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Sample records for benefits increase offspring

  1. Preconception Alcohol Increases Offspring Vulnerability to Stress.

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    Jabbar, Shaima; Chastain, Lucy G; Gangisetty, Omkaram; Cabrera, Miguel A; Sochacki, Kamil; Sarkar, Dipak K

    2016-10-01

    The effect of preconception drinking by the mother on the life-long health outcomes of her children is not known, and therefore, in this study using an animal model, we determined the impact of preconception alcohol drinking of the mother on offspring stress response during adulthood. In our preconception alcohol exposure model, adult female rats were fed with 6.7% alcohol in their diet for 4 weeks, went without alcohol for 3 weeks and were bred to generate male and female offspring. Preconception alcohol-exposed offsprings' birth weight, body growth, stress response, anxiety-like behaviors, and changes in stress regulatory gene and protein hormone levels were evaluated. In addition, roles of epigenetic mechanisms in preconception alcohol effects were determined. Alcohol feeding three weeks prior to conception significantly affected pregnancy outcomes of female rats, with respect to delivery period and birth weight of offspring, without affecting maternal care behaviors. Preconception alcohol negatively affected offspring adult health, producing an increased stress hormone response to an immune challenge. In addition, preconception alcohol was associated with changes in expression and methylation profiles of stress regulatory genes in various brain areas. These changes in stress regulatory genes were normalized following treatment with a DNA methylation blocker during the postnatal period. These data highlight the novel possibility that preconception alcohol affects the inheritance of stress-related diseases possibly by epigenetic mechanisms.

  2. Maternal allergic contact dermatitis causes increased asthma risk in offspring.

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    Lim, Robert H; Arredouani, Mohamed S; Fedulov, Alexey; Kobzik, Lester; Hubeau, Cedric

    2007-07-27

    Offspring of asthmatic mothers have increased risk of developing asthma, based on human epidemiologic data and experimental animal models. The objective of this study was to determine whether maternal allergy at non-pulmonary sites can increase asthma risk in offspring. BALB/c female mice received 2 topical applications of vehicle, dinitrochlorobenzene, or toluene diisocyanate before mating with untreated males. Dinitrochlorobenzene is a skin-sensitizer only and known to induce a Th1 response, while toluene diisocyanate is both a skin and respiratory sensitizer that causes a Th2 response. Both cause allergic contact dermatitis. Offspring underwent an intentionally suboptimal protocol of allergen sensitization and aerosol challenge, followed by evaluation of airway hyperresponsiveness, allergic airway inflammation, and cytokine production. Mothers were tested for allergic airway disease, evidence of dermatitis, cellularity of the draining lymph nodes, and systemic cytokine levels. The role of interleukin-4 was also explored using interleukin-4 deficient mice. Offspring of toluene diisocyanate but not dinitrochlorobenzene-treated mothers developed an asthmatic phenotype following allergen sensitization and challenge, seen as increased Penh values, airway inflammation, bronchoalveolar lavage total cell counts and eosinophilia, and Th2 cytokine imbalance in the lung. Toluene diisocyanate treated interleukin-4 deficient mothers were able to transfer asthma risk to offspring. Mothers in both experimental groups developed allergic contact dermatitis, but not allergic airway disease. Maternal non-respiratory allergy (Th2-skewed dermatitis caused by toluene diisocyanate) can result in the maternal transmission of asthma risk in mice.

  3. Maternal allergic contact dermatitis causes increased asthma risk in offspring

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    Kobzik Lester

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Offspring of asthmatic mothers have increased risk of developing asthma, based on human epidemiologic data and experimental animal models. The objective of this study was to determine whether maternal allergy at non-pulmonary sites can increase asthma risk in offspring. Methods BALB/c female mice received 2 topical applications of vehicle, dinitrochlorobenzene, or toluene diisocyanate before mating with untreated males. Dinitrochlorobenzene is a skin-sensitizer only and known to induce a Th1 response, while toluene diisocyanate is both a skin and respiratory sensitizer that causes a Th2 response. Both cause allergic contact dermatitis. Offspring underwent an intentionally suboptimal protocol of allergen sensitization and aerosol challenge, followed by evaluation of airway hyperresponsiveness, allergic airway inflammation, and cytokine production. Mothers were tested for allergic airway disease, evidence of dermatitis, cellularity of the draining lymph nodes, and systemic cytokine levels. The role of interleukin-4 was also explored using interleukin-4 deficient mice. Results Offspring of toluene diisocyanate but not dinitrochlorobenzene-treated mothers developed an asthmatic phenotype following allergen sensitization and challenge, seen as increased Penh values, airway inflammation, bronchoalveolar lavage total cell counts and eosinophilia, and Th2 cytokine imbalance in the lung. Toluene diisocyanate treated interleukin-4 deficient mothers were able to transfer asthma risk to offspring. Mothers in both experimental groups developed allergic contact dermatitis, but not allergic airway disease. Conclusion Maternal non-respiratory allergy (Th2-skewed dermatitis caused by toluene diisocyanate can result in the maternal transmission of asthma risk in mice.

  4. Female extrapair mate choice in a cooperative breeder: trading sex for help and increasing offspring heterozygosity.

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    Rubenstein, Dustin R

    2007-08-07

    Sexual conflict between males and females over mating is common. Females that copulate with extrapair mates outside the pair-bond may gain (i) direct benefits such as resources or increased paternal care, (ii) indirect genetic benefits for their offspring, or (iii) insurance against infertility in their own social mate. Few studies have been able to demonstrate the different contexts in which females receive varying types of benefits from extrapair mates. Here, I examined sexual conflict, female extrapair mate choice, and patterns of extrapair paternity in the cooperatively breeding superb starling Lamprotornis superbus using microsatellite markers. Although extrapair paternity was lower than many other avian cooperative breeders (14% of offspring and 25% of nests), females exhibited two distinct mating patterns: half of the extrapair fertilizations were with males from inside the group, whereas half were with males from outside the group. Females with few potential helpers copulated with extrapair mates from within their group and thereby gained direct benefits in the form of additional helpers at the nest, whereas females paired to mates that were relatively less heterozygous than themselves copulated with extrapair mates from outside the group and thereby gained indirect genetic benefits in the form of increased offspring heterozygosity. Females did not appear to gain fertility insurance from copulating with extrapair mates. This is the first study to show that individuals from the same population mate with extrapair males and gain both direct and indirect benefits, but that they do so in different contexts.

  5. Increasing Enrollment through Benefit Segmentation.

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    Goodnow, Betty

    1982-01-01

    The applicability of benefit segmentation, a market research technique which groups people according to benefits expected from a program offering, was tested at the College of DuPage. Preferences and demographic characteristics were analyzed and program improvements adopted, increasing enrollment by 20 percent. (Author/SK)

  6. The pay-offs of maternal care increase as offspring develop, favouring extended provisioning in an egg-feeding frog.

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    Dugas, M B; Moore, M P; Martin, R A; Richards-Zawacki, C L; Sprehn, C G

    2016-10-01

    Offspring quantity and quality are components of parental fitness that cannot be maximized simultaneously. When the benefits of investing in offspring quality decline, parents are expected to shift investment towards offspring quantity (other reproductive opportunities). Even when mothers retain complete control of resource allocation, offspring control whether to allocate investment to growth or development towards independence, and this shared control may generate parent-offspring conflict over the duration of care. We examined these predictions by, in a captive colony, experimentally removing tadpoles of the strawberry poison frog (Oophaga pumilio) from the mothers that provision them with trophic eggs throughout development. Tadpoles removed from their mothers were no less likely to survive to nutritional independence (i.e. through metamorphosis) than were those that remained with their mothers, but these offspring were smaller at metamorphosis and were less likely to survive to reach adult size, even though they were fed ad libitum. Tadpoles that remained with their mothers developed more slowly than those not receiving care, a pattern that might suggest that offspring extracted more care than was in mothers' best interests. However, the fitness returns of providing care increased with offspring development, suggesting that mothers would be best off continuing care until tadpoles initiated metamorphosis. Although the benefits of parental investment in offspring quality are often thought to asymptote at high levels, driving parent-offspring conflict over weaning, this assumption may not hold over natural ranges of investment, with selection on both parents and offspring favouring extended durations of parental care. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  7. Employee benefits or wage increase?

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    Jiří Duda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper comes from a survey done during the years 2007–2009. It focused on employee satisfaction with the provision of employee benefits. The research included 21 companies, 7 companies were from the engineering sector, 7 companies from the food industry, 3 companies represented the budgetary sphere, 3 companies the services sector and one company operates in pharmaceutical industry.The questionnaire survey consisted of 14 questions, including 5 identification-questions. The paper presents results of the questions on dealing with employees’ awareness of employee benefits and on choosing between employees’ preferences of wage increase or increase in value of benefits provided.Employees are informed about all options of providing employee benefits. Only in 3 cases employees stated dissatisfaction with information. This answer was related with the responses to the second monitored question. Employees of these companies preferred pay increases before benefits’ increases. There was no effect of gender of the respondents, neither the influence of the sector of operation, in the preference of increases in wages or in benefits. Exceptions were the employees of companies operating in the financial sector, who preferred employee benefits before a wage increase. It was found that employees of companies who participated in research in 2009, preferred wage increases before the extension of employee benefits, although the value of the net wage increase is lower than the monetary value of benefits increase.The paper is a part of solution of the research plan MSM 6215648904 The Czech economy in the process of integration and globalization, and the development of agricultural sector and the sector of services under the new conditions of the integrated European market.

  8. Hyperleptinemia During Pregnancy Decreases Adult Weight of Offspring and Is Associated With Increased Offspring Locomotor Activity in Mice.

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    Pollock, Kelly E; Stevens, Damaiyah; Pennington, Kathleen A; Thaisrivongs, Rose; Kaiser, Jennifer; Ellersieck, Mark R; Miller, Dennis K; Schulz, Laura Clamon

    2015-10-01

    Pregnant women who are obese or have gestational diabetes mellitus have elevated leptin levels and their children have an increased risk for child and adult obesity. The goals of this study were to determine whether offspring weights are altered by maternal hyperleptinemia, and whether this occurs via behavioral changes that influence energy balance. We used 2 hyperleptinemic mouse models. The first was females heterozygous for a leptin receptor mutation (DB/+), which were severely hyperleptinemic, and that were compared with wild-type females. The second model was wild-type females infused with leptin (LEP), which were moderately hyperleptinemic, and were compared with wild-type females infused with saline (SAL). Total food consumption, food preference, locomotor activity, coordinated motor skills, and anxiety-like behaviors were assessed in wild-type offspring from each maternal group at 3 postnatal ages: 4-6, 11-13, and 19-21 weeks. Half the offspring from each group were then placed on a high-fat diet, and behaviors were reassessed. Adult offspring from both groups of hyperleptinemic dams weighed less than their respective controls beginning at 23 weeks of age, independent of diet or sex. Weight differences were not explained by food consumption or preference, because female offspring from hyperleptinemic dams tended to consume more food and had reduced preference for palatable, high-fat and sugar, food compared with controls. Offspring from DB/+ dams were more active than offspring of controls, as were female offspring of LEP dams. Maternal hyperleptinemia during pregnancy did not predispose offspring to obesity, and in fact, reduced weight gain.

  9. Melatonin prevents experimental preterm labor and increases offspring survival.

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    Domínguez Rubio, Ana P; Sordelli, Micaela S; Salazar, Ana I; Aisemberg, Julieta; Bariani, María V; Cella, Maximiliano; Rosenstein, Ruth E; Franchi, Ana M

    2014-03-01

    Preterm delivery is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and contributes to delayed physical and cognitive development in children. At present, there is no efficient therapy to prevent preterm labor. A large body of evidence suggests that intra-amniotic infections may be a significant and potentially preventable cause of preterm birth. This work assessed the effect of melatonin in a murine model of inflammation-associated preterm delivery which mimics central features of preterm infection in humans. For this purpose, preterm labor was induced in BALB/c mice by intraperitoneal injections of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at 10.00 hr (10 μg LPS) and 13.00 hr (20 μg LPS) on day 15 of pregnancy. On day 14 of pregnancy, a pellet of melatonin (25 mg) had been subcutaneously implanted into a group of animals. In the absence of melatonin, a 100% incidence of preterm birth was observed in LPS-treated animals, and the fetuses showed widespread damage. By comparison, treatment with melatonin prevented preterm birth in 50% of the cases, and all pups from melatonin-treated females were born alive and their body weight did not differ from control animals. Melatonin significantly prevented the LPS-induced rises in uterine prostaglandin (PG) E2 , PGF2α, and cyclooxygenase-2 protein levels. In addition, melatonin prevented the LPS-induced increase in uterine nitric oxide (NO) production, inducible NO synthase protein, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) levels. Collectively, our results suggest that melatonin could be a new therapeutic tool to prevent preterm labor and to increase offspring survival. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Parental schizophrenia and increased offspring suicide risk: exploring the causal hypothesis using cousin comparisons.

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    Ljung, T; Lichtenstein, P; Sandin, S; D'Onofrio, B; Runeson, B; Långström, N; Larsson, H

    2013-03-01

    Little is known about suicide risk among offspring of parents hospitalized for schizophrenia and the mechanisms behind this association. We applied a nested case-control design based on linkage of Swedish population-based registers. Among 12- to 30-year-old offspring, we identified 68 318 offspring with suicidal behavior (attempted and completed suicide) and their parents. Five healthy control-parent pairs were matched to each suicidal case-parent pair and conditional logistic regression used to obtain odds ratios (ORs). Further, to disentangle familial confounding from causal environmental mechanisms, we compared the population-based suicide risk with the risk found within full-cousins and half-cousins differentially exposed to parental schizophrenia. Offspring of parents with schizophrenia had significantly increased suicide risk after accounting for socio-economic status, parental suicidal behavior and offspring mental illness [OR 1.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.53-1.85]. Suicide risks in offspring of schizophrenic mothers and fathers were similar in magnitude; so were risks across different developmental periods. Importantly, offspring suicide risk remained essentially unchanged across genetically different relationships; offspring of siblings discordant for schizophrenia had equivalent risk increases within full-cousins (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.66-2.31) and half-cousins (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.17-2.44). Parental schizophrenia was associated with increased risk of offspring suicidal behavior, independent of gender of the schizophrenic parent, and persisting into adulthood. The suicide risk in offspring remained at a similar level when comparing genetically different relationships, which suggests that at least part of the association is due to environmental mechanisms. These findings should inspire increased attention to suicidal ideation and prevention efforts in offspring of parents with schizophrenia.

  11. Should I stay or should I go? Fitness costs and benefits of prolonged parent–offspring and sibling–sibling associations in an Arctic‑nesting goose population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weegman, Mitch; Bearhop, Stuart; Hilton, Geoff

    2016-01-01

    Theory predicts persistence of long-term family relationships in vertebrates will occur until perceived fitness costs exceed benefits to either parents or offspring. We examined whether increased breeding probability and survival were associated with prolonged parent–offspring and sibling......, and just 16 (2.4 %) bred twice or more. The probability of birds with siblings breeding successfully in a subsequent year was credibly greater than that of independent birds at ages 5, 6, and 7. Survival of offspring with parents was credibly greater than that of independent/non-breeder birds at all...... family groups was favoured. Thus, most birds in this study either departed family groups early (e.g., at age 2, when the “stay” strategy was favoured) or as predicted by our cost–benefit model (i.e., at age 3). Although extended family associations are a feature of this population, we contend...

  12. Maternal lipids in pregnancy are associated with increased offspring cortisol reactivity in childhood.

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    Mina, Theresia H; Lahti, Marius; Drake, Amanda J; Forbes, Shareen; Denison, Fiona C; Räikkönen, Katri; Norman, Jane E; Reynolds, Rebecca M

    2017-09-01

    Prenatal programming of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity has long term implications for offspring health. Biological mechanisms underlying programming of the offspring HPA axis are poorly understood. We hypothesised that altered maternal metabolism including higher maternal obesity, glucose and lipids are novel programming factors for altered offspring HPA axis activity. Salivary cortisol levels were measured in 54 children aged 3-5 years under experimental conditions (before and after a delay of self-gratification test). Associations of child cortisol responses with maternal obesity in early pregnancy and with fasting glucose, triglycerides, HDL and total cholesterol measured in each pregnancy trimester were tested. Higher levels of maternal triglycerides and total cholesterol throughout pregnancy were associated with increased offspring cortisol reactivity. The associations were independent of maternal obesity and other confounders, suggesting that exposure to maternal lipids could be a biological mechanism of in utero programming of the offspring's HPA axis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Mild maternal stress disrupts associative learning and increases aggression in offspring.

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    Eaton, L; Edmonds, E J; Henry, T B; Snellgrove, D L; Sloman, K A

    2015-05-01

    Maternal stress has been shown to affect behaviour of offspring in a wide range of animals, but this evidence has come from studies that exposed gestating mothers to acute or severe stressors, such as restraint or exposure to synthetic stress hormones. Here we show that exposure of mothers to even a mild stressor reduces associative learning and increases aggression in offspring. Female guppies were exposed to routine husbandry procedures that produced only a minimal, non-significant, elevation of the stress hormone cortisol. In contrast to controls, offspring from mothers that experienced this mild stress failed to learn to associate a colour cue and food reward, and showed a greater amount of inter-individual variation in behaviour compared with control offspring. This mild stress also resulted in offspring that were more aggressive towards their own mirror image than controls. While it is possible that these results could represent the transmission of beneficial maternal characteristics to offspring born into unpredictable environments, the potential for mild maternal stress to affect offspring performance also has important implications for research into the trans-generational effects of stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Competing for the benefit of offspring eliminates the gender gap in competitiveness.

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    Cassar, Alessandra; Wordofa, Feven; Zhang, Y Jane

    2016-05-10

    Recent advances have highlighted the evolutionary significance of female competition, with the sexes pursuing different competitive strategies and women reserving their most intense competitive behaviors for the benefit of offspring. Influential economic experiments using cash incentives, however, have found evidence suggesting that women have a lower desire to compete than men. We hypothesize that the estimated gender differences critically depend on how we elicit them, especially on the incentives used. We test this hypothesis through an experiment with adults in China (n = 358). Data show that, once the incentives are switched from monetary to child-benefitting, gender differences disappear. This result suggests that female competition can be just as intense as male competition given the right goals, indicating important implications for policies designed to promote gender equality.

  15. Maternal, not paternal PTSD, is related to increased risk for PTSD in offspring of Holocaust survivors

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    Yehuda, Rachel; Bell, Amanda; Bierer, Linda M.; Schmeidler, James

    2008-01-01

    Background A significant association between parental PTSD and the occurrence of PTSD in offspring has been noted, consistent with the idea that risk for PTSD is transmitted from parent to child. Two recent reports linking maternal PTSD and low cortisol in offspring prompted us to examine the relative contributions of maternal vs. paternal PTSD in the prediction of PTSD and other psychiatric diagnoses. Methods 117 men and 167 women, recruited from the community, were evaluated using a comprehensive psychiatric battery designed to identify traumatic life experiences and lifetime psychiatric diagnoses. 211 of the subjects were the adult offspring of Holocaust survivors and 73 were demographically comparable Jewish controls. Participants were further subdivided based on whether their mother, father, neither, or both parents met the diagnostic criteria for lifetime PTSD. Results A higher prevalence of lifetime PTSD, mood, anxiety disorders, and to a lesser extent, substance abuse disorders, was observed in offspring of Holocaust than controls. The presence of maternal PTSD was specifically associated with PTSD in adult offspring. However, the other diagnoses did not show specific effects associated with maternal PTSD. Conclusion The tendency for maternal PTSD to make a greater contribution to PTSD risk suggests that classic genetic mechanisms are not the sole model of transmission, and pave way for the speculation that epigenetic factors may be involved. In contrast, PTSD in any parent contributes to risk for depression, and parental traumatization is associated with increased anxiety disorders in offspring. PMID:18281061

  16. Offspring of prenatal IV nicotine exposure exhibit increased sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of methamphetamine

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    Steven Brown Harrod

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with increased substance abuse in offspring. Preclinical research shows that in utero exposure to nicotine, the primary psychoactive compound in tobacco smoke, influences the neurodevelopment of reward systems and alters motivated behavior in offspring. The present study determined if prenatal nicotine (PN exposure altered the sensitivity to the reinforcing and aversive effects of methamphetamine (METH in offspring using a low dose, intravenous (IV exposure method. Pregnant dams were administered nicotine (0.05 mg/kg/injection or prenatal saline (PS 3×/day on gestational days 8-21, and adult offspring were tested using METH self-administration (experiment 1 or METH-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA; experiment 2 procedures. For METH self-administration, animals were trained to respond for IV METH (0.05 mg/kg/injection; fixed-ratio 3 and they were tested on varying doses the reinforcer (0.0005-1.0 mg/kg/injection. For METH CTA, rats received three saccharin and METH pairings (0, 0.3, or 0.5 mg/kg, sc followed by fourteen daily extinction trials. Experiment 1: PN and PS animals exhibited inverted U-shaped dose-response curves; however, the PN animal’s curve was shifted to the left, suggesting PN animals were more sensitive to the reinforcing effects of METH. Experiment 2: METH CTA was acquired in a dose-dependent manner and the factor of PN exposure was not related to the acquisition or extinction of METH-induced CTA. There were no sex differences in either experiment. These results indicate that adult offspring of IV PN exposure exhibited altered motivation for the reinforcing effects of METH. This suggests that PN exposure, via maternal smoking, will alter the reinforcing effects of METH during later stages of development, and furthermore, will influence substance use vulnerability in adult human offspring.

  17. Prenatal caffeine ingestion increases susceptibility to pulmonary inflammation in adult female rat offspring.

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    Liu, Han-Xiao; Hou, Li-Fang; Chen, Ting; Qu, Wen; Liu, Sha; Yan, Hui-Yi; Wen, Xiao; Ping, Jie

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between prenatal caffeine ingestion (PCI) and risk of postnatal pulmonary inflammation. Pregnant Wistar rats were administered 60mg/kg/d caffeine intragastrically from gestational day (GD) 7 to GD 20. The results showed that PCI obviously increased intrauterine growth retardation rate to 39.2% and suppressed weight growth of the offspring. PCI also enhanced the expression of transforming growth factor β, α-smooth muscle actin, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-8 in lungs and caused pulmonary interstitial thickening in the offspring. Further, with lipopolysaccharide stimulation on postnatal day 77, PCI offspring showed more serious inflammatory infiltration, higher injury scores, and higher levels of IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α in lungs than those of the control. Our findings showed, for the first time, that PCI is a certainly threat to postnatal pulmonary inflammation. The potential mechanism is that PCI alter the expression of pulmonary interstitial thickening-associated genes in the offspring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Do hypertension and diuretic treatment in pregnancy increase the risk of schizophrenia in offspring?

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    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Reinisch, June M

    2003-01-01

    with hypertension in pregnancy plus diuretic treatment in the third trimester were at significantly increased risk of developing schizophrenia. In pregnancies complicated by hypertension, diuretics may interfere with aspects of fetal neurodevelopment and thus increase the vulnerability of offspring......OBJECTIVE: Diuretics prescribed after the first trimester for treatment of hypertension in pregnant women may interfere with normal plasma volume expansion and cause volume depletion. The authors hypothesized that prenatal exposure to diuretics and maternal hypertension might disrupt fetal...... neurodevelopment and increase the risk of schizophrenia in offspring. METHOD: Using data from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort of individuals born between 1959 and 1961, the authors studied the relationship of maternal hypertension and diuretic treatment during pregnancy with the risk of schizophrenia (ICD-8 code...

  19. Maternal Western diet increases adiposity even in male offspring of obesity-resistant rat dams: early endocrine risk markers.

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    Frihauf, Jennifer B; Fekete, Éva M; Nagy, Tim R; Levin, Barry E; Zorrilla, Eric P

    2016-12-01

    Maternal overnutrition or associated complications putatively mediate the obesogenic effects of perinatal high-fat diet on developing offspring. Here, we tested the hypothesis that a Western diet developmental environment increases adiposity not only in male offspring from obesity-prone (DIO) mothers, but also in those from obesity-resistant (DR) dams, implicating a deleterious role for the Western diet per se. Selectively bred DIO and DR female rats were fed chow (17% kcal fat) or Western diet (32%) for 54 days before mating and, thereafter, through weaning. As intended, despite chow-like caloric intake, Western diet increased prepregnancy weight gain and circulating leptin levels in DIO, but not DR, dams. Yet, in both genotypes, maternal Western diet increased the weight and adiposity of preweanlings, as early as in DR offspring, and increased plasma leptin, insulin, and adiponectin of weanlings. Although body weight normalized with chow feeding during adolescence, young adult Western diet offspring subsequently showed decreased energy expenditure and, in DR offspring, decreased lipid utilization as a fuel substrate. By mid-adulthood, maternal Western diet DR offspring ate more chow, weighed more, and were fatter than controls. Thus, maternal Western diet covertly programmed increased adiposity in childhood and adulthood, disrupted relations of energy regulatory hormones with body fat, and decreased energy expenditure in offspring of lean, genetically obesity-resistant mothers. Maternal Western diet exposure alone, without maternal obesity or overnutrition, can promote offspring weight gain. Copyright © 2016 Frihauf et al.

  20. Consumption of Substances of Abuse during Pregnancy Increases Consumption in Offspring: Possible Underlying Mechanisms

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    Poon, Kinning; Leibowitz, Sarah F.

    2016-01-01

    Correlative human observational studies on substances of abuse have been highly dependent on the use of rodent models to determine the neuronal and molecular mechanisms that control behavioral outcomes. This is particularly true for gestational exposure to non-illicit substances of abuse, such as excessive dietary fat, ethanol, and nicotine, which are commonly consumed in our society. Exposure to these substances during the prenatal period has been shown in offspring to increase their intake ...

  1. Maternal omega-3 supplementation increases fat mass in male and female rat offspring

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    Beverly Sara Muhlhausler

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Adipogenesis and lipogenesis are highly sensitive to the nutritional environment in utero and in early postnatal life. Omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA inhibit adipogenesis and lipogenesis in adult rats, however it is not known whether supplementing the maternal diet with omega-3 LCPUFA results in reduced fat deposition in the offspring. Female Albino Wistar rats were fed either a standard chow (Control, n=10 or chow designed to provide ~15mg/kg/day of omega-3 LCPUFA, chiefly as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, throughout pregnancy and lactation (Omega-3, n=11 and all pups were weaned onto a commercial rat chow. Blood and tissues were collected from pups at 3wks and 6wks of age and weights of visceral and subcutaneous fat depots recorded. The expression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the subcutaneous and visceral fat depots were determined using qRT-PCR. Birth weight and postnatal growth were not different between groups. At 6 weeks of age, total percentage body fat was significantly increased in both male (5.09 ± 0.32% vs 4.56 ± 0.2%, P<0.04 and female (5.15 ± 0.37% vs 3.89 ± 0.36%, P<0.04 offspring of omega-3 dams compared to controls. The omega-3 LCPUFA content of erythrocyte phospholipids (as a % of total fatty acids was higher in omega-3 offspring (6.7 ± 0.2 % vs 5.6 ± 0.2%, P<0.001. There was no effect of maternal omega-3 LCPUFA supplementation on the expression of adipogenic or lipogenic genes in the offspring in either the visceral or subcutaneous fat depots. We have therefore established that an omega-3 rich environment during pregnancy and lactation in a rodent model increases fat accumulation in both male and female offspring, particularly in subcutaneous depots, but that this effect is not mediated via upregulation adipogenic/lipogenic gene transcription. These data suggest that maternal n-3 LCPUFA supplementation during pregnancy/lactation may not be an effective strategy for reducing fat deposition in

  2. Antepartum Antibiotic Treatment Increases Offspring Susceptibility to Experimental Colitis: A Role of the Gut Microbiota.

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    Peris Mumbi Munyaka

    Full Text Available Postnatal maturation of the immune system is largely driven by exposure to microbes, and thus the nature of intestinal colonization may be associated with development of childhood diseases that may persist into adulthood. We investigated whether antepartum antibiotic (ATB therapy can increase offspring susceptibility to experimental colitis through alteration of the gut microbiota.Pregnant C57Bl/6 mice were treated with cefazolin at 160 mg/kg body weight or with saline starting six days before due date. At 7 weeks, fecal samples were collected from male offspring after which they received 4% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS in drinking water for 5 days. Disease activity index, histology, colonic IL-6, IL-1β and serum C-reactive protein (CRP were determined. The V3-V4 region of colonic and fecal bacterial 16S rRNA was sequenced. Alpha-, beta-diversity and differences at the phylum and genus levels were determined, while functional pathways of classified bacteria were predicted.ATB influenced fecal bacterial composition and hence bacterial functional pathways before induction of colitis. After induction of colitis, ATB increased onset of clinical disease, histologic score, and colonic IL-6. In addition, ATB decreased fecal microbial richness, changed fecal and colon microbial composition, which was accompanied by a modification of microbial functional pathways. Also, several taxa were associated with ATB at lower taxonomical levels.The results support the hypothesis that antepartum antibiotics modulate offspring intestinal bacterial colonization and increase susceptibility to develop colonic inflammation in a murine model of colitis, and may guide future interventions to restore physiologic intestinal colonization in offspring born by antibiotic-exposed mothers.

  3. Do hypertension and diuretic treatment in pregnancy increase the risk of schizophrenia in offspring?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Reinisch, June M

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Diuretics prescribed after the first trimester for treatment of hypertension in pregnant women may interfere with normal plasma volume expansion and cause volume depletion. The authors hypothesized that prenatal exposure to diuretics and maternal hypertension might disrupt fetal...... neurodevelopment and increase the risk of schizophrenia in offspring. METHOD: Using data from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort of individuals born between 1959 and 1961, the authors studied the relationship of maternal hypertension and diuretic treatment during pregnancy with the risk of schizophrenia (ICD-8 code...... 295) in the offspring. Prenatal medical information was linked to the Danish National Psychiatric Register. The effects of maternal hypertension and diuretic treatment were adjusted for the maternal history of schizophrenia, social status of the family breadwinner, mother's age, and concomitant drug...

  4. Intrahepatic Fat is Increased in Neonatal Offspring of Obese Women with Gestational Diabetes

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    Brumbaugh, David E; Tearse, Phillip; Cree-Green, Melanie; Fenton, Laura Z; Brown, Mark; Scherzinger, Ann; Reynolds, Regina; Alston, Meredith; Hoffman, Camille; Pan, Zhaoxing; Friedman, Jacob E; Barbour, Linda A

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To assess the precision magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the neonate and determine if there is an early maternal influence on the pattern of neonatal fat deposition in the offspring of mothers with gestational diabetes (GDM) and obesity compared with the offspring of normal weight women. Study design 25 neonates, born to normal weight mothers (n=13) and to obese mothers with GDM (n=12), underwent MRI for measurement of subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat and magnetic resonance spectroscopy for the measurement of intrahepatocellular (IHCL) fat at 1-3 weeks of age. Results Infants born to obese/GDM mothers had a mean 68% increase in IHCL compared with infants born to normal weight mothers. For all infants, IHCL correlated with maternal pre-pregnancy BMI but not with subcutaneous adiposity. Conclusion Deposition of liver fat in the neonate correlates highly with maternal BMI. This finding may have implications for understanding the developmental origins of childhood NAFLD. PMID:23260099

  5. Do hypertension and diuretic treatment in pregnancy increase the risk of schizophrenia in offspring?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Reinisch, June M

    2003-01-01

    neurodevelopment and increase the risk of schizophrenia in offspring. METHOD: Using data from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort of individuals born between 1959 and 1961, the authors studied the relationship of maternal hypertension and diuretic treatment during pregnancy with the risk of schizophrenia (ICD-8 code...... 295) in the offspring. Prenatal medical information was linked to the Danish National Psychiatric Register. The effects of maternal hypertension and diuretic treatment were adjusted for the maternal history of schizophrenia, social status of the family breadwinner, mother's age, and concomitant drug...... treatment during pregnancy. RESULTS: In a risk set of 7,866 individuals, 84 cases of schizophrenia were found (1.1% prevalence). Logistic multiple regression analysis identified the following independent risk factors: maternal hypertension (odds ratio=1.69 [95% CI=1.02-2.80]), diuretic treatment...

  6. Macroecology of parental care in arthropods: higher mortality risk leads to higher benefits of offspring protection in tropical climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Eduardo S A; Bueno, Pedro P; Gilbert, James D J; Machado, Glauco

    2017-08-01

    The intensity of biotic interactions varies around the world, in such a way that mortality risk imposed by natural enemies is usually higher in the tropics. A major role of offspring attendance is protection against natural enemies, so the benefits of this behaviour should be higher in tropical regions. We tested this macroecological prediction with a meta-regression of field experiments in which the mortality of guarded and unguarded broods was compared in arthropods. Mortality of unguarded broods was higher, and parental care was more beneficial, in warmer, less seasonal environments. Moreover, in these same environments, additional lines of defence further reduced offspring mortality, implying that offspring attendance alone is not enough to deter natural enemies in tropical regions. These results help to explain the high frequency of parental care among tropical species and how biotic interactions influence the occurrence of parental care over large geographic scales. Finally, our findings reveal that additional lines of defences - an oftentimes neglected component of parental care - have an important effect on the covariation between the benefits of parental care and the climate-mediated mortality risk imposed by natural enemies. © 2016 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  7. Maternal obesity in the ewe increases cardiac ventricular expression of glucocorticoid receptors, proinflammatory cytokines and fibrosis in adult male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghnenis, Adel B; Odhiambo, John F; McCormick, Richard J; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Ford, Stephen P

    2017-01-01

    Obesity during human pregnancy predisposes offspring to obesity and cardiovascular disease in postnatal life. In a sheep model of maternal overnutrition/obesity we have previously reported myocardial inflammation and fibrosis, as well as cardiac dysfunction in late term fetuses, in association with chronically elevated blood cortisol. Significant research has suggested a link between elevated glucocorticoid exposure in utero and hypertension and cardiovascular disease postnatally. Here we examined the effects of maternal obesity on myocardial inflammation and fibrosis of their adult offspring. Adult male offspring from control (CON) mothers fed 100% of National Research Council (NRC) recommendations (n = 6) and male offspring from obese mothers (MO) fed 150% NRC (n = 6), were put on a 12-week ad libitum feeding challenge then necropsied. At necropsy, plasma cortisol and left and right ventricular thickness were markedly increased (P<0.05) in adult male MO offspring. Myocardial collagen content and collagen-crosslinking were greater (P<0.05) in MO offspring compared to CON offspring in association with increased mRNA and protein expression of glucocorticoid receptors (GR). No group difference was found in myocardial mineralocorticoids receptor (MR) protein expression. Further, mRNA expression for the proinflammatory cytokines: cluster of differentiation (CD)-68, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were increased (P < 0.05), and protein expression of CD-68, TGF-β1, and TNF-α tended to increase (P<0.10) in MO vs. CON offspring. These data provide evidence for MO-induced programming of elevated plasma cortisol and myocardial inflammation and fibrosis in adult offspring potentially through increased GR.

  8. Maternal obesity in the ewe increases cardiac ventricular expression of glucocorticoid receptors, proinflammatory cytokines and fibrosis in adult male offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel B Ghnenis

    Full Text Available Obesity during human pregnancy predisposes offspring to obesity and cardiovascular disease in postnatal life. In a sheep model of maternal overnutrition/obesity we have previously reported myocardial inflammation and fibrosis, as well as cardiac dysfunction in late term fetuses, in association with chronically elevated blood cortisol. Significant research has suggested a link between elevated glucocorticoid exposure in utero and hypertension and cardiovascular disease postnatally. Here we examined the effects of maternal obesity on myocardial inflammation and fibrosis of their adult offspring. Adult male offspring from control (CON mothers fed 100% of National Research Council (NRC recommendations (n = 6 and male offspring from obese mothers (MO fed 150% NRC (n = 6, were put on a 12-week ad libitum feeding challenge then necropsied. At necropsy, plasma cortisol and left and right ventricular thickness were markedly increased (P<0.05 in adult male MO offspring. Myocardial collagen content and collagen-crosslinking were greater (P<0.05 in MO offspring compared to CON offspring in association with increased mRNA and protein expression of glucocorticoid receptors (GR. No group difference was found in myocardial mineralocorticoids receptor (MR protein expression. Further, mRNA expression for the proinflammatory cytokines: cluster of differentiation (CD-68, transforming growth factor (TGF-β1, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α were increased (P < 0.05, and protein expression of CD-68, TGF-β1, and TNF-α tended to increase (P<0.10 in MO vs. CON offspring. These data provide evidence for MO-induced programming of elevated plasma cortisol and myocardial inflammation and fibrosis in adult offspring potentially through increased GR.

  9. Maternal obesity and overnutrition increase oxidative stress in male rat offspring reproductive system and decrease fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-González, G L; Vega, C C; Boeck, L; Vázquez, M; Bautista, C J; Reyes-Castro, L A; Saldaña, O; Lovera, D; Nathanielsz, P W; Zambrano, E

    2015-04-01

    Increasing evidence exists that maternal obesity (MO) and overnutrition during pregnancy and lactation have long-lasting consequences for progeny metabolism, cardiovascular and endocrine function. Data on effects of MO on offspring reproduction are limited. We hypothesized that MO during pregnancy and lactation in founder F(0) rat mothers would increase testicular and sperm oxidative stress (OS) and adversely impact male fertility in their F(1) offspring. We induced pre-pregnancy MO by feeding F(0) females a high-fat diet from weaning through pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, all F(1) rats ate control (C) diet. We determined serum testosterone, malondialdehyde (MDA), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in F(1) testes and sperm at postnatal days (PNDs) 110, 450 and 650. At PNDs 450 and 650, MO offspring had lower luteinizing hormone while testosterone levels were lower at all ages. Testicular MDA and ROS concentrations and SOD and GPx activity were higher in MO F(1) at all ages. Nitrotyrosine immunostaining was higher at all ages in MO F(1) testes than C F(1). At PNDs 450 and 650, MO F(1) spermatozoa showed higher MDA concentrations and lower SOD and GPx activity with reduced sperm concentration, viability and motility, and more sperm abnormalities. Fertility rate was not affected at PND 110 but was lower in MO F(1) at PNDs 450 and 650. We conclude that MO during pregnancy and lactation increases F(1) testicular and sperm OS leading to premature aging of reproductive capacity.

  10. Gestational Protein Restriction Increases Cardiac Connexin 43 mRNA levels in male adult rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, Kamila Fernanda; Oliveira, Camila Andrea de; Rebelato, Hércules Jonas; Esquisatto, Marcelo Augusto Marreto; Catisti, Rosana

    2017-07-01

    The dietary limitation during pregnancy influences the growth and development of the fetus and offspring and their health into adult life. The mechanisms underlying the adverse effects of gestational protein restriction (GPR) in the development of the offspring hearts are not well understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of GPR on cardiac structure in male rat offspring at day 60 after birth (d60). Pregnant Wistar rats were fed a normal-protein (NP, 17% casein) or low-protein (LP, 6% casein) diet. Blood pressure (BP) values from 60-day-old male offspring were measured by an indirect tail-cuff method using an electro sphygmomanometer. Hearts (d60) were collected for assessment of connexin 43 (Cx43) mRNA expression and morphological and morphometric analysis. LP offspring showed no difference in body weight, although they were born lighter than NP offspring. BP levels were significantly higher in the LP group. We observed a significant increase in the area occupied by collagen fibers, a decrease in the number of cardiomyocytes by 104 µm2, and an increase in cardiomyocyte area associated with an increased Cx43 expression. GPR changes myocardial levels of Cx43 mRNA in male young adult rats, suggesting that this mechanism aims to compensate the fibrotic process by the accumulation of collagen fibers in the heart interstitium. A limitação dietética durante a gravidez influencia o crescimento e desenvolvimento do feto e da prole e sua saúde na vida adulta. Os mecanismos subjacentes dos efeitos adversos da restrição proteica gestacional (RPG) no desenvolvimento dos corações da prole não são bem compreendidos. Avaliar os efeitos da RPG sobre a estrutura cardíaca em filhotes machos de ratas aos 60 dias após o nascimento (d60). Ratos fêmeas Wistar grávidas foram alimentadas com uma dieta de proteína normal (PN, 17% caseína) ou de baixa proteína (BP, caseína 6%). Os valores de pressão arterial (PA) de descendentes do sexo masculino de

  11. Moderate heat challenge increased yolk steroid hormones and shaped offspring growth and behavior in chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Bertin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Environmental challenges might affect the maternal organism and indirectly affect the later ontogeny of the progeny. We investigated the cross-generation impact of a moderate heat challenge in chickens. We hypothesized that a warm temperature--within the thermotolerance range--would affect the hormonal environment provided to embryos by mothers, and in turn, affect the morphology and behavioral phenotype of offspring. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Laying hens were raised under a standard thermal condition at 21°C (controls or 30°C (experimental for 5 consecutive weeks. A significant increase was observed in the internal temperature of hens exposed to the warm treatment; however plasma corticosterone levels remained unaffected. The laying rate was not affected, but experimental hens laid lighter eggs than the controls during the treatment. As expected, the maternal thermal environment affected yolk hormone contents. Eggs laid by the experimental hens showed significantly higher concentrations of yolk progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol. All chicks were raised under standard thermal conditions. The quality of hatchlings, growth, feeding behavior and emotional reactivity of chicks were analyzed. Offspring of experimental hens (C30 chicks were lighter but obtained better morphological quality scores at hatching than the controls (C21 chicks. C30 chicks expressed lesser distress calls when exposed to a novel food. Unlike C21 chicks, C30 chicks expressed no preference for energetic food. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that moderate heat challenge triggers maternal effects and modulate the developmental trajectory of offspring in a way that may be adaptive. This suggests that the impact of heat challenges on captive or wild populations might have a cross-generation effect.

  12. Intrahepatic fat is increased in the neonatal offspring of obese women with gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbaugh, David E; Tearse, Phillip; Cree-Green, Melanie; Fenton, Laura Z; Brown, Mark; Scherzinger, Ann; Reynolds, Regina; Alston, Meredith; Hoffman, Camille; Pan, Zhaoxing; Friedman, Jacob E; Barbour, Linda A

    2013-05-01

    To assess precision magnetic resonance imaging in the neonate and determine whether there is an early maternal influence on the pattern of neonatal fat deposition in the offspring of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and obesity compared with the offspring of normal-weight women. A total of 25 neonates born to normal weight mothers (n = 13) and to obese mothers with GDM (n = 12) underwent magnetic resonance imaging for the measurement of subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat and magnetic resonance spectroscopy for the measurement of intrahepatocellular lipid (IHCL) fat at 1-3 weeks of age. Infants born to obese/GDM mothers had a mean 68% increase in IHCL compared with infants born to normal-weight mothers. For all infants, IHCL correlated with maternal prepregnancy body mass index but not with subcutaneous adiposity. Deposition of liver fat in the neonate correlates highly with maternal body mass index. This finding may have implications for understanding the developmental origins of childhood nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Consumption of Substances of Abuse during Pregnancy Increases Consumption in Offspring: Possible Underlying Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Kinning; Leibowitz, Sarah F

    2016-01-01

    Correlative human observational studies on substances of abuse have been highly dependent on the use of rodent models to determine the neuronal and molecular mechanisms that control behavioral outcomes. This is particularly true for gestational exposure to non-illicit substances of abuse, such as excessive dietary fat, ethanol, and nicotine, which are commonly consumed in our society. Exposure to these substances during the prenatal period has been shown in offspring to increase their intake of these substances, induce other behavioral changes, and affect neurochemical systems in several brain areas that are known to control behavior. More importantly, emerging studies are linking the function of the immune system to these neurochemicals and ingestion of these abused substances. This review article will summarize the prenatal rodent models used to study developmental changes in offspring caused by prenatal exposure to dietary fat, ethanol, or nicotine. We will discuss the various techniques used for the administration of these substances into rodents and summarize the published outcomes induced by prenatal exposure to these substances. Finally, this review will cover some of the recent evidence for the role of immune factors in causing these behavioral and neuronal changes.

  14. Increased metabolic risk in adolescent offspring of mothers with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachová, Zuzana; Bytoft, Birgitte; Knorr, Sine

    2015-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We aimed to investigate metabolic risk factors, insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in adolescent offspring of mothers with type 1 diabetes compared with offspring of non-diabetic mothers. METHODS: During 1993-1999, pregnancies of women with type 1 diabetes in Denmark were...... with offspring metabolic outcomes. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Adolescent offspring of mothers with type 1 diabetes had a less favourable metabolic profile and higher frequency of prediabetes than the background population. Significant associations between these outcomes and maternal HbA1c levels in pregnancy...... prospectively reported to a central registry in the Danish Diabetes Association. Data included information on maternal demography, diabetes status and pregnancy outcome. We invited 746 eligible children from this cohort (index offspring) to a follow-up examination. Control offspring were identified through...

  15. Gestational Protein Restriction Increases Cardiac Connexin 43 mRNA levels in male adult rat offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Rossini, Kamila Fernanda; Oliveira, Camila Andrea de; Rebelato, Hércules Jonas; Esquisatto, Marcelo Augusto Marreto; Catisti, Rosana

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The dietary limitation during pregnancy influences the growth and development of the fetus and offspring and their health into adult life. The mechanisms underlying the adverse effects of gestational protein restriction (GPR) in the development of the offspring hearts are not well understood. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of GPR on cardiac structure in male rat offspring at day 60 after birth (d60). Methods: Pregnant Wistar rats were fed...

  16. Prenatal maternal immune activation increases anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors in offspring with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi-Zolbanin, J; Doosti, M-H; Kosari-Nasab, M; Salari, A-A

    2015-05-21

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is thought to result from a combination of genetics and environmental factors. Several lines of evidence indicate that significant prevalence of anxiety and depression-related disorders in MS patients can influence the progression of the disease. Although we and others have already reported the consequences of prenatal maternal immune activation on anxiety and depression, less is known about the interplay between maternal inflammation, MS and gender. We here investigated the effects of maternal immune activation with Poly I:C during mid-gestation on the progression of clinical symptoms of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE; a mouse model of MS), and then anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors in non-EAE and EAE-induced offspring were evaluated. Stress-induced corticosterone and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels in EAE-induced offspring were also measured. Maternal immune activation increased anxiety and depression in male offspring, but not in females. This immune challenge also resulted in an earlier onset of the EAE clinical signs in male offspring and enhanced the severity of the disease in both male and female offspring. Interestingly, the severity of the disease was associated with increased anxiety/depressive-like behaviors and elevated corticosterone or TNF-α levels in both sexes. Overall, these data suggest that maternal immune activation with Poly I:C during mid-pregnancy increases anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, and the clinical symptoms of EAE in a sex-dependent manner in non-EAE or EAE-induced offspring. Finally, the progression of EAE in offspring seems to be linked to maternal immune activation-induced dysregulation in neuro-immune-endocrine system. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Maternal Obesity and the Early Origins of Childhood Obesity: Weighing Up the Benefits and Costs of Maternal Weight Loss in the Periconceptional Period for the Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to understand the separate or interdependent contributions of maternal prepregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, glycaemic control, and macronutrient intake on the metabolic outcomes for the offspring. Experimental studies highlight that there may be separate influences of maternal obesity during the periconceptional period and late gestation on the adiposity of the offspring. While a period of dietary restriction in obese mothers may ablate the programming of obesity, it is associated with an activation of the stress axis in the offspring. Thus, maternal obesity may result in epigenetic changes which predict the need for efficient fat storage in postnatal life, while maternal weight loss may lead to epigenetic changes which predict later adversity. Thus, development of dietary interventions for obese mothers during the periconceptional period requires a greater evidence base which allows the effective weighing up of the metabolic benefits and costs for the offspring.

  18. Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li; Wang, Linlong; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE + ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE + HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE + HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a “two-programming” hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is “the first programming”, and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as “the second programming”. - Highlights: • Prenatal ethanol exposure increase the susceptibility of NAFLD in female offspring. • Prenatal ethanol exposure reprograms fetal liver’s glucose and lipid metabolism . • Prenatal ethanol exposure cause

  19. Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Linlong [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Magdalou, Jacques [UMR 7561 CNRS-Nancy Université, Faculté de Médicine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Chen, Liaobin [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE + ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE + HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE + HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a “two-programming” hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is “the first programming”, and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as “the second programming”. - Highlights: • Prenatal ethanol exposure increase the susceptibility of NAFLD in female offspring. • Prenatal ethanol exposure reprograms fetal liver’s glucose and lipid metabolism . • Prenatal ethanol exposure cause

  20. Who Benefits from a Minimum Wage Increase?

    OpenAIRE

    John W. Lopresti; Kevin J. Mumford

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of how a minimum wage increase affects the wages of low-wage workers. Most studies assume that there is a simple mechanical increase in the wage for workers earning a wage between the old and the new minimum wage, with some studies allowing for spillovers to workers with wages just above this range. Rather than assume that the wages of these workers would have remained constant, this paper estimates how a minimum wage increase impacts a low-wage worker's wage...

  1. Maternal obesity increases the risk of metabolic disease and impacts renal health in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glastras, Sarah Jean; Chen, Hui; Pollock, Carol A; Saad, Sonia

    2018-02-26

    Obesity, together with insulin resistance, promotes multiple metabolic abnormalities and is strongly associated with an increased risk of chronic disease including type 2 diabetes (T2D), hypertension, cardiovascular disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and chronic kidney disease (CKD). The incidence of obesity continues to rise in astronomical proportions throughout the world and affects all different stages of the lifespan. Importantly, the proportion of women of reproductive age who are overweight or obese is increasing at an alarming rate and has potential ramifications for offspring health and disease risk. Evidence suggests a strong link between the intrauterine environment and disease programming.  The current review will describe the importance of the intrauterine environment in the development of metabolic disease, including kidney disease. It will detail the known mechanisms of fetal programming, including the role of epigenetic modulation. The evidence for the role of maternal obesity in the developmental programming of CKD is derived mostly from our rodent models which will be described. The clinical implication of such findings will also be discussed. ©2018 The Author(s).

  2. Maternal obesity in sheep increases fatty acid synthesis, upregulates nutrient transporters, and increases adiposity in adult male offspring after a feeding challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan M Long

    Full Text Available Maternal obesity in women is increasing worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate differences in adipose tissue metabolism and function in adult male offspring from obese and control fed mothers subjected to an ad libitum feeding challenge. We developed a model in which obese ewes were fed 150% of feed provided for controls from 60 days before mating to term. All ewes were fed to requirements during lactation. After weaning, F1 male offspring were fed only to maintenance requirements until adulthood (control = 7, obese = 6, when they were fed ad libitum for 12 weeks with intake monitored. At the end of the feeding challenge offspring were given an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT, necropsied, and adipose tissue collected. During the feeding trial F1obese males consumed more (P < 0.01, gained more weight (P < 0.01 and became heavier (P < 0.05 than F1control males. During IVGTT, Obese F1 offspring were hyperglycemic and hypoinsulinemic (P < 0.01 compared to F1 control F1. At necropsy perirenal and omental adipose depots weights were 47% and 58% greater respectively and subcutaneous fat thickness 41% greater in F1obese vs. F1control males (P < 0.05. Adipocyte diameters were greater (P ≤ 0.04 in perirenal, omental and subcutaneous adipose depots in F1obese males (11, 8 and 7% increase vs. control, respectively. When adipose tissue was incubated for 2 hrs with C-14 labeled acetate, subcutaneous, perirenal, and omental adipose tissue of F1 obese males exhibited greater incorporation (290, 83, and 90% increase vs. control, respectively P < 0.05 of acetate into lipids. Expression of fatty acid transporting, binding, and syntheses mRNA and protein was increased (P < 0.05 compared to F1 control offspring. Maternal obesity increased appetite and adiposity associated with increased adipocyte diameters and increased fatty acid synthesis in over-nourished adult male offspring.

  3. Fluoxetine administration to pregnant rats increases anxiety-related behavior in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Jocelien D A; Vallès, A; van Heesch, Floor; Afrasiab-Middelman, Anthonieke; Roelofs, Janneke J P M; Jonkers, Marloes; Peeters, Elke Joan; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Dederen, Jos P; Kiliaan, Amanda J; Martens, Gerard J; Schubert, Dirk; Homberg, Judith R

    2011-10-01

    Fluoxetine (Prozac®) is the most frequently prescribed drug to battle depression in pregnant women, but its safety in the unborn child has not yet been established. Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, crosses the placenta, leading to increased extracellular serotonin levels and potentially neurodevelopmental changes in the fetus. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the long-term consequences of prenatal fluoxetine in rats. Pregnant rats were injected daily with 12 mg/kg fluoxetine or vehicle from gestational day 11 until birth, and the behavior of the offspring was monitored. Plasma fluoxetine transfer from mother to pup was 83%, and high levels of fluoxetine (13.0 μg/g) were detected in the pup brain 5 h after the last injection. Fluoxetine-treated dams gave birth to litters 15% smaller than usual and to pups of reduced weight (until postnatal day 7). Furthermore, prenatal fluoxetine exposure significantly increased anxiety in the novelty-suppressed feeding test, the footshock-induced conditioned place aversion test, and the elevated plus maze test (following footshock pre-exposure) during adulthood, and also significantly decreased components of social play behavior at 4 weeks of age, and a strong tendency for increased self-grooming and making less contact in adults. Behavioral despair, anhedonia, and sexual behavior were not different between treatment groups. Finally, the hypothermic response to the 5-HT(1A) agonist flesinoxan was observed at a lower dose in prenatally fluoxetine-exposed rats than in controls. Prenatal fluoxetine exposure in rats leads to detrimental behavioral outcomes in later life, which may partly be due to altered 5-HT(1A) receptor signaling.

  4. Disturbed morphogenesis of cardiac outflow tract and increased rate of aortic arch anomalies in the offspring of diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molin, Daniël G M; Roest, Pauline A M; Nordstrand, Hanna; Wisse, Lambertus J; Poelmann, Robert E; Eriksson, Ulf J; Gittenberger-De Groot, Adriana C

    2004-12-01

    Maternal diabetes (MD) is a risk factor for offspring to develop cardiovascular anomalies; this is of growing clinical concern since the number of women in childbearing age with compromised glucose homeostasis is increasing. Hyperglycemia abrogates cardiovascular development in vitro; however, a link to cardiovascular defects in diabetic offspring remains to be investigated. We have studied cardiovascular development in offspring of MD rats by examining serial histological sections of GD 12.0-18.0 offspring. Development of pharyngeal arch artery malformations was analyzed and related to intracardiac anomalies. Pharyngeal arch artery and intracardiac defects were present in 27 of 37 MD GD 13.0-18.0 offspring. Early sixth arch arteries showed abrogated arteriogenesis, whereas fourth arch artery defects developed as a result of abnormal remodeling. Morphometrical analysis showed increased apoptosis in regressing artery segments and reduced apoptosis in persisting artery segments. Double outlet right ventricle with infundibular stenosis (tetralogy of Fallot) was predominantly found in combination with sixth artery defects and pulmonary atresia. As confirmed by morphometric analysis and three-dimensional (3D)-reconstructions, outflow tract defects coincided with endocardial cushion hypoplasia. Cases with teratology of Fallot additionally showed a shorter outflow tract. No relation with apoptosis or disturbed neural crest cell migration was found. Our data uniquely demonstrate mechanistic differences involved in the development of sixth and fourth artery anomalies. Whereas increased apoptosis induces fourth artery anomalies, pulmonary outflow obstruction abrogates sixth artery differentiation independent of apoptosis. The model presented allows analysis of diabetic conditions on cardiovascular development in vivo, essential for elucidating this teratology.

  5. Familial history of hypertension as a predictor of increased arterial stiffness in normotensive offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Ghada; El Tebi, Ibrahim; Osama, Dina; Shehahta, Ahmed; Baligh, Essam; Ashour, Zeinab; Gamal, Hany

    2017-03-01

    Increased arterial stiffness can be used as a prognostic marker of arterial hypertension. The relationship between arterial stiffness and arterial hypertension seems to be reciprocal. Evaluation of changes of the arterial elastic prosperities in normotensive subjects, with and without parental history of hypertension. One hundred and ten normotensive individuals, aged 20-30 years, were divided into two groups: group-A ( n  = 57) and group-B ( n  = 53) subjects with positive and negative parental history of hypertension, respectively. Systolic, diastolic and pulse pressures were measured using mercury sphygmomanometer. The elastic properties of the ascending aorta and the common carotid arteries were assessed using M-mode echo and B-mode imaging, respectively. Stiffness index of the digital volume pulse (SIDVP) was measured in the right index finger using photoplethysmography. Group A subjects showed higher aortic stiffness index ( p  = 0.002), carotid stiffness index ( p  = 0.001), carotid pulse wave velocity ( p  ⩽ 0.001) and stiffness index of digital volume pulse ( p  = 0.001). Group A subjects showed lower aortic distensibility ( p  = 0.001), aortic strain ( p  = 0.004), changes in aortic diameter ( p  = 0.022), carotid distension ( p  = 0.026), carotid distensibility coefficient ( p  ⩽ 0.001) and carotid compliance coefficient ( p  = 0.002). The aortic and carotid stiffness parameters and SIDVP were higher in normotensive offspring of hypertensive parents. This finding could direct the attention towards the increased cardiovascular risk in this group and thus prompt earlier and tighter prevention of cardiovascular risk factors.

  6. Prenatal ethanol exposure increases osteoarthritis susceptibility in female rat offspring by programming a low-functioning IGF-1 signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Qubo; Tan, Yang; Zhang, Xianrong; Luo, Hanwen; Deng, Yu; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2015-10-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicates that osteoarthritis (OA) and prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) are both associated with low birth weight but possible causal interrelationships have not been investigated. To investigate the effects of PEE on the susceptibility to OA in adult rats that experienced intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), and to explore potential intrauterine mechanisms, we established the rat model of IUGR by PEE and dexamethasone, and the female fetus and 24-week-old adult offspring subjected to strenuous running for 6 weeks were sacrificed. Knee joints were collected from fetuses and adult offspring for histochemistry, immunohistochemistry and qPCR assays. Histological analyses and the Mankin score revealed increased cartilage destruction and accelerated OA progression in adult offspring from the PEE group compared to the control group. Immunohistochemistry showed reduced expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling pathway components. Furthermore, fetuses in the PEE group experienced IUGR but exhibited a higher postnatal growth rate. The expression of many IGF-1 signaling components was downregulated, which coincided with reduced amounts of type II collagen in the epiphyseal cartilage of fetuses in the PEE group. These results suggest that PEE enhances the susceptibility to OA in female adult rat offspring by down-regulating IGF-1 signaling and retarding articular cartilage development.

  7. Female offspring born to obese and insulin-resistant dams are not at increased risk for obesity and metabolic dysfunction during early development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aburasayn, Hanin; Al Batran, Rami; Gopal, Keshav; Almutairi, Malak; Eshreif, Amina; Eaton, Farah; Ussher, John R

    2018-01-01

    The percentage of women who are obese at the time of conception or during pregnancy is increasing, with animal and human studies demonstrating that offspring born to obese dams or mothers are at increased risk for obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Our goal was to confirm in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome in the dam, whether the offspring would be at increased risk of obesity. Conversely, we observed that male offspring born to dams with metabolic syndrome had no alterations in their body mass profiles, whereas female offspring born to dams with metabolic syndrome were heavier at weaning, but exhibited no perturbations in energy metabolism. Moreover, they gained weight at a reduced rate versus female offspring born to healthy dams, and thus weighed less at study completion. Hence, our findings suggest that factors other than increased adiposity and insulin resistance during pregnancy are responsible for the increased risk of obesity in children born to obese mothers.

  8. Marginal maternal vitamin B12 status increases the risk of offspring with spina bifida.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenen, P.; Rooij, I.A.L.M. van; Peer, P.G.M.; Gooskens, R.H.; Zielhuis, G.A.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate B vitamins and homocysteine as risk factor for offspring with spina bifida. STUDY DESIGN: Blood samples from 45 mothers and their children with spina bifida and from 83 control mothers and their children were obtained to determine the levels of

  9. Maternal obesity programs increased leptin gene expression in rat male offspring via epigenetic modifications in a depot-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecoutre, Simon; Oger, Frederik; Pourpe, Charlène; Butruille, Laura; Marousez, Lucie; Dickes-Coopman, Anne; Laborie, Christine; Guinez, Céline; Lesage, Jean; Vieau, Didier; Junien, Claudine; Eberlé, Delphine; Gabory, Anne; Eeckhoute, Jérôme; Breton, Christophe

    2017-08-01

    According to the Developmental Origin of Health and Disease (DOHaD) concept, maternal obesity and accelerated growth in neonates predispose offspring to white adipose tissue (WAT) accumulation. In rodents, adipogenesis mainly develops during lactation. The mechanisms underlying the phenomenon known as developmental programming remain elusive. We previously reported that adult rat offspring from high-fat diet-fed dams (called HF) exhibited hypertrophic adipocyte, hyperleptinemia and increased leptin mRNA levels in a depot-specific manner. We hypothesized that leptin upregulation occurs via epigenetic malprogramming, which takes place early during development of WAT. As a first step, we identified in silico two potential enhancers located upstream and downstream of the leptin transcription start site that exhibit strong dynamic epigenomic remodeling during adipocyte differentiation. We then focused on epigenetic modifications (methylation, hydroxymethylation, and histone modifications) of the promoter and the two potential enhancers regulating leptin gene expression in perirenal (pWAT) and inguinal (iWAT) fat pads of HF offspring during lactation (postnatal days 12 (PND12) and 21 (PND21)) and in adulthood. PND12 is an active period for epigenomic remodeling in both deposits especially in the upstream enhancer, consistent with leptin gene induction during adipogenesis. Unlike iWAT, some of these epigenetic marks were still observable in pWAT of weaned HF offspring. Retained marks were only visible in pWAT of 9-month-old HF rats that showed a persistent "expandable" phenotype. Consistent with the DOHaD hypothesis, persistent epigenetic remodeling occurs at regulatory regions especially within intergenic sequences, linked to higher leptin gene expression in adult HF offspring in a depot-specific manner.

  10. Outbreeding increases offspring survival in wild greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum).

    OpenAIRE

    Rossiter, S. J.; Jones, G.; Ransome, R. D.; Barratt, E. M.

    2001-01-01

    The factors influencing the survival of greater horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) offspring born over seven years at a maternity colony in south-west Britain were studied. The effects of a range of phenotypic and maternal variables were analysed using a historical data set. In addition, the influence of two genetic measures on mortality, individual heterozygosity and a new measure of outbreeding, termed mean d(2), was assessed. Logistic regressions were undertaken with survival modell...

  11. Maternal dietary loads of alpha-tocopherol increase synapse density and glial synaptic coverage in the hippocampus of adult offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Salucci

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available An increased intake of the antioxidant α-Tocopherol (vitamin E is recommended in complicated pregnancies, to prevent free radical damage to mother and fetus. However, the anti-PKC and antimitotic activity of α-Tocopherol raises concerns about its potential effects on brain development. Recently, we found that maternal dietary loads of α-Tocopherol through pregnancy and lactation cause developmental deficit in hippocampal synaptic plasticity in rat offspring. The defect persisted into adulthood, with behavioral alterations in hippocampus-dependent learning. Here, using the same rat model of maternal supplementation, ultrastructural morphometric studies were carried out to provide mechanistic interpretation to such a functional impairment in adult offspring by the occurrence of long-term changes in density and morphological features of hippocampal synapses. Higher density of axo-spinous synapses was found in CA1 stratum radiatum of α-Tocopherol-exposed rats compared to controls, pointing to a reduced synapse pruning. No morphometric changes were found in synaptic ultrastructural features, i.e., perimeter of axon terminals, length of synaptic specializations, extension of bouton-spine contact. Glia-synapse anatomical relationship was also affected. Heavier astrocytic coverage of synapses was observed in Tocopherol-treated offspring, notably surrounding axon terminals; moreover, the percentage of synapses contacted by astrocytic endfeet at bouton-spine interface (tripartite synapses was increased. These findings indicate that gestational and neonatal exposure to supranutritional tocopherol intake can result in anatomical changes of offspring hippocampus that last through adulthood. These include a surplus of axo-spinous synapses and an aberrant glia-synapse relationship, which may represent the morphological signature of previously described alterations in synaptic plasticity and hippocampus-dependent learning.

  12. Disturbed nitric oxide and homocysteine production are involved in the increased risk of cardiovascular diseases in the F1 offspring of maternal obesity and malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Y Y; Tawfik, S H; Haiba, M M; Saad, M I; Hanafi, M Y; Abdelkhalek, T M; Oriquat, G A; Kamel, M A

    2017-06-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the changes in levels of different independent risk factors for vascular diseases in the rat offspring of maternal obesity and malnutrition as maternal health disturbances are thought to have direct consequences on the offspring health. The effect of postnatal diet on the offspring was also assessed. Three groups of female Wistar rats were used (control, obese and malnourished). After the pregnancy and delivery, the offspring were weaned to control diet or high-caloric (HCD) diet and followed up for 30 weeks. Every 5 weeks postnatal, 20 pups (10 males and 10 females) of each subgroup were sacrificed after overnight fasting, the blood sample was obtained, and the rats were dissected out to obtain heart muscle. The following parameters were assessed; lipid profile, NEFA, homocysteine (Hcy), nitric oxide end product (NOx) and myocardial triglyceride content. Maternal obesity and malnutrition caused significant elevation in the body weight, triglycerides, NEFA, Hcy and NOx in the F1 offspring especially those maintained under HCD. Also, the male offspring showed more prominent changes than female offspring. Maternal malnutrition and obesity may increase the risk of the development of cardiovascular diseases in the offspring, especially the male ones.

  13. A Blueprint for Pharmacy Benefit Managers to Increase Value

    OpenAIRE

    Shrank, William H.; Porter, Michael E.; Jain, Sachin H.; Choudhry, Niteesh K.

    2009-01-01

    Pharmacy benefit managers (PBMs) have a unique opportunity to promote health and generate value in the healthcare system. Today, PBMs are largely evaluated on their ability to control costs rather than improve health. Pharmacy benefit managers should be evaluated along 3 dimensions in which they can increase value: (1) use of cost-effective medications, (2) timely initiation of appropriate medication therapy, and (3) adherence to that therapy. Value creation requires the development of integr...

  14. Gender-specific increase in susceptibility to metabolic syndrome of offspring rats after prenatal caffeine exposure with post-weaning high-fat diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jing [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Luo, Hanwen [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wu, Yimeng; He, Zheng; Zhang, Li; Guo, Yu [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Ma, Lu [Department of Epidemiology & Health Statistics, Public Health School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Magdalou, Jacques [UMR 7561 CNRS-NancyUniversité, Faculté de Médicine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Chen, Liaobin [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Disease, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Disease, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2015-05-01

    Prenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) alters the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolic programming and induces an increased susceptibility to metabolic syndrome (MS) in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) offspring rats. High-fat diet (HFD) is one of the main environmental factors accounting for the incidence of MS. In this study, we aimed to clarify the gender-specific increase in susceptibility to MS in offspring rats after PCE with post-weaning HFD. Maternal Wistar rats were administered with caffeine (120 mg/kg·d) from gestational day 11 until delivery. The offspring rats with normal diet or HFD were euthanized at postnatal week 24, and blood samples were collected. Results showed that PCE not only reduced serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone levels, but also enhanced serum glucose, triglyceride and total cholesterol (TCH) concentrations in the offspring rats. Moreover, several interactions among PCE, HFD and gender were observed by a three-way ANOVA analysis. In PCE offspring, HFD could aggravate the degree of increased serum triglyceride level. Meanwhile, serum corticosterone levels of females were decreased more obviously than those of males in PCE offspring. The results also revealed interactions between HFD and gender in the levels of serum ACTH, triglyceride and TCH, which were changed more evidently in female HFD offspring. These results indicate that HFD could exacerbate the dysfunction of lipid metabolism and the susceptibility to MS induced by PCE, and the female offspring are more sensitive to HFD-induced neuroendocrine metabolic dysfunction than their male counterparts. - Highlights: • Caffeine induced HPA axis dysfunction in offspring rats fed by high-fat diet (HFD). • Caffeine induced an increased susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. • HFD aggravated susceptibility to metabolic syndrome induced by caffeine. • Female was more sensitive to HFD-induced neuroendocrine

  15. Gender-specific increase in susceptibility to metabolic syndrome of offspring rats after prenatal caffeine exposure with post-weaning high-fat diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jing; Luo, Hanwen; Wu, Yimeng; He, Zheng; Zhang, Li; Guo, Yu; Ma, Lu; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) alters the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolic programming and induces an increased susceptibility to metabolic syndrome (MS) in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) offspring rats. High-fat diet (HFD) is one of the main environmental factors accounting for the incidence of MS. In this study, we aimed to clarify the gender-specific increase in susceptibility to MS in offspring rats after PCE with post-weaning HFD. Maternal Wistar rats were administered with caffeine (120 mg/kg·d) from gestational day 11 until delivery. The offspring rats with normal diet or HFD were euthanized at postnatal week 24, and blood samples were collected. Results showed that PCE not only reduced serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone levels, but also enhanced serum glucose, triglyceride and total cholesterol (TCH) concentrations in the offspring rats. Moreover, several interactions among PCE, HFD and gender were observed by a three-way ANOVA analysis. In PCE offspring, HFD could aggravate the degree of increased serum triglyceride level. Meanwhile, serum corticosterone levels of females were decreased more obviously than those of males in PCE offspring. The results also revealed interactions between HFD and gender in the levels of serum ACTH, triglyceride and TCH, which were changed more evidently in female HFD offspring. These results indicate that HFD could exacerbate the dysfunction of lipid metabolism and the susceptibility to MS induced by PCE, and the female offspring are more sensitive to HFD-induced neuroendocrine metabolic dysfunction than their male counterparts. - Highlights: • Caffeine induced HPA axis dysfunction in offspring rats fed by high-fat diet (HFD). • Caffeine induced an increased susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. • HFD aggravated susceptibility to metabolic syndrome induced by caffeine. • Female was more sensitive to HFD-induced neuroendocrine

  16. Maternal Exercise during Pregnancy Increases BDNF Levels and Cell Numbers in the Hippocampal Formation but Not in the Cerebral Cortex of Adult Rat Offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Gomes da Silva

    Full Text Available Clinical evidence has shown that physical exercise during pregnancy may alter brain development and improve cognitive function of offspring. However, the mechanisms through which maternal exercise might promote such effects are not well understood. The present study examined levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and absolute cell numbers in the hippocampal formation and cerebral cortex of rat pups born from mothers exercised during pregnancy. Additionally, we evaluated the cognitive abilities of adult offspring in different behavioral paradigms (exploratory activity and habituation in open field tests, spatial memory in a water maze test, and aversive memory in a step-down inhibitory avoidance task. Results showed that maternal exercise during pregnancy increased BDNF levels and absolute numbers of neuronal and non-neuronal cells in the hippocampal formation of offspring. No differences in BDNF levels or cell numbers were detected in the cerebral cortex. It was also observed that offspring from exercised mothers exhibited better cognitive performance in nonassociative (habituation and associative (spatial learning mnemonic tasks than did offspring from sedentary mothers. Our findings indicate that maternal exercise during pregnancy enhances offspring cognitive function (habituation behavior and spatial learning and increases BDNF levels and cell numbers in the hippocampal formation of offspring.

  17. Maternal obesity programs reduced leptin signaling in the pituitary and altered GH/IGF1 axis function leading to increased adiposity in adult sheep offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuersunjiang, Nuermaimaiti; Odhiambo, John F; Shasa, Desiree R; Smith, Ashley M; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Ford, Stephen P

    2017-01-01

    Studies in rodents highlight a role for leptin in stimulation of pituitary growth hormone (GH) secretion, with an impact on body composition regulation. We have reported that maternal obesity (MO) during ovine pregnancy results in hyperphagia, glucose-insulin dysregulation, increased adiposity, hypercortisolemia and hyperleptinemia in mature offspring subjected to a bout of ad libitum feeding. We hypothesized that MO reduces leptin signaling in the pituitary and down regulates the GH/IGF1 axis and increases circulating cortisol leading to increased adiposity in their adult offspring. Male lambs born to MO (n = 6) or control (CON, n = 6) ewes were fed only to requirements until placed on a 12 week ad libitum feeding trial at maturity. The pituitary, hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, and liver were collected at necropsy and mRNA and protein expression determined. Plasma cortisol concentrations were increased (P<0.05) in MO vs. CON offspring at the end of the feeding trial. Further, serum concentrations of IGF1 decreased (P<0.01) and GH tended to decrease (P<0.08) in MO vs. CON offspring. Pituitary mRNA and leptin receptor protein expression were decreased in MO vs. CON offspring in association with decreased GH mRNA expression, and decreased IGF1 mRNA and protein expression in liver. Liver 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11βHSD1) expression was increased (P<0.01) and its cofactor hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase tended to increase (P<0.06) in MO vs. CON offspring. 11βHSD2 expression remained unchanged. These data indicate that MO induced an increase in liver conversion of cortisone to cortisol in adult offspring and support a role for leptin signaling in the pituitary in mediating offspring adiposity.

  18. Increasing HPV vaccination through policy for public health benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Heather M; Pierce, Jennifer Young; Crary, Ashley

    2016-06-02

    Vaccines against specific types of human papillomavirus (HPV) linked to cancer and other diseases have been met with mixed acceptance globally and in the United States. Policy-level interventions have been shown to be effective in increasing public health benefit. Government policies and mandates may result in improved HPV vaccination coverage and reduced disease burden, and alternative policies that improve unhindered access to HPV vaccination may allow success as well. The purpose of this commentary is to summarize policy efforts to maximize the public health benefit of HPV vaccination. We examine selected examples of HPV vaccination policy in global contexts and in the United States.

  19. A blueprint for pharmacy benefit managers to increase value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrank, William H; Porter, Michael E; Jain, Sachin H; Choudhry, Niteesh K

    2009-02-01

    Pharmacy benefit managers (PBMs) have a unique opportunity to promote health and generate value in the healthcare system. Today, PBMs are largely evaluated on their ability to control costs rather than improve health. Pharmacy benefit managers should be evaluated along 3 dimensions in which they can increase value: (1) use of cost-effective medications, (2) timely initiation of appropriate medication therapy, and (3) adherence to that therapy. Value creation requires the development of integrated data systems, stronger partnerships with patients and physicians, and improved measurement and reporting of results. Incentives for PBMs to promote value should drive innovation and improve health outcomes.

  20. Diabetes mellitus during pregnancy and increased risk of schizophrenia in offspring: a review of the evidence and putative mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lieshout, Ryan J; Voruganti, Lakshmi P

    2008-09-01

    To identify converging themes from the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia and the pathophysiology of diabetic pregnancy and to examine mechanisms by which diabetes mellitus in a pregnant mother may increase the risk of schizophrenia in offspring. We reviewed relevant publications on clinical, epidemiologic and animal studies of diabetic pregnancy and the neurodevelopmental aspects of schizophrenia. Epidemiologic studies have shown that the offspring of mothers who experienced diabetes mellitus during their pregnancies are 7 times more likely to develop schizophrenia, compared with those who were not exposed to diabetic pregnancy. Maternal hyperglycemia during pregnancy could predispose to schizophrenia in adult life through at least 3 prenatal mechanisms: hypoxia, oxidative stress and increased inflammation. Hyperglycemia increases oxidative stress, alters lipid metabolism, affects mitochondrial structure, causes derangements in neural cell processes and neuronal architecture and results in premature specialization before neural tube closure. The molecular mechanisms underlying these processes include the generation of excess oxyradicals and lipid peroxide intermediates as well as reductions in levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids that are known to cause increased dopaminergic and lowered gamma-aminobutyric acidergic activity. The combination of hyperglycemia and hypoxia in pregnancy also leads to altered immune function including increased tumour necrosis factor-alpha, C-reactive protein and upregulation of other proinflammatory cytokines. Finally, maternal hyperglycemia could have a lasting impact on fetal cellular physiology, resulting in increased vulnerability to stress and predisposition to schizophrenia via a mechanism known as programming. These prenatal events can also result in obstetric complications such as fetal growth abnormalities and increased susceptibility to prenatal infection, all of which are associated with a spectrum of

  1. Increasing HPV vaccination through policy for public health benefit

    OpenAIRE

    Brandt, Heather M.; Pierce, Jennifer Young; Crary, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines against specific types of human papillomavirus (HPV) linked to cancer and other diseases have been met with mixed acceptance globally and in the United States. Policy-level interventions have been shown to be effective in increasing public health benefit. Government policies and mandates may result in improved HPV vaccination coverage and reduced disease burden, and alternative policies that improve unhindered access to HPV vaccination may allow success as well. The purpose of this c...

  2. Maternal Psychosocial Stress Associates With Increased Risk of Asthma Development in Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Maria C; Wright, Rosalind J; Røysamb, Espen; Parr, Christine L; Karlstad, Øystein; Page, Christian M; Nafstad, Per; Håberg, Siri E; London, Stephanie J; Nystad, Wenche

    2017-12-13

    Prenatal maternal psychosocial stress might influence childhood asthma development. Evaluating paternal psychosocial stress and conducting a sibling comparison could provide further insight into the role of unmeasured confounding. We examined the associations of parental psychosocial stress during and after pregnancy with asthma at 7 years in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (n = 63,626). Measures of psychosocial stress included lifetime major depressive symptoms, current anxiety/depression symptoms, use of antidepressants, anxiolytics and/or hypnotics, life satisfaction, relationship satisfaction, work stress and social support. Childhood asthma was associated with maternal lifetime major depressive symptoms, adjusted relative risk (aRR) = 1.19 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.30), in addition to symptoms of anxiety/depression during pregnancy, aRR = 1.17 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.29), and 6 months after delivery, aRR = 1.17 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.28). Maternal negative life events during pregnancy, aRR = 1.10 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.13), and 6 months after delivery, aRR = 1.14 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.18), were also associated with asthma. These associations were not replicated when evaluated within sibling groups. There were no associations with paternal psychosocial stress. In conclusion, maternal anxiety/depression and negative life events was associated with offspring asthma, but this might be explained by unmeasured maternal background characteristics that remain stable across deliveries. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

  3. Brood parasitism increases provisioning rate, and reduces offspring recruitment and adult return rates, in a cowbird host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Jeffrey P; Reetz, Matthew J

    2006-08-01

    Interspecific brood parasitism in birds presents a special problem for the host because the parasitic offspring exploit their foster parents, causing them to invest more energy in their current reproductive effort. Nestling brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) are a burden to relatively small hosts and may reduce fledgling quality and adult survival. We documented food-provisioning rates of one small host, the prothonotary warbler (Protonotaria citrea), at broods that were similar in age (containing nestlings 8-9 days old), but that varied in composition (number of warbler and cowbird nestlings) and mass, and measured the effect of brood parasitism on offspring recruitment and adult returns in the host. The rate of food provisioning increased with brood mass, and males and females contributed equally to feeding nestlings. Controlling for brood mass, the provisioning rate was higher for nests with cowbirds than those without. Recruitment of warbler fledglings from unparasitized nests was 1.6 and 3.7 times higher than that of fledglings from nests containing one or two cowbirds, respectively. Returns of double-brooded adult male and female warblers decreased with an increase in the number of cowbirds raised, but the decrease was more pronounced in males. Reduced returns of warbler adults and recruitment of warbler fledglings with increased cowbird parasitism was likely a result of reduced survival. Cowbird parasitism increased the warblers' investment in current reproductive effort, while exerting additional costs to current reproduction and residual reproductive value. Our study provides the strongest evidence to date for negative effects of cowbird parasitism on recruitment of host fledglings and survival of host adults.

  4. Prenatal exposure to dexamethasone in the mouse alters cardiac growth patterns and increases pulse pressure in aged male offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee O'Sullivan

    Full Text Available Exposure to synthetic glucocorticoids during development can result in later cardiovascular and renal disease in sheep and rats. Although prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is associated with impaired renal development, less is known about effects on the developing heart. This study aimed to examine the effects of a short-term exposure to dexamethasone (60 hours from embryonic day 12.5 on the developing mouse heart, and cardiovascular function in adult male offspring. Dexamethasone (DEX exposed fetuses were growth restricted compared to saline treated controls (SAL at E14.5, but there was no difference between groups at E17.5. Heart weights of the DEX fetuses also tended to be smaller at E14.5, but not different at E17.5. Cardiac AT1aR, Bax, and IGF-1 mRNA expression was significantly increased by DEX compared to SAL at E17.5. In 12-month-old offspring DEX exposure caused an increase in basal blood pressure of ~3 mmHg. In addition, DEX exposed mice had a widened pulse pressure compared to SAL. DEX exposed males at 12 months had an approximate 25% reduction in nephron number compared to SAL, but no difference in cardiomyocyte number. Exposure to DEX in utero appears to adversely impact on nephrogenesis and heart growth but is not associated with a cardiomyocyte deficit in male mice in adulthood, possibly due to compensatory growth of the myocardium following the initial insult. However, the widened pulse pressure may be indicative of altered vascular compliance.

  5. Economic benefits of increased discharge burnup for PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Dingqin

    1991-09-01

    Increased discharge burnup brings a great deal of benefits to the utilities. The total fuel cost and its fraction in different fuel cycle activities have been calculated at different discharge burnup level and given specific conditions by using DQUECO code developed by author himself for the Qinshan NPP1 and Daya Bay NPP on a 12 month cycle. It is also pointed out that increasing burnup from 33.0 GWd/tU to 40.7 GWd/tU for the Daya Bay NPP and increasing burnup from 24.0 GWd/tU to 32.0 GWd/tU for the Qinshan NPP1 are not only technically possible, but also economically beneficial

  6. Maternal androgen excess reduces placental and fetal weights, increases placental steroidogenesis, and leads to long-term health effects in their female offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Miao; Maliqueo, Manuel; Benrick, Anna; Johansson, Julia; Shao, Ruijin; Hou, Lihui; Jansson, Thomas; Wu, Xiaoke; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet

    2012-12-01

    Here, we tested the hypothesis that excess maternal androgen in late pregnancy reduces placental and fetal growth, increases placental steroidogenesis, and adversely affects glucose and lipid metabolism in adult female offspring. Pregnant Wistar rats were randomly assigned to treatment with testosterone (daily injections of 5 mg of free testosterone from gestational days 16 to 19) or vehicle alone. In experiment 1, fetal and placental weights, circulating maternal testosterone, estradiol, and corticosterone levels, and placental protein expression and distribution of estrogen receptor-α and -β, androgen receptor, and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 were determined. In experiment 2, birth weights, postnatal growth rates, circulating testosterone, estradiol, and corticosterone levels, insulin sensitivity, adipocyte size, lipid profiles, and the presence of nonalcoholic fatty liver were assessed in female adult offspring. Treatment with testosterone reduced placental and fetal weights and increased placental expression of all four proteins. The offspring of testosterone-treated dams were born with intrauterine growth restriction; however, at 6 wk of age there was no difference in body weight between the offspring of testosterone- and control-treated rats. At 10-11 wk of age, the offspring of the testosterone-treated dams had less fat mass and smaller adipocyte size than those born to control rats and had no difference in insulin sensitivity. Circulating triglyceride levels were higher in the offspring of testosterone-treated dams, and they developed nonalcoholic fatty liver as adults. We demonstrate for the first time that prenatal testosterone exposure alters placental steroidogenesis and leads to dysregulation of lipid metabolism in their adult female offspring.

  7. Fetal and neonatal exposure to nicotine leads to augmented hepatic and circulating triglycerides in adult male offspring due to increased expression of fatty acid synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Noelle [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); The Lawson Health Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); Nicholson, Catherine J. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University (Canada); Wong, Michael [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); The Lawson Health Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); Holloway, Alison C. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University (Canada); Hardy, Daniel B., E-mail: Daniel.Hardy@schulich.uwo.ca [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); The Children' s Health Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); The Lawson Health Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario (Canada)

    2014-02-15

    While nicotine replacement therapy is assumed to be a safer alternative to smoking during pregnancy, the long-term consequences for the offspring remain elusive. Animal studies now suggest that maternal nicotine exposure during perinatal life leads to a wide range of adverse outcomes for the offspring including increased adiposity. The focus of this study was to investigate if nicotine exposure during pregnancy and lactation leads to alterations in hepatic triglyceride synthesis. Female Wistar rats were randomly assigned to receive daily subcutaneous injections of saline (vehicle) or nicotine bitartrate (1 mg/kg/day) for two weeks prior to mating until weaning. At postnatal day 180 (PND 180), nicotine exposed offspring exhibited significantly elevated levels of circulating and hepatic triglycerides in the male offspring. This was concomitant with increased expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS), the critical hepatic enzyme in de novo triglyceride synthesis. Given that FAS is regulated by the nuclear receptor Liver X receptor (LXRα), we measured LXRα expression in both control and nicotine-exposed offspring. Nicotine exposure during pregnancy and lactation led to an increase in hepatic LXRα protein expression and enriched binding to the putative LXRE element on the FAS promoter in PND 180 male offspring. This was also associated with significantly enhanced acetylation of histone H3 [K9,14] surrounding the FAS promoter, a hallmark of chromatin activation. Collectively, these findings suggest that nicotine exposure during pregnancy and lactation leads to an increase in circulating and hepatic triglycerides long-term via changes in the transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of the hepatic lipogenic pathway. - Highlights: • Our data reveals the links nicotine exposure in utero and long-term hypertriglyceridemia. • It is due to nicotine-induced augmented expression of hepatic FAS and LXRα activity. • Moreover, this involves nicotine-induced enhanced

  8. Perceptual-motor learning benefits from increased stress and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hordacre, Brenton; Immink, Maarten A; Ridding, Michael C; Hillier, Susan

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to manipulate psychological stress and anxiety to investigate effects on ensuing perceptual-motor learning. Thirty-six participants attended two experimental sessions separated by 24h. In the first session, participants were randomized to either a mental arithmetic task known to increase stress and anxiety levels or a control condition and subsequently completed training on a speeded precision pinch task. Learning of the pinch task was assessed at the second session. Those exposed to the high stress-anxiety mental arithmetic task prior to training reported elevated levels of both stress and anxiety and demonstrated shorter movement times and improved retention of movement accuracy and movement variability. Response execution processes appear to benefit from elevated states of stress and anxiety immediately prior to training even when elicited by an unrelated task. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Maternal obesity programs increased leptin gene expression in rat male offspring via epigenetic modifications in a depot-specific manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Lecoutre

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions: Consistent with the DOHaD hypothesis, persistent epigenetic remodeling occurs at regulatory regions especially within intergenic sequences, linked to higher leptin gene expression in adult HF offspring in a depot-specific manner.

  10. Potential Environmental Benefits from Increased Use of Bioenergy in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shuyang; Freedman, Bill; Gao, Jixi

    2007-09-01

    Because of its large population and rapidly growing economy, China is confronting a serious energy shortage and daunting environmental problems. An increased use of fuels derived from biomass could relieve some demand for nonrenewable sources of energy while providing environmental benefits in terms of cleaner air and reduced emissions of greenhouse gases. In 2003, China generated about 25.9 × 108 metric tons of industrial waste (liquid + solid), 14.7 × 108 metric tons/year (t/y) of manure (livestock + human), 7.1 × 108 t/y of crop residues and food-processing byproducts, 2 × 108 t/y of fuelwood and wood manufacturing residues, and 1.5 × 108 t/y of municipal waste. Biofuels derived from these materials could potentially displace the use of about 4.12 × 108 t/y of coal and 3.75 × 106 t/y of petroleum. An increased bioenergy use of this magnitude would help to reduce the emissions of key air pollutants: SO2 by 11.6 × 106 t/y, NOX by 1.48 × 106 t/y, CO2 by 1.07 × 109 t/y, and CH4 by 50 × 106 t/y. The reduced SO2 emissions would be equivalent to 54% of the national emissions in 2003, whereas those for CO2 are 30%. It is important to recognize, however, that large increases in the use of biomass fuels also could result in socioeconomic and environmental problems such as less production of food and damage caused to natural habitats.

  11. Meiotic faults as a major cause of offspring inviability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levitis, Daniel; Zimmerman, Kolea; Pringle, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The extensive literature on the costs and benefits of sexual reproduction often concludes that increased offspring viability is a benefit of sexual reproduction as compared to parthenogenesis. We show that all comparisons contributing to this conclusion involve cases of meiotic parthenogenesis, t...

  12. Direct benefits of mate choice: a meta-analysis of plumage colour and offspring feeding rates in birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegyi, Gergely; Kötél, Dóra; Laczi, Miklós

    2015-10-01

    Mate choice is generally costly to the choosy sex, so fitness benefits must counterbalance these costs. Genetic benefits of choice are widely examined and have received overall support. Direct benefits such as high quality parental care by highly ornamented individuals are widely assumed to be important but are less frequently tested, theoretically debated, and their support in the recent literature is unknown. Furthermore, in taxa where both sexes provide care, the preferential investment of the partner in relation to ornamentation may reduce own investment and modify apparent parental care quality. In a phylogenetically controlled meta-analysis, we collated correlative results from birds concerning parental plumage coloration and the nestling feeding rates of the ornament bearer and its partner. Overall evidence was weak for signalling of parental care quality and somewhat stronger for preferential partner investment. Surprisingly, the sex of the signaller and the type of plumage colour seemed to exert weak effects on the signalling of parental care quality. Finally, there was a group of cases with opposite relationships of care and ornamentation in the two parties. We found that this group arose predominately from preferential partner investment in relation to ornamentation, with concomitant, but weaker, reduction of own investment. We conclude that the effect of partner investment on parental care indication seems system-specific and needs further study.

  13. Maternal Aerobic Exercise during Pregnancy Can Increase Spatial Learning by Affecting Leptin Expression on Offspring's Early and Late Period in Life Depending on Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayi, Ayfer; Agilkaya, Sinem; Ozbal, Seda; Cetin, Ferihan; Aksu, Ilkay; Gencoglu, Celal; Cingoz, Sultan; Pekcetin, Cetın; Tugyan, Kazim; Kayatekin, Berkant Muammer; Uysal, Nazan

    2012-01-01

    Maternal exercise during pregnancy has been suggested to exert beneficial effects on brain functions of the offspring. Leptin is an adipocytokine which is secreted from adipose tissues and has positive effects on learning, memory, and synaptic plasticity. In this study, pregnant rats were moderately exercised and we observed the effects of this aerobic exercise on their prepubertal and adult offsprings' spatial learning, hippocampal neurogenesis, and expression of leptin. All the pups whose mothers exercised during pregnancy learned the platform earlier and spent longer time in the target quadrant. Their thigmotaxis times were shorter than those measured in the control group. It is shown that hippocampal CA1, CA3 neuron numbers increased in both prepubertal and adult pups, in addition that GD neuron numbers increased in adult pups. Leptin receptor expression significantly increased in the prepubertal male, adult male, and adult female pups. In our study, maternal running during pregnancy resulted in significant increase in the expression of leptin receptor but not in prepubertal female pups, enhanced hippocampal cell survival, and improved learning memory capability in prepubertal and adult rat pups, as compared to the control group. In conclusion, maternal exercise during pregnancy may regulate spatial plasticity in the hippocampus of the offspring by increasing the expression of leptin. PMID:23028249

  14. Maternal Aerobic Exercise during Pregnancy Can Increase Spatial Learning by Affecting Leptin Expression on Offspring's Early and Late Period in Life Depending on Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayfer Dayi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal exercise during pregnancy has been suggested to exert beneficial effects on brain functions of the offspring. Leptin is an adipocytokine which is secreted from adipose tissues and has positive effects on learning, memory, and synaptic plasticity. In this study, pregnant rats were moderately exercised and we observed the effects of this aerobic exercise on their prepubertal and adult offsprings' spatial learning, hippocampal neurogenesis, and expression of leptin. All the pups whose mothers exercised during pregnancy learned the platform earlier and spent longer time in the target quadrant. Their thigmotaxis times were shorter than those measured in the control group. It is shown that hippocampal CA1, CA3 neuron numbers increased in both prepubertal and adult pups, in addition that GD neuron numbers increased in adult pups. Leptin receptor expression significantly increased in the prepubertal male, adult male, and adult female pups. In our study, maternal running during pregnancy resulted in significant increase in the expression of leptin receptor but not in prepubertal female pups, enhanced hippocampal cell survival, and improved learning memory capability in prepubertal and adult rat pups, as compared to the control group. In conclusion, maternal exercise during pregnancy may regulate spatial plasticity in the hippocampus of the offspring by increasing the expression of leptin.

  15. Maternal high-salt diet altered PKC/MLC20 pathway and increased ANG II receptor-mediated vasoconstriction in adult male rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weisheng; Lv, Juanxiu; Wu, Jue; Zhou, Xiuwen; Jiang, Lin; Zhu, Xiaolin; Tu, Qing; Tang, Jiaqi; Liu, Yanping; He, Axin; Zhong, Yuan; Xu, Zhice

    2016-07-01

    High-salt diet (HSD) is associated with cardiovascular diseases. This study aims at ascertaining the influence of maternal HSD on offspring's angiotensin II (ANG II)-mediated vasoconstriction and the underlying mechanisms. In comparison to a normal-salt diet, HSD used in pregnancy in rats changed the ultrastructures of the coronary artery (CA) in 5-month-old male offspring, and increased ANG II-mediated CA contractility. Measurement of [Ca(2+) ]i in CA using fluorescent fura-2, a Ca(2+) indicator, showed that ANG II-mediated increases in [Ca(2+) ]i were the same between HSD and normal-salt diet groups, but the ratio of diameter change/[Ca(2+) ]i induced by ANG II were significantly higher in HSD groups. Angiotensin II receptor type 1, not angiotensin II receptor type 2, caused ANG II-mediated vasoconstriction. Protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GF109203X attenuated the ANG II-mediated vasoconstriction, PKC agonist phorbol12,13-dibutyrate produced a greater contraction. There was an increase in PKCβ mRNA and the corresponding protein abundance in the offspring, whereas other PKC subunits PKCα, PKCδ, and PKCε did not change. Moreover, 20 kDa myosin light chain phosphorylation levels were increased in HSD group. Maternal HSD affected the developmental programing for the offspring CA, with increased ANG II-mediated vasoconstrictions. The angiotensin II receptor type 1-PKC-20 kDa myosin light chain phosphorylation pathway was the possible mediated cellular mechanism. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Increased cardiovascular reactivity to acute stress and salt-loading in adult male offspring of fat fed non-obese rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Rudyk

    Full Text Available Diet-induced obesity in rat pregnancy has been shown previously to be associated with consistently raised blood pressure in the offspring, attributed to sympathetic over-activation, but the relative contributions to this phenotype of maternal obesity versus raised dietary fat is unknown. Sprague-Dawley female rats were fed either a control (4.3% fat, n = 11 or lard-enriched (23.6% fat, n = 16 chow 10 days prior to mating, throughout pregnancy and lactation. In conscious adult (9-month-old offspring cardiovascular parameters were measured (radiotelemetry. The short period of fat-feeding did not increase maternal weight versus controls and the baseline blood pressure was similar in offspring of fat fed dams (OF and controls (OC. However, adult male OF showed heightened cardiovascular reactivity to acute restraint stress (p<0.01; Δ systolic blood pressure (SBP and Δheart rate (HR with a prolonged recovery time compared to male OC. α1/β-adrenergic receptor blockade normalised the response. Also, after dietary salt-loading (8%-NaCl ad libitum for 1 week male OF demonstrated higher SBP (p<0.05 in the awake phase (night-time and increased low/high frequency ratio of power spectral density of HR variability versus OC. Baroreflex gain and basal power spectral density components of the heart rate or blood pressure were similar in male OF and OC. Minor abnormalities were evident in female OF. Fat feeding in the absence of maternal obesity in pregnant rats leads to altered sympathetic control of cardiovascular function in adult male offspring, and hypertension in response to stressor stimuli.

  17. Maternal High Fructose Intake Increases the Vulnerability to Post-Weaning High-Fat Diet-Induced Programmed Hypertension in Male Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Lin Tain

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Widespread consumption of high-fructose and high-fat diets relates to the global epidemic of hypertension. Hypertension may originate from early life by a combination of prenatal and postnatal nutritional insults. We examined whether maternal high-fructose diet increases vulnerability to post-weaning high-fructose or high-fat diets induced hypertension in adult offspring and determined the underlying mechanisms. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received regular chow (ND or chow supplemented with 60% fructose (HFR during the entire pregnancy and lactation periods. Male offspring were onto either the regular chow, 60% fructose, or high-fat diet (HFA from weaning to 12 weeks of age and assigned to four groups: ND/ND, HFR/ND, HFR/HFR, and HFR/HFA. Maternal high-fructose diet exacerbates post-weaning high-fat diet-induced programmed hypertension. Post-weaning high-fructose and high-fat diets similarly reduced Sirt4, Prkaa2, Prkag2, Ppara, Pparb, and Ppargc1a mRNA expression in offspring kidneys exposed to maternal high-fructose intake. Additionally, post-weaning high-fat diet significantly reduced renal mRNA levels of Ulk1, Atg5, and Nrf2 and induced greater oxidative stress than did high-fructose diet. Although maternal high-fructose intake increases soluble epoxide hydrolase (SEH expression in the kidney, which was restored by post-weaning high-fructose and high-fat diets. Maternal high-fructose diet programs differential vulnerability to developing hypertension in male offspring in response to post-weaning high-fructose and high-fat diets. Our data implicated that specific therapy targeting on nutrient sensing signals, oxidative stress, and SEH may be a promising approach to prevent hypertension in children and mothers exposed to high-fructose and high-fat consumption.

  18. 20 CFR 226.13 - Cost-of-living increase in employee vested dual benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cost-of-living increase in employee vested... Annuity § 226.13 Cost-of-living increase in employee vested dual benefit. If the employee's annuity begins June 1, 1975 or later, a cost-of-living increase is added to the total vested dual benefit amount. This...

  19. Habitat structure influences parent-offspring association in a social lizard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Botterill-James

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Parental care emerges as a result of an increase in the extent of interaction between parents and their offspring. These interactions can provide the foundation for the evolution of a range of complex parental behaviors. Therefore, fundamental to understanding the evolution of parental care is an understanding of the factors that promote this initial increase in parent-offspring association. Here, we used large outdoor enclosures to test how the spatial structure of high-quality habitat affects the occurrence of parent-offspring associations in a social lizard (Liopholis whitii. We found that the extent of parent-offspring association was higher when high-quality habitat was aggregated relative to when it was dispersed. This may be the result of greater competitive exclusion of adults and offspring from high quality crevices sites in the aggregated treatment compared to the dispersed treatment. Associating with parents had significant benefits for offspring growth and body condition but there were no concomitant effects on offspring survival. We did not find costs of parent-offspring association for parents in terms of increased harassment and loss of body condition. We discuss a number of potential mechanisms underlying these results. Regardless of mechanisms, our results suggest that habitat structure may shape the extent of parent-offspring association in L. whitti, and that highly aggregated habitats may set the stage for the diversification of more complex forms of care observed across closely related species.

  20. Increasing Benefit of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Multiple Sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyhtinen, J.; Karttunen, A.; Tikkakoski, T. [Radiologian Klinikka, Oulu (Finland)

    2006-11-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has emerged as an essential tool of multiple sclerosis (MS) diagnosis and has opened up completely new prospects in MS research and treatment trials. It is a sensitive method that gives direct evidence of tissue pathology and has greatly increased our knowledge of MS. In clinical work, MRI is used to confirm and exclude the diagnosis of MS. The international recommendation is that every suspected MS patient should undergo at least one brain MRI. T2-weighted images are the standard tool in clinical work, and functional imaging methods are mainly used in MS research. The subtypes and the course of the disease cause variation in MRI findings. Here, we present a general overview of MR findings in MS. Brain, magnetic resonance imaging, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord.

  1. Increasing Benefit of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Multiple Sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyhtinen, J.; Karttunen, A.; Tikkakoski, T.

    2006-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has emerged as an essential tool of multiple sclerosis (MS) diagnosis and has opened up completely new prospects in MS research and treatment trials. It is a sensitive method that gives direct evidence of tissue pathology and has greatly increased our knowledge of MS. In clinical work, MRI is used to confirm and exclude the diagnosis of MS. The international recommendation is that every suspected MS patient should undergo at least one brain MRI. T2-weighted images are the standard tool in clinical work, and functional imaging methods are mainly used in MS research. The subtypes and the course of the disease cause variation in MRI findings. Here, we present a general overview of MR findings in MS. Brain, magnetic resonance imaging, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord

  2. MTHFR deficiency or reduced intake of folate or choline in pregnant mice results in impaired short-term memory and increased apoptosis in the hippocampus of wild-type offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadavji, N M; Deng, L; Malysheva, O; Caudill, M A; Rozen, R

    2015-08-06

    Genetic or nutritional disturbances in one-carbon metabolism, with associated hyperhomocysteinemia, can result in complex disorders including pregnancy complications and neuropsychiatric diseases. In earlier work, we showed that mice with a complete deficiency of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), a critical enzyme in folate and homocysteine metabolism, had cognitive impairment with disturbances in choline metabolism. Maternal demands for folate and choline are increased during pregnancy and deficiencies of these nutrients result in several negative outcomes including increased resorption and delayed development. The goal of this study was to investigate the behavioral and neurobiological impact of a maternal genetic deficiency in MTHFR or maternal nutritional deficiency of folate or choline during pregnancy on 3-week-old Mthfr(+/+) offspring. Mthfr(+/+) and Mthfr(+/-) females were placed on control diets (CD); and Mthfr(+/+) females were placed on folate-deficient diets (FD) or choline-deficient diets (ChDD) throughout pregnancy and lactation until their offspring were 3weeks of age. Short-term memory was assessed in offspring, and hippocampal tissue was evaluated for morphological changes, apoptosis, proliferation and choline metabolism. Maternal MTHFR deficiency resulted in short-term memory impairment in offspring. These dams had elevated levels of plasma homocysteine when compared with wild-type dams. There were no differences in plasma homocysteine in offspring. Increased apoptosis and proliferation was observed in the hippocampus of offspring from Mthfr(+/-) mothers. In the maternal FD and ChDD study, offspring also showed short-term memory impairment with increased apoptosis in the hippocampus; increased neurogenesis was observed in ChDD offspring. Choline acetyltransferase protein was increased in the offspring hippocampus of both dietary groups and betaine was decreased in the hippocampus of FD offspring. Our results reveal short-term memory

  3. Interesterified fat or palm oil as substitutes for partially hydrogenated fat during the perinatal period produces changes in the brain fatty acids profile and increases leukocyte-endothelial interactions in the cerebral microcirculation from the male offspring in adult life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misan, Vanessa; Estato, Vanessa; de Velasco, Patricia Coelho; Spreafico, Flavia Brasil; Magri, Tatiana; Dos Santos, Raísa Magno de Araújo Ramos; Fragoso, Thaiza; Souza, Amanda S; Boldarine, Valter Tadeu; Bonomo, Isabela T; Sardinha, Fátima L C; Oyama, Lila M; Tibiriçá, Eduardo; Tavares do Carmo, Maria das Graças

    2015-08-07

    We investigated whether maternal intake of normolipidic diets with distinct fatty acid (FA) compositions alters the lipidic profile and influences the inflammatory status of the adult offsprings׳ brains. C57BL/6 female mice during pregnancy and lactation received diets containing either soybean oil (CG), partially hydrogenated vegetable fat rich in trans-fatty acids (TG), palm oil (PG), or interesterified fat (IG). After weaning, male offspring from all groups received control diet. The FA profile was measured in the offspring׳s brains at post-natal days 21 and 90. Brain functional capillary density as well as leukocyte-endothelial interactions in the cerebral post-capillary venules was assessed by intravital fluorescence microscopy at post-natal day 90. Inflammation signaling was evaluated through toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) content in brain of the adult offspring. In the 21-day old offspring, the brains of the TG showed higher levels of trans FA and reduced levels of linoleic acid (LA) and total n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). At post-natal day 90, TG and IG groups showed reduced levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and total n-3 PUFA tended to be lower compared to CG. The offspring׳s brains exhibited an altered microcirculation with increased leukocyte rolling in groups TG, PG and IG and in TG group increased leukocyte adhesion. The TLR4 content of TG, IG and PG groups only tended to increase (23%; 20% and 35%, respectively). Maternal consumption of trans FA, palm oil or interesterified fat during pregnancy and lactation can trigger the initial steps of inflammatory pathways in the brain of offspring in adulthood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Programming Body Composition in Offspring by Maternal Obesity Is Associated with Increased Adipogenesis and Decreased WNT/ Beta-Catenin Signaling in the Adipose Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal obesity during pregnancy significantly influences the risk of obesity in the offspring. We recently demonstrated that maternal obesity at conception programs obesity in the offspring. Obese dam offspring when weaned on high-fat diets gain significantly greater body weight/adiposity (via NMR...

  5. Risk of adolescent offspring's completed suicide increases with prior history of their same-sex parents' death by suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, C-C J; Yen, W-J; Chang, W-T; Wu, K C-C; Ko, M-C; Li, C-Y

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the risk of completed suicide in offspring during adolescence in relation to prior history of the same-sex parent's death by suicide and other causes. A total of 500 adolescents who died by suicide at age 15-19 years between 1997 and 2007 were identified from the Taiwan Mortality Registration (TMR). For each case, 30 age- and time-matched controls were selected randomly from all adolescents registered in the Taiwan Birth Registry (TBR). A multivariate conditional logistic regression model was used to assess the risk of adolescent completed suicide in relation to their same-sex parent. Adolescent suicide risk was positively associated with both paternal [odds ratio (OR) 5.38, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.17-13.33] and maternal suicide (OR 6.59, 95% CI 1.82-23.91). The corresponding risk estimates associated with paternal and maternal deaths from non-suicidal causes were much lower, at 1.88 and 1.94 respectively. The risk of suicide in male adolescents was significantly associated with prior history of paternal death by suicide (OR 8.23, 95% CI 2.96-22.90) but not of maternal death by suicide (OR 3.50, 95% CI 0.41-30.13). On the other contrary, the risk of suicidal death in female adolescents was significantly associated with prior history of maternal suicide (OR 9.71, 95% CI 1.89-49.94) but not of paternal suicide (OR 2.42, 95% CI 0.30-19.57). However, these differences did not reach statistical significance. Although limited by sample size, our study indicates that adolescent offspring suicidal death is associated with prior history of their same-sex parent's death by suicide.

  6. Convenience of providing employee benefits compared to increase of gross wages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Duda

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Using tax allowances when providing contributions for life insurance, pension insurance and food, employers significantly decrease their costs in comparison with the traditional increase of wages of employees (the saves range in several hundreds of crowns per one employee. These benefits are more profitable than increase of wages for employees, as well. The paper analyses and mathematically reasons these financial benefits, and compares advantages of employee benefits and wage increase.A disadvantage for employees is that these financial means (contributions for pension and life insurance can not be immediately used for their needs, and are bound with the negotiated types of insurance. This is, perhaps, also the reason why employees of selected firms preferred wage increase before employee-benefits. The above-mentioned employee benefits can become an important factor of stabilisation of current employees, or acquiring new, needed employees. The paper briefly characterises these employee benefits.

  7. Increasing Enrollment by Better Serving Your Institution's Target Audiences through Benefit Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodnow, Betsy

    The marketing technique of benefit segmentation may be effective in increasing enrollment in adult educational programs, according to a study at College of DuPage, Glen Ellyn, Illinois. The study was conducted to test applicability of benefit segmentation to enrollment generation. The measuring instrument used in this study--the course improvement…

  8. Increased maternal Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) associated with older age at diagnosis of Type 1 diabetes in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech, N J; O'Sullivan, J; Avery, P; Howey, C; Burling, K; Iyer, S; Pascoe, L; Walker, M; Cheetham, T

    2010-12-01

    Obesity and insulin resistance have been linked to rising incidence and earlier onset of Type 1 diabetes. Inherited differences in insulin action might also influence the evolution of Type 1 diabetes.Our aim was to determine whether parental BMI and insulin resistance influences age of onset of Type 1 diabetes in their offspring. BMI standard deviation score and age at diagnosis of Type 1 diabetes was examined in 227 children, and in 206 of these was compared with local matched control subjects. Non-diabetic parents of a subgroup of 80 children with Type 1 diabetes were recruited. Parental BMI was compared with local adult control subjects. The relationship between parental BMI, waist-hip ratio, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), leptin and adiponectin levels and age at diagnosis of Type 1 diabetes in offspring was examined. We found no relationship between age at diagnosis of Type 1 diabetes in children and BMI standard deviation score (P = 0.5). Children with Type 1 diabetes and their parents were heavier than matched control subjects (mean BMI standard deviation score sd in children = 0.66 1.06 vs. 0.32 1.16 in control subjects, P = 0.002; mean parental BMI sd 27.7 0.4 vs. 25.5 0.4 kg ⁄m2 in control subjects; P HOMA-IR accounted for 20% of variation in age at diagnosis (P < 0.001) with increasing maternal insulin resistance associated with later age at diagnosis of Type 1 diabetes. Childrenwith Type 1 diabetes and their parents have an increased BMI at diagnosis.Maternal insulin resistance is associated with later onset of Type 1 diabetes in children.

  9. Offspring Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric T. Steiner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Parental aggression, that is, offspring protection aggression, can be viewed as a type of parental investment. Most mammalian males do not exhibit parental investment and therefore exhibit little, if any, parental aggression. Men demonstrate parental investment, and are typically more physically aggressive than women, but parental physical aggression in humans has been largely unexplored. The current study examined potential sex differences in estimates of parental physical aggression involving hypothetical situations, while controlling for general physical aggression. A self-report measure was administered to 217 students from a western U.S. university (55 male nonparents, 50 female nonparents, 54 fathers, and 58 mothers. Male nonparents reported higher parental physical aggression than female nonparents, but there was no difference between mothers and fathers. The results are interpreted in light of ancestral effects of sexual selection and proximal effects of sex differences in testosterone, risk taking, and fear aversion.

  10. Maternal treatment with agonistic autoantibodies against type-1 angiotensin II receptor in late pregnancy increases apoptosis of myocardial cells and myocardial susceptibility to ischemia-reperfusion injury in offspring rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhu; Zhang, Wenhui; Yang, Hailiang; Wang, Xiaofang; Zheng, Yanqian; Zhang, Qiaoyan; Zhi, Jianming

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that offspring born to mothers preeclampsia (PE) are at increased risk for developing cardiovascular diseases after birth, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Angiotensin II receptor type 1 autoantibody (AT1-AA), an agonist acting via activation of the AT1 receptor, is believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of both PE and fetal growth restriction. The aim of the present study was to confirm the hypothesis that prenatal AT1-AA exposure increases the heart susceptibility to ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) in the offspring in an AT1-AA-induced animal model of PE, and determine whether or not the increase of maternal AT1-AA level is a factor contributing to sustained abnormalities of the heart structure during infancy. The hearts of 45-day-old offspring rats were studied using Langendorff preparation to determine the susceptibility of the heart to IRI. The results showed that the body weight of the maternal rats was not significantly different between the study and control groups, but the body weight of their offspring in AT1-AA group was decreased slightly at day 21 of gestational age, and at day 3 after birth. Although the heart weight index was not significantly affected at all ages examined, AT1-AA significantly increased the size of myocardial cells of the left ventricle (LV) at the age of 45 days. AT1-AA gained access to fetal circulation via the placenta and induced apoptosis of fetal myocardial cells. AT1-AA also significantly delayed recovery from IRI and affected the LV function of 45-day-old offspring. This was associated with a significant increase in IRI-induced LV myocardial infarct size. These results suggest that AT1-AA induced abnormal apoptosis of fetal myocardial cells during the fetal period and increased the cardiac susceptibility to IRI in adult offspring.

  11. Maternal Caloric Restriction Implemented during the Preconceptional and Pregnancy Period Alters Hypothalamic and Hippocampal Endocannabinoid Levels at Birth and Induces Overweight and Increased Adiposity at Adulthood in Male Rat Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-López, María Teresa; Vázquez, Mariam; Bindila, Laura; Lomazzo, Ermelinda; Hofmann, Clementine; Blanco, Rosarío Noemí; Alén, Francisco; Antón, María; Decara, Juan; Arco, Rocío; Ouro, Daniel; Orio, Laura; Suárez, Juan; Lutz, Beat; Gómez de Heras, Raquel; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to inadequate nutritional conditions in critical windows of development has been associated to disturbances on metabolism and behavior in the offspring later in life. The role of the endocannabinoid system, a known regulator of energy expenditure and adaptive behaviors, in the modulation of these processes is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the impact of exposing rat dams to diet restriction (20% less calories than standard diet) during pre-gestational and gestational periods on: (a) neonatal outcomes; (b) endocannabinoid content in hypothalamus, hippocampus and olfactory bulb at birth; (c) metabolism-related parameters; and (d) behavior in adult male offspring. We found that calorie-restricted dams tended to have a reduced litter size, although the offspring showed normal weight at birth. Pups from calorie-restricted dams also exhibited a strong decrease in the levels of anandamide (AEA), 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), arachidonic acid (AA) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) in the hypothalamus at birth. Additionally, pups from diet-restricted dams displayed reduced levels of AEA in the hippocampus without significant differences in the olfactory bulb. Moreover, offspring exhibited increased weight gain, body weight and adiposity in adulthood as well as increased anxiety-related responses. We propose that endocannabinoid signaling is altered by a maternal caloric restriction implemented during the preconceptional and pregnancy periods, which might lead to modifications of the hypothalamic and hippocampal circuits, potentially contributing to the long-term effects found in the adult offspring.

  12. Loss of offspring Peg3 reduces neonatal ultrasonic vocalizations and increases maternal anxiety in wild-type mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, G I; Creeth, H D J; Harrison, D J; Tansey, K E; Andrews, R M; Isles, A R; John, R M

    2018-02-01

    Depression and anxiety are the most common mental health conditions during pregnancy and can impair the normal development of mother-infant interactions. These adversities are associated with low birth weight and increased risk of behavioural disorders in children. We recently reported reduced expression of the imprinted gene PATERNALLY EXPRESSED GENE 3 (PEG3) in placenta of human infants born to depressed mothers. Expression of Peg3 in the brain has previously been linked maternal behaviour in rodents, at least in some studies, with mutant dams neglecting their pups. However, in our human study decreased expression was in the placenta derived from the fetus. Here, we examined maternal behaviour in response to reduced expression of Peg3 in the feto-placental unit. Prenatally we found novelty reactivity was altered in wild-type females carrying litters with a null mutation in Peg3. This behavioural alteration was short-lived and there were no significant differences the transcriptomes of either the maternal hypothalamus or hippocampus at E16.5. In contrast, while maternal gross maternal care was intact postnatally, the exposed dams were significantly slower to retrieve their pups and displayed a marked increase in anxiety. We also observed a significant reduction in the isolation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) emitted by mutant pups separated from their mothers. USVs are a form of communication known to elicit maternal care suggesting Peg3 mutant pups drive the deficit in maternal behaviour. These data support the hypothesis that reduced placental PEG3 in human pregnancies occurs as a consequence of prenatal depression but leaves scope for feto-placental Peg3 dosage, during gestation, influencing aspects of maternal behaviour. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  13. New Metrics for Evaluating Technical Benefits and Risks of DGs Increasing Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akbari, Mohammad Amin; Aghaei, Jamshid; Barani, Mostafa

    2017-01-01

    Increasing penetration of distributed generation (DG), may be interesting from several points of view, but it raises important challenges about distribution system operation and planning practices. To optimal allocation of DG, which play an important role in construction of microgrids, the benefits...... and risks should be qualified and quantified. This paper introduces several probabilistic indices to evaluate the potential operational effects of increasing penetration of renewable DG units such as wind power and photovoltaic on rural distribution network with the aid of evaluating technical benefits...

  14. Private forests, public benefits: increased housing density and other pressures on private forest contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald E. McRoberts; Lisa G. Mahal; Mary A. Carr; Ralph J. Alig; Sara J. Comas; David M. Theobald; Amanda. Cundiff

    2009-01-01

    Over half (56 percent) of America’s forests are privately owned and managed and provide a vast array of public goods and services, such as clean water, timber, wildlife habitat, and recreational opportunities. These important public benefits are being affected by increased housing density in urban as well as rural areas across the country. The Forests on the Edge...

  15. Rising Tide II: Do Black Students Benefit as Grad Rates Increase?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Andrew Howard; Eberle-Sudré, Kimberlee; Welch, Meredith

    2016-01-01

    "Rising Tide II: Do Black Students Benefit as Grad Rates Increase?" looks at a decade of graduation rates for African American students at four-year, public institutions that improved student success during the past decade. It shows that while a majority (almost 70 percent) of institutions we examined improved graduation rates for black…

  16. REFORMS IN TAX-BENEFIT SYSTEMS IN ORDER TO INCREASE EMPLOYMENT INCENTIVES IN THE EU

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Carone; Aino Salomaki

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the role of tax and benefit systems in the context of the functioning of the labour markets and review recent progress made by EU Member States in reforming tax and benefit systems with a view to increasing economic incentives for higher employment and job creation. On the basis of the most recent comparable data and indicators, we try to assess whether concrete measures are being taken by Member States to alleviate the tax pressure on labour and especially on the low...

  17. Metformin use in PCOS pregnancies increases the risk of offspring overweight at 4 years of age; follow-up of two RCTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engen Hanem, Liv Guro; Stridsklev, Solhild; Júlíusson, Pétur B; Salvesen, Øyvind; Roelants, Mathieu; Carlsen, Sven M; Ødegård, Rønnaug; Vanky, Eszter

    2018-02-27

    Metformin is used in pregnancy in women with gestational diabetes mellitus, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and obesity. Metformin passes the placenta. To explore the effects of metformin use in PCOS pregnancies on offspring growth to 4 years of age. Follow-up study of two randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trials. Secondary care centers. Eleven public hospitals in Norway. 182 children of mothers with PCOS who participated in two RCTs. Metformin 1700 or 2000 mg daily or placebo from 1st trimester to delivery in the original studies. No intervention in the present study. Height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and overweight/obesity at 4 years of age, and head circumference at 1 year of age, converted to z-scores. The difference in height z-score means between the groups at 4 years of age was non-significant (95% CI): 0.07 (-0.22 to 0.36), p=0.651. At 4 years of age, the metformin group had higher weight z-score than the placebo group; difference in means 0.38 (0.07 to 0.69), p=0.017, and higher BMI z-score; difference in means 0.45 (0.11 to 0.78), p=0.010. There were more overweight/obese children in the metformin group; 26 (32%) than in the placebo group; 14 (18%) at 4 years of age; odds ratio (95% CI): 2.17 (1.04 to 4.61), p=0.038. The difference in mean head circumference z-score at 1 year of age was: 0.27 (-0.04 to 0.58), p=0.093. Metformin exposed children had higher BMI and increased prevalence of overweight/obesity at 4 years of age.

  18. Maternal Exercise during Pregnancy Increases BDNF Levels and Cell Numbers in the Hippocampal Formation but Not in the Cerebral Cortex of Adult Rat Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes da Silva, Sérgio; de Almeida, Alexandre Aparecido; Fernandes, Jansen; Lopim, Glauber Menezes; Cabral, Francisco Romero; Scerni, Débora Amado; de Oliveira-Pinto, Ana Virgínia; Lent, Roberto; Arida, Ricardo Mario

    2016-01-01

    Clinical evidence has shown that physical exercise during pregnancy may alter brain development and improve cognitive function of offspring. However, the mechanisms through which maternal exercise might promote such effects are not well understood. The present study examined levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and absolute cell…

  19. Increased disease calls for a cost-benefits review of marine reserves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma C Wootton

    Full Text Available Marine reserves (or No-Take Zones are implemented to protect species and habitats, with the aim of restoring a balanced ecosystem. Although the benefits of marine reserves are commonly monitored, there is a lack of insight into the potential detriments of such highly protected waters. High population densities attained within reserves may induce negative impacts such as unfavourable trophic cascades and disease outbreaks. Hence, we investigated the health of lobster populations in the UK's Marine Conservation Zone (MCZ at Lundy Island. Comparisons were made between the fished, Refuge Zone (RZ and the un-fished, No-Take Zone (NTZ; marine reserve. We show ostensibly positive effects such as increased lobster abundance and size within the NTZ; however, we also demonstrate apparent negative effects such as increased injury and shell disease. Our findings suggest that robust cost-benefit analyses of marine reserves could improve marine reserve efficacy and subsequent management strategies.

  20. ANALYSIS BENEFIT COST RATIO OF BIOCHAR IN AGRICULTURE LAND TO INCREASE INCOME HOUSEHOLD IN MERAUKE REGENCY

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Magdalena Diana Widiastuti

    2016-01-01

    Biochar has been proven to increase the availability of soil nutrient, yield productivity and farmers income. Biochar can be made from forestry/agricultural waste and do not required high technology. The objective of this study were: (1) to analyze Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR) of biochar made from rice husk, (2) to compare yield productivity of paddy with biochar treatment, and (3) to analyze of paddy farming system with biochar treatment. The methodology by using BCR and productivity approa...

  1. Benefits to the United States of Increasing Global Uptake of Clean Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, D.

    2010-07-01

    A previous report describes an opportunity for the United States to take leadership in efforts to transform the global energy system toward clean energy technologies (CET). An accompanying analysis to that report provides estimates of the economic benefits to the United States of such a global transformation on the order of several hundred billion dollars per year by 2050. This report describes the methods and assumptions used in developing those benefit estimates. It begins with a summary of the results of the analysis based on an updated and refined model completed since the publication of the previous report. The framework described can be used to estimate the economic benefits to the U.S. of coordinated global action to increase the uptake of CETs worldwide. Together with a Monte Carlo simulation engine, the framework can be used to develop plausible ranges for benefits, taking into account the large uncertainty in the driving variables and economic parameters. The resulting estimates illustrate that larger global clean energy markets offer significant opportunities to the United States economy.

  2. Screening Men at Increased Risk for Prostate Cancer Diagnosis: Model Estimates of Benefits and Harms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Roman; Cheng, Heather H; Lange, Paul H; Nelson, Peter S; Etzioni, Ruth

    2017-02-01

    Guidelines for PSA screening in subgroups with increased risk of prostate cancer diagnosis due to race or genotype are underdeveloped. Our goal was to investigate types of increased prostate cancer risk and implications for targeted screening. We investigated computer simulation of subgroups with average and hypothetical increased risk(s) of onset of latent disease, progression, and/or cancer-specific death. For each subgroup, we predicted lifetime probabilities of overdiagnosis and life saved under more and less intensive PSA screening strategies. An application estimated risks of onset among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers in the Identification of Men with a genetic predisposition to ProstAte Cancer: Targeted screening in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and controls (IMPACT) study using maximum likelihood. Our simulations implied PSA screening can save more lives among subgroups with increased risk than with average risk, but more intensive screening did not always improve harm-benefit trade-offs. IMPACT data were consistent with increased risks of onset among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers [HR = 1.05; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.63-1.59 and HR = 1.81; 95% CI, 1.14-2.78, respectively]. Our analysis suggests screening BRCA2 mutation carriers earlier and more frequently than the average-risk population, but a lower PSA threshold for biopsy is unlikely to improve outcomes. Effective screening in men with increased prostate cancer risk depends on the manner in which the risk is increased. More intensive screening is not always optimal. Guidelines for screening men at increased prostate cancer risk should consider the mechanism inducing the increased risk. Although the benefit of screening may be greater in men with increased risks, more intensive screening is not always appropriate. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(2); 222-7. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. The economic benefits of malaria elimination: do they include increases in tourism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrek, Sepideh; Liu, Jenny; Gosling, Roland; Feachem, Richard G A

    2012-07-28

    Policy makers have speculated that one of the economic benefits of malaria elimination includes increases in foreign direct investment, particularly tourism. This study examines the empirical relationship between the demand for travel and malaria cases in two countries with large tourism industries around the time in which they carried out malaria-elimination campaigns. In Mauritius, this analysis examines historical, yearly tourist arrivals and malaria cases from 1978-1999, accounting for the background secular trend of increasing international travel. In Dominican Republic, a country embarking upon malaria elimination, it employs a time-series analysis of the monthly, international tourist arrivals from 1998-2010 to determine whether the timing of significant deviations in tourist arrivals coincides with malaria outbreaks. While naïve relationships exist in both cases, the results show that the relationships between tourist arrivals and malaria cases are relatively weak and statistically insignificant once secular confounders are accounted for. This suggests that any economic benefits from tourism that may be derived from actively pursuing elimination in countries that have high tourism potential are likely to be small when measured at a national level. Rather, tourism benefits are likely to be experienced with greater impact in more concentrated tourist areas within countries, and future studies should seek to assess these relationships at a regional or local level.

  4. Evidence of Oxidative Shielding of Offspring in a Wild Mammal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma I. K. Vitikainen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative damage has been proposed as a potential mechanism underlying a life history tradeoff between survival and reproduction. However, evidence that reproduction is associated with increased oxidative damage is equivocal, and some studies have found that breeding females exhibit reduced, rather than elevated, levels of oxidative damage compared to equivalent non-breeders. Recently it was hypothesized that oxidative damage could have negative impacts on developing offspring, and that mothers might down-regulate oxidative damage during reproduction to shield their offspring from such damage. We tested this hypothesis through a longitudinal study of adult survival, reproduction, and oxidative damage in wild banded mongooses (Mungos mungo in Uganda. High levels of oxidative damage as measured by malondialdehyde (MDA were associated with reduced survival in both sexes. Levels of protein carbonyls were not linked to survival. Mothers showed reduced levels of MDA during pregnancy, and individuals with higher MDA levels gestated fewer offspring and had lower pup survival. These results suggest that maternal oxidative damage has transgenerational costs, and are consistent with the idea that mothers may attempt to shield their offspring from particularly harmful types of oxidative damage during pregnancy. We suggest that further advance in understanding of life history variation could benefit from theoretical and empirical exploration of the potential transgenerational costs of reproduction.

  5. Higher gestational weight gain is associated with increasing offspring birth weight independent of maternal glycemic control in women with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Anna L; Parellada, Clara B; Ringholm, Lene

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We evaluate the association between gestational weight gain and offspring birth weight in singleton term pregnancies of women with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: One hundred fifteen consecutive women referred at ...), and insufficient (n = 16) gestational weight gain. Diabetes duration was comparable, and median prepregnancy BMI was 25.3 (range 18-41) vs. 23.5 (18-31) vs. 22.7 (20-30) kg/m(2) (P = 0.05) in the three weight gain groups. Offspring birth weight and birth weight SD score decreased across the groups (3,681 [2......,374-4,500] vs. 3,395 [2,910-4,322] vs. 3,295 [2,766-4,340] g [P = 0.02] and 1.08 [-1.90 to 3.25] vs. 0.45 [-0.83 to 3.18] vs. -0.02 [-1.51 to 2.96] [P = 0.009], respectively). In a multiple linear regression analysis, gestational weight gain (kg) was positively associated with offspring birth weight (g) (β = 19...

  6. Increased Virulence and Competitive Advantage of a/α Over a/a or α/α Offspring Conserves the Mating System of Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Shawn R.; Wu, Wei; Radke, Joshua B.; Zhao, Rui; Soll, David R.

    2005-01-01

    The majority of Candida albicans strains in nature are a/α and must undergo homozygosis to a/a or α/α to mate. Here we have used a mouse model for systemic infection to test the hypothesis that a/α strains predominate in nature because they have a competitive advantage over a/a and α/α offspring in colonizing hosts. Single-strain injection experiments revealed that a/α strains were far more virulent than either their a/a or α/α offspring. When equal numbers of parent a/α and offspring a/a or α/α cells were co-injected, a/α always exhibited a competitive advantage at the time of extreme host morbidity or death. When equal numbers of an engineered a/a/α2 strain and its isogenic a/a parent strain were co-injected, the a/a/α2 strain exhibited a competitive advantage at the time of host morbidity or death, suggesting that the genotype of the mating-type (MTL) locus, not associated genes on chromosome 5, provides a competitive advantage. We therefore propose that heterozygosity at the MTL locus not only represses white-opaque switching and genes involved in the mating process, but also affects virulence, providing a competitive advantage to the a/α genotype that conserves the mating system of C. albicans in nature. PMID:15695357

  7. Increased virulence and competitive advantage of a/alpha over a/a or alpha/alpha offspring conserves the mating system of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Shawn R; Wu, Wei; Radke, Joshua B; Zhao, Rui; Soll, David R

    2005-04-01

    The majority of Candida albicans strains in nature are a/alpha and must undergo homozygosis to a/a or alpha/alpha to mate. Here we have used a mouse model for systemic infection to test the hypothesis that a/alpha strains predominate in nature because they have a competitive advantage over a/a and alpha/alpha offspring in colonizing hosts. Single-strain injection experiments revealed that a/alpha strains were far more virulent than either their a/a or alpha/alpha offspring. When equal numbers of parent a/alpha and offspring a/a or alpha/alpha cells were co-injected, a/alpha always exhibited a competitive advantage at the time of extreme host morbidity or death. When equal numbers of an engineered a/a/alpha2 strain and its isogenic a/a parent strain were co-injected, the a/a/alpha2 strain exhibited a competitive advantage at the time of host morbidity or death, suggesting that the genotype of the mating-type (MTL) locus, not associated genes on chromosome 5, provides a competitive advantage. We therefore propose that heterozygosity at the MTL locus not only represses white-opaque switching and genes involved in the mating process, but also affects virulence, providing a competitive advantage to the a/alpha genotype that conserves the mating system of C. albicans in nature.

  8. Benefits from increased cooperation and energy trade under CO2 commitments - the Nordic case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unger, T.; Ekvall, T.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, benefits from increasing cross-border cooperation under future CO 2 commitments in the Nordic countries are examined and evaluated. Four cooperative strategies are analyzed and valued separately: cross-border electricity trade, cross-border emission-permit trade, the introduction of a trans-Nordic natural gas transmission grid, and, finally, utilization of all these three strategies simultaneously. The valuation is done under varying CO 2 commitments and under three different scenarios for future energy demand and technological development. In conducting this analysis, the energy-systems model-generator MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) was used to model the Nordic energy system. It is shown that all cooperative strategies do lower the abatement costs considerably, especially if the strategy including full cooperation is utilized. In this case, additional costs from meeting CO 2 targets may be at least halved for commitments less than 10% reduction until 2050 based on emissions in 1995. No significant difference between low and high CO 2 commitments could be observed in the size of the benefits from cooperation, expressed in billions (10 9 ) of Swedish crowns. Benefits from cooperation are generally larger for scenarios including relatively higher future energy demand. (author)

  9. How to increase the benefits of cooperation: Effects of training in transactive communication on cooperative learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkowski, Susanne; Hänze, Martin

    2015-09-01

    Transactive communication means referring to and building on a learning partner's idea, by, for example, extending the partner's idea or interlinking the partner's idea with an idea of one's own. This transforms the partner's idea into a more elaborate one. Previous research found a positive relationship between students' transactive communication and their learning results when working in small groups. To increase the benefits of cooperation, we developed and tested a module for training students in transactive communication. We assumed that this training would enhance students' transactive communication and also increase their knowledge acquisition during cooperative learning. Further, we distinguished between an actor's transactive communication and a learning partner's transactive communication and expected both to be positively associated with an actor's knowledge acquisition. Participants were 80 university students. In an experiment with pre- and post-test measurements, transactive communication was measured by coding students' communication in a cooperative learning situation before training and in another cooperative learning situation after training. For the post-test cooperative learning situation, knowledge was pre-tested and post-tested. Trained students outperformed controls in transactive communication and in knowledge acquisition. Positive training effects on actors' knowledge acquisition were partially mediated by the improved actors' transactive communication. Moreover, actors' knowledge acquisition was positively influenced by learning partners' transactive communication. Results show a meaningful increase in the benefits of cooperation through the training in transactive communication. Furthermore, findings indicate that students benefit from both elaborating on their partner's ideas and having their own ideas elaborated on. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Hydrogenated fat intake during pregnancy and lactation caused increase in TRAF-6 and reduced AdipoR1 in white adipose tissue, but not in muscle of 21 days old offspring rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oller do Nascimento Claudia M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although lipids transfer through placenta is very limited, modification in dietary fatty acids can lead to implications in fetal and postnatal development. Trans fatty acid (TFA intake during gestation and lactation have been reported to promote dyslipidemia and increase in pro- inflammatory adipokines in offspring. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the alterations on pro-inflammatory cytokines and dyslipidemia observed previously in 21-d-old offspring of rats fed a diet containing hydrogenated vegetable fat during gestation and lactation were related to alterations in TLR-4, TRAF-6 and adipo-R1 receptor in white adipose tissue and muscle. On the first day of gestation, rats were randomly divided into two groups: (C received a control diet, and (T received a diet enriched with hydrogenated vegetable fat, rich in trans fatty acids. The diets were maintained throughout gestation and lactation. Each mother was given eight male pups. On the 21st day of life the offspring were killed. Blood, soleus and extensor digital longus (EDL muscles, and retroperitoneal (RET white adipose tissue were collected. Results 21-d-old of T rats had higher serum triacylglycerols, cholesterol, and insulin. The Adipo R1 protein expression was lower in RET and higher in EDL of T group than C. TLR-4 protein content in all studied tissues were similar between groups, the same was verified in TRAF-6 protein expression in soleus and EDL. However, TRAF-6 protein expression in RET was higher in T than C. Conclusion These results demonstrated that maternal ingestion of hydrogenated vegetable fat rich in TFAs during gestation and lactation decrease in Adipo R1 protein expression and increase in TRAF-6 protein expression in retroperitoneal adipose tissue, but not in skeletal muscle, which could contributed for hyperinsulinemia and dyslipidemia observed in their 21-d-old offspring.

  11. Benefits of increasing transpiration efficiency in wheat under elevated CO2for rainfed regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christy, Brendan; Tausz-Posch, Sabine; Tausz, Michael; Richards, Richard; Rebetzke, Greg; Condon, Anthony; McLean, Terry; Fitzgerald, Glenn; Bourgault, Maryse; O'Leary, Garry

    2018-01-13

    Higher transpiration efficiency (TE) has been proposed as a mechanism to increase crop yields in dry environments where water availability usually limits yield. The application of a coupled radiation and TE simulation model shows wheat yield advantage of a high-TE cultivar (cv. Drysdale) over its almost identical low-TE parent line (Hartog), from about -7 to 558 kg/ha (mean 187 kg/ha) over the rainfed cropping region in Australia (221-1,351 mm annual rainfall), under the present-day climate. The smallest absolute yield response occurred in the more extreme drier and wetter areas of the wheat belt. However, under elevated CO 2 conditions, the response of Drysdale was much greater overall, ranging from 51 to 886 kg/ha (mean 284 kg/ha) with the greatest response in the higher rainfall areas. Changes in simulated TE under elevated CO 2 conditions are seen across Australia with notable increased areas of higher TE under a drier climate in Western Australia, Queensland and parts of New South Wales and Victoria. This improved efficiency is subtly deceptive, with highest yields not necessarily directly correlated with highest TE. Nevertheless, the advantage of Drysdale over Hartog is clear with the benefit of the trait advantage attributed to TE ranging from 102% to 118% (mean 109%). The potential annual cost-benefits of this increased genetic TE trait across the wheat growing areas of Australia (5 year average of area planted to wheat) totaled AUD 631 MIL (5-year average wheat price of AUD/260 t) with an average of 187 kg/ha under the present climate. The benefit to an individual farmer will depend on location but elevated CO 2 raises this nation-wide benefit to AUD 796 MIL in a 2°C warmer climate, slightly lower (AUD 715 MIL) if rainfall is also reduced by 20%. © 2018 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. ANALYSIS BENEFIT COST RATIO OF BIOCHAR IN AGRICULTURE LAND TO INCREASE INCOME HOUSEHOLD IN MERAUKE REGENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Magdalena Diana Widiastuti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Biochar has been proven to increase the availability of soil nutrient, yield productivity and farmers income. Biochar can be made from forestry/agricultural waste and do not required high technology. The objective of this study were: (1 to analyze Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR of biochar made from rice husk, (2 to compare yield productivity of paddy with biochar treatment, and (3 to analyze of paddy farming system with biochar treatment. The methodology by using BCR and productivity approach. The result showed that, firstly, the BCR of biochar from rice husks was 1.35 which indicated that biochar productivity as feasible. Secondly, the provision of biochar and fertilizer on agricultural could increase rice productivity of 4.2 ton/ha (control treatment to 5.5 ton/ha (treatment biochar + organic fertilizer and 6 ton/ha (treatment biochar + organic fertilizer + chemical fertilizers. Thirdly, the benefit cost ratio of paddy farming system for control treatment (1.54, higher than biochar+organic fertilizer treatment (1.46 and biochar+organic fertilizer+chemical fertilizer treatment.

  13. The Benefits of Increased Sensation Level and Bandwidth for Spatial Release From Masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakien, Kasey M; Kampel, Sean D; Gordon, Samuel Y; Gallun, Frederick J

    Spatial release from masking (SRM) can increase speech intelligibility in complex listening environments. The goal of the present study was to document how speech-in-speech stimuli could be best processed to encourage optimum SRM for listeners who represent a range of ages and amounts of hearing loss. We examined the effects of equating stimulus audibility among listeners, presenting stimuli at uniform sensation levels (SLs), and filtering stimuli at two separate bandwidths. Seventy-one participants completed two speech intelligibility experiments (36 listeners in experiment 1; all 71 in experiment 2) in which a target phrase from the coordinate response measure (CRM) and two masking phrases from the CRM were presented simultaneously via earphones using a virtual spatial array, such that the target sentence was always at 0 degree azimuth angle and the maskers were either colocated or positioned at ±45 degrees. Experiments 1 and 2 examined the impacts of SL, age, and hearing loss on SRM. Experiment 2 also assessed the effects of stimulus bandwidth on SRM. Overall, listeners' ability to achieve SRM improved with increased SL. Younger listeners with less hearing loss achieved more SRM than older or hearing-impaired listeners. It was hypothesized that SL and bandwidth would result in dissociable effects on SRM. However, acoustical analysis revealed that effective audible bandwidth, defined as the highest frequency at which the stimulus was audible at both ears, was the best predictor of performance. Thus, increasing SL seemed to improve SRM by increasing the effective bandwidth rather than increasing the level of already audible components. Performance for all listeners, regardless of age or hearing loss, improved with an increase in overall SL and/or bandwidth, but the improvement was small relative to the benefits of spatial separation.

  14. Clinical, Demographic, and Familial Correlates of Bipolar Spectrum Disorders among Offspring of Parents with Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Shamseddeen, Wael; Axelson, David A.; Kalas, Cathy; Monk, Kelly; Brent, David A.; Kupfer, David J.; Birmaher, Boris

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Despite increased risk, most offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BP) do not manifest BP. The identification of risk factors for BP among offspring could improve preventive and treatment strategies. We examined this topic in the Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring Study (BIOS). Method: Subjects included 388 offspring, ages 7-17 years,…

  15. Reading speed does not benefit from increased line spacing in AMD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Susana T L; Jarvis, Samuel H; Woo, Stanley Y; Hanson, Kara; Jose, Randall T

    2008-09-01

    Crowding, the adverse spatial interaction due to the proximity of adjacent targets, has been suggested as an explanation for slow reading in peripheral vision. Previously, we showed that increased line spacing, which presumably reduces crowding between adjacent lines of text, improved reading speed in the normal periphery (Chung, Optom Vis Sci 2004;81:525-35). The purpose of this study was to examine whether or not individuals with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) would benefit from increased line spacing for reading. Experiment 1: Eight subjects with AMD read aloud 100-word passages rendered at five line spacings: the standard single spacing, 1.5x, 2x, 3x, and 4x the standard spacing. Print sizes were 1x and 2x of the critical print size. Reading time and number of reading errors for each passage were measured to compute the reading speed. Experiment 2: Four subjects with AMD read aloud sequences of six 4-letter words, presented on a computer monitor using the rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm. Target words were presented singly, or flanked above and below by two other words that changed in synchrony with the target word, at various vertical word separations. Print size was 2x the critical print size. Reading speed was calculated based on the RSVP exposure duration that yielded 80% of the words read correctly. Averaged across subjects, reading speeds for passages were virtually constant for the range of line spacings tested. For sequences of unrelated words, reading speeds were also virtually constant for the range of vertical word separations tested, except at the smallest (standard) separation at which reading speed was lower. Contrary to the previous finding that reading speed improved in normal peripheral vision, increased line spacing in passages, or increased vertical separation between words in RSVP, did not lead to improved reading speed in people with AMD.

  16. Increasing Diversity in the Sciences: a Partial Solution to the Challenge and the Benefits it Produces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givan, A. V.

    2009-12-01

    Science is supposed to be about talent devoid of the bias’ and judgments generated by background, gender, ethnicity or any culturally determined discriminators. The scientific, academic, corporate and government communities have a vested interest in developing models, practices and policies that significantly increase the number of U.S. graduates in scientific disciplines. Additionally, it is crucial that these graduates possess the essential competencies and creative problem solving skills to compete in the current global economy. The stakeholders (corporations, researchers, educational practitioners, policymakers and funders) who have the common goal of producing highly qualified scientists must commit to collaborate in developing innovative strategies and solutions to this complex challenge. Volumes of research data from a variety of sources such the social and cognitive sciences, educational psychology, National Science Foundation and non-profit groups have been and are available for use enabling us to rise to the challenge we have been charged with, and are responsible for the outcome. A proposed solution to part of the challenge and discussion of the impacts of increasing diversity in science will be discussed in this paper. The paper will address one element of the issue - strategies for the recruitment and retention of under-represented groups in science focusing on the historical and current culture, climate and barriers encountered by minorities as they progress through the educational system and career pathways. The paper will examine the benefits of diversity to the individual and society as a whole.

  17. Long-term exposure to electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones and Wi-Fi devices decreases plasma prolactin, progesterone, and estrogen levels but increases uterine oxidative stress in pregnant rats and their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Murat; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Özkaya, Mehmet Okan

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the effects of mobile phone (900 and 1800 MHz)- and Wi-Fi (2450 MHz)-induced electromagnetic radiation (EMR) exposure on uterine oxidative stress and plasma hormone levels in pregnant rats and their offspring. Thirty-two rats and their forty newborn offspring were divided into the following four groups according to the type of EMR exposure they were subjected to: the control, 900, 1800, and 2450 MHz groups. Each experimental group was exposed to EMR for 60 min/day during the pregnancy and growth periods. The pregnant rats were allowed to stand for four generations (total 52 weeks) before, plasma and uterine samples were obtained. During the 4th, 5th, and 6th weeks of the experiment, plasma and uterine samples were also obtained from the developing rats. Although uterine lipid peroxidation increased in the EMR groups, uterine glutathione peroxidase activity (4th and 5th weeks) and plasma prolactin levels (6th week) in developing rats decreased in these groups. In the maternal rats, the plasma prolactin, estrogen, and progesterone levels decreased in the EMR groups, while the plasma total oxidant status, and body temperatures increased. There were no changes in the levels of reduced glutathione, total antioxidants, or vitamins A, C, and E in the uterine and plasma samples of maternal rats. In conclusion, although EMR exposure decreased the prolactin, estrogen, and progesterone levels in the plasma of maternal rats and their offspring, EMR-induced oxidative stress in the uteri of maternal rats increased during the development of offspring. Mobile phone- and Wi-Fi-induced EMR may be one cause of increased oxidative uterine injury in growing rats and decreased hormone levels in maternal rats. TRPV1 cation channels are the possible molecular pathways responsible for changes in the hormone, oxidative stress, and body temperature levels in the uterus of maternal rats following a year-long exposure to electromagnetic radiation exposure from mobile phones and

  18. Pathways to suicide-related behavior in offspring of mothers with depression: the role of offspring psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerton, Gemma; Zammit, Stanley; Mahedy, Liam; Pearson, Rebecca M; Sellers, Ruth; Thapar, Anita; Collishaw, Stephan

    2015-05-01

    Offspring of mothers with depression are a high-risk group for the development of suicide-related behavior. These offspring are therefore a priority for preventive interventions; however, pathways contributing to risk, including specific aspects of offspring psychopathology, remain unclear. The aim of this study was to examine whether offspring symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and alcohol abuse independently mediate the association between maternal depression and offspring suicide-related behavior. Data were used from a population-based birth cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Three distinct classes of depression symptoms across the mothers' first 11 years of their child's life were identified (minimal, moderate, chronic-severe). Offspring psychopathology was assessed at age 15 years and suicide-related behavior at age 16 years. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. There was evidence for increased risk of suicidal ideation in offspring of mothers with chronic-severe depression symptoms in comparison to offspring of mothers with minimal symptoms (odds ratio = 3.04, 95% CI = 2.19, 4.21). This association was independently mediated by offspring MDD, GAD, and DBD symptoms. The same mechanisms were found for offspring of mothers with moderate depression symptoms over time. Results were similar for offspring suicide attempt except for additional evidence of an indirect effect through offspring ADHD symptoms. Findings highlight that suicide prevention efforts in offspring of mothers with depression should not only be targeted at offspring with MDD; it is also important to consider offspring with other forms of psychopathology. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Pathways to Suicide-Related Behavior in Offspring of Mothers With Depression: The Role of Offspring Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerton, Gemma; Zammit, Stanley; Mahedy, Liam; Pearson, Rebecca M.; Sellers, Ruth; Thapar, Anita; Collishaw, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Offspring of mothers with depression are a high-risk group for the development of suicide-related behavior. These offspring are therefore a priority for preventive interventions; however, pathways contributing to risk, including specific aspects of offspring psychopathology, remain unclear. The aim of this study was to examine whether offspring symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and alcohol abuse independently mediate the association between maternal depression and offspring suicide-related behavior. Method Data were used from a population-based birth cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Three distinct classes of depression symptoms across the mothers’ first 11 years of their child’s life were identified (minimal, moderate, chronic-severe). Offspring psychopathology was assessed at age 15 years and suicide-related behavior at age 16 years. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results There was evidence for increased risk of suicidal ideation in offspring of mothers with chronic-severe depression symptoms in comparison to offspring of mothers with minimal symptoms (odds ratio = 3.04, 95% CI = 2.19, 4.21). This association was independently mediated by offspring MDD, GAD, and DBD symptoms. The same mechanisms were found for offspring of mothers with moderate depression symptoms over time. Results were similar for offspring suicide attempt except for additional evidence of an indirect effect through offspring ADHD symptoms. Conclusion Findings highlight that suicide prevention efforts in offspring of mothers with depression should not only be targeted at offspring with MDD; it is also important to consider offspring with other forms of psychopathology. PMID:25901775

  20. Increasing Benefits from Agroforestry Tree Products in West and Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing Benefits from Agroforestry Tree Products in West and Central Africa. Des alevins de tilapia Oreochromis niloticus ont été mis en grossissement dans trois types de fermes piscicoles rurales de Côte d'Ivoire ayant des taux d'observance de mesures de biosécurité respectifs de 5%, 55% et 83%. L'étude a consisté à déterminer et à comparer les valeurs des paramètres physicochimiques de l'eau des étangs et des paramètres zootechniques des poissons entre ces trois types de ferme. Aucune différence significative n'a été observée entre les valeurs moyennes des paramètres physiques et chimiques de l'eau des étangs des différentes fermes piscicoles. Concernant les paramètres zootechniques, la ferme piscicole possédant 83% de taux d'observance des mesures de biosécurité a enregistré les meilleures performances zootechniques avec des différences significatives par rapport aux deux autres types de fermes.

  1. Declining rates in male circumcision amidst increasing evidence of its public health benefit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohar Mor

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent experimental evidence has demonstrated the benefits of male circumcision for the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Studies have also shown that male circumcision is cost-effective and reduces the risk for certain ulcerative sexually transmitted diseases (STDs. The epidemiology of male circumcision in the United States is poorly studied and most prior reports were limited by self-reported measures. The study objective was to describe male circumcision trends among men attending the San Francisco municipal STD clinic, and to correlate the findings with HIV, syphilis and sexual orientation. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cross sectional study was performed by reviewing all electronic records of males attending the San Francisco municipal STD clinic between 1996 and 2005. The prevalence of circumcision over time and by subpopulation such as race/ethnicity and sexual orientation were measured. The findings were further correlated with the presence of syphilis and HIV infection. Circumcision status was determined by physical examination and disease status by clinical evaluation with laboratory confirmation. Among 58,598 male patients, 32,613 (55.7%, 95% Confidence Interval (CI 55.2-56.1 were circumcised. Male circumcision varied significantly by decade of birth (increasing between 1920 and 1950 and declining overall since the 1960's, race/ethnicity (Black: 62.2%, 95% CI 61.2-63.2, White: 60.0%, 95% CI 59.46-60.5, Asian Pacific Islander: 48.2%, 46.9-49.5 95% CI, and Hispanic: 42.2%, 95% CI 41.3-43.1, and sexual orientation (gay/bisexual: 73.0%, 95% CI 72.6-73.4; heterosexual: 66.0%, 65.5-66.5. Male circumcision may have been modestly protective against syphilis in HIV-uninfected heterosexual men (PR 0.92, 95% C.I. 0.83-1.02, P = 0.06. CONCLUSIONS: Male circumcision was common among men seeking STD services in San Francisco but has declined substantially in recent decades. Male circumcision rates differed by race

  2. Economic benefits of productivity increases through truck-to-rail mode shift in freight transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-29

    Although the study of economic benefits of improving (or not improving) the efficiency of freight movement has been recognized as one of the critical research topic by the decision makers and researchers alike, there remains a dearth of transparent a...

  3. Parental legacy in insects: variation of transgenerational immune priming during offspring development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Trauer

    Full Text Available In insects, a parental immune challenge can prepare and enhance offspring immune activity. Previous studies of such transgenerational immune priming (TGIP mainly focused on a single offspring life stage. However, different developmental stages may be exposed to different risks and show different susceptibility to parental immune priming. Here we addressed the question (i whether TGIP effects on the immunity of Manduca sexta offspring vary among the different developmental offspring stages. We differentiated between unchallenged and immunochallenged offspring; for the latter type of offspring, we further investigated (ii whether TGIP has an impact on the time that enhanced immune levels persist after offspring immune challenge. Finally, we determined (iii whether TGIP effects on offspring performance depend on the offspring stage. Our results show that TGIP effects on phenoloxidase (PO activity, but not on antibacterial activity, vary among unchallenged offspring stages. In contrast, TGIP effects on PO and antibacterial activity did not vary among immunochallenged offspring stages. The persistence of enhanced immune levels in immunochallenged offspring was dependent on the parental immune state. Antibacterial (but not PO activity in offspring of immunochallenged parents decreased over five days after pupal immune challenge, whereas no significant change over time was detectable in offspring of control parents. Finally, TGIP effects on the developmental time of unchallenged offspring varied among stages; young larvae of immunochallenged parents developed faster and gained more weight than larvae of control parents. However, offspring females of immunochallenged parents laid fewer eggs than females derived from control parents. These findings suggest that the benefits which the offspring gains from TGIP during juvenile development are paid by the adults with reduced reproductive power. Our study shows that TGIP effects vary among offspring stages

  4. Parental legacy in insects: variation of transgenerational immune priming during offspring development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauer, Ute; Hilker, Monika

    2013-01-01

    In insects, a parental immune challenge can prepare and enhance offspring immune activity. Previous studies of such transgenerational immune priming (TGIP) mainly focused on a single offspring life stage. However, different developmental stages may be exposed to different risks and show different susceptibility to parental immune priming. Here we addressed the question (i) whether TGIP effects on the immunity of Manduca sexta offspring vary among the different developmental offspring stages. We differentiated between unchallenged and immunochallenged offspring; for the latter type of offspring, we further investigated (ii) whether TGIP has an impact on the time that enhanced immune levels persist after offspring immune challenge. Finally, we determined (iii) whether TGIP effects on offspring performance depend on the offspring stage. Our results show that TGIP effects on phenoloxidase (PO) activity, but not on antibacterial activity, vary among unchallenged offspring stages. In contrast, TGIP effects on PO and antibacterial activity did not vary among immunochallenged offspring stages. The persistence of enhanced immune levels in immunochallenged offspring was dependent on the parental immune state. Antibacterial (but not PO) activity in offspring of immunochallenged parents decreased over five days after pupal immune challenge, whereas no significant change over time was detectable in offspring of control parents. Finally, TGIP effects on the developmental time of unchallenged offspring varied among stages; young larvae of immunochallenged parents developed faster and gained more weight than larvae of control parents. However, offspring females of immunochallenged parents laid fewer eggs than females derived from control parents. These findings suggest that the benefits which the offspring gains from TGIP during juvenile development are paid by the adults with reduced reproductive power. Our study shows that TGIP effects vary among offspring stages and depend on

  5. Can Better Outdoor Environments Lead to Cost Benefits in Assisted Living Facilities Through Increased Word-of-Mouth Referrals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodiek, Susan; Boggess, May M; Lee, Chanam; Booth, Geoffrey J; Morris, Alisan

    2013-01-01

    This study explores how better outdoor environments may produce cost benefits for assisted living providers by raising occupancy levels through increased resident satisfaction and word-of-mouth referrals. Older adults who spend even minimal time outdoors may reap substantial health benefits. However, many existing outdoor areas in assisted living facilities are reportedly underutilized, in part because of design issues. Providers may be more willing to improve outdoor areas if they produce cost benefits for provider organizations. This study used data from a recent assisted living survey to assess the relationship between satisfaction with outdoor spaces, time spent outdoors, and resulting improvements in mood. A financial analysis was developed to estimate potential benefits from improved outdoor areas attributable to increased occupancy and decreased marketing costs associated with increased word-of-mouth referrals. Increasing resident satisfaction with outdoor areas (from approximately 29% to 96%) results in residents spending more time outdoors (increase of 1½ hours per week per resident) and improved psychological well-being (12% increase in feeling better). This greater overall satisfaction leads to 8% more residents willing to refer potential residents to their community. Because word-of-mouth referrals by current residents are a major factor in resident recruitment, improving outdoors areas leads to an estimated 4% increase in new residents, resulting in over $170,000 of increased revenue per year for a community of 100 residents. Improved outdoor space can provide substantial cost benefits for assisted living providers. Increasing resident well-being and satisfaction, and thereby generating additional word-of-mouth referrals, can result in higher occupancy levels. Outdoor environments, assisted living, cost benefits, resident satisfaction, occupancy levels, seniors, rental income, word-of-mouth referralPreferred Citation: Rodiek, S., Boggess, M. M., Lee

  6. Ouabain Attenuates Cardiac Hypertrophy of Male Rat Offspring Exposed to Intrauterine Growth Restriction Following High-Salt Diet Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Yue, Jing; Wu, Han; Yang, Jun; Han, Xiaojuan; Li, Juan; Hu, Yali

    2015-12-01

    Ouabain can normalize the blood pressure of the adult intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) offspring through retaining the number of glomeruli of the IUGR newborn. However, the melioration of hemodynamic features coinciding with the improvement in cardiac structure and function is poorly understood. Intrauterine growth restriction was induced in pregnant rats with protein intake restriction, and ouabain was administrated using osmotic mini pumps from the second gestational day. The male offspring of the mothers with normal diet, low-protein diet, and low-protein diet added with ouabain treatment were randomly divided into 2 groups, one of which received normal diet and the other was treated with isocaloric 8% high-salt diet. We found that maternal malnutrition caused fetal growth retardation. At the end of a 40-week research, the offspring of the IUGR group presented high blood pressure and deteriorative cardiac performance and even worse in the offspring fed with 8% high-salt diet. Ouabain can normalize the blood pressure and improve the cardiac performance, even if following 8% high-salt diet challenge. Pathological and molecular analyses showed IUGR following 8% high-salt diet significantly increased the cardiac hypertrophy, whereas the unfavorable effects were ameliorated in the offspring treated with ouabain. Results suggest that the effects of ouabain on restoration of glomerular number in newborn and normalization of blood pressure during adulthood in IUGR male offspring can benefit the cardiac structure and function, especially under high-salt diet challenge. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Low maternal folate concentrations and maternal MTHFR C677T polymorphism are associated with an increased risk for neural tube defects in offspring: a case-control study among Pakistani case and control mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauman, Nuzhat; Jalali, Samina; Shami, Sajjad; Rafiq, Shireen; Große, Greta; Hilger, Alina C; Zhang, Rhong; Mansoor, Saira; Ludwig, Michael; Reutter, Heiko

    2018-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that periconceptional maternal folate deficiency and coding variants in maternal genes coding for critical enzymes in the folate pathway are associated with neural tube defects (NTDs) in offspring. In a case-control study we investigated C677T polymorphism in the 5,10- methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene in case and control mothers of Pakistani origin, and compared these with the respective maternal folate concentrations measured at the time of delivery. A case-control study was conducted among 109 case and 100 control mothers identified through the Holy Family Hospital Rawalpindi, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan. Red blood cell (RBC) and serum folate concentrations and MTHFRC677T polymorphism were compared between case and control mothers. Mean RBC folate and serum folate concentrations were significantly lower in cases compared with control mothers (pcases compared with control mothers (CC vs TT pcases compared with control mothers (C vs T pCase mothers with 677CT or 677TT genotypes had significantly lower serum (pstudy provides further evidence that maternal folate deficiency and MTHFRC677T polymorphism might be associated with an increased risk for NTDs in offspring. Our results are limited by the fact that maternal folate concentrations were not obtained during the periconceptional period, but at delivery. Further analyses, including maternal folate levels during the periconceptional period, are warranted.

  8. Targeting plug-in hybrid electric vehicle policies to increase social benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skerlos, Steven J.; Winebrake, James J.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009 the U.S. federal government enacted tax credits aimed at encouraging consumers to purchase plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). These tax credits are available to all consumers equally and therefore do not account for the variability in social benefits associated with PHEV operation in different parts of the country. The tax credits also do not consider variability in consumer income. This paper discusses why the PHEV subsidy policy would have higher social benefits at equal or less cost if the tax credits were offered at different levels depending on consumer income and the location of purchase. Quantification of these higher social benefits and related policy proposals are left for future work.

  9. Carbon Policy and Technical Change: Market Structure, Increasing Returns, and Secondary Benefits. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peretto, P.; Smith, V. K.

    2001-11-19

    An economic evaluation of the impact of policies intended to control emissions of CO{sub 2} and other ''greenhouse gases'' (GHGS) depends on the net costs of these controls and their distribution throughout the production sectors of developed and developing economics. The answers derived from appraisals of these net costs, in turn, stem from what is assumed about the timing of the controls, the pace of technological change, and any short-term secondary benefits from their control. There have only been a few serious attempts to estimate the economic benefits from the policies associated with such long run outcomes. All of the approaches to date have made fairly strong assumptions or relied on contingent valuation estimates of hypothetical situations.

  10. Experimental evidence for offspring learning in parent-offspring communication.

    OpenAIRE

    Kedar, H; Rodríguez-Gironés, M A; Yedvab, S; Winkler, D W; Lotem, A

    2000-01-01

    The offspring of birds and mammals solicit food from their parents by a combination of movements and vocalizations that have come to be known collectively as 'begging'. Recently, begging has most often been viewed as an honest signal of offspring need. Yet, if offspring learn to adjust their begging efforts to the level that rewards them most, begging intensities may also reflect offsprings' past experience rather than their precise current needs. Here we show that bird nestlings with equal l...

  11. Bet hedging in a warming ocean: predictability of maternal environment shapes offspring size variation in marine sticklebacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shama, Lisa N S

    2015-12-01

    Bet hedging at reproduction is expected to evolve when mothers are exposed to unpredictable cues for future environmental conditions, whereas transgenerational plasticity (TGP) should be favoured when cues reliably predict the environment offspring will experience. Since climate predictions forecast an increase in both temperature and climate variability, both TGP and bet hedging are likely to become important strategies to mediate climate change effects. Here, the potential to produce variably sized offspring in both warming and unpredictable environments was tested by investigating whether stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) mothers adjusted mean offspring size and within-clutch variation in offspring size in response to experimental manipulation of maternal thermal environment and predictability (alternating between ambient and elevated water temperatures). Reproductive output traits of F1 females were influenced by both temperature and environmental predictability. Mothers that developed at ambient temperature (17 °C) produced larger, but fewer eggs than mothers that developed at elevated temperature (21 °C), implying selection for different-sized offspring in different environments. Mothers in unpredictable environments had smaller mean egg sizes and tended to have greater within-female egg size variability, especially at 21 °C, suggesting that mothers may have dynamically modified the variance in offspring size to spread the risk of incorrectly predicting future environmental conditions. Both TGP and diversification influenced F2 offspring body size. F2 offspring reared at 21 °C had larger mean body sizes if their mother developed at 21 °C, but this TGP benefit was not present for offspring of 17 °C mothers reared at 17 °C, indicating that maternal TGP will be highly relevant for ocean warming scenarios in this system. Offspring of variable environment mothers were smaller but more variable in size than offspring from constant environment

  12. A course-based research experience: how benefits change with increased investment in instructional time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Christopher D; Alvarez, Consuelo J; Bednarski, April E; Dunbar, David; Goodman, Anya L; Reinke, Catherine; Rosenwald, Anne G; Wolyniak, Michael J; Bailey, Cheryl; Barnard, Daron; Bazinet, Christopher; Beach, Dale L; Bedard, James E J; Bhalla, Satish; Braverman, John; Burg, Martin; Chandrasekaran, Vidya; Chung, Hui-Min; Clase, Kari; Dejong, Randall J; Diangelo, Justin R; Du, Chunguang; Eckdahl, Todd T; Eisler, Heather; Emerson, Julia A; Frary, Amy; Frohlich, Donald; Gosser, Yuying; Govind, Shubha; Haberman, Adam; Hark, Amy T; Hauser, Charles; Hoogewerf, Arlene; Hoopes, Laura L M; Howell, Carina E; Johnson, Diana; Jones, Christopher J; Kadlec, Lisa; Kaehler, Marian; Silver Key, S Catherine; Kleinschmit, Adam; Kokan, Nighat P; Kopp, Olga; Kuleck, Gary; Leatherman, Judith; Lopilato, Jane; Mackinnon, Christy; Martinez-Cruzado, Juan Carlos; McNeil, Gerard; Mel, Stephanie; Mistry, Hemlata; Nagengast, Alexis; Overvoorde, Paul; Paetkau, Don W; Parrish, Susan; Peterson, Celeste N; Preuss, Mary; Reed, Laura K; Revie, Dennis; Robic, Srebrenka; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer; Rubin, Michael R; Saville, Kenneth; Schroeder, Stephanie; Sharif, Karim; Shaw, Mary; Skuse, Gary; Smith, Christopher D; Smith, Mary A; Smith, Sheryl T; Spana, Eric; Spratt, Mary; Sreenivasan, Aparna; Stamm, Joyce; Szauter, Paul; Thompson, Jeffrey S; Wawersik, Matthew; Youngblom, James; Zhou, Leming; Mardis, Elaine R; Buhler, Jeremy; Leung, Wilson; Lopatto, David; Elgin, Sarah C R

    2014-01-01

    There is widespread agreement that science, technology, engineering, and mathematics programs should provide undergraduates with research experience. Practical issues and limited resources, however, make this a challenge. We have developed a bioinformatics project that provides a course-based research experience for students at a diverse group of schools and offers the opportunity to tailor this experience to local curriculum and institution-specific student needs. We assessed both attitude and knowledge gains, looking for insights into how students respond given this wide range of curricular and institutional variables. While different approaches all appear to result in learning gains, we find that a significant investment of course time is required to enable students to show gains commensurate to a summer research experience. An alumni survey revealed that time spent on a research project is also a significant factor in the value former students assign to the experience one or more years later. We conclude: 1) implementation of a bioinformatics project within the biology curriculum provides a mechanism for successfully engaging large numbers of students in undergraduate research; 2) benefits to students are achievable at a wide variety of academic institutions; and 3) successful implementation of course-based research experiences requires significant investment of instructional time for students to gain full benefit.

  13. Offspring Socioeconomic Status and Parent Mortality Within a Historical Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Zachary; Hanson, Heidi A; Smith, Ken R

    2016-10-01

    Considering a network approach to health determinants, we test the hypothesis that benefits of high socioeconomic status (SES) may be transmitted up the generational ladder from offspring to parents. Studies that examine own SES and own health outcomes, or SES of parents and outcomes of young or adolescent children, are common. Those that investigate SES of offspring and their association with parental health are rare. Employing data from a historical population of individuals extracted from a comprehensive population database that links demographic and vital records across generations, this study tests the hypothesis that higher offspring SES associates with lower parental mortality after controlling for parental SES. The sample includes 29,972 individuals born between 1864 and 1883 whose offspring were born between 1886 and 1920. SES is operationalized using Nam-Powers occupational status scores divided into quartiles and a category for farmers. Models assess mortality risk after age 40. Included is a test for whether effects are proportional across parents who died younger and older. Estimated life expectancies across categories of offspring SES conditioned on parental SES are calculated to illustrate specifically how differences in SES relate to differences in years lived. Results indicate a longevity penalty for those whose offspring have low SES and a longevity dividend for those with high-SES offspring. The influence of offspring attributes on well-being of parents points to fluid and myriad linkages between generations.

  14. Parental-Offspring Conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilner, R.M.; Hinde, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    Disputes between parents and their young might seem easy enough to spot in everyday human life, but the notion of a general, evolutionary conflict between offspring and their parents has proved surprisingly slippery (reviewed by Godfray 1995). Nevertheless, today, almost four decades since the

  15. Risk of emotional disorder in offspring of depressed parents : Gender differences in the effect of a second emotionally affected parent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landman-Peeters, K.M.; Ormel, J.; van Sonderen, E.L.; den Boer, J.A.; Minderaa, R.B.; Hartman, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    In offspring of depressed parents a second parent with emotional problems is likely to increase risk of emotional disorder. This effect may however differ between sons and daughters and between offspring of depressed fathers and offspring of depressed mothers. In adolescent and young-adult offspring

  16. Reproducing butterflies do not increase intake of antioxidants when they could benefit from them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Michaël; Bischofberger, Ines; Lorenz, Isabel; Scheelen, Lucie; Fischer, Klaus

    2016-02-01

    The significance of dietary antioxidants may be limited by the ability of animals to exploit them. However, past studies have focused on the effects of dietary antioxidants after 'antioxidant forced-feeding', and have overlooked spontaneous antioxidant intake. Here, we found that reproducing female Bicyclus anynana butterflies had higher antioxidant defences and enhanced fecundity when forced to consume antioxidants (polyphenols). Interestingly, these positive effects were not constant across the oviposition period. When given the choice between food resources with and without antioxidants, reproducing butterflies did not target antioxidants when they could have benefited the most from them. Moreover, they did not consume more antioxidants than non-reproducing butterflies. These results emphasize that, despite potential positive effects of dietary antioxidants, the ability of animals to exploit them is likely to restrict their ecological significance. © 2016 The Author(s).

  17. Viability of Booby Offspring is Maximized by Having One Young Parent and One Old Parent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Drummond

    Full Text Available It is widely expected that the quality of offspring will vary with the age of their parents and that this variation should influence animals' choice of mates. However, theoretical predictions for age effects are contradictory and, to our knowledge, we do not know for any wild animal how the quality of offspring is affected by both parents' ages across their lifespans, or whether mothers' and fathers' ages interact. We tackled this question using long-term data on a highly philopatric, insular population of the blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii. In this species extra-pair paternity is most common in pairs of two young parents or two old parents, implying that these age combinations might prejudice offspring quality. Analysis of the viability of 3,361 offspring of parents up to 21 years old revealed that fledglings with two young parents or two old parents were least likely to become breeders, whereas fledglings with one young parent and one old parent were most likely to do so. For young parents of either sex, offspring viability increased with age of the other parent; for very old parents, it decreased. These effects could be mediated by parents flexibly modifying their investment in offspring in response to their own and their partners´ ages, but evidence for this was lacking. In 5,343 breeding attempts, although mothers' and fathers' ages independently affected four heavily care-dependent breeding traits at the clutch and nestling stages, their interaction did not affect any trait. The effects of parental age combinations on viability could also be mediated by genes: fledglings with one young parent and one old parent could benefit from greater heterozygosity or better genes.

  18. Increasing self-efficacy in learning to program: exploring the benefits of explicit instruction for problem solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Govender

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The difficulty of learning to program has long been identified amongst novices. This study explored the benefits of teaching a problem solving strategy by comparing students’ perceptions and attitudes towards problem solving before and after the strategy was implemented in secondary schools. Based on self-efficacy theory, students’ problem solving self-efficacy as well as teachers’ self-efficacy were investigated, showing that both students’ and teachers’ self-efficacy may have benefited from the explicit instruction. This would imply that teaching problem solving explicitly should be encouraged to increase self-efficacy to program.

  19. Helpers at the Nest Improve Late-Life Offspring Performance: Evidence from a Long-Term Study and a Cross-Foster Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Lyanne; Richardson, David S.; Komdeur, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Background Conditions during an individual's rearing period can have far reaching consequences for its survival and reproduction later in life. Conditions typically vary due to variation in parental quality and/or the environment, but in cooperative breeders the presence of helpers adds an important component to this. Determining the causal effect of helpers on offspring fitness is difficult, since high-quality breeders or territories are likely to produce high-quality offspring, but are also more likely to have helpers because of past reproductive success. This problem is best resolved by comparing the effect of both helping and non-helping subordinates on offspring fitness, however species in which both type of subordinates commonly occur are rare. Methodology/Principal Findings We used multi-state capture-recapture models on 20 years of data to investigate the effect of rearing conditions on survival and recruitment in the cooperatively breeding Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis), with both helping and non-helping subordinates. The number of helpers in the rearing territory, but not territory quality, group- or brood size, was positively associated with survival of offspring in their first year, and later in life. This was not a result of group size itself since the number of non-helpers was not associated with offspring survival. Furthermore, a nestling cross-foster experiment showed that the number of helpers on the pre-foster territory was not associated with offspring survival, indicating that offspring from territories with helpers do not differ in (genetic) quality. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that the presence of helpers not only increase survival of offspring in their first year of life, but also subsequent adult survival, and therefore have important fitness consequences later in life. This means that when calculating the fitness benefits of helping not only short-term but also the late-life benefits have to be taken into

  20. Potential air quality benefits from increased solar photovoltaic electricity generation in the Eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, David; Holloway, Tracey; Harkey, Monica; Rrushaj, Arber; Brinkman, Greg; Duran, Phillip; Janssen, Mark; Denholm, Paul

    2018-02-01

    We evaluate how fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and precursor emissions could be reduced if 17% of electricity generation was replaced with solar photovoltaics (PV) in the Eastern United States. Electricity generation is simulated using GridView, then used to scale electricity-sector emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) from an existing gridded inventory of air emissions. This approach offers a novel method to leverage advanced electricity simulations with state-of-the-art emissions inventories, without necessitating recalculation of emissions for each facility. The baseline and perturbed emissions are input to the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ version 4.7.1) for a full accounting of time- and space-varying air quality changes associated with the 17% PV scenario. These results offer a high-value opportunity to evaluate the reduced-form AVoided Emissions and geneRation Tool (AVERT), while using AVERT to test the sensitivity of results to changing base-years and levels of solar integration. We find that average NOX and SO2 emissions across the region decrease 20% and 15%, respectively. PM2.5 concentrations decreased on average 4.7% across the Eastern U.S., with nitrate (NO3-) PM2.5 decreasing 3.7% and sulfate (SO42-) PM2.5 decreasing 9.1%. In the five largest cities in the region, we find that the most polluted days show the most significant PM2.5 decrease under the 17% PV generation scenario, and that the greatest benefits are accrued to cities in or near the Ohio River Valley. We find summer health benefits from reduced PM2.5 exposure estimated as 1424 avoided premature deaths (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 284 deaths, 2 732 deaths) or a health savings of 13.1 billion (95% CI: 0.6 billion, 43.9 billion) These results highlight the potential for renewable energy as a tool for air quality managers to support current and future health-based air quality regulations.

  1. Potential air quality benefits from increased solar photovoltaic electricity generation in the Eastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, David; Holloway, Tracey; Harkey, Monica; Rrushaj, Arber; Brinkman, Greg; Duran, Phillip; Janssen, Mark; Denholm, Paul

    2018-02-01

    We evaluate how fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and precursor emissions could be reduced if 17% of electricity generation was replaced with solar photovoltaics (PV) in the Eastern United States. Electricity generation is simulated using GridView, then used to scale electricity-sector emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) from an existing gridded inventory of air emissions. This approach offers a novel method to leverage advanced electricity simulations with state-of-the-art emissions inventories, without necessitating recalculation of emissions for each facility. The baseline and perturbed emissions are input to the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ version 4.7.1) for a full accounting of time- and space-varying air quality changes associated with the 17% PV scenario. These results offer a high-value opportunity to evaluate the reduced-form AVoided Emissions and geneRation Tool (AVERT), while using AVERT to test the sensitivity of results to changing base-years and levels of solar integration. We find that average NOX and SO2 emissions across the region decrease 20% and 15%, respectively. PM2.5 concentrations decreased on average 4.7% across the Eastern U.S., with nitrate (NO3-) PM2.5 decreasing 3.7% and sulfate (SO42-) PM2.5 decreasing 9.1%. In the five largest cities in the region, we find that the most polluted days show the most significant PM2.5 decrease under the 17% PV generation scenario, and that the greatest benefits are accrued to cities in or near the Ohio River Valley. We find summer health benefits from reduced PM2.5 exposure estimated as 1424 avoided premature deaths (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 284 deaths, 2 732 deaths) or a health savings of $13.1 billion (95% CI: $0.6 billion, $43.9 billion) These results highlight the potential for renewable energy as a tool for air quality managers to support current and future health-based air quality regulations.

  2. Managing Increasing Complexity in Undergraduate Digital Media Design Education: The Impact and Benefits of Multidisciplinary Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischmann, Katja; Daniel, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Increasing complexity is one of the most pertinent issues when discussing the role and future of design, designers and their education. The evolving nature of digital media technology has resulted in a profession in a state of flux with increasingly complex communication and design problems. The ability to collaborate and interact with other…

  3. Elevated paternal glucocorticoid exposure modifies memory retention in female offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeshurun, Shlomo; Rogers, Jake; Short, Annabel K; Renoir, Thibault; Pang, Terence Y; Hannan, Anthony J

    2017-09-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that behavioral traits are subject to transgenerational modification by paternal environmental factors. We previously reported on the transgenerational influences of increased paternal stress hormone levels on offspring anxiety and depression-related behaviors. Here, we investigated whether offspring sociability and cognition are also influenced by paternal stress. Adult C57BL/6J male mice were treated with corticosterone (CORT; 25mg/L) for four weeks prior to paired-matings to generate F1 offspring. Paternal CORT treatment was associated with decreased body weights of female offspring and a marked reduction of the male offspring. There were no differences in social behavior of adult F1 offspring in the three-chamber social interaction test. Despite male offspring of CORT-treated fathers displaying hyperactivity in the Y-maze, there was no observable difference in short-term spatial working memory. Spatial learning and memory testing in the Morris water maze revealed that female, but not male, F1 offspring of CORT-treated fathers had impaired memory retention. We used our recently developed methodology to analyze the spatial search strategy of the mice during the learning trials and determined that the impairment could not be attributed to underlying differences in search strategy. These results provide evidence for the impact of paternal corticosterone administration on offspring cognition and complement the cumulative knowledge of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of acquired traits in rodents and humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Health benefits of increased walking for sedentary, generally healthy older adults: using longitudinal data to approximate an intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehr, Paula; Hirsch, Calvin

    2010-09-01

    Older adults are often advised to walk more, but randomized trials have not conclusively established the benefits of walking in this age group. Typical analyses based on observational data may have biased results. Here, we propose a "limited-bias," more interpretable estimate of the health benefits to sedentary healthy older adults of walking more, using longitudinal data from the Cardiovascular Health Study. The number of city blocks walked per week, collected annually, was classified as sedentary (or=28). Analysis was restricted to persons sedentary and healthy in the first 2 years. In Year 3, some became more active (the treatment groups). Self-rated health at Year 5 (follow-up) was regressed on walking at Year 3, with additional covariates from Year 2, when all were sedentary. At follow-up, 83.5% of those active at baseline had excellent, very good, or good self-rated health, as compared with 63.9% of the sedentary, an apparent benefit of 19.6 percentage points. After covariate adjustment, the limited-bias estimate of the benefit was 11.2 percentage points (95% confidence interval 3.7-18.6). Ten different outcome measures showed a benefit, ranging from 5 to 11 percentage points. Estimates from other study designs were smaller, less interpretable, and potentially more biased. In longitudinal studies where walking and health are ascertained at every wave, limited-bias estimates can provide better estimates of the benefits of walking. A surprisingly small increase in walking was associated with meaningful health benefits.

  5. Increase in neurogenesis and behavioural benefit after chronic fluoxetine treatment in Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Anders Bue; Flagstad, P; Kristjansen, P E G

    2008-01-01

    Disturbances in hippocampal neurogenesis may be involved in the pathophysiology of depression and it has been argued that an increase in the generation of new nerve cells in the hippocampus is involved in the mechanism of action of antidepressants....

  6. The Costs and Benefits of Increasing the Minimum Service Requirement for NROTC Graduates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sankes, Karen J

    2008-01-01

    On 9 June 2008, during the Future Years Defense Program Officer Accessions Brief, the Chief of Naval Personnel requested more information on increasing the Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps (NROTC...

  7. Altered morphology of liver and pancreas tissues of offsprings of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results shopwed growth retardation of the offsprings, micromorphological changes in tissues such as liver (genernalized apoptotic processes and hepatocellular necrosis) and pancreas (increased islet cells density and scattered acinar hyperplasia with solid cellular area) in the offsprings of the female albino rats that ...

  8. The Dutch Bipolar Offspring Study : 12-Year Follow-Up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesman, Esther; Nolen, Willem A.; Reichart, Catrien G.; Wals, Marjolein; Hillegers, Manon N. J.

    Objective: Offspring of bipolar parents have a genetically increased risk of developing mood disorders. In a longitudinal study, the authors followed a bipolar offspring cohort from adolescence into adulthood to determine the onset, prevalence, and early course of mood disorders and other

  9. Fungi benefit from two decades of increased nutrient availability in tundra heath soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinnan, Riikka; Michelsen, Anders; Bååth, Erland

    2013-01-01

    If microbial degradation of carbon substrates in arctic soil is stimulated by climatic warming, this would be a significant positive feedback on global change. With data from a climate change experiment in Northern Sweden we show that warming and enhanced soil nutrient availability, which is a predicted long-term consequence of climatic warming and mimicked by fertilization, both increase soil microbial biomass. However, while fertilization increased the relative abundance of fungi, warming caused only a minimal shift in the microbial community composition based on the phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and neutral lipid fatty acid (NLFA) profiles. The function of the microbial community was also differently affected, as indicated by stable isotope probing of PLFA and NLFA. We demonstrate that two decades of fertilization have favored fungi relative to bacteria, and increased the turnover of complex organic compounds such as vanillin, while warming has had no such effects. Furthermore, the NLFA-to-PLFA ratio for (13)C-incorporation from acetate increased in warmed plots but not in fertilized ones. Thus, fertilization cannot be used as a proxy for effects on warming in arctic tundra soils. Furthermore, the different functional responses suggest that the biomass increase found in both fertilized and warmed plots was mediated via different mechanisms.

  10. Fungi benefit from two decades of increased nutrient availability in tundra heath soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riikka Rinnan

    Full Text Available If microbial degradation of carbon substrates in arctic soil is stimulated by climatic warming, this would be a significant positive feedback on global change. With data from a climate change experiment in Northern Sweden we show that warming and enhanced soil nutrient availability, which is a predicted long-term consequence of climatic warming and mimicked by fertilization, both increase soil microbial biomass. However, while fertilization increased the relative abundance of fungi, warming caused only a minimal shift in the microbial community composition based on the phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA and neutral lipid fatty acid (NLFA profiles. The function of the microbial community was also differently affected, as indicated by stable isotope probing of PLFA and NLFA. We demonstrate that two decades of fertilization have favored fungi relative to bacteria, and increased the turnover of complex organic compounds such as vanillin, while warming has had no such effects. Furthermore, the NLFA-to-PLFA ratio for (13C-incorporation from acetate increased in warmed plots but not in fertilized ones. Thus, fertilization cannot be used as a proxy for effects on warming in arctic tundra soils. Furthermore, the different functional responses suggest that the biomass increase found in both fertilized and warmed plots was mediated via different mechanisms.

  11. Fungi benefit from two decades of increased nutrient availability in tundra heath soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinnan, Riikka; Michelsen, Anders; Bååth, Erland

    2013-01-01

    If microbial degradation of carbon substrates in arctic soil is stimulated by climatic warming, this would be a significant positive feedback on global change. With data from a climate change experiment in Northern Sweden we show that warming and enhanced soil nutrient availability, which...... is a predicted long-term consequence of climatic warming and mimicked by fertilization, both increase soil microbial biomass. However, while fertilization increased the relative abundance of fungi, warming caused only a minimal shift in the microbial community composition based on the phospholipid fatty acid...... of complex organic compounds such as vanillin, while warming has had no such effects. Furthermore, the NLFA-to-PLFA ratio for (13)C-incorporation from acetate increased in warmed plots but not in fertilized ones. Thus, fertilization cannot be used as a proxy for effects on warming in arctic tundra soils...

  12. Increased benefit of alteplase in patients with ischemic stroke and a high body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ridder, Inger; den Hertog, Heleen; van Gemert, Maarten; Dippel, Diederik; van der Worp, Bart

    2013-01-01

    In observational studies, a high body temperature has been associated with unfavorable outcome. In in vitro studies, the fibrinolytic activity of alteplase decreased 5% per degree Celsius reduction in temperature. The modifying effect of body temperature on treatment with alteplase in patients with acute ischemic stroke is unclear. We assessed the influence of baseline body temperature on the effect of alteplase on functional outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke, included in the Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) in Stroke (PAIS) trial. PAIS was a randomized, double-blind clinical trial to assess the effect of high-dose paracetamol on functional outcome in patients with acute stroke. For this study, we selected all patients with ischemic stroke and randomization within 6 h of symptom onset. We estimated the effect of treatment with alteplase on the modified Rankin Scale score at 3 months with ordinal logistic regression, stratified by baseline body temperature. We made adjustments for confounding factors and expressed associations as adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We also tested for interaction between treatment with alteplase and body temperature. We included 647 of the 1,400 patients in PAIS in our study. Treatment with alteplase was associated with improved functional outcome at 3 months (aOR 1.51, 95% CI 1.09-2.08). In the 286 patients (44%) with a baseline body temperature of 37.0°C or higher, alteplase was associated with a larger effect (aOR 2.13, 95% CI 1.28-3.45) than in patients with a temperature below 37.0°C (aOR 1.11, 95% CI 0.71-1.69). A test for interaction between body temperature and alteplase did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.18). Patients with ischemic stroke and a high body temperature may have a larger benefit of treatment with alteplase than patients with lower body temperatures. These findings are in line with those from in vitro studies, in which lowering temperature decreased the fibrinolytic

  13. Increasing physical activity and exercise in lung cancer: reviewing safety, benefits, and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bade, Brett C; Thomas, D David; Scott, JoAnn B; Silvestri, Gerard A

    2015-06-01

    Lung cancer continues to be a difficult disease frequently diagnosed in late stages with a high mortality and symptom burden. In part because of frequent lung comorbidity, even lung cancer survivors often remain symptomatic and functionally limited. Though targeted therapy continues to increase treatment options for advanced-stage disease, symptom burden remains high with few therapeutic options. In the last several decades, exercise and physical activity have arisen as therapeutic options for obstructive lung disease and lung cancer. To date, exercise has been shown to reduce symptoms, increase exercise tolerance, improve quality of life, and potentially reduce length of stay and postoperative complications. Multiple small trials have been performed in perioperative non-small-cell lung cancer patients, although fewer studies are available for patients with advanced-stage disease. Despite the increased interest in this subject over the last few years, a validated exercise regimen has not been established for perioperative or advanced-stage disease. Clinicians underutilize exercise and pulmonary rehabilitation as a therapy, in part because of the lack of evidence-based consensus as to how and when to implement increasing physical activity. This review summarizes the existing evidence on exercise in lung cancer patients.

  14. Potential benefits of the increase in nuclear cooperation between Latin and North American countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Wilson J.; Soto-Urbina, Ligia M.; Cabral, Arnoldo S.

    1997-01-01

    Economic problems of Latin American countries are increasing the pressure on the world's environmental health. Therefore, it is necessary to create efficient means to support fast and environmentally safe development efforts in the region. The objective of this work is to stress the importance of nuclear technology cooperation between American countries as an important means to foster economic and social growth. Scientific production in Brazil and other Latin American countries has not increased significantly in the last decades, and modern technology is only available to a small fraction of the population. To ameliorate this problem it is necessary to improve technological cooperation throughout the american continent, which will be facilitated by the existing scientific capacity available in some Latin American universities and laboratories. Small and big countries alike need to establish their share in the cooperative effort to reduce present day technology hazards. (author)

  15. Gradually Increased Training Intensity Benefits Rehabilitation Outcome after Stroke by BDNF Upregulation and Stress Suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical training is necessary for effective rehabilitation in the early poststroke period. Animal studies commonly use fixed training intensity throughout rehabilitation and without adapting it to the animals' recovered motor ability. This study investigated the correlation between training intensity and rehabilitation efficacy by using a focal ischemic stroke rat model. Eighty male Sprague-Dawley rats were induced with middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion surgery. Sixty rats with successful stroke were then randomly assigned into four groups: control (CG, n=15, low intensity (LG, n=15, gradually increased intensity (GIG, n=15, and high intensity (HG, n=15. Behavioral tests were conducted daily to evaluate motor function recovery. Stress level and neural recovery were evaluated via plasma corticosterone and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF concentration, respectively. GIG rats significantly (P<0.05 recovered motor function and produced higher hippocampal BDNF (112.87 ± 25.18 ng/g. GIG and LG rats exhibited similar stress levels (540.63 ± 117.40 nM/L and 508.07 ± 161.30 nM/L, resp., which were significantly lower (P<0.05 than that (716.90 ± 156.48 nM/L of HG rats. Training with gradually increased intensity achieved better recovery with lower stress. Our observations indicate that a training protocol that includes gradually increasing training intensity should be considered in both animal and clinical studies for better stroke recovery.

  16. Maternal Sevoflurane Exposure Causes Abnormal Development of Fetal Prefrontal Cortex and Induces Cognitive Dysfunction in Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruixue Song

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal sevoflurane exposure during pregnancy is associated with increased risk for behavioral deficits in offspring. Several studies indicated that neurogenesis abnormality may be responsible for the sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity, but the concrete impact of sevoflurane on fetal brain development remains poorly understood. We aimed to investigate whether maternal sevoflurane exposure caused learning and memory impairment in offspring through inducing abnormal development of the fetal prefrontal cortex (PFC. Pregnant mice at gestational day 15.5 received 2.5% sevoflurane for 6 h. Learning function of the offspring was evaluated with the Morris water maze test at postnatal day 30. Brain tissues of fetal mice were subjected to immunofluorescence staining to assess differentiation, proliferation, and cell cycle dynamics of the fetal PFC. We found that maternal sevoflurane anesthesia impaired learning ability in offspring through inhibiting deep-layer immature neuron output and neuronal progenitor replication. With the assessment of cell cycle dynamics, we established that these effects were mediated through cell cycle arrest in neural progenitors. Our research has provided insights into the cell cycle-related mechanisms by which maternal sevoflurane exposure can induce neurodevelopmental abnormalities and learning dysfunction and appeals people to consider the neurotoxicity of anesthetics when considering the benefits and risks of nonobstetric surgical procedures.

  17. Experimental evidence for offspring learning in parent-offspring communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedar, H; Rodríguez-Gironés, M A; Yedvab, S; Winkler, D W; Lotem, A

    2000-09-07

    The offspring of birds and mammals solicit food from their parents by a combination of movements and vocalizations that have come to be known collectively as 'begging'. Recently, begging has most often been viewed as an honest signal of offspring need. Yet, if offspring learn to adjust their begging efforts to the level that rewards them most, begging intensities may also reflect offsprings' past experience rather than their precise current needs. Here we show that bird nestlings with equal levels of need can learn to beg at remarkably different levels. These experiments with hand-raised house sparrows (Passer domesticus) indicated that chicks learn to modify begging levels within a few hours. Moreover, we found that the begging postures of hungry chicks in natural nests are correlated with the average postures that had previously yielded them parental feedings. Such learning challenges parental ability to assess offspring needs and may require that, in response, parents somehow filter out learned differences in offspring signals.

  18. Increasing personal exemption of fixed income earners: A cost-benefit analysis on government revenues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Maquiling

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Personal exemption (PE was one of the remedies of the government to offset the burden of taxation imposed to its sovereignty. In the Philippines, a motion to increase the PE has already been made by lawmakers, and this prompted the researchers to conduct a study on the effect of this disposable income of fixed income earners on their spending pattern on identified goods and services to VAT and other taxes collected by the government. The study made use of descriptive-survey method given to 100 random respondents earning fixed income in the City of Davao, Philippines. The study determined that the respondents’ age, civil status, sex, and number of qualified dependents affects her/his spending pattern. Married people spend more on basic commodities than single people, male spends more alcohol and tobacco than the female, zero dependents spends more on recreation than more dependents and there is a decrease of spending in recreation as people aged. Moreover, the survey revealed that implementing additional PE will decrease direct income tax of the government. However, forty percent of this will return in the form of indirect taxes since respondents have lower marginal propensity to save than their marginal propensity to consume, it results in a positive impact in the economy as a whole. This is done through the use of the concept of the Tax Cut Multiplier (m[tax]= -MPC/MPS effect. Given the prospective increase in PE, consumers spend their additional disposable income on basic commodities, additional clothing, recreation and excises taxed products, among others.

  19. Maternal Fat Feeding Augments Offspring Nephron Endowment in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey Hokke

    Full Text Available Increasing consumption of a high fat 'Western' diet has led to a growing number of pregnancies complicated by maternal obesity. Maternal overnutrition and obesity have health implications for offspring, yet little is known about their effects on offspring kidney development and renal function. Female C57Bl6 mice were fed a high fat diet (HFD, 21% fat or matched normal fat diet (NFD, 6% fat for 6 weeks prior to pregnancy and throughout gestation and lactation. HFD dams were overweight and glucose intolerant prior to mating but not in late gestation. Offspring of NFD and HFD dams had similar body weights at embryonic day (E15.5, E18.5 and at postnatal day (PN21. HFD offspring had normal ureteric tree development and nephron number at E15.5. However, using unbiased stereology, kidneys of HFD offspring were found to have 20-25% more nephrons than offspring of NFD dams at E18.5 and PN21. Offspring of HFD dams with body weight and glucose profiles similar to NFD dams prior to pregnancy also had an elevated nephron endowment. At 9 months of age, adult offspring of HFD dams displayed mild fasting hyperglycaemia but similar body weights to NFD offspring. Renal function and morphology, measured by transcutaneous clearance of FITC-sinistrin and stereology respectively, were normal. This study demonstrates that maternal fat feeding augments offspring nephron endowment with no long-term consequences for offspring renal health. Future studies assessing the effects of a chronic stressor on adult mice with augmented nephron number are warranted, as are studies investigating the molecular mechanisms that result in high nephron endowment.

  20. When it is costly to have a caring mother: food limitation erases the benefits of parental care in earwigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Joël; Kölliker, Mathias

    2012-08-23

    The aggregation of parents with offspring is generally associated with different forms of care that improve offspring survival at potential costs to parents. Under poor environments, the limited amount of resources available can increase the level of competition among family members and consequently lead to adaptive changes in parental investment. However, it remains unclear as to what extent such changes modify offspring fitness, particularly when offspring can survive without parents such as in the European earwig, Forficula auricularia. Here, we show that under food restriction, earwig maternal presence decreased offspring survival until adulthood by 43 per cent. This effect was independent of sibling competition and was expressed after separation from the female, indicating lasting detrimental effects. The reduced benefits of maternal presence on offspring survival were not associated with higher investment in future reproduction, suggesting a condition-dependent effect of food restriction on mothers and local mother-offspring competition for food. Overall, these findings demonstrate for the first time a long-term negative effect of maternal presence on offspring survival in a species with maternal care, and highlight the importance of food availability in the early evolution of family life.

  1. Who benefits from increased service utilisation? Examining the distributional effects of payment for performance in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binyaruka, Peter; Robberstad, Bjarne; Torsvik, Gaute; Borghi, Josephine

    2018-01-29

    Payment for performance (P4P) strategies, which provide financial incentives to health workers and/or facilities for reaching pre-defined performance targets, can improve healthcare utilisation and quality. P4P may also reduce inequalities in healthcare use and access by enhancing universal access to care, for example, through reducing the financial barriers to accessing care. However, P4P may also enhance inequalities in healthcare if providers cherry-pick the easier-to-reach patients to meet their performance targets. In this study, we examine the heterogeneity of P4P effects on service utilisation across population subgroups and its implications for inequalities in Tanzania. We used household data from an evaluation of a P4P programme in Tanzania. We surveyed about 3000 households with women who delivered in the last 12 months prior to the interview from seven intervention and four comparison districts in January 2012 and a similar number of households in 13 months later. The household data were used to generate the population subgroups and to measure the incentivised service utilisation outcomes. We focused on two outcomes that improved significantly under the P4P, i.e. institutional delivery rate and the uptake of antimalarials for pregnant women. We used a difference-in-differences linear regression model to estimate the effect of P4P on utilisation outcomes across the different population subgroups. P4P led to a significant increase in the rate of institutional deliveries among women in poorest and in middle wealth status households, but not among women in least poor households. However, the differential effect was marginally greater among women in the middle wealth households compared to women in the least poor households (p = 0.094). The effect of P4P on institutional deliveries was also significantly higher among women in rural districts compared to women in urban districts (p = 0.028 for differential effect), and among uninsured women than

  2. Benefits of supplementing an industrial waste anaerobic digester with energy crops for increased biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nges, Ivo Achu; Escobar, Federico; Fu Xinmei; Björnsson, Lovisa

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► This study demonstrates the feasibility of co-digestion food industrial waste with energy crops. ► Laboratory batch co-digestion led to improved methane yield and carbon to nitrogen ratio as compared to mono-digestion of industrial waste. ► Co-digestion was also seen as a means of degrading energy crops with nutrients addition as crops are poor in nutrients. ► Batch co-digestion methane yields were used to predict co-digestion methane yield in full scale operation. ► It was concluded that co-digestion led an over all economically viable process and ensured a constant supply of feedstock. - Abstract: Currently, there is increasing competition for waste as feedstock for the growing number of biogas plants. This has led to fluctuation in feedstock supply and biogas plants being operated below maximum capacity. The feasibility of supplementing a protein/lipid-rich industrial waste (pig manure, slaughterhouse waste, food processing and poultry waste) mesophilic anaerobic digester with carbohydrate-rich energy crops (hemp, maize and triticale) was therefore studied in laboratory scale batch and continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) with a view to scale-up to a commercial biogas process. Co-digesting industrial waste and crops led to significant improvement in methane yield per ton of feedstock and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio as compared to digestion of the industrial waste alone. Biogas production from crops in combination with industrial waste also avoids the need for micronutrients normally required in crop digestion. The batch co-digestion methane yields were used to predict co-digestion methane yield in full scale operation. This was done based on the ratio of methane yields observed for laboratory batch and CSTR experiments compared to full scale CSTR digestion of industrial waste. The economy of crop-based biogas production is limited under Swedish conditions; therefore, adding crops to existing industrial waste digestion could be a viable

  3. At what extent the benefits of introducing alternative light-duty vehicles offset those of increasing the buses average occupancy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Carla

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Characterization of fuel consumption, emissions and daily distance, of road fleet by probability distribution functions. • The co-benefit of congestion level decrease due to mode-shifting from LDV to bus is explored. • A potential decrease in NOx + PM of 23% is foreseen, by 50% LDV replacement or mode-shifting (bus occupancy 40–80%). • A decrease of CO 2 is foreseen as being 20%, by 50% LDV replacement or mode-shifting (bus occupancy 30–60%). • Electricity mix relaying on renewables will increase the window were the energy and CO 2 benefits match to 35%. - Abstract: This paper quantifies the energy and emissions benefits of introducing electric drive vehicles (pure electric, plug-in hybrid and fuel cell) on a conventional light-duty fleet (LDV) versus promoting the intensification of the public transportation use by means of mode-shifting and increased average bus occupancy. The impact is assessed in terms of energy, local pollutants, HC, CO, NOx, PM, and global emissions of CO 2 . The specific fleet of Portugal is used as case study. This fleet has roughly 6 million LDV (30% diesel, 70% gasoline) and 15,000 buses, with a mobility indicator of 106 thousand million passengerxkm (pkm). Probability density functions for energy consumption and emissions are derived for conventional, electric drive vehicles, and buses, avoiding considering one representative vehicle of each. Scenarios of 30–50% conventional fleet replacement is compared against scenarios of bus occupancy increase from 20% to 80%. The increased bus occupancy is made by mode-shifting from conventional LDV vehicles keeping the mobility pkm and bus supply. The co-benefit of congestion level decrease due to mode-shifting is explored. The effect of different electricity mixes is also analyzed. The methodology used allowed obtaining likelihood functions for energy consumption and emissions for each scenario and offset areas where the benefits match. The use of the methodology for

  4. Maternal Age at Holocaust Exposure and Maternal PTSD Independently Influence Urinary Cortisol Levels in Adult Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Heather N; Bierer, Linda M; Lehrner, Amy; Makotkine, Iouri; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Ninety-five Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24 h urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the parental PTSD questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased risk for stress-related pathology.

  5. Maternal age at Holocaust exposure and maternal PTSD independently influence urinary cortisol levels in adult offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather N Bader

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal PTSD appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: 95 Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24 hour urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the Parental PTSD Questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusions: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased risk for stress

  6. Maternal Age at Holocaust Exposure and Maternal PTSD Independently Influence Urinary Cortisol Levels in Adult Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Heather N.; Bierer, Linda M.; Lehrner, Amy; Makotkine, Iouri; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: Ninety-five Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24 h urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the parental PTSD questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusion: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased

  7. Increased Release of Mercury from Dental Amalgam Fillings due to Maternal Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields as a Possible Mechanism for the High Rates of Autism in the Offspring: Introducing a Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Gh; Haghani, M; Rastegarian, N; Zarei, S; Mortazavi, S M J

    2016-03-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), factors such as growing electricity demand, ever-advancing technologies and changes in social behaviour have led to steadily increasing exposure to man-made electromagnetic fields.  Dental amalgam fillings are among the major sources of exposure to elemental mercury vapour in the general population. Although it was previously believed that low levels are mercury (i.g. release of mercury from dental amalgam) is not hazardous, now numerous data indicate that even very low doses of mercury cause toxicity. There are some evidence indicating that perinatal exposure to mercury is significantly associated with an increased risk of developmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Furthermore, mercury can decrease the levels of neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, noreprenephrine, and acetylcholine in the brain and cause neurological problems. On the other hand, a strong positive correlation between maternal and cord blood mercury levels is found in some studies. We have previously shown that exposure to MRI or microwave radiation emitted by common mobile phones can lead to increased release of mercury from dental amalgam fillings. Moreover, when we investigated the effects of MRI machines with stronger magnetic fields, our previous findings were confirmed. As a strong association between exposure to electromagnetic fields and mercury level has been found in our previous studies, our findings can lead us to this conclusion that maternal exposure to electromagnetic fields in mothers with dental amalgam fillings may cause elevated levels of mercury and trigger the increase in autism rates. Further studies are needed to have a better understanding of the possible role of the increased mercury level after exposure to electromagnetic fields and the rate of autism spectrum disorders in the offspring.

  8. Examining the Benefits and Barriers of Instructional Gardening Programs to Increase Fruit and Vegetable Intake among Preschool-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kristen L; Brann, Lynn S

    2017-01-01

    Research exists on using instructional gardening programs with school age children as a means of improving dietary quality and for obesity prevention. This article examines the potential use of instructional gardens in childcare settings to improving fruit and vegetable intake in young children. A qualitative study was conducted with childcare providers. Participants ( n = 20) were recruited via e-mails, letters, and follow-up phone calls. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded to identify themes within two areas (1) childcare providers perceptions of children's fruit and vegetable consumption and (2) components necessary to initiate or improve instructional gardening programs. Themes associated with provider's perceptions of child fruit and vegetable consumption included benefits of consumption, willingness to try fruits and vegetables, meeting recommendations, and influence of the home and childcare environments on child eating. Benefits, barriers, and resources needed were identified as themes related to starting or improving instructional gardening programs. Benefits to gardening with preschoolers are consistent with those found in school-age populations. While several barriers exist, resources are available to childcare providers to address these barriers. Increased knowledge and awareness of resources are necessary to improve the success of gardening programs in the childcare setting with the goal of improving child diet quality.

  9. Examining the Benefits and Barriers of Instructional Gardening Programs to Increase Fruit and Vegetable Intake among Preschool-Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen L. Davis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Research exists on using instructional gardening programs with school age children as a means of improving dietary quality and for obesity prevention. This article examines the potential use of instructional gardens in childcare settings to improving fruit and vegetable intake in young children. A qualitative study was conducted with childcare providers. Participants (n=20 were recruited via e-mails, letters, and follow-up phone calls. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded to identify themes within two areas (1 childcare providers perceptions of children’s fruit and vegetable consumption and (2 components necessary to initiate or improve instructional gardening programs. Themes associated with provider’s perceptions of child fruit and vegetable consumption included benefits of consumption, willingness to try fruits and vegetables, meeting recommendations, and influence of the home and childcare environments on child eating. Benefits, barriers, and resources needed were identified as themes related to starting or improving instructional gardening programs. Benefits to gardening with preschoolers are consistent with those found in school-age populations. While several barriers exist, resources are available to childcare providers to address these barriers. Increased knowledge and awareness of resources are necessary to improve the success of gardening programs in the childcare setting with the goal of improving child diet quality.

  10. Examining the Benefits and Barriers of Instructional Gardening Programs to Increase Fruit and Vegetable Intake among Preschool-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kristen L.

    2017-01-01

    Research exists on using instructional gardening programs with school age children as a means of improving dietary quality and for obesity prevention. This article examines the potential use of instructional gardens in childcare settings to improving fruit and vegetable intake in young children. A qualitative study was conducted with childcare providers. Participants (n = 20) were recruited via e-mails, letters, and follow-up phone calls. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded to identify themes within two areas (1) childcare providers perceptions of children's fruit and vegetable consumption and (2) components necessary to initiate or improve instructional gardening programs. Themes associated with provider's perceptions of child fruit and vegetable consumption included benefits of consumption, willingness to try fruits and vegetables, meeting recommendations, and influence of the home and childcare environments on child eating. Benefits, barriers, and resources needed were identified as themes related to starting or improving instructional gardening programs. Benefits to gardening with preschoolers are consistent with those found in school-age populations. While several barriers exist, resources are available to childcare providers to address these barriers. Increased knowledge and awareness of resources are necessary to improve the success of gardening programs in the childcare setting with the goal of improving child diet quality. PMID:28607563

  11. Clinical, demographic, and familial correlates of bipolar spectrum disorders among offspring of parents with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Benjamin I; Shamseddeen, Wael; Axelson, David A; Kalas, Cathy; Monk, Kelly; Brent, David A; Kupfer, David J; Birmaher, Boris

    2010-04-01

    Despite increased risk, most offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BP) do not manifest BP. The identification of risk factors for BP among offspring could improve preventive and treatment strategies. We examined this topic in the Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring Study (BIOS). Subjects included 388 offspring, ages 7-17 years, of 233 parents with BP-I or BP-II (via the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV). Offspring diagnoses were determined using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children, Present and Lifetime version (KSADS-PL). Analyses focused on the 41 offspring who were diagnosed with BP-I (N = 9), BP-II (N = 5), or BP-NOS (N = 27). Offspring with BP had proband parents who were significantly younger at the time of their birth, were more likely to be female, and had lower socio-economic status, versus proband parents of offspring without BP. Parental clinical variables and obstetric variables were not significantly associated with BP among offspring. History of physical and/or sexual abuse, exposure to antidepressants, and exposure to stimulants was significantly greater among offspring with versus without BP. There was significantly greater prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety disorders, oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD), and exposure to stimulants and antidepressants among offspring with versus without BP. Variables significantly associated with BP among offspring in regression analyses were as follows: older offspring age, younger parent age at birth, offspring anxiety disorders and ODD/CD, and biological coparent with BP. History of anxiety and/or disruptive behavior disorders, as well as presence of bi-lineal parental BP, is associated with elevated risk of bipolar spectrum disorders among offspring. If replicated prospectively, these findings could have implications for the diagnosis and treatment of psychopathology among BP offspring.

  12. Maternal dietary restriction alters offspring's sleep homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki Shimizu

    Full Text Available Nutritional state in the gestation period influences fetal growth and development. We hypothesized that undernutrition during gestation would affect offspring sleep architecture and/or homeostasis. Pregnant female mice were assigned to either control (fed ad libitum; AD or 50% dietary restriction (DR groups from gestation day 12 to parturition. After parturition, dams were fed AD chow. After weaning, the pups were also fed AD into adulthood. At adulthood (aged 8-9 weeks, we carried out sleep recordings. Although offspring mice displayed a significantly reduced body weight at birth, their weights recovered three days after birth. Enhancement of electroencephalogram (EEG slow wave activity (SWA during non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep was observed in the DR mice over a 24-hour period without changing the diurnal pattern or amounts of wake, NREM, or rapid eye movement (REM sleep. In addition, DR mice also displayed an enhancement of EEG-SWA rebound after a 6-hour sleep deprivation and a higher threshold for waking in the face of external stimuli. DR adult offspring mice exhibited small but significant increases in the expression of hypothalamic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (Pparα and brain-specific carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (Cpt1c mRNA, two genes involved in lipid metabolism. Undernutrition during pregnancy may influence sleep homeostasis, with offspring exhibiting greater sleep pressure.

  13. Exploiting Co-Benefits of Increased Rice Production and Reduced Greenhouse Gas Emission through Optimized Crop and Soil Management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning An

    Full Text Available Meeting the future food security challenge without further sacrificing environmental integrity requires transformative changes in managing the key biophysical determinants of increasing agronomic productivity and reducing the environmental footprint. Here, we focus on Chinese rice production and quantitatively address this concern by conducting 403 on-farm trials across diverse rice farming systems. Inherent soil productivity, management practices and rice farming type resulted in confounded and interactive effects on yield, yield gaps and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions (N2O, CH4 and CO2-equivalent with both trade-offs and compensating effects. Advances in nitrogen, water and crop management (Best Management Practices-BMPs helped closing existing yield gaps and resulted in a substantial reduction in CO2-equivalent emission of rice farming despite a tradeoff of increase N2O emission. However, inherent soil properties limited rice yields to a larger extent than previously known. Cultivating inherently better soil also led to lower GHG intensity (GHG emissions per unit yield. Neither adopting BMPs only nor improving soils with low or moderate productivity alone can adequately address the challenge of substantially increasing rice production while reducing the environmental footprint. A combination of both represents the most efficient strategy to harness the combined-benefits of enhanced production and mitigating climate change. Extrapolating from our farm data, this strategy could increase rice production in China by 18%, which would meet the demand for direct human consumption of rice by 2030. It would also reduce fertilizer nitrogen consumption by 22% and decrease CO2-equivalent emissions during the rice growing period by 7% compared with current farming practice continues. Benefits vary by rice-based cropping systems. Single rice systems have the largest food provision benefits due to its wider yield gap and total cultivated area, whereas double

  14. Exploiting Co-Benefits of Increased Rice Production and Reduced Greenhouse Gas Emission through Optimized Crop and Soil Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ning; Fan, Mingsheng; Zhang, Fusuo; Christie, Peter; Yang, Jianchang; Huang, Jianliang; Guo, Shiwei; Shi, Xiaojun; Tang, Qiyuan; Peng, Jianwei; Zhong, Xuhua; Sun, Yixiang; Lv, Shihua; Jiang, Rongfeng; Dobermann, Achim

    2015-01-01

    Meeting the future food security challenge without further sacrificing environmental integrity requires transformative changes in managing the key biophysical determinants of increasing agronomic productivity and reducing the environmental footprint. Here, we focus on Chinese rice production and quantitatively address this concern by conducting 403 on-farm trials across diverse rice farming systems. Inherent soil productivity, management practices and rice farming type resulted in confounded and interactive effects on yield, yield gaps and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (N2O, CH4 and CO2-equivalent) with both trade-offs and compensating effects. Advances in nitrogen, water and crop management (Best Management Practices-BMPs) helped closing existing yield gaps and resulted in a substantial reduction in CO2-equivalent emission of rice farming despite a tradeoff of increase N2O emission. However, inherent soil properties limited rice yields to a larger extent than previously known. Cultivating inherently better soil also led to lower GHG intensity (GHG emissions per unit yield). Neither adopting BMPs only nor improving soils with low or moderate productivity alone can adequately address the challenge of substantially increasing rice production while reducing the environmental footprint. A combination of both represents the most efficient strategy to harness the combined-benefits of enhanced production and mitigating climate change. Extrapolating from our farm data, this strategy could increase rice production in China by 18%, which would meet the demand for direct human consumption of rice by 2030. It would also reduce fertilizer nitrogen consumption by 22% and decrease CO2-equivalent emissions during the rice growing period by 7% compared with current farming practice continues. Benefits vary by rice-based cropping systems. Single rice systems have the largest food provision benefits due to its wider yield gap and total cultivated area, whereas double-rice system

  15. Mother-offspring associations in northern muriquis, Brachyteles hypoxanthus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolentino, Karynna; Roper, James J; Passos, Fernando C; Strier, Karen B

    2008-03-01

    Maternal care of offspring is ubiquitous among primates, but its duration varies across species due to factors such as dispersal patterns and social dynamics, which influence opportunities for and potential benefits of maternal investment in older offspring, respectively. We examined mother-offspring associations in wild northern muriquis (Brachyteles hypoxanthus), in which males are philopatric, females typically disperse before puberty, and social relationships among and between males and females are egalitarian. Associations were systematically recorded between ten mothers, each with two-six offspring in the study group, and all group members from August 2003-May 2004 at the RPPN-Feliciano Miguel Abdala in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Infants of both sexes received similarly high percentages of their mothers' association time. Mothers without infants also maintained strong associations with their youngest juvenile sons. Mothers did not spend consistently more time associating with either juvenile or adult sons than daughters. Our finding of non-preferential associations between muriqui mothers and their older male offspring suggests that extended maternal investment in offspring may be of minimal value in their egalitarian society compared with its value for species living in hierarchical societies.

  16. Parental psychopathology and offspring suicidality in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Guilherme; Borges, Rebeca; Medina Mora, Maria-Elena; Benjet, Corina; Nock, Matthew K

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the extent to which parental psychopathology may confer increased risk of suicide ideation and attempts among their offspring in Mexico. Data from a representative sample of 5,782 respondents participating in the Mexican National Comorbidity Survey (2001-2002) to examine the unique associations between parental psychopathology and offspring suicidality were used. Parental disorders (major depression, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, substance dependence, and antisocial personality disorder) were comorbid and after controlling for comorbidity and number of disorders only parental panic and antisocial personality disorder remained associated with ideation and attempts in the total sample. Those with more parental disorders were at increased risk of ideation and attempt, as well as increased risk to transition from suicide ideation to an attempt. These findings may help inform clinical and public health efforts aimed at suicide prevention in Mexico and other developing countries.

  17. OPTIMAL practice conditions enhance the benefits of gradually increasing error opportunities on retention of a stepping sequence task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levac, Danielle; Driscoll, Kate; Galvez, Jessica; Mercado, Kathleen; O'Neil, Lindsey

    2017-12-01

    acquisition had poorer retention performance, particularly for the decreasing choice (4-3-2-1) sequence (p group reported significantly higher overall motivation (p = .007, t(38) = 0.728, d = 0.248) on the IMI as compared to the autonomy-controlling group. Individual benefits of errorless learning and autonomy-supportive practice conditions, with an interaction effect for practice that begins errorless but adds increasing error opportunities over time, suggest that participants relied on implicit learning strategies for this full body task and that feedback about successes minimized errors and reduced their potential information-processing benefits. Subsequent work will continue to examine how assigning a positive versus a negative quality to error provision influences the benefits of errorful learning in a variety of tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Going for increased recycling. A social cost-benefit analysis; Inzetten op meer recycling. Een maatschappelijke kosten-batenanalyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warringa, G.E.A.; De Bruyn, M.; Bijleveld, M.M.

    2013-05-15

    While the environmental benefits of scenarios geared to increased recycling have been convincingly demonstrated by previous studies, the question arises whether such scenarios bring economic benefits, too. This study therefore assesses the main economic effects of increased recycling in the Netherlands, providing data that can be used to advance policy development in this area. To address the main issue we performed a social cost-benefit analysis (SCBA), a welfare-theory-based tool that can be used to chart the full range of economic impacts ('welfare impacts') of a project or policy intervention. In doing so, a broad definition of welfare is adopted, encompassing not only financial and economic consequences, but also environmental and employment impacts and so on. Using SimaPro, all the environmental interventions inventoried (including energy consumption, transport and recycling process emissions) were assessed for each individual material flow, with impacts being expressed as far as possible in monetary terms to enable comparison. The main social costs of increased recycling are the higher costs for local authorities associated with separate waste collection. There is also reduced revenue for waste incinerators, because more waste will need to be imported from abroad. Finally, there are the policy costs of incentives for increased recycling and extra efforts to induce citizens to separate their waste. The latter costs were not quantified. Over and against these costs are positive welfare impacts. The main benefits are environmental, expressed monetarily in the present study in terms of avoided damage costs for society as a whole and avoided measures for securing government reduction targets. In addition, the separated waste has a value, reflected in lower processing costs. Increased recycling also creates new jobs, while recycling firms generate more profit than waste incinerators. Finally, there are the benefits accruing from greater innovation and

  19. Altered Cortico-Striatal Connectivity in Offspring of Schizophrenia Patients Relative to Offspring of Bipolar Patients and Controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Solé-Padullés

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia (SZ and bipolar disorder (BD share clinical features, genetic risk factors and neuroimaging abnormalities. There is evidence of disrupted connectivity in resting state networks in patients with SZ and BD and their unaffected relatives. Resting state networks are known to undergo reorganization during youth coinciding with the period of increased incidence for both disorders. We therefore focused on characterizing resting state network connectivity in youth at familial risk for SZ or BD to identify alterations arising during this period. We measured resting-state functional connectivity in a sample of 106 youth, aged 7-19 years, comprising offspring of patients with SZ (N = 27, offspring of patients with BD (N = 39 and offspring of community control parents (N = 40. We used Independent Component Analysis to assess functional connectivity within the default mode, executive control, salience and basal ganglia networks and define their relationship to grey matter volume, clinical and cognitive measures. There was no difference in connectivity within any of the networks examined between offspring of patients with BD and offspring of community controls. In contrast, offspring of patients with SZ showed reduced connectivity within the left basal ganglia network compared to control offspring, and they showed a positive correlation between connectivity in this network and grey matter volume in the left caudate. Our findings suggest that dysconnectivity in the basal ganglia network is a robust correlate of familial risk for SZ and can be detected during childhood and adolescence.

  20. Maternal High-Fat-Diet Programs Rat Offspring Liver Fatty Acid Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Seet, Emily L.; Yee, Jennifer K.; Jellyman, Juanita K.; Han, Guang; Ross, Michael G.; Desai, Mina

    2015-01-01

    In offspring exposed in utero to a maternal diet high in fat (HF), we have previously demonstrated that despite similar birth weights, HF adult offspring at 6 months of age had significantly higher body weights, greater adiposity, and increased triacylglycerol (TAG) levels as compared to controls. We hypothesized that a maternal HF diet predisposes to offspring adiposity via a programmed increase in the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids in the liver and hence increased substrate availa...

  1. The evolutionary ecology of offspring size in marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Dustin J; Keough, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    Intraspecific variation in offspring size is of fundamental ecological and evolutionary importance. The level of provisioning an organism receives from its mother can have far reaching consequences for subsequent survival and performance. In marine systems, the traditional focus was on the remarkable variation in offspring size among species but there is increasing focus on variation in offspring size within species. Here we review the incidence and consequences of intraspecific offspring-size variation for marine invertebrates. Offspring size is remarkably variable within and among marine invertebrate populations. We examined patterns of variation in offspring size within populations using a meta-analysis of the available data for 102 species across 7 phyla. The average coefficient of variation in offspring size within populations is 9%, while some groups (e.g., direct developers) showed much more variation (15%), reflecting a fourfold difference between the largest and smallest offspring in any population. Offspring-size variation can have for reaching consequences. Offspring size affects every stage of a marine invertebrate's life history, even in species in which maternal provisioning accounts for only a small proportion of larval nutrition (i.e., planktotrophs). In species with external fertilization, larger eggs are larger targets for sperm and as such, the sperm environment may select for different egg sizes although debate continues over the evolutionary importance of such effects. Offspring size affects the planktonic period in many species with planktotrophic and lecithotrophic development, but we found that this effect is not universal. Indeed, much of the evidence for the effects of offspring size on the planktonic period is limited to the echinoids and in this group and other taxa there is variable evidence, suggesting further work is necessary. Post-metamorphic effects of offspring size were strong in species with non-feeding larvae and direct

  2. Postmating sexual selection favors males that sire offspring with low fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilde, T.; Foged, Anne; Schilling, Nadia

    2009-01-01

    Despite the costs of mating, females of most taxa mate with multiple males. Polyandrous females are hypothesized to gain genetic benefits for their offspring, but this assumes paternity bias favoring male genotypes that enhance offspring viability. We determined net male genetic effects on female...... results imply that sexually antagonistic adaptations have a major and unappreciated influence on male postmating fertilization success. Such genetic variation renders indirect genetic benefits an unlikely driver of the evolution of polyandry....

  3. Fitness consequences of female multiple mating: A direct test of indirect benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbosa Miguel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The observation that females mate multiply when males provide nothing but sperm - which sexual selection theory suggests is unlikely to be limiting - continues to puzzle evolutionary biologists. Here we test the hypothesis that multiple mating is prevalent under such circumstances because it enhances female fitness. We do this by allowing female Trinidadian guppies to mate with either a single male or with multiple males, and then tracking the consequences of these matings across two generations. Results Overall, multiply mated females produced 67% more F2 grand-offspring than singly mated females. These offspring, however, did not grow or mature faster, nor were they larger at birth, than F2 grand-offspring of singly mated females. Our results, however, show that multiple mating yields benefits to females in the form of an increase in the production of F1. The higher fecundity among multiply mated mothers was driven by greater production of sons but not daughters. However, contrary to expectation, individually, the offspring of multiply mated females do not grow at different rates than offspring of singly mated females, nor do any indirect fitness benefits or costs accrue to second-generation offspring. Conclusions The study provides strong evidence that multiple mating is advantageous to females, even when males contribute only sperm. This benefit is achieved through an increase in fecundity in the first generation, rather than through other fitness correlates such as size at birth, growth rate, time to sexual maturation and survival. Considered alongside previous work that female guppies can choose to mate with multiple partners, our results provide compelling evidence that direct fitness benefits underpin these mating decisions.

  4. Maternal obesity and neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlow, Andrea G

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence from both human epidemiologic and animal studies that prenatal and lactational exposure to maternal obesity and high-fat diet are associated with neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders in offspring. These disorders include cognitive impairment, autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, cerebral palsy, anxiety and depression, schizophrenia, and eating disorders. This review synthesizes human and animal data linking maternal obesity and high-fat diet consumption to abnormal fetal brain development and neurodevelopmental and psychiatric morbidity in offspring. In addition, it highlights key mechanisms by which maternal obesity and maternal diet might impact fetal and offspring neurodevelopment, including neuroinflammation; increased oxidative stress, dysregulated insulin, glucose, and leptin signaling; dysregulated serotonergic and dopaminergic signaling; and perturbations in synaptic plasticity. Finally, the review summarizes available evidence regarding investigational therapeutic approaches to mitigate the harmful effects of maternal obesity on fetal and offspring neurodevelopment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Caffeine synergizes with another coffee component to increase plasma GCSF: linkage to cognitive benefits in Alzheimer's mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chuanhai; Wang, Li; Lin, Xiaoyang; Mamcarz, Malgorzata; Zhang, Chi; Bai, Ge; Nong, Jasson; Sussman, Sam; Arendash, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Retrospective and prospective epidemiologic studies suggest that enhanced coffee/caffeine intake during aging reduces risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Underscoring this premise, our studies in AD transgenic mice show that long-term caffeine administration protects against cognitive impairment and reduces brain amyloid-β levels/deposition through suppression of both β- and γ-secretase. Because coffee contains many constituents in addition to caffeine that may provide cognitive benefits against AD, we examined effects of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee on plasma cytokines, comparing their effects to caffeine alone. In both AβPPsw+PS1 transgenic mice and non-transgenic littermates, acute i.p. treatment with caffeinated coffee greatly and specifically increased plasma levels of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (GCSF), IL-10, and IL-6. Neither caffeine solution alone (which provided high plasma caffeine levels) or decaffeinated coffee provided this effect, indicating that caffeine synergized with some as yet unidentified component of coffee to selectively elevate these three plasma cytokines. The increase in GCSF is particularly important because long-term treatment with coffee (but not decaffeinated coffee) enhanced working memory in a fashion that was associated only with increased plasma GCSF levels among all cytokines. Since we have previously reported that long-term GCSF treatment enhances cognitive performance in AD mice through three possible mechanisms (e.g., recruitment of microglia from bone marrow, synaptogenesis, and neurogenesis), the same mechanisms could be complimentary to caffeine's established ability to suppress Aβ production. We conclude that coffee may be the best source of caffeine to protect against AD because of a component in coffee that synergizes with caffeine to enhance plasma GCSF levels, resulting in multiple therapeutic actions against AD.

  6. Prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, adiposity, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR γ methylation in offspring, grand-offspring mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghai Yan

    Full Text Available Greater levels of prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH have been associated with childhood obesity in epidemiological studies. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear.We hypothesized that prenatal PAH over-exposure during gestation would lead to weight gain and increased fat mass in offspring and grand-offspring mice. Further, we hypothesized that altered adipose gene expression and DNA methylation in genes important to adipocyte differentiation would be affected.Pregnant dams were exposed to a nebulized PAH mixture versus negative control aerosol 5 days a week, for 3 weeks. Body weight was recorded from postnatal day (PND 21 through PND60. Body composition, adipose cell size, gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR γ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP α, cyclooxygenase (Cox-2, fatty acid synthase (FAS and adiponectin, and DNA methylation of PPAR γ, were assayed in both the offspring and grand-offspring adipose tissue.Offspring of dams exposed to greater PAH during gestation had increased weight, fat mass, as well as higher gene expression of PPAR γ, C/EBP α, Cox2, FAS and adiponectin and lower DNA methylation of PPAR γ. Similar differences in phenotype and DNA methylation extended through the grand-offspring mice.Greater prenatal PAH exposure was associated with increased weight, fat mass, adipose gene expression and epigenetic changes in progeny.

  7. The Benefits of Cement Augmentation of Pedicle Screw Fixation Are Increased in Osteoporotic Bone: A Finite Element Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenhai; Baran, George R; Garg, Hitesh; Betz, Randal R; Moumene, Missoum; Cahill, Patrick J

    2014-07-01

    Biomechanical study using a finite element model of a normal and osteoporotic lumbar vertebrae comparing resistance with axial pullout and bending forces on polymethylmethacrylate-augmented and non-augmented pedicle screws. To compare the effect of cement augmentation of pedicle screw fixation in normal and osteoporotic bone with 2 different techniques of cement delivery. Various clinical and biomechanical studies have addressed the benefits of cement augmentation of pedicle screws, but none have evaluated whether this effect is similar, magnified, or attenuated in osteoporotic bone compared with normal bone. In addition, no study has compared the biomechanical strength of augmented pedicle screws using cement delivery through the pedicle screw with delivery through a pilot hole. This study was funded by a grant from DePuy Synthes Spine. Normal and osteoporotic lumbar vertebrae with pedicle screws were simulated. The models were tested for screw pullout strength with and without cement augmentation. Two methods of cement delivery were also tested. Both methods were tested using 1 and 2.5 cm 3 volume of cement infiltrated in normal and osteoporotic bone. The increase in screw pullout force was proportionally greater in osteoporotic bone with equivalent volumes of cement delivered. The researchers found that 1 and 2.5 cm 3 of cement infiltrated bone volume resulted in an increase in pullout force by about 50% and 120% in normal bone, and by about 64% and 156% in osteoporotic bone, respectively. The delivery method had only a minimal effect on pullout force when 2.5 cm 3 of cement was injected (strength of pedicle screws, and this effect is proportionately greater in osteoporotic bone. Cement delivery through fenestrated screws and delivery through a pilot hole result in comparable pullout strength at higher cement volumes. Copyright © 2014 Scoliosis Research Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Teenage parents and their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, J

    1996-06-18

    Teenage parents are cast into adult roles before the role experimentation and identity development tasks of middle adolescence can be completed. Understanding the etiology of this social problem requires an ecological perspective encompassing individual characteristics, person-context variables, and societal factors such as race and social class. Risk factors identified in the literature on adolescent pregnancy in the US include: absence of a future orientation or aspirations, lack of assertiveness and interpersonal skills to control physical intimacy, low socioeconomic status and minority group membership, growing up in a single-parent family, a history of sexual abuse, five or more siblings, a sister or friend who became a teenage mother, lax parental supervision of dating and free time, low self-esteem, and dropping out or failing in school. The limited data on adolescent fathers suggest they have histories of substance use, delinquency, failure to graduate from high school, financial difficulty, and exposure to family violence. The offspring of adolescent parents show a higher incidence of developmental delays and mild mental retardation than children of adults and are at increased risk of child abuse and neglect. Teen parents raised in dysfunctional families tend to perpetuate destructive methods of child rearing and have unrealistic, age-inappropriate expectations for infants and toddlers. Teenage parents' lack of competence can be mitigated, however, by positive living arrangements, a supportive family of origin, peer support groups, quality child care, school-based services, and accurate information about parenting and child development.

  9. Teacher Research Programs: An Effective Form of Professional Development to Increase Student Achievement and Benefit the Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubner, J.

    2008-12-01

    development. Columbia University's teacher research program is a very effective form of professional development for pre- college science teachers and has a direct correlation to increased student motivation and achievement in science. The Program is premised on the beliefs that hands-on experience in the practice of science improves the quality and authenticity of science teaching, and that improved science teaching is correlated with increased student interest and achievement in science. The author will present the methodology of the program's evaluation citing statistically significant findings. The author will also show the economic benefits of teacher participation in a well-designed research program.

  10. Female promiscuity and maternally dependent offspring growth rates in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, Michael; Brooks, Robert C; Lemaître, Jean-François; Gaillard, Jean-Michel

    2014-04-01

    Conflicts between family members are expected to influence the duration and intensity of parental care. In mammals, the majority of this care occurs as resource transfer from mothers to offspring during gestation and lactation. Mating systems can have a strong influence on the severity of familial conflict--where female promiscuity is prevalent, conflict is expected to be higher between family members, causing offspring to demand more resources. If offspring are capable of manipulating their mothers and receive resources in proportion to their demands, resource transfer should increase with elevated promiscuity. We tested this prediction, unexplored across mammals, using a comparative approach. The total durations of gestation and lactation were not related to testes mass, a reliable proxy of female promiscuity across taxa. Offspring growth during gestation, however, and weaning mass, were positively correlated with testes mass, suggesting that offspring gain resources from their mothers at faster rates when familial conflict is greater. During gestation, the relationship between offspring growth and testes mass was also related to placenta morphology, with a stronger relationship between testes mass and growth observed in species with a less invasive placenta. Familial conflict could have a pervasive influence on patterns of parental care in mammals. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  11. Does major depressive disorder in parents predict specific fears and phobias in offspring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biel, Matthew G; Klein, Rachel G; Mannuzza, Salvatore; Roizen, Erica R; Truong, Nhan L; Roberson-Nay, Roxann; Pine, Daniel S

    2008-01-01

    Evidence suggests a relationship between parental depression and phobias in offspring as well as links between childhood fears and risk for major depression. This study examines the relationship between major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders in parents and specific fears and phobias in offspring. Three hundred and eighteen children of parents with lifetime MDD, anxiety disorder, MDD+anxiety disorder, or neither were psychiatrically assessed via parent interview. Rates of specific phobias in offspring did not differ significantly across parental groups. Specific fears were significantly elevated in offspring of parents with MDD+anxiety disorder relative to the other groups (MDD, anxiety disorder, and controls, which did not differ). We failed to find increased phobias in offspring of parents with MDD without anxiety disorder. Elevated rates of specific fears in offspring of parents with MDD+anxiety disorder may be a function of more severe parental psychopathology, increased genetic loading, or unmeasured environmental influences. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Real life safety benefits of increasing brake deceleration in car-to-pedestrian accidents: Simulation of Vacuum Emergency Braking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeppsson, Hanna; Östling, Martin; Lubbe, Nils

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study is to predict the real-life benefits, namely the number of injuries avoided rather than the reduction in impact speed, offered by a Vacuum Emergency Brake (VEB) added to a pedestrian automated emergency braking (AEB) system. We achieve this through the virtual simulation of simplified mathematical models of a system which incorporates expected future advances in technology, such as a wide sensor field of view, and reductions in the time needed for detection, classification, and brake pressure build up. The German In-Depth Accident Study database and the related Pre Crash Matrix, both released in the beginning of 2016, were used for this study and resulted in a final sample of 526 collisions between passenger car fronts and pedestrians. Weight factors were calculated for both simulation model and injury risk curves to make the data representative of Germany as a whole. The accident data was used with a hypothetical AEB system in a simulation model, and injury risk was calculated from the new impact speed using injury risk curves to generate new situations using real accidents. Adding a VEB to a car with pedestrian AEB decreased pedestrian casualties by an additional 8-22%, depending on system setting and injury level, over the AEB-only system. The overall decrease in fatalities was 80-87%, an improvement of 8%. Collision avoidance was improved by 14-28%. VEB with a maximum deceleration in the middle of the modelled performance range has an effectiveness similar to that of an "early activation" system, where the AEB is triggered as early as 2 s before collision. VEB may therefore offer a substantial increase in performance without increasing false positive rates, which earlier AEB activation does. Most collisions and injuries can be avoided when AEB is supplemented by the high performance VEB; remaining cases are characterised by high pedestrian walking speed and late visibility due to view obstructions. VEB is effective in all analysed

  13. The Synergistic Roles of the Chronic Prenatal and Offspring Stress Exposures in Impairing Offspring Learning and Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei; Cheng, Juan; Wang, Zheng-Yu; Chen, Ke-Yang; Han, Zhen-Min; Wang, Qi-Hong; Yao, Yu-You

    2016-04-23

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), extensive experimental studies have demonstrated a negative impact of chronic stress during various stages of life (including prenatal phase) on some aspects of AD pathology. Nevertheless, presently, few studies have been involved in the learning and memory impairments, as well as neuropathology elicited by the chronic prenatal stress (CPS) and the chronic offspring stress (COS) exposures simultaneously, particularly for the adult male APPswe/PS1dE9 murine offspring. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of CPS on learning and memory impairments induced by COS in 6-month-old male APPswe/PS1dE9 offspring mice and the related mechanism. Our study firstly demonstrates that 14-day exposure to CPS could exacerbate the learning and memory impairments, as well as neuropathological damages in the CA3 regions of the hippocampus and cortex neurons, which is induced by the 28-day exposure to COS in 6-month-old male APPswe/PS1dE9 offspring mice. In addition, CPS could potentiate the production of AβPP, Aβ42, and corticosterone in 6-month-old male APPswe/PS1dE9 offspring that also suffer COS. In conclusion, our novel findings strongly implicate the synergistic roles of the CPS and COS exposures in impairing offspring learning and memory. Moreover, CPS potentiating the production of Aβ42 might be mediated by glucocorticoids through increasing the expression of APP and BACE1 gene.

  14. Animal models of maternal nutrition and altered offspring bone structure – Bone development across the lifecourse

    OpenAIRE

    SA Lanham; C Bertram; C Cooper; ROC Oreffo

    2011-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the likelihood of offspring developing heart disease, stroke, or diabetes in later life, is influenced by the their in utero environment and maternal nutrition. There is increasing epidemiological evidence that osteoporosis in the offspring may also be influenced by the mother’s nutrition during pregnancy. This review provides evidence from a range of animal models that supports the epidemiological data; suggesting that lifelong bone development and growth in offspr...

  15. Increased Radiation but No Benefits in Pedicle Screw Accuracy With Navigation versus a Freehand Technique in Scoliosis Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanski, Wiktor; Jurasz, Wojciech; Wolanczyk, Michal; Kulej, Miroslaw; Morasiewicz, Piotr; Dragan, Szymon Lukasz; Zaluski, Rafal; Miekisiak, Grzegorz; Dragan, Szymon Feliks

    2018-02-08

    The clinical value of pedicle screws in spinal deformity surgery is well known; however, screw insertion is demanding and sometimes associated with complications. Navigation systems based on intraoperatively obtained three-dimensional (3-D) images were developed to minimize pedicle screw misplacements. However, there is a lack of data confirming superiority of navigation above other techniques. There are also concerns regarding increased radiation used during the procedure. The purposes of this study were (1) to compare accuracy of the two methods of pedicle screws placement: intraoperative 3-D image navigation versus a freehand technique in patients with idiopathic scoliosis; and (2) to assess the radiation dose received by patients with both methods. Between 2014 and 2016, 49 patients underwent posterior spinal fusion with all pedicle screw constructs for idiopathic scoliosis performed by two surgeons. The study design involved alternating the use of the freehand technique and navigation to position pedicle screws in consecutive patients, forming groups of 27 patients with 451 navigated screws and 22 patients with 384 screws positioned freehand. The two groups did not differ in age, sex, or magnitude of deformity. Two observers not involved in the treatment evaluated the position of the screws. The pedicle breach was assessed on intraoperatively obtained 3-D O-arm scans according to a grading system: Grade 0 = no pedicle wall violation; Grade 1 = perforation ≤ 2 mm; Grade 2 = 2 to 4 mm; and Grade 3 = perforation > 4 mm. Grades 0 and 1 were considered properly positioned and Grades 2 and 3 represented malposition. In terms of accuracy, we found no differences, with the numbers available, between the freehand and navigated groups in terms of the proportion of screws that were properly positioned (96% freehand and 96% in the navigation group, respectively; p = 0.518). Grade 3 pedicle screws were observed only in the freehand group and were all located in the upper

  16. Influence of Population Density on Offspring Number and Size in Burying Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauter, Claudia M.

    2010-01-01

    This laboratory exercise investigates the influence of population density on offspring number and size in burying beetles. Students test the theoretical predictions that brood size declines and offspring size increases when competition over resources becomes stronger with increasing population density. Students design the experiment, collect and…

  17. Increasing self-efficacy in learning to program : Exploring the benefits of explicit instruction for problem solving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Govender, I.; Govender, D.; Havenga, M.; Mentz, E.; Breed, B.; Dignum, F.; Dignum, V.

    2014-01-01

    The difficulty of learning to program has long been identified amongst novices. This study explored the benefits of teaching a problem solving strategy by comparing students’ perceptions and attitudes towards problem solving before and after the strategy was implemented in secondary schools. Based

  18. Simulation for Teaching Orthopaedic Residents in a Competency-based Curriculum: Do the Benefits Justify the Increased Costs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nousiainen, Markku T; McQueen, Sydney A; Ferguson, Peter; Alman, Benjamin; Kraemer, William; Safir, Oleg; Reznick, Richard; Sonnadara, Ranil

    2016-04-01

    Although simulation-based training is becoming widespread in surgical education and research supports its use, one major limitation is cost. Until now, little has been published on the costs of simulation in residency training. At the University of Toronto, a novel competency-based curriculum in orthopaedic surgery has been implemented for training selected residents, which makes extensive use of simulation. Despite the benefits of this intensive approach to simulation, there is a need to consider its financial implications and demands on faculty time. This study presents a cost and faculty work-hours analysis of implementing simulation as a teaching and evaluation tool in the University of Toronto's novel competency-based curriculum program compared with the historic costs of using simulation in the residency training program. All invoices for simulation training were reviewed to determine the financial costs before and after implementation of the competency-based curriculum. Invoice items included costs for cadavers, artificial models, skills laboratory labor, associated materials, and standardized patients. Costs related to the surgical skills laboratory rental fees and orthopaedic implants were waived as a result of special arrangements with the skills laboratory and implant vendors. Although faculty time was not reimbursed, faculty hours dedicated to simulation were also evaluated. The academic year of 2008 to 2009 was chosen to represent an academic year that preceded the introduction of the competency-based curriculum. During this year, 12 residents used simulation for teaching. The academic year of 2010 to 2011 was chosen to represent an academic year when the competency-based curriculum training program was functioning parallel but separate from the regular stream of training. In this year, six residents used simulation for teaching and assessment. The academic year of 2012 to 2013 was chosen to represent an academic year when simulation was used equally

  19. Postnatal Cardiovascular Consequences in the Offspring of Pregnant Rats Exposed to Smoking and Smoking Cessation Pharmacotherapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Kathirvel; More, Amar S; Hankins, Gary D; Nanovskaya, Tatiana N; Kumar, Sathish

    2017-06-01

    Approximately 20% of pregnant women smoke despite intentions to quit. Smoking cessation drugs, such as nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and bupropion, are recommended treatments. Adverse cardiovascular outcomes in offspring have raised concerns about NRT's safety during pregnancy. However, the effect of bupropion is unknown. Using a rat model, we determined whether NRT and bupropion interventions during pregnancy are safer than continued smoking on offspring's cardiovascular function. Male offspring of controls and dams exposed to cigarette smoke (1.6 packs/day, inhalation), nicotine (2 mg/kg/d subcutaneously), and bupropion (13 mg/kg twice daily orally) were assessed for fetoplacental weight, cardiac function, blood pressure, and vascular reactivity. Fetoplacental weights were decreased and spontaneous beating and intracellular calcium in neonatal cardiomyocytes were increased in smoking, nicotine, and bupropion offspring; however, these effects were more accentuated in smoking followed by nicotine and bupropion offspring. Increased heart rate and decreased cardiac output, stroke volume, and left ventricular percent posterior wall thickening were observed in smoking, nicotine, and bupropion offspring. The left ventricular mass was reduced in smoking and nicotine but not in bupropion offspring. Blood pressure was higher with decreased endothelium-dependent relaxation and exaggerated vascular contraction to angiotensin II in smoking and nicotine offspring, with more pronounced dysfunctions in smoking than nicotine offspring. Maternal bupropion did not impact offspring's blood pressure, endothelium-dependent relaxation, and vascular contraction. In conclusion, maternal nicotine intervention adversely affects offspring's cardiovascular outcomes, albeit less severely than continued smoking. However, bupropion causes cardiac derangement in offspring but does not adversely affect blood pressure and vascular function.

  20. The origins of altruism in offspring care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Stephanie D

    2013-11-01

    The current review aims to unify existing views of altruism through an examination of the biological bases of a fundamental form of giving: altruistic responding. Altruistic responding is most salient during heroic acts of helping but is also observed any time one perceives another's distress or need, which in turn motivates one to help at a current cost to the self. Such aid is simple, observable across species, and rooted in the instincts and circuits that evolved to maximize inclusive fitness through the care of helpless offspring. By design, the system already biases aid to both kin and nonkin under conditions that are largely adaptive. These inherent benefits are also buttressed in primates and humans by known, later-arriving benefits to helping in group-living animals. Evidence for the proposed homology between altruistic responding and offspring retrieval is presented through 10 key shared factors. Conceptually, both require (a) participation by nonmothers, (b) motor competence and expertise, (c) an adaptive opponency between avoidance and approach, and a facilitating role of (d) neonatal vulnerability, (e) salient distress, and (f) rewarding close contact. Physiologically, they also share neurohormonal support from (g) oxytocin, (h) the domain-general mesolimbocortical system, (i) the cingulate cortex, and (j) the orbitofrontal cortex. The framework intermixes ultimate and proximate levels of analysis and unifies existing views by assuming that even complex human behaviors reflect ancient mammalian neural systems that evolved to solve key problems in adaptive ways, with far-reaching consequences for even our most venerated human traits. © 2013 American Psychological Association

  1. Parenting behaviors associated with risk for offspring personality disorder during adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey G; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian; Kasen, Stephanie; Brook, Judith S

    2006-05-01

    Research has suggested that some types of parental child-rearing behavior may be associated with risk for offspring personality disorder (PD), but the association of parenting with offspring PD has not been investigated comprehensively with prospective longitudinal data. To investigate the association of parental child-rearing behavior with risk for offspring PD during adulthood. The Children in the Community study, a prospective longitudinal investigation. A community-based sample of 593 families interviewed during childhood (mean age, 6 years), adolescence (mean ages, 14 and 16 years), emerging adulthood (mean age, 22 years), and adulthood (mean age, 33 years) of the offspring. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders. Ten types of parenting behavior that were evident during the child-rearing years were associated with elevated offspring risk for PD during adulthood when childhood behavioral or emotional problems and parental psychiatric disorders were controlled statistically. Parental behavior in the home during the child-rearing years was associated with elevated risk for offspring PD at mean ages of 22 and 33 years. Risk for offspring PD at both assessments increased steadily as a function of the number of problematic parenting behaviors that were evident. Low parental affection or nurturing was associated with elevated risk for offspring antisocial (P = .003), avoidant (P = .01), borderline (P = .002), depressive (P = .02), paranoid (P = .002), schizoid (P = .046), and schizotypal (Pparental behavior (eg, harsh punishment) was associated with elevated risk for offspring borderline (P = .001), paranoid (P = .004), passive-aggressive (P = .046), and schizotypal (P = .02) PDs. Parental behavior during the child-rearing years may be associated with risk for offspring PD that endures into adulthood. This risk may not be attributable to offspring behavioral and emotional problems or parental psychiatric disorder, and it may not diminish

  2. Kin competition within groups: the offspring depreciation hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, J; Sutherland, W J

    2002-12-22

    Where relatives compete for the same resources (kin competition) and each obtains an equal share, this can favour the evolution of elevated dispersal rates, such that most resource competition is among non-relatives. We show that this effect evaporates as among-sibling dominance increases to the point where the allocation of resources is maximally unequal. We restore a kin-competition effect on emigration rates from dominance-ranked family groups by showing that where siblings form queues to inherit the breeding positions, the length of the queue affects the fitness of all individuals by depreciating the rank of subsequent offspring. Incorporating this 'offspring depreciation' effect decreases optimal queue lengths, increases dispersal rates and explains the otherwise paradoxical use of sinks by cooperatively breeding birds in stable environments. The offspring depreciation effect also favours the evolution of small, but consistent, clutch sizes and high reproductive skew, but constrains the evolution of alloparenting.

  3. One more health benefit of blood donation: reduces acute-phase reactants, oxidants and increases antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunce, Muharrem; Erdamar, Husamettin; Bayram, Nezihe Asli; Gok, Sumeyye

    2016-11-01

    One of the most important problems in finding blood donors is the inadequacy of volunteer number. To overcome this problem, one of the solutions we suggest is innovating new health benefits of blood donation. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of blood donation on oxidative status markers and acute-phase reactants. A total of 96 healthy volunteers were recruited into the study. Blood samples were withdrawn 5 min before and 24 h after the blood donation. Serum nitric oxide, malondialdehyde levels, and activity of superoxide dismutase and myeloperoxidase were measured spectrophotometrically. Serum levels of high-sensitive C-reactive protein and pentraxin-3 as acute-phase reactants were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. We found statistically significant lower pentraxin-3 and high-sensitive C-reactive protein levels and higher superoxide dismutase activity and nitric oxide level 24 h after blood donation in serum of blood donor when compared with before blood donation. These findings suggest that blood donation affected oxidative status and acute-phase reactants in donors. Blood donation removes oxidants and decreases oxidative stress by elevating antioxidant enzyme such as superoxide dismutase. This is one more health benefit or reason why we should donate blood. Further large-scale studies should evaluate this mechanism and compare the same effect of wet cupping therapy.

  4. Glutamate neurotransmission is affected in prenatally stressed offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrover, Ezequiela; Pallarés, Maria Eugenia; Baier, Carlos Javier

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that male adult offspring of stressed mothers exhibited higher levels of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors than control rats. These offspring also showed long-lasting astroglial hypertrophy and a reduced dendritic arborization with syn......Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that male adult offspring of stressed mothers exhibited higher levels of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors than control rats. These offspring also showed long-lasting astroglial hypertrophy and a reduced dendritic arborization...... with synaptic loss. Since metabolism of glutamate is dependent on interactions between neurons and surrounding astroglia, our results suggest that glutamate neurotransmitter pathways might be impaired in the brain of prenatally stressed rats. To study the effect of prenatal stress on the metabolism...... was not affected it was found that prenatal stress (PS) changed the expression of the transporters, thus, producing a higher level of vesicular vGluT-1 in the frontal cortex (FCx) and elevated levels of GLT1 protein and messenger RNA in the hippocampus (HPC) of adult male PS offspring. We also observed increased...

  5. Mammal reproductive strategies driven by offspring mortality-size relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibly, Richard M; Brown, James H

    2009-06-01

    Trade-offs have long been a major theme in life-history theory, but they have been hard to document. We introduce a new method that reveals patterns of divergent trade-offs after adjusting for the pervasive variation in rate of resource allocation to offspring as a function of body size and lifestyle. Results suggest that preweaning vulnerability to predation has been the major factor determining how female placental mammals allocate production between a few large and many small offspring within a litter and between a few large litters and many small ones within a reproductive season. Artiodactyls, perissodactyls, cetaceans, and pinnipeds, which give birth in the open on land or in the sea, produce a few large offspring, at infrequent intervals, because this increases their chances of escaping predation. Insectivores, fissiped carnivores, lagomorphs, and rodents, whose offspring are protected in burrows or nests, produce large litters of small newborns. Primates, bats, sloths, and anteaters, which carry their young from birth until weaning, produce litters of one or a few offspring because of the need to transport and care for them.

  6. Multiple genetic benefits of female promiscuity in a socially monogamous passerine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossøy, Frode; Johnsen, Arild; Lifjeld, Jan T

    2008-01-01

    The adaptive function of female extrapair mating in socially monogamous passerines is currently debated. In the bluethroat (Luscinia s. svecica), a previous study showed that offspring sired by extrapair males had a higher cell-mediated immunity than their within-pair half siblings, suggesting an immunogenetic benefit of extrapair mating in this species. Here, we expanded that dataset with two more years and investigated the association between extrapair paternity and microsatellite multilocus heterozygosity, in addition to cell-mediated immunity. We found that extrapair offspring were more heterozygous than their within-pair half siblings, and corroborated the previous finding of enhanced cellular immunity in extrapair offspring in this four-year dataset. The increased heterozygosity among extrapair offspring appeared to be a result of extrapair mates being less genetically similar than pair mates, and also less genetically similar than expected by random choice. Together with previous findings in this species, showing that the majority of females participate in extrapair copulations, our results indicate a postcopulatory cryptic female choice of genetically dissimilar males. The enhanced cellular immunity and increased heterozygosity were not related to each other, and hence our results indicate two independent genetic benefits of extrapair mating in the bluethroat.

  7. When ambient noise impairs parent-offspring communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucass, Carsten; Eens, Marcel; Müller, Wendt

    2016-05-01

    Ambient noise has increased in extent, duration and intensity with significant implications for species' lives. Birds especially, because they heavily rely on vocal communication, are highly sensitive towards noise pollution. Noise can impair the quality of a territory or hamper the transmission of vocal signals such as song. The latter has significant fitness consequences as it may erode partner preferences in the context of mate choice. Additional fitness costs may arise if noise masks communication between soliciting offspring and providing parents during the period of parental care. Here, we experimentally manipulated the acoustic environment of blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) families within their nest boxes with playbacks of previously recorded highway noise and investigated the consequences on parent-offspring communication. We hypothesized that noise interferes with the acoustic cues of parental arrival and vocal components of offspring begging. As such we expected an increase in the frequency of missed detections, when nestlings fail to respond to the returning parent, and a decrease in parental provisioning rates. Parents significantly reduced their rate of provisioning in noisy conditions compared to a control treatment. This reduction is likely to be the consequence of a parental misinterpretation of the offspring hunger level, as we found that nestlings fail to respond to the returning parent more frequently in the presence of noise. Noise also potentially masks vocal begging components, again contributing to parental underestimation of offspring requirements. Either way, it appears that noise impaired parent-offspring communication is likely to reduce reproductive success. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The increase of the global donor inventory is of limited benefit to patients of non-Northwestern European descent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Walraven, Suzanna M.; Brand, Anneke; Bakker, Jack N. A.; Heemskerk, Martin B. A.; Nillesen, Suzan; Bierings, Marc B.; Bungener, Laura B.; Hepkema, Bouke G.; Lankester, Arjan; van der Meer, Arnold; Sintnicolaas, Kees; Somers, Judith A. E.; Spierings, Eric; Tilanus, Marcel G. J.; Voorter, Christien E. M.; Cornelissen, Jan J.; Oudshoorn, Machteld

    Between 2001 and 2012, the number of unrelated donors registered worldwide increased from 7 to 21 million, and the number of public cord blood units increased to over 500,000. We addressed the question of whether this expansion resulted in higher percentages of patients reaching transplantation.

  9. Maternal care, mother-offspring aggregation and age-dependent coadaptation in the European earwig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Y; Kölliker, M

    2013-09-01

    Benefits and costs of parental care are expected to change with offspring development and lead to age-dependent coadaptation expressed as phenotypic (behavioural) matches between offspring age and parental reproductive stage. Parents and offspring interact repeatedly over time for the provision of parental care. Their behaviours should be accordingly adjusted to each other dynamically and adaptively, and the phenotypic match between offspring age and parental stage should stabilize the repeated behavioural interactions. In the European earwig (Forficula auricularia), maternal care is beneficial for offspring survival, but not vital, allowing us to investigate the extent to which the stability of mother-offspring aggregation is shaped by age-dependent coadaptation. In this study, we experimentally cross-fostered nymphs of different age classes (younger or older) between females in early or late reproductive stage to disrupt age-dependent coadaptation, thereby generating female-nymph dyads that were phenotypically matched or mismatched. The results revealed a higher stability in aggregation during the first larval instar when care is most intense, a steeper decline in aggregation tendency over developmental time and a reduced developmental rate in matched compared with mismatched families. Furthermore, nymph survival was positively correlated with female-nymph aggregation stability during the early stages when maternal care is most prevalent. These results support the hypothesis that age-related phenotypically plastic coadaptation affects family dynamics and offspring developmental rate. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  10. Paternal Age Alters Social Development in Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecka, Magdalena; Haworth, Claire M A; Ronald, Angelica; Krapohl, Eva; Happé, Francesca; Mill, Jonathan; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Fernandes, Cathy; Reichenberg, Abraham; Rijsdijk, Frühling

    2017-05-01

    Advanced paternal age (APA) at conception has been linked with autism and schizophrenia in offspring, neurodevelopmental disorders that affect social functioning. The current study explored the effects of paternal age on social development in the general population. We used multilevel growth modeling to investigate APA effects on socioemotional development from early childhood until adolescence, as measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS) sample. We also investigated genetic and environmental underpinnings of the paternal age effects on development, using the Additive genetics, Common environment, unique Environment (ACE) and gene-environment (GxE) models. In the general population, both very young and advanced paternal ages were associated with altered trajectory of social development (intercept: p = .01; slope: p = .03). No other behavioral domain was affected by either young or advanced age at fatherhood, suggesting specificity of paternal age effects. Increased importance of genetic factors in social development was recorded in the offspring of older but not very young fathers, suggesting distinct underpinnings of the paternal age effects at these two extremes. Our findings highlight that the APA-related deficits that lead to autism and schizophrenia are likely continuously distributed in the population. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Antidepressant use during pregnancy and asthma in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaoqin; Olsen, Jørn; Pedersen, Lars Henning

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It has been suggested that maternal depression during pregnancy is abstract associated with asthma in the offspring, but the role of medical treatment of depression is not known. Our goal was to examine whether prenatal antidepressant use increases the risk of asthma in...

  12. Expression of neuropeptide Y and pro-opiomelanocortin in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus in 17α-ethinyl estradiol-induced intrahepatic cholestasis pregnant rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qingyun; Wang, Jingjing; Yan, Shi; Zhao, Jin; Li, Hongxia

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of intrahepatic cholestasis pregnant (ICP) offspring. The model of ICP rats was established by injecting s.c. 17α-ethinyl estradiol. The expression of NPY and POMC in female offspring was determined by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and immunohistochemistry at birthday and 6 months. ICP group offspring had lower bodyweight at birthday. ICP offspring were markedly heavier than control offspring after 6 months. mRNA and protein expression of NPY and POMC significantly increased at 6 months as compared with the birthday among control offspring. Among ICP offspring, mRNA and protein expression of NPY and POMC also were higher at 6 months than at birthday. The mRNA and protein expression of NPY were higher in ICP offspring than that of control offspring at birthday. The mRNA and protein expression of POMC were decreased in ICP offspring than that of control offspring. After 6 months, the mRNA expression and protein expression of NPY also were higher in ICP offspring than that of control offspring. The mRNA expression and protein expression of POMC also were decreased in ICP offspring than that of control offspring. The results were confirmed by immunohistochemistry. ICP offspring demonstrated evidence of persistent appetite stimulation with significantly upregulated NPY expression and reduced POMC expression at birthday and 6 months. ICP offspring showed a hunger state and then gained weight. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  13. The Indirect Benefits of Mating with Attractive Males Outweigh the Direct Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, John; Jennions, Michael D; Brooks, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The fitness consequences of mate choice are a source of ongoing debate in evolutionary biology. Recent theory predicts that indirect benefits of female choice due to offspring inheriting superior genes are likely to be negated when there are direct costs associated with choice, including any costs of mating with attractive males. To estimate the fitness consequences of mating with males of varying attractiveness, we housed female house crickets, Acheta domesticus, with either attractive or unattractive males and measured a variety of direct and indirect fitness components. These fitness components were combined to give relative estimates of the number of grandchildren produced and the intrinsic rate of increase (relative net fitness). We found that females mated to attractive males incur a substantial survival cost. However, these costs are cancelled out and may be outweighed by the benefits of having offspring with elevated fitness. This benefit is due predominantly, but not exclusively, to the effect of an increase in sons' attractiveness. Our results suggest that the direct costs that females experience when mating with attractive males can be outweighed by indirect benefits. They also reveal the value of estimating the net fitness consequences of a mating strategy by including measures of offspring quality in estimates of fitness. PMID:15678167

  14. The indirect benefits of mating with attractive males outweigh the direct costs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan L Head

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The fitness consequences of mate choice are a source of ongoing debate in evolutionary biology. Recent theory predicts that indirect benefits of female choice due to offspring inheriting superior genes are likely to be negated when there are direct costs associated with choice, including any costs of mating with attractive males. To estimate the fitness consequences of mating with males of varying attractiveness, we housed female house crickets, Acheta domesticus, with either attractive or unattractive males and measured a variety of direct and indirect fitness components. These fitness components were combined to give relative estimates of the number of grandchildren produced and the intrinsic rate of increase (relative net fitness. We found that females mated to attractive males incur a substantial survival cost. However, these costs are cancelled out and may be outweighed by the benefits of having offspring with elevated fitness. This benefit is due predominantly, but not exclusively, to the effect of an increase in sons' attractiveness. Our results suggest that the direct costs that females experience when mating with attractive males can be outweighed by indirect benefits. They also reveal the value of estimating the net fitness consequences of a mating strategy by including measures of offspring quality in estimates of fitness.

  15. Overweight and the metabolic syndrome in adult offspring of women with diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus or type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tine D; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R; Hansen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    syndrome in adult offspring of women with diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) or type 1 diabetes, and additionally to study associations between estimates of maternal hyperglycemia and outcome in the offspring. DESIGN AND SETTING: We conducted a follow-up study of 1066 primarily Caucasian...... women aged 18-27 yr in the Center for Pregnant Women with Diabetes, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Offspring of women with diet-treated GDM (n = 168) and an unexposed reference group (n = 141) participated, as well as offspring of women with type 1 diabetes (n = 160) and offspring...... Federation 2006 criteria. Results: The risk of overweight was doubled in offspring of women with diet-treated GDM or type 1 diabetes compared with offspring from the background population, whereas the risk of the metabolic syndrome was 4- and 2.5-fold increased, respectively. Offspring risk of the metabolic...

  16. Increasing intake of essential fatty acids from milk replacer benefits performance, immune responses, and health of preweaned Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M; Shin, J H; Schlaefli, A; Greco, L F; Maunsell, F P; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P; Staples, C R

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of feeding increasing amounts of essential fatty acids (FA) in milk replacer (MR) during the first 60 d of life on growth, health, and immunity of Holstein calves. Calves were born from dams fed low concentrations of total and essential FA during the lasT2 mo of pregnancy. Newborn calves were blocked by sex and parity of the dam and assigned randomly to receive 1 of 4 MR treatments (T). Hydrogenated coconut oil and soybean oil were mixed with emulsifier and commercial MR powder to prepare the following 4 MR containing 0.119 and 0.007 (T1), 0.187 and 0.017 (T2), 0.321 and 0.036 (T3), and 0.593 and 0.076 (T4) g of intake per kg of metabolic body weight (BW(0.75)) of linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid, respectively. At 30 d of life, concentrations of essential FA (linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid) in liver increased, whereas concentrations of C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, and C20:3n-9 decreased linearly with increasing intake of essential FA. Body weight gain and feed efficiency were optimized when male calves consumed T2, whereas gain by female calves tended to increase linearly with increasing intake of essential FA during the first 30 d of age. However, these responses to treatment were not maintained after initiation of concentrate feeding at 31 d of life. Over the 60-d preweaning period, wither and hip heights were improved in both sexes as intake of essential FA increased up to T3. Some measures of health and immunity were affected by replacing some coconut oil with soybean oil. Severity of diarrhea tended to decrease linearly; plasma concentrations of haptoglobin during diarrhea were lower in T2, T3, and T4; phagocytosis by blood neutrophils tended to peak for calves fed T2; in vitro proliferation of stimulated blood lymphocytes was greater for calves fed T2; in vitro stimulated blood cells produced more IFN-γ (up to T3 for males and T2 for females), concentrations of serum IgG against ovalbumin injections were increased in

  17. [Effects of prenatal exposure to low level lead on learning and memory of rats' offspring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bo; Han, Chang-cheng; Sun, Xia; Peng, Liang; Niu, Yu-jie

    2006-07-01

    To explore the effects of prenatal exposure to low level lead on learning and memory of rat's offspring. The pregnant rats were randomizedly divided into 4 groups and provided with doubly evaporated water in the control group and 125, 250 and 500 mg/L lead acetate solution via drinking water in three exposed groups respectively during the pregnancy. The learning and memory ability of 21-day old and 60-day old offsprings were tested by the Morris water maze and the shuttling and avoiding dark box respectively. The blood and hippocampus lead concentrations of 1-day old and 21-day old offspring in the 3 lead-exposed groups were significantly increased compared with the control group (P memory ability of offsprings of the rats, and this kind of influence will continue till the offspring's maturity.

  18. Parental divorce, parental depression, and gender differences in adult offspring suicide attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizardi, Dana; Thompson, Ronald G; Keyes, Katherine; Hasin, Deborah

    2009-12-01

    Research suggests parental divorce during childhood increases risk of suicide attempt for male but not female offspring. The negative impact on offspring associated with parental divorce may be better explained by parental psychopathology, such as depression. We examined whether adult offspring of parental divorce experience elevated risk of suicide attempt, controlling for parental history of depression, and whether the risk varies by the gender of the offspring. Using the 2001 to 2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), the sample consists of respondents who experienced parental divorce (N = 4895). Multivariable regressions controlled for age, race/ethnicity, income, marital status, and parental history of depression. Females living with their fathers were significantly more likely to report lifetime suicide attempts than females living with their mothers, even after controlling for parental depression. Findings suggest that childhood/adolescent parental divorce may have a stronger impact on suicide attempt risk in female offspring than previously recognized.

  19. Place aversion by morphine in offspring born of female morphine administered wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Manizheh; Zarrindast, Mohammad Reza

    2011-01-01

    This research was designed to study sexual differences in place conditioning induced by morphine in offspring born of female Wistar rats mated with drug-naïve males. Mothers were exposed to morphine during the 14(th)-16(th) days of gestational. Control dams were simply saline-injected. Female and male virgin offspring born of morphine-treated or saline-treated mothers were separately housed until become fully matured. A 3-day schedule of an unbiased conditioning procedure was used to the induce conditioning to morphine (2.5-7.5 mg/Kg, SC) in the offspring. According to the results, female offspring born of saline-administered mothers were morphine place-conditioned at lower doses of opioid (2.5 mg/Kg) in comparison to the males. An increase in locomotor activity in the females at 7.5 mg/Kg of opioid was also revealed. In contrast, administration of morphine (2.5-7.5 mg/Kg, SC), induced a significant aversion in either sexes of offspring born of morphine-exposed mothers. Moreover, female offspring of this category acquired more pronounced aversion at higher doses of morphine than males. In addition, a significant morphine-dose effect (7.5 mg/Kg, SC) on locomotor activity of these females' offspring was observed. This study may highlight sex differences in conditioning effects induced by morphine between offspring derived of morphine-treated mothers and those of saline-treated.

  20. Maternal high-fat-diet programs rat offspring liver fatty acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seet, Emily L; Yee, Jennifer K; Jellyman, Juanita K; Han, Guang; Ross, Michael G; Desai, Mina

    2015-06-01

    In offspring exposed in utero to a maternal diet high in fat (HF), we have previously demonstrated that despite similar birth weights, HF adult offspring at 6 months of age had significantly higher body weights, greater adiposity, and increased triacylglycerol (TAG) levels as compared to controls. We hypothesized that a maternal HF diet predisposes to offspring adiposity via a programmed increase in the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids in the liver and hence increased substrate availability for liver TAG synthesis. We further hypothesized that programmed changes in offspring liver fatty acid metabolism are associated with increased liver expression of the lipogenic enzyme stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1). Female rats were maintained on a HF diet rich in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) prior to and throughout pregnancy and lactation. After birth, newborns were nursed by the same dam, and all offspring were weaned to control diet. Plasma and liver fatty acid compositions were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Fatty acid C16 desaturation indices of palmitoleic/palmitic and (vaccenic + palmitoleic)/palmitic and the C18 desaturation index of oleic/stearic were calculated. Liver protein abundance of SCD-1 was analyzed in newborns and adult offspring. Plasma and liver C16 desaturation indices were decreased in HF newborns, but increased in the adult offspring. Liver SCD-1 expression was increased in the HF adult offspring. These data show that the maternal HF diet during pregnancy and lactation increases offspring liver SCD-1 protein abundance and alters the liver C16 desaturase pathway.

  1. Polyandrous females benefit by producing sons that achieve high reproductive success in a competitive environment

    OpenAIRE

    Firman, Renée C.

    2011-01-01

    Females of many taxa often copulate with multiple males and incite sperm competition. On the premise that males of high genetic quality are more successful in sperm competition, it has been suggested that females may benefit from polyandry by accruing ‘good genes’ for their offspring. Laboratory studies have shown that multiple mating can increase female fitness through enhanced embryo viability, and have exposed how polyandry influences the evolution of the ejaculate. However, such studies o...

  2. Does Increasing Community and Liquor Licensees’ Awareness, Police Activity, and Feedback Reduce Alcohol-Related Violent Crime? A Benefit-Cost Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Héctor José; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Doran, Christopher M.; Petrie, Dennis J.

    2013-01-01

    Approximately half of all alcohol-related crime is violent crime associated with heavy episodic drinking. Multi-component interventions are highly acceptable to communities and may be effective in reducing alcohol-related crime generally, but their impact on alcohol-related violent crime has not been examined. This study evaluated the impact and benefit-cost of a multi-component intervention (increasing community and liquor licensees’ awareness, police activity, and feedback) on crimes typically associated with alcohol-related violence. The intervention was tailored to weekends identified as historically problematic in 10 experimental communities in NSW, Australia, relative to 10 control ones. There was no effect on alcohol-related assaults and a small, but statistically significant and cost-beneficial, effect on alcohol-related sexual assaults: a 64% reduction in in the experimental relative to control communities, equivalent to five fewer alcohol-related sexual assaults, with a net social benefit estimated as AUD$3,938,218. The positive benefit-cost ratio was primarily a function of the value that communities placed on reducing alcohol-related harm: the intervention would need to be more than twice as effective for its economic benefits to be comparable to its costs. It is most likely that greater reductions in crimes associated with alcohol-related violence would be achieved by a combination of complementary legislative and community-based interventions. PMID:24169411

  3. Does Increasing Community and Liquor Licensees’ Awareness, Police Activity, and Feedback Reduce Alcohol-Related Violent Crime? A Benefit-Cost Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Petrie

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Approximately half of all alcohol-related crime is violent crime associated with heavy episodic drinking. Multi-component interventions are highly acceptable to communities and may be effective in reducing alcohol-related crime generally, but their impact on alcohol-related violent crime has not been examined. This study evaluated the impact and benefit-cost of a multi-component intervention (increasing community and liquor licensees’ awareness, police activity, and feedback on crimes typically associated with alcohol-related violence. The intervention was tailored to weekends identified as historically problematic in 10 experimental communities in NSW, Australia, relative to 10 control ones. There was no effect on alcohol-related assaults and a small, but statistically significant and cost-beneficial, effect on alcohol-related sexual assaults: a 64% reduction in in the experimental relative to control communities, equivalent to five fewer alcohol-related sexual assaults, with a net social benefit estimated as AUD$3,938,218. The positive benefit-cost ratio was primarily a function of the value that communities placed on reducing alcohol-related harm: the intervention would need to be more than twice as effective for its economic benefits to be comparable to its costs. It is most likely that greater reductions in crimes associated with alcohol-related violence would be achieved by a combination of complementary legislative and community-based interventions.

  4. The association between teenage motherhood and poor offspring outcomes: a national cohort study across 30 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Claire A; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul; D'Onofrio, Brian M

    2013-06-01

    Teenage motherhood is associated with poor offspring outcomes but these associations may be influenced by offspring birth year because of substantial social changes in recent decades. Existing research also has not examined whether these associations are due to the specific effect of mother's age at childbirth or factors shared by siblings in a family. We used a population-based cohort study in Sweden comprising all children born from 1960 to 1989 (N = 3,162,239), and a subsample of siblings differentially exposed to maternal teenage childbearing (N = 485,259) to address these limitations. We examined the effect of teenage childbearing on offspring violent and non-violent criminal convictions, poor academic performance, and substance-related problems. Population-wide teenage childbearing was associated with offspring criminal convictions, poor academic performance, and substance-related problems. The magnitude of these associations increased over time. Comparisons of differentially exposed siblings indicated no within-family association between teenage childbearing and offspring violent and non-violent criminal convictions or poor academic performance, although offspring born to teenage mothers were more likely to experience substance-related problems than their later-born siblings. Being born to a teenage mother in Sweden has become increasingly associated with negative outcomes across time, but the nature of this association may differ by outcome. Teenage childbearing may be associated with offspring violent and non-violent criminal convictions and poor academic performance because of shared familial risk factors, but may be causally associated with offspring substance-related problems. The findings suggest that interventions to improve offspring outcomes should delay teenage childbearing and also target risk factors influencing all offspring of teenage mothers.

  5. Leukocyte Telomere Length, Breast Cancer Risk in the Offspring: The Relations with Father’s Age at Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Arbeev, Konstantin G.; Hunt, Steven C.; Kimura, Masayuki; Aviv, Abraham; Yashin, Anatoliy I.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have reported that leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is longer in offspring of older fathers. Longer telomeres might increase cancer risk. We examined the relation of father’s age at the birth of the offspring (FAB) with LTL in the offspring in 2177 participants of the Family Heart Study and the probability of developing breast cancer in 1405 women from the Framingham Heart Study (offspring cohort). For each year of increase in FAB (adjusted for mother’s age at birth), LTLs in th...

  6. Laparoscopy following peritoneal entry during transanal endoscopic microsurgery may increase the safety and maximize the benefits of the transanal excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, N; Fenig, Y; Yasin, M; Schmilovitz-Weiss, H; Khoury, W; Powsner, E

    2016-04-01

    Peritoneal entry (PE) during transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) for tumors of the upper rectum is not an uncommon complication. The suture line of the rectal defect performed for PE is not devoid of leaks. Diagnostic laparoscopy after PE enables visualization and testing of the suture line. Here, we report the outcome of patients undergoing laparoscopy for PE following TEM. Data pertaining to patients undergoing laparoscopy for PE following TEM between 2004 and 2013 were retrospectively collected. One hundred and forty-one TEM procedures were performed, and 19 (13 %) with PE were included. The mean age was 68.1 ± 10.6 years, mean distance from the anal verge 12.5 ± 2 cm, and mean tumor size 2 cm. Lesions were located in the lateral wall (n = 14), anteriorly (n = 4), and posteriorly (n = 1). Indications for TEM were: adenoma (n = 13), indeterminate margins after polypectomy (n = 4, a submucosal lesion (n = 1), and a T1N0 adenocarcinoma (n = 1). In all patients, the rectal wall defect was closed primarily. Twelve patients underwent additional laparoscopy and suture line leak testing. In one patient, a small leak was detected which was repaired laparoscopically. In another, a hematoma of the suture line was observed and a drain was left in place. The mean operative time was 109 min (range 80-135 min) for TEM and 33 min (range 22-45 min) for laparoscopy. A diverting ileostomy was fashioned in one patient on postoperative day 3 after TEM without laparoscopy. No other major complications were observed. Laparoscopy after PE during TEM permits visualization and testing of the suture line. It is not associated with increased morbidity, and it may increase the safety of TEM.

  7. Maternal obesity and late effects on offspring metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vido, Daniele Sá; Nejm, Mariana Bocca; Silva, Neila Ribeiro; Silva, Sylvia Maria Affonso; Cravo, Sérgio Luiz; Luz, Jacqueline

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the late effects of maternal obesity induced by lesion of the ventromedial hypothalamus on offspring metabolism. Thirty days after the bilateral lesion of the ventromedial hypothalamus, female rats were mated and divided into 2 groups of pregnant animals: Control (C) - false lesion (sham) and Obese (OB) - lesion. Three months after that, with the groups of mothers, offspring were divided into control and obese animals that received a normocaloric diet (C-N and OB-N), and control and obese animals that received a hypercaloric diet (C-H and OB-H). At 120 days of age, the animals were euthanized and their carcasses, feces and food were submitted to calorimetric analysis to determine energy balance and body composition. During the growth period, offspring from obese mothers showed higher values of body weight and food intake than controls. Obese animals showed higher body weight gain and gross food efficiency than control animals in adulthood. The hypercaloric diet led to increased metabolizable energy intake, percentage of absorbed energy and energy expenditure in both groups. Body composition was only affected by the association of hypercaloric diet and maternal obesity that led to increased body fat. Maternal obesity has led to the development of later overweight in offspring, suggesting fetal programming. According to the trend presented, it is believed that the prolonged intake of hypercaloric diets in adult animals may, as an additional effect, induce worsening of the overweight induced by maternal obesity.

  8. Zunahme der inanspruchnahme von sozialleistungen bei jungen personen mit einer chronischen erkrankung bzw. Behinderung in den Niederlanden = Increasing use of social benefits by young people with chronic illness or disability in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besseling, J.J.M.; Rijkenberg, A.M.; Andriessen, S.; Vos, E.L. de

    2008-01-01

    Young handicapped citizens in the Netherlands have increasingly been receiving social benefits or special services during the last five years. Dutch governmental departments have therefore commissioned an applied social policy research. We analyzed six benefits (for example special education,

  9. Oxidative stress in mouse sperm impairs embryo development, fetal growth and alters adiposity and glucose regulation in female offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Lane

    Full Text Available Paternal health cues are able to program the health of the next generation however the mechanism for this transmission is unknown. Reactive oxygen species (ROS are increased in many paternal pathologies, some of which program offspring health, and are known to induce DNA damage and alter the methylation pattern of chromatin. We therefore investigated whether a chemically induced increase of ROS in sperm impairs embryo, pregnancy and offspring health. Mouse sperm was exposed to 1500 µM of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, which induced oxidative damage, however did not affect sperm motility or the ability to bind and fertilize an oocyte. Sperm treated with H2O2 delayed on-time development of subsequent embryos, decreased the ratio of inner cell mass cells (ICM in the resulting blastocyst and reduced implantation rates. Crown-rump length at day 18 of gestation was also reduced in offspring produced by H2O2 treated sperm. Female offspring from H2O2 treated sperm were smaller, became glucose intolerant and accumulated increased levels of adipose tissue compared to control female offspring. Interestingly male offspring phenotype was less severe with increases in fat depots only seen at 4 weeks of age, which was restored to that of control offspring later in life, demonstrating sex-specific impacts on offspring. This study implicates elevated sperm ROS concentrations, which are common to many paternal health pathologies, as a mediator of programming offspring for metabolic syndrome and obesity.

  10. Sex Dimorphism in Late Gestational Sleep Fragmentation and Metabolic Dysfunction in Offspring Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalyfa, Abdelnaby; Carreras, Alba; Almendros, Isaac; Hakim, Fahed; Gozal, David

    2015-01-01

    Background: Excessive sleep fragmentation (SF) is common in pregnant women. Adult-onset metabolic disorders may begin during early development and exhibit substantial sex dimorphism. We hypothesized that metabolic dysfunction induced by gestational SF in male mice would not be apparent in female littermates. Methods: Body weight and food consumption were measured weekly in male and female offspring after late gestational SF or control sleep (SC). At 20 weeks, plasma leptin, adiponectin, lipid profiles, and insulin and glucose tolerance tests were assessed. Leptin and adiponectin, M1, and M2 macrophage messenger RNA expression and polarity were examined. Adiponectin gene promoter methylation levels in several tissues were assessed. Results: Food intake, body weight, visceral fat mass, and insulin resistance were higher, and adiponectin levels lower in male but not female offspring exposed to gestational SF. However, dyslipidemia was apparent in both male and female offspring exposed to SF, albeit of lesser magnitude. In visceral fat, leptin messenger RNA expression was selectively increased and adiponectin expression was decreased in male offspring exposed to gestational SF, but adiponectin was increased in exposed female offspring. Differences in adipokine expression also emerged in liver, subcutaneous fat, and muscle. Increased M1 macrophage markers were present in male offspring exposed to SF (SFOM) while increased M2 markers emerged in SF in female offspring (SFOF). Similarly, significant differences emerged in the methylation patterns of adiponectin promoter in SFOM and SFOF. Conclusion: Gestational sleep fragmentation increases the susceptibility to obesity and metabolic syndrome in male but not in female offspring, most likely via epigenetic changes. Thus, sleep perturbations impose long-term detrimental effects to the fetus manifesting as sex dimorphic metabolic dysfunction in adulthood. Citation: Khalyfa A, Carreras A, Almendros I, Hakim F, Gozal D. Sex

  11. Impact of maternal mild hyperglycemia on maternal care and offspring development and behavior of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Ana Carolina Inhasz; Woodside, Barbara; Felício, Luciano Freitas; Anselmo-Franci, Janete; Damasceno, Débora Cristina

    2012-10-10

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of maternal mild hyperglycemia on maternal behavior, as well as the development, behavior, reproductive function, and glucose tolerance of the offspring. At birth, litters were assigned either to Control (subcutaneous (sc)-citrate buffer) or STZ groups (streptozotocin (STZ)-100mg/kg-sc.). On PND 90 both STZ-treated and Control female rats were mated. Glucose tolerance tests (GTT) and insulin tolerance tests (ITT) were performed during pregnancy. Pregnancy duration, litter size and sex ratio were assessed. Newborns were classified according to birth weight as small (SPA), adequate (APA), or large for pregnancy age (LPA). Maternal behavior was analyzed on PND 5 and 10. Offspring body weight, length, and anogenital distance were measured and general activity was assessed in the open field. Sexual behavior was tested in both male and female offspring. Levels of reproductive hormones and estrous cycle duration were evaluated in female offspring. Female offspring were mated and both a GTT and ITT performed during pregnancy. Neonatal STZ administration caused mild hyperglycemia during pregnancy and changed some aspects of maternal care. The hyperglycemic intrauterine milieu impaired physical development and increased immobility in the open field in the offspring although the latter effect appeared at different ages for males (adulthood) and females (infancy). There was no impairment in the sexual behavior of either male or female offspring. As adults, female offspring of STZ-treated mothers did not show glucose intolerance during pregnancy. Thus, offspring of female rats that show mild hyperglycemia in pregnancy have fewer behavioral and developmental impairments than previously reported in the offspring of severely diabetic dams suggesting that the degree of impairment is directly related to the mother glycemic intensity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The impaired myocardial ischemic tolerance in adult offspring of diabetic pregnancy is restored by maternal melatonin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ling; Zhao, Yi-Chao; Liang, Yan; Lin, Xian-Hua; Tan, Ya-Jing; Wu, Dan-Dan; Li, Xin-Zhu; Ye, Bo-Zhi; Kong, Fan-Qi; Sheng, Jian-Zhong; Huang, He-Feng

    2016-10-01

    Diabetic pregnancy, with ever increasing prevalence, adversely affects embryogenesis and increases vasculometabolic disorder risks in adult offspring. However, it remains poorly understood whether maternal diabetes increases the offspring's susceptibility to heart injuries in adulthood. In this study, we observed that cardiac function and structure were comparable between adult offspring born to diabetic mice and their counterparts born to nondiabetic mice at baseline. However, in response to myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MIR), diabetic mother offspring exhibited augmented infarct size, cardiac dysfunction, and myocardial apoptosis compared with control, in association with exaggerated activation of mitochondria- and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptosis pathways and oxidative stress. Molecular analysis showed that the impaired myocardial ischemic tolerance in diabetic mother offspring was mainly attributable to blunted cardiac insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1/Akt signaling. Furthermore, the effect of maternal melatonin administration on offspring's response to MIR was determined, and the results indicated that melatonin treatment in diabetic dams during pregnancy significantly improved the tolerance to MIR injury in their offspring, via restoring cardiac IRS-1/Akt signaling. Taken together, these data suggest that maternal diabetes predisposes offspring to augmented MIR injury in adulthood, and maternal melatonin supplementation during diabetic pregnancy may hold promise for improving myocardial ischemic tolerance in the offspring. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Benefits of group living include increased feeding efficiency and lower mass loss during desiccation in the social and inbreeding spider Stegodyphus dumicola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram eVanthournout

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Group living carries a price: it inherently entails increased competition for resources and reproduction, and may also be associated with mating among relatives, which carries costs of inbreeding. Nonetheless, group living and sociality is found in many animals, and understanding the direct and indirect benefits of cooperation that override the inherent costs remains a challenge in evolutionary ecology. Individuals in groups may benefit from more efficient management of energy or water reserves, for example in the form of reduced water or heat loss from groups of animals huddling, or through reduced energy demands afforded by shared participation in tasks. We investigated the putative benefits of group living in the permanently social spider Stegodyphus dumicola by comparing the effect of group size on standard metabolic rate, lipid/protein content as a body condition measure, feeding efficiency, per capita web investment and weight/water loss and survival during desiccation. Because energetic expenditure is temperature sensitive, some assays were performed under varying temperature conditions. We found that feeding efficiency increased with group size, and the rate of weight loss was higher in solitary individuals than in animals in groups of various sizes during desiccation. Interestingly, this was not translated into differences in survival or in standard metabolic rate. We did not detect any group size effects for other parameters, and group size effects did not co-vary with experimental temperature in a predictive manner. Both feeding efficiency and mass loss during desiccation are relevant ecological factors as the former results in lowered predator exposure time, and the latter benefits social spiders which occupy arid, hot environments.

  14. Maternal PTSD associates with greater glucocorticoid sensitivity in offspring of Holocaust survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrner, Amy; Bierer, Linda M; Passarelli, Vincent; Pratchett, Laura C; Flory, Janine D; Bader, Heather N; Harris, Iris R; Bedi, Aarti; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P; Makotkine, Iouri; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-02-01

    Intergenerational effects of trauma have been observed clinically in a wide range of populations, and parental PTSD has been associated with an increased risk for psychopathology in offspring. In studies of Holocaust survivor offspring, parental PTSD, and particularly maternal PTSD, has been associated with increased risk for PTSD, low basal urinary cortisol excretion and enhanced cortisol suppression in response to dexamethasone. Such findings implicate maternally derived glucocorticoid programming in the intergenerational transmission of trauma-related consequences, potentially resulting from in utero influences or early life experiences. This study investigated the relative influence of Holocaust exposure and PTSD in mothers and fathers on glucocorticoid sensitivity in offspring. Eighty Holocaust offspring and 15 offspring of non-exposed Jewish parents completed evaluations and provided blood and urine samples. Glucocorticoid sensitivity was evaluated using the lysozyme suppression test (LST), an in vitro measure of glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity in a peripheral tissue, the dexamethasone suppression test (DST), and 24-h urinary cortisol excretion. Maternal PTSD was associated with greater glucocorticoid sensitivity in offspring across all three measures of glucocorticoid function. An interaction of maternal and paternal PTSD on the DST and 24-h urinary cortisol showed an effect of decreased glucocorticoid sensitivity in offspring with paternal, but not maternal, PTSD. Although indirect, these findings are consistent with the hypothesis that epigenetic programming may be involved in the intergenerational transmission of trauma-related effects on glucocorticoid regulation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. The Association Between Parental Schizophrenia and Offspring Suicide: A Cousin Comparison approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljung, Therese; Lichtenstein, Paul; Sandin, Sven; Hultman, Christina; D’Onofrio, Brian; Långstöm, Niklas; Larsson, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the suicide risk among offspring of parents hospitalized for schizophrenia and elucidated the mechanisms behind this association. Methods We applied a nested case-control design based on a linkage of Swedish population-based registers. Among 12- to 30-year old offspring, we identified 22 850 suicide cases and their parents. For each case-parent pair we matched five healthy controls-parent pairs. All individuals were followed up to the end of 2004. We performed conditional logistic regression models to estimate adjusted odds ratios. To disentangle familial confounding from environmental mechanisms we also compared the population based suicide risk with the observed risk within full-cousins and half-cousins differentially exposed for parental schizophrenia. Results Offspring of parents with schizophrenia had a significantly increased risk of suicide after accounting for socioeconomic status, parental suicide and offspring mental illness (odds ratio 1.73 [1.47–2.04]). The suicide risks in offspring of schizophrenic mothers and schizophrenic fathers were similar in magnitude. The suicide risk was also similar across different developmental periods. The offspring of siblings discordant for schizophrenia showed comparable odds ratios within full cousins (odds ratio 2.02 [1.48–2.76]), and within half-cousins (odds ratio 2.03 [0.96–4.28]). Conclusions Parental schizophrenia is associated with an increased risk for offspring suicide. The suicide risk in offspring remained unchanged when comparing genetically different relationships, which indicate that parental schizophrenia acts directly through environmental mechanisms. These findings highlight the importance of increased social support to offspring of parents with schizophrenia in order to prevent suicidal events. PMID:22703756

  16. A Maternal Low-Fiber Diet Predisposes Offspring to Improved Metabolic Phenotypes in Adulthood in an Herbivorous Rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-Ying; Lou, Mei-Fang; Shen, Wei; Fu, Rong-Shu; Wang, De-Hua

    The maternal or paternal dietary composition can have important effects on various aspects of their offspring's physiology. Studies from animal models and humans showed that a maternal high-fiber diet protected offspring against fat accumulation. However, little is known about how a maternal low-fiber diet modifies the metabolism of offspring in herbivorous rodents. We hypothesized that a maternal low-fiber diet would confer long-lasting beneficial effects on offspring metabolic phenotypes in herbivorous Brandt's vole (Lasiopodomys brandtii). Female voles were fed either a control (12.4% fiber) or a low-fiber (3.5% fiber) diet throughout pregnancy and lactation, and all offspring were fed the control diet after weaning till 14 wk old. Offspring were sampled from each litter at 18 d and 14 wk of age. Another subset of adult offspring at 15 wk of age was fed a high-fat diet for 8 wk. We found that there was no difference in litter size, litter mass, or pup mass before weaning between the two maternal diet groups. Offspring from the maternal low-fiber diet increased energy intake, body mass, and lean mass; suppressed fat accumulation; and improved glucose tolerance compared with those from the control diet. Moreover, the maternal low-fiber diet alleviated high-fat diet-induced obesity in the adult offspring. Serum leptin concentration and uncoupling protein 1 content in brown adipose tissue of offspring were not affected by a maternal low-fiber diet. We demonstrate that herbivorous females fed a low-fiber diet during pregnancy and lactation may predispose their offspring to accelerated growth of lean tissue, which may increase the opportunity for survival and reproduction in offspring.

  17. Maternal Antioxidant Supplementation Prevents Adiposity in the Offspring of Western Diet?Fed Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, Sarbattama; Simmons, Rebecca A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Obesity in pregnancy significantly increases the risk of the offspring developing obesity after birth. The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that maternal obesity increases oxidative stress during fetal development, and to determine whether administration of an antioxidant supplement to pregnant Western diet-fed rats would prevent the development of adiposity in the offspring. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Female Sprague Dawley rats were started on the designated diet at ...

  18. Direct fitness benefits and kinship of social foraging groups in an Old World tropical babbler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Sara A.; Martin, Thomas E.; Oteyza, Juan C.; Armstad, Connor E.; Fleischer, Robert C.

    2018-01-01

    Molecular studies have revealed that social groups composed mainly of nonrelatives may be widespread in group-living vertebrates, but the benefits favoring such sociality are not well understood. In the Old World, birds often form conspecific foraging groups that are maintained year-round and offspring usually disperse to other social groups. We tested the hypothesis that nonbreeding group members are largely unrelated and gain direct fitness benefits through breeding opportunities (males) and brood parasitism (females) in the tropical gray-throated babbler, Stachyris nigriceps, in Malaysian Borneo. Babblers foraged in social groups containing one or more breeding pairs (median = 8 group members of equal sex ratio), but group members rarely assisted with breeding (9% of 67 breeding pairs had a third helper; exhibiting facultative cooperative breeding). Although 20% of 266 group member dyads were first-order relatives of one or both members of the breeding pairs, 80% were unrelated. Male group members gained direct fitness benefits through extrapair and extra-group paternity (25% of 73 offspring), which was independent of their relatedness to the breeding pair and increased with decreasing group size. In contrast, females did not gain direct fitness benefits through brood parasitism. The low levels of relatedness and helping in social groups suggest that most group members do not gain indirect fitness benefits by helping to raise unrelated offspring. These findings highlight the importance of examining benefits of sociality for unrelated individuals that largely do not help and broaden the direct fitness benefits of group foraging beyond assumed survival benefits.

  19. Adiposity, Dysmetabolic Traits, and Earlier Onset of Female Puberty in Adolescent Offspring of Women With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Clinical Study Within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, L. G.; Hansen, S.; Hjort, L.

    2017-01-01

    glucose, insulin, C-peptide, HOMA-insulin resistance (IR), and plasma triglyceride levels, whereas fasting plasma HDL cholesterol levels were decreased. Female offspring of mothers with GDM had an earlier onset of puberty than control offspring. Offspring of mothers with GDM had significantly higher BMI......, WHR, fasting glucose, and HOMA-IR levels after adjustment for maternal prepregnancy BMI, and glucose and HOMA-IR remained elevated in the offspring of mothers with GDM after correction for both maternal and offspring BMIs. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, adolescent offspring of women with GDM show increased...... adiposity, an adverse cardiometabolic profile, and earlier onset of puberty among girls. Increased fasting glucose and HOMA-IR levels among the offspring of mothers with GDM may be explained by the programming effects of hyperglycemia in pregnancy....

  20. A maternal "junk-food" diet reduces sensitivity to the opioid antagonist naloxone in offspring postweaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugusheff, Jessica R; Ong, Zhi Yi; Muhlhausler, Beverly S

    2013-03-01

    Perinatal exposure to a maternal "junk-food" diet has been demonstrated to increase the preference for palatable diets in adult offspring. We aimed to determine whether this increased preference could be attributed to changes in μ-opioid receptor expression within the mesolimbic reward pathway. We report here that mRNA expression of the μ-opioid receptor in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) at weaning was 1.4-fold (males) and 1.9-fold (females) lower in offspring of junk-food (JF)-fed rat dams than in offspring of dams fed a standard rodent diet (control) (Pjunk-food diet results in early desensitization of the opioid system which may explain the increased preference for junk food in these offspring.

  1. Disentangling the health benefits of walking from increased exposure to falls in older people using remote gait monitoring and multi-dimensional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Matthew A; Okubo, Yoshiro; Annegarn, Janneke; Wieching, Rainer; Lord, Stephen R; Delbaere, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Falls and physical deconditioning are two major health problems for older people. Recent advances in remote physiological monitoring provide new opportunities to investigate why walking exercise, with its many health benefits, can both increase and decrease fall rates in older people. In this paper we combine remote wearable device monitoring of daily gait with non-linear multi-dimensional pattern recognition analysis; to disentangle the complex associations between walking, health and fall rates. One week of activities of daily living (ADL) were recorded with a wearable device in 96 independent living older people prior to completing 6 months of exergaming interventions. Using the wearable device data; the quantity, intensity, variability and distribution of daily walking patterns were assessed. At baseline, clinical assessments of health, falls, sensorimotor and physiological fall risks were completed. At 6 months, fall rates, sensorimotor and physiological fall risks were re-assessed. A non-linear multi-dimensional analysis was conducted to identify risk-groups according to their daily walking patterns. Four distinct risk-groups were identified: The Impaired (93% fallers), Restrained (8% fallers), Active (50% fallers) and Athletic (4% fallers). Walking was strongly associated with multiple health benefits and protective of falls for the top performing Athletic risk-group. However, in the middle of the spectrum, the Active risk-group, who were more active, younger and healthier were 6.25 times more likely to be fallers than their Restrained counterparts. Remote monitoring of daily walking patterns may provide a new way to distinguish Impaired people at risk of falling because of frailty from Active people at risk of falling from greater exposure to situations were falls could occur, but further validation is required. Wearable device risk-profiling could help in developing more personalised interventions for older people seeking the health benefits of walking

  2. Prenatal allergen and diesel exhaust exposure and their effects on allergy in adult offspring mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Lin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple studies have suggested that prenatal exposure to either allergens or air pollution may increase the risk for the development of allergic immune responses in young offspring. However, the effects of prenatal environmental exposures on adult offspring have not been well-studied. We hypothesized that combined prenatal exposure to Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus allergen and diesel exhaust particles will be associated with altered IgE production, airway inflammation, airway hyperreactivity (AHR, and airway remodeling of adult offspring. Methods Following sensitization via the airway route to A. fumigatus and mating, pregnant BALB/c mice were exposed to additional A. fumigatus and/or diesel exhaust particles. At age 9-10 weeks, their offspring were sensitized and challenged with A. fumigatus. Results We found that adult offspring from mice that were exposed to A. fumigatus or diesel exhaust particles during pregnancy experienced decreases in IgE production. Adult offspring of mice that were exposed to both A. fumigatus and diesel exhaust particles during pregnancy experienced decreases in airway eosinophilia. Conclusion These results suggest that, in this model, allergen and/or diesel administration during pregnancy may be associated with protection from developing systemic and airway allergic immune responses in the adult offspring.

  3. Maternal butyrate supplementation induces insulin resistance associated with enhanced intramuscular fat deposition in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanping; Gao, Shixing; Chen, Jinglong; Albrecht, Elke; Zhao, Ruqian; Yang, Xiaojing

    2017-02-21

    Maternal nutrition is important for the risk of the offspring to develop insulin resistance and adiposity later in life. The study was undertaken to determine effects of maternal butyrate supplementation on lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity in the offspring skeletal muscle. The offspring of rats, fed a control diet or a butyrate diet (1% sodium butyrate) throughout gestation and lactation, was studied at weaning and at 60 days of age. The offspring of dams fed a butyrate diet had higher HOMA-insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance. This was associated with elevated mRNA and protein expressions of lipogenic genes and decreased amounts of lipolytic enzyme. Simultaneously, enhanced acetylation of histone H3 lysine 9 and histone H3 lysine 27 modification on the lipogenic genes in skeletal muscle of adult offspring was observed. Higher concentration of serum insulin and intramuscular triglyceride in skeletal muscle of offspring from the butyrate group at weaning were accompanied by increasing levels of lipogenic genes and enrichment of acetylation of histone H3 lysine 27. Maternal butyrate supplementation leads to insulin resistance and ectopic lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle of offspring, indicating the importance of short chain fatty acids in the maternal diet on lipid metabolism.

  4. Disruptive behavior disorders in offspring of parents with major depression: associations with parental behavior disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R; Petty, Carter; Micco, Jamie A; Henin, Aude; Park, Jennifer; Beilin, Ari; Rosenbaum, Jerrold F; Biederman, Joseph

    2008-12-01

    Although the offspring of parents with major depressive disorder (MDD) are at increased risk to develop disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) in addition to MDD, it remains unclear whether this heightened risk is due to MDD or to comorbid DBD in the parents. In a secondary analysis of longitudinal data from offspring at risk for MDD and panic disorder and comparison children, we stratified 169 children of parents who had been treated for MDD based upon presence (n=50) or absence (n=119) of parental history of DBD (ADHD, oppositional disorder, and conduct disorder) and contrasted them with children of parents with DBD but without MDD (n=19) and children whose parents had neither MDD nor DBD (n=106). The children had been assessed in middle childhood using structured diagnostic interviews. Offspring of parents with MDD + DBD had significantly higher rates of MDD, DBD in general, and ADHD in particular, compared with offspring of parents with MDD alone. Offspring of parents with MDD + DBD also had higher rates of mania than controls. Both parental MDD and DBD conferred independent risk for MDD and DBD in the offspring. However, only parental DBD conferred independent risk for conduct disorder and ADHD and only parental MDD conferred independent risk for oppositional defiant disorder. Elevated rates of DBD in the offspring of parents with MDD appear to be due in part to the presence of DBD in the parents. Further studies of samples not selected on the basis of parental panic disorder are needed to confirm these results.

  5. Maternally administered sustained-release naltrexone in rats affects offspring neurochemistry and behaviour in adulthood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed O Farid

    Full Text Available Naltrexone is not recommended during pregnancy. However, sustained-release naltrexone implant use in humans has resulted in cases of inadvertent foetal exposure. Here, we used clinically relevant dosing to examine the effects of maternally administered sustained-release naltrexone on the rat brain by examining offspring at birth and in adulthood. Maternal treatment (naltrexone or placebo implant started before conception and ceased during gestation, birth or weaning. Morphometry was assessed in offspring at birth and adulthood. Adult offspring were evaluated for differences in locomotor behaviour (basal and morphine-induced, 10 mg/kg, s.c. and opioid neurochemistry, propensity to self-administer morphine and cue-induced drug-seeking after abstinence. Blood analysis confirmed offspring exposure to naltrexone during gestation, birth and weaning. Naltrexone exposure increased litter size and reduced offspring birth-weight but did not alter brain morphometry. Compared to placebo, basal motor activity of naltrexone-exposed adult offspring was lower, yet they showed enhanced development of psychomotor sensitization to morphine. Developmental naltrexone exposure was associated with resistance to morphine-induced down-regulation of striatal preproenkephalin mRNA expression in adulthood. Adult offspring also exhibited greater operant responding for morphine and, in addition, cue-induced drug-seeking was enhanced. Collectively, these data show pronounced effects of developmental naltrexone exposure, some of which persist into adulthood, highlighting the need for follow up of humans that were exposed to naltrexone in utero.

  6. Maternal periodontal disease in rats decreases insulin sensitivity and insulin signaling in adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakashi, Daisy J; Leal, Rosana P; Colombo, Natalia H; Chiba, Fernando Y; Garbin, Cléa A S; Jardim, Elerson G; Antoniali, Cristina; Sumida, Doris H

    2013-03-01

    Periodontal disease during pregnancy has been recognized as one of the causes of preterm and low-birth-weight (PLBW) babies. Several studies have demonstrated that PLBW babies are prone to developing insulin resistance as adults. Although there is controversy over the association between periodontal disease and PLBW, the phenomenon known as programming can translate any stimulus or aggression experienced during intrauterine growth into physiologic and metabolic alterations in adulthood. The purpose of the present study is to investigate whether the offspring of rats with periodontal disease develop insulin resistance in adulthood. Ten female Wistar rats were divided into periodontal disease (PED) and control (CN) groups. All rats were mated at 7 days after induction of periodontal disease. Male offspring were divided into two groups: 1) periodontal disease offspring (PEDO; n = 24); and 2) control offspring (CNO; n = 24). Offspring body weight was measured from birth until 75 days. When the offspring reached 75 days old, the following parameters were measured: 1) plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, fructosamine, lipase, amylase, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α); 2) insulin sensitivity (IS); and 3) insulin signal transduction (IST) in insulin-sensitive tissues. Low birth weight was not detected in the PEDO group. However, plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, fructosamine, lipase, amylase, and TNF-α were increased and IS and IST were reduced (P PEDO group compared with the CNO group. Maternal periodontal disease may induce insulin resistance and reduce IST in adult offspring, but such alterations are not attributable to low birth weight.

  7. Antagonistic parent-offspring co-adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Kölliker

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In species across taxa, offspring have means to influence parental investment (PI. PI thus evolves as an interacting phenotype and indirect genetic effects may strongly affect the co-evolutionary dynamics of offspring and parental behaviors. Evolutionary theory focused on explaining how exaggerated offspring solicitation can be understood as resolution of parent-offspring conflict, but the evolutionary origin and diversification of different forms of family interactions remains unclear.In contrast to previous theory that largely uses a static approach to predict how "offspring individuals" and "parental individuals" should interact given conflict over PI, we present a dynamic theoretical framework of antagonistic selection on the PI individuals obtain/take as offspring and the PI they provide as parents to maximize individual lifetime reproductive success; we analyze a deterministic and a stochastic version of this dynamic framework. We show that a zone for equivalent co-adaptation outcomes exists in which stable levels of PI can evolve and be maintained despite fast strategy transitions and ongoing co-evolutionary dynamics. Under antagonistic co-adaptation, cost-free solicitation can evolve as an adaptation to emerging preferences in parents.We show that antagonistic selection across the offspring and parental life-stage of individuals favors co-adapted offspring and parental behavior within a zone of equivalent outcomes. This antagonistic parent-offspring co-adaptation does not require solicitation to be costly, allows for rapid divergence and evolutionary novelty and potentially explains the origin and diversification of the observed provisioning forms in family life.

  8. The effect of maternal age and reproductive history on offspring survival and lifetime reproduction in preindustrial humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Duncan O S; Russell, Andrew F; Lummaa, Virpi

    2013-07-01

    Senescence is one of the least understood aspects of organism life history. In part, this stems from the relatively late advent of complete individual-level datasets and appropriate statistical tools. In addition, selection against senescence should depend on the contribution to population growth arising from physiological investment in offspring at given ages, but offspring are rarely tracked over their entire lives. Here, we use a multigenerational dataset of preindustrial (1732-1860) Finns to describe the association of maternal age at offspring birth with offspring survival and lifetime reproduction. We then conduct longitudinal analyses to understand the drivers of this association. At the population level, offspring lifetime reproductive success (LRS) declined by 22% and individual λ, which falls with delays to reproduction, declined by 45% as maternal age at offspring birth increased from 16 to 50 years. These results were mediated by within-mother declines in offspring survival and lifetime reproduction. We also found evidence for modifying effects of offspring sex and maternal socioeconomic status. We suggest that our results emerge from the interaction of physiological with social drivers of offspring LRS, which further weakens selection on late-age reproduction and potentially molds the rate of senescence in humans. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  9. New insights into parental effects and toxicity: Mate availability and diet in the parental environment affect offspring responses to contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plautz, Stephanie C.; Funkhouser, Meghan A.; Salice, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Parental effects manifest as alterations in offspring phenotype resulting from the parental phenotype and/or parental environment. We evaluated the effects of parental diet quality and mating strategy on the toxicant tolerance of offspring in Biomphalaria glabrata snails. We raised snails either individually (self-fertilizing) or in groups of three (outcrossing) on a diet of uncooked lettuce, fish food, cooked lettuce, or cooked lettuce plus fish food. We then exposed their offspring to cadmium and malathion challenges. Cadmium tolerance varied with parental diet and was greater in the offspring of outcrossing snails than self-fertilizing snails. Malathion tolerance was not affected by parental diet but was greater in the offspring of outcrossing snails. These results indicate that offspring responses to stressors are heavily influenced by parental experience, but may depend on the specific stressor and the mechanism of action and/or detoxification. -- Highlights: •We reared parental snails either alone or in groups and fed them one of four diets. •We exposed their juvenile offspring to cadmium and malathion survival challenges. •Outcrossing increased toxicant tolerance of juveniles compared to self-fertilizing. •Parental diet affected juvenile offspring tolerance to cadmium but not malathion. •Toxicant characteristics likely influenced parental effects on toxicant tolerance. -- Both parental diet composition and mating strategy can significantly alter the toxicant tolerance of offspring, and toxicant characteristics likely influence the probability of parental effects

  10. Maternal use of probiotics during pregnancy and effects on their offspring's health in an unselected population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, Nicole; Van der Gugten, Anne; Uiterwaal, Cuno; Vlieger, Arine; Rijkers, Ger; Van der Ent, Kors

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics are used by women in the perinatal period and may improve balance of microbiota, with possible health benefits for both mother and baby. Characteristics and (health) behaviour patterns of mothers using probiotics during pregnancy, and health effects on their offspring, were investigated.

  11. Effects of prenatal caffeine exposure on glucose homeostasis of adult offspring rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Hao; Wang, Gui-hua; Pei, Lin-guo; Zhang, Li; Shi, Chai; Guo, Yu; Wu, Dong-fang; Wang, Hui

    2017-12-01

    Epidemiological evidences show that prenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) could induce intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). The IUGR offspring also present glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus after maturity. We have previously demonstrated that PCE induced IUGR and increased susceptibility to adult metabolic syndrome in rats. This study aimed to further investigate the effects of PCE on glucose homeostasis in adult offspring rats. Pregnant rats were administered caffeine (120 mg/kg/day, intragastrically) from gestational days 11 to 20. PCE offspring presented partial catch-up growth pattern after birth, characterizing by the increased body weight gain rates. Meanwhile, PCE had no significant influences on the basal blood glucose and insulin phenotypes of adult offspring but increased the glucose tolerance, glucose-stimulated insulin section and β cell sensitivity to glucose in female progeny. The insulin sensitivity of both male and female PCE offspring were enhanced accompanied with reduced β cell fraction and mass. Western blotting results revealed that significant augmentation in protein expression of hepatic insulin signaling elements of PCE females, including insulin receptor (INSR), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and the phosphorylation of serine-threonine protein kinase (Akt), was also potentiated. In conclusion, we demonstrated that PCE reduced the pancreatic β mass but increased the glucose tolerance in adult offspring rats, especially for females. The adaptive compensatory enhancement of β cell responsiveness to glucose and elevated insulin sensitivity mainly mediated by upregulated hepatic insulin signaling might coordinately contribute to the increased glucose tolerance.

  12. Maternal antioxidant supplementation prevents adiposity in the offspring of Western diet-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Sarbattama; Simmons, Rebecca A

    2010-12-01

    Obesity in pregnancy significantly increases the risk of the offspring developing obesity after birth. The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that maternal obesity increases oxidative stress during fetal development, and to determine whether administration of an antioxidant supplement to pregnant Western diet-fed rats would prevent the development of adiposity in the offspring. Female Sprague Dawley rats were started on the designated diet at 4 weeks of age. Four groups of animals were studied: control chow (control); control + antioxidants (control+Aox); Western diet (Western); and Western diet + antioxidants (Western+Aox). The rats were mated at 12 to 14 weeks of age, and all pups were weaned onto control diet. Offspring from dams fed the Western diet had significantly increased adiposity as early as 2 weeks of age as well as impaired glucose tolerance compared with offspring of dams fed a control diet. Inflammation and oxidative stress were increased in preimplantation embryos, fetuses, and newborns of Western diet-fed rats. Gene expression of proadipogenic and lipogenic genes was altered in fat tissue of rats at 2 weeks and 2 months of age. The addition of an antioxidant supplement decreased adiposity and normalized glucose tolerance. CONCLUSIONS; Inflammation and oxidative stress appear to play a key role in the development of increased adiposity in the offspring of Western diet-fed pregnant dams. Restoration of the antioxidant balance during pregnancy in the Western diet-fed dam is associated with decreased adiposity in offspring.

  13. Smoking during teenage pregnancies: effects on behavioral problems in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Marie D; Goldschmidt, Lidush; DeGenna, Natacha; Day, Nancy L

    2007-07-01

    We prospectively examined the relationship between prenatal tobacco exposure (PTE) and child behavior in a birth cohort of 357 offspring of teenage mothers. PTE was defined as any exposure across pregnancy and, in separate analyses, exposure within each trimester. Outcomes included measures of behavior problems, activity, and attention. On average, the children were 6.4 years of age, 48% were females, and 69% were Black. Data on maternal tobacco and other substance use were collected prenatally and postnatally: 46% of the mothers smoked in the first trimester and 58% smoked 6 years later. Child urinary cotinine measured exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Stepwise multiple regressions were run. PTE predicted significantly increased offspring activity; impulsivity; and aggression, externalizing, and total behavior problems in step 1. PTE remained a significant predictor of increased activity when maternal psychological characteristics, home environment, and ETS were added. The results were similar when PTE was examined by trimesters, although later pregnancy tobacco exposure predicted the most behavioral outcomes. In the final model, PTE (all three trimesters) and PTE (second trimester) were significant predictors of increased activity and attention problems, respectively. Other predictors of child behavior included maternal anxiety, depression, hostility, and home environment. ETS was not a significant predictor of child behavior when PTE was considered. Smoking during pregnancy among adolescents is a significant predictor of increased activity and attention problems in their offspring after controlling for covariates in the prenatal and current environments. Smoking cessation interventions are recommended for this population to avoid the effects of PTE on the offspring of pregnant adolescents. This is particularly important because these mothers will likely become pregnant again and many will increase their level of tobacco use as they mature.

  14. Paternal age at childbearing and offspring psychiatric and academic morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Onofrio, Brian M; Rickert, Martin E; Frans, Emma; Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Almqvist, Catarina; Sjölander, Arvid; Larsson, Henrik; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2014-04-01

    Advancing paternal age is associated with increased genetic mutations during spermatogenesis, which research suggests may cause psychiatric morbidity in the offspring. The effects of advancing paternal age at childbearing on offspring morbidity remain unclear, however, because of inconsistent epidemiologic findings and the inability of previous studies to rigorously rule out confounding factors. To examine the associations between advancing paternal age at childbearing and numerous indexes of offspring morbidity. We performed a population-based cohort study of all individuals born in Sweden in 1973-2001 (N = 2,615,081), with subsets of the data used to predict childhood or adolescent morbidity. We estimated the risk of psychiatric and academic morbidity associated with advancing paternal age using several quasi-experimental designs, including the comparison of differentially exposed siblings, cousins, and first-born cousins. Paternal age at childbearing. Psychiatric (autism, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, psychosis, bipolar disorder, suicide attempt, and substance use problem) and academic (failing grades and low educational attainment) morbidity. In the study population, advancing paternal age was associated with increased risk of some psychiatric disorders (eg, autism, psychosis, and bipolar disorders) but decreased risk of the other indexes of morbidity. In contrast, the sibling-comparison analyses indicated that advancing paternal age had a dose-response relationship with every index of morbidity, with the magnitude of the associations being as large or larger than the estimates in the entire population. Compared with offspring born to fathers 20 to 24 years old, offspring of fathers 45 years and older were at heightened risk of autism (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.45; 95% CI, 1.62-7.33), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (HR = 13.13; 95% CI, 6.85-25.16), psychosis (HR = 2.07; 95% CI, 1.35-3.20), bipolar disorder (HR = 24.70; 95% CI, 12

  15. Sex dimorphism in late gestational sleep fragmentation and metabolic dysfunction in offspring mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalyfa, Abdelnaby; Carreras, Alba; Almendros, Isaac; Hakim, Fahed; Gozal, David

    2015-04-01

    Excessive sleep fragmentation (SF) is common in pregnant women. Adult-onset metabolic disorders may begin during early development and exhibit substantial sex dimorphism. We hypothesized that metabolic dysfunction induced by gestational SF in male mice would not be apparent in female littermates. Body weight and food consumption were measured weekly in male and female offspring after late gestational SF or control sleep (SC). At 20 weeks, plasma leptin, adiponectin, lipid profiles, and insulin and glucose tolerance tests were assessed. Leptin and adiponectin, M1, and M2 macrophage messenger RNA expression and polarity were examined. Adiponectin gene promoter methylation levels in several tissues were assessed. Food intake, body weight, visceral fat mass, and insulin resistance were higher, and adiponectin levels lower in male but not female offspring exposed to gestational SF. However, dyslipidemia was apparent in both male and female offspring exposed to SF, albeit of lesser magnitude. In visceral fat, leptin messenger RNA expression was selectively increased and adiponectin expression was decreased in male offspring exposed to gestational SF, but adiponectin was increased in exposed female offspring. Differences in adipokine expression also emerged in liver, subcutaneous fat, and muscle. Increased M1 macrophage markers were present in male offspring exposed to SF (SFOM) while increased M2 markers emerged in SF in female offspring (SFOF). Similarly, significant differences emerged in the methylation patterns of adiponectin promoter in SFOM and SFOF. Gestational sleep fragmentation increases the susceptibility to obesity and metabolic syndrome in male but not in female offspring, most likely via epigenetic changes. Thus, sleep perturbations impose long-term detrimental effects to the fetus manifesting as sex dimorphic metabolic dysfunction in adulthood. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  16. The impact of maternal obesity during pregnancy on offspring immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Randall M; Messaoudi, Ilhem

    2015-12-15

    In the United States, approximately 64% of women of childbearing age are either overweight or obese. Maternal obesity during pregnancy is associated with a greater risk for adverse maternal-fetal outcomes. Adverse health outcomes for the offspring can persist into adulthood, increasing the incidence of several chronic conditions including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and asthma. Since these diseases have a significant inflammatory component, these observations are indicative of perturbation of the normal development and maturation of the immune system of the offspring in utero. This hypothesis is strongly supported by data from several rodent studies. Although the mechanisms of these perturbations are not fully understood, it is thought that increased placental inflammation due to obesity may directly affect neonatal development through alterations in nutrient transport. In this review we examine the impact of maternal obesity on the neonatal immune system, and potential mechanisms for the changes observed. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. Maternal High-Fat and High-Salt Diets Have Differential Programming Effects on Metabolism in Adult Male Rat Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A. Segovia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Maternal high-fat or high-salt diets can independently program adverse cardiometabolic outcomes in offspring. However, there is a paucity of evidence examining their effects in combination on metabolic function in adult offspring. Female Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either: control (CD; 10% kcal from fat, 1% NaCl, high-salt (SD; 10% kcal from fat, 4% NaCl, high-fat (HF; 45% kcal from fat, 1% NaCl or high-fat and salt (HFSD; 45% kcal from fat, 4% NaCl diets 21 days prior to mating and throughout pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring were weaned onto a standard chow diet and were culled on postnatal day 130 for plasma and tissue collection. Adipocyte histology and adipose tissue, liver, and gut gene expression were examined in adult male offspring. HF offspring had significantly greater body weight, impaired insulin sensitivity and hyperleptinemia compared to CD offspring, but these increases were blunted in HFSD offspring. HF offspring had moderate adipocyte hypertrophy and increased expression of the pre-adipocyte marker Dlk1. There was a significant effect of maternal salt with increased hepatic expression of Dgat1 and Igfb2. Gut expression of inflammatory (Il1r1, Tnfα, Il6, and Il6r and renin–angiotensin system (Agtr1a, Agtr1b markers was significantly reduced in HFSD offspring compared to HF offspring. Therefore, salt mitigates some adverse offspring outcomes associated with a maternal HF diet, which may be mediated by altered adipose tissue morphology and gut inflammatory and renin–angiotensin regulation.

  18. Maternal Western diet age-specifically alters female offspring voluntary physical activity and dopamine- and leptin-related gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruegsegger, Gregory N; Grigsby, Kolter B; Kelty, Taylor J; Zidon, Terese M; Childs, Thomas E; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J; Klinkebiel, David L; Matheny, Michael; Scarpace, Phillip J; Booth, Frank W

    2017-12-01

    Prenatal overnutrition affects development into adulthood and influences risk of obesity. We assessed the transgenerational effect of maternal Western diet (WD) consumption on offspring physical activity. Voluntary wheel running was increased in juvenile (4-7 wk of age), but decreased in adult (16-19 wk of age), F 1 female WD offspring In contrast, no wheel-running differences in F 1 male offspring were observed. Increased wheel running in juvenile female WD offspring was associated with up-regulated dopamine receptor (DRD)-1 and -2 in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and with down-regulated Lepr in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Conversely, decreased wheel running by adult female WD offspring was associated with down-regulated DRD1 in the NAc and with up-regulated Lepr in the VTA. Body fat, leptin, and insulin were increased in male, but not in female, F 1 WD offspring. Recombinant virus (rAAV) leptin antagonism in the VTA decreased wheel running in standard diet but not in WD F 1 female offspring. Analysis of F 2 offspring found no differences in wheel running or adiposity in male or female offspring, suggesting that changes in the F 1 generation were related to in utero somatic reprogramming. Our findings indicate prenatal WD exposure leads to age-specific changes in voluntary physical activity in female offspring that are differentially influenced by VTA leptin antagonism.-Ruegsegger, G. N., Grigsby, K. B., Kelty, T. J., Zidon, T. M., Childs, T. E., Vieira-Potter, V. J., Klinkebiel, D. L., Matheny, M., Scarpace, P. J., Booth, F. W. Maternal Western diet age-specifically alters female offspring voluntary physical activity and dopamine- and leptin-related gene expression. © FASEB.

  19. Cellular and molecular deviations in bovine in vitro-produced embryos are related to the large offspring syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazzari, G.; Wrenzycki, C.; Herrmann, D.; Duchi, R.; Kruip, T.; Niemann, H.; Galli, C.

    2002-01-01

    The large offspring syndrome (LOS) is observed in bovine and ovine offspring following transfer of in vitro-produced (IVP) or cloned embryos and is characterized by a multitude of pathologic changes, of which extended gestation length and increased birthweight are predominant features. In the

  20. A maternal high salt diet disturbs cardiac and vascular function of offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Kana; Kagota, Satomi; Van Vliet, Bruce N; Wakuda, Hirokazu; Shinozuka, Kazumasa

    2015-09-01

    High salt intake is an environmental factor that promotes increased blood pressure. We previously demonstrated that high salt diet causes aggravation of hypertension and impaired vasodilation in response to nitric oxide (NO) in young spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), which exhibit low sensitivity to salt in adulthood. Changes in offspring blood pressure and cardiovascular structures have been reported. However, it remains unclear to what extent a maternal high salt intake may affect cardiac and/or vascular function in offspring. Therefore, we investigated influence of exposure to a maternal high salt diet during gestation and lactation on offspring's cardiac and arterial functions in SHR. SHR dams were fed either a high salt diet or a control diet. After weaning, the offspring were fed the high salt diet or control diet for 8weeks. Compared with offspring of control diet-fed dams, at 12weeks of age, offspring of the high-salt diet-fed dams had lower blood pressure, heart rate, indices of both left ventricular systolic and diastolic function, and a decreased aortic vasodilation response to NO. Postnatal high salt intake did not affect blood pressure, vasodilatory response, or cardiac function in offspring of high-salt diet-fed dams. Neither maternal nor postnatal dietary salt altered levels of lipid peroxide, superoxide dismutase, or angiotensinogen mRNA in serum and ventricle of the offspring. Exposure to high maternal dietary salt induces cardiac and vascular dysfunction in offspring. These results point to the possible importance of avoiding excess dietary salt during gestation and lactation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Increased body mass index in ankylosing spondylitis is associated with greater burden of symptoms and poor perceptions of the benefits of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durcan, Laura; Wilson, Fiona; Conway, Richard; Cunnane, Gaye; O'Shea, Finbar D

    2012-12-01

    Increased body mass index (BMI) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is associated with a greater burden of symptoms and poor perceptions of the benefits of exercise. In AS, the effect of obesity on disease characteristics and exercise perceptions is unknown. We evaluated the prevalence of obesity in AS, to assess the attitudes of patients toward exercise and to evaluate the effect of obesity on symptoms and disease activity. Demographic data and disease characteristics were collected from 46 patients with AS. Disease activity, symptomatology, and functional disability were examined using standard AS questionnaires. BMI was calculated. Comorbidity was analyzed using the Charlson Comorbidity Index. Patients' attitudes toward exercise were assessed using the Exercise Benefits and Barriers Scale (EBBS). We compared the disease characteristics, perceptions regarding exercise, and functional limitations in those who were overweight to those who had a normal BMI. The mean BMI in the group was 27.4; 67.5% of subjects were overweight or obese. There was a statistically significant difference between those who were overweight and those with a normal BMI regarding their perceptions of exercise (EBBS 124.7 vs 136.6, respectively), functional limitation (Bath AS Functional Index 4.7 vs 2.5, Health Assessment Questionnaire 0.88 vs 0.26), and disease activity (Bath AS Disease Activity Index 4.8 vs 2.9). There was no difference between the groups in terms of their comorbid conditions or other demographic variables. The majority of patients in this AS cohort were overweight. They had a greater burden of symptoms, worse perceptions regarding the benefits of exercise, and enhanced awareness of their barriers to exercising. This is of particular concern in a disease where exercise plays a crucial role.

  2. Maternal obesity surgery : effects in women, spouses and offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Berglind, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Bariatric surgery is an important treatment for the worldwide increasing epidemic of obesity. However, the effects of such surgery on offspring epigenetic profile and effects on objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behavior in women undergoing bariatric surgery and family members are essentially unknown. Aim: The aim of this thesis was to investigate possible effects of maternal weight loss after bariatric surgery and effects on differences in maternal gest...

  3. Intrauterine ethanol exposure results in hypothalamic oxidative stress and neuroendocrine alterations in adult rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembele, Korami; Yao, Xing-Hai; Chen, Li; Nyomba, B L Grégoire

    2006-09-01

    Prenatal ethanol (EtOH) exposure is associated with low birth weight, followed by increased appetite, catch-up growth, insulin resistance, and impaired glucose tolerance in the rat offspring. Because EtOH can induce oxidative stress, which is a putative mechanism of insulin resistance, and because of the central role of the hypothalamus in the regulation of energy homeostasis and insulin action, we investigated whether prenatal EtOH exposure causes oxidative damage to the hypothalamus, which may alter its function. Female rats were given EtOH by gavage throughout pregnancy. At birth, their offspring were smaller than those of non-EtOH rats. Markers of oxidative stress and expression of neuropeptide Y and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) were determined in hypothalami of postnatal day 7 (PD7) and 3-mo-old (adult) rat offspring. In both PD7 and adult rats, prenatal EtOH exposure was associated with decreased levels of glutathione and increased expression of MnSOD. The concentrations of lipid peroxides and protein carbonyls were normal in PD7 EtOH-exposed offspring, but were increased in adult EtOH-exposed offspring. Both PD7 and adult EtOH-exposed offspring had normal neuropeptide Y and POMC mRNA levels, but the adult offspring had reduced POMC protein concentration. Thus only adult offspring preexposed to EtOH had increased hypothalamic tissue damage and decreased levels of POMC, which could impair melanocortin signaling. We conclude that prenatal EtOH exposure causes hypothalamic oxidative stress, which persists into adult life and alters melanocortin action during adulthood. These neuroendocrine alterations may explain weight gain and insulin resistance in rats exposed to EtOH early in life.

  4. Little appetite for obesity: meta-analysis of the effects of maternal obesogenic diets on offspring food intake and body mass in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagisz, M; Blair, H; Kenyon, P; Uller, T; Raubenheimer, D; Nakagawa, S

    2015-12-01

    There is increasing recognition that maternal effects contribute to variation in individual food intake and metabolism. For example, many experimental studies on model animals have reported the effect of a maternal obesogenic diet during pregnancy on the appetite of offspring. However, the consistency of effects and the causes of variation among studies remain poorly understood. After a systematic search for relevant publications, we selected 53 studies on rats and mice for a meta-analysis. We extracted and analysed data on the differences in food intake and body weight between offspring of dams fed obesogenic diets and dams fed standard diets during gestation. We used meta-regression to study predictors of the strength and direction of the effect sizes. We found that experimental offspring tended to eat more than control offspring but this difference was small and not statistically significant (0.198, 95% highest posterior density (HPD)=-0.118-0.627). However, offspring from dams on obesogenic diets were significantly heavier than offspring of control dams (0.591, 95% HPD=0.052-1.056). Meta-regression analysis revealed no significant influences of tested predictor variables (for example, use of choice vs no-choice maternal diet, offspring sex) on differences in offspring appetite. Dietary manipulations that extended into lactation had the largest effect on body weight. Subgroup analysis revealed that high protein to non-protein ratio of the maternal diet may promote increased body weight in experimental offspring in comparison with control offspring; low protein content in the maternal chow can have opposite effect. Exposure to maternal obesogenic diets in early life is not likely to result in a substantial change in offspring appetite. Nevertheless, we found an effect on offspring body weight, consistent with permanent alterations of offspring metabolism in response to maternal diet. Additionally, it appears that protein content of the obesogenic diet and timing

  5. Cardioprotective and renoprotective effects of Cocos nucifera water in offspring of high fat diet fed Wistar rat dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufadekemi Tolulope Kunle-Alabi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effects of Cocos nucifera (C. nucifera water on the cardiovascular and renal functions of offspring from rat dams fed high fat diet during gestation. Methods: Four groups of pregnant Wistar rats were treated from gestation day 1 to 21; namely, control (1 mL/100 g distilled water, C. nucifera water (1 mL/100 g C. nucifera water, high fat diet (1 mL/100 g distilled water + 30% butter: 70% standard rodent diet and high fat diet + C. nucifera water (1 mL/100 g C. nucifera water + 30% butter: 70% standard rodent diet. All dams received standard rodent diet from gestation day 22, and offspring were weaned to standard rodent diet on postnatal day 28. On postnatal day 120, serum and cardiac levels of malondialdehyde, interleukin-1β and high sensitivity C-reactive protein were determined in offspring. Serum creatinine and urea levels as well as histology of heart and kidney tissue were assessed. Data were analyzed using One-way ANOVA and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Male high fat diet offspring showed significantly increased (P < 0.05 serum interleukin-1β compared with C. nucifera water offspring. The increase in serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein observed in female high fat diet offspring was not present in high fat diet + C. nucifera water offspring.Heart tissues from high fat diet offspring showed scanty fibers and congested myocardium with mild fibrosis. Male high fat diet offspring kidneys showed mesangial cell hyperplasia, fat infiltration and mild tubular necrosis. These were accompanied with alterations in serum urea and creatinine levels in high fat diet + C. nucifera water offspring. Conclusions: C. nucifera water exerts cardioprotective and renoprotective effects on offspring of rat dams fed high fat diet during gestation via an anti-inflammatory mechanism.

  6. Maternal obese-type gut microbiota differentially impact cognition, anxiety and compulsive behavior in male and female offspring in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce-Keller, Annadora J; Fernandez-Kim, Sun-Ok; Townsend, R Leigh; Kruger, Claudia; Carmouche, Richard; Newman, Susan; Salbaum, J Michael; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf

    2017-01-01

    Maternal obesity is known to predispose offspring to metabolic and neurodevelopmental abnormalities. While the mechanisms underlying these phenomena are unclear, high fat diets dramatically alter intestinal microbiota, and gut microbiota can impact physiological function. To determine if maternal diet-induced gut dysbiosis can disrupt offspring neurobehavioral function, we transplanted high fat diet- (HFD) or control low fat diet-associated (CD) gut microbiota to conventionally-housed female mice. Recipient mice were then bred and the behavioral phenotype of male and female offspring was tracked. While maternal behavior was unaffected, neonatal offspring from HFD dams vocalized less upon maternal separation than pups from CD dams. Furthermore, weaned male offspring from HFD dams had significant and selective disruptions in exploratory, cognitive, and stereotypical/compulsive behavior compared to male offspring from CD dams; while female offspring from HFD dams had increases in body weight and adiposity. 16S metagenomic analyses confirmed establishment of divergent microbiota in CD and HFD dams, with alterations in diversity and taxonomic distribution throughout pregnancy and lactation. Likewise, significant alterations in gut microbial diversity and distribution were noted in offspring from HFD dams compared to CD dams, and in males compared to females. Regression analyses of behavioral performance against differentially represented taxa suggest that decreased representation of specific members of the Firmicutes phylum predict behavioral decline in male offspring. Collectively, these data establish that high fat diet-induced maternal dysbiosis is sufficient to disrupt behavioral function in murine offspring in a sex-specific manner. Thus these data reinforce the essential link between maternal diet and neurologic programming in offspring and suggest that intestinal dysbiosis could link unhealthy modern diets to the increased prevalence of neurodevelopmental and

  7. Maternal obese-type gut microbiota differentially impact cognition, anxiety and compulsive behavior in male and female offspring in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annadora J Bruce-Keller

    Full Text Available Maternal obesity is known to predispose offspring to metabolic and neurodevelopmental abnormalities. While the mechanisms underlying these phenomena are unclear, high fat diets dramatically alter intestinal microbiota, and gut microbiota can impact physiological function. To determine if maternal diet-induced gut dysbiosis can disrupt offspring neurobehavioral function, we transplanted high fat diet- (HFD or control low fat diet-associated (CD gut microbiota to conventionally-housed female mice. Recipient mice were then bred and the behavioral phenotype of male and female offspring was tracked. While maternal behavior was unaffected, neonatal offspring from HFD dams vocalized less upon maternal separation than pups from CD dams. Furthermore, weaned male offspring from HFD dams had significant and selective disruptions in exploratory, cognitive, and stereotypical/compulsive behavior compared to male offspring from CD dams; while female offspring from HFD dams had increases in body weight and adiposity. 16S metagenomic analyses confirmed establishment of divergent microbiota in CD and HFD dams, with alterations in diversity and taxonomic distribution throughout pregnancy and lactation. Likewise, significant alterations in gut microbial diversity and distribution were noted in offspring from HFD dams compared to CD dams, and in males compared to females. Regression analyses of behavioral performance against differentially represented taxa suggest that decreased representation of specific members of the Firmicutes phylum predict behavioral decline in male offspring. Collectively, these data establish that high fat diet-induced maternal dysbiosis is sufficient to disrupt behavioral function in murine offspring in a sex-specific manner. Thus these data reinforce the essential link between maternal diet and neurologic programming in offspring and suggest that intestinal dysbiosis could link unhealthy modern diets to the increased prevalence of

  8. Offspring consume a more obesogenic diet than mothers in response to changing socioeconomic status and urbanization in Cebu, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelles, Anna; Adair, Linda

    2009-07-27

    Overweight increased among Filipino mothers and offspring from 1994 to 2005 however, a higher rate of increase among mothers resulted in a prevalence 4 times higher than that among offspring in 2005. Our aim was to explore the differential effects of changing income, assets, maternal education, and urbanicity on dietary behaviors of mothers and offspring that may affect overweight risk. The study included a cohort of Filipino offspring and their mothers participating in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey at four time points from 1994 (n = 1,885 pairs) to 2005 (n = 1,349 pairs). The effect of socioeconomic factors and urbanicity, on dietary behaviors including energy adequacy, percent fat and carbohydrates were examined using longitudinal random-effects regression models. Mothers and offspring were consistently more likely to consume more calories relative to basal needs as well as a higher percent of calories from fat and a lower percent from carbohydrates with higher socioeconomic status and urbanization. Despite the substantially higher rates of overweight among mothers compared to offspring, offspring consumed a significantly more obesogenic diet than mothers experiencing the same increases in wealth and urbanicity. Family-based interventions should be developed to counteract the shift towards a more obesogenic diet observed for both Filipino mothers and offspring.

  9. Offspring consume a more obesogenic diet than mothers in response to changing socioeconomic status and urbanization in Cebu, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adair Linda

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight increased among Filipino mothers and offspring from 1994 to 2005 however, a higher rate of increase among mothers resulted in a prevalence 4 times higher than that among offspring in 2005. Our aim was to explore the differential effects of changing income, assets, maternal education, and urbanicity on dietary behaviors of mothers and offspring that may affect overweight risk. Methods The study included a cohort of Filipino offspring and their mothers participating in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey at four time points from 1994 (n = 1,885 pairs to 2005 (n = 1,349 pairs. The effect of socioeconomic factors and urbanicity, on dietary behaviors including energy adequacy, percent fat and carbohydrates were examined using longitudinal random-effects regression models. Results Mothers and offspring were consistently more likely to consume more calories relative to basal needs as well as a higher percent of calories from fat and a lower percent from carbohydrates with higher socioeconomic status and urbanization. Despite the substantially higher rates of overweight among mothers compared to offspring, offspring consumed a significantly more obesogenic diet than mothers experiencing the same increases in wealth and urbanicity. Conclusion Family-based interventions should be developed to counteract the shift towards a more obesogenic diet observed for both Filipino mothers and offspring.

  10. Effects of Oral Maternal Administration of Caffeine on Reproductive Functions of Male Offspring of Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunwole, Eunice; Akindele, Opeyemi O; Oluwole, Omobola F; Salami, S A; Raji, Y

    2015-12-20

    Caffeine was investigated for its possible fetal programming effects on reproductive function of male offspring. Sixty-five pregnant Wistar rats were grouped into four. Group 1 was control and received distilled water. Groups 2, 3 and 4 were treated orally with 1.14, 3.42 and 5.70 mg/kg body weight of caffeine respectively. Each group was subdivided into four based on gestation days (GD) 1-7, 8-14, 15-21 and 1-21. The day of parturition was taken as postnatal day zero (0). Male offspring were sacrificed on postnatal day 70. Parameters determined were: weight at birth, body weight at postnatal day 21 and 70, anogenital distance (AGD) index, sperm parameters, reproductive organ weight, histology and hormonal profile (testosterone, FSH and LH). Data were analyzed using Analysis of Variance. Level of significance was taken at PMale offspring belonging to caffeine treated dams showed dose dependent significant decreases in birth weight. Male offspring from dams treated with caffeine during GD 1-7 and GD 1-21 had a significant increase in their AGD index. Also, male offspring from dams treated with 1.14 and 5.70 mg/kg body weight of caffeine during GD 8-14 had a significant increase in AGD index. Dams treated with 3.42 mg/kg body weight of caffeine during GD 15-21, had a significant increase in the AGD index of their male offspring. The sperm motility of offspring from dams treated with 5.70 mg/kg body weight of caffeine during GD 1-7 and GD 1-21 were significantly increased. Offspring of GD 8-14 and GD 15-21 dams treated with 3.42 and 5.70 mg/kg body weight of caffeine respectively, showed significantly reduced serum testosterone level. There was a significant decrease in the weight of testes of offspring from dams treated with caffeine during GD 8-14. Histological sections of testes of offspring from caffeine treated dams showed interstitial congestions, edema, reduced germinal epithelial height and detached basal membrane. Maternal caffeine exposure during different

  11. "Predicting" parental longevity from offspring endophenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yashin, Anatoli I; Arbeev, Konstantin G; Kulminski, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    , cognitive functioning and health/well-being among offspring predict longevity in parents. Good predictors can be used as endophenotypes for exceptional survival. Our analyses revealed significant associations between cumulative indices describing physiological state, as well as a number of offspring...... phenotypes, and parental lifespan, supporting both their familial basis and relevance to longevity. We conclude that the study of endophenotypes within families is a valid approach to the genetics of human longevity....

  12. The renal consequences of maternal obesity in offspring are overwhelmed by postnatal high fat diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Glastras

    Full Text Available Developmental programming induced by maternal obesity influences the development of chronic disease in offspring. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether maternal obesity exaggerates obesity-related kidney disease.Female C57BL/6 mice were fed high-fat diet (HFD for six weeks prior to mating, during gestation and lactation. Male offspring were weaned to normal chow or HFD. At postnatal Week 8, HFD-fed offspring were administered one dose streptozotocin (STZ, 100 mg/kg i.p. or vehicle control. Metabolic parameters and renal functional and structural changes were observed at postnatal Week 32.HFD-fed offspring had increased adiposity, glucose intolerance and hyperlipidaemia, associated with increased albuminuria and serum creatinine levels. Their kidneys displayed structural changes with increased levels of fibrotic, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers. STZ administration did not potentiate the renal effects of HFD. Though maternal obesity had a sustained effect on serum creatinine and oxidative stress markers in lean offspring, the renal consequences of maternal obesity were overwhelmed by the powerful effect of diet-induced obesity.Maternal obesity portends significant risks for metabolic and renal health in adult offspring. However, diet-induced obesity is an overwhelming and potent stimulus for the development of CKD that is not potentiated by maternal obesity.

  13. Alcohol during pregnacu and atopic dermatitis in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, a; Petersen, Janne; Grønbæk, M

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is evidence that antenatal factors play a role in the development of atopic dermatitis (AD). However, little is known about the effects of maternal lifestyle factors during pregnancy on the risk of AD in the offspring. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of alcohol consumption......, time of onset, and doctor's diagnosis of AD in the offspring was obtained by interview at 18 months of age. The effect of alcohol consumption during pregnancy on the incidence of AD was analysed by Cox regression allowing for different effects of alcohol before (early infancy) and after 2 months (60...... days) of age. RESULTS: Alcohol during pregnancy was associated with a significant and dose-dependent increased risk of AD in early infancy. This effect was mainly seen in high-risk infants (two parents with allergic disease). Thus, the highest risk of AD in early infancy was seen in high-risk infants...

  14. Alcohol during pregnancy and atopic dermatitis in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A; Petersen, Janne; Grønbaek, M

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is evidence that antenatal factors play a role in the development of atopic dermatitis (AD). However, little is known about the effects of maternal lifestyle factors during pregnancy on the risk of AD in the offspring. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of alcohol consumption......, time of onset, and doctor's diagnosis of AD in the offspring was obtained by interview at 18 months of age. The effect of alcohol consumption during pregnancy on the incidence of AD was analysed by Cox regression allowing for different effects of alcohol before (early infancy) and after 2 months (60...... days) of age. RESULTS: Alcohol during pregnancy was associated with a significant and dose-dependent increased risk of AD in early infancy. This effect was mainly seen in high-risk infants (two parents with allergic disease). Thus, the highest risk of AD in early infancy was seen in high-risk infants...

  15. Incretin and glucagon levels in adult offspring exposed to maternal diabetes in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Louise; Clausen, Tine D; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2015-01-01

    two groups exposed to maternal diabetes in utero: offspring of women with diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (O-GDM; n = 163) or type 1 diabetes (O-T1DM; n = 146). Two reference groups were included: offspring of women with risk factors for GDM, but normoglycemia during pregnancy (O-NoGDM; n......CONTEXT: Fetal exposure to maternal diabetes is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) later in life. The pathogenesis of T2DM involves dysfunction of the incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), as well...... as hyperglucagonemia. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate circulating plasma levels of GLP-1, GIP, and glucagon during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in adult offspring of women with diabetes in pregnancy. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: We conducted a follow-up study of 567 offspring, aged 18-27 years. We included...

  16. Impact of prenatal hypoxia on fetal bone growth and osteoporosis in ovariectomized offspring rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuxian; Fan, Xiaorong; Tao, Jianying; Xu, Ting; Zhang, Yingying; Zhang, Wenna; Li, Lingjun; Li, Xiang; Ding, Hongmei; Sun, Miao; Gao, Qinqin; Xu, Zhice

    2018-03-07

    Prenatal hypoxia causes intrauterine growth retardation. It is unclear whether/how hypoxia affects the bone in fetal and offspring life. This study showed that prenatal hypoxia retarded fetal skeletal growth in rats, inhibited extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis and down-regulated of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) signaling in fetal growth plate chondrocytes in vivo and in vitro. In addition, ovariectomized (OVX) was used for study of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Compared with the control, OVX offspring in prenatal hypoxic group showed an enhanced osteoporosis in the femurs, associated with reduced proteoglycan and IGF1 signaling. The results indicated prenatal hypoxia not only delayed fetal skeletal growth, but also increased OVX-induced osteoporosis in the elder offspring probably through down-regulated IGF1 signaling and inhibition of ECM synthesis, providing important information of prenatal hypoxia on functional and molecular bone growth and metabolism in fetal and offspring. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Parent-offspring correlations in pedometer-assessed physical activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jacobi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical activity is a major component of a healthy lifestyle in youth and adults. To identify determinants of this complex behavior is an important research objective in the process of designing interventions to promote physical activity at population level. In addition to individual determinants, there is evidence documenting familial influences on physical activity. However, the few studies that have addressed this issue with objective measures did not provide data on parent-offspring physical activity relationships throughout childhood and adolescence. The purpose of this study was to assess familial correlations in pedometer-assessed physical activity. METHODS: We measured ambulatory activity in 286 French nuclear families (283 mothers, 237 fathers, and 631 children aged 8-18 years by pedometer recordings (Yamax Digiwalker DW 450 over a week. Correlations were computed with their 95% confidence intervals (CI for spouse pairs, siblings, mother-offspring, and father-offspring. Data were expressed as steps per day and computed both for the full recording period and separately for weekdays and weekends. RESULTS: The correlations were the highest between siblings (r=0.28, 95%CI: 0.17-0.38. Parent-offspring correlations were significant in mothers (r=0.21, 95%CI: 0.12-0.30, especially between mothers and daughters (r=0.24, 95%CI: 0.12-0.36 vs. r=0.18, 95%CI: 0.05-0.31 for sons, but were almost nonexistent in fathers. Correlations were generally higher on weekend days compared to weekdays. Mother-offspring correlations did not decrease with increasing age of children (r=0.17, 95%CI: 0.00-0.34 in 8-11-year-olds, r=0.20, 95%CI: 0.07-0.33 in 12-15-year-olds, and r=0.25, 95%CI: 0.07-0.39 in ≥16-year-olds. Finally, between-spouse correlations were significant only during weekend days (r=0.14, 95%CI: 0.01-0.27. CONCLUSION: Ambulatory activity correlated within families, with a possible mother effect. Mother-offspring correlations remained

  18. Maternal hypothyroidism may be associated with CHD in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattan, Michael J; Thomas, Daina S; Hornberger, Lisa K; Hamilton, Robert M; Midodzi, William K; Vohra, Sunita

    2015-10-01

    This study tested whether mothers with maternal hypothyroidism have increased odds of CHD in their offspring, and examined the relationship between CHD, maternal thyroid function, and nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. Maternal hypothyroidism increases the risk for foetal demise and prematurity and can have a negative impact on neurodevelopment. Prior studies have postulated a relationship between maternal thyroid function, CHD, and maternal nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. A cross-sectional case-control study was conducted over a 17-month period to obtain a history of maternal thyroid status and nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. Paediatric echocardiograms were evaluated for CHD by a blinded paediatric cardiologist. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between CHD and maternal hypothyroidism. Of the 998 maternal-child pairs, 10% (98/998) of the mothers reported a history of prenatal hypothyroidism. The overall prevalence of CHD in the study sample was 63% (630/998). Mothers with a history of hypothyroidism were significantly more likely to have offspring with CHD compared with mothers without a history of hypothyroidism (72 versus 62%; p=0.04). The adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of CHD in offspring associated with reported maternal hypothyroidism was 1.68 (1.02-2.78). This study suggests that maternal hypothyroidism is a risk factor for the development of CHD. Further prospective investigations are necessary to confirm this association and delineate pathogenic mechanisms.

  19. Parent-Offspring Conflict over Short-Term Mating Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyroulla Georgiou

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Individuals engage in short-term mating strategies that enable them to obtain fitness benefits from casual relationships. These benefits, however, count for less and cost more to their parents. On this basis three hypotheses are tested. First, parents and offspring are likely to disagree over short-term mating strategies, with the former considering these as less acceptable than the latter. Second, parents are more likely to disapprove of the short-term mating strategies of their daughters than of their sons. Finally, mothers and fathers are expected to agree on how much they disagree over the short-term mating strategies of their children. Evidence from a sample of 148 Greek-Cypriot families (140 mothers, 105 fathers, 119 daughters, 77 sons provides support for the first two hypotheses and partial support for the third hypothesis. The implications of these findings for understanding family dynamics are further discussed.

  20. Immune-mediated change in the expression of a sexual trait predicts offspring survival in the wild.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémi Chargé

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The "good genes" theory of sexual selection postulates that females choose mates that will improve their offspring's fitness through the inheritance of paternal genes. In spite of the attention that this hypothesis has given rise to, the empirical evidence remains sparse, mostly because of the difficulties of controlling for the many environmental factors that may covary with both the paternal phenotype and offspring fitness. Here, we tested the hypothesis that offspring sired by males of a preferred phenotype should have better survival in an endangered bird, the houbara bustard (Chlamydotis undulata undulata. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We tested if natural and experimentally-induced variation in courtship display (following an inflammatory challenge predicts the survival of offspring. Chicks were produced by artificial insemination of females, ensuring that any effect on survival could only arise from the transfer of paternal genes. One hundred and twenty offspring were equipped with radio transmitters, and their survival monitored in the wild for a year. This allowed assessment of the potential benefits of paternal genes in a natural setting, where birds experience the whole range of environmental hazards. Although natural variation in sire courtship display did not predict offspring survival, sires that withstood the inflammatory insult and maintained their courtship activity sired offspring with the best survival upon release. CONCLUSIONS: This finding is relevant both to enlighten the debate on "good genes" sexual selection and the management of supportive breeding programs.

  1. Offspring body size and metabolic profile - effects of lifestyle intervention in obese pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanvig, Mette; Jensen, Dorte Møller

    2014-01-01

    outcomes, with special emphasis on the effects of lifestyle intervention during pregnancy. The thesis is based on a literature review, description of own studies and three original papers/manuscripts (I, II and III). In paper I, we used data from the Danish Medical Birth Registry. The aim of this paper...... disturbances in the offspring. Pregnancy offers the opportunity to modify the intrauterine environment, and maternal lifestyle changes during gestation may confer health benefits to the child. The overall aim with this PhD thesis was to study the effects of maternal obesity on offspring body size and metabolic...... of metabolic outcomes. In paper II the effect of the maternal intervention on offspring body composition and anthropometric outcomes was studied. The primary outcome was BMI Z-score and secondary outcomes were: body composition values by DEXA (fat mass, lean mass and fat percentage), BMI, percentage...

  2. Evaluation of increased adherence and cost savings of an employer value-based benefits program targeting generic antihyperlipidemic and antidiabetic medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Bobby; DuChane, Janeen; Hou, John; Rubinstein, Elan; McMurray, Jennifer; Duncan, Ian

    2014-02-01

    .001). Similar results were found among users of antihyperlipidemics. The mean adherence rate was sustained over time for participants (77.7% vs. 78.3%) but declined over time for nonparticipants (77.6% vs. 70.8%). The difference in mean change over time was statistically significant between participants and nonparticipants (0.6% vs. -6,8%, P  less than  0.001). Average prescription costs PMPY increased for participants of the ZCP program during the post-implementation period; however, the increase was not larger than the cost increase among nonparticipants ($581 vs. $584, P = 0.95). Furthermore, among antihyperlipidemics the cost increase post-implementation was actually significantly less for participants than nonparticipants ($51 vs. $143, P  less than  0.001).  Plan sponsors are increasingly evaluating the use of value-based benefit design (VBBD) to change member behavior. This ZCP program used a reduction in cost sharing to incentivize members to use more generic drugs and to enroll in a care management coaching program. The study also demonstrated that a VBBD program can have a positive impact on adherence and cost outcomes among those who participate compared with nonparticipants. 

  3. Offspring subcutaneous adipose markers are sensitive to the timing of maternal gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giblin, Linda; Darimont, Christian; Leone, Patricia; McNamara, Louise B; Blancher, Florence; Berry, Donagh; Castañeda-Gutiérrez, Eurídice; Lawlor, Peadar G

    2015-03-08

    Excessive maternal weight gain during pregnancy impacts on offspring health. This study focused on the timing of maternal gestational weight gain, using a porcine model with mothers of normal pre-pregnancy weight. Trial design ensured the trajectory of maternal gestational weight gain differed across treatments in early, mid and late gestation. Diet composition did not differ. On day 25 gestation, sows were assigned to one of five treatments: Control sows received a standard gestation diet of 2.3 kg/day (30 MJ DE/day) from early to late gestation (day 25-110 gestation). E sows received 4.6 kg food/day in early gestation (day 25-50 gestation). M sows doubled their food intake in mid gestation (day 50-80 gestation). EM sows doubled their food intake during both early and mid gestation (day 25-80 gestation). L sows consumed 3.5 kg food/day in late gestation (day 80-110 gestation). Offspring body weight and food intake levels were measured from birth to adolescence. Markers of lipid metabolism, hypertrophy and inflammation were investigated in subcutaneous adipose tissue of adolescent offspring. The trajectory of gestational weight gain differed across treatments. However total gestational weight gain did not differ except for EM sows who were the heaviest and fattest mothers at parturition. Offspring birth weight did not differ across treatments. Subcutaneous adipose tissue from EM offspring differed significantly from controls, with elevated mRNA levels of lipogenic (CD36, ACACB and LPL), nutrient transporters (FABP4 and GLUT4), lipolysis (HSL and ATGL), adipocyte size (MEST) and inflammation (PAI-1) indicators. The subcutaneous adipose depot from L offspring exhibited elevated levels of CD36, ACACB, LPL, GLUT4 and FABP4 mRNA transcripts compared to control offspring. Increasing gestational weight gain in early gestation had the greatest impact on offspring postnatal growth rate. Increasing maternal food allowance in late gestation appeared to shift the offspring

  4. Maternal eating disorders affect offspring cord blood DNA methylation: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmi, Nabila; Gaunt, Tom R; Relton, Caroline; Micali, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    Eating disorders (ED) are chronic psychiatric disorders, common amongst women of reproductive age. ED in pregnancy are associated with poor nutrition and abnormal intrauterine growth. Increasing evidence also shows offspring of women with ED have adverse developmental and birth outcomes. We sought to carry out the first study investigating DNA methylation in offspring of women with ED. We compared cord blood DNA methylation in offspring of women with active ED ( n  = 21), past ED ( n  = 43) and age- and social class-matched controls ( n  = 126) as part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Offspring of women with both active and past ED had lower whole-genome methylation compared to controls (active ED 49.1% (95% confidence intervals 50.5-47.7%), past ED 49.2% (95% CI 50.7-47.7.0%), controls 52.4% (95% CI 53.0%-51.0%)). Amongst offspring of ED women, those born to women with restrictive-type and purging-type ED had lower methylation levels compared to those of controls. Offspring of women with an active restrictive ED in pregnancy had lower whole-genome methylation compared to offspring of women with past restrictive ED. We observed decreased methylation at the DHCR24 locus in offspring of women with active pregnancy ED (effect size (ES) = - 0.124, p  = 6.94 × 10 -8 ) and increased methylation at the LGALS2 locus in offspring of women with past ED (ES = 0.07, p  = 3.74 × 10 -7 ) compared to controls. Maternal active and past ED are associated with differences in offspring whole-genome methylation. Our results show altered DNA methylation in loci relevant to metabolism; these might be biomarkers of disrupted metabolic pathways in offspring of ED mothers. Further work is needed to examine potential mechanisms and functional outcomes of the observed methylation patterns.

  5. Maternal obesity during the preconception and early life periods alters pancreatic development in early and adult life in male mouse offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabele Bringhenti

    Full Text Available Maternal obesity induced by a high fat (HF diet may program susceptibility in offspring, altering pancreatic development and causing later development of chronic degenerative diseases, such as obesity and diabetes. Female mice were fed standard chow (SC or an HF diet for 8 weeks prior to mating and during the gestational and lactational periods. The male offspring were assessed at birth, at 10 days, and at 3 months of age. The body mass (BM gain was 50% greater before pregnancy and 80% greater during pregnancy in HF dams than SC dams. Dams fed an HF diet showed higher oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, blood pressure, serum corticosterone, and insulin levels than dams fed SC. At 10 days of age and at 3 mo old the HF offspring showed greater BM and higher blood glucose levels than the SC offspring. The mean diameter of the islets had increased by 37% in the SC offspring and by 155% in the HF offspring at 10 days of age. The islet mass ratio (IM/PM was 88% greater in the HF offspring at 10 days of age, and 107% greater at 3 mo of age, compared to the values obtained at birth. The HF offspring had a beta cell mass (BCM/PM ratio 54% lower than SC offspring at birth. However, HF offspring displayed a 146% increase in the BCM/PM ratio at 10 days of age, and 112% increase at 3 months of age than values at birth. A 3 mo of age, the HF offspring showed a greater OGTT and higher levels of than SC offspring. In conclusion, a maternal HF diet consumed during the preconceptional period and throughout the gestational and lactational periods in mice results in dramatic alterations in the pancreata of the offspring.

  6. Nicotine increases impulsivity and decreases willingness to exert cognitive effort despite improving attention in "slacker" rats: insights into cholinergic regulation of cost/benefit decision making.

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    Jay G Hosking

    Full Text Available Successful decision making in our daily lives requires weighing an option's costs against its associated benefits. The neuromodulator acetylcholine underlies both the etiology and treatment of a number of illnesses in which decision making is perturbed, including Alzheimer's disease, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and schizophrenia. Nicotine acts on the cholinergic system and has been touted as a cognitive enhancer by both smokers and some researchers for its attention-boosting effects; however, it is unclear whether treatments that have a beneficial effect on attention would also have a beneficial effect on decision making. Here we utilize the rodent Cognitive Effort Task (rCET, wherein animals can choose to allocate greater visuospatial attention for a greater reward, to examine cholinergic contributions to both attentional performance and choice based on attentional demand. Following the establishment of baseline behavior, four drug challenges were administered: nicotine, mecamylamine, scopolamine, and oxotremorine (saline plus three doses for each. As per previous rCET studies, animals were divided by their baseline preferences, with "worker" rats choosing high-effort/high-reward options more than their "slacker" counterparts. Nicotine caused slackers to choose even fewer high-effort trials than at baseline, but had no effect on workers' choice. Despite slackers' decreased willingness to expend effort, nicotine improved their attentional performance on the task. Nicotine also increased measures of motor impulsivity in all animals. In contrast, scopolamine decreased animals' choice of high-effort trials, especially for workers, while oxotremorine decreased motor impulsivity for all animals. In sum, the cholinergic system appears to contribute to decision making, and in part these contributions can be understood as a function of individual differences. While nicotine has been considered as a cognitive enhancer, these data suggest

  7. The influence of parental history of diabetes and offspring birthweight on offspring glucose metabolism in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauenborg, Jeannet; Jørgensen, Mie Kw; Damm, Peter

    2011-01-01

    tolerance status in non-diabetic offspring of patients with T2DM and 2) to study the associations of birthweight with measures of pancreatic beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity. Design. Family cohort study. Population. Offspring of patients with verified T2DM diagnosed after age 40 years...

  8. Cues of Maternal Condition Influence Offspring Selfishness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Janine W. Y.; Lucas, Christophe; Kölliker, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of parent-offspring communication was mostly studied from the perspective of parents responding to begging signals conveying information about offspring condition. Parents should respond to begging because of the differential fitness returns obtained from their investment in offspring that differ in condition. For analogous reasons, offspring should adjust their behavior to cues/signals of parental condition: parents that differ in condition pay differential costs of care and, hence, should provide different amounts of food. In this study, we experimentally tested in the European earwig (Forficula auricularia) if cues of maternal condition affect offspring behavior in terms of sibling cannibalism. We experimentally manipulated female condition by providing them with different amounts of food, kept nymph condition constant, allowed for nymph exposure to chemical maternal cues over extended time, quantified nymph survival (deaths being due to cannibalism) and extracted and analyzed the females’ cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC). Nymph survival was significantly affected by chemical cues of maternal condition, and this effect depended on the timing of breeding. Cues of poor maternal condition enhanced nymph survival in early broods, but reduced nymph survival in late broods, and vice versa for cues of good condition. Furthermore, female condition affected the quantitative composition of their CHC profile which in turn predicted nymph survival patterns. Thus, earwig offspring are sensitive to chemical cues of maternal condition and nymphs from early and late broods show opposite reactions to the same chemical cues. Together with former evidence on maternal sensitivities to condition-dependent nymph chemical cues, our study shows context-dependent reciprocal information exchange about condition between earwig mothers and their offspring, potentially mediated by cuticular hydrocarbons. PMID:24498046

  9. Long-term effects of maternal diabetes on blood pressure and renal function in rat male offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yan

    Full Text Available AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is increasing rapidly worldwide. Previous animal models were established to study consequences of offspring after exposure to severe intrauterine hyperglycemia. In this study we are aiming to characterize the blood pressure levels and renal function of male offspring obtained from diabetic mothers with moderate hyperglycemia. METHODS: We established a rat model with moderate hyperglycemia after pregnancy by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ. The male offspring were studied and fed with either normal diet or high salt diet after weaning. Arterial pressure and renal function were measured. RESULTS: Arterial pressure of male offspring increased from 12 weeks by exposure to intrauterine moderate hyperglycemia. At 20 weeks, high salt diet accelerated the blood pressure on diabetic offspring compared to diabetic offspring fed with normal diet. We found offspring exposed to intrauterine moderate hyperglycemia had a trend to have a higher creatinine clearance rate and significant increase of urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG excretion indicating an early stage of nephropathy progression. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: We observed the high blood pressure level and early renal dysfunction of male offspring obtained from diabetic mothers with moderate hyperglycemia. Furthermore, we investigated high salt diet after weaning on offspring exposed to intrauterine hyperglycemia could exacerbate the blood pressure and renal function. Renin angiotensin system (RAS plays an important role in hypertension pathogenesis and altered gene expression of RAS components in offspring with in utero hyperglycemia exposure may account for the programmed hypertension. Therefore, our study provides evidence "fetal programming" of maternal diabetes is critical for metabolic disease development.

  10. Parental mental illness and eating disorders in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bould, Helen; Koupil, Ilona; Dalman, Christina; DeStavola, Bianca; Lewis, Glyn; Magnusson, Cecilia

    2015-05-01

    To investigate which parental mental illnesses are associated with eating disorders in their offspring. We used data from a record-linkage cohort study of 158,679 children aged 12-24 years at the end of follow-up, resident in Stockholm County from 2001 to 2007, to investigate whether different parental mental illnesses are risk factors for eating disorders in their offspring. The outcome measure was diagnosis of any eating disorder, either from an ICD or DSM-IV code, or inferred from an appointment at a specialist eating disorder clinic. Mental illness in parents is a risk factor for eating disorders in female offspring (Adjusted Hazard Ratio (AHR) 1.57 (95% CI 1.42, 1.92), p eating disorders is increased if there is a parental diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder (AHR 2.28 (95% CI 1.39, 3.72), p = 0.004), personality disorder (AHR 1.57 (95% CI 1.01, 2.44), p = 0.043) or anxiety/depression (AHR 1.57 (95% CI 1.32, 1.86), p disorder (AHR 1.25 (95% CI 0.74, 2.13), p = 0.40). There is no support for a relationship between parental substance misuse and eating disorders in children (AHR 1.08 (95% CI 0.82, 1.43), p = 0.57). Parental mental illness, specifically parental anxiety, depression, bipolar affective disorder, and personality disorders, are risk factors for eating disorders in their offspring. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Paternal age at childbirth and eating disorders in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaras, K N; Rickert, M E; Thornton, L M; Peat, C M; Baker, J H; Birgegård, A; Norring, C; Landén, M; Almqvist, C; Larsson, H; Lichtenstein, P; Bulik, C M; D'Onofrio, B M

    2017-02-01

    Advanced paternal age at childbirth is associated with psychiatric disorders in offspring, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and autism. However, few studies have investigated paternal age's relationship with eating disorders in offspring. In a large, population-based cohort, we examined the association between paternal age and offspring eating disorders, and whether that association remains after adjustment for potential confounders (e.g. parental education level) that may be related to late/early selection into fatherhood and to eating disorder incidence. Data for 2 276 809 individuals born in Sweden 1979-2001 were extracted from Swedish population and healthcare registers. The authors used Cox proportional hazards models to examine the effect of paternal age on the first incidence of healthcare-recorded anorexia nervosa (AN) and all eating disorders (AED) occurring 1987-2009. Models were adjusted for sex, birth order, maternal age at childbirth, and maternal and paternal covariates including country of birth, highest education level, and lifetime psychiatric and criminal history. Even after adjustment for covariates including maternal age, advanced paternal age was associated with increased risk, and younger paternal age with decreased risk, of AN and AED. For example, the fully adjusted hazard ratio for the 45+ years (v. the 25-29 years) paternal age category was 1.32 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14-1.53] for AN and 1.26 (95% CI 1.13-1.40) for AED. In this large, population-based cohort, paternal age at childbirth was positively associated with eating disorders in offspring, even after adjustment for potential confounders. Future research should further explore potential explanations for the association, including de novo mutations in the paternal germline.

  12. Insulin Resistance and Impaired Pancreatic β-Cell Function in Adult Offspring of Women With Diabetes in Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Louise; Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2013-01-01

    Context:Offspring of women with diabetes during pregnancy have increased risk of glucose intolerance in adulthood, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown.Objective:We aimed to investigate effects of intrauterine hyperglycemia on insulin secretion and - action in adult offspring of mothers...... reference groups were included: offspring of women with risk factors for GDM, but normo-glycemia during pregnancy (N=139) and offspring from the background population (N=128).Main outcome measures:Indices of insulin sensitivity and insulin release were calculated using insulin and glucose values from...... a standard oral glucose tolerance test (120 minutes, 75 gram glucose). Pancreatic beta-cell function taking the prevailing insulin sensitivity into account was estimated by disposition indices.Results:Both groups of offspring exposed during pregnancy to either maternal gestational diabetes or type 1 diabetes...

  13. Altered reward sensitivity in female offspring of cocaine-exposed fathers.

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    Fischer, Delaney K; Rice, Richard C; Martinez Rivera, Arlene; Donohoe, Mary; Rajadhyaksha, Anjali M

    2017-08-14

    Recent rodent studies have demonstrated that parental cocaine exposure can influence offspring behavior, supporting the idea that environmental insults can impact subsequent generations. However, studies on the effects of paternal cocaine exposure are limited and multiple inconsistencies exist. In the current study, we behaviorally characterize the effects of paternal cocaine exposure in a C57BL/6J intergenerational mouse model. Male sires were administered cocaine hydrochloride (20mg/kg) or saline (0.01mL/g) once a day for 75days, and bred with drug naïve females twenty-four hours after the final injection. Offspring, separated by sex, were tested in a battery of behaviors. We found that paternal cocaine exposure altered sensitivity to the rewarding and stimulant effects of psychostimulants and natural reward (sucrose) in female offspring; female cocaine-sired offspring showed blunted cocaine preference using cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP) at a low dose (5mg/kg), but displayed similar preference at a higher dose (10mg/kg) compared to saline-sired controls. Additionally, cocaine-sired female offspring exhibited higher psychomotor sensitivity to cocaine (10mg/kg) and amphetamine (2mg/kg) and consumed more sucrose. Cocaine-sired males exhibited increased psychomotor effects of cocaine and amphetamine. Male offspring also displayed an anxiety-like phenotype. No effect of paternal cocaine exposure was observed on depressive-like, learning and memory or social behavior in male or female offspring. Collectively, our findings show that paternal, chronic cocaine exposure induces intergenerational behavioral effects in male and female offspring with greatest impact on sensitivity to psychostimulants and sucrose in females. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of maternal exposure to social stress during pregnancy: consequences for mother and offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunton, Paula J

    2013-01-01

    A suboptimal in utero environment, for example, as a result of maternal stress, can have detrimental effects on the pregnancy and long-term adverse 'programming' effects on the offspring. This article focuses on the effects of prenatal social stress on the mother, her pregnancy and the offspring, since these issues have ethological relevance in both animals and humans. The consequences of social stress exposure depend on when during pregnancy the stress occurs, and many of the effects on the offspring are sex specific. Social stress during early pregnancy tends to result in pregnancy loss, whereas stress exposure later in pregnancy, when the mother has already invested considerable resources in the foetuses, results in programmed offspring of low birth weight: a risk factor for various adulthood diseases. Neuroendocrine and behavioural responses to stress in the offspring are particularly sensitive to foetal programming by prenatal stress, indicated by enhanced hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses and increased anxiety behaviour, which result from permanent changes in the offspring's brain. The dysregulation of HPA axis function may also interfere with other systems, for example, the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, as there is evidence for alterations in steroidogenesis, reproductive potential and impaired reproductive/social behaviours in prenatally stressed offspring. Prenatal social stress also programmes future maternal behaviour, highlighting the potential for negative phenotypes to be transmitted to future generations. The possible mechanisms through which maternal stress during pregnancy is transmitted to the foetuses and the foetal brain is programmed by prenatal stress and the potential to overwrite programming of the offspring are discussed.

  15. Maternal intake of trans-unsaturated or interesterified fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation modifies mitochondrial bioenergetics in the liver of adult offspring in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Velasco, Patricia C; Chicaybam, Gustavo; Ramos-Filho, Dionizio M; Dos Santos, Raísa M A R; Mairink, Caroline; Sardinha, Fátima L C; El-Bacha, Tatiana; Galina, Antonio; Tavares-do-Carmo, Maria das Graças

    2017-07-01

    The quality of dietary lipids in the maternal diet can programme the offspring to diseases in later life. We investigated whether the maternal intake of palm oil or interesterified fat, substitutes for trans-unsaturated fatty acids (FA), induces metabolic changes in the adult offspring. During pregnancy and lactation, C57BL/6 female mice received normolipidic diets containing partially hydrogenated vegetable fat rich in trans-unsaturated fatty acids (TG), palm oil (PG), interesterified fat (IG) or soyabean oil (CG). After weaning, male offspring from all groups received the control diet until day 110. Plasma glucose and TAG and liver FA profiles were ascertained. Liver mitochondrial function was accessed with high-resolution respirometry by measuring VO2, fluorimetry for detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production and mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake. The results showed that the IG offspring presented a 20 % increase in plasma glucose and both the IG and TG offspring presented a 2- and 1·9-fold increase in TAG, respectively, when compared with CG offspring. Liver MUFA and PUFA contents decreased in the TG and IG offspring when compared with CG offspring. Liver MUFA content also decreased in the PG offspring. These modifications in FA composition possibly affected liver mitochondrial function, as respiration was impaired in the TG offspring and H2O2 production was higher in the IG offspring. In addition, mitochondrial Ca2+ retention capacity was reduced by approximately 40 and 55 % in the TG and IG offspring, respectively. In conclusion, maternal consumption of trans-unsaturated and interesterified fat affected offspring health by compromising mitochondrial bioenergetics and lipid metabolism in the liver.

  16. Birth weight in offspring and leukaemia risk in parents-A nation-wide register-based cohort study from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marklund, Maria; Rostgaard, Klaus; Hjalgrim, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    with parental risk of leukaemia overall or of leukaemia subtypes except for a twofold increased acute lymphatic leukaemia risk in fathers of high birth weight offspring and an increasing paternal risk of chronic myeloid leukaemia with increasing offspring birth weight. These may both be chance findings. Our...

  17. Coping strategies and self-esteem in the high-risk offspring of bipolar parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodday, Sarah M; Bentall, Richard; Jones, Steven; Weir, Arielle; Duffy, Anne

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated whether there were differences in coping strategies and self-esteem between offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (high-risk) and offspring of unaffected parents (control), and whether these psychological factors predicted the onset and recurrence of mood episodes. High-risk and control offspring were followed longitudinally as part of the Flourish Canadian high-risk bipolar offspring cohort study. Offspring were clinically assessed annually by a psychiatrist using semi-structured interviews and completed a measure of coping strategies and self-esteem. In high-risk offspring, avoidant coping strategies significantly increased the hazard of a new onset Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition twice revised mood episode or recurrence (hazard ratio: 1.89, p = 0.04), while higher self-esteem significantly decreased this hazard (hazard ratio: 2.50, p Self-esteem and avoidant coping significantly interacted with one another ( p self-esteem. A reduction of avoidant coping strategies in response to stress and improvement of self-esteem may be useful intervention targets for preventing the new onset or recurrence of a clinically significant mood disorder among individuals at high familial risk.

  18. Maternal Macronutrient Consumption and the Developmental Origins of Metabolic Disease in the Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Kereliuk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent research aimed at understanding the rise in obesity and cardiometabolic disease in children suggests that suboptimal maternal nutrition conditions organ systems and physiological responses in the offspring contributing to disease development. Understanding the mechanisms by which the macronutrient composition of the maternal diet during pregnancy or lactation affects health outcomes in the offspring may lead to new maternal nutrition recommendations, disease prevention strategies and therapies that reduce the increasing incidence of cardiometabolic disease in children. Recent mechanistic animal model research has identified how excess fats and sugars in the maternal diet alter offspring glucose tolerance, insulin signaling and metabolism. Maternal nutrition appears to influence epigenetic alterations in the offspring and the programming of gene expression in key metabolic pathways. This review is focused on experimental studies in animal models that have investigated mechanisms of how maternal consumption of macronutrients affects cardiometabolic disease development in the offspring. Future research using “-omic” technologies is essential to elucidate the mechanisms of how altered maternal macronutrient consumption influences the development of disease in the offspring.

  19. Study protocol: incentives for increased access to comprehensive family planning for urban youth using a benefits card in Uganda. A quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuwasiima, Afra; Nuwamanya, Elly; Navvuga, Patricia; Babigumira, Janet U; Asiimwe, Francis T; Lubinga, Solomon J; Babigumira, Joseph B

    2017-10-27

    The use of contraception is one of the most cost-effective public health interventions and has the potential to prevent about 30% of maternal and 10% of child deaths in developing countries. Voucher-based initiatives for family planning are an effective and viable means of increasing contraceptive use. In this paper, we present a protocol for a pilot study of a novel incentive, a family planning benefits card (FPBC) program to increase uptake of family planning services among urban poor youth in Uganda while leveraging private sector funding. The study employs both impact and health economic evaluation methods to assess the effect of the FPBC program. We propose a quasi-experimental study design with two separate pre- and post-samples to measure program effectiveness. The main outcome of the impact evaluation is the percentage change in the prevalence of modern contraceptive use and unmet need for contraception. We will also conduct model-based incremental cost-effectiveness and budget impact analyses. The main outcomes of the economic evaluation are the cost per enrolled youth and cost per pregnancy averted, and cost per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted. We will also pilot a corporate social responsibility model of sponsorship for the FPBC program in partnership with local corporations. Budget impact analysis will examine the potential affordability of scaling up the FPBC program and the fiscal implications of this scale up to the corporate social responsibility (CSR) budgets of partner corporations, the government, and the individual taxpayer. In this study, we propose an impact and economic evaluation to establish the proof concept of using a FPBC program to increase uptake of family planning services among urban poor youth in Uganda. The results of this study will present stakeholders in Uganda and internationally with a potentially viable option for corporate-sponsored access to family planning in urban poor communities. MUREC1/7 No. 10

  20. Genetic factors that increase male facial masculinity decrease facial attractiveness of female relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Anthony J; Mitchem, Dorian G; Wright, Margaret J; Martin, Nicholas G; Keller, Matthew C; Zietsch, Brendan P

    2014-02-01

    For women, choosing a facially masculine man as a mate is thought to confer genetic benefits to offspring. Crucial assumptions of this hypothesis have not been adequately tested. It has been assumed that variation in facial masculinity is due to genetic variation and that genetic factors that increase male facial masculinity do not increase facial masculinity in female relatives. We objectively quantified the facial masculinity in photos of identical (n = 411) and nonidentical (n = 782) twins and their siblings (n = 106). Using biometrical modeling, we found that much of the variation in male and female facial masculinity is genetic. However, we also found that masculinity of male faces is unrelated to their attractiveness and that facially masculine men tend to have facially masculine, less-attractive sisters. These findings challenge the idea that facially masculine men provide net genetic benefits to offspring and call into question this popular theoretical framework.

  1. Structured Frameworks to Increase the Transparency of the Assessment of Benefits and Risks of Medicines : Current Status and Possible Future Directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pignatti, F.; Ashby, D.; Brass, E. P.; Eichler, H-G; Frey, P.; Hillege, H. L.; Hori, A.; Levitan, B.; Liberti, L.; Loefstedt, R. E.; McAuslane, N.; Micaleff, A.; Noel, R. A.; Postmus, D.; Renn, O.; Sabourin, B. J.; Salmonson, T.; Walker, S.

    2015-01-01

    Structured frameworks for benefit-risk analysis in drug licensing decisions are being implemented across a number of regulatory agencies worldwide. The aim of these frameworks is to aid the analysis and communication of the benefit-risk assessment throughout the development, evaluation, and

  2. Responsiveness of cerebral and hepatic cytochrome P450s in rat offspring prenatally exposed to lindane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johri, Ashu; Yadav, Sanjay; Dhawan, Alok; Parmar, Devendra

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Prenatal exposure to low doses of lindane has been shown to affect the ontogeny of xenobiotic metabolizing cytochrome P450s (CYPs), involved in the metabolism and neurobehavioral toxicity of lindane. Attempts were made in the present study to investigate the responsiveness of CYPs in offspring prenatally exposed to lindane (0.25 mg/kg b. wt.; 1/350th of LD 50 ; p. o. to mother) when challenged with 3-methylcholanthrene (MC) or phenobarbital (PB), inducers of CYP1A and 2B families or a sub-convulsant dose of lindane (30 mg/kg b. wt., p. o.) later in life. Prenatal exposure to lindane was found to produce an increase in the mRNA and protein expression of CYP1A1, 1A2, 2B1, 2B2 isoforms in brain and liver of the offspring at postnatal day 50. The increased expression of the CYPs in the offspring suggests the sensitivity of the CYPs during postnatal development, possibly, to low levels of lindane, which may partition into mother's milk. A higher increase in expression of CYP1A and 2B isoenzymes and their catalytic activity was observed in animals pretreated prenatally with lindane and challenged with MC (30 mg/kg, i. p. x 5 days) or PB (80 mg/kg, i. p. x 5 days) when young at age (approx. 7 weeks) compared to animals exposed to MC or PB alone. Further, challenge of the control and prenatally exposed offspring with a single sub-convulsant dose of lindane resulted in an earlier onset and increased incidence of convulsions in the offspring prenatally exposed to lindane have demonstrated sensitivity of the CYPs in the prenatally exposed offspring. Our data assume significance as the subtle changes in the expression profiles of hepatic and cerebral CYPs in rat offspring during postnatal development could modify the adult response to a later exposure to xenobiotics

  3. Autonomic and Renal Alterations in the Offspring of Sleep-Restricted Mothers During Late Pregnancy

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    Joyce R.S. Raimundo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Considering that changes in the maternal environment may result in changes in progeny, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of sleep restriction during the last week of pregnancy on renal function and autonomic responses in male descendants at an adult age. METHODS: After confirmation of pregnancy, female Wistar rats were randomly assigned to either a control or a sleep restriction group. The sleep-restricted rats were subjected to sleep restriction using the multiple platforms method for over 20 hours per day between the 14th and 20th day of pregnancy. After delivery, the litters were limited to 6 offspring that were designated as offspring from control and offspring from sleep-restricted mothers. Indirect measurements of systolic blood pressure (BPi, renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate, glomerular area and number of glomeruli per field were evaluated at three months of age. Direct measurements of cardiovascular function (heart rate and mean arterial pressure, cardiac sympathetic tone, cardiac parasympathetic tone, and baroreflex sensitivity were evaluated at four months of age. RESULTS: The sleep-restricted offspring presented increases in BPi, glomerular filtration rate and glomerular area compared with the control offspring. The sleep-restricted offspring also showed higher basal heart rate, increased mean arterial pressure, increased sympathetic cardiac tone, decreased parasympathetic cardiac tone and reduced baroreflex sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that reductions in sleep during the last week of pregnancy lead to alterations in cardiovascular autonomic regulation and renal morpho-functional changes in offspring, triggering increases in blood pressure.

  4. The effect of prenatal smoking exposure on daily smoking among teenage offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemelä, Solja; Räisänen, Aleksi; Koskela, Jari; Taanila, Anja; Miettunen, Jouko; Ramsay, Hugh; Veijola, Juha

    2017-01-01

    To study the predictive associations between maternal smoking and the impact of quitting smoking during pregnancy and offspring daily smoking at age 15-16 years. The Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC86) includes 99% of all births in the region and has an ongoing follow-up. Data were collected using questionnaires at 24th gestational week during pregnancy and after delivery, and at follow-up in 2001-02, when the offspring were aged 15-16 years. Northern Finland. NFBC86 included 9432 live born children. Data regarding maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring smoking at age 15-16 years were available for 4462 subjects (47.3% of the original sample). The outcome was offspring's self-reported daily smoking. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was considered using a four-class variable: (1) no smoking, (2) mother had smoked, but had quit smoking before becoming pregnant, (3) mother quit smoking during the 1st trimester and (4) mother quit smoking after the 1st trimester or continued smoking throughout the pregnancy. Information regarding paternal smoking during pregnancy, maternal and paternal smoking and education level, family structure and dwelling at offspring's age 15-16 years were considered potential confounding variables. Continuing smoking after the 1st trimester increased the odds of daily smoking among offspring, independently of confounding factors [odds ratio (OR) = 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.3-2.5]. Continuing to smoke after the 1st trimester was associated with higher odds compared with quitting smoking during the 1st trimester. Also, parental smoking at offspring age 15-16 years increased the odds of offspring daily smoking, independently of prenatal smoking exposure. Prenatal smoking exposure increases the risk for offspring adolescent daily smoking. Quitting smoking during the early stages of pregnancy may decrease the odds for offspring smoking. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. The Effect of Neonatal Leptin Antagonism in Male Rat Offspring Is Dependent upon the Interaction between Prior Maternal Nutritional Status and Post-Weaning Diet

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    Beltrand, J.; Sloboda, D. M.; Connor, K. L.; Truong, M.; Vickers, M. H.

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies report associations between overweight mothers and increased obesity risk in offspring. It is unclear whether neonatal leptin regulation mediates this association between overweight mothers and offspring obesity. We investigated the effect of neonatal treatment with a leptin antagonist (LA) on growth and metabolism in offspring of mothers fed either a control or a high fat diet. Wistar rats were fed either a control (CON) or a high fat diet (MHF) durin...

  6. Parental psychiatric hospitalisation and offspring schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Reinisch, June M

    2009-01-01

    in both parents were associated with elevated risk of offspring schizophrenia; in addition, maternal schizophrenia, affective disorder and personality disorder were associated with elevated risk. Controlling for parental age, parental social status, and parental psychiatric co-diagnosis, offspring risk...... of schizophrenia and a range of psychotic and non-psychotic psychiatric diagnoses in parents. Psychiatric admission data after 1969 were available for 7047 cohort members born between 1959 and 1961, and for 7006 mothers and 6993 fathers. Univariate analysis showed that neurosis, alcohol and substance dependence...... of schizophrenia was associated with maternal schizophrenia (OR = 15.41 with 95% CI 5.96-39.81) and, independently, with paternal hospitalisation with neurosis (OR = 5.90 with 95% CI 2.23-15.62). The risk of schizophrenia associated with paternal neurosis remained significant after excluding offspring of parents...

  7. A potential benefit of albinism in Astyanax cavefish: downregulation of the oca2 gene increases tyrosine and catecholamine levels as an alternative to melanin synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilandžija, Helena; Ma, Li; Parkhurst, Amy; Jeffery, William R

    2013-01-01

    Albinism, the loss of melanin pigmentation, has evolved in a diverse variety of cave animals but the responsible evolutionary mechanisms are unknown. In Astyanax mexicanus, which has a pigmented surface dwelling form (surface fish) and several albino cave-dwelling forms (cavefish), albinism is caused by loss of function mutations in the oca2 gene, which operates during the first step of the melanin synthesis pathway. In addition to albinism, cavefish have evolved differences in behavior, including feeding and sleep, which are under the control of the catecholamine system. The catecholamine and melanin synthesis pathways diverge after beginning with the same substrate, L-tyrosine. Here we describe a novel relationship between the catecholamine and melanin synthesis pathways in Astyanax. Our results show significant increases in L-tyrosine, dopamine, and norepinephrine in pre-feeding larvae and adult brains of Pachón cavefish relative to surface fish. In addition, norepinephrine is elevated in cavefish adult kidneys, which contain the teleost homologs of catecholamine synthesizing adrenal cells. We further show that the oca2 gene is expressed during surface fish development but is downregulated in cavefish embryos. A key finding is that knockdown of oca2 expression in surface fish embryos delays the development of pigmented melanophores and simultaneously increases L-tyrosine and dopamine. We conclude that a potential evolutionary benefit of albinism in Astyanax cavefish may be to provide surplus L-tyrosine as a precursor for the elevated catecholamine synthesis pathway, which could be important for adaptation to the challenging cave environment.

  8. A potential benefit of albinism in Astyanax cavefish: downregulation of the oca2 gene increases tyrosine and catecholamine levels as an alternative to melanin synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Bilandžija

    Full Text Available Albinism, the loss of melanin pigmentation, has evolved in a diverse variety of cave animals but the responsible evolutionary mechanisms are unknown. In Astyanax mexicanus, which has a pigmented surface dwelling form (surface fish and several albino cave-dwelling forms (cavefish, albinism is caused by loss of function mutations in the oca2 gene, which operates during the first step of the melanin synthesis pathway. In addition to albinism, cavefish have evolved differences in behavior, including feeding and sleep, which are under the control of the catecholamine system. The catecholamine and melanin synthesis pathways diverge after beginning with the same substrate, L-tyrosine. Here we describe a novel relationship between the catecholamine and melanin synthesis pathways in Astyanax. Our results show significant increases in L-tyrosine, dopamine, and norepinephrine in pre-feeding larvae and adult brains of Pachón cavefish relative to surface fish. In addition, norepinephrine is elevated in cavefish adult kidneys, which contain the teleost homologs of catecholamine synthesizing adrenal cells. We further show that the oca2 gene is expressed during surface fish development but is downregulated in cavefish embryos. A key finding is that knockdown of oca2 expression in surface fish embryos delays the development of pigmented melanophores and simultaneously increases L-tyrosine and dopamine. We conclude that a potential evolutionary benefit of albinism in Astyanax cavefish may be to provide surplus L-tyrosine as a precursor for the elevated catecholamine synthesis pathway, which could be important for adaptation to the challenging cave environment.

  9. Is advanced paternal age a health risk for the offspring?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Urhoj, Stine Kjaer

    2017-01-01

    In this article we review the epidemiologic evidence for adverse health effects in offspring of fathers of advanced age. First the evidence regarding fetal survival is addressed, and afterward we review the evidence regarding morbidity in children with older fathers. The adverse conditions most...... consistently associated with increased paternal age are stillbirths, musculo-skeletal syndromes, cleft palate, acute lymphoblastic leukemia and retinoblastoma, and neurodevelopmental disorders in the autism spectrum and schizophrenia. Finally, we consider the public health impact of the increasing paternal age...

  10. Maternal SSRI exposure increases the risk of autistic offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andalib, S; Emamhadi, M R; Yousefzadeh-Chabok, S

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most common antidepressants used to preclude maternal pregnancy depression. There is a growing body of literature assessing the association of prenatal exposure to SSRIs with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The present systematic...... review and meta-analysis reviewed the medical literature and pooled the results of the association of prenatal exposure to SSRIs with ASD. METHODS: Published investigations in English by June 2016 with keywords of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, SSRI, autism spectrum disorder, ASD, pregnancy...

  11. Maternal SSRI exposure increases the risk of autistic offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andalib, S; Emamhadi, M R; Yousefzadeh-Chabok, S

    2017-01-01

    , childhood, children, neurodevelopment were identified using databases PubMed and PMC, MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS, and Google Scholar. Cochran's Q statistic-value (Q), degree of freedom (df), and I(2) indices (variation in odds ratio [OR] attributable to heterogeneity) were calculated to analyze the risk...

  12. Phenotypic dysregulation of microglial activation in young offspring rats with maternal sleep deprivation-induced cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiuying; Xie, Xiaofang; Fan, Yonghua; Zhang, Jinqiang; Jiang, Wei; Wu, Xiaohui; Yan, Shuo; Chen, Yubo; Peng, Cheng; You, Zili

    2015-04-01

    Despite the potential adverse effects of maternal sleep deprivation (MSD) on physiological and behavioral aspects of offspring, the mechanisms remain poorly understood. The present study was intended to investigate the roles of microglia on neurodevelopment and cognition in young offspring rats with prenatal sleep deprivation. Pregnant Wistar rats received 72 h sleep deprivation in the last trimester of gestation, and their prepuberty male offspring were given the intraperitoneal injection with or without minocycline. The results showed the number of Iba1(+) microglia increased, that of hippocampal neurogenesis decreased, and the hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory were impaired in MSD offspring. The classical microglial activation markers (M1 phenotype) IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, CD68 and iNOS were increased, while the alternative microglial activation markers (M2 phenotype) Arg1, Ym1, IL-4, IL-10 and CD206 were reduced in hippocampus of MSD offspring. After minocycline administration, the MSD offspring showed improvement in MWM behaviors and increase in BrdU(+)/DCX(+) cells. Minocycline reduced Iba1(+) cells, suppressed the production of pro-inflammatory molecules, and reversed the reduction of M2 microglial markers in the MSD prepuberty offspring. These results indicate that dysregulation in microglial pro- and anti-inflammatory activation is involved in MSD-induced inhibition of neurogenesis and impairment of spatial learning and memory.

  13. Effects of prenatal stress on seizure threshold and development of hippocampus in mice offspring

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    m kahali

    2015-07-01

    Results: The results showed a significant increase in seizure threshold in offspring whose mothers were under stress, compared with offspring whose mothers were not under stress. Average thickness of hippocampal pyramidal and granular in the experimental group than in the control group showed a significant increase (p<0.001. in addition, mean thickness of pyramidal and granular layers of hippocampus significantly increased in the experimental group compared to control group. The number of cells in hippocampal and granular layers significantly decreased in the experimental group when compared with control and sham groups (p<0.001. Conclusion: Prenatal stress can cause an increase in seizure threshold and also impair offspring's development and their hippocampal structure.

  14. Costly infidelity: low lifetime fitness of extra-pair offspring in a passerine bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yu-Hsun; Schroeder, Julia; Winney, Isabel; Burke, Terry; Nakagawa, Shinichi

    2014-10-01

    Extra-pair copulation (EPC) is widespread in socially monogamous species, but its evolutionary benefits remain controversial. Indirect genetic benefit hypotheses postulate that females engage in EPC to produce higher quality extra-pair offspring (EPO) than within-pair offspring (WPO). In contrast, the sexual conflict hypothesis posits that EPC is beneficial to males but not to females. Thus, under the sexual conflict hypothesis, EPO are predicted to be no fitter than WPO. We tested these two hypotheses in a 12-year dataset with complete life-history and pedigree information from an isolated island population of house sparrows (Passer domesticus). We compared fitness components of EPO and two types of WPO: (1) WPO from genetically polyandrous "unfaithful" mothers, and (2) WPO from genetically monogamous mothers. We found that all three groups of offspring had similar probabilities of hatching and nestling survival. Unexpectedly, EPO had the lowest probability of recruiting into the breeding population and the lowest lifetime reproductive output. Our results indicate that EPO incurred indirect genetic costs, rather than benefits, which is contrary to indirect benefit models. Importantly, the indirect costs we observed are also underappreciated in current sexual conflict models. Our results call for improved theoretical frameworks that incorporate indirect costs by extending current sexual conflict models. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  15. Childhood anxiety: an early predictor of mood disorders in offspring of bipolar parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Anne; Horrocks, Julie; Doucette, Sarah; Keown-Stoneman, Charles; McCloskey, Shannon; Grof, Paul

    2013-09-05

    Anxiety disorders are common among the offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BD). This study investigated the nature of the association between anxiety disorders and mood disorders in a prospectively studied high-risk cohort. High-risk offspring were identified from families in which one parent had confirmed BD based on SADS-L interviews and best estimate diagnostic procedures. All agreeable offspring aged 8-25 years were enrolled in a longitudinal study involving repeated KSADS-PL format clinical assessments. Control (C) offspring from families in which neither parent met lifetime criteria for a psychiatric disorder were similarly assessed. All DSM-IV diagnoses in the offspring were confirmed on blind consensus review. Cumulative incidence and adjusted Cox Proportional Hazards models were used to calculate the risk of anxiety disorders and the predictive association with mood disorders. The cumulative incidence of anxiety disorders was higher (23.40% vs. 10.42%; HR=2.136; p=.0382) and occurred earlier (9.79 vs. 14.84 years; p=.0125) in high-risk compared to C offspring. In high-risk offspring generalized anxiety disorders (GAD) followed by social phobia were the most incident anxiety subtypes; while high emotionality (HR 1.111; p=.0096) and shyness (HR 1.144; p=.0053) increased the risk of anxiety disorders. Anxiety disorders increased the adjusted risk of mood disorders (HR 2.166; p=.0004), on average 8.49 years later (SD 5.97). The cumulative incidence of BD is relatively low, as the cohort is still in the period of risk. Findings highlight the need for longitudinal surveillance of symptomatic high-risk children and suggest anxiety disorders are an important early intervention target. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Maternal obesity enhances collagen accumulation and cross-linking in skeletal muscle of ovine offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Huang

    Full Text Available Maternal obesity (MO has harmful effects on both fetal development and subsequent offspring health. We previously demonstrated that MO enhances collagen accumulation in fetal skeletal muscle, but its impact on mature offspring muscle collagen accumulation is unknown. Ewes were fed either a control diet (Con, fed 100% of NRC nutrient recommendations or obesogenic diet (OB, fed 150% of NRC nutrient recommendations from 60 days before conception to birth. All ewes received the Con diet during lactation. Male offspring were euthanized at 2.5 years (mean and the left Longissimus dorsi (LD muscle and semitendinosus (ST muscle were sampled. Collagen concentration increased by 37.8 ± 19.0% (P<0.05 in LD and 31.2 ± 16.0% (P<0.05 in ST muscle of OB compared to Con offspring muscle. Mature collagen cross-linking (pyridinoline concentration was increased for 22.3 ± 7.4% and 36.3 ± 9.9% (P<0.05 in LD and ST muscle of OB group respectively. Expression of lysyl oxidase, lysyl hydroxylase-2b (LH2b and prolyl 4-hydroxylase (P4HA was higher in OB LD and ST muscle. In addition, the expression of metalloproteinases (MMPs was lower but tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs was higher in OB offspring muscle, indicating reduced collagen remodeling. MO enhanced collagen content and cross-linking in offspring muscle, which might be partially due to reduced collagen remodeling. Our observation that the collagen content and cross-linking are enhanced in MO offspring muscle is significant, because fibrosis is known to impair muscle functions and is a hallmark of muscle aging.

  17. Sexual cannibalism: high incidence in a natural population with benefits to females.

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    Rubén Rabaneda-Bueno

    Full Text Available Sexual cannibalism may be a form of extreme sexual conflict in which females benefit more from feeding on males than mating with them, and males avoid aggressive, cannibalistic females in order to increase net fitness. A thorough understanding of the adaptive significance of sexual cannibalism is hindered by our ignorance of its prevalence in nature. Furthermore, there are serious doubts about the food value of males, probably because most studies that attempt to document benefits of sexual cannibalism to the female have been conducted in the laboratory with non-natural alternative prey. Thus, to understand more fully the ecology and evolution of sexual cannibalism, field experiments are needed to document the prevalence of sexual cannibalism and its benefits to females.We conducted field experiments with the Mediterranean tarantula (Lycosa tarantula, a burrowing wolf spider, to address these issues. At natural rates of encounter with males, approximately a third of L. tarantula females cannibalized the male. The rate of sexual cannibalism increased with male availability, and females were more likely to kill and consume an approaching male if they had previously mated with another male. We show that females benefit from feeding on a male by breeding earlier, producing 30% more offspring per egg sac, and producing progeny of higher body condition. Offspring of sexually cannibalistic females dispersed earlier and were larger later in the season than spiderlings of non-cannibalistic females.In nature a substantial fraction of female L. tarantula kill and consume approaching males instead of mating with them. This behaviour is more likely to occur if the female has mated previously. Cannibalistic females have higher rates of reproduction, and produce higher-quality offspring, than non-cannibalistic females. Our findings further suggest that female L. tarantula are nutrient-limited in nature and that males are high-quality prey. The results of these

  18. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation Improves Maternal High Fat Diet-Induced Programming of Metabolic Dysfunction in Adult Male Rat Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segovia, Stephanie A; Vickers, Mark H; Gray, Clint; Zhang, Xiaoyuan D; Reynolds, Clare M

    2017-07-27

    The developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis proposes that an adverse early life environment, including in utero exposure to a maternal obesogenic environment, can lead to an increased long-term risk of obesity and related metabolic complications in offspring. We assessed whether maternal supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) could prevent some of these adverse effects in offspring exposed to a maternal high fat diet. Sprague-Dawley dams consumed either a: control (CD), control with CLA (CLA), high fat (HF) or high fat with CLA (HFCLA) diet 10 days prior to mating and throughout pregnancy/lactation. Male offspring were weaned onto a standard chow diet. Body composition was quantified by DXA and oral glucose tolerance tests conducted on adult offspring. Gene/protein expression and histological analysis were conducted in adipose tissue. Offspring from HF dams had increased body weight, body fat deposition, impaired insulin sensitivity and adipocyte hypertrophy; all of which were rescued in HFCLA offspring. Molecular and histological analyses of the adipose tissue suggest that disturbances in adipogenesis may mediate the metabolic dysfunction observed in HF offspring. Therefore, CLA supplementation to a maternal obesogenic diet may be a promising strategy to prevent adverse programming outcomes.

  19. Long-term influences of parental divorce on offspring affective disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Amy; Thompson, Ellen J; Gaysina, Darya

    2017-08-15

    The prevalence of divorce in Western countries has increased in recent decades. However, there is no recent systematic review and/or meta-analysis of studies testing for long-term effects of parental divorce on offspring affective disorders. The present study conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies published since 1980 testing for the association between parental divorce and offspring depression and anxiety in adulthood. PUBMED, Science Direct, Medline, PsychInfo, and PsychArticles databases were searched for eligible studies. Random-effect meta-analyses were used to synthesize effect sizes and to test whether associations of parental divorce with offspring affective disorders differed among three publication periods (i.e., before 1996, 1996-2005, 2006-2015). In total, 29 studies were eligible for the systematic review, and 18 studies were included in the meta-analyses (depression: n=21,581; anxiety: n=2472). There was significant association between parental divorce and offspring depression (OR=1.56; 95%CI [1.31, 1.86]), but not anxiety (OR=1.16; 95%CI [0.98, 1.38]). The effect of parental divorce on offspring depression was not weaker in the reports published in more recent decades. There is limited research in relation to offspring anxiety in adulthood. Parental divorce is associated with an increased risk of adult offspring depression, with no indication of the effect being weaker in recent publications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Body size and intelligence in 6-year-olds: are offspring of teenage mothers at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Marie D; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Willford, Jennifer A; Leech, Sharon L; Larkby, Cynthia; Day, Nancy L

    2009-11-01

    Children born to teenage mothers are at risk for more physical and cognitive problems than those born to adult mothers. Our objective was to examine differences in size and intelligence between two cohorts of offspring born to adolescent (n = 357) and adult mothers (n = 668) who attended the same prenatal clinic. Two prospective study cohorts assessed children from gestation through age 6 years. The adult cohort was studied in the mid-1980's and the teen cohort was evaluated in the mid-1990's. Both samples were of low socio-economic status. The same study design and measures allowed us to adjust for the covariates of size and IQ. Offspring of adolescent mothers had a significantly smaller mean head circumference (5 mm) (HC) and higher body mass index (BMI) than offspring of adult mothers. Offspring of adolescent mothers scored significantly lower than the offspring of adult mothers on the Stanford-Binet (SBIS) composite score (4 points), and the quantitative (6.2 points), verbal reasoning (4.8 points), and short-term memory (3.9 points) area scores. Additional predictors of child IQ were maternal IQ, home environment, race, and number of siblings. When child HC was entered into our final regression model for the SBIS, maternal age and HC significantly predicted the composite score, the verbal reasoning, and short-term memory area scores. A 1 cm decrease in HC predicted a 1 point decrease in the SBIS composite score. Compared to offspring of adult women, children of adolescent mothers have lower mean scores on cognitive measures, smaller head circumference, and higher BMI. These differences were significant after adjusting for differences between the two groups. Adolescent mothers and their children would benefit from interventions such as parenting support, education about nutritional needs, and advice on enriching the environments of their children.

  1. Intergenerational Transmission of Overweight and Obesity from Parents to Their Adolescent Offspring - The HUNT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Næss, Marit; Holmen, Turid Lingaas; Langaas, Mette; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Kvaløy, Kirsti

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine weight associations between parents and offspring at two time points: 1995-97 and 2006-08, taking into account body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. The study included 8425 parent-offspring trios who participated in the population based Health Study of Nord Trøndelag (the HUNT Study), Norway, at either the HUNT2 (1995-97) or the HUNT3 (2006-08) survey. We used linear mixed effects models with siblings clustered within mothers to analyze the associations between 1) parental grouped BMI and offspring BMI z-scores and 2) parental grouped waist circumference and offspring waist circumference z-scores. Adolescent and adult overweight and obesity were higher in 2006-08 than in 1995-97, with the greatest increase observed in waist circumference. Both mother's and father's BMI and waist circumference were strongly associated with corresponding measures in offspring. Compared with both parents being normal weight (BMI obese parents (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) was associated with a higher offspring BMI z-score of 0.76 (95% CI; 0.65, 0.87) and 0.64 (95% CI; 0.48, 0.80) in daughters, and 0.76 (95% CI; 0.65, 0.87) and 0.69 (95% CI; 0.53, 0.80) in sons, in 1995-97 and 2006-08 respectively. Offspring with one parent being overweight/obese had BMI z-scores of approximately half of offspring with two parents categorized as overweight/obese. The results of the waist circumference based analyses did not differ substantially from the BMI based analyses. Parental overweight was strongly positively associated with offspring weight both in 1995-97 and 2006-08 where both parents being overweight/obese gave the largest effect. This seemingly stable association, strongly address the importance of public health initiatives towards preventing obesity in parents of both sexes to decrease further obesity expansion in offspring.

  2. Associations Between Depression and Obesity in Parents and Their Late-Adolescent Offspring: A Community-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmorstein, Naomi R; Iacono, William G

    2016-09-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) and obesity are associated within individuals, but little is known about the association between MDD and obesity within families. We hypothesized that parental MDD would predict increased risk for adolescent obesity and that parental obesity would predict increased risk for adolescent MDD. Participants were drawn from the community-based Minnesota Twin Family Study (N = 7307; 17 years old: n = 3774). Parents and their 17-year-old offspring were assessed for MDD using a structured diagnostic interview, and direct assessments of height and weight were conducted (and diagnoses of obesity were derived from these measurements). Parental MDD was associated with offspring obesity (odds ratio [OR] = 1.74, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.24-2.46). ORs representing the risk associated with maternal and paternal MDD were similar (OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.02-1.92; OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 0.88-2.20, respectively). This parental effect remained significant when adjusting for parental obesity and offspring MDD (OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.18-2.37). Maternal obesity was associated with increased risk for MDD in offspring (OR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.06-1.64), but paternal obesity was associated with decreased risk for MDD among offspring (OR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.54-0.91). These effects remained significant when adjusting for parental MDD and offspring obesity (OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.07-1.73; OR = 0.65, CI = 0.49-0.87, respectively). There were no differences in these findings by offspring sex (p values for all tests of a sex interaction term > .374). We found general support for hypothesized cross-disorder associations between MDD and obesity in parents and offspring, suggesting that a shared etiology may underlie these associations. Contrary to prediction, paternal obesity was associated with decreased risk for offspring MDD, a finding that requires further investigation.

  3. Associations between depression and obesity in parents and their late-adolescent offspring: A community-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmorstein, Naomi R.; Iacono, William G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Major depressive disorder (MDD) and obesity are associated within individuals, but little is known about the association between MDD and obesity within families. We hypothesized that parental MDD would predict increased risk for adolescent obesity and that parental obesity would predict increased risk for adolescent MDD. Methods Participants were drawn from the community-based Minnesota Twin Family Study (total n=7307, 17-year-old n=3774). Parents and their 17-year-old offspring were assessed for MDD using a structured diagnostic interview, and direct assessments of height and weight were conducted (and diagnoses of obesity derived from these measurements). Results Parental MDD was associated with offspring obesity (Odds Ratio (OR)=1.74, 95% Confidence interval (CI)=1.24–2.46)). Odds ratios representing the risk associated with maternal and paternal MDD were similar (OR=1.42, CI=1.02–1.92; OR=1.40, CI=.88–2.20, respectively). This parental effect remained significant when adjusting for parental obesity and offspring MDD (OR=1.67, CI=1.18–2.37). Maternal obesity was associated with increased risk for MDD in offspring (OR=1.32, CI=1.06–1.64), but paternal obesity was associated with decreased risk for MDD among offspring (OR=.70, CI=.54–.91). These effects remained significant when adjusting for parental MDD and offspring obesity (OR=1.36, CI=1.07–1.73; OR=.65, CI=.49–.87, respectively). There were no differences in these findings by offspring sex (p-values for all tests of a sex interaction term >.374). Conclusions We found general support for hypothesized cross-disorder associations between MDD and obesity in parents and offspring, suggesting that a shared etiology may underlie these associations. Contrary to prediction, paternal obesity was associated with decreased risk for offspring MDD, a finding that requires further investigation. PMID:27136499

  4. Purpose in Life Among Centenarian Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marone, Sarah; Bloore, Katherine; Sebastiani, Paola; Flynn, Christopher; Leonard, Brittany; Whitaker, Kelsey; Mostowy, Marilyn; Perls, Thomas; Andersen, Stacy L

    2018-03-07

    Purpose in life (PIL), a feeling of meaning and direction in life, is associated with favorable health outcomes including lower mortality and reduced risk of disease, disability, and cognitive impairment. Since centenarian offspring have been shown to have long health spans we sought to examine whether they have higher PIL than individuals without familial longevity. We compared PIL scores from the Ryff Scales of Psychological Well-Being in centenarian offspring from the New England Centenarian Study (N=361, mean age=82.0 years) with three referent groups: spouses, birth cohort-matched referents, and Health and Retirement Study (HRS) participants. Logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, education, and marital status indicated greater odds of high PIL among centenarian offspring compared with spouse (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.92, 95% CI 1.002-3.68, p=.049) and birth cohort referents (aOR 2.64, 95% CI 1.36-5.14, p=.004). Offspring had an almost three times greater odds of having high PIL than HRS participants (OR 2.93, 95% CI 2.17-3.96, ppurposefulness may be a target for interventions to promote healthy aging.

  5. Variables Associated with the Adjustment of Offspring of Alcoholic Fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clair, David J.; Genest, Myles

    Although research has shown the problems associated with being the offspring of an alcoholic, not all such offspring are maladjusted. To investigate the relationships among variables associated with the adjustment of children of alcoholic fathers, 30 offspring of alcoholic fathers and 40 controls, aged 18 to 23 years, completed demographic,…

  6. Symptoms of Allergic Rhinitis in Women during Early Pregnancy Are Associated with Higher Prevalence of Allergic Rhinitis in Their Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miwa Shinohara

    2007-01-01

    Results: Offspring whose mothers had any AR symptoms during early pregnancy showed a significantly higher adjusted odds ratio for the onset of AR in offspring than those whose mothers had no symptoms during pregnancy (adjusted Odds Ratio: 6.26, p=0.036. However, the symptoms of AR during late pregnancy showed no effects on the odds ratio. In contrast, the presence or absence of AR symptoms during early or late pregnancy showed no association with the prevalence of food allergy, atopic dermatitis or asthma in offspring. Conclusions: Our results suggest the presence of possible epigenetic mechanisms regulating the onset of AR in humans presumably through increased organ-specific hypersensitivity.

  7. Altered lipid metabolism in rat offspring of dams fed a low-protein diet containing soy protein isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Mi; Won, Sae Bom; Kwon, Young Hye

    2017-04-01

    Substantial studies have reported that maternal protein restriction may induce later development of cardiovascular disease in offspring by impairing antioxidant system and lipid metabolism. Because a unique amino acid composition of soy protein isolate has been shown to provide health benefits, including hypolipidemic effects, we investigated effects of maternal low-protein diet composed of low-isoflavone soy protein isolate (SPI) on oxidative stress and lipid metabolism in offspring. Sprague-Dawley dams were fed 20% or 10% SPI diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. On postnatal day 21, male offspring and their dams were studied. Maternal consumption of low-protein diet composed of SPI did not induce hepatic oxidative stress in offspring. Although serum triacylglycerol and cholesterol levels in dams were not different between groups, serum triacylglycerol levels were lower in offspring of dams fed a 10% SPI diet (10% SPI group) compared to offspring of dams fed a 20% SPI diet (20% SPI group). Maternal protein restriction also reduced serum HDL/total cholesterol levels. The mRNA levels of apolipoprotein A1, which is required for HDL formation, were lower in 10% SPI group compared to 20% SPI group and were positively correlated with serum HDL-cholesterol levels. Although maternal consumption of low-protein diet containing SPI did not induce oxidative stress and hypertriglyceridemia, the present study indicates that it may disturb cholesterol metabolism of rat offspring on postnatal day 21. Further studies are warranted to investigate the effect of maternal diet composed of soy protein isolate on later development of cardiovascular disease in offspring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Maternal obesity is associated with congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macumber, Ian; Schwartz, Stephen; Leca, Nicolae

    2017-04-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) are diagnosed in up to 1 % of pregnancies and account for 20-30 % of the abnormalities identified in the prenatal period. In previous studies, maternal obesity has been associated with congenital malformations in offspring. Our aim was to evaluate the association between maternal obesity [body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m 2 ] and CAKUT in offspring. We conducted a population-based, case-control study using linked birth-hospital discharge records from Washington State, 2003-2012. We identified 3093 CAKUT cases using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes. Controls were defined as births without any ICD-9 codes denoting congenital malformations, matched to cases by year of birth in an approximate 4:1 ratio. Compared to controls, mothers giving birth to infants with CAKUT were more likely to be obese [odds ratio (OR) 1.24, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.11-1.38]. We found a significant positive trend between odds of CAKUT in offspring and increasing severity of obesity (score test for trend of odds p < 0.001). This association remained significant in offspring with isolated CAKUT (OR 1.19, 95 % CI 1.06-1.35) and upper urinary tract anomalies (OR 1.26, 95 % CI 1.13-1.41). Maternal overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m 2 ) was not associated with CAKUT in offspring. Our results demonstrate a positive association between maternal obesity and CAKUT in offspring, as well as between obesity severity and the odds of CAKUT in offspring. These findings provide additional evidence for the public health importance of obesity, particularly as a potentially modifiable risk factor.

  9. DEVELOPMENTAL CIGARETTE SMOKE EXPOSURE II: HEPATIC PROTEOME PROFILES IN 6 MONTH OLD ADULT OFFSPRING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Rachel E.; Chen, Jing; Webb, Cindy; Stocke, Kendall; Gambrell, Caitlin; Greene, Robert M.; Pisano, M. Michele

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing a mouse model of ‘active’ developmental cigarette smoke exposure (CSE) [gestational day (GD) 1 through postnatal day (PD) 21] characterized by offspring low birth weight, the impact of developmental CSE on liver proteome profiles of adult offspring at 6 months of age was determined. Liver tissue was collected from Sham- and CSE-offspring for 2D-SDS-PAGE based proteome analysis with Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA). A similar study conducted at the cessation of exposure to cigarette smoke documented decreased gluconeogenesis coupled to oxidative stress in weanling offspring. In the current study, exposure throughout development to cigarette smoke resulted in impaired hepatic carbohydrate metabolism, decreased serum glucose levels, and increased gluconeogenic regulatory enzyme abundances during the fed-state coupled to decreased expression of SIRT1 as well as increased PEPCK and PGC1α expression. Together these findings indicate inappropriately timed gluconeogenesis that may reflect impaired insulin signaling in mature offspring exposed to ‘active’ developmental CSE. PMID:27319396

  10. Exposure to a maternal cafeteria diet changes open-field behaviour in the developing offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speight, Abigail; Davey, William G; McKenna, Emily; Voigt, Jörg-Peter W

    2017-04-01

    The early postnatal period is a sensitive period in rodents as behavioural systems are developing and maturing during this time. However, little is currently known about the behavioural effects of feeding a hyper-energetic cafeteria diet (CD) during the lactational period when offspring behaviour is tested during early adolescence. To this end, 23days old offspring from dams (Wistar) fed on CD during lactation were tested in either the open-field or the elevated plus-maze for exploration and anxiety-related behaviour. On postnatal day 9, maternal behaviour and non-maternal behaviour of the dam was assessed. It was hypothesized that lactational CD feeding would reduce anxiety in the offspring. CD-fed dams had a higher energy intake, due to an overconsumption of sugars and fats. When offspring from these dams were exposed to the open field after weaning, their locomotor activity was increased. They entered the more aversive inner zone of the open-field after a shorter latency, made more entries into and spent more time in the inner zone. Anxiety-related behaviour was not affected upon exposure to the elevated plus maze, suggesting anxiolysis in the open-field only. Increased maternal licking/grooming behaviour could possibly contribute to the anxiolytic phenotype as observed in the offspring from the CD group. In conclusion, we demonstrate that lactational overfeeding impacts on the development of behaviour in the early adolescent rat. Copyright © 2016 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The role of gut microbiota in the effects of maternal obesity during pregnancy on offspring metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liyuan; Xiao, Xinhua

    2017-12-05

    Obesity is considered a global epidemic. Specifically, obesity during pregnancy programs an increased risk of the offspring developing metabolic disorders in addition to the adverse effects on the mother per se. Large numbers of human and animal studies have demonstrated that the gut microbiota plays a pivotal role in obesity and metabolic diseases. Similarly, maternal obesity during pregnancy is associated with alterations in the composition and diversity of the intestine microbial community. Recently, the microbiota in the placenta, amniotic fluid, and meconium in healthy gestations has been investigated, and the results supported the "in utero colonization hypothesis" and challenged the traditional "sterile womb" that has been acknowledged worldwide for more than a century. Thus, the offspring microbiota, which is crucial for the immune and metabolic function and further health in the offspring, might be established prior to birth. As a detrimental intrauterine environment, maternal obesity influences the microbial colonization and increases the risk of metabolic diseases in offspring. This review discusses the role of the microbiota in the impact of maternal obesity during pregnancy on offspring metabolism and further analyzes related probiotic or prebiotic interventions to prevent and treat obesity and metabolic diseases. ©2017 The Author(s).

  12. Maternal periconceptional and gestational low protein diet affects mouse offspring growth, cardiovascular and adipose phenotype at 1 year of age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J Watkins

    Full Text Available Human and animal studies have revealed a strong association between periconceptional environmental factors, such as poor maternal diet, and an increased propensity for cardiovascular and metabolic disease in adult offspring. Previously, we reported cardiovascular and physiological effects of maternal low protein diet (LPD fed during discrete periods of periconceptional development on 6-month-old mouse offspring. Here, we extend the analysis in 1 year aging offspring, evaluating mechanisms regulating growth and adiposity. Isocaloric LPD (9% casein or normal protein diet (18% casein; NPD was fed to female MF-1 mice either exclusively during oocyte maturation (for 3.5 days prior to mating; Egg-LPD, Egg-NPD, respectively, throughout gestation (LPD, NPD or exclusively during preimplantation development (for 3.5 days post mating; Emb-LPD. LPD and Emb-LPD female offspring were significantly lighter and heavier than NPD females respectively for up to 52 weeks. Egg-LPD, LPD and Emb-LPD offspring displayed significantly elevated systolic blood pressure at 52 weeks compared to respective controls (Egg-NPD, NPD. LPD females had significantly reduced inguinal and retroperitoneal fat pad: body weight ratios compared to NPD females. Expression of the insulin receptor (Insr and insulin-like growth factor I receptor (Igf1r in retroperitoneal fat was significantly elevated in Emb-LPD females (P<0.05, whilst Emb-LPD males displayed significantly decreased expression of the mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1 gene compared to NPD offspring. LPD females displayed significantly increased expression of Ucp1 in interscapular brown adipose tissue when compared to NPD offspring. Our results demonstrate that aging offspring body weight, cardiovascular and adiposity homeostasis can be programmed by maternal periconceptional nutrition. These adverse outcomes further exemplify the criticality of dietary behaviour around the time of conception on long-term offspring

  13. The effects of maternal corticosterone levels on offspring behavior in fast- and slow-growth garter snakes (Thamnophis elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Kylie A; Vleck, Carol; Bronikowski, Anne M

    2009-01-01

    During embryonic development, viviparous offspring are exposed to maternally circulating hormones. Maternal stress increases offspring exposure to corticosterone and this hormonal exposure has the potential to influence developmental, morphological and behavioral traits of the resulting offspring. We treated pregnant female garter snakes (Thamnophis elegans) with low levels of corticosterone after determining both natural corticosterone levels in the field and pre-treatment levels upon arrival in the lab. Additional measurements of plasma corticosterone were taken at days 1, 5, and 10 during the 10-day exposure, which occurred during the last third of gestation (of 4-month gestation). These pregnant snakes were from replicate populations of fast- and slow-growth ecotypes occurring in Northern California, with concomitant short and long lifespans. Field corticosterone levels of pregnant females of the slow-growth ecotype were an order of magnitude higher than fast-growth dams. In the laboratory, corticosterone levels increased over the 10 days of corticosterone manipulation for animals of both ecotypes, and reached similar plateaus for both control and treated dams. Despite similar plasma corticosterone levels in treated and control mothers, corticosterone-treated dams produced more stillborn offspring and exhibited higher total reproductive failure than control dams. At one month of age, offspring from fast-growth females had higher plasma corticosterone levels than offspring from slow-growth females, which is opposite the maternal pattern. Offspring from corticosterone-treated mothers, although unaffected in their slither speed, exhibited changes in escape behaviors and morphology that were dependent upon maternal ecotype. Offspring from corticosterone-treated fast-growth females exhibited less anti-predator reversal behavior; offspring from corticosterone-treated slow-growth females exhibited less anti-predator tail lashing behavior.

  14. The effect of maternal chromium status on lipid metabolism in female elderly mice offspring and involved molecular mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Sun, Xiaofang; Xiao, Xinhua; Zheng, Jia; Li, Ming; Yu, Miao; Ping, Fan; Wang, Zhixin; Qi, Cuijuan; Wang, Tong; Wang, Xiaojing

    2017-04-30

    Maternal malnutrition leads to the incidence of metabolic diseases in offspring. The purpose of this project was to examine whether maternal low chromium could disturb normal lipid metabolism in offspring, altering adipose cell differentiation and leading to the incidence of lipid metabolism diseases, including metabolic syndrome and obesity. Female C57BL mice were given a control diet (CD) or a low chromium diet (LCD) during the gestational and lactation periods. After weaning, offspring was fed with CD or LCD. The female offspring were assessed at 32 weeks of age. Fresh adipose samples from CD-CD group and LCD-CD group were collected. Genome mRNA were analysed using Affymetrix GeneChip Mouse Gene 2.0 ST Whole Transcript-based array. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were analysed based on gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis database. Maternal low chromium irreversibly increased offspring body weight, fat-pad weight, serum triglyceride (TG) and TNF-α. Eighty five genes increased and 109 genes reduced in the offspring adipose of the maternal low chromium group. According to KEGG pathway and String analyses, the PPAR signalling pathway may be the key controlled pathway related to the effect of maternal low chromium on female offspring. Maternal chromium status have long-term effects of lipid metabolism in female mice offspring. Normalizing offspring diet can not reverse these effects. The potential underlying mechanisms are the disturbance of the PPAR signalling pathway in adipose tissue. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. Experimental gestational hypothyroidism evokes hypertension in adult offspring rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sheyla Oliveira; Loureiro, Saulo Makerran Araújo; Alves, Iura Gonzalez Nogueira; Jesus, Camila Santos de; Santos, Patrícia Rabelo dos; Santos, Márcio Roberto Viana dos; Dias, Daniel Penteado Martins; Santana-Filho, Valter Joviniano; Badauê-Passos, Daniel

    2012-09-25

    Gestational hypothyroidism is a prevalent disorder in pregnant women. We aimed to investigate the impact of experimental gestational hypothyroidism (EGH) on cardiovascular and autonomic nervous systems (ANS) in the offspring of rats. EGH was induced with methimazole (MMI) 0.02% in drinking water from day 9 of gestation until birth. Sixty day old offspring from MMI-treated dams (OMTD, n=13) or water-treated dams (OWTD, n=13) had femoral arteries surgically assessed for the measurements of heart rate (HR), mean (MAP), systolic (SAP) and diastolic arterial pressure (DAP), and spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). To investigate the balance of ANS, we established the high (HF) and low frequency (LF) bands of pulse interval (PI) and LF band of SAP spectrum. OMTD had increased MAP (130.2 ± 2.0 vs 108.8 ± 3.0 mmHg, p<0.001), SAP (157.3 ± 2.9 vs 135.7 ± 4.5mm Hg, p<0.001) and DAP (109.7 ± 1.9 vs 88.4 ± 2.6 mmHg, p<0.001) when compared to OWTD, and had lower HR (355.1 ± 8.9 vs 386.8 ± 9.2 bpm, p<0.05). After spectral analysis of PI and SAP, only LF band of SAP spectrum was higher (7.2 ± 0.8 vs 4.0 ± 0.6 mmHg(2), p<0.01) in OMTD under spontaneous condition. Despite bradycardia, EGH promotes spontaneous hypertension in 60 day old offspring, probably due to increased sympathetic modulation of vessels, which is suggested by the higher LF of SAP. These findings suggest a critical role of maternal THs in the development of fetal cardiovascular and autonomic nervous systems. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Prenatal stress decreases spatial learning and memory retrieval of the adult male offspring of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modir, Fatemeh; Elahdadi Salmani, Mahmoud; Goudarzi, Iran; Lashkarboluki, Taghi; Abrari, Kataneh

    2014-04-22

    Early life or prenatal stress induces many lifelong, mostly cognitive, homeostatic alterations in the behavior of the offspring. We investigated the effect of heterogeneous sequential stress (HSS) at three separate periods, before and during the first and second half of pregnancies on spatial learning and memory retrieval of adult male offspring. HSS is composed of several stressors, each in a day, during nine consecutive days including; restraint, swimming, isolation, and water and food deprivation on Wistar rats. The offspring were studied in a Morris water maze (MWM) apparatus to explore the latency, distance, proximity and target to opposite area as measures of learning and memory. Serum corticosterone was measured as a criterion of stress application. HSS increased blood corticosterone in dams of PS2 (Pregnancy Stress second half), and also in adult male offspring from BPS (Before Pregnancy Stress) and PS1 (Pregnancy Stress first half) groups. The weight of the offspring decreased in the PS1 and PS2 groups. While distance traveled and latency to locate the hidden platform were increased in BPS and PS1 acquisition trials, swimming speed was unchanged during the acquisition and retrieval tests. Moreover, time to platform location was increased in BPS and PS1 during retention tests. While control rats spent more time in the target quadrant, stressed animals spent a longer duration in the opposite quadrant. Furthermore, proximity measure was increased in all stress treated rats. It is concluded that prenatal stress, around the beginning of the pregnancy, increases corticosterone in adult male offspring, which might be the basis for spatial learning and memory retrieval deficits in this study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Parental obesity and risk factors for cardiovascular disease among their offspring in mid-life: findings from the 1958 British Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, R; Pinto Pereira, S M; Power, C; Hyppönen, E

    2013-12-01

    Few studies have investigated whether parental adiposity is associated with offspring cardiovascular health or the underlying pathways. Studying these associations may help to illuminate the paradox of increasing prevalence of obesity and declining trends in cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, which may be partially explained by beneficial adaptations to an obesogenic environment among people exposed to such environments from younger ages. To investigate associations between parental body mass index (BMI) and risk factors for CVD among their offspring in mid-life and to test whether associations of offspring BMI with CVD risk factors were modified by parental BMI. Data from parents and offspring in the 1958 British birth cohort were used (N=9328). Parental BMI was assessed when offspring were aged 11 years; offspring BMI, waist circumference and CVD risk factors (lipid levels, blood pressure, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and inflammatory and haemostatic markers) were measured at 44-45 years. Higher parental BMI was associated with less favourable levels of offspring risk factors for CVD. Most associations were maintained after adjustment for offspring lifestyle and socioeconomic factors but were largely abolished or reversed after adjustment for offspring adiposity. For some CVD risk factors, there was evidence of effect modification; the association between higher BMI and an adverse lipid profile among offspring was weaker if maternal BMI had been higher. Conversely, offspring BMI was more strongly associated with HbA1c if parental BMI had been higher. Intergenerational influences may be important in conferring the effect of high BMI on CVD risk among offspring.

  18. Different effects of paternal trans-generational immune priming on survival and immunity in step and genetic offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert, Hendrik; Kurtz, Joachim; Diddens-de Buhr, Maike F

    2014-12-22

    Paternal trans-generational immune priming, whereby fathers provide immune protection to offspring, has been demonstrated in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum exposed to the insect pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis. It is currently unclear how such protection is transferred, as in contrast to mothers, fathers do not directly provide offspring with a large amount of substances. In addition to sperm, male flour beetles transfer seminal fluids in a spermatophore to females during copulation. Depending on whether paternal trans-generational immune priming is mediated by sperm or seminal fluids, it is expected to either affect only the genetic offspring of a male, or also their step offspring that are sired by another male. We therefore conducted a double-mating experiment and found that only the genetic offspring of an immune primed male show enhanced survival upon bacterial challenge, while phenoloxidase activity, an important insect immune trait, and the expression of the immune receptor PGRP were increased in all offspring. This indicates that information leading to enhanced survival upon pathogen exposure is transferred via sperm, and thus potentially constitutes an epigenetic effect, whereas substances transferred with the seminal fluid could have an additional influence on offspring immune traits and immunological alertness.

  19. Associations of Maternal Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy with Offspring Adiposity from Birth Until 54 Months of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Wei Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Most studies linking maternal diet with offspring adiposity have focused on single nutrients or foods, but a dietary pattern approach is more representative of the overall diet. We thus aimed to investigate the relations between maternal dietary patterns and offspring adiposity in a multi-ethnic Asian mother–offspring cohort in Singapore. We derived maternal dietary patterns using maternal dietary intake information at 26–28 weeks of gestation, of which associations with offspring body mass index (BMI, abdominal circumference (AC, subscapular skinfold (SS, and triceps skinfold (TS were assessed using longitudinal data analysis (linear mixed effects (LME and multiple linear regression at ages 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 54 months. Three dietary patterns were derived: (1 vegetables-fruit-and-white rice (VFR; (2 seafood-and-noodles (SfN; and (3 pasta-cheese-and-bread (PCB. In the LME model adjusting for potential confounders, each standard deviation (SD increase in maternal VFR pattern score was associated with 0.09 mm lower offspring TS. Individual time-point analysis additionally revealed that higher VFR score was generally associated with lower postnatal offspring BMI z-score, TS, SS, and sum of skinfolds (SS + TS at ages 18 months and older. Maternal adherence to a dietary pattern characterized by higher intakes of fruit and vegetables and lower intakes of fast food was associated with lower offspring adiposity.

  20. Adverse pregnancy outcomes in offspring of fathers working in biomedical research laboratories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson, Linda L; Bodin, Lennart; Wennborg, Helena

    2006-01-01

    of male employees in biomedical research laboratories are examined. METHODS: Offspring to males employed 1970-1989 at four Swedish universities were identified via the Medical Birth Register (MBR), along with other pregnancy parameters. Offspring of fathers with laboratory work (n = 2,281) is considered...... significant increased ORs concerning birth weight and/or gestational age, but work specifically with radioactive isotopes gave OR 1.8 (CI 1.0-3.2) for high birth weight and a relative risk of 1.2 (CI 1.0-1.4) for sex ratio (male/female). CONCLUSIONS: There was no clear association between periconceptional...... paternal laboratory work and adverse reproductive outcomes, but use of radioactive isotopes showed increased OR for high birth weight in offspring....

  1. Multisystem Morbidity and Mortality in Offspring of Women With Type 1 Diabetes (The EPICOM Study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Sine; Stochholm, Kirstine; Vlachová, Zuzana

    2015-01-01

    admissions. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed a prospective combined clinical and register-based cohort study comparing mortality, hospital admissions, and use of medication in offspring (n = 1,326) of women with pregestational type 1 diabetes (index children) with matched control subjects (n = 131......OBJECTIVE: This study examined the long-term consequences for offspring born to mothers with pregestational type 1 diabetes regarding mortality, hospital admissions, and medication. We also examined the association between HbA1c levels during pregnancy and mortality and incidence of hospital...... associated with maternal HbA1c before pregnancy and in the first trimester. In addition, the overall use of medication was increased in index children (IRR 1.13, 95% CI 1.07-1.19, P Type 1 diabetes during pregnancy has long-term implications on the health of offspring, with increased...

  2. Egg size and laying order in relation to offspring sex in the extreme sexually size dimorphic brown songlark, Cinclorhamphus cruralis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magrath, MJL; Komdeur, J; Dickinson, J.

    In some bird species, mothers can advantage the offspring of one sex either by elevating them in the laying order to promote earlier hatching or by allocating greater resources to eggs of the preferred sex. In size dimorphic species, the predictions as to which sex should benefit most from such

  3. Socioeconomic benefits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    perception on the benefits of shade trees in coffee production systems in southwestern ..... Table 4. Other socioeconomic benefits of coffee shade tree species alluded by the respondents, Southwestern Ethiopia. Mentioned benefits. Responses (%). Yes. No. Firewood ... (fast growth, longevity, possession of thin and small ...

  4. Chronic maternal low-protein diet in mice affects anxiety, night-time energy expenditure and sleep patterns, but not circadian rhythm in male offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offspring of murine dams chronically fed a protein-restricted diet have an increased risk for metabolic and neurobehavioral disorders. Previously we showed that adult offspring, developmentally exposed to a chronic maternal low-protein (MLP) diet, had lower body and hind-leg muscle weights and decre...

  5. Methylation and Expression of Immune and Inflammatory Genes in the Offspring of Bariatric Bypass Surgery Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Guénard

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Maternal obesity, excess weight gain and overnutrition during pregnancy increase risks of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease in the offspring. Maternal biliopancreatic diversion is an effective treatment for severe obesity and is beneficial for offspring born after maternal surgery (AMS. These offspring exhibit lower severe obesity prevalence and improved cardiometabolic risk factors including inflammatory marker compared to siblings born before maternal surgery (BMS. Objective. To assess relationships between maternal bariatric surgery and the methylation/expression of genes involved in the immune and inflammatory pathways. Methods. A differential gene methylation analysis was conducted in a sibling cohort of 25 BMS and 25 AMS offspring from 20 mothers. Following differential gene expression analysis (23 BMS and 23 AMS, pathway analysis was conducted. Correlations between gene methylation/expression and circulating inflammatory markers were computed. Results. Five immune and inflammatory pathways with significant overrepresentation of both differential gene methylation and expression were identified. In the IL-8 pathway, gene methylation correlated with both gene expression and plasma C-reactive protein levels. Conclusion. These results suggest that improvements in cardiometabolic risk markers in AMS compared to BMS offspring may be mediated through differential methylation of genes involved in immune and inflammatory pathways.

  6. The effects of maternal eating disorders on offspring childhood and early adolescent psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micali, Nadia; De Stavola, Bianca; Ploubidis, George B; Simonoff, Emily; Treasure, Janet

    2014-05-01

    There is evidence that parental psychiatric disorders are associated with offspring psychiatric disorder. Very few small studies have investigated the effect of maternal eating disorders on offspring psychopathology throughout childhood and early adolescence. We aimed to investigate psychiatric disorders at age 7, 10, and 13 years in offspring of women with eating disorders prior to pregnancy and investigate the relative contribution of other psychiatric disorders. Women (N = 12,035) from a large population-based longitudinal cohort: the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). A brief prepregnancy psychiatric history was obtained at enrollment to determine exposure. Offspring psychiatric disorder was measured using the developmental and well-being assessment at ages 7, 10, and 13. Maternal eating disorders were associated with a psychiatric diagnosis in the offspring at age 7 and 10, particularly emotional disorders (Odds ratio = 1.9, 95%CI: 1.1-2.8). Maternal psychiatric disorders other than eating disorders predicted psychiatric diagnoses across ages, and acted in an additive fashion with maternal eating disorders. Maternal eating disorders together with comorbid psychopathology increase risk for psychiatric disorders in childhood and early adolescence, in particular for emotional disorders. This has important implications for prevention and future research. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Cocos nucifera water improves metabolic functions in offspring of high fat diet fed Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunle-Alabi, Olufadekemi T; Akindele, Opeyemi O; Raji, Yinusa

    2018-03-28

    Maternal high fat diet has been implicated in the aetiology of metabolic diseases in their offspring. The hypolipidaemic actions of Cocos nucifera water improve metabolic indices of dams consuming a high fat diet during gestation. This study investigated the effects of C. nucifera water on metabolism of offspring of dams exposed to high fat diet during gestation. Four groups of pregnant Wistar rat dams (n=6) were treated orally from Gestation Day (GD) 1 to GD 21 as follows: standard rodent feed+10 mL/kg distilled water (Control), standard rodent feed+10 mL/kg C. nucifera water, high fat feed+10 mL/kg distilled water (high fat diet), and high fat feed+10 mL/kg C. nucifera water (high fat diet+C. nucifera water). The feeds were given ad libitum and all dams received standard rodent feed after parturition. Fasting blood glucose was measured in offspring before being euthanized on Postnatal Day (PND) 120. Serum insulin, leptin, lipid profile and liver enzymes were measured. Serum total cholesterol (TC), insulin, alanine transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase levels were significantly increased (pnucifera water offspring. Results suggest that the adverse effects of maternal high fat diet on offspring's metabolism can be ameliorated by C. nucifera water.

  8. Maternal chromium restriction modulates miRNA profiles related to lipid metabolism disorder in mice offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Xiao, Xinhua; Zheng, Jia; Li, Ming; Yu, Miao; Ping, Fan; Wang, Zhixin; Qi, Cuijuan; Wang, Tong; Wang, Xiaojing

    2017-08-01

    Increasing evidence shows that maternal nutrition status has a vital effect on offspring susceptibility to obesity. MicroRNAs are related to lipid metabolism processes. This study aimed to evaluate whether maternal chromium restriction could affect miRNA expression involved in lipid metabolism in offspring. Weaning C57BL/6J mice born from mothers fed with normal control diet or chromium-restricted diet were fed for 13 weeks. The adipose miRNA expression profile was analyzed by miRNA array analysis. At 16 weeks old, pups from dams fed with chromium-restricted diet exhibit higher body weight, fat weight, and serum TC, TG levels. Six miRNAs were identified as upregulated in the RC group compared with the CC group, whereas eight miRNAs were lower than the threshold level set in the RC group. In the validated target genes of these differentially expressed miRNA, the MAPK signaling pathway serves an important role in the influence of early life chromium-restricted diet on lipid metabolism through miRNA. Long-term programming on various specific miRNA and MAPK signaling pathway may be involved in maternal chromium restriction in the adipose of female offspring. Impact statement For the first time, our study demonstrates important miRNA differences in the effect of maternal chromium restriction in offspring. These miRNAs may serve as "bridges" between the mother and the offspring by affecting the MAPK pathway.

  9. Maternal Brain TNF-α Programs Innate Fear in the Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupan, Bojana; Liu, Bingfang; Taki, Faten; Toth, Judit Gal; Toth, Miklos

    2017-12-18

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a cytokine that not only coordinates local and systemic immune responses [1, 2] but also regulates neuronal functions. Most prominently, glia-derived TNF-α has been shown to regulate homeostatic synaptic scaling [3-6], but TNF-α-null mice exhibited no apparent cognitive or emotional abnormalities. Instead, we found a TNF-α-dependent intergenerational effect, as mothers with a deficit in TNF-α programmed their offspring to exhibit low innate fear. Cross-fostering and conditional knockout experiments indicated that a TNF-α deficit in the maternal brain, rather than in the hematopoietic system, and during gestation was responsible for the low-fear offspring phenotype. The level of innate fear governs the balance between exploration/foraging and avoidance of predators and is thus fundamentally important in adaptation, fitness, and survival [7]. Because maternal exercise and activity are known to reduce both brain TNF-α [8] and offspring innate fear [9], whereas maternal stress has been reported to increase brain TNF-α [10] and offspring fear and anxiety [11, 12], maternal brain TNF-α may report environmental conditions to promote offspring behavioral adaptation to their anticipated postnatal environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Motorboat noise impacts parental behaviour and offspring survival in a reef fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedelec, Sophie L; Radford, Andrew N; Pearl, Leanne; Nedelec, Brendan; McCormick, Mark I; Meekan, Mark G; Simpson, Stephen D

    2017-06-14

    Anthropogenic noise is a pollutant of international concern, with mounting evidence of disturbance and impacts on animal behaviour and physiology. However, empirical studies measuring survival consequences are rare. We use a field experiment to investigate how repeated motorboat-noise playback affects parental behaviour and offspring survival in the spiny chromis ( Acanthochromis polyacanthus ), a brooding coral reef fish. Repeated observations were made for 12 days at 38 natural nests with broods of young. Exposure to motorboat-noise playback compared to ambient-sound playback increased defensive acts, and reduced both feeding and offspring interactions by brood-guarding males. Anthropogenic noise did not affect the growth of developing offspring, but reduced the likelihood of offspring survival; while offspring survived at all 19 nests exposed to ambient-sound playback, six of the 19 nests exposed to motorboat-noise playback suffered complete brood mortality. Our study, providing field-based experimental evidence of the consequences of anthropogenic noise, suggests potential fitness consequences of this global pollutant. © 2017 The Authors.

  11. Long-Term Consequences for Offspring of Paternal Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benigno Linares Segovia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent studies have reported an increase in the prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. However, few have focused how diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome together in parents can influence on obesity and metabolic disturbances in offspring. Objective. To know the risk obesity and metabolic disturbance in children, adolescents, and young adults whose parents have diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. Methods. A comparative survey was made in healthy children of parents with diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome compared with offspring of healthy parents. We performed anthropometry and evaluated blood pressure, glucose, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides levels in plasma. We registered parent antecedents to diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome and investigated the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and metabolic disturbances in offspring. Results. We studied 259 subjects of 7 to 20 years of age. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 27% and 37%, respectively. The highest proportion of BMI >95th of the entire group was found in offspring with both diabetic parents. Glucose and total cholesterol levels were lower in the group with healthy parents compared with the group with diabetic mother and metabolic syndrome but with healthy father. HDL cholesterol was higher in the group with both healthy parents than in the group with diabetic mother and metabolic syndrome but healthy father. Conclusions. The offspring of parents with diabetes plus metabolic syndrome showed higher proportion of variables related to metabolic syndrome compared with healthy parents.

  12. Maternal exposure to cadmium during gestation perturbs the vascular system of the adult rat offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronco, Ana Maria; Montenegro, Marcela; Castillo, Paula; Urrutia, Manuel; Saez, Daniel; Hirsch, Sandra; Zepeda, Ramiro; Llanos, Miguel N.

    2011-01-01

    Several cardiovascular diseases (CVD) observed in adulthood have been associated with environmental influences during fetal growth. Here, we show that maternal exposure to cadmium, a ubiquitously distributed heavy metal and main component of cigarette smoke is able to induce cardiovascular morpho-functional changes in the offspring at adult age. Heart morphology and vascular reactivity were evaluated in the adult offspring of rats exposed to 30 ppm of cadmium during pregnancy. Echocardiographic examination shows altered heart morphology characterized by a concentric left ventricular hypertrophy. Also, we observed a reduced endothelium-dependent reactivity in isolated aortic rings of adult offspring, while endothelium-independent reactivity remained unaltered. These effects were associated with an increase of hem-oxygenase 1 (HO-1) expression in the aortas of adult offspring. The expression of HO-1 was higher in females than males, a finding likely related to the sex-dependent expression of the vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), which was lower in the adult female. All these long-term consequences were observed along with normal birth weights and absence of detectable levels of cadmium in fetal and adult tissues of the offspring. In placental tissues however, cadmium levels were detected and correlated with increased NF-κB expression - a transcription factor sensitive to inflammation and oxidative stress - suggesting a placentary mechanism that affect genes related to the development of the cardiovascular system. Our results provide, for the first time, direct experimental evidence supporting that exposure to cadmium during pregnancy reprograms cardiovascular development of the offspring which in turn may conduce to a long term increased risk of CVD.

  13. Risk factors for suicide in offspring bereaved by sudden parental death from external causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, Lisa Victoria; Mehlum, Lars; Qin, Ping

    2017-11-01

    Parentally bereaved offspring have an increased suicide risk as a group, but the ability to identify specific individuals at risk on the basis of risk and protective factors is limited. The present study aimed to investigate to what degree different risk factors influence suicide risk in offspring bereaved by parental death from external causes. Based on Norwegian registers, individual-level data were retrieved for 375 parentally bereaved suicide cases and 7500 parentally bereaved gender- and age-matched living controls. Data were analysed with conditional logistic regression. Bereaved offspring with low social support, indicated by offspring's single status and repeated changes in marital status and residence, had a significantly increased suicide risk compared to bereaved offspring with high social support. Moreover, low socioeconomic status, having an immigration background, having lost both parents and loss due to suicide significantly increased suicide risk. Several variables relevant to bereavement outcome, such as coping mechanisms and the quality of the parent-offspring relationship are impossible to examine by utilizing population registers. Moreover, the availability of data did not enable the measurement of marital stability and residence stability across the entire lifespan for older individuals. Healthcare professionals should be aware of the additional risk posed by the identified risk factors and incorporate this knowledge into existing practice and risk assessment in order to identify individuals at risk and effectively target bereaved family and friends for prevention and intervention programs. Ideal follow-up for bereaved families should include a specific focus on mobilizing social support. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Trans-generational maternal effect: temperature influences egg size of the offspring in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, B; Jonsson, N

    2016-08-01

    Effect of increased temperature during egg maturation on the mass of single eggs produced by the offspring was investigated experimentally in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. Mass of eggs produced by next-generation females was larger when their mothers experienced warmer water during the last two months of egg maturation, relative to those that experienced unheated river water. There was no similar trans-generational paternal effect on offspring egg mass. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  15. [Metabolic abnormalities in young offsprings of parents with essential hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicco, Miguel H; Rodeles, Luz; César, Lucía I; Ferini, Franco; Dorigo, Catalina; Musacchio, Héctor M

    2013-01-01

    The familiar history of hypertension in healthy young offsprings is associated with hyperinsulinemia, which could lead to increased serum cortisol, resulting in renal endothelial damage and the presence of microalbuminuria. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in healthy young offsprings of hypertensive parents, association between insulin levels, serum cortisol and microalbuminuria attending to its relationship with increased cardiovascular risk. We performed a cross-sectional correlational study in Santa Fe, Argentina, including 145 healthy individuals aged over 18 years, allocated to two groups: those with a history of essential hypertensive parents (study group) and those without such history (control group). We evaluated fasting serum insulin, cortisol, and microalbuminuria levels in the first morning urine. The mean age was 20 ± 2.9 years, and 58% were women. The study group included 48% (n = 69) of the sample. 4.8% had insulin resistance, microalbuminuria 13.8% and 52% hipercortisolinemia, with no significant differences in serum insulin, cortisol, or microalbuminuria between groups. No correlation was found between these variables. In this study there was no association between a history of first degree hypertension and impaired insulin or cortisol homoeostasis.

  16. Placenta previa and immediate outcome of the term offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walfisch, Asnat; Sheiner, Eyal

    2016-10-01

    Immediate neonatal outcome in pregnancies complicated by placenta previa is largely dependent on gestational age. We aimed to investigate whether placenta previa increases the risk for perinatal mortality and immediate morbidity of the offspring born at term. A population-based cohort study included all singleton pregnancies, with and without placenta previa, delivered at term. Maternal and pregnancy characteristics as well as immediate neonatal morbidity and mortality were compared. Deliveries occurred between the years 1991-2013 in a tertiary medical center. Multiple pregnancies, and fetal congenital malformations were excluded. During the study period 233,123 consecutive term deliveries met the inclusion criteria; 0.2 % of the babies were born to mothers diagnosed with placenta previa. Women with placenta previa were significantly older and more likely to have had a previous cesarean section. Pregnancies were more likely to be complicated with pathological presentations and cesarean hysterectomies. Babies born at term following pregnancies with placenta previa were more likely to weigh less than 2500 g (OR 2.78 CI 1.9-3.9, p placenta previa pregnancies involve higher maternal morbidity rates, term offsprings are not at an increased risk for immediate adverse outcome.

  17. Dietary Intake Influences Adult Fertility and Offspring Fitness in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Trent; Jhinku, Noel; Meier, Michael; Horsfield, Julia

    2016-01-01

    The burden of malnutrition, including both over- and undernutrition, is a major public health concern. Here we used a zebrafish model of diet-induced obesity to analyze the impact of dietary intake on fertility and the phenotype of the next generation. Over an eight-week period, one group received 60 mg of food each day (60 mg arm), while another received 5 mg (5 mg arm). At the end of the diet, the body mass index of the 60 mg arm was 1.5 fold greater than the 5 mg arm. The intervention also had a marked impact on fertility; breeding success and egg production in the 60 mg arm were increased 2.1- and 6.2-fold compared to the 5 mg arm, respectively. Transcriptome analysis of eggs revealed that transcripts involved in metabolic biological processes differed according to dietary intake. The progeny from the differentially fed fish were more likely to survive when the parents had access to more food. An intergenerational crossover study revealed that while parental diet did not influence weight gain in the offspring, the progeny of well-fed parents had increased levels of physical activity when exposed again to high nutrient availability. We conclude that dietary intake has an important influence on fertility and the subsequent fitness of offspring, even prior to breeding.

  18. Unexpected Long-Term Protection of Adult Offspring Born to High-Fat Fed Dams against Obesity Induced by a Sucrose-Rich Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvreur, Odile; Ferezou, Jacqueline; Gripois, Daniel; Serougne, Colette; Crépin, Delphine; Aubourg, Alain; Gertler, Arieh; Vacher, Claire-Marie; Taouis, Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Background Metabolic and endocrine environment during early life is crucial for metabolic imprinting. When dams were fed a high fat diet (HF diet), rat offspring developed hypothalamic leptin resistance with lean phenotype when weaned on a normal diet. Interestingly, when grown on the HF diet, they appeared to be protected against the effects of HF diet as compared to offspring of normally fed dams. The mechanisms involved in the protective effect of maternal HF diet are unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings We thus investigated the impact of maternal high fat diet on offspring subjected to normal or high palatable diet (P diet) on metabolic and endocrine parameters. We compared offspring born to dams fed P or HF diet. Offspring born to dams fed control or P diet, when fed P diet exhibited a higher body weight, altered hypothalamic leptin sensitivity and metabolic parameters suggesting that maternal P diet has no protective effect on offspring. Whereas, maternal HF diet reduces body weight gain and circulating triglycerides, and ameliorates corpulence index of offspring, even when subjected to P diet. Interestingly, this protective effect is differently expressed in male and female offspring. Male offspring exhibited higher energy expenditure as mirrored by increased hypothalamic UCP-2 and liver AdipoR1/R2 expression, and a profound change in the arcuate nucleus astrocytic organization. In female offspring, the most striking impact of maternal HF diet is the reduced hypothalamic expression of NPY and POMC. Conclusions/Significance HF diet given during gestation and lactation protects, at least partially, offspring from excessive weight gain through several mechanisms depending upon gender including changes in arcuate nucleus astrocytic organization and increased hypothalamic UCP-2 and liver AdipoR1/2 expression in males and reduced hypothalamic expression of NPY and POMC in females. Taken together our results reveal new mechanisms involved in the protective

  19. Unexpected long-term protection of adult offspring born to high-fat fed dams against obesity induced by a sucrose-rich diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odile Couvreur

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metabolic and endocrine environment during early life is crucial for metabolic imprinting. When dams were fed a high fat diet (HF diet, rat offspring developed hypothalamic leptin resistance with lean phenotype when weaned on a normal diet. Interestingly, when grown on the HF diet, they appeared to be protected against the effects of HF diet as compared to offspring of normally fed dams. The mechanisms involved in the protective effect of maternal HF diet are unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We thus investigated the impact of maternal high fat diet on offspring subjected to normal or high palatable diet (P diet on metabolic and endocrine parameters. We compared offspring born to dams fed P or HF diet. Offspring born to dams fed control or P diet, when fed P diet exhibited a higher body weight, altered hypothalamic leptin sensitivity and metabolic parameters suggesting that maternal P diet has no protective effect on offspring. Whereas, maternal HF diet reduces body weight gain and circulating triglycerides, and ameliorates corpulence index of offspring, even when subjected to P diet. Interestingly, this protective effect is differently expressed in male and female offspring. Male offspring exhibited higher energy expenditure as mirrored by increased hypothalamic UCP-2 and liver AdipoR1/R2 expression, and a profound change in the arcuate nucleus astrocytic organization. In female offspring, the most striking impact of maternal HF diet is the reduced hypothalamic expression of NPY and POMC. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: HF diet given during gestation and lactation protects, at least partially, offspring from excessive weight gain through several mechanisms depending upon gender including changes in arcuate nucleus astrocytic organization and increased hypothalamic UCP-2 and liver AdipoR1/2 expression in males and reduced hypothalamic expression of NPY and POMC in females. Taken together our results reveal new mechanisms involved in

  20. Suicide and mental illness in parents and risk of suicide in offspring: a birth cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Wang, August G

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A family history of completed suicide and psychiatric illness has been identified as risk factors for suicide. AIMS: To examine the risk of offspring suicide in relation to parental history of suicide and other parental risk factors. METHOD: The study population consisted of 7,177 adult...... offspring born 1959-1961 and their parents from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort. Cohort members and their parents who had committed suicide were identified in the Danish Causes of Death Registry (follow-up until December 31, 2005), while information on psychiatric hospitalisation history was obtained from...... the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register. RESULTS: Forty-eight cohort members, 77 mothers and 133 fathers had committed suicide during the follow-up. Independent of parental psychiatric illness and social status, parental suicide significantly increased suicide risk in offspring (hazard ratio 4...

  1. Flaxseed supplementation of rats during lactation changes the adiposity and glucose homeostasis of their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Mariana Sarto; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar; Lisboa, Patrícia Cristina; Troina, Aline Andrade; Trevenzoli, Isis Haras; Oliveira, Elaine; Boaventura, Gilson Teles; da Fonseca Passos, Magna Cottini

    2009-08-26

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effects of maternal dietary flaxseed during lactation on endocrine and metabolic factors in the adult offspring. Lactating rats were divided into: (1) Controls (C), diet containing 20% casein; (2) Flaxseed (F), diet with additional 25% of flaxseed, containing 18.9% protein (13.9% from casein and 5% from flaxseed). The treatment started at birth, day 0 (d0) of lactation, and ended at weaning (d21). After weaning, all pups received a standard laboratory diet until 180 days old. Only male offspring were studied and were sacrificed at 21 or 180 days of age. Body composition was evaluated by carcass analysis. Offspring from F mothers had higher body mass since lactation until adulthood. At 21 days old, they presented lower total and subcutaneous fat mass, higher leptinemia, lower total cholesterol, lower triacylglycerol and lower insulinemia (padulthood, could indicate an increased risk for later development of diabetes mellitus.

  2. The impact of maternal obesity on inflammatory processes and consequences for later offspring health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segovia, S A; Vickers, M H; Reynolds, C M

    2017-10-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic, affecting both developed and developing countries. The related metabolic consequences that arise from being overweight or obese are a paramount global health concern, and represent a significant burden on healthcare systems. Furthermore, being overweight or obese during pregnancy increases the risk of offspring developing obesity and other related metabolic complications in later life, which can therefore perpetuate a transgenerational cycle of obesity. Obesity is associated with a chronic state of low-grade metabolic inflammation. However, the role of maternal obesity-mediated alterations in inflammatory processes as a mechanism underpinning developmental programming in offspring is less understood. Further, the use of anti-inflammatory agents as an intervention strategy to ameliorate or reverse the impact of adverse developmental programming in the setting of maternal obesity has not been well studied. This review will discuss the impact of maternal obesity on key inflammatory pathways, impact on pregnancy and offspring outcomes, potential mechanisms and avenues for intervention.

  3. Suicide and mental illness in parents and risk of suicide in offspring: a birth cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Wang, August G

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A family history of completed suicide and psychiatric illness has been identified as risk factors for suicide. AIMS: To examine the risk of offspring suicide in relation to parental history of suicide and other parental risk factors. METHOD: The study population consisted of 7,177 adult...... the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register. RESULTS: Forty-eight cohort members, 77 mothers and 133 fathers had committed suicide during the follow-up. Independent of parental psychiatric illness and social status, parental suicide significantly increased suicide risk in offspring (hazard ratio 4...

  4. Child neglect and oral health problems in offspring of substance-abusing fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzich, Ada C; Bretz, Walter A; Day, Bang-Shiuh; Corby, Patricia M; Kirisci, Levent; Swaney, Michelle; Cornelius, Jack R; Weyant, Robert J

    2007-01-01

    This study examined (1) orodental (OD) problems in 10-19-year-old children of substance use disorder (SUD) (n = 127) and non-SUD fathers (n = 111) and (2) the moderating effect of child's substance use (SU) involvement in the associations of paternal SUD and neglectful parenting with OD problems in the offspring. The results showed that periodontal problems differentiated between groups and the interactions between child's SU involvement and paternal SUD and neglectful parenting were respectively associated with hard/soft tissue lesions and carious lesions in the offspring, indicating that SU involvement increases risk for OD due to paternal SUD and neglectful parenting.

  5. Acute kidney injury and progression of renal failure after fetal programming in the offspring of diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Rosana R M; Pucci, Karla R M; Rocha, Laura P; Pereira Júnior, Carlos D; Helmo, Fernanda R; Machado, Juliana R; Rocha, Lenaldo B; Rodrigues, Aldo R A; Glória, Maria A; Guimarães, Camila S O; Câmara, Niels O S; Reis, Marlene A

    2015-03-01

    Diseases of adulthood, such as diabetes and hypertension, may be related to changes during pregnancy, particularly in kidney. We hypothesized that acute kidney injury progresses more rapidly in cases of fetal programming. Diabetic dams' offspring were divided into: CC (controls, receiving vehicle); DC (diabetics, receiving vehicle); CA (controls receiving folic Acid solution, 250 mg/kg); and DA (diabetics receiving folic acid solution). Renal function tests, morphometry, gene, and protein expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers were analyzed by qPCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Creatinine, urea, Bowman's space, and EMT markers were increased in CA and DA groups. TGF-β3, actin, and fibronectin expression was higher in CA and DA, with significant increase in DA compared to CA 2-mo offspring. There was higher expression level of TGF-β1, TGF-β3, fibronectin, and vimentin in the offspring of diabetic dams at 5 mo. Increases in TGF-β1 and TGF-β3 were more evident in the offspring of diabetic dams. Fetal programming promotes remarkable changes in kidney morphology, and function in offspring and renal failure progression may be faster in younger offspring of diabetic dams subjected to an additional injury.

  6. Maternal exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate exposure deregulates blood pressure, adiposity, cholesterol metabolism and social interaction in mouse offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kuan-I; Chiang, Chin-Wei; Lin, Hui-Ching; Zhao, Jin-Feng; Li, Cheng-Ta; Shyue, Song-Kun; Lee, Tzong-Shyuan

    2016-05-01

    Long-term exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is highly associated with carcinogenicity, fetotoxicity, psychological disorders and metabolic diseases, but the detrimental effects and mechanisms are not fully understood. We investigated the effect of exposing mouse mothers to DEHP, and the underlying mechanism, on blood pressure, obesity and cholesterol metabolism as well as psychological and learning behaviors in offspring. Tail-cuff plethysmography was used for blood pressure measurement; Western blot used was for phosphorylation and expression of protein; hematoxylin and eosin staining, Nissl staining and Golgi staining were used for histological examination. The serum levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose were measured by blood biochemical analysis. Hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride levels were assessed by colorimetric assay kits. Offspring behaviors were evaluated by open-field activity, elevated plus maze, social preference test and Morris water maze. Maternal DEHP exposure deregulated the phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and upregulated angiotensin type 1 receptor in offspring, which led to increased blood pressure. It led to obesity in offspring by increasing the size of adipocytes in white adipose tissue and number of adipocytes in brown adipose tissue. It increased the serum level of cholesterol in offspring by decreasing the hepatic capacity for cholesterol clearance. The impaired social interaction ability induced by maternal DEHP exposure might be due to abnormal neuronal development. Collectively, our findings provide new evidence that maternal exposure to DEHP has a lasting effect on the physiological functions of the vascular system, adipose tissue and nerve system in offspring.

  7. Antenatal hypoxia induces programming of reduced arterial blood pressure response in female rat offspring: role of ovarian function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DaLiao Xiao

    Full Text Available In utero exposure to adverse environmental factors increases the risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. The present study tested the hypothesis that antenatal hypoxia causes a gender-dependent programming of altered arterial blood pressure response (BP in adult offspring. Time-dated pregnant rats were divided into normoxic and hypoxic (10.5% O2 from days 15 to 21 of gestation groups. The experiments were conducted in adult offspring. Antenatal hypoxia caused intrauterine growth restriction, and resulted in a gender-dependent increase Angiotensin II (Ang II-induced BP response in male offspring, but significant decrease in BP response in female offspring. The baroreflex sensitivity was not significantly altered. Consistent with the reduced blood pressure response, antenatal hypoxia significantly decreased Ang II-induced arterial vasoconstriction in female offspring. Ovariectomy had no significant effect in control animals, but significantly increased Ang II-induced maximal BP response in prenatally hypoxic animals and eliminated the difference of BP response between the two groups. Estrogen replacement in ovariectomized animals significantly decreased the BP response to angiotensin II I only in control, but not in hypoxic animals. The result suggests complex programming mechanisms of antenatal hypoxia in regulation of ovary function. Hypoxia-mediated ovary dysfunction results in the phenotype of reduced vascular contractility and BP response in female adult offspring.

  8. Why offspring in nonhuman families differ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Scott

    2013-07-18

    Offspring within families, both human and nonhuman, often differ. The obvious question is: Why? Work on psychological differences on children within human families has focused primarily on differences in the nonshared environment of contemporary siblings, though the precise location of this nonshared environment is still the subject of much debate. Here I explore the range of explanations for within-brood diversity from the perspective of nonhuman families, particularly birds that share certain key features with human families. I examine the role of social rank in creating a nonshared environment within the family, and present data from a model system (an altricial bird) to illustrate how different the effective environments experienced by offspring sitting side-by-side in the same confined physical space, tended by the same parents, and experiencing similar ecological variability, can be. These broodmates can effectively live in different worlds. I then briefly explore other sources of diversity among offspring in nonhuman families, including within brood genetic differences and non-genetic maternal (parental) effects that often covary with birth / hatching rank. Given the ubiquity and far-reaching consequences of maternal effects in nonhuman families, and some human data suggestive of similar patterns, it would seem worthwhile to explore the potential role of maternal effects in creating phenotypic diversity in psychological traits among children in human families.

  9. Why Offspring in Nonhuman Families Differ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Forbes

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Offspring within families, both human and nonhuman, often differ. The obvious question is: Why? Work on psychological differences on children within human families has focused primarily on differences in the nonshared environment of contemporary siblings, though the precise location of this nonshared environment is still the subject of much debate. Here I explore the range of explanations for within-brood diversity from the perspective of nonhuman families, particularly birds that share certain key features with human families. I examine the role of social rank in creating a nonshared environment within the family, and present data from a model system (an altricial bird to illustrate how different the effective environments experienced by offspring sitting side-by-side in the same confined physical space, tended by the same parents, and experiencing similar ecological variability, can be. These broodmates can effectively live in different worlds. I then briefly explore other sources of diversity among offspring in nonhuman families, including within brood genetic differences and non-genetic maternal (parental effects that often covary with birth / hatching rank. Given the ubiquity and far-reaching consequences of maternal effects in nonhuman families, and some human data suggestive of similar patterns, it would seem worthwhile to explore the potential role of maternal effects in creating phenotypic diversity in psychological traits among children in human families.

  10. A Maternal “Junk Food” Diet in Pregnancy and Lactation Promotes Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Rat Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayol, Stéphanie A.; Simbi, Bigboy H.; Fowkes, Robert C.; Stickland, Neil C.

    2010-01-01

    With rising obesity rates, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is predicted to become the main cause of chronic liver disease in the next decades. Rising obesity prevalence is attributed to changes in dietary habits with increased consumption of palatable junk foods, but maternal malnutrition also contributes to obesity in progeny. This study examines whether a maternal junk food diet predisposes offspring to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The 144 rat offspring were fed either a balanced chow diet alone or with palatable junk foods rich in energy, fat, sugar, and/or salt during gestation, lactation, and/or after weaning up to the end of adolescence. Offspring fed junk food throughout the study exhibited exacerbated hepatic steatosis, hepatocyte ballooning, and oxidative stress response compared with offspring given free access to junk food after weaning only. These offspring also displayed sex differences in their hepatic molecular metabolic adaptation to diet-induced obesity with increased expression of genes associated with insulin sensitivity, de novo lipogenesis, lipid oxidation, and antiinflammatory properties in males, whereas the gene expression profile in females was indicative of hepatic insulin resistance. Hepatic inflammation and fibrosis were not detected indicating that offspring had not developed severe steatohepatitis by the end of adolescence. Hepatic steatosis and increased oxidative stress response also occurred in offspring born to junk food-fed mothers switched to a balanced chow diet from weaning, highlighting a degree of irreversibility. This study shows that a maternal junk food diet in pregnancy and lactation contributes to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in offspring. PMID:20207831

  11. A maternal "junk food" diet in pregnancy and lactation promotes nonalcoholic Fatty liver disease in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayol, Stéphanie A; Simbi, Bigboy H; Fowkes, Robert C; Stickland, Neil C

    2010-04-01

    With rising obesity rates, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is predicted to become the main cause of chronic liver disease in the next decades. Rising obesity prevalence is attributed to changes in dietary habits with increased consumption of palatable junk foods, but maternal malnutrition also contributes to obesity in progeny. This study examines whether a maternal junk food diet predisposes offspring to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The 144 rat offspring were fed either a balanced chow diet alone or with palatable junk foods rich in energy, fat, sugar, and/or salt during gestation, lactation, and/or after weaning up to the end of adolescence. Offspring fed junk food throughout the study exhibited exacerbated hepatic steatosis, hepatocyte ballooning, and oxidative stress response compared with offspring given free access to junk food after weaning only. These offspring also displayed sex differences in their hepatic molecular metabolic adaptation to diet-induced obesity with increased expression of genes associated with insulin sensitivity, de novo lipogenesis, lipid oxidation, and antiinflammatory properties in males, whereas the gene expression profile in females was indicative of hepatic insulin resistance. Hepatic inflammation and fibrosis were not detected indicating that offspring had not developed severe steatohepatitis by the end of adolescence. Hepatic steatosis and increased oxidative stress response also occurred in offspring born to junk food-fed mothers switched to a balanced chow diet from weaning, highlighting a degree of irreversibility. This study shows that a maternal junk food diet in pregnancy and lactation contributes to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in offspring.

  12. Host gender and offspring quality in a flea parasitic on a rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhlova, Irina S; Serobyan, Vahan; Degen, A Allan; Krasnov, Boris R

    2010-10-01

    The quality of offspring produced by parent fleas (Xenopsylla ramesis) fed on either male or female rodent hosts (Meriones crassus) was studied. The emergence success, duration of development, resistance to starvation upon emergence and body size of the flea offspring were measured. It was predicted that offspring of fleas produced by parents that fed on male hosts (i) will survive better as pre-imago, (ii) will develop faster, (iii) will live longer under starvation after emergence and (iv) will be larger than offspring of fleas fed on female hosts. The emergence success of pre-imaginal fleas was relatively high, ranging from 46.9% to 100.0% and averaging 78.4±3.0%, and was not affected by host gender. The duration of development of pre-imaginal fleas depended on the gender of the host of parents and differed between male and female offspring, with female fleas developing faster. Furthermore, male fleas developed faster if their parents fed on female rather than on male hosts, whereas no difference in the duration of development between host genders was found in female fleas. The time to death under starvation did not depend on the gender of either the flea or the host. A newly emerged flea, on average, lived 31.9±1.0 days without access to food. The relationship between host gender and body size of male flea offspring was the only effect that supported the predictions. An increase in body size in male fleas could increase their mating success and, ultimately, their fitness.

  13. Association Between Maternal Depressogenic Cognitive Style During Pregnancy and Offspring Cognitive Style 18 Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernyhough, Charles; Bentall, Richard; Evans, Jonathan; Heron, Jon; Joinson, Carol; Stein, Alan L.; Lewis, Glyn

    2013-01-01

    Objective Understanding the origins of negative cognitive style could provide a means to prevent adult depression. Cognitive style is an important target for intervention because although it is not possible to remove the stress and adversities in people’s lives, it may be possible to modify interpretation of such adversities through cognitive style. Children may develop a negative cognitive style through modeling the style of their mothers. However, findings have been inconsistent on the association. The authors tested the hypothesis that there is an independent association between maternal and offspring depressogenic cognitive style. Method Data from over 4,000 mothers and children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort study in the United Kingdom were used to investigate the association between maternal depressogenic cognitive style before the offspring’s birth and the offspring’s depressogenic cognitive style at age 18. Results A positive association was observed between maternal and offspring cognitive styles: a one-standard-deviation increase in maternal depressogenic cognitive style score during pregnancy was significantly associated with a mean increase of 0.1 standard deviations in offspring depressogenic cognitive style score at age 18. This effect remained after adjusting for maternal and offspring depression and explained 21% of the association between maternal and offspring depression. Conclusions Although the mechanisms remain to be elucidated, the findings are consistent with the idea that a mother’s cognitive style (irrespective of her depression status) influences that of her child. This suggests that interventions to improve a mother’s cognitive style could help prevent her offspring from developing depression during adulthood. PMID:23318526

  14. Prenatal nicotine exposure induces poor articular cartilage quality in female adult offspring fed a high-fat diet and the intrauterine programming mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tie, Kai; Tan, Yang; Deng, Yu; Li, Jing; Ni, Qubo; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2016-04-01

    Prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) induces skeletal growth retardation and dyslipidemia in offspring displaying intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Cholesterol accumulation resulting from cholesterol efflux dysfunction may reduce the quality of articular cartilage through fetal programming. This study evaluated the quality of articular cartilage of female adult offspring fed a high-fat diet and explored the mechanisms using a rat IUGR model established by the administration of 2.0mg/kg/d of subcutaneous nicotine from gestational days 11-20. The results demonstrated an increased OARSI (Osteoarthritis Research Society International) score and total cholesterol content, decreased serum corticosterone, and increased IGF1 and dyslipidemia with catch-up growth in PNE adult offspring. Cartilage matrix, IGF1 and cholesterol efflux pathway expression were reduced in PNE fetuses and adult offspring. Therefore, PNE induced poor articular cartilage quality in female adult offspring fed a high-fat diet via a dual programming mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Parents bereaved by offspring suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolton, James M; Au, Wendy; Leslie, William D

    2013-01-01

    OUTCOME MEASURES Mental and physical disorders, social factors, and treatment use. RESULTS Suicide bereavement was associated with an increased rate of depression (ARR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.88-2.43), anxiety disorders (ARR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.24-1.60), and marital breakup (ARR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.13-1.23) in the 2...... (15.9%; P = .005), whereas suicide-bereaved parents had higher rate increases of hospitalization for mental illness (P = .049). Suicide-bereaved parents were more likely than their MVC-bereaved counterparts to have depression (ARR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.06-1.61), physical disorders (ARR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1...... Population-based case-control study. Suicide-bereaved parents were compared with nonbereaved matched control parents in the general population (n = 1415) and with MVC-bereaved parents (n = 1132) on the rates of physician-diagnosed mental and physical disorders, social factors, and treatment use in the 2...

  16. The Effect of Neonatal Leptin Antagonism in Male Rat Offspring Is Dependent upon the Interaction between Prior Maternal Nutritional Status and Post-Weaning Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Beltrand

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and experimental studies report associations between overweight mothers and increased obesity risk in offspring. It is unclear whether neonatal leptin regulation mediates this association between overweight mothers and offspring obesity. We investigated the effect of neonatal treatment with a leptin antagonist (LA on growth and metabolism in offspring of mothers fed either a control or a high fat diet. Wistar rats were fed either a control (CON or a high fat diet (MHF during pregnancy and lactation. Male CON and MHF neonates received either saline (S or a rat-specific pegylated LA on days 3, 5, and 7. Offspring were weaned onto either a control or a high fat (hf diet. At day 100, body composition, blood glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate and plasma leptin and insulin were determined. In CON and MHF offspring, LA increased neonatal bodyweights compared to saline-treated offspring and was more pronounced in MHF offspring. In the post-weaning period, neonatal LA treatment decreased hf diet-induced weight gain but only in CON offspring. LA treatment induced changes in body length, fat mass, body temperature, and bone composition. Neonatal LA treatment can therefore exert effects on growth and metabolism in adulthood but is dependent upon interactions between maternal and post-weaning nutrition.

  17. Serotonin and dopamine in the hypothalamus of control and malnourished mother rats during pregnancy and lactation and body composition of their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjarrez-Gutiérrez, Gabriel; González-Ramírez, Misael; Boyzo-Montes de Oca, Alfonso; Herrera-Márquez, Rocío; Hernández-Rodríguez, Jorge

    2013-09-01

    To determine concentrations of serotonin and dopamine in the hypothalamus of undernourished rats and controls during pregnancy and lactation and body composition of their offspring. Malnourished rats along with control rats were used during pregnancy and lactation. At birth of their offspring, control mothers nursed their young and malnourished rats and the undernourished mothers nursed their offspring and control pups. On days 5, 10, 15, and 21 of lactation (at the beginning and end of a feeding), L-tryptophan (L-Trp)-free, bound and total, plasma prolactin (PRL) and milk composition were determined. Serotonin and dopamine were measured in the hypothalamus. Body composition of offspring was determined. Increase of free L-Trp was confirmed in undernourished mothers. Furthermore, hypothalamic serotonin was elevated at the start of suckling and decreased at termination. There was also a decrease in dopamine in the hypothalamus at the beginning and end of suckling followed by an increase of plasma PRL that was greater in control mothers who breastfed malnourished offspring. Interestingly, undernourished offspring consumed more milk and showed a clear recovery of body composition with accumulation of body fat. Changes observed in hypothalamic neurotransmitters appear to be closely related to nutritional status and to the response and control of PRL production, possibly to adapt the offspring to the metabolic changes. It was also confirmed that on-demand feeding of undernourished offspring is the main factor involved in nutritional recovery and a predisposition to overweight in the recovered undernourished animals.

  18. Protein intake during pregnancy and offspring body composition at 6 years: the Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Tielemans (Myrte); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); R.G. Voortman (Trudy); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); O.H. Franco (Oscar); J.C. Kiefte-de Jong (Jessica)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Intra-uterine exposure to protein may affect body composition and may increase the prevalence of childhood adiposity. Therefore, we examined whether protein intake during pregnancy is associated with offspring body composition at the age of 6 years and whether associations

  19. Perinatal exposure to the fungicide prochloraz feminizes the male rat offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinggaard, Anne; Christiansen, Sofie; Laier, Peter

    2005-01-01

    . Behavioral studies showed that the activity level and sweet preference of adult males were significantly increased. Overall these results strongly indicate that prochloraz feminizes the male offspring after perinatal exposure, and that these effects are due, at least in part, to diminished fetal...

  20. Maternal Antenatal Bereavement and Neural Tube Defect in Live-Born Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingstrup, Katja Glejsted; Wu, Chunsen; Olsen, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    -up, 1,115 children were diagnosed with any NTDs: spina bifida (n = 889), anencephaly (n = 85) and encephalocele (n = 164). And 23 children were diagnosed with two types of NTDs. Overall, when comparing bereaved mothers to non-bereaved mothers, no significant increased prevalence of NTDs in the offspring...

  1. Maternal overweight before pregnancy and asthma in offspring followed for 8 years.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, S.; Wijga, A.H.; Brunekreef, B.; Kerkhof, M.; Postma, D.S.; Oldenwening, M.; de Jongste, J.C.; Smit, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between maternal overweight before pregnancy and offspring asthma in an ongoing birth cohort study. Maternal overweight may affect the pulmonary and immunological development of the fetus in utero because of the increased levels of

  2. Maternal overweight before pregnancy and asthma in offspring followed for 8 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, S.; Wijga, A. H.; Brunekreef, B.; Kerkhof, M.; Postma, D. S.; Oldenwening, M.; de Jongste, J. C.; Smit, H. A.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between maternal overweight before pregnancy and offspring asthma in an ongoing birth cohort study. Maternal overweight may affect the pulmonary and immunological development of the fetus in utero because of the increased levels of

  3. Birth seasonality and offspring production in threatened neotropical primates related to climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederholt, R.; Post, E.

    2011-01-01

    Given the threatened status of many primate species, the impacts of global warming on primate reproduction and, consequently, population growth should be of concern. We examined relations between climatic variability and birth seasonality, offspring production, and infant sex ratios in two ateline primates, northern muriquis, and woolly monkeys. In both species, the annual birth season was delayed by dry conditions and El Ni??o years, and delayed birth seasons were linked to lower birth rates. Additionally, increased mean annual temperatures were associated with lower birth rates for northern muriquis. Offspring sex ratios varied with climatic conditions in both species, but in different ways: directly in woolly monkeys and indirectly in northern muriquis. Woolly monkeys displayed an increase in the proportion of males among offspring in association with El Ni??o events, whereas in northern muriquis, increases in the proportion of males among offspring were associated with delayed onset of the birth season, which itself was related, although weakly, to warm, dry conditions. These results illustrate that global warming, increased drought frequency, and changes in the frequency of El Ni??o events could limit primate reproductive output, threatening the persistence and recovery of ateline primate populations. ?? 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Litter size reduction accentuates maternal care and alters behavioral and physiological phenotypes in rat adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enes-Marques, Silvia; Giusti-Paiva, Alexandre

    2018-01-27

    Maternal behavior has a substantial impact on the behavioral, endocrine, and neural development of the pups. This study investigated the effect of altering the neonatal nutritional environment by modifying the litter size on maternal care and anxiety- and fear-like behaviors in rats during adulthood. On postnatal day (PND) 2, litters were adjusted to a small litter (SL) size of three pups per dam or normal litter (NL) size of 12 pups per dam. Maternal behaviors were scored daily during lactation (PND2-21). The weight gain, food intake, adiposity, and biochemical landmarks of offspring rats were evaluated. On PND60, performances in the open field, elevated plus-maze (EPM), and fear conditioning test were measured. The reduction of the litter size enhanced maternal care in lactating rats, increasing the arched-back posture and licking pups. SL offspring exhibited accelerated weight gain, hyperphagia, increased visceral fat mass, dyslipidemia, and hyperleptinemia in adulthood. The SL offspring of both sexes showed an increase in the anti-thigmotactic effect in the open field, an intact anxious-phenotype in the EPM, and a decrease in the time spent freezing during the fear-conditioning test, compared to NL. The neonatal environment as determined by litter size plays a crucial role in programming the adult metabolic phenotype as well as behavioral responses to stressful stimuli, with an impact on anxiety-like and fear behaviors. These behavioral changes in offspring may be, at least in part, a result of increased maternal care.

  5. Advanced Paternal Age and Risk of Musculoskeletal Congenital Anomalies in Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urhøj, Stine Kjær; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Previous research suggests that advanced paternal age increases the risk of musculoskeletal congenitalanomalies (CAs) in offspring, but findings are inconsistent. This study aims to investigate the risk of musculoskeletal CAsaccording to paternal age at birth in an unselected population...

  6. Maternal high-fat diet affects Msi/Notch/Hes signaling in neural stem cells of offspring mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Min; Jiang, Mingyue; Yang, Chunbo; Wu, Yixiang; Liu, Yongzhe; Cui, Yujie; Huang, Guowei

    2014-02-01

    Numerous research have begun to reveal the importance of maternal nutrition in offspring brain development. Particularly, the maternal obesity or exposure to high-fat diet has been strongly suggested to exert irreversible impact on the structure and function of offspring's brain. However, it remains obscure about whether neonatal neural stem cells (NSCs) in offspring's brain are susceptible to maternal exposure to high-fat diet. Here we focused on the alternation in the Notch signaling in NSCs derived from neonatal mice, which had been given birth by female mice with a high-fat diet and found that, in fact, the high-fat diet administration imposed effects on not only maternal mice, indicated by the accumulation of viscera fat as well as the increase in body weight and serum total cholesterol, but also NSCs in the offspring's brain, where significant increase was observed in the expression of genes, either downstream of Notch signaling or regulating this pathway, which have been shown essential for the maturation of NSCs. Therefore, our data provided the first evidence for the potential effect of maternal exposure to the high-fat diet on the Notch signaling pathway in offspring's NSCs, indicating this altered signaling response might contribute to a profound change in offspring's brains as a result of maternal high-fat diet prior to and during gestation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Gestational Protein Restriction Impairs Insulin-Regulated Glucose Transport Mechanisms in Gastrocnemius Muscles of Adult Male Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blesson, Chellakkan S.; Sathishkumar, Kunju; Chinnathambi, Vijayakumar

    2014-01-01

    Type II diabetes originates from various genetic and environmental factors. Recent studies showed that an adverse uterine environment such as that caused by a gestational low-protein (LP) diet can cause insulin resistance in adult offspring. The mechanism of insulin resistance induced by gestational protein restriction is not clearly understood. Our aim was to investigate the role of insulin signaling molecules in gastrocnemius muscles of gestational LP diet–exposed male offspring to understand their role in LP-induced insulin resistance. Pregnant Wistar rats were fed a control (20% protein) or isocaloric LP (6%) diet from gestational day 4 until delivery and a normal diet after weaning. Only male offspring were used in this study. Glucose and insulin responses were assessed after a glucose tolerance test. mRNA and protein levels of molecules involved in insulin signaling were assessed at 4 months in gastrocnemius muscles. Muscles were incubated ex vivo with insulin to evaluate insulin-induced phosphorylation of insulin receptor (IR), Insulin receptor substrate-1, Akt, and AS160. LP diet-fed rats gained less weight than controls during pregnancy. Male pups from LP diet–fed mothers were smaller but exhibited catch-up growth. Plasma glucose and insulin levels were elevated in LP offspring when subjected to a glucose tolerance test; however, fasting levels were comparable. LP offspring showed increased expression of IR and AS160 in gastrocnemius muscles. Ex vivo treatment of muscles with insulin showed increased phosphorylation of IR (Tyr972) in controls, but LP rats showed higher basal phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of Insulin receptor substrate-1 (Tyr608, Tyr895, Ser307, and Ser318) and AS160 (Thr642) were defective in LP offspring. Further, glucose transporter type 4 translocation in LP offspring was also impaired. A gestational LP diet leads to insulin resistance in adult offspring by a mechanism involving inefficient insulin-induced IR, Insulin receptor

  8. Gestational protein restriction impairs insulin-regulated glucose transport mechanisms in gastrocnemius muscles of adult male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blesson, Chellakkan S; Sathishkumar, Kunju; Chinnathambi, Vijayakumar; Yallampalli, Chandrasekhar

    2014-08-01

    Type II diabetes originates from various genetic and environmental factors. Recent studies showed that an adverse uterine environment such as that caused by a gestational low-protein (LP) diet can cause insulin resistance in adult offspring. The mechanism of insulin resistance induced by gestational protein restriction is not clearly understood. Our aim was to investigate the role of insulin signaling molecules in gastrocnemius muscles of gestational LP diet-exposed male offspring to understand their role in LP-induced insulin resistance. Pregnant Wistar rats were fed a control (20% protein) or isocaloric LP (6%) diet from gestational day 4 until delivery and a normal diet after weaning. Only male offspring were used in this study. Glucose and insulin responses were assessed after a glucose tolerance test. mRNA and protein levels of molecules involved in insulin signaling were assessed at 4 months in gastrocnemius muscles. Muscles were incubated ex vivo with insulin to evaluate insulin-induced phosphorylation of insulin receptor (IR), Insulin receptor substrate-1, Akt, and AS160. LP diet-fed rats gained less weight than controls during pregnancy. Male pups from LP diet-fed mothers were smaller but exhibited catch-up growth. Plasma glucose and insulin levels were elevated in LP offspring when subjected to a glucose tolerance test; however, fasting levels were comparable. LP offspring showed increased expression of IR and AS160 in gastrocnemius muscles. Ex vivo treatment of muscles with insulin showed increased phosphorylation of IR (Tyr972) in controls, but LP rats showed higher basal phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of Insulin receptor substrate-1 (Tyr608, Tyr895, Ser307, and Ser318) and AS160 (Thr642) were defective in LP offspring. Further, glucose transporter type 4 translocation in LP offspring was also impaired. A gestational LP diet leads to insulin resistance in adult offspring by a mechanism involving inefficient insulin-induced IR, Insulin receptor

  9. Impaired sperm quality, delayed mating but no costs for offspring fitness in crickets winning a fight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuni, C; Perdigón Ferreira, J; Fritz, Y; Munoz Meneses, A; Gasparini, C

    2016-08-01

    The outcome of male-male contest competition is known to affect male mating success and is believed to confer fitness benefits to females through preference for dominant males. However, by mating with contest winners, females can incur significant costs spanning from decreased fecundity to negative effects on offspring. Hence, identifying costs and benefits of male dominance on female fitness is crucial to unravel the potential for a conflict of interests between the sexes. Here, we investigated males' pre- and post-copulatory reproductive investment and its effect on female fitness after a single contest a using the field cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. We allowed males to fight and immediately measured their mating behaviour, sperm quality and offspring viability. We found that males experiencing a fight, independently of the outcome, delayed matings, but their courtship effort was not affected. However, winners produced sperm of lower quality (viability) compared to losers and to males that did not experience fighting. Results suggest a trade-off in resource allocation between pre- and post-mating episodes of sexual selection. Despite lower ejaculate quality, we found no fitness costs (fecundity and viability of offspring) for females mated to winners. Overall, our findings highlight the importance of considering fighting ability when assessing male reproductive success, as winners may be impaired in their competitiveness at a post-mating level. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  10. A short-term transition from a high-fat diet to a normal-fat diet before pregnancy exacerbates female mouse offspring obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Q; Olson, P; Rasmussen, D; Keith, B; Williamson, M; Zhang, KK; Xie, L

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Recent findings have highlighted the detrimental influence of maternal overnutrition and obesity on fetal development and early life development. However, there are no evidence-based guidelines regarding the optimal strategy for dietary intervention before pregnancy. SUBJECTS/METHODS We used a murine model to study whether switching from a high-fat (HF) diet to a normal-fat (NF) diet (H1N group) 1 week before pregnancy could lead to in utero reprogramming of female offspring obesity; comparator groups were offspring given a consistent maternal HF group or NF group until weaning. After weaning, all female offspring were given the HF diet for either 9 or 12 weeks before being killed humanely. RESULTS H1N treatment did not result in maternal weight loss before pregnancy. NF offsprings were neither obese nor glucose intolerant during the entire experimental period. H1N offsprings were most obese after the 12-week postweaning HF diet and displayed glucose intolerance earlier than HF offsprings. Our mechanistic study showed reduced adipocyte insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and hepatic IRS2 expression and increased adipocyte p-Ser636/639 and p-Ser612 of H1N or HF offspring compared with that in the NF offspring. Among all groups, the H1N offspring had lowest level of IRS1 and the highest levels of p-Ser636/639 and p-Ser612 in gonadal adipocyte. In addition, the H1N offspring further reduced the expression of Glut4 and Glut2, vs those of the HF offspring, which was lower compared with the NF offspring. There were also enhanced expression of genes inhibiting glycogenesis and decreased hepatic glycogen in H1N vs HF or NF offspring. Furthermore, we showed extremely higher expression of lipogenesis and adipogenesis genes in gonadal adipocytes of H1N offspring compared with all other groups. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that a transition from an HF diet to an NF diet shortly before pregnancy, without resulting in maternal weight loss, is not

  11. Maternal melatonin programs the daily pattern of energy metabolism in adult offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo S Ferreira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Shift work was recently described as a factor that increases the risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition, rats born to mothers subjected to a phase shift throughout pregnancy are glucose intolerant. However, the mechanism by which a phase shift transmits metabolic information to the offspring has not been determined. Among several endocrine secretions, phase shifts in the light/dark cycle were described as altering the circadian profile of melatonin production by the pineal gland. The present study addresses the importance of maternal melatonin for the metabolic programming of the offspring. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Female Wistar rats were submitted to SHAM surgery or pinealectomy (PINX. The PINX rats were divided into two groups and received either melatonin (PM or vehicle. The SHAM, the PINX vehicle and the PM females were housed with male Wistar rats. Rats were allowed to mate and after weaning, the male and female offspring were subjected to a glucose tolerance test (GTT, a pyruvate tolerance test (PTT and an insulin tolerance test (ITT. Pancreatic islets were isolated for insulin secretion, and insulin signaling was assessed in the liver and in the skeletal muscle by western blots. We found that male and female rats born to PINX mothers display glucose intolerance at the end of the light phase of the light/dark cycle, but not at the beginning. We further demonstrate that impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and hepatic insulin resistance are mechanisms that may contribute to glucose intolerance in the offspring of PINX mothers. The metabolic programming described here occurs due to an absence of maternal melatonin because the offspring born to PINX mothers treated with melatonin were not glucose intolerant. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present results support the novel concept that maternal melatonin is responsible for the programming of the daily pattern of energy metabolism in their offspring.

  12. The Influence of Parental Psychopathology on Offspring Suicidal Behavior across the Lifespan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geilson Lima Santana

    Full Text Available Suicide tends to occur in families, and parental psychopathology has been linked to offspring suicidal behaviors. This study explores the influence of parental mental disorders across the lifespan. Data are from the Sao Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey, a cross-sectional household study with a representative sample of the adult population living in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area, Brazil (N=2,942. Survival models examined bivariate and multivariate associations between a range of parental disorders and offspring suicidality. After controlling for comorbidity, number of mental disorders and offspring psychopathology, we found that parental psychopathology influences suicidal behaviors throughout most part of the life cycle, from childhood until young adult years. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD and antisocial personality were associated with offspring suicidal ideation (OR 1.8 and 1.9, respectively, panic and GAD predicted suicidal attempts (OR 2.3 and 2.7, respectively, and panic was related to the transition from ideation to attempts (OR 2.7. Although noticed in many different stages of the lifespan, this influence is most evident during adolescence. In this period, depression and antisocial personality increased the odds of suicidal ideation (OR 5.1 and 3.2, respectively, and depression, panic disorder, GAD and substance abuse predicted suicidal attempts (OR varying from 1.7 to 3.8. In short, parental disorders characterized by impulsive-aggression and anxiety-agitation were the main predictors of offspring suicidality across the lifespan. This clinically relevant intergenerational transmission of suicide risk was independent of offspring mental disorders, and this underscores the need for a family approach to psychopathology.

  13. Transgenerational effects of maternal and grandmaternal age on offspring viability and performance in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch Qazi, Margaret C; Miller, Paige B; Poeschel, Penny M; Phan, Mai H; Thayer, Joseph L; Medrano, Christian L

    2017-07-01

    In non-social insects, fitness is determined by relative lifetime fertility. Fertility generally declines with age as a part of senescence. For females, senescence has profound effects on fitness by decreasing viability and fertility as well as those of her offspring. However, important aspects of these maternal effects, including the cause(s) of reduced offspring performance and carry-over effects of maternal age, are poorly understood. Drosophila melanogaster is a useful system for examining potential transgenerational effects of increasing maternal age, because of their use as a model system for studying the physiology and genetic architecture of both reproduction and senescence. To test the hypothesis that female senescence has transgenerational effects on offspring viability and development, we measured the effects of maternal age on offspring survival over two generations and under two larval densities in two laboratory strains of flies (Oregon-R and Canton-S). Transgenerational effects of maternal age influence embryonic viability and embryonic to adult viability in both strains. However, the generation causing the effects, and the magnitude and direction of those effects differed by genotype. The effects of maternal age on embryonic to adult viability when larvae are stressed was also genotype-specific. Maternal effects involve provisioning: older females produced smaller eggs and larger offspring. These results show that maternal age has profound, complex, and multigenerational consequences on several components of offspring fitness and traits. This study contributes to a body of work demonstrating that female age is an important condition affecting phenotypic variation and viability across multiple generations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Have superfetation and matrotrophy facilitated the evolution of larger offspring in poeciliid fishes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivera-Tlahuel, Claudia; Ossip-Klein, Alison G.; Espinosa-Pérez, Héctor S.; Zúñiga-Vega, J. Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Superfetation is the ability of females to simultaneously carry multiple broods of embryos, with each brood at a different developmental stage. Matrotrophy is the post-fertilization maternal provisioning of nutrients to developing embryos throughout gestation. Several studies have demonstrated that, in viviparous fishes, superfetation and matrotrophy have evolved in a correlated way, such that species capable of bearing several simultaneous broods also exhibit advanced degrees of post-fertilization provisioning. The adaptive value of the concurrent presence of both reproductive modes may be associated with the production of larger newborns, which in turn may result in enhanced offspring fitness. In this study, we tested two hypotheses: (1) species with superfetation and moderate or extensive matrotrophy give birth to larger offspring compared to species without superfetation or matrotrophy; (2) species with higher degrees of superfetation and matrotrophy (i.e. more simultaneous broods and increased amounts of post-fertilization provisioning) give birth to larger offspring compared to species with relatively low degrees of superfetation and matrotrophy (i.e. fewer simultaneous broods and lesser amounts of post-fertilization provisioning). Using different phylogenetic comparative methods and data on 44 species of viviparous fishes of the family Poeciliidae, we found a lack of association between offspring size and the combination of superfetation and matrotrophy. Therefore, the concurrent presence of superfetation and moderate or extensive matrotrophy has not facilitated the evolution of larger offspring. In fact, these traits have evolved differently. Superfetation and matrotrophy have accumulated gradual changes that largely can be explained by Brownian motion, whereas offspring size has evolved fluidly, experiencing changes that likely resulted from selective responses to the local conditions. PMID:26617418

  15. The Influence of Parental Psychopathology on Offspring Suicidal Behavior across the Lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Guilherme; Viana, Maria Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Suicide tends to occur in families, and parental psychopathology has been linked to offspring suicidal behaviors. This study explores the influence of parental mental disorders across the lifespan. Data are from the Sao Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey, a cross-sectional household study with a representative sample of the adult population living in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area, Brazil (N=2,942). Survival models examined bivariate and multivariate associations between a range of parental disorders and offspring suicidality. After controlling for comorbidity, number of mental disorders and offspring psychopathology, we found that parental psychopathology influences suicidal behaviors throughout most part of the life cycle, from childhood until young adult years. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and antisocial personality were associated with offspring suicidal ideation (OR 1.8 and 1.9, respectively), panic and GAD predicted suicidal attempts (OR 2.3 and 2.7, respectively), and panic was related to the transition from ideation to attempts (OR 2.7). Although noticed in many different stages of the lifespan, this influence is most evident during adolescence. In this period, depression and antisocial personality increased the odds of suicidal ideation (OR 5.1 and 3.2, respectively), and depression, panic disorder, GAD and substance abuse predicted suicidal attempts (OR varying from 1.7 to 3.8). In short, parental disorders characterized by impulsive-aggression and anxiety-agitation were the main predictors of offspring suicidality across the lifespan. This clinically relevant intergenerational transmission of suicide risk was independent of offspring mental disorders, and this underscores the need for a family approach to psychopathology. PMID:26230321

  16. Maternal Melatonin Programs the Daily Pattern of Energy Metabolism in Adult Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Danilo S.; Amaral, Fernanda G.; Mesquita, Caroline C.; Barbosa, Ana Paula L.; Lellis-Santos, Camilo; Turati, Ariane O.; Santos, Laila R.; Sollon, Carolina S.; Gomes, Patricia R.; Faria, Juliana A.; Cipolla-Neto, José; Bordin, Silvana; Anhê, Gabriel F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Shift work was recently described as a factor that increases the risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition, rats born to mothers subjected to a phase shift throughout pregnancy are glucose intolerant. However, the mechanism by which a phase shift transmits metabolic information to the offspring has not been determined. Among several endocrine secretions, phase shifts in the light/dark cycle were described as altering the circadian profile of melatonin production by the pineal gland. The present study addresses the importance of maternal melatonin for the metabolic programming of the offspring. Methodology/Principal Findings Female Wistar rats were submitted to SHAM surgery or pinealectomy (PINX). The PINX rats were divided into two groups and received either melatonin (PM) or vehicle. The SHAM, the PINX vehicle and the PM females were housed with male Wistar rats. Rats were allowed to mate and after weaning, the male and female offspring were subjected to a glucose tolerance test (GTT), a pyruvate tolerance test (PTT) and an insulin tolerance test (ITT). Pancreatic islets were isolated for insulin secretion, and insulin signaling was assessed in the liver and in the skeletal muscle by western blots. We found that male and female rats born to PINX mothers display glucose intolerance at the end of the light phase of the light/dark cycle, but not at the beginning. We further demonstrate that impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and hepatic insulin resistance are mechanisms that may contribute to glucose intolerance in the offspring of PINX mothers. The metabolic programming described here occurs due to an absence of maternal melatonin because the offspring born to PINX mothers treated with melatonin were not glucose intolerant. Conclusions/Significance The present results support the novel concept that maternal melatonin is responsible for the programming of the daily pattern of energy metabolism in their offspring. PMID:22719949

  17. To what extent have relaxed eligibility requirements and increased generosity of disability benefits acted as disincentives for employment? A systematic review of evidence from countries with well-developed welfare systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barr, Ben; Clayton, Stephen; Whitehead, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Reductions in the eligibility requirements and generosity of disability benefits have been introduced in several Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries in recent years, on the assumption that this will increase work incentives for people with chronic illness...... and disabilities. This paper systematically reviews the evidence for this assumption in the context of well-developed welfare systems....

  18. Offspring body size and metabolic profile - effects of lifestyle intervention in obese pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanvig, Mette; Jensen, Dorte Møller

    2014-01-01

    of normal weight mothers all outcomes were similar. We speculate that obese mothers entering a lifestyle intervention RCT regardless of the intervention have a high motivation to focus on healthy lifestyle during pregnancy, which makes it difficult to determine the effects of the randomized lifestyle....... The obesity epidemic is not simply a consequence of poor diet or sedentary lifestyles. Obesity is a multifactorial condition in which environmental, biological and genetic factors all play essential roles. The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DoHaD) hypothesis has highlighted the link between...... disturbances in the offspring. Pregnancy offers the opportunity to modify the intrauterine environment, and maternal lifestyle changes during gestation may confer health benefits to the child. The overall aim with this PhD thesis was to study the effects of maternal obesity on offspring body size and metabolic...

  19. Maternal high-fat diet induces metabolic stress response disorders in offspring hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Long The; Saad, Sonia; Tan, Yi; Pollock, Carol; Chen, Hui

    2017-07-01

    Maternal obesity has been shown to increase the risk of obesity and related disorders in the offspring, which has been partially attributed to changes of appetite regulators in the offspring hypothalamus. On the other hand, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy have been implicated in hypothalamic neuropeptide dysregulation, thus may also play important roles in such transgenerational effect. In this study, we show that offspring born to high-fat diet-fed dams showed significantly increased body weight and glucose intolerance, adiposity and plasma triglyceride level at weaning. Hypothalamic mRNA level of the orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY) was increased, while the levels of the anorexigenic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), NPY1 receptor (NPY1R) and melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) were significantly downregulated. In association, the expression of unfolded protein response (UPR) markers including glucose-regulated protein (GRP)94 and endoplasmic reticulum DNA J domain-containing protein (Erdj)4 was reduced. By contrast, protein levels of autophagy-related genes Atg5 and Atg7, as well as mitophagy marker Parkin, were slightly increased. The administration of 4-phenyl butyrate (PBA), a chemical chaperone of protein folding and UPR activator, in the offspring from postnatal day 4 significantly reduced their body weight, fat deposition, which were in association with increased activating transcription factor (ATF)4, immunoglobulin-binding protein (BiP) and Erdj4 mRNA as well as reduced Parkin, PTEN-induced putative kinase (PINK)1 and dynamin-related protein (Drp)1 protein expression levels. These results suggest that hypothalamic ER stress and mitophagy are among the regulatory factors of offspring metabolic changes due to maternal obesity. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  20. A theoretical model of the evolution of maternal effects under parent-offspring conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uller, Tobias; Pen, Ido

    The evolution of maternal effects on offspring phenotype should depend on the extent of parent-offspring conflict and costs and constraints associated with maternal and offspring strategies. Here, we develop a model of maternal effects on offspring dispersal phenotype under parent-offspring conflict

  1. Chronic prenatal stress epigenetically modifies spinal cord BDNF expression to induce sex specific visceral hypersensitivity in offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, John H.; Li, Qingjie; Sarna, Sushil K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a heterogeneous disorder with abdomen pain as one of the primary symptoms. The etiology of IBS remains unknown. Epidemiological studies found that a subset of these patients have a history of adverse early-life events. We tested the hypothesis that chronic prenatal stress (CPS) epigenetically enhances brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in spinal cord to aggravate colon sensitivity to colorectal distension (CRD) differentially in male and female offspring. Methods We used heterotypic intermittent chronic stress (HeICS) protocols in pregnant dams from E11 until delivery. Results CPS induced significant visceral hypersensitivity (VHS) to CRD in male and female offspring. A second exposure to HeICS in adult offspring exacerbated VHS greater in female offspring that persisted longer than in male offspring. CPS upregulated BDNF expression in the lumbar-sacral dorsal horn that correlated with the exacerbation of VHS in female, but not in male offspring. The upregulation of BDNF was due to a significant increase in RNA Pol II binding, histone H3 acetylation and significant decrease in histone deacetylase 1 association with the core promoter of BDNF in female offspring. Other chronic prenatal and neonatal stress protocols were less effective than HeICS. Conclusion & Inferences The development of visceral hypersensitivity, which contributes to the symptom of intermittent abdominal pain, is a two-step process, chronic in utero stress followed by chronic stress in adult-life. This two-step process induces aggravated and persistent colon hypersensitivity in female than in male offspring. Our preclinical model explains several clinical features in IBS patients. PMID:24588943

  2. Perinatal caffeine, acting on maternal adenosine A(1 receptors, causes long-lasting behavioral changes in mouse offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Björklund

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are lingering concerns about caffeine consumption during pregnancy or the early postnatal period, partly because there may be long-lasting behavioral changes after caffeine exposure early in life. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that pregnant wild type (WT mice given modest doses of caffeine (0.3 g/l in drinking water gave birth to offspring that as adults exhibited increased locomotor activity in an open field. The offspring also responded to cocaine challenge with greater locomotor activity than mice not perinatally exposed to caffeine. We performed the same behavioral experiments on mice heterozygous for adenosine A(1 receptor gene (A(1RHz. In these mice signaling via adenosine A(1 receptors is reduced to about the same degree as after modest consumption of caffeine. A(1RHz mice had a behavioral profile similar to WT mice perinatally exposed to caffeine. Furthermore, it appeared that the mother's genotype, not offspring's, was critical for behavioral changes in adult offspring. Thus, if the mother partially lacked A(1 receptors the offspring displayed more hyperactivity and responded more strongly to cocaine stimulation as adults than did mice of a WT mother, regardless of their genotype. This indicates that long-term behavioral alterations in the offspring result from the maternal effect of caffeine, and not a direct effect on fetus. WT offspring from WT mother but having a A(1R Hz grandmother preserved higher locomotor response to cocaine. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We suggest that perinatal caffeine, by acting on adenosine A(1 receptors in the mother, causes long-lasting behavioral changes in the offspring that even manifest themselves in the second generation.

  3. Beneficial effects of vitamin C treatment on pregnant rats exposed to formaldehyde: Reversal of immunosuppression in the offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Beatriz Silva; Barioni, Éric Diego; Heluany, Cíntia; Braga, Tárcio Teodoro; Drewes, Carine Cristiane; Costa, Silvia Goes; Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva; Farsky, Sandra Helena Poliselli; Lino-dos-Santos-Franco, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Inhalation of formaldehyde (FA) during the pregnancy induces oxidative stress in the uterus, and here we hypothesized that this mechanism may be responsible for the impaired immune response detected in the offspring. In order to investigate the protective effects of Vitamin C on the oxidative stress induced by FA in the uterine microenvironment, pregnant Wistar rats were treated with vitamin C (150 mg/kg, gavage) or vehicle (distilled water, gavage) 1 h before FA exposure (0.92 mg/m 3 , 1 h/day, 5 days/week), for 21 days, and the 30 days old offspring were submitted to LPS injection (Salmonella abortus equi, 5 mg/kg, i.p.). The enhanced gene expression of iNOS, COX-1 and COX-2 and decreased gene expression of SOD-2 in the uterus of FA exposed mothers was rescued by Vit C treatment. Moreover, vitamin C rescued the impaired immune response elicited by LPS in the offspring from FA exposed mothers, by increasing the number of blood and bone marrow leukocytes, and augmenting gene expression of IL-6 and reducing mRNA levels of IL-10 and IFN in the lungs. Vitamin C treatment did not rescue the impaired TLR4-NF-kB pathway in the lung of the offspring, suggesting that FA-induced uterine oxidative stress affects other inflammatory pathways activated by LPS in the offspring. Together, data obtained here confirm our hypothesis that FA-induced oxidative stress in the uterine microenvironment modifies the programming mechanisms of the immune defenses of offspring, leading to an impaired host defense. - Highlights: • FA exposure during pregnancy induces oxidative stress in the uterus. • Vitamin C treatment blunted the oxidative stress in uterus induced by FA exposure. • Oxidative stress in uterus after FA exposure impairs the immune response of offspring. • Vitamin C in pregnant rats rescued the impaired immune response in the offspring.

  4. Parental Psychopathology and the Risk of Suicidal Behavior in their Offspring: Results from the World Mental Health Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gureje, Oye; Oladeji, Bibilola; Hwang, Irving; Chiu, Wai Tat; Kessler, Ronald C.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Alonso, Jordi; Andrade, Laura Helena; Beautrais, Annette; Borges, Guilherme; Bromet, Evelyn; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Gal, Gilad; He, Yanling; Hu, Chiyi; Iwata, Noboru; Karam, Elie G.; Kovess-Masféty, Viviane; Matschinger, Herbert; Moldovan, Mona Victoria; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sagar, Rajesh; Scocco, Paolo; Seedat, Soraya; Tomov, Toma; Nock, Matthew K.

    2010-01-01

    Prior research suggests that parental psychopathology predicts suicidal behavior among offspring; however, the more fine-grained associations between specific parental disorders and distinct stages of the pathway to suicide are not well-understood. We set out to test the hypothesis that parental disorders associated with negative mood would predict offspring suicide ideation, whereas disorders characterized by impulsive-aggression (e,g., antisocial personality) and anxiety/agitation (e.g., panic disorder) would predict which offspring act on their suicide ideation and make a suicide attempt. Data were collected during face-to-face interviews conducted on nationally representative samples (N=55,299; age 18+) from 21 countries around the world. We tested the associations between a range of parental disorders and the onset and persistence over time (i.e., time-since-most-recent-episode controlling for age-of-onset and time-since-onset) of subsequent suicidal behavior (suicide ideation, plans, and attempts) among offspring. Analyses tested bivariate and multivariate associations between each parental disorder and distinct forms of suicidal behavior. Results revealed that each parental disorder examined increased the risk of suicide ideation among offspring, parental generalized anxiety and depression emerged as the only predictors of the onset and persistence (respectively) of suicide plans among offspring with ideation, whereas parental anti-social personality and anxiety disorders emerged as the only predictors of the onset and persistence of suicide attempts among ideators. A dose-response relation between parental disorders and respondent risk of suicide ideation and attempt also was found. Parental death by suicide was a particularly strong predictor of persistence of suicide attempts among offspring. These associations remained significant after controlling for comorbidity of parental disorders and for the presence of mental disorders among offspring. These

  5. Risks to the offspring from parental occupational exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, J.F.; Schottenfeld, D.

    1979-01-01

    Risks to the offspring of workers with occupational chemical exposures may derive from mutagenic, teratogenic or carcinogenic effects of industrial agents to which the parents are exposed. Evidence for impaired pregnancies and hazards to the offspring of working populations with chemical exposures is, however, very limited. Evidence is reviewed for hazards to the offspring resulting from parental occupational exposure to vinyl chloride, benzene, chloroprene, radiation and petroleum-derived hydrocarbons. Other environmental and behavioral factors with major effects on pregnancy outcome are considered. These include smoking, alcohol, and drug exposures. An approach to surveillance for chromosomal abnormalities in offspring of occupationally exposed parents is outlined

  6. Aging parasites produce offspring with poor fitness prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippens, Cédric; Faivre, Bruno; Lechenault, Clothilde; Sorci, Gabriele

    2017-02-01

    Senescing individuals have poor survival prospects and low fecundity. They can also produce offspring with reduced survival and reproductive success. We tested the effect of parental age on the performance of descendants in the nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus , an intestinal parasite of rodents. We found that offspring of senescing worms had reduced within-host survival and reduced egg shedding over the first month post-infection compared with offspring produced by young parents. These results suggest that declining offspring quality is a component of senescence in parasitic nematodes and might have evolutionary consequences for the optimal schedule of age-dependent investment into reproductive effort. © 2017 The Author(s).

  7. Paternal and maternal age at pregnancy and autism spectrum disorders in offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luh Putu Rihayani Budi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs has increased 10 times over the past half century, while paternal and maternal age at pregnancy has also increased. Studies looking for an association between paternal or maternal age at pregnancy and ASDs in offspring have not been conclusive. Objective To assess for possible associations between paternal and maternal age at pregnancy and ASDs in offspring. Methods This case-control study had 50 case and 100 control subjects, each case was matched for age and gender to two controls. Case subjects were obtained by consecutive sampling of patients aged 18 months to 7 years who visited the Developmental Behavioral & Community Pediatrics Outpatient Clinic and private growth and development centers from January to April 2013, while control group were children of the same age range and same gender who visited pediatric outpatient clinic at Sanglah Hospital mostly due to acute respiratory tract infection, without ASDs as assessed by the DSM-IV-TR criteria. We interviewed parents to collect the following data: maternal and paternal age at pregnancy, child’s birth weight, history of asphyxia, hospital admission during the neonatal period, pathological labor, maternal smoking during pregnancy, paternal smoking, and gestational age. Data analysis was performed with Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests. Results Multivariable analysis showed that higher paternal age at pregnancy was associated with ASDs in offspring (OR 6.3; 95%CI 2.0 to 19.3; P 0.001. However, there was no significant association between maternal age during pregnancy and the incidence of ASDs. Asphyxia and paternal smoking were also associated with higher incidence of ASDs in the offspring (OR 10.3; 95%CI 1.9 to 56.5; P 0.007 and OR 3.2; 95%CI 1.5 to 6.9; P 0.003, respectively. Conclusion Paternal age >=40 years increased the risk of ASDs in offspring by 6.3 times. In addition, paternal smoking increased the risk of ASDs in

  8. Consumption of a high-salt diet by ewes during pregnancy alters nephrogenesis in 5-month-old offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, S H; Blache, D; Gregg, K; Revell, D K

    2012-11-01

    Maternal nutrition during pregnancy can affect kidney development in the foetus, which may lead to adverse consequences in the mature kidney. It was expected that high-salt intake by pregnant ewes would lead to a reduction in foetal glomerular number but that the ovine kidney would adapt to maintain homoeostasis, in part by increasing the size of each glomerulus. Merino ewes that were fed either a control (1.5% NaCl) or high-salt (10.5% NaCl) diet during pregnancy, as well as their 5-month-old offspring, were subjected to a dietary salt challenge, and glomerular number and size and sodium excretion were measured. The high-salt offspring had 20% fewer glomeruli compared with the control offspring (P salt offspring than in the control offspring (P 0.05), although the high-salt offspring produced urine with a higher concentration of sodium. Our results demonstrated that maternal high-salt intake during pregnancy affected foetal nephrogenesis, altering glomerular number at birth. However, the ability to concentrate and excrete salt was not compromised, which indicates that the kidney was able to adapt to the reduction in the number of glomeruli.

  9. Maternal Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy in Relation to Offspring Forearm Fractures: Prospective Study from the Danish National Birth Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sesilje B. Petersen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Limited evidence exists for an association between maternal diet during pregnancy and offspring bone health. In a prospective study, we examined the association between dietary patterns in mid-pregnancy and offspring forearm fractures. In total, 101,042 pregnancies were recruited to the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC during 1996–2002. Maternal diet was collected by a food frequency questionnaire. Associations were analyzed between seven dietary patterns extracted by principal component analysis and offspring first occurrence of any forearm fracture diagnosis, extracted from the Danish National Patient Register, between time of birth and end of follow-up (<16 year (n = 53,922. In multivariable Cox regression models, offspring of mothers in the fourth vs. first quintile of the Western pattern had a significant increased risk (Hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.01–1.23 of fractures, and there was a borderline significant positive trend (p = 0.06. The other dietary patterns showed no associations and neither did supplementary analyses of macro- and micronutrients or single food groups, except for the intake of artificially sweetened soft drinks, which was positively associated with offspring forearm fractures (p = 0.02. In the large prospective DNBC high mid-pregnancy consumption of Western diet and artificially sweetened soft drinks, respectively, indicated positive associations with offspring forearm fractures, which provides interesting hypotheses for future research.

  10. Paternal B Vitamin Intake Is a Determinant of Growth, Hepatic Lipid Metabolism and Intestinal Tumor Volume in Female Apc1638N Mouse Offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia A Sabet

    Full Text Available The importance of maternal nutrition to offspring health and risk of disease is well established. Emerging evidence suggests paternal diet may affect offspring health as well.In the current study we sought to determine whether modulating pre-conception paternal B vitamin intake alters intestinal tumor formation in offspring. Additionally, we sought to identify potential mechanisms for the observed weight differential among offspring by profiling hepatic gene expression and lipid content.Male Apc1638N mice (prone to intestinal tumor formation were fed diets containing replete (control, CTRL, mildly deficient (DEF, or supplemental (SUPP quantities of vitamins B2, B6, B12, and folate for 8 weeks before mating with control-fed wild type females. Wild type offspring were euthanized at weaning and hepatic gene expression profiled. Apc1638N offspring were fed a replete diet and euthanized at 28 weeks of age to assess tumor burden.No differences in intestinal tumor incidence or burden were found between male Apc1638N offspring of different paternal diet groups. Although in female Apc1638N offspring there were no differences in tumor incidence or multiplicity, a stepwise increase in tumor volume with increasing paternal B vitamin intake was observed. Interestingly, female offspring of SUPP and DEF fathers had a significantly lower body weight than those of CTRL fed fathers. Moreover, hepatic trigylcerides and cholesterol were elevated 3-fold in adult female offspring of SUPP fathers. Weanling offspring of the same fathers displayed altered expression of several key lipid-metabolism genes. Hundreds of differentially methylated regions were identified in the paternal sperm in response to DEF and SUPP diets. Aside from a few genes including Igf2, there was a striking lack of overlap between these genes differentially methylated in sperm and differentially expressed in offspring.In this animal model, modulation of paternal B vitamin intake prior to mating

  11. Parental psychiatric hospitalisation and offspring schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Reinisch, June M

    2009-01-01

    of schizophrenia and a range of psychotic and non-psychotic psychiatric diagnoses in parents. Psychiatric admission data after 1969 were available for 7047 cohort members born between 1959 and 1961, and for 7006 mothers and 6993 fathers. Univariate analysis showed that neurosis, alcohol and substance dependence...... of schizophrenia was associated with maternal schizophrenia (OR = 15.41 with 95% CI 5.96-39.81) and, independently, with paternal hospitalisation with neurosis (OR = 5.90 with 95% CI 2.23-15.62). The risk of schizophrenia associated with paternal neurosis remained significant after excluding offspring of parents...

  12. Testing cost-benefit models of parental care evolution using lizard populations differing in the expression of maternal care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-San Huang

    Full Text Available Parents are expected to evolve tactics to care for eggs or offspring when providing such care increases fitness above the costs incurred by this behavior. Costs to the parent include the energetic demands of protecting offspring, delaying future fecundity, and increased risk of predation. We used cost-benefit models to test the ecological conditions favoring the evolution of parental care, using lizard populations that differ in whether or not they express maternal care. We found that predators play an important role in the evolution of maternal care because: (1 evolving maternal care is unlikely when care increases predation pressure on the parents; (2 maternal care cannot evolve under low levels of predation pressure on both parents and offspring; and (3 maternal care evolves only when parents are able to successfully defend offspring from predators without increasing predation risk to themselves. Our studies of one of the only known vertebrate species to exhibit interpopulation differences in the expression of maternal care provide clear support for some of the hypothesized circumstances under which maternal care should evolve (e.g., when nests are in exposed locations, parents are able to defend the eggs from predators, and egg incubation periods are brief, but do not support others (e.g., when nest-sites are scarce, life history strategies are "risky", reproductive frequency is low, and environmental conditions are harsh. We conclude that multiple pathways can lead to the evolution of parental care from a non-caring state, even in a single population of a widespread species.

  13. Maternal Obesity Induces Sustained Inflammation in Both Fetal and Offspring Large Intestine of Sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xu; Huang, Yan; Wang, Hui; Du, Min; Hess, Bret W.; Ford, Stephen P.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.; Zhu, Mei-Jun

    2010-01-01

    Background Both maternal obesity and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are increasing. It was hypothesized that maternal obesity induces an inflammatory response in the fetal large intestine, predisposing offspring to IBDs. Methods Nonpregnant ewes were assigned to a control (Con, 100% of National Research Council [NRC] recommendations) or obesogenic (OB, 150% of NRC) diet from 60 days before conception. The large intestine was sampled from fetuses at 135 days (term 150 days) after conception and from offspring lambs at 22.5 ± 0.5 months of age. Results Maternal obesity enhanced mRNA expression tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, interleukin (IL)1α, IL1β, IL6, IL8, and monocyte/macrophage chemotactic protein-1 (MCP1), as well as macrophage markers, CD11b, CD14, and CD68 in fetal gut. mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 was increased in OB versus Con fetuses; correspondingly, inflammatory NF-κB and JNK signaling pathways were also upregulated. Both mRNA expression and protein content of transforming growth factor (TGF) β was increased. The IL-17A mRNA expression and protein content was higher in OB compared to Con samples, which was associated with fibrosis in the large intestine of OB fetuses. Similar inflammatory responses and enhanced fibrosis were detected in OB compared to Con offspring. Conclusions Maternal obesity induced inflammation and enhanced expression of proinflammatory cytokines in fetal and offspring large intestine, which correlated with increased TGFβ and IL17 expression. These data show that maternal obesity may predispose offspring gut to IBDs. PMID:21674707

  14. Nutrition and reproduction: links to epigenetics and metabolic syndrome in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelCurto, Hannah; Wu, Guoyao; Satterfield, Michael C

    2013-07-01

    Inappropriate exposure of gametes and/or products of conception to nutritional imbalance alters critical metabolic set points in the offspring and increases propensity to disease. This review will focus on recent findings highlighting clear links to epigenetic modifications in response to dietary manipulations as well as nutritional strategies with the potential to mitigate the effects of an otherwise poor nutritional environment. Maternal nutritional imbalance, either through global nutritional manipulation or deficiencies in select nutrients, predisposes the offspring to metabolic disease. Disease susceptibility is linked to global and/or specific modifications of the epigenome at key metabolic regulatory genes. Paternal nutritional imbalance also increases the likelihood of metabolic disease in offspring through similar epigenetic mechanisms. Finally, dietary intervention with select nutrients has been shown to ameliorate postnatal disease phenotypes in offspring, although the exact molecular mechanisms have not been elucidated. Select nutrients, such as amino acids and vitamins, not only serve as building blocks for growth but also mediate a myriad of physiological functions, including providing substrates for DNA synthesis. These nutrients hold great promise as intervention strategies to combat a suboptimal developmental environment.

  15. Effect of maternal excessive sodium intake on postnatal brain development in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jung-a; Ahn, Young-mo; Lee, Hye-ah; Park, Hyesook; Kim, Young-ju; Lee, Hwa-young

    2015-04-01

    Postnatal brain development is affected by the in utero environment. Modern people usually have a high sodium intake. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sodium hyperingestion during pregnancy on the postnatal brain development of rat offspring. The sodium-overloaded rats received 1.8% NaCl in their drinking water for 7 days during the last week of gestation. Their body weight, urine, and blood levels of sodium and other parameters were measured. Some rats were sacrificed at pregnancy day 22 and the weight and length of the placenta and foetus were measured. The cerebral cortex and hippocampus were obtained from their offspring at postnatal day 1 and at postnatal weeks 1, 2, 4, and 8. Western blot analyses were conducted with brain tissue lysates. The sodium-overloaded animals had decreased weight gain in the last week of gestation as well as decreased food intake, increased water intake, urine volume, urine sodium, and serum sodium. There were no differences in placental weight and length. The foetuses of sodium-overloaded rats showed decreased body weight and size, and this difference was maintained postnatally for 2 weeks. In the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of the offspring, the protein levels of myelin basic protein, calmodulin/calcium-dependent protein kinase II, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor were decreased or aberrantly expressed. The present data suggest that increased sodium intake during pregnancy affects the brain development of the offspring.

  16. Influence of Gamma Irradiation on DNA Methylation in Liver of Male Rats and their Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kožurková

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the influence of gamma radiation (3 Gy on DNA methylation in slowly proliferating liver tissue of adult male rats and their offspring was studied. Total methylation of DNA was determined on the basis of presence of 5-methylcytosine at the inner cytosine of the C-C-G-G sequence by using restriction enzymes, endonuclease Msp I and its isoschisomer Hpa II. It was found that in the liver of control animals, molecular weight distribution of both Msp I and Hpa II digestion products of DNA and the level of DNA methylation were influenced by age mainly between the 3rd and the 7th days of life. At this time, significant difference was found especially in products of cleavage with enzyme Msp I, where an increase in DNA fragments of medium molecular weight (1 - 7 kb occurred. The changes in the molecular weight distribution of DNA digestion products in the offspring of control rats were accompanied by an increase in the level of total DNA methylation from 29.8% to 67%. In the offspring of irradiated males, the level of DNA methylation was higher in comparison with the offspring of non-irradiated control males, especially on the 3rd day after birth. We suppose that this finding is conjoined with a transgeneration transfer of radiation-induced genome damage.

  17. Synergistic effects of parental and embryonic exposure to predation risk on prey offspring size at emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donelan, Sarah C; Trussell, Geoffrey C

    2018-01-01

    Cues signaling predation risk can strongly influence prey phenotypes both within and between generations. Parental and embryonic effects have been shown to operate independently in response to predation risk, but how they interact to shape offspring life history traits remains largely unknown. Here, we conducted experiments to examine the synergistic impacts of parental and embryonic experiences with predation risk on offspring size at emergence in the snail, Nucella lapillus, which is an ecologically important intermediate consumer on rocky intertidal shores. We found that when embryos were exposed to predation risk, the offspring of risk-experienced parents emerged larger than those of parents that had no risk experience. This response was not the result of increased development time, greater resource availability, or fewer emerging offspring, but may have occurred because both parental and embryonic experiences with risk increased growth efficiency, perhaps by reducing embryonic respiration rates under risk. Our results highlight the potential for organisms to be influenced by a complex history of environmental signals with important consequences for individual fitness and predator-prey interactions. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  18. The mother-offspring dyad: microbial transmission, immune interactions and allergy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenmalm, M C

    2017-12-01

    The increasing prevalence of allergy in affluent countries may be caused by reduced intensity and diversity of microbial stimulation, resulting in abnormal postnatal immune maturation. Most studies investigating the underlying immunomodulatory mechanisms have focused on postnatal microbial exposure, for example demonstrating that the gut microbiota differs in composition and diversity during the first months of life in children who later do or do not develop allergic disease. However, it is also becoming increasingly evident that the maternal microbial environment during pregnancy is important in childhood immune programming, and the first microbial encounters may occur already in utero. During pregnancy, there is a close immunological interaction between the mother and her offspring, which provides important opportunities for the maternal microbial environment to influence the immune development of the child. In support of this theory, combined pre- and postnatal supplementations seem to be crucial for the preventive effect of probiotics on infant eczema. Here, the influence of microbial and immune interactions within the mother-offspring dyad on childhood allergy development will be discussed. In addition, how perinatal transmission of microbes and immunomodulatory factors from mother to offspring may shape appropriate immune maturation during infancy and beyond, potentially via epigenetic mechanisms, will be examined. Deeper understanding of these interactions between the maternal and offspring microbiome and immunity is needed to identify efficacious preventive measures to combat the allergy epidemic. © 2017 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  19. Lethality and teratogenesis in F{sub 1} offspring mice following paternal fission neutron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoji, Shuneki [Hiroshima Univ., Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    Studies were conducted to determine whether following genetic damage at germ cell stages induced by paternal exposure to {sup 252}Cf fission neutron could lead to teratogenesis in the offspring. Seven-week-old C3H male mice were irradiated with graded doses of {sup 252}Cf fission neutrons and then were mated with nine-week-old C57BL females two weeks after the exposure. Three weeks later, it was found that testis and epididymal weight losses as well as the proportions of caudal epididymal sperm abnormalities in irradiated males were significantly greater than those in non-irradiated groups. Pregnant dams were sacrificed on day 18 of gestation and their fetuses were examined for the number of resorptions, intrauterine deaths and teratogenesis in F{sub 1} surviving offspring. Embryo lethality among the F{sub 1} offspring was found to be significantly higher in the irradiated group than in the non-irradiated group (p < 0.01), while the incidence of congenital malformations among the F{sub 1} offspring significantly increased in the irradiated groups. These results suggest that the paternal radiation exposure may have caused genetic transmission of DNA damage and genetic instability, which is in line with findings that show increases in incidence of teratogenesis in B{sub 6}C{sub 3}F{sub 1}. (author)

  20. Rituximab induction therapy, survival benefits, and the increasing selection of radiotherapy as the postinduction treatment in patients with primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Hsiang Yang

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: Rituximab improved the CR and OS rates of patients with PMBCL, but these improvements may be attributable to the increased use of radiotherapy (which may have also resulted from FDG-PET evaluation.

  1. Environmental and parental influences on offspring health and growth in great tits (Parus major.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon R A Pickett

    Full Text Available Sexual selection requires both that there is heritable variation in traits related to fitness, and that either some of this variation is linked to traits of the parents, and/or that there are direct benefits of choosing particular individuals as mates. This suggests that if direct benefits are important offspring performance should be predicted by traits of the rearing adults. But if indirect benefits are more significant offspring performance should be predicted by traits of the adults at the nest-of-origin. We conducted cross-fostering experiments in great tits (Parus major over four years, in two of which we manipulated environmental conditions by providing supplemental food. In a third year, some nestlings were directly supplemented with carotenoids. Nestlings in broods whose rearing adults received supplemental food were heavier and had improved immune responses even when controlling for body mass. Nestling immune function was related to measures of the yellow plumage color of both the rearing male and the putative father. Nestling body mass was influenced by the coloration of both the rearing female and the genetic mother. Our results suggest that features of both their social and putative genetic parents influence nestling health and growth. From this it would appear that females could be gaining both direct and indirect benefits through mate choice of male plumage traits and that it would be possible for males to similarly gain through mate choice of female traits.

  2. Direct benefits and genetic costs of extrapair paternity for female American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Andrea K; Clark, Anne B; McGowan, Kevin J

    2010-01-01

    The idea that extrapair paternity (EPP) in birds is part of a mixed reproductive strategy driven primarily by females is controversial. In cooperatively breeding American crows, we compared predictions of four female benefits hypotheses-the genetic diversity, good genes, genetic compatibility, and direct benefits hypotheses-to our predictions if EPP was primarily male driven. We found that genetically diverse broods were not more successful, extrapair young were not in better condition and did not have a higher survival probability, and, contrary to prediction, offspring sired by within-group extrapair males were more inbred than within-pair offspring. There was evidence of direct benefits, however: provisioning rate and number of surviving offspring were higher in groups containing within-group extrapair sires. Females therefore derived no apparent benefits from extragroup extrapair males but both direct benefits and genetic costs from within-group extrapair males. We suggest that males and females both influence the distribution of EPP in this system.

  3. A case-control study of maternal bathing habits and risk for birth defects in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agopian, A J; Waller, D Kim; Lupo, Philip J; Canfield, Mark A; Mitchell, Laura E

    2013-10-16

    Nearly all women shower or take baths during early pregnancy; however, bathing habits (i.e., shower and bath length and frequency) may be related to the risk of maternal hyperthermia and exposure to water disinfection byproducts, both of which are suspected to increase risk for multiple types of birth defects. Thus, we assessed the relationships between bathing habits during pregnancy and the risk for several nonsyndromic birth defects in offspring. Data for cases with one of 13 types of birth defects and controls from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study delivered during 2000-2007 were evaluated. Logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for each type of birth defect. There were few associations between shower frequency or bath frequency or length and risk for birth defects in offspring. The risk for gastroschisis in offspring was increased among women who reported showers lasting ≥15 compared to <15 minutes (adjusted odds ratio: 1.43, 95% confidence interval: 1.18-1.72). In addition, we observed modest increases in the risk for spina bifida, cleft lip with or without cleft palate, and limb reduction defects in offspring of women who showered ≥15 compared to <15 minutes. The results of comparisons among more specific categories of shower length (i.e., <15 minutes versus 15-19, 20-29, and ≥ 30 minutes) were similar. Our findings suggest that shower length may be associated with gastroschisis, but the modest associations with other birth defects were not supported by analyses of bath length or bath or shower frequency. Given that showering for ≥15 minutes during pregnancy is very common, further evaluation of the relationship between maternal showering habits and birth defects in offspring is worthwhile.

  4. Do conditional benefits reduce equilibrium unemployment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, F.

    2006-01-01

    Although unconditional unemployment benefits destroy jobs in competitive and noncompetitive labor markets, conditional benefits can spur job growth in noncompetitive labor markets. Unconditional benefits reduce the penalty of shirking and misconduct, while conditional benefits increase this penalty.

  5. The molecular mechanisms of offspring effects from obese pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dowling, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of obesity, increased weight gain and the popularity of high-fat \\/ high-sugar diets are seriously impacting upon the global population. Billions of individuals are affected, and although diet and lifestyle are of paramount importance to the development of adult obesity, compelling evidence is emerging which suggests that maternal obesity and related disorders may be passed on to the next generation by non-genetic means. The processes acting within the uteri of obese mothers may permanently predispose offspring to a diverse plethora of diseases ranging from obesity and diabetes to psychiatric disorders. This review aims to summarise some of the molecular mechanisms and active processes currently known about maternal obesity and its effect on foetal and neonatal physiology and metabolism. Complex and multifactorial networks of molecules are intertwined and culminate in a pathologically synergistic manner to cause disruption and disorganisation of foetal physiology. This altered phenotype may potentiate the cycle of intergenerational transmission of obesity and related disorders.

  6. Observed heterospecific clutch size can affect offspring investment decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsman, Jukka T; Seppänen, Janne-Tuomas; Nykänen, Inka L

    2012-06-23

    Optimal investment in offspring is important in maximizing lifetime reproductive success. Yet, very little is known how animals gather and integrate information about environmental factors to fine tune investment. Observing the decisions and success of other individuals, particularly when those individuals initiate breeding earlier, may provide a way for animals to quickly arrive at better breeding investment decisions. Here we show, with a field experiment using artificial nests appearing similar to resident tit nests with completed clutches, that a migratory bird can use the observed high and low clutch size of a resident competing bird species to increase and decrease clutch size and egg mass, accordingly. Our results demonstrate that songbirds can discriminate between high and low quantity of heterospecific eggs, and that social information can have long-term physiological consequences affecting reproductive strategies. Such behaviour may help animals to better adapt to changing environments and lead to convergent traits with competitors.

  7. Interactions of Socioeconomic Determinants, Offspring Sex Preference and Fertility Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M. Sharp

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Using path anaysis and the 5% PUMS data of the 1990 and 2000 censuses, this study examines 1 the correlation between Chinese-American sex preference for children and their fertility behavior, and 2 the interaction between the sex preference and its socioeconomic determinants. Of normative and non-normative factors investegated in this study, offspring sex preference is the greatest stimulus to Chinese fertility. Of socioeconomic variables, women’s educational attainment plays a primary role in depressing the impact of son preference in addition to their increasing stay in the host society. However, these two factors do not work on their husbands in the same way, demonstrating men’s inflexible attitudes toward gender roles in the family and in society. Son preference exerts positive impact on American-Chinese fertility and prevent from further decline. Yet, the influence has been diminishing since 1990 as observed in this study.

  8. Hyperemesis gravidarum and long-term health of the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyavoo, Ahila; Derraik, José G B; Hofman, Paul L; Cutfield, Wayne S

    2014-06-01

    Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy is a very common occurrence, but the reported incidence of hyperemesis gravidarum (a more severe form of vomiting in pregnancy) is much lower, estimated to vary from 0.3-3.6%. Studies have shown that nausea and vomiting of pregnancy is associated with improved fetal outcomes, such as lower rates of miscarriage. However, there are limited data on outcomes associated with hyperemesis gravidarum, which have focused on pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. Recently, studies showed adverse health outcomes, such as a reduction in insulin sensitivity in childhood and increased incidence of psychological disorders in adulthood. The effects of hyperemesis gravidarum in the offspring need to be further examined throughout childhood, adolescence, and into adulthood, so that long-term disease risks can be evaluated. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Maternal Diabetes in Pregnancy: Early and Long-Term Outcomes on the Offspring and the Concept of “Metabolic Memory”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yessoufou, Akadiri; Moutairou, Kabirou

    2011-01-01

    The adverse outcomes on the offspring from maternal diabetes in pregnancy are substantially documented. In this paper, we report main knowledge on impacts of maternal diabetes on early and long-term health of the offspring, with specific comments on maternal obesity. The main adverse outcome on progenies from pregnancy complicated with maternal diabetes appears to be macrosomia, as it is commonly known that intrauterine exposure to hyperglycemia increases the risk and programs the offspring to develop diabetes and/or obesity at adulthood. This “fetal programming”, due to intrauterine diabetic milieu, is termed as “metabolic memory”. In gestational diabetes as well as in macrosomia, the complications include metabolic abnormalities, degraded antioxidant status, disrupted immune system and potential metabolic syndrome in adult offspring. Furthermore, there is evidence that maternal obesity may also increase the risk of obesity and diabetes in offspring. However, women with GDM possibly exhibit greater macrosomia than obese women. Obesity and diabetes in pregnancy have independent and additive effects on obstetric complications, and both require proper management. Management of gestational diabetes mellitus and maternal obesity is essential for maternal and offspring's good health. Increasing physical activity, preventing gestational weight gain, and having some qualitative nutritional habits may be beneficial during both the pregnancy and offspring's future life. PMID:22144985

  10. Maternal Diabetes in Pregnancy: Early and Long-Term Outcomes on the Offspring and the Concept of “Metabolic Memory”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akadiri Yessoufou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The adverse outcomes on the offspring from maternal diabetes in pregnancy are substantially documented. In this paper, we report main knowledge on impacts of maternal diabetes on early and long-term health of the offspring, with specific comments on maternal obesity. The main adverse outcome on progenies from pregnancy complicated with maternal diabetes appears to be macrosomia, as it is commonly known that intrauterine exposure to hyperglycemia increases the risk and programs the offspring to develop diabetes and/or obesity at adulthood. This “fetal programming”, due to intrauterine diabetic milieu, is termed as “metabolic memory”. In gestational diabetes as well as in macrosomia, the complications include metabolic abnormalities, degraded antioxidant status, disrupted immune system and potential metabolic syndrome in adult offspring. Furthermore, there is evidence that maternal obesity may also increase the risk of obesity and diabetes in offspring. However, women with GDM possibly exhibit greater macrosomia than obese women. Obesity and diabetes in pregnancy have independent and additive effects on obstetric complications, and both require proper management. Management of gestational diabetes mellitus and maternal obesity is essential for maternal and offspring's good health. Increasing physical activity, preventing gestational weight gain, and having some qualitative nutritional habits may be beneficial during both the pregnancy and offspring's future life.

  11. Favored use of anti-predator netting (APN) applied for the farming of clams leads to little benefits to industry while increasing nearshore impacts and plastics pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendell, L I

    2015-02-15

    An overview of the efficacy of anti-predator netting (APN) used by the shellfish industry is presented. There is little support that the currently favored APN effectively protects farmed clams from predators. Evidence does suggest that APN leads to impacts and pollution. APN is an attractant for predators, e.g., crabs, by providing a refuge within Ulva sp. which attaches onto the surface of APN. APN entrains silt and organic matter and increases sediment temperatures degrading habitat underneath the APN. APN present hazards to fish and wildlife and is a source of plastics to the marine environment. The continued use of ineffective APN does not serve either the environment or industry well, and many of these issues could be addressed through the alternate use of "ancient" technology used by aboriginal people to maintain clam gardens; building of rock walls optimizing the amount of clam habitat thereby increasing numbers without the use of APN. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Thin-film photovoltaic power generation offers decreasing greenhouse gas emissions and increasing environmental co-benefits in the long term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergesen, Joseph D; Heath, Garvin A; Gibon, Thomas; Suh, Sangwon

    2014-08-19

    Thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technologies have improved significantly recently, and similar improvements are projected into the future, warranting reevaluation of the environmental implications of PV to update and inform policy decisions. By conducting a hybrid life cycle assessment using the most recent manufacturing data and technology roadmaps, we compare present and projected environmental, human health, and natural resource implications of electricity generated from two common thin-film PV technologies-copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) and cadmium telluride (CdTe)-in the United States (U.S.) to those of the current U.S. electricity mix. We evaluate how the impacts of thin films can be reduced by likely cost-reducing technological changes: (1) module efficiency increases, (2) module dematerialization, (3) changes in upstream energy and materials production, and (4) end-of-life recycling of balance of system (BOS). Results show comparable environmental and resource impacts for CdTe and CIGS. Compared to the U.S. electricity mix in 2010, both perform at least 90% better in 7 of 12 and at least 50% better in 3 of 12 impact categories, with comparable land use, and increased metal depletion unless BOS recycling is ensured. Technological changes, particularly efficiency increases, contribute to 35-80% reductions in all impacts by 2030.

  13. The evolution of parent-offspring conflict over mate choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Pieter; Fawcett, Tim W.; Buunk, Abraham P.; Weissing, Franz J.

    2013-01-01

    In human societies, parents often have a strong influence on the mate choice of their offspring. Moreover, empirical studies show that conflict over mate choice between parents and offspring is widespread across human cultures. Here we provide the first theoretical investigation into this conflict,

  14. Predictability of offspring birth weight using simple parental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    Magnus et al.[12] reported that paternal birth weight has a greater influence on offspring birth weight than maternal birth weight. In contrast, Grifith et al.,[13] in a more recent study, concluded that maternal weight contributed more significantly to offspring's birth weight than paternal weight. Such discrepancies might be a ...

  15. Maternal exercise during pregnancy promotes physical activity in adult offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous rodent studies have shown that maternal voluntary exercise during pregnancy leads to metabolic changes in adult offspring. We set out to test whether maternal voluntary exercise during pregnancy also induces persistent changes in voluntary physical activity in the offspring. Adult C57BL/6J ...

  16. Does brood size manipulation affect later competitive behaviour of offspring?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deKogel, CH

    Data from several field experiments support the existence of a trade-off between number and quality of offspring. However, long term effects of brood size on fitness related traits of offspring have been a relatively neglected area of research. In a laboratory experiment the effect of manipulated

  17. Chronic maternal vitamin B12 restriction induced changes in body composition & glucose metabolism in the Wistar rat offspring are partly correctable by rehabilitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalle Anand Kumar

    Full Text Available Maternal under-nutrition increases the risk of developing metabolic diseases. We studied the effects of chronic maternal dietary vitamin B12 restriction on lean body mass (LBM, fat free mass (FFM, muscle function, glucose tolerance and metabolism in Wistar rat offspring. Prevention/reversibility of changes by rehabilitating restricted mothers from conception or parturition and their offspring from weaning was assessed. Female weaning Wistar rats (n = 30 were fed ad libitum for 12 weeks, a control diet (n = 6 or the same with 40% restriction of vitamin B12 (B12R (n = 24; after confirming deficiency, were mated with control males. Six each of pregnant B12R dams were rehabilitated from conception and parturition and their offspring weaned to control diet. While offspring of six B12R dams were weaned to control diet, those of the remaining six B12R dams continued on B12R diet. Biochemical parameters and body composition were determined in dams before mating and in male offspring at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of their age. Dietary vitamin B12 restriction increased body weight but decreased LBM% and FFM% but not the percent of tissue associated fat (TAF% in dams. Maternal B12R decreased LBM% and FFM% in the male offspring, but their TAF%, basal and insulin stimulated glucose uptake by diaphragm were unaltered. At 12 months age, B12R offspring had higher (than controls fasting plasma glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and impaired glucose tolerance. Their hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme activities were increased. B12R offspring had increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant status. Changes in body composition, glucose metabolism and stress were reversed by rehabilitating B12R dams from conception, whereas rehabilitation from parturition and weaning corrected them partially, highlighting the importance of vitamin B12 during pregnancy and lactation on growth, muscle development, glucose tolerance and metabolism in the offspring.

  18. Effect of Perinatal Lead Exposure on the Social Behaviour of Laboratory Mice Offspring at Adolescent Age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AbuTaweel Qasim M; Ajarem Jamaan S

    2008-01-01

    Lead ( Pb ) was given to Swiss-Webster female mice at the concentrations of 0.1 and 0.2% ( w/v ) , containing 550 and 1100 ppm of lead respectively, in their drinking water. Treatment started from day 1 of pregnancy until day 15 postnatally . Thereafter, the dams were switched to plain tap water. After the weaning period ( 21 days ), all male offspring were isolated (one animal per cage) for 14 days, and the isolated male offspring were subjected to 'Standard Opponenttest' at the age of 36 days . the results of this test showed a significant and dose-dependent increase in the non-social behaviour , whereas such results showed a significant decline in the social behaviour including naso-genital and naso-nasal contact, number of fights, rear, wall rear and displacement activities of the Pb exposed young adult male offspring. The present perinatal Pb effects in the male offspring are possibly via in utero exposure and/or via mother's milk. (author)

  19. Are female starlings able to recognize the scent of their offspring?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Amo

    Full Text Available Although there is growing evidence that birds may have individual chemical profiles that can function in several social contexts, offspring recognition based on olfactory cues has never been explored. This ability should be more likely evolved in colonial birds and/or species suffering brood parasitism, in which the risk of being engaged in costly misdirected parental care is high.We performed a choice experiment to examine whether females of the spotless starling, Sturnus unicolor, a species that is colonial, and where a fraction of the population is exposed to intraspecific brood parasitism, can discriminate between the scent of their offspring and that of unrelated nestlings. We also explored whether the development of the uropygial gland secretion may play a role in such olfactory discrimination by performing the choice experiments to females rearing nestlings of two different ages, that is, without and with developed uropygial glands. Results showed that female starlings did not preferentially choose the scent of their offspring, independently of whether the gland of nestlings was developed or not.Our results suggest that female starlings do not have or do not show the ability to distinguish their offspring based on olfaction, at least up to 12-14 days of nestling age. Further research is needed to examine whether odour-based discrimination may function when fledgling starlings leave the nest and the risk of costly misidentification is likely to increase.

  20. Maternal Antenatal Bereavement and Neural Tube Defect in Live-Born Offspring: A Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Glejsted Ingstrup

    Full Text Available Maternal emotional stress during pregnancy has previously been associated with congenital neural malformations, but most studies are based on data collected retrospectively. The objective of our study was to investigate associations between antenatal maternal bereavement due to death of a close relative and neural tube defects (NTDs in the offspring.We performed a register-based cohort study including all live-born children (N = 1,734,190 from 1978-2008. Exposure was bereavement due to loss of a close relative from one year before conception to the end of the first trimester of pregnancy. The outcome was NTDs in the offspring according to the International Classification of Disease. We used multivariate logistic regression to estimate prevalence odds ratios (ORs.A total of 2% children were born to mothers who lost a close relative prenatally. During 30 years of follow-up, 1,115 children were diagnosed with any NTDs: spina bifida (n = 889, anencephaly (n = 85 and encephalocele (n = 164. And 23 children were diagnosed with two types of NTDs. Overall, when comparing bereaved mothers to non-bereaved mothers, no significant increased prevalence of NTDs in the offspring was seen (OR = 0.84; 95% confidence interval: 0.52-1.33.Overall maternal bereavement in the antenatal period was not related to NTDs in liveborn offspring.

  1. Zika Virus Causes Persistent Infection in Porcine Conceptuses and may Impair Health in Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Darbellay

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Outcomes of Zika virus (ZIKV infection in pregnant women vary from the birth of asymptomatic offspring to abnormal development and severe brain lesions in fetuses and infants. There are concerns that offspring affected in utero and born without apparent symptoms may develop mental illnesses. Therefore, animal models are important to test interventions against in utero infection and health sequelae in symptomatic and likely more widespread asymptomatic offspring. To partially reproduce in utero infection in humans, we directly inoculated selected porcine conceptuses with ZIKV. Inoculation resulted in rapid trans-fetal infections, persistent infection in conceptuses, molecular pathology in fetal brains, fetal antibody and type I interferon responses. Offspring infected in utero showed ZIKV in their fetal membranes collected after birth. Some in utero affected piglets were small, depressed, had undersized brains, and showed seizures. Some piglets showed potentially increased activity. Our data suggest that porcine model of persistent in utero ZIKV infection has a strong potential for translational research and can be used to test therapeutic interventions in vivo.

  2. A maternal-offspring coadaptation theory for the evolution of genomic imprinting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason B Wolf

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Imprinted genes are expressed either from the maternally or paternally inherited copy only, and they play a key role in regulating complex biological processes, including offspring development and mother-offspring interactions. There are several competing theories attempting to explain the evolutionary origin of this monoallelic pattern of gene expression, but a prevailing view has emerged that holds that genomic imprinting is a consequence of conflict between maternal and paternal gene copies over maternal investment. However, many imprinting patterns and the apparent overabundance of maternally expressed genes remain unexplained and may be incompatible with current theory. Here we demonstrate that sole expression of maternal gene copies is favored by natural selection because it increases the adaptive integration of offspring and maternal genomes, leading to higher offspring fitness. This novel coadaptation theory for the evolution of genomic imprinting is consistent with results of recent studies on epigenetic effects, and it provides a testable hypothesis for the origin of previously unexplained major imprinting patterns across different taxa. In conjunction with existing hypotheses, our results suggest that imprinting may have evolved due to different selective pressures at different loci.

  3. Exercise during pregnancy mitigates Alzheimer-like pathology in mouse offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Arne; Donath, Anja; Yarmolenko, Maksym; Uslar, Ellen; Conzen, Catharina; Kanakis, Dimitrios; Bosma, Claudius; Worm, Karl; Paulus, Werner; Keyvani, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity protects brain function in healthy individuals and those with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Evidence for beneficial effects of parental exercise on the health status of their progeny is sparse and limited to nondiseased individuals. Here, we questioned whether maternal running interferes with offspring's AD-like pathology and sought to decipher the underlying mechanisms in TgCRND8 mice. Maternal stimulation was provided by voluntary wheel running vs. standard housing during pregnancy. Following 5 mo of standard housing of transgenic and wild-type offspring, their brains were examined for AD-related pathology and/or plasticity changes. Running during pregnancy reduced β-amyloid (Aβ) plaque burden (-35%, P=0.017) and amyloidogenic APP processing in transgenic offspring and further improved the neurovascular function by orchestrating different Aβ transporters and increasing angiogenesis (+29%, P=0.022). This effect was accompanied by diminished inflammation, as indicated by reduced microgliosis (-20%, P=0.002) and down-regulation of other proinflammatory mediators, and resulted in less oxidative stress, as nitrotyrosine levels declined (-28%, P=0.029). Moreover, plasticity changes (in terms of up-regulation of reelin, synaptophysin, and ARC) were found not only in transgenic but also in wild-type offspring. We conclude that exercise during pregnancy provides long-lasting protection from neurodegeneration and improves brain plasticity in the otherwise unstimulated progeny.

  4. Maternal Fructose Consumption Disrupts Brain Development of Offspring in a Murine Model of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Antonio F; Alshehri, Wael; Lei, Jun; Kechichian, Talar B; Gamble, Phyllis; Alhejaily, Nader; Shabi, Yahya; Saade, George R; Costantine, Maged M; Burd, Irina

    2016-12-01

    Objective  The objective of this study was to localize by neuroimaging the altered structural brain development of these offspring using an autism model of transgenic mice lacking contactin-associated protein-like 2 (Cntnap2). Materials and Methods  Pregnant dams were randomly allocated to fructose solution (10% W/V) as only drinking fluid or water. Cntnap2 heterozygous (+/-) offspring from each group were euthanized at 6 months of age and their whole brains evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging. T2-weighted images were acquired to evaluate the volumes of 29 regions of interest involved in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) pathogenesis. Whole brains were washed and processed for Nissl staining. Mann-Whitney U test and one-way analysis of variance were used for statistical analysis (significance: p  brain alterations were found in the female counterparts. Nissl staining of the caudate putamen revealed higher neuronal cell count in the male fructose offspring. Female group revealed an increase in caudate putamen neuronal cell count. Conclusion  Metabolic dysregulation in pregnancy alters fetal brain development in genetically predisposed offspring. This is consistent with findings in human studies and supports the role of intrauterine factors in the etiology of autism. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  5. Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy Is Associated With Offspring's Musculoskeletal Pain in Adolescence: Structural Equation Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Määttä, Anni-Julia; Paananen, Markus; Marttila, Riikka; Auvinen, Juha; Miettunen, Jouko; Karppinen, Jaro

    2017-07-01

    Smoking and behavioral problems are related to musculoskeletal (MS) pain in adolescence. Maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) is associated with offspring's behavioral problems but its relation to MS pain in adolescence is unknown. Our purpose was to investigate whether there is an association between MSDP, the number of pain sites in adolescence, and the factors that potentially mediate this relationship. We evaluated the association of MSDP with offspring's MS pain at 16 years among participants of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (n = 6436, 3360 girls, 68% of all births) using Chi-square test and independent samples t test. We used structural equation modeling to assess the mediating factors stratified by gender. MSDP was frequent (22%) associating with paternal smoking (p adolescents whose mothers had smoked during pregnancy than among those whose mothers were nonsmokers (p = .002 boys, p = .012 girls). The association between MSDP and MS pain at 16 years was mediated by externalizing problems at 8 years (p adolescence, and the association was mediated by offspring's externalizing problems during childhood and early adolescence. This study indicates that MSDP increases the risk of MS pain in adolescence and the effect is mediated by externalizing problems. Our results add to the evidence on harmfulness of MSDP for offspring, and can be used as additional information in interventions aiming to influence MSDP. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The Role of Maternal Dietary Proteins in Development of Metabolic Syndrome in Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Jahan-Mihan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and obesity has been increasing. Pre-natal environment has been suggested as a factor influencing the risk of metabolic syndrome in adulthood. Both observational and experimental studies showed that maternal diet is a major modifier of the development of regulatory systems in the offspring in utero and post-natally. Both protein content and source in maternal diet influence pre- and early post-natal development. High and low protein dams’ diets have detrimental effect on body weight, blood pressure191 and metabolic and intake regulatory systems in the offspring. Moreover, the role of the source of protein in a nutritionally adequate maternal diet in programming of food intake regulatory system, body weight, glucose metabolism and blood pressure in offspring is studied. However, underlying mechanisms are still elusive. The purpose of this review is to examine the current literature related to the role of proteins in maternal diets in development of characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in offspring.

  7. Do consanguineous parents of a child affected by an autosomal recessive disease have more DNA identical-by-descent than similarly-related parents with healthy offspring? Design of a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teeuw, M.E.; Henneman, L.; Bochdanovits, Z.; Heutink, P.; Kuik, D.J.; Cornel, M.C.; ten Kate, L.P.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The offspring of consanguineous relations have an increased risk of congenital/genetic disorders and early mortality. Consanguineous couples and their offspring account for approximately 10% of the global population. The increased risk for congenital/genetic disorders is most marked for

  8. Association Between Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy and Severe Mental Illness in Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Patrick D; Rickert, Martin E; Weibull, Caroline E; Johansson, Anna L V; Lichtenstein, Paul; Almqvist, Catarina; Larsson, Henrik; Iliadou, Anastasia N; D'Onofrio, Brian M

    2017-06-01

    Several recent population-based studies have linked exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy to increased risk of severe mental illness in offspring (eg, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia). It is not yet clear, however, whether this association results from causal teratogenic effects or from confounding influences shared by smoking and severe mental illness. To examine the association between smoking during pregnancy and severe mental illness in offspring, adjusting for measured covariates and unmeasured confounding using family-based designs. This study analyzed population register data through December 31, 2013, for a cohort of 1 680 219 individuals born in Sweden from January 1, 1983, to December 31, 2001. Associations between smoking during pregnancy and severe mental illness in offspring were estimated with adjustment for measured covariates. Cousins and siblings who were discordant on smoking during pregnancy and severe mental illness were then compared, which helped to account for unmeasured genetic and environmental confounding by design. Maternal self-reported smoking during pregnancy, obtained from antenatal visits. Severe mental illness, with clinical diagnosis obtained from inpatient and outpatient visits and defined using International Classification of Diseases codes for bipolar disorder and schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Of the 1 680 219 offspring included in the analysis, 816 775 (48.61%) were female. At the population level, offspring exposed to moderate and high levels of smoking during pregnancy had greater severe mental illness rates than did unexposed offspring (moderate smoking during pregnancy: hazard ratio [HR], 1.25; 95% CI, 1.19-1.30; high smoking during pregnancy: HR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.44-1.59). These associations decreased in strength with increasing statistical and methodologic controls for familial confounding. In sibling comparisons with within-family covariates, associations were substantially weaker and nonsignificant (moderate

  9. Chronic sleep restriction during pregnancy--repercussion on cardiovascular and