physiologically active ingredients and their suitability as yoghurt fortifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayed, A E

    2015-05-01

    The article is concerned with health benefits of two main physiologically active ingredients namely, Isoflavones and γ-Aminobutyric acid, with emphasis on their fitness for fortification of yoghurt to be consumed as a functional food. Isoflavones (ISO) are part of the diphenol compounds, called "phytoestrogens," which are structurally and functionally similar to estradiol, the human estrogen, but much less potent. Because of this similarity, ISO were suggested to have preventive effects for many kinds of hormone-dependent diseases. In nature, ISO usually occur as glycosides and, once deconjugated by the intestinal microflora, the ISO can be absorbed into the blood. At present, it seems convincing their possible protective actions against various cancers, osteoporosis and menopausal symptoms and high levels of blood cholesterol as well as the epidemiological evidence. Γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), it is an amino acid that has long been reported to lower blood pressure by intravenous administration in experimental animals and in human subjects. GABA is present in many vegetables and fruits but not in dairy products. GABA was reported to lower blood pressure in people with mild hypertension. It was suggested that low-dose oral GABA has a hypotensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive. Yoghurt beyond its ability to be probiotic food via its culturing with the gut strains, it could further carry more healthy benefits when it was fortified with physiological active ingredients, especially GABA versus ISO preferring, whether, bacteriologically or biochemically, a fortification level of 50 mg ISO/kg or 200 mg GABA/kg.

  14. Employment effects of the Danish rehabilitation benefit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Palle B; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2012-01-01

    Social benefits aim to bring marginalised citizens back into the labour force. As benefits constitute a burden for tax payers, attention has been given to measure the effect. We used register data to assess the employment effect of rehabilitation benefit; the most liberal social benefit in Denmark....

  15. Physiological benefits of exercise in artificial gravity: A broadband countermeasure to space flight related deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Jessica L.; Jarchow, Thomas; Young, Laurence R.

    2008-07-01

    Current countermeasures to space flight related physiological deconditioning have not been sufficiently effective. We believe that a comprehensive countermeasure is the combination of intermittent centrifugation (artificial gravity) and exercise. We aim to test the long-term effectiveness of this combination in terms of fitness benefits. As a first-order determination of effectiveness, subjects participated in an eight-week exercise program. Three times per week, they exercised using a stair-stepper on a short-radius (2 m) centrifuge spinning at 30 RPM, maintaining a target heart rate that was systematically increased over the exercise period. During the sessions, foot forces and stepping cadence, heart rate, and perceived exertion were measured. Before and after the eight-week exercise program, measurements included: body fat percentage, bone mineral content, quadriceps extension strength, push-ups endurance, stepping cadence for a given heart rate, and maximum stepping endurance. We find that stair-stepping on a centrifuge is safe and comfortable. Preliminary fitness results indicate that stair-stepping on a centrifuge may be effective in improving aerobic fitness, body composition, and strength. These results indicate that such a combination may also be effective as a countermeasure to space flight deconditioning.

  16. The effects of music on animal physiology, behavior and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alworth, Leanne C; Buerkle, Shawna C

    2013-02-01

    Physiological and psychological effects of listening to music have been documented in humans. The changes in physiology, cognition and brain chemistry and morphology induced by music have been studied in animal models, providing evidence that music may affect animals similarly to humans. Information about the potential benefits of music to animals suggests that providing music may be used as a means of improving the welfare of laboratory animals, such as through environmental enrichment, stress relief and behavioral modification. The authors review the current research on music's effect on animals' physiology and behavior and discuss its potential for improving animal welfare. They conclude that the benefits of providing music to laboratory animals depend on the species and the type of music.

  17. Human physiological benefits of viewing nature: EEG responses to exact and statistical fractal patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerhall, C M; Laike, T; Küller, M; Marcheschi, E; Boydston, C; Taylor, R P

    2015-01-01

    Psychological and physiological benefits of viewing nature have been extensively studied for some time. More recently it has been suggested that some of these positive effects can be explained by nature's fractal properties. Virtually all studies on human responses to fractals have used stimuli that represent the specific form of fractal geometry found in nature, i.e. statistical fractals, as opposed to fractal patterns which repeat exactly at different scales. This raises the question of whether human responses like preference and relaxation are being driven by fractal geometry in general or by the specific form of fractal geometry found in nature. In this study we consider both types of fractals (statistical and exact) and morph one type into the other. Based on the Koch curve, nine visual stimuli were produced in which curves of three different fractal dimensions evolve gradually from an exact to a statistical fractal. The patterns were shown for one minute each to thirty-five subjects while qEEG was continuously recorded. The results showed that the responses to statistical and exact fractals differ, and that the natural form of the fractal is important for inducing alpha responses, an indicator of a wakefully relaxed state and internalized attention.

  18. Physiological, Psychological, and Social Effects of Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryter, K. D.

    1984-01-01

    The physiological, and behavioral effects of noise on man are investigated. Basic parameters such as definitions of noise, measuring techniques of noise, and the physiology of the ear are presented prior to the development of topics on hearing loss, speech communication in noise, social effects of noise, and the health effects of noise pollution. Recommendations for the assessment and subsequent control of noise is included.

  19. Physiological effects of ovarian hormones: clinical aspects and compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, B; Pedersen, A T

    1996-01-01

    of osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease are other considerations. Despite the large number of different hormone treatment regimens available, such problems as continued bleeding and concern about side effects engenders low compliance. To enhance compliance, it is important to ensure that post-menopausal women......Menopause is marked by the permanent cessation of menstrual bleeding. Deprivation of ovarian hormones due to decreasing ovarian activity causes widespread physiological effects. Disturbances in menstrual pattern and hot flashes are major reasons for hormone replacement therapy (HRT), but prevention...... and their physicians are aware of the probable risks and benefits of hormone therapy before deciding whether or not to use preventive HRT....

  20. Health effects of unemployment benefit program generosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cylus, Jonathan; Glymour, M Maria; Avendano, Mauricio

    2015-02-01

    We assessed the impact of unemployment benefit programs on the health of the unemployed. We linked US state law data on maximum allowable unemployment benefit levels between 1985 and 2008 to individual self-rated health for heads of households in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and implemented state and year fixed-effect models. Unemployment was associated with increased risk of reporting poor health among men in both linear probability (b=0.0794; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.0623, 0.0965) and logistic models (odds ratio=2.777; 95% CI=2.294, 3.362), but this effect is lower when the generosity of state unemployment benefits is high (b for interaction between unemployment and benefits=-0.124; 95% CI=-0.197, -0.0523). A 63% increase in benefits completely offsets the impact of unemployment on self-reported health. Results suggest that unemployment benefits may significantly alleviate the adverse health effects of unemployment among men.

  1. Dehydration: physiology, assessment, and performance effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheuvront, Samuel N; Kenefick, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive review of dehydration assessment and presents a unique evaluation of the dehydration and performance literature. The importance of osmolality and volume are emphasized when discussing the physiology, assessment, and performance effects of dehydration. The underappreciated physiologic distinction between a loss of hypo-osmotic body water (intracellular dehydration) and an iso-osmotic loss of body water (extracellular dehydration) is presented and argued as the single most essential aspect of dehydration assessment. The importance of diagnostic and biological variation analyses to dehydration assessment methods is reviewed and their use in gauging the true potential of any dehydration assessment method highlighted. The necessity for establishing proper baselines is discussed, as is the magnitude of dehydration required to elicit reliable and detectable osmotic or volume-mediated compensatory physiologic responses. The discussion of physiologic responses further helps inform and explain our analysis of the literature suggesting a ≥ 2% dehydration threshold for impaired endurance exercise performance mediated by volume loss. In contrast, no clear threshold or plausible mechanism(s) support the marginal, but potentially important, impairment in strength, and power observed with dehydration. Similarly, the potential for dehydration to impair cognition appears small and related primarily to distraction or discomfort. The impact of dehydration on any particular sport skill or task is therefore likely dependent upon the makeup of the task itself (e.g., endurance, strength, cognitive, and motor skill).

  2. Benefits of belonging: experimental manipulation of social inclusion to enhance psychological and physiological health parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begen, Fiona M; Turner-Cobb, Julie M

    2015-01-01

    Acute changes in social belonging are important triggers for alterations in health and well-being, yet research has emphasised the negative effects of 'exclusion' at the expense of evaluating the potentially positive effects of 'inclusion'. This study examined the impact of acute belonging on physiological and psychological outcomes. A healthy population (N = 138) were randomly allocated to 'included' or 'excluded' conditions. Condition-dependent differences in pre/during-task heart rate and pre/post-task self-reports of negative/positive mood, and social self-esteem, were assessed. Included participants showed decreased heart rate and negative mood, and increased social self-esteem. No inclusion-related change in positive mood was shown. An increase in heart rate was observed in excluded participants though no changes in negative/positive mood or social self-esteem were shown. Shifts in social self-esteem acted as a mechanism through which inclusion/exclusion impacted upon negative and positive mood alterations. Results remained significant in presence of covariates (sex, global self-esteem, rumination and social anxiety). Findings suggest that acting to enhance belonging through 'inclusion' resulted in adaptive physiological and psychological outcomes. Neutral and potentially protective responses were observed in the immediate aftermath of 'exclusion'. Self-esteem served as one route through which these effects were transmitted.

  3. The Effects Of An Exercise Physiology Program on Physical Fitness Variables, Body Satisfaction, and Physiology Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Arlette C.; Rosenblatt, Evelyn S.; Kempner, Lani; Feldman, Brandon B.; Paolercio, Maria A.; Van Bemden, Angie L.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of an exercise physiology program on high school students' physical fitness, body satisfaction, and physiology knowledge. Intervention students received exercise physiology theory and active aerobic and resistance exercise within their biology course. Data from student surveys and measurements indicated that the integrated…

  4. The benefit of self-testing and interleaving for synthesizing concepts across multiple physiology texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linderholm, Tracy; Dobson, John; Yarbrough, Mary Beth

    2016-09-01

    A testing-based learning strategy is one that relies on the act of recalling (i.e., testing) information after exposure, and interleaving is a strategy in which the learning materials are presented in a serial order (e.g., texts 1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3) versus a blocked order (e.g., texts 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3). Although both learning strategies have been thoroughly investigated, few studies have examined their additive effect with higher-order cognitive tasks such as the ability to identify themes across multiple texts, and none of those did so using physiology information. The purpose of the present study was to compare recall and thematic processing across five different physiology texts. Participants were randomly assigned to learn the texts using one of the following four learning strategies: 1) study-study-study (S-S-S) using a blocked order, 2) S-S-S using an interleaved order, 3) study-test-study (S-T-S) using a blocked order, and 4) S-T-S using an interleaved order. Over the course of the following week, the S-T-S groups had more stable recall of key text ideas compared with the S-S-S groups, and the S-T-S group had more stable recall of thematic information than the S-S-S group when interleaving was used as the presentation order.

  5. Physiologic benefits of pulsatile perfusion during mechanical circulatory support for the treatment of acute and chronic heart failure in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yulong; Karkhanis, Tushar; Wang, Shigang; Rider, Alan; Koenig, Steven C; Slaughter, Mark S; El Banayosy, Aly; Undar, Akif

    2010-07-01

    A growing population experiencing heart failure (100,000 patients/year), combined with a shortage of donor organs (less than 2200 hearts/year), has led to increased and expanded use of mechanical circulatory support (MCS) devices. MCS devices have successfully improved clinical outcomes, which are comparable with heart transplantation and result in better 1-year survival than optimal medical management therapies. The quality of perfusion provided during MCS therapy may play an important role in patient outcomes. Despite demonstrated physiologic benefits of pulsatile perfusion, continued use or development of pulsatile MCS devices has been widely abandoned in favor of continuous flow pumps owing to the large size and adverse risks events in the former class, which pose issues of thrombogenic surfaces, percutaneous lead infection, and durability. Next-generation MCS device development should ideally implement designs that offer the benefits of rotary pump technology while providing the physiologic benefits of pulsatile end-organ perfusion.

  6. Top predators negate the effect of mesopredators on prey physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Maria M; Killen, Shaun S; Nadler, Lauren E; White, James R; McCormick, Mark I

    2016-07-01

    Predation theory and empirical evidence suggest that top predators benefit the survival of resource prey through the suppression of mesopredators. However, whether such behavioural suppression can also affect the physiology of resource prey has yet to be examined. Using a three-tier reef fish food web and intermittent-flow respirometry, our study examined changes in the metabolic rate of resource prey exposed to combinations of mesopredator and top predator cues. Under experimental conditions, the mesopredator (dottyback, Pseudochromis fuscus) continuously foraged and attacked resource prey (juveniles of the damselfish Pomacentrus amboinensis) triggering an increase in prey O2 uptake by 38 ± 12·9% (mean ± SE). The visual stimulus of a top predator (coral trout, Plectropomus leopardus) restricted the foraging activity of the mesopredator, indirectly allowing resource prey to minimize stress and maintain routine O2 uptake. Although not as strong as the effect of the top predator, the sight of a large non-predator species (thicklip wrasse, Hemigymnus melapterus) also reduced the impact of the mesopredator on prey metabolic rate. We conclude that lower trophic-level species can benefit physiologically from the presence of top predators through the behavioural suppression that top predators impose on mesopredators. By minimizing the energy spent on mesopredator avoidance and the associated stress response to mesopredator attacks, prey may be able to invest more energy in foraging and growth, highlighting the importance of the indirect, non-consumptive effects of top predators in marine food webs.

  7. Investigating expectation effects using multiple physiological measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eSiller

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at experimentally investigating whether the human body can anticipate future events under improved methodological conditions. Previous studies have reported contradictory results for the phenomenon typically called presentiment. If the positive findings are accurate, they call into doubt our views about human perception, and if they are inaccurate, a plausible conventional explanation might be based on the experimental design of the previous studies, in which expectation due to item sequences was misinterpreted as presentiment. To address these points, we opted to collect several physiological variables, to test different randomization types and to manipulate subjective significance individually. For the latter, we combined a mock crime scenario, in which participants had to steal specific items, with a concealed information test (CIT, in which the participants had to conceal their knowledge when interrogated about items they had stolen or not stolen. We measured electrodermal activity, respiration, finger pulse, heart rate, and reaction times. The participants (n=154 were assigned randomly to four different groups. Items presented in the CIT were either drawn with replacement (full or without replacement (pseudo and were either presented category-wise (cat or regardless of categories (nocat. To understand how these item sequences influence expectation and modulate physiological reactions, we compared the groups with respect to effect sizes for stolen vs. not stolen items. Group pseudo_cat yielded the highest effect sizes, and pseudo_nocat yielded the lowest. We could not find any evidence of presentiment but did find evidence of physiological correlates of expectation. Due to the design differing fundamentally from previous studies, these findings do not allow for conclusions on the question whether the expectation bias is being confounded with presentiment.

  8. Investigating expectation effects using multiple physiological measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siller, Alexander; Ambach, Wolfgang; Vaitl, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed at experimentally investigating whether the human body can anticipate future events under improved methodological conditions. Previous studies have reported contradictory results for the phenomenon typically called presentiment. If the positive findings are accurate, they call into doubt our views about human perception, and if they are inaccurate, a plausible conventional explanation might be based on the experimental design of the previous studies, in which expectation due to item sequences was misinterpreted as presentiment. To address these points, we opted to collect several physiological variables, to test different randomization types and to manipulate subjective significance individually. For the latter, we combined a mock crime scenario, in which participants had to steal specific items, with a concealed information test (CIT), in which the participants had to conceal their knowledge when interrogated about items they had stolen or not stolen. We measured electrodermal activity, respiration, finger pulse, heart rate (HR), and reaction times. The participants (n = 154) were assigned randomly to four different groups. Items presented in the CIT were either drawn with replacement (full) or without replacement (pseudo) and were either presented category-wise (cat) or regardless of categories (nocat). To understand how these item sequences influence expectation and modulate physiological reactions, we compared the groups with respect to effect sizes for stolen vs. not stolen items. Group pseudo_cat yielded the highest effect sizes, and pseudo_nocat yielded the lowest. We could not find any evidence of presentiment but did find evidence of physiological correlates of expectation. Due to the design differing fundamentally from previous studies, these findings do not allow for conclusions on the question whether the expectation bias is being confounded with presentiment.

  9. Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Underlying recent developments in health care and new treatments for disease are advances in basic medical sciences. This edition of "Webwatch" focuses on sites dealing with basic medical sciences, with particular attention given to physiology. There is a vast amount of information on the web related to physiology. The sites that are included here…

  10. Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology position stand: Benefit and risk for promoting childhood physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmuir, Patricia E; Colley, Rachel C; Wherley, Valerie A; Tremblay, Mark S

    2014-11-01

    Current guidelines recommend children accumulate 60 min of daily physical activity; however, highly publicized sudden-death events among young athletes raise questions regarding activity safety. An expert group convened (June 2012) to consider the safety of promoting increased physical activity for children, and recommended the publication of an evidence-based statement of current knowledge regarding the benefits and risks of physical activity for children. Recommendations for encouraging physical activity while maximizing the opportunity to identify children who have been prescribed a physical activity restriction include (1) professionals and (or) researchers that encourage children to change the type of physical activity or to increase the frequency, intensity, or duration of their activity should inquire whether a child has primary healthcare provider-prescribed activity limitations before the child's activity participation changes; (2) physical activity researchers should prioritize the development of evidence regarding the benefits and risks of childhood physical activity and inactivity, particularly data on the risks of sedentary lifestyles and physical activity-associated injury risks that accounts for the amount of activity performed, and the effectiveness of current risk-management strategies and screening approaches; (3) professionals and researchers should prioritize the dissemination of information regarding the benefits of physical activity and the risks of sedentary behaviour in children; and (4) parents and professionals should encourage all children to accumulate at least 60 min of physical activity daily. The recommendations are established as a minimum acceptable standard that is applicable to all physical activity opportunities organized for children, whether those opportunities occur in a community, school, or research setting.

  11. Physiological Effects of Touching Coated Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harumi Ikei

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the physiological effects of touching wood with various coating with the palm of the hand on brain activity and autonomic nervous activity. Participants were 18 female university students (mean age, 21.7 ± 1.6 years. As an indicator of brain activity, oxyhemoglobin concentrations were measured in the left and right prefrontal cortices using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy. Heart rate variability (HRV and heart rate were used as indicators of autonomic nervous activity. The high-frequency (HF component of HRV, which reflects parasympathetic nervous activity, and the low-frequency (LF/HF ratio, which reflects sympathetic nervous activity, were measured. Plates of uncoated, oil-finished, vitreous-finished, urethane-finished, and mirror-finished white oak wood were used as tactile stimuli. After sitting at rest with their eyes closed for 60 s, participants touched the stimuli with their palm for 90 s each. The results indicated that tactile stimulation with uncoated wood calmed prefrontal cortex activity (vs. urethane finish and mirror finish, increased parasympathetic nervous activity (vs. vitreous finish, urethane finish, and mirror finish, and decreased heart rate (vs. mirror finish, demonstrating a physiological relaxation effect. Further, tactile stimulation with oil- and vitreous-finished wood calmed left prefrontal cortex activity and decreased heart rate relative to mirror-finished wood.

  12. The Physiological Benefits and Problems Associated With Using Standing and Walking Orthoses in Individuals With Spinal Cord Injury—A Meta-analytic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Karimi Taghi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury (SCI patients use two transportation systems that include orthosis and wheelchair. It was claimed that standing and walking bring some benefits for SCI patients, such as decreasing bone osteoporosis, preventing pressure sores, and improving various physiological functions. The main question posted here is as follows: Is there enough evidence to support the effect of walking with orthosis on the health status of the patients with SCI? A review of the relevant literature was carried out in Bioengineering Unit of Strathclyde University. The benefits of orthoses were evaluated. Evidence reported in the literature regarding the effectiveness of orthoses for improving the health condition of SCI patients is conflicting. The benefits that were mentioned in various research studies regarding using the orthosis include decreasing bone osteoporosis, preventing joint deformity, improving bowl and bladder function, improving digestive system function, decreasing muscle spasm, improving independent living, improving respiratory and cardiovascular systems function. Improvement of independence living and physiological health of the patients are the only two benefits that are supported by strong evidence. Unfortunately, conflicting results in the literature have led to criticism of most hypotheses based on theoretical grounds, with the effects of using orthoses on the health status remaining a matter of considerable debate.

  13. Review of physiological effects of cryotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, M A

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to provide the physical therapist with the research documented conclusions that he would find if he were to review the literature on the physiological effects of cold therapy. The conclusions are that the results of the studies reviewed were consistent in describing reductions in musculoskeletal pain, spasm, connective tissue distensibility, intramuscular temperature, nerve conduction velocity, and spasticity (except the initial seconds of application). Other conclusions are that the results of the studies reviewed were inconsistent in describing the changes in swelling, blood flow, heart rate, blood pressure, intraarticular temperature, rheumatoid arthritis, monosynaptic reflex, and the muscle spindle.J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1983;5(2):66-73.

  14. Physiological and cognitive effects of expressive dissonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jennifer L; Demaree, Heath A

    2007-02-01

    Emotional well-being depends in part on affect modulation. The present study extends research on emotion regulation by assessing the physiological and cognitive effects of a novel response-focused regulation strategy, termed 'expressive dissonance.' Expressive dissonance refers to the incongruence between an emotional state (e.g., sadness) and a behavioral expression (e.g., a smile). Fifty-five participants watched a series of sad film clips in which they were asked to either naturally watch or express the opposite of what they were feeling. Results suggest that persons using the expressive dissonant strategies evidenced greater sympathetic arousal and performed worse on subsequent memory tasks than persons in the natural-watch conditions.

  15. Physiologic and Metabolic Benefits of Formulated Diets and Mangifera indica in Fluoride Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karn, Sanjay S; Narasimhacharya, A V R L

    2015-06-01

    Fluorosis is a major health problem affecting normal physiological and metabolic functions in people living in endemic fluoride areas. The present work was aimed at investigating the role of basal, high carbohydrate low protein (HCLP) and high protein low carbohydrate (HPLC) diets and Mangifera indica fruit powder as a food supplement in fluoride-induced metabolic toxicity. Exposure to fluoride resulted in elevation of plasma glucose levels, ACP, ALP, SGPT, SGOT, and hepatic G-6-Pase activities, plasma and hepatic lipid profiles with decreased plasma protein, HDL-C, hepatic glycogen content and hexokinase activity in basal, HCLP and HPLC diet fed albino rats. However among the three diets tested, HPLC diet was found to be relatively, a better metabolic regulator. All the three formulated diets (basal, HCLP and HPLC) supplemented with mango fruit powder (5 and 10 g), decreased plasma glucose content, ACP, ALP, SGPT, SGOT and hepatic G-6-Pase activities and plasma as well as hepatic lipid profiles. These diets also elevated the hepatic glycogen content and hexokinase activities. These effects however, were prominent with the HPLC diet supplemented with mango fruit powder and, among the two doses of mango fruit powder, the higher dose (10 g) yielded more promising results. It is surmised that the micronutrients and phytochemicals present in the diets and the mango fruit could be responsible for attenuation of fluoride-induced metabolic toxicity.

  16. Hydration Effects on Human Physiology and Exercise-Heat Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    AD REPORT NO T7-90 HYDRATION EFFECTS :N HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY AND EXERCISE-HEA PERFORMANCE Co U S ARMY RESEARCH INSTITUTE N OF I ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE...effects on human physiology and exercise.-heat performance 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Michael N. Sawka, Andrew J. Young. William A. Latzka, P. Darrell...acknowledge Ms. Patricia DeMusis for preparing the manuscript. AD Report No. HYDRATION EFFECTS ON HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY AND EXERCISE-HEAT PERFORMANCE by Michael N

  17. A review of the literature examining the physiological processes underlying the therapeutic benefits of Hatha yoga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Karen D

    2008-01-01

    An estimated 7.4 million Americans currently practice Hatha yoga. Moreover, 64% of individuals who practice yoga report doing so for well-being. Previous research has reported an association between yoga practice and subjective well-being; however, few studies have investigated the physiological mechanisms involved. The following review provides an historical overview of the field of integrative medicine, which conceptualizes yoga as a mind-body practice. A brief description of Hatha yoga is provided that describes the purported relationship between yoga and the relaxation response. A review of the emerging literature related to nitric oxide and oxidative stress as potential mechanisms in the relationship between yoga and well-being also is included. The article concludes with a brief discussion of the state of the research and provides suggestions for future studies.

  18. Genotype W environment interaction effects on some physiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genotype W environment interaction effects on some physiological yield ... Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science ... study the yield basis and environmental effects on 31cowpea genotypes of early, medium and late maturities. ... Article Metrics.

  19. Physiologic and Acoustic Effects of Opera Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Paul E; Stasney, C Richard; Hathway, Jeremy R; Guffey, Danielle; Minard, Charles G; Ongkasuwan, Julina

    2017-01-01

    Opera performance is physiological and emotional, and singing performers utilize their larynges in often strenuous ways. Historically, the training of a classical voice has been considered the paragon of healthy singing. However, the natural history of a performing larynx has not been studied systematically. There is paucity of scientific studies to guide practice patterns, particularly with regard to the course and extent of post-performance physiologic and acoustic changes. A prospective case series was carried out. Principal singers in the Houston Grand Opera's 2012-2013 repertory were enlisted, for a total of seven singers. Stroboscopy was performed prior to the start of rehearsals, and at the completion of the opera's run. Data points included erythema, edema, masses or lesions, mucosal waveform, supraglottic posture; acoustic measurements were also performed. There were statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) in the mucosal wave on pre- and postperformance stroboscopic examinations. Acoustical measures did not achieve statistical significance, but there was a trend toward increased harmonic-to-noise ratio in postperformance measures, as well as decreased frequency range and reading F0. Measures of intra- and inter-rater reliability indicated varying levels of intra-rater reliability, and generally poor inter-rater reliability. This pilot study describes physiologic and acoustic changes that may occur over the course of a series of rehearsals and performances in the operatic larynx. In so doing, it highlights a need for larger studies with increased frequency of serial examinations to study in a systematized way what may be natural reactive changes that occur during performance. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Green perspectives for public health: a narrative review on the physiological effects of experiencing outdoor nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluza, Daniela; Schönbauer, Regina; Cervinka, Renate

    2014-05-19

    Natural environments offer a high potential for human well-being, restoration and stress recovery in terms of allostatic load. A growing body of literature is investigating psychological and physiological health benefits of contact with Nature. So far, a synthesis of physiological health outcomes of direct outdoor nature experiences and its potential for improving Public Health is missing. We were interested in summarizing the outcomes of studies that investigated physiological outcomes of experiencing Nature measuring at least one physiological parameter during the last two decades. Studies on effects of indoor or simulated Nature exposure via videos or photos, animal contact, and wood as building material were excluded from further analysis. As an online literature research delivered heterogeneous data inappropriate for quantitative synthesis approaches, we descriptively summarized and narratively synthesized studies. The procedure started with 1,187 titles. Research articles in English language published in international peer-reviewed journals that investigated the effects of natural outdoor environments on humans by were included. We identified 17 relevant articles reporting on effects of Nature by measuring 20 different physiological parameters. We assigned these parameters to one of the four body systems brain activity, cardiovascular system, endocrine system, and immune function. These studies reported mainly direct and positive effects, however, our analyses revealed heterogeneous outcomes regarding significance of results. Most of the studies were conducted in Japan, based on quite small samples, predominantly with male students as participants in a cross-sectional design. In general, our narrative review provided an ambiguous illustration of the effects outdoor nature exerted on physiological parameters. However, the majority of studies reported significant positive effects. A harmonizing effect of Nature, especially on physiological stress reactions, was

  1. Motion Sickness: A Study of Its Effects on Human Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    SICKNESS: A STUDY OF ITS EFFECTS ON HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY THESIS Pierre J. Gaudreault Captain, USAF AFIT/GE/ENG/87D- 2 0 TO STEC TEo VN;FB 1 0 1988...ENG/87D-20 MOTION SICKNESS: A STUDY OF ITS EFFECTS ON HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY THESIS Pierre J. Gaudreault Captain, USAF AFIT/GE/ENG/87D-20 Approved for public...SICKNESS: A STUDY OF ITS EFFECTS ON HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the School of Engineering of the Air Force Institute of Technology

  2. The foveal 'crowding' effect: physics or physiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, R F; Dakin, S C; Kapoor, N

    2000-01-01

    It has been known for some time that both foveal and peripheral visual acuity is higher for single letters than for letters in a row. Early work showed that this was due to the destructive interaction of adjacent contours (termed 'crowding' or contour interaction). It has been assumed to have a neural basis and a number of competing explanations have been advanced which implicate either high-level or low-level stages of visual processing. Our results suggest a much simpler explanation, one primarily determined by the physics of the stimulus rather than the physiology of the visual system. We show that, under conditions of contour interaction or 'crowding', the most relevant physical spatial frequency band of the letter is displaced to higher spatial frequencies and that foveal vision tracks this change in spatial scale.

  3. Effects of exercise on tumor physiology and metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Line; Christensen, Jesper Frank; Hojman, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    , exercise training has the potential to be a beneficial and integrated component of cancer management, but has yet to fully elucidate its potential. Understanding the mechanistic effects of exercise on tumor physiology is warranted. Insight into these mechanistic effects is emerging, but experimental......Exercise is a potent regulator of a range of physiological processes in most tissues. Solid epidemiological data show that exercise training can reduce disease risk and mortality for several cancer diagnoses, suggesting that exercise training may directly regulate tumor physiology and metabolism....... Here, we review the body of literature describing exercise intervention studies performed in rodent tumor models and elaborate on potential mechanistic effects of exercise on tumor physiology. Exercise has been shown to reduce tumor incidence, tumor multiplicity, and tumor growth across numerous...

  4. The Production Effect: Costs and Benefits in Free Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Angela C.; Pyc, Mary A.

    2014-01-01

    The production effect, the memorial benefit for information read aloud versus silently, has been touted as a simple memory improvement tool. The current experiments were designed to evaluate the relative costs and benefits of production using a free recall paradigm. Results extend beyond prior work showing a production effect only when production…

  5. Effect of Foot Massage on Physiological Edema During Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Rahimikian; Azadeh Shadmehr; Abbas Mehran; Mahdieh Kiani

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: One of the most common and annoying problems during pregnancy is physiological foot edema that may cause activity restrictions during pregnancy for pregnant women. Present study aimed to determine the effect of foot massage on physiological edema during pregnancy. Methods: This study was non-randomized clinical trial and performed in 2012. 120 pregnant women aged 20 to 35 years were non randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. Treatment group, received 20 minutes d...

  6. A benefit congruency framework of sales promotion effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Laurent, Gilles; Chandon, Pierre; Wansink, Brian

    2000-01-01

    Are monetary savings the only explanation for consumer response to a sales promotion ? If not, how do the different consumer benefits of a sales promotion influence its effectiveness ? To address the first question, this research builds a framework of the multiple consumer benefits of a sales promotion. Through a series of measurement studies, we find that monetary and non-monetary promotions provide consumers with different levels of three hedonic benefits (opportunities for value-expression...

  7. [Physiology of IUDs and their secondary effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madelenat, P; Crequat, J

    1980-12-01

    There are about 17 million IUD users in the world, excluding China. Tolerance and effectiveness of the device depends very much on its size, and on its proper adaptation into the uterine cavity. Copper potentiated IUDs have practically supplanted inert IUDs; their mode of action is at an endometrial level, but they also exert a spermatotoxic action. Prostaglandins seem to play an important role in the mechanism of action of copper IUDs. Side effects are bleeding, due to an increase in capillary permeability, and pain. Complications include infection and uterine perforation. Progesterone-releasing IUDs help reduce excessive menstrual bleeding, but they cannot be used for longer than 1 year.

  8. The effect of receiving supplementary UI benefits on unemployment duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomi, Kyyrä,; Pierpaolo, Parrotta,; Rosholm, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We consider the consequences of working part-time and receiving supplementary benefits for part-time unemployment in the Danish labor market. Following the timing-of-events approach we estimate causal effects of part-time work with supplementary benefits on the hazard rate out of unemployment...... insurance benefit receipt. We find evidence of a negative in-treatment effect and a positive post-treatment effect, both of which vary across different groups of individuals. The resulting net effect on the expected unemployment duration is positive for some groups (e.g. married women) and negative...

  9. Postoperative Management of the Physiological Effects of Spinal Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Jennifer; Helwig, Elizabeth

    2016-08-01

    Spinal anesthesia is a common regional anesthesia used in ambulatory and hospital settings. Spinal anesthesia has been shown to reduce postoperative pain and morbidity in certain populations. Understanding the physiological changes during spinal anesthesia can help predict and manage side effects including hypotension, bradycardia, decreased expiration, nausea, vomiting, and urinary retention. This article describes the physiological effects of spinal anesthesia in a body systems approach, describes how to assess the spinal level, and presents common side effects seen postoperatively and how to successfully manage and treat these patients. Copyright © 2016 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of fasting on renal physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achraf Hendawy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Total abstention from food and water from sunrise to sunset during the month of Ramadan, is practiced by hundreds of millions of Muslims throughout the world. This pattern of fasting during Ramadan is different from the usual fasting as people are allowed to eat and drink between sunset and dawn but not after dawn. The amount and type of food (rich in protein, fat and sugar eaten during the night may also be significantly different to that usually consumed during the rest of the year, while in other countries factors such as poverty ensure that the Ramadan fast results in a reduction in energy intake and a loss of body fat. Also, climate and duration of fasting differs from region to another. According to Islam, sick people are exempted from Fasting, but still a significant number of patients with various chronic diseases including chronic kidney diseases (CKD insist on fasting in Ramadan due to their personal beliefs and physicians are facing this problem every year: What to advice their patients as there are no guidelines or protocols about who can and who cannot fast. In general no detrimental effects on health have been directly attributed to fasting during Ramadan. However caution is advised for moderate to severe CKD patients and the physicians should monitor their patients carefully during Ramadan in order to avoid any deleterious effects.

  11. Advances in dietary fibre characterisation. 1. Definition of dietary fibre, physiological relevance, health benefits and analytical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champ, Martine; Langkilde, Anna-Maria; Brouns, Fred; Kettlitz, Bernd; Collet, Yves Le Bail

    2003-06-01

    Since 1953, the definition of 'dietary fibre' (DF) has evolved significantly following an international debate based on analytical progress, new nutritional and physiological knowledge and also private interests of the food industry. The overall tendency is towards an extension of the definition by including resistant starches as well as non-digestible oligosaccharides. This broadened definition is indeed based on physiological considerations as these compounds are not digested in the small intestine and become substrates for the colonic microflora, resulting in fermentation products that have a variety of local and possibly also systemic effects. A main reluctance to use this definition, however, is linked to the difficulty to quantify, with a universal method, the various compounds that fulfil the characteristics defined by this broad definition. At this point, if such a definition were adopted, there are two options, not necessarily antagonistic, which would be (1) to sum the content of NSP, resistant starches and non-digestible oligosaccharides quantified by distinct methods or (2) to use the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) method of DF analysis (AOAC 985.29, 991.43) with complementary analyses of the different non-digestible oligosaccharides likely to be present in the food. With none of these solutions being fully satisfying from a scientific but also from a practical point of view, an innovative method has to be proposed within the next decade. The present review describes the various types of DF, effects of DF consumption on physiology and metabolism, past and current definitions, analytical aspects to measure DF and some aspects of DF claims and food labelling.

  12. Physiological effects after exposure to heat : A brief literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogerd, C.P.; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Many employees are exposed to heat stress during their work. Although the direct effects of heat are well reported, the long term physiological effects occurring after heat exposure are hardly described. The present manuscript addresses these issues in the form of a brief literature review. Repeated

  13. Physiological effects after exposure to heat : A brief literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogerd, C.P.; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Many employees are exposed to heat stress during their work. Although the direct effects of heat are well reported, the long term physiological effects occurring after heat exposure are hardly described. The present manuscript addresses these issues in the form of a brief literature review. Repeated

  14. Validating the effectiveness of Clinically Oriented Physiology Teaching (COPT in undergraduate physiology curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramnarayan Komattil

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been proved that basic science knowledge learned in the context of a clinical case is actually better comprehended and more easily applied by medical students than basic science knowledge learned in isolation. The present study intended to validate the effectiveness of Clinically Oriented Physiology Teaching (COPT in undergraduate medical curriculum at Melaka Manipal Medical College (Manipal Campus, Manipal, India. Methods COPT was a teaching strategy wherein, students were taught physiology using cases and critical thinking questions. Three batches of undergraduate medical students (n = 434 served as the experimental groups to whom COPT was incorporated in the third block (teaching unit of Physiology curriculum and one batch (n = 149 served as the control group to whom COPT was not incorporated. The experimental group of students were trained to answer clinically oriented questions whereas the control group of students were not trained. Both the group of students undertook a block exam which consisted of clinically oriented questions and recall questions, at the end of each block. Results Comparison of pre-COPT and post-COPT essay exam scores of experimental group of students revealed that the post-COPT scores were significantly higher compared to the pre-COPT scores. Comparison of post-COPT essay exam scores of the experimental group and control group of students revealed that the experimental group of students performed better compared to the control group. Feedback from the students indicated that they preferred COPT to didactic lectures. Conclusion The study supports the fact that assessment and teaching patterns should fall in line with each other as proved by the better performance of the experimental group of students compared to the control group. COPT was also found to be a useful adjunct to didactic lectures in teaching physiology.

  15. Validating the effectiveness of Clinically Oriented Physiology Teaching (COPT) in undergraduate physiology curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Reem; Ramnarayan, Komattil; Kamath, Asha

    2008-07-24

    It has been proved that basic science knowledge learned in the context of a clinical case is actually better comprehended and more easily applied by medical students than basic science knowledge learned in isolation. The present study intended to validate the effectiveness of Clinically Oriented Physiology Teaching (COPT) in undergraduate medical curriculum at Melaka Manipal Medical College (Manipal Campus), Manipal, India. COPT was a teaching strategy wherein, students were taught physiology using cases and critical thinking questions. Three batches of undergraduate medical students (n = 434) served as the experimental groups to whom COPT was incorporated in the third block (teaching unit) of Physiology curriculum and one batch (n = 149) served as the control group to whom COPT was not incorporated. The experimental group of students were trained to answer clinically oriented questions whereas the control group of students were not trained. Both the group of students undertook a block exam which consisted of clinically oriented questions and recall questions, at the end of each block. Comparison of pre-COPT and post-COPT essay exam scores of experimental group of students revealed that the post-COPT scores were significantly higher compared to the pre-COPT scores. Comparison of post-COPT essay exam scores of the experimental group and control group of students revealed that the experimental group of students performed better compared to the control group. Feedback from the students indicated that they preferred COPT to didactic lectures. The study supports the fact that assessment and teaching patterns should fall in line with each other as proved by the better performance of the experimental group of students compared to the control group. COPT was also found to be a useful adjunct to didactic lectures in teaching physiology.

  16. Effects of exercise on tumor physiology and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Line; Christensen, Jesper Frank; Hojman, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is a potent regulator of a range of physiological processes in most tissues. Solid epidemiological data show that exercise training can reduce disease risk and mortality for several cancer diagnoses, suggesting that exercise training may directly regulate tumor physiology and metabolism. Here, we review the body of literature describing exercise intervention studies performed in rodent tumor models and elaborate on potential mechanistic effects of exercise on tumor physiology. Exercise has been shown to reduce tumor incidence, tumor multiplicity, and tumor growth across numerous different transplantable, chemically induced or genetic tumor models. We propose 4 emerging mechanistic effects of exercise, including (1) vascularization and blood perfusion, (2) immune function, (3) tumor metabolism, and (4) muscle-to-cancer cross-talk, and discuss these in details. In conclusion, exercise training has the potential to be a beneficial and integrated component of cancer management, but has yet to fully elucidate its potential. Understanding the mechanistic effects of exercise on tumor physiology is warranted. Insight into these mechanistic effects is emerging, but experimental intervention studies are still needed to verify the cause-effect relationship between these mechanisms and the control of tumor growth.

  17. Foraging and refuge use by a pond snail: Effects of physiological state, predators, and resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojdak, Jeremy M.

    2009-09-01

    The costs and benefits of anti-predator behavioral responses should be functions of the actual risk of predation, the availability of the prey's resources, and the physiological state of the prey. For example, a food-stressed individual risks starvation when hiding from predators, while a well-fed organism can better afford to hide (and pay the cost of not foraging). Similarly, the benefits of resource acquisition are probably highest for the prey in the poorest state, while there may be diminishing returns for prey nearing satiation. Empirical studies of state-dependent behavior are only beginning, however, and few studies have investigated interactions between all three potentially important factors. Here I present the results of a laboratory experiment where I manipulated the physiological state of pond snails ( Physa gyrina), the abundance of algal resources, and predation cues ( Belostoma flumineum waterbugs consuming snails) in a full factorial design to assess their direct effects on snail behavior and indirect effects on algal biomass. On average, snails foraged more when resources were abundant, and when predators were absent. Snails also foraged more when previously exposed to physiological stress. Snails spent more time at the water's surface (a refuging behavior) in the presence of predation cues on average, but predation, resource levels, and prey state had interactive effects on refuge use. There was a consistent positive trait-mediated indirect effect of predators on algal biomass, across all resource levels and prey states.

  18. The biomechanical and physiological effect of two dynamic workstations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botter, J.; Burford, E.M.; Commissaris, D.; Könemann, R.; Mastrigt, S.H.V.; Ellegast, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research paper was to investigate the effect, both biomechanically and physiologically, of two dynamic workstations currently available on the commercial market. The dynamic workstations tested, namely the Treadmill Desk by LifeSpan and the LifeBalance Station by RightAngle, were com

  19. The Physiologic Effects of Pneumoperitoneum in the Morbidly Obese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ninh T.; Wolfe, Bruce M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To review the physiologic effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) pneumoperitoneum in the morbidly obese. Summary Background Data: The number of laparoscopic bariatric operations performed in the United States has increased dramatically over the past several years. Laparoscopic bariatric surgery requires abdominal insufflation with CO2 and an increase in the intraabdominal pressure up to 15 mm Hg. Many studies have demonstrated the adverse consequences of pneumoperitoneum; however, few studies have examined the physiologic effects of pneumoperitoneum in the morbidly obese. Methods: A MEDLINE search from 1994 to 2003 was performed using the key words morbid obesity, laparoscopy, bariatric surgery, pneumoperitoneum, and gastric bypass. The authors reviewed papers evaluating the physiologic effects of pneumoperitoneum in morbidly obese subjects undergoing laparoscopy. The topics examined included alteration in acid-base balance, hemodynamics, femoral venous flow, and hepatic, renal, and cardiorespiratory function. Results: Physiologically, morbidly obese patients have a higher intraabdominal pressure at 2 to 3 times that of nonobese patients. The adverse consequences of pneumoperitoneum in morbidly obese patients are similar to those observed in nonobese patients. Laparoscopy in the obese can lead to systemic absorption of CO2 and increased requirements for CO2 elimination. The increased intraabdominal pressure enhances venous stasis, reduces intraoperative portal venous blood flow, decreases intraoperative urinary output, lowers respiratory compliance, increases airway pressure, and impairs cardiac function. Intraoperative management to minimize the adverse changes include appropriate ventilatory adjustments to avoid hypercapnia and acidosis, the use of sequential compression devices to minimizes venous stasis, and optimize intravascular volume to minimize the effects of increased intraabdominal pressure on renal and cardiac function. Conclusions: Morbidly obese

  20. Physiological integration ameliorates negative effects of drought stress in the clonal herb Fragaria orientalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunchun Zhang

    Full Text Available Clonal growth allows plants to spread horizontally and to establish ramets in sites of contrasting resource status. If ramets remain physiologically integrated, clones in heterogeneous environments can act as cooperative systems--effects of stress on one ramet can be ameliorated by another connected ramet inhabiting benign conditions. But little is known about the effects of patch contrast on physiological integration of clonal plants and no study has addressed its effects on physiological traits like osmolytes, reactive oxygen intermediates and antioxidant enzymes. We examined the effect of physiological integration on survival, growth and stress indicators such as osmolytes, reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs and antioxidant enzymes in a clonal plant, Fragaria orientalis, growing in homogenous and heterogeneous environments differing in patch contrast of water availability (1 homogeneous (no contrast group; 2 low contrast group; 3 high contrast group. Drought stress markedly reduced the survival and growth of the severed ramets of F. orientalis, especially in high contrast treatments. Support from a ramet growing in benign patch considerably reduced drought stress and enhanced growth of ramets in dry patches. The larger the contrast between water availability, the larger the amount of support the depending ramet received from the supporting one. This support strongly affected the growth of the supporting ramet, but not to an extent to cause increase in stress indicators. We also found indication of costs related to maintenance of physiological connection between ramets. Thus, the net benefit of physiological integration depends on the environment and integration between ramets of F. orientalis could be advantageous only in heterogeneous conditions with a high contrast.

  1. Physiological aspects of energy metabolism and gastrointestinal effects of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elia, M; Cummings, J H

    2007-12-01

    short-chain fatty acids. The exact amounts and types of carbohydrate that reach the caecum are unknown, but are probably between 20 and 40 g/day in countries with 'westernized' diets, whereas they may reach 50 g/day where traditional staples are largely cereal or diets are high in fruit and vegetables. Non-starch polysaccharides clearly affect bowel habit and so, to a lesser extent, does resistant starch. However, the short-chain carbohydrates, which are also found in breast milk, have little if any laxative role, although do effect the balance of the flora. This latter property has led to the term 'prebiotic', which is defined as the capacity to increase selectively the numbers of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli without growth of other genera. This now well-established physiological property has not so far led through to clear health benefits, but current studies are focused on their potential to prevent diarrhoeal illnesses, improve well-being and immunomodulation, particularly in atopic children and on increased calcium absorption.

  2. Physiological, biochemical and histopathological effects of fermentative acidosis in ruminant production: a minimal review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Y.; Ding, Z.

    2011-07-01

    Rumen acidosis is increasingly recognized as a significant disorder in ruminants that increases the morbidity and mortality of animals, especially for dairy cattle and sheep. Acidosis is not just D-lactate which disturbs the acid-base status and the severity of acidosis is related to many factors and not only due to the level of lactic acid production, resulting in difficulties in diagnosing acidosis. Therefore, an understanding of the physiological, biochemical, and histopathological effects of rumen acidosis is fundamental for developing effective methods of prevention and treatment of fermentative acidosis. The present review evaluates the physiology, biochemistry, and pathophysiology of fermentative acidosis as well as gives a conclusion and look-forward. The information will benefit the health and welfare of ruminants and contribute to modern systems of ruminant production. (Author) 90 refs.

  3. Physiologic effects of intravenous fluid administration in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Jensen, Peter; Kehlet, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Dose regimens in perioperative fluid management are rarely evidence based. Therefore, we investigated responses to an IV fluid infusion in healthy volunteers to assess basic physiologic effects of a fluid infusion per se. In a prospective, double-blinded, cross-randomized study, 12 healthy volunt...... to a significant decrease in pulmonary function and a significant weight gain for 24 h but without effects on exercise capacity. These findings may serve as basis information for clinical studies of perioperative fluid management.......Dose regimens in perioperative fluid management are rarely evidence based. Therefore, we investigated responses to an IV fluid infusion in healthy volunteers to assess basic physiologic effects of a fluid infusion per se. In a prospective, double-blinded, cross-randomized study, 12 healthy...

  4. Do intermittent diets provide physiological benefits over continuous diets for weight loss? A systematic review of clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seimon, Radhika V; Roekenes, Jessica A; Zibellini, Jessica; Zhu, Benjamin; Gibson, Alice A; Hills, Andrew P; Wood, Rachel E; King, Neil A; Byrne, Nuala M; Sainsbury, Amanda

    2015-12-15

    Energy restriction induces physiological effects that hinder further weight loss. Thus, deliberate periods of energy balance during weight loss interventions may attenuate these adaptive responses to energy restriction and thereby increase the efficiency of weight loss (i.e. the amount of weight or fat lost per unit of energy deficit). To address this possibility, we systematically searched MEDLINE, PreMEDLINE, PubMed and Cinahl and reviewed adaptive responses to energy restriction in 40 publications involving humans of any age or body mass index that had undergone a diet involving intermittent energy restriction, 12 with direct comparison to continuous energy restriction. Included publications needed to measure one or more of body weight, body mass index, or body composition before and at the end of energy restriction. 31 of the 40 publications involved 'intermittent fasting' of 1-7-day periods of severe energy restriction. While intermittent fasting appears to produce similar effects to continuous energy restriction to reduce body weight, fat mass, fat-free mass and improve glucose homeostasis, and may reduce appetite, it does not appear to attenuate other adaptive responses to energy restriction or improve weight loss efficiency, albeit most of the reviewed publications were not powered to assess these outcomes. Intermittent fasting thus represents a valid--albeit apparently not superior--option to continuous energy restriction for weight loss.

  5. Effects of Emotion on Pain Reports, Tolerance and Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie E Carter

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of specific emotional states on a laboratory pain task were tested by examining the behavioural, verbal and psychophysiological responses of 80 student volunteers (50% female. Participants were assigned to one of four Velten-style emotion-induction conditions (ie, anxiety, depression, elation or neutral. The sexes of experimenters were counterbalanced. Overt escape behaviour (ie, pain tolerance, pain threshold and severity ratings, verbal reports of emotion and physiological measures (ie, electrocardiogram, corrugator and trapezium electromyogram were recorded. A pressure pain task was given before and after the emotion induction. As predicted, those who participated in the anxiety or depression condition showed reduced pain tolerance after induction of these negative emotions; pain severity ratings became most pronounced in the depression condition. Emotion induction did not have a discernable effect on pain tolerance or severity ratings in the elation condition. A pattern of participant and experimenter sex effects, as well as trials effects, was seen in the physiological data. The influence of negative affective states (ie, anxiety and depression on acute pain are discussed along with the unique contributions of behavioural, verbal and physiological response systems in understanding the interactions of pain and emotions.

  6. The effect of practical cooling strategies on physiological response and cognitive function during simulated firefighting tasks in a smoke-diving room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Hemmatjo

    2017-03-01

    significantly higher at the end of the activity in the CG+CV and CV compared with the CG and NC conditions. Conclusion: It is concluded that strenuous firefighting tasks have a detrimental effect on firefighters’ physiological responses and cognitive function. The findings also revealed that CV was more effective than the CG in attenuating physiological responses and cognitive function during firefighting operations. Furthermore, combining CV with CG provides no additional benefit. It is concluded that cooling the body by the use of CV offered physiological and psychological benefit for firefighters during simulated firefighting activities.

  7. Investigation of the physiological basis of the BOLD effect

    CERN Document Server

    Pears, J A

    2001-01-01

    The work described in this thesis is that undertaken by the carried out in the Magnetic Resonance Centre, School of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Nottingham, between October 1997 and September 2001. This thesis describes work performed with the aim of yielding further understanding of the physiological basis behind the BOLD effect. Chapter 1 introduces techniques for monitoring brain function and describes the physiology behind the BOLD effect. Chapter 2 then describes NMR, imaging and the hardware used in the experiments performed in this thesis. A method of measuring cerebral blood volume changes during a visual activation paradigm with high temporal resolution is described in Chapter 3, and the timecourse compared to that of the BOLD response. The slow return to baseline of CBV is discussed. Chapter 4 shows a method of simultaneously measuring blood oxygenation measurements and blood volume changes. The results are shown to be in agreement with published data. The controversial phenomenon know...

  8. Effects of insemination quantity on honey bee queen physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Freddie-Jeanne; Tarpy, David R; Grozinger, Christina M

    2007-10-03

    Mating has profound effects on the physiology and behavior of female insects, and in honey bee (Apis mellifera) queens, these changes are permanent. Queens mate with multiple males during a brief period in their early adult lives, and shortly thereafter they initiate egg-laying. Furthermore, the pheromone profiles of mated queens differ from those of virgins, and these pheromones regulate many different aspects of worker behavior and colony organization. While it is clear that mating causes dramatic changes in queens, it is unclear if mating number has more subtle effects on queen physiology or queen-worker interactions; indeed, the effect of multiple matings on female insect physiology has not been broadly addressed. Because it is not possible to control the natural mating behavior of queens, we used instrumental insemination and compared queens inseminated with semen from either a single drone (single-drone inseminated, or SDI) or 10 drones (multi-drone inseminated, or MDI). We used observation hives to monitor attraction of workers to SDI or MDI queens in colonies, and cage studies to monitor the attraction of workers to virgin, SDI, and MDI queen mandibular gland extracts (the main source of queen pheromone). The chemical profiles of the mandibular glands of virgin, SDI, and MDI queens were characterized using GC-MS. Finally, we measured brain expression levels in SDI and MDI queens of a gene associated with phototaxis in worker honey bees (Amfor). Here, we demonstrate for the first time that insemination quantity significantly affects mandibular gland chemical profiles, queen-worker interactions, and brain gene expression. Further research will be necessary to elucidate the mechanistic bases for these effects: insemination volume, sperm and seminal protein quantity, and genetic diversity of the sperm may all be important factors contributing to this profound change in honey bee queen physiology, queen behavior, and social interactions in the colony.

  9. Effects of insemination quantity on honey bee queen physiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddie-Jeanne Richard

    Full Text Available Mating has profound effects on the physiology and behavior of female insects, and in honey bee (Apis mellifera queens, these changes are permanent. Queens mate with multiple males during a brief period in their early adult lives, and shortly thereafter they initiate egg-laying. Furthermore, the pheromone profiles of mated queens differ from those of virgins, and these pheromones regulate many different aspects of worker behavior and colony organization. While it is clear that mating causes dramatic changes in queens, it is unclear if mating number has more subtle effects on queen physiology or queen-worker interactions; indeed, the effect of multiple matings on female insect physiology has not been broadly addressed. Because it is not possible to control the natural mating behavior of queens, we used instrumental insemination and compared queens inseminated with semen from either a single drone (single-drone inseminated, or SDI or 10 drones (multi-drone inseminated, or MDI. We used observation hives to monitor attraction of workers to SDI or MDI queens in colonies, and cage studies to monitor the attraction of workers to virgin, SDI, and MDI queen mandibular gland extracts (the main source of queen pheromone. The chemical profiles of the mandibular glands of virgin, SDI, and MDI queens were characterized using GC-MS. Finally, we measured brain expression levels in SDI and MDI queens of a gene associated with phototaxis in worker honey bees (Amfor. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that insemination quantity significantly affects mandibular gland chemical profiles, queen-worker interactions, and brain gene expression. Further research will be necessary to elucidate the mechanistic bases for these effects: insemination volume, sperm and seminal protein quantity, and genetic diversity of the sperm may all be important factors contributing to this profound change in honey bee queen physiology, queen behavior, and social interactions in the

  10. Effects of Emotion on Pain Reports, Tolerance and Physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Leslie E Carter; McNeil, Daniel W.; Vowles, Kevin E; Sorrell, John T.; Turk, Cynthia L; Ries, Barry J; Hopko, Derek R.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of specific emotional states on a laboratory pain task were tested by examining the behavioural, verbal and psychophysiological responses of 80 student volunteers (50% female). Participants were assigned to one of four Velten-style emotion-induction conditions (ie, anxiety, depression, elation or neutral). The sexes of experimenters were counterbalanced. Overt escape behaviour (ie, pain tolerance), pain threshold and severity ratings, verbal reports of emotion and physiological me...

  11. The Effect of SMED on Benefits Gained in Maquiladora Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Díaz-Reza

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Single Minute Exchange of Dies (SMED has achieved great industrial popularity. However, it remains unclear to what extent and how SMED implementation at its different stages benefits industries. To address this gap, this research proposes a structural equation model to quantitatively measure SMED effects. The model has six hypotheses that link SMED stages and benefits. To statistically validate such hypotheses, a questionnaire was administered to 373 Mexican maquiladoras located in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua. Results show that before starting SMED implementation process, companies must be appropriately familiarized with their production process. Mainly, manufacturing companies in Ciudad Juárez need to focus their efforts on the SMED planning stage (Step 1 in order to identify important internal production activities and turn them into external activities. In fact, SMED planning stage has direct and indirect effects on subsequent stages and SMED benefits.

  12. Reflexology: its effects on physiological anxiety signs and sedation needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin Korhan, Esra; Khorshid, Leyla; Uyar, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    To investigate whether reflexology has an effect on the physiological signs of anxiety and level of sedation in patients receiving mechanically ventilated support, a single blinded, randomized controlled design with repeated measures was used in the intensive care unit of a university hospital in Turkey. Patients (n = 60) aged between 18 and 70 years and were hospitalized in the intensive care unit and receiving mechanically ventilated support. Participants were randomized to a control group or an intervention group. The latter received 30 minutes of reflexology therapy on their feet, hands, and ears for 5 days. Subjects had vital signs taken immediately before the intervention and at the 10th, 20th, and 30th minutes of the intervention. In the collection of the data, "American Association of Critical-Care Nurses Sedation Assessment Scale" was used. The reflexology therapy group had a significantly lower heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and respiratory rate than the control group. A statistically significant difference was found between the averages of the scores that the patients included in the experimental and control groups received from the agitation, anxiety, sleep, and patient-ventilator synchrony subscales of the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses Sedation Assessment Scale. Reflexology can serve as an effective method of decreasing the physiological signs of anxiety and the required level of sedation in patients receiving mechanically ventilated support. Nurses who have appropriate training and certification may include reflexology in routine care to reduce the physiological signs of anxiety of patients receiving mechanical ventilation.

  13. Effects of Harmful Algae on the Physiology of Fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Morten Bo Søndergaard

    Blooms of harmful planktonic algae causing adverse effects in aquatic environments are a global problem, causing both human morbidity and killing aquatic lifeforms worldwide. Focusing on fish kills, it is largely unknown what mechanisms of the fish’s physiology are affected during exposure...... to harmful algae. It is demonstrated that for an alga with a known mode of action, Prymnesium parvum affecting the gills, conventional readily available methods in fish physiology can be used to establish an adverse outcome pathway. More specifically, intermittent flow respirometry and observing ventilatory....... Likewise, the development of a free open-source software, AquaResp 2 (and now 3), for use in automating intermittent flow respirometry experiments. By using the open source software, it was also established prior to harmful algae experimentation that the observed variation in respirometry experiments...

  14. Enteral nutrition in person with Dementia: Indication, effects and benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Alves

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This systematic literature review aims to clarify indications for the use of enteral feeding in patients with dementia. Difficulties in feeding patients with dementia may arise at any stage of the disease and may include malnutrition, weight loss, decreased quality of life, among others. Enteral tube feeding by tube may be a way of mitigating the effects, but its benefits are under discussion. Methods: Eight qualitative studies were included: 5 primary sources, 3 systematic literature reviews, published in the 2008-2013 period. Results: Enteral tube feeding in patients with dementia may affect survival/mortality rate (no evidence of benefit, nutritional status (no improvement, functional status and cognitive development (no improvement, aspiration (does not reduce the risk of aspiration, pressure ulcers (no evidence of benefit in ulcers incidence and progression, and quality of life (without hard data in most studies. Conclusion: Evidence on benefits of enteral tube feeding in patients with dementia was not conclusive and may even have the opposite effect. We lack data on the adverse effects of these interventions. Keywords: Palliative care; Dementia; Enteral feeding; Therapeutic use.

  15. Exercise and Training at Altitudes: Physiological Effects and Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Cecilia Vargas Pinilla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An increase in altitude leads to a proportional fall in the barometric pressure, and a decrease in atmospheric oxygen pressure, producing hypobaric hypoxia that affects, in different degrees, all body organs, systems and functions. The chronically reduced partial pressure of oxygen causes that individuals adapt and adjust to physiological stress. These adaptations are modulated by many factors, including the degree of hypoxia related to altitude, time of exposure, exercise intensity and individual conditions. It has been established that exposure to high altitude is an environmental stressor that elicits a response that contributes to many adjustments and adaptations that influence exercise capacity and endurance performance. These adaptations include in crease in hemoglobin concentration, ventilation, capillary density and tissue myoglobin concentration. However, a negative effect in strength and power is related to a decrease in muscle fiber size and body mass due to the decrease in the training intensity. Many researches aim at establishing how training or living at high altitudes affects performance in athletes. Training methods, such as living in high altitudes training low, and training high-living in low altitudes have been used to research the changes in the physical condition in athletes and how the physiological adaptations to hypoxia can enhanceperformance at sea level. This review analyzes the literature related to altitude training focused on how physiological adaptations to hypoxic environments influence performance, and which protocols are most frequently used to train in high altitudes.

  16. Physiological Effects Associated with Quinoa Consumption and Implications for Research Involving Humans: a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simnadis, Thomas George; Tapsell, Linda C; Beck, Eleanor J

    2015-09-01

    Quinoa is a pseudo-grain consumed as a dietary staple in South America. In recent years, consumer demand for quinoa in the developed world has grown steadily. Its perceived health benefits have been cited as a driving force behind this trend, but there are very few human studies investigating the impact of quinoa consumption. The aim of this review was to identify physiological effects of quinoa consumption with potential for human health. A critical evaluation of animal model studies was conducted. The quality of identified studies was assessed using a methodological quality assessment tool and summative conclusions were drawn to guide the direction of future human research. The majority of studies were of fair quality. Purported physiological effects of quinoa consumption included decreased weight gain, improved lipid profile and improved capacity to respond to oxidative stress. These physiological effects were attributed to the presence of saponins, protein and 20-hydroxyecdysone in the quinoa seed. The implications of these findings are that human studies should investigate the impact of quinoa consumption on weight gain and lipid levels. The role of quinoa as an antioxidant is still unclear and requires further elucidation in animal models.

  17. Physiological mechanisms of the effect of weightlessness on the body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasyan, I. I.; Kopanev, V. I.

    1975-01-01

    Experimental data show that physiological reactions observed under weightlessness conditions are caused by: (1) The direct effect of weightlessness, as a consequence of decrease (""disappearance'') of the weight of body tissues and organs; and (2) the mediated effect of weightlessness, as a result of changes in the functional state of the central nervous system and the cooperative work of the analyzers. The human body adopts to weightless conditions under the prolonged effects of it. In this case, four periods can be distinguished: The first period, a transitional process lasting from 1 to 24 hours; second period, initial adaptation to conditions of weightlessness and readjustment of all functional systems of the body; the third period, adaptation to the unusual mechanical conditions of the external environment, lasting from 3 to 8 days and more; and the fourth period, the stage of possible imbalance of the functions and the systems of some astronauts, as a result of the prolonged effect of weightlessness.

  18. Physiological effects of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles towards watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junli; Chang, Peter R; Huang, Jin; Wang, Yunqiang; Yuan, Hong; Ren, Hongxuan

    2013-08-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have been exploited in a diverse range of products in the past decade or so. However, the biosafety/environmental impact or legislation pertaining to this newly created, highly functional composites containing NPs (otherwise called nanomaterials) is generally lagging behind their technological innovation. To advance the agenda in this area, our current primary interest is focused on using crops as model systems as they have very close relationship with us. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the biological effects of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles towards watermelon seedlings. We have systematically studied the physiological effects of Fe2O3 nanoparticles (nano-Fe2O3) on watermelon, and present the first evidence that a significant amount of Fe2O3 nanoparticles suspended in a liquid medium can be taken up by watermelon plants and translocated throughout the plant tissues. Changes in important physiological indicators, such as root activity, activity of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), chlorophyll and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, ferric reductase activity, root apoplastic iron content were clearly presented. Different concentrations of nano-Fe2O3 all increased seed germination, seedling growth, and enhanced physiological function to some degree; and the positive effects increased quickly and then slowed with an increase in the treatment concentrations. Changes in CAT, SOD and POD activities due to nano-Fe2O3 were significantly larger than that of the control. The 20 mg/L treatment had the most obvious effect on the increase of root activity. Ferric reductase activity, root apoplastic iron content, and watermelon biomass were significantly affected by exposure to nano-Fe2O3. Results of statistical analysis showed that there were significant differences in all the above indexes between the treatment at optimal concentration and the control. This proved that the proper concentration of nano

  19. Physiological and Psychological Effects of a Forest Therapy Program on Middle-Aged Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Ochiai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The natural environment is increasingly recognized as an effective counter to urban stress, and “Forest Therapy” has recently attracted attention as a relaxation and stress management activity with demonstrated clinical efficacy. The present study assessed the physiological and psychological effects of a forest therapy program on middle-aged females. Seventeen Japanese females (62.2 ± 9.4 years; mean ± standard deviation participated in this experiment. Pulse rate, salivary cortisol level, and psychological indices were measured on the day before forest therapy and on the forest therapy day. Pulse rate and salivary cortisol were significantly lower than baseline following forest therapy, indicating that subjects were in a physiologically relaxed state. Subjects reported feeling significantly more “comfortable,” “relaxed,” and “natural” according to the semantic differential (SD method. The Profile of Mood State (POMS negative mood subscale score for “tension–anxiety” was significantly lower, while that for “vigor” was significantly higher following forest therapy. Our study revealed that forest therapy elicited a significant (1 decrease in pulse rate, (2 decrease in salivary cortisol levels, (3 increase in positive feelings, and (4 decrease in negative feelings. In conclusion, there are substantial physiological and psychological benefits of forest therapy on middle-aged females.

  20. Can medical therapy mimic the clinical efficacy or physiological effects of bariatric surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miras, A D; le Roux, C W

    2014-03-01

    The number of bariatric surgical procedures performed has increased dramatically. This review discusses the clinical and physiological changes, and in particular, the mechanisms behind weight loss and glycaemic improvements, observed following the gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy and gastric banding bariatric procedures. The review then examines how close we are to mimicking the clinical or physiological effects of surgery through less invasive and safer modern interventions that are currently available for clinical use. These include dietary interventions, orlistat, lorcaserin, phentermine/topiramate, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, pramlintide, dapagliflozin, the duodenal-jejunal bypass liner, gastric pacemakers and gastric balloons. We conclude that, based on the most recent trials, we cannot fully mimic the clinical or physiological effects of surgery; however, we are getting closer. A 'medical bypass' may not be as far in the future as we previously thought, as the physician's armamentarium against obesity and type 2 diabetes has recently got stronger through the use of specific dietary modifications, novel medical devices and pharmacotherapy. Novel therapeutic targets include not only appetite but also taste/food preferences, energy expenditure, gut microbiota, bile acid signalling, inflammation, preservation of β-cell function and hepatic glucose output, among others. Although there are no magic bullets, an integrated multimodal approach may yield success. Non-surgical interventions that mimic the metabolic benefits of bariatric surgery, with a reduced morbidity and mortality burden, remain tenable alternatives for patients and health-care professionals.

  1. A 'Landscape physiology' approach for assessing bee health highlights the benefits of floral landscape enrichment and semi-natural habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaux, Cédric; Allier, Fabrice; Decourtye, Axel; Odoux, Jean-François; Tamic, Thierry; Chabirand, Mélanie; Delestra, Estelle; Decugis, Florent; Le Conte, Yves; Henry, Mickaël

    2017-01-13

    Understanding how anthropogenic landscape alteration affects populations of ecologically- and economically-important insect pollinators has never been more pressing. In this context, the assessment of landscape quality typically relies on spatial distribution studies, but, whether habitat-restoration techniques actually improve the health of targeted pollinator populations remains obscure. This gap could be filled by a comprehensive understanding of how gradients of landscape quality influence pollinator physiology. We therefore used this approach for honey bees (Apis mellifera) to test whether landscape patterns can shape bee health. We focused on the pre-wintering period since abnormally high winter colony losses have often been observed. By exposing colonies to different landscapes, enriched in melliferous catch crops and surrounded by semi-natural habitats, we found that bee physiology (i.e. fat body mass and level of vitellogenin) was significantly improved by the presence of flowering catch crops. Catch crop presence was associated with a significant increase in pollen diet diversity. The influence of semi-natural habitats on bee health was even stronger. Vitellogenin level was in turn significantly linked to higher overwintering survival. Therefore, our experimental study, combining landscape ecology and bee physiology, offers an exciting proof-of-concept for directly identifying stressful or suitable landscapes and promoting efficient pollinator conservation.

  2. Effects of drag factor on physiological aspects of rowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, D A; Jensen, R L; Williams, S E; Watts, P B

    2008-05-01

    This study examined the effects of two resistances, or "drag factors" on selected physiological variables during incremental progressive rowing tests (seven 3-min stages) on a Concept2 ergometer. Subjects were seven male and seven female university club rowers. Their mean age, body mass and height were 19.6 +/- 1.5 years, 72.7 +/- 8.0 kg, and 172.2 +/- 7.5 cm, respectively. Progressive tests were conducted using drag factors 100 (D100) and 150 (D150) before the spring racing season. Values were determined for the following physiological variables: ventilation (V.E), oxygen uptake (V.O2), heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentration (BLC), respiratory exchange ratio (R) and rowing economy (W/V.O2). Comparisons across all six submaximal stages showed no significant difference between D(100) and D(150) for any of the variables measured (p > .05). Maximal V.E(max) was significantly greater at D100 than D150 (p D100 than at D150, though not significantly so. The mean D100-D150 differences in V.E and SR for each stage were significantly correlated (r = 0.76, p < .01), suggesting drag factor may affect V.E via SR.

  3. Effectiveness of Mindfulness-based interventions on physiological and psychological complications in adults with diabetes: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordali, Farhan; Cumming, Jennifer; Thompson, Janice L

    2015-12-30

    This systematic review aimed to examine the effectiveness of Mindfulness-based interventions in reducing diabetes-related physiological and psychological symptoms in adults with types 1 and 2 diabetes. Five databases were systematically searched. A total of 11 studies satisfied the inclusion criteria. Mindfulness-based intervention effectiveness for physiological outcomes (glycaemic control and blood pressure) was mixed. Mindfulness-based interventions appear to have psychological benefits reducing depression, anxiety and distress symptoms across several studies. Studies' short-term follow-up periods may not allow sufficient time to observe physiological changes or illustrate Mindfulness-based interventions' potential long-term efficacy. More long-term studies that include a consistent, standardised set of outcome measures are required.

  4. Effects of carbon nanofiber on physiology of Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee SH

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Shin-Hae Lee,1,* Hye-Yeon Lee,1,* Eun-Ji Lee,1,* Dongwoo Khang,2 Kyung-Jin Min11Department of Biological Sciences, Inha University, Incheon, Republic of Korea; 2Department of Molecular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Gachon University, Incheon, Republic of Korea*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: As nanomaterials are now widely utilized in a wide range of fields for both medical and industrial applications, concerns over their potential toxicity to human health and the environment have increased. To evaluate the toxicity of long-term exposure to carbon nanofibers (CNFs in an in vivo system, we selected Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism. Oral administration of CNFs at a concentration of 1,000 µg/mL had adverse effects on fly physiology. Long-term administration of a high dose of CNFs (1,000 µg/mL reduced larval viability based on the pupa:egg ratio, adult fly lifespan, reproductive activity, climbing activity, and survival rate in response to starvation stress. However, CNFs at a low concentration (100 µg/mL did not show any significant deleterious effect on developmental rate or fecundity. Furthermore, long-term administration of a low dose of CNFs (100 µg/mL increased lifespan and climbing ability, coincident with mild reactive oxygen species generation and stimulation of the antioxidant system. Taken together, our data suggest that a high dose of CNFs has obvious physiological toxicity, whereas low-dose chronic exposure to CNFs can actually have beneficial effects via stimulation of the antioxidant defense system.Keywords: toxicity, Drosophila melanogaster, lifespan, reactive oxygen species

  5. Physiologic effects of intravenous fluid administration in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Jensen, Peter; Kehlet, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Dose regimens in perioperative fluid management are rarely evidence based. Therefore, we investigated responses to an IV fluid infusion in healthy volunteers to assess basic physiologic effects of a fluid infusion per se. In a prospective, double-blinded, cross-randomized study, 12 healthy...... volunteers with a median age of 63 yr (range, 59-67 yr) received an infusion of lactated Ringer's solution 40 mL/kg (median, 2820 mL) or 5 mL/kg (median, 353 mL; background infusion) in random order on two separate occasions. The study was designed to mimic the perioperative course with preoperative fasting...... by fluid administration. These findings may serve as a basis for clinical studies applying the same type of fluid in different amounts to determine the optimal amount of perioperative fluid in various surgical procedures. IMPLICATIONS: Infusion of 40 mL/kg of lactated Ringer's solution in volunteers led...

  6. Effects of Iron and Phosphorus on Microcystis Physiological Reactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MING-MING OU; YAN WANG; BAO-XUE ZHOU; WEI-MIN CAI

    2006-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of iron and phosphorus on Microcystis physiological reactions. Methods The experimental conditions were chosen as the light dark cycles of 16 h 8 h, 12 h 12 h, and 8 h 16 h. The cell change of morphology and life history, cell number, cell color, and cell area of Microcystis were analyzed quantitatively. According to the resource competition and Monod equation, Microcystis kinetics of phosphorus and iron were also examined. Results The longer light time caused more special cell division, slower growth rate, and easier change of bigger cell area. The color of alga was changed from green to brown. Ks and μmax of phosphorus absorption were 0.0352 μ mol·L-1and 0.493 d-1, respectively. Those of iron absorption were 0.00323 μmol·L-1and 0.483 d-1. Conclusion Microcystis bloom is more dominant than other algae.

  7. Ascending migration of endophytic rhizobia, from roots to leaves, inside rice plants and assessment of benefits to rice growth physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Feng; Shen, Shi-Hua; Cheng, Hai-Ping; Jing, Yu-Xiang; Yanni, Youssef G; Dazzo, Frank B

    2005-11-01

    Rhizobia, the root-nodule endosymbionts of leguminous plants, also form natural endophytic associations with roots of important cereal plants. Despite its widespread occurrence, much remains unknown about colonization of cereals by rhizobia. We examined the infection, dissemination, and colonization of healthy rice plant tissues by four species of gfp-tagged rhizobia and their influence on the growth physiology of rice. The results indicated a dynamic infection process beginning with surface colonization of the rhizoplane (especially at lateral root emergence), followed by endophytic colonization within roots, and then ascending endophytic migration into the stem base, leaf sheath, and leaves where they developed high populations. In situ CMEIAS image analysis indicated local endophytic population densities reaching as high as 9 x 10(10) rhizobia per cm3 of infected host tissues, whereas plating experiments indicated rapid, transient or persistent growth depending on the rhizobial strain and rice tissue examined. Rice plants inoculated with certain test strains of gfp-tagged rhizobia produced significantly higher root and shoot biomass; increased their photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration velocity, water utilization efficiency, and flag leaf area (considered to possess the highest photosynthetic activity); and accumulated higher levels of indoleacetic acid and gibberellin growth-regulating phytohormones. Considered collectively, the results indicate that this endophytic plant-bacterium association is far more inclusive, invasive, and dynamic than previously thought, including dissemination in both below-ground and above-ground tissues and enhancement of growth physiology by several rhizobial species, therefore heightening its interest and potential value as a biofertilizer strategy for sustainable agriculture to produce the world's most important cereal crops.

  8. Multiplicity of effects and health benefits of resveratrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lolita Kuršvietienė

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol is mainly found in grapes and red wine, also in some plants and fruits, such as peanuts, cranberries, pistachios, blueberries and bilberries. Moreover, nowadays this compound is available as purified preparation and dietary supplement. Resveratrol provides a wide range of benefits, including cardiovascular protective, antiplatelet, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, blood glucose-lowering and anticancer activities, hence it exhibits a complex mode of action. During the recent years, these properties have been widely studied in animal and human models, both in vitro and in vivo. This paper is intended to present information published during the recent years on the biological activities and multiple effects of resveratrol.

  9. Effects of Transport at Weaning on the Behavior, Physiology and Performance of Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhairi A. Sutherland

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Transport of pigs to separate production facilities at the time of weaning is a common practice, primarily performed to reduce vertical transfer of disease and enhance production and overall farm efficiency. During transport, pigs are exposed to numerous stressors in conjunction with the stress experienced as a result of weaning. In this review, the behavioral and physiological response of pigs experiencing weaning and transport simultaneously will be described, including the effects of space allowance, season and transport duration. Based on the scientific literature, the gaps in the knowledge regarding potential welfare issues are discussed. Changes in behavior and physiology suggest that weaned pigs may experience stress due to transport. Space allowance, season and duration are aspects of transport that can have a marked impact on these responses. To date, the literature regarding the effects of transport on weaned pigs has primarily focused on the short term stress response and little is known about the effects of concurrent weaning and transport on other aspects of pig welfare including morbidity and mortality rates. Greater understanding of the short and long term consequences of transport on weaned pig welfare particularly in relation to factors such as trip duration, provision of feed and water, and best handling practices would benefit the swine industry. Furthermore, the development of guidelines and recommendations to enhance the short and long term welfare of weaned pigs in relation to transport are needed.

  10. Depressant Effects of Salvia divinorum Involve Disruption of Physiological Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Trujano, María Eva; Brindis, Fernando; López-Ruiz, Edith; Ramírez-Salado, Ignacio; Martínez, Adrián; Pellicer, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    Although Salvia divinorum is traditionally known as a 'mind-altering' or psychoactive herb used, among others things, as a tranquilizer, this property has not been validated with regard to its efficacy and safety. The objective of this study is to provide evidence for the sedative effects of S. divinorum and discriminate the nature of the responsible constituents by examining different experimental models. A battery of tests, including the open-field, hole-board, exploration cylinder, plus-maze and sodium pentobarbital-induced hypnosis potentiation, were used in mice after administration of non-polar, medium polar and/or polar extracts of the plant (10, 30 and 100 mg/kg). Polysomnographic analysis in rats receiving an active medium polar extract (10 and 100 mg/kg) containing salvinorins was also assessed to study the effects of this plant on sleep architecture. All tested extracts produced significant sedative-like responses, although those of the medium polar extract were more pronounced in mice. The sedative effect of this latter extract, which contains a mixture of salvinorins, caused fragmented sleep architecture in rats by diminishing rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and increased the quiet awake stage at 10 and 100 mg/kg. Our results provide evidence that S. divinorum exhibits sedative-like depressant properties that alter physiological sleep architecture. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Valuation of road safety effects in cost-benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnen, Wim; Wesemann, Paul; de Blaeij, Arianne

    2009-11-01

    Cost-benefit analysis is a common method for evaluating the social economic impact of transport projects, and in many of these projects the saving of human lives is an issue. This implies, within the framework of cost-benefit analysis, that a monetary value should be attached to saving human lives. This paper discusses the 'Value of a Statistical Life' (VoSL), a concept that is often used for monetising safety effects, in the context of road safety. Firstly, the concept of 'willingness to pay' for road safety and its relation to the VoSL are explained. The VoSL approach will be compared to other approaches to monetise safety effects, in particular the human capital approach and 'quality adjusted life years'. Secondly, methods to estimate the VoSL and their applicability to road safety will be discussed. Thirdly, the paper reviews the VoSL estimates that have been found in scientific research and compares them with the values that are used in policy evaluations. Finally, a VoSL study in the Netherlands will be presented as a case study, and its applicability in policy evaluation will be illustrated.

  12. Physiological Effect of New FA Antitranspirant Application on Maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Mao-song; LI Sen; ZHANG Shu-yi; CHI Bao-liang

    2003-01-01

    The field trial was conducted to study physiological effect of new FA antitranspirant on maize.The new FA antitranspirant was sprayed at 10 d pre-tasseling, ear filling stage and 10 d pre-tasseling + earfilling stage, with the concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 ml L-1. The results indicated that the appli-cation of new FA antitranspirant increased nitrate reductase activity (NRA), free proline content, chlorophyllcontent and water content of leaf, thus drought stress can be mitigated. The new FA antitranspirant increasedphotosynthesis rate and reduced transpiration rate, stimulated growth and reduced water loss. 10 d pre-tassel-ing + ear filling stage application had a cumulative effect on the indices compared with 10 d pre-tasseling andear filling stage, except for NRA. The new FA antitranspirant caused an increase of grain yield by 5.37 to29.58 % with different treatments. The optimal concentration is 1.5 ml L-1 , i.e. 75 g new FA antitranspirantdissolved in 50 kg water, and the optimal apply period is 10 d pre-tasseling ± ear filling stage.

  13. Physiological effects of yogic practices and transcendental meditation in health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P A Balaji

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Yoga is an ancient Indian way of life, which includes changes in mental attitude, diet, and the practice of specific techniques such as yoga asanas (postures, breathing practices (pranayamas, and meditation to attain the highest level of consciousness. Since a decade, there has been a surge in the research on yoga, but we do find very few reviews regarding yogic practices and transcendental meditation (TM in health and disease. Keeping this in view, a Medline search was done to review relevant articles in English literature on evaluation of physiological effects of yogic practices and TM. Data were constructed; issues were reviewed and found that there were considerable health benefits, including improved cognition, respiration, reduced cardiovascular risk, body mass index, blood pressure, and diabetes. Yoga also influenced immunity and ameliorated joint disorders.

  14. Biofeedback on heart rate variability in cardiac rehabilitation: practical feasibility and psycho-physiological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climov, Daniela; Lysy, Camille; Berteau, Sylvain; Dutrannois, Jacques; Dereppe, Hubert; Brohet, Christian; Melin, Jacques

    2014-06-01

    Biofeedback is a self-regulation therapy by which the patient learns how to optimize the functioning of his autonomic nervous system. It has been applied to patients with various cardiovascular disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the practical feasibility and the psychophysiological effects of biofeedback applied to heart rate variability (HRV biofeedback) in order to increase cardiac coherence in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients participating in a cardiac rehabilitation programme. In this randomised and controlled study, 31 CAD patients were randomly assigned to an experimental or to a control group. The experimental group participated in a programme of 10 sessions of cardiac coherence biofeedback training, in addition to the rehabilitation programme. The control group participated in the usual cardiac rehabilitation programme only. Physiological variables (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, SDNN) and psychosocial variables (anxiety, depression, type D personality) were measured at the start and at the end of the programme in both groups. Statistical comparisons assessed the inter and intra group differences. The small sample size precludes any firm conclusions concerning the effect of cardiac coherence biofeedback on physiological or psychological variables. However, we observed a significant increase of the percentage of cardiac coherence, in relation with an increased SDNN index. Our study demonstrated the practical feasibility of cardiac coherence biofeedback training in CAD patients. Further research is desirable to investigate the potential benefit of cardiac coherence biofeedback as an adjunct to stress management in cardiac rehabilitation.

  15. Effect of different doses of un-fractionated green and black tea extracts on thyroid physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Amar K; De, Neela; Choudhury, Shyamosree Roy

    2011-08-01

    Tea is a rich source of polyphenolic flavonoids including catechins, which are thought to contribute to the health benefits of it. Flavonoids have been reported to have antithyroid and goitrogenic effect. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether high doses of green and black tea have a harmful effect on thyroid physiology. Un-fractionated green and black tea extracts were administered orally to male rats for 30 days at doses of 1.25 g%, 2.5 g% and 5.0 g%. The results showed that green tea extract at 2.5 g% and 5.0 g% doses and black tea extract only at 5.0 g% dose have the potential to alter the thyroid gland physiology and architecture, that is, enlargement of thyroid gland as well as hypertrophy and/or hyperplasia of the thyroid follicles and inhibition of the activity of thyroid peroxidase and 5(')-deiodinase I with elevated thyroidal Na+, K+-ATPase activity along with significant decrease in serum T3 and T4, and a parallel increase in serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). This study concludes that goitrogenic/antithyroidal potential of un-fractionated green tea extract is much more than black tea extract because of the differences in catechin contents in the tea extracts.

  16. Evaluation studies of persimmon plant (Diospyros kaki) for physiological benefits and bioaccessibility of antioxidants by in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Las Heras, Ruth; Pinazo, Alicia; Heredia, Ana; Andrés, Ana

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the antioxidant benefits from persimmon leaf tea, fruit and fibres taking into account their changes along gastrointestinal digestion. The evolution of polyphenols, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity was studied using the recent harmonized in vitro protocol published by Minekus et al. (2014). The digestion was performed with and without digestive enzymes. Results showed aqueous leaf extract was richer in antioxidants than the fruit or the extracted fibres. Nevertheless, persimmon-leaf antioxidants were more sensitive to the digestive environment. In general, the oral conditions greatly affected the antioxidants, while gastric digestion led to slight additional losses. The intestinal step enhanced polyphenols and flavonoids solubility coming from the fruit and fibres. Additionally, the presence of digestive enzymes positively contributed to antioxidant release throughout digestion. Finally, the bioaccessibility of polyphenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity of persimmon fruit were 1.4, 1.0 and 3.8 times higher than in aqueous leaf extract. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Costs without benefits? Methodological issues in assessing costs, benefits and effectiveness of water protection policies. Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walz, R.; Schleich, J.

    2000-07-01

    In the last few years, the conditions for extending environmental policy in general and policy dealing with the prevention of water pollution in particular have undergone extensive changes. On the one hand, there has been indisputable considerable success in preventing water pollution which has led to less direct pressure for policy action. On the other hand, the rising sewage levies and the lower political priority assigned in general to environmental policy documented in, e. g. public opinion surveys, has led to water pollution control policy facing very different pressures of justification: more efficient use of funds, improved planning processes, proof of the achievable benefit, but also stopping the increase in levies or not hindering economic development, these or similar slogans are the objections brought against water pollution control. Regardless of how unambiguous these terms appear when used as slogans in this way, they become diffuse and unclear if regarded more closely. This paper therefore attempts to reveal the reasons for possible misunderstandings and misinterpretations on the one hand and, on the other, to reveal the basic problems and uncertainties which are necessarily linked with an assessment of costs and benefits. In order to do this, three areas are examined: level of actors and analysis, evaluation methods and assessment of costs and benefits. (orig.)

  18. Costs without benefits? Methodological issues in assessing costs, benefits and effectiveness of water protection policies. Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walz, R.; Schleich, J.

    2000-07-01

    In the last few years, the conditions for extending environmental policy in general and policy dealing with the prevention of water pollution in particular have undergone extensive changes. On the one hand, there has been indisputable considerable success in preventing water pollution which has led to less direct pressure for policy action. On the other hand, the rising sewage levies and the lower political priority assigned in general to environmental policy documented in, e. g. public opinion surveys, has led to water pollution control policy facing very different pressures of justification: more efficient use of funds, improved planning processes, proof of the achievable benefit, but also stopping the increase in levies or not hindering economic development, these or similar slogans are the objections brought against water pollution control. Regardless of how unambiguous these terms appear when used as slogans in this way, they become diffuse and unclear if regarded more closely. This paper therefore attempts to reveal the reasons for possible misunderstandings and misinterpretations on the one hand and, on the other, to reveal the basic problems and uncertainties which are necessarily linked with an assessment of costs and benefits. In order to do this, three areas are examined: level of actors and analysis, evaluation methods and assessment of costs and benefits. (orig.)

  19. Biochemical, physiological and clinical effects of l-methylfolate in schizophrenia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffman, J L; Petruzzi, L J; Tanner, A S; Brown, H E; Eryilmaz, H; Ho, N F; Giegold, M; Silverstein, N J; Bottiglieri, T; Manoach, D S; Smoller, J W; Henderson, D C; Goff, D C

    2017-03-14

    Folic acid supplementation confers modest benefit in schizophrenia, but its effectiveness is influenced by common genetic variants in the folate pathway that hinder conversion to its active form. We examined physiological and clinical effects of l-methylfolate, the fully reduced and bioactive form of folate, in schizophrenia. In this randomized, double-blind trial, outpatients with schizophrenia (n=55) received l-methylfolate 15 mg or placebo for 12 weeks. Patients were maintained on stable doses of antipsychotic medications. The pre-defined primary outcome was change in plasma methylfolate at 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes included change in symptoms (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms, Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia), cognition (Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia composite) and three complementary magnetic resonance imaging measures (working memory-related activation, resting connectivity, cortical thickness). Primary, mixed model, intent-to-treat analyses covaried for six genetic variants in the folate pathway previously associated with symptom severity and/or response to folate supplementation. Analyses were repeated without covariates to evaluate dependence on genotype. Compared with placebo, l-methylfolate increased plasma methylfolate levels (d=1.00, P=0.0009) and improved PANSS Total (d=0.61, P=0.03) as well as PANSS Negative and General Psychopathology subscales. Although PANSS Total and General Psychopathology changes were influenced by genotype, significant PANSS Negative changes occurred regardless of genotype. No treatment differences were seen in other symptom rating scales or cognitive composite scores. Patients receiving l-methylfolate exhibited convergent changes in ventromedial prefrontal physiology, including increased task-induced deactivation, altered limbic connectivity and increased cortical thickness. In conclusion, l

  20. The effect of hysterectomy on ano-rectal physiology.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, J L

    2012-02-03

    Hysterectomy is associated with severe constipation in a subgroup of patients, and an adverse effect on colonic motility has been described in the literature. The onset of irritable bowel syndrome and urinary bladder dysfunction has also been reported after hysterectomy. In this prospective study, we investigated the effect of simple hysterectomy on ano-rectal physiology and bowel function. Thirty consecutive patients were assessed before and 16 weeks after operation. An abdominal hysterectomy was performed in 16 patients, and a vaginal procedure was performed in 14. The parameters measured included the mean resting, and maximal forced voluntary contraction anal pressures, the recto-anal inhibitory reflex, and rectal sensation to distension. In 8 patients, the terminal motor latency of the pudendal nerve was assessed bilaterally. Pre-operatively, 8 patients were constipated. This improved following hysterectomy in 4, worsened in 2, and was unchanged in 2. Symptomatology did not correlate with changes in manometry. Although, the mean resting pressure was reduced after hysterectomy (57 mmHg-53 mmHg, P = 0.0541), the maximal forced voluntary contraction pressure was significantly decreased (115 mmHg-105 mmHg, P = 0.029). This effect was more pronounced in those with five or more previous vaginal deliveries (P = 0.0244, n = 9). There was no significant change in the number of patients with an intact ano-rectal inhibitory reflex after hysterectomy. There was no change in rectal sensation to distension, and the right and left pudendal nerve terminal motor latencies were unaltered at follow-up. Our results demonstrate that hysterectomy causes a decrease in the maximal forced voluntary contraction and pressure, and this appears to be due to a large decrease in a small group of patients with previous multiple vaginal deliveries.

  1. Tobacco Smoke Exposure during Childhood: Effect on Cochlear Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Lopes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The rate of smoking in Brazil is about 18.8%. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is one of the major factors predisposing children to several hazardous health problems. The objective of the present research was to analyze the effect of tobacco smoke exposure during childhood on cochlear physiology by measuring the transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE response levels. Cotinine, the main metabolite of nicotine, was measured in 145 students’ (8–10 years old urine. Sixty students indicated tobacco smoke exposure (TSE (cotinine urine levels ≥ 5.0 ng/mL and 85 did not. The evaluation of TEOAE of TSE students showed lower response levels, mainly on frequencies of 2.8 kHz on the right and left ears and 2.0 kHz on left ear and lower signal noise response levels, mainly on the 1.0 kHz and 1.4 kHz frequencies, when compared to controls that were not exposed to tobacco. The mean reduction observed in TEOAE of tobacco smoke exposure children was 2.1 dB SPL. These results have important implications on the damage to the cochlear structures and indicate a possible loss in hearing and hearing ability development.

  2. Effects of Long Distance Transportation on Honey Bee Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiheung Ahn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the requirement of long distance transportation of honey bees used for pollination, we understand little how transportation affects honey bees. Three trials in three different states (CA, GA, and MI were conducted to study the effects of long distance transportation on honey bee physiology. Newly emerged bees from one colony were split into two groups and introduced into a transported (T colony or a stationary (S colony in each trial. Volumes of hypopharyngeal gland acini in T colonies were significantly smaller than S colonies in all three trials. There were no significant differences between S and T colonies in juvenile hormone titers. Protein content in head showed no significant differences between S and T either in 7-day-old or 17-day-old bees of MI trial, but GA trial showed a significant reduction in bees experiencing transportation. Protein content in thorax was only measured in GA trial and was not significantly different between the two groups. Lipid content in abdomen was not significantly different between the S and T colonies in all three trials. This study suggests that bees experiencing transportation have trouble fully developing their food glands and this might affect their ability to nurse the next generation of workers.

  3. Effect of transport stress on physiological responses of male bovines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon, G; Garcia-Belenguer, S; Villarroel, M; Maria, G A

    2005-12-01

    Forty-eight slaughter bulls were transported by road in groups of eight for approximately 30 min, 3 h and 6 h in two replicates. Animal welfare during the transport process was assessed. Loadings and unloadings were evaluated with a scoring method. Heart rates were monitored at the farm before loading and during all stages of transport. Blood samples were taken from all animals a week before transport and at sticking and analysed in terms of haematological values: hematocrit, haemoglobin, red and white blood cells (RBC and WBC), differential WBC counts and neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio. Glucose, creatine kinase, lactate and cortisol were also determined. To evaluate differences in meat quality, pH and water-holding capacity (WHC) were measured 24 h after slaughter. The loading and unloading scores were very low (low stress) but were associated with changes in heart rate, especially loading. Animals recovered their resting heart rate during the journey in medium and long transports. On the other hand, animals transported around 30 min maintained an elevated heart rate during the whole journey. All animals showed a stress response with significantly higher (p Animals transported for 3 and 6 hours had significantly (Pmeat quality. Under good conditions, the transport had a slight effect on welfare, meat quality or physiological parameters related with stress.

  4. The Effects of Aquatic Exercise on Physiological and Biomechanical Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Denning, Matthew M.

    2010-01-01

    Due to recent advances in aquatic research, technology, and facilities, many modes of aquatic therapy now exist. These aquatic modes assist individuals (e.g., osteoarthritis patients) in the performance of activities that may be too difficult to complete on land. However, the biomechanical requirements of each aquatic therapy mode may elicit different physiological and functional responses. Therefore, the purpose of this thesis was to: (a) provide a review of the physiological and biomechani...

  5. Physiological effects of potassium chloride, formalin and handling stress on bonytail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Catherine L.; Caldwell, Colleen A.; Gould, William R.

    2011-01-01

    We characterized the sublethal physiological changes in bonytail Gila elegans subjected to consecutive 750-mg/L potassium chloride (KCl) and 25-mg/L formalin treatments for the removal of zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha and quagga mussel D. bugensis veligers. Plasma cortisol, glucose, and osmolality were measured over 24 h and at 14 d posthandling after exposing bonytail to KCl and one net stressor (capture with a net), KCl plus formalin and two net stressors, and one or two net stressors without chemicals. Elevated plasma cortisol (322–440 ng/mL) and glucose (254–399 mg/dL) concentrations were observed in all treatments compared with the concentrations in control fish (plasma cortisol, 56 ng/mL; glucose, 43 mg/dL). While there were no detectable differences in plasma osmolality among the treatment and control fish, a difference was observed between fish that were handled once versus twice. Chemical effects of stress were not observed in any of the physiological responses when the KCl treatment was compared with the one-net stressor treatment or when the KCl plus formalin treatment was compared with the two-net stressor treatment. Cumulative responses, however, were observed between one net stressor and two net stressors for plasma glucose and osmolality but not for plasma cortisol. Plasma cortisol and glucose levels remained elevated at 24 h posthandling, indicating that bonytail had not completely recovered from the handling stressors and would benefit from a recovery period in protected refugia before being released.

  6. 20 CFR 404.1911 - Effects of a totalization agreement on entitlement to hospital insurance benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... entitlement to hospital insurance benefits. 404.1911 Section 404.1911 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... Provisions § 404.1911 Effects of a totalization agreement on entitlement to hospital insurance benefits. A person may not become entitled to hospital insurance benefits under section 226 or section 226A of the...

  7. The Effectiveness of Separating Theory and Practicum as a Conduit to Learning Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuijers, Johannes A.; McDonald, Stuart J.; Julien, Brianna L.; Lexis, Louise A.; Thomas, Colleen J.; Chan, Siew; Samiric, T.

    2013-01-01

    Many conventional science courses contain subjects embedded with laboratory-based activities. However, research on the benefits of positioning the practicals within the theory subject or developing them distinctly from the theory is largely absent. This report compared results in a physiology theory subject among three different cohorts of…

  8. Two component systems: physiological effect of a third component.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldiri Salvado

    Full Text Available Signal transduction systems mediate the response and adaptation of organisms to environmental changes. In prokaryotes, this signal transduction is often done through Two Component Systems (TCS. These TCS are phosphotransfer protein cascades, and in their prototypical form they are composed by a kinase that senses the environmental signals (SK and by a response regulator (RR that regulates the cellular response. This basic motif can be modified by the addition of a third protein that interacts either with the SK or the RR in a way that could change the dynamic response of the TCS module. In this work we aim at understanding the effect of such an additional protein (which we call "third component" on the functional properties of a prototypical TCS. To do so we build mathematical models of TCS with alternative designs for their interaction with that third component. These mathematical models are analyzed in order to identify the differences in dynamic behavior inherent to each design, with respect to functionally relevant properties such as sensitivity to changes in either the parameter values or the molecular concentrations, temporal responsiveness, possibility of multiple steady states, or stochastic fluctuations in the system. The differences are then correlated to the physiological requirements that impinge on the functioning of the TCS. This analysis sheds light on both, the dynamic behavior of synthetically designed TCS, and the conditions under which natural selection might favor each of the designs. We find that a third component that modulates SK activity increases the parameter space where a bistable response of the TCS module to signals is possible, if SK is monofunctional, but decreases it when the SK is bifunctional. The presence of a third component that modulates RR activity decreases the parameter space where a bistable response of the TCS module to signals is possible.

  9. Unemployment Benefit Exhaustion: Incentive Effects on Job-Finding Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filges, Trine; Geerdsen, Lars Pico; Knudsen, Anne-Sofie Due; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This systematic review studied the impact of exhaustion of unemployment benefits on the exit rate out of unemployment and into employment prior to benefit exhaustion or shortly thereafter. Method: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to prepare this review, and ultimately located 12 studies for final analysis and interpretation.…

  10. Synchrosqueezing an effective method for analyzing Doppler radar physiological signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavari, Ehsan; Rahman, Ashikur; Jia Xu; Mandic, Danilo P; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2016-08-01

    Doppler radar can monitor vital sign wirelessly. Respiratory and heart rate have time-varying behavior. Capturing the rate variability provides crucial physiological information. However, the common time-frequency methods fail to detect key information. We investigate Synchrosqueezing method to extract oscillatory components of the signal with time varying spectrum. Simulation and experimental result shows the potential of the proposed method for analyzing signals with complex time-frequency behavior like physiological signals. Respiration and heart signals and their components are extracted with higher resolution and without any pre-filtering and signal conditioning.

  11. Toxicity of imine-iminium dyes and pigments: electron transfer, radicals, oxidative stress and other physiological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacic, Peter; Somanathan, Ratnasamy

    2014-08-01

    Although conjugation is well known as an important contributor to color, there is scant recognition concerning involvement of imine and iminium functions in the physiological effects of this class of dyes and pigments. The group includes the dyes methylene blue, rhodamine, malachite green, fuchsin, crystal violet, auramine and cyanins, in addition to the pigments consisting of pyocyanine, phthalocyanine and pheophytin. The physiological effects consist of both toxicity and beneficial aspects. The unifying theme of electron transfer-reactive oxygen species-oxidative stress is used as the rationale in both cases. Toxicity is frequently prevented or alleviated by antioxidants. The apparent dichotomy of methylene blue action as both oxidant and antioxidant is rationalized based on similar previous cases. This mechanistic approach may have practical benefit. This review is important in conveying, for the first time, a unifying mechanism for toxicity based on electron transfer-reactive oxygen species-oxidative stress arising from imine-iminium.

  12. Physiological effect of the toxin from Xanthomonas retroflexus on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    A new toxin from Xanthomonas retroflexus could cause a series of physiological responses on seedlings of ... protein, cell division and ultrastructure of the leaf. ... 28°C in bacterial medium (beef extract 5.0 g, peptone 10.0 g, NaCl. 15.0 g ...

  13. Physiological Effects of Strength Training and Various Strength Training Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmore, Jack H.

    Current knowledge in the area of muscle physiology is a basis for a discussion on strength training programs. It is now recognized that the expression of strength is related to, but not dependent upon, the size of the muscle and is probably more related to the ability to recruit more muscle fibers in the contraction, or to better synchronize their…

  14. Effect constant and natural illumination on physiological state in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyukha Viktor Alexandrovitch

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The influences of constant and natural illumination on antioxidant system, leukocytes differential count, speed of pubescence and life span of male laboratory rats was investigated. The changes of melatonin level secretion by constant and natural illumination leads to connected reorganization in physiological systems functioning and speed of ageing.

  15. Physiological effects of Adaptive Cruise Control behaviour in real driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.M.; Snelting, A.F.; Jaswa, M.; Flascher, O.; Krol, L.R.; Zander, T.O.

    2017-01-01

    We examined physiological responses to behavior of an Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) system during real driving. ACC is an example of automating a task that used to be performed by the user. In order to preserve the link between the user and an automated system such that they work together optimally,

  16. 76 FR 2447 - Gulf War and Health, Volume 6, Physiologic, Psychologic, and Psychosocial Effects of Deployment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... AFFAIRS Gulf War and Health, Volume 6, Physiologic, Psychologic, and Psychosocial Effects of Deployment... authority granted by the Persian Gulf War Veterans Act of 1998, Public Law 105-277, title XVI, 112 Stat..., ``Gulf War and Health, Volume 6, Physiologic, Psychologic, and Psychosocial Effects of Deployment-Related...

  17. Non-carbon benefits for effective implementation of REDD+

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    diversity, evenness and stand structure of the woody species; (ii) determine the amount of carbon stock stored in ... some 16 million ha of tropical forests were lost per year. (McDermott ...... Benefits: Synthesizing complex linkages. Elsevier, pp.

  18. Innocence and resisting confession during interrogation: effects on physiologic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyll, Max; Madon, Stephanie; Yang, Yueran; Lannin, Daniel G; Scherr, Kyle; Greathouse, Sarah

    2013-10-01

    Innocent suspects may not adequately protect themselves during interrogation because they fail to fully appreciate the danger of the situation. This experiment tested whether innocent suspects experience less stress during interrogation than guilty suspects, and whether refusing to confess expends physiologic resources. After experimentally manipulating innocence and guilt, 132 participants were accused and interrogated for misconduct, and then pressured to confess. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), heart rate (HR), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and preejection period (PEP) responses quantified stress reactions. As hypothesized, the innocent evidenced smaller stress responses to interrogation for SBP, DBP, HR, and RSA than did the guilty. Furthermore, innocents who refused to confess exhibited greater sympathetic nervous system activation, as evidenced by shorter PEPs, than did innocent or guilty confessors. These findings suggest that innocent suspects underestimate the threat of interrogation and that resisting pressures to confess can diminish suspects' physiologic resources and lead to false confessions.

  19. Effect of diazepam on calcium translocation during physiological muscle fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, C P; Narayan, S R

    1984-10-01

    Stimulation of frog sartorius muscle at 1 Hz leads to an initial positive staircase during the first 120 twitches and is followed by a negative staircase. There is a net calcium influx into two distinct compartments within the muscle during the positive staircase. The two compartments are separated by measuring the calcium extracted from muscles soaked in strontium-Ringer for 15 min and the calcium remaining in the muscle. A net gain of extractable Ca++ (0.32 mumol/g wet wt.) and residual Ca++ (0.18 mumol/g) is observed during positive staircase. A loss in residual Ca++, a gain in extractable Ca++ and a net loss of Ca++ (0.09 mumol/g) to the bathing medium occur during the period preceding physiological muscle fatigue (60 to 120 twitches). Diazepam (EC50, 5.6 X 10(-6) M) causes a marked reduction in the latent period and increases the rate constant 2.6 times the control value for physiological muscle fatigue. A net loss of 0.31 mumol/g of Ca++ to the bathing medium occurs during the interval between 60 and 120 twitches. Diazepam increases net Ca++ efflux 3.5-fold during this interval when compared to control muscles. Diazepam does not affect the Ca++ gained during the positive staircase but accelerates the loss of calcium from the residual and the extractable compartments during the initial phase of physiological muscle fatigue. Physiological muscle fatigue is attributed to an accumulation of calcium in the transverse tubular network and an uncoupling of the muscle action potential from contraction.

  20. Effects of weightlessness on human fluid and electrolyte physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Carolyn S.; Johnson, Philip C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Skylab and Spacelab data on changes occurring in human fluid and electrolyte physiology during the acute and adaptive phases of adaptation to spaceflight are summarized. The combined results for all three Spacelab studies show that hyponatremia developed within 20 h after the onset of weightlessness and continued throughout the flights, and hypokalemia developed by 40 h. Antidiuretic hormone was increased in plasma throughout the flights. Aldosterone decreased by 40 h, but after 7 days it had reached preflight levels.

  1. The effect of a physiological concentration of caffeine on the endurance of maximally and submaximally stimulated mouse soleus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallis, Jason; James, Rob S; Cox, Val M; Duncan, Michael J

    2013-03-01

    The use of caffeine as an ergogenic aid to promote endurance has been widely studied, with human literature showing the greatest benefit during submaximal muscle activities. Recent evidence suggests that the acute treatment of skeletal muscle with physiological concentrations of caffeine (70 μM maximum) will directly potentiate force production. The aims of the present study are: firstly, to assess the effects of a physiological concentration (70 μM) of caffeine on endurance in maximally activated mouse soleus (relatively slow) muscle; and secondly, to examine whether endurance changes when muscle is activated submaximally during caffeine treatment. Maximally stimulated soleus muscle treated with 70 μM caffeine resulted in a significant (17.6 %) decrease in endurance. In contrast, at a submaximal stimulation frequency, caffeine treatment significantly prolonged endurance (by 19.2 %). Findings are activation-dependent such that, during high frequency stimulation, caffeine accelerates fatigue, whereas, during low frequency stimulation, caffeine delays fatigue.

  2. Energy drinks consumption pattern, perceived benefits and associated adverse effects amongst students of University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsunni, Ahmed A; Badar, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    There are safety concerns about energy drinks alongside marketing claims of physiological and behavioural benefits. There is no scientific data about usage of energy drinks in Saudi Arabia. This study determined consumption patterns of energy drinks as well as perceived benefits and side effects amongst students at a Saudi university. This study was carried out in students of University of Dammam from October to December 2010. A questionnaire about energy drink use, reasons for use, benefits and side effects experienced was distributed amongst the university students. Frequencies of responses and differences between male and female students were analysed. A total of 412 students (282 males and 130 females) responded, out of whom 54.60% males and 26.15% female students were energy drink users. Mean age at first use was significantly (penergy and for better performance in driving, sports or exams. Amongst many the commonest (penergy drinks, they have reported a number of effects (perceived as benefits) along with a variety of adverse effects.

  3. Cellular and Physiological Effects of Anthrax Exotoxin and Its Relevance to Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, David E.; Glomski, Ian J.

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, secretes a tri-partite exotoxin that exerts pleiotropic effects on the host. The purification of the exotoxin components, protective antigen, lethal factor, and edema factor allowed the rapid characterization of their physiologic effects on the host. As molecular biology matured, interest focused on the molecular mechanisms and cellular alterations induced by intoxication. Only recently have researchers begun to connect molecular and cellular knowledge back to the broader physiological effects of the exotoxin. This review focuses on the progress that has been made bridging molecular knowledge back to the exotoxin’s physiological effects on the host. PMID:22919667

  4. Acute and phase-shifting effects of ocular and extraocular light in human circadian physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruger, M; Gordijn, MCM; Beersma, DGM; de Vries, B; Daan, S

    2003-01-01

    Light can influence physiology and performance of humans in two distinct ways. It can acutely change the level of physiological and behavioral parameters, and it can induce a phase shift in the circadian oscillators underlying variations in these levels. Until recently, both effects were thought to

  5. DEET insect repellent: effects on thermoregulatory sweating and physiological strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenefick, Robert W; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Ely, Brett R; Palombo, Laura J; Sawka, Michael N

    2011-12-01

    Insect repellents (e.g. N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide or DEET) applied to the skin can potentially interfere with sweat production and evaporation, thus increasing physiological strain during exercise-heat stress. The purpose was to determine the impact of 33% DEET lotion on sweating responses, whole body thermoregulation and thermal sensation during walking exercise in the heat. Nine volunteers (2 females, 7 males; 22.1 ± 4.9 years; 176.4 ± 10.0 cm; 79.9 ± 12.9 kg) completed 5 days of heat acclimation (45°C, 20% rh; 545 watts; 100 min/day) and performed three trials: control (CON); DEET applied to forearm (DEET(LOC), 12 cm(2)); and DEET applied to ~13% body surface area (DEET(WB),). Trials consisted of 30 min walking (645 watts) in 40°C, 20% rh environment. Local sweat rate (SR), onset and skin wettedness were measured in DEET(LOC), and heart rate (HR), rectal temperature (T (re)), skin temperature (T (sk)), RPE, and thermal sensations (TS) were measured during DEET(WB). No differences (p > 0.05) were observed between DEET(LOC) versus CON, respectively, for steady state SR (1.89 ± 0.44 vs. 2.09 ± 0.84 mg/cm(2)/min), SR area under the curve (46.9 ± 11.7 vs. 55.0 ± 20.8 mg/cm(2)), sweating onset, or skin wettedness. There were no differences (p > 0.05) in HR, T (re), T (sk), Physiological Strain Index, RPE or TS between DEET(WB) versus CON. DEET did not impact measures of local forearm sweating and when applied according to military doctrine, did not adversely impact physiological responses during exercise-heat stress. DEET can be safely worn during military, occupational and recreational activities in hot, insect infested environments.

  6. Effects of Three Fire-Suppressant Foams on the Germination and Physiological Responses of Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Uhram; Mun, Saeromi; Waldman, Bruce; Lee, Eun Ju

    2014-10-01

    Suppressant foams used to fight forest fires may leave residual effects on surviving biota that managers need to consider prior to using them. We examined how three fire-suppressant foams (FSFs) (Forexpan S, Phos-Chek-WD881, and Silv-ex) affected seed germination and physiological responses of three plant species. Exposure to FSFs, whether in diluted concentrations or those typical in the field, reduced final germination percentages of seeds grown in petri dishes and within growth chambers. However, the FSFs did not cause total germination failure in any treatment. Inhibition of germination increased with longer exposure times, but only to diluted FSF solutions. Unlike in the laboratory experiments, none of the three FSFs affected seedling emergence when tested in field conditions. Further, we found no evidence of long-term phytotoxic effects on antioxidant enzyme activity nor chlorophyll content of the plant saplings. Therefore, although the three FSFs showed evidence of phytotoxicity to plants in laboratory tests, their actual impact on terrestrial ecosystems may be minimal. We suggest that the benefits of using these FSFs to protect plants in threatened forest ecosystems outweigh their minor risks.

  7. Effects of Acclimation on Poststocking Dispersal and Physiological Condition of Age-1 Pallid Sturgeon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, Eric W.; Guy, Christopher S.; Cureton, Eli S.; Webb, Molly H.; Gardner, William M.

    2011-03-28

    A propagation program for pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus in the upper Missouri River was implemented by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service in 1997. Preliminary research indicated that many hatchery-reared pallid sturgeon were experiencing significant downstream poststocking dispersal, negatively affecting their recruitment. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of acclimation to flow and site-specific physicochemical water conditions on poststocking dispersal and physiological condition of age-1 pallid sturgeon. Fish from three acclimation treatments were radio-tagged, released at two locations (Missouri River and Marias River), and monitored using passive telemetry stations. Marias treatment was acclimated to flow and site-specific physicochemical conditions, Bozeman treatment was acclimated to flow only, and traditional treatment had no acclimation (reared under traditional protocol). During both years fish released in the Missouri River dispersed less than fish released in the Marias River. In 2005, Marias treatment dispersed less and nearly twice as many fish remained in the Missouri River reach than traditional treatment. In 2006, pallid sturgeon dispersed similarly among treatments and fish remaining in the Missouri River reach were similar among all treatments. Differences in poststocking dispersal between years may be related to fin curl. Fin curl was present in all fish in 2005 and 27% of the fish in 2006. Pallid sturgeon from all treatments in both years had a greater affinity for the lower reaches of the Missouri River than the upper reaches. Thus, habitat at release site influenced poststocking dispersal more than acclimation treatment. No difference was observed in relative growth rate among treatments in 2006. However, acclimation to flow (i.e., exercise conditioning) may reduce liver fat content. Acclimation conditions used in this study may not benefit pallid sturgeon unless physiological maladies are present

  8. Xanthine Oxidoreductase-Derived Reactive Species: Physiological and Pathological Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battelli, Maria Giulia; Polito, Letizia; Bortolotti, Massimo; Bolognesi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) is the enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine and xanthine to uric acid and is widely distributed among species. In addition to this housekeeping function, mammalian XOR is a physiological source of superoxide ion, hydrogen peroxide, and nitric oxide, which can function as second messengers in the activation of various pathways. This review intends to address the physiological and pathological roles of XOR-derived oxidant molecules. The cytocidal action of XOR products has been claimed in relation to tissue damage, in particular damage induced by hypoxia and ischemia. Attempts to exploit this activity to eliminate unwanted cells via the construction of conjugates have also been reported. Moreover, different aspects of XOR activity related to phlogosis, endothelial activation, leukocyte activation, and vascular tone regulation, have been taken into consideration. Finally, the positive and negative outcomes concerning cancer pathology have been analyzed because XOR products may induce mutagenesis, cell proliferation, and tumor progression, but they are also associated with apoptosis and cell differentiation. In conclusion, XOR activity generates free radicals and other oxidant reactive species that may result in either harmful or beneficial outcomes.

  9. Xanthine Oxidoreductase-Derived Reactive Species: Physiological and Pathological Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Giulia Battelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR is the enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine and xanthine to uric acid and is widely distributed among species. In addition to this housekeeping function, mammalian XOR is a physiological source of superoxide ion, hydrogen peroxide, and nitric oxide, which can function as second messengers in the activation of various pathways. This review intends to address the physiological and pathological roles of XOR-derived oxidant molecules. The cytocidal action of XOR products has been claimed in relation to tissue damage, in particular damage induced by hypoxia and ischemia. Attempts to exploit this activity to eliminate unwanted cells via the construction of conjugates have also been reported. Moreover, different aspects of XOR activity related to phlogosis, endothelial activation, leukocyte activation, and vascular tone regulation, have been taken into consideration. Finally, the positive and negative outcomes concerning cancer pathology have been analyzed because XOR products may induce mutagenesis, cell proliferation, and tumor progression, but they are also associated with apoptosis and cell differentiation. In conclusion, XOR activity generates free radicals and other oxidant reactive species that may result in either harmful or beneficial outcomes.

  10. Effects of stressor controllability on diurnal physiological rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Robert S; Christianson, John P; Maslanik, Thomas M; Maier, Steve F; Greenwood, Benjamin N; Fleshner, Monika

    2013-03-15

    Disruptions in circadian and diurnal rhythms are associated with stress-related psychiatric disorders and stressor exposure can disrupt these rhythms. The controllability of the stressor can modulate various behavioral and neurochemical responses to stress. Uncontrollable, but not controllable, stress produces behaviors in rats that resemble symptoms of anxiety and depression. Whether acute stress-induced disruptions in physiological rhythms are sensitive to controllability of the stressor, however, remains unknown. To examine the role of controllability in diurnal rhythm disruption, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with Data Sciences International (DSI) biotelemetry devices. Real-time measurements were obtained before, during and after exposure to a controllable or yoked uncontrollable stressor. Controllable and uncontrollable stress equally disrupted diurnal rhythms of locomotor activity and body temperature but not heart rate. The diurnal heart rate the day following stressor exposure was flattened to a greater extent and was significantly higher in rats with control over stress suggesting a relationship between stressor controllability and the heart rate response. Our results are consistent with the conclusion that acute stress-induced disruptions in diurnal physiological rhythms likely contribute little to the behavioral and affective consequences of stress that are sensitive to stressor controllability.

  11. Physiological effects of railway vibration and noise on sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael G; Croy, Ilona; Ögren, Mikael; Hammar, Oscar; Lindberg, Eva; Persson Waye, Kerstin

    2017-05-01

    This paper evaluates the relative contribution of vibration and noise from railway on physiological sleep outcomes. Vibration from railway freight often accompanies airborne noise, yet is almost totally absent in the existing literature. In an experimental investigation, 23 participants, each sleeping for six nights in the laboratory, were exposed to 36 simulated railway freight pass-bys per night with vibration alone (aWd,max = 0.0204 ms(-2)), noise alone (LAF,max = 49.8 dB), or both vibration and noise simultaneously. A fourth exposure night involved 52 pass-bys with concurrent vibration and noise. Sleep was measured with polysomnography. Cardiac activity was measured with electrocardiography. The probability of cortical arousals or awakenings was greater following all exposures, including vibration alone, than spontaneous reaction probability (p railway freight on sleep.

  12. Effect of hysterectomy on anorectal and urethrovesical physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, A; Stanley, K; Smith, A R; Read, N W

    1992-02-01

    To investigate whether vaginal or total abdominal hysterectomy is associated with changes in anorectal and urethrovesical physiology, 26 women were studied before operation and six weeks and six months afterwards. The results showed a postoperative increase in both rectal and vesical sensitivity (p less than 0.01). Similar results were observed irrespective of the type of hysterectomy. No significant changes in rectal or bladder compliance were noted, and anal pressure and urethral pressure and length were unchanged after surgery. Whole gut transit was not affected by hysterectomy. Urinary symptoms occurred de novo in 6/26 women and gastrointestinal symptoms in 2/26 women. These results show that significant changes in rectal and vesical sensitivity occur after hysterectomy for benign disease. These persist for at least six months postoperatively but are not always associated with development of urinary or gastrointestinal symptoms.

  13. Effects of patch contrast and arrangement on benefits of clonal integration in a rhizomatous clonal plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Jian; Shi, Xue-Ping; Wu, Xiao-Jing; Meng, Xue-Feng; Wang, Peng-Cheng; Zhou, Zhi-Xiang; Luo, Fang-Li; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2016-01-01

    The availabilities of light and soil water resources usually spatially co-vary in natural habitats, and the spatial pattern of such co-variation may affect the benefits of physiological integration between connected ramets of clonal plants. In a greenhouse experiment, we grew connected or disconnected ramet pairs [consisting of a proximal (relatively old) and a distal (relative young) ramet] of a rhizomatous herb Iris japonica in four heterogeneous environments differing in patch arrangement (reciprocal vs. parallel patchiness of light and soil water) and patch contrast (high vs. low contrast of light and water). Biomass of the proximal part, distal part and clonal fragment of I. japonica were all significantly greater in the intact than in the severed treatment, in the parallel than in the reciprocal patchiness treatment and in the high than in the low contrast treatment, but the effect of severing the connection between ramet pairs did not depend on patch arrangement or contrast. Severing the connection decreased number of ramets of the distal part and the clonal fragment in the parallel patchiness arrangement, but not in the reciprocal patchiness arrangement. Therefore, the spatial arrangement of resource patches can alter the effects of clonal integration on asexual reproduction in I. japonica. PMID:27759040

  14. Effects of maxillary sinus floor elevation surgery on maxillary sinus physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmenga, NM; Raghoebar, GM; Liem, RSB; van Weissenbruch, R; Manson, WL; Vissink, A

    2003-01-01

    In a prospective study, the effects of elevation surgery of the maxillary sinus floor on maxillary sinus physiology were assessed. Seventeen consecutive patients without preoperative anamnestic, clinical and radiological signs of maxillary sinusitis underwent sinus floor elevation surgery with iliac

  15. The Effect of Physiological Stimuli on Sarcopenia; Impact of Notch and Wnt Signaling on Impaired Aged Skeletal Muscle Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Susan Tsivitse; Cooley, Ian D.

    2012-01-01

    The age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function that is associated with sarcopenia can result in ultimate consequences such as decreased quality of life. The causes of sarcopenia are multifactorial and include environmental and biological factors. The purpose of this review is to synthesize what the literature reveals in regards to the cellular regulation of sarcopenia, including impaired muscle regenerative capacity in the aged, and to discuss if physiological stimuli have the potential to slow the loss of myogenic potential that is associated with sarcopenia. In addition, this review article will discuss the effect of aging on Notch and Wnt signaling, and whether physiological stimuli have the ability to restore Notch and Wnt signaling resulting in rejuvenated aged muscle repair. The intention of this summary is to bring awareness to the benefits of consistent physiological stimulus (exercise) to combating sarcopenia as well as proclaiming the usefulness of contraction-induced injury models to studying the effects of local and systemic influences on aged myogenic capability. PMID:22701343

  16. Probiotics supplementation for athletes - clinical and physiological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, David B; West, Nicholas P; Cox, Amanda J; Cripps, Allan W

    2015-01-01

    Probiotic supplementation has traditionally focused on gut health. However, in recent years, the clinical applications of probiotics have broadened to allergic, metabolic, inflammatory, gastrointestinal and respiratory conditions. Gastrointestinal health is important for regulating adaptation to exercise and physical activity. Symptoms such as nausea, bloating, cramping, pain, diarrhoea and bleeding occur in some athletes, particularly during prolonged exhaustive events. Several studies conducted since 2006 examining probiotic supplementation in athletes or highly active individuals indicate modest clinical benefits in terms of reduced frequency, severity and/or duration of respiratory and gastrointestinal illness. The likely mechanisms of action for probiotics include direct interaction with the gut microbiota, interaction with the mucosal immune system and immune signalling to a variety of organs and systems. Practical issues to consider include medical and dietary screening of athletes, sourcing of recommended probiotics and formulations, dose-response requirements for different probiotic strains, storage, handling and transport of supplements and timing of supplementation in relation to travel and competition.

  17. Effects of receipt of Social Security retirement benefits on older women's employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Martie; Heath, Claudia J

    2016-09-14

    Labor force participation of women has declined since 1999; however, labor force participation of women 62+ has increased. The 2000-2006 waves of Health and Retirement Study (HRS) data, the initial years of the continuing upward trajectory, were used to test the effects of receipt of Social Security retirement benefits on older women's employment. The models tested: (a) the effect of receipt of Social Security retirement benefits on whether employed; and (b) for women receiving Social Security retirement benefits, the effect of age elected receipt of benefits on whether employed. Both models included the effects of human capital characteristics and income sources. Receipt of Social Security benefits, pension income, and current age reduced the likelihood of employment; while educational level, good to excellent health, and nonmarried marital status increased the likelihood of employment. The older the woman was when she elected Social Security benefits, the more likely she was to be employed.

  18. The effectiveness of concept mapping and retrieval practice as learning strategies in an undergraduate physiology course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdo, Joseph; O'Dwyer, Laura

    2015-12-01

    Concept mapping and retrieval practice are both educational methods that have separately been reported to provide significant benefits for learning in diverse settings. Concept mapping involves diagramming a hierarchical representation of relationships between distinct pieces of information, whereas retrieval practice involves retrieving information that was previously coded into memory. The relative benefits of these two methods have never been tested against each other in a classroom setting. Our study was designed to investigate whether or not concept mapping or retrieval practice produced a significant learning benefit in an undergraduate physiology course as measured by exam performance and, if so, was the benefit of one method significantly greater than the other. We found that there was a trend toward increased exam scores for the retrieval practice group compared with both the control group and concept mapping group, and that trend achieved statistical significance for one of the four module exams in the course. We also found that women performed statistically better than men on the module exam that contained a substantial amount of material relating to female reproductive physiology.

  19. Modeling Variable Phanerozoic Oxygen Effects on Physiology and Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jeffrey B; Jew, Corey J; Wegner, Nicholas C

    2016-01-01

    Geochemical approximation of Earth's atmospheric O2 level over geologic time prompts hypotheses linking hyper- and hypoxic atmospheres to transformative events in the evolutionary history of the biosphere. Such correlations, however, remain problematic due to the relative imprecision of the timing and scope of oxygen change and the looseness of its overlay on the chronology of key biotic events such as radiations, evolutionary innovation, and extinctions. There are nevertheless general attributions of atmospheric oxygen concentration to key evolutionary changes among groups having a primary dependence upon oxygen diffusion for respiration. These include the occurrence of Devonian hypoxia and the accentuation of air-breathing dependence leading to the origin of vertebrate terrestriality, the occurrence of Carboniferous-Permian hyperoxia and the major radiation of early tetrapods and the origins of insect flight and gigantism, and the Mid-Late Permian oxygen decline accompanying the Permian extinction. However, because of variability between and error within different atmospheric models, there is little basis for postulating correlations outside the Late Paleozoic. Other problems arising in the correlation of paleo-oxygen with significant biological events include tendencies to ignore the role of blood pigment affinity modulation in maintaining homeostasis, the slow rates of O2 change that would have allowed for adaptation, and significant respiratory and circulatory modifications that can and do occur without changes in atmospheric oxygen. The purpose of this paper is thus to refocus thinking about basic questions central to the biological and physiological implications of O2 change over geological time.

  20. 29 CFR 5.22 - Effect of the Davis-Bacon fringe benefits provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Effect of the Davis-Bacon fringe benefits provisions. 5.22... Fringe Benefits Provisions of the Davis-Bacon Act § 5.22 Effect of the Davis-Bacon fringe benefits provisions. The Davis-Bacon Act and the prevailing wage provisions of the related statutes listed in § 1.1...

  1. Effects of Shaolin Internal Qigong on Physiological Changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qiang; Yoshimasa MATSUURA; Yoshiharu TANAKA; Shinji TSUBOUCHI; Qiming LI; Norinaga SHIMIZU

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The physiological changes of the respiro-circulatory functions between skilled subject and unskilled subjects during the practice of Up-right Standing Posture of Shaolin Internal Qigong were compared. Method: The heart rate (HR), maximum oxygen uptake (VO2), respiratory efficiency (RE), and respiratory rate (RR), blood pressure, and lactic acid in the blood were measured.Results: The high correlations between the HR and the VO2 values obtained from the exhaustion test were observed in all subjects. The higher values than at the rest were observed in the average HR and the average VO2 during practicing the Up-right Standing Posture both in the skilled subject and unskilled subjects. However, both HR and VO2 levels were almost constant during the practice in both the skilled subjectand unskilled subjects. The RE values changed in the time course of the practice, whereas the RR values were almost constant during the practice. The average RE showed different patterns between the skilled subject and unskilled subjects, the former increased and the latter decreased their RE levels.In addition, the average values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure of the skilled subject increased each 10 mmHg approximately at pre- and post- Up-right Standing Posture, and the increasing tendency was also recognized in the unskilled subjects. The values of the lactic acid in the blood of the skilled subject increased slightly, whereas the average values of the unskilled subjects increased by 3.4 mmol/1. Conclusion: Shaolin Internal Qigong could improve respiratory efficiency by the maximum isometric muscle contraction while the skilled subject maintained "natural breathing". In addition, Shaolin Internal Qigong was considered to influence the reflex system because it inhibited both blood pressure increase and respiratory rate change. Shaolin Internal Qigong fit very well with Tuina doctor training course for promoting the physical ability and manipulation abilities of them.

  2. The effectiveness of self-directed learning (SDL) for teaching physiology to first-year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Kirtana M; Rao, K Raghavendra; Punja, Dhiren; Kamath, Asha

    2014-01-01

    Self-directed learning (SDL) has become popular in medical curricula and has been advocated as an effective learning strategy for medical students to develop competence in knowledge acquisition. The primary aim was to find out if there was any benefit of supplementing self-directed learning activity with a traditional lecture on two different topics in physiology for first-year medical students. Two batches of first-year Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) (Batch A and Batch B) comprising 125 students each, received an SDL session on Morphological classification of anaemia. The students belonging to Batch A received a one-hour lecture on the same topic three days prior to the SDL session. The students were given a 10 multiple choice questions (MCQ) test for a maximum of 10 marks immediately following the SDL session. The next topic, Conducting system of the heart, disorders and conduction blocks was taught to both batches in traditional lecture format. This was followed by an SDL session on the same topic for Batch A only. The students were evaluated with a MCQ test for a maximum of 10 marks. The mean test scores on the first topic were 4.38±2.06 (n=119) and 4.17±1.71 (n=118) for Batch A and Batch B, respectively. The mean test scores on the second topic were 5.4± 1.54 (n=112) and 5.15±1.37 (n=107) for Batch A and Batch B, respectively. There was no significant difference between the groups. For first-year medical students, SDL is an effective teaching strategy for learning physiology. However, no additional benefit is gained by supplementing SDL with a lecture to facilitate learning physiology.

  3. 20 CFR 416.1802 - Effects of marriage on eligibility and amount of benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effects of marriage on eligibility and amount....1802 Effects of marriage on eligibility and amount of benefits. (a) If you have an ineligible spouse—(1... marriage ends, even on the first day of a month, we will treat you as married until the next month....

  4. 42 CFR 422.109 - Effect of national coverage determinations (NCDs) and legislative changes in benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAM Benefits and Beneficiary Protections § 422.109 Effect of national coverage determinations (NCDs... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effect of national coverage determinations (NCDs) and legislative changes in benefits. 422.109 Section 422.109 Public Health CENTERS FOR...

  5. Composition, characteristics, and in-vitro physiological effects of the water-soluble polysaccharides from Cassia seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ya-Ling; Chow, Chau-Jen; Tsai, Yung-Hsiang

    2012-10-15

    The popular beverage ingredients Cassia obtusifolia and Cassia tora were found to have considerable amounts of water-soluble polysaccharides (WSPs) (58.5 and 55.9/100g of dried extract). The composition, characteristics, and in-vitro physiological effects of these polysaccharides and their possible health benefits were investigated. The major polysaccharide components in the WSP of C. obtusifolia were possibly pectic polysaccharides and hemicellulose, while C. tora WSP was mainly composed of arabinoglucan and pectic polysaccharides. These WSPs had inhibitory effects on the activities of α-amylase and pancreatic lipase, while they rendered an increase in protease activity. These WSPs also had the ability to bind bile acids and reduce the amount of cholesterol available for absorption. This suggested that these WSPs had potential application as herbal ingredients in beverages. Further investigations on their in-vivo hypocholesterolaemic effects and intestinal functions using animal-feeding experiments are under way.

  6. Effects of Increased Physiological Arousal on Upper Extremity Positional Awareness in Healthy Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Kovacs

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of increased physiological arousal on the ability to perceive upper extremity positional awareness in healthy young adults. Approach: Thirty-eight participants were pre- and post-tested for upper extremity positional awareness using a manual kinesthesiometer. Participants in the experimental group underwent a combination of the Stroop color-word task and timed arithmetic problems to produce a state of physiological arousal. Heart rate and blood pressure measurements were taken during data collection to assess levels of physiological arousal. Pre-and post-test absolute error scores for each participant were compared. Results: ANCOVA revealed a significant time effect (pConclusion: The results suggested positional awareness is altered under a state of elevated physiological arousal and that these results may have significant implications for individuals performing various types of motor skills.

  7. Anatomy and physiology for nursing students: is problem-based learning effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayner, Lidia; Gillham, David; Sansoni, Julita

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether problem-based learning (PBL) was an effective strategy for nursing students learning anatomy and physiology. Anatomy and physiology are subject areas that have posed long standing difficulty for nursing students. Since anatomy and physiology underpin clinical decision making it is important that nursing students are able to understand and retain this knowledge and apply it to practice. Problem-based learning offers potential advantages for teaching anatomy and physiology as clinical cases can provide the impetus for student problem solving. This project trialled a simple PBL scenario and investigated students' response to the task of problem solving in a laboratory setting adapted to simulate a hospital ward. The study found students learn better, retain the knowledge and merge theory with simulated practice when a PBL teaching mode is used. While PBL was effective, blended, web based and hybrid PBL models warrant investigation.

  8. Psychological and physiological evaluation of emotional effects of a perfume in menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abriat, A; Barkat, S; Bensafi, M; Rouby, C; Fanchon, C

    2007-10-01

    In the present study, we familiarized menopausal women with a pleasant smell in the skin care products, they used for 1 week and assessed whether their mood and emotions improved using behavioural and physiological tools. Eventually, we studied the effects of inhaling the familiar fragrance on physiological response of the subjects. An anhedonia questionnaire was used to distinguish the effects of the test products according to low vs. high score of anhedonia. Familiarization with the fragrance induced a modification of some physiological parameters, reflecting a relaxing effect, and these unconscious effects paralleled the conscious positive effects on mood recorded during the familiarization phase; it appeared that the effects were more prominent in subjects with higher scores of anhedonia. These results suggest that the pleasant smell of a skin care product contributes to the quality of life in a population of menopausal women with low easiness to experience pleasure.

  9. Evidence-Based Evaluation of Physiological Effects of Standing and Walking in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Karimi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Spinal Cord Injury (SCI is damage to spinal cord, which is categorized according to the extent of functional loss, sensation loss and inability of the subjects to stand and walk. The patients use two transportation systems including orthosis and wheelchair. It was claimed that standing and walking bring some benefits such as decreasing bone osteoporosis, prevention of pressure sores, and improvement of the function of the digestive system for SCI patients. Nevertheless, the question of wether or not there is enough evidence to support the effect of walking with orthosis on the health status of the subjects with SCI remains unanswered. In order to answer this question a review of the relevant literature was carried out. The review of the literature showed that evidence reported in the literature regarding the effectiveness of orthoses for improving the health condition of SCI patients was controversial. Many investigators had only used the comments of the users of orthoses. The benefits mentioned in various research studies regarding the use of orthosis included decreasing bone osteoprosis, preventing joint deformity, improving bowl and bladder function, improving digestive system function, decreasing muscle spasm, improving independent living, and improving respiratory and cardiovascular systems function. The findings of the studies reviewed also showed that improving the independent living and physiological health of the subjects were the only two benefits, which were supported by strong evidence. The review of the literature suggests that most published studies are in fact surveys, which collected questionnaire-based information from the users of orthosis

  10. The Effects of Benefits, Incentives, and Sanctions on Youth Unemployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Michael; Jensen, Peter S.; Nielsen, Michael Svarer

    1999-01-01

    The youth unemployment rate in Denmark has recently been declining dramatically, which is unique among the OECD countries. In 1996, a radical labour market reform was implemented, the Youth Unemployment Programme (YUP), directed towards unemployed, low-educated youth. This paper analyses...... the effects of the implementation of the YUP. We investigate the effects on the duration of unemployment spells and on the transition rates from unemployment to schooling and employment. We find that the YUP has been successful through a combination of three effects: an announcement effect, a direct programme...... effect, and a sanction effect....

  11. Effect of curd suppression in a milk replacer on physiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to determine the effect of abomasal curd suppression on selected blood profiles. ... Fasting (0 h) plasma free essential amino acid (EAA) concentration tended to be ... Keywords: Blood profiles, calves, casein curd formation, milk replacers, ...

  12. Effect of physiological stage of maturity at harvest on partial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UP User

    southern Africa that are considered marginal for maize cropping (Schutte & Du Toit, 1992; Meeske et al., .... If insufficient lactic acid bacteria are present on the crop and the ..... Effect of urea and molasses on fermentation of Napier silage.

  13. PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF A COMBINATION OF CINNULIN WITH PROBIOTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vetvicka Vaclav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for an optimal combination of natural immunomodulators led us to study the biological effects of the combination of a cinnamon extract Cinnulin PF and probiotic LactoSpore. We found that this combination has strong synergetic effects on phagocytosis and on regulation of cholesterol and blood sugar levels. In addition, the Cinnulin/LastoSpore combination also reduced intestinal damage in mouse model of colitis.

  14. Spraying effects on some physiological and behavioural traits of goats in a subtropical climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner Cankaya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat stress is one of the major factors adversely affecting animal welfare and thus economic benefits of farms. This study was designed to determine the effects of two different spraying methods on goats exposed to high air temperatures. Thirty goats were divided into three groups for the trial (sprayed once per day, OTS; sprayed twice per day, TTS; and non-sprayed, Controls. Respiration and pulse rates, rectal and surface temperatures (from head and udder skin were taken three times a day (08.00 - 09.00; 16.00 - 17.00 and 00.00 - 01.00 on hot summer days in July 2005 in a Mediterranean climate. Some behavioural aspects such as eating, ruminating, drinking, walking and resting, and daily feed and water consumption were regularly measured. Rectal temperatures, pulse and respiration rates, udder and head temperatures differed between the three groups. Rectal, head and udder temperatures and respiration and pulse rates increased at 16.00 relative to 08.00, and at 00.00 had returned to the same level as at 08.00. TTS goats showed smaller increases in all physiological measurements at 16.00 than the other groups. TTS goats spent more time than OTS and Control goats eating (P=0.002, ruminating (P=0.032 and walking (P=0.021, but less time drinking (P=0.041 and lying (P=0.001. TTS goats consumed more concentrate feed (P=0.001 and alfalfa hay (P=0.024 than the other two groups, whereas Control goats consumed more water (P=0.003 than the other groups. Ultimately, the spraying had positive effects on yearling goats for alleviating heat stress and improving animal welfare.

  15. Acute effects of visits to urban green environments on cardiovascular physiology in women: A field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanki, Timo; Siponen, Taina; Ojala, Ann; Korpela, Kalevi; Pennanen, Arto; Tiittanen, Pekka; Tsunetsugu, Yuko; Kagawa, Takahide; Tyrväinen, Liisa

    2017-11-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported positive associations between the amount of green space in the living environment and mental and cardiovascular human health. In a search for effect mechanisms, field studies have found short-term visits to green environments to be associated with psychological stress relief. Less evidence is available on the effect of visits on cardiovascular physiology. To evaluate whether visits to urban green environments, in comparison to visits to a built-up environment, lead to beneficial short-term changes in indicators of cardiovascular health. Thirty-six adult female volunteers visited three different types of urban environments: an urban forest, an urban park, and a built-up city centre, in Helsinki, Finland. The visits consisted of 15min of sedentary viewing, and 30min of walking. During the visits, blood pressure and heart rate were measured, and electrocardiogram recorded for the determination of indicators of heart rate variability. In addition, levels of respirable ambient particles and environmental noise were monitored. Visits to the green environments were associated with lower blood pressure (viewing period only), lower heart rate, and higher indices of heart rate variability [standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN), high frequency power] than visits to the city centre. In the green environments, heart rate decreased and SDNN increased during the visit. Associations between environment and indicators of cardiovascular health weakened slightly after inclusion of particulate air pollution and noise in the models. Visits to urban green environments are associated with beneficial short-term changes in cardiovascular risk factors. This can be explained by psychological stress relief with contribution from reduced air pollution and noise exposure during the visits. Future research should evaluate the amount of exposure to green environments needed for longer-term benefits for cardiovascular health. Copyright

  16. Mercury: Aspects of its ecology and environmental toxicity. [physiological effects of mercury compound contamination of environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of mercury pollution on the environment. The possible sources of mercury contamination in sea water are identified. The effects of mercury on food sources, as represented by swordfish, are analyzed. The physiological effects of varying concentrations of mercury are reported. Emphasis is placed on the situation existing in the Hawaiian Islands.

  17. Behavioral and physiological effects of RDX on adult zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Larry R; Wong, Keith; Stewart, Adam; Suciu, Christopher; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Wu, Nadine; Dileo, John; Grossman, Leah; Cachat, Jonathan; Hart, Peter; Kalueff, Allan V

    2012-01-01

    1,3,5-Trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a nitroamine explosive, with common toxic effects including seizures. Here, we explore the behavioral effects of acute RDX exposure in adult zebrafish Danio rerio, a rapidly developing model in neuroscience and neurotoxicology research. Overall, a 30-min exposure to RDX low dose of 0.1 mM evoked behavioral activation in zebrafish, while a higher dose of 1 mM markedly reduced exploration, increased freezing and evoked seizure-like responses (i.e., bouts of hyperactivity, spasms, and corkscrew swimming). Likewise, whole-body cortisol levels were also significantly elevated in fish exposed to 1 mM (but not 0.1 mM) RDX. In line with clinical and animal data, our study demonstrates the dose-dependent behavioral activation and pro-convulsant effects of RDX in zebrafish-based models. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [The effect of spermicides on physiological and pathogenic genital flora].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurner, J; Poitschek, C; Kopp, W

    1983-05-31

    In vitro-studies concerning the influence of commercially available spermicides on lactobacillus acidophilus as well as on pathogenic organisms of the genital tract revealed, that the preparations had only weak antimicrobial effect on Döderlein's bacteria and pathogenic fungi. However, all four preparations tested, revealed a good inhibition effect on neisseria gonorrhoeae, treponema pallidum and trichomonas vaginalis. Irreversible damage to gonococci and trichomonas vaginalis. Irreversible damage to gonococci and trichomonas was subject to considerable variation, probably due to the different chemical composition of the commercially in Austria available spermicides.

  19. Annotated Bibliography on the Physiological Effects of Acceleration in Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1945-09-01

    internal injury bears little relation to the site of the application of decelerative force. Thus trauma is probably due to (1) high pressure waves...the DC generator is brought up to full speed. The tubes in ABCD are warmed up. The current in F2 is zero and OR is open so current in F1 is zero also...air speeds and brain trauma 90. alcohol, effect on *"g" tolerance 106. altitude, effect on "g" tolerance, anU-"g" devices 38, 40, 41, 55 ,9& nmyl

  20. Statin Side Effects: Weigh the Benefits and Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... interact with statins and increase your risk of side effects include: Amiodarone (Cordarone, Pacerone), a medication for irregular heart rhythms Gemfibrozil (Lopid), another variety of cholesterol drug ...

  1. Measuring Effects of Reflection on Learning – A Physiological Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qi, Wen; Verpoorten, Dominique; Westera, Wim

    2014-01-01

    As an economical and feasible intervention, reflection demands learners using critical thinking to examine presented information, questioning its validity, and drawing conclusions based on the resulting ideas during a learning process. The aim of this study is to gain insight into the effects of pra

  2. Measuring Effects of Reflectionon Learning: A Physiological Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qi, Wen

    2014-01-01

    As an economical and feasible intervention, reflection demands learners using critical thinking to examine presented information, questioning its validity, and drawing conclusions based on the resulting ideas during a learning process. The aim of this study is to gain insight into the effects of pra

  3. Colour and Light Effects on Students' Achievement, Behavior and Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlfarth, H.

    A quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group design was used to investigate the effects of full-spectrum light, prescribed color and light/color combinations, ultra-violet light, and electromagnetic radiation in an elementary school environment. Four schools in the Wetaskiwin School District, Alberta, were involved in the study; three served…

  4. Effect of a puzzle on the process of students' learning about cardiac physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardozo, Lais Tono; Miranda, Aline Soares; Moura, Maria José Costa Sampaio; Marcondes, Fernanda Klein

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of using a puzzle to learn about cardiac physiology. Students were divided into control and game groups. In class 1, the control group had a 2-h theoretical class about cardiac physiology, including a detailed description of the phases of the cardiac cycle, whereas the game group had a 50-min theoretical class without the description of the cardiac cycle. In class 2, the control group did an assessment exercise before an activity with the cardiac puzzle and the game group answered questions after the above-mentioned activity. While solving the puzzle, the students had to describe the cardiac cycle by relating the concepts of heart morphology and physiology. To evaluate short-term learning, the number of wrong answers and grades in the assessment exercise were compared between the control and game groups. To evaluate medium-term learning, we compared the grades obtained by students of the control and game groups in questions about cardiac physiology that formed part of the academic exam. In the assessment exercise, the game group presented a lower number of errors and higher score compared with the control group. In the academic exam, applied after both groups had used the puzzle, there was no difference in the scores obtained by the control and game groups in questions about cardiac physiology. These results showed a positive effect of the puzzle on students' learning about cardiac physiology compared with those not using the puzzle.

  5. DEET Insect Repellent: Effects on Thermoregulatory Sweating and Physiological Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    standard skin repellent, as it is effective against a wide variety of disease-transmitting insects, including mosquitoes, flies, fleas , ticks and chigger...evaporation, thus impeding evaporative heat loss. To our knowledge, only one study has experimentally examined the impact of an insect repellent on...body fat was then calculated using the Siri equation (1993). During heat acclimation and all experimental testing sessions, heart rate (HR) was

  6. Effects of Radon inhalation on physiology and disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaoka, Kiyonori [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo (Japan). Komae Research Lab; Komoto, Yoshiaki

    1998-12-31

    In the first study, we administered Radon (Rn) to rabbits by inhalation and examined changes in the lipid peroxide (thiobarbituric acid reacting substances; TBARS) level, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and membrane fluidity in various organs to clarify the therapeutic effects of Rn. In the second study, we sprayed Rn spring water of various concentrations to rabbits to make the animals inhale them, and examined mainly the responses of biogenic amine neurotransmitters for clarifying the effects of Rn inhalation in the neuronal transmitter system. In the third study, indications for treatment at the Misasa Hot Spring, a Rn producing radioactive spring, include hypertension, diabetes mellitus and pain. To clarify its mechanisms of action on these conditions, we evaluated dynamic changes in blood components such as vasoactive substances after Rn inhalation. Vasodilation, alleviation of diabetic symptoms and morphine-like analgesic effects were observed, suggesting that these changes constitute part of the mechanisms of the Rn spring therapy on the above conditions. (J.P.N.)

  7. Cellular and physiological effects of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliva, Daniel

    2004-10-01

    In Asia, a variety of dietary products have been used for centuries as popular remedies to prevent or treat different diseases. A large number of herbs and extracts from medicinal mushrooms are used for the treatment of diseases. Mushrooms such as Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi), Lentinus edodes (Shiitake), Grifola frondosa (Maitake), Hericium erinaceum (Yamabushitake), and Inonotus obliquus (Chaga) have been collected and consumed in China, Korea, and Japan for centuries. Until recently, these mushrooms were largely unknown in the West and were considered 'fungi' without any nutritional value. However, most mushrooms are rich in vitamins, fiber, and amino acids and low in fat, cholesterol, and calories. These mushrooms contain a large variety of biologically active polysaccharides with immunostimulatory properties, which contribute to their anticancer effects. Furthermore, other bioactive substances, including triterpenes, proteins, lipids, cerebrosides, and phenols, have been identified and characterized in medicinal mushrooms. This review summarizes the biological effects of Ganoderma lucidum upon specific signaling molecules and pathways, which are responsible for its therapeutic effects.

  8. Practicing novel, praxis-like movements: physiological effects of repetition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Benjamin Ewen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Our primary goal was to develop and validate a task that could provide evidence about how humans learn praxis gestures, such as those involving the use of tools. To that end, we created a video-based task in which subjects view a model performing novel, meaningless one-handed actions with kinematics similar to praxis gestures. Subjects then imitated the movements with their right hand. Trials were repeated 6 times to examine practice effects. EEG was recorded during the task. As a control, subjects watched videos of a model performing a well-established (over learned tool-use gesture. These gestures were also imitated 6 times. Demonstrating convergent validity, EEG measures of task-related cortical activation were similar in topography and frequency between the novel gesture task and the overlearned, praxis gesture task. As in studies assessing motor skill learning with simpler tasks, cortical activation during novel gesture learning decreased as the same gestures were repeated. In the control condition, repetition of overlearned tool-use gestures were also associated with reductions in activation, though to a lesser degree. Given that even overlearned, praxis gestures show constriction of EEG activity with repetition, it is possible that that attentional effects drive some of the repetition effects seen in EEG measures of activation during novel gesture repetition.

  9. Effect of cultivation measures on economic benefit of Larix olgesis pulp forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    According to the cultivating practice of Larix olgensis pulp plantation, IRR (Internal revenue rate) and NPV (Net present value) were taken as two economic indices to study the effect of cultivation measurements on economic benefit of Larix olgensis pulp forest. The results showed that the economic benefit of this type of forest is closely related to rotation and site class. Higher economic benefit could be obtained when the rotation is shorter and site class is higher. The planting density also had an obvious influence on economic benefit. On the base of assuring survival rate and conserving rate, the less the fee used in soil preparation and young growth tending is, the higher the economic benefit is. The influence of determined six cultivation meas-ures on economic benefit in sequence was the rotation-site class-density-management fee level-young growth tending in-tensity- soil preparation methods.

  10. "Extra-Musical Effects" and Benefits of Programs Founded on the Kodály Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goopy, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Music education is often advocated as having "extra-musical effects" contributing to the development of the whole child. The pedagogy teachers employ to deliver music programs could affect the significance of such benefits. This paper will review literature documenting how children benefit from receiving music education delivered using…

  11. Radioprotective effect and other biological benefits associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fields including military, medicine, agriculture and industry. As a result, humans ... plant stems, leaves, and fruits, and generally exist in the plant ... effects of bailcalein on DNA damage in irradiated mice. The study ..... electric current production.

  12. [Physiological effects of exercise training in patients with type 1 diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Kátia; da Pureza, Demilto Y; Flores, Lucinar J F; Rodrigues, Bruno; Melo, Karla F S; Schaan, Beatriz D; Irigoyen, Maria C

    2006-12-01

    Insulin therapy, regular physical activity and an individualized dietary plan are considered to be the ideal approach for the treatment plan of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients. Clinical and experimental studies have shown the benefits of exercise training in T1DM, as demonstrated by insulin sensitivity improvement, reduction in insulin requirement and an attenuation of autonomic and cardiovascular dysfunction. This review explores the physiological adaptations to exercise training in T1DM, and discuss the guidelines for physical activity recommendations and prescription in this setting.

  13. Beer and beer compounds: physiological effects on skin health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W; Becker, T; Qian, F; Ring, J

    2014-02-01

    Beer is one of the earliest human inventions and globally the most consumed alcoholic beverage in terms of volume. In addition to water, the 'German Beer Purity Law', based on the Bavarian Beer Purity Law from 1516, allows only barley, hops, yeasts and water for beer brewing. The extracts of these ingredients, especially the hops, contain an abundance of polyphenols such as kaempferol, quercetin, tyrosol, ferulic acid, xanthohumol/isoxanthohumol/8-prenylnaringenin, α-bitter acids like humulone and β-bitter acids like lupulone. 8-prenylnaringenin is the most potent phytoestrogen known to date. These compounds have been shown to possess various anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-angiogenic, anti-melanogenic, anti-osteoporotic and anti-carcinogenic effects. Epidemiological studies on the association between beer drinking and skin disease are limited while direct evidence of beer compounds in clinical application is lacking. Potential uses of these substances in dermatology may include treatment of atopic eczema, contact dermatitis, pigmentary disorders, skin infections, skin ageing, skin cancers and photoprotections, which require an optimization of the biostability and topical delivery of these compounds. Further studies are needed to determine the bioavailability of these compounds and their possible beneficial health effects when taken by moderate beer consumption. © 2013 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  14. Effect of Soybean on Male Reproductive Physiology in Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Modaresi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Soybean (Soja hispida Moench is a member of Fabaceae family. It is a species of legume native to East Asia. Soy contains significant amount of all the essential amino acids for humans therefore, is a good source of protein .Soy has an important role in the improvement and treatment of some cancers such as colon, prostate, and breast. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of soybeans on reproductive system in male mice. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was conducted at Isfahan Payam e Noor University in 2009. In this research, 32 male mice were randomly grouped into four experimental groups. The control group was fed with soy-free basic diet. The experimental groups 1, 2, and 3 were fed with a diet containing 20%, 30% and 50% soy diet respectively.At the end of 9 weeks of treatment, blood samples were collected and serum levels of testosterone, LH and FSH were measured. The collected data was analyzed with SPSS software using one way ANOVA with Dunnett's post test and Duncan test. Results : In the experimental group which received 20% soy diet, the level of testosterone had a meaningful decrease in comparison with the control group (P<0.05, but in the experimental group which received a 50% soy diet, the level of testosterone had a meaningful increase (P<0.05 .The LH level in 30% and 50% groups had a meaningful increase but no significant differences were observed in FSH level & weight of testicles (P<0.05.The number of sperms in all of the treatment regimes had a meaningful decrease (P0.05 Conclusion: Results of this research indicated that the 20, 30, and 50 percent soy diet had a negative effect on the male reproductive system in mice.

  15. Ethanol co-administration moderates 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine effects on human physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dumont, G.J.H.; Kramers, C.; Sweep, F.C.G.J.; Willemsen, J.J.; Touw, D.J.; Schoemaker, R.C.; Van Gerven, J.M.A.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Verkes, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol is frequently used in combination with 3,4- methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Both drugs affect cardiovascular function, hydration and temperature regulation, but may have partly opposing effects. The present study aims to assess the acute physiologic effects of (co-) administration of M

  16. Effects of dietary protein level on growth, health and physiological parameters in growing-furring mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Birthe Marie; Larsen, Peter F.; Clausen, Tove

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of the dietary protein level and the feeding strategy on growth, health and physiological blood and liver parameters in growing-furring male mink. Effects of dietary protein levels ranging from 22% of metabolizable energy (MEp) to experimental p...

  17. Effects of Diversity Experiences on Critical Thinking Skills: Who Benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loes, Chad; Pascarella, Ernest; Umbach, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzed data from the Wabash National Study of Liberal Arts Education to estimate the unique effects of exposure to classroom diversity and involvement in interactional diversity on growth in critical thinking skills during the first year of college. Net of important confounding influences, neither classroom nor interactional diversity…

  18. The Effect of Receiving Supplementary UI Benefits on Unemployment Duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyyrä, Tomi; Parrotta, Pierpaolo; Rosholm, Michael

    We consider the consequences of working part-time on supplemen­tary unemployment insurance beneits in the Danish labour market. Following the "timing-of-events" approach we estimate causal effects of subsidized part-time work on the hazard rate out of unemployment insurance beneit receipt. We find...

  19. Effects of Diversity Experiences on Critical Thinking Skills: Who Benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loes, Chad; Pascarella, Ernest; Umbach, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzed data from the Wabash National Study of Liberal Arts Education to estimate the unique effects of exposure to classroom diversity and involvement in interactional diversity on growth in critical thinking skills during the first year of college. Net of important confounding influences, neither classroom nor interactional diversity…

  20. Effect of Dirofilaria immitis on canine cardiopulmonary physiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Malley, N.A.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of canine heartworm disease (CHD) were studied using in vitro and in vivo preparation to gain insight into the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of the characteristics lesions. The in vitro studies examined the contractile responses of pulmonary artery strips, bronchial spirals and lung parenchymal strips from normal and CHD dogs. Carbamylcholine failed to contract arteries and bronchial and parenchymal responses were the same for both groups. Decreased arterial responsiveness to histamine in both magnitude and number of strips responding was seen in the CHD group, suggesting tachyphylaxis of the histamine receptors. Enhanced responses were seen i the CHD pulmonary artery strips with norepinephrine and in the lung parenchymal strips with histamine. Hypoxia caused increased pulmonary perfusion pressures in the anesthetized dogs. Only heart rate changes and percent change in cardiac index differed. Alpha 1 adrenergic receptors of the lung parenchyma were studied by radioligand binding using (H{sup 3}) prazosin. Low amount of specific binding necessitated the use of a single high concentration of ligand to determine receptor density. No differences in binding were seen.

  1. Physiological and behavioral effects of amphetamine in BACE1(-/-) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, R Madelaine; Piccart, E; Navaira, E; Cruz, D; Javors, M A; Koek, W; Beckstead, M J; Walss-Bass, C

    2015-06-01

    β-Site APP-cleaving Enzyme 1 (BACE1) is a protease that has been linked to schizophrenia, a severe mental illness that is potentially characterized by enhanced dopamine (DA) release in the striatum. Here, we used acute amphetamine administration to stimulate neuronal activity and investigated the neurophysiological and locomotor-activity response in BACE1-deficient (BACE1(-/-) ) mice. We measured locomotor activity at baseline and after treatment with amphetamine (3.2 and 10 mg/kg). While baseline locomotor activity did not vary between groups, BACE1(-/-) mice exhibited reduced sensitivity to the locomotor-enhancing effects of amphetamine. Using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to measure DA and DA metabolites in the striatum, we found no significant differences in BACE1(-/-) compared with wild-type mice. To determine if DA neuron excitability is altered in BACE1(-/-) mice, we performed patch-clamp electrophysiology in putative DA neurons from brain slices that contained the substantia nigra. Pacemaker firing rate was slightly increased in slices from BACE1(-/-) mice. We next measured G protein-coupled potassium currents produced by activation of D2 autoreceptors, which strongly inhibit firing of these neurons. The maximal amplitude and decay times of D2 autoreceptor currents were not altered in BACE1(-/-) mice, indicating no change in D2 autoreceptor-sensitivity and DA transporter-mediated reuptake. However, amphetamine (30 µm)-induced potassium currents produced by efflux of DA were enhanced in BACE1(-/-) mice, perhaps indicating increased vesicular DA content in the midbrain. This suggests a plausible mechanism to explain the decreased sensitivity to amphetamine-induced locomotion, and provides evidence that decreased availability of BACE1 can produce persistent adaptations in the dopaminergic system.

  2. Physiological Effects of Nature Therapy: A Review of the Research in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chorong Song

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Humans have evolved into what they are today after the passage of 6–7 million years. If we define the beginning of urbanization as the rise of the industrial revolution, less than 0.01% of our species’ history has been spent in modern surroundings. Humans have spent over 99.99% of their time living in the natural environment. The gap between the natural setting, for which our physiological functions are adapted, and the highly urbanized and artificial setting that we inhabit is a contributing cause of the “stress state” in modern people. In recent years, scientific evidence supporting the physiological effects of relaxation caused by natural stimuli has accumulated. This review aimed to objectively demonstrate the physiological effects of nature therapy. We have reviewed research in Japan related to the following: (1 the physiological effects of nature therapy, including those of forests, urban green space, plants, and wooden material and (2 the analyses of individual differences that arise therein. The search was conducted in the PubMed database using various keywords. We applied our inclusion/exclusion criteria and reviewed 52 articles. Scientific data assessing physiological indicators, such as brain activity, autonomic nervous activity, endocrine activity, and immune activity, are accumulating from field and laboratory experiments. We believe that nature therapy will play an increasingly important role in preventive medicine in the future.

  3. Physiological Effects of Nature Therapy: A Review of the Research in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chorong; Ikei, Harumi; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2016-08-03

    Humans have evolved into what they are today after the passage of 6-7 million years. If we define the beginning of urbanization as the rise of the industrial revolution, less than 0.01% of our species' history has been spent in modern surroundings. Humans have spent over 99.99% of their time living in the natural environment. The gap between the natural setting, for which our physiological functions are adapted, and the highly urbanized and artificial setting that we inhabit is a contributing cause of the "stress state" in modern people. In recent years, scientific evidence supporting the physiological effects of relaxation caused by natural stimuli has accumulated. This review aimed to objectively demonstrate the physiological effects of nature therapy. We have reviewed research in Japan related to the following: (1) the physiological effects of nature therapy, including those of forests, urban green space, plants, and wooden material and (2) the analyses of individual differences that arise therein. The search was conducted in the PubMed database using various keywords. We applied our inclusion/exclusion criteria and reviewed 52 articles. Scientific data assessing physiological indicators, such as brain activity, autonomic nervous activity, endocrine activity, and immune activity, are accumulating from field and laboratory experiments. We believe that nature therapy will play an increasingly important role in preventive medicine in the future.

  4. Physiological Effects of Nature Therapy: A Review of the Research in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chorong; Ikei, Harumi; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Humans have evolved into what they are today after the passage of 6–7 million years. If we define the beginning of urbanization as the rise of the industrial revolution, less than 0.01% of our species’ history has been spent in modern surroundings. Humans have spent over 99.99% of their time living in the natural environment. The gap between the natural setting, for which our physiological functions are adapted, and the highly urbanized and artificial setting that we inhabit is a contributing cause of the “stress state” in modern people. In recent years, scientific evidence supporting the physiological effects of relaxation caused by natural stimuli has accumulated. This review aimed to objectively demonstrate the physiological effects of nature therapy. We have reviewed research in Japan related to the following: (1) the physiological effects of nature therapy, including those of forests, urban green space, plants, and wooden material and (2) the analyses of individual differences that arise therein. The search was conducted in the PubMed database using various keywords. We applied our inclusion/exclusion criteria and reviewed 52 articles. Scientific data assessing physiological indicators, such as brain activity, autonomic nervous activity, endocrine activity, and immune activity, are accumulating from field and laboratory experiments. We believe that nature therapy will play an increasingly important role in preventive medicine in the future. PMID:27527193

  5. Positive effects of elevated CO2 and its interaction with nitrogen on safflower physiology and growth

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Shiren; Jellings, Anita; Fuller, Michael

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Over the last two decades, the impact of elevated CO2 on crops has become a major issue in the context of climate change. Increasing CO2 levels should modify the plant demand for nutrients, but precise effects on plant physiology are poorly known. Here, we studied the effect of ambient CO2 at 400 μmol mol−1 and high CO2 at 1,000 μmol mol−1 on safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) at N levels from 25 to 175 kg ha−1. Growth and physiology of safflower were assessed in pots...

  6. Physiological and Psychological Effects of Forest Therapy on Middle-Aged Males with High-Normal Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Ochiai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Time spent walking and relaxing in a forest environment (“forest bathing” or “forest therapy” has well demonstrated anti-stress effects in healthy adults, but benefits for ill or at-risk populations have not been reported. The present study assessed the physiological and psychological effects of forest therapy (relaxation and stress management activity in the forest on middle-aged males with high-normal blood pressure. Blood pressure and several physiological and psychological indices of stress were measured the day before and approximately 2 h following forest therapy. Both pre- and post-treatment measures were conducted at the same time of day to avoid circadian influences. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP, urinary adrenaline, and serum cortisol were all significantly lower than baseline following forest therapy (p < 0.05. Subjects reported feeling significantly more “relaxed” and “natural” according to the Semantic Differential (SD method. Profile of Mood State (POMS negative mood subscale scores for “tension-anxiety,” “confusion,” and “anger-hostility,” as well as the Total Mood Disturbance (TMD score were significantly lower following forest therapy. These results highlight that forest is a promising treatment strategy to reduce blood pressure into the optimal range and possibly prevent progression to clinical hypertension in middle-aged males with high-normal blood pressure.

  7. The Identification of Incentive Effects of Benefit Exhaustion in Unemployment Insurance Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pico Geerdsen, Lars

    The paper examines the different assumptions which have been applied in the literature in order to identify the motivation effect of benefits exhaustion. The different assumptions are tested on a common data set....

  8. Intervening effects of knowledge, morality, trust, and benefits on support for animal and plant biotechnology applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Andrew

    2007-12-01

    Data from a regional Southwest telephone survey in the United States (N= 432) were used to examine the intervening effects of knowledge, morality, trust, and benefits on support for animal and plant biotechnology applications. Results showed that perceptions of agricultural biotechnologies varied by the two applications-animals and plants. Respondents reported higher opposition to the genetic modification of animals, which is consistent with prior research. Results also indicated that morality and perceived benefits directly affected support for both animal and plant applications, but trust and knowledge only had indirect effects. Morality and perceived benefits accounted for most of the variance explained among the intervening variables. The effects of trust were mediated through perceived benefits. The effects of knowledge on support were mediated primarily through trust. The influence of sociodemographic and consumer behavior variables varied by application. Results lend support to several theoretical notions. First, the significance of perceived benefits supports that there is an inverse relationship between benefits and risks. Second, moral objections may outweigh perceived benefits for specific applications, and the genetic modification of animals is deemed to be more morally unacceptable than the genetic modification of plants. These findings demonstrate the need to understand more thoroughly the moral and ethical issues surrounding novel technologies. Third, this research supports the claim that trust is not a powerful predictor of perceptions of technological products, which is contrary to most risk perception research.

  9. Effect of noisy stimulation on neurobiological sensitization systems and its role for normal and pathological physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Martin; Braun, Hans; Krieg, J.\\:Urgen-Christian

    2004-03-01

    Sensitization is discussed as an important phenomenon playing a role in normal physiology but also with respect to the initiation and progression of a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders such as epilepsia, substance-related disorders or recurrent affective disorders. The relevance to understand the dynamics of sensitization phenomena is emphasized by recent findings that even single stimulations can induce longlasting changes in biological systems. To address specific questions associated with the sensitization dynamics, we use a computational approach and develop simple but physiologically-plausible models. In the present study we examine the effect of noisy stimulation on sensitization development in the model. We consider sub- and suprathresold stimulations with varying noise intensities and determine as response measures the (i) absolute number of stimulus-induced sensitzations and (ii) the temporal relsation of stimulus-sensitization coupling. The findings indicate that stochastic effects including stochastic resonance might well contribute to the physiology of sensitization mechanisms under both nomal and pathological conditions.

  10. Effects of Cadmium on Physiological Parameters of the Lichen Evernia Prunastri and Ramalina Fastigiata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujetovienė G.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate in short term experiment the physiological effects and accumulation of cadmium in the lichens Evernia prunastri (L. Ach. and Ramalina fastigiata (Pers. Ach. Treatment of lichen thalli with 5, 25, 50 and 500 μM Cd solutions caused a significant decrease in chlorophyll a and b contents and production of membrane lipid peroxidation, expressed as MDA content. Severe negative physiological effects were observed at the highest Cd concentration (500 μM Cd. Cd content in treated lichens thalli increased gradually as Cd concentration increased in treatment solutions. It was concluded that Cd exposure causes physiological and oxidative stress, with higher damage to E. prunastri due to higher Cd content bounded at intracellular sites.

  11. The Identification of Incentive Effects of Benefit Exhaustion in Unemployment Insurance Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pico Geerdsen, Lars

    The paper examines the different assumptions which have been applied in the literature in order to identify the motivation effect of benefits exhaustion. The different assumptions are tested on a common data set.......The paper examines the different assumptions which have been applied in the literature in order to identify the motivation effect of benefits exhaustion. The different assumptions are tested on a common data set....

  12. Effect of music on postoperative pain and physiologic parameters of patients after open heart surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özer, Nadiye; Karaman Özlü, Zeynep; Arslan, Sevban; Günes, Nezihat

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of listening to personal choice of music on self-report of pain intensity and the physiologic parameters in patients who have undergone open heart surgery. The study design was quasiexperimental. Patients were selected through convenience sampling in the Cardiovascular Surgery Intensive Care Unit at a university hospital. The study was conducted with a total of 87 patients who underwent open heart surgery: 44 in the music group, 43 in the control group, ages between 18 and 78 years. Through pretest-posttest design, postoperative first-day data were collected. First, physiologic parameters (blood pressure, heart rate, oxygen saturation, and respiratory rate) were recorded and a unidimensional verbal pain intensity scale applied to all participants. Later, the control group had a rest in their beds while the music group listened to their choice of music for 30 minutes. Physiologic data were then collected and the pain intensity scale applied once more. In the music group, there was a statistically significant increase in oxygen saturation (p = .001) and a lower pain score (p = .001) than in the control group. There was no difference between the groups in the other physiologic parameters. Results of this research provide evidence to support the use of music. Music might be a simple, safe, and effective method of reducing potentially harmful physiologic responses arising from pain in patients after open heart surgery. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Review: Dietary fiber utilization and its effects on physiological functions and gut health of swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, R; Berrocoso, J D

    2015-09-01

    Although dietary fiber (DF) negatively affects energy and nutrient digestibility, there is growing interest for the inclusion of its fermentable fraction in pig diets due to their functional properties and potential health benefits beyond supplying energy to the animals. This paper reviews some of the relevant information available on the role of different types of DF on digestion of nutrients in different sections of the gut, the fermentation process and its influence on gut environment, especially production and utilization of metabolites, microbial community and gut health of swine. Focus has been given on DF from feed ingredients (grains and coproducts) commonly used in pig diets. Some information on the role DF in purified form in comparison with DF in whole matrix of feed ingredients is also presented. First, composition and fractions of DF in different feed ingredients are briefly reviewed. Then, roles of different fractions of DF on digestion characteristics and physiological functions in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) are presented. Specific roles of different fractions of DF on fermentation characteristics and their effects on production and utilization of metabolites in the GIT have been discussed. In addition, roles of DF fermentation on metabolic activity and microbial community in the intestine and their effects on intestinal health are reviewed and discussed. Evidence presented in this review indicates that there is wide variation in the composition and content of DF among feed ingredients, thereby their physico-chemical properties in the GIT of swine. These variations, in turn, affect the digestion and fermentation characteristics in the GIT of swine. Digestibility of DF from different feed ingredients is more variable and lower than that of other nutrients like starch, sugars, fat and CP. Soluble fractions of DF are fermented faster, produce higher amounts of volatile fatty acid than insoluble fractions, and favors growth of beneficial microbiota

  14. Behavioural and physiological effects of virginiamycin in the diets of horses with stereotypies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, R; Clegg, H A; Buckley, P; Friend, M A; McGreevy, P D

    2008-10-04

    The effects of dietary supplements of virginiamycin on the behaviour and physiology of 17 thoroughbred geldings (five cribbers, six weavers and six control horses) were compared with the effects of a placebo over a period of 16 weeks. Virginiamycin had no effect on the horses' stereotypic behaviour, but it reduced their explorative behaviour, possibly owing to a reduction in feeding motivation. Virginiamycin increased the water intake of the cribbers and decreased the water intake of the control horses, but it was not possible to eliminate possible confounding factors for this effect. Virginiamycin had no other significant effects on the behaviour or physiology of the horses, and had no effect on the digestibility of their diets.

  15. Physiological and behavioral effects of chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of corticotropin-releasing factor in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buwalda, B; deBoer, SF; VanKalkeren, AA; Koolhaas, JM; Kalkeren, A.A. van

    1997-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the Long-term effects of chronic elevation of centrally circulating levels of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) on behavior and physiology. For this purpose ovine CRF was infused continuously far a period of 10 days into the lateral ventricle of rats

  16. Effects of increasing temperatures on physiological changes in pigs at different relative humidities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huynh Thi Thanh Thuy,; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Kemp, B.; Canh, T.T.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of relative humidity (RH) and high ambient temperature (T) on physiological responses and animal performance were studied using 12 groups (10 gilts per group) in pens inside respiration chambers. The microclimate in the chamber was programmed so that T remained constant within a day. Eac

  17. Effectiveness of Inquiry-Based Learning in an Undergraduate Exercise Physiology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nybo, Lars; May, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of changing a laboratory physiology course for undergraduate students from a traditional step-by-step guided structure to an inquiry-based approach. With this aim in mind, quantitative and qualitative evaluations of learning outcomes (individual subject-specific tests and group interviews)…

  18. Physiological and behavioral effects of chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of corticotropin-releasing factor in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buwalda, B; deBoer, SF; VanKalkeren, AA; Koolhaas, JM; Kalkeren, A.A. van

    1997-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the Long-term effects of chronic elevation of centrally circulating levels of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) on behavior and physiology. For this purpose ovine CRF was infused continuously far a period of 10 days into the lateral ventricle of rats

  19. Effects of quinoa hull meal on piglet performance and intestinal epithelial physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Dorthe; Fernández, José Adalberto; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard;

    2012-01-01

    of South American (SA) origin (100, 300 and 500 mg/kg) and one dosage of Danish (DK) quinoa (300 mg/kg). In addition, the effect of dietary SA-QHM and SA-QHM-extract on jejunal epithelial physiology was studied ex vivo in Ussing chambers. The experiment included 400 piglets weaned at 28 ± 2 days of age...

  20. The behaviour of dietary fibre in the gastrointestinal tract determines its physiological effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capuano, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    A diet rich in dietary fibre (DF) is considered healthy and recommended dietary intake of DF are established all over the world. The physiological effect of DF is mostly related to its behaviour during digestion. In this review the behaviour of DF in the human digestive tract is discussed and linked

  1. Physiological and Psychological Effects on High School Students of Viewing Real and Artificial Pansies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miho Igarashi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The relaxation effects of gardening have attracted attention; however, very few studies have researched its physiological effects on humans. This study aimed to clarify the physiological and psychological effects on high school students of viewing real and artificial pansies. Forty high school students (male: 19, female: 21 at Chiba Prefectural Kashiwanoha Senior High School, Japan, participated in this experiment. The subjects were presented with a visual stimulation of fresh yellow pansies (Viola x wittrockiana “Nature Clear Lemon” in a planter for 3 min. Artificial yellow pansies in a planter were used as the control. Heart rate variability was used as a physiological measurement and the modified semantic differential method was used for subjective evaluation. Compared with artificial pansies, visual stimulation with real flowers resulted in a significant decrease in the ratio of low- to high-frequency heart rate variability component, which reflects sympathetic nerve activity. In contrast, high frequency, which reflects parasympathetic nerve activity, showed no significant difference. With regard to the psychological indices, viewing real flowers resulted in “comfortable”, “relaxed”, and “natural” feelings. The findings indicate that visual stimulation with real pansies induced physiological and psychological relaxation effects in high school students.

  2. Physiological and Psychological Effects on High School Students of Viewing Real and Artificial Pansies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Miho; Aga, Mariko; Ikei, Harumi; Namekawa, Takafumi; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2015-01-01

    The relaxation effects of gardening have attracted attention; however, very few studies have researched its physiological effects on humans. This study aimed to clarify the physiological and psychological effects on high school students of viewing real and artificial pansies. Forty high school students (male: 19, female: 21) at Chiba Prefectural Kashiwanoha Senior High School, Japan, participated in this experiment. The subjects were presented with a visual stimulation of fresh yellow pansies (Viola x wittrockiana “Nature Clear Lemon”) in a planter for 3 min. Artificial yellow pansies in a planter were used as the control. Heart rate variability was used as a physiological measurement and the modified semantic differential method was used for subjective evaluation. Compared with artificial pansies, visual stimulation with real flowers resulted in a significant decrease in the ratio of low- to high-frequency heart rate variability component, which reflects sympathetic nerve activity. In contrast, high frequency, which reflects parasympathetic nerve activity, showed no significant difference. With regard to the psychological indices, viewing real flowers resulted in “comfortable”, “relaxed”, and “natural” feelings. The findings indicate that visual stimulation with real pansies induced physiological and psychological relaxation effects in high school students. PMID:25723647

  3. Effects of strawbedding on physiological responses to stressors and behavior in growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, IC; Ekkel, ED; Van de Burgwal, JA; Lambooij, E; Korte, SM; Ruis, MAW; Koolhaas, JM; Blokhuis, Harry J.

    1998-01-01

    To study the effects of environmental enrichment on physiological responses to stressors and behavior in growing pigs, pigs were housed in either a poor environment (standard farrowing pens followed by standard rearing and fattening pens) or in an enriched environment (larger farrowing pens followed

  4. Physiological effects of oral glucosamine on joint health: Current status and consensus on future research priorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Henrotin (Yves); B. Chevalier (Bernard); G. Herrero-Beaumont; T. McAlindon (Timothy); A. Mobasheri (Ali); K. Pavelka (Karel); C. Schön (Christiane); H.H. Weinans (Harrie); H. Biesalski (Hans)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this paper was to provide an overview of the current knowledge and understanding of the potential beneficial physiological effects of glucosamine (GlcN) on joint health. The objective was to reach a consensus on four critical questions and to provide recommendations for future

  5. Perceiving blocks of emotional pictures and sounds : effects on physiological variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.M.; Wouwe, N.C. van; Mühl, C.; Erp, J.B.F. van; Toet, A.

    2013-01-01

    Most studies on physiological effects of emotion-inducing images and sounds examine stimulus locked variables reflecting a state of at most a few seconds. We here aimed to induce longer lasting emotional states using blocks of repetitive visual, auditory, and bimodal stimuli corresponding to specifi

  6. Research report on the physiological effects of air ions and their significance as environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, A.

    1978-01-01

    The series of experiments performed have shown that small air ions generated artificially using radioactive materials produced physiological effects in all test subjects, which are described. These results show that the air ions were important climatic factors in the production of comfortable and healthy room climates.

  7. Effect of CO2, nutrients and light on coastal plankton. IV. Physiological responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobrino, C.; Segovia, M.; Neale, P. J.; Mercado, J. M.; Garcia-Gomez, C.; Kulk, G.; Lorenzo, M. R.; Camarena, T.; van de Poll, W. H.; Spilling, K.; Ruan, Z.

    2014-01-01

    We studied the physiological response of phytoplankton to the interacting effects of 3 factors affected by global climate change: CO2, nutrient loading and irradiance. Treatments had a high and low level for each factor: CO2 was bubbled at 1000 ppm by volume versus present atmospheric values; high n

  8. The Quantitative Effect of Students Using Podcasts in a First Year Undergraduate Exercise Physiology Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abt, Grant; Barry, Tim

    2007-01-01

    This study reports the quantitative effect of students using podcasts in a 1st year undergraduate exercise physiology module. From a cohort of 70 students, 50 volunteered and completed the study. Using a pre-post random allocation research design, students were allocated to either a podcast group (PG) or control group (CG) based on a 32-question…

  9. The effect of working on-call on stress physiology and sleep: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sarah J; Ferguson, Sally A; Turner, Anne I; Robertson, Samuel J; Vincent, Grace E; Aisbett, Brad

    2017-06-01

    On-call work is becoming an increasingly common work pattern, yet the human impacts of this type of work are not well established. Given the likelihood of calls to occur outside regular work hours, it is important to consider the potential impact of working on-call on stress physiology and sleep. The aims of this review were to collate and evaluate evidence on the effects of working on-call from home on stress physiology and sleep. A systematic search of Ebsco Host, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus and ScienceDirect was conducted. Search terms included: on-call, on call, standby, sleep, cortisol, heart rate, adrenaline, noradrenaline, nor-adrenaline, epinephrine, norepinephrine, nor-epinephrine, salivary alpha amylase and alpha amylase. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria, with only one study investigating the effect of working on-call from home on stress physiology. All eight studies investigated the effect of working on-call from home on sleep. Working on-call from home appears to adversely affect sleep quantity, and in most cases, sleep quality. However, studies did not differentiate between night's on-call from home with and without calls. Data examining the effect of working on-call from home on stress physiology were not sufficient to draw meaningful conclusions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of a physiological GH pulse on interstitial glycerol in abdominal and femoral adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravhølt, C H; Schmitz, Ole; Simonsen, L

    1999-01-01

    Physiologically, growth hormone (GH) is secreted in pulses with episodic bursts shortly after the onset of sleep and postprandially. Such pulses increase circulating levels of free fatty acid and glycerol. We tested whether small GH pulses have detectable effects on intercellular glycerol...

  11. Wheelchair racing : effects of rim diameter and speed on physiology and technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, L H; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.); Rozendal, R H; van Ingen Schenau, G J; Rooth, F; van Nierop, P

    1988-01-01

    Effects of different hand rim diameters in wheelchair racing were studied with respect to physiological and technique parameters at five speed levels (N = 8 wheelchair sportsmen). In each of five subsequent 15-min exercise tests on a treadmill, a different sized hand rim was mounted to the rear whee

  12. Wheelchair racing : effects of rim diameter and speed on physiology and technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, L H; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.); Rozendal, R H; van Ingen Schenau, G J; Rooth, F; van Nierop, P

    1988-01-01

    Effects of different hand rim diameters in wheelchair racing were studied with respect to physiological and technique parameters at five speed levels (N = 8 wheelchair sportsmen). In each of five subsequent 15-min exercise tests on a treadmill, a different sized hand rim was mounted to the rear

  13. Early life adversity potentiates the effects of later life stress on cumulative physiological dysregulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Nadya; Hansen, Åse Marie; Avlund, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Previous research indicates that early life adversity may heighten stress reactivity and impair mechanisms for adaptive coping, suggesting that experience of stress in early life may also potentiate adults' physiological vulnerability to stress in later life. The study...... tested this hypothesis by investigating whether experience of stressful events and circumstances (SEC) in childhood or adolescence amplified the effect of adulthood SEC on physiological dysregulation (allostatic load, AL) in later midlife. Design: Observational data were used in the present study......: The results provide further insight into the mechanisms behind the "biological embedding" of childhood stress....

  14. The effects of the pollutant, sodium cyanide, on the morphology and physiology of oedogonium cardiacum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, E.

    1977-01-01

    OEDOGONIUM cardiacum exposed to varying concentrations of sodium cyanide for 15 day periods exhibited both morphological and physiological alterations. Organisms were exposed to the pollutant in concentrations of 1, 10, 25, 50, and 100 parts per million. Exposure period for organisms in each concentration was 15 days. As the concentration of the pollutant increased fragmentation also increased. Exposure also caused organisms to lose chlorophyll. The third morphological alteration was the incidence of rupture. Physiological effects altered by exposure included: reduced oxygen evolution, retardation of starch production and death. Death occurs when organisms are exposed to high concentrations over the total 15 day period.

  15. Effects of Reinforcement Method of Dissection Physiology Education on the Achievement in Pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitayama, Tomoya; Kagota, Satomi; Yoshikawa, Noriko; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Nishimura, Kanae; Miura, Takeshi; Yasui, Naomi; Shinozuka, Kazumasa; Nakabayashi, Toshikatsu

    2016-01-01

     The Pharmaceutical Education Support Center was established in the Department of Pharmacy at the School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science of Mukogawa Women's University in 2014. We started teaching first and second years students according to proficiency from the 2014 academic year. Students were divided into two classes: the regular class (high proficiency class) and the basic class (low proficiency class), based on achievement in several basic subjects related to the study of pharmacy. The staffs in the Pharmaceutical Education Support Center reinforce what is taught to students in the basic class. In this reinforcement method of education, the class size is small, consisting of about 15 students, a quiz to review the previous lesson is given at the beginning of each lecture, and an additional five lectures are conducted, compared to the high proficiency class, which receives 15 lectures. In this study, we evaluated the effects of the reinforcement method of physiology education on achievement in pharmacology that was not conducted in the proficiency-dependent teaching method. The students in the basic class in physiology education were chosen based on achievement levels in anatomy. Achievement levels of pharmacology students in the basic class of physiology improved compared with those of students who had the same achievement levels in physiology but were not taught according to proficiency-dependent teaching in the 2013 academic year. These results suggest that the reinforcement method for education in basic subjects in pharmacy, such as physiology, can improve achievement in more advanced subjects, such as pharmacology.

  16. The health effects of US unemployment insurance policy: does income from unemployment benefits prevent cardiovascular disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Walter

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Previous studies suggest that unemployment predicts increased cardiovascular disease (CVD risk, but whether unemployment insurance programs mitigate this risk has not been assessed. Exploiting US state variations in unemployment insurance benefit programs, we tested the hypothesis that more generous benefits reduce CVD risk. METHODS: Cohort data came from 16,108 participants in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS aged 50-65 at baseline interviewed from 1992 to 2010. Data on first and recurrent CVD diagnosis assessed through biennial interviews were linked to the generosity of unemployment benefit programmes in each state and year. Using state fixed-effect models, we assessed whether state changes in the generosity of unemployment benefits predicted CVD risk. RESULTS: States with higher unemployment benefits had lower incidence of CVD, so that a 1% increase in benefits was associated with 18% lower odds of CVD (OR:0.82, 95%-CI:0.71-0.94. This association remained after introducing US census regional division fixed effects, but disappeared after introducing state fixed effects (OR:1.02, 95%-CI:0.79-1.31.This was consistent with the fact that unemployment was not associated with CVD risk in state-fixed effect models. CONCLUSION: Although states with more generous unemployment benefits had lower CVD incidence, this appeared to be due to confounding by state-level characteristics. Possible explanations are the lack of short-term effects of unemployment on CVD risk. Future studies should assess whether benefits at earlier stages of the life-course influence long-term risk of CVD.

  17. The health effects of US unemployment insurance policy: does income from unemployment benefits prevent cardiovascular disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Stefan; Glymour, Maria; Avendano, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that unemployment predicts increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, but whether unemployment insurance programs mitigate this risk has not been assessed. Exploiting US state variations in unemployment insurance benefit programs, we tested the hypothesis that more generous benefits reduce CVD risk. Cohort data came from 16,108 participants in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) aged 50-65 at baseline interviewed from 1992 to 2010. Data on first and recurrent CVD diagnosis assessed through biennial interviews were linked to the generosity of unemployment benefit programmes in each state and year. Using state fixed-effect models, we assessed whether state changes in the generosity of unemployment benefits predicted CVD risk. States with higher unemployment benefits had lower incidence of CVD, so that a 1% increase in benefits was associated with 18% lower odds of CVD (OR:0.82, 95%-CI:0.71-0.94). This association remained after introducing US census regional division fixed effects, but disappeared after introducing state fixed effects (OR:1.02, 95%-CI:0.79-1.31).This was consistent with the fact that unemployment was not associated with CVD risk in state-fixed effect models. Although states with more generous unemployment benefits had lower CVD incidence, this appeared to be due to confounding by state-level characteristics. Possible explanations are the lack of short-term effects of unemployment on CVD risk. Future studies should assess whether benefits at earlier stages of the life-course influence long-term risk of CVD.

  18. Physiological and subjective effects of traffic noise: the role of negative self-statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, M N; Vila, J; Godoy, J F

    1992-05-01

    This study assesses physiological and subjective effects of traffic noise and the mediator role that negative self-statements play. 84 female students underwent a Physiological Reaction Test to two 15 min presentations of high intensity traffic noise (85-95 dB) under two Noise conditions--with and without negative self-statements. Half of the subjects were given specific instructions to increase the credibility of the self-statements. Dependent variables were frontal EMG, electrodermal variables (conductance level and number of responses) and subjective tension. Traffic noise provoked subjective tension and physiological responses. Only the number of electrodermal responses habituated between noise presentations, the rest of the physiological variables did not habituate. Negative self-statements had the greatest effect on frontal EMG. In fact, only the noise with negative self-statements condition produced a significant EMG increase in the first part of the Test. Instructions increased subjective tension and also increased the effect of the self-statements on the electrodermal variables. The implications of these results for psychosomatic problems and the importance of negative self-statements are discussed.

  19. Study on Effect of Plants in office on Human Physiological/Psychological Responses

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Some offices have indoor environmental quality (IEQ) related problems such as space, indoor air quality (IAQ), office workers' thermal comfort, productivity and mental stress. As is well known, some foliage plants have effects of humidity control and VOC removal from indoor air, improvement of productivity and reducing workers' mental stress as well. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of indoor plants on physiological/psychological responses, and to demonstrate the mental he...

  20. The effect of clofibrate and phototherapy on physiological jaundice in term newborns

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Hosein Hashemian; Sayed amir Masoud Borghaee; Homa Babaee; Ali Asghar Alipour; Mahba Azizi

    2011-01-01

    Background: Clofibrate is an effective anti lipid agent that induces glucuronyltransferase could increase bilirubin conjugation. The aim of this study was to evaluate effect of clofibrate on neonatal physiologic jaundice.Methods: Randomized clinical trial sampling method used and 60 healthy term neonates which were admitted in Imam Reza Hospital of Kermanshah-Iran because of indirect hyperbilirubinemia enrolled into the study. 30 neonates (case group) were treated with single oral dose of clo...

  1. Long-term effects of environmental endocrine disruptors on reproductive physiology and behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather B Patisaul

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that, over the course of development, hormones shape the vertebrate brain such that sex specific physiology and behaviors emerge. Much of this occurs in discrete developmental windows that span gestation through the prenatal period, although it is now becoming clear that at least some of this process continues through puberty. Perturbation of this developmental progression can permanently alter the capacity for reproductive success. Wildlife studies have revealed that exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs, either naturally occurring or man made, can profoundly alter reproductive physiology and ultimately impact entire populations. Laboratory studies in rodents and other species have elucidated some of the mechanisms by which this occurs and strongly indicate that humans are also vulnerable to disruption. Use of hormonally active compounds in human medicine has also unfortunately revealed that the developing fetus can be exposed to and affected by endocrine disruptors, and that it might take decades for adverse effects to manifest. Research within the field of environmental endocrine disruption has also contributed to the general understanding of how early life experiences can alter reproductive physiology and behavior through non-genomic, epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone acetylation. These types of effects have the potential to impact future generations if the germ line is affected. This review provides an overview of how exposure to EDCs, particularly those that interfere with estrogen action, impacts reproductive physiology and behaviors in vertebrates.

  2. Effects of Chitosan Spraying on Physiological Characteristics of Ferula flabelliloba (Apiaceae Under Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Taheri

    2016-02-01

    with different concentrations were investigated. The main objective of this study was to examine the potential benefits of chitosan by reducing damage to F. flabelliloba at the seedling stages under water-deficit conditions. Materials and Methods In order to evaluate the effects of chitosan spraying and drought stress on physiological characteristics of F. felabelliloba, a factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with three replications was conducted in laboratory. The experimental treatments included drought stress (irrigated in Field capacity, depletion of soil water content up to 35% and 65% of FC condition and foliar chitosan spray (Zero, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 mg l-1. Seeds of F. flabelliloba were harvested in June-July of 2012 from natural habitat in Binalood mountain and kept in laboratory condition until the study started. F. flabelliloba seeds were germinated and grown in soils at light/dark temperature cycle of 20-16 degree centigrade and photoperiod of 16-8 h. Irrigation treatments were performed after 20 days, when seedling established and chitosan sprayed simultaneous and repeated one month later. The shoot from 60-day-old plants were taken and used for analysis the physiological parameters. Shoot dry weight was measured in oven at 70 ºC for 24 hours. Enzyme activity was determined from the extract prepared according to the method of Sairam and Saxena (2000. Catalase and Peroxidase activities were determined according to Weydert and Cullen (2010 and Superoxide dismutase activity assayed as described by Beauchamp and Fridovich (1971. Lipid peroxidation was estimated by measuring spectrophotometrically malondialdehyde (MDA content of plant based on Jiang and Hung (2001. Total phenolic content was determined according to Ebrahimzadeh and Bahramian (2009. Data from the experiment was analyzed using SPSS ver. 17 and MSTAT-C software and mean comparison was carried out using Duncan´s multiple range test at the 95% of probability. Results and

  3. Effects of the physiological parameters on the signal-to-noise ratio of single myoelectric channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang YT

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important measure of the performance of a myoelectric (ME control system for powered artificial limbs is the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR at the output of ME channel. However, few studies illustrated the neuron-muscular interactive effects on the SNR at ME control channel output. In order to obtain a comprehensive understanding on the relationship between the physiology of individual motor unit and the ME control performance, this study investigates the effects of physiological factors on the SNR of single ME channel by an analytical and simulation approach, where the SNR is defined as the ratio of the mean squared value estimation at the channel output and the variance of the estimation. Methods Mathematical models are formulated based on three fundamental elements: a motoneuron firing mechanism, motor unit action potential (MUAP module, and signal processor. Myoelectric signals of a motor unit are synthesized with different physiological parameters, and the corresponding SNR of single ME channel is numerically calculated. Effects of physiological multi factors on the SNR are investigated, including properties of the motoneuron, MUAP waveform, recruitment order, and firing pattern, etc. Results The results of the mathematical model, supported by simulation, indicate that the SNR of a single ME channel is associated with the voluntary contraction level. We showed that a model-based approach can provide insight into the key factors and bioprocess in ME control. The results of this modelling work can be potentially used in the improvement of ME control performance and for the training of amputees with powered prostheses. Conclusion The SNR of single ME channel is a force, neuronal and muscular property dependent parameter. The theoretical model provides possible guidance to enhance the SNR of ME channel by controlling physiological variables or conscious contraction level.

  4. Effects of Different Atmospheres on the Postharvest Physiology and Quality of the Sweet Cherry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Ai-li; TIAN Shi-ping; XU Yong; WANG Yi; FAN Qing

    2002-01-01

    The changes in physiological characteristics, quality and storability of the sweet cherry (Prumus avium L. cv. Hongdeng) stored in controlled atmospheres (CA), in modified atmosphere packages (MAP) and in air (CK) were investigated in this paper. The results showed that CA and MAP treatments significantly inhibited fruit rot and flesh browning, kept firmness and fruit color, reduced ethylene and ethanol content in pulp, slowed down the increase of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in comparison with CK. Meanwhile, CA treatments showed a better benefit of reducing ethylene and ethanol contents, inhibiting PPO and POD activities, declining rot rate and browning index compared to MAP. The fruit could be stored in CA conditions for 60 days without any off-flavor. The sweet cherries kept in CA with 5% O2 + 10% CO2 showed a better storability than that in CA with 5% O2 +5% CO2.

  5. [Effect of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae toxins on some blood physiological parameters in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Liu, Jiesheng; Yang, Weidong

    2003-05-01

    In order to study the toxic effect of STX on mouse's blood with time lapse, STX from Aphanizomenon flosaquae was collected and the effect of toxins on physiological parameters of blood was measured by analyzing changes in cells and components in blood. Results showed that the blood parameters in mice changed after 0.5, 6, 12 and 24 hours respectively when mice were exposed to 0.5 Mu/ml Saxitoxin (STX). The numbers of red blood cell, Hemoglobin and platelet had little changed, while the number of white cells showed evident change, especially within 30 minutes. The more time extended, the less change of white cells had, namely, the effect of STX on some blood physiological parameters in mice became weaker with time spent. After 24 hours, almost all the blood physiological parameters in mice recovered to the normal level. Therefore, it can be concluded that both of STX and acid had toxic effects on blood of mice. When STX (0.5 Mu/ml, at pH5.3) were injected into blood, STX had the toxic effect within 12 hours, and after that, acid had.

  6. Ethanol co-administration moderates 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine effects on human physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, G J H; Kramers, C; Sweep, F C G J; Willemsen, J J; Touw, D J; Schoemaker, R C; van Gerven, J M A; Buitelaar, J K; Verkes, R J

    2010-02-01

    Alcohol is frequently used in combination with 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Both drugs affect cardiovascular function, hydration and temperature regulation, but may have partly opposing effects. The present study aims to assess the acute physiologic effects of (co-) administration of MDMA and ethanol over time. A four-way, double blind, randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled study in 16 healthy volunteers (9 male and 7 female) between the ages of 18 and 29. MDMA (100 mg) was given orally and blood ethanol concentration was maintained at pseudo-steady state levels of 0.6 per thousand by a three-hour 10% intravenous ethanol clamp. Cardiovascular function, temperature and hydration measures were recorded throughout the study days. Ethanol did not significantly affect physiologic function, with the exception of a short lasting increase in heart rate. MDMA potently increased heart rate and blood pressure and induced fluid retention as well as an increase in temperature. Co-administration of ethanol with MDMA did not affect cardiovascular function compared to the MDMA alone condition, but attenuated the effects of MDMA on fluid retention and showed a trend for attenuation of MDMA-induced temperature increase. In conclusion, co-administration of ethanol and MDMA did not exacerbate physiologic effects compared to all other drug conditions, and moderated some effects of MDMA alone.

  7. The effects of music on the anxiety and some physiological indices of patients before general surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Mirbagher Ajorpaz

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surgery is an important stressor, which causes some harmful physiological responses such as increased breath and heart rate and blood pressure. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of music on the anxiety and some physiological responses of patients before general surgery. Methods: A clinical trial study designed and 60 patients who were scheduled to undergo general surgery were selected using convenience sampling method in Shahid Beheshty hospitals of Kashan in 2009. They were randomly allocated into intervention and control groups. The level of anxiety was measured using Spilberger questionnaire. Blood pressure measured using mercury sphygmomanometer, respiratory and heart rate determined before music intervention. The intervention group listened to non-speech music for 20 minutes in a quiet environment. The anxiety level and physiological responses were measured again after the intervention. The same measurements were carried out for the control group without music intervention. Results: The results showed a statistical significant differences in the anxiety level as well as the systolic blood pressure in the intervention group P=0.04. There was no significant difference in heart and respiratory rate between the two groups (P=0.2, P=0.11. Conclusion: Considering the alterations in physiological responses during listening to music, we suggest music listening to be considered as an intervention to relieve preoperative anxiety and fear.

  8. Effect of uniform versus expanding retrieval practice on the recall of physiology information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, John L

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the retention of selected physiology concepts throughout 30 days of two different uniform schedules of retrieval and two different expanding schedules of retrieval. Participants (n = 250) first read and reread 30 immunology and reproductive physiology concepts and were then repeatedly assessed, without feedback, according to one of the following four randomly assigned schedules: 1) immediately after learning and again 9 and 19 days later [uniform (days 1, 10, and 20)]; 2) 7, 14, and 21 days after learning [uniform (days 8, 15, and 22)]; 3) immediately after learning and again 5 and 15 days later [expanding (days 1, 6, and 16)]; and 4) 1, 6, and 16 days after learning [expanding (days 2, 7, and 17)]. All participants completed a final assessment 29 days after learning the physiology concepts. Mean final assessment scores ± SE for the uniform (days 1, 10, and 20), uniform (days 8, 15, and 22), expanding (days 1, 6, and 16), and expanding (days 2, 7, and 17) groups were 36.15 ± 1.97, 32.31 ± 1.87, 45.80 ± 2.56, and 39.71 ± 2.48, respectively. There were no differences in final assessment scores between the two expanding retrieval groups, but expanding (days 1, 6, and 16) group scores were significantly higher than those in both uniform retrieval groups (ANOVA, F = 6.52, P = 0.00). Also, the combined mean of the two expanding retrieval conditions (42.57 ± 1.80) was significantly higher (F = 14.09, P = 0.00) than the combined mean of the two uniform retrieval conditions (34.10 ± 1.36). The results indicate that participants benefited more from expanding retrieval practice, particularly when the first assessment was administered immediately after learning.

  9. Adequacy of representation of the National Drug File Reference Terminology Physiologic Effects reference hierarchy for commonly prescribed medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, S. Trent; Awad, Joseph; Speroff, Ted; Elkin, Peter L.; Rothman, Russell; Spickard, Anderson; Peterson, Josh; Bauer, Brent A; Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind L.; Lee, Mark; Gregg, William; Johnson, Kevin B.; Jirjis, Jim; Erlbaum, Mark S.; Carter, John S.; Lincoln, Michael J.; Brown, Steven H.

    2003-01-01

    The National Drug File Reference Terminology contains a novel reference hierarchy to describe physiologic effects (PE) of drugs. The PE reference hierarchy contains 1697 concepts arranged into two broad categories; organ specific and generalized systemic effects. This investigation evaluated the appropriateness of the PE concepts for classifying a random selection of commonly prescribed medications. Ten physician reviewers classified the physiologic effects of ten drugs and rated the accuracy of the selected term. Inter reviewer agreement, overall confidence, and concept frequencies were assessed and were correlated with the complexity of the drug’s known physiologic effects. In general, agreement between reviewers was fair to moderate (kappa range 0.08–0.49). The physiologic effects modeled became more disperse with drugs having and inducing multiple physiologic processes. Complete modeling of all physiologic effects was limited by reviewers focusing on different physiologic processes. The reviewers were generally comfortable with the accuracy of the concepts selected. Overall, the PE reference hierarchy was useful for physician reviewers classifying the physiologic effects of drugs. Ongoing evolution of the PE reference hierarchy as it evolves should take into account the experiences of our reviewers. PMID:14728237

  10. Promoting the translation of intentions into action by implementation intentions: behavioral effects and physiological correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieber, Frank; Thürmer, J. Lukas; Gollwitzer, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    The present review addresses the physiological correlates of planning effects on behavior. Although intentions to act qualify as predictors of behavior, accumulated evidence indicates that there is a substantial gap between even strong intentions and subsequent action. One effective strategy to reduce this intention–behavior gap is the formation of implementation intentions that specify when, where, and how to act on a given goal in an if-then format (“If I encounter situation Y, then I will initiate action Z!”). It has been proposed that implementation intentions render the mental representation of the situation highly accessible and establish a strong associative link between the mental representations of the situation and the action. These process assumptions have been examined in behavioral research, and in physiological research, a field that has begun to investigate the temporal dynamics of and brain areas involved in implementation intention effects. In the present review, we first summarize studies on the cognitive processes that are central to the strategic automation of action control by implementation intentions. We then examine studies involving critical samples with impaired self-regulation. Lastly, we review studies that have applied physiological measures such as heart rate, cortisol level, and eye movement, as well as electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies on the neural correlates of implementation intention effects. In support of the assumed processes, implementation intentions increased goal attainment in studies on cognitive processes and in critical samples, modulated brain waves related to perceptual and decision processes, and generated less activity in brain areas associated with effortful action control. In our discussion, we reflect on the status quo of physiological research on implementation intentions, methodological and conceptual issues, related research, and propose future

  11. Antiproliferative, Ultrastructural, and Physiological Effects of Amiodarone on Promastigote and Amastigote Forms of Leishmania amazonensis

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Teixeira de Macedo-Silva; Thais Larissa Araújo de Oliveira Silva; Urbina, Julio A.; Wanderley de Souza; Juliany Cola Fernandes Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    Amiodarone (AMIO), the most frequently antiarrhythmic drug used for the symptomatic treatment of chronic Chagas' disease patients with cardiac compromise, has recently been shown to have also specific activity against fungi, Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania. In this work, we characterized the effects of AMIO on proliferation, mitochondrial physiology, and ultrastructure of Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes. The IC50 values were 4.21 and 0.46 μM against promast...

  12. Physiological Strain During Load Carrying: Effects of Mass and Type of Backpack

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    and Type of Backpack DISTRIBUTION: Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This paper is part of the following report: TITLE: Soldier...UNCLASSIFIED 1-1 Physiological Strain During Load Carrying: Effects of Mass and Type of Backpack Michael Holewijn and Ted Meeuwsen Netherlands Aeromedical...were quantified. While standing, oxygen uptake was not influenced by the type or mass of the backpack , and averaged 10% maximal oxygen uptake. The heart

  13. Physiological and regulatory effects of controlled overproduction of five cold shock proteins of Lactococcus lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, J.A.; Mailhes, M.; Rombouts, F.M.; Vos, de W.M.; Kuipers, O.P.; Abee, T.

    2000-01-01

    The physiological and regulatory effects of overproduction of five cold shock proteins (CSPs) of Lactococcus lactis were studied. CspB, CspD, and CspE could be overproduced at high levels (up to 19␘f the total protein), whereas for CspA and CspC limited overproduction (0.3 to 0.5␘f the total protein

  14. Promoting the translation of intentions into action by implementation intentions: Behavioral effects and physiological correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank eWieber

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present review addresses the physiological correlates of planning effects on behavior. Although intentions to act qualify as predictors of behavior, accumulated evidence indicates that there is a substantial gap between even strong intentions and subsequent action. One effective strategy to reduce this intention-behavior gap is the formation of implementation intentions that specify when, where, and how to act on a given goal in an if-then format (If I encounter situation Y, then I will initiate action Z!. It has been proposed that implementation intentions render the mental representation of the situation highly accessible and establish a strong associative link between the mental representations of the situation and the action. These process assumptions have been examined in behavioral research, and in physiological research, a field that has begun to investigate the temporal dynamics of and brain areas involved in implementation intention effects. In the present review, we first summarize studies on the cognitive processes that are central to the strategic automation of action control by implementation intentions. We then examine studies involving critical samples with impaired self-regulation. Lastly, we review studies that have applied physiological measures such as heart rate, cortisol level, and eye movement, as well as electroencephalography (EEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies on the neural correlates of implementation intention effects. In support of the assumed processes, implementation intentions increased goal attainment in studies on cognitive processes and in critical samples, modulated brain waves related to perceptual and decision processes, and generated less activity in brain areas associated with effortful action control. In our discussion, we reflect on the status quo of physiological research on implementation intentions, methodological and conceptual issues, related research, and propose future

  15. Myocardial physiology measurements using contrast enhanced dynamic computed tomography: simulation of beam hardening effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Minsong; Stantz, Keith M.; Liang, Yun

    2006-03-01

    Initial animal study for quantifying myocardial physiology through contrast-enhanced dynamic x-ray CT suggested that beam hardening is one of the limiting factors for accurate regional physiology measurement. In this study, a series of simulations were performed to investigate its deterioration effects and two correction algorithms were adapted to evaluate for their efficiency in improving the measurements. The simulation tool consists of a module simulating data acquisition of a real polyenergetic scanner system and a heart phantom consisting of simple geometric objects representing ventricles and myocardium. Each phantom component was modeled with time-varying attenuation coefficients determined by ideal iodine contrast dynamic curves obtained from experimental data or simulation. A compartment model was used to generate the ideal myocardium contrast curve using physiological parameters consistent with measured values. Projection data of the phantom were simulated and reconstructed to produce a sequence of simulated CT images. Simulated contrast dynamic curves were fitted to the compartmental model and the resultant physiological parameters were compared with ideal values to estimate the errors induced by beam hardening artifacts. The simulations yielded similar deterioration patterns of contrast dynamic curves as observed in the initial study. Significant underestimation of left ventricle curves and corruption of regional myocardium curves result in systematic errors of regional perfusion up to approximately 24% and overestimates of fractional blood volume (f iv) up to 13%. The correction algorithms lead to significant improvement with errors of perfusion reduced to 7% and errors of f iv within 2% which shows promise for more robust myocardial physiology measurement.

  16. Effect of season on physiological, biochemical, hormonal, and oxidative stress parameters of indigenous sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawankumar D. Rathwa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of summer and winter season on physiological, biochemical, hormonal, and antioxidant parameters in Indigenous sheep. Materials and Methods: The research was carried out during summer and winter season. 8 adult apparently healthy female sheep (aged 2-4 years of similar physiological status were selected. Daily ambient temperature and relative humidity were recorded to calculate the temperature-humidity index (THI. The THI value of summer and winter season were 82.55 and 59.36, respectively, which indicate extreme hot condition during summer season and extreme cold condition during winter season. Physiological parameters were recorded daily during the experimental periods. Blood samples were collected at weekly interval and analyzed for biochemical, hormonal, and antioxidant parameters. The results were analyzed using completely randomized design. Results: From data obtained in this study, we found that higher THI during summer have significant effect over various physiological, biochemical, hormonal, and enzymatic indices of indigenous sheep. The physiological response such as rectal temperature, respiration rate (RR, pulse rate (PR, and skin temperature (ST was increased significantly. We also found a significant increase in some biochemical parameters such as blood urea nitrogen (BUN, uric acid, creatinine (Cr, alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, sodium (Na, and potassium (K. The level of cortisol hormone and superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and lipid peroxidase (LPO antioxidants increased significantly during summer. Whereas, some parameters such as glucose, cholesterol, calcium (Ca, inorganic phosphorus (IP, triiodothyronine (T3, and thyroxine (T4 were decreased significantly during summer season. Conclusion: It was concluded that the THI is a sensitive indicator of heat stress and is impacted by ambient temperature more than the relative humidity

  17. Effect of coffee ingestion on physiological responses and ratings of perceived exertion during submaximal endurance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demura, Shinichi; Yamada, Takayoshi; Terasawa, Naoko

    2007-12-01

    This study examined the effect of coffee ingestion on physiological responses and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) during submaximal endurance exercises by 10 healthy young adults. Participants performed a submaximal endurance cycling exercise corresponding to 60% of maximum oxygen uptake capacity for 60 min. They drank either caffeinated coffee with a caffeine content of 6 mg/kg body-mass of each participant (Caf) or a decaffeinated coffee (Dec) 60 min. before starting exercise. Participants participated in the blind design experiment under both conditions at a one-week interval. Oxygen uptake, respiratory exchange ratio, heart rate, RPE, and plasma lactate concentration were measured during the endurance exercise. The RPE under the Caffeinated coffee condition during the last 60 min. of endurance exercise was significantly lower than that in the Decaffeinated coffee condition. However, no significant differences in any physiological response were observed between conditions. Thus, caffeine ingestion 60 min. before starting exercise had an insignificant effect on the physiological responses, except for RPE during submaximal endurance exercises for 60 min. Caffeine ingestion before endurance exercise of relatively low intensity may have a beneficial effect on psychological responses.

  18. Seasonal variations and aeration effects on water quality improvements and physiological responses of Nymphaea tetragona Georgi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiao-Ming; Lu, Peng-Zhen; Huang, Min-Sheng; Dai, Ling-Peng

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal variations and aeration effects on water quality improvements and the physiological responses of Nymphaea tetragona Georgi were investigated with mesocosm experiments. Plants were hydroponically cultivated in six purifying tanks (aerated, non-aerated) and the characteristics of the plants were measured. Water quality improvements in purifying tanks were evaluated by comparing to the control tanks. The results showed that continuous aeration affected the plant morphology and physiology. The lengths of the roots, petioles and leaf limbs in aeration conditions were shorter than in non-aeration conditions. Chlorophyll and soluble protein contents of the leaf limbs in aerated tanks decreased, while peroxidase and catalase activities of roots tissues increased. In spring and summer, effects of aeration on the plants were less than in autumn. Total nitrogen (TN) and ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) in aerated tanks were lower than in non-aerated tanks, while total phosphorus (TP) and dissolved phosphorus (DP) increased in spring and summer. In autumn, effects of aeration on the plants became more significant. TN, NH4(+)-N, TP and DP became higher in aerated tanks than in non-aerated tanks in autumn. This work provided evidences for regulating aeration techniques based on seasonal variations of the plant physiology in restoring polluted stagnant water.

  19. Does empathy have a cost? Diverging psychological and physiological effects within families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manczak, Erika M; DeLongis, Anita; Chen, Edith

    2016-03-01

    Parental empathy is associated with a host of beneficial psychosocial outcomes for children. However, less is known about the effects of being empathic for parents. The current study tested the hypothesis that, although parental empathy may be beneficial to children both psychologically and physiologically, it may take a physiological toll on parents. The current study examined psychological and physiological correlates of parental empathy in 247 parent-adolescent dyads. During a baseline laboratory visit, parents and adolescents provide blood samples from which markers of systemic inflammation, including interleukin 1-ra, interleukin 6, and C-reactive protein, were assayed. Parents completed self-report questionnaires of empathy, well-being, and self-esteem, and also reported on their child's emotion regulation. Following the laboratory visit, adolescents completed 2 weeks of daily diary reporting on their emotion regulation abilities. In adolescents, parental empathy was significantly associated with both better emotion regulation and with less systemic inflammation. For parents, being empathic was associated with greater self-esteem and purpose in life, but also with higher systemic inflammation. These findings reinforce the importance of simultaneously considering both psychological and physical health-related effects of psychosocial traits and suggests that empathy may have diverging effects across providers and recipients of empathy. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. [Effects of Different Genres of Music on the Psycho-Physiological Responses of Undergraduates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsin-Ping; Liu, Yu-Chen; Lin, Mei-Feng

    2016-12-01

    Undergraduate students face tremendous stressors from learning, interpersonal relationships, and life. Stress may cause adaptation exhaustion and stress-related disorders. While the results of recent clinical studies indicate that music interventions may alleviate stress, there is a dearth of research exploring the discrete effects of various genres of music on psycho-physiological status. To explore the effects of listening to different genres of music on the psycho-physiological responses of undergraduates. A one-group, pretest-posttest design was used. A total of 122 undergraduates were assigned to the following four music subgroups according to their musical preference: joyful, tense, sad, and peaceful. Students in each subgroup listened to the self-selected music for 15 minutes during the experiment. A physiological data acquisition systems, the State Anxiety Inventory, and the Visual Analogue Scale for anxiety and depression were used to measure the psycho-physiological responses of participants before, during, and after music listening. Descriptive and inferential analyses were performed using SPSS 20.0. Results: Depression significantly decreased in the peaceful music group compared to the sad music group after the intervention. Further, significant differences in heart rate variability were identified during the intervention among the groups. The change in low frequency (LF) in the joyful music group was lower than the other three groups; the change in high frequency (HF) in the peaceful music group was lower than in the tension and joyful music groups; and the change in LF/HF in the peaceful music group was lower than in the sad and joyful music groups. Additionally, the subsamples with high state anxiety experienced more change in HF while listening to tense music than to peaceful music, reflecting an upward trend after listening for 10 minutes. The findings indicate that listening to different genres of music induces different psycho-physiological

  1. The effect of differential growth rates across plants on spectral predictions of physiological parameters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tal Rapaport

    Full Text Available Leaves of various ages and positions in a plant's canopy can present distinct physiological, morphological and anatomical characteristics, leading to complexities in selecting a single leaf for spectral representation of an entire plant. A fortiori, as growth rates between canopies differ, spectral-based comparisons across multiple plants--often based on leaves' position but not age--becomes an even more challenging mission. This study explores the effect of differential growth rates on the reflectance variability between leaves of different canopies, and its implication on physiological predictions made by widely-used spectral indices. Two distinct irrigation treatments were applied for one month, in order to trigger the formation of different growth rates between two groups of grapevines. Throughout the experiment, the plants were physiologically and morphologically monitored, while leaves from every part of their canopies were spectrally and histologically sampled. As the control vines were constantly developing new leaves, the water deficit plants were experiencing growth inhibition, resulting in leaves of different age at similar nodal position across the treatments. This modification of the age-position correlation was characterized by a near infrared reflectance difference between younger and older leaves, which was found to be exponentially correlated (R(2 = 0.98 to the age-dependent area of intercellular air spaces within the spongy parenchyma. Overall, the foliage of the control plant became more spectrally variable, creating complications for intra- and inter-treatment leaf-based comparisons. Of the derived indices, the Structure-Insensitive Pigment Index (SIPI was found indifferent to the age-position effect, allowing the treatments to be compared at any nodal position, while a Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI-based stomatal conductance prediction was substantially affected by differential growth rates. As various

  2. Combined effects of noise, vibration, and low temperature on the physiological parameters of labor employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Pao-Chiang; Juang, Yow-Jer; Chen, Chiou-Jong; Dai, Yu-Tung; Yeh, Ching-Ying; Hu, Ching-Yao

    2013-10-01

    Noise, vibration, and low temperature render specific occupational hazards to labor employees. The purpose of this research was to investigate the combined effects of these three physical hazards on employees' physiological parameters. The Taguchi experimental method was used to simulate different exposure conditions caused by noise, vibration, and low temperature, and their effects on the physiological parameters of the test takers were measured. The data were then analyzed using statistical methods to evaluate the combined effects of these three factors on human health. Results showed that the factor that influenced the finger skin temperature, manual dexterity, and mean artery pressure (MAP) most was air temperature, and exposure time was the second most influential factor. Noise was found to be the major factor responsible for hearing loss; in this case, hand-arm vibration and temperature had no effect at all. During the study, the temperature was confined in the 5-25°C range (which was not sufficient to study the effects at extremely high- and low-temperature working conditions) because the combined effects of even two factors were very complicated. For example, the combined effects of hand-arm vibration and low temperature might lead to occupational hazards such as vibration-induced white finger syndrome in working labors. Further studies concerning the occupational damage caused by the combined effects of hazardous factors need to be conducted in the future.

  3. Longitudinal Effects of Embryonic Exposure to Cocaine on Morphology, Cardiovascular Physiology, and Behavior in Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J. Mersereau

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A sizeable portion of the societal drain from cocaine abuse results from the complications of in utero drug exposure. Because of challenges in using humans and mammalian model organisms as test subjects, much debate remains about the impact of in utero cocaine exposure. Zebrafish offer a number of advantages as a model in longitudinal toxicology studies and are quite sensitive physiologically and behaviorally to cocaine. In this study, we have used zebrafish to model the effects of embryonic pre-exposure to cocaine on development and on subsequent cardiovascular physiology and cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP in longitudinal adults. Larval fish showed a progressive decrease in telencephalic size with increased doses of cocaine. These treated larvae also showed a dose dependent response in heart rate that persisted 24 h after drug cessation. Embryonic cocaine exposure had little effect on overall health of longitudinal adults, but subtle changes in cardiovascular physiology were seen including decreased sensitivity to isoproterenol and increased sensitivity to cocaine. These longitudinal adult fish also showed an embryonic dose-dependent change in CPP behavior, suggesting an increased sensitivity. These studies clearly show that pre-exposure during embryonic development affects subsequent cocaine sensitivity in longitudinal adults.

  4. PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF AN ULTRA-CYCLE RIDE IN AN AMATEUR ATHLETE- A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günther Mitterbauer

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The physiological effects of ultraendurance exercise are poorly investigated. The present case report describes the exercise intensity of ultraendurance cycling and its physiological impacts on various organ functions in an amateur cyclist performing the Ötztal Radmarathon twice en bloque in a circuit of 2 identical laps (distance 460 km; cumulative altitude difference 11,000 m. In a pre-race laboratory test the athlete's performance capacity was measured as the maximal aerobic power (VO2max= 70 ml.kg-1.min-1, a maximal power output (5.7 W.kg-1 and lactate threshold of 89%. The overall intensity during the ride was moderate (HRmean = 131 b.min-1; %HRmax = 0.71 and significantly declined during the course of the race. Extensive biochemical laboratory testing performed pre- and post-race excluded major exercise-induced organ disturbances. For further confirmation and better understanding of the physiological effects of ultra-cycle events future studies of larger athlete populations are required.

  5. Longitudinal Effects of Embryonic Exposure to Cocaine on Morphology, Cardiovascular Physiology, and Behavior in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersereau, Eric J; Boyle, Cody A; Poitra, Shelby; Espinoza, Ana; Seiler, Joclyn; Longie, Robert; Delvo, Lisa; Szarkowski, Megan; Maliske, Joshua; Chalmers, Sarah; Darland, Diane C; Darland, Tristan

    2016-05-31

    A sizeable portion of the societal drain from cocaine abuse results from the complications of in utero drug exposure. Because of challenges in using humans and mammalian model organisms as test subjects, much debate remains about the impact of in utero cocaine exposure. Zebrafish offer a number of advantages as a model in longitudinal toxicology studies and are quite sensitive physiologically and behaviorally to cocaine. In this study, we have used zebrafish to model the effects of embryonic pre-exposure to cocaine on development and on subsequent cardiovascular physiology and cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in longitudinal adults. Larval fish showed a progressive decrease in telencephalic size with increased doses of cocaine. These treated larvae also showed a dose dependent response in heart rate that persisted 24 h after drug cessation. Embryonic cocaine exposure had little effect on overall health of longitudinal adults, but subtle changes in cardiovascular physiology were seen including decreased sensitivity to isoproterenol and increased sensitivity to cocaine. These longitudinal adult fish also showed an embryonic dose-dependent change in CPP behavior, suggesting an increased sensitivity. These studies clearly show that pre-exposure during embryonic development affects subsequent cocaine sensitivity in longitudinal adults.

  6. Physiological effects of paraquat in juvenile African catifsh Clarias gariepinus (Burchel 1822)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher Didigwu Nwani; Henry Ifeanyichukwu Ekwueme; Vincent Chikwendu Ejere; Christopher Chikaodili Onyeke; Christian Onyeka Chukwuka; Onas Somdare Peace; Alfreda Ogochukwu Nwadinigwe

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the physiological effects of paraquat in African freshwater catfish Clarias gariepinus. Methods:Two sublethal test concentrations of paraquat (1.37 and 2.75 mg/L) were chosen based on the 96 h LC50 value (27.46 mg/L). Some experimental fish were exposed to these concentrations and control group for 15 d. Peripheral blood samplings were taken at intervals for assessment of haematological and biochemical parameters. Results:Exposure to paraquat affected behaviour and morphology of Clarias gariepinus. There were significant decreases (P Conclusions: The results of the present study indicate that paraquat is toxic and has the potential to impair on the physiological activities in African catfish Clarias gariepinus. The use of paraquat should be strongly controlled and carefully monitored to avoid the possible damage done to the environment.

  7. The effects of measuring emotion: physiological reactions to emotional situations depend on whether someone is asking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassam, Karim S; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2013-01-01

    Measurement effects exist throughout the sciences-the act of measuring often changes the properties of the observed. We suggest emotion research is no exception. The awareness and conscious assessment required by self-report of emotion may significantly alter emotional processes. In this study, participants engaged in a difficult math task designed to induce anger or shame while their cardiovascular responses were measured. Half of the participants were asked to report on their emotional states and appraise their feelings throughout the experiment, whereas the other half completed a control questionnaire. Among those in the anger condition, participants assigned to report on their emotions exhibited qualitatively different physiological responses from those who did not report. For participants in the shame condition, there were no significant differences in physiology based on the self-report manipulation. The study demonstrates that the simple act of reporting on an emotional state may have a substantial impact on the body's reaction to an emotional situation.

  8. [The effects of media violence on affective, cognitive, and physiological reactions of viewers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukawa, S; Yoshida, F

    1998-06-01

    The present study investigated the effects of media violence on affective, cognitive, and physiological reactions of viewers. Eighty undergraduate student (male = 40, female = 40) participated in the experiment. First, subjects were exposed to one of four violent films whose levels of violence and entertainment were based on ratings taken in a previous study (Yoshida & Yukawa, 1996). Immediately after viewing the film, subjects described their thoughts which occurred during watching the film and rated their affective reactions toward the film. Heart rate and eyeblink rate as indicators of physiological arousal were measured continuously before, during, and after the film. Results showed that the film high in violence elicited more negative and empty-powerless affects, while the film high in entertainment evoked more positive affects.

  9. Costs, benefits and effectiveness of worksite physical activity counseling from the employer's perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proper, K.I.; Bruyne, M.C. de; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Beek, A.J. van der; Meerding, W.J.; Mechelen, W. van

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. This study evaluated the impact of worksite physical activity counseling using cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analyses. Methods. Civil servants (N=299) were randomly assigned to an intervention (N=131) or control (N=168) group for 9 months. The intervention costs were compared with

  10. Sedative and physiological effects of brimonidine tartrate ophthalmic solution in healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Niwako; Kanda, Teppei; Kawahata, Mizuki; Ichikawa, Takayasu; Matsumoto, Yuki; Morimitsu, Waka; Nishino, Yukiko; Itoi, Takamasa; Furumoto, Kayo

    2017-07-03

    To determine the effects of brimonidine tartrate ophthalmic solution on sedation, heart rate (HR), respiratory frequency (fR), rectal temperature (RT) and noninvasive mean arterial pressure (MAP) in healthy cats. Randomized, blinded crossover study, with 1 week washout between treatments. Six healthy purpose-bred cats. Brimonidine tartrate ophthalmic solution 0.1% (one or two drops; 58.6 ± 3.3 μg per drop) or a control solution (artificial tear solution) was administered to six healthy cats. Behavioural observations and measurements of HR, fR, RT and MAP were recorded before and at 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, 300 and 360 minutes after topical administration. Behavioural scores were analysed using Friedman's test for repeated measures to evaluate the time effect in each treatment and treatment effect at each time point. Physiological variables (HR, fR, RT and MAP) were analysed using two-way analysis of variance for repeated measures to evaluate the time and treatment effects. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Dose-dependent behavioural and physiological responses were noted. A dose of two drops of brimonidine resulted in sedation in the cats and decreased HR and MAP. Significant sedative effects occurred between 30 and 120 minutes and for physiological responses up to 360 minutes. The most frequent adverse reaction was vomiting, occurring within 40 minutes in all six cats administered two drops and five of the six cats administered one drop of brimonidine. The results demonstrated that ocular administration of brimonidine 0.1% ophthalmic solution induced sedation in cats and some cardiovascular effects usually associated with α2-adrenoceptor agonists. Further studies should be performed to determine clinical applications for this agent in cats. Copyright © 2017 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of immune supplementation and immune challenge on oxidative status and physiology in a model bird: implications for ecologists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crommenacker, van de J.; Horrocks, N.P.C.; Versteegh, M.A.; Tieleman, B.I.; Komdeur, J.; Matson, K.D.

    2010-01-01

    One route to gain insight into the causes and consequences of ecological differentiation is to understand the underlying physiological mechanisms. We explored the relationships between immunological and oxidative status and investigated how birds cope physiologically with the effects of immune-deriv

  12. The Effect of Thermal Stress on Asphalt Workers’ Function and Their Physiological Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    RAMAZAN MIRZAEI; ROOHALAH HAJIZADEH; KEYKAOUS AZRAH; MOHAMMADHOSEIN BEHESHTI

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress effects on physical and mental health of workers and decreases human function. Asphalt workers are both exposed to the heat of their working process and to the sun heat. This study aimed at evaluating thermal stress and its following function fall and the effect of asphalt work on the degree of heat stress and asphalt workers’ physiological parameters. The present study was done at the work location of 29 asphalt workers in Qum City,  central  Iran.  The  degree  of  thermal stres...

  13. Effect of Different Mixed Fertilizer on Yield, Quality and Economic Benefits in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingtian Yang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different mixed fertilizer on yield, quality and economic benefits in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni had been studied in open field. The result showed that organic cultivation and the common had some remarkable difference in yield, quality, as well as the economic benefits. Leaf production of treatment that incorporating organic fertilizer with decomposed Stevia rebaudiana dregs lower than the one that incorporating organic fertilizer with inorganic fertilizer, yet higher than applying organic fertilizer only and inorganic fertilizer only; organic cultivation enable Stevia rebaudiana produced more Stevioside (STV in leaf blade compared with common cultivation, especially in the content of Rebaudioside A (RA; and incorporating organic fertilizer with decomposed Stevia rebaudiana dregs led to a significantly higher economic benefit compared with others.

  14. Social security survivors benefits: the effects of reproductive pathways and intestacy law on attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans, Jason D; Gillen, Martie

    2013-01-01

    Most minor children are eligible for Social Security survivors benefits if a wage-earning parent dies, but eligibility of children not in utero at the time of death is more nuanced. The purpose of this study was to examine attitudes concerning access to Social Security survivors benefits in the context of posthumous reproduction. A probability sample of 540 Florida households responded to a multiple-segment factorial vignette designed to examine the effects of state intestacy laws and five reproductive pathways - normative, posthumous birth, cryopreserved embryo, cryopreserved gametes, and posthumous gamete retrieval - on attitudes toward eligibility for the Social Security survivors benefits. Broad support was found for the survivors benefits following normative and posthumous birth pathways, but attitudes were decidedly less favorable when the child was not in utero at the time of parental death. In addition, in stark contrast to the recent U.S. Supreme Court decision in Astrue v. Capato, the vast majority of respondents did not believe state intestacy laws should determine eligibility for Social Security survivors benefits.

  15. Synergistic and antagonistic effects of thermal shock, air exposure, and fishing capture on the physiological stress of Squilla mantis (Stomatopoda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Raicevich

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at assessing the effects of multiple stressors (thermal shock, fishing capture, and exposure to air on the benthic stomatopod Squilla mantis, a burrowing crustacean quite widespread in the Mediterranean Sea. Laboratory analyses were carried out to explore the physiological impairment onset over time, based on emersion and thermal shocks, on farmed individuals. Parallel field-based studies were carried out to also investigate the role of fishing (i.e., otter trawling in inducing physiological imbalance in different seasonal conditions. The dynamics of physiological recovery from physiological disruption were also studied. Physiological stress was assessed by analysing hemolymph metabolites (L-Lactate, D-glucose, ammonia, and H+, as well as glycogen concentration in muscle tissues. The experiments were carried out according to a factorial scheme considering the three factors (thermal shock, fishing capture, and exposure to air at two fixed levels in order to explore possible synergistic, additive, or antagonistic effects among factors. Additive effects on physiological parameters were mainly detected when the three factors interacted together while synergistic effects were found as effect of the combination of two factors. This finding highlights that the physiological adaptive and maladaptive processes induced by the stressors result in a dynamic response that may encounter physiological limits when high stress levels are sustained. Thus, a further increase in the physiological parameters due to synergies cannot be reached. Moreover, when critical limits are encountered, mortality occurs and physiological parameters reflect the response of the last survivors. In the light of our mortality studies, thermal shock and exposure to air have the main effect on the survival of S. mantis only on trawled individuals, while lab-farmed individuals did not show any mortality during exposure to air until after 2 hours.

  16. Effect of discounting on estimation of benefits determined by hepatitis C treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrea Messori; Valeria Fadda; Dario Maratea; Sabrina Trippoli

    2012-01-01

    The combination of either boceprevir or telaprevir with ribavirin and interferon (triple therapy) has been shown to be more effective than ribavirin+interferon (dual therapy) for the treatment of genotype 1 hepatitis C.Since the benefit of these treatments takes place after years,simulation models are needed to predict long-term outcomes.In simulation models,the choice of different values of yearly discount rates (e.g.,6%,3.5%,2%,1.5% or 0%) influences the results,but no studies have specifically addressed this issue.We examined this point by determining the long-term benefits under different conditions on the basis of standard modelling and using quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) to quantify the benefits.In our base case scenario,we compared the long-term benefit between patients given a treatment with a 40% sustained virologic response (SVR) (dual therapy) and patients given a treatment with a 70% SVR (triple therapy),and we then examined how these specific yearly discount rates influenced the incremental benefit.The gain between a 70% SVR and a 40% SVR decreased from 0.45 QALYs with a 0% discount rate to 0.22 QALYs with a 6%discount rate (ratio between the two values =2.04).Testing the other discounting assumptions confirmed that the discount rate has a marked impact on the magnitude of the model-estimated incremental benefit.In conclusion,the results of our analysis can be helpful to better interpret cost-effectiveness studies evaluating new treatment for hepatitis C.

  17. [Effects of grafting on physiological characteristics of melon (Cucumis melo) seedlings under copper stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ming-min; Zhang, Xin-ying; Fu, Qiu-shi; He, Zhong-qun; Wang, Huai-song

    2014-12-01

    The effects of grafting on physiological characters of melon (Cucumis melo) seedlings under copper stress were investigated with Pumpkin Jingxinzhen No. 3 as stock and oriental melon IVF09 as scion. The results showed that the physiological characters of melon seedlings were inhibited significantly under copper stress. Compared with self-rooted seedlings, the biomass, the contents of photosynthetic pigment, glucose and fructose, the photosynthetic parameters, the activities of sucrose phosphate synthase, neutral invertase and acid invertase in the leaves of the grafted seedlings were increased significantly. The uptake of nutrients was improved with the contents of K, P, Na increased and the content of Cu decreased. When the concentration of Cu2+ stress was 800 micromol L(-1), the contents of Cu in the leaves and roots of the grafted seedlings were decreased by 31.3% and 15.2%, respectively. Endogenous hormone balance of seedlings was improved by grafting. In the grafted seedlings, the content of IAA and peroxidase activity were higher, whereas the contents of ABA, maleicdialdehyde, the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase were lower than that in the control. It was concluded that the copper stress on the physiological characters of melon seedlings was relieved by grafting which improved the resistance of the grafted seedlings.

  18. Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Effects of Physiological Fetal Growth Determinants on Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjell Haram

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of the fetus, which is strongly associated with the outcome of pregnancy, reflects interplay of several physiological and pathological factors. The assessment of fetal growth is based on comparison of birthweight (BW or estimated fetal weight (EFW to standards which define reference ranges at a spectrum of gestational ages. Most birthweight standards do not take into account effects of physiological determinants of fetal growth. Additionally, gestational age in many standards is based on the menstrual history and is often inaccurate. Fetal growth norms should be based on an early ultrasound estimate of gestational age. Customized standards, which have included only ultrasound-dated pregnancies, seem to be superior to population-based birthweight norms in predicting perinatal mortality and morbidity. Adjustment for individual variation in customized growth curves reduces false-positive diagnosis of IUGR and may lead to a very significant reduction in intervention for suspected IUGR. Customized growth potential identifies better the risk for adverse outcome than the currently used national standards, but customized charts may fail in detecting growth-restricted stillbirth. An individual’s birthweight is the sum of physiological and pathological influences operating during pregnancy. Growth potential norms are a better discriminator of aberrations of fetal growth than population, ultrasound, and customized norms.

  19. Intrauterine growth restriction: effects of physiological fetal growth determinants on diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haram, Kjell; Søfteland, Eirik; Bukowski, Radek

    2013-01-01

    The growth of the fetus, which is strongly associated with the outcome of pregnancy, reflects interplay of several physiological and pathological factors. The assessment of fetal growth is based on comparison of birthweight (BW) or estimated fetal weight (EFW) to standards which define reference ranges at a spectrum of gestational ages. Most birthweight standards do not take into account effects of physiological determinants of fetal growth. Additionally, gestational age in many standards is based on the menstrual history and is often inaccurate. Fetal growth norms should be based on an early ultrasound estimate of gestational age. Customized standards, which have included only ultrasound-dated pregnancies, seem to be superior to population-based birthweight norms in predicting perinatal mortality and morbidity. Adjustment for individual variation in customized growth curves reduces false-positive diagnosis of IUGR and may lead to a very significant reduction in intervention for suspected IUGR. Customized growth potential identifies better the risk for adverse outcome than the currently used national standards, but customized charts may fail in detecting growth-restricted stillbirth. An individual's birthweight is the sum of physiological and pathological influences operating during pregnancy. Growth potential norms are a better discriminator of aberrations of fetal growth than population, ultrasound, and customized norms.

  20. PHYSIOLOGICAL INHIBITORY EFFECT OF OCS IN ARACHIDONIC ACID-RICH PARIETOCHLORIS INCISA (TREBOUXIOPHYCEAE, CHLOROPHYTA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建国; 张成武; ZviCohen; AmosRichmond

    2002-01-01

    Parietochloris incisa is an arachidonic acid-rich snow green alga. The main physiological profiles, such as ash free dry weight (AFDW), chlorophyll, carotenoid, protein and total fatty acids (TFA), in this alga exposed to old culture supernatant (OCS) at the decline phase or its crude ethyl acetate extracts (CEAE) were investigated by using tubular photobioreactors of different diameters. Results showed that both OCS and CEAE had strong inhibitory effect on the above physiological parameters. The longer the culture was exposed to OCS and the more CEAE were added into the algal culture, the more the above physiological properties were inhibited. Arachidonic acid (AA), the dominant component of fatty acids in this alga, was also seriously inhibited with respect to total TFA, AFDW of cell mass, or culture volume, due to a prebable reduction of enzymes activities catalyzing chain elongation from C18:1ω9 to AA. These results incontestably evidenced that some CEAE dissolving substances existing in OCS, like auto-inhibitors, inhibited P. incisa growth through feedback. Hence, any efficient removal of auto-inhibitors from algal culture to decrease their bioactivity could be good for maximal production of desired products like AA.

  1. Physiological inhibitory effect of ocs in arachidonic acid-rich Parietochloris incisa (trebouxiophyceae, chlorophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Cheng-Wu; Cohen, Zvi; Richmond, Amos

    2002-09-01

    Parietochloris incisa is an arachidonic acid-rich snow green alga. The main physiological profiles, such as ash free dry weight (AFDW), chlorophyll, carotenoid, protein and total fatty acids (TFA), in this alga exposed to old culture supernatant (OCS) at the decline phase or its crude ethyl acetate extracts (CEAE) were investigated by using tubular photobioreactors of different diameters. Results showed that both OCS and CEAE had strong inhibitory effect on the above physiological parameters. The longer the culture was exposed to OCS and the more CEAE were added into the algal culture, the more the above physiological properties were inhibited. Arachidonic acid (AA), the dominant component of fatty acids in this alga, was also seriously inhibited with respect to total TFA, AFDW of cell mass, or culture volume, due to a probable reduction of enzymes activities catalyzing chain elongation from C18; 1ω9 to AA. These results incontestably evidenced that some CEAE dissolving substances existing in OCS. like auto-inhibitors, inhibited P. incisa growth through feedback. Hence, any efficient removal of auto-inhibitors from algal culture to decrease their bioactivity could be good for maximal production of desired products like AA.

  2. The physiological effects of hypobaric hypoxia versus normobaric hypoxia: a systematic review of crossover trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppel, Jonny; Hennis, Philip; Gilbert-Kawai, Edward; Grocott, Michael Pw

    2015-01-01

    Much hypoxia research has been carried out at high altitude in a hypobaric hypoxia (HH) environment. Many research teams seek to replicate high-altitude conditions at lower altitudes in either hypobaric hypoxic conditions or normobaric hypoxic (NH) laboratories. Implicit in this approach is the assumption that the only relevant condition that differs between these settings is the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2), which is commonly presumed to be the principal physiological stimulus to adaptation at high altitude. This systematic review is the first to present an overview of the current available literature regarding crossover studies relating to the different effects of HH and NH on human physiology. After applying our inclusion and exclusion criteria, 13 studies were deemed eligible for inclusion. Several studies reported a number of variables (e.g. minute ventilation and NO levels) that were different between the two conditions, lending support to the notion that true physiological difference is indeed present. However, the presence of confounding factors such as time spent in hypoxia, temperature, and humidity, and the limited statistical power due to small sample sizes, limit the conclusions that can be drawn from these findings. Standardisation of the study methods and reporting may aid interpretation of future studies and thereby improve the quality of data in this area. This is important to improve the quality of data that is used for improving the understanding of hypoxia tolerance, both at altitude and in the clinical setting.

  3. Effect of a one-semester conditioning class on physiological characteristics of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danoff, Jerome V; Raupers, Erin G

    2014-11-01

    Long-term exercise is known to have positive effects on the health of adults. Some college "activity" courses are designed to give participants exposure to, and practice with, safe exercise techniques. Whether these 1-semester courses, usually 12-14 weeks, are sufficient to alter physiological characteristics, such as blood pressure or strength, has not been established. Therefore, the purpose of our investigation was to evaluate physiological and performance measures in college students to determine whether changes would result after 14 weeks of a general conditioning activity course. This study involved 79 students from several sections of exercise and conditioning classes at our university. Classes included a variety of fitness- and strength-oriented exercises. Physiological and performance measurements were collected in weeks 2 (pretest) and 14 (posttest), and compared pre with post using paired t-tests subject to Bonferroni correction (significant p college-based activity class can result in significant improvements in some measures of fitness and strength in college-aged participants.

  4. The effect of playing videogames on social, psychological and physiological variables in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moncada Jiménez, José

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this manuscript will be to present scientific evidence regarding the effects of videogame playing on different aspects of the social life of children and adolescents, as well as the general potential psychological and physiological effects. A literature review from relevant databases has been performed, and experimental and meta-analytical studies have been scrutinized for positive and negative effects of videogames in children and adolescents. In general, it has been found that there is a billionaire videogame industry and yet, despite the worldwide popularity of videogames, research is still scarce and sometimes contradictory. Some research suggests a correlation between excess time video gaming on negative social and psychological aspects such as isolation and aggressive behavior; while other research suggests a positive association with motor learning, motor re-training and resilience. As far as physiological effects it has been reported that active videogames might promote higher energy expenditure than passive videogames; therefore, given an adequate parental instruction might provide videogames beneficial properties to combat the global epidemic of sedentary behavior and obesity. Videogames and everything related «to be» in front of a screen will be common to future generations, and therefore more systematic studies are required to determine the long-term exposure effects to these devices.

  5. Methane emissions from beef and dairy cattle: quantifying the effect of physiological stage and diet characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, P; Rooke, J A; Nevison, I; Waterhouse, A

    2013-11-01

    The prediction of methane outputs from ruminant livestock data at farm, national, and global scales is a vital part of greenhouse gas calculations. The objectives of this work were to quantify the effect of physiological stage (lactating or nonlactating) on predicting methane (CH4) outputs and to illustrate the potential improvement for a beef farming system of using more specific mathematical models to predict CH4 from cattle at different physiological stages and fed different diet types. A meta-analysis was performed on 211 treatment means from 38 studies where CH4, intake, animal, and feed characteristics had been recorded. Additional information such as type of enterprise, diet type, physiological stage, CH4 measurement technique, intake restriction, and CH4 reduction treatment application from these studies were used as classificatory factors. A series of equations for different physiological stages and diet types based on DMI or GE intake explained 96% of the variation in observed CH4 outputs (Pemission factor, in calculating CH4 outputs from 4 diverse beef systems. Observed BW and BW change data from cows with calves at side grazing either hill or lowland grassland, cows and overwintering calves and finishing steers fed contrasting diets were used to predict energy requirements, intake, and CH4 outputs. Compared with using this IPCC equation, NewEqs predicted up to 26% lower CH4 on average from individual lactating grazing cows. At the herd level, differences between equation estimates from 10 to 17% were observed in total annual accumulated CH4 when applied to the 4 diverse beef production systems. Overall, despite the small number of animals used it was demonstrated that there is a biological impact of using more specific CH4 prediction equations. Based on this approach, farm and national carbon budgets will be more accurate, contributing to reduced uncertainty in assessing mitigation options at farm and national level.

  6. Effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine administration on retinal physiology in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Martins

    Full Text Available 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ecstasy is known to produce euphoric states, but may also cause adverse consequences in humans, such as hyperthermia and neurocognitive deficits. Although MDMA consumption has been associated with visual problems, the effects of this recreational drug in retinal physiology have not been addressed hitherto. In this work, we evaluated the effect of a single MDMA administration in the rat electroretinogram (ERG. Wistar rats were administered MDMA (15 mg/kg or saline and ERGs were recorded before (Baseline ERG, and 3 h, 24 h, and 7 days after treatment. A high temperature (HT saline-treated control group was also included. Overall, significantly augmented and shorter latency ERG responses were found in MDMA and HT groups 3 h after treatment when compared to Baseline. Twenty-four hours after treatment some of the alterations found at 3 h, mainly characterized by shorter latency, tended to return to Baseline values. However, MDMA-treated animals still presented increased scotopic a-wave and b-wave amplitudes compared to Baseline ERGs, which were independent of temperature elevation though the latter might underlie the acute ERG alterations observed 3 h after MDMA administration. Seven days after MDMA administration recovery from these effects had occurred. The effects seem to stem from specific changes observed at the a-wave level, which indicates that MDMA affects subacutely (at 24 h retinal physiology at the outer retinal (photoreceptor/bipolar layers. In conclusion, we have found direct evidence that MDMA causes subacute enhancement of the outer retinal responses (most prominent in the a-wave, though ERG alterations resume within one week. These changes in photoreceptor/bipolar cell physiology may have implications for the understanding of the subacute visual manifestations induced by MDMA in humans.

  7. The effects of different nickel concentrations on some morpho-physiological characteristics of parsley (Petroselinum crispum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mitra khatib

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Nickel as a heavy metal is considered a fatal and toxic element for humans, animals and plants. However, some plants are known as hyper accumulator for nickel and sometimes seem to be useful for plant growth. Thus, investigation on the effect of nickel on plants' growth is an issue of importance. In this paper, we have studied the effect of different nickel concentrations on parsley growth and morph-physiological characteristics and its effect on absorption of some macro elements in this plant. Seeds of parsley were germinated in germinator and seedlings were transferred to hydroponics culture. The seedlings were grown in Hogland solution with different nickel concentrations (in form of nickel nitrate of: 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2 and 4 ppm. A completely randomized design with 8 treatments and 7 replications per treatment was used. Twelve weeks after treatments, morph-physiological characteristics including SPAD number, plant biomass, length of shoot and root, leaf area, leaf number and stomatal resistance were measured. The amount of absorbed nickel in plant foliages and roots of different treatments were also measured. The results revealed that the application of different nickel concentrations were decreased SPAD number, plant biomass, leaf area and leaf number, but the stomatal resistance were increased. Increase of nickel concentration resulted increasing Ni concentrations of plant foliages and roots. Nickel with 0.75 ppm concentration or higher imposed a toxic effect on parsley as general wilting and significant reduction in most morph-physiological characteristics. Keywords: Hydroponics culture, parsley, Petroselinum crispum, Nickel.

  8. The physical and physiological effects of vacuum massage on the different skin layers: a current status of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moortgat, Peter; Anthonissen, Mieke; Meirte, Jill; Van Daele, Ulrike; Maertens, Koen

    2016-01-01

    Vacuum massage is a non-invasive mechanical massage technique performed with a mechanical device that lifts the skin by means of suction, creates a skin fold and mobilises that skin fold. In the late 1970s, this therapy was introduced to treat traumatic or burn scars. Although vacuum massage was invented to treat burns and scars, one can find very little literature on the effects of this intervention. Therefore, the aim of this review is to present an overview of the available literature on the physical and physiological effects of vacuum massage on epidermal and dermal skin structures in order to find the underlying working mechanisms that could benefit the healing of burns and scars. The discussion contains translational analysis of the results and provides recommendations for future research on the topic. An extended search for publications was performed using PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar. Two authors independently identified and checked each study against the inclusion criteria. Nineteen articles were included in the qualitative synthesis. The two most reported physical effects of vacuum massage were improvement of the tissue hardness and the elasticity of the skin. Besides physical effects, a variety of physiological effects are reported in literature, for example, an increased number of fibroblasts and collagen fibres accompanied by an alteration of fibroblast phenotype and collagen orientation. Little information was found on the decrease of pain and itch due to vacuum massage. Although vacuum massage initially had been developed for the treatment of burn scars, this literature review found little evidence for the efficacy of this treatment. Variations in duration, amplitude or frequency of the treatment have a substantial influence on collagen restructuring and reorientation, thus implying possible beneficial influences on the healing potential by mechanotransduction pathways. Vacuum massage may release the mechanical tension associated with

  9. Hypothesis: atorvastatin has pleiotropic effects that translate into early clinical benefits on cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novela, Cristina; Hennekens, Charles H

    2004-03-01

    The results of numerous long-term, randomized trials show that statins significantly decrease the risks of myocardial infarction, stroke, and vascular death as well as total mortality. The benefits of statins on cardiovascular disease in patients who are not experiencing acute coronary syndromes generally become apparent only after about 2 years. In contrast, atorvastatin conferred an early clinical benefit in the lipid-lowering arm of the long-term Anglo Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial as well as early benefit on progression of atherosclerosis in the Reversal of Atherosclerosis with Aggressive Lipid Lowering trial. An unexpected finding at baseline in the prospective Interaction of Atorvastatin and Clopidogrel Study was that patients on atorvastatin had significantly decreased platelet activity compared with either patients on other statins or those taking no statins. Atorvastatin has protective effects against membrane lipid peroxidation at pharmacologic concentrations. These and other considerations contribute to the hypothesis that atorvastatin has pleiotropic effects that translate into early clinical benefits on cardiovascular disease.

  10. Cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis of drug therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, T D

    1985-04-01

    A model for cost-benefit analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis (CBA-CEA) of pharmaceutical intervention is presented, and CBA-CEA research methods reported in the literature are reviewed. The cost versus benefit and the cost effectiveness of drug therapy can be analyzed in societal as well as private terms. Since CBA measures costs and outcomes in monetary terms, it can be used to compare net benefits of all types of interventions. CEA, however, can be used only in comparing alternative interventions that can produce a similar health outcome. Research activities needed for identification of treatment protocols, alternative therapies and their respective outcomes, and resource use are described. Quantification of benefits and costs is discussed and inherent strengths and weaknesses of CBA-CEA are summarized. For the wide variety of research activities involved in CBA-CEA, the expertise of economists, physicians, clinical pharmacists and pharmacologists, epidemiologists, sociologists, and psychologists is needed. Inherent in CBA-CEA for drug therapy are judgments, either by analysts or by policy decision makers, about how to value life, pain, anxiety, and happiness and how to distribute health-care resources. When results of CBA-CEA are presented and interpreted with care, this analysis can be an important tool for policy decision makers.

  11. [Psycho-physiological effects of pop music on cardiovascular parameters at rest and during exertion (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liptak, V

    1979-05-30

    The effects of pop music on heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure at rest, during exercise on a bicycle ergometer and in the recovery phase were investigated. The psychological effects of the music were analysed by means of a question sheet and correlated with the physiological effects. The psychological effects of the music points to a reduction of monotony and of fatigue. During exercise, especially during low physical strain, there was a good correlation between the psychological and the physiological parameters. The significant decrease of the cardiovascular parameters in the recovery phase demonstrates, that emotional stimuli are influencing the heart rate not only at rest and work, but also in the recovery phase. The results of the psycho-physiological experiments give rise to the conclusion, that individual attitude to music doesn't primarily influence the effects of music on physiological reactions.

  12. Perceiving blocks of emotional pictures and sounds:Effects on physiological variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie eBrouwer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Most studies on physiological effects of emotion inducing images and sounds examine stimulus locked variables reflecting a state of at most a few seconds. We here aimed to induce longer lasting emotional states using blocks of repetitive visual, auditory and bimodal stimuli corresponding to specific valence and arousal levels. The duration of these blocks enabled us to reliably measure heart rate variability as a possible indicator of arousal. In addition, heart rate and skin conductance were determined without taking stimulus timing into account. Heart rate was higher for pleasant and low arousal stimuli compared to unpleasant and high arousal stimuli. Heart rate variability and skin conductance increased with arousal. Effects of valence and arousal on cardiovascular measures habituated or remained the same over 2-minute intervals whereas the arousal effect on skin conductance increased. We did not find any effect of stimulus modality. Our results indicate that blocks of images and sounds of specific valence and arousal levels consistently influence different physiological parameters. These parameters need not be stimulus locked. We found no evidence for differences in emotion induction between visual and auditory stimuli, nor did we find bimodal stimuli to be more potent than unimodal stimuli. The latter could be (partly due to the fact that our bimodal stimuli were not optimally congruent.

  13. Augmented visual feedback counteracts the effects of surface muscular functional electrical stimulation on physiological tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Giuliana; Fernandez, Alfredo; Manto, Mario

    2013-09-24

    Recent studies suggest that surface muscular functional electrical stimulation (FES) might suppress neurological upper limb tremor. We assessed its effects on upper limb physiological tremor, which is mainly driven by mechanical-reflex oscillations. We investigated the interaction between FES and augmented visual feedback, since (a) most daily activities are performed using visual cues, and (b) augmented visual feedback exacerbates upper limb tremor. 10 healthy subjects (23.4 ± 7.7 years) performed 2 postural tasks with combinations of FES (4 sites; frequency of stimulation: 30 Hz; pulse width: 300 microsec; range of current delivered 10-34 mAmp) and augmented visual feedback. Spectral analysis of tremor showed a decrease of power spectral density to 62.18% (p = 0.01), of the integral in the 8-12 Hz frequency band to 57.67% (p = 0.003), and of tremor root mean square (RMS) to 57.16% (p = 0.002) during FES, without any changes in tremor frequency. Augmented visual feedback blocked the beneficial effect of FES, as confirmed by power spectral analysis (p = 0.01). We found a statistically significant interaction between augmented visual feedback and electrical stimulation (p = 0.039). Augmented visual feedback antagonizes the effects of FES on physiological tremor. The absence of changes of peak frequency argues against an effect of FES on mechanical properties of the upper limb.

  14. Physiological functions of the effects of the different bathing method on recovery from local muscle fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Soomin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, mist saunas have been used in the home as a new bathing style in Japan. However, there are still few reports on the effects of bathing methods on recovery from muscle fatigue. Furthermore, the effect of mist sauna bathing on human physiological function has not yet been revealed. Therefore, we measured the physiological effects of bathing methods including the mist sauna on recovery from muscle fatigue. Methods The bathing methods studied included four conditions: full immersion bath, shower, mist sauna, and no bathing as a control. Ten men participated in this study. The participants completed four consecutive sessions: a 30-min rest period, a 10-min all out elbow flexion task period, a 10-min bathing period, and a 10-min recovery period. We evaluated the mean power frequency (MNF of the electromyogram (EMG, rectal temperature (Tre, skin temperature (Tsk, skin blood flow (SBF, concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin (O2Hb, and subjective evaluation. Results We found that the MNF under the full immersion bath condition was significantly higher than those under the other conditions. Furthermore, Tre, SBF, and O2Hb under the full immersion bath condition were significantly higher than under the other conditions. Conclusions Following the results for the full immersion bath condition, the SBF and O2Hb of the mist sauna condition were significantly higher than those for the shower and no bathing conditions. These results suggest that full immersion bath and mist sauna are effective in facilitating recovery from muscle fatigue.

  15. Overcoming neonatal sickness: Sex-specific effects of sickness on physiology and social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvia, Kristyn E; Demas, Gregory E

    2017-10-01

    Early-life environmental stressors, including sickness, have the potential to disrupt development in ways that could severely impact fitness. Despite what is known about the effects of sickness on reproduction, the precise physiological mechanisms have not yet been determined. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of a neonatal immune challenge on adult reproductive physiology and opposite-sex social behavior. Male and female Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) pups were administered lipopolysaccharide ([LPS]; a cell wall component of gram-negative bacteria) or saline injections on postnatal days 3 and 5 and body mass, food intake, and measures of reproductive maturity were taken throughout development. In adulthood, hamsters were placed in staged mating pairs with reproductively mature individuals of the opposite sex, during which a series of behaviors were scored. We found that although males and females showed no change in food intake, body mass, or reproductive behaviors, LPS-treated females had abnormal estrous cycles and smaller ovaries. Females also showed increased investigation of and increased aggression towards males in a reproductive context. In contrast, LPS-treated males showed no change in any physiological measures, nor did they show any changes in behavior. The present findings demonstrate that females may be more robustly affected by neonatal sickness than males and that these effects could have potential impacts on reproductive success. Collectively, the results of this study can be used to expand upon what is already known about sickness and reproduction, specifically the importance of social behaviors involved in pre-copulation and information necessary to choose the appropriate mate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Physiological benefits of being small in a changing world: responses of Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch to an acute thermal challenge and a simulated capture event.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy D Clark

    Full Text Available Evidence is building to suggest that both chronic and acute warm temperature exposure, as well as other anthropogenic perturbations, may select for small adult fish within a species. To shed light on this phenomenon, we investigated physiological and anatomical attributes associated with size-specific responses to an acute thermal challenge and a fisheries capture simulation (exercise+air exposure in maturing male coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch. Full-size females were included for a sex-specific comparison. A size-specific response in haematology to an acute thermal challenge (from 7 to 20 °C at 3 °C h(-1 was apparent only for plasma potassium, whereby full-size males exhibited a significant increase in comparison with smaller males ('jacks'. Full-size females exhibited an elevated blood stress response in comparison with full-size males. Metabolic recovery following exhaustive exercise at 7 °C was size-specific, with jacks regaining resting levels of metabolism at 9.3 ± 0.5 h post-exercise in comparison with 12.3 ± 0.4 h for full-size fish of both sexes. Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption scaled with body mass in male fish with an exponent of b = 1.20 ± 0.08. Jacks appeared to regain osmoregulatory homeostasis faster than full-size males, and they had higher ventilation rates at 1 h post-exercise. Peak metabolic rate during post-exercise recovery scaled with body mass with an exponent of b~1, suggesting that the slower metabolic recovery in large fish was not due to limitations in diffusive or convective oxygen transport, but that large fish simply accumulated a greater 'oxygen debt' that took longer to pay back at the size-independent peak metabolic rate of ~6 mg min(-1 kg(-1. Post-exercise recovery of plasma testosterone was faster in jacks compared with full-size males, suggesting less impairment of the maturation trajectory of smaller fish. Supporting previous studies, these findings suggest that environmental change and non

  17. The pharmacokinetics and physiological effects of buprenorphine infusion in premature neonates.

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    1. The pharmacokinetics and physiological effects of buprenorphine were studied in 12 newborn premature neonates (27 to 32 weeks gestational age) who were given a loading dose of 3.0 micrograms kg-1 of buprenorphine followed by an intravenous infusion of 0.72 micrograms kg-1 h-1 of buprenorphine. Plasma concentrations of buprenorphine were measured during the infusion, at steady-state and for 24 h after the cessation of the buprenorphine infusion. 2. The mean steady-state plasma buprenorphine...

  18. [Effect of pentosan polysulphate (SP-54) on the level of prion physiological form in rat tissues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlizlo, V V; Stadnyk, V V; Maĭor, Kh Ia; Kinakh, M V; Verbytskyĭ, P I; Kozak, M M

    2008-01-01

    It is established that except for already known influence of pentosan polysulphate (SP-54) on the expression of pathological prion, this preparation has an inhibiting effect in respect of physiological prion. Moreover, the reduction of concentration of physiologycal prion is registered in the central and peripheral organs of the prion-replicating system. It was also shown that inhibition of the studied protein leads to the growth in copper and zinc concentration in the proper organs and tissues, but at the same time activity of Cu/Zn-dependent superoxide dismutase does not change.

  19. Effects of Soil Aeration on Sweet Potato Yield and Its Physiological Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Chun-yu; WANG Zhen-lin; YU Song-lie

    2002-01-01

    The effects of soil aeration on physiological characters and root tuber yield of Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. CV Lushu7 and Xushu18 were studied. The results showed that soil aeration improvement could increase ATP content and ATPase activity in functional leaves and root tubers and ABA content in root tubers.It also accelerated the transportation of 14C-photosynthate from leaves to root tubers and enhanced dry matter distribution in root tubers and thus root tuber yield was significantly raised. The role of ATP, ATPase and ABA in accelerating the transportation of 14C-photosynthate was discussed based on the changes of soluble carbonhydrate content in sweet potato plant.

  20. Reproductive physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Russman, S.E.; Ellis, David H.; Gee, George F.; Mirande, Claire M.

    1996-01-01

    Conclusions: Although the general pattern of avian physiology applies to cranes, we have identified many physiological mechanisms (e.g., effects of disturbance) that need further study. Studies with cranes are expensive compared to those done with domestic fowl because of the crane's larger size, low reproductive rate, and delayed sexual maturity. To summarize, the crane reproductive system is composed of physiological and anatomical elements whose function is controlled by an integrated neural-endocrine system. Males generally produce semen at a younger age than when females lay eggs. Eggs are laid in clutches of two (1 to 3), and females will lay additional clutches if the preceding clutches are removed. Both sexes build nests and incubate the eggs. Molt begins during incubation and body molt may be completed annually in breeding pairs. However, remiges are replaced sequentially over 2 to 3 years, or abruptly every 2 to 3 years in other species. Most immature birds replace their juvenal remiges over a 2 to 3 year period. Stress interferes with reproduction in cranes by reducing egg production or terminating the reproductive effort. In other birds, stress elevates corticosterone levels and decreases LHRH release. We know little about the physiological response of cranes to stress.

  1. The influence of maternal effects on indirect benefits associated with polyandry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Clarissa M; Bleakley, Bronwyn H; Walling, Craig A; Price, Thomas A R; Stamper, Clare E; Moore, Allen J

    2011-04-22

    Despite numerous and diverse theoretical models for the indirect benefits of polyandry, empirical support is mixed. One reason for the difficulty in detecting indirect benefits of polyandry may be that these are subtle and are mediated by environmental effects, such as maternal effects. Maternal effects may be especially important if females allocate resources to their offspring depending on the characteristics of their mating partners. We test this hypothesis in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides, a species that provides extensive and direct parental care to offspring. We used a fully factorial design and mated females to one, two, three, four or five different males and manipulated conditions so that their offspring received reduced (12 h) or full (ca 72 h) maternal care. We found that average offspring fitness increased with full maternal care but there was no significant effect of polyandry or the interaction between the duration of maternal care and the level of polyandry on offspring fitness. Thus, although polyandry could provide a mechanism for biasing paternity towards high quality or compatible males, and variation in parental care matters, we found no evidence that female N. vespilloides gain indirect benefits by using parental care to bias the allocation of resources under different mating conditions.

  2. The effect of clofibrate and phototherapy on physiological jaundice in term newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hosein Hashemian

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clofibrate is an effective anti lipid agent that induces glucuronyltransferase could increase bilirubin conjugation. The aim of this study was to evaluate effect of clofibrate on neonatal physiologic jaundice.Methods: Randomized clinical trial sampling method used and 60 healthy term neonates which were admitted in Imam Reza Hospital of Kermanshah-Iran because of indirect hyperbilirubinemia enrolled into the study. 30 neonates (case group were treated with single oral dose of clofibrate (100/mg plus phototherapy and 30 neonates (control group received only phototherapy. Serum total and direct bilirubin levels were measured at admission, 12 hours later, and then every 24 hours until 96 hours. Results: There were no significant difference between two groups regarding to gender, age, weight and total serum bilirubin level at the admission. Mean values for total bilirubin of serum in case group 12, 24 and 48 hours after admission were significantly lower than control group (P<0.001. The mean of needed time for phototherapy in case group was significantly less than the control group (P<0.00l.Conclusion: It seems that clofibrate plus phototherapy is effective for treatment of neonatal physiologic jaundice in healthy term newborns, although further studies are necessary for evaluation of clofibrate safety as a routine treatments.

  3. Interactive effects of selenium, methionine, and dietary protein on survival, growth, and physiology in mallard ducklings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.; Sanderson, C.J.; LeCaptain, L.J.; Cromartie, E.; Pendleton, G.W.

    1992-01-01

    Concentrations of over 100 ppm (100 mg/kg) selenium (Se) have been found in aquatic food chains associated with irrigation drainwater. Both quantity and composition of dietary protein for wild ducklings may vary in selenium-contaminated environments. Day-old mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings received one of the following diets containing 22% protein: unsupplemented (controls), 15 ppm Se (as selenomethionine), 60 ppm Se, methionine supplemented, 15 ppm Se with methionine supplement, or 60 ppm Se with methionine supplement. In a second concurrent experiment the above sequence was repeated with a protein-restricted (11%) but isocaloric diet. In a third concurrent experiment all ducklings received 44% protein with 0, 15, or 60 ppm Se added. After 4 weeks, blood and tissue samples were collected for biochemical and histological examination. With 22% protein and 60 ppm Se in the diet, duckling survival and growth was reduced and histopathological lesions of the liver occurred. Antagonistic interactive effects occurred between supplementary methionine and Se, including complete to partial alleviation of the following Se effects by methionine: mortality, hepatic lesions, and altered glutathione and thiol status. With 11% protein, growth of controls was less than that with 22% protein, Se (60 ppm) caused 100% mortality, and methionine supplementation, although protective afforded less protection than it did with 22% protein. With 44% protein, ducklings experienced physiological stress, and Se was more toxic than with methionine-supplemented 22% protein. These findings suggest the potential for antagonistic effects of Se, methionine, and protein on duckling survival and physiology.

  4. Pulmonary surfactant in the airway physiology: a direct relaxing effect on the smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkovska, A; Uhliarova, B; Joskova, M; Franova, S; Kolomaznik, M; Calkovsky, V; Smolarova, S

    2015-04-01

    Beside alveoli, surface active material plays an important role in the airway physiology. In the upper airways it primarily serves in local defense. Lower airway surfactant stabilizes peripheral airways, provides the transport and defense, has barrier and anti-edematous functions, and possesses direct relaxant effect on the smooth muscle. We tested in vitro the effect of two surfactant preparations Curosurf® and Alveofact® on the precontracted smooth muscle of intra- and extra-pulmonary airways. Relaxation was more pronounced for lung tissue strip containing bronchial smooth muscle as the primary site of surfactant effect. The study does not confirm the participation of ATP-dependent potassium channels and cAMP-regulated epithelial chloride channels known as CFTR chloride channels, or nitric oxide involvement in contractile response of smooth muscle to surfactant.By controlling wall thickness and airway diameter, pulmonary surfactant is an important component of airway physiology. Thus, surfactant dysfunction may be included in pathophysiology of asthma, COPD, or other diseases with bronchial obstruction.

  5. Pathologic and physiologic effects associated with long-term intracoelomic transmitters in captive Siberian sturgeon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, S. Shaun; Divers, Stephen J.; Camus, Alvin C.; Peterson, Douglas C.; Jennings, Cecil A.; Shelton, James L.; Hernandez, Sonia M.

    2015-01-01

    Intracoelomic transmitters are commonly used to evaluate migratory patterns, distribution, and habitat use of many species of fish. Currently, transmitter implantation relies mostly on the assumption that transmitters do not cause any adverse physiological or pathological effects on the animal. To investigate these effects, we surgically implanted 60 Siberian Sturgeon Acipenser baeri with transmitters that weighed less than 2% of their body weight. Postoperative assessments were conducted at 1, 2, 8, 12, 26, and 55 weeks to evaluate surgical healing and transmitter retention. Blood samples were collected before and after the 55-week study for serum cortisol analysis. Overall transmitter loss was 32%. Minor to moderate adhesions were noted at necropsy but did not appear to affect organ function. One fish was noted to have an intraintestinal transmitter at necropsy, but the fish was in overall good health. Long-term transmitter presence does not appear to increase serum cortisol levels or affect overall growth more than nontransmitter fish. Although long-term telemetry studies can be undertaken with minimal concern for negative physiological or pathological effects from transmitters, researchers should be aware that transmitter loss rates may be higher than previously thought. Mechanisms for transmitter loss may include expulsion through the surgical incision, expulsion through the mucocutaneous junction between the large intestine and the vent, or intraintestinal capture and expulsion through the vent. Received February 10, 2013; accepted June 10, 2013

  6. Effects of Essential Oil from Hinoki Cypress, Chamaecyparis obtusa, on Physiology and Behavior of Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shin-Hae; Do, Hyung-Seok; Min, Kyung-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Phytoncides, which are volatile substances emitted from plants for protection against plant pathogens and insects, are known to have insecticidal, antimicrobial, and antifungal activities. In contrast to their negative effects on microorganisms and insects, phytoncides have been shown to have beneficial effects on human health. Essential oil from Hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) is mostly used in commercial products such as air purifiers. However, the physiological/behavioral impact of essential oil from C. obtusa on insects is not established. In this study, we tested the effects of essential oil extracted from C. obtusa on the physiologies and behaviors of Drosophila melanogaster and Musca domestica. Exposure to essential oil from C. obtusa decreased the lifespan, fecundity, locomotive activity, and developmental success rate of D. melanogaster. In addition, both fruit flies and house flies showed strong repellent behavioral responses to the essential oil, with duration times of about 5 hours at 70 μg/ml. These results suggest that essential oil from C. obtusa can be used as a 'human-friendly' alternative insect repellent.

  7. Effects of Essential Oil from Hinoki Cypress, Chamaecyparis obtusa, on Physiology and Behavior of Flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Hae Lee

    Full Text Available Phytoncides, which are volatile substances emitted from plants for protection against plant pathogens and insects, are known to have insecticidal, antimicrobial, and antifungal activities. In contrast to their negative effects on microorganisms and insects, phytoncides have been shown to have beneficial effects on human health. Essential oil from Hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa is mostly used in commercial products such as air purifiers. However, the physiological/behavioral impact of essential oil from C. obtusa on insects is not established. In this study, we tested the effects of essential oil extracted from C. obtusa on the physiologies and behaviors of Drosophila melanogaster and Musca domestica. Exposure to essential oil from C. obtusa decreased the lifespan, fecundity, locomotive activity, and developmental success rate of D. melanogaster. In addition, both fruit flies and house flies showed strong repellent behavioral responses to the essential oil, with duration times of about 5 hours at 70 μg/ml. These results suggest that essential oil from C. obtusa can be used as a 'human-friendly' alternative insect repellent.

  8. Effects of a Caenorhabditis elegans dauer pheromone ascaroside on physiology and signal transduction pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Marco; Riddle, Donald L

    2009-02-01

    Daumone is one of the three purified and artificially synthesized components of the Caenorhabditis elegans dauer pheromone. It affects the major signal transduction pathways known to discriminate between developmental arrest at the dauer stage and growth to the adult [the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) and daf-2/IGF1R pathways], just as natural pheromone extracts do. Transcription of daf-7/TGF-beta is reduced in pre-dauer larvae, and nuclear localization of the DAF-16/FOXO transcription factor is increased in embryos and L1 larvae exposed to synthetic daumone. However, daumone does not require the cilia in the amphidial neurons to produce these effects nor does it require the Galpha protein GPA-3 to induce dauer entry, although GPA-3 is required for dauer induction by natural dauer pheromone extracts. Synthetic daumone has physiological effects that have not been observed with natural pheromone. It is toxic at the concentrations required for bioassay and is lethal to mutants with defective cuticles. The molecular and physiological effects of daumone and natural dauer pheromone are only partially overlapping.

  9. Effects of insecticidal essential oil fumigations on physiological changes in cut Dendrobium Sonia orchid flower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarongsak Pumnuan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated essential oil (EO formulas with high insecticidal properties, but low physiological impacts on cut Dendrobium Sonia orchid flower. Fumigation toxicities of EOs from 18 medicinal plants at 2.0 and 3.0 µl/L air were examined against adults of thrips (Frankliniella schultzei and larvae of mealybug (Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi. The effective EO mixtures, optimal concentrations fumigation and air circulation periods were investigated. Then, field experiments were conducted, and changes in L*, a* and b* values, percentages of weight loss and anthocyanin contents of the EOfumigated flower were observed and compared to the methyl bromide and control fumigations. The results showed that clove and cinnamon demonstrated high insecticidal properties against the insects (>85% mortality and low physiological changes in the flower. In particular, fumigations with 2.0 µl/L air of a mixture between clove and cinnamon EOs (1:3 for 3 hr with 15- min air circulation demonstrated the highest thrips and mealybug mortalities (92.2 and 74.6%, respectively. The EO fumigation formula presented less impact on color change and anthocyanin content than methyl bromide fumigation which showed higher reduction of anthocyanin content (22.9 mg/100g FW when compared to the control (13.6 mg/100g FW. The percentages of weight loss in the flower fumigated with EO, control and methyl bromide were about 10.4, 7.9 and 14.8%, respectively. In general, applications of EO at higher concentrations resulted in higher insect mortalities and more impacts on physiological changes which involved anthocyanin degradation and higher percentages of weight loss. Further studies might consider applications of clove and cinnamon EO formulas via other methods. In addition, revisions of the EO mixture can also be examined in order to obtain the most effective and environment friendly insect management approach.

  10. Baseline and strategic effects behind mindful emotion regulation: behavioral and physiological investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Grecucci

    Full Text Available One of the consequences of extensive mindfulness practice is a reduction of anxiety and depression, but also a capacity to regulate negative emotions. In this study, we explored four key questions concerning mindfulness training: (1 What are the processes by which mindfulness regulates our emotions? (2 Can mindfulness be applied to social emotions? (3 Does mindfulness training affect emotionally driven behavior towards others? (4 Does mindfulness alter physiological reactivity? To address these questions, we tested, in two experiments, the ability of mindfulness meditators to regulate interpersonal emotions (Experiment 1 and interactive behaviors (Experiment 2 as compared to naïve controls. To better understand the mechanisms by which mindfulness regulates emotions, we asked participants to apply two strategies: a cognitive strategy (mentalizing, a form of reappraisal focused on the intentions of others and an experiential strategy derived from mindfulness principles (mindful detachment. Both groups were able to regulate interpersonal emotions by means of cognitive (mentalizing and experiential (mindful detachment strategies. In Experiment 1, a simple effect of meditation, independent from the implementation of the strategies, resulted in reduced emotional and physiological reactivity, as well as in increased pleasantness for meditators when compared to controls, providing evidence of baseline regulation. In Experiment 2, one visible effect of the strategy was that meditators outperformed controls in the experiential (mindful detachment but not in the cognitive (mentalize strategy, showing stronger modulation of their interactive behavior (less punishments and providing evidence of a strategic behavioral regulation. Based on these results, we suggest that mindfulness can influence interpersonal emotional reactions through an experiential mechanism, both at a baseline level and a strategic level, thereby altering the subjective and physiological

  11. Effects of Ionizing Irradiation on Mushrooms as Influenced by Physiological and Environmental Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Jens-Peder; Bech, K.; Lundsten, K.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of irradiation with β (10 MeV fast electrons)- and γ-rays were studied on several characters in strains of the cultured mushroom under different physiological and environmental conditions, including uncut and cut mushrooms, tightness of packing, and relative humidity. Weight loss...... was greatest in the non-irradiated mushrooms owing to evaporation from an increased surface area resulting from expansion and ripening which were greatly retarded in the irradiated samples. Twenty-five krads of β- or γ-rays had a significant, but transitory, effect on the veil opening. The inhibition became...... opening rates. Expansion and elongation were retarded significantly by 100 krads. The effect improved further with increasing dose. Irradiation improved the skin colour when the mushrooms were stored uncovered or in boxes with perforated PVC-foil. The opposite was the case when the boxes were sealed...

  12. Individual benefits of nestling begging: experimental evidence for an immediate effect, but no evidence for a delayed effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessells, C Kate M; Riebel, Katharina; Draganoiu, Tudor Ion

    2011-06-23

    The evolutionary stability of honest signalling by offspring is thought to require that begging displays be costly, so the costs and benefits of begging--and whether they are experienced individually or by the whole brood--are crucial to understanding the evolution of begging behaviour. Begging is known to have immediate individual benefits (parents distribute more food to intensely begging individuals) and delayed brood benefits (parents increase provisioning rate to the brood), but the possibility of delayed individual benefits (previous begging affects the current distribution of food) has rarely, if ever, been researched. We did this using playback of great tit Parus major chick begging and a control sound from either side of the nest. Male parents fed chicks close to the speaker more when great tit chick begging, but not other stimuli, was played back. In contrast, there was no effect of playback at the previous visit on the chicks that male parents fed. We have thus demonstrated an immediate individual benefit to begging, but found no evidence of a delayed individual benefit in this species.

  13. Effects of shade on physiological changes, oxidative stress, and total antioxidant power in Thai Brahman cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aengwanich, Worapol; Kongbuntad, Watee; Boonsorn, Thongchai

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of artificial shade, tree shade, and no shade on physiological changes, oxidative stress, and total antioxidant power in Thai Brahman cattle. Twenty-one cattle were divided into three groups: cattle maintained under artificial shade, under tree shade, and without shade. On days 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 of the experimental period, after the cattle were set in individual stalls for 2 h, physiological changes, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and total antioxidant power were investigated. The results revealed that the respiratory rate, heart rate, sweat rate and the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio of the no-shade cattle were significantly higher than those of cattle maintained under artificial shade and tree shade ( P 0.05). However, rectal temperature and packed cell volume of the cattle in all groups did not differ ( P > 0.05). These results showed that artificial shade and tree shade can protect cattle from sunlight compared to no shade, and that the effectiveness of tree shade for sunlight protection is at an intermediate level.

  14. Physiological constraints on the global distribution of Trichodesmium – effect of temperature on diazotrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Oschlies

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The cyanobacterium Trichodesmium is an important link in the global nitrogen cycle due to its significant input of atmospheric nitrogen into the ocean. Incorporating Trichodesmium in ocean biogeochemical circulation models relies on field-based correlations between temperature and Trichodesmium abundance. The observed correlation of Trichodesmium abundance with temperature in the ocean may result in part from a direct effect on Trichodesmium growth rates through the control of cellular biochemical processes, or indirectly through its influence on mixed layer depth, light and nutrient regimes. Here we present results indicating that the observed correlation of Trichodesmium with temperature in the field reflects primarily the direct physiological effects of temperature on diazotrophic growth of Trichodesmium. Trichodesmium IMS-101 (an isolate of T. erythraeum could acclimate and grow at temperatures ranging from 20 to 34°C. Maximum growth rates (μmax=0.25 day−1 and maximum nitrogen fixation rates (0.13 mmol N mol POC−1 h−1 were measured within 24 to 30°C. This empirical relationship and global warming scenarios derived from state-of-the-art climate models set a physiological constraint on the future distribution of Trichodesmium that could significantly affect nitrogen input into oligotrophic waters by this diazotroph.

  15. The effect of active learning on student characteristics in a human physiology course for nonmajors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, R Russell

    2003-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of active-learning strategies on college students' achievement, motivation, and self-efficacy in a human physiology course for nonmajors. Variables were studied via a quasi-experimental, Solomon four-group design on 141 students at a small west-Texas university. Treatment groups were taught using a continuum-based, active-learning model implemented over the course of a semester. Control groups were taught using traditional didactic lecture methods. To assess the effects of the continuum-based active learning strategies, students were administered a comprehensive physiology content exam, the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire, and attitude surveys. Factorial analyses indicated that the treatment groups acquired significantly more content knowledge and were significantly more self-efficacious than students in the control groups. There were no significant differences in motivation. Attitude surveys indicated that students in both the treatment and control groups demonstrated a positive attitude toward active learning, believed it helped (or would help) them to learn the material, and would choose an active learning course in the future.

  16. Effect of prolonged ketamine exposure on cardiovascular physiology in pregnant and infant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotchkiss, Charlotte E; Wang, Cheng; Slikker, William

    2007-11-01

    Physiologic measurements in nonhuman primates usually are collected from animals that are chemically or physically restrained. Both types of restraint may affect the parameters measured, and those effects can vary with age. Heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, expired CO2, blood pressure, temperature, blood glucose, hematocrit, and venous blood gasses were measured in rhesus monkeys that were either infused intravenously with ketamine for 24 h or were cage-housed and physically restrained for sample collection. The subjects were pregnant monkeys at gestational day 120 to 123, infants 5 to 6 d old, and infants 35 to 37 d old. Heart rate and blood pressure were lower in ketamine-treated monkeys than physically restrained monkeys. Heart rate was higher in infants than adults, whereas blood pressure was lower in infants. Respiratory rate was higher in infants than adults and higher in physically restrained infants than ketamine-sedated infants but was not affected by ketamine in pregnant adults. Hematocrit was decreased in older infants. In summary, both physical restraint and ketamine sedation altered several physiologic parameters in pregnant and infant rhesus macaques. Investigators should consider these effects when designing experiments and evaluating experimental outcomes in monkeys.

  17. Novel magnesium alloy Mg–2La caused no cytotoxic effects on cells in physiological conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weizbauer, Andreas, E-mail: weizbauer.andreas@mh-hannover.de [Laboratory for Biomechanics and Biomaterials, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hannover Medical School, Anna-von-Borries-Straße 1-7, 30625 Hannover (Germany); CrossBIT, Center for Biocompatibility and Implant-Immunology, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hannover Medical School, Feodor-Lynen-Str. 31, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Seitz, Jan-Marten [Institute of Materials Science, Leibniz Universität Hannover, An der Universität 2, 30823 Garbsen (Germany); Werle, Peter [ABB AG, Trafoweg 4, 06112 Halle (Germany); Hegermann, Jan [Institute of Functional and Applied Anatomy, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Straße 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Willbold, Elmar [Laboratory for Biomechanics and Biomaterials, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hannover Medical School, Anna-von-Borries-Straße 1-7, 30625 Hannover (Germany); CrossBIT, Center for Biocompatibility and Implant-Immunology, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hannover Medical School, Feodor-Lynen-Str. 31, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Eifler, Rainer [Institute of Materials Science, Leibniz Universität Hannover, An der Universität 2, 30823 Garbsen (Germany); Windhagen, Henning [Laboratory for Biomechanics and Biomaterials, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hannover Medical School, Anna-von-Borries-Straße 1-7, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Reifenrath, Janin [Small Animal Clinic, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Bünteweg 9, 30559 Hannover (Germany); Waizy, Hazibullah [Laboratory for Biomechanics and Biomaterials, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hannover Medical School, Anna-von-Borries-Straße 1-7, 30625 Hannover (Germany)

    2014-08-01

    Using several different in vitro assays, a new biodegradable magnesium alloy Mg–2La, composed of 98% magnesium and 2% lanthanum, was investigated as a possible implant material for biomedical applications. An in vitro cytotoxicity test, according to EN ISO 10993-5/12, with L929 and human osteoblastic cells identified no toxic effects on cell viability at physiological concentrations (at 50% dilutions and higher). The metabolic activity of human osteoblasts in the 100% extract was decreased to < 70% and was therefore rated as cytotoxic. The degradation rates of Mg–2La were evaluated in phosphate buffered saline and four different cell culture media. The degradation rates were shown to be influenced by the composition of the solution, and the addition of fetal bovine serum slightly accelerated the corrosive process. The results of these in vitro experiments suggest that Mg–2La is a promising candidate for use as an orthopedic implant material. - Highlights: • A new magnesium alloy (Mg–2La) has been developed. • Magnesium alloy Mg–2La revealed no toxic effect in physiological concentrations. • Degradation rates were influenced by the corrosion media. • The addition of fetal bovine serum increased the corrosive process slightly.

  18. Acupuncture Anxiolytic Effects on Physiological and Psychological Assessments for a Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monir Shayestehfar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a randomized controlled trial we examined the effect of acupuncture on anxiety of the adolescent football players prior to the competition using psychological and physiological markers. A total of 45 athletes were equally allocated to either acupuncture group, sham group, or wait-list control group. Thereafter, all participants were asked to complete an anxiety questionnaire before and after the intervention. Their heart rate and skin conductance were also examined before and after the intervention. The results of ANOVA on posttest scores showed that acupuncture had a significant effect on cognitive anxiety (p=0.001 and somatic anxiety (p0.05. Furthermore, the results showed that acupuncture significantly decreased the skin conductance in acupuncture group compared to sham group (p=0.006 and wait-list control group (p<0.001. In conclusion, the results suggested that acupuncture has the capacity to decrease cognitive anxiety and somatic anxiety prior to competition in adolescent athletes, while this was accompanied by significant physiological changes. This trial is registered with IRCT138904074264N1 (IRCT is a Primary Registry in the WHO Registry Network.

  19. Effect of endocrine disruptor nonylphenol on physiologic features and proteome during growth in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bing-Sheng; Yen, Jui-Hung

    2013-04-01

    We studied the effects of nonylphenol (NP) on physiological features and proteome of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) during growth. Shoot biomass, root biomass and root length were decreased after 10d of NP treatment, especially in high NP concentration treatment (10 and 50 mg L(-1)). Levels of chlorophyll decreased but proline increased in leaves. NP caused oxidative stress; malondialdehyde content was increased with NP treatment, and the activities of ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, CuZnSOD and MnSOD were induced in leaves. The proteome of leaf tissue was analyzed by 2-D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. NP might adversely affect the CO2 assimilation, signal transduction, the endomembrane system and photosynthetic oxygen evolution. NP affects the proteome and physiologic and morphological features of A. thaliana during growth at the concentration can be observed in the environment. Because plants might be exposed to NP for a long time in the surroundings, more attention needs to be paid to the effect of NP on plants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Preliminary investigation of the effects of exposure to multiple health stressors using the physiological strain index

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Edwards, A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available environment associated with mining imposes physiological strain on mineworkers. Heart rate (HR) and core body temperature (Tcr) have been shown to be valid and reliable indicators of the physiological strain experienced by humans during physical activity...

  1. Nasal Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregivers Contact ARS HOME ANATOMY Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ... Patient Education About this Website Font Size + - Home > ANATOMY > Nasal Physiology Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy ...

  2. THE USE OF FAT EMULSIONS FOR INTRAVENOUS ALIMENTATION AND THEIR PHYSIOLOGIC EFFECT IN HUMANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    BIOCHEMISTRY, *COLLOIDS, *FATS, *PARENTERAL INFUSIONS, ANEMIAS, BLOOD PLASMA, BLOOD PLATELETS, CANCER , CHROMATOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS, ERYTHROCYTES, FATTY ACIDS, HEMORRHAGE, PHOSPHOLIPIDS, PHYSIOLOGY, VENOMS

  3. Effect of biofeedback therapy on anorectal physiological parameters among patients with fecal evacuation disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Abhai; Misra, Asha; Ghoshal, Uday C

    2017-03-01

    Though biofeedback therapy is often effective in patients with fecal evacuation disorder (FED), a common cause of chronic constipation (CC) in tertiary practice, data on anorectal physiological parameters following it are scanty. Consecutive patients with FED with CC diagnosed by abnormalities in at least two of the three tests (anorectal manometry, defecography, and balloon expulsion test [BET]) undergoing biofeedback (two sessions per day, 30 min each, for 2 weeks) during a 3-year period were analyzed. Clinical evaluation, anorectal manometry (ARM), and BET were performed at the beginning and after biofeedback. Incomplete evacuation 42/43 (98%), straining 40/43 (93%), and feeling of outlet obstruction 35/43 (81%) were the most common symptoms among these 43 patients (median age 44 years, range 18-76, 30 [71%] male). All the three tests (defecography, BET, and ARM) were abnormal in 17 (40%) patients and the others had two abnormal tests. Improvement in physiological parameters was noted following biofeedback (median residual anal pressure during defecation 99 mmHg (range 52-148) vs. 78 mmHg (37-182), p = 0.03; maximum intra-rectal pressure 60 mmHg (90-110) vs. 76 mmHg (31-178); p = 0.01; defecation index 1.1 (0.1-23.0) vs. 3.2 (0.5-29.0); p = 0.001). Dyssynergia on ARM and BET got corrected in 22/34 (65%) and 18/30 (60%) patients. At a 1-month follow up, 23/37 (62%) patients reported satisfactory symptomatic improvement. Biofeedback not only improves symptoms but also anorectal physiological parameters in patients with FED.

  4. Effects of sand burial on survival and growth of Artemisia halodendron and its physiological response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HaLin Zhao; Hao Qu; RuiLian Zhou; JianYing Yun; Jin Li

    2015-01-01

    There is a great deal of literature on the effects of sand burial upon the survival and growth of desert plants, but the physiological adaption mechanisms of desert plants to sand burial have as yet rarely been studied. Artemisia halodendron is widely distributed in the semi-arid deserts of China and is a dominant species in semi-moving dune vegetation. The growth and physiological properties of A. halodendron seedlings under different sand burial depths were studied in 2010 and 2011 in the Horqin Sand Land, Inner Mongolia, to better understand the ability and physiological mechanism by which desert plants withstand sand burial. The results showed that A. halodendron as a prammophyte species had a stronger ability to withstand sand burial compared to non-prammophytes, with some plants still surviving even if buried to a depth reaching 225% of seedling height. Although seedling growth was inhibited significantly once the depth of sand burial reached 50%of the seedling height, seedling survival did not decrease significantly until the burial depth exceeded 100%of the seedling height. Sand burial did not result in significant water stress or MDA (Malondialdehyde) accumulation in the seedlings, but membrane permeability increased significantly when the burial depth exceeded 100%of the seedling height. After being subjected to sand burial stress, POD (Peroxidase) activity and proline content increased significantly, but SOD (Superoxide Dismutase) and POD activities and soluble sugar content did not. The primary mechanism resulting in in-creased mortality and growth inhibition were that cell membranes were damaged and photosynthetic area decreased when subjected to the severe stress of sand burial, while proline and POD played key roles in osmotic adjustment and protecting cell membranes from damage, respectively.

  5. Effect of short-term and long-term Brahmakumaris Raja Yoga meditation on physiological variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhsohale, Neelam D; Phatak, Mrunal S

    2012-01-01

    Effect of short-term and long-term Brahmakumaris Raja Yoga meditation on physiological variables like heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was evaluated in 100 subjects practicing Raja Yoga meditation. All 100 subjects (33 men and 67 women) were aged 30 years and above (mean age 52.06 +/- 12.76 years). Short-term meditators (STM) (n = 27) practiced Raja Yoga meditation for duration of six months to five years (mean duration 3.37 +/- 1.67 years) and long-term meditators (LTM) (n = 73) practiced Raja Yoga meditation for more than five years (mean duration 11.19 +/- 5.13 years). The participants were asked to meditate and the physiological variables (HR, RR, SBP and DBP) were recorded twice (15 minutes and 30 minutes) after beginning of meditation. Also, the fasting blood sugar was estimated by glucometer. The study subjects did not differ significantly in age and various anthropometric characteristics such as body weight, body mass index, waist-hip ratio and fasting blood sugar. Comparison between STM and LTM showed that the changes from baseline values (from premeditation to post-meditation at 15 and 30 minutes) in LTM were not statistically significant with those in STM (P > 0.05). However, within group differences in LTM revealed that changes in the physiological variables were statistically significant when compared between pre and post meditation both at 15 and 30 minutes. The study suggests that the long-term practice of Raja Yoga meditation improves basic cardio-respiratory functions due to shifting of the autonomic balance in favor of parasympathetic instead of sympathetic system.

  6. Liver X receptors interfere with the deleterious effect of diethylstilbestrol on testicular physiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oumeddour, Abdelkader [Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, Génétique Reproduction et Développement, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); CNRS, UMR 6293, GReD, F-63171 Aubiere (France); INSERM, UMR 1103, GReD, F-63171 Aubiere (France); Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine d’Auvergne, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); Laboratoire de Neuroendocrinologie Appliquée, Université Badji Mokhtar Annaba, BP12, 23000 Annaba (Algeria); Viennois, Emilie; Caira, Françoise; Decourbey, Clélia [Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, Génétique Reproduction et Développement, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); CNRS, UMR 6293, GReD, F-63171 Aubiere (France); INSERM, UMR 1103, GReD, F-63171 Aubiere (France); Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine d’Auvergne, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); Maqdasy, Salwan [Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, Génétique Reproduction et Développement, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); CNRS, UMR 6293, GReD, F-63171 Aubiere (France); INSERM, UMR 1103, GReD, F-63171 Aubiere (France); Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine d’Auvergne, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); Service d’endocrinologie, diabétologie et maladies métaboliques, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, F-63003 Clermont-Ferrand (France); and others

    2014-04-11

    Highlights: • Part of the neonatal effect of DES on testis needs the presence of Lxrα/β. • Some DES-induced pathways are blocked in Lxr-deficient mice. • Lxr-deficient mice analysis defines DES-target genes protected by Lxr. - Abstract: Liver X receptors LXRα (NR1H3) and LXRβ (NR1H2) are transcription factors belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily, activated by specific oxysterols, oxidized derivatives of cholesterol. These receptors are involved in the regulation of testis physiology. Lxr-deficient mice pointed to the physiological roles of these nuclear receptors in steroid synthesis, lipid homeostasis and germ cell apoptosis and proliferation. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a synthetic estrogen considered as an endocrine disruptor that affects the functions of the testis. Various lines of evidences have made a clear link between estrogens, their nuclear receptors ERα (NR3A1) and ERβ (NR3A2), and Lxrα/β. As LXR activity could also be regulated by the nuclear receptor small heterodimer partner (SHP, NR0A2) and DES could act through SHP, we wondered whether LXR could be targeted by estrogen-like endocrine disruptors such as DES. For that purpose, wild-type and Lxr-deficient mice were daily treated with 0.75 μg DES from days 1 to 5 after birth. The effects of DES were investigated at 10 or 45 days of age. We demonstrated that DES induced a decrease of the body mass at 10 days only in the Lxr-deficient mice suggesting a protective effect of Lxr. We defined three categories of DES-target genes in testis: those whose accumulation is independent of Lxr; those whose accumulation is enhanced by the lack of both Lxrα/β; those whose accumulation is repressed by the absence of Lxrα/β. Lipid accumulation is also modified by neonatal DES injection. Lxr-deficient mice present different lipid profiles, demonstrating that DES could have its effects in part due to Lxrα/β. Altogether, our study shows that both nuclear receptors Lxrα and Lxrβ are not only

  7. The effect of stock market pressure on the tradeoff between corporate and shareholders’ tax benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chin Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Taiwanese government offers firms that invest in qualified projects in emerging high-tech industries two mutually exclusive tax incentives—a corporate 5-year tax exemption or shareholder investment tax credits. This study examines whether corporate managers take shareholder tax benefits into account in their corporate tax planning. The results show that privately held firms are more likely than listed firms to choose shareholder investment tax credits and forego corporate tax benefits. Listed firms with relatively high earnings response coefficients tend to choose a corporate 5-year tax exemption, as it can enhance reported after-tax earnings. Further, in the 5-year period following their choice of a particular tax incentive, firms choosing a corporate 5-year tax exemption exhibit significantly lower earnings persistence than those choosing shareholder investment tax credits. Taken together, these results suggest that stock market pressure has a significant effect on firms’ choices between corporate and shareholder tax benefits, and that the choice of tax incentives has an effect on future earnings quality.

  8. Benefits And Effects Of Educational E-Intervention For Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpita Mukherjee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this trial was to evaluate the effect of a Web-based self-report assessment and educational intervention on symptom distress during cancer therapy. This review aimed to quantify the benefit of patient-based educational interventions in the management of cancer pain. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of experimentally randomised and non-randomised controlled clinical trials. We found equivocal evidence for the effect of education on self-efficacy but no significant benefit on medication adherence or on reducing interference with daily activities. Patient-based educational interventions can result in modest but significant benefits in the management of cancer pain and are probably underused alongside more traditional analgesic approaches. Mental and behavioral health promotion prevention treatment and management-oriented interventions that are delivered via the internet or other electronic technologies with or without human support often referred to as e-Interventions can overcome many barriers of access that are commonly encountered in our healthcare system. This online support intervention showed improved QoL outcomes in participants as compared to those in a control group who did not access the intervention. However the intervention focused on psycho-education and support rather than skills in coping with the experience of cancer diagnosis treatment and recovery.

  9. A Cost–Benefit Analysis to Assess the Effectiveness of Frontal Center Curtain Airbag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Kyeong Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Several new varieties of airbags are under consideration for development. However, their commercialization decision must be backed by a positive Cost–Benefit Analysis (CBA outcome. In this study, we propose a CBA framework for the frontal center curtain airbag, a newly designed safety system intended to reduce the injury risk of rear-seat passengers. The proposed CBA covers not only economic benefits of the producer but also the effectiveness in sustainable reduction of the fatal and injury rate. In this context, with accumulated field data on road traffic accidents, a forecasting method reflecting the reduced casualties and the market share of vehicle sales associated with frontal center curtain airbag is utilized. Our results suggest that the use of frontal center curtain airbags helps to reduce the number of casualties with a Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale (MAIS of 3 or above by 87.4%. Furthermore, both the initial market penetration rate and price of the frontal center curtain airbag significantly influence its socioeconomic benefits. By evaluating the effectiveness of the frontal center curtain airbag, our study can contribute to the decision making for its commercialization.

  10. The effect of stock market pressure on the tradeoff between corporate and shareholders’ tax benefits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Chin; Chen

    2015-01-01

    The Taiwanese government offers firms that invest in qualified projects in emerging high-tech industries two mutually exclusive tax incentives—a corporate 5-year tax exemption or shareholder investment tax credits. This study examines whether corporate managers take shareholder tax benefits into account in their corporate tax planning. The results show that privately held firms are more likely than listed firms to choose shareholder investment tax credits and forego corporate tax benefits. Listed firms with relatively high earnings response coefficients tend to choose a corporate 5-year tax exemption, as it can enhance reported after-tax earnings. Further, in the 5-year period following their choice of a particular tax incentive, firms choosing a corporate 5-year tax exemption exhibit significantly lower earnings persistence than those choosing shareholder investment tax credits. Taken together, these results suggest that stock market pressure has a significant effect on firms’ choices between corporate and shareholder tax benefits, and that the choice of tax incentives has an effect on future earnings quality.

  11. Long-term benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis of screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms from a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, Jes S.; Sørensen, J; Søgaard, R

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to estimate long-term mortality benefits and cost-effectiveness of screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in men aged 64-73 years.......The aim was to estimate long-term mortality benefits and cost-effectiveness of screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in men aged 64-73 years....

  12. Adjustments to financial benefits and contributions with effect from 1 January 2011

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    In accordance with recommendations made by the Finance Committee and decisions taken by Council in December 2010, certain financial benefits and contributions impacting salaries and stipends have been adjusted with effect from 1 January 2011. 1) Annual adjustments An increase of 0.35% to the scale of basic salaries paid to Staff Members and the scale of stipends paid to Fellows (Annexes R A 5 and R A 6 of the Staff Regulations). No adjustments to the subsistence allowances of Paid Associates and Students (Annex R A 7 of the Staff Regulations). No modifications to the following social benefits: Family, child and infant allowances (Annex R A 3 of the Staff Regulations) Payment ceilings of education fees (Annex R A 4 of the Staff Regulations). 2) Five-yearly review 2010, financial elements: Adjustment of basic salaries: An increase of 1% for Career Path D. An increase of 2% for Career Paths E to G. Technical adjustment of th...

  13. Effect of Neodymium on Physiological Activities in Oilseed Rape during Calcium Starvation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    It was reported that rare earth elements promote plant growth and other physiological activities. Since the ion radius of Nd3+ is very close to that of Ca2+, the interaction between Nd and Ca might be one of the important mechanisms to be understand. Seedlings treated with 3 μmol.L-1 Nd(NO3)3 in Ca2+-deficient solution, and the effect of Nd on their membrane damage in oilseed rape(Brassica napus L.) was studied. It shows that the symptom of Ca-starvation is relieved and the peroxidation process in rape is inhibited. It indicates that adding Nd can lower relative permeability of the root and MDA content in leaves and increase CAT, POD, and SOD activities in rape. Likewise, the Nd addition to Hoagland solution shows similar result. The interpretation is that the effect is a consequence of substitution of Nd function for some Ca function through interacting with cellular membrane.

  14. Effect of Aging and Priming on Physiological and Biochemical Traits of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman AMANPOUR-BALANEJI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Aging and deterioration (artificial aging are the most effective factors on the seed vigour. In order to study the changes in physiological and biochemical characteristics of common bean under aging and priming treatments a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design conducted with three replications. Seed aging (control, 90 and 80% of control germination and seed invigoration with priming including control, hydro (distilled water, osmo (PEG 6000, hormone (gibberellic acid and halo (NaCl priming were considered as experimental factors. Results showed that osmo-priming had the ability to relatively ameliorate the aging effect and recover some of the seed aspects like germination rate, protein and phytin content for invigorate germination and seedling establishment. Priming indirectly increased seed vigour via germination rate and it can provide homogeny of emergence in the field and obtaining appropriate plant population.

  15. Physiological effects of bioceramic material: harvard step, resting metabolic rate and treadmill running assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ting-Kai; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Lee, Chi-Ming; Kan, Nai-Wen; Hou, Chien-Wen

    2013-12-31

    Previous biomolecular and animal studies have shown that a room-temperature far-infrared-rayemitting ceramic material (bioceramic) demonstrates physical-biological effects, including the normalization of psychologically induced stress-conditioned elevated heart rate in animals. In this clinical study, the Harvard step test, the resting metabolic rate (RMR) assessment and the treadmill running test were conducted to evaluate possible physiological effects of the bioceramic material in human patients. The analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) during the Harvard step test indicated that the bioceramic material significantly increased the high-frequency (HF) power spectrum. In addition, the results of RMR analysis suggest that the bioceramic material reduced oxygen consumption (VO2). Our results demonstrate that the bioceramic material has the tendency to stimulate parasympathetic responses, which may reduce resting energy expenditure and improve cardiorespiratory recovery following exercise.

  16. EFFECT OF THE SELECTED IMMUNOSTIMULATORS ON PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PRODUCTION PARAMETERS OF SOWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna REKIEL

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of immunostimulation of sows during the perinatal period (Biostymine, Lydium-KLP on physiological-production parameters of the sows: haematological and biochemical blood indices, colostrum and milk composition and fatty acid profile, physical (pH and cytological (somatic cells count - SCC parameters as well as results of reproduction and rearing of piglets. None effect of the examined immunostimulators on the most of the studied traits and indices was found. There were the changes in pH, energy level and composition of milk. Additionally, the changes in fatty acid profile in milk fat were recorded; they consisted in significantly lower or higher participation of certain fatty acids in the samples, collected from the sows which received Biostymine, as compared to the group, receiving Lydium-KLP and/or groups which did not receive any additive.

  17. Dark tourism. The Effects of Motivation and Environmental Attitudes on the Benefits of Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang, Te-Yi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to discuss the experience model for visitors participating in Dark Tourism. The Hsiaolin Village relics, which were destroyed by the 2009 typhoon in Taiwan, are selected as the research subject. A total of 341 visitors to Hsiaolin Village Memorial Park were interviewed through a survey questionnaire. Structural equation models (SEMs were utilized to verify the causal relationship among the visitors ’Dark Tourism motivation, environmental attitudes, and benefits of experience in Dark Tourism relics. The benefits of experience in Dark Tourism are divided into social benefits, learning benefits, and pressure relief for psychological benefits in this study. The empirical results show that the higher Dark Tourism motivation could enhance the visitors’ environmental attitudes towards Dark relics and further affect the acquired benefits of experience. Moreover, the stronger Dark Tourism motivation could directly influence the psychological benefits of experience such as emotional and pressure relief. The direct effects of learning and social benefits are not as strong where the benefits of experience are affected by the emotional perception of environmental attitudes. In other words, environmental attitudes present partial mediating effects. The research results provide useful reference information for the planning of Dark Tourism relics and the development of tourism activities.El objetivo de este estudio consiste en discutir el modelo de experiencia de los visitantes que participan en actividades de turismo negro. Como objeto de estudio se han seleccionado las ruinas del pueblo de Hsiaolin, Taiwán, destruido en 2009 por un tifón. Se realizaron entrevistas mediante cuestionario a 341 visitantes del Hsiaolin Village Memorial Park. Para comprobar la relación causal entre las motivaciones de los visitantes que realizan actividades de turismo negro, sus actitudes medioambientales y los beneficios de la experiencia en la ruinas de

  18. Calculations of environmental benefits from using geothermal energy must include the rebound effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atlason, R. S.; Unnthorsson, Runar

    2017-01-01

    and energy production patterns are simulated using data from countries with similar environmental conditions but do not use geothermal or hydropower to the same extent as Iceland. Because of the rapid shift towards renewable energy and exclusion of external energy provision, the country is considered......When considering the environmental benefits from converting to renewable energy sources, the rebound effect is often omitted. In this study, the aim is to investigate greenhouse gas emission reduction inclusive of the rebound effect. We use Iceland as a case study where alternative consumption...

  19. The Effectiveness, Costs and Coastal Protection Benefits of Natural and Nature-Based Defences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Siddharth; Beck, Michael W; Reguero, Borja G; Losada, Iñigo J; van Wesenbeeck, Bregje; Pontee, Nigel; Sanchirico, James N; Ingram, Jane Carter; Lange, Glenn-Marie; Burks-Copes, Kelly A

    2016-01-01

    There is great interest in the restoration and conservation of coastal habitats for protection from flooding and erosion. This is evidenced by the growing number of analyses and reviews of the effectiveness of habitats as natural defences and increasing funding world-wide for nature-based defences-i.e. restoration projects aimed at coastal protection; yet, there is no synthetic information on what kinds of projects are effective and cost effective for this purpose. This paper addresses two issues critical for designing restoration projects for coastal protection: (i) a synthesis of the costs and benefits of projects designed for coastal protection (nature-based defences) and (ii) analyses of the effectiveness of coastal habitats (natural defences) in reducing wave heights and the biophysical parameters that influence this effectiveness. We (i) analyse data from sixty-nine field measurements in coastal habitats globally and examine measures of effectiveness of mangroves, salt-marshes, coral reefs and seagrass/kelp beds for wave height reduction; (ii) synthesise the costs and coastal protection benefits of fifty-two nature-based defence projects and; (iii) estimate the benefits of each restoration project by combining information on restoration costs with data from nearby field measurements. The analyses of field measurements show that coastal habitats have significant potential for reducing wave heights that varies by habitat and site. In general, coral reefs and salt-marshes have the highest overall potential. Habitat effectiveness is influenced by: a) the ratios of wave height-to-water depth and habitat width-to-wavelength in coral reefs; and b) the ratio of vegetation height-to-water depth in salt-marshes. The comparison of costs of nature-based defence projects and engineering structures show that salt-marshes and mangroves can be two to five times cheaper than a submerged breakwater for wave heights up to half a metre and, within their limits, become more cost

  20. The Effectiveness, Costs and Coastal Protection Benefits of Natural and Nature-Based Defences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Narayan

    Full Text Available There is great interest in the restoration and conservation of coastal habitats for protection from flooding and erosion. This is evidenced by the growing number of analyses and reviews of the effectiveness of habitats as natural defences and increasing funding world-wide for nature-based defences-i.e. restoration projects aimed at coastal protection; yet, there is no synthetic information on what kinds of projects are effective and cost effective for this purpose. This paper addresses two issues critical for designing restoration projects for coastal protection: (i a synthesis of the costs and benefits of projects designed for coastal protection (nature-based defences and (ii analyses of the effectiveness of coastal habitats (natural defences in reducing wave heights and the biophysical parameters that influence this effectiveness. We (i analyse data from sixty-nine field measurements in coastal habitats globally and examine measures of effectiveness of mangroves, salt-marshes, coral reefs and seagrass/kelp beds for wave height reduction; (ii synthesise the costs and coastal protection benefits of fifty-two nature-based defence projects and; (iii estimate the benefits of each restoration project by combining information on restoration costs with data from nearby field measurements. The analyses of field measurements show that coastal habitats have significant potential for reducing wave heights that varies by habitat and site. In general, coral reefs and salt-marshes have the highest overall potential. Habitat effectiveness is influenced by: a the ratios of wave height-to-water depth and habitat width-to-wavelength in coral reefs; and b the ratio of vegetation height-to-water depth in salt-marshes. The comparison of costs of nature-based defence projects and engineering structures show that salt-marshes and mangroves can be two to five times cheaper than a submerged breakwater for wave heights up to half a metre and, within their limits, become

  1. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition and health benefits: The Robin Hood effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Sanjay; Jain, Arpit; Ved, Jignesh; Unnikrishnan, A. G.

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses two distinct, yet related, mechanisms of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibition: Calorie restriction mimicry (CRM) and pro-ketogenic effect, which may explain their cardiovascular benefits. We term these adaptive CRM and pro-ketogenic effects of SGLT2 inhibition, the Robin Hood hypothesis. In English history, Robin Hood was a “good person,” who stole from the rich and helped the poor. He supported redistribution of resources as he deemed fit for the common good. In a similar fashion, SGLT2 inhibition provides respite to the overloaded glucose metabolism while utilizing lipid stores for energy production. PMID:27730088

  2. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition and health benefits: The Robin Hood effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Sanjay; Jain, Arpit; Ved, Jignesh; Unnikrishnan, A G

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses two distinct, yet related, mechanisms of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibition: Calorie restriction mimicry (CRM) and pro-ketogenic effect, which may explain their cardiovascular benefits. We term these adaptive CRM and pro-ketogenic effects of SGLT2 inhibition, the Robin Hood hypothesis. In English history, Robin Hood was a "good person," who stole from the rich and helped the poor. He supported redistribution of resources as he deemed fit for the common good. In a similar fashion, SGLT2 inhibition provides respite to the overloaded glucose metabolism while utilizing lipid stores for energy production.

  3. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition and health benefits: The Robin Hood effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses two distinct, yet related, mechanisms of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibition: Calorie restriction mimicry (CRM and pro-ketogenic effect, which may explain their cardiovascular benefits. We term these adaptive CRM and pro-ketogenic effects of SGLT2 inhibition, the Robin Hood hypothesis. In English history, Robin Hood was a "good person," who stole from the rich and helped the poor. He supported redistribution of resources as he deemed fit for the common good. In a similar fashion, SGLT2 inhibition provides respite to the overloaded glucose metabolism while utilizing lipid stores for energy production.

  4. Are tropical small mammals physiologically vulnerable to Arrhenius effects and climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovegrove, Barry G; Canale, Cindy; Levesque, Danielle; Fluch, Gerhard; Reháková-Petrů, Milada; Ruf, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    There is some urgency in the necessity to incorporate physiological data into mechanistic, trait-based, demographic climate change models. Physiological responses at the individual level provide the mechanistic link between environmental changes and individual performances and hence population dynamics. Here we consider the causal relationship between ambient temperature (Ta) and metabolic rate (MR), namely, the Arrhenius effect, which is directly affected by global warming through increases in average global air temperatures and the increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme climate events. We measured and collated data for several small, free-ranging tropical arboreal mammals and evaluated their vulnerability to Arrhenius effects and putative heat stress associated with climate change. Skin temperatures (Tskin) were obtained from free-ranging tarsiers (Tarsius syrichta) on Bohol Island, Philippines. Core body temperature (Tb) was obtained from the greater hedgehog tenrec (Setifer setosus) and the gray brown mouse lemur (Microcebus ravelobensis) from Ankarafantsika, Madagascar. Tskin for another mouse lemur, Microcebus griseorufus, was obtained from the literature. All four species showed evidence of hyperthermia during the daytime rest phase in the form of either Tskin or Tb that was higher than the normothermic Tb during the nighttime active phase. Potentially, tropical arboreal mammals with the lowest MRs and Tb, such as tarsiers, are the most vulnerable to sustained heat stress because their Tb is already close to Ta. Climate change may involve increases in MRs due to Arrhenius effects, especially during the rest phase or during torpor and hibernation. The most likely outcome of increased Arrhenius effects with climate change will be an increase in energy expenditure at the expense of other critical functions such as reproduction or growth and will thus affect fitness. However, we propose that these hypothetical Arrhenius costs can be, and in some

  5. Conservation implications of physiological carry-over effects in bats recovering from white-nose syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, Christina M; Mastromonaco, Gabriela F; Riley, Julia L; Baxter-Gilbert, James H; Mayberry, Heather; Willis, Craig K R

    2017-06-01

    Although it is well documented that infectious diseases can pose threats to biodiversity, the potential long-term consequences of pathogen exposure on individual fitness and its effects on population viability have rarely been studied. We tested the hypothesis that pathogen exposure causes physiological carry-over effects with a pathogen that is uniquely suited to this question because the infection period is specific and time limited. The fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans causes white-nose syndrome (WNS) in hibernating bats, which either die due to the infection while hibernating or recover following emergence from hibernation. The fungus infects all exposed individuals in an overwintering site simultaneously, and bats that survive infection during hibernation clear the pathogen within a few weeks following emergence. We quantified chronic stress during the active season, when bats are not infected, by measuring cortisol in bat claws. Free-ranging Myotis lucifugus who survived previous exposure to P. destructans had significantly higher levels of claw cortisol than naïve individuals. Thus, cryptic physiological carry-over effects of pathogen exposure may persist in asymptomatic, recovered individuals. If these effects result in reduced survival or reproductive success, they could also affect population viability and even act as a third stream in the extinction vortex. For example, significant increases in chronic stress, such as those indicated here, are correlated with reduced reproductive success in a number of species. Future research should directly explore the link between pathogen exposure and the viability of apparently recovered populations to improve understanding of the true impacts of infectious diseases on threatened populations. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Phenotypic and Genetic Effects of Contrasting Ethanol Environments on Physiological and Developmental Traits in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, Luis E.; Nespolo, Roberto F.

    2013-01-01

    A central problem in evolutionary physiology is to understand the relationship between energy metabolism and fitness-related traits. Most attempts to do so have been based on phenotypic correlations that are not informative for the evolutionary potential of natural populations. Here, we explored the effect of contrasting ethanol environments on physiological and developmental traits, their genetic (co)variances and genetic architecture in Drosophila melanogaster. Phenotypic and genetic parameters were estimated in two populations (San Fernando and Valdivia, Chile), using a half-sib family design where broods were split into ethanol-free and ethanol-supplemented conditions. Our findings show that metabolic rate, body mass and development times were sensitive (i.e., phenotypic plasticity) to ethanol conditions and dependent on population origin. Significant heritabilities were found for all traits, while significant genetic correlations were only found between larval and total development time and between development time and metabolic rate for flies of the San Fernando population developed in ethanol-free conditions. Posterior analyses indicated that the G matrices differed between ethanol conditions for the San Fernando population (mainly explained by differences in genetic (co)variances of developmental traits), whereas the Valdivia population exhibited similar G matrices between ethanol conditions. Our findings suggest that ethanol-free environment increases the energy available to reduce development time. Therefore, our results indicate that environmental ethanol could modify the process of energy allocation, which could have consequences on the evolutionary response of natural populations of D. melanogaster. PMID:23505567

  7. [Effect of magnesium deficiency on photosynthetic physiology and triacylglyceride (TAG) accumulation of Chlorella vulgaris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shan; Zhao, Shu-Xin; Wei, Chang-Long; Yu, Shui-Yan; Shi, Ji-Ping; Zhang, Bao-Guo

    2014-04-01

    As an excellent biological resource, Chlorella has wide applications for production of biofuel, bioactive substances and water environment restoration. Therefore, it is very important to understand the photosynthetic physiology characteristics of Chlorella. Magnesium ions play an important role in the growth of microalgae, not only the central atom of chlorophyll, but also the cofactor of some key enzyme in the metabolic pathway. A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the effects of magnesium deficiency on several photosynthetic and physiological parameters and the triacylglyceride (TAG) accumulation of the green alga, Chlorella vulgaris, in the photoautotrophic culture process. Chlorella vulgaris biomass, protein, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b contents decreased by 20%, 43.96%, 27.52% and 28.07% in response to magnesium deficiency, while the total oil content increased by 19.60%. Moreover, magnesium deficiency decreased the maximal photochemical efficiency F(v)/F(m) by 22.54%, but increased the non-photochemical quenching parameters qN. Our results indicated the decline of chlorophyll caused by magnesium, which affected the photosynthesis efficiency, lead to the growth inhibition of Chlorella vulgaris and affected the protein synthesis and increased the triacylglyceride (TAG) accumulation.

  8. Effects of roof modifications on growth performance and physiological changes of crossbred beef heifers (Bos indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titaporn Khongdee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to examine and evaluate growth performance and physiological changes of cattle raised under normal roof versus a modified roof. Ten Hindu Brazil x Brahman heifers were used in the experiment. The animals were divided randomly into two groups. They were used to evaluate the effects of modified roofing on the subjects’ physiological responses to heat stress and performance under hot humid conditions. It was found that the modified roof (MR offered a more efficient way to lower heat stress in the cattle than the normal roof (NR. The difference was sufficient to enable the NR at 14:00 p.m. to have a THI higher (P<0.001 than that of the MR. Roof temperature of the MR (35.67±4.28°C was found to be lower (P<0.01 than that of the NR (44.49±7.61°C. Rectal temperature (RT and average rate of gain (ADG of the cattle kept under MR (39.02°C; 0.632 kg/d was lower (P<0.01 and higher (P<0.01, respectively than the NR (40.05 °C; 0.350 kg/d cattle

  9. Effects of Modified Multistage Field Test on Performance and Physiological Responses in Wheelchair Basketball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Weissland

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A bioenergetical analysis of manoeuvrability and agility performance for wheelchair players is inexistent. It was aimed at comparing the physiological responses and performance obtained from the octagon multistage field test (MFT and the modified condition in “8 form” (MFT-8. Sixteen trained wheelchair basketball players performed both tests in randomized condition. The levels performed (end-test score, peak values of oxygen uptake (VO2peak, minute ventilation (VEpeak, heart rate (HRpeak, peak and relative blood lactate (Δ[Lact−] = peak – rest values, and the perceived rating exertion (RPE were measured. MFT-8 induced higher VO2peak and VEpeak values compared to MFT (VO2peak: 2.5 ± 0.6 versus 2.3 ± 0.6 L·min−1 and VEpeak: 96.3 ± 29.1 versus 86.6 ± 23.4 L·min−1; P<0.05 with no difference in other parameters. Significant relations between VEpeak and end-test score were correlated for both field tests (P<0.05. At exhaustion, MFT attained incompletely VO2peak and VEpeak. Among experienced wheelchair players, MFT-8 had no effect on test performance but generates higher physiological responses than MFT. It could be explained by demands of wheelchair skills occurring in 8 form during the modified condition.

  10. Extreme rituals in a BDSM context: the physiological and psychological effects of the 'Dance of Souls'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klement, Kathryn R; Lee, Ellen M; Ambler, James K; Hanson, Sarah A; Comber, Evelyn; Wietting, David; Wagner, Michael F; Burns, Valerie R; Cutler, Bert; Cutler, Nadine; Reid, Elwood; Sagarin, Brad J

    2017-04-01

    Participation in extreme rituals (e.g., fire-walking, body-piercing) has been documented throughout history. Motivations for such physically intense activities include religious devotion, sensation-seeking and social bonding. The present study aims to explore an extreme ritual within the context of bondage/discipline, dominance/submission and sadism/masochism (BDSM): the 'Dance of Souls', a 160-person ritual involving temporary piercings with weights or hooks attached and dancing to music provided by drummers. Through hormonal assays, behavioural observations and questionnaires administered before, during and after the Dance, we examine the physiological and psychological effects of the Dance, and the themes of spirituality, connectedness, transformation, release and community reported by dancers. From before to during the Dance, participants showed increases in physiological stress (measured by the hormone cortisol), self-reported sexual arousal, self-other overlap and decreases in psychological stress and negative affect. Results suggest that this group of BDSM practitioners engage in the Dance for a variety of reasons, including experiencing spirituality, deepening interpersonal connections, reducing stress and achieving altered states of consciousness.

  11. Physiological Effects of Iron Deficiency on Pyrus pashia Buch-Ham

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Hua-ming; FAN Wei-guo

    2003-01-01

    Pyrus pashia Buch-Ham, a wild specie was used to investigate the physiological effects of irondeficiency in culture solution. The result showed that Chla, Chlb, total chlorophyll content and photosynthesisrate(Ph) decreased sharply, and the decrease of Pn was prior to that of Chl content under the iron deficiency.The iron deficiency symptoms were visible when the iron concentration in culture medium was less than 25μmol L-1. Peroxidase(POD) and catalase(CAT) activity in iron-deficient leaves declined significantly, andPOD was more sensitive than CAT to Fe deficiency. However, the positive correlation between CAT activityand Chl content was more significant than that between POD activity and Chi content. The content of nutrientelements in Fe-deficient leaves, which changed irregularly, were higher than that in normal leaves. There werea most significant positive correlation between active Fe and Chi content, and between active Fe and Pn respec-tively. Therefore, active Fe could be useful physiological predicting index for diagnosis.

  12. Physiological effects of paraquat in juvenile African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchel 1822

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Didigwu Nwani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the physiological effects of paraquat in African freshwater catfish Clarias gariepinus. Methods: Two sublethal test concentrations of paraquat (1.37 and 2.75 mg/L were chosen based on the 96 h LC50 value (27.46 mg/L. Some experimental fish were exposed to these concentrations and control group for 15 d. Peripheral blood samplings were taken at intervals for assessment of haematological and biochemical parameters. Results: Exposure to paraquat affected behaviour and morphology of Clarias gariepinus. There were significant decreases (P<0.05 in the mean values of hemoglobin, red blood cells, packed cell volume, cellular hemoglobin, and cellular hemoglobin concentration. The levels of white blood cells, glucose, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase significantly increased (P<0.05 while protein levels declined. However, no definite pattern of changes was observed in the number and type of leucocytes. Conclusions: The results of the present study indicate that paraquat is toxic and has the potential to impair on the physiological activities in African catfish Clarias gariepinus. The use of paraquat should be strongly controlled and carefully monitored to avoid the possible damage done to the environment.

  13. [Effect of seed soaking with aluminum on seed germination and seedling physiology of Platycodon grandiflorum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lixiang; Wang, Jianhua; Fang, Xinsheng; Wang, Yong; Hao, Junkai; Weiwei, Ma; Jiao, Tianying

    2010-12-01

    In order to study the effect of seed soaking with different aluminum solution on seed germination and seedling physiological characteristics of Platycondon grandiflorum, two P. grandiflorum varieties'seed (the white flower and the purple flower) were soaked in Al3+ solution with different concentrations (0, 10, 100, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mg x L) for 24 h, then germinated in illumination incubator. Results showed that the aluminum toxicity on the trends of the germination rate, germination index and vigor index was positive associated with its concentration, and the Al tolerance of the purple was slightly greater than that of the white. There were some relationships between the physiological indices, which were the leakage rate of electrolyte, the malonaldehyde (MDA) content, the activities of peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) , the free praline(Pro) and the soluble sugar contents, with the concentrations of Al. It was suggested that there was Al tolerance difference between the two P. grandiflorum varieties: the purple flower was greater than the white.

  14. Effects of Modifiers on Physiological Metabolism of Lolium perenne Seedlings in Diesel-Polluted Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Xuan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The pot experiment for single-factor with diesel oil polluted soil and the pot experiment for three-factor orthogonal with sawdust-ammonium nitrate-monopotassium phosphate under diesel oil polluted soil with salt stress, were performed to analyze the activity of antioxidant enzymes and chlorophyll content in Lolium perenne seedlings, and to explore the physiological response of L. perenne seedlings under diesel oil polluted soil and its regulations. The results showed that, soil diesel pollution significantly decreased the biomass. Compared with control, activity of superoxide dismutases(SOD in leaf decreased significantly at 0.3% and 0.9% soil diesel pollution, peroxidases (POD and catalase(CAT in leaf decreased significantly at 0.6% and 0.9% soil diesel pollution, the root SOD activity increased significantly at 0.9% diesel concentration while the root POD activity decreased significantly at 0.6% and 0.9% soil diesel pollution. As for the salinity soil polluted by diesel oil, the activity of POD and CAT in leaf increased significantly at 10% volume fraction of sawdust, and the content of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b increased significantly as well. Meanwhile, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b content increased significantly at 0.3 g·kg-1 amount of ammonium nitrate. Thereby, sawdust and ammonium nitrate addition could effectively improve physiological metabolic of L. perenne seedlings.

  15. Effects of Crop Rootzone Non-Pressure Subirrigation on Tomato Physiological Characteristics, Yield, and Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan; CAI Huan-jie; CHEN Xin-ming; ZHENG Jian; WANG jian

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to study the effects of different water elevations of non-pressure subirrigation on some indexes of tomato, including soil water status around crop rootzone, morphological indexes, physiological indexes, photosynthetic indexes, yield, quality, and water use efficiency. With the tomato materials of Dongsheng 1, the irrigation experiment was carried out in the greenhouse, and significance analysis was done on the experiment data through the software of DPS. The results showed that different water elevations, had significant influence on the growth, yield, and quality of tomato. The yield of the 6-cm treatment was the highest, the 3-cm treatment was inferior to the 6-cm treatment, and the 0-cm treatment was the lowest. However, the WUE was 0 cm>3 cm>6 cm. The sugar/acid and soluble protein was the highest under the 0-cm treatment, and the content of ascorbic acid did not decrease considerably. When compared to the 0-cm treatment, the ascorbic acid content of 6-cm and 3-cm treatment increased by 19.2 and 6.8%, respectively. These irrigation methods can satisfy the requirements of tomato growth; different water elevations have different influences on the tomato soil water status around crop rootzone, the physiological characteristics, and yield. It also harmonized the percentage between sugar and acid, increased the content of soluble protein and ascorbic acid, and made tomato more delicious. The irrigation methods can improve the quality of tomato by water control, which is worth promoting in the agricultural production.

  16. The effects of measuring emotion: physiological reactions to emotional situations depend on whether someone is asking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim S Kassam

    Full Text Available Measurement effects exist throughout the sciences-the act of measuring often changes the properties of the observed. We suggest emotion research is no exception. The awareness and conscious assessment required by self-report of emotion may significantly alter emotional processes. In this study, participants engaged in a difficult math task designed to induce anger or shame while their cardiovascular responses were measured. Half of the participants were asked to report on their emotional states and appraise their feelings throughout the experiment, whereas the other half completed a control questionnaire. Among those in the anger condition, participants assigned to report on their emotions exhibited qualitatively different physiological responses from those who did not report. For participants in the shame condition, there were no significant differences in physiology based on the self-report manipulation. The study demonstrates that the simple act of reporting on an emotional state may have a substantial impact on the body's reaction to an emotional situation.

  17. The physiological effect of a 'climb assist' device on vertical ladder climbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Peter James; Burgess, Katherine; Cooper, Kay; Stewart, Arthur D

    2016-10-15

    'Climb assist' claims to reduce strain when climbing ladders; however, no research has yet substantiated this. The purpose of this study was to assess the physiological and psychophysical effects of climb assist on 30 m ladder climbing at a minimum acceptable speed. Eight participants (six male and two female) climbed a 30 m ladder at 24 rungs per minute with and without climb assist, and were monitored for heart rate (HR), [Formula: see text]O2 and rate of perceived exertion (RPE). All three variables decreased significantly (p climb assist with [Formula: see text]O2 decreasing by 22.5%, HR by 14.8% and RPE decreasing by a mean of 2.3 units on the 10-point Borg scale. When descending the ladder [Formula: see text]O2 decreased by a mean of 42% compared to that ascending. At the minimal acceptable climbing speed climb assist decreases the physiological strain on climbers, as demonstrated by reduced [Formula: see text]O2, HR and perceived exertion. Practitioner Summary: 'Climb assist' systems claim to reduce strain when climbing, however; no research has yet been published to substantiate this. A crossover study compared [Formula: see text]O2, HR and RPE at a minimal acceptable climbing speed with and without climb assist. Climb assist significantly reduced all variables confirming it reduces strain when climbing.

  18. Effect of carrying a rifle on physiology and biomechanical responses in biathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöggl, Thomas; Bishop, Phil; Höök, Martina; Willis, Sarah; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to assess the effect of carrying a rifle on the physiological and biomechanical responses of well-trained biathletes. Ten elite biathletes (five men and five women) performed ski skating with (R) or without a rifle (NR) on a treadmill using the V2 (5° incline) and V1 techniques (8°) at 8 and 6 km·h(-1), respectively, as well as at racing intensity (approximately 95% of peak oxygen uptake (V˙O2peak), 10.7 ± 0.8 and 7.7 ± 0.9 km·h(-1), respectively). V˙O2, ventilation (V˙(E)), HR, blood lactate concentration (BLa), and cycle characteristics as well as pole and leg kinetics were evaluated during these trials. Metabolic data were all higher for R than for NR, as follows: V˙O2, +2.5%; V˙(E), +8.1%; RER, +4.2%; all P rifle reduced cycle time and length, poling and arm swing times, and leg ground contact time and increased cycle rate, the peak and impulse of leg force, average cycle force, and impulse of forefoot force (all P rifle elevated physiological responses, accelerated cycle rate, and involved greater leg work, with no differences between the V1 and V2 techniques.

  19. Phenotypic and genetic effects of contrasting ethanol environments on physiological and developmental traits in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E Castañeda

    Full Text Available A central problem in evolutionary physiology is to understand the relationship between energy metabolism and fitness-related traits. Most attempts to do so have been based on phenotypic correlations that are not informative for the evolutionary potential of natural populations. Here, we explored the effect of contrasting ethanol environments on physiological and developmental traits, their genetic (covariances and genetic architecture in Drosophila melanogaster. Phenotypic and genetic parameters were estimated in two populations (San Fernando and Valdivia, Chile, using a half-sib family design where broods were split into ethanol-free and ethanol-supplemented conditions. Our findings show that metabolic rate, body mass and development times were sensitive (i.e., phenotypic plasticity to ethanol conditions and dependent on population origin. Significant heritabilities were found for all traits, while significant genetic correlations were only found between larval and total development time and between development time and metabolic rate for flies of the San Fernando population developed in ethanol-free conditions. Posterior analyses indicated that the G matrices differed between ethanol conditions for the San Fernando population (mainly explained by differences in genetic (covariances of developmental traits, whereas the Valdivia population exhibited similar G matrices between ethanol conditions. Our findings suggest that ethanol-free environment increases the energy available to reduce development time. Therefore, our results indicate that environmental ethanol could modify the process of energy allocation, which could have consequences on the evolutionary response of natural populations of D. melanogaster.

  20. [Effects of simulated acid rain on water physiological characteristics of Myrica rubra seedlings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaho, Zhao-bin; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Shu-quan; Lu, Mei-juan

    2011-08-01

    Taking the seedlings of typical subtropical economic tree species Myrica rubra in Zhejiang Province as test materials, a pot experiment was conducted to study their water physiological characteristics under effects of simulated acid rain (pH 2.5 and pH 4.0), with water (pH 5.6) as the control. Season, year, and acid rain all had significant effects on the photosynthetic rate (Pn). Among the treatments, the Pn had a greater difference in summer than in spring and autumn, and was higher in treatment acid rain (pH 4.0). Season, year, acid rain, and the interactions of season and year and of the three factors had significant effects on the stomata conductance (Gs), and also, the Gs had a greater difference among the treatments in summer than in spring and autumn. Acid rain had inhibitory effect on Gs. Season, year, acid rain, and the interactions of season and year and of season and acid rain affected the transpiration rate (Tr) significantly. Same as Pn and Gs, the Tr had a greater difference among the treatments in summer than in spring and autumn. Acid rain (pH 2.5) had the strongest inhibitory effect on Tr. Acid rain and the interactions of season and year and of season and acid rain had significant effects on the water use efficiency (WUE), and acid rain (pH 2.5) had definitely positive effect on the WUE.

  1. Effects of 20 Selected Fruits on Ethanol Metabolism: Potential Health Benefits and Harmful Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Jie; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Sha; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-04-01

    The consumption of alcohol is often accompanied by other foods, such as fruits and vegetables. This study is aimed to investigate the effects of 20 selected fruits on ethanol metabolism to find out their potential health benefits and harmful impacts. The effects of the fruits on ethanol metabolism were characterized by the concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde in blood, as well as activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase in liver of mice. Furthermore, potential health benefits and harmful impacts of the fruits were evaluated by biochemical parameters including aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT), malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase. Generally, effects of these fruits on ethanol metabolism were very different. Some fruits (such as Citrus limon (yellow), Averrhoa carambola, Pyrus spp., and Syzygium samarangense) could decrease the concentration of ethanol in blood. In addition, several fruits (such as Cucumis melo) showed hepatoprotective effects by significantly decreasing AST or ALT level in blood, while some fruits (such as Averrhoa carambola) showed adverse effects. The results suggested that the consumption of alcohol should not be accompanied by some fruits, and several fruits could be developed as functional foods for the prevention and treatment of hangover and alcohol use disorder.

  2. The Effects of Scheduled Visitation on the Physiological Indices of Conscious Patients Admitted at intensive Care Units

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Visitation of patients admitted at intensive care units (ICUs) is a controversial issue in the field of health care. It is commonly believed that the presence of family members might bring about physiological changes, such as tachycardia and hypertension, in ICU patients. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of scheduled visitation on the physiological indices of conscious patients at the ICU. Method: This experimental study was conducted on 90 conscious patients admitted...

  3. Phenomenon of "contact guidance" on the surface with nano-micro-groove-like pattern and cell physiological effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Feng; YUAN Lin; HUANG He; CHEN Hong

    2009-01-01

    The topography of material surface has important influence on cell behavior and physiological functions. Groove-like pattern has drawn much attention among various patterns,due to the phenomenon of "contact guidance" induced by this kind of topography. This review mainly focuses on "contact guidance" formation as well as its influence on cell behavior and physiological effects. The possible mechanisms of "contact guidance" formation were discussed. The research trend and the potential applications were also suggested.

  4. Modeling the effect of physiological responses to green pruning on net biomass production of Eucalyptus nitens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkard, E. A.; Battaglia, M.; Beadle, C. L.; Sands, P. J.

    1999-01-01

    Green pruning of Eucalyptus nitens (Deane and Maiden) Maiden increases instantaneous rates of light-saturated CO(2) assimilation (A), and changes patterns of total leaf area and foliage distribution. We investigated the importance of such changes on the rate of recovery of growth following pruning. A simple process-based model was developed to estimate daily net biomass production (G(d)) of three-year-old plantation-grown trees over a 20-month period. The trees had been pruned by removal of 0, 50 or 70% of the length of green crown, equivalent to removal of 0, 55 or 88% of leaf area, respectively, when the plantation verged on canopy closure. Total G(d) was reduced by only 20% immediately following the 50%-pruning treatment, as a result of both the high leaf dark respiration and low A in the portion of the crown removed compared to the top of the crown. Pruning at the time of canopy closure preempted a natural and rapid decline in G(d) of the lower crown. Although leaf area index (L) was approximately 6.0 at the time of pruning, high light interception (95%) occurred with an L of 4.0. The 50%-pruning treatment reduced L to 3.5, but the physiological responses to pruning were sufficient to compensate fully for the reduction in intercepted radiation within 110 days of pruning. The 70%-pruning treatment reduced L to 1.9, and reduced G(d) by 77%, reflecting the removal of branches with high A in the mid and upper crown. Physiological responses to the 70%-pruning treatment were insufficient to increase G(d) to the value of unpruned trees during the study. Model sensitivity analysis showed that increases in A following pruning increased G(d) by 20 and 25% in the 50- and 70%-pruned trees, respectively, 20 months after pruning. Changes in leaf area/foliage distribution had a greater effect on G(d) of 50%-pruned trees (47% increase) than did changes in A. However, the reduction in photosynthetic potential associated with the 70%-pruning treatment resulted in only small

  5. Physiological effects of elevated plasma corticosterone concentrations in broiler chickens. An alternative means by which to assess the physiological effects of stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, J.; Rebel, J.M.J.; Huurne, ter A.A.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    Research on physical or psychological stress, in order to monitor objective parameters for animal welfare, is usually performed during experimental stress induction. To avoid treatment of animals with physical or physiological stress, addition of the stress-related hormone corticosterone to the drin

  6. Mechanisms of realization of THz-waves of nitrogen oxide occurrence physiological effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav F. Kirichuk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this review, there is generalized material of many experimental researches in interaction of THz-waves molecular emission and absorption spectrum (MEAS of nitrogen oxide occurrence with bioobjects. Thrombocytes and experimental animals were used as bioobjects. The experiments let indicate changes caused by THz-waves: at the cellular, tissular, system, organismic levels. There are all data of changes in physiological mechanisms of reglations at all levels: autocrine, paracrine, endocrine and nervous. There is a complex overview of experimental material firstly performed in the article. There had been shown that the effect of THz-waves of the given occurrence is realized by the changed activity of nitroxidergic system. It had been proved that THz-waves of nitrogen oxide occurrence can stimulate nitrogen oxide producing in organs and tissues in condition of its low concentration. Possible mechanisms of antiaggregative effect of the given waves had been described. There had been shown the possibility of regulating of vascular tone and system hemodynamics with the help of the studying these frequencies. The represented data of lipid peroxidation and enzymatic and nonenzymatic components of organism system under the influence of THz-waves of nitrogen oxide occurrence in stress conditions. Besides, there were shown changes of stress-regulating system activity and in concentration of important mediators - catecholamines and glucocorticosteroids. These data let characterize mechanism of realization of THz-waves basic effects. The research had shown the possibility of THz-waves of nitrogen oxide occurrence usage as a method of natural physiological noninvasive regulation of significant organism functions.

  7. Morphology, Physiology, and Anatomy of Penny Fern (Drymoglossum phyloselloidesand Its Effect on Cocoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitria Yuliasmara

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the anatomy, physiology and morphology of penny fern (Drimoglosum phylloseloides and its effect on cocoa. Morphological observation of penny fern used microscope to observe the roots, stems, leaves and spores. Physiology of penny fern was observed based on number of stomata and stomatal conductance using stomata printing method, while the amount of chlorophyll based on spectrophotometric method and rate of transpiration used cobalt chloride paper. Penny fern anatomy on cross-sectional and longitudinal in roots, stems and leaves. Penny fern growth was observed based the length of tendrils once a week during rainy and dry season. While the effect of penny fern invasion was observed based on variable leaf area with gravimetric method, the cross-section of attacked cacao branch using microtom and microscope and chlorophyll content by chlorophyll meter. Results showed that penny fern is a epiphytic weed which was crassulaceae acid metabolism plants that have the ability to absorb carbon dioxide at night and carry out photosynthesis during the day with closed stomata. Penny ferns reproduce using spores. The growth rate of penny fern 2.18 cm/week during the dry season and while in rainy season 3.89 cm/week. Penny fern leaf contains 0.0212 mg/g chlorophyll. Penny fern stomata density was 18.33/mm 2 with a width of opening stomata at night 26.3 µm which caused a veryslow rate of transpiration of 0.69 mm 2 /seconds. The existence penny fern on cocoa decreased leaf area and chlorophyll content decreased crop productivity which was indicated by decreasing in number of flowers, number of small, medium fruit, and large pods. However it had no effect on the number of leaves on one side flush cocoa. Key words: Drimoglosum phylloseloides, weeds, decrease productivity, Theobroma cacao

  8. Effects of cerium nitrate on the growth and physiological characteristics in Cyclocarya paliurusseedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢寅峰; 李颖; 刘娜娜; 张颖颖; 郭楠; 王涛; 尚绪岚

    2015-01-01

    Field studies were conducted to examine the effects of cerium on the growth and physiological characteristics ofCyclo-carya paliurusseedlings by spraying the foliage with different concentrations of cerium nitrate. Optimal concentrations of cerium ni-trate improved the relative growth yield of seedling height and stems and the soluble protein and sugar content of the leaves. Cerium nitrate also increased the concentration of secondary metabolites including triterpenoids, quercetin and kaempferol, mineral elements K, P, Mg, Mn, Fe and Cu, and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX), and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) in the leaves. The effects of cerium nitrate on these indices were dose dependent. A concentration of 0.20 mmol/L was optimal to promote the relative growth yield of seedling height, contents of soluble sugar, kaempferol, K, P, Cu, and activities of PAL, SOD, and POX, significantlyincreased by 54.61%, 14.71%, 55.19%, 105.2%, 74.5%, 133.3%, 80.48%, 25.35% and 22.54%, respectively, as compared with the control. However, the maximal increase in relative growth yield of stems, contents of triterpenoid, quercetin, Mg, Mn, and Fe was attained at 1.00 mmol/L treatment, which significantlyincreased by 87.00%, 80.56%, 452.44%, 93.2%, 29.4%, and 133.9%, respectively, compared with control check (CK). Correlation analysis revealed positive relationships between activities of PAL, SOD and contents of triterpenoid, quercetin and kaempferol within a certain concentration range of cerium nitrate. These re-sults suggested that an appropriate concentration of cerium not only was effective in the improvement of physiological function ofC. paliurus, but alsoincreased seedling resistance. Moreover, it stimulated the synthesis of medicinal components in leaves.

  9. An overview of the issues: physiological effects of bed rest and restricted physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, V. A.; Bloomfield, S. A.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1997-01-01

    Reduction of exercise capacity with confinement to bed rest is well recognized. Underlying physiological mechanisms include dramatic reductions in maximal stroke volume, cardiac output, and oxygen uptake. However, bed rest by itself does not appear to contribute to cardiac dysfunction. Increased muscle fatigue is associated with reduced muscle blood flow, red cell volume, capillarization and oxidative enzymes. Loss of muscle mass and bone density may be reflected by reduced muscle strength and higher risk for injury to bones and joints. The resultant deconditioning caused by bed rest can be independent of the primary disease and physically debilitating in patients who attempt to reambulate to normal active living and working. A challenge to clinicians and health care specialists has been the identification of appropriate and effective methods to restore physical capacity of patients during or after restricted physical activity associated with prolonged bed rest. The examination of physiological responses to bed rest deconditioning and exercise training in healthy subjects has provided significant information to develop effective rehabilitation treatments. The successful application of acute exercise to enhance orthostatic stability, daily endurance exercise to maintain aerobic capacity, or specific resistance exercises to maintain musculoskeletal integrity rather than the use of surgical, pharmacological, and other medical treatments for clinical conditions has been enhanced by investigation and understanding of underlying mechanisms that distinguish physical deconditioning from the disease. This symposium presents an overview of cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning associated with reduced physical work capacity following prolonged bed rest and exercise training regimens that have proven successful in ameliorating or reversing these adverse effects.

  10. Instant effects of peppermint essential oil on the physiological parameters and exercise performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Meamarbashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Effect of peppermint on exercise performance was previously investigated but equivocal findings exist. This study aimed to investigate the effects of peppermint ingestion on the physiological parameters and exercise performance after 5 min and 1 h. Materials and Methods: Thirty healthy male university students were randomly divided into experimental (n=15 and control (n=15 groups. Maximum isometric grip force, vertical and long jumps, spirometric parameters, visual and audio reaction times, blood pressure, heart rate, and breath rate were recorded three times: before, five minutes, and one hour after single dose oral administration of peppermint essential oil (50 µl. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. Results: Our results revealed significant improvement in all of the variables after oral administration of peppermint essential oil.  Experimental group compared with control group showed an incremental and a significant increase in the grip force (36.1%, standing vertical jump (7.0%, and standing long jump (6.4%. Data obtained from the experimental group after five minutes exhibited a significant increase in the forced vital capacity in first second (FVC1(35.1%, peak inspiratory flow rate (PIF (66.4%, and peak expiratory flow rate (PEF (65.1%, whereas after one hour, only PIF shown a significant increase as compare with the baseline and control group. At both times, visual and audio reaction times were significantly decreased. Physiological parameters were also significantly improved after five minutes. A considerable enhancement in the grip force, spiromery, and other parameters were the important findings of this study. Conclusion: An improvement in the spirometric measurements (FVC1, PEF, and PIF might be due to the peppermint effects on the bronchial smooth muscle tonicity with or without affecting the lung surfactant. Yet, no scientific evidence exists regarding isometric force enhancement in this novel study.  

  11. Effect of jumping interval training on neuromuscular and physiological parameters: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ache-Dias, Jonathan; Dellagrana, Rodolfo A; Teixeira, Anderson S; Dal Pupo, Juliano; Moro, Antônio R P

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed the effect of 4 weeks of jumping interval training (JIT), included in endurance training, on neuromuscular and physiological parameters. Eighteen recreational runners, randomized in control and experimental groups, performed 40 min of running at 70% of velocity at peak oxygen uptake, for 3 times per week. Additionally, the experimental group performed the JIT twice per week, which consisted of 4 to 6 bouts of continuous vertical jumps (30 s) with 5-min intervals. Three days before and after the training period, the countermovement (CMJ) and continuous jump (CJ30), isokinetic and isometric evaluation of knee extensors/flexors, progressive maximal exercise, and submaximal constant-load exercise were performed. The JIT provoked improvement in neuromuscular performance, indicated by (i) increased jump height (4.7%; effect size (ES) = 0.99) and power output (≈ 3.7%; ES ≈ 0.82) of CMJ and rate of torque development of knee extensors in isometric contraction (29.5%; ES = 1.02); (ii) anaerobic power and capacity, represented by the mean of jump height (7.4%; ES = 0.8), and peak power output (PPO) (5.6%; ES = 0.73) of the first jumps of CJ30 and the mean of jump height (10.2%, ES = 1.04) and PPO (9.5%, ES = 1.1), considering all jumps of CJ30; and (iii) aerobic power and capacity, represented by peak oxygen uptake (9.1%, ES = 1.28), velocity at peak oxygen uptake (2.7%, ES = 1.11), and velocity corresponding to the onset of blood lactate accumulation (9.7%, ES = 1.23). These results suggest that the JIT included in traditional endurance training induces moderate to large effects on neuromuscular and physiological parameters.

  12. An overview of the issues: physiological effects of bed rest and restricted physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, V. A.; Bloomfield, S. A.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1997-01-01

    Reduction of exercise capacity with confinement to bed rest is well recognized. Underlying physiological mechanisms include dramatic reductions in maximal stroke volume, cardiac output, and oxygen uptake. However, bed rest by itself does not appear to contribute to cardiac dysfunction. Increased muscle fatigue is associated with reduced muscle blood flow, red cell volume, capillarization and oxidative enzymes. Loss of muscle mass and bone density may be reflected by reduced muscle strength and higher risk for injury to bones and joints. The resultant deconditioning caused by bed rest can be independent of the primary disease and physically debilitating in patients who attempt to reambulate to normal active living and working. A challenge to clinicians and health care specialists has been the identification of appropriate and effective methods to restore physical capacity of patients during or after restricted physical activity associated with prolonged bed rest. The examination of physiological responses to bed rest deconditioning and exercise training in healthy subjects has provided significant information to develop effective rehabilitation treatments. The successful application of acute exercise to enhance orthostatic stability, daily endurance exercise to maintain aerobic capacity, or specific resistance exercises to maintain musculoskeletal integrity rather than the use of surgical, pharmacological, and other medical treatments for clinical conditions has been enhanced by investigation and understanding of underlying mechanisms that distinguish physical deconditioning from the disease. This symposium presents an overview of cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning associated with reduced physical work capacity following prolonged bed rest and exercise training regimens that have proven successful in ameliorating or reversing these adverse effects.

  13. The long-run effect of maternity leave benefits on mental health: evidence from European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avendano, Mauricio; Berkman, Lisa F; Brugiavini, Agar; Pasini, Giacomo

    2015-05-01

    This paper examines whether maternity leave policies have an effect on women's mental health in older age. We link data for women aged 50 years and above from countries in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) to data on maternity leave legislation from 1960 onwards. We use a difference-in-differences approach that exploits changes over time within countries in the duration and compensation of maternity leave benefits, linked to the year women were giving birth to their first child at age 16 to 25. We compare late-life depressive symptom scores (measured with a 12-item version of the Euro-D scale) of mothers who were in employment in the period around the birth of their first child to depression scores of mothers who were not in employment in the period surrounding the birth of a first child, and therefore did not benefit directly from maternity leave benefits. Our findings suggest that a more generous maternity leave during the birth of a first child is associated with a reduced score of 0.38 points in the Euro-D depressive symptom scale in old age. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of amitriptyline vs. physiotherapy in management of fibromyalgia syndrome: What predicts a clinical benefit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : Fibromyalgia is a chronic disabling condition, and physicians treat it using a number of different treatment modalities. It is not known if one or more of such modalities are better than the others. We compared the efficacy of physiotherapy and amitriptyline in disability reduction in patients of fibromyalgia syndrome in a rural tertiary care hospital in Central India. Design : Open-label alternate patient treatment allocation. Materials and Methods : A six-month follow-up was done to assess the benefit of amitriptyline and physiotherapy for disability reduction in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome. Primary outcome measure was improvement in fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ score. Statistical Analysis Used : Predictors of benefit were determined using multivariate logistic regression. Results : A total of 175 outpatients were assigned to either amitriptyline (n=87 or structured physiotherapy (n=88 treatments. There was a significant but similar (P=0.82 improvement in disability in both groups. High FIQ score at baseline and low socioeconomic status scores were significant predictors of benefit. Conclusions : Therapy with amitriptyline or physiotherapy is equally effective in improving outcome in patients of fibromyalgia over a period of six months.

  15. Food fortification for addressing iron deficiency in Filipino children: benefits and cost-effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detzel, Patrick; Wieser, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the most widespread nutritional disorders in both developing and industrialized countries, making it a global public health concern. Anemia, mainly due to iron deficiency, affects one third of the world's population and is concentrated in women and children below 5 years of age. Iron deficiency anemia has a profound impact on human health and productivity, and the effects of iron deficiency are especially pronounced in the first 1,000 days of life. This critical window of time sets the stage for an individual's future physiological and cognitive health, underscoring the importance of addressing iron deficiency in infants and young children. This review focuses on the use of fortified foods as a cost-effective tool for addressing iron deficiency in infants and young children in the Philippines.

  16. Regulatory benefit-risk assessment and comparative effectiveness research: strangers, bedfellows or strange bedfellows?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Louis P

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 5 years, we have witnessed growing interest in both comparative effectiveness research (CER) and regulatory benefit-risk assessment (BRA). Both deal with benefits and harms, although at different stages of the product lifecycle. There are growing pressures for a more systematic and quantitative approach to regulatory BRA. However, there is also a need for CER - beyond the evidence that can reasonably be generated during pre-launch product development. Important regulatory and policy questions include the following: What would be a level playing field across disease areas and companies? Who should bear the costs of these studies? What role can benefit-risk modelling play? What is the value of research and how is it related to the prevalence of disease? What is the relationship between uncertainty and the value of evidence? We need to recognize the lifecycle nature of evidence generation, moving from the regulatory setting to the real world and affecting potentially hundreds of thousands, or even millions, of patients worldwide. We need to emphasize not only the public goods nature of information embedded in innovations, but also that it is global. Finally, we need to more systematically explore the benefits and costs of gathering further information - the value of research - recognizing that doing this requires a model or methodology, which we have, for systematically appraising our current state of knowledge and what could be gained from further research. All said, it would seem that BRA and CER should be neither strangers nor strange bedfellows, but may need to be coaxed into being bedfellows.

  17. Effects of acute and chronic exercise in patients with essential hypertension: benefits and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkaliagkousi, Eugenia; Gavriilaki, Eleni; Douma, Stella

    2015-04-01

    The importance of regular physical activity in essential hypertension has been extensively investigated over the last decades and has emerged as a major modifiable factor contributing to optimal blood pressure control. Aerobic exercise exerts its beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system by promoting traditional cardiovascular risk factor regulation, as well as by favorably regulating sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity, molecular effects, cardiac, and vascular function. Benefits of resistance exercise need further validation. On the other hand, acute exercise is now an established trigger of acute cardiac events. A number of possible pathophysiological links have been proposed, including SNS, vascular function, coagulation, fibrinolysis, and platelet function. In order to fully interpret this knowledge into clinical practice, we need to better understand the role of exercise intensity and duration in this pathophysiological cascade and in special populations. Further studies in hypertensive patients are also warranted in order to clarify the possibly favorable effect of antihypertensive treatment on exercise-induced effects.

  18. The physiological and biochemical effects of salicylic acid on sunflowers (Helianthus annuus) exposed to flurochloridone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Armagan; Yigit, Emel

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we comparatively evaluated the effects of the flurochloridone as well as flurochloridone and exogenously applied salicylic acid (SA) on Helianthus annuus L. to find out herbicide-induced toxicity reducing influence of SA. We examined and compared the physiological and biochemical effects of different concentrations of flurochloridone (11, 32 and 72 mM) in both the SA pre-treated and non-treated plants. The plants treated with flurochloridone exhibited reduced total chlorophyll, carotenoid, and relative water content compared to the control group, whereas the plants that were pre-treated with SA exhibited relatively higher values for the same physiological parameters. In the SA non-treated plants, the superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase activities were increased in the treatment groups compared to the control group. In the treatment groups, these enzyme activities were decreased in the SA-pre-treated plants compared to the non-treated plants. Ascorbate peroxidase and catalase activities decreased in the flurochloridone-treated plants compared to the control plants. The ascorbate peroxidase activity increased in the control groups but decreased in the treatment groups in the SA pre-treated plants compared to the non-treated plants. However, SA treatment decreased the activity of catalase in the control and treatment groups compared to the plants that were not treated with SA. Flurochloridone treatment increased the malondialdehyde content in the treated groups compared to the control groups, whereas SA-pretreatment decreased malondialdehyde content compared to plants that were not treated with SA. Flurochloridone treatment increased endogenous SA content compared to the control. Although the residual levels of herbicide in the plants increased proportionately with increasing herbicide concentrations, the SA-pre-treated plants exhibited reduced residual herbicide levels compared to the plants that were not treated

  19. Rethinking butterflies: the affective, physiological, and performance effects of reappraising arousal during social evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltzer, Miranda L; Nock, Matthew K; Peters, Brett J; Jamieson, Jeremy P

    2014-08-01

    This study examined the effects of reappraising stress arousal on affective displays, physiological responses, and social performance during an evaluative situation. Participants were sampled from across the social anxiety spectrum and instructed to reappraise arousal as beneficial or received no instructions. Independent raters coded affective displays, nonverbal signaling, and speech performance. Saliva samples collected at baseline and after evaluation were assayed for salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), a protein that indexes sympathetic activation. Arousal reappraisal participants exhibited less shame and anxiety, less avoidant nonverbal signaling, and performed marginally better than no instruction controls. Reappraisal participants also exhibited increased levels of sAA and increased appraisals of coping resources compared with controls. Furthermore, stress appraisals mediated relationships between reappraisal and affective displays. This research indicates that reframing stress arousal can improve behavioral displays of affect during evaluative situations via altering cognitive appraisals.

  20. Performance, subjective, and physiological effects of nicotine in non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heishman, S J; Snyder, F R; Henningfield, J E

    1993-12-01

    Sixteen human volunteers with little or no experience using tobacco participated in one 4.5-h experimental session in which they were administered three doses of nicotine polacrilex gum (0, 2 and 4 mg) in ascending order at 90-min intervals. Physiological, subjective, and cognitive performance measures were assessed before and after each dose. Nicotine produced dose-related increases in heart rate and blood pressure and decreases in skin temperature. Nicotine also increased subjective ratings of dose strength and negative effects and decreased ratings of desire to repeat the same dose. There were dose-related trends toward decreased accuracy and increased response time on 3 of the 4 cognitive tests. These data do not support the hypothesis that nicotine enhances cognitive functioning in non-smokers.

  1. Effect of excess iron and copper on physiology of aquatic plant Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Wei; Huang, Wenmin; Liu, Guihua

    2010-04-01

    To elucidate effect of chemical reagents addition on growth of aquatic plants in restoration of aquatic ecosystem, Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid was used to evaluate its physiological responses to excess iron (Fe(3+)) and copper (Cu(2+)) in the study. Results showed that accumulation of iron and copper both reached maximum at 100 mg L(-1) iron or copper after 24 h short-term stress, but excess iron and copper caused plants necrosis or death and colonies disintegration as well as roots abscission at excess metal concentrations except for 1 mg L(-1) iron. Significant differences in chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) were observed at 1-100 mg L(-1) iron or copper. The synthesis of chlorophyll and protein as well as carbohydrate and the uptake of phosphate and nitrogen were inhibited seriously by excess iron and copper. Proline content decreased with increasing iron or copper concentration, however, MDA content increased with increasing iron or copper concentration.

  2. The effects of the arm swing on biomechanical and physiological aspects of roller ski skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegge, Ann Magdalen; Ettema, Gertjan; de Koning, Jos J; Rognstad, Asgeir Bakken; Hoset, Martin; Sandbakk, Øyvind

    2014-08-01

    This study analyzed the biomechanical and physiological effects of the arm swing in roller ski skating, and compared leg-skating (i.e. ski skating without poles) using a pronounced arm swing (SWING) with leg-skating using locked arms (LOCKED). Sixteen elite male cross-country skiers performed submaximal stages at 10, 15 and 20kmh(-1) on a 2% inclined treadmill in the two techniques. SWING demonstrated higher peak push-off forces and a higher force impulse at all speeds, but a longer cycle length only at the highest speed (all Pski skating increases the ski forces and aerobic energy cost at low and moderate speeds, whereas the greater forces at high speed lead to a longer cycle length and smaller anaerobic contribution.

  3. Effectiveness of inquiry-based learning in an undergraduate exercise physiology course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; May, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of changing a laboratory physiology course for undergraduate students from a traditional step-by-step guided structure to an inquiry-based approach. With this aim in mind, quantitative and qualitative evaluations of learning outcomes......). The I-based course was a guided inquiry course where students had to design the experimental protocol and conduct their own study on the basis of certain predefined criteria (i.e., they should evaluate respiratory responses to submaximal and maximal exercise and provide indirect and direct measures...... of aerobic exercise capacity). The results indicated that the overall time spent on the experimental course as well as self-evaluated learning outcomes were similar across groups. However, students in the I-based course used more time in preparation (102 ± 5 min) than students in the traditional course (42...

  4. Physiological Effect of New FA Antitranspirant Application on Winter Wheat at Ear Filling Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The physiological effect of new FA antitranspirant on winter wheat was studied by field trial. The new FA antitranspirant was sprayed at ear filling stage, using the following concentrations: 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mL L-1.The results indicated that new FA antitranspirant increased nitrate reductase activity (NRA), free proline content, chlorophyll content and water content of leaf, thus drought stress can be mitigated. The new FA antitranspirant increased photosynthesis, enlarged stomatal conductance and reduced transpiration rate, thus led to growth stimulation and water loss reduction. New FA antitranspirant caused an increase of grain yield by 7.2%, under the optimal concentration 1.5 mL L-1.

  5. Effects of cinnamic acid on the physiological characteristics of cucumber seedlings under salt stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xuezheng; WANG Hua; WU Fengzhi; LIU Bo

    2007-01-01

    Effects of cinnamic acid on the physiological characteristics of cucumber(Shandong Mici)seedlings under salt stress were studied,and the best concentration and treatment time were ascertained.The results showed that cinnamic acid relatively increased the leaf relative water content and the chlorophyll content,decreased plasma membrane permeability,mitigated membrane damage,inhibited the accumulation of malondialdehyde(product of membrane lipid peroxidation),and promoted the activity of membrane protective enzymes such as super oxide dismutase and peroxidase,therefore improving the adaptabilities of cucumber to salt stress.It is concluded that the best treatment time of cinnamic acid is in the two euphylla period,and the best treatment concentration of cinnamic acid is 50 μmol/L.

  6. Ultra high pressure homogenization of almond milk: Physico-chemical and physiological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briviba, Karlis; Gräf, Volker; Walz, Elke; Guamis, Buenaventura; Butz, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Ultra high pressure homogenization (UHPH) of food is a processing technology to improve food safety and shelf life. However, despite very short treatment duration UHPH may lead to changes in chemical and physico-chemical properties including formation of submicro-/nano-particles. This may affect the physiological or toxicological properties of the treated food. Here, we treated raw almond milk (AMr) with UHPH at 350 MPa and 85 °C (AMuhph), known able to inactivate food relevant microorganisms. UHPH-treatment led to about a threefold increase of the mean particle size. There was a nearly complete loss of antigenicity investigated by ELISA for determination of traces of almond proteins. The content of vitamins B1 and B2 remained unchanged, while free exposed sulfhydryl groups decreased. Despite of observed modifications, UHPH-treatment of almond milk did not cause any changes in cyto- or genotoxic effects and antigenotoxic capability of protecting intestinal cells against iron induced DNA damage in vitro.

  7. Effects of atrazine on endocrinology and physiology in juvenile barramundi, Lates calcarifer (Bloch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, Frederieke J; Hook, Sharon E; Jones, Dean; Metcalfe, Suzanne; Osborn, Hannah L

    2014-07-01

    Exposure to certain environmental contaminants such as agricultural pesticides can alter normal endocrine and reproductive parameters in wild fish populations. Recent studies have found widespread pesticide contamination across the rivers that discharge into the Great Barrier Reef lagoon. Potential impacts on native fish species exposed to known endocrine disrupting chemicals such as atrazine, simazine, and diuron have not been assessed. In the present study, the authors examined the endocrine and physiological effects of short-term, acute exposure of environmentally relevant concentrations of analytical grade atrazine in juvenile barramundi (Lates calcarifer) in a controlled laboratory experiment. Expression of hepatic vitellogenin was not affected, supporting results of previous studies that showed that atrazine does not have a direct estrogenic effect via mediation of estrogen receptors. The lack of effect on brain cytochrome P19B (CYP19B) expression levels, combined with increases in testosterone (T) and 17β estradiol and a stable T:17β estradiol ratio, does not support the hypothesis that atrazine has an indirect estrogenic effect via modulation of aromatase expression. Gill ventilation rate, a measure of oxidative stress, did not change in contrast to other studies finding enhanced osmoregulatory disturbance and gill histopathology after atrazine exposure. To more closely reflect field conditions, the authors recommend that laboratory studies should focus more on examining the effects of commercial pesticide formulations that contain additional ingredients that have been found to be disruptive to endocrine function.

  8. Effects of music on immunity and physiological responses in healthcare workers: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hui-Ling; Liao, Kuang-Wen; Huang, Chiung-Yu; Chen, Pin-Wen; Peng, Tai-Chu

    2013-04-01

    Research-based evidence supports the effectiveness of soothing music in improving stress-related psycho-physiological indices in a clinical setting. However, there is currently insufficient scientific knowledge of the effects of music on immune markers of stress in humans. Therefore, the aims of the study were to compare the effects of music and quiet rest on the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-10 (IL-10), heart rate and mean arterial pressure among healthcare workers. By using a randomized controlled trial design, 60 nurses were randomly assigned to the stimulating or sedating music or rest groups for 30 min. Participants' psychoneuroimmunological parameters were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. General estimating equation was used to analyse data. Results revealed that IL-6, TNF-α and IL-10 were not detectable in this population. No significance differences in heart rate were found among the three groups. However, the stimulating music group had significantly higher mean arterial pressure levels than the sedating music group but no differences between the quiet rest group and the sedating music group. Music with different tempi had little effect on mean arterial pressure. Any effect of music on immune markers of stress requires further research.

  9. Physiological and morphological aspects of Aedes aegypti developing larvae: effects of the chitin synthesis inhibitor novaluron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnesi, Luana C; Brito, José M; Linss, Jutta G; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo; Valle, Denise; Rezende, Gustavo L

    2012-01-01

    Population control of the dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is difficult due to many reasons, one being the development of resistance to neurotoxic insecticides employed. The biosynthesis of chitin, a major constituent of insect cuticle, is a novel target for population control. Novaluron is a benzoylphenylurea (BPU) that acts as a chitin synthesis inhibitor, already used against mosquitoes. However, information regarding BPU effects on immature mosquito stages and physiological parameters related with mosquito larval development are scarce. A set of physiological parameters were recorded in control developing larvae and novaluron was administered continuously to Ae. aegypti larvae, since early third instar. Larval instar period duration was recorded from third instar until pupation. Chitin content was measured during third and fourth instars. Fourth instars were processed histochemically at the mesothorax region, stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) for assessment of internal tissues, and labeled with WGA-FITC to reveal chitinized structures. In control larvae: i) there is a chitin content increase during both third and fourth instars where late third instars contain more chitin than early fourth instars; ii) thoracic organs and a continuous cuticle, closely associated with the underlying epidermis were observed; iii) chitin was continuously present throughout integument cuticle. Novaluron treatment inhibited adult emergence, induced immature mortality, altered adult sex ratio and caused delay in larval development. Moreover, novaluron: i) significantly affected chitin content during larval development; ii) induced a discontinuous and altered cuticle in some regions while epidermis was often thinner or missing; iii) rendered chitin cuticle presence discontinuous and less evident. In both control and novaluron larvae, chitin was present in the peritrophic matrix. This study showed quantitatively and qualitatively evidences of novaluron effects on Ae

  10. Physiological and morphological aspects of Aedes aegypti developing larvae: effects of the chitin synthesis inhibitor novaluron.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana C Farnesi

    Full Text Available Population control of the dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is difficult due to many reasons, one being the development of resistance to neurotoxic insecticides employed. The biosynthesis of chitin, a major constituent of insect cuticle, is a novel target for population control. Novaluron is a benzoylphenylurea (BPU that acts as a chitin synthesis inhibitor, already used against mosquitoes. However, information regarding BPU effects on immature mosquito stages and physiological parameters related with mosquito larval development are scarce. A set of physiological parameters were recorded in control developing larvae and novaluron was administered continuously to Ae. aegypti larvae, since early third instar. Larval instar period duration was recorded from third instar until pupation. Chitin content was measured during third and fourth instars. Fourth instars were processed histochemically at the mesothorax region, stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE for assessment of internal tissues, and labeled with WGA-FITC to reveal chitinized structures. In control larvae: i there is a chitin content increase during both third and fourth instars where late third instars contain more chitin than early fourth instars; ii thoracic organs and a continuous cuticle, closely associated with the underlying epidermis were observed; iii chitin was continuously present throughout integument cuticle. Novaluron treatment inhibited adult emergence, induced immature mortality, altered adult sex ratio and caused delay in larval development. Moreover, novaluron: i significantly affected chitin content during larval development; ii induced a discontinuous and altered cuticle in some regions while epidermis was often thinner or missing; iii rendered chitin cuticle presence discontinuous and less evident. In both control and novaluron larvae, chitin was present in the peritrophic matrix. This study showed quantitatively and qualitatively evidences of novaluron effects

  11. Root growth, mycorrhization and physiological effects of plants growing on oil tailing sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldt-Burisch, Katja M.; Naeth, Anne M.; Schneider, Bernd Uwe; Hüttl, Reinhard F.

    2015-04-01

    Surface mining creates large, intense disturbances of soils and produces large volumes of by-products and waste materials. After mining processes these materials often provide the basis for land reclamation and ecosystem restoration. In the present study, tailing sands (TS) and processed mature fine tailings (pMFT) from Fort McMurray (Alberta, Canada) were used. They represent challenging material for ecosystem rebuilding because of very low nutrient contents of TS and oil residuals, high density of MFT material. In this context, little is known about the interactions of pure TS, respectively mixtures of TS and MFT and root growth, mycorrhization and plant physiological effects. Four herbaceous plant species (Elymus trachycaulus, Koeleria macrantha, Deschampsia cespitosa, Lotus corniculatus) were chosen to investigate root development, chlorophyll fluorescence and mycorrhization intensity with and without application of Glomus mosseae (arbuscular mycorrhizae) on mainly tailing sands. Surprisingly both, plants growing on pure TS and plants growing on TS with additional AM-application showed mycorrhization of roots. In general, the mycorrhization intensity was lower for plants growing on pure tailings sands, but it is an interesting fact that there is a potential for mycorrhization available in tailing sands. The mycorrhizal intensity strongly increased with application of G. mosseae for K. macrantha and L. corniculatus and even more for E. trachycaulus. For D. cespitosa similar high mycorrhiza infection frequency was found for both variants, with and without AM-application. By the application of G. mosseae, root growth of E. trachycaulus and K. macrantha was significantly positively influenced. Analysis of leaf chlorophyll fluorescence showed no significant differences for E. trachycaulus but significant positive influence of mycorrhizal application on the physiological status of L. corniculatus. However, this effect could not be detected when TS was mixed with MFT

  12. Effects of Heavy Metals and Saline-alkali on Growth, Physiology and Biochemistry of Orychophragmus violaceus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoai ZHANG; Zhihui WANG; Xinquan ZHANG; Mingyang Ll; Jing ZUO

    2012-01-01

    Abstract [Oh.jective] The aim was to study on effects of heavy metals and saline-al- kali on growth, physiology and biochemistry of Orychophragmus violaceus. [Method] Taken Orychophragmus violaceus as materials, growth, physiology and biochemistry were explored under stress of saline-alkali and heavy metals (light, moderate and se- vere saline-alkali, Pb, Pb + Cd, light saline-alkali + Pb, moderate saline-alkali + Pb, severe saline-alkali + Pb, light saline-alkali + Pb + Cd, moderate saline-alkali + Pb + Cd and severe saline-alkali + Pb + Cd) with control group set. [Result] Light stress of saline-alkali had little effect on membrane permeability, as follows: MDA contents in leaves and root systems declined by 25.6% and 9.0% compared with control group; Pb (500 mg/L) stress promoted synthetization of photosynthetic pigments, as follows: chlorophyll a and b and carotenoid increased by 0.86%, 0.69% and 6.25% than those of control group; combined stresses of Pb and Cd destroyed synthetization of photosynthetic pigments, among which carotenoid was more sensitive; under com- bined stresses of saline-alkali, Pb and Cd, POD and SOD activities, soluble saccha- rides and Pro content all increased and activities of POD and SOD in root system were both higher than those in leaves. [Conclusion] Orychophragmus violaceus is with resistance against light combined stresses of saline-alkali and Pb (500 mg/L).

  13. The effects of two different swimming training periodization on physiological parameters at various exercise intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente-Suárez, Vicente Javier; Dalamitros, Athanasios; Ribeiro, João; Sousa, Ana; Fernandes, Ricardo J; Vilas-Boas, J Paulo

    2017-05-01

    This study analysed the effects of two different periodization strategies on physiological parameters at various exercise intensities in competitive swimmers. Seventeen athletes of both sexes were divided to two groups, the traditional periodization (TPG, n = 7) and the reverse periodization group (RPG, n = 10). Each group followed a 10-week training period based on the two different periodization strategies. Before and after training, swimming velocity (SV), energy expenditure (EE), energy cost (EC) and percentage of aerobic (%Aer) and anaerobic (%An) energy contribution to the swimming intensities corresponding to the aerobic threshold (AerT), the anaerobic threshold (AnT) and the velocity at maximal oxygen uptake (vVO2max) were measured. Both groups increased the %An at the AerT and AnT intensity (P ≤ .05). In contrast, at the AnT intensity, EE and EC were only increased in TPG. Complementary, %Aer, %An, EE and EC at vVO2max did not alter in both groups (P > .05); no changes were observed in SV in TPG and RPG at all three intensities. These results indicate that both periodization schemes confer almost analogous adaptations in specific physiological parameters in competitive swimmers. However, given the large difference in the total training volume between the two groups, it is suggested that the implementation of the reverse periodization model is an effective and time-efficient strategy to improve performance mainly for swimming events where the AnT is an important performance indicator.

  14. The effect of aqueous extract of Euphorbia drupifera on the physiology of wistar rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael Ununuma Akpiri

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The plant Euphorbia came from Mount Atlas region of present-day Morocco and was probably the resin Spurge. This local herb is used by traditional herbalists for treatment of hypertension, diabetes and several other ailments. The aim of this study is to investigate the toxic effect of aqueous extract of Euphorbia drupifera on the physiology of wistar rats. Considering objectives such as: determining the efficacy of Eupholobia drupifera in rat and determining if the extract is dose and time-dependent. Twenty  five (25 normal wistar rats were used for this study. They were acclimatized and randomly distributed into groups A-D and control. They were given, oral administration of Euphorbia extracts twice daily. Doses of 0.056ml/g, 0.118ml/g, 0.174ml/g and 0.254ml/g were given to groups A,B,C and D respectively. The higher the dosage, the shorter the time of death. The animals were observed for morphological changes afterwards. Five rats, one from each group were examined after death. The results obtained recorded a 100% mortality rate in the test groups of rats. Tissue observation showed swollen intestine. Behavioural observation showed continuous itching immediately after feeding with extract,  reduced activity, loss of appetite, drowsiness, and swollen jaws. E. drupifera  was found to have a severe toxic effect on the physiology of rats as 100% mortality was observed in all test groups(Group A, 144hrs; Group B, 96hrs; Group C, 48hrs; and Group D, 36hrs. Thus, caution should be taken in handling and general usage of the plant. No death occurred in the control group without the extract. 

  15. Effects of confinement duration and parity on stereotypic behavioral and physiological responses of pregnant sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Yue; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Hong-Gui; Li, Jian-Hong; Bao, Jun

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of space restriction stress on the stereotypic behavioral and physiological responses of different parity sows, and it is necessary to understand such effects due to space restriction to improve the welfare of the sows in confined conditions. We selected fifty pregnant sows (Large White) at primiparity and first to fifth parity in a confined farm with the same body condition and due date (3±1.5days). Behavioral observations and physiological analysis were carried out during spatial confinement throughout pregnancy. The results showed that there were no significant changes in vacuum-chewing, bar-biting, trough-biting and the concentrations of serum IL-6 in primiparous sows during the initial confinement (0-8days). With the increase of the confinement duration, the serum cortisol, IgA, IL-6 concentrations and the vacuum-chewing frequency of sows in all groups increased significantly, and the serum concentrations of C-reactive protein and Pig-MAP increased significantly except for the sows in the first and second parity groups. The serum cortisol, IgA, IL-6 concentrations and the vacuum-chewing frequency of older sows were significantly higher than those of the young sows throughout the entire restricted feeding period, but the serum C-reactive protein concentrations of primiparous gilts was significantly higher than those of the other groups. The serum cortisol, IgA, IL-6 concentrations and bar-biting and trough-biting frequencies of all parity sows decreased significantly after entering the delivery bed. In conclusion, long-lasting and recurrent environmental constraints can significantly increase the frequency of stereotypical behavior and serious psychological and physical stress, seriously damaging sow welfare. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Conservation physiology of animal migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Robert J; Chapman, Jacqueline M; Souliere, Christopher M; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D; Cooke, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  17. Warming reinforces nonconsumptive predator effects on prey growth, physiology, and body stoichiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Lizanne; Van Dievel, Marie; Stoks, Robby

    2015-12-01

    While nonconsumptive effects of predators may strongly affect prey populations, little is known how future warming will modulate these effects. Such information would be especially relevant with regard to prey physiology and resulting changes in prey stoichiometry. We investigated in Enallagma cyathigerum damselfly larvae the effects of a 4°C warming (20°C vs. 24°C) and predation risk on growth rate, physiology and body stoichiometry, for the first time including all key mechanisms suggested by the general stress paradigm (GSP) on how stressors shape changes in body stoichiometry. Growth rate and energy storage were higher at 24°C. Based on thermodynamic principles and the growth rate hypothesis, we could demonstrate predictable reductions in body C:P under warming and link these to the increase in P-rich RNA; the associated warming-induced decrease in C:N may be explained by the increased synthesis of N-rich proteins. Yet, under predation risk, growth rate instead decreased with warming and the warming-induced decreases in C:N and C:P disappeared. As predicted by the GSP, larvae increased body C:N and C:P at 24°C under predation risk. Notably, we did not detect the assumed GSP-mechanisms driving these changes: despite an increased metabolic rate there was neither an increase of C-rich biomolecules (instead fat and sugar contents decreased under predation risk), nor a decrease of N-rich proteins. We hypothesize that the higher C:N and N:P under predation risk are caused by a higher investment in morphological defense. This may also explain the stronger predator-induced increase in C:N under warming. The expected higher C:P under predation risk was only present under warming and matched the observed growth reduction and associated reduction in P-rich RNA. Our integrated mechanistic approach unraveled novel pathways of how warming and predation risk shape body stoichiometry. Key findings that (1) warming effects on elemental stoichiometry were predictable and

  18. Production benefits learning: the production effect endures and improves memory for text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozubko, Jason D; Hourihan, Kathleen L; MacLeod, Colin M

    2012-01-01

    The production effect is the superior retention of material read aloud relative to material read silently during an encoding episode. Thus far it has been explored using isolated words tested almost immediately. The goal of this study was to assess the efficacy of production as a study strategy, addressing: (a) whether the production benefit endures beyond a short session, (b) whether production can boost memory for more complex material, and (c) whether production transfers to educationally relevant tests. In Experiment 1 a 1-week retention interval was included, and a production effect was observed. In Experiment 2 a production effect was observed for both word pairs and sentence stimuli. In Experiment 3 educationally relevant essays were read and tested with a fill-in-the-blanks test: Memory was superior for questions that probed information that had been read aloud relative to information that had been read silently. We conclude that the production benefit is enduring and generalises to text and different test formats, indicating that production constitutes a worthwhile study strategy.

  19. Physiological effects of proinsulin-connecting peptide in human subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, A; Shafiee-Nick, R; Zojaji, S A; Rajabi-Mashhadi, M T

    2017-06-01

    Recent studies suggest that proinsulin-connecting peptide (C-peptide) may exhibit characteristics of a hormone and show physiological functions in various tissues. This study was aimed to determine whether C-peptide could be involved in the regulation of lipolysis, adiponectin release, and function of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in adipose tissue. Human subcutaneous adipose tissue was cultured in the presence of C-peptide. The level of lipolysis was determined by glycerol measurement in the conditioned media. Effect of C-peptide on adiponectin secretion was evaluated in differentiated adipocytes. The adipogenic and osteogenic abilities of adipose MSCs were evaluated using oil red and alizarin red staining, respectively. The tetrazolium bromide test was conducted for evaluating the effect of C-peptide on MSCs proliferation. C-peptide induced a significant decrease in basal lipolysis at concentrations of 8 and 16 nM (p effects on isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis, adiponectin secretion, and adipogenic or osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. At a concentration of 4 nM, this peptide significantly increased the proliferative capability of MSCs (p effects in human subcutaneous adipose tissue and contributes to the regulation of basal lipolysis and pool of MSCs.

  20. Interactive effects of arsenate, selenium, and dietary protein on survival, growth, and physiology in mallard ducklings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.; Sanderson, C.J.; LeCaptain, L.J.; Cromartie, E.; Pendleton, G.W.

    1992-01-01

    High concentrations of arsenic (As) and selenium (Se) have been found in aquatic food chains associated with irrigation drainwater. Total biomass of invertebrates, a maJor source of protein for wild ducklings, may vary in environments that are contaminated with selenium. Dayold mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings received an untreated diet (controls) containing 22% protein or diets containing 15 ppm Se (as selenomethionine), 60 ppm Se, 200 ppm As (as sodium arsenate), 15 ppm Se with 200 ppm As, or 60 ppm Se with 200 ppm As. In a concurrent experiment, the same sequence was repeated with a proteinrestricted (7%) but isocaloric diet. After 4 weeks, blood and tissue samples were collected for biochemical and histological examination. With 22% protein and 60 ppm Se in the diet, duckling survival and growth was reduced and livers had histopathological lesions. Arsenic alone caused some reduction in growth. Antagonistic interactive effects occurred between As and Se, including complete to partial alleviation of the following Se effects: mortality, impaired growth, hepatic lesions and lipid peroxidation, and altered glutathione and thiol status. With 7% protein, survival and growth of controls was less than that with 22% protein, Se (60 ppm) caused 100% mortality, and As (200 ppm) caused mortality, decreased growth, and liver histopathology. These findings suggest the potential for antagonistic effects of Se and As on duckling survival, growth, and physiology with adequate dietary protein but more severe toxicological effects when dietary protein is diminished.

  1. Physiological effects following administration of Citrus aurantium for 28 days in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Deborah K., E-mail: deborah.hansen@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Personalized Nutrition and Medicine, U.S. FDA/NCTR, 3900 NCTR Rd., Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); George, Nysia I. [Division of Personalized Nutrition and Medicine, U.S. FDA/NCTR, 3900 NCTR Rd., Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); White, Gene E. [Toxicological Pathology Associates, 3900 NCTR Rd., Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Pellicore, Linda S. [Office of New Drugs, U.S. FDA/Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Silver Spring, MD 20903 (United States); Abdel-Rahman, Ali; Fabricant, Daniel [Office of Nutrition, Labeling and Dietary Supplements, U.S. FDA/Center for Food Safety and Nutrition, HFS-810, College Park, MD 20740 (United States)

    2012-06-15

    Background: Since ephedra-containing dietary supplements were banned from the US market, manufacturers changed their formulations by eliminating ephedra and replacing with other botanicals, including Citrus aurantium, or bitter orange. Bitter orange contains, among other compounds, synephrine, a chemical that is chemically similar to ephedrine. Since ephedrine may have cardiovascular effects, the goal of this study was to investigate the cardiovascular effects of various doses of bitter orange extract and pure synephrine in rats. Method: Female Sprague–Dawley rats were dosed daily by gavage for 28 days with synephrine from two different extracts. One extract contained 6% synephrine, and the other extract contained 95% synephrine. Doses were 10 or 50 mg synephrine/kg body weight from each extract. Additionally, caffeine was added to these doses, since many dietary supplements also contain caffeine. Telemetry was utilized to monitor heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature and QT interval in all rats. Results and conclusion: Synephrine, either as the bitter orange extract or as pure synephrine, increased heart rate and blood pressure. Animals treated with 95% synephrine showed minimal effects on heart rate and blood pressure; more significant effects were observed with the bitter orange extract suggesting that other components in the botanical can alter these physiological parameters. The increases in heart rate and blood pressure were more pronounced when caffeine was added. None of the treatments affected uncorrected QT interval in the absence of caffeine.

  2. Effect of Lanthanum on Rice Growth and Physiological Parameters with Split-Root Nutrient Solution Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢祖彬; 朱建国; 褚海燕; 张雅丽; 高人; 曾青; 曹志洪

    2003-01-01

    Split-root solution culture was used to study the promoting effect of lanthanum on rice (Oryza sativa) growth and its physiological mechanisms. Results show that low concentration (0.05~1.5 mg*L-1) increases rice yield and grain numbers. High concentration depresses grain formation (9~30 mg*L-1) and root elongation (1.5~30 mg*L-1). No significant influence on straw dry weight was found over the whole concentration range except the 0.05 mg*L-1 treatment. With the increase of La concentration from 0.05 to 0.75 mg*L-1, catalase (CAT) activity in the first fully expandeing leaves and roots decreases. When La concentration is greater than 0.75 mg*L-1 or less than 9 mg*L-1, it significantly decreases superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) in the leaves and roots. No significant effects were found on chlorophyll, protein and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Possible mechanisms of La′s promoting effect on rice growth and reduction effect of *O-2 were discussed.

  3. Effect of flow forecasting quality on benefits of reservoir operation - a case study for the Geheyan reservoir (China)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, Xiaohua; Dohmen-Janssen, Catarine M.; Booij, Martijn J.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology to determine the effect of flow forecasting quality on the benefits of reservoir operation. The benefits are calculated in terms of the electricity generated, and the quality of the flow forecasting is defined in terms of lead time and accuracy of the forecasts. In

  4. Effectiveness of early clinical exposure in learning respiratory physiology among the newly entrant MBBS students

    Science.gov (United States)

    DAS, PIYALI; BISWAS, SUBHRADEV; SINGH, RAMJI; MUKHERJEE, SANHITA; GHOSHAL, SHARMISTHA; PRAMANIK, DEBASIS

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Early Clinical Exposure has been conceptualized to orient medical students towards actual clinical scenario and help them correlate their theoretical knowledge with real life situations in early years of MBBS courses. In the present study we explored the outcome of early clinical exposure in the context of basic science topics (Physiology) in fresh MBBS entrants and compared their performance with a conventionally taught control group. Methods: One hundred fifty voluntary students of 1st year MBBS (2015-16) batch consisted the sample of this study. They were divided into two groups through the simple random method (using computer generated random number table with roll numbers of the students). They were evaluated by MCQ (Multiple Choice Question) and OSCE (Objective Structured Clinical Examination) before and after being taught a basic Physiology topic (respiratory system) theoretically. The study group underwent clinical exposure before the post-test while the control group did not. Performance of the students was compared between the two groups by unpaired student’s t-test whereas marks of pre and post-test within the same group were compared by paired Student’s t-test. Everywhere p<0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: The marks of each group in the pre and post-tests differed significantly (P<0.05 in each case). Post-test marks were significantly greater in each group though the level of improvement was strikingly higher in the study group (p=0.01). Though there was no significant difference in pre-test marks of both groups (P=0.73), post-test marks were significantly higher in the study group (P=0.04). Among the exposed students, majority (92%) opined that ECE was a better technique being practically oriented and more interesting while some (8%) found it to be more time and energy-consuming, suitable for selective portions of basic science topics. Conclusion: Early clinical exposure may be an effective technique to supplement the

  5. Effects of amino acid derivatives on physical, mental, and physiological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckose, Feby; Pandey, Mohan Chandra; Radhakrishna, Kolpe

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional ergogenic aids have been in use for a long time to enhance exercise and sports performance. Dietary components that exhibit ergogenic activity are numerous and their consumption is common and popular among athletes. They often come under scrutiny by legal authorities for their claimed benefits and safety concerns. Amino acid derivatives are propagated as being effective aids to enhance physical and mental performance in many ways, even though studies have pointed out that individuals who are deficient are more likely to benefit from dietary supplementation of amino acid derivatives than normal humans. In this review, some of the most common and widely used amino acids derivatives in sports and athletics namely creatine, tyrosine, carnitine, HMB, and taurine have been discussed for their effects on exercise performance, mental activity as well as body strength and composition. Creatine, carnitine, HMB, and taurine are reported to delay the onset of fatigue, improve exercise performance, and body strength. HMB helps in increasing fat-free mass and reduce exercise induced muscle injury. Taurine has been found to reduce oxidative stress during exercise and also act as an antihypertensive agent. Although, studies have not been able to find any favorable effect of tyrosine administration on exercise performance, it has been proved to be very effective in fighting stress, improving mood and cognitive performance particularly in sleep-deprived subjects. While available data from published studies and findings are equivocal about the efficacy of creatine, tyrosine, and HMB, more comprehensive researches on carnitine and taurine are necessary to provide evidence for the theoretical basis of their ergogenic role in nutritional modification and supplementation.

  6. Effects of multiple acute stressors on the predator avoidance ability and physiology of juvenile Chinook salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Matthew G.

    1994-01-01

    Northern squaw fish Ptychocheilus oregonensis are the predominant predators of juvenile Pacific salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. in the Columbia River, and their predation rates are greatest just below dams. Because juvenile salmonids are commonly subjected to multiple stressors at dams in the course of their seaward migration, high predation rates below dams may be due in part to an increase in the vulnerability of stressed fish. I conducted laboratory experiments to examine the predator avoidance ability and physiological stress responses of juvenile chinook salmon O. tshawytscha subjected to treatments (stressors) designed to simulate routine hatchery practices (multiple handlings) or dam passage (multiple agitations). Both stressors resulted in lethargic behavior in the fish, and agitation also caused disorieniation and occasional injury. When equal numbers of stressed and unstressed fish were exposed to northern squawfish for up to 1 h, significantly more stressed fish were eaten, but this effect was not evident during longer exposures. The lack of differential predation in trials lasting up to 24 h can be explained by the rapid development of schooling behavior in the prey, but other possibilities exist, such as changing ratios of stressed and unstressed prey over time. Concentrations of plasma cortisol, glucose, and lactate in fish subjected to multiple stressors were similar and sometimes cumulative, returned to prestress levels within 6-24 h, and correlated poorly with predator avoidance ability. My results suggest that juvenile salmonids are capable of avoiding predators within 1 h after being subjected to multiple acute stressors even though physiological homeostasis may be altered for up to 24 h. Therefore, because juvenile salmonids typically reside in lailrace areas for only a short time after dam passage, measures aimed at reducing physical stress or protecting them as they migrate through dam tailraces may help alleviate the relatively intense predation

  7. Skeletal muscle lipoprotein lipase: molecular regulation and physiological effects in relation to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seip, R L; Semenkovich, C F

    1998-01-01

    LPL directs the body wide distribution of fatty acids derived from circulating triglycerides. This is accomplished by tissue-specific regulation. In adipose tissue, LPLA per gram is higher than in muscle tissue. Eating increases adipose tissue LPLA and may increase blood flow. Exercise greatly increases SM blood flow and LPLA over a longer time frame as compared to the effect of eating on adipose tissue LPLA. The regulation of LPLA occurs at several levels and is better understood in adipose tissue models. In muscle, the study of regulation has been neglected. LPL expression in muscle may be more complex than in adipose tissue owing to the changes in blood flow and metabolism associated with contractile activity, as well as to other factors intrinsic to contraction, such as electrical events and cellular deformation. Sixty to 90 minutes of continuous leg exercise at 60% of VO2 max induces muscle LPL expression, increases LPL mRNA in humans with 4 hours of exercise, and raises immunoreactive mass by 8 hours post-exercise. Within 24 hours, both LPL and mRNA and mass have returned to normal levels. Increased muscle LPL mass following exercise may serve to replenish intramyofibral stores of triglyceride, which are depleted with endurance exercise and are greater in aerobically-trained individuals as compared to untrained individuals. The post-exercise increase in muscle LPL mass coincides with the post-exercise acute fall in circulating triglycerides typically observed in subjects capable of exercising for 60-90 minutes at 60% of VO2 max. The low fasting triglyceride levels often seen in highly trained individuals are due in part to their high levels of muscle LPLA. Both the physiological mediator and the molecular mediator of the exercised-induced induction of muscle LPL expression are known. Hopefully, the next decade will see careful studies aimed at better defining the molecular physiology of LPL expression in muscle.

  8. Physiological and Therapeutic Effects of Reflexology in Iran: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Nasiri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Reflexology is a form of massage that is associated with applying pressure on reflexive points of the feet. It is believed that these points are connected with all parts of the body. The pressure on reflexive Points can affect the body's physiological responses. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of studies conducted in Iran in the field of reflexology on various systems of the body. Material and Methods: This is a systematic review on studies carried out in Iran in the field of reflexology in various conditions. To access the studies, the search was done by following keywords in PubMed, Google Scholar and SID databases: reflexology massage and reflexology, foot reflexology. Results: Among the total of 46 published studies which were reviewed, 11 were in English and 35 in Persian language. In these studies, variables such as fatigue, sleepiness, constipation, and length of labor, vomiting after chemotherapy, anxiety, physiological symptoms of PMS, back pain and agitation were examined. The most studies had been conducted on pain (20 cases and the highest number of study population belonged to women (30 studies. Conclusion: The results of this study showed the positive effect of reflexology on various diseases and disorders. Although reflexology cannot be used as a replacement treatment but it can be concluded that it is an alternative treatment and relaxing and rewarding experience. It is suggested that future studies are conducted with more accurate sampling method, larger sample size and following the principles of CONSORT. ​

  9. Physiological and biochemical effects of allelochemical ethyl 2-methyl acetoacetate (EMA) on cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yu; Hu, Hong-Ying; Li, Feng-Min

    2008-10-01

    The physiological and biochemical effects of an allelochemical ethyl 2-methyl acetoacetate (EMA) isolated from reed (Phragmites communis) on bloom-forming cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa, were investigated. EMA significantly inhibited the growth of M. aeruginosa in a concentration-dependent way. The metabolic indices (represented by esterase and total dehydrogenase activities), the cellular redox status (represented by the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS)), and the oxidative damage index (represented by the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), the product of membrane lipid peroxidation) were used to evaluate the physiological and biochemical changes in M. aeruginosa after EMA exposure. Esterase activity in M. aeruginosa did not change (P>0.05) after 2 h of exposure to EMA, but increased greatly after 24 and 48 h (PEMA exposure (>0.5 mg L(-1)) resulted in a remarkable loss of total dehydrogenase activity in M. aeruginosa after 4 h (PEMA caused a great increase in ROS level of the algal cells. At high EMA concentration (4 mg L(-1)), the ROS level was remarkably elevated to 1.91 times as much as that in the controls after 2 h. Increases in the ROS level also occurred after 24 and 48 h. The increase in lipid peroxidation of M. aeruginosa was dependent upon EMA concentration and the exposure time. After 40 h of exposure, the MDA content at 4 mg L(-1) of EMA reached approximately 3.5 times (PEMA; the increased metabolic activity perhaps reflects the fact that the resistance of cellular response system to the stress from EMA is initiated during EMA exposure, and the oxidative damage induced by EMA via the oxidation of ROS may be an important factor responsible for the inhibition of EMA on the growth of M. aeruginosa.

  10. Effect of different light sources on reproductive anatomy and physiology of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobadilla-Mendez, M F; Rojas-Granados, C P; Andrade, E F; Retes, P L; Ferreira, L G; Alvarenga, R R; Rodriguez-Gil, J E; Fassani, E J; Zangeronimo, M G

    2016-05-01

    Artificial lights are essential for controlling the reproductive tract development of birds during puberty and therefore influence reproductive quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different light sources on reproductive anatomic and physiological characteristics of female Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). A total of 270 birds from one day of age were housed in a masonry shed divided into six rooms with light isolation. Each room was equipped with a different type of light bulb and contained seven cages with five birds in each. The light bulbs tested were: incandescent; compact fluorescent; and light-emitting diode (LED) in the colors white, blue, red and green. The experimental design was completely randomized with six treatments and seven replications of individual birds each. The anatomic and physiological condition of the birds was evaluated at four, eight and 12 weeks of age. The white LED bulb advanced (P<0.05) the sexual maturity by one week, resulted (P<0.05) in higher live weights and greater weight and relative percentage of ovarian stroma, oviduct and ovarian tissue at eight weeks of age. Higher plasma concentrations of estradiol and lipids were also observed (P<0.05) at eight weeks under the white LED bulb. At 12 weeks of age, the magnum and isthmus folding characteristics were better (P<0.05) with the red LED bulb. In conclusion, the photostimulation with the white LED bulb was more efficient at activating the reproductive cycle, hastening the onset of sexual maturity and increasing the development of reproductive organs after puberty.

  11. Physiological and perceptual responses to incremental exercise testing in healthy men: effect of exercise test modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscat, Kristina M; Kotrach, Houssam G; Wilkinson-Maitland, Courtney A; Schaeffer, Michele R; Mendonca, Cassandra T; Jensen, Dennis

    2015-11-01

    In a randomized cross-over study of 15 healthy men aged 20-30 years, we compared physiological and perceptual responses during treadmill and cycle exercise test protocols matched for increments in work rate - the source of increased locomotor muscle metabolic and contractile demands. The rates of O2 consumption and CO2 production were higher at the peak of treadmill versus cycle testing (p ≤ 0.05). Nevertheless, work rate, minute ventilation, tidal volume (VT), breathing frequency (fR), inspiratory capacity (IC), inspiratory reserve volume (IRV), tidal esophageal (Pes,tidal) and transdiaphragmatic pressure swings (Pdi,tidal), peak expiratory gastric pressures (Pga,peak), the root mean square of the diaphragm electromyogram (EMGdi,rms) expressed as a percentage of maximum EMGdi,rms (EMGdi,rms%max), and dyspnea ratings were similar at the peak of treadmill versus cycle testing (p > 0.05). Ratings of leg discomfort were higher at the peak of cycle versus treadmill exercise (p ≤ 0.05), even though peak O2 consumption was lower during cycling. Oxygen consumption, CO2 production, minute ventilation, fR, Pes,tidal, Pdi,tidal and Pga,peak were higher (p ≤ 0.05), while VT, IC, IRV, EMGdi,rms%max, and ratings of dyspnea and leg discomfort were similar (p > 0.05) at all or most submaximal work rates during treadmill versus cycle exercise. Our findings highlight important differences (and similarities) in physiological and perceptual responses at maximal and submaximal work rates during incremental treadmill and cycle exercise testing protocols. The lack of effect of exercise test modality on peak work rate advocates for the use of this readily available parameter to optimize training intensity determination, regardless of exercise training mode.

  12. Do genetic diversity effects drive the benefits associated with multiple mating? A test in a marine invertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Laura; Marshall, Dustin J

    2009-08-12

    Mothers that mate with multiple males often produce higher quality offspring than mothers that mate with a single male. By engaging in polyandry, mothers may increase their chances of mating with a compatible male or promote sperm competition -- both of which act to increase maternal fitness via the biasing of the paternity of offspring. Surprisingly, mating with multiple males, can carry benefits without biasing paternity and may be due simply to differences in genetic diversity between monandrous and polyandrous clutches but role of genetic diversity effects in driving the benefits of polyandry remains poorly tested. Disentangling indirect, genetic benefits from genetic diversity effects is challenging but crucial if we are to understand the selection pressures acting to promote polyandry. Here, we examine the post-fertilisation benefits of accessing the sperm of multiple males in an externally fertilising polychaete worm. Accessing the sperm of multiple males increases offspring performance but this benefit was driven entirely by genetic diversity effects and not by the biasing of paternity at fertilisation. Previous studies on polyandry should be interpreted cautiously as genetic diversity effects alone can explain the benefits of polyandry yet these diversity effects may be difficult to disentangle from other mechanisms. We suggest that future studies use a modified experimental design in order to discriminate between genetic diversity effects and indirect, genetic benefits.

  13. Do genetic diversity effects drive the benefits associated with multiple mating? A test in a marine invertebrate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura McLeod

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mothers that mate with multiple males often produce higher quality offspring than mothers that mate with a single male. By engaging in polyandry, mothers may increase their chances of mating with a compatible male or promote sperm competition -- both of which act to increase maternal fitness via the biasing of the paternity of offspring. Surprisingly, mating with multiple males, can carry benefits without biasing paternity and may be due simply to differences in genetic diversity between monandrous and polyandrous clutches but role of genetic diversity effects in driving the benefits of polyandry remains poorly tested. Disentangling indirect, genetic benefits from genetic diversity effects is challenging but crucial if we are to understand the selection pressures acting to promote polyandry. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we examine the post-fertilisation benefits of accessing the sperm of multiple males in an externally fertilising polychaete worm. Accessing the sperm of multiple males increases offspring performance but this benefit was driven entirely by genetic diversity effects and not by the biasing of paternity at fertilisation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Previous studies on polyandry should be interpreted cautiously as genetic diversity effects alone can explain the benefits of polyandry yet these diversity effects may be difficult to disentangle from other mechanisms. We suggest that future studies use a modified experimental design in order to discriminate between genetic diversity effects and indirect, genetic benefits.

  14. Do Genetic Diversity Effects Drive the Benefits Associated with Multiple Mating? A Test in a Marine Invertebrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Laura; Marshall, Dustin J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Mothers that mate with multiple males often produce higher quality offspring than mothers that mate with a single male. By engaging in polyandry, mothers may increase their chances of mating with a compatible male or promote sperm competition - both of which act to increase maternal fitness via the biasing of the paternity of offspring. Surprisingly, mating with multiple males, can carry benefits without biasing paternity and may be due simply to differences in genetic diversity between monandrous and polyandrous clutches but role of genetic diversity effects in driving the benefits of polyandry remains poorly tested. Disentangling indirect, genetic benefits from genetic diversity effects is challenging but crucial if we are to understand the selection pressures acting to promote polyandry. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we examine the post-fertilisation benefits of accessing the sperm of multiple males in an externally fertilising polychaete worm. Accessing the sperm of multiple males increases offspring performance but this benefit was driven entirely by genetic diversity effects and not by the biasing of paternity at fertilisation. Conclusions/Significance Previous studies on polyandry should be interpreted cautiously as genetic diversity effects alone can explain the benefits of polyandry yet these diversity effects may be difficult to disentangle from other mechanisms. We suggest that future studies use a modified experimental design in order to discriminate between genetic diversity effects and indirect, genetic benefits. PMID:19672289

  15. Effects of dietary mineral bioplex in pregnant and lactating sow diets on piglet performance and physiological characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Gilberto Bertechini

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of thirty-six Landrace × Large White sows were inseminated with semen of Large White boars and studied in late pregnancy (30 days pre-partum and lactation phases to determine the effects of trace mineral supplementation in organic (bioplex and inorganic forms at two levels of supplementation (1 and 2 kg/t on the reproductive performance of the females and on piglet performance and physiologic characteristics until weaning at 21 days of age. The trace mineral supplements contained 0.0075% selenium, 2.50% zinc, 1.00% manganese, 4.00% iron, 0.25% copper and 0.01% chromium. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 2 × 2 factorial scheme with nine replicates each. The piglets were weighed at birth and at weaning (21 days and were given a dose of 100 mg of dextran iron on the third day of life. For performance, the mean measure of the litter, including both males and females, was considered. Blood and liver were collected from the piglets at birth (two per farrowing, one male and one female, and milk was collected 10 days thereafter. Increased weight at birth and at 21 days and increased iron content in the blood and liver were found for piglets when the sows were given the organic form of trace minerals. Increased iron content in the milk was observed for higher supplementation with organic minerals only. The blood iron levels indicated a significant increase in levels with the use of the organic minerals. These results indicate important benefits in using trace minerals in organic forms for the performance of both sows and piglets.

  16. Galactooligosaccharides: production, health benefits, application to foods and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elizabeth Cavalcante Fai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Synthesized from lactose transgalactosylation, galactooligosaccharides are non-digestible carbohydrates classified as prebiotic ingredients of high added value. Recently studies associate potential health benefits and disease prevention properties to these oligosaccharides. This review involves production aspects and physicochemical properties of these compounds, correlated to their physiological effects and application in food industry. It was also presented some of the physiological effect and the perspectives for these non-conventional sugars from current viewpoint.

  17. Short Communication. Physiological effects of Rhizopogon Roseolus on Pinus halepensis seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Alfonso Domínguez Núñez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The inoculation of forest seedlings with ectomycorrhizal fungi can improve the morphological and physiological qualities of plants, especially those used for regeneration of arid areas. Rhizopogon roseolus is an ectomycorrhizal fungus (ECM commonly used for reforestation. In this study, the specific objectives were to know some morphophysiological effects of Rhizopogon Roseolus on Pinus halepensis seedlings under standard nursery conditionsArea of study: ETSI Montes and EUIT Forestal, Madrid.Material and Methods: In nursery, under well watered conditions and peat growing substrates, Aleppo pine seedlings were inoculated with R. roseolus. Five months after the inoculations, we examined the growth, water parameters (osmotic potential at full turgor [Ψπfull], osmotic potential at zero turgor [Ψπ0], and the tissue modulus of elasticity near full turgor [Emax], mycorrhizal colonization, and concentration and content of macronutrients in the seedlings. Subsequently, a trial was conducted to assess the root growth potential.Main results: The mycorrhization decreased the height and diameter of mycorrhizal seedlings but increased the root weight and root branching. R. roseolus did not cause any significant effect on the regeneration of new roots or on any of the tested hydric parameters, but it did improve N uptake of the seedlings.Research highlights: The mycorrhizal inoculation increased the N uptake. The mycorrhizal inoculation caused opposite effects on some growth parametersKeywords: Osmotic adjustment; elastic adjustment; mineral nutrition; root growth potential; nursery; Rhizopogon roseolus;  Pinus halepensis. 

  18. Ultrasound-induced physiological effects and secondary metabolite (saponin) production in Panax ginseng cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, L; Wu, J; Ho, K P; Qi, S

    2001-08-01

    This work was aimed at the effects of ultrasound (US) on the growth and secondary metabolite biosynthesis of cultured plant cells. Suspension cultures of Panax ginseng cells were exposed to US at power density below 82 mW/cm3 for short periods of time (1-4 min) in a US bath (38.5-kHz fixed frequency and 810 W maximum peak power). Under most exposure conditions, US stimulated the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, the ginsenoside saponins of ginseng cells, increasing the total saponin content of the cell by up to 75%. The growth and viability of ginseng cells were usually depressed immediately after the exposure to US, but recovered gradually to levels similar to those of a normal culture in a few days, with virtually no net loss of biomass yield at the end of the culture period. At some lower US doses, sonicated cultures could even reach slightly higher biomass yields than that of normal cultures. The effects of US on cell growth and secondary metabolite yield showed a significant correlation with the total US energy emitted (i.e., the product of US power and exposure time). Mechanical stress and microstreaming induced by acoustic cavitation were considered as the most possible causes of the various physiological effects of US on ginseng cells. In particular, the stimulation of secondary metabolite production by US may be a result of US-induced plant cell defense response.

  19. Effects of hallucinogenic agents mescaline and phencyclidine on zebrafish behavior and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyzar, Evan J; Collins, Christopher; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Green, Jeremy; Roth, Andrew; Monnig, Louie; El-Ounsi, Mohamed; Davis, Ari; Freeman, Andrew; Capezio, Nicholas; Stewart, Adam Michael; Kalueff, Allan V

    2012-04-27

    Mescaline and phencyclidine (PCP) are potent hallucinogenic agents affecting human and animal behavior. As their psychotropic effects remain poorly understood, further research is necessary to characterize phenotypes they evoke in various animal models. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are rapidly emerging as a new model organism for neuroscience research. Here, we examine the effects of mescaline (5-20mg/l) and PCP (0.5-3mg/l) in several zebrafish paradigms, including the novel tank, open field and shoaling tests. Mescaline and PCP dose-dependently increased top activity in the novel tank test, also reducing immobility and disrupting the patterning of zebrafish swimming, as assessed by ethograms. PCP, but not mescaline, evoked circling behavior in the open field test. At the highest doses tested, mescaline markedly increased, while PCP did not affect, zebrafish shoaling behavior. Finally, 20mg/l mescaline did not alter, and 3mg/l PCP elevated, whole-body cortisol levels. Overall, our studies indicate high sensitivity of zebrafish models to hallucinogenic compounds with complex behavioral and physiological effects.

  20. Are the effects of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) treatment partly physiological in alcohol dependence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameisen, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that the therapeutic effects of Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in alcohol dependence could be related to ethanol-mimicking action of the drug and that GHB could reduce alcohol craving, intake and withdrawal by acting as a "substitute" of the alcohol in the central nervous system. Nevertheless, alcohol being the strongest trigger of craving and intake, it is difficult to ascribe reduction of craving and intake to ethanol-mimicking activity of GHB. I have recently proposed that alcohol/substance dependence could result from a GHB-deficiency-related dysphoric syndrome in which alcohol/substances would be sought to "substitute" for insufficient GHB effect. GHB is the sole identified naturally occurring gamma-aminobutyric acid B (GABA (B)) receptor agonist. Here, I propose that exogenous GHB might in fact "substitute" for deficient endogeneous GHB and represent true substitutive treatment for GHB-deficiency. And that baclofen and GHB could both compensate for deficient effect of the physiological GABA (B) receptor agonist(s).

  1. Effects of foliage plants on human physiological and psychological responses at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumeno, Desto; Matsumoto, Hiroshi

    2015-02-01

    Escalation of task demands and time pressures tends to make a worker run into work stress, which leads to mental fatigue and depression. The mental fatigue can be reduced when attention capacity is restored. Nature can serve as a source of fascination which can restore the attention capacity. People bring plants indoors so they can experience nature in their workplace. The stress and fatigue are also affected by air temperatures. The increase or decrease of temperatures from the comfort zone may induce the stress and fatigue. The objective of this study is to investigate the intervention of using foliage plants placed inside a building at different air temperature levels. The effects of foliage plants on human stress and fatigue were measured by human physiological responses such as heart rate, amylase level, electroencephalography (EEG), and the secondary task-reaction time. Several different tasks, namely typing, math and logical sequences are included in the investigation of these studies. Fifteen subjects, with the age ranged from 22 to 38 years old have participated in the study using within subject design. From the study, it is revealed that the presence of foliage plants at several temperatures have different effects on meditation, secondary task reaction time and typing accuracy. This study also revealed that the presence of plants on several types of tasks has different effects of attention which are useful for increasing work performance.

  2. Effects of chronic low level lead exposure on the physiology of individually identifiable neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audesirk, G; Audesirk, T

    1983-01-01

    Although chronic exposure to lead has been correlated with a variety of behavioral and neurochemical deficits in humans and other mammals, little is known of the mechanisms of action of chronic lead at the level of the individual nerve cell. We have used the individually identifiable neurons of the freshwater pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis as a model system to investigate the effects of chronic low level (5 microM) lead exposure on neuronal physiology. Thirteen neuronal parameters were measured with intracellular microelectrode recording in each of six different identifiable neurons or homogeneous neuron clusters. Results were analyzed by a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). MANOVA analysis indicates that there is a significant overall effect of lead exposure (p = 0.0001) and a significant interaction between lead and neuron type (p = 0.01). In most neuron types, chronic lead causes an increase in the resting potential, a slowing of recovery of the membrane potential after the undershoot of a spike, a decrease in spontaneous spiking activity, and a decrease in the input resistance. Lead also has differential effects on identifiable neurons, depressing excitability in some neuron types while not altering excitability in others.

  3. Effects of Mulching Mode on Canopy Physiological, Ecological Characteristics and Yield of Upland Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu-zhu; LIU Yang; ZENG Xiang; CHEN Kai-lin; HUANG Zc-hui; XIE Hong-ke

    2011-01-01

    The effects of mulching mode on population physiology and ecology of rice were studied using a combination P88S/1128 as the material under three mulching cultivation modes including plastic film mulching,straw mulching and liquid film mulching,as well as bare cultivation (control).The results indicated that mulching mode had significant effects on micro-meteorological factors and individual growth of rice,as shown by an increase of relative humidity,a better internal micro-meteorological environment of rice population,a significant reduction under the rice canopy temperature,especially during high-temperature periods.Rice plants under mulching cultivation conditions displayed a stronger transpiration and lower leaf temperature,thereby improving the ability of anti-high temperature stress and markedly increasing the photosynthetic rate.Furthermore,the yield components of rice were significantly optimized under mulching cultivation,of which with plastic film mulching displayed the highest grain number per panicle and seed-setting rate,and a yield increase of 16.81% compared with the control; and with straw mulching displayed an increase of effective panicle number and a 9.59%increase of total yield compared to the control.

  4. The physiological effects of human immunoglobulin on severe bronchiolitis patients before and after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Yan-Hua; Zhang, Yong-Gang; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Wang, Dong; Li, Xiao-Xia; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Xi-Mei; Luo, Song-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study is to explore the physiological effects of injected human immunoglobulin on patients with severe bronchiolitis before and after treatment. 86 young children with severe bronchiolitis were randomly divided into the observation group (43 cases) and the treatment group (43 cases). On the basis of conventional therapy, the children in the treatment group were given human immunoglobulin (400 mg/kg, 1-3 times) via intravenous injection. 60 healthy young children, as determined by a physical examination given at the Zhumadian Central Hospital, were enrolled as the control group. The T lymphocytes, cytokines, IgA, IgG, and IgM immunoglobulins in the peripheral blood of all 3 groups were measured. The clinical efficacy of the immunoglobulins to mitigate the effects of bronchiolitis and the amount of time for the reduction of symptoms to occur were observed. The serum Ca, Fe, and Zn levels of children with severe bronchiolitis were significantly lower than those of the healthy control group (p bronchiolitis than in the children in the healthy control group (p bronchiolitis children was significantly shorter for those in the treatment group than for those in the observation group. Human immunoglobulin via intravenous injection showed active therapeutical effects on trace elements, T lymphocytes, and cytokines in patients with severe bronchiolitis.

  5. Thrombospondin-1, -2 and -5 have differential effects on vascular smooth muscle cell physiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helkin, Alex; Maier, Kristopher G. [SUNY Upstate Medical University, Division of Vascular Surgery and Endovascular Services, Syracuse, NY (United States); Department of Veterans Affairs VA Healthcare Network Upstate New York at Syracuse, Syracuse, NY (United States); Gahtan, Vivian, E-mail: gahtanv@upstate.edu [SUNY Upstate Medical University, Division of Vascular Surgery and Endovascular Services, Syracuse, NY (United States); Department of Veterans Affairs VA Healthcare Network Upstate New York at Syracuse, Syracuse, NY (United States)

    2015-09-04

    Introduction: The thrombospondins (TSPs) are matricellular proteins that exert multifunctional effects by binding cytokines, cell-surface receptors and other proteins. TSPs play important roles in vascular pathobiology and are all expressed in arterial lesions. The differential effects of TSP-1, -2, and -5 represent a gap in knowledge in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) physiology. Our objective is to determine if structural differences of the TSPs imparted different effects on VSMC functions critical to the formation of neointimal hyperplasia. We hypothesize that TSP-1 and -2 induce similar patterns of migration, proliferation and gene expression, while the effects of TSP-5 are different. Methods: Human aortic VSMC chemotaxis was tested for TSP-2 and TSP-5 (1–40 μg/mL), and compared to TSP-1 and serum-free media (SFM) using a modified Boyden chamber. Next, VSMCs were exposed to TSP-1, TSP-2 or TSP-5 (0.2–40 μg/mL). Proliferation was assessed by MTS assay. Finally, VSMCs were exposed to TSP-1, TSP-2, TSP-5 or SFM for 3, 6 or 24 h. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed on 96 genes using a microfluidic card. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA or t-test, with p < 0.05 being significant. Results: TSP-1, TSP-2 and TSP-5 at 20 μg/mL all induce chemotaxis 3.1 fold compared to serum-free media. TSP-1 and TSP-2 induced proliferation 53% and 54% respectively, whereas TSP-5 did not. In the gene analysis, overall, cardiovascular system development and function is the canonical pathway most influenced by TSP treatment, and includes multiple growth factors, cytokines and proteases implicated in cellular migration, proliferation, vasculogenesis, apoptosis and inflammation pathways. Conclusions and relevance: The results of this study indicate TSP-1, -2, and -5 play active roles in VSMC physiology and gene expression. Similarly to TSP-1, VSMC chemotaxis to TSP-2 and -5 is dose-dependent. TSP-1 and -2 induces VSMC proliferation, but TSP-5 does not, likely

  6. The Effect of Increasing Meeting Time on the Physiological Indices of Patients Admitted to the Intensive Care Unit

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background Most hospitals have restricted visitation time in intensive care units (ICUs) for various reasons. Given the advantages of family presence and positive effect of emotional touching, talking and smiling on nervous system stimulation and vital signs of the patients. Objectives The present study aimed to determine the effect of increased visitation time on physiological indices of the patients hospitalized in ICUs. ...

  7. Effect of Uniform versus Expanding Retrieval Practice on the Recall of Physiology Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, John L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the retention of selected physiology concepts throughout 30 days of two different uniform schedules of retrieval and two different expanding schedules of retrieval. Participants (n = 250) first read and reread 30 immunology and reproductive physiology concepts and were then repeatedly assessed, without…

  8. The acute physiological and mood effects of tea and coffee: the role of caffeine level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, P T; Lane, J; Moore, K L; Aspen, J; Rycroft, J A; O'Brien, D C

    2000-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of caffeine level in tea and coffee on acute physiological responses and mood. Randomised full crossover design in subjects after overnight caffeine abstention was studied. In study 1 (n = 17) the caffeine level was manipulated naturalistically by preparing tea and coffee at different strengths (1 or 2 cups equivalent). Caffeine levels were 37.5 and 75 mg in tea, 75 and 150 mg in coffee, with water and no-drink controls. In study 2 (n = 15) caffeine level alone was manipulated (water, decaffeinated tea, plus 0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg caffeine). Beverage volume and temperature (55 degrees C) were constant. SBP, DBP, heart rate, skin temperature, skin conductance, and mood were monitored over each 3-h study session. In study 1, tea and coffee produced mild autonomic stimulation and an elevation in mood. There were no effects of tea vs. coffee or caffeine dose, despite a fourfold variation in the latter. Increasing beverage strength was associated with greater increases in DBP and energetic arousal. In study 2, caffeinated beverages increased SBP, DBP, and skin conductance and lowered heart rate and skin temperature compared to water. Significant dose-response relationships to caffeine were seen only for SBP, heart rate, and skin temperature. There were significant effects of caffeine on energetic arousal but no consistent dose-response effects. Caffeinated beverages acutely stimulate the autonomic nervous system and increase alertness. Although caffeine can exert dose-dependent effects on a number of acute autonomic responses, caffeine level is not an important factor. Factors besides caffeine may contribute to these acute effects.

  9. Physiological Stress Responses in Amphibian Larvae to Multiple Stressors Reveal Marked Anthropogenic Effects even below Lethal Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burraco, Pablo; Gomez-Mestre, Ivan

    Natural and anthropogenic disturbances cause profound alterations in organisms, inducing physiological adjustments to avoid, reduce, or remedy the impact of disturbances. In vertebrates, the stress response is regulated via neuroendocrine pathways, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis that regulates the secretion of glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoids have cascading effects on multiple physiological pathways, affecting the metabolic rate, reactive oxygen species production, or immune system. Determining the extent to which natural and anthropogenic environmental factors induce stress responses in vertebrates is of great importance in ecology and conservation biology. Here we study the physiological stress response in spadefoot toad tadpoles (Pelobates cultripes) against three levels of a series of natural and anthropogenic stressors common to many aquatic systems: salinity (0, 6, and 9 ppt), herbicide (0, 1, and 2 mg/L acid equivalent of glyphosate), water acidity (pH 4.5, 7.0, and 9.5), predators (absent, native, and invasive), and temperature (21°, 25°, and 29°C). The physiological stress response was assessed examining corticosterone levels, standard metabolic rate, activity of antioxidant enzymes, oxidative cellular damage in lipids, and immunological status. We found that common stressors substantially altered the physiological state of tadpoles. In particular, salinity and herbicides cause dramatic physiological changes in tadpoles. Moreover, tadpoles reduced corticosterone levels in the presence of natural predators but did not do so against invasive predators, indicating a lack of innate recognition. Corticosterone and the antioxidant enzyme glutathione reductase were the most sensitive parameters to stress in this study. Anthropogenic perturbations of aquatic systems pose serious threats to larval amphibians even at nonlethal concentrations, judging from the marked physiological stress responses generated, and reveal the importance of

  10. Limited Benefits of Heterogeneous Dual-Task Training on Transfer Effects in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussier, Maxime; Brouillard, Philippe; Bherer, Louis

    2017-09-01

    It has often been reported that cognitive training has limited transfer effects. The present study addresses training context variability as a factor that could increase transfer effects, as well as the manifestation through time of transfer effects. Fifty-eight older adults were assigned to an active placebo or two dual-task training conditions, one in which the training context varies between sessions (heterogeneous training) and the other in a fixed training context (homogeneous training). Transfer was assessed with near and far-modality transfer tasks. Results show that heterogeneous and homogeneous training led to larger near-modality transfer effects than an active placebo (computer lessons). Transfer effects were roughly comparable in both training groups, but heterogeneous training led to a steeper improvement of the dual-task coordination learning curve within training sessions. Also, results indicated that dual-task cost did not improve in the active placebo group from the pre- to the post-training sessions. Heterogeneous training showed modest advantages over homogeneous training. Results also suggest that transfer effects on dual-task cost induced by training take place early on in the post-training session. These findings provide valuable insights on benefits arising from variability in the training protocol for maximizing transfer effects.

  11. Effects of the Tax Treatment of Fringe Benefits on Labor Market Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Frank A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Argues that the provision of the same fringe benefits for all workers promotes labor market segmentation by inducing workers to sort themselves across the economy according to their demand for fringe benefits. (JOW)

  12. Effects of the Tax Treatment of Fringe Benefits on Labor Market Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Frank A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Argues that the provision of the same fringe benefits for all workers promotes labor market segmentation by inducing workers to sort themselves across the economy according to their demand for fringe benefits. (JOW)

  13. Benefits and risks of the hormetic effects of dietary isothiocyanates on cancer prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongping Bao

    Full Text Available The isothiocyanate (ITC sulforaphane (SFN was shown at low levels (1-5 µM to promote cell proliferation to 120-143% of the controls in a number of human cell lines, whilst at high levels (10-40 µM it inhibited such cell proliferation. Similar dose responses were observed for cell migration, i.e. SFN at 2.5 µM increased cell migration in bladder cancer T24 cells to 128% whilst high levels inhibited cell migration. This hormetic action was also found in an angiogenesis assay where SFN at 2.5 µM promoted endothelial tube formation (118% of the control, whereas at 10-20 µM it caused significant inhibition. The precise mechanism by which SFN influences promotion of cell growth and migration is not known, but probably involves activation of autophagy since an autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine, abolished the effect of SFN on cell migration. Moreover, low doses of SFN offered a protective effect against free-radical mediated cell death, an effect that was enhanced by co-treatment with selenium. These results suggest that SFN may either prevent or promote tumour cell growth depending on the dose and the nature of the target cells. In normal cells, the promotion of cell growth may be of benefit, but in transformed or cancer cells it may be an undesirable risk factor. In summary, ITCs have a biphasic effect on cell growth and migration. The benefits and risks of ITCs are not only determined by the doses, but are affected by interactions with Se and the measured endpoint.

  14. Effects of Antibiotics on the Growth and Physiology of Chlorophytes, Cyanobacteria, and a Diatom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiahua; Selby, Katherine; Boxall, Alistair B A

    2016-11-01

    The occurrence of antibiotics in surface waters has been reported worldwide with concentrations ranging from ng L(-1) to low µg L(-1) levels. During environmental risk assessments, effects of antibiotics on algal species are assessed using standard test protocols (e.g., the OECD 201 guideline), where the cell number endpoint is used as a surrogate for growth. However, the use of photosynthetic related endpoints, such as oxygen evolution rate, and the assessment of effects on algal pigments could help to inform our understanding of the impacts of antibiotics on algal species. This study explored the effects of three major usage antibiotics (tylosin, lincomycin, and trimethoprim) on the growth and physiology of two chlorophytes (Desmodesmus subspicatus and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata), a cyanobacteria (Anabaena flos-aquae), and a diatom (Navicula pelliculosa) using a battery of parameters, including cell density, oxygen evolution rate, total chlorophyll content, carotenoids, and the irradiance-photosynthesis relationship. The results indicated that photosynthesis of chlorophytes was a more sensitive endpoint than growth (i.e., EC50 derived based on the effects of tylosin on the growth of D. subspicatus was 38.27 µmol L(-1) compared with an EC50 of 17.6 µmol L(-1) based on photosynthetic rate), but the situation was reversed when testing cyanobacteria and the diatom (i.e., EC50 derived based on the effects of tylosin on the growth of A. flos-aquae was 0.06 µmol L(-1); EC50 0.33 µmol L(-1) based on photosynthetic rate). The pigment contents of algal cells were affected by the three antibiotics for D. subspicatus. However, in some cases, pigment content was stimulated for P. subcapitata, N. pelliculosa, and A. flos-aquae. The light utilization efficiency of chlorophytes and diatom was decreased markedly in the presence of antibiotics. The results demonstrated that the integration of these additional endpoints into existing standardised protocols could provide

  15. Effects of four weeks of repeated sprint training on physiological indices in futsal players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar do Nascimento

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2015v17n1p91   The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of short repeated-sprint ability (RSA training on the neuromuscular and physiological indices in U17 futsal players during the competitive period. Fourteen players were divided into two groups: intervention group (n = 8 and control group (n = 6. Both groups performed a repeated maximal sprint test (40-m MST, intermittent shuttle-running test (Carminatti’s test and vertical jumps before and after the training period. The intervention group was submitted to an additional four-week repeated sprints program, twice a week, while the control group maintained their normal training routine. There was no significant interaction between time and groups for all variables analysed (p > 0.05. However, a significant main effect was observed for time (p < 0.01 indicating an increase on speed at heart rate deflection point (VHRDP and the continuous jump performance while the peak lactate (40m-LACpeak and sprint decrement decreased after training, in both groups. Still, based on effect sizes (ES the greater changes with practical relevance were verified for intervention group in important variables such as peak velocity (ES = 0,71, VHRDP (ES = 0,83 and 40m-LACpeak (ES = 1,00. This study showed that RSA-based and normal training routine are equally effective in producing changes in the analysed variables during a short period of intervention. However, the effect size suggests that four weeks of RSA training would be a minimum time that could induce the first changes of futsal player’s physical fitness.

  16. Methodological approach to determine minor, considerable, and major treatment effects in the early benefit assessment of new drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipka, Guido; Wieseler, Beate; Kaiser, Thomas; Thomas, Stefanie; Bender, Ralf; Windeler, Jürgen; Lange, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    At the beginning of 2011, the early benefit assessment of new drugs was introduced in Germany with the Act on the Reform of the Market for Medicinal Products (AMNOG). The Federal Joint Committee (G-BA) generally commissions the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) with this type of assessment, which examines whether a new drug shows an added benefit (a positive patient-relevant treatment effect) over the current standard therapy. IQWiG is required to assess the extent of added benefit on the basis of a dossier submitted by the pharmaceutical company responsible. In this context, IQWiG was faced with the task of developing a transparent and plausible approach for operationalizing how to determine the extent of added benefit. In the case of an added benefit, the law specifies three main extent categories (minor, considerable, major). To restrict value judgements to a minimum in the first stage of the assessment process, an explicit and abstract operationalization was needed. The present paper is limited to the situation of binary data (analysis of 2 × 2 tables), using the relative risk as an effect measure. For the treatment effect to be classified as a minor, considerable, or major added benefit, the methodological approach stipulates that the (two-sided) 95% confidence interval of the effect must exceed a specified distance to the zero effect. In summary, we assume that our approach provides a robust, transparent, and thus predictable foundation to determine minor, considerable, and major treatment effects on binary outcomes in the early benefit assessment of new drugs in Germany. After a decision on the added benefit of a new drug by G-BA, the classification of added benefit is used to inform pricing negotiations between the umbrella organization of statutory health insurance and the pharmaceutical companies.

  17. Mechanisms and effective control of physiological browning phenomena in plant cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yan-Shan; Fu, Chun-Hua; Su, Peng; Xu, Xiang-Ping; Yuan, Jie; Wang, Sheng; Zhang, Meng; Zhao, Chun-Fang; Yu, Long-Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Browning phenomena are ubiquitous in plant cell cultures that severely hamper scientific research and widespread application of plant cell cultures. Up to now, this problem still has not been well controlled due to the unclear browning mechanisms in plant cell cultures. In this paper, the mechanisms were investigated using two typical materials with severe browning phenomena, Taxus chinensis and Glycyrrhiza inflata cells. Our results illustrated that the browning is attributed to a physiological enzymatic reaction, and phenolic biosynthesis regulated by sugar plays a decisive role in the browning. Furthermore, to confirm the specific compounds which participate in the enzymatic browning reaction, transcriptional profile and metabolites of T. chinensis cells, and UV scanning and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) profile of the browning compounds extracted from the brown-turned medium were analyzed, flavonoids derived from phenylpropanoid pathway were found to be the main compounds, and myricetin and quercetin were deduced to be the main substrates of the browning reaction. Inhibition of flavonoid biosynthesis can prevent the browning occurrence, and the browning is effectively controlled via blocking flavonoid biosynthesis by gibberellic acid (GA3 ) as an inhibitor, which further confirms that flavonoids mainly contribute to the browning. On the basis above, a model elucidating enzymatic browning mechanisms in plant cell cultures was put forward, and effective control approaches were presented.

  18. Effect of Marine Collagen Peptides on Physiological and Neurobehavioral Development of Male Rats with Perinatal Asphyxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Xu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Asphyxia during delivery produces long-term deficits in brain development. We investigated the neuroprotective effects of marine collagen peptides (MCPs, isolated from Chum Salmon skin by enzymatic hydrolysis, on male rats with perinatal asphyxia (PA. PA was performed by immersing rat fetuses with uterine horns removed from ready-to-deliver rats into a water bath for 15 min. Caesarean-delivered pups were used as controls. PA rats were intragastrically administered with 0.33 g/kg, 1.0 g/kg and 3.0 g/kg body weight MCPs from postnatal day 0 (PND 0 till the age of 90-days. Behavioral tests were carried out at PND21, PND 28 and PND 90. The results indicated that MCPs facilitated early body weight gain of the PA pups, however had little effects on early physiological development. Behavioral tests revealed that MCPs facilitated long-term learning and memory of the pups with PA through reducing oxidative damage and acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity in the brain, and increasing hippocampus phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein (p-CREB and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF expression.

  19. The pharmacokinetics and physiological effects of buprenorphine infusion in premature neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, D A; Simpson, J; Rutter, N; Kurihara-Bergstrom, T; Shaw, P N; Davis, S S

    1993-09-01

    1. The pharmacokinetics and physiological effects of buprenorphine were studied in 12 newborn premature neonates (27 to 32 weeks gestational age) who were given a loading dose of 3.0 micrograms kg-1 of buprenorphine followed by an intravenous infusion of 0.72 micrograms kg-1 h-1 of buprenorphine. Plasma concentrations of buprenorphine were measured during the infusion, at steady-state and for 24 h after the cessation of the buprenorphine infusion. 2. The mean steady-state plasma buprenorphine concentration (+/- s.d.) for an infusion rate of 0.72 micrograms kg-1 h-1 was 4.3 +/- 2.6 ng ml-1. 3. Buprenorphine clearance was 0.23 +/- 0.07 l h-1 kg-1, the elimination half-life was 20 +/- 8 h and the volume of distribution was 6.2 +/- 2.11 l kg-1. 4. Small but significant falls were noted in systolic blood pressure at 6 h and heart rate at 1, 6 and 12 h after the administration of buprenorphine, but these did not appear to cause any clinical deterioration. 5. Four of the 12 subjects studied required an increase in the infusion rate of buprenorphine to achieve adequate sedation. 6. The results suggest that this dosing regimen of buprenorphine is safe but may not be as effective as other opioids in producing sedation and analgesia in premature newborns.

  20. Effect of Environment on the Productivity and Physiological Indicator of Nursery Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoan Yin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to determine the effect of rearing environment on the productivity and physiological indicator during the nursery phase of pigs. 14 litters of commercial crossbred pigs (Large White×Landrace Weaned at 35 days of age were reared in their original pen with the weaker eliminated. 7 flatdecks (F and 7 straw enriched pens (S were modified from the farrowing pen. Feed Intake (FI, Average Daily Weight Gain (ADWG and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR was collected and 2 male and 2 female per litter were randomly selected to measure cortisol, Growth Hormone (GH and IgG at the end of the experimental period (70 days of age. Results showed that, for piglets in S, FI of was significantly lower (p<0.05 from 50 days of age and ADWG from 43 to 70 days of age was significantly lower (p<0.001, though GH was significantly higher (p<0.01. But there was no difference in FCR, cortisol and IgG between environments. In conclusion, piglets in S had a higher GH, but poor productivity because of unsuitable feed changing and nursery environment had no effect on cortisol and IgG.

  1. Study of the effect of nickel heavy metals on some physiological parameters of Catharanthus roseus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arefifard, Matin; Mahdieh, Majid; Amirjani, Mohammadreza

    2014-01-01

    Plants, in their life cycle, are usually exposed to various kinds of non-biological stresses including heavy metals. One of these heavy metals is nickel which affects many physiological processes of plants. Studies have shown that the changes in planting conditions can affect the qualitative and quantitative features of Catharanthus roseus; therefore, creating stressful conditions (e.g. NiCl2) can be an effective way to investigate the changes. In this research, we investigated the effect of 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 25 and 50 mM concentrations of NiCl2 on the degree of catalase enzyme activity, amount of proline aggregation and photosynthetic parameters on seeds of pink variety of C. roseus. The results indicated that the degree of catalase enzyme activity and the amount of proline aggregation increased in plants which were exposed to NiCl2 treatments, especially in high concentrations, while the total protein decreased. The stress of Ni also affected photosynthetic parameters, and decreased the amount of pigments, as well as the efficiency of photosystem II.

  2. Physiological effects of the herbicide glyphosate on the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liang; Qiu, Zhihao; Zhou, Ya; Du, Yuping; Liu, Chaonan; Ye, Jing; Hu, Xiaojun

    2016-09-01

    Glyphosate has been used extensively for weed control in agriculture in many countries. However, glyphosate can be transported into the aquatic environment and might cause adverse effects on aquatic life. This study investigated the physiological characteristics of cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa) after exposure to glyphosate, and the results showed that changes in cell density production, chlorophyll a and protein content are consistent. In M. aeruginosa, oxidative stress caused by glyphosate indicated that 48h of exposure increased the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) and enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD). To further investigate the toxicity of glyphosate on M. aeruginosa, the viability of treated cells was monitored and the toxin release was determined. The results indicated that glyphosate induced apoptosis of and triggered toxin release in M. aeruginosa. These results are helpful for understanding the toxic effects of glyphosate on cyanobacteria, which is important for environmental assessment and protection. These results are also useful for guidance on the application of this type of herbicide in agricultural settings.

  3. Effects of salinity on anatomical features and physiology of a semi-mangrove plant Myoporum bontioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H M; Tam, N F Y; Zan, Q J; Bai, M; Shin, P K S; Vrijmoed, L L P; Cheung, S G; Liao, W B

    2014-08-30

    The effect of different concentrations of NaCl, 0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 mM, on the anatomical features and physiology of Myoporum bontioides was investigated. The photosynthetic rates (Pn) were significantly reduced by salt stress, with the lowest values at 400 mM NaCl. The content of malondialdehyde (MDA), proline and soluble sugar, as well as the activities of peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) increased at the beginning, but became similar to the control as the experiment proceeded. The NaCl effect on superoxide dismutase (SOD) was different from the other parameters, with a significant reduction at 400 mM NaCl at Day 7. Salt glands were found in both upper and lower epidermis, and the ratios of the thickness of palisade to spongy mesophyll tissues increased with NaCl concentrations. The medullary ray was clearly damaged by NaCl at levels of 200 and 300 mM. These results demonstrated that M. bontioides could adapt to a relatively low salinity, and was not a halophilous species.

  4. Harmful effects of atmospheric nitrous acid on the physiological status of Scots pine trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakugawa, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, 1-7-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8521 (Japan)]. E-mail: hsakuga@hiroshima-u.ac.jp; Cape, J. Neil [Edinburgh Research Station, Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bush Estate, Penicuik, Midlothian EH26 0QB (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: jnc@ceh.ac.uk

    2007-06-15

    An open top chamber experiment was carried out in the summer of 2003 to examine the effect of nitrous acid (HONO) gas on the physiological status of Scots pine saplings (Pinus sylvestris). Four-year-old pine trees were exposed to two different levels of HONO gas (at ca. 2.5 ppb and 5.0 ppb) and a control (filtered air) from early evening to early morning (18:00-6:00), in duplicate open top chambers. Significant decreases in the ratios of chlorophylls a to b, an increase in the carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio, and a reduction of maximum yield of PS II (F {sub v}/F {sub m}) in pine needles were also observed after the 2 months' fumigation. Cation contents of pine needles were also decreased by the fumigation with HONO gas. The results could be explained by the harmful effects of OH radicals, generated from photolysis of HONO gas, and/or aqueous phase HONO (NO{sub 2} {sup -}/HONO), on the photosynthetic capacity of pine needles. - Exposure to HONO affects photosynthesis and nutrient status of pine trees.

  5. The effect of creatine supplementation on muscle fatigue and physiological indices following intermittent swimming bouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabidi Roshan, V; Babaei, H; Hosseinzadeh, M; Arendt-Nielsen, L

    2013-06-01

    We evaluated the effect of Creatine (Cr) supplementation on muscle fatigue and physiological indices after intermittent swimming bouts in trained swimmers. Sixteen healthy non-elite swimmers (19±4 years, 75±12 kg) were randomly assigned into two groups of either Cr supplementation or placebo and performed six repeated sprints swimming bouts of 50-m departing every 120 seconds. The Cr group was supplemented 4 times a day for 6 days. Blood lactate, Creatine Kinase (CK), creatinine, heart rate, best repeated sprint (RSb) and mean repeated sprint (RSm) times, and percentage of speed decrement (%Dec) were measured at the various phases of swimming bouts. Repeated measure ANOVA and independent t-student tests showed CK and blood lactate concentration increased gradually after the third and sixth swimming bouts. % Dec in Cr group was significantly lower after 3rd swimming bout, also heart rate in Cr group was associated with lower increase in HR mean (Pswimmers may improve anaerobic performance and heart rate variations independent of the effect of intensive sprint swimming bouts.

  6. Reporter-encapsulated liposomes on graphene field effect transistors for signal enhanced detection of physiological enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hu; Lim, Seng Koon; Chen, Peng; Huang, Jingfeng; Wang, Yi; Palaniappan, Alagappan; Platt, Mark; Liedberg, Bo; Tok, Alfred Iing Yoong

    2015-02-01

    A novel approach for enzymatic assay using reporter-encapsulated liposomes on graphene field effect transistors (FET) is proposed. This approach involves real time monitoring of drain current (Id) of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) upon rupture of reporter-encapsulated 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (POPC) liposomes triggered by enzymes. For validation of the proposed approach, 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (TNP) is used as the reporter for specific detection of phospholipase A2 (PLA2), a key enzyme in various membrane related physiological processes. Experimental results revealed that Id increased with PLA2 concentration, which is attributed to the interaction between released TNP and rGO. The limit of detection (LOD) achieved by the proposed approach was 80 pM, which is superior to most assays reported previously and much lower than the cut-off level of circulating secretory PLA2 (2.07 nM). Besides the high accuracy of the electronic detection methodology, the signal enhancement effect realized by the excess concentration of TNP (approximately 1 mM) in liposomes is believed to be the main reason for the significantly enhanced sensitivity of the proposed assay, indicating great potential for further improvement in the sensitivity by increasing the concentration of TNP. In addition, the proposed approach is rapid (incubation time ≤ 10 min) and label-free, thus showing great potential for practical applications in the future.

  7. Effect of endophytic fungi Pirifomospora indica on some physiologic traits of strawberry under hydroponic culture conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. R. Rahmani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial endophytes, which are considered as the most important soil microorganisms, increase the yield of their host plants by creating changes in their genetic, physiological and ecological traits. Pirifomospora indica fungus is a member of Sebacinales order, which increases plant biomass and resistance to living and non-living stresses. In this study, effect of different concentrations [0 (control, 80, 160, 250 and 330 spores/ml of endophytic fungus P. indica on plant height, chlorophyll indicator and branching of strawberry, under hydroponic culture, was examined in a completely randomized design with 28 replications. P. indica was inoculated by injecting around roots of strawberry plants. Two months after fungal inoculation, plant height and chlorophyll content was measured by using coulisse and SPAD, respectively. Results showed that maximum chlorophyll content, branching and plant height belongs to 330 spores/ml treatment with 15%, 30% and 24.5% increase as compared to control, respectively. Also, there was no significant difference among 80, 160 and 250 spores/ml treatments, while 330 spores/ml treatment was significantly different from other treatments (P≤ 0.01. Therefore, it can be concluded that high concentrations of fungus P. indica can affect the abovementioned traits and thus could have a positive effect on strawberry plant's growth and yield.

  8. Effects of sheltering on physiology, immune function, behavior, and the welfare of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protopopova, Alexandra

    2016-05-15

    Approximately 4 million dogs live in animal shelters each year. However, understanding and measuring the welfare of these kenneled dogs presents a challenge. One way to determine welfare is by assessing how stay at the shelter influences physiology, immune function, and behavior of the dogs. Prior research, from all of these domains, has not resulted in clear conclusions on how the animal shelter influences the well-being of dogs. One robust finding is that, when placed into a kennel environment, dogs experience a spike in cortisol levels followed by a decrease to original at-home levels. Current evidence cannot differentiate between several proposed hypotheses that may be responsible for this pattern. In addition, very few studies have assessed the effects of kenneling on immune function of dogs, and of these, no consistent findings have emerged. However, this line of inquiry can have a large impact as infectious diseases are rampant in animal shelters. The ability of behavioral measures to inform us about the welfare of dogs is discussed by reviewing published and new data on the effects of kenneling on dog behavior. Prior research has suffered from a lack of consistent operational definitions when defining abnormal behavior in dogs, resulting in difficult to interpret results. Research on the well-being of individual dogs, rather than on group averages, may be a fruitful next step in determining and improving the welfare of dogs housed in shelters.

  9. Long-term spacing effect benefits in developmental amnesia: case experiments in rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Janet L; Weston, Tina; Wiseheart, Melody; Rosenbaum, R Shayna

    2014-09-01

    The spacing effect describes the typical finding that repeated items are remembered best when additional items are introduced between each repetition than when the repetitions occur in immediate succession. In this study, we investigated the nature and limits of the spacing effect in the developmental amnesic case H.C. In Experiment 1, we compared the performance of H.C. to that of controls on a short-term, free recall, verbal learning spacing paradigm while controlling for retention interval (timing of item review and recall). In Experiment 2, we compared the performance of H.C. to that of controls on a multiday, cued recall, verbal learning spacing paradigm, in which memory was assessed after 1 week. In both experiments, H.C. demonstrated a spacing effect comparable to the effect exhibited by controls. In Experiment 1, her final recall memory for long-lag (spaced) items was better than recall for no-lag (massed) items t(23) = 10.99, p memory for next-day-reviewed (spaced) items was better than cued recall for same-day-reviewed (massed) items, t(20) = 17.6, p memory development and is the first to show long-term benefits of spacing in amnesia. Substantially slower learning-to-criterion suggests an alternate mechanism supporting the spacing effect, perhaps independent of the hippocampus. Spacing should be considered as a candidate memory intervention technique given its effectiveness in both short- and long-term learning settings. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Great Lakes waters: radiation dose commitments, potential health effects, and cost-benefit considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ainsworth, E.J.

    1977-07-01

    In 1972, a Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement was signed by the United States and Canadian Governments. It was stipulated that the operation and effectiveness of the agreement were to be reviewed comprehensively in 1977. Aspects of the agreement concern nondegradation of Great Lakes waters and maintenance of levels of radioactivity or other potential pollutants at levels considered as low as practicable. A refined radioactivity objective of one millirem is proposed in the Water Quality Agreement. The implications of adoption of this objective are not known fully. The Division of Environmental Impact Studies was commissioned by ERDA's Division of Technology Overview to summarize the information available on the current levels of radioactivity in Great Lakes waters, compute radiation-dose commitment (integrated dose over 50 years after consumption of 2.2 liters of water of one year), and to comment on the feasibility and cost-benefit considerations associated with the refined one-millirem objective. Current levels of radioactivity in the waters of Lakes Michigan, Ontario, Erie, and Huron result in dose commitments in excess of 1 mrem for whole body and 6 mrem for bone. Future projections of isotope concentrations in Great lakes water indicate similar dose commitments for drinking water in the year 2050. Reduction of the levels of radioactivity in Great Lakes waters is not feasible, but cost-benefit considerations support removal of /sup 226/Ra and /sup 90/Sr through interceptive technology before water consumption. Adoption of the one-millirem objective is not propitious.

  11. The effects of sex and hormonal status on the physiological response to acute psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajantie, Eero; Phillips, David I W

    2006-02-01

    Whether one is male or female is one of the most important determinants of human health. While males are more susceptible to cardiovascular and infectious disease, they are outnumbered by women for many autoimmune disorders, fibromyalgia and chronic pain. Recently, individual differences in the physiological response to stress have emerged as a potentially important risk factor for these disorders. This raises the possibility that sex differences in prevalence of disease could at least in part be explained by sex differences in the nature of the physiological response to stress. In a psychophysiological laboratory, the autonomic nervous system response can be provoked by many different stressors including physical, mental and psychosocial tasks, while the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) response seems to be more specific to a psychosocial challenge incorporating ego involvement. The responses of both systems to different psychosocial challenges have been subject to extensive research, although in respect of sex differences the HPAA response has probably been more systematically studied. In this review, we focus on sex differences in HPAA and autonomic nervous system responses to acute psychosocial stress. Although some differences are dependent on the stressor used, the responses of both systems show marked and consistent differences according to sex, with the phase of the menstrual cycle, menopausal status and pregnancy having marked effects. Between puberty and menopause, adult women usually show lower HPAA and autonomic responses than men of same age. However, the HPAA response is higher in the luteal phase, when for example post stress free cortisol levels approach those of men. After menopause, there is an increase in sympathoadrenal responsiveness, which is attenuated during oral hormone replacement therapy, with most evidence suggesting that HPAA activity shows the same trends. Interestingly, pregnancy is associated with an attenuated response of

  12. Effect of flow forecasting quality on benefits of reservoir operation ? a case study for the Geheyan reservoir (China)

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, X.; Dohmen-Janssen, C. M.; de Booij, M.; Hulscher, S.

    2006-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents a methodology to determine the effect of flow forecasting quality on the benefits of reservoir operation. The benefits are calculated in terms of the electricity generated, and the quality of the flow forecasting is defined in terms of lead time and accuracy of the forecasts. In order to determine such an effect, an optimization model for reservoir operation was developed which consists of two sub-models: a long-term (monthly) and a short-term (dail...

  13. The Impact of Outliers on Net-Benefit Regression Model in Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yu-Wen; Tsai, Yi-Wen; Wu, David Bin-Chia; Chen, Pei-Fen

    2013-01-01

    Ordinary least square (OLS) in regression has been widely used to analyze patient-level data in cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA). However, the estimates, inference and decision making in the economic evaluation based on OLS estimation may be biased by the presence of outliers. Instead, robust estimation can remain unaffected and provide result which is resistant to outliers. The objective of this study is to explore the impact of outliers on net-benefit regression (NBR) in CEA using OLS and to propose a potential solution by using robust estimations, i.e. Huber M-estimation, Hampel M-estimation, Tukey's bisquare M-estimation, MM-estimation and least trimming square estimation. Simulations under different outlier-generating scenarios and an empirical example were used to obtain the regression estimates of NBR by OLS and five robust estimations. Empirical size and empirical power of both OLS and robust estimations were then compared in the context of hypothesis testing. Simulations showed that the five robust approaches compared with OLS estimation led to lower empirical sizes and achieved higher empirical powers in testing cost-effectiveness. Using real example of antiplatelet therapy, the estimated incremental net-benefit by OLS estimation was lower than those by robust approaches because of outliers in cost data. Robust estimations demonstrated higher probability of cost-effectiveness compared to OLS estimation. The presence of outliers can bias the results of NBR and its interpretations. It is recommended that the use of robust estimation in NBR can be an appropriate method to avoid such biased decision making.

  14. Aspirin therapy in venous malformation: a retrospective cohort study of benefits, side effects, and patient experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Jennifer T; Koerper, Marion A; Hess, Christopher P; Dowd, Christopher F; Hoffman, William Y; Dickman, Meghan; Frieden, Ilona J

    2014-01-01

    Venous malformations (VMs) are often painful and may enlarge over time. Chronic coagulopathy is common in VMs and may contribute to phleboliths and potentially to disease progression. Few studies have examined the effects of anticoagulation on VMs and to our knowledge none have examined the use of aspirin therapy. A survey was administered to patients and parents of patients with VMs who attended the University of California at San Francisco Vascular Anomalies Center over a 4-year period (2008-2012) to whom aspirin had been recommended. They were surveyed regarding whether they were taking aspirin and, if yes, whether aspirin had resulted in any appreciable benefit. Sixty-five letters were sent to potential subjects: 38 participated and 27 declined to participate or could not be contacted. Twenty-eight of the 38 had begun aspirin and 22 reported current use. Seventeen reported some benefit, including less aching (n = 2), less shooting pain (n = 15), less fullness and swelling (n = 13), and shrinking of the VM (n = 1). Discontinuation of aspirin was associated with worsening VM symptoms in five of six patients. Side effects were reported in 6 of 28 patients, including five episodes of minor bleeding or excessive bruising and one of nausea and vomiting. This study suggests that aspirin may be a beneficial treatment for VM, with a reduction in pain and soft tissue swelling and an acceptable side-effect profile, but the retrospective nature of the study and the small size of the cohort limited our conclusions. Larger prospective studies of aspirin for VM using clinical and laboratory outcome measures are needed to confirm these observations. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Context-dependent effects of steroid chemosignals on human physiology and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, S; Hayreh, D J; McClintock, M K

    We examined the physiological and psychological effects of nanomolar amounts of steroids applied directly under the nose (Delta4,16-androstadien-3-one and 1,3,5,(10),16-estratetraen-3-ol). These potential human chemosignals were not consciously discernible in a strong-odor carrier (clove oil and propylene glycol). In a double-blind, within-subject, repeated-measures experiment with 65 subjects, we demonstrated that both steroids produced sustained changes in digit skin temperature and palmar skin conductance (an indicator of sympathetic nervous system tone) while the subjects were completing psychological questionnaires or reading. These effects, however, did not follow the sex-stereotyped pattern predicted by a sex attractant function. Both androstadienone and estratetraenol raised the skin temperature of men's hands and lowered it in women. Likewise, each steroid increased skin conductance, with a significantly greater effect on women than men. Women's responses were observed only in the sessions run by the male tester, an effect that may or may not be solely attributable to tester sex. Men's responses, in contrast, were not affected by this difference in socioexperimental condition. Similarly, women experienced an immediate increase in positive mood only in the presence of the male tester, while men's responses were unaffected by this socioexperimental context. One source of this sex difference may be the fact that the majority of women were in the late follicular phase of their menstrual cycle. Although it is premature to classify these steroids as pheromones, our data suggest that they function as chemosignals that modulate autonomic nervous system tone as well as psychological state.

  16. Physiological and biochemical effect of neem and other Meliaceae plants secondary metabolites against Lepidopteran insects

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    Senthil-Nathan eSengottayan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This review described the physiological and biochemical effects of various secondary metabolites from Meliaceae against major Lepidopteran insect pest including, Noctuidae and Pyralidae. The biochemical effect of major Meliaceae secondary metabolites were discussed more in this review. Several enzymes based on food materials have critical roles in nutritional indices (food utilization of the insect pest population. Several research work has been referred and the effect of Meliaceae secondary metabolites on feeding parameters of insects by demonstrating food consumption, approximate digestibility of consumed food, efficiency of converting the ingested food to body substance, efficiency of converting digested food to body substance and consumption index was reviewed in detail. Further how the digestive enzymes including a-Amylases, α and β- glucosidases (EC 3.2.1.1, lipases (EC 3.1.1 Proteases, serine, cysteine, and aspartic proteinases affected by the Meliaceae secondary metabolites was reviewed. Further effect of Meliaceae secondary metabolites on detoxifying enzymes have been found to react against botanical insecticides including general esterases (EST, glutathione S-transferase (GST and phosphatases was reviewed. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP, E.C.3.1.3.1 and acid phosphatase (ACP, E.C.3.1.3.2 are hydrolytic enzymes, which hydrolyze phosphomonoesters under alkaline or acid conditions, respectively. These enzymes were affected by the secondary metabolites treatment. The detailed mechanism of action was further explained in this review. Acethylcholine esterase (AChE is a key enzyme that terminates nerve impulses by catalyzing the hydrolysis of neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, in the nervous system of various organisms. How the AChE activity was altered by the Meliaceae secondary metabolites reviewed in detail.

  17. Community-Level Physiological Profiling of Microbial Communities in Constructed Wetlands: Effects of Sample Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Mark; Weber, Kela; Nivala, Jaime; Aubron, Thomas; Müller, Roland Arno

    2016-03-01

    Community-level physiological profiling (CLPP) using BIOLOG® EcoPlates™ has become a popular method for characterizing and comparing the functional diversity, functional potential, and metabolic activity of heterotrophic microbial communities. The method was originally developed for profiling soil communities; however, its usage has expanded into the fields of ecotoxicology, agronomy, and the monitoring and profiling of microbial communities in various wastewater treatment systems, including constructed wetlands for water pollution control. When performing CLPP on aqueous samples from constructed wetlands, a wide variety of sample characteristics can be encountered and challenges may arise due to excessive solids, color, or turbidity. The aim of this study was to investigate the impacts of different sample preparation methods on CLPP performed on a variety of aqueous samples covering a broad range of physical and chemical characteristics. The results show that using filter paper, centrifugation, or settling helped clarify samples for subsequent CLPP analysis, however did not do so as effectively as dilution for the darkest samples. Dilution was able to provide suitable clarity for the darkest samples; however, 100-fold dilution significantly affected the carbon source utilization patterns (CSUPs), particularly with samples that were already partially or fully clear. Ten-fold dilution also had some effect on the CSUPs of samples which were originally clear; however, the effect was minimal. Based on these findings, for this specific set of samples, a 10-fold dilution provided a good balance between ease of use, sufficient clarity (for dark samples), and limited effect on CSUPs. The process and findings outlined here can hopefully serve future studies looking to utilize CLPP for functional analysis of microbial communities and also assist in comparing data from studies where different sample preparation methods were utilized.

  18. The Effect of Foot Massage on Physiological Indicators of Female Patients with CVA Admitted in the ICU

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    Z Moshtaqeshgh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intensive care unit is one of stressful wards for patients and stress creates some alterations in physiologic indicators of patients. So it is necessary to use a low expense and comforting method to stabilize physiologic indicators. The purpose of the present research is to determine the effect of foot massage on physiologic indicators including pulse, respiration, mean arterial pressure, temperature and arterial blood oxygen saturation. Methods: This research was a quasi experimental study and a clinical trial with repeated measures in which 46 patients with brain stroke hospitalized in intensive care unit of Tajrish Shohada Hospital in Tehran were studied. Information was collected 10 minutes before and 10 and 30 minute intervals after foot stroke massage on the second, third and fourth days of ICU admission. Data was analyzed with repeated measures ANOVA statistical method. Results: Findings showed that after 5-minute foot massage, pulse rate, respiratory rate and mean arterial blood pressure significantly decreased (P<0.001 and spo2 increased (P<0.001. Decreasing temperature was significant but alterations were little and clinically it can be said that body temperature had no alteration and approximately remained constant. Conclusion: Findings showed that parasympathetic activity after foot massage results in alteration of various body physiologic responses, relaxes patients and decreases their anxiety. Therefore anxiety of patients can decreased with using a simple, low expense and non invasive method and can stabilize physiologic indicators and decrease effects of vital signs instability.

  19. Semantic parafoveal-on-foveal effects and preview benefits in reading: Evidence from Fixation Related Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Peréz, P J; Dampuré, J; Hernández-Cabrera, J A; Barber, H A

    2016-11-01

    During reading parafoveal information can affect the processing of the word currently fixated (parafovea-on-fovea effect) and words perceived parafoveally can facilitate their subsequent processing when they are fixated on (preview effect). We investigated parafoveal processing by simultaneously recording eye movements and EEG measures. Participants read word pairs that could be semantically associated or not. Additionally, the boundary paradigm allowed us to carry out the same manipulation on parafoveal previews that were displayed until reader's gaze moved to the target words. Event Related Potentials time-locked to the prime-preview presentation showed a parafoveal-on-foveal N400 effect. Fixation Related Potentials time locked to the saccade offset showed an N400 effect related to the prime-target relationship. Furthermore, this later effect interacted with the semantic manipulation of the previews, supporting a semantic preview benefit. These results demonstrate that at least under optimal conditions foveal and parafoveal information can be simultaneously processed and integrated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Ready for a fight? The physiological effects of detecting an opponent's pheromone cues prior to a contest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Mark J; Williams, John; Sinderman, Benjamin; Earley, Ryan L

    2015-10-01

    Reception of pheromone cues can elicit significant physiological (e.g. steroid hormone levels) changes in the recipient. These pheromone-induced physiological changes have been well documented for male-female interactions, but scarcely in same-sex interactions (male-male and female-female). We sought to address this dearth in the current literature and examine whether mangrove rivulus fish (Kryptolebias marmoratus) could detect and, ultimately, mount a physiological response to the pheromone signature of a potential, same-sex competitor. We examined steroid hormone levels in mangrove rivulus exposed to one of three treatments: 1) isolation, 2) exposure to pheromones of a size-matched partner, and 3) pheromone exposure to a size-matched opponent followed by a physical encounter with the opponent. We found that exposure to a competitor's pheromone cues elicited a significant increase in testosterone levels. Increases in testosterone were similar across genetically distinct lineages derived from geographically distinct populations. Further, testosterone levels were similar between individuals only exposed to pheromone cues and individuals exposed to both pheromone cues and a subsequent physical encounter. Our findings led us to generate a number of testable predictions regarding how mangrove rivulus utilize pheromone signals in social interactions, the molecular mechanisms linking social stimuli and hormonal responses, and the possible adaptive benefits of hormonal responsiveness to receiving a potential competitor's pheromone cues.

  1. Physiological mechanisms of vascular response induced by shear stress and effect of exercise in systemic and placental circulation.

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    Iván eRodríguez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Physiological vascular function regulation is essential for cardiovascular health and depends on adequate control of molecular mechanisms triggered by endothelial cells in response to mechanical and chemical stimuli induced by blood flow. Endothelial dysfunction is one of the main risk factors of cardiovascular pathology, where the imbalance between the synthesis of vasodilator and vasoconstrictor molecules is common in the development of vascular disorders in systemic and placental circulation. In the placenta, an organ without autonomic innervations, the local control of vascular tone is critical for maintenance of fetal growth and mechanisms that underlie shear stress response induced by blood flow are essential during pregnancy. In this field, shear stress induced by moderate exercise is one of the most important mechanisms to improve vascular function through nitric oxide (NO synthesis and stimulation of mechanical response of endothelial cells triggered by ion channels, caveolae, endothelial NO synthase (eNOS and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, among others. The demand for oxygen and nutrients by tissues and organs, especially in placentation and pregnancy, determines blood flow parameters and physiological adaptations of vascular beds for covering metabolic requirements. In this regard, moderate exercise versus sedentarism shows potential benefits for improving vascular function associated with the enhancement of molecular mechanisms induced by shear stress. In this review, we collect evidence about molecular bases of physiological response to shear stress in order to highlight the relevance of moderate exercise-training for vascular health in adult and fetal life.

  2. Diverse physiological effects of long-chain saturated fatty acids: implications for cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flock, Michael R; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss the metabolism of long-chain saturated fatty acids and the ensuing effects on an array of metabolic events. Individual long-chain saturated fatty acids exhibit unique biological properties. Dietary saturated fat absorption varies depending on chain-length and the associated food matrix. The in-vivo metabolism of saturated fatty acids varies depending on the individual fatty acid and the nutritional state of the individual. A variety of fatty acid metabolites are formed, each with their own unique structure and properties that warrant further research. Replacing saturated fatty acids with unsaturated fatty acids improves the blood lipid profile and reduces cardiovascular disease risk, although the benefits depend on the specific saturated fatty acid(s) being replaced. Acknowledging the complexity of saturated fatty acid metabolism and associated metabolic events is important when assessing their effects on cardiovascular disease risk. Investigating the biological effects of saturated fatty acids will advance our understanding of how they affect cardiovascular disease risk.

  3. Clinical Implications of Power Toothbrushing on Fluoride Delivery: Effects on Biofilm Plaque Metabolism and Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aspiras

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental biofilms are implicated in the formation of caries and periodontal disease. A major constituent of the supragingival biofilm is Streptococcus mutans, which produces lactic acid from sucrose fermentation, enhancing enamel demineralization and eventual caries development. Caries prevention through F inhibits enamel demineralization and promotes remineralization. Fluoride also exerts effects on metabolic activities in the supragingival biofilm such as aerobic respiration, acid fermentation and dentrification. In experimental S. mutans biofilms, adding 1000 ppm F to an acidogenic biofilm resulting from 10% sucrose addition increased pH to pre-sucrose levels, suggesting inhibition of acid fermentation. F effects on metabolic activity and sucrose utilization in interproximal plaque biofilms were also recorded. Addition of 10% sucrose reduced pH from neutral to 4.2, but subsequent addition of 1000 ppm F increased pH by 1 unit, inhibiting acid fermentation. 10% Sucrose addition also stimulated denitrification, increasing production of nitrous oxide (N2O. Addition of 1000 ppm F suppressed denitrification, indicating an additional mechanism by which F exerts effects in the active interproximal biofilm. Finally, fluid dynamic activity by power tooth brushing enhanced F delivery and retention in an experimental S. mutans biofilm, suggesting a potential novel benefit for this intervention beyond mechanical plaque removal.

  4. [Facilitating team development for nursing staff--prospects, effects and benefits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittich, Andrea; Dieterle, Wilfried E; Schüpbach, Heinz; Wirsching, Michael

    2006-11-01

    Facilitating team development is a frequent intervention in hospitals and seen as a probate mean to support the staff. As the method spreads, a need for scientific evidence is articulated. At Freiburg University Hospital, facilitating team development for nursing teams has been empirically evaluated on a broad data basis. The studies focussed on how nurses in a university centre of high tech medicine experience their work situation, what (psychological) stress they feel exposed to and how they appraise the contribution of facilitating team development to prevent and come to terms with that stress. Results prove the effects and benefits of the intervention, particularly with regard to communicational difficulties within the nursing staff and to problems of interdisciplinary cooperation. The sine qua non of successful intervention, as notifying future participants about this particular method or the adequate formation of the group is highlighted.

  5. School Indoor Environmental Quality Assessments and Interventions: Benefits of Effective Partnerships in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shendell, Derek G.; Apte, Michael G.; Kim, Janice; Smorodinsky, Svetlana

    2002-07-01

    Public, private, government, and university stakeholders have focused increasing attention on children's environmental health. Priority areas have been healthy school environments including indoor air and environmental quality (IEQ); susceptibilities of children to environmental factors and associated illness; and, understanding exposure to biological, chemical, and physical agents. As multidisciplinary teams, studies and intervention demonstrations in California public schools were conducted. A common theme among them was a ''partnership,'' the collaboration between stakeholders from the aforementioned sectors. Federal funding and local bond measures for planning, maintenance, and modernization of school facilities have recently been authorized. Therefore, beneficial ''partnerships'' should be established to conduct needed IEQ, environmental health, and productivity research, development and demonstration. This commentary describes benefits for stakeholders and five strategies for future effective collaborations.

  6. Dissociable Behavioral, Physiological and Neural Effects of Acute Glucose and Fructose Ingestion: A Pilot Study.

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    Bettina Karin Wölnerhanssen

    Full Text Available Previous research has revealed that glucose and fructose ingestion differentially modulate release of satiation hormones. Recent studies have begun to elucidate brain-gut interactions with neuroimaging approaches such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, but the neural mechanism underlying different behavioral and physiological effects of glucose and fructose are unclear. In this paper, we have used resting state functional MRI to explore whether acute glucose and fructose ingestion also induced dissociable effects in the neural system. Using a cross-over, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, we compared resting state functional connectivity (rsFC strengths within the basal ganglia/limbic network in 12 healthy lean males. Each subject was administered fructose, glucose and placebo on three separate occasions. Subsequent correlation analysis was used to examine relations between rsFC findings and plasma concentrations of satiation hormones and subjective feelings of appetite. Glucose ingestion induced significantly greater elevations in plasma glucose, insulin, GLP-1 and GIP, while feelings of fullness increased and prospective food consumption decreased relative to fructose. Furthermore, glucose increased rsFC of the left caudatus and putamen, precuneus and lingual gyrus more than fructose, whereas within the basal ganglia/limbic network, fructose increased rsFC of the left amygdala, left hippocampus, right parahippocampus, orbitofrontal cortex and precentral gyrus more than glucose. Moreover, compared to fructose, the increased rsFC after glucose positively correlated with the glucose-induced increase in insulin. Our findings suggest that glucose and fructose induce dissociable effects on rsFC within the basal ganglia/limbic network, which are probably mediated by different insulin levels. A larger study would be recommended in order to confirm these findings.

  7. [Effects of three caries removal methods on children's dental fear evaluated by physiological measure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Wang, Hui-min

    2007-04-01

    To evaluate the effects of three caries removal methods on children's dental fear by physiological measure. 90 children with caries lesions into dentin in primary molars were divided into three groups randomly: Chemomechanical carious removal group, atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) groups and traditional rotary instrument group. The baseline of blood pressure, pulse was recorded before the treatment. Then the blood pressure and the pulse of each subjects were measured 5, 10 and 15 minutes and at the end of the treatment respectively. The dental fear was evaluated by observing the trend of blood pressure and pulse in the process of the treatment, and the results were analyzed by SPSS11.5 software package, using one-way ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls methods to determine the effects of different caries removal methods on children's dental fear. The degree of dental fear in traditional drilling group was significantly higher than that in chemo-mechanical group and ART group. The difference of each index between rotary instrument group and ART group was significant at the first time-point from the beginning of the treatment (P0.05), and between ART and chemo-mechanical group. (P>0.05). At the second time-point, the difference of systolic blood pressure was significant between rotary group and chemomechanical group(P0.05), while the difference of the other index among the three groups was not significant(P>0.05). There was no significantly difference of each index among the three groups at the time-point afterwards(P>0.05). Compared to traditional caries removal method, chemomechanical technique and ART may decrease children's dental fear effectively.

  8. The Effect of Body Position on Physiological Factors that Contribute to Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Simon A.; Edwards, Bradley A.; Wellman, Andrew; Turton, Anthony; Skuza, Elizabeth M.; Berger, Philip J.; Hamilton, Garun S.

    2015-01-01

    Study objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) resolves in lateral sleep in 20% of patients. However, the effect of lateral positioning on factors contributing to OSA has not been studied. We aimed to measure the effect of lateral positioning on the key pathophysiological contributors to OSA including lung volume, passive airway anatomy/collapsibility, the ability of the airway to stiffen and dilate, ventilatory control instability (loop gain), and arousal threshold. Design: Non-randomized single arm observational study. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Patients/participants: 20 (15M, 5F) continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)-treated severe OSA patients. Interventions: Supine vs. lateral position. Measurements: CPAP dial-downs performed during sleep to measure: (i) Veupnea: asleep ventilatory requirement, (ii) passive V0: ventilation off CPAP when airway dilator muscles are quiescent, (iii) Varousal: ventilation at which respiratory arousals occur, (iv) active V0: ventilation off CPAP when airway dilator muscles are activated during sleep, (v) loop gain: the ratio of the ventilatory drive response to a disturbance in ventilation, (vi) arousal threshold: level of ventilatory drive which leads to arousal, (vii) upper airway gain (UAG): ability of airway muscles to restore ventilation in response to increases in ventilatory drive, and (viii) pharyngeal critical closing pressure (Pcrit). Awake functional residual capacity (FRC) was also recorded. Results: Lateral positioning significantly increased passive V0 (0.33 ± 0.76L/min vs. 3.56 ± 2.94L/min, P Turton A, Skuza EM, Berger PJ, Hamilton GS. The effect of body position on physiological factors that contribute to obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2015;38(9):1469–1478. PMID:25761982

  9. The effects of drought and shade on the performance, morphology and physiology of Ghanaian tree species.

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    Lucy Amissah

    Full Text Available In tropical forests light and water availability are the most important factors for seedling growth and survival but an increasing frequency of drought may affect tree regeneration. One central question is whether drought and shade have interactive effects on seedling growth and survival. Here, we present results of a greenhouse experiment, in which seedlings of 10 Ghanaian tree species were exposed to combinations of strong seasonal drought (continuous watering versus withholding water for nine weeks and shade (5% irradiance versus 20% irradiance. We evaluated the effects of drought and shade on seedling survival and growth and plasticity of 11 underlying traits related to biomass allocation, morphology and physiology. Seedling survival under dry conditions was higher in shade than in high light, thus providing support for the "facilitation hypothesis" that shade enhances plant performance through improved microclimatic conditions, and rejecting the trade-off hypothesis that drought should have stronger impact in shade because of reduced root investment. Shaded plants had low biomass fraction in roots, in line with the trade-off hypothesis, but they compensated for this with a higher specific root length (i.e., root length per unit root mass, resulting in a similar root length per plant mass and, hence, similar water uptake capacity as high-light plants. The majority (60% of traits studied responded independently to drought and shade, indicating that within species shade- and drought tolerances are not in trade-off, but largely uncoupled. When individual species responses were analysed, then for most of the traits only one to three species showed significant interactive effects between drought and shade. The uncoupled response of most species to drought and shade should provide ample opportunity for niche differentiation and species coexistence under a range of water and light conditions. Overall our greenhouse results suggest that, in the

  10. Psycho-physiological effects of visual artifacts by stereoscopic display systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sanghyun; Yoshitake, Junki; Morikawa, Hiroyuki; Kawai, Takashi; Yamada, Osamu; Iguchi, Akihiko

    2011-03-01

    The methods available for delivering stereoscopic (3D) display using glasses can be classified as time-multiplexing and spatial-multiplexing. With both methods, intrinsic visual artifacts result from the generation of the 3D image pair on a flat panel display device. In the case of the time-multiplexing method, an observer perceives three artifacts: flicker, the Mach-Dvorak effect, and a phantom array. These only occur under certain conditions, with flicker appearing in any conditions, the Mach-Dvorak effect during smooth pursuit eye movements (SPM), and a phantom array during saccadic eye movements (saccade). With spatial-multiplexing, the artifacts are temporal-parallax (due to the interlaced video signal), binocular rivalry, and reduced spatial resolution. These artifacts are considered one of the major impediments to the safety and comfort of 3D display users. In this study, the implications of the artifacts for the safety and comfort are evaluated by examining the psychological changes they cause through subjective symptoms of fatigue and the depth sensation. Physiological changes are also measured as objective responses based on analysis of heart and brain activation by visual artifacts. Further, to understand the characteristics of each artifact and the combined effects of the artifacts, four experimental conditions are developed and tested. The results show that perception of artifacts differs according to the visual environment and the display method. Furthermore visual fatigue and the depth sensation are influenced by the individual characteristics of each artifact. Similarly, heart rate variability and regional cerebral oxygenation changes by perception of artifacts in conditions.

  11. EFFECT OF ELEVATED AIR TEMPERATURE ON PHYSIOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF BROILER CHICKENS OF DIFFERENT ORIGIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Muchacka

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of elevated air temperature in the first grow period on some physiological indicators of broiler chickens of different origin. Day-old Ross 308 and Hubbard Flex broiler chickens were assigned to 4 groups. Groups I (Ross 308 and II (Hubbard Flex were kept under standard thermal conditions throughout rearing, and groups III (Ross 308 and IV (Hubbard Flex were exposed to 10°C higher than recommended air temperature from 1 to 21 days of rearing. At 1, 21 and 42 days of the experiment, blood was collected from 10 birds in each group to determine T3 and T4, total protein, immunoglobulin complex, glucose, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. The exposure to the thermal challenge decreased T3 and T4 levels at 21 days of rearing in both Ross 308 and Hubbard flex broilers compared to birds raised under standard thermal conditions. At 21 days of the experiment was observed a statistically significantly lower concentration of total protein in group I compared with group III and between group II and IV. There was no effect of elevated air temperature on the immunoglobulin complex concentration in the blood of birds of both genetic groups. In both genetic groups, the exposure to the thermal challenge caused a tendency to decrease the concentration of glucose. Statistically significant differences at 21 days of rearing of the hemoglobin content were observed between Ross 308 birds from groups I and III. The thermal challenge caused a statistically significant decrease in hematocrit levels in birds from both genetic groups at 21 days of the experiment. The thermal challenge upset the body’s homeostasis in both genetic groups of chickens, which possibly suggests that elevated air temperature during the first period of rearing has a negative effect on the welfare of broilers, regardless of their origin.

  12. [Effects of cinnamic acid and vanillin on grafted eggplant root growth and physiological characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Li; Zhou, Bao-Li; Lin, Shan-Shan; Li, Xia; Ye, Xue-Ling

    2010-06-01

    Choosing Solanum torvum as rootstock and cultivated Xi'anlü eggplant as scion, a pot culture experiment was conducted to study the effects of autotoxic substances (cinnamic acid and vanillin) on the root growth, antioxidase activity, and osmoregulation substances content of grafted eggplant, own-rooted eggplant, and rootstock eggplant. Cinnamic acid and vanillin had allelopathic effects on the root system of test eggplants, with low concentration promoting and higher concentration inhibiting the root growth and physiological metabolism. For own-rooted eggplant, the critical concentration of cinnamic acid and vanillin for promotion or inhibition was 0.1 mmol x kg(-1) and 0.5 mmol x kg(-1), respectively; whereas for grafted and rootstock eggplants, it was 0.5 mmol x kg(-1) and 1 mmol x kg(-1), respectively. The root resistance to autotoxic substances was in the order of root-stock eggplant > grafted eggplant > own-rooted eggplant. Higher concentration cinamic acid (0.5-4 mmol x kg(-1)) and vanillin (1-4 mmol x kg(-1)) enhanced the SOD enzyme activity and the proline and soluble sugar contents of grafted eggplant root by 8.50%-24.50%; 9.39%-27.64%, and 12.77%-81.81%, respectively, compared with own-rooted eggplant. The soluble protein content, fresh mass, dry mass, and root activity of grafted eggplant roots were significantly higher than those of own-rooted eggplant, suggesting that grafted eggplant had a strong resistance of rootstocks to autotoxic substances, which alleviated the negative effect of autotoxic substances on root growth.

  13. Physiological effects of dietary fructans extracted from Agave tequilana Gto. and Dasylirion spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urías-Silvas, Judith E; Cani, Patrice D; Delmée, Evelyne; Neyrinck, Audrey; López, Mercedes G; Delzenne, Nathalie M

    2008-02-01

    Recent data reported that inulin-type fructans extracted from chicory roots regulate appetite and lipid/glucose metabolism, namely, by promoting glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) production in the colon. The Agave genus growing in different regions of Mexico also contains important amounts of original fructans, with interesting nutritional and technological properties, but only few data report their physiological effect when added in the diet. Therefore, we decided to evaluate in parallel the effect of supplementation with 10 % agave or chicory fructans on glucose and lipid metabolism in mice. Male C57Bl/6J mice were fed a standard (STD) diet or diet supplemented with Raftilose P95 (RAF), fructans from Agave tequilana Gto. (TEQ) or fructans from Dasylirion spp. (DAS) for 5 weeks. The body weight gain and food intake in mice fed fructans-containing diets were significantly lower than the ones of mice fed the STD diet, TEQ leading to the lowest value. Serum glucose and cholesterol were similarly lower in all fructans-fed groups than in the STD group and correlated to body weight gain. Only RAF led to a significant decrease in serum TAG. As previously shown for RAF, the supplementation with agave fructans (TEQ and DAS) induced a higher concentration of GLP-1 and its precursor, proglucagon mRNA, in the different colonic segments, thus suggesting that fermentable fructans from different botanical origin and chemical structure are able to promote the production of satietogenic/incretin peptides in the lower part of the gut, with promising effects on glucose metabolism, body weight and fat mass development.

  14. Effect of ambient temperature and light intensity on physiological reactions of heavy broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olanrewaju, H A; Purswell, J L; Collier, S D; Branton, S L

    2010-12-01

    The effects of ambient temperature, light intensity, and their interaction on blood acid-base balance, metabolites, and electrolytes in broiler chickens under environmentally controlled conditions were examined in 2 trials. The experiment consisted of a factorial arrangement of treatments in a randomized complete block design. The 9 treatments consisted of 3 levels of temperatures (low = 15.6°C; moderate = 21.1°C; high = 26.7°C) from 21 to 56 d of age and 3 levels of light intensities (0.5, 3.0, 20 lx) from 8 to 56 d of age at 50% RH. A total of 540 Ross 708 chicks were randomly distributed into 9 environmentally controlled chambers (30 male and 30 female chicks/chamber) at 1 d of age. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. Venous blood samples were collected on d 21 (baseline), 28, 42, and 56. High ambient temperature significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced BW, partial pressure of CO(2), bicarbonate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, K(+), and Na(+) along with significantly (P ≤ 0.05) elevated pH level, Cl(-), glucose, osmolality, and anion gap concentrations. Partial pressure of O(2) was slightly increased in response to increased ambient temperature. There was no effect of light intensity on most of the blood variables examined. Acid-base regulation during high ambient temperature and light intensity exposure did not deteriorate despite a lower partial pressure of CO(2), which consequently increased blood pH because of a compensatory decrease in HCO(3)(-) concentration. Plasma corticosterone was not affected by temperature, light intensity, or their interaction. These results indicate that continuous exposure of broiler chickens to varying light intensities had a minor effect on physiological blood variables, whereas high ambient temperature markedly affected various blood variables without inducing stress in broilers.

  15. [Effects of water stress and nitrogen fertilization on peanut root morphological development and leaf physiological activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hong; Zhang, Zhi-meng; Dai, Liang-xiang; Ci, Dun-wei; Qin, Fei-fei; Song, Wen-wu; Liu, Meng-juan; Fu, Xiao

    2015-02-01

    Taking 'Huayu 22' peanut as test material, effect of soil water content and nitrogen fertilization on the leaf physiological activities and root morphological characteristics of peanut plants were analyzed. Two levels of soil water condition were: (1) well-watered condition and (2) moderate water stress, and three levels of nitrogen were: (1) none nitrogen (N0), (2) moderate nitrogen (N1, 90 kg · hm(-2)) and (3) high nitrogen (N2, 180 kg · hm(-2)). The results showed that N1 significantly increased the peanut yield under two water conditions, but showed no significant effect on harvest index compared with N0. Under water stress condition, N1 had no significant effects on total root biomass and total root length, but the total root surface area was remarkably increased. The nitrogen fertilization significantly increased the root length and root surface area in 20-40 cm soil layer, and N2 significantly increased the root biomass and root surface area in the soil layer below 40 cm. The application of nitrogen remarkably increased CAT and POD activities in leaf, while MDA content was decreased with the increase of nitrogen level. Under well-watered condition, the root biomass, root length and root surface area in the soil layer below 40 cm and total root surface area were significantly reduced by nitrogen application, however, only N1 could increase leaf protective enzyme activities. Correlation analysis showed that the root length in 20-40 cm soil layer and SOD, CAT, POD activities in leaf were highly significantly related with peanut yield.

  16. Whole Body Vibration at Different Exposure Frequencies: Infrared Thermography and Physiological Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Sonza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of whole body vibration (WBV on physiological parameters, cutaneous temperature, tactile sensitivity, and balance. Twenty-four healthy adults (25.3±2.6 years participated in four WBV sessions. They spent 15 minutes on a vibration platform in the vertical mode at four different frequencies (31, 35, 40, and 44 Hz with 1 mm of amplitude. All variables were measured before and after WBV exposure. Pressure sensation in five anatomical regions and both feet was determined using Von Frey monofilaments. Postural sway was measured using a force plate. Cutaneous temperature was obtained with an infrared camera. WBV influences the discharge of the skin touch-pressure receptors, decreasing sensitivity at all measured frequencies and foot regions (P≤0.05. Regarding balance, no differences were found after 20 minutes of WBV at frequencies of 31 and 35 Hz. At 40 and 44 Hz, participants showed higher anterior-posterior center of pressure (COP velocity and length. The cutaneous temperature of the lower limbs decreased during and 10 minutes after WBV. WBV decreases touch-pressure sensitivity at all measured frequencies 10 min after exposure. This may be related to the impaired balance at higher frequencies since these variables have a role in maintaining postural stability. Vasoconstriction might explain the decreased lower limb temperature.

  17. Effects of salt stress on the growth, physiological responses, and glycoside contents of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jianwei; Chen, Aimeng; Li, Dandan; Yi, Bin; Wu, Wei

    2013-06-19

    This study examined the effects of three different NaCl concentrations (60, 90, and 120 mM) on the growth, physiological responses, and steviol glycoside composition of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni for 4 weeks. The results showed that the total dry weight decreased by 40% at 120 mM NaCl but remained the same at 60 and 90 mM NaCl. As salt concentration increased, chlorophyll contents decreased markedly by 10-70%, whereas the increments of the antioxidant enzyme activities were 1.0-1.6, 1.2-1.3, and 2.0-4.0 times, respectively, for superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase. The proline contents in salt-treated plants were 17-42 times higher than that in control. Moreover, leaf possessed significantly higher K⁺ content and K⁺/Na⁺ ratio than stem and root for all salt treatments. In addition, 90-120 mM NaCl treatment notably decreased the content of rebaudioside A (RA) and stevioside (ST) by 16.2-38.2%, whereas the increment of the ratio of RA/ST of salt-treated plants was 1.1-1.4 times. These results indicate that S. rebaudiana is moderately tolerant to salt stress. Hypohaline soil can be utilized in the plantation of S. rebaudiana and may be profitable for optimizing the steviol glycoside composition.

  18. Effect of ration wetting in productive and physiological performance of quail reared under high temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Th. Younis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to identify the effect of ration wetting with water contained mixture of probiotic, Potassium chloride and Vitamin C in productive and some physiological performance of quail reared under high temperature. Four hundred unsexed quails (one day old on litter in semi opened house. Proper environmental condition was available and the house minimum and maximum temperature was about 25-40C. Birds distributed randomly into four treatments each with four replicate (25 birds/ replicate.Two rations. Starter and finisher were used and water and diets were supplemented ad libitum until age of marketing (42 days.The experimental treatments were as follow: T1 reared on standard ration (control without wetting T2, T3 and T4 ration supplemented with 25, 50 and 75 ml water contains mixture of 6 gram probiotic, 3 mg potassium chloride and 150 mg Vit. C/kg ration, respectively at the time of feeding. Statistical analysis of data showed a significant increase in live body weight, weight gain of birds fed wetted ration compared with control and significant improvement in feed conversion ratio in T4 and no significant differences between treatments in feed consumption, dressing percentage, mortality rate, total protein, albumin, triglyceride, liver glycogen concentration, packed cell volume, red blood cell count, hemoglobin concentration, and a significant decrease in serum glucose, glycogen concentration in heart tissue and ALT, AST concentration.

  19. Methyl parathion and fenvalerate toxicity in American kestrels: Acute physiological responses and effects of cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Franson, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Physiological and toxicological effects of p.o. methyl parathion (0.375-3.0 mg/kg) or fenvalerate (1000-4000 mg/kg) were examined over a 10-h period in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) maintained in thermoneutral (22?C) and cold (-5?C) environments. Methyl parathion was highly toxic (estimated median lethal dose of 3.08 mg/kg, 95% confidence limits of 2.29 -4.14 mg/kg), producing dose-dependent inhibition of brain and plasma cholinesterase activity, hyperglycemia, and elevated plasma corticosterone concentration. Brain and plasma cholinesterase inhibition in excess of 50% was associated with transient but pronounced hypothermia 2 h after intubation, although the magnitude of this response was yariable. Fenvalerate, at doses far exceeding those encountered in the environment, caused mild intoxication and elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase activity. Cold intensified methyl parathion toxicity, but did not affect that of fenvalerate. Thus, it would appear that organophosphorus insecticides pose far greater hazard than pyrethroids to raptorial birds.

  20. The effect of water stress and salinity on growth and physiology of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannakoula Anastasia E.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids like lycopene are important pigments found in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes in plants. They are responsible for the bright colors of fruits and vegetables and perform various functions in photosynthesis. Our research has shown that the application of moderate salt stress on tomato plants can enhance lycopene and potentially other antioxidant concentrations in fruits. The increase in lycopene in response to salt stress in the tomato fruits varied from 20% to 80%. Although the specific biological mechanisms involved in increasing fruit lycopene deposition has not been clearly elucidated, evidence suggests that increasing antioxidant concentrations is a primary physiological response of the plant to salt stress. Additionally drought stress during cultivation increased the antioxidant capacity of tomato fruit while maintaining the lycopene concentration. In addition, the effects of silicium were investigated, added to the nutrient solution either at low concentration or at an increased concentration. The present study clearly indicates that an enhanced silicium supply to tomato increases markedly the lycopene contents, irrespective of the salinity status in the tomato fruit.

  1. Effects of ascorbic acid on some physiological changes of pepino (Solanum muricatum Ait.) under chilling stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaci, Aysel; Kaya, A; Duman, Sevcan

    2014-09-01

    In this study, the changes caused by chilling stress on some physiological parameters of pepino (Solanum muricatum Ait.) plant and the effects of ascorbic acid (100 mM) applied exogenously on these changes were examined. For this purpose, the photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophylls and carotenoids), ascorbic acid, total phenolic compounds, malondialdehyde and proline contents in leaves of pepino taken on 5th and 10th days were determined. As a result of chilling stress, it was found that while the photosynthetic pigments and proline contents decreased in pepino leaves, the ascorbic acid, total phenolic compounds and malondialdehyde contents increased. In plants which were subjected to pre-treatment of ascorbic acid on the 10th day of stress, ascorbic acid and proline contents increased while a decrease was observed in malondialdehyde content, compared to stress group without pre-treated. This study may be important for explaining resistance induced by treatment of exogenous ascorbic acid in pepino exposed to chilling stress.

  2. Rho kinases in cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology: the effect of fasudil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianjian; Wei, Lei

    2013-10-01

    Rho kinase (ROCK) is a major downstream effector of the small GTPase RhoA. ROCK family, consisting of ROCK1 and ROCK2, plays central roles in the organization of actin cytoskeleton and is involved in a wide range of fundamental cellular functions, such as contraction, adhesion, migration, proliferation, and apoptosis. Due to the discovery of effective inhibitors, such as fasudil and Y27632, the biological roles of ROCK have been extensively explored with particular attention on the cardiovascular system. In many preclinical models of cardiovascular diseases, including vasospasm, arteriosclerosis, hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, stroke, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and heart failure, ROCK inhibitors have shown a remarkable efficacy in reducing vascular smooth muscle cell hypercontraction, endothelial dysfunction, inflammatory cell recruitment, vascular remodeling, and cardiac remodeling. Moreover, fasudil has been used in the clinical trials of several cardiovascular diseases. The continuing utilization of available pharmacological inhibitors and the development of more potent or isoform-selective inhibitors in ROCK signaling research and in treating human diseases are escalating. In this review, we discuss the recent molecular, cellular, animal, and clinical studies with a focus on the current understanding of ROCK signaling in cardiovascular physiology and diseases. We particularly note that emerging evidence suggests that selective targeting ROCK isoform based on the disease pathophysiology may represent a novel therapeutic approach for the disease treatment including cardiovascular diseases.

  3. The effects of physiologic dynamic compression on bone healing under external fixation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aro, H.T.; Kelly, P.J.; Lewallen, D.G.; Chao, E.Y. (Mayo Clinic/Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN (USA))

    1990-07-01

    The effects of early physiologic dynamic compression on fracture healing were studied in the dog. Transverse midtibial osteotomies were performed bilaterally and stabilized with a relatively rigid external fixation system in a neutralization mode (800 microns) to prevent compression of the osteotomy ends during weight bearing. On the 15th day, one osteotomy in each animal was subjected to dynamic compression through weight bearing by release of the fixator-telescoping mechanism (axial dynamization), while the other side remained unchanged as the control. Analysis of sequential roentgenograms showed that the callus distribution was more symmetric on the dynamic compression side. The two sides showed no significant differences in quantitative technetium-99 bone scans or in osteotomy-site blood flow. There were no statistical differences in new bone formation, bone porosity, or maximum torque between sides. The fixation had maintained the initially created osteotomy gap on the control side and tended to unite through a gap-healing mechanism. The dynamic compression side showed reduction in gap size and union by more of a contact-healing mechanism. There were no statistical differences in the rate of pin loosening, but its distribution according to pin location was significantly different between the two sides.

  4. Whole body vibration at different exposure frequencies: infrared thermography and physiological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonza, Anelise; Robinson, Caroline C; Achaval, Matilde; Zaro, Milton A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of whole body vibration (WBV) on physiological parameters, cutaneous temperature, tactile sensitivity, and balance. Twenty-four healthy adults (25.3 ± 2.6 years) participated in four WBV sessions. They spent 15 minutes on a vibration platform in the vertical mode at four different frequencies (31, 35, 40, and 44 Hz) with 1 mm of amplitude. All variables were measured before and after WBV exposure. Pressure sensation in five anatomical regions and both feet was determined using Von Frey monofilaments. Postural sway was measured using a force plate. Cutaneous temperature was obtained with an infrared camera. WBV influences the discharge of the skin touch-pressure receptors, decreasing sensitivity at all measured frequencies and foot regions (P ≤ 0.05). Regarding balance, no differences were found after 20 minutes of WBV at frequencies of 31 and 35 Hz. At 40 and 44 Hz, participants showed higher anterior-posterior center of pressure (COP) velocity and length. The cutaneous temperature of the lower limbs decreased during and 10 minutes after WBV. WBV decreases touch-pressure sensitivity at all measured frequencies 10 min after exposure. This may be related to the impaired balance at higher frequencies since these variables have a role in maintaining postural stability. Vasoconstriction might explain the decreased lower limb temperature.

  5. Antiproliferative, Ultrastructural, and Physiological Effects of Amiodarone on Promastigote and Amastigote Forms of Leishmania amazonensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Teixeira de Macedo-Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Amiodarone (AMIO, the most frequently antiarrhythmic drug used for the symptomatic treatment of chronic Chagas' disease patients with cardiac compromise, has recently been shown to have also specific activity against fungi, Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania. In this work, we characterized the effects of AMIO on proliferation, mitochondrial physiology, and ultrastructure of Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes. The IC50 values were 4.21 and 0.46 μM against promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes, respectively, indicating high selectivity for the clinically relevant stage. We also found that treatment with AMIO leads to a collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm and to an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species, in a dose-dependent manner. Fluorescence microscopy of cells labeled with JC-1, a marker for mitochondrial energization, and transmission electron microscopy confirmed severe alterations of the mitochondrion, including intense swelling and modification of its membranes. Other ultrastructural alterations included (1 presence of numerous lipid-storage bodies, (2 presence of large autophagosomes containing part of the cytoplasm and membrane profiles, sometimes in close association with the mitochondrion and endoplasmic reticulum, and (3 alterations in the chromatin condensation and plasma membrane integrity. Taken together, our results indicate that AMIO is a potent inhibitor of L. amazonensis growth, acting through irreversible alterations in the mitochondrial structure and function, which lead to cell death by necrosis, apoptosis and/or autophagy.

  6. Part 2: effect of training surface on acute physiological responses after sport-specific training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binnie, Martyn J; Dawson, Brian; Pinnington, Hugh; Landers, Grant; Peeling, Peter

    2013-04-01

    This study compared the effect of sand and grass training surfaces during a sport-specific conditioning session in well-trained team sport athletes (n = 10). The participants initially completed a preliminary testing session to gather baseline (BASE) performance data for vertical jump, repeated sprint ability, and 3-km running time trial. Three days subsequent to BASE, all the athletes completed the first sport-specific conditioning session, which was followed by a repeat of the BASE performance tests the following day (24 hours postexercise). Seven days later, the same training session was completed on the opposing surface and was again followed 24 hours later by the BASE performance tests. During each session, blood lactate, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and heart rate (HR) were recorded, with player movement patterns also monitored via global positioning system units. Additionally, venous blood was collected preexercise, postexercise, and 24 hours postexercise, and analyzed for serum concentrations of Myoglobin, Haptoglobin, and C-Reactive Protein. Results showed significantly higher HR and RPE responses on SAND (p > 0.05), despite significantly lower distance and velocity outputs for the training session (p > 0.05). There were no differences in 24 hours postexercise performance (p > 0.05), and blood markers of muscle damage, inflammation and hemolysis were also similar between the surfaces (p > 0.05). These results suggest that performing a sport-specific conditioning session on a sand (vs. grass) surface can result in a greater physiological response, without any additional decrement to next-day performance.

  7. Physiological and psychological effects of a high dose of alcohol in young men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinader-Caerols, Concepción; Monleón, Santiago; Parra, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a high dose of alcohol on physiological and psychological parameters in young men and women with a previous history of alcohol consumption. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, state anxiety, attention, time estimation and manual dexterity were registered before (phase 1) and after (phase 2) intake of alcohol (38.4 g) or a non-alcoholic beverage. Trait anxiety was registered in phase 2 only. The results showed that acute consumption of a high dose of alcohol: i) improves attention in men (although the performance of alcohol consumers was not better than that of non-consumers); ii) blocks the systolic blood pressure habituation phenomenon (observed in controls) in women; and iii) blocks the improvement in manual dexterity (associated with experience in non-consumers) in both sexes. On the other hand, male consumers had a lower heart rate than non-consumers, independently of the phase, while female consumers had a higher state anxiety and performed worse in attention than controls, also independently of the phase. These results help to understand the extent of performance impairment of different tasks produced by risk alcohol consumption in young men and women.

  8. Effects of cerium on growth and physiological characteristics of Anabaena flosaquae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yingjun; LI Jia; L(U) Yun; JIN Hangbiao; DENG Shihuai; ZENG Yunmin

    2012-01-01

    In the present study,the effects of cerium (Ce) on the growth and physiological changes were investigated in the cyanobacterium Anabaenaflosaquae (A.flosaquae) during a 17-day period.The results showed that the content of chlorophyll a (chl-a) and activity of antioxidase (e.g.superoxide dismutase,peroxidase,and catalase) increased with Ce3+ concentration in the range of 0.05 to 0.1 mg/L and the growth of A.flosaquae was stimulated.While at around 5 mg/L,the content of malondiadehyde (MDA) increased significantly but the activity of antioxidase reduced,which resulted in the ruin of antioxidant defense system.Compared to the control (Ce3+-free),the population size of live cells declined significantly.Microcystin-LR (MC-LR),the most common and toxic cyanotoxins produced by A.flosaquae,was detected and the highest content of MC-LR was observed in 10 mg/L Ce3+ treatment.These results implied that the aqueous environment might suffer a more negative ecological impact when exposed to relatively low Ce3+ concentrations (<0.1 mg/L).

  9. Effect of carbohydrate supplementation on the physiological and perceptual responses to prolonged tennis match play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Rodrigo V; Moreira, Alexandre; Coutts, Aaron J; Capitani, Caroline D; Aoki, Marcelo S

    2014-03-01

    Carbohydrate supplementation is a popular nutritional practice used in tennis to enhance physical capacities, motor-skill performance, and delay fatigue. However, the effects of carbohydrate supplementation on physiological and perceptual responses during tennis match play are not established. This double blind, randomized, placebo (PLA)-controlled crossover study was designed to determine the influence of carbohydrate supplementation (0.5 g·kg·h) on glycemia, salivary hormones (cortisol and testosterone) concentration, salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) concentration, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during 3 hours of tennis match play in 12 well-trained tennis players. The only significant difference between the 2 conditions was a lower salivary cortisol concentration postmatch in the carbohydrate trial (p tennis match play in the carbohydrate condition, which may have some practical implications. There was no change in salivary testosterone, salivary IgA, and RPE responses during tennis match play between conditions (p > 0.05). These data indicate that carbohydrate ingestion during 3 hours of competitive tennis match play helps to maintain glycemia and attenuates the increase in salivary cortisol concentration compared with PLA.

  10. The physiological effect of fluorene on Triticum aestivum, Medicago sativa, and Helianthus annus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Yahya Salehi-Lisar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are widespread pollutants and can negatively affect plants. Fluorene is a prevalent PAH in the contaminated environment. In this study, the effects of higher concentrations of fluorene in soil on rate of seed germination, growth, and the physiological parameters of wheat, sunflower, and alfalfa were studied. The results showed that the higher concentration of fluorene decreased rate of seed germination and seedlings growth of plants. Wheat showed the highest resistance at seed germination and seedlings growth phases, and sunflower was the most sensitive species at both stages. Therefore, it was concluded that higher resistance at seed germination could be followed by the higher resistance of seedlings. Fluorene toxicity also induced oxidative stress in plants as shown by MDA accumulation in the plants. There was a significant correlation between the lower activity of CAT and MDA accumulation in the studied plants. Therefore, CAT could be an important enzyme involved in detoxification of ROS and plants resistance to fluorene toxicity. Depending on plant species and fluorene concentration, photosynthetic pigments content was differently affected.

  11. Effects of Silicon at Different Concentrations on Morphology and Photosynthetic Physiological Mechanism of Japonica Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang CHEN; Liping CAI; Bin ZHOU; Yan SHI; Meng RAO

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to explore effects of silicon at different concentrations on morphology and photosynthetic physiological mechanism of japonica rice. [Method] Seedlings of japonica rice were treated with silicon at different concentrations (0, 30, 80, 130 and 180 mg/L of sodium silicate); silicon contents were measured with Molybdenum blue spectrophotometric method in root, stem and leaf; plant height, root length and number in different treatment groups were measured with tools; chlorophyll a and b, and a/b in leaf and stem of rice in different groups were measured. [Result] Silicon contents in vegetative organs were as follows: stem〉leaf〉 root; when silicon was 80 mg/L, japonica ecotype was shortest; when silicon was 30 mg/L, root length of the rice was shortest and root number was least; when silicon was 30 mg/L, contents of chlorophyll a and b were highest and chlorophyll a/b achieved the peak when silicon was 80 mg/L. [Conclusion] Silicon at proper concen- tration would improve lodging-resistance and efficiency of photosynthesis, further enhancing yield of japonica rice.

  12. PHYSIOLOGICAL INHIBITORY EFFECT OF OCS IN ARACHIDONIC ACID-RICH PARIETOCHLORIS INCISA (TREBOUXIOPHYCEAE,CHLOROPHYTA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Parietochloris incisa is an arachidonic acid-rich snow green alga. The main phy siological profiles, such as ash free dry weight (AFDW), chlorophyll, carotenoid , protein and total fatty acids (TFA), in this alga exposed to old culture super natant (OCS) at the decline phase or its crude ethyl acetate extracts (CEAE) wer e investigated by using tubular photobioreactors of different diameters. Results showed that both OCS and CEAE had strong inhibitory effect on the above physiol ogical parameters. The longer the culture was exposed to OCS and the more CEAE w ere added into the algal culture, the more the above physiological properties we re inhibited. Arachidonic acid (AA), the dominant component of fatty acids in th is alga, was also seriously inhibited with respect to total TFA, AFDW of cell ma ss, or culture volume, due to a probable reduction of enzymes activities catalyz ing chain elongation from C18:1ω9 to AA. These results incontestably evidenced t hat some CEAE dissolving substances existing in OCS, like auto-inhibitors, inhi bited P. incisa growth through feedback. Hence, any efficient removal of aut o-i nhibitors from algal culture to decrease their bioactivity could be good for max imal production of desired products like AA.

  13. Investigation on physiological and clinical effects of different light sources in TMJ photobiomodulation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenoff, J.

    2017-02-01

    Introduction Laser light Electromagnetic energy has some typical properties for discussions on laser irradiation abilities to control the acute and chronic disorders in TMJ. Material and Methods During the last six years we have been completed well controlled clinical trials based on the criteria of the American Academy of orofacial pain. The study over the 600 patients (300 women and 300 men), mean age of 47 years have been developed. Patients have been selected on the main clinical sign of TMJ pain and have been divided into four main groups according to the type of PDT method. Based on the action spectra, various wavelengths have been used for TMJ Photodynamic Therapy. Constant dose and time of exposition, as well as various range of frequencies have been applied. In this way the Laser biostimulation response has been directly proportional to the total energy dose, depending of light intensity. Physiological and clinical effects of the followed "active regions"- 660 - 680, 760 - 780, 810 - 830 and 904 - 987 nm have been valued by method of comparative analysis. Methods applied: LLLT - TENS - red surface laser acupuncture (LA), PIPBM - LA, Laser bioenergetics approach, Complex therapeutic program (CTP). Results evaluation will be demonstrated by comparative digital ortopantomograph analysis, EEG brain maps, VAS, a metric analysis of the level of the maximum active Mandible opening and EPST through electrophysiological signal evaluation of the patient's body.

  14. The times they're a-changing: effects of circadian desynchronization on physiology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, Diego A; Casiraghi, Leandro P; Agostino, Patricia V; Paladino, Natalia; Duhart, José M; Plano, Santiago A; Chiesa, Juan J

    2013-09-01

    Circadian rhythms are endogenous and need to be continuously entrained (synchronized) with the environment. Entrainment includes both coupling internal oscillators to external periodic changes as well as synchrony between the central clock and peripheral oscillators, which have been shown to exhibit different phases and resynchronization speed. Temporal desynchronization induces diverse physiological alterations that ultimately decrease quality of life and induces pathological situations. Indeed, there is a considerable amount of evidence regarding the deleterious effect of circadian dysfunction on overall health or on disease onset and progression, both in human studies and in animal models. In this review we discuss the general features of circadian entrainment and introduce diverse experimental models of desynchronization. In addition, we focus on metabolic, immune and cognitive alterations under situations of acute or chronic circadian desynchronization, as exemplified by jet-lag and shiftwork schedules. Moreover, such situations might lead to an enhanced susceptibility to diverse cancer types. Possible interventions (including light exposure, scheduled timing for meals and use of chronobiotics) are also discussed.

  15. Physiological and psychological effects of deception on pacing strategy and performance: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hollie S; Williams, Emily L; Bridge, Craig A; Marchant, Dave; Midgley, Adrian W; Micklewright, Dominic; Mc Naughton, Lars R

    2013-12-01

    The aim of an optimal pacing strategy during exercise is to enhance performance whilst ensuring physiological limits are not surpassed, which has been shown to result in a metabolic reserve at the end of the exercise. There has been debate surrounding the theoretical models that have been proposed to explain how pace is regulated, with more recent research investigating a central control of exercise regulation. Deception has recently emerged as a common, practical approach to manipulate key variables during exercise. There are a number of ways in which deception interventions have been designed, each intending to gain particular insights into pacing behaviour and performance. Deception methodologies can be conceptualised according to a number of dimensions such as deception timing (prior to or during exercise), presentation frequency (blind, discontinuous or continuous) and type of deception (performance, biofeedback or environmental feedback). However, research evidence on the effects of deception has been perplexing and the use of complex designs and varied methodologies makes it difficult to draw any definitive conclusions about how pacing strategy and performance are affected by deception. This review examines existing research in the area of deception and pacing strategies, and provides a critical appraisal of the different methodological approaches used to date. It is hoped that this analysis will inform the direction and methodology of future investigations in this area by addressing the mechanisms through which deception impacts upon performance and by elucidating the potential application of deception techniques in training and competitive settings.

  16. Effects of low temperature and selenium application on growth and the physiological changes in sorghum seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salwa. M. Abbas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cold temperature damage is a common problem for plant in temperate regions. Physiological responses to low temperature were investigated in sorghum to identify mechanisms of tolerance. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. seeds were soaked in different concentrations (0, 3, 6 and 12 mg L-1 of sodium selenate for 6 h before sowing, during the germination period seedlings were exposed to 4 °C or 8 °C for 7 days and allowed to recover at 25 °C for 3 days. Selenate at lower concentrations (3 & 6 mg L-1 enhanced the growth and levels of chlorophylls, anthocyanine, sugar, proline, ascorbic acid and enzymatic activities. However, high level of selenate (12 mg L-1 exert toxic effects. The levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants (ascorbic acid and carotenoids were increased by selenate. Low selenate (3 & 6 mg L-1 diminished lipid peroxidation as measured by malondialdehyde. The activities of enzymatic antioxidants (ascorbic acid peroxidase and guaiacol peroxidase in sorghum seedlings were enhanced by low level of selenate. The results showed that both enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxidants played significant roles in selenate detoxification.

  17. Effects of Endotoxin and Psychological Stress on Redox Physiology, Immunity and Feather Corticosterone in Greenfinches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Meitern

    Full Text Available Assessment of costs accompanying activation of immune system and related neuroendocrine pathways is essential for understanding the selective forces operating on these systems. Here we attempted to detect such costs in terms of disruption to redox balance and interference between different immune system components in captive wild-caught greenfinches (Carduelis chloris. Study birds were subjected to an endotoxin-induced inflammatory challenge and temporary exposure to a psychological stressor (an image of a predator in a 2*2 factorial experiment. Injection of bacterial endotoxin resulted in up-regulation of two markers of antioxidant protection - erythrocyte glutathione, and plasma oxygen radical absorbance (OXY. These findings suggest that inflammatory responses alter redox homeostasis. However, no effect on markers of oxidative damage to proteins or DNA in erythrocytes could be detected. We found no evidence that the endotoxin injection interfered with antibody production against Brucella abortus antigen or the intensity of chronic coccidiosis. The hypothesis of within-immune system trade-offs as a cost of immunity was thus not supported in our model system. We showed for the first time that administration of endotoxin can reduce the level of corticosterone deposited into feathers. This finding suggests a down-regulation of the corticosterone secretion cascade due to an endotoxin-induced immune response, a phenomenon that has not been reported previously. Exposure to the predator image did not affect any of the measured physiological parameters.

  18. Effect of phosphogypsum on growth, physiology, and the antioxidative defense system in sunflower seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elloumi, Nada; Zouari, Mohamed; Chaari, Leila; Abdallah, Ferjani Ben; Woodward, Steve; Kallel, Monem

    2015-10-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is the solid waste product of phosphate fertilizer production and is characterized by high concentrations of salts, heavy metals, and certain natural radionuclides. The work reported in this paper examined the influence of PG amendment on soil physicochemical proprieties, along with its potential impact on several physiological traits of sunflower seedlings grown under controlled conditions. Sunflower seedlings were grown on agricultural soil substrates amended with PG at rates of 0, 2.5, and 5 %. The pH of the soil decreased but electrical conductivity and organic matter, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, and heavy metal contents increased in proportion to PG concentration. In contrast, no variations were observed in magnesium content and small increases were recorded in potassium content. The effects of PG on sunflower growth, leaf chlorophyll content, nutritional status, osmotic regulator content, heavy metal accumulation, and antioxidative enzymes were investigated. Concentrations of trace elements in sunflower seedlings grown in PG-amended soil were considerably lower than ranges considered phytotoxic for vascular plants. The 5 % PG dose inhibited shoot extension and accumulation of biomass and caused a decline in total protein content. However, chlorophyll, lipid peroxidation, proline and sugar contents, and activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase increased. Collectively, these results strongly support the hypothesis that enzymatic antioxidation capacity is an important mechanism in tolerance of PG salinity in sunflower seedlings.

  19. PRE-GERMINATIVE TREATMENTS IN POMEGRANATE SEEDS (Punica granatum L.:EFFECT ON PHYSIOLOGICAL QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSEANO GRACILIANO DA SILVA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of different removal methods of sarcotesta and their effects on the physiological quality of the seeds. We applied the following treatments: T1 - friction in coarse sand on a sieve; T2 and T3 - immersion in sulfuric acid (98% for 30 minutes and washing in water, with and without a vernalization for 48 hours in a refrigerator at 4 °C, respectively; T4 and T5 - natural fermentation for 72 hours, with seeds submitted and not submitted to drying in shade for seven days; and T6 - seeds with intact sarcotesta as control. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design. For the analysis of the viability and vigor, we used the germination test, germination on first count, germination speed index, accelerated aging, emergence test, emergence speed index, number of leaves, plant height, stem diameter, and root length. The data were submitted to analysis of variance and Tukey test. Seeds submitted to fermentation showed the highest germination and emergence values. However, it was not statistically different from the control, probably due to the sensitivity to desiccation or seed dormancy, which was shown in the accelerated aging test.

  20. THE EFFECTS OF INTERMITTENT EXERCISE ON PHYSIOLOGICAL OUTCOMES IN AN OBESE POPULATION: CONTINUOUS VERSUS INTERVAL WALKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Wallman

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the effects of 12 weeks of caloric restriction and interval exercise (INT and caloric restriction and continuous aerobic exercise (CON on physiological outcomes in an obese population. Forty-four individuals (BMI > 30 kg·m-2 were randomised into the INT or CON group. Participant withdrawal resulted in 12 and 14 participants in the INT and CON groups, respectively. All participants were on a strict monitored diet. Exercise involved two 15-min bouts of walking performed on five days per week. Interval exercise consisted of a 2:1 min ratio of low-intensity (40-45% VO2peak and high- intensity (70-75% VO2peak exercise, while the CON group exercised between 50-55% VO2peak. Exercise duration and average intensity (%VO2peak were similar between groups. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05 between the two groups for any variable assessed apart from very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-C, which significantly decreased over time in the INT group only (p < 0.05, d = 1.03. Caloric restriction and interval exercise compared to caloric restriction and continuous aerobic exercise resulted in similar outcome measures apart from VLDL-C levels, which significantly improved in the INT group only

  1. [Effect of dosed diet restriction on physiological remodeling and bioelectric properties of bone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levashov, M I; Ianko, R V; Chaka, E G; Safonov, S L

    2014-07-01

    The effect of dosed diet restriction on the physiological remodeling and bioelectric properties of bone tissue was studied in 48 male Wistar rats 3- and 18-months of age. The rate of bone tissue apposition was studied by the dynamic histomorphometry method (intravital tetracycline labeling). Electric potentials on the periosteal surface of the freshly isolated femurs were recorded. The magnitude of dielectric loss factor was determined to assess the quality of bone tissue. The control rats received a standard diet. The experimental rats received a limited diet (60 % of the standard mass) for 28 days. The magnitude and rate of the bone tissue apposition on the endosteal and periosteal surface of the tibia were less by 38.4% and 122.7% respectively in experimental rats after dosed diet restriction. Electric potential in the metaphyseal-epiphyseal growth zones of the femur was 29.7% lower, and the dielectric loss factor increased by 15.8%. The bone tissue apposition rate and the electric potential magnitude were increased 10 days after completion of the dosed diet restriction. The magnitude of the dielectric loss factor decreased after returning to the standard diet. Key words: dosed diet restriction, bone, remodelling, bioelectric properties.

  2. THE EFFECT OF PROGRESSIVE MUSCULAR RELAXATION AND PSYCHOLOGICAL COUNSELING ON PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS DURING SURGICAL STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avnish

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Present study was carried out to study the effect of muscular relaxation technique and counseling on physiological parameters on subjects undergoing surgery. The study was conducted in 32 individuals between ages of 20 – 70 at Civil hospital, GMERS, Valsad and was compared with a control group (N=32 of the same age. The parameters recorded were arterial pulse, arterial blood pressure. The results show the significant differences in the recorded parameters in control ( n=34 and study group (n=33. Pulse rat e ( 75.54 to 80.17 , systolic ( 121.49 to 126.29 and diastolic blood pressure ( 80.4 to 84.23 values increased in preoperative period than on admission in the control group while study group showed decrease in the preoperative value compared to that on admi ssion Pulse rate ( 77.94 to 74.80, systolic ( 124.50 to 122.19 and diastolic blood pressure ( 82.88 to 81. The results obtained were analyzed for statistical significance. The results obtained were statistically significant

  3. Immunological, physiological and behavioral effects of Salmonella enterica carriage and shedding in experimentally infected finishing pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finishing pigs infected with Salmonella pose significant food safety risks by carrying the pathogen into abattoirs. This study was conducted to determine the dynamic of Salmonella infection in finishing pigs, and associated immunological, physiological, and behavioral alterations, by longitudinally ...

  4. The effectiveness of separating theory and practicum as a conduit to learning physiology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johannes A. Schuijers; Stuart J. McDonald; Brianna L. Julien; Louise A. Lexis; Colleen J. Thomas; Siew Chan; T. Samiric

    2013-01-01

    ...: those taking the theory subject alone, those taking it concurrent with a physiology practicum subject, and those who previously took the subject when it had practicums embedded within the one subject...

  5. Effects of exogenous enzymes and dietary energy on performance and digestive physiology of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jialing; Zheng, Ping; Zhang, Keying; Ding, Xuemei; Bai, Shiping

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to compare the effects of XG with AG and BM at different metabolizable energy diets on growth performance, digestive physiology and energy utilization of broilers fed with corn-SBM diet. A 2 × 4 factorial design was used with two basal diets (the positive control group, PC; negative control with ME reduction 100 kcal/kg, NC) and with or without the addition of three exogenous enzymes (0.02% BM; 0.01% AG; 0.05% XG) respectively. 1,200 one-day-old broilers were randomly allocated to 8 treatments with 10 pens of 15 broilers. There was no significant difference on BW, BWG, and FI at 0-21d, 21-42d or 0-42d for diet, enzymes or their interactions, but FI at 22-42d and 0-42d were tend to be decreased with the addition of enzymes. The F/G was significantly improved by the addition of enzymes especially in NC diet. The dietary AME and TME in PC or NC diet were significantly increased by XG or AG in NC diet. The villus length and V/C of ileum were significantly increased by the addition of BM or XG. XG improved the activities of trypsin, chymotrypsin and amylase, BM improved the activity of trypsin at 21d, and AG improved the activity of chymotrypsin at 21d. Comparing to PC diet, the addition of enzymes in PC or NC diet decreased feed cost per kg body weight gain especially in NC diet (except AG in PC diet) with the highest profits for XG in NC diet. In conclusion, supplementation of 0.02% BM or 0.01% AG or 0.05% XG could improve feed conversion of broilers in corn-soybean meal diet by improving energy utilization and digestive physiology, and also supplementation of 0.05% XG had a preferable efficacy in low energy diet.

  6. Green roof adoption in atlanta, georgia: the effects of building characteristics and subsidies on net private, public, and social benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Jeffrey D; Lamsal, Madhur; Colson, Greg

    2013-10-01

    This research draws on and expands previous studies that have quantified the costs and benefits associated with conventional roofs versus green roofs. Using parameters from those studies to define alternative scenarios, we estimate from a private, public, and social perspective the costs and benefits of installing and maintaining an extensive green roof in Atlanta, GA. Results indicate net private benefits are a decreasing function of roof size and vary considerably across scenarios. In contrast, net public benefits are highly stable across scenarios, ranging from $32.49 to $32.90 m(-2). In addition, we evaluate two alternative subsidy regimes: (i) a general subsidy provided to every building that adopts a green roof and (ii) a targeted subsidy provided only to buildings for which net private benefits are negative but net public benefits are positive. In 6 of the 12 general subsidy scenarios the optimal public policy is not to offer a subsidy; in 5 scenarios the optimal subsidy rate is between $20 and $27 m(-2); and in 1 scenario the optimal rate is $5 m(-2). The optimal rate with a targeted subsidy is between $20 and $27 m(-2) in 11 scenarios and no subsidy is optimal in the twelfth. In most scenarios, a significant portion of net public benefits are generated by buildings for which net private benefits are positive. This suggests a policy focused on information dissemination and technical assistance may be more cost-effective than direct subsidy payments.

  7. Determining environmental causes of biological effects: the need for a mechanistic physiological dimension in conservation biology

    OpenAIRE

    Seebacher, Frank; Craig E. Franklin

    2012-01-01

    The emerging field of Conservation Physiology links environmental change and ecological success by the application of physiological theory, approaches and tools to elucidate and address conservation problems. Human activity has changed the natural environment to a point where the viability of many ecosystems is now under threat. There are already many descriptions of how changes in biological patterns are correlated with environmental changes. The next important step is to determine the causa...

  8. Effect of Parkinson's Disease on the Production of Structured and Unstructured Speaking Tasks: Respiratory Physiologic and Linguistic Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Jessica E.; Darling, Meghan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the effects of cognitive-linguistic deficits and respiratory physiologic changes on respiratory support for speech in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) using two speech tasks: reading and extemporaneous speech. Method: Five women with PD, 9 men with PD, and 14 age- and sex-matched control participants read a passage and…

  9. Altered physiological conditions of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber as a measure of subchronic TiO2 effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srpčič, Anja Menard; Drobne, Damjana; Novak, Sara

    2015-03-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) show low toxic potential against a variety of environmental organisms when measured by conventional toxicity endpoints. However, the question is whether the conventional measures of toxicity can define the adverse effects of nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to asses the potential toxic and cytotoxic effects of the ingested nano-TiO2 (anatase, Porcellio scaber. In addition to conventional toxicity parameters, the physiological condition of the animals was assessed. Following 28-day feeding exposure to nano-TiO2 at concentrations up to 5,000 μg nano-TiO2/g leaf dry weight, no toxic or cytotoxic effects were demonstrated. However, the physiological condition of the animals was affected in a dose-dependent manner. The physiological state of organisms is an important parameter to assess the potential population implications due to the exposure to nanomaterials. Therefore, we suggest that only if both, the physiological state of the animals exposed to nano-TiO2 and the conventional toxicity markers show no effects, the exposure dose can be interpreted as non-hazardous.

  10. An Exploratory Study of the Effects of Time Compressed Animated Delivery Multimedia Technology on Student Learning in Reproductive Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Michael S.; Oki, Angela C.; Senger, P. L.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments examined the effects of a multimedia technology referred to as "Time Compressed Animated Delivery" (TCAD), on student learning in a junior-level reproductive physiology course. In experiment 1, participating students received one of two presentations of the same instructional material: TCAD and a lecture captured on video. At the…

  11. An Exploratory Study of the Effects of Time Compressed Animated Delivery Multimedia Technology on Student Learning in Reproductive Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Michael S.; Oki, Angela C.; Senger, P. L.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments examined the effects of a multimedia technology referred to as "Time Compressed Animated Delivery" (TCAD), on student learning in a junior-level reproductive physiology course. In experiment 1, participating students received one of two presentations of the same instructional material: TCAD and a lecture captured on video. At the…

  12. Physiological and Regulatory Effects of Controlled Overproduction of Five Cold Shock Proteins of Lactococcus lactis MG1363

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Jeroen A.; Mailhes, Marielle; Rombouts, Frank M.; Vos, Willem M. de; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Abee, Tjakko

    2000-01-01

    The physiological and regulatory effects of overproduction of five cold shock proteins (CSPs) of Lactococcus lactis were studied. CspB, CspD, and CspE could be overproduced at high levels (up to 19% of the total protein), whereas for CspA and CspC limited overproduction (0.3 to 0.5% of the total pro

  13. The effect of yeast cell wall supplementation on the physiological and acute phase responses of crossbred heifers to endotoxin challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding yeast cell wall (YCW) products on the physiological and acute phase responses of crossbred newly-received heifers to endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Heifers (n=24; 218.9+/-2.4 kg) were obtained from commercial sale barns and tra...

  14. Minor Immediate Effects of a Dog on Children’s Reading Performance and Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Schretzmayer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Literacy is a key factor in occupational success and social integration. However, an increasing number of children lack appropriate reading skills. There is growing evidence that dogs have positive effects on reading performance. We investigated the short-term effects of dogs on reading performance in 36 third-graders and monitored physiological parameters [heart rate (HR, heart rate variability (HRV, and salivary cortisol] as well as behavioral variables. Each child took part in two test sessions at the presence of a tutor, in one of which a dog and its handler were present. To assess reading performance two reading tests were used: two subtests of the standardized “Ein Leseverständnistest für Erst- bis Sechstklässler”, where the children have to carry out time-limited reading tasks, to assess sentence and text comprehension, and repeated reading (RR, where the children have to read the same text twice, to assess reading speed and short-term improvement. Although the dog had no effect on reading performance scores, within the first test session the children improved from the first to the second run of RR when a dog was present but not without dog. The behavior of the children indicated a calming effect of the dog in the first test session with less nervous movements and the children being less talkative. We found no impact of the dog on HR and HRV. However, the excitement about the dog in combination with the unknown situation in the first test session was reflected in a higher difference in the mean HR difference between the two test sessions for the children, who in the first test session had a dog present, compared to the children, who had the dog in the second test session. In the second test session, the children were more aroused with a dog present than with no dog present, as indicated by the area under the curve increase (AUCi of salivary cortisol values. We conclude that the presence of a dog had a minor short-term positive

  15. The Effect of Fabric Type of Common Iranian Working Clothes on the Induced Cardiac and Physiological Strain Under Heat Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvari, Roh Allah; Aghaei, Habib Allah; Dehghan, Habibollah; Khademi, Abolfazl; Maracy, Mohammad Reza; Dehghan, Somayeh Farhang

    2015-01-01

    The present study compared the effect of fabric type of working clothes on heat strain responses in different levels of physical workload and under different kinds of weather conditions. Four kinds of working clothing fabric that are greatly popular in Iranian industry were assessed on 18 healthy male at 2 environments: hot and humid (dry temperature [DBt]: 35°C and relative humidity [RH]: 70%) and hot and dry (DBt: 40°C and RH: 40%). The physiological responses such as heart rate and core body temperature were reported. It was found that there were no significant differences between different types of clothing fabric on cardiac and physiological parameters. It can be recommended that 100% cotton clothing ensemble during low-workload activities and 30.2% cotton-69.8% polyester clothing ensemble during moderate-workload activities is used for Iranian workers to maintain the cardiac and physiological strains as low as possible.

  16. Effect of Low Concentration of Yttrium on Physiological Characteristics of Cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Shuo; Chen Dan; Qin Zhaojiang; Dong Zhenyu; Ju Mingchao; Xie Bingning

    2007-01-01

    There is no doubt that rare earth elements stand an important position among the essential elements of plant growth and it is long time since they are first used as plant growth promoters. Given their effects on microstructure, most reports are focused on the toxicology rather than promotion. Using cucumis sativus L. (Jin Chun No.5) as experiment material, we try to find out the nutritional effects of low Y3+ concentrations on cucumber seedlings' leaves. The present paper suggests that the rare earth elements act as micronutrients at low concentrations while they give rise to toxicity at high concentration. Benefits defeat toxicity with concentration ranging from 5 to 25μmol·L-1. Through careful study, at the Y (N03)3 concentration of 10μmol·L1 the content of chlorophyll as well as the activities of SOD, Cu-Zn SOD and the POD are the highest. It indicates 10μmol·L-1 is the optimum concentration of yttrium for promoting the cucumber growth.

  17. Effects of blue pulsed light on human physiological functions and subjective evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuura Tetsuo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been assumed that light with a higher irradiance of pulsed blue light has a much greater influence than that of light with a lower irradiance of steady blue light, although they have the same multiplication value of irradiance and duration. We examined the non-visual physiological effects of blue pulsed light, and determined whether it is sensed visually as being blue. Findings Seven young male volunteers participated in the study. We placed a circular screen (diameter 500 mm in front of the participants and irradiated it using blue and/or white light-emitting diodes (LEDs, and we used halogen lamps as a standard illuminant. We applied three steady light conditions of white LED (F0, blue LED + white LED (F10, and blue LED (F100, and a blue pulsed light condition of a 100-μs pulse width with a 10% duty ratio (P10. The irradiance of all four conditions at the participant's eye level was almost the same, at around 12 μW/cm2. We measured their pupil diameter, recorded electroencephalogram readings and Kwansei Gakuin Sleepiness Scale score, and collected subjective evaluations. The subjective bluish score under the F100 condition was significantly higher than those under other conditions. Even under the P10 condition with a 10% duty ratio of blue pulsed light and the F10 condition, the participant did not perceive the light as bluish. Pupillary light response under the P10 pulsed light condition was significantly greater than under the F10 condition, even though the two conditions had equal blue light components. Conclusions The pupil constricted under the blue pulsed light condition, indicating a non-visual effect of the lighting, even though the participants did not perceive the light as bluish.

  18. Interactions of cadmium and aluminum toxicity in their effect on growth and physiological parameters in soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAMSI Imran Haider; WEI Kang; JILANI Ghulam; ZHANG Guo-ping

    2007-01-01

    The effect of Al and Cd on the growth, photosynthesis, and accumulation of Al, Cd and plant nutrients in two soybean genotypes were determined using hydroponic culture. There were six treatments: pH 6.5; pH 4.0; pH 6.5+1.0 μmol/L Cd; pH 4.0+1.0 μmol/L Cd; pH 4.0+150 μmol/L Al; pH 4.0+1.0 μmol/L Cd+150 μmol/L Al. The low pH (4.0) and Al treatments caused marked reduction in root length, shoot height, dry weight, chlorophyll content (SPAD value) and photosynthetic rate. Al-sensitive cv. Zhechun 2 accumulated comparatively more Al and Cd in plants than Al-tolerant cv. Liao 1. Compared with pH 6.5, pH 4.0resulted in significant increase in Cd and Al concentration in plants. Combined application of Cd and Al enhanced their accumulation in roots, but caused a reduction in shoots. The concentrations of all 10 nutrients (P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and B),except Mo were also increased when plants were exposed to pH lower than pH 6.5. Al addition caused a reduction in the concentration of most nutrients in plant roots and shoots; but K, Mn and Zn in roots were increased. Treatments with Cd alone or together with Al reduced the concentrations of all the plant nutrients in plants. Al-sensitive genotype Zhechun 2 has lower nutrient concentration than Al-tolerant genotype Liao 1. The current findings imply that Al and Cd are synergistic in their effect on plant growth, physiological traits and nutrient uptake.

  19. The Physiological Effects of Dandelion (Taraxacum Officinale) in Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirngo, Fonyuy E; Lambert, Max N; Jeppesen, Per B

    2016-01-01

    The tremendous rise in the economic burden of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has prompted a search for alternative and less expensive medicines. Dandelion offers a compelling profile of bioactive components with potential anti-di