WorldWideScience

Sample records for benefit including life

  1. Cost and benefit including value of life, health and environmental damage measured in time units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Friis-Hansen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Key elements of the authors' work on money equivalent time allocation to costs and benefits in risk analysis are put together as an entity. This includes the data supported dimensionless analysis of an equilibrium relation between total population work time and gross domestic product leading...... of this societal value over the actual costs, used by the owner for economically optimizing an activity, motivates a simple risk accept criterion suited to be imposed on the owner by the public. An illustration is given concerning allocation of economical means for mitigation of loss of life and health on a ferry...

  2. Measuring Quality of Life in Prosthetic Practice: Benefits and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, Pamela; Desmond, Deirdre

    2007-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness that the inclusion of quality of life as an outcome measure is important in ensuring a client-centred and holistic assessment. This review outlines the benefits of quality of life as an outcome measurement in the field of prosthetics. It introduces the key concepts and challenges in the definition and assessment of quality of life post-amputation, including the relative advantages and disadvantages of adopting generic, disease/condition specific, dimension spe...

  3. The Diversification Benefits of Including Carbon Assets in Financial Portfolios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinpeng Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon allowances traded in the EU-Emission Trading Scheme (EU-ETS were initially designed as an economic motivation for efficiently curbing greenhouse as emissions, but now it mimics quite a few characteristics of financial assets, and have now been used as a candidate product in building financial portfolios. In this study, we examine the time-varying correlations between carbon allowance prices with other financial indices, during the third phase of EU-ETS. The results show that, at the beginning of this period, carbon price was still strongly corrected with other financial indices. However, this connection was weakened over time. Given the relative independence of carbon assets from other financial assets, we argue for the diversification benefits of including carbon assets in financial portfolios, and building such portfolios, respectively, with the traditional global minimum variance (GMV strategy, the mean-variance-OGARCH (MV-OGARCH strategy, and the dynamic conditional correlation (DCC strategy. It is shown that the portfolio built with the MV-OGARCH strategy far out-performs the others and that including carbon assets in financial portfolios does help reduce investment risks.

  4. 29 CFR 778.214 - Benefit plans; including profit-sharing plans or trusts providing similar benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... fide plan for providing old age, retirement, life, accident, or health insurance or similar benefits... such employees. Accordingly, reference should be made to § 5.32 of this title as well as to § 778.215... satisfaction of his obligation to provide the specified benefits are also excludable from the regular rate...

  5. Establishment of life insurance benefits, 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    In 1986, Nanjing County in Fujian Province, China, established life insurance policies for only children. Families with only one child paying insurance premiums of 40 yuan will be refunded medical expenses exceeding 200 yuan incurred in caring for the child from birth to age 16.

  6. Earth benefits from space life sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garshnek, V.; Nicogossian, A. E.; Griffiths, L.

    Contributions of space exploration which are widely recognized are those dealing with the impact of space technology on public health and medical services in both urban and remote rural areas. Telecommunications, image enhancement, 3-dimensional image reconstructions, miniaturization, automation, and data analysis, have transformed the delivery of medical care and have brought about a new impetus to the field of biomedicine. Many areas of medical care and biological research have been affected. These include technological breakthroughs in such areas as: (1) diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of cardiovascular diseases, (2) new approaches to the understanding of osteoporosis, (3) early detection of genetic birth defects, (4) emergency medical care, and (5) treatment of chronic metabolic disorders. These are but a few examples where technology originally developed to support space medicine or space research has been applied to solving medical and health care delivery problems on Earth.

  7. Barrier or Benefit? Emotion in Life-Career Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Emotion permeates human life, yet receives little attention in career theory and intervention. Long seen as a barrier to avoid, recent conceptual and empirical work indicate that emotion benefits human behavior and development. Advances in the interdisciplinary science of emotion support examining the construct across differential, developmental,…

  8. Infrastructures and Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    2012-01-01

    Design and maintenance of infrastructures using Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit analysis is discussed in this paper with special emphasis on users costs. This is for several infrastructures such as bridges, highways etc. of great importance. Repair or/and failure of infrastructures will usually result in...

  9. 76 FR 56504 - Proposed Information Collection (Claim for Disability Insurance Benefits, Government Life...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Claim for Disability Insurance Benefits, Government Life Insurance) Activity: Comment Request. AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration, Department of Veterans... information technology. Title: Claim for Disability Insurance Benefits, Government Life Insurance, VA Form...

  10. Life insurance, living benefits, and physician-assisted death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Frederick R; Rubin, Harvey W; Winslade, William J

    2004-01-01

    One of the most significant concerns about the legalization of physician-assisted death in the United States relates to the possibility that a chronically or terminally ill person would choose to end her or his life for financial reasons. Because we believe that the life insurance industry is uniquely poised to help minimize any such incentive, we submit that it has a moral obligation to do so. In particular, we propose that the industry encourage greater flexibility in the payout of policy benefits in the event an insured should be diagnosed with a terminal illness or suffer from intractable pain.

  11. Extending Vulnerability Assessment to Include Life Stages Considerations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma E Hodgson

    Full Text Available Species are experiencing a suite of novel stressors from anthropogenic activities that have impacts at multiple scales. Vulnerability assessment is one tool to evaluate the likely impacts that these stressors pose to species so that high-vulnerability cases can be identified and prioritized for monitoring, protection, or mitigation. Commonly used semi-quantitative methods lack a framework to explicitly account for differences in exposure to stressors and organism responses across life stages. Here we propose a modification to commonly used spatial vulnerability assessment methods that includes such an approach, using ocean acidification in the California Current as an illustrative case study. Life stage considerations were included by assessing vulnerability of each life stage to ocean acidification and were used to estimate population vulnerability in two ways. We set population vulnerability equal to: (1 the maximum stage vulnerability and (2 a weighted mean across all stages, with weights calculated using Lefkovitch matrix models. Vulnerability was found to vary across life stages for the six species explored in this case study: two krill-Euphausia pacifica and Thysanoessa spinifera, pteropod-Limacina helicina, pink shrimp-Pandalus jordani, Dungeness crab-Metacarcinus magister and Pacific hake-Merluccius productus. The maximum vulnerability estimates ranged from larval to subadult and adult stages with no consistent stage having maximum vulnerability across species. Similarly, integrated vulnerability metrics varied greatly across species. A comparison showed that some species had vulnerabilities that were similar between the two metrics, while other species' vulnerabilities varied substantially between the two metrics. These differences primarily resulted from cases where the most vulnerable stage had a low relative weight. We compare these methods and explore circumstances where each method may be appropriate.

  12. Extending Vulnerability Assessment to Include Life Stages Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Emma E.; Essington, Timothy E.; Kaplan, Isaac C.

    2016-01-01

    Species are experiencing a suite of novel stressors from anthropogenic activities that have impacts at multiple scales. Vulnerability assessment is one tool to evaluate the likely impacts that these stressors pose to species so that high-vulnerability cases can be identified and prioritized for monitoring, protection, or mitigation. Commonly used semi-quantitative methods lack a framework to explicitly account for differences in exposure to stressors and organism responses across life stages. Here we propose a modification to commonly used spatial vulnerability assessment methods that includes such an approach, using ocean acidification in the California Current as an illustrative case study. Life stage considerations were included by assessing vulnerability of each life stage to ocean acidification and were used to estimate population vulnerability in two ways. We set population vulnerability equal to: (1) the maximum stage vulnerability and (2) a weighted mean across all stages, with weights calculated using Lefkovitch matrix models. Vulnerability was found to vary across life stages for the six species explored in this case study: two krill–Euphausia pacifica and Thysanoessa spinifera, pteropod–Limacina helicina, pink shrimp–Pandalus jordani, Dungeness crab–Metacarcinus magister and Pacific hake–Merluccius productus. The maximum vulnerability estimates ranged from larval to subadult and adult stages with no consistent stage having maximum vulnerability across species. Similarly, integrated vulnerability metrics varied greatly across species. A comparison showed that some species had vulnerabilities that were similar between the two metrics, while other species’ vulnerabilities varied substantially between the two metrics. These differences primarily resulted from cases where the most vulnerable stage had a low relative weight. We compare these methods and explore circumstances where each method may be appropriate. PMID:27416031

  13. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(9)-3 - Voluntary employees' beneficiary associations; life, sick, accident, or other benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... association to a member. The term life benefit does not include a pension, annuity or similar benefit, except... benefit that is similar to a pension or annuity payable at the time of mandatory or voluntary retirement... under a pension, annuity, stock bonus or profit-sharing plan if it provides for deferred...

  14. Modelling User-Costs in Life Cycle Cost-Benefit (LCCB) analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    2008-01-01

    The importance of including user's costs in Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit analysis of structures is discussed in this paper. This is especially for bridges of great importance. Repair or/and failure of a bridge will usually result in user costs greater than the repair or replacement costs of the bridge...

  15. Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit (LCCB) Analysis of Bridges from a User and Social Point of View

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    2009-01-01

    During the last two decades, important progress has been made in the life-cycle cost-benefit (LCCB) analysis of structures, especially offshore platforms, bridges and nuclear installations. Due to the large uncertainties related to the deterioration, maintenance, and benefits of such structures...... is to present and discuss some of these problems from a user and social point of view. A brief presentation of a preliminary study of the importance of including benefits in life-cycle cost-benefit analysis in management systems for bridges is shown. Benefits may be positive as well as negative from the user...

  16. 78 FR 33450 - Submission for Review: Report of Withholdings and Contributions for Health Benefits, Life...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ...) Report of Withholdings and Contributions for Health Benefits, Life Insurance and Retirement (Standard... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Report of Withholdings and Contributions for Health Benefits, Life Insurance and Retirement (Standard Form 2812); Report of Withholdings and Contributions for Health...

  17. Compost benefits for agriculture evaluated by life cycle assessment. A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez-Blanco, Julie; Lazcano, Cristina; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2013-01-01

    in previous studies, the assessment of the benefits of compost on plant and soil has been only partially included in few published works. In the present study, we reviewed the recent progresses made in the quantification of the positive effects associated to biowaste compost use on land by using life cycle...... showed that both quantification and impact assessment could be performed, meaning that these two benefits should be regularly included in LCA studies. (2) For pest and disease suppression, soil workability, biodiversity, crop nutritional quality, and crop yield, although the benefits were proved......As compost use in agriculture increases, there is an urgent need to evaluate the specific environmental benefits and impacts as compared with other types of fertilizers and soil amendments. While the environmental impacts associated with compost production have been successfully assessed...

  18. 76 FR 41525 - Hewlett Packard Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit, including teleworkers reporting to... Employment and Training Administration Hewlett Packard Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles... Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit, including teleworkers reporting to Houston,...

  19. Benefits of a Working Memory Training Program for Inattention in Daily Life: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Megan Spencer-Smith; Torkel Klingberg

    2015-01-01

    Background Many common disorders across the lifespan feature impaired working memory (WM). Reported benefits of a WM training program include improving inattention in daily life, but this has not been evaluated in a meta-analysis. This study aimed to evaluate whether one WM training method has benefits for inattention in daily life by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods We searched Medline and PsycINFO, relevant journals and contacted authors for studies with an interven...

  20. Revisiting the Life Cycle of Dung Fungi, Including Sordaria fimicola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcombe, George; Campbell, Jason; Griffith, David; Baynes, Melissa; Launchbaugh, Karen; Pendleton, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    Dung fungi, such as Sordaria fimicola, generally reproduce sexually with ascospores discharged from mammalian dung after passage through herbivores. Their life cycle is thought to be obligate to dung, and thus their ascospores in Quaternary sediments have been interpreted as evidence of past mammalian herbivore activity. Reports of dung fungi as endophytes would seem to challenge the view that they are obligate to dung. However, endophyte status is controversial because surface-sterilization protocols could fail to kill dung fungus ascospores stuck to the plant surface. Thus, we first tested the ability of representative isolates of three common genera of dung fungi to affect plant growth and fecundity given that significant effects on plant fitness could not result from ascospores merely stuck to the plant surface. Isolates of S. fimicola, Preussia sp., and Sporormiella sp. reduced growth and fecundity of two of three populations of Bromus tectorum, the host from which they had been isolated. In further work with S. fimicola we showed that inoculations of roots of B. tectorum led to some colonization of aboveground tissues. The same isolate of S. fimicola reproduced sexually on inoculated host plant tissues as well as in dung after passage through sheep, thus demonstrating a facultative rather than an obligate life cycle. Finally, plants inoculated with S. fimicola were not preferred by sheep; preference had been expected if the fungus were obligate to dung. Overall, these findings make us question the assumption that these fungi are obligate to dung. PMID:26839959

  1. Revisiting the Life Cycle of Dung Fungi, Including Sordaria fimicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcombe, George; Campbell, Jason; Griffith, David; Baynes, Melissa; Launchbaugh, Karen; Pendleton, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    Dung fungi, such as Sordaria fimicola, generally reproduce sexually with ascospores discharged from mammalian dung after passage through herbivores. Their life cycle is thought to be obligate to dung, and thus their ascospores in Quaternary sediments have been interpreted as evidence of past mammalian herbivore activity. Reports of dung fungi as endophytes would seem to challenge the view that they are obligate to dung. However, endophyte status is controversial because surface-sterilization protocols could fail to kill dung fungus ascospores stuck to the plant surface. Thus, we first tested the ability of representative isolates of three common genera of dung fungi to affect plant growth and fecundity given that significant effects on plant fitness could not result from ascospores merely stuck to the plant surface. Isolates of S. fimicola, Preussia sp., and Sporormiella sp. reduced growth and fecundity of two of three populations of Bromus tectorum, the host from which they had been isolated. In further work with S. fimicola we showed that inoculations of roots of B. tectorum led to some colonization of aboveground tissues. The same isolate of S. fimicola reproduced sexually on inoculated host plant tissues as well as in dung after passage through sheep, thus demonstrating a facultative rather than an obligate life cycle. Finally, plants inoculated with S. fimicola were not preferred by sheep; preference had been expected if the fungus were obligate to dung. Overall, these findings make us question the assumption that these fungi are obligate to dung.

  2. Revisiting the Life Cycle of Dung Fungi, Including Sordaria fimicola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Newcombe

    Full Text Available Dung fungi, such as Sordaria fimicola, generally reproduce sexually with ascospores discharged from mammalian dung after passage through herbivores. Their life cycle is thought to be obligate to dung, and thus their ascospores in Quaternary sediments have been interpreted as evidence of past mammalian herbivore activity. Reports of dung fungi as endophytes would seem to challenge the view that they are obligate to dung. However, endophyte status is controversial because surface-sterilization protocols could fail to kill dung fungus ascospores stuck to the plant surface. Thus, we first tested the ability of representative isolates of three common genera of dung fungi to affect plant growth and fecundity given that significant effects on plant fitness could not result from ascospores merely stuck to the plant surface. Isolates of S. fimicola, Preussia sp., and Sporormiella sp. reduced growth and fecundity of two of three populations of Bromus tectorum, the host from which they had been isolated. In further work with S. fimicola we showed that inoculations of roots of B. tectorum led to some colonization of aboveground tissues. The same isolate of S. fimicola reproduced sexually on inoculated host plant tissues as well as in dung after passage through sheep, thus demonstrating a facultative rather than an obligate life cycle. Finally, plants inoculated with S. fimicola were not preferred by sheep; preference had been expected if the fungus were obligate to dung. Overall, these findings make us question the assumption that these fungi are obligate to dung.

  3. 5 CFR 352.309 - Retirement, health benefits, and group life insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... life insurance. 352.309 Section 352.309 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... Organizations § 352.309 Retirement, health benefits, and group life insurance. (a) Agency action. An employee... entitled to retain coverage for retirement, health benefits, and group life insurance purposes if he or...

  4. Experiences of including costs of added life years in health economic evaluations in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pirhonen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It is of importance to include the appropriate costs and outcomes when evaluating a health intervention. Sweden is the only country where the national guidelines of decisions on reimbursement explicitly state that costs of added life years should be accounted for when presenting health economic evaluations. The aim of this article is to, from a theoretical and empirical point of view, critically analyze the Swedish recommendations used by the Dental and Pharmaceutical Benefits Agency (TLV, when it comes to the use of costs of added life years in economic evaluations of health care. The aim is furthermore to analyze the numbers used in Sweden and discuss their impact on the incremental cost‑effectiveness ratios of assessed technologies. If following a societal perspective, based on welfare economics, there is strong support for the inclusion of costs of added life years in health economic evaluations. These costs have a large impact on the results. However this fact may be in conflict with ethical concerns of allocation of health care resources, such as favoring the younger part of the population over the older. It is important that the estimates of production and consumption reflect the true societal values, which is not the case with the values used in Sweden.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/fe.v15i2.925

  5. 41 CFR 60-741.25 - Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans. 60-741.25 Section 60-741.25 Public Contracts and Property Management... Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans. (a) An insurer, hospital, or medical...

  6. 41 CFR 60-300.25 - Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans. 60-300.25 Section 60-300.25 Public Contracts and Property Management..., life insurance and other benefit plans. (a) An insurer, hospital, or medical service company,...

  7. 41 CFR 60-250.25 - Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans. 60-250.25 Section 60-250.25 Public Contracts and Property Management..., life insurance and other benefit plans. (a) An insurer, hospital, or medical service company,...

  8. Climatic Benefit of Swiss Forest Cover Change: Including Albedo Change into Net Carbon Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaab, J.; Lehning, M.; Bebi, P.

    2012-12-01

    Forests influence climate through physical, chemical and biological processes. It has been shown that warming caused by the comparatively low albedo of forests (albedo-effect), can reduce or even exceed cooling caused by carbon storage in forests (CO2-effect). Although warming caused by albedo and the amount of carbon storage depend on local characteristics, studies are lacking that investigate the combined local patterns of albedo and CO2-effect. Our study area, Switzerland, provides a variety of geographical features and thus the possibility to show how different geographical variables influence the two effects. We used the concept of radiative forcing to compare the effect of a changing albedo and a change in atmospheric CO2 concentration due to land cover change in the past. The change of forest cover was analysed over a period of 12 years based on aerial photographs. We estimate the albedo-effect by combining albedo data derived from the satellite sensor MODIS and data on snow cover derived from the satellite sensor AVHRR. Changes in carbon storage were calculated as differences in biomass and soil stocks of specific land cover classes. We found carbon storage induced cooling to be higher than albedo induced warming everywhere in Switzerland. However, especially in altitudes over 1200 m the albedo-effect reduced the benefits of carbon storage by more than 50%. In lower altitudes the albedo change was less important. The albedo-effect in altitudes above 1200 m was more relevant because of a more persistent snow-cover, a slightly higher global radiation and less additional carbon storage. The relevance of warming caused by an albedo change did not only depend on altitude, but also on the characteristics of forest cover change. While transitions from open land to open forest were accompanied by high albedo changes, the albedo change was only marginal if open forest turned into closed forest. Since snow cover has a large influence on the albedo effect, we included

  9. Safety and Benefit of Discontinuing Statin Therapy in the Setting of Advanced, Life-Limiting Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutner, Jean S.; Blatchford, Patrick J.; Taylor, Don H.; Ritchie, Christine S.; Bull, Janet H.; Fairclough, Diane L.; Hanson, Laura C.; LeBlanc, Thomas W.; Samsa, Greg P.; Wolf, Steven; Aziz, Noreen M.; Currow, David C.; Ferrell, Betty; Wagner-Johnston, Nina; Zafar, S. Yousuf; Cleary, James F.; Dev, Sandesh; Goode, Patricia S.; Kamal, Arif H.; Kassner, Cordt; Kvale, Elizabeth A.; McCallum, Janelle G.; Ogunseitan, Adeboye B.; Pantilat, Steven Z.; Portenoy, Russell K.; Prince-Paul, Maryjo; Sloan, Jeff A.; Swetz, Keith M.; Von Gunten, Charles F.; Abernethy, Amy P.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE For patients with limited prognosis, some medication risks may outweigh the benefits, particularly when benefits take years to accrue; statins are one example. Data are lacking regarding the risks and benefits of discontinuing statin therapy for patients with limited life expectancy. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the safety, clinical, and cost impact of discontinuing statin medications for patients in the palliative care setting. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This was a multicenter, parallel-group, unblinded, pragmatic clinical trial. Eligibility included adults with an estimated life expectancy of between 1 month and 1 year, statin therapy for 3 months or more for primary or secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, recent deterioration in functional status, and no recent active cardiovascular disease. Participants were randomized to either discontinue or continue statin therapy and were monitored monthly for up to 1 year. The study was conducted from June 3, 2011, to May 2, 2013. All analyses were performed using an intent-to-treat approach. INTERVENTIONS Statin therapy was withdrawn from eligible patients who were randomized to the discontinuation group. Patients in the continuation group continued to receive statins. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Outcomes included death within 60 days (primary outcome), survival, cardiovascular events, performance status, quality of life (QOL), symptoms, number of nonstatin medications, and cost savings. RESULTS A total of 381 patients were enrolled; 189 of these were randomized to discontinue statins, and 192 were randomized to continue therapy. Mean (SD) age was 74.1 (11.6) years, 22.0% of the participants were cognitively impaired, and 48.8% had cancer. The proportion of participants in the discontinuation vs continuation groups who died within 60 days was not significantly different (23.8% vs 20.3%; 90% CI, −3.5% to 10.5%; P = .36) and did not meet the noninferiority end point. Total QOL was better for the group

  10. Hope, quality of life, and benefit from treatment in women having chemotherapy for platinum-resistant/refractory recurrent ovarian cancer: the gynecologic cancer intergroup symptom benefit study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjoquist, Katrin M; Friedlander, Michael L; O'Connell, Rachel L; Voysey, Merryn; King, Madeleine T; Stockler, Martin R; Oza, Amit M; Gillies, Kim; Martyn, Julie K; Butow, Phyllis N

    2013-01-01

    Chemotherapy for platinum-resistant/refractory ovarian cancer is motivated by the hope of benefit. We sought to determine the relationships between: (a) trait hope, expectation of symptom benefit from chemotherapy, and anxiety and depression; (b) hope and perceived efficacy of chemotherapy; and (c) unfulfilled hope (where expectations for benefit are not fulfilled) and depression. Methods. Adult patients enrolled within stage 1 of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup Symptom Benefit Study were included. Patient. Reported outcomes were collected from 126 women with predominantly platinum-resistant ovarian cancer at baseline, prior to the first four treatment cycles (12-16 weeks), and four weeks after completing chemotherapy or at disease progression, whichever came first. Associations were assessed with Spearman rank correlation coefficient (r) and odds ratio. Results. Trait hope and expectation of symptom benefit from chemotherapy were weakly correlated with each other (r = 0.25). Trait hope, but not expectation of symptom benefit, was negatively correlated with anxiety (r = -0.43) and depression (r = -0.50). The smaller the discrepancy between perceived and expected symptom benefit, the less likely the patient was to have scores indicative of depression (odds ratio: 0.68; 95% confidence interval: 0.49-0.96; p = .026). Conclusion. Trait hope and expectation of symptom benefit from chemotherapy appear to be distinct and independent of the aspects of quality of life and scores for depression. Hope did not appear to affect perceived efficacy of chemotherapy in alleviating symptoms, but women whose expectation of symptom benefit from chemotherapy was not fulfilled were more likely to have scores indicative of depression. It may be preferable to encourage hope toward achievable goals rather than toward benefits from chemotherapy.

  11. Benefits of Including Siblings in the Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraioli, Suzannah J.; Hansford, Amy; Harris, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    Having a brother or sister with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can significantly impact the life of a typically developing sibling. These relationships are generally characterized by less frequent and nurturing interactions than are evident in sibling constellations with neurotypical children or children with other developmental disabilities.…

  12. An Initial Look at the Quality of Life of Malaysian Families That Include Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M.; Brown, R.; Karrapaya, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: While there is a growing body of literature in the quality of life of families that include children with disabilities, the majority of research has been conducted in western countries. The present study provides an initial exploration of the quality of life of Malaysian families that include children with developmental/intellectual…

  13. Assessment of the Long-Term Benefits of Life Skills Programming on Psychosocial Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ruby; Reddon, John R.; Hoglin, Brenda; Woodman, Mary-Ann

    2008-01-01

    The durability of the psychosocial benefits of Life Skills programming on outpatient adults with mental health/forensic issues was examined. Participants were 52 adults (28 males, 24 females) who completed 16 weeks of Life Skills at a psychiatric outpatient clinic and were re-assessed between six months and six years following treatment.…

  14. Employee preferences for work-life benefits in a large New Zealand construction company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Morrison

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry is a challenging environment in which to work, with job characteristics that are linked to work-life conflict, and it is important for its future sustainability that initiatives to support employee work-life balance are undertaken. 121 head office and site-based employees within a large New Zealand construction company rated their preferences for work-life benefits, and the results were compared with those of a similar previous (Australian study. The most preferred work-life benefit factor (as for the previous Australian study was found to be ‘wellness and personal development’. Results suggest that company provision of a wide variety of work-life benefits from which employees can choose during different stages in their life and career is ideal. Qualitative results suggest some work-life conflict associated with working long hours and weekend work exists. It is proposed that to attract and retain valuable employees, the New Zealand construction industry must provide useful work-life benefits, reasonable working hours, and supportive workplace cultures in line with such initiatives.

  15. Employee preferences for work-life benefits in a large New Zealand construction company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Morrison

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry is a challenging environment in which to work, with job characteristics that are linked to work-life conflict, and it is important for its future sustainability that initiatives to support employee work-life balance are undertaken. 121 head office and site-based employees within a large New Zealand construction company rated their preferences for work-life benefits, and the results were compared with those of a similar previous (Australian study. The most preferred work-life benefit factor (as for the previous Australian study was found to be ‘wellness and personal development’. Results suggest that company provision of a wide variety of work-life benefits from which employees can choose during different stages in their life and career is ideal. Qualitative results suggest some work-life conflict associated with working long hours and weekend work exists. It is proposed that to attract and retain valuable employees, the New Zealand construction industry must provide useful work-life benefits, reasonable working hours, and supportive workplace cultures in line with such initiatives. 

  16. Calculations of environmental benefits from using geothermal energy must include the rebound effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atlason, R. S.; Unnthorsson, Runar

    2017-01-01

    and energy production patterns are simulated using data from countries with similar environmental conditions but do not use geothermal or hydropower to the same extent as Iceland. Because of the rapid shift towards renewable energy and exclusion of external energy provision, the country is considered......When considering the environmental benefits from converting to renewable energy sources, the rebound effect is often omitted. In this study, the aim is to investigate greenhouse gas emission reduction inclusive of the rebound effect. We use Iceland as a case study where alternative consumption...

  17. Quantum dots in life sciences: applications, benefits, and safety issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delehanty, James B.; Bradburne, Christopher E.; Boeneman, Kelly; Susumu, Kimihiro; Mei, Bing C.; Blanco-Canosa, Juan B.; Dawson, Phillip E.; Mattoussi, Hedi; Huston, Alan; Medintz, Igor L.

    2010-04-01

    Luminescent semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) possess several unique optical and spectroscopic properties including high quantum yields, broad absorption spectra coupled to narrow symmetric, size-tunable emissions allowing large achievable Stokes shifts, and exceptional resistance to photo- and chemical degradation. These properties make QDs unique enabling materials for the development of the next generation of highly efficient biosensors for health security applications, particularly within the context of living and fixed cells. Paramount in this developmental process is addressing the biocompatibility of the QD materials. We are developing robust and facile delivery schemes for the selective intracellular delivery of QD-based nanoassemblies. These schemes are based upon the self-assembly and subsequent cellular uptake of QD-peptide and QD-polymer bioconjugates. Cellular delivery experiments utilizing both delivery schemes will be presented. The advantages and disadvantages of each approach will be discussed, including the intracellular fate and stability of the QD-nanoassemblies.

  18. The benefits of bad economies: Business cycles and time-based work-life conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Christopher M; Lefter, Alexandru M; Bhave, Devasheesh P; Wagner, David T

    2016-04-01

    Recent management research has indicated the importance of family, sleep, and recreation as nonwork activities of employees. Drawing from entrainment theory, we develop an expanded model of work-life conflict to contend that macrolevel business cycles influence the amount of time employees spend on both work and nonwork activities. Focusing solely on working adults, we test this model in a large nationally representative dataset from the Bureau of Labor Statistics that spans an 8-year period, which includes the "Great Recession" from 2007 through 2009. We find that during economic booms, employees work more and therefore spend less time with family, sleeping, and recreating. In contrast, in recessionary economies, employees spend less time working and therefore more time with family, sleeping, and recreating. Thus, we extend the theory on time-based work-to-family conflict, showing that there are potential personal and relational benefits for employees in recessionary economies.

  19. 76 FR 34271 - Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit, Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ... workers of Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit... Employment and Training Administration Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles... Supply Chain Group, including leased workers from QFlex, North America Logistics and UPS...

  20. Life-cycle cost-benefit analysis of extensive vegetated roof systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Timothy; Keeler, Andrew

    2008-05-01

    The built environment has been a significant cause of environmental degradation in the previously undeveloped landscape. As public and private interest in restoring the environmental integrity of urban areas continues to increase, new construction practices are being developed that explicitly value beneficial environmental characteristics. The use of vegetation on a rooftop--commonly called a green roof--as an alternative to traditional roofing materials is an increasingly utilized example of such practices. The vegetation and growing media perform a number of functions that improve environmental performance, including: absorption of rainfall, reduction of roof temperatures, improvement in ambient air quality, and provision of urban habitat. A better accounting of the green roof's total costs and benefits to society and to the private sector will aid in the design of policy instruments and educational materials that affect individual decisions about green roof construction. This study uses data collected from an experimental green roof plot to develop a benefit cost analysis (BCA) for the life cycle of extensive (thin layer) green roof systems in an urban watershed. The results from this analysis are compared with a traditional roofing scenario. The net present value (NPV) of this type of green roof currently ranges from 10% to 14% more expensive than its conventional counterpart. A reduction of 20% in green roof construction cost would make the social NPV of the practice less than traditional roof NPV. Considering the positive social benefits and relatively novel nature of the practice, incentives encouraging the use of this practice in highly urbanized watersheds are strongly recommended.

  1. Life cycle impacts and benefits of a carbon nanotube-enabled chemical gas sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbertson, Leanne M; Busnaina, Ahmed A; Isaacs, Jacqueline A; Zimmerman, Julie B; Eckelman, Matthew J

    2014-10-07

    As for any emerging technology, it is critical to assess potential life cycle impacts prior to widespread adoption to prevent future unintended consequences. The subject of this life cycle study is a carbon nanotube-enabled chemical gas sensor, which is a highly complex, low nanomaterial-concentration application with the potential to impart significant human health benefits upon implementation. Thus, the net lifecycle trade-offs are quantified using an impact-benefit ratio (IBR) approach proposed herein, where an IBR < 1 indicates that the downstream benefits outweigh the upstream impacts. The cradle-to-gate assessment results indicate that the midpoint impacts associated with producing CNTs are marginal compared with those associated with the other manufacturing stages. The cumulative upstream impacts are further aggregated to units of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) using ReCiPe end point analysis method and quantitatively compared with the potential downstream DALY benefits, as lives saved, during the use phase. The approach presented in this study provides a guiding framework and quantitative method intended to encourage the development of nanoenabled products that have the potential to realize a net environmental, health, or societal benefit.

  2. Benefits of Exercise for the Quality of Life of Drug-Dependent Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez-Meseguer, Jorge; Tortosa-Martínez, Juan; de los Remedios Fernández-Valenciano, María

    2015-01-01

    This study combined quantitative and qualitative research methods to evaluate quality-of-life changes in drug-dependent patients after participation in a group-based exercise program. Quality of life (SF-36) and physical fitness (six-minute Walk Test, Timed Get Up and Go Test, and Chair Stand Test) were quantitatively determined in a group (n=37) of drug-dependent patients before and after a 12-week group exercise program (n=18) or routine care (n=19). Additionally, in-depth interviews were conducted at the end of the program with a subsample of 11 participants from the exercise group. Quantitative results showed improvements in fitness and different aspects of quality of life, such as physical function, mental health, vitality, social function, and general health perception. Qualitative results showed specific physical benefits (decreased injuries and muscle pain, decreased weight, and increased vitality with improvement in activities of daily living), psychological benefits (forgetting about everyday problems, improved mood, decreased stress and anxiety), social benefits, and a reduction in craving. The results of this study provide insight into the importance of exercise for the quality of life and recovery process of drug-dependent patients.

  3. Benefits of a working memory training program for inattention in daily life: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Spencer-Smith

    Full Text Available Many common disorders across the lifespan feature impaired working memory (WM. Reported benefits of a WM training program include improving inattention in daily life, but this has not been evaluated in a meta-analysis. This study aimed to evaluate whether one WM training method has benefits for inattention in daily life by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis.We searched Medline and PsycINFO, relevant journals and contacted authors for studies with an intervention and control group reporting post-training estimates of inattention in daily life. To reduce the influence of different WM training methods on the findings, the review was restricted to trials evaluating the Cogmed method. A meta-analysis calculated the pooled standardised difference in means (SMD between intervention and control groups.A total of 622 studies were identified and 12 studies with 13 group comparisons met inclusion criteria. The meta-analysis showed a significant training effect on inattention in daily life, SMD=-0.47, 95% CI -0.65, -0.29, p<.00001. Subgroup analyses showed this significant effect was observed in groups of children and adults as well as users with and without ADHD, and in studies using control groups that were active and non-adaptive, wait-list and passive as well as studies using specific or general measures. Seven of the studies reported follow-up assessment and a meta-analysis showed persisting training benefits for inattention in daily life, SMD=-0.33, 95% CI -0.57 -0.09, p=.006. Additional meta-analyses confirmed improvements after training on visuospatial WM, SMD=0.66, 95% CI 0.43, 0.89, p<.00001, and verbal WM tasks, SMD=0.40, 95% CI 0.18, 0.62, p=.0004.Benefits of a WM training program generalise to improvements in everyday functioning. Initial evidence shows that the Cogmed method has significant benefits for inattention in daily life with a clinically relevant effect size.

  4. Reliability Analysis of Brittle Material Structures - Including MEMS(?) - With the CARES/Life Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Noel N.

    2002-01-01

    Brittle materials are being used, or considered, for a wide variety of high tech applications that operate in harsh environments, including static and rotating turbine parts. thermal protection systems, dental prosthetics, fuel cells, oxygen transport membranes, radomes, and MEMS. Designing components to sustain repeated load without fracturing while using the minimum amount of material requires the use of a probabilistic design methodology. The CARES/Life code provides a general-purpose analysis tool that predicts the probability of failure of a ceramic component as a function of its time in service. For this presentation an interview of the CARES/Life program will be provided. Emphasis will be placed on describing the latest enhancements to the code for reliability analysis with time varying loads and temperatures (fully transient reliability analysis). Also, early efforts in investigating the validity of using Weibull statistics, the basis of the CARES/Life program, to characterize the strength of MEMS structures will be described as as well as the version of CARES/Life for MEMS (CARES/MEMS) being prepared which incorporates single crystal and edge flaw reliability analysis capability. It is hoped this talk will open a dialog for potential collaboration in the area of MEMS testing and life prediction.

  5. Integrating Life-cycle Assessment into Transport Cost-benefit Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzo, Stefano; Salling, Kim Bang

    2016-01-01

    -term sustainability of a transport infrastructure project. In the present study we suggest to overcome this limit by combining a conventional life-cycle assessment approach with standard transport cost-benefit analysis. The suggested methodology is tested upon a case study project related to the construction of a new....... Additionally, they can significantly modify the weight of the different components of the overall project costs – evidently becoming a significant part of the estimated construction cost. Therefore, the suggested approach guarantees a higher quality of information thus providing decision makers with a more......Traditional transport Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) commonly ignores the indirect environmental impacts of an infrastructure project deriving from the overall life-cycle of the different project components. Such indirect impacts are instead of key importance in order to assess the long...

  6. Work–life balance policies: Challenges and benefits associated with implementing flexitime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Downes

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Helping employees to balance their work and family lives is a business imperative. Work–life balance policies (like flexitime aim to support employees to do so. However, implementing these policies is problematic.Research purpose: The aim of this article is to report on the challenges and benefits associated with implementing flexitime as a work–life balance policy.Motivation for the study: Organisations must develop and implement work–life balance policies. This requires human resource practitioners to investigate and understand experiences and perceptions about the challenges and benefits of flexitime.Research design, approach and method: The researcher used a qualitative research design with an exploratory approach. She drew a nonprobability purposive and voluntary sample (n = 15 from the financial sector. She used semi-structured in-depth interviews to collect the data and conducted content analyses to analyse and interpret them.Main findings: The researcher extracted four main themes (individual and general challenges, the aspects organisations need to implement flexitime effectively and the benefits that would follow its implementation from the data. Its benefits vary from work–life balance to employee loyalty and commitment. Some challenges are maintaining productivity, a shortage of critical resources and understanding flexitime.Practical/managerial implications: The research identified requirements that human resource practitioners should attend to in order to ensure that organisations use flexitime more effectively.Contribution/value-add: The researcher obtained unique findings about the minimum requirements for implementing flexitime effectively. They could assist organisations to address the challenges that employees face.

  7. Life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas emission benefits of lightweighting in automobiles: review and harmonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Chul; Wallington, Timothy J

    2013-06-18

    Replacing conventional materials (steel and iron) with lighter alternatives (e.g., aluminum, magnesium, and composites) decreases energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during vehicle use but may increase energy consumption and GHG emissions during vehicle production. There have been many life cycle assessment (LCA) studies on the benefits of vehicle lightweighting, but the wide variety of assumptions used makes it difficult to compare results from the studies. To clarify the benefits of vehicle lightweighting we have reviewed the available literature (43 studies). The GHG emissions and primary energy results from 33 studies that passed a screening process were harmonized using a common set of assumptions (lifetime distance traveled, fuel-mass coefficient, secondary weight reduction factor, fuel consumption allocation, recycling rate, and energy intensity of materials). After harmonization, all studies indicate that using aluminum, glass-fiber reinforced plastic, and high strength steel to replace conventional steel decreases the vehicle life cycle energy use and GHG emissions. Given the flexibility in options implied by the variety of materials available and consensus that these materials have substantial energy and emissions benefits, it seems likely that lightweighting will be used increasingly to improve fuel economy and reduce life cycle GHG emissions from vehicles.

  8. Analysis of accelerated death benefit claims at a Japanese life insurance company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Miyoharu; Kudomi, Hiroyuki

    2002-01-01

    We studied accelerated death benefit (ADB) claims at the Dai-ichi Mutual Life Insurance Company (Dai-ichi Life). The ADB provision is designed to pay all or a portion of the death benefit if the insured is expected to die within 6 months. Dai-ichi Life paid 243 ADB claims and did not pay 17 ADB claims between December 1994 and March 1998. Of the 260 ADB claims, 253 (97.3%) were caused by malignant neoplasm, 2 by intracranial hemorrhage, 2 by angina pectoris, 1 by dilated cardiomyopathy, 1 by hepatic cirrhosis, and 1 by bleeding gastric ulcer. The age range of the 243 paid claims at the time when the attendant physician predicted a life expectancy below 6 months was 21.6-72.6 years (48.7 +/- 8.7 years [Mean +/- SD]). By the end of March 2000, 236 cases were followed up among the above 243 paid ADB claims. Of the 236 followed-up cases, 149 (63.1%) died within 6 months and 203 (86.0%) died within 1 year. The range of survival periods of these 236 cases was 6-1516 days (210 +/- 237 days). Of the 217 dead cases due to malignant neoplasm, 45 (20.7%) died of gastric cancer, 44 (20.3%) of lung cancer, 24 (11.1%) of liver cancer, 16 (7.4%) of colon cancer, 13 (6.0%) of rectum cancer, and 12 (5.5%) of pancreatic cancer.

  9. Extending ideas about animal welfare assessment to include 'quality of life' and related concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, T C; Mellor, D J

    2011-11-01

    Ideas within the animal welfare science arena have evolved continuously throughout the last 30 years, and will continue to do so. This paper outlines some of these developments. These included reformulation of the five freedoms concept into the five domains of potential welfare compromise. This accommodated weaknesses in the former by distinguishing between the physical/functional and the mental factors that contribute to an animal's welfare state. This development reflected a rising scientific acceptance that the mental experiences of animals were legitimate foci for study and highlighted that what the animal itself experiences represents its welfare status. Initially, most concepts of animal welfare emphasised predominantly negative subjective experiences, such as thirst, hunger and pain, and negative affective states or feelings including anxiety, fear and boredom, but today positive experiences or emotions such as satiety, vitality, reward, contentment, curiosity and playfulness are also considered to be important. During the same period, the focus shifted from evaluating the impacts of individual mental subjective experiences or emotions towards seeking a more comprehensive, multifactorial understanding. The five domains concept was specifically designed to achieve this. Subsequent notions about quality of life (QoL) had the same objective, and emphasised the importance of positive experiences. However, some approaches to QoL assessment relied heavily on empathetic speculation about what animals may experience subjectively and this raised concerns about inappropriate anthropomorphic projections. Such pitfalls may be minimised when informed personnel rigorously apply objectively based methodologies to QoL assessments limited to a short time frame. It is clear that both formal and somewhat less formal QoL assessments of this type are already used to guide decision-making about the ongoing care and therapeutic management of animals on a daily basis. However

  10. Can nanotechnology deliver the promised benefits without negatively impacting soil microbial life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimkpa, Christian O

    2014-09-01

    Nanotechnology exploits the enhanced reactivity of materials at the atomic scale to improve various applications for humankind. In agriculture, potential nanotechnology applications include crop protection and fertilization. However, such benefits could come with risks for the environment: non-target plants, plant-beneficial soil microbes and other life forms could be impacted if nanoparticles (nanomaterials) contaminate the environment. This review evaluates the impact of the major metallic nanoparticles (Ag, ZnO, CuO, CeO2 , TiO2 , and FeO-based nanoparticles) on soil microbes involved in agricultural processes. The current literature indicate that in addition to population and organismal-scale effects on microbes, other subtle impacts of nanoparticles are seen in the nitrogen cycle, soil enzyme activities, and processes involved in iron metabolism, phytohormone, and antibiotic production. These effects are negative or positive, the outcome being dependent on specific nanoparticles. Collectively, published results suggest that nanotechnology portends considerable, many negative, implications for soil microbes and, thus, agricultural processes that are microbially driven. Nonetheless, the potential of plant and soil microbial processes to mitigate the bioreactivity of nanoparticles also are observed. Whereas the roots of most terrestrial plants are associated with microbes, studies of nanoparticle interactions with plants and microbes are generally conducted separately. The few studies in actual microbe-plant systems found effects of nanoparticles on the functioning of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, nitrogen fixation, as well as on the production of microbial siderophores in the plant rhizosphere. It is suggested that a better understanding of the agro-ecological ramifications of nanoparticles would require more in-depth interactive studies in combined plant-microbe-nanoparticle systems.

  11. Challenges for Life Support Systems in Space Environments, Including Food Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) refer to the technologies needed to sustain human life in space environments. Histor ically these technologies have focused on providing a breathable atmo sphere, clean water, food, managing wastes, and the associated monitoring capabilities. Depending on the space agency or program, ELCSS has sometimes expanded to include other aspects of managing space enviro nments, such as thermal control, radiation protection, fire detection I suppression, and habitat design. Other times, testing and providing these latter technologies have been associated with the vehicle engi neering. The choice of ECLSS technologies is typically driven by the mission profile and their associated costs and reliabilities. These co sts are largely defined by the mass, volume, power, and crew time req uirements. For missions close to Earth, e.g., low-Earth orbit flights, stowage and resupply of food, some 0 2, and some water are often the most cost effective option. But as missions venture further into spa ce, e.g., transit missions to Mars or asteroids, or surface missions to Moon or Mars, the supply line economics change and the need to clos e the loop on life support consumables increases. These are often ref erred to as closed loop or regenerative life support systems. Regardless of the technologies, the systems must be capable of operating in a space environment, which could include micro to fractional g setting s, high radiation levels, and tightly closed atmospheres, including perhaps reduced cabin pressures. Food production using photosynthetic o rganisms such as plants by nature also provides atmospheric regenerat ion (e.g., CO2 removal and reduction, and 0 2 production), yet to date such "bioregenerative" technologies have not been used due largely t o the high power requirements for lighting. A likely first step in te sting bioregenerative capabilities will involve production of small a mounts of fresh foods to supplement to crew

  12. An approach to include soil carbon changes in life cycle assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bjorn Molt; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Hermansen, John Erik

    2013-01-01

    Globally, soil carbon sequestration is expected to hold a major potential to mitigate agricultural greenhouse gas emissions. However, the majority of life cycle assessments (LCA) of agricultural products have not included possible changes in soil carbon sequestration. In the present study, a method...... production in China. The suggested approach considers the time of the soil CO2 emissions for the LCA by including the Bern Carbon Cycle Model. Time perspectives of 20,100 and 200 years are used and a soil depth of 0-100 cm is considered. The application of the suggested method showed that the results were...... to estimate carbon sequestration to be included in LCA is suggested and applied to two examples where the inclusion of carbon sequestration is especially relevant: 1) Bioenergy: removal of straw from a Danish soil for energy purposes and 2) Organic versus conventional farming: comparative study of soybean...

  13. Body Image and quality of life of senior citizens included in a cardiac rehabilitation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Vargas Amaral

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Most people who have to live with some kind of disease tend to adopt healthy habits and create new ways of seeing themselves. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between the index of quality of life and self perception of patients included in a cardiovascular rehabilitation program in Florianopolis/Brazil. The sample consists of 24 subjects of 62 ± 1.3 years of age, who have coronary artery disease. The Minnesota Living With Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ was used to assess the quality of life, and to identify the degree of body image discontentment the Stunkard and Sorensen questionnaire (1993 was applied. Statistical analysis was made through statistics programs and the software SPSS 11.0. The degree of association between variables was studied with Kendall test. It was verified that the higher the BMI and the current body shape, the greatest the degree of body image dissatisfaction. The emotional symptoms also appear to be significantly correlated with a desire for a smaller body shape and with indicators of lower quality of life (r = 0474 = 0735, p major 0.05. The physical symptoms were also considerably associated with the emotional symptoms. These results suggest that the variables concerning the quality of life are meaningful to significant body image and satisfaction, which seems to correlate with fewer emotional problems and better facing of the disease. Cardiovascular Rehabilitation Programs that implement physical activity in daily habits proves to be a suitable tool for improving these ailments in this post-acute phase

  14. Benefits of Considering More than Temperature Acceleration for GaN HEMT Life Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald A. Coutu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to investigate the validity of Arrhenius accelerated-life testing when applied to gallium nitride (GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMT lifetime assessments, where the standard assumption is that only critical stressor is temperature, which is derived from operating power, device channel-case, thermal resistance, and baseplate temperature. We found that power or temperature alone could not explain difference in observed degradation, and that accelerated life tests employed by industry can benefit by considering the impact of accelerating factors besides temperature. Specifically, we found that the voltage used to reach a desired power dissipation is important, and also that temperature acceleration alone or voltage alone (without much power dissipation is insufficient to assess lifetime at operating conditions.

  15. Importance of nutritional status in recovery from acute cholecystitis: benefit from enteral nutrition supplementation including medium chain triglycerides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Yukinobu; Inui, Kazuo; Yoshino, Junji; Wakabayashi, Takao; Okushima, Kazumu; Kobayashi, Takashi; Miyoshi, Hironao; Nakamura, Yuta

    2007-09-01

    This study was undertaken to clarify the importance of nutritional status in patients with acute cholecystitis, and also evaluate whether they benefited from enteral nutrition supplementation, including medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), during the convalescent stage. Patients with acute cholecystitis admitted to our hospital between April 1994 and March 2002 were classified into a poor nutrition group (n=40; total serum proteinnutrition group (n=71; >5.0 g/dl). Patients with poor nutrition were significantly more elderly than those with fair nutrition, and had significantly higher serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. The two groups did not differ significantly with respect to other laboratory data, gender distribution, or medical treatment. We supplemented ordinary meals with enteral nutrition including MCT in 16 patients during the convalescent stage (MCT group). We compared their length of hospital stay and days required to recovery to pre-admission functional status for activities of daily living (ADL) with the same intervals in 16 patients without supplementation (non-MCT group) selected to match for age, gender, and fair or poor nutritional status from among 111 patients. Hospitalizations were significantly longer in the poor nutrition group (43.0+/-2.2 days) than in the fair nutrition group (27.0+/-8.2 days). Significantly more days were required to recover ADL status in the poor nutrition group (12.0+/-7.2 days) than in the fair group (9.4+/-5.2 days). Hospitalizations were significantly shorter in the MCT group (20.1+/-15 days) than in the non-MCT group (35.4+/-12.8 days). Significantly fewer days were required to recover ADL status in the MCT group (10.9+/-7 days) than in the non-MCT group (13.1+/-6.8 days). Administration of enteral nutrition including MCT during convalescence from acute cholecystitis thus appears to promote functional recovery shorten hospital stay.

  16. Including Life Cycle Assessment for decision-making in controlling wastewater nutrient removal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas, Lluís; Larsen, Henrik F; Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Vanrolleghem, Peter A

    2013-10-15

    This paper focuses on the use of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to evaluate the performance of seventeen control strategies in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). It tackles the importance of using site-specific factors for nutrient enrichment when decision-makers have to select best operating strategies. Therefore, the LCA evaluation is repeated for three different scenarios depending on the limitation of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), or both, when evaluating the nutrient enrichment impact in water bodies. The LCA results indicate that for treated effluent discharged into N-deficient aquatic systems (e.g. open coastal areas) the most eco-friendly strategies differ from the ones dealing with discharging into P-deficient (e.g. lakes and rivers) and N&P-deficient systems (e.g. coastal zones). More particularly, the results suggest that strategies that promote increased nutrient removal and/or energy savings present an environmental benefit for N&P and P-deficient systems. This is not the case when addressing N-deficient systems for which the use of chemicals (even for improving N removal efficiencies) is not always beneficial for the environment. A sensitivity analysis on using weighting of the impact categories is conducted to assess how value choices (policy decisions) may affect the management of WWTPs. For the scenarios with only N-limitation, the LCA-based ranking of the control strategies is sensitive to the choice of weighting factors, whereas this is not the case for N&P or P-deficient aquatic systems.

  17. 76 FR 77815 - Ethical Electric Benefit Co.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Ethical Electric Benefit Co.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of Ethical Electric Benefit Co.'s application for market-based...

  18. Unrelated medical costs in life-years gained : should they be included in economic evaluations of healthcare interventions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rappange, David R; van Baal, Pieter H M; van Exel, N Job A; Feenstra, Talitha L; Rutten, Frans F H; Brouwer, Werner B F

    2008-01-01

    Which costs and benefits to consider in economic evaluations of healthcare interventions remains an area of much controversy. Unrelated medical costs in life-years gained is an important cost category that is normally ignored in economic evaluations, irrespective of the perspective chosen for the an

  19. The Benefits of Including Clinical Factors in Rectal Normal Tissue Complication Probability Modeling After Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defraene, Gilles, E-mail: gilles.defraene@uzleuven.be [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Van den Bergh, Laura [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Al-Mamgani, Abrahim [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center - Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Haustermans, Karin [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Heemsbergen, Wilma [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Van den Heuvel, Frank [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Lebesque, Joos V. [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To study the impact of clinical predisposing factors on rectal normal tissue complication probability modeling using the updated results of the Dutch prostate dose-escalation trial. Methods and Materials: Toxicity data of 512 patients (conformally treated to 68 Gy [n = 284] and 78 Gy [n = 228]) with complete follow-up at 3 years after radiotherapy were studied. Scored end points were rectal bleeding, high stool frequency, and fecal incontinence. Two traditional dose-based models (Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) and Relative Seriality (RS) and a logistic model were fitted using a maximum likelihood approach. Furthermore, these model fits were improved by including the most significant clinical factors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to compare the discriminating ability of all fits. Results: Including clinical factors significantly increased the predictive power of the models for all end points. In the optimal LKB, RS, and logistic models for rectal bleeding and fecal incontinence, the first significant (p = 0.011-0.013) clinical factor was 'previous abdominal surgery.' As second significant (p = 0.012-0.016) factor, 'cardiac history' was included in all three rectal bleeding fits, whereas including 'diabetes' was significant (p = 0.039-0.048) in fecal incontinence modeling but only in the LKB and logistic models. High stool frequency fits only benefitted significantly (p = 0.003-0.006) from the inclusion of the baseline toxicity score. For all models rectal bleeding fits had the highest AUC (0.77) where it was 0.63 and 0.68 for high stool frequency and fecal incontinence, respectively. LKB and logistic model fits resulted in similar values for the volume parameter. The steepness parameter was somewhat higher in the logistic model, also resulting in a slightly lower D{sub 50}. Anal wall DVHs were used for fecal incontinence, whereas anorectal wall dose best described the other two endpoints

  20. Including the introduction of exotic species in life cycle impact assessment: the case of inland shipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafiah, Marlia M; Leuven, Rob S E W; Sommerwerk, Nike; Tockner, Klement; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2013-12-17

    While the ecological impact of anthropogenically introduced exotic species is considered a major threat for biodiversity and ecosystems functioning, it is generally not accounted for in the environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) of products. In this article, we propose a framework that includes exotic species introduction in an LCA context. We derived characterization factors for exotic fish species introduction related to the transport of goods across the Rhine-Main-Danube canal. These characterization factors are expressed as the potentially disappeared fraction (PDF) of native freshwater fish species in the rivers Rhine and Danube integrated over space and time per amount of goods transported (PDF·m(3)·yr·kg(-1)). Furthermore, we quantified the relative importance of exotic fish species introduction compared to other anthropogenic stressors in the freshwater environment (i.e., eutrophication, ecotoxicity, greenhouse gases, and water consumption) for transport of goods through the Rhine-Main-Danube waterway. We found that the introduction of exotic fish species contributed to 70-85% of the total freshwater ecosystem impact, depending on the distance that goods were transported. Our analysis showed that it is relevant and feasible to include the introduction of exotic species in an LCA framework. The proposed framework can be further extended by including the impacts of other exotic species groups, types of water bodies and pathways for introduction.

  1. A Two-Account Life Insurance Model for Scenario-Based Valuation Including Event Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ninna Reitzel; Schomacker, Kristian Juul

    2015-01-01

    Using a two-account model with event risk, we model life insurance contracts taking into account both guaranteed and non-guaranteed payments in participating life insurance as well as in unit-linked insurance. Here, event risk is used as a generic term for life insurance events, such as death......, disability, etc. In our treatment of participating life insurance, we have special focus on the bonus schemes “consolidation” and “additional benefits”, and one goal is to formalize how these work and interact. Another goal is to describe similarities and differences between participating life insurance...... model by conducting scenario analysis based on Monte Carlo simulation, but the model applies to scenarios in general and to worst-case and best-estimate scenarios in particular. In addition to easy computations, our model offers a common framework for the valuation of life insurance payments across...

  2. The Influence of God and Providence on Happiness and the Quality of Life of Patients Benefiting from Aesthetic Medicine Treatments in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galęba, Anna; Bajurna, Beata

    2015-08-01

    The research reveals the impact of a belief in god and god's Providence on the happiness and quality of life of patients benefiting from aesthetic medicine treatments in Poland (country where over 90 % of society declare to be deeply devout). The work also examines age and sex of the patients benefiting from beauty treatments (botulinum toxin, fillers, medical peels and needle mesotherapy), their quality of life and also the impact of various factors, including God and Divine Providence on their happiness. The research shows the analysis of factors influencing the successes or failures in the past year and presents the comparison of patients who have benefited from the aesthetic medicine treatments (cosmetic medicine) to the common average Polish citizens.

  3. A Two-Account Life Insurance Model for Scenario-Based Valuation Including Event Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ninna Reitzel; Schomacker, Kristian Juul

    2015-01-01

    and unit-linked insurance. By use of a two-account model, we are able to illustrate general concepts without making the model too abstract. To allow for complicated financial markets without dramatically increasing the mathematical complexity, we focus on economic scenarios. We illustrate the use of our......Using a two-account model with event risk, we model life insurance contracts taking into account both guaranteed and non-guaranteed payments in participating life insurance as well as in unit-linked insurance. Here, event risk is used as a generic term for life insurance events, such as death...... product types. This enables comparison of participating life insurance products and unit-linked insurance products, thus building a bridge between the two different ways of formalizing life insurance products. Finally, our model distinguishes itself from the existing literature by taking into account...

  4. A Two-Account Life Insurance Model for Scenario-Based Valuation Including Event Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninna Reitzel Jensen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a two-account model with event risk, we model life insurance contracts taking into account both guaranteed and non-guaranteed payments in participating life insurance as well as in unit-linked insurance. Here, event risk is used as a generic term for life insurance events, such as death, disability, etc. In our treatment of participating life insurance, we have special focus on the bonus schemes “consolidation” and “additional benefits”, and one goal is to formalize how these work and interact. Another goal is to describe similarities and differences between participating life insurance and unit-linked insurance. By use of a two-account model, we are able to illustrate general concepts without making the model too abstract. To allow for complicated financial markets without dramatically increasing the mathematical complexity, we focus on economic scenarios. We illustrate the use of our model by conducting scenario analysis based on Monte Carlo simulation, but the model applies to scenarios in general and to worst-case and best-estimate scenarios in particular. In addition to easy computations, our model offers a common framework for the valuation of life insurance payments across product types. This enables comparison of participating life insurance products and unit-linked insurance products, thus building a bridge between the two different ways of formalizing life insurance products. Finally, our model distinguishes itself from the existing literature by taking into account the Markov model for the state of the policyholder and, hereby, facilitating event risk.

  5. Valuation of plug-in vehicle life-cycle air emissions and oil displacement benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalek, Jeremy J; Chester, Mikhail; Jaramillo, Paulina; Samaras, Constantine; Shiau, Ching-Shin Norman; Lave, Lester B

    2011-10-01

    We assess the economic value of life-cycle air emissions and oil consumption from conventional vehicles, hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEVs), and battery electric vehicles in the US. We find that plug-in vehicles may reduce or increase externality costs relative to grid-independent HEVs, depending largely on greenhouse gas and SO(2) emissions produced during vehicle charging and battery manufacturing. However, even if future marginal damages from emissions of battery and electricity production drop dramatically, the damage reduction potential of plug-in vehicles remains small compared to ownership cost. As such, to offer a socially efficient approach to emissions and oil consumption reduction, lifetime cost of plug-in vehicles must be competitive with HEVs. Current subsidies intended to encourage sales of plug-in vehicles with large capacity battery packs exceed our externality estimates considerably, and taxes that optimally correct for externality damages would not close the gap in ownership cost. In contrast, HEVs and PHEVs with small battery packs reduce externality damages at low (or no) additional cost over their lifetime. Although large battery packs allow vehicles to travel longer distances using electricity instead of gasoline, large packs are more expensive, heavier, and more emissions intensive to produce, with lower utilization factors, greater charging infrastructure requirements, and life-cycle implications that are more sensitive to uncertain, time-sensitive, and location-specific factors. To reduce air emission and oil dependency impacts from passenger vehicles, strategies to promote adoption of HEVs and PHEVs with small battery packs offer more social benefits per dollar spent.

  6. Evaluation of Life History Diversity, Habitat Connectivity, and Survival Benefits Associated with Habitat Restoration Actions in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, Annual Report 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Johnson, Gary E.; Sather, Nichole K.; Skalski, J. R.; Dawley, Earl M.; Coleman, Andre M.; Ostrand, Kenneth G.; Hanson, Kyle C.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Donley, Erin E.; Ke, Yinghai; Buenau, Kate E.; Bryson, Amanda J.; Townsend, Richard L.

    2011-10-01

    This report describes the 2010 research conducted under the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) project EST-P-09-1, titled Evaluation of Life History Diversity, Habitat Connectivity, and Survival Benefits Associated with Habitat Restoration Actions in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, and known as the 'Salmon Benefits' study. The primary goal of the study is to establish scientific methods to quantify habitat restoration benefits to listed salmon and trout in the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE) in three required areas: habitat connectivity, early life history diversity, and survival (Figure ES.1). The general study approach was to first evaluate the state of the science regarding the ability to quantify benefits to listed salmon and trout from habitat restoration actions in the LCRE in the 2009 project year, and then, if feasible, in subsequent project years to develop quantitative indices of habitat connectivity, early life history diversity, and survival. Based on the 2009 literature review, the following definitions are used in this study. Habitat connectivity is defined as a landscape descriptor concerning the ability of organisms to move among habitat patches, including the spatial arrangement of habitats (structural connectivity) and how the perception and behavior of salmon affect the potential for movement among habitats (functional connectivity). Life history is defined as the combination of traits exhibited by an organism throughout its life cycle, and for the purposes of this investigation, a life history strategy refers to the body size and temporal patterns of estuarine usage exhibited by migrating juvenile salmon. Survival is defined as the probability of fish remaining alive over a defined amount of space and/or time. The objectives of the 4-year study are as follows: (1) develop and test a quantitative index of juvenile salmon habitat connectivity in the LCRE incorporating structural, functional, and hydrologic components; (2

  7. Including Life Cycle Assessment for decision-making in controlling wastewater nutrient removal systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corominas, Lluís; Larsen, Henrik Fred; Flores-Alsina, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to evaluate the performance of seventeen control strategies in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). It tackles the importance of using site-specific factors for nutrient enrichment when decision-makers have to select best operating stra...

  8. Omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA: health benefits throughout life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Danielle; Block, Robert; Mousa, Shaker A

    2012-01-01

    Omega-3 [(n-3)] fatty acids have been linked to healthy aging throughout life. Recently, fish-derived omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA have been associated with fetal development, cardiovascular function, and Alzheimer's disease. However, because our bodies do not efficiently produce some omega-3 fatty acids from marine sources, it is necessary to obtain adequate amounts through fish and fish-oil products. Studies have shown that EPA and DHA are important for proper fetal development, including neuronal, retinal, and immune function. EPA and DHA may affect many aspects of cardiovascular function including inflammation, peripheral artery disease, major coronary events, and anticoagulation. EPA and DHA have been linked to promising results in prevention, weight management, and cognitive function in those with very mild Alzheimer's disease.

  9. Genes (including RNA editing information) - RMG | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us RMG Genes... (including RNA editing information) Data detail Data name Genes (including RNA editing information...ase Site Policy | Contact Us Genes (including RNA editing information) - RMG | LSDB Archive ...

  10. Life-cycle preferences over consumption and health: when is cost-effectiveness analysis equivalent to cost-benefit analysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleichrodt, H; Quiggin, J

    1999-12-01

    This paper studies life-cycle preferences over consumption and health status. We show that cost-effectiveness analysis is consistent with cost-benefit analysis if the lifetime utility function is additive over time, multiplicative in the utility of consumption and the utility of health status, and if the utility of consumption is constant over time. We derive the conditions under which the lifetime utility function takes this form, both under expected utility theory and under rank-dependent utility theory, which is currently the most important nonexpected utility theory. If cost-effectiveness analysis is consistent with cost-benefit analysis, it is possible to derive tractable expressions for the willingness to pay for quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). The willingness to pay for QALYs depends on wealth, remaining life expectancy, health status, and the possibilities for intertemporal substitution of consumption.

  11. Life history benefits of residency in a partially migrating pond-breeding amphibian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Kristine L; Bailey, Larissa L; Wilbur, Henry M

    2011-06-01

    Species with partial migration, where a portion of a population migrates and the other remains residential, provide the opportunity to evaluate conditions for migration and test mechanisms influencing migratory decisions. We conducted a five-year study of two populations of red-spotted newts (Notophthalmus viridescens), composed of individuals that either remain as residents in the breeding pond over the winter or migrate to the terrestrial habitat. We used multistate mark-recapture methods to (1) test for differences in survival probability between migrants and residents, (2) determine if migrants breed every year or skip opportunities for reproduction, and (3) estimate the frequency of individuals switching migratory tactic. We used estimates of life history parameters from the natural populations in combination with previous experimental work to evaluate processes maintaining partial migration at the population level and to assess mechanisms influencing the decision to migrate. Based on capture-recapture information on over 3000 individuals, we found that newts can switch migratory tactics over their lifetime. We conclude that migrants and residents coexist through conditional asymmetries, with residents having higher fitness and inferior individuals adopting the migrant tactic. We found that newts are more likely to switch from residency to migrating than the reverse and males were more likely to remain as residents. Migration differences between the sexes are likely driven by reproduction benefits of residency for males and high energetic costs of breeding resulting in lower breeding frequencies for females. Environmental conditions also influence partial migration within a population; we found support for density-dependent processes in the pond strongly influencing the probability of migrating. Our work illustrates how migration can be influenced by a complex range of individual and environmental factors and enhances our understanding of the conditions

  12. Quality of life in patients with age-related macular degeneration: impact of the condition and benefits of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slakter, Jason S; Stur, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a chronic, progressive, degenerative disease of the macula and is the leading cause of central vision loss among elderly people in the western world. Traditionally, clinical studies of AMD have described the impact of AMD, and treatments for AMD, in terms of the patient's visual acuity. However, visual acuity alone does not provide information about a patient's perception of his or her quality of life. Researchers have used a variety of instruments to measure quality of life. Several studies have shown that AMD can severely impair quality of life and that increasing vision loss is associated with increasing impairment of quality of life and frequently causes depression. Interestingly, patients with only one eye affected may become more depressed than those with both eyes affected, possibly because of uncertainty surrounding future vision loss in patients with one eye affected and a greater acceptance of the condition in those with both eyes affected. Studies also have provided some information on the possible quality of life benefits of therapy for AMD. By incorporating measurements of quality of life into the design of future prospective studies, clinical researchers may be able to obtain more comprehensive data on the impact of AMD on patients and the relative benefits of different therapies.

  13. Long-Term Benefits of Smoking Cessation on Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Health-Related Quality of Life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukie Kohata

    Full Text Available Smoking is associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD. Varenicline, a nicotinic receptor partial agonist, is used to aid smoking cessation. The purpose of this study was to prospectively examine the long-term benefits of smoking cessation on GERD and health-related quality of life (HR-QOL.Patients treated with varenicline were asked to fill out a self-report questionnaire about their smoking habits, gastrointestinal symptoms, and HR-QOL before and 1 year after smoking cessation. The prevalence of GERD, frequency of symptoms, and HR-QOL scores were compared. We also investigated associations between clinical factors and newly-developed GERD.A total of 141 patients achieved smoking cessation (success group and 50 did not (failure group at 1 year after the treatment. The GERD improvement in the success group (43.9% was significantly higher than that in the failure group (18.2%. The frequency of reflux symptoms significantly decreased only in the success group. There were no significant associations between newly developed GERD and clinical factors including increased body mass index and successful smoking cessation. HR-QOL significantly improved only in the success group.Smoking cessation improved both GERD and HR-QOL. Smoking cessation should be recommended for GERD patients.

  14. Space life sciences: ground-based iron-ion biology and physics, including shielding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This session of the 35th Scientific Assembly of COSPAR focuses on recent advances in ground-based studies of high-energy (mainly 1 GeV/nucleon) iron ions. The theme is interdisciplinary in nature and encompasses both physics and biology reports. Manned space missions, including those of the International Space Station and the planned Mars mission, will require the extended presence of crew members in space. As such, a better understanding in shielding design--in radiation detection as well as radio-protection based on simulating studies--is much needed. On the other hand, a better understanding of the basic mechanisms that modulate radiation sensitivity; in determining DNA double strand breaks, chromosomal aberrations, and the induction of apoptosis, will provide important information for an interventional approach.

  15. Forecasting life satisfaction across adulthood: benefits of seeing a dark future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Frieder R; Weiss, David; Gerstorf, Denis; Wagner, Gert G

    2013-03-01

    Anticipating one's future self is a unique human capacity that contributes importantly to adaptation and health throughout adulthood and old age. Using the adult life span sample of the national German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP; N > 10,000, age range 18 to 96 years), we investigated age-differential stability, correlates, and outcomes of accuracy in anticipation of future life satisfaction across 6 subsequent 5-year time intervals. As expected, we observed few age differences in current life satisfaction but stronger age differences in future expectations: Younger adults anticipated improved future life satisfaction, overestimating their actual life satisfaction 5 years later. By contrast, older adults were more pessimistic about the future, generally underestimating their actual life satisfaction after 5 years. Such age differences persisted above and beyond the effects of self-rated health and income. Survival analyses revealed that, in later adulthood, underestimating one's life satisfaction 5 years later was related to lower hazard ratios for disability (n = 735 became disabled) and mortality (n = 879 died) across 10 or more years, even after controlling for age, sex, education, income, and self-rated health. Findings suggest that older adults are more likely to underestimate their life satisfaction in the future and that such underestimation was associated with positive health outcomes.

  16. Very Happy Youths: Benefits of Very High Life Satisfaction among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Carmel; Linley, P. Alex; Maltby, John

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the characteristics of adolescents reporting very high levels of life satisfaction. Participants (N = 410) were divided into three life satisfaction groups: very high (top 10%), average (middle 25%), and very low (lowest 10%). Results revealed that very happy youths had significantly higher mean scores on all included…

  17. Drawing The Red Line: Cost Benefit Analysis on Large Life Rafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    life rafts provide warmth , protection, and a platform to live after a traumatic event. As previously shown, life rafts have yet to be used on...their answer (Sackman, 1974). The Delphi method also provides the ability to debate while physically separated. Somerville states that the

  18. Ontario Universities Benefits Survey, 1990-91: Part I, Benefits Excluding Pensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    The report details, in tabular form, non-pension benefits offered by each of 17 Ontario universities. These include: supplementary health insurance; long term disability; sick leave entitlement; sick leave-benefits continuance; long term disability-benefits continuance; life insurance; survivor benefit; dental plan; post-retirement benefits;…

  19. Performance and life cycle environmental benefits of recycling spent ion exchange brines by catalytic treatment of nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Jong Kwon; Bergquist, Allison M; Jeong, Sangjo; Guest, Jeremy S; Werth, Charles J; Strathmann, Timothy J

    2015-09-01

    Salt used to make brines for regeneration of ion exchange (IX) resins is the dominant economic and environmental liability of IX treatment systems for nitrate-contaminated drinking water sources. To reduce salt usage, the applicability and environmental benefits of using a catalytic reduction technology to treat nitrate in spent IX brines and enable their reuse for IX resin regeneration were evaluated. Hybrid IX/catalyst systems were designed and life cycle assessment of process consumables are used to set performance targets for the catalyst reactor. Nitrate reduction was measured in a typical spent brine (i.e., 5000 mg/L NO3(-) and 70,000 mg/L NaCl) using bimetallic Pd-In hydrogenation catalysts with variable Pd (0.2-2.5 wt%) and In (0.0125-0.25 wt%) loadings on pelletized activated carbon support (Pd-In/C). The highest activity of 50 mgNO3(-)/(min - g(Pd)) was obtained with a 0.5 wt%Pd-0.1 wt%In/C catalyst. Catalyst longevity was demonstrated by observing no decrease in catalyst activity over more than 60 days in a packed-bed reactor. Based on catalyst activity measured in batch and packed-bed reactors, environmental impacts of hybrid IX/catalyst systems were evaluated for both sequencing-batch and continuous-flow packed-bed reactor designs and environmental impacts of the sequencing-batch hybrid system were found to be 38-81% of those of conventional IX. Major environmental impact contributors other than salt consumption include Pd metal, hydrogen (electron donor), and carbon dioxide (pH buffer). Sensitivity of environmental impacts of the sequencing-batch hybrid reactor system to sulfate and bicarbonate anions indicate the hybrid system is more sustainable than conventional IX when influent water contains catalyst reactor systems have potential to reduce resource consumption and improve environmental impacts associated with treating nitrate-contaminated water sources.

  20. The transformation of morals in markets: death, benefits, and the exchange of life insurance policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Sarah

    2008-11-01

    This article adopts an institutional approach to describe the changing secondary market for life insurance in the United States. Since the 1990s, this market, in which investors buy strangers' life insurance policies, has grown in the face of considerable moral ambivalence. The author uses news reports and interviews to identify and describe three conceptions of this market: sacred revulsion, consumerist consolation, and rationalized reconciliation. Differences among the conceptions are considered in view of the institutional legacy of life insurance and its success in organizing practices, perceptions, and understandings about markets and death. From this case, the author draws implications for analyses of morals in markets, an important and emergent topic within economic sociology.

  1. An online intervention for reducing depressive symptoms: secondary benefits for self-esteem, empowerment and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Dimity; Griffiths, Kathleen; Mackinnon, Andrew; Bennett, Kylie; Christensen, Helen

    2014-04-30

    Internet-based interventions are increasingly recognized as effective for the treatment and prevention of depression; however, there is a paucity of research investigating potential secondary benefits. From a consumer perspective, improvements in indicators of wellbeing such as perceived quality of life may represent the most important outcomes for evaluating the effectiveness of an intervention. This study investigated the 'secondary' benefits for self-esteem, empowerment, quality of life and perceived social support of two 12-week online depression interventions when delivered alone and in combination. Participants comprised 298 adults displaying elevated psychological distress. Participants were randomised to receive: an Internet Support Group (ISG); an automated Internet psycho-educational training program for depression; a combination of these conditions; or a control website. Analyses were performed on an intent-to-treat basis. Following the automated training program immediate improvements were shown in participants׳ self-esteem and empowerment relative to control participants. Improvements in perceived quality of life were reported 6-months following the completion of the intervention when combined with an ISG. These findings provide initial evidence for the effectiveness of this online intervention for improving individual wellbeing beyond the primary aim of the treatment. However, further research is required to investigate the mechanisms underlying improvement in these secondary outcomes.

  2. Diverting Children from a Life of Crime. Measuring Costs and Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Peter W.; Model, Karyn E.; Chiesa, James; Rydell, C. Peter

    This report assesses the cost effectiveness of several crime prevention strategies that involve early intervention in the lives of people at risk of pursuing a criminal career. Four different approaches are examined: (1) home visits by child care professionals beginning before birth and extending through the first 2 years of life, followed by 4…

  3. Integrating nutritional benefits and impacts in a life cycle assessment framework: A US dairy consumption case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstoff, Alexi; Fulgoni III, Victor; Heller, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Although essential to understand the overall health impact of a food or diet, nutrition is not usually considered in food-related life cycle assessments (LCAs). As a case study to demonstrate comparing environmental and nutritional health impacts we investigate United States dairy consumption....... Nutritional impacts, interpreted from disease burden epidemiology, are compared to health impacts from more tradi-tional impacts (e.g. due to exposure to particulate matter emissions across the life cycle) considered in LCAs. After accounting for the present consumption, data relating dairy intake to public...... health suggest that low-fat milk leads to nutritional benefits up to one additional daily serving in the American diet. We demonstrate the importance of considering the whole-diet and nutritional trade-offs. The estimated health impacts of various dietary scenarios may be of comparable magnitude...

  4. Omega-3 Fatty Acids EPA and DHA: Health Benefits Throughout Life12

    OpenAIRE

    Swanson, Danielle; Block, Robert; Mousa, Shaker A

    2012-01-01

    Omega-3 [(n-3)] fatty acids have been linked to healthy aging throughout life. Recently, fish-derived omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA have been associated with fetal development, cardiovascular function, and Alzheimer’s disease. However, because our bodies do not efficiently produce some omega-3 fatty acids from marine sources, it is necessary to obtain adequate amounts through fish and fish-oil products. Studies have shown that EPA and DHA are important for proper fetal development, includin...

  5. What are the environmental benefits of electric vehicles? A life cycle based comparison of electric vehicles with biofuels, hydrogen and fossil fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungmeier, Gerfried; Canella, Lorenza; Beermann, Martin; Pucker, Johanna; Koenighofer, Kurt [JOANNEUM RESEARCH Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Graz (Austria)

    2013-06-01

    The Renewable Energy Directive aims reaching a share of 10% of renewable fuels in Europe in 2020. These renewable fuels are transportation biofuels, renewable electricity and renewable hydrogen. In most European countries transportation biofuels are already on the transportation fuel market in significant shares, e.g. in Austria 7% by blending bioethanol to gasoline and biodiesel to diesel. Electric vehicles can significantly contribute towards creating a sustainable, intelligent mobility and intelligent transportation systems. They can open new business opportunities for the transportation engineering sector and electricity companies. But the broad market introduction of electric vehicles is only justified due to a significant improvement of the environmental impact compared to conventional vehicles. This means that in addition to highly efficient electric vehicles and renewable electricity, the overall environmental impact in the life cycle - from building the vehicles and the battery to recycling at the end of its useful life - has to be limited to an absolute minimum. There is international consensus that the environmental effects of electric vehicles (and all other fuel options) can only be analysed on the basis of life cycle assessment (LCA) including the production, operation and the end of life treatment of the vehicles. The LCA results for different environmental effects e.g. greenhouse gas emissions, primary energy consumption, eutrophication will be presented in comparison to other fuels e.g. transportation biofuels, gasoline, natural gas and the key factors to maximize the environmental benefits will be presented. The presented results are mainly based on a national research projects. These results are currently compared and discussed with international research activities within the International Energy Agency (lEA) in the Implementing Agreement on Hybrid and Electric Vehicles (IA-HEV) in Task 19 ''Life Cycle Assessment of Electric Vehicles

  6. Food webs including parasites, biomass, body sizes, and life stages for three California/Baja California estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechinger, Ryan F.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; McLaughlin, John P.; Fredensborg, Brian L.; Huspeni, Todd C.; Lorda, Julio; Sandhu, Parwant K.; Shaw, Jenny C.; Torchin, Mark E.; Whitney, Kathleen L.; Kuris, Armand M.

    2001-01-01

    This data set presents food webs for three North American Pacific coast estuaries and a “Metaweb” composed of the species/stages compiled from all three estuaries. The webs have four noteworthy attributes: (1) parasites (infectious agents), (2) body-size information, (3) biomass information, and (4) ontogenetic stages of many animals with complex life cycles. The estuaries are Carpinteria Salt Marsh, California (CSM); Estero de Punta Banda, Baja California (EPB); and Bahía Falsa in Bahía San Quintín, Baja California (BSQ). Most data on species assemblages and parasitism were gathered via consistent sampling that acquired body size and biomass information for plants and animals larger than ∼1 mm, and for many infectious agents (mostly metazoan parasites, but also some microbes). We augmented this with information from additional published sources and by sampling unrepresented groups (e.g., plankton). We estimated free-living consumer–resource links primarily by extending a previously published version of the CSM web (which the current CSM web supplants) and determined most parasite consumer–resource links from direct observation. We recognize 21 possible link types including four general interactions: predators consuming prey, parasites consuming hosts, predators consuming parasites, and parasites consuming parasites. While generally resolved to the species level, we report stage-specific nodes for many animals with complex life cycles. We include additional biological information for each node, such as taxonomy, lifestyle (free-living, infectious, commensal, mutualist), mobility, and residency. The Metaweb includes 500 nodes, 314 species, and 11 270 links projected to be present given appropriate species' co-occurrences. Of these, 9247 links were present in one or more of the estuarine webs. The remaining 2023 links were not present in the estuaries but are included here because they may occur in other places or times. Initial analyses have examined

  7. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A-Z > Exercise: Benefits of Exercise: Health Benefits In This Topic Health Benefits Benefits for Everyday Life ... Try Exercise: How to Stay Active The information in this topic was provided by the National Institute ...

  8. Research on Cost and Benefit Evaluation Method for Green Building Component Life Cycle%绿色建筑部品全生命周期成本与效益评价方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵华; 张峰; 高立新; 毕既华

    2011-01-01

    提出全生命周期成本效益评价方法包括费用效益法和费用估算方法,以及这些方法的使用范围和使用现状.根据全生命周期评价理论与建筑部品全生命周期阶段划分,重点研究绿色建筑部品全生命周期评价技术路线,以及绿色建筑部品全生命周期各阶段成本与效益评价方法.得出科学的绿色建筑部品全生命周期成本和效益的评价方法有利于促进绿色建筑事业的长远健康发展.%Life cycle of cost and benefit evaluation method includes expenses benefit method and expenses assessment method,and their application range and status are introduced respectively. According to the life cycle assessment theory and the life cycle of construction component stage partitions, authors put the research focus on the technical route of the green building component life cycle, and the stage cost and benefit assessment method of each phase. The life cycle of cost and benefit evaluation method for green building component improves the development of green building.

  9. Utility of Online Communities – Ways One Can Benefit From One’s Online Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Cărtărescu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available As many of today’s social scientists (such as Beck, Giddens, Howard, Vlăsceanu etc have remarked, the modern age has brought with itself a great series of fast-paced changes in the average man’s lifestyle. Nothing is safe or can be taken for granted anymore. Families disintegrate, traditions become obsolete and professional re-qualifications are necessary every few years just to keep upwith the younger, tougher competition on the labour market. Forced to constantly changed ones place of residence, ones entourage, work and habits leads to a feeling of loneliness, of not really being a part of modern society and its communities, of being left out to fend for yourself. Luckily, modernity has also brought with itself a never seen before technological boom which instantly permitted not only the improvement of one’s biological life, but also provided society with the opportunity to bridge the gap between people. One of the most significant of these innovations is the Internet, a non-geographical space that people, in just a few short years, have colonized andmade their own, projected their identities into and created solid and durable communities that, which were less subjected to being torn apart by distance and time. This paper’s object is to show how and why being part of an online community is a great way for one to get a stronger feeling of social integration and be part of a somewhat more fair, less prejudiced world.

  10. Including impacts of particulate emissions on marine ecosystems in life cycle assessment: the case of offshore oil and gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltman, Karin; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Rye, Henrik; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2011-10-01

    Life cycle assessment is increasingly used to assess the environmental performance of fossil energy systems. Two of the dominant emissions of offshore oil and gas production to the marine environment are the discharge of produced water and drilling waste. Although environmental impacts of produced water are predominantly due to chemical stressors, a major concern regarding drilling waste discharge is the potential physical impact due to particles. At present, impact indicators for particulate emissions are not yet available in life cycle assessment. Here, we develop characterization factors for 2 distinct impacts of particulate emissions: an increased turbidity zone in the water column and physical burial of benthic communities. The characterization factor for turbidity is developed analogous to characterization factors for toxic impacts, and ranges from 1.4 PAF (potentially affected fraction) · m(3) /d/kg(p) (kilogram particulate) to 7.0 x 10³ [corrected] for drilling mud particles discharged from the rig. The characterization factor for burial describes the volume of sediment that is impacted by particle deposition on the seafloor and equals 2.0 × 10(-1) PAF · m(3) /d/kg(p) for cutting particles. This characterization factor is quantified on the basis of initial deposition layer characteristics, such as height and surface area, the initial benthic response, and the recovery rate. We assessed the relevance of including particulate emissions in an impact assessment of offshore oil and gas production. Accordingly, the total impact on the water column and on the sediment was quantified based on emission data of produced water and drilling waste for all oil and gas fields on the Norwegian continental shelf in 2008. Our results show that cutting particles contribute substantially to the total impact of offshore oil and gas production on marine sediments, with a relative contribution of 55% and 31% on the regional and global scale, respectively. In contrast, the

  11. Life cycle assessment of palm biodiesel: Revealing facts and benefits for sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, Kian Fei; Tan, Kok Tat; Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi; Lee, Keat Teong [School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2009-11-15

    Similarity between the properties of biodiesel and petroleum-derived diesel has made the former one of the most promising alternatives to a renewable and sustainable fuel for the transportation sector. In Malaysia, palm oil can be a suitable feedstock for the production of biodiesel due to its abundant availability and low production cost. However, not many assessments have been carried out regarding the impacts of palm biodiesel on the environment. Hence, in this study, life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted for palm biodiesel in order to investigate and validate the popular belief that palm biodiesel is a green and sustainable fuel. The LCA study was divided into three main stages, namely agricultural activities, oil milling and transesterification process for the production of biodiesel. For each stage, the energy balance and green house gas assessments were presented and discussed. These are important data for the techno-economical and environmental feasibility evaluation of palm biodiesel. The results obtained for palm biodiesel were then compared with rapeseed biodiesel. From this study, it was found that the utilization of palm biodiesel would generate an energy yield ratio of 3.53 (output energy/input energy), indicating a net positive energy generated and ensuring its sustainability. The energy ratio for palm biodiesel was found to be more than double that of rapeseed biodiesel which was estimated to be only 1.44, thereby indicating that palm oil would be a more sustainable feedstock for biodiesel production as compared to rapeseed oil. Moreover, combustion of palm biodiesel was found to be more environment-friendly than petroleum-derived-diesel as a significant 38% reduction of CO{sub 2} emission can be achieved per liter combusted. (author)

  12. 76 FR 13665 - The Mega Life & Health Ins. Co., a Subsidiary of Healthmarkets, Inc., Including Workers Whose...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... Employment and Training Administration The Mega Life & Health Ins. Co., a Subsidiary of Healthmarkets, Inc... Assistance on December 3, 2010, applicable to workers of The MEGA Life & Health Ins., Co., a subsidiary of... MEGA Life & Health Ins. Co., a subsidiary of HealthMarkets, Inc. had their wages reported under...

  13. A conceptual configuration of the lunar base bioregenerative life support system including soil-like substrate for growing plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.; Yu, C. Y.; Manukovsky, N. S.; Kovalev, V. S.; Gurevich, Yu L.; Wang, J.

    2008-09-01

    The paper presents a conceptual configuration of the lunar base bioregenerative life support system (LBLSS), including soil-like substrate (SLS) for growing plants. SLS makes it possible to combine the processes of plant growth and the utilization of plant waste. Plants are to be grown on SLS on the basis of 20 kg of dry SLS mass or 100 kg of wet SLS mass per square meter. The substrate is to be delivered to the base ready-made as part of the plant growth subsystem. Food for the crew was provided by prestored stock 24% and by plant growing system 76%. Total dry weight of the food is 631 g per day (2800 kcal/day) for one crew member (CM). The list of candidate plants to be grown under lunar BLSS conditions included 14 species: wheat, rice, soybean, peanuts, sweet pepper, carrots, tomatoes, coriander, cole, lettuce, radish, squash, onion and garlic. From the prestored stock the crew consumed canned fish, iodinated salt, sugar, beef sauce and seafood sauce. Our calculations show that to provide one CM with plant food requires the area of 47.5 m 2. The balance of substance is achieved by the removal dehydrated urine 59 g, feces 31 g, food waste 50 g, SLS 134 g, and also waters 86 g from system and introduction food 236 g, liquid potassium soap 4 g and mineral salts 120 g into system daily. To reduce system setup time the first plants could be sowed and germinated to a certain age on the Earth.

  14. Analytical expression for the α-decay half-life and understanding the data including very long life-times and superheavy nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Basudeb

    2008-10-01

    An analytically solvable composite potential that can closely reproduce the combined potential of an α+nucleus system consisting of attractive nuclear and repulsive electrostatic potentials is developed. The exact s-wave solution of the Schrödinger equation with this potential in the interior region and the outside Coulomb wave function are used to give a heuristic expression for the width or half-life of the quasibound state at the accurately determined resonance energy, called the Q value of the decaying system. By using the fact that for a relatively low resonance energy, the quasibound state wave function is quite similar to the bound state wave function where the amplitude of the wave function in the interaction region is very large as compared to the amplitude outside, the resonance energy could easily be calculated from the variation of relative probability densities of inside and outside waves as a function of energy. By considering recent α-decay systems, the applicability of the model is demonstrated with excellent explanations being found for the experimental data of Q values and half-lives of a vast range of masses including superheavy nuclei and nuclei with very long lifetimes (of order 1022 s). Throughout the application, by simply varying the value of a single potential parameter describing the flatness of the barrier, we obtain successful results in cases with as many as 70 pairs of α+daughter nucleus systems.

  15. Carbon Footprint of Inbound Tourism to Iceland: A Consumption-Based Life-Cycle Assessment including Direct and Indirect Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Sharp

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The greenhouse gas (GHG emissions caused by tourism have been studied from several perspectives, but few studies exist that include all direct and indirect emissions, particularly those from aviation. In this study, an input/output-based hybrid life-cycle assessment (LCA method is developed to assess the consumption-based carbon footprint of the average tourist including direct and indirect emissions. The total inbound tourism-related GHG emissions are also calculated within a certain region. As a demonstration of the method, the full carbon footprint of an average tourist is assessed as well as the total GHG emissions induced by tourism to Iceland over the period of 2010–2015, with the presented approach applicable in other contexts as well. Iceland provides an interesting case due to three features: (1 the tourism sector in Iceland is the fastest-growing industry in the country with an annual growth rate of over 20% over the past five years; (2 almost all tourists arrive by air; and (3 the country has an almost emissions-free energy industry and an import-dominated economy, which emphasise the role of the indirect emissions. According to the assessment, the carbon footprint for the average tourist is 1.35 tons of CO2-eq, but ranges from 1.1 to 3.2 tons of CO2-eq depending on the distance travelled by air. Furthermore, this footprint is increasing due to the rise in average flight distances travelled to reach the country. The total GHG emissions caused by tourism in Iceland have tripled from approximately 600,000 tons of CO2-eq in 2010 to 1,800,000 tons in 2015. Aviation accounts for 50%–82% of this impact (depending on the flight distance underlining the importance of air travel, especially as tourism-related aviation is forecasted to grow significantly in the near future. From a method perspective, the carbon footprinting application presented in the study would seem to provide an efficient way to study both the direct and indirect

  16. Picturing Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Bathje MS, OTR/L

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The cover art of the summer 2013 issue of The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy provided by Jonathan Darnall reflects his unique life perspective, current roles, and values. An exploration of Jon’s life experience reveals how creative arts, including photography, have positively influenced his life and inform OT practitioners about the benefits of photography as an intervention and an occupation.

  17. Critically examining diversity in end-of-life family caregiving: implications for equitable caregiver support and Canada’s Compassionate Care Benefit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giesbrecht Melissa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Family (i.e., unpaid caregiving has long been thought of as a ‘woman’s issue’, which ultimately results not only in gendered, but also financial and health inequities. Because of this, gender-based analyses have been prioritized in caregiving research. However, trends in current feminist scholarship demonstrate that gender intersects with other axes of difference, such as culture, socio-economic status, and geography to create diverse experiences. In this analysis we examine how formal front-line palliative care providers understand the role of such diversities in shaping Canadian family caregivers’ experiences of end-of-life care. In doing so we consider the implications of these findings for a social benefit program aimed at supporting family caregivers, namely the Compassionate Care Benefit (CCB. Methods This analysis contributes to a utilization-focused evaluation of Canada’s CCB, a social program that provides job security and limited income assistance to Canadian family caregivers who take a temporary leave from employment to provide care for a dying family member at end-of-life. Fifty semi-structured phone interviews with front-line palliative care providers from across Canada were conducted and thematic diversity analysis of the transcripts ensued. Results Findings reveal that experiences of caregiving are not homogenous and access to services and supports are not universal across Canada. Five axes of difference were commonly raised by front-line palliative care providers when discussing important differences in family caregivers’ experiences: culture, gender, geography, lifecourse stage, and material resources. Our findings reveal inequities with regard to accessing needed caregiver services and resources, including the CCB, based on these axes of difference. Conclusions We contend that without considering diversity, patterns in vulnerability and inequity are overlooked, and thus continually reinforced

  18. Early-Life events, including mode of delivery and type of feeding, siblings and gender, shape the developing gut microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Rocio; Makino, Hiroshi; Yavuz, Aysun Cetinyurek; Ben-Amor, Kaouther; Roelofs, Mieke; Ishikawa, Eiji; Kubota, Hiroyuki; Swinkels, Sophie; Sakai, Takafumi; Oishi, Kenji; Kushiro, Akira; Knol, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Colonization of the infant gut is believed to be critically important for a healthy growth as it influences gut maturation, metabolic, immune and brain development in early life. Understanding factors that influence this process is important, since an altered colonization has been associated with

  19. Energy and emission benefits of alternative transportation liquid fuels derived from switchgrass: a fuel life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, May; Wu, Ye; Wang, Michael

    2006-01-01

    We conducted a mobility chains, or well-to-wheels (WTW), analysis to assess the energy and emission benefits of cellulosic biomass for the U.S. transportation sector in the years 2015-2030. We estimated the life-cycle energy consumption and emissions associated with biofuel production and use in light-duty vehicle (LDV) technologies by using the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model. Analysis of biofuel production was based on ASPEN Plus model simulation of an advanced fermentation process to produce fuel ethanol/protein, a thermochemical process to produce Fischer-Tropsch diesel (FTD) and dimethyl ether (DME), and a combined heat and power plant to co-produce steam and electricity. Our study revealed that cellulosic biofuels as E85 (mixture of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline by volume), FTD, and DME offer substantial savings in petroleum (66-93%) and fossil energy (65-88%) consumption on a per-mile basis. Decreased fossil fuel use translates to 82-87% reductions in greenhouse gas emissions across all unblended cellulosic biofuels. In urban areas, our study shows net reductions for almost all criteria pollutants, with the exception of carbon monoxide (unchanged), for each of the biofuel production option examined. Conventional and hybrid electric vehicles, when fueled with E85, could reduce total sulfur oxide (SO(x)) emissions to 39-43% of those generated by vehicles fueled with gasoline. By using bio-FTD and bio-DME in place of diesel, SO(x) emissions are reduced to 46-58% of those generated by diesel-fueled vehicles. Six different fuel production options were compared. This study strongly suggests that integrated heat and power co-generation by means of gas turbine combined cycle is a crucial factor in the energy savings and emission reductions.

  20. Benefits of group living include increased feeding efficiency and lower mass loss during desiccation in the social and inbreeding spider Stegodyphus dumicola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram eVanthournout

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Group living carries a price: it inherently entails increased competition for resources and reproduction, and may also be associated with mating among relatives, which carries costs of inbreeding. Nonetheless, group living and sociality is found in many animals, and understanding the direct and indirect benefits of cooperation that override the inherent costs remains a challenge in evolutionary ecology. Individuals in groups may benefit from more efficient management of energy or water reserves, for example in the form of reduced water or heat loss from groups of animals huddling, or through reduced energy demands afforded by shared participation in tasks. We investigated the putative benefits of group living in the permanently social spider Stegodyphus dumicola by comparing the effect of group size on standard metabolic rate, lipid/protein content as a body condition measure, feeding efficiency, per capita web investment and weight/water loss and survival during desiccation. Because energetic expenditure is temperature sensitive, some assays were performed under varying temperature conditions. We found that feeding efficiency increased with group size, and the rate of weight loss was higher in solitary individuals than in animals in groups of various sizes during desiccation. Interestingly, this was not translated into differences in survival or in standard metabolic rate. We did not detect any group size effects for other parameters, and group size effects did not co-vary with experimental temperature in a predictive manner. Both feeding efficiency and mass loss during desiccation are relevant ecological factors as the former results in lowered predator exposure time, and the latter benefits social spiders which occupy arid, hot environments.

  1. The Resource Benefits Evaluation Model on Remanufacturing Processes of End-of-Life Construction Machinery under the Uncertainty in Recycling Price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-wang Deng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the process of end-of-life construction machinery remanufacturing, the existence of uncertainties in all aspects of the remanufacturing process increase the difficulty and complexity of resource benefits evaluation for them. To quantify the effects of those uncertainty factors, this paper makes a mathematical analysis of the recycling and remanufacturing processes, building a resource benefits evaluation model for the end-of-life construction machinery. The recycling price and the profits of remanufacturers can thereby be obtained with a maximum remanufacturing resource benefit. The study investigates the change regularity of the resource benefits, recycling price, and profits of remanufacturers when the recycling price, quality fluctuation coefficient, demand coefficient, and the reusing ratio of products or parts are varying. In the numerical experiment, we explore the effects of uncertainties on the remanufacturing decisions and the total expected costs. The simulated analysis shows when the quality fluctuation coefficient is approaching to 1, the values of the profits of remanufacturer, the maximal resource benefits and recycling price grade into constants.

  2. Evaluation of Life History Diversity, Habitat Connectivity, and Survival Benefits Associated with Habitat Restoration Actions in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, Annual Report 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Johnson, Gary E.; Sather, Nichole K.; Skalski, John R.; Dawley, Earl M.; Coleman, Andre M.

    2010-08-01

    This report describes the 2009 research conducted under the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE or Corps) project EST-09-P-01, titled “Evaluation of Life History Diversity, Habitat Connectivity, and Survival Benefits Associated with Habitat Restoration Actions in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary.” The research was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Marine Science Laboratory and Hydrology Group, in partnership with the University of Washington, School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, Columbia Basin Research, and Earl Dawley (NOAA Fisheries, retired). This Columbia River Fish Mitigation Program project, referred to as “Salmonid Benefits,” was started in FY 2009 to evaluate the state-of-the science regarding the ability to quantify the benefits to listed salmonids1 of habitat restoration actions in the lower Columbia River and estuary.

  3. The Effects of a Family Support Program Including Respite Care on Parenting Stress and Family Quality of Life Perceived by Primary Caregivers of Children with Disabilities in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Minjung; Park, Jiyeon

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a family support program was carried out for primary caregivers of children with disabilities. The program included respite care, recreation programs, counseling, and social support coordination based on individual needs of each family. In order to verify the intervention effects, parenting stress and family quality of life were…

  4. WHEAT GRASS HEALTH BENEFITS

    OpenAIRE

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-01-01

    Nutraceutical is a food or food product that provides health and medical benefits, including the preventionand treatment of disease. Nutraceuticals are the products typically claim to prevent chronic diseases, improve health,delay the aging process, and increase life expectancy.Let us know something about one such nutraceutical.Wheatgrass is a commonly found herb in India contains enzymes like protease, cytrochrome, amylase, lipase,transhydrogenase and SOD (super oxide dismutase). Besides the...

  5. Health-Related Quality of Life in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer Patients After Definitive Chemoradiation Therapy Including Image Guided Adaptive Brachytherapy: An Analysis From the EMBRACE Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchheiner, Kathrin; Pötter, Richard; Tanderup, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study analyzed functioning and symptom scores for longitudinal quality of life (QoL) from patients with locally advanced cervical cancer who underwent definitive chemoradiation therapy with image guided adaptive brachytherapy in the EMBRACE study. Methods and Materials In total, 744...... patients at a median follow-up of 21 months were included. QoL was prospectively assessed using European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life core module 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) and EORTC cervical cancer module 24 (CX24) questionnaires at baseline, then every 3 months during...

  6. Widening Perspectives: The Intellectual and Social Benefits of Astrobiology (Regardless of Whether Extraterrestrial Life is Discovered or Not)

    OpenAIRE

    Crawford, Ian A.

    2017-01-01

    Astrobiology is usually defined as the study of the origin, evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe. As such it is inherently interdisciplinary and cannot help but engender a worldview infused by cosmic and evolutionary perspectives. Both these attributes of the study of astrobiology are, and will increasingly prove to be, beneficial to society regardless of whether extraterrestrial life is discovered or not.

  7. Objectively Assessed Exercise Behavior in Chinese Patients with Early-Stage Cancer: A Predictor of Perceived Benefits, Communication with Doctors, Medical Coping Modes, Depression and Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhunzhun; Zhang, Lanfeng; Shi, Songsong; Xia, Wenkai

    2017-01-01

    This study sought to identify factors associated with objectively assessed exercise behavior in Chinese patients with early-stage cancer. Three hundred and fifty one cancer patients were recruited from the Affiliated Jiangyin Hospital of Southeast University Medical College and the Nantong Tumor Hospital. One-way ANOVA, Pearson Chi-square tests and regression analysis were employed to identify the correlations between physical exercise and the measured factors. The results showed that occupation type (χ2 = 14.065; p = 0.029), monthly individual monthly income level (χ2 = 24.795; p = 0.003), BMI (χ2 = 15.709; p = 0.015) and diagnosis (χ2 = 42.442; p Benefit Finding (BF) (F = 24.651; p communication with doctors (F = 15.285; p benefit finding, medical coping modes, communication with doctors, social support, depression and quality of life were significantly correlated with exercise. The variance in several psychosocial factors (benefit finding, medical coping modes, the communication with doctors, depression and quality of life) could be explained by exercise. Psychosocial factors should be addressed and examined over time when evaluating the effect of physical exercise that is prescribed as a clinically relevant treatment.

  8. Self-administration of intravenous C1-inhibitor therapy for hereditary angioedema and associated quality of life benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygum, Anette; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Mikkelsen, Carsten Sauer

    2009-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is often debilitating with a serious effect on quality of life (QOL). Treatment of acute HAE attacks is usually with C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) concentrates; however, treatment can be delayed by patients' travel time for attending emergency units. We assessed...

  9. Using Older People's Life Stories to Teach Developmental Psychology and Aging: Benefits and Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Feliciano; Fabà, Josep; Celdrán, Montserrat

    2013-01-01

    The goals of this study were to design and implement an experiential learning assignment in an undergraduate developmental psychology and aging course and to explore students' perceptions of it. One hundred and forty-three first-year students enrolled in an introductory course on developmental psychology across the life span recorded,…

  10. Life cycle cost benefit assessments for green buildings%绿色建筑全生命周期成本效益评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹申; 董聪

    2012-01-01

    Cost benefit assessments are important for life cycle assessments of green buildings.This paper categorizes the various costs generated over the whole life cycle of green buildings in terms of the generation time for life cycle cost benefit analyses of green buildings.These consider possible changes of resource prices,the discount rate and the generation time of non-annual costs during the building's operating phase.The model is then used for cost benefit assessments of green buildings to evaluate the life cycle costs of water conservation facilities of a green residential community.The results show that the incremental cost of a green building compared with a conventional building can be recovered by cost control and savings during its life cycle.Management costs and equipment service lives are both important to effective cost control.%成本效益评价是绿色建筑全生命周期评价的重要内容之一。本文按照成本发生时间对绿色建筑全生命周期内产生的各项成本进行分类,建立绿色建筑全生命周期成本分析模型,其中考虑价格、折现率和非年度周期成本发生时间等因素变动所带来的影响,进而提出绿色建筑全生命周期成本效益评价方法,并对某居住区的节水措施进行全生命周期成本效益评价。评价结果表明:通过有效控制成本并提高节约效益,绿色建筑相对普通建筑的增量成本有可能会在其全生命周期内得到回收,控制管理成本和延长设备使用寿命是实现成本控制的有效途径。

  11. INTERACTIVE SEMINARS IN BIOCHEMISTRY DISCIPLINE FOR UNDERGRADUATE DEGREE IN BIOMEDICINE: BENEFITS AND PROBLEMS OF CARBOHYDRATES ASSOCIATED WITH MODERN LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G.G. Pessoa et al

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present project is part of the course in biochemistry for biomedical undergraduate students of the Federal University of Pernambuco - UFPE, which comprises theoretical and practical classes and interactive seminars prepared by students on studied topics to supplement learning. The aim of this research was to encourage students to innovate their search for knowledge, presenting an interactive strategy to demonstrate the importance of carbohydrates, as well as other energy fuels, for undergraduates students attending classes of biochemistry at the first semester at the university, in order to clarify the importance of maintaining a healthy way of life. The methodology used was a field research, documented in videos in which the opinions of a few people were registered in different places, such as in a fast-food restaurant, on the importance of carbohydrates. Records acquired were associated with a slide presentation on the subject, based on scientific books and articles, which were presented to the students of the discipline. It was also developed a dynamic to illustrate the consumption of carbohydrates in daily life and in different situations. After the project exhibition, a review of the research was conducted to the audience to express innovations or additions to their pre-existing concepts, on consumption of carbohydrates. The results of our work were very promising and the main goal of the project was achieved, since 88.2% of the respondents said there was an improvement in their knowledge, both theoretical and practical, on the subject, while only 11.8% reported no improvement at all. In conclusion, there was a greater involvement of students during the presentation of the subject and a higher participation during the group dynamic on the consumption of carbohydrates.

  12. Life history traits in selfing versus outcrossing annuals: exploring the 'time-limitation' hypothesis for the fitness benefit of self-pollination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarssen Lonnie W

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most self-pollinating plants are annuals. According to the 'time-limitation' hypothesis, this association between selfing and the annual life cycle has evolved as a consequence of strong r-selection, involving severe time-limitation for completing the life cycle. Under this model, selection from frequent density-independent mortality in ephemeral habitats minimizes time to flower maturation, with selfing as a trade-off, and / or selection minimizes the time between flower maturation and ovule fertilization, in which case selfing has a direct fitness benefit. Predictions arising from this hypothesis were evaluated using phylogenetically-independent contrasts of several life history traits in predominantly selfing versus outcrossing annuals from a data base of 118 species distributed across 14 families. Data for life history traits specifically related to maturation and pollination times were obtained by monitoring the start and completion of different stages of reproductive development in a greenhouse study of selfing and outcrossing annuals from an unbiased sample of 25 species involving five pair-wise family comparisons and four pair-wise genus comparisons. Results Selfing annuals in general had significantly shorter plant heights, smaller flowers, shorter bud development times, shorter flower longevity and smaller seed sizes compared with their outcrossing annual relatives. Age at first flower did not differ significantly between selfing and outcrossing annuals. Conclusions This is the first multi-species study to report these general life-history differences between selfers and outcrossers among annuals exclusively. The results are all explained more parsimoniously by selection associated with time-limitation than by selection associated with pollinator/mate limitation. The shorter bud development time reported here for selfing annuals is predicted explicitly by the time-limitation hypothesis for the fitness benefit of

  13. 29 CFR 1625.10 - Costs and benefits under employee benefit plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... term life insurance coverage for older workers, on the basis of age. However, a benefit-by-benefit... unreduced group term life insurance benefits until age 60, benefits for employees who are between 60 and 65... not be justified under a benefit-by-benefit analysis. However, it is not unlawful for life......

  14. 38 CFR 9.14 - Accelerated Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.14 Accelerated Benefits. (a) What is an Accelerated Benefit? An Accelerated Benefit is a payment of a portion of your Servicemembers' Group Life...? ____ Yes__ No__ The patient applied for an accelerated benefit under his/her government life...

  15. Basic essences for clinician,a life-long benefit%"三基三严"受益永远

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈灏珠

    2011-01-01

    "三基三严"是临床医生为患者提供服务、救死扶伤的基本技能.良好的诊治过程,包括熟练地收集、分析和书写病志,尤其是病史;应用适宜的诊断手段,特别是身体检查.终身学习,跟上医学知识发展,从医者方能更加优秀.%Diligent learning of or the basic theory, knowledge and techniques of medicine, and sticking to a strict,rigor and precise attitude in practices are essences that back up a clinican in providing medical cares to heal the wounded and rescue the dying.Proper management of diseases relies significantly on skillful collection,analysis and writing of medical records (esp.medical history),proficient use of diagnostic procedures (esp.physical checkup) and therapeutic manipulations.To develop a professional career of excellence,clinicians should insis on life-long study,pursuit of latest development in medical science, ceaseless practicing and innovation.

  16. Benefits of clean development mechanism application on the life cycle assessment perspective: a case study in the palm oil industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuen, Onn Chiu; Yusoff, Sumiani

    2012-03-01

    This study performed an assessment on the beneficial of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) application on waste treatment system in a local palm oil industry in Malaysia. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted to assess the environmental impacts of the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction from the CDM application. Calculations on the emission reduction used the methodology based on AM002 (Avoided Wastewater and On-site Energy Use Emissions in the Industrial Sector) Version 4 published by United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC). The results from the studies showed that the introduction of CDM in the palm oil mill through conversion of the captured biogas from palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment into power generation were able to reduce approximate 0.12 tonnes CO2 equivalent concentration (tCO2e) emission and 30 kW x hr power generation per 1 tonne of fresh fruit bunch processed. Thus, the application of CDM methodology on palm oil mill wastewater treatment was able to reduce up to 1/4 of the overall environment impact generated in palm oil mill.

  17. Burn-injured adolescents report gaining multiple developmental benefits and improved life skills as a result of burn camp attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmer, Ruth Brubaker; Pressman, Melissa S; Takach, Oliver P; Bay, R Curtis; Croteau, Renee; Hansen, Linda D; Foster, Kevin N; Caruso, Daniel M

    2012-01-01

    Anecdotally, burn camp has been reported to be a positive developmental and rehabilitative experience for attendees; there is little empirical data to support this belief. This study sought to explore whether burn camp either directly or indirectly elicits positive development outcomes in pediatric burn survivors or increases their psychosocial well-being and achievement. The Youth Experience Survey 2.0, a 66-item self-report inventory designed to measure developmental experiences in an organized youth activity, was administered to children aged 11 to 18 years attending summer burn camp. One hundred and ten burn-injured youth, 58 male and 52 female, reported that burn camp had positively impacted their lives through improved identity exploration, goal-setting and problem-solving abilities, increased physical activity, communication, emotional regulation, and time management skills (P camp for more than 5 years resulted in greater improvement. Study results support the burn camp experience as a far-reaching and positive developmental activity. Participants credited the camp experience with helping them with identity formation and reflection, improved social interactions, and increased initiative; all positive developmental outcomes for youth. Results suggest that burn camp participation not only helps burn-injured youth to deal with their burns but also assists them in the development of social and basic life skills, which will allow them to navigate the transition from youth to adulthood, more effectively and successfully.

  18. Effects of Including Misidentified Sharks in Life History Analyses: A Case Study on the Grey Reef Shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos from Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Jonathan J; Chin, Andrew; Baje, Leontine; Green, Madeline E; Appleyard, Sharon A; Tobin, Andrew J; Simpfendorfer, Colin A; White, William T

    2016-01-01

    Fisheries observer programs are used around the world to collect crucial information and samples that inform fisheries management. However, observer error may misidentify similar-looking shark species. This raises questions about the level of error that species misidentifications could introduce to estimates of species' life history parameters. This study addressed these questions using the Grey Reef Shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos as a case study. Observer misidentification rates were quantified by validating species identifications using diagnostic photographs taken on board supplemented with DNA barcoding. Length-at-age and maturity ogive analyses were then estimated and compared with and without the misidentified individuals. Vertebrae were retained from a total of 155 sharks identified by observers as C. amblyrhynchos. However, 22 (14%) of these were sharks were misidentified by the observers and were subsequently re-identified based on photographs and/or DNA barcoding. Of the 22 individuals misidentified as C. amblyrhynchos, 16 (73%) were detected using photographs and a further 6 via genetic validation. If misidentified individuals had been included, substantial error would have been introduced to both the length-at-age and the maturity estimates. Thus validating the species identification, increased the accuracy of estimated life history parameters for C. amblyrhynchos. From the corrected sample a multi-model inference approach was used to estimate growth for C. amblyrhynchos using three candidate models. The model averaged length-at-age parameters for C. amblyrhynchos with the sexes combined were L∞ = 159 cm TL and L0 = 72 cm TL. Females mature at a greater length (l50 = 136 cm TL) and older age (A50 = 9.1 years) than males (l50 = 123 cm TL; A50 = 5.9 years). The inclusion of techniques to reduce misidentification in observer programs will improve the results of life history studies and ultimately improve management through the use of more accurate data

  19. Integrated life-cycle assessment of electricity-supply scenarios confirms global environmental benefit of low-carbon technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertwich, Edgar G; Gibon, Thomas; Bouman, Evert A; Arvesen, Anders; Suh, Sangwon; Heath, Garvin A; Bergesen, Joseph D; Ramirez, Andrea; Vega, Mabel I; Shi, Lei

    2015-05-19

    Decarbonization of electricity generation can support climate-change mitigation and presents an opportunity to address pollution resulting from fossil-fuel combustion. Generally, renewable technologies require higher initial investments in infrastructure than fossil-based power systems. To assess the tradeoffs of increased up-front emissions and reduced operational emissions, we present, to our knowledge, the first global, integrated life-cycle assessment (LCA) of long-term, wide-scale implementation of electricity generation from renewable sources (i.e., photovoltaic and solar thermal, wind, and hydropower) and of carbon dioxide capture and storage for fossil power generation. We compare emissions causing particulate matter exposure, freshwater ecotoxicity, freshwater eutrophication, and climate change for the climate-change-mitigation (BLUE Map) and business-as-usual (Baseline) scenarios of the International Energy Agency up to 2050. We use a vintage stock model to conduct an LCA of newly installed capacity year-by-year for each region, thus accounting for changes in the energy mix used to manufacture future power plants. Under the Baseline scenario, emissions of air and water pollutants more than double whereas the low-carbon technologies introduced in the BLUE Map scenario allow a doubling of electricity supply while stabilizing or even reducing pollution. Material requirements per unit generation for low-carbon technologies can be higher than for conventional fossil generation: 11-40 times more copper for photovoltaic systems and 6-14 times more iron for wind power plants. However, only two years of current global copper and one year of iron production will suffice to build a low-carbon energy system capable of supplying the world's electricity needs in 2050.

  20. Enhancement of life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology to include the effect of surface albedo on climate change: Comparing black and white roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susca, Tiziana

    2012-04-01

    Traditionally, life cycle assessment (LCA) does not estimate a key property: surface albedo. Here an enhancement of the LCA methodology has been proposed through the development and employment of a time-dependent climatological model for including the effect of surface albedo on climate. The theoretical findings derived by the time-dependent model have been applied to the case study of a black and a white roof evaluated in the time-frames of 50 and 100 years focusing on the impact on global warming potential. The comparative life cycle impact assessment of the two roofs shows that the high surface albedo plays a crucial role in offsetting radiative forcings. In the 50-year time horizon, surface albedo is responsible for a decrease in CO(2)eq of 110-184 kg and 131-217 kg in 100 years. Furthermore, the white roof compared to the black roof, due to the high albedo, decreases the annual energy use of about 3.6-4.5 kWh/m(2).

  1. Eco-efficient production of spring barley in a changed climate: A Life Cycle Assessment including primary data from future climate scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niero, Monia; Ingvordsen, Cathrine Heinz; Peltonen-Sainio, Pirjo;

    2015-01-01

    leaching and change in crop yield). The main input data originate from experiments, where spring barley cultivars were cultivated in a climate phytotron under controlled and manipulated treatments. Effects of changed climate on both crop productivity and crop quality were represented, as well as impacts......The paper has two main objectives: (i) to assess the eco-efficiency of spring barley cultivation for malting in Denmark in a future changed climate (700 ppm [CO2] and +5 °C) through Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and (ii) to compare alternative future cultivation scenarios, both excluding...... and including earlier sowing and cultivar selection as measures of adaptation to a changed climate. A baseline scenario describing the current spring barley cultivation in Denmark was defined, and the expected main deviations were identified (differences in pesticide treatment index, modifications in nitrate...

  2. Medicare Hospice Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    CENTERS for MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES Medicare Hospice Benefits This official government booklet includes information about Medicare hospice benefits: Who’s eligible for hospice care What services are included in hospice ...

  3. Valuation of green walls and green roofs as soundscape measures: including monetised amenity values together with noise-attenuation values in a cost-benefit analysis of a green wall affecting courtyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veisten, Knut; Smyrnova, Yuliya; Klæboe, Ronny; Hornikx, Maarten; Mosslemi, Marjan; Kang, Jian

    2012-10-24

    Economic unit values of soundscape/acoustic effects have been based on changes in the number of annoyed persons or on decibel changes. The normal procedure has been the application of these unit values to noise-attenuation measures affecting the noisier façade of a dwelling. Novel modular vegetation-based soundscape measures, so-called green walls, might be relevant for both noisy and quieter areas. Moreover, their benefits will comprise noise attenuation as well as non-acoustic amenity effects. One challenge is to integrate the results of some decades of non-acoustic research on the amenity value of urban greenery into design of the urban sound environment, and incorporate these non-acoustic properties in the overall economic assessment of noise control and overall sound environment improvement measures. Monetised unit values for green walls have been included in two alternative cases, or demonstration projects, of covering the entrances to blocks of flats with a green wall. Since these measures improve the noise environment on the quiet side of the dwellings and courtyards, not the most exposed façade, adjustment factors to the nominal quiet side decibel reductions to arrive at an estimate of the equivalent overall acoustic improvement have been applied. A cost-benefit analysis of the green wall case indicates that this measure is economically promising, when valuing the noise attenuation in the quieter area and adding the amenity/aesthetic value of the green wall.

  4. Valuation of Green Walls and Green Roofs as Soundscape Measures: Including Monetised Amenity Values Together with Noise-attenuation Values in a Cost-benefit Analysis of a Green Wall Affecting Courtyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Kang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Economic unit values of soundscape/acoustic effects have been based on changes in the number of annoyed persons or on decibel changes. The normal procedure has been the application of these unit values to noise-attenuation measures affecting the noisier façade of a dwelling. Novel modular vegetation-based soundscape measures, so-called green walls, might be relevant for both noisy and quieter areas. Moreover, their benefits will comprise noise attenuation as well as non-acoustic amenity effects. One challenge is to integrate the results of some decades of non-acoustic research on the amenity value of urban greenery into design of the urban sound environment, and incorporate these non-acoustic properties in the overall economic assessment of noise control and overall sound environment improvement measures. Monetised unit values for green walls have been included in two alternative cases, or demonstration projects, of covering the entrances to blocks of flats with a green wall. Since these measures improve the noise environment on the quiet side of the dwellings and courtyards, not the most exposed façade, adjustment factors to the nominal quiet side decibel reductions to arrive at an estimate of the equivalent overall acoustic improvement have been applied. A cost-benefit analysis of the green wall case indicates that this measure is economically promising, when valuing the noise attenuation in the quieter area and adding the amenity/aesthetic value of the green wall.

  5. University Benefits Survey. Part I (All Benefits Excluding Pensions).

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    Results of a 1984 survey of benefits, excluding pensions, for 17 Ontario, Canada, universities are presented. Information is provided on the following areas: questions on general benefits, such as insurance plans, communication of benefits, proposed changes in benefits, provision of life and dismemberment insurance, and maternity leave policy;…

  6. International Space Station Research Benefits for Humanity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumm, Tracy; Robinson, Julie A.; Johnson-Green, Perry; Buckley, Nicole; Karabadzhak, George; Nakamura, Tai; Kamigaichi, Shigeki; Sorokin, Igor V.; Zell, Martin; Fuglesang, Christer; Sabbagh, Jean; Pignataro, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    The ISS partnership has seen a substantial increase in research accomplished, crew efforts devoted to research, and results of ongoing research and technology development. The ISS laboratory is providing a unique environment for research and international collaboration that benefits humankind. Benefits come from the engineering development, the international partnership, and from the research results. Benefits can be of three different types: scientific discovery, applications to life on Earth, and applications to future exploration. Working across all ISS partners, we identified key themes where the activities on the ISS improve the lives of people on Earth -- not only within the partner nations, but also in other nations of the world. Three major themes of benefits to life on earth emerged from our review: benefits to human health, education, and Earth observation and disaster response. Other themes are growing as use of the ISS continues. Benefits to human health range from advancements in surgical technology, improved telemedicine, and new treatments for disease. Earth observations from the ISS provide a wide range of observations that include: marine vessel tracking, disaster monitoring and climate change. The ISS participates in a number of educational activities aimed to inspire students of all ages to learn about science, technology, engineering and mathematics. To date over 63 countries have directly participated in some aspect of ISS research or education. In summarizing these benefits and accomplishments, ISS partners are also identifying ways to further extend the benefits to people in developing countries for the benefits of humankind.

  7. International Space Station Benefits for Humanity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumm, Tracy L.; Robinson, Julie A.; Buckley, Nicole; Johnson-Green, Perry; Kamigaichi, Shigeki; Karabadzhak, George; Nakamura, Tai; Sabbagh, Jean; Sorokin, Igor; Zell, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The ISS partnership has seen a substantial increase in research accomplished, crew efforts devoted to research, and results of ongoing research and technology development. The ISS laboratory is providing a unique environment for research and international collaboration that benefits humankind. Benefits come from the engineering development, the international partnership, and from the research results. Benefits can be of three different types: scientific discovery, applications to life on Earth, and applications to future exploration. Working across all ISS partners, we identified key themes where the activities on the ISS improve the lives of people on Earth--not only within the partner nations, but also in other nations of the world. Three major themes of benefits to life on earth emerged from our review: benefits to human health, education, and Earth observation and disaster response. Other themes are growing as use of the ISS continues. Benefits to human health range from advancements in surgical technology, improved telemedicine, and new treatments for disease. Earth observations from the ISS provide a wide range of observations that include: marine vessel tracking, disaster monitoring and climate change. The ISS participates in a number of educational activities aimed to inspire students of all ages to learn about science, technology, engineering and mathematics. To date over 63 countries have directly participated in some aspect of ISS research or education. In summarizing these benefits and accomplishments, ISS partners are also identifying ways to further extend the benefits to people in developing countries for the benefits of humankind.

  8. WHEAT GRASS HEALTH BENEFITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nutraceutical is a food or food product that provides health and medical benefits, including the preventionand treatment of disease. Nutraceuticals are the products typically claim to prevent chronic diseases, improve health,delay the aging process, and increase life expectancy.Let us know something about one such nutraceutical.Wheatgrass is a commonly found herb in India contains enzymes like protease, cytrochrome, amylase, lipase,transhydrogenase and SOD (super oxide dismutase. Besides these enzymes, it also contains all the essential aminoacids especially alanine, asparatic acid, glutamic acid, arginine and serine, which are helpful in providing good amountof protein in body which builds and repair tissues. Wheatgrass contains chlorophyll and flavonoids in good amount.It also contains vitamins like vitamin A, vitamin C, and vitamin E and minerals like iron, calcium and magnesium.Chlorophyll has been shown to build red blood cells quickly,cures anemia, normalise blood pressure by dilating theblood vessels. Chlorophyll has been shown to produce an unfavourable environment for bacterial growth in the bodyand therefore effective in increasing the body's resistance to illness. Probably the most important benefit ofwheatgrass is, it is a cancer fighting agent. Many people strongly believe that the benefits of wheatgrass on cancerare real and that consuming wheat grass can help in the treatment and even in the prevention of cancer. Wheatgrassproduces an immunization effect against many dietary carcinogens..Additional benefits of wheatgrass are bettercomplexion and a healthy glow. The slowing of graying hair is also a benefit believed to come from wheatgrass. Wecan grow wheat grass in small cups, pots and trays very conveniently in our homes, so that we will have fresh juiceand powder with minimum cost.

  9. Health-Related Quality of Life: Expanding a Conceptual Framework to Include Older Adults Who Receive Long-Term Services and Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubritsky, Cynthia; Abbott, Katherine M.; Hirschman, Karen B.; Bowles, Kathryn H.; Foust, Janice B.; Naylor, Mary D.

    2013-01-01

    For older adults receiving long-term services and supports (LTSS), health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has emerged as a critical construct to examine because of its focus on components of well-being, which are affected by progressive changes in health status, health care, and social support. HRQoL is a health-focused quality of life (QOL)…

  10. Including the spatial variability of metal speciation in the effect factor in life cycle impact assessment: Limits of the equilibrium partitioning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromson, Clara; Bulle, Cécile; Deschênes, Louise

    2017-03-01

    In life cycle assessment (LCA), the potential terrestrial ecotoxicity effect of metals, calculated as the effect factor (EF), is usually extrapolated from aquatic ecotoxicological data using the equilibrium partitioning method (EqP) as it is more readily available than terrestrial data. However, when following the AMI recommendations (i.e. with at least enough species that represents three different phyla), there are not enough terrestrial data for which soil properties or metal speciation during ecotoxicological testing are specified to account for the influence of soil property variations on metal speciation when using this approach. Alternatively, the TBLM (Terrestrial Biotic Ligand Model) has been used to determine an EF that accounts for speciation, but is not available for metals; hence it cannot be consistently applied to metals in an LCA context. This paper proposes an approach to include metal speciation by regionalizing the EqP method for Cu, Ni and Zn with a geochemical speciation model (the Windermere Humic Aqueous Model 7.0), for 5213 soils selected from the Harmonized World Soil Database. Results obtained by this approach (EF(EqP)regionalized) are compared to the EFs calculated with the conventional EqP method, to the EFs based on available terrestrial data and to the EFs calculated with the TBLM (EF(TBLM)regionalized) when available. The spatial variability contribution of the EF to the overall spatial variability of the characterization factor (CF) has been analyzed. It was found that the EFs(EqP)regionalized show a significant spatial variability. The EFs calculated with the two non-regionalized methods (EqP and terrestrial data) fall within the range of the EFs(EqP)regionalized. The EFs(TBLM)regionalized cover a larger range of values than the EFs(EqP)regionalized but the two methods are not correlated. This paper highlights the importance of including speciation into the terrestrial EF and shows that using the regionalized EqP approach is not an

  11. 21 CFR 312.84 - Risk-benefit analysis in review of marketing applications for drugs to treat life-threatening and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Risk-benefit analysis in review of marketing... Severely-debilitating Illnesses § 312.84 Risk-benefit analysis in review of marketing applications for... statutory standards for marketing approval shall recognize the need for a medical risk-benefit judgment...

  12. Persons with dementia “are given a voice” when music and singing are included as part of their everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Aase Marie

    have when singing and music are used as a communicative form of intervention in everyday life and in their interaction and relationship with caregivers and what impact does it have on their quality of life and well-being? b) What impact does it have, from a professional and an interdisciplinary...... perspective that song and music are used as a communicative form of intervention in rehabilitation and in everyday life for a person with dementia and how does it affects the quality of the intervention? c) Which ideas and suggestions does persons with dementia, relatives and professional have for improvement...... and to the implementation and anchoring-process when singing and music are used as a communicative form of intervention? d) How can we develop a manual that makes it possible to implement and anchor song and music as communicative form of intervention in rehabilitation for persons with dementia? The research project...

  13. Benefits of exercise training and the correlation between aerobic capacity and functional outcomes and quality of life in elderly patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Hsin; Chen, Yi-Jen; Tu, Hung-Pin; Huang, Mao-Hsiung; Jhong, Jing-Hui; Lin, Ko-Long

    2014-10-01

    Cardiopulmonary exercise training is beneficial to people with coronary artery disease (CAD). Nevertheless, the correlation between aerobic capacity, and functional mobility and quality of life in elderly CAD patients is less addressed. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the beneficial effects of exercise training in elderly people with CAD, integrating exercise stress testing, functional mobility, handgrip strength, and health-related quality of life. Elderly people with CAD were enrolled from the outpatient clinic of a cardiac rehabilitation unit in a medical center. Participants were assigned to the exercise training group (N = 21) or the usual care group (N = 15). A total of 36 sessions of exercise training, completed in 12 weeks, was prescribed. Echocardiography, exercise stress testing, the 6-minute walking test, Timed Up and Go test, and handgrip strength testing were performed, and the Short-Form 36 questionnaire (SF-36) was administered at baseline and at 12-week follow-up. Peak oxygen consumption improved significantly after training. The heart rate recovery improved from 13.90/minute to 16.62/minute after exercise training. Functional mobility and handgrip strength also improved after training. Significant improvements were found in SF-36 physical function, social function, role limitation due to emotional problems, and mental health domains. A significant correlation between dynamic cardiopulmonary exercise testing parameters, the 6-minute walking test, Timed Up and Go test, handgrip strength, and SF-36 physical function and general health domains was also detected. Twelve-week, 36-session exercise training, including moderate-intensity cardiopulmonary exercise training, strengthening exercise, and balance training, is beneficial to elderly patients with CAD, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing parameters correlate well with balance and quality of life.

  14. Evaluation of Life History Diversity, Habitat Connectivity, and Survival Benefits Associated with Habitat Restoration Actions in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, Annual Report 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Forest bird habitat suitability models and the development of general habitat models.” Fish and Wildlife Research 8:31. A.21 Date: September 15...Benefits and Limitations of the proposed options. Lab Benefits Lab Limitations Cage Benefits Cage Limitations Site Selection Sequim: Has space...transport to dock, and then transport to cage location Fish Diet Controlled Not live feed Natural Unknown for quality or quantity Numbers of Fish 20

  15. NASA Benefits Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews several ways in which NASA research has benefited Earth and made life on Earth better. These innovations include: solar panels, recycled pavement, thermometer pill, invisible braces for straightening teeth, LASIK, aerodynamic helmets and tires for bicycles, cataract detection, technology that was used to remove Anthrax spores from mail handling facilities, study of atomic oxygen erosion of materials has informed the restoration of artwork, macroencapsulation (a potential mechanism to deliver anti cancer drugs to specific sites), and research on a salmonella vaccine. With research on the International Space Station just beginning, there will be opportunities for entrepreneurs and other government agencies to access space for their research and development. As well as NASA continuing its own research on human health and technology development.

  16. Persons with dementia “are given a voice” when music and singing are included as part of their everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Aase Marie

    During a post-doctoral project person with dementia and their relatives are involved in the research-process. The aim is to explore their experiences and what importance it has for them that singing and music are part of their everyday life and the rehabilitation effort. The research is carried out...... and their relatives, also have focus on an professional and interdisciplinary perspective and an organizational perspective aimed at the conditions for implementation of singing and music in practice. Following research question will be elucidated: a) What experiences does persons with dementia and their relatives...... perspective that song and music are used as a communicative form of intervention in rehabilitation and in everyday life for a person with dementia and how does it affects the quality of the intervention? c) Which ideas and suggestions does persons with dementia, relatives and professional have for improvement...

  17. University Benefits Survey. Part 1 (All Benefits Excluding Pensions).

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    Results of a 1983 survey of benefits, excluding pensions, for 17 Ontario, Canada, universities are presented. Information is provided on the following areas: whether the university self-administers insurance plans, communication of benefits, proposed changes in benefits, provision of life and dismemberment insurance, maternity leave policy,…

  18. Benefit on health-related quality of life of adherence to gluten-free diet in adult patients with celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Casellas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Celiac disease (CD affects health-related quality of life (HRQOL of patients suffering it. The exclusion of gluten from the diet (GFD improves HRQOL, but involves difficulties in following the diet that could adversely affect HRQOL. Objective: To determine the effect of adherence to the diet on HRQOL of adult CD patients. Methods: A prospective, cross-sectional, multicenter study of CD patients treated with a GFD for longer than 1 year. Adherence to the GFD was measured using the Morisky scale, and health status using the specific CD-QOL questionnaire and the generic EuroQol-5D questionnaire. Results: 366 patients from 7 hospitals were included: 71.5% of patients reported a perfect treatment adherence, 23.5% unintentional poor adherence and 5% intentional poor adherence. Good adherence to a GFD was related to a higher mean score on the CD-QOL (75 vs. 68, respectively, p < 0.05 and EuroQol-5D (0.9 vs. 0.8, respectively, p < 0.05. Ease of adherence to a GFD was also related to a better HRQOL (total CD-QOL score of 82 vs. 67 in patients who consider the GFD difficult to follow, p < 0.05. Good symptom control was also related to a better HRQOL (total CD-QOL score of 78 vs. 67 in asymptomatic vs. symptomatic patients, p < 0.01. The worse scored dimension of CD-QOL was related to "inadequate treatment." Conclusions: In CD, good adherence to a GFD and adequate symptom control result in improved HRQOL. Many patients consider that the lack of therapeutic alternatives to diet worsens their quality of life.

  19. Characteristics of mineral nutrition of plants in the bio-technical life support system with human wastes included in mass exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirova, Natalia; Ushakova, Sofya; Kalacheva, Galina; Tikhomirov, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    The study addresses the effectiveness of using ion exchange substrates (IES) to optimize mineral nutrition of plants grown in the nutrient solutions containing oxidized human wastes for application in bio-technical life support systems. The study shows that the addition of IES to the root-inhabited substrate is favorable for the growth of wheat vegetative organs but causes a decrease in the grain yield. By contrast, the addition of IES to the nutrient solution does not influence the growth of vegetative organs but favors normal development of wheat reproductive organs. Thus, to choose the proper method of adjusting the solution with IES, one should take into account specific parameters of plant growth and development and the possibility of multiple recycling of IES based on the liquid products of mineralization of human wastes.

  20. 绿色建筑全生命周期增量成本与效益分析%Analysis on incremental costs and benefits of whole life cycle of green building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李飞

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduced the manifestation of incremental costs and incremental benefit in whole life cycle of green building,according to the relevant principles of model construction,elaborated the construction method of cost and benefit model,and combining with related project ex-ample,verified the feasibility of the model in costs and benefits analysis.%介绍了增量成本与增量效益在绿色建筑全生命周期中的表现,根据模型构建的相关原则,阐述了成本与效益模型的建立方法,并结合项目实例,验证了该模型在成本与效益分析中的可行性。

  1. Beneficios del Tai Chi Chuan en la osteoartritis, el equilibrio y la calidad de vida (Tai Chi Chuan benefits on osteoarthritis, balance and quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Jesús Jiménez-Martín

    2013-04-01

    TCC utilizado (el estilo practicado, la dosificación, la experiencia de los instructores, la altura en las posturas, el tiempo de ejecución de cada forma, etc.AbstractAim: This paper reviews international scientific studies aimed at determining the benefits of practicing Tai Chi Chuan (TCC on knee osteoarthritis (OR, balance, fear of falling, and quality of life. Method: A bibliographic search of eight international databases was undertaken (Medline-Pubmed, Scirus, Pascal, ScienceDirect, SportDiscus, Science Citation Index, BIOSIS y PsycINFO until April 2012. Results: A total of 74 studies were analyzed, 13 of them corresponding to systematic reviews and 61 to specific studies (42 randomized controlled studies (EAC and 19 non-controlled studies (ENC. In particular, 11 studies were analyzed regarding knee osteoarthritis (7 EAC and 4 ENC, 32 regarding balance-fear of falling (26 EAC and 6 ENC, and 30 regarding quality of life (18 EAC and 12 ENC. Conclusion: The effects of TCC on knee osteoarthritis are contradictory although a positive tendency was observed regarding control of pain and the improvement of physical functionality. Regarding the effects on balance-fear of falling, a significant improvement in static and dynamic balance was observed as well as confidence in terms of fear of falling. Regarding quality of life, TCC practice improves emotional well-being, self-perception and physical well-being. The obtained results should be treated with some caution since many of the studies examined show methodological weaknesses in the design (small samples, lack of inclusion and exclusion criteria for the participants, deficiencies in the statistical analyses, lack of standardization in the measurement of results, etc., and the specific information about the conditions of the TCC program applied (style practised, dose, experience of the instructors, posture height, time spent carrying out each form.

  2. Quality of Life for Children with Cochlear Implants: Perceived Benefits and Problems and the Perception of Single Words and Emotional Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorr, Efrat A.; Roth, Froma P.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined children's self-reported quality of life with a cochlear implant as related to children's actual perceptions of speech and the emotional information conveyed by sound. Effects of age at amplification with hearing aids and fitting of cochlear implants on perceived quality of life were also investigated. Method: A…

  3. Environmental benefits from reusing clothes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrant, Laura; Olsen, Stig Irving; Wangel, Arne

    2010-01-01

    clothes actually results in a decrease of the environmental burden of the life cycle of clothing. The environmental burden of clothing has been studied in several studies. However, most of these studies focus solely on the energy consumption aspects and pay little attention to the potential benefits...... of diverting used clothing from the waste stream. The aim of the study was to assess the net environmental benefits brought by the disposal of used clothing through charities who return them for second-hand sales assuming that second hand clothes (SHC) to some extent replace the purchase of new clothes...... and reliability of the results obtained in the current study. Such a further work could include the possible difference in the lifetime of second-hand clothes compared to new clothes....

  4. Quality of life, reproduction and sexuality after stem cell transplantation with partially T-cell-depleted grafts and after conditioning with a regimen including total body irradiation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, J.J.M.; Beerendonk, C.C.M.; Schattenberg, A.V.M.B.

    2006-01-01

    Thirty-four men and 36 women (median age 43 and 45 years, respectively) underwent stem cell transplantation (SCT) for acute leukaemia in first complete remission or chronic myelogenous leukaemia in first chronic phase between 1981 and 2001 from HLA-identical siblings. The conditioning regimen includ

  5. Eco-efficient production of spring barley in a changed climate: A Life Cycle Assessment including primary data from future climate scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niero, Monia; Ingvordsen, Cathrine Heinz; Peltonen-Sainio, Pirjo

    2015-01-01

    of predicted extreme events, simulated through a long heat-wave. LCA results showed that the changed climatic conditions will likely increase the negative impacts on the environment from Danish spring barley cultivation, since all environmental impact categories experienced increased impact for all...... strategies should mainly focus on maintaining or improving crop productivity. The LCA also showed that selection of proper cultivars for future climate conditions including the challenge from extreme events is one of the most effective ways to reduce future environmental impacts of spring barley. Finally...... and including earlier sowing and cultivar selection as measures of adaptation to a changed climate. A baseline scenario describing the current spring barley cultivation in Denmark was defined, and the expected main deviations were identified (differences in pesticide treatment index, modifications in nitrate...

  6. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... show that people with arthritis, heart disease, or diabetes benefit from regular exercise. Exercise also helps people ... or difficulty walking. To learn about exercise and diabetes, see "Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes" from Go4Life®, ...

  7. Value of a statistical life in road safety: a benefit-transfer function with risk-analysis guidance based on developing country data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, Craig; Kopp, Andreas; Dahdah, Said; Montufar, Jeannette

    2014-10-01

    We model a value of statistical life (VSL) transfer function for application to road-safety engineering in developing countries through an income-disaggregated meta-analysis of scope-sensitive stated preference VSL data. The income-disaggregated meta-analysis treats developing country and high-income country data separately. Previous transfer functions are based on aggregated datasets that are composed largely of data from high-income countries. Recent evidence, particularly with respect to the income elasticity of VSL, suggests that the aggregate approach is deficient because it does not account for a possible change in income elasticity across income levels. Our dataset (a minor update of the OECD database published in 2012) includes 123 scope-sensitive VSL estimates from developing countries and 185 scope-sensitive estimates from high-income countries. The transfer function for developing countries gives VSL=1.3732E-4×(GDP per capita)(∧)2.478, with VSL and GDP per capita expressed in 2005 international dollars (an international dollar being a notional currency with the same purchasing power as the U.S. dollar). The function can be applied for low- and middle-income countries with GDPs per capita above $1268 (with a data gap for very low-income countries), whereas it is not useful above a GDP per capita of about $20,000. The corresponding function built using high-income country data is VSL=8.2474E+3×(GDP per capita)(∧).6932; it is valid for high-income countries but over-estimates VSL for low- and middle-income countries. The research finds two principal significant differences between the transfer functions modeled using developing-country and high-income-country data, supporting the disaggregated approach. The first of these differences relates to between-country VSL income elasticity, which is 2.478 for the developing country function and .693 for the high-income function; the difference is significant at pcountries and positively in high

  8. Benefits of Massage-Myofascial Release Therapy on Pain, Anxiety, Quality of Sleep, Depression, and Quality of Life in Patients with Fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelaida María Castro-Sánchez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia is a chronic syndrome characterized by generalized pain, joint rigidity, intense fatigue, sleep alterations, headache, spastic colon, craniomandibular dysfunction, anxiety, and depression. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether massage-myofascial release therapy can improve pain, anxiety, quality of sleep, depression, and quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia. A randomized controlled clinical trial was performed. Seventy-four fibromyalgia patients were randomly assigned to experimental (massage-myofascial release therapy and placebo (sham treatment with disconnected magnotherapy device groups. The intervention period was 20 weeks. Pain, anxiety, quality of sleep, depression, and quality of life were determined at baseline, after the last treatment session, and at 1 month and 6 months. Immediately after treatment and at 1 month, anxiety levels, quality of sleep, pain, and quality of life were improved in the experimental group over the placebo group. However, at 6 months postintervention, there were only significant differences in the quality of sleep index. Myofascial release techniques improved pain and quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia.

  9. Predictors of time to remission from depression in primary case patients : Do some people benefit more from positive life change than others?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldehinkel, A.J.; Ormel, J.; Neeleman, Jan

    2000-01-01

    The authors examined the role of personality, social support, and coping strategies and their interaction with positive life change (PLC) in influencing time to remission from depression in 86 depressed primary care patients (69% women, mean age = 36.6 years), who were followed for 3.5 years. Diagno

  10. Is there an environmental benefit from remediation of a contaminated site? Combined assessments of the risk reduction and life cycle impact of remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Gitte; Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia; Binning, Philip John;

    2012-01-01

    determined by a numerical risk assessment and remedial performance model, which predicted the contaminant mass discharge over time at a point of compliance in the aquifer and at the waterworks. The combined assessment of risk reduction and life cycle impacts showed that all management options result...

  11. Benefits of massage-myofascial release therapy on pain, anxiety, quality of sleep, depression, and quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Sánchez, Adelaida María; Matarán-Peñarrocha, Guillermo A; Granero-Molina, José; Aguilera-Manrique, Gabriel; Quesada-Rubio, José Manuel; Moreno-Lorenzo, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Fibromyalgia is a chronic syndrome characterized by generalized pain, joint rigidity, intense fatigue, sleep alterations, headache, spastic colon, craniomandibular dysfunction, anxiety, and depression. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether massage-myofascial release therapy can improve pain, anxiety, quality of sleep, depression, and quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia. A randomized controlled clinical trial was performed. Seventy-four fibromyalgia patients were randomly assigned to experimental (massage-myofascial release therapy) and placebo (sham treatment with disconnected magnotherapy device) groups. The intervention period was 20 weeks. Pain, anxiety, quality of sleep, depression, and quality of life were determined at baseline, after the last treatment session, and at 1 month and 6 months. Immediately after treatment and at 1 month, anxiety levels, quality of sleep, pain, and quality of life were improved in the experimental group over the placebo group. However, at 6 months postintervention, there were only significant differences in the quality of sleep index. Myofascial release techniques improved pain and quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia.

  12. Gender differences in health-related quality of life following ST-elevation myocardial infarction: women and men do not benefit from primary percutaneous coronary intervention to the same degree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ole Steen; Bjorner, Jakob B; Newman, Beth

    2007-01-01

    to primary PCI and fibrinolysis. DESIGN: A questionnaire-based study in 1351 patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), assessed at 1 and 12 months after the infarction. METHODS: HRQoL was measured with the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form (SF-36), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale......BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence whether women benefit to the same degree as men from treatment of myocardial infarction with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) when compared to fibrinolysis. This study compares health-related quality of life (HRQoL) outcomes for men and women randomized.......01), and the mental component summary scale (P=0.01), as well as in the scales for anxiety (P=0.04), depression (P=0.02), and global quality of life (P

  13. Palliative chemotherapy beyond three courses conveys no survival or consistent quality-of-life benefits in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Plessen, C; Bergman, B; Andresen, O;

    2006-01-01

    and 8 of a 3-week cycle. Key end points were QoL at 18 weeks, measured with EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ)-C30 and QLQ-LC13, and overall survival. Secondary end points were progression-free survival and need of palliative radiotherapy. Two hundred and ninety-seven patients were randomised (C3...... of life (QoL) and survival. Patients with stage IIIB or IV NSCLC and WHO performance status (PS) 0-2 were randomised to receive three (C3) or six (C6) courses of carboplatin (area under the curve (AUC) 4, Chatelut's formula, equivalent to Calvert's AUC 5) on day 1 and vinorelbine 25 mg m(-2) on days 1...

  14. 42 CFR 102.33 - Death benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... benefits, or retirement benefits on behalf of the dependent(s) or his or her legal guardian or life insurance benefits on behalf of the dependent(s)). ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Death benefits. 102.33 Section 102.33 Public...

  15. Medicare Prescription Drug Benefit Manual

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Part D Prescription Drug Benefit Manual (PDBM) is user guide to Part D Prescription Drug Program. It includes information on general provisions, benefits,...

  16. 18 CFR 367.9260 - Account 926, Employee pensions and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... pension funds or to insurance companies for pension purposes. (3) Group and life insurance premiums..., hospital, and death benefits, or insurance related to this account. Include, also, expenses incurred in... benefits or insurance. (6) Payments to employees incapacitated for service or on leave of absence...

  17. Internet Service Cognition and Use, and Their Promotion of Quality of Life in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Te-Hsin

    2011-01-01

    The "e-Taiwan Program" implemented by Taiwan government is aimed at showing the e-advantage in people's life and bring about essential benefits. This research follows the e-Life indicators of the Quality of Life measurement system developed by "e-Taiwan Program", which including four major dimensions of e-Daily Life, e-Business, e-Government,…

  18. Internet Service Cognition and Use, and Their Promotion of Quality of Life in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Te-Hsin

    2011-01-01

    The "e-Taiwan Program" implemented by Taiwan government is aimed at showing the e-advantage in people's life and bring about essential benefits. This research follows the e-Life indicators of the Quality of Life measurement system developed by "e-Taiwan Program", which including four major dimensions of e-Daily Life,…

  19. Design and diffusion of systems for human benefit

    CERN Document Server

    Venable, John R; Bunker, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Information systems have the potential to provide human benefit in a number of areas including: improvement of education, provision of social and other services to the public, health and well-being, work-life balance, environmental sustainability, democracy and self-determination, freedom, emancipation, poverty reduction, and social equity. However, most studies within Information Systems relate to a business context rather than directly to human benefit. When dealing with human benefit, system stakeholders may have different objectives regarding a system's use, its distribution, and the way r

  20. Reducing Loss of Life and Property from Disasters: A Societal Benefit Area of the Strategic Plan for U.S. Integrated Earth Observation System (IEOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helz, Rosalind L.; Gaynor, John E.

    2007-01-01

    Natural and technological disasters, such as hurricanes and other extreme weather events, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides and debris flows, wildland and urban-interface fires, floods, oil spills, and space-weather storms, impose a significant burden on society. Throughout the United States, disasters inflict many injuries and deaths, and cost the nation $20 billion each year (SDR, 2003). Disasters in other countries can affect U.S. assets and interests overseas (e.g. the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in the Philippines, which effectively destroyed Clark Air Force Base). Also, because they have a disproportionate impact on developing countries, disasters are major barriers to sustainable development. Improving our ability to assess, predict, monitor, and respond to hazardous events is a key factor in reducing the occurrence and severity of disasters, and relies heavily on the use of information from well-designed and integrated Earth observation systems. To fully realize the benefits gained from the observation systems, the information derived must be disseminated through effective warning systems and networks, with products tailored to the needs of the end users and the general public.

  1. A review of the differences and similarities between generic drugs and their originator counterparts, including economic benefits associated with usage of generic medicines, using Ireland as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Suzanne; Shannon, Bill; Dunne, Colum; Cullen, Walter

    2013-01-05

    Generic medicines are those where patent protection has expired, and which may be produced by manufacturers other than the innovator company. Use of generic medicines has been increasing in recent years, primarily as a cost saving measure in healthcare provision. Generic medicines are typically 20 to 90% cheaper than originator equivalents. Our objective is to provide a high-level description of what generic medicines are and how they differ, at a regulatory and legislative level, from originator medicines. We describe the current and historical regulation of medicines in the world's two main pharmaceutical markets, in addition to the similarities, as well as the differences, between generics and their originator equivalents including the reasons for the cost differences seen between originator and generic medicines. Ireland is currently poised to introduce generic substitution and reference pricing. This article refers to this situation as an exemplar of a national system on the cusp of significant health policy change, and specifically details Ireland's history with usage of generic medicines and how the proposed changes could affect healthcare provision.

  2. Go4Life:Fitness for Baby Boomers On Up | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Go4Life is based on research demonstrating real health benefits of exercise and physical activity for older people, including those ... do. And although people 85 and older can benefit from exercise, only 11 percent report being active. Go4Life is ...

  3. Education's Effects on Individual Life Chances and on Development: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Walter W.; Oketch, Moses

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates the effects of human capital skills largely created through education on life's chances over the life cycle. Qualifications as a measure of these skills affect earnings, and schooling affects private and social non-market benefits beyond earnings. Private non-market benefits include better own-health, child health, spousal…

  4. Benefits of omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplementation on health-related quality of life in patients with meibomian gland dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleñik A

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Andrea Oleñik, Ignacio Mahillo-Fernández, Nicolás Alejandre-Alba, Guillermo Fernández-Sanz, María Alarcón Pérez, Sol Luxan, Silvia Quintana, Alfonso Martínez de Carneros Llorente, Blanca García-Sandoval, Ignacio Jiménez-AlfaroDepartment of Ophthalmology, Fundación Jiménez Díaz, Madrid, SpainBackground: We assessed the impact of a dietary supplement based on the combination of omega-3 essential fatty acids and antioxidants on health-related quality of life in patients with meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD.Methods: Patients of either sex (aged 18–85 years diagnosed with MGD according to criteria identified at a 2011 International Workshop on Meibomian Gland Dysfunction participated in this randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled study. Group A patients (controls received an oral placebo supplement and group B patients received the oral study supplement (Brudysec® 1.5 g; Brudy Laboratories, Barcelona, Spain. At baseline and at 3-month follow-up, the patients completed the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey questionnaire using a Spanish validated version. The Physical (PCS and Mental (MCS Component Summary scores were the main outcome variables.Results: A total of 61 patients completed the study (group A, n=31; group B, n=30. There were no significant differences in PCS and MCS scores at baseline between the two study groups, but after 3 months of treatment, significantly higher mean PCS and MSC scores were observed in patients treated with the active omega-3 dietary supplement as compared with controls (mean [standard deviation] PCS score 53.33±5.57 versus 47.46±7.31, P=0.008; mean MCS score 54.60±5.64 versus 47.80±8.45, P=0.0005. Moreover, mean differences between values at 3 months as compared with baseline were statistically significant for patients in group B (PCS score 7.14±5.81, 95% confidence interval 4.97–9.31, P=0.000; MCS score 5.96±7.64, 95% confidence interval 3.10–8.81, P=0

  5. Ontario University Benefits Survey. Part I (All Benefits Excluding Pensions). December 1, 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    Results of a survey of benefits (excluding pensions) provided by Ontario universities are presented. Responses are presented by university concerning the following aspects of general benefits: administration and insurance plans, communication of benefits, proposed changes in benefits, provision of life and dismemberment insurance, and maternity…

  6. Unemployment Benefit Exhaustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Pico Geerdsen, Lars; Knudsen, Anne-Sofie Due

    2015-01-01

    studies for final analysis and interpretation. Twelve studies could be included in the data synthesis. Results: We found clear evidence that the prospect of exhaustion of benefits results in a significantly increased incentive for finding work. Discussion: The theoretical suggestion that the prospect......This systematic review studied the impact of exhaustion of unemployment benefits on the exit rate out of unemployment and into employment prior to benefit exhaustion or shortly thereafter. Method: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to prepare this review, and ultimately located 12...... of exhaustion of benefits results in an increased incentive for finding work has been confirmed empirically by measures from seven different European countries, the United States, and Canada. The results are robust in the sense that sensitivity analyses evidenced no appreciable changes in the results. We found...

  7. Who benefits?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Frederik Georg

    2016-01-01

    Cross-border welfare rights for citizens of European Union member states are intensely contested, yet there is limited research into voter opposition to such rights, sometimes denoted ‘welfare chauvinism’. We highlight an overlooked aspect in scholarly work: the role of stereotypes about...... beneficiaries of cross-border welfare. We present results from an original large-scale survey experiment (N=2525) among Swedish voters, randomizing exposure to cues about recipients' country of origin and family size. Consistent with a model emphasizing the role of stereotypes, respondents react to cues about...... recipient identity. These effects are strongest among respondents high in ethnic prejudice and economic conservatism. The findings imply that stereotypes about who benefits from cross-border welfare rights condition public support for those rights....

  8. Association of nutrition parameters including bioelectrical impedance and systemic inflammatory response with quality of life and prognosis in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Lara, Karla; Turcott, Jenny G; Juárez, Eva; Guevara, Patricia; Núñez-Valencia, Carolina; Oñate-Ocaña, Luis F; Flores, Diana; Arrieta, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    Early identification and treatment of nutritional deficiencies can lead to improved outcomes in the quality of life (QoL) and survival of patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Noninvasive techniques are needed to evaluate changes in body composition as part of determining nutritional status. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association of nutritional parameters in health-related quality of life (HRQL) and survival in patients with advanced NSCLC. Chemotherapy-naïve patients with advanced NSCLC with good performance status Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) 0-2 were included prospectively in the study. We evaluated inflammatory parameters such as C-reactive protein, platelet/lymphocyte index, neutrophil/lymphocyte index, serum interleukin (IL)-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α, and nutritional variables such as body mass index (BMI) and serum albumin levels. Bioelectrical impedance analysis including phase angle was obtained before cisplatin-based chemotherapy was started. HRQL was assessed by application of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ)-C30 and QLQ-LC13 instruments at baseline. Overall survival (OS) was calculated with the Kaplan-Meier method and analyzed with log-rank and Cox proportional hazard models. One hundred nineteen patients were included. Mean BMI was 24.8 ± 4.5 kg/m(2), average weight loss of patients was 8.4%, and median phase angle was 5.8°. Malnutrition measured by subjective global assessment (SGA), weight loss >10%, BMI >20 was associated with lower HRQL scales. Patients with ECOG 2, high content serum IL-6, lower phase angle, and malnutrition parameters showed lower OS; however, after multivariate analysis, only ECOG 2 [Hazard ratio (HR), 2.7; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.5-4.7; P = 0.001], phase angle ≤5.8° (HR = 3.02; 95% CI: 1.2-7.11; P = 0.011), and SGA (HR = 2.7; 95% CI, 1.31-5.5; P = 0.005) were associated with poor survival. Patients

  9. The benefit of pulmonary rehabilitation against quality of life alteration and functional capacity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patient assessed using St George’s respiratory questionnaire and 6 minutes walking distance test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwien H. Wiyono

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD have been shown to be benefit from pulmonary rehabilitation programs. We assessed an entirely outpatient-based program of pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with COPD, using the St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ and six minutes walking distance test (6MWD (which measures health-related quality of life and functional exercise tolerance as the primary outcome measure. We undertook a randomized, opened, prospective, parallel-group controlled study of outpatient rehabilitation program in 56 patients with COPD (52 men and 4 women. The active group (n=27 took part in a 6-weeks program of education and exercise. The control group (n=29 were reviewed routinely as medical outpatients. The SGRQ and 6MWD were administered at study entry and after 6 weeks. Outcome with SGRQ and 6MWD before and after therapy was performed. Decrease score SGRQ and increase 6MWD in both groups of study, it was analyzed by statistic study and in active group the decrease of SGRQ and the increase of 6MWD was statistically significant. In conclusion 6-weeks outpatient-based program significantly improved quality of life and functional capacity in mild-to-moderate COPD patient. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:165-72 Keywords: COPD, pulmonary rehabilitation, SGRQ, 6MWD

  10. 10 CFR 5.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fringe benefits. 5.525 Section 5.525 Energy NUCLEAR... Activities Prohibited § 5.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital, accident, life insurance, or retirement...

  11. Potential Benefits and Downsides of External Healthcare Performance Evaluation Systems: Real-Life Perspectives on Iranian Hospital Evaluation and Accreditation Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Jaafaripooyan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Performance evaluation is essential to quality improvement in healthcare. The current study has identified the potential pros and cons of external healthcare evaluation programs, utilizing them subsequently to look into the merits of a similar case in a developing country. Methods A mixed method study employing both qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis techniques was adopted to achieve the study end. Subject Matter Experts (SMEs and professionals were approached for two-stage process of data collection. Results Potential advantages included greater attractiveness of high accreditation rank healthcare organizations to their customers/purchasers and boosted morale of their personnel. Downsides, as such, comprised the programs’ over-reliance on value judgment of surveyors, routinization and incurring undue cost on the organizations. In addition, the improved, standardized care processes as well as the judgmental nature of program survey were associated, as pros and cons, to the program investigated by the professionals. Conclusion Besides rendering a tentative assessment of Iranian hospital evaluation program, the study provides those running external performance evaluations with a lens to scrutinize the virtues of their own evaluation systems through identifying the potential advantages and drawbacks of such programs. Moreover, the approach followed could be utilized for performance assessment of similar evaluation programs.

  12. Research on Cost-benefit Based On The Whole Life Cycle in Green Building%基于绿色建筑全生命周期的成本效益探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高义; 吕岳

    2016-01-01

    With thecontinuous development of economy,the increasing of population,also greatly speed up the pace of the construction of urbanization,the construction industry began to flourish,with serious resource consumption, construction industry and the pollution to the environment,away from the strategy of our country's sustainable development.In response to the environmental pollution and realize the sustainable development of our country, introduce the concept of green energy-saving buildings.Green construction costs severely hampered the development of green building, so the whole life cycle of green building cost-benefit analysis becomes especially important. Green buildings cost effectiveness based on the total life cycle theory, build the whole life cycle of green building technology efficiency and incremental cost model,the technical and economic analysis and benefit analysis,for the green energy saving building promotion has played a role in promoting.%随着经济的不断发展,人口的不断增加,城市化建设的步伐也大大加快,建筑业也开始蓬勃发展,随着建筑业严重的资源消耗,及带来的环境污染,偏离了我国可持续发展的战略。为应对环境污染,实现我国的可持续发展,引入绿色节能建筑理念。绿色建筑成本严重阻碍绿色建筑的发展,因此绿色建筑全生命周期的成本效益分析就变得尤其重要。  绿色建筑成本效益以全寿命周期理论为基础,构建绿色建筑全寿命周期技术效益及增量成本模型,进行技术经济分析和效益分析,为绿色节能建筑的推广起到了推动作用。

  13. Social Security's special minimum benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, K A; Hoffmeyer, D

    Social Security would modify and strengthen the current-law special minimum benefit. Interest in the special minimum benefit may also increase because of labor force participation and marital trends that suggest that enhancing workers' benefits may be a more effective means of reducing older women's poverty rates than enhancing spousal or widow's benefits. By understanding the Social Security program's experience with the special minimum benefit, policymakers will be able to better anticipate the effectiveness of other initiatives to enhance benefits for long-term low earners. This article presents the most recent and comprehensive information available about the special minimum benefit in order to help policymakers make informed decisions about the provision's future. Highlights of the current special minimum benefit include the following: Very few persons receive the special minimum benefit. As of December 2001, about 134,000 workers and their dependents and survivors were entitled to a benefit based on the special minimum. Of those, only about 79,000 received a higher total benefit because of the special minimum; the other 55,000 were dually entitled. (In effect, when persons are eligible for more than one type of benefit--that is, they are dually eligible--the highest benefit payable determines total benefits. If the special minimum benefit is not the highest benefit payable, it does not increase total benefits paid.) As of February 2000, retired workers who were special minimum beneficiaries with unreduced benefits and were not dually entitled were receiving, on average, a monthly benefit of $510 per month. That amount is approximately $2,000 less than the annual poverty threshold for an aged individual. Special minimum benefits provide small increases in total benefits. For special minimum beneficiaries who were not dually entitled as of December 2001, the average special minimum monthly PIA was just $39 higher than the regular PIA. Most special minimum

  14. More Benefits of Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Malcolm

    1988-01-01

    Describes a study that measured the benefits of an automated catalog and automated circulation system from the library user's point of view in terms of the value of time saved. Topics discussed include patterns of use, access time, availability of information, search behaviors, and the effectiveness of the measures used. (seven references)…

  15. Valuing Multiple Benefits, and the Public Perception of SUDS Ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy Jarvie

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how the public perceive and value ponds is fundamental to appreciate the synergy between Sustainable urban Drainage (SUDS ponds and the multiple benefits they provide. This paper investigates this, through the application of a structured postal and online survey, for a case study area of Edinburgh, in the UK. It compares man-made ponds (including SUDS, and ponds with natural origins. The results from Whole Life Cost show that the benefits (based on Contingent Valuation exceed the CAPEX and OPEX costs for three of five artificial ponds studied. Benefits from natural (reference ponds exceed the replacement costs for a pond with the same surface area/catchment. This paper highlights the importance of monetising the multiple benefits from ponds.

  16. Life sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, L. (ed.)

    1991-04-01

    This document is the 1989--1990 Annual Report for the Life Sciences Divisions of the University of California/Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Specific progress reports are included for the Cell and Molecular Biology Division, the Research Medicine and Radiation Biophysics Division (including the Advanced Light Source Life Sciences Center), and the Chemical Biodynamics Division. 450 refs., 46 figs. (MHB)

  17. Ontario Universities Benefits Survey, 1987-88. Part I: Benefits Excluding Pensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    Results of the 1987-1988 survey of benefits, excluding pensions, for 17 Ontario, Canada, universities are presented. Information is provided on the following areas: administration and insurance plans, communication of benefits, proposed changes in benefits, provision of life and dismemberment insurance, maternity leave policy, Ontario health…

  18. 5 CFR 870.1102 - Amount of a Living Benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Living Benefits § 870.1102 Amount of a... of his/her Basic insurance, or (ii) A partial Living Benefit, which is a portion of his/her Basic... Living Benefit. (b) The amount of Basic insurance elected as a Living Benefit will be reduced by...

  19. 31 CFR 28.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fringe benefits. 28.525 Section 28.525 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS... medical, hospital, accident, life insurance, or retirement benefit, service, policy or plan, any...

  20. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You Can ... yourself. Studies have shown that exercise provides many health benefits and that older adults can gain a ...

  1. Grape Juice: Same Heart Benefits as Wine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... juice offer the same heart benefits as red wine? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D. ... some of the same heart benefits of red wine, including: Reducing the risk of blood clots Reducing ...

  2. Perceived exercise benefits and barriers of non-exercising female university students in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Geoff P; El Ansari, Walid; Parker, John K

    2010-03-01

    Many individuals do not engage in sufficient physical activity due to low perceived benefits and high perceived barriers to exercise. Given the increasing incidence of obesity and obesity related health disorders, this topic requires further exploration. We used the Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale to assess perceived benefit and barrier intensities to exercise in 200 non-exercising female university students (mean age 19.3 years, SD = 1.06) in the UK. Although our participants were selected because they self reported themselves to be non-exercising, however they reported significantly higher perceived benefits from exercise than perceived barriers to exercise [t(199) = 6.18, p benefit/barrier ratio was 1.33. The greatest perceived benefit from exercise was physical performance followed by the benefits of psychological outlook, preventive health, life enhancement, and then social interaction. Physical performance was rated significantly higher than all other benefits. Psychological outlook and preventive health were not rated significantly different, although both were significantly higher than life enhancement and social interaction. Life enhancement was also rated significantly higher than social interaction. The greatest perceived barrier to exercise was physical exertion, which was rated significantly higher than time expenditure, exercise milieu, and family discouragement barriers. Implications from this investigation for the design of physical activity programmes include the importance, for females, of a perception of high benefit/barrier ratio that could be conducive to participation in exercise. Applied interventions need to assist female students to 'disengage' from or overcome any perceived 'unpleasantness' of physical exertion during physical activity (decrease their perceived barriers), and to further highlight the multiple health and other benefits of regular exercising (increase their perceived benefits).

  3. Perceived Exercise Benefits and Barriers of Non-Exercising Female University Students in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John K. Parker

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Many individuals do not engage in sufficient physical activity due to low perceived benefits and high perceived barriers to exercise. Given the increasing incidence of obesity and obesity related health disorders, this topic requires further exploration. We used the Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale to assess perceived benefit and barrier intensities to exercise in 200 non-exercising female university students (mean age 19.3 years, SD = 1.06 in the UK. Although our participants were selected because they self reported themselves to be non-exercising, however they reported significantly higher perceived benefits from exercise than perceived barriers to exercise [t(199 = 6.18, p < 0.001], and their perceived benefit/barrier ratio was 1.33. The greatest perceived benefit from exercise was physical performance followed by the benefits of psychological outlook, preventive health, life enhancement, and then social interaction. Physical performance was rated significantly higher than all other benefits. Psychological outlook and preventive health were not rated significantly different, although both were significantly higher than life enhancement and social interaction. Life enhancement was also rated significantly higher than social interaction. The greatest perceived barrier to exercise was physical exertion, which was rated significantly higher than time expenditure, exercise milieu, and family discouragement barriers. Implications from this investigation for the design of physical activity programmes include the importance, for females, of a perception of high benefit/barrier ratio that could be conducive to participation in exercise. Applied interventions need to assist female students to ‘disengage’ from or overcome any perceived ‘unpleasantness’ of physical exertion during physical activity (decrease their perceived barriers, and to further highlight the multiple health and other benefits of regular exercising (increase their perceived

  4. Food biotechnology: benefits and concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Michael C; Chassy, Bruce M; Harlander, Susan K; Hoban, Thomas J; McGloughlin, Martina N; Akhlaghi, Amin R

    2002-06-01

    Recent advances in agricultural biotechnology have highlighted the need for experimental evidence and sound scientific judgment to assess the benefits and risks to society. Nutrition scientists and other animal biologists need a balanced understanding of the issues to participate in this assessment. To date most modifications to crop plants have benefited producers. Crops have been engineered to decrease pesticide and herbicide usage, protect against stressors, enhance yields and extend shelf life. Beyond the environmental benefits of decreased pesticide and herbicide application, consumers stand to benefit by development of food crops with increased nutritional value, medicinal properties, enhanced taste and esthetic appeal. There remains concern that these benefits come with a cost to the environment or increased risk to the consumer. Most U.S. consumers are not aware of the extent that genetically modified foods have entered the marketplace. Consumer awareness of biotechnology seems to have increased over the last decade, yet most consumers remain confused over the science. Concern over the impact on the safety of the food supply remains low in the United States, but is substantially elevated in Europe. Before a genetically engineered crop is introduced into commerce it must pass regulatory scrutiny by as many as four different federal regulatory bodies to ensure a safe food supply and minimize the risk to the environment. Key areas for more research are evaluation of the nutritional benefits of new crops, further investigation of the environmental impact, and development of better techniques to identify and track genetically engineered products.

  5. Enteral nutrition in person with Dementia: Indication, effects and benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Alves

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This systematic literature review aims to clarify indications for the use of enteral feeding in patients with dementia. Difficulties in feeding patients with dementia may arise at any stage of the disease and may include malnutrition, weight loss, decreased quality of life, among others. Enteral tube feeding by tube may be a way of mitigating the effects, but its benefits are under discussion. Methods: Eight qualitative studies were included: 5 primary sources, 3 systematic literature reviews, published in the 2008-2013 period. Results: Enteral tube feeding in patients with dementia may affect survival/mortality rate (no evidence of benefit, nutritional status (no improvement, functional status and cognitive development (no improvement, aspiration (does not reduce the risk of aspiration, pressure ulcers (no evidence of benefit in ulcers incidence and progression, and quality of life (without hard data in most studies. Conclusion: Evidence on benefits of enteral tube feeding in patients with dementia was not conclusive and may even have the opposite effect. We lack data on the adverse effects of these interventions. Keywords: Palliative care; Dementia; Enteral feeding; Therapeutic use.

  6. Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator (EEBC) was developed to assist organizations in estimating the environmental benefits of greening their purchase,...

  7. A benefit-risk assessment of class III antiarrhythmic agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elming, Hanne; Brendorp, Bente; Pehrson, Steen;

    2004-01-01

    relief. Since many patients experience a decrease in physical performance as well as a diminished quality of life during arrhythmia there is still a need for antiarrhythmic drug therapy. The development of new antiarrhythmic agents has changed the focus from class I to class III agents since it became...... evident that with class I drug therapy the prevalence of mortality is considerably higher. This review focuses on the benefits and risks of known and newer class III antiarrhythmic agents. The benefits discussed include the ability to maintain sinus rhythm in persistent atrial fibrillation patients......, and reducing the need for implantable cardioverter defibrillator shock/antitachycardia therapy, since no class III antiarrhythmic agents have proven survival benefit. The risks discussed mainly focus on pro-arrhythmia as torsade de pointes ventricular tachycardia....

  8. Risk-benefit analysis and public policy: a bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, E.M.; Van Horn, A.J.

    1976-11-01

    Risk-benefit analysis has been implicitly practiced whenever decision-makers are confronted with decisions involving risks to life, health, or to the environment. Various methodologies have been developed to evaluate relevant criteria and to aid in assessing the impacts of alternative projects. Among these have been cost-benefit analysis, which has been widely used for project evaluation. However, in many cases it has been difficult to assign dollar costs to those criteria involving risks and benefits which are not now assigned explicit monetary values in our economic system. Hence, risk-benefit analysis has evolved to become more than merely an extension of cost-benefit analysis, and many methods have been applied to examine the trade-offs between risks and benefits. In addition, new scientific and statistical techniques have been developed for assessing current and future risks. The 950 references included in this bibliography are meant to suggest the breadth of those methodologies which have been applied to decisions involving risk.

  9. Potential Benefits of Commissioning California Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matson, Nance; Wray, Craig; Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max

    2002-01-01

    Commissioning California's houses can result in better performing systems and houses. In turn, this will result in more efficient use of energy, carbon emission reductions, and improved occupant comfort. In particular, commissioning houses can save a significant amount of HVAC-related energy (15 to 30% in existing houses, 10 to 20% in new conventional houses, and up to 8% in advanced energy efficiency houses). The process that we considered includes corrective measures that could be implemented together during construction or during a single site visit (e.g., air tightening, duct sealing, and refrigerant and air handler airflow corrections in a new or existing house). Taking advantage of additional, more complex opportunities (e.g., installing new windows in an existing house, replacing the heating and air conditioning system in a new or existing house) can result in additional HVAC-related energy savings (60 to 75% in existing houses, and 50 to 60% in new conventional houses). The commissioning-related system and house performance improvements and energy savings translate to additional benefits throughout California and beyond. By applying commissioning principles to their work, the building community (builders and contractors) benefit from reduced callbacks and lower warranty costs. HERS raters and inspectors will have access to an expanded market sector. As the commissioning process rectifies construction defects and code problems, building code officials benefit from better compliance with codes. The utilities benefit from reduced peak demand, which can translate into lower energy acquisition costs. As houses perform closer to expectations, governmental bodies (e.g., the California Energy Commission and the Air Resources Board) benefit from greater assurance that actual energy consumption and carbon emissions are closer to the levels mandated in codes and standards, resulting in better achievement of state energy conservation and environmental goals

  10. Benefit Reentitlement Conditions in Unemployment Insurance Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Christoffersen, Mark Strøm; Svarer, Michael

    Unemployment insurance schemes include conditions on past employment history as part of the eligibility conditions. This aspect is often neglected in the literature which primarily focuses on benefit levels and benefit duration. In a search-matching framework we show that benefit duration...... and employment requirements are substitute instruments in affecting job search incentives and thus gross unemployment. We analyse the optimal design of the unemployment insurance system (benefit levels, duration and employment requirements) under a utilitarian social welfare function. Simulations show...... that a higher insurance motive captured by more risk aversion implies higher benefit generosity and more lax employment requirements but also shortened benefit duration....

  11. Life-cycle assessment of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Boyd, Sarah B

    2012-01-01

    Life-Cycle Assessment of Semiconductors presents the first and thus far only available transparent and complete life cycle assessment of semiconductor devices. A lack of reliable semiconductor LCA data has been a major challenge to evaluation of the potential environmental benefits of information technologies (IT). The analysis and results presented in this book will allow a higher degree of confidence and certainty in decisions concerning the use of IT in efforts to reduce climate change and other environmental effects. Coverage includes but is not limited to semiconductor manufacturing trends by product type and geography, unique coverage of life-cycle assessment, with a focus on uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of energy and global warming missions for CMOS logic devices, life cycle assessment of flash memory and life cycle assessment of DRAM. The information and conclusions discussed here will be highly relevant and useful to individuals and institutions. The book also: Provides a detailed, complete a...

  12. 26 CFR 1.415(b)-1 - Limitations for defined benefit plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... retirement benefits, such as preretirement disability benefits not in excess of the qualified disability... benefit that is paid in a form that is not a straight life annuity to take into account the inclusion...

  13. Teleworking in South Africa: Employee benefits and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Baard

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Virtual working arrangements present possible benefits to organisations and their employees. However, in South Africa, few organisations have implemented teleworking as a specific form of virtual work. The benefits and challenges to teleworkers are therefore largely unknown.Research purpose: The present study aimed to identify employee perceptions of personal benefits and challenges of teleworking.Motivation for the study: The study sought to contribute insights for South African business practice in this under-researched field.Research design, approach and method: This exploratory study collected primary data through the distribution of an electronic questionnaire to 94 employees at three South African organisations, with a 67% response rate. The survey included both closed and open-ended questions that were analysed using a combination of quantitative and qualitative techniques.Main findings: Most of the internationally identified benefits of teleworking were supported by participants, such as improved productivity, increased job satisfaction and organisational loyalty, decreased stress and improved work-life balance. Challenges identified included an increase in working hours and the lack of availability of training opportunities.Practical/managerial implications: The possible employee benefits and challenges of teleworking may assist organisations in devising teleworking practices and procedures that leverage benefits and address challenges inherent in this form of work practice.Contribution/value add: The study aims to supplement the dearth of knowledge about teleworking, specifically in the South African context, to assist organisations practically in their development of this form of virtual work arrangement for the benefit of organisations and their employees.

  14. 42 CFR 435.608 - Applications for other benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... applicants and recipients to take all necessary steps to obtain any annuities, pensions, retirement, and...) Annuities, pensions, retirement and disability benefits include, but are not limited to, veterans' compensation and pensions, OASDI benefits, railroad retirement benefits, and unemployment compensation....

  15. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You ... activity campaign from the National Institute on Aging. Exercise or Physical Activity? Some people may wonder what ...

  16. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You Can Do Like most people, ... active on a regular basis is one of the healthiest things you can do for yourself. Studies ...

  17. Consumer preferences regarding food-related risk-benefit messages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van H.; Kleef, van E.; Owen, H.; Frewer, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of this study is to identify and explore consumer preferences and information needs regarding the simultaneous communication of risks and benefits associated with food consumption. The focus is on the net health impact of risks and benefits on life expectancy, quality of life, and

  18. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You Can Do ... can do for yourself. Studies have shown that exercise provides many health benefits and that older adults can gain a lot ...

  19. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You Can Do ... can do for yourself. Studies have shown that exercise provides many health benefits and that older adults can gain a lot ...

  20. 5 CFR 870.1101 - Eligibility for a Living Benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligibility for a Living Benefit. 870.1101 Section 870.1101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Living Benefits § 870.1101 Eligibility for a Living Benefit. (a)...

  1. Health benefits of Moringa oleifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdull Razis, Ahmad Faizal; Ibrahim, Muhammad Din; Kntayya, Saie Brindha

    2014-01-01

    Phytomedicines are believed to have benefits over conventional drugs and are regaining interest in current research. Moringa oleifera is a multi-purpose herbal plant used as human food and an alternative for medicinal purposes worldwide. It has been identified by researchers as a plant with numerous health benefits including nutritional and medicinal advantages. Moringa oleifera contains essential amino acids, carotenoids in leaves, and components with nutraceutical properties, supporting the idea of using this plant as a nutritional supplement or constituent in food preparation. Some nutritional evaluation has been carried out in leaves and stem. An important factor that accounts for the medicinal uses of Moringa oleifera is its very wide range of vital antioxidants, antibiotics and nutrients including vitamins and minerals. Almost all parts from Moringa can be used as a source for nutrition with other useful values. This mini-review elaborate on details its health benefits.

  2. Cost-benefit analysis of screening for esophageal and gastric cardiac cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Qiang Wei; Chun-Xia Yang; Si-Han Lu; Juan Yang; Bian-Yun Li; Shi-Yong Lian; You-Lin Qiao

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, a program named “Early Detection and Early Treatment of Esophageal and Cardiac Cancer”(EDETEC) was initiated in China. A total of 8279 residents aged 40-69 years old were recruited into the EDETEC program in Linzhou of Henan Province between 2005 and 2008. Howerer, the cost-benefit of the EDETEC program is not very clear yet. We conducted herein a cost-benefit analysis of screening for esophageal and cardiac cancer. The assessed costs of the EDETEC program included screening costs for each subject, as well as direct and indirect treatment costs for esophageal and cardiac severe dyspiasia and cancer detected by screening. The assessed benefits of this program included the saved treatment costs, both direct and indirect, on esophageal and cardiac cancer, as well as the value of prolonged life due to screening, as determined by the human capital approach. The results showed the screening cost of finding esophageal and cardiac severe dysplasia or cancer ranged from ¥2707 to ¥4512, and the total cost on screening and treatment was ¥13 115-¥14 920. The cost benefit was ¥58 944-¥155 110 (the saved treatment cost, ¥17 730, plus the value of prolonged life,¥41 214-¥137 380). The ratio of benefit-to-cost (BCR) was 3.95-11.83. Our results suggest that EDETEC has a high benefit-to-cost ratio in China and could be instituted into high risk areas of China.

  3. Vitamin supplementation benefits in master athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisswalter, Jeanick; Louis, Julien

    2014-03-01

    Master athletes are more than 35 years of age and continue to train as hard as their young counterparts despite the aging process. All life long, they are capable of accomplishing exceptional sporting performances. For these participants in endurance events, matching energy intake and expenditure is critical to maintain health and performance. The proportions of carbohydrate, fat, and protein must be optimized to provide enough calories to sustain the energy requirements of competition or training, and for recovery. In addition, endurance athletes must include adequate vitamins and minerals in their diets to maintain healthy immune function. Vitamins and minerals may be sufficient in the diets of endurance athletes, who have a high energy intake. This would make it unnecessary to use vitamin and mineral supplements. Furthermore, one major limitation for these athletes is the management of oxidative stress, which, when in excess, can be deleterious for the organism. For individuals exposed to oxidative stress, micronutritional supplementations rich in vitamins and minerals can be also an alternative strategy. Although these supplementations are increasingly used by master athletes, very few data are available on their effects on oxidative stress, muscle recovery, and physical performance. The potential benefits of supplement use in athletes are thus questionable. Some studies indicate no benefits, while others highlight potential negative side effects of vitamin supplementation. Additional studies are warranted in order to design adapted prescriptions in antioxidant vitamins and minerals.

  4. Ontario University Benefits Survey. Part I. (All Benefits Excluding Pensions). December 1, 1978. Report No. 78-18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster Univ., Hamilton (Ontario).

    Presented are the results of a survey of university benefit programs. Information and data relating to the following areas are presented: administration and insurance plans, communication of benefits, proposed changes in benefits, provision of life and dismemberment insurance, maternity leave policy, Ontario health insurance, supplementary health…

  5. Cost Benefit Studies. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Arthur; Marson, Arthur A.

    This document applies Dr. Mehar Aurora's method for conducting cost benefit studies to the Food Manufacturing Technology-Dairy and the Food Manufacturing Technology-Canning and Freezing programs offered by the Moraine Park Technical Institute. Costs to individual students enrolled in the programs include tuition, fees, housing, travel, books,…

  6. Gettysburg College Takes Work-Life Balance Seriously

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robin

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the work-life benefits Gettysburg College offers its employees. 400 of Gettysburg's 725 full-time employees participate in the college's wellness program. About half of them stick with it long enough to earn discounts of up to $500 a year on their health-insurance premiums. The wellness program--which includes free on-campus…

  7. A Faculty Mentoring Experience: Learning Together in Second Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Karina; Correia, Ana-Paula; Pardo-Ballester, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    Researchers have highlighted the benefits of using virtual worlds such as Second Life in education, but they have also forewarned educators of potential drawbacks. Understanding how virtual worlds work, including their capabilities and limitations, empowers educators to make better decisions regarding their relevance to learning and teaching. This…

  8. The endocrine system and sarcopenia: potential therapeutic benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntire, Kevin L; Hoffman, Andrew R

    2011-12-01

    Age related muscle loss, known as sarcopenia, is a major factor in disability, loss of mobility and quality of life in the elderly. There are many proposed mechanisms of age-related muscle loss that include the endocrine system. A variety of hormones regulate growth, development and metabolism throughout the lifespan. Hormone activity may change with age as a result of reduced hormone secretion or decreased tissue responsiveness. This review will focus on the complex interplay between the endocrine system, aging and skeletal muscle and will present possible benefits of therapeutic interventions for sarcopenia.

  9. The Origin of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, D.

    1975-01-01

    Presents an outline of lectures given on this topic to British secondary students. Man's various ideas about the origin of life are included in three categories: those that consider life to have been created by a Divine Being; those that consider life to have developed from non-living matter; and those that consider life to be eternal. (MLH)

  10. Transit Benefit Program Data -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This data set contains information about any US government agency participating in the transit benefits program, funding agreements, individual participating Federal...

  11. Optical modulator including grapene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  12. Delirious Mania Associated with Autoimmune Gastrothyroidal Syndrome of a Mid-Life Female: The Role of Hashimoto Encephalopathy and a 3-Year Follow-Up including Serum Autoantibody Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udo Bonnet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case study of a 57-year-old Caucasian female with steroid-responsive encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroiditis (SREAT, commonly termed Hashimoto encephalopathy (HE. This presentation includes one of the longest lasting follow-up studies of HE considering the neuropsychiatric symptoms (here delirium, mania, and EEG-slowing and their relation to serum autoantibody levels. Antithyroid-peroxidase autoantibodies, the hallmark of autoimmune thyroiditis, were found in the serum and also in the cerebrospinal fluid. Diagnostic analyses found no evidence of limbic encephalopathies characterized by serum antibodies against intracellular, synaptic, or further cell surface antigenic targets, neoplasm, and connective tissue or vasculitis diseases. A potential contribution of bipolar disorder and metabolic encephalopathies due to severe hypothyroidism, glucocorticoid treatment, accelerated thyroid hormone replacement therapy, or vitamin B deficiency is critically discussed. Another special feature of this case report is the linkage of HE to an autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome (type 3B affecting the gastroduodenum in addition to the thyroid gland.

  13. Pharmacotherapy at the end-of-life.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Mahony, Denis

    2011-07-01

    Older people reaching end-of-life status are particularly at risk from inter-related adverse effects of pharmacotherapy, including polypharmacy, inappropriate medications and adverse drug events. These adverse effects of pharmacotherapy may be highly detrimental, as well as highly expensive. End-of-life pharmacotherapy is sometimes perceived to be complex and challenging, probably unnecessarily. This relates in part to the poorly developed evidence base and lack of high-quality research in this area. In this article, we deal with some of the key issues relating to pharmacotherapy in end-of-life patients, namely (i) the guiding principles of drug selection, (ii) the main drugs and drug classes that are best avoided, (iii) the benefits of \\'oligopharmacy\\' (i.e. deliberate avoidance of polypharmacy) in end-of-life patients.

  14. Visual Impairment, Including Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Who Knows What? Survey Item Bank Search for: Visual Impairment, Including Blindness Links updated, April 2017 En ... doesn’t wear his glasses. Back to top Visual Impairments in Children Vision is one of our ...

  15. Expanded benefits for humanity from the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Amelia; Robinson, Julie A.; Tate-Brown, Judy; Buckley, Nicole; Zell, Martin; Tasaki, Kazuyuki; Karabadzhak, Georgy; Sorokin, Igor V.; Pignataro, Salvatore

    2016-09-01

    In 2012, the International Space Station (ISS) (Fig. 1) partnership published the updated International Space Station Benefits for Humanity[1], a compilation of stories about the many benefits being realized in the areas of human health, Earth observations and disaster response, and global education. This compilation has recently been revised to include updated statistics on the impacts of the benefits, and new benefits that have developed since the first publication. Two new sections have also been added to the book, economic development of space and innovative technology. This paper will summarize the updates on behalf of the ISS Program Science Forum, made up of senior science representatives across the international partnership. The new section on "Economic Development of Space" highlights case studies from public-private partnerships that are leading to a new economy in low earth orbit (LEO). Businesses provide both transportation to the ISS as well as some research facilities and services. These relationships promote a paradigm shift of government-funded, contractor-provided goods and services to commercially-provided goods purchased by government agencies. Other examples include commercial firms spending research and development dollars to conduct investigations on ISS and commercial service providers selling services directly to ISS users. This section provides examples of ISS as a test bed for new business relationships, and illustrates successful partnerships. The second new section, "Innovative Technology," merges technology demonstration and physical science findings that promise to return Earth benefits through continued research. Robotic refueling concepts for life extensions of costly satellites in geo-synchronous orbit have applications to robotics in industry on Earth. Flame behavior experiments reveal insight into how fuel burns in microgravity leading to the possibility of improving engine efficiency on Earth. Nanostructures and smart fluids are

  16. The state of hormonal contraception today: established and emerging noncontraceptive health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Karla; Westhoff, Carolyn

    2011-10-01

    In the 50 years since the advent of combined oral contraceptives the amount of estrogen in oral contraceptives dropped from over 100 mcg to less than 30 mcg. Many noncontraceptive health benefits have emerged that decrease mortality and improve quality of life. Some of the immediate benefits include improvement of menorrhagia and dysmenorrhea, reduction in premenstrual dysphoric disorder symptoms, and decreased acne. As an effective birth control method oral contraceptives also decrease pregnancy-related deaths by preventing pregnancy. After the reproductive years, previous use of oral contraceptives continues to be beneficial, reducing the risk of death from ovarian and endometrial cancer. All these benefits have held up over time whereas cardiovascular risks have lessened because of the decrease in oral contraceptive pill dosage. Decreased ovarian cyst formation is an example of benefit with higher-dose oral contraceptive formulations that no longer holds true with low-dose pills.

  17. Hospital benefit segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, D W; Lamb, C W

    1986-12-01

    Market segmentation is an important topic to both health care practitioners and researchers. The authors explore the relative importance that health care consumers attach to various benefits available in a major metropolitan area hospital. The purposes of the study are to test, and provide data to illustrate, the efficacy of one approach to hospital benefit segmentation analysis.

  18. Wellbeing or welfare benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handlos, Line Neerup; Kristiansen, Maria; Nørredam, Marie Louise

    2016-01-01

    This debate article debunks the myth that migrants are driven primarily by the size of the welfare benefits in the host country, when they decide where to migrate to. We show that instead of welfare benefits, migrants are driven by a desire for safety, wellbeing, social networks and opportunities...

  19. Second Life for Distance Language Learning: A Framework for Native/Non-Native Speaker Interactions in a Virtual World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tusing, Jennifer; Berge, Zane L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines a number of theoretical principles governing second language teaching and learning and the ways in which these principles are being applied in 3D virtual worlds such as Second Life. Also examined are the benefits to language learning afforded by the Second Life interface, including access, the availability of native speakers of…

  20. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di, Fabrizio, E.

    2015-07-02

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  1. Environmental benefits of compost use on land through LCA – a review of the current gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazcano, Cristina; Martínez-Blanco, Julia; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2014-01-01

    included in few published works. In the present study, we reviewed the recent progresses made in the quantification of the effects associated to biowaste compost use on land by using life cycle assessment (LCA). Different research efforts are required for a full assessment of the potential benefits, apart......The use of biowaste compost on land can have beneficial effects on the plant–soil system. While the environmental impacts associated with compost production have been successfully assessed in previous studies, the assessment of the benefits of compost on plant and soil has been only partially...

  2. Cost of quay walls including life cycle aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Gijt, J.G.; Vinks, R.

    2011-01-01

    Port authories and other organisations involved in designing and building of port infrastructure are at first glance interested in predicting adequatly the expected costs. This paper discusses the costs development of quay walls versus time. The basis for the costs development of quay walls is discu

  3. Programming Useful Life Prediction (PULP) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Accurately predicting Remaining Useful Life (RUL) provides significant benefits—it increases safety and reduces financial and labor resource requirements....

  4. Attitude Formation of Benefits Satisfaction: Knowledge and Fit of Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Gery Markova, Foard Jones

    2011-01-01

    Using the theoretical framework of the Theory of Reasoned Action [6], we examine benefits satisfactionas an attitude formed by the beliefs about benefits (i.e., benefits knowledge) and the perceived value ofthese benefits (i.e., fit of benefits to individual needs). We use questionnaires to gather data from arandom sample of 591 employees in a large county agency in the South-eastern United States. The datasupport that knowledge of benefits is associated with enhanced benefits satisfaction an...

  5. Benefits for handicapped children

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The introduction of long-term care benefits within the CERN Health Insurance Scheme requires the coordination of the benefits foreseen for handicapped children. Measures were adopted by the Management following the recommendation made by the Standing Concertation Committee on 26 March 2003. A document clarifying these measures is available on the Web at the following address: http://humanresources.web.cern.ch/humanresources/external/soc/Social_affairs/social_affairs.asp Social Affairs Service 74201

  6. Being Included and Excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzenevica, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Following the civil war of 1996–2006, there was a dramatic increase in the labor mobility of young men and the inclusion of young women in formal education, which led to the transformation of the political landscape of rural Nepal. Mobility and schooling represent a level of prestige that rural...... people regard as a prerequisite for participating in local community politics. Based on a fieldwork in two villages of Panchthar district in eastern Nepal, this article explores how these changes strengthen or weaken women’s political agency and how this is reflected in their participation in community...... politics. It analyzes how formal education and mobility either challenge or reinforce traditional gendered norms which dictate a lowly position for young married women in the household and their absence from community politics. The article concludes that women are simultaneously excluded and included from...

  7. Automotive recycling in the United States : energy conservation and enviromental benefits.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomykala, J. A; Jody, B. J.; Daniels, E. J.; Spangenberger, J. S.; Energy Systems

    2007-11-01

    The production and use of polymers has been growing and that trend is expected to continue. Likewise, the production of metals from ores is on the rise because of increasing demand. Recycling polymers and residual metals can result in significant energy savings and environmental benefits including a reduction in CO2 emissions. This article describes recycling options for the polymers and metals in end-of-life vehicles.

  8. On the goodness of life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卿恒健

    2016-01-01

    What is life? Different people may have different opinions. For me, life is more than life and it is that brings the goodness of life. And the goodness of life lies in itself. This paper will study the goodness of life from four aspects. It nurtures from the moments. It benefits me from the moment when I have great expectations for the future, when I have huge thankfulness for my parents, when I have appreciation on the friends and teachers, and when I have great longings for the freedom.

  9. What Are the Benefits and Risks of Pulmonary Rehabilitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Expect After Benefits & Risks Links Related Topics Bronchitis COPD Cystic Fibrosis Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Sarcoidosis Send a ... in your daily life Increase your ability to exercise Decrease the symptoms of your disease or condition ...

  10. 5 CFR 870.801 - Order of precedence and payment of benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... specific person or persons to receive life insurance benefits upon the death of an insured individual... the individual(s) entitled to receive Basic life insurance benefits under the statutory order of... SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Order of Precedence...

  11. Technology Benefit Estimator (T/BEST): User's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Edward R.; Chamis, Christos C.; Abumeri, Galib

    1994-12-01

    The Technology Benefit Estimator (T/BEST) system is a formal method to assess advanced technologies and quantify the benefit contributions for prioritization. T/BEST may be used to provide guidelines to identify and prioritize high payoff research areas, help manage research and limited resources, show the link between advanced concepts and the bottom line, i.e., accrued benefit and value, and to communicate credibly the benefits of research. The T/BEST software computer program is specifically designed to estimating benefits, and benefit sensitivities, of introducing new technologies into existing propulsion systems. Key engine cycle, structural, fluid, mission and cost analysis modules are used to provide a framework for interfacing with advanced technologies. An open-ended, modular approach is used to allow for modification and addition of both key and advanced technology modules. T/BEST has a hierarchical framework that yields varying levels of benefit estimation accuracy that are dependent on the degree of input detail available. This hierarchical feature permits rapid estimation of technology benefits even when the technology is at the conceptual stage. As knowledge of the technology details increases the accuracy of the benefit analysis increases. Included in T/BEST's framework are correlations developed from a statistical data base that is relied upon if there is insufficient information given in a particular area, e.g., fuel capacity or aircraft landing weight. Statistical predictions are not required if these data are specified in the mission requirements. The engine cycle, structural fluid, cost, noise, and emissions analyses interact with the default or user material and component libraries to yield estimates of specific global benefits: range, speed, thrust, capacity, component life, noise, emissions, specific fuel consumption, component and engine weights, pre-certification test, mission performance engine cost, direct operating cost, life cycle cost

  12. Technology Benefit Estimator (T/BEST): User's Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Edward R.; Chamis, Christos C.; Abumeri, Galib

    1994-01-01

    The Technology Benefit Estimator (T/BEST) system is a formal method to assess advanced technologies and quantify the benefit contributions for prioritization. T/BEST may be used to provide guidelines to identify and prioritize high payoff research areas, help manage research and limited resources, show the link between advanced concepts and the bottom line, i.e., accrued benefit and value, and to communicate credibly the benefits of research. The T/BEST software computer program is specifically designed to estimating benefits, and benefit sensitivities, of introducing new technologies into existing propulsion systems. Key engine cycle, structural, fluid, mission and cost analysis modules are used to provide a framework for interfacing with advanced technologies. An open-ended, modular approach is used to allow for modification and addition of both key and advanced technology modules. T/BEST has a hierarchical framework that yields varying levels of benefit estimation accuracy that are dependent on the degree of input detail available. This hierarchical feature permits rapid estimation of technology benefits even when the technology is at the conceptual stage. As knowledge of the technology details increases the accuracy of the benefit analysis increases. Included in T/BEST's framework are correlations developed from a statistical data base that is relied upon if there is insufficient information given in a particular area, e.g., fuel capacity or aircraft landing weight. Statistical predictions are not required if these data are specified in the mission requirements. The engine cycle, structural fluid, cost, noise, and emissions analyses interact with the default or user material and component libraries to yield estimates of specific global benefits: range, speed, thrust, capacity, component life, noise, emissions, specific fuel consumption, component and engine weights, pre-certification test, mission performance engine cost, direct operating cost, life cycle cost

  13. End of Life Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planning for the end of life can be difficult. But by deciding what end-of-life care best suits your needs when you are healthy, you can ... right choices when the time comes. End-of-life planning usually includes making choices about the following: ...

  14. 29 CFR 2510.3-2 - Employee pension benefit plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pension plan. (f) Tax sheltered annuities. For the purpose of title I of the Act and this chapter, a..., with regard to a retiree, the amount of pension benefits payable, in the form of the annuity chosen by... participant has commenced to receive his or her pension benefits in the form of a straight-life annuity,...

  15. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and help you maintain your independence as you age. (Watch the videos on this page to learn ... feel better and enjoy life more as you age. home | health topics A-Z | videos A-Z | ...

  16. Social Security and Medicare Benefits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Annual cash benefits and rehabilitation benefits paid in each year from the Old-Age and Survivors Insurance, and Disability Insurance Trust Funds, and benefits paid...

  17. Work-Life: Policy and Practice Impacting LG Faculty and Staff in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, Sunny L.; Hornsby, Eunice Ellen

    2008-01-01

    The work-life policies and benefits practices of public universities and the extent to which lesbian and gay (LG) faculty, staff and families receive different work-life benefits than their heterosexual married counterparts are examined. The analysis was conducted by searching university work-life benefits websites. Major benefits for domestic…

  18. PENSION FUND BENEFITS SERVICE

    CERN Document Server

    Benefits Service

    2002-01-01

    Please note that from now on, our offices will be opened to members and beneficiaries on Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday from 10 to 12 a.m. and from 3 to 5 p.m. We are otherwise available but by appointment only. Benefits Service 5-1-030 tel. 79194 / 72738

  19. PENSION FUND BENEFITS SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    Benefits Service

    2002-01-01

    Please note that from now on, our offices (5-1-030) will be opened to members and beneficiaries on Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday from 10 to 12 a.m. and from 3 to 5 p.m. We are otherwise available but by appointment only. Benefits Service (tel. 79194 / 72738)

  20. Benefits at risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Jesper; Sandøe, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Herbicide resistant GM plants have been promoted as a tool in the development of more environment-friendly agriculture. The environmental benefits here, however, depend not only on farmer's acceptance of GM crops as such, but also on their willingness to use herbicides in accordance with altered...

  1. Public services, personal benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bob Kuhry; Evert Pommer; Jedid-Jah Jonker; John Stevens

    2006-01-01

    Original title: Publieke productie & persoonlijk profijt. This report looks in detail at the costs of public services (such as care, education, public administration and safety) and the benefits that citizens derive from the government expenditure involved in delivering those services. In 2003,

  2. The Benefits of Latin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Lisa R.

    2012-01-01

    Classicists have long claimed that the study of Latin has benefits that exceed knowledge of the language itself, and in the current economic times, these claims are made with urgency. Indeed, many contend that Latin improves English grammar and writing skills, cognitive abilities, and develops transferable skills necessary for success in the…

  3. Pharmacological management of co-morbid conditions at the end of life: is less more?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McLean, S

    2013-03-01

    Co-morbid conditions (CMCs) are present in over half of patients with cancer over 50 years of age. As life-limiting illnesses progress, the benefits and burdens of treatments for CMCs become unclear. Relevant issues include physiological changes in advanced illness, time-to-benefit of medications, burden of medications, and psychological impact of discontinuing medications. Optimal prescribing is unclear due to lack of evidence.

  4. The benefits and risks of testosterone replacement therapy: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazem Bassil

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Nazem Bassil1, Saad Alkaade2, John E Morley1,31Division of Geriatric Medicine; 2Internal Medicine, Saint Louis University Health Sciences Center, St. Louis, Missouri, USA; 3GRECC, VA Medical Center, St. Louis, Missouri, USAAbstract: Increased longevity and population aging will increase the number of men with late onset hypogonadism. It is a common condition, but often underdiagnosed and undertreated. The indication of testosterone-replacement therapy (TRT treatment requires the presence of low testosterone level, and symptoms and signs of hypogonadism. Although controversy remains regarding indications for testosterone supplementation in aging men due to lack of large-scale, long-term studies assessing the benefits and risks of testosterone-replacement therapy in men, reports indicate that TRT may produce a wide range of benefits for men with hypogonadism that include improvement in libido and sexual function, bone density, muscle mass, body composition, mood, erythropoiesis, cognition, quality of life and cardiovascular disease. Perhaps the most controversial area is the issue of risk, especially possible stimulation of prostate cancer by testosterone, even though no evidence to support this risk exists. Other possible risks include worsening symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy, liver toxicity, hyperviscosity, erythrocytosis, worsening untreated sleep apnea or severe heart failure. Despite this controversy, testosterone supplementation in the United States has increased substantially over the past several years. The physician should discuss with the patient the potential benefits and risks of TRT. The purpose of this review is to discuss what is known and not known regarding the benefits and risks of TRT.Keywords: hypogonadism, testosterone replacement therapy, erectile dysfunction, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease

  5. Benefits of multidisciplinary teamwork in the management of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Cath; Shewbridge, Amanda; Harris, Jenny; Green, James S

    2013-01-01

    The widespread introduction of multidisciplinary team (MDT)-work for breast cancer management has in part evolved due to the increasing complexity of diagnostic and treatment decision-making. An MDT approach aims to bring together the range of specialists required to discuss and agree treatment recommendations and ongoing management for individual patients. MDTs are resource-intensive yet we lack strong (randomized controlled trial) evidence of their effectiveness. Clinical consensus is generally favorable on the benefits of effective specialist MDT-work. Many studies have shown the benefits of receiving treatment from a specialist center, and evidence continues to accrue from comparative studies of clinical benefits of an MDT approach, including improved survival. Patients' views of the MDT model of decision-making (and in particular its impact on involvement in decisions about their care) have been under-researched. Barriers to effective teamwork and poor decision-making include excessive caseload, low attendance at meetings, lack of leadership, poor communication, role ambiguity, and failure to consider patients' holistic needs. Breast cancer nurses have a key role in relation to assessing holistic needs, and their specialist contribution has also been associated with improved patient experience and quality of life. This paper examines the evidence for the benefits of MDT-work, in particular for breast cancer. Evidence is considered within a context of growing cancer incidence at a time of increased financial restraint, and it may now be important to reevaluate the structure and models of MDT-work to ensure that MDTs are an efficient use of resources.

  6. Benefits of Microalgae for Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrecchia, Angelique; Bebout, Brad M.; Murphy, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Algae have long been known to offer a number of benefits to support long duration human space exploration. Algae contain proteins, essential amino acids, vitamins, and lipids needed for human consumption, and can be produced using waste streams, while consuming carbon dioxide, and producing oxygen. In comparison with higher plants, algae have higher growth rates, fewer environmental requirements, produce far less "waste" tissue, and are resistant to digestion and/or biodegradation. As an additional benefit, algae produce many components (fatty acids, H2, etc.) which are useful as biofuels. On Earth, micro-algae survive in many harsh environments including low humidity, extremes in temperature, pH, and as well as high salinity and solar radiation. Algae have been shown to survive inmicro-gravity, and can adapt to high and low light intensity while retaining their ability to perform nitrogen fixation and photosynthesis. Studies have demonstrated that some algae are resistant to the space radiation environment, including solar ultraviolet radiation. It remains to be experimentally demonstrated, however, that an algal-based system could fulfil the requirements for a space-based Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS) under comparable spaceflight power, mass, and environmental constraints. Two specific challenges facing algae cultivation in space are that (i) conventional growth platforms require large masses of water, which in turn require a large amount of propulsion fuel, and (ii) most nutrient delivery mechanisms (predominantly bubbling) are dependent on gravity. To address these challenges, we have constructed a low water biofilm based bioreactor whose operation is enabled by capillary forces. Preliminary characterization of this Surface Adhering BioReactor (SABR) suggests that it can serve as a platform for cultivating algae in space which requires about 10 times less mass than conventional reactors without sacrificing growth rate. Further work is necessary to

  7. Investment decisions with benefits of control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Thomas

    that underinvestment is aggravated when there are benefits of being in control, and these benefits are diluted if equity is issued to finance the investment project. I assume that large shareholders are constrained from further investments in their firms, and that they maximize their own wealth, which includes......This paper studies how large shareholders with benefits of control affect firms' equity issue behavior and investment decisions. I introduce an explicit agency cost structure based on the large shareholder's benefits of control. In a simple extension of Myers and Majluf [1984], I show...... as a representation of the large shareholders' expected private benefits. Using a large panel of U.S. data, I find that large shareholders' concern with dilution of ownership and control cause firms to issue less equity and to invest less. I also find that it has no significant effect whether new shares are issued...

  8. [Advances in mechanisms of health benefits of exercise and nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Mu-Qing; Liu, Jian-Kang; Zhang, Yong

    2014-10-01

    Adequate physical activity/exercise and nutrition are the footstone for health, and primary components of healthy life style and prevention and treatment of life style-related diseases. Here we briefly review the recent advances in mechanisms of health benefits of regular physical activity/exercise and adequate nutrition, mitochondrial nutrients, and so on.

  9. Longevity expectations in the pension fund, insurance, and employee benefits industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhavoronkov A

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alex Zhavoronkov Biogerontology Research Foundation, London, United Kingdom Abstract: Considerable progress has been made in many areas of biomedical science since the 1960s, suggesting likely increases in life expectancy and decreases in morbidity and mortality in the adult population. These changes may pose substantial risks to the pensions and benefits industries. While there is no significant statistical evidence demonstrating rapid decreases in mortality rates, there are conflicting opinions among demographers and biogerontologists on the biological limits of the human lifespan and trends in life expectancy. We administered a survey of the International Employee Benefits Association (IEBA, a large, international industry group. Industry professionals employed by consulting (35%, insurance (24%, pension (14%, and other (27% companies responded to 32 questions. Respondents showed reasonably conservative views on the future of longevity and retirement, including that for women. The respondents formed their personal longevity expectations based on their family history and, to a lesser degree, on the actuarial life tables. Most of the sample expressed no desire to life past age 100 years, even if the enabling technologies required to maintain a healthy youthful state were available, and only a few respondents in the sample expressed a desire to live for the maximum period (at least offered by the survey question. The majority of the respondents would not undergo any invasive procedures, and only 56% of the respondents would opt for noninvasive therapies to extend their healthy lifespans to 150 years of age if these were available. Keywords: life expectancy, gerontology, actuarial, retirement, beliefs

  10. THE BENEFITS OF NEUROECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Krawczyk

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper serves as a brief introduction into the methods, results and problems of the new interdisciplinary field of neuroecomics (and its relatives. The focus is on the practical benefits that may result from it for the economic profession. These primarily involve the possibility of setting new promising research directions and providing novel tools raising hopes of enabling direct observation of human preference. The author also discusses methodological and ethical challenges that neuroeconomics is or will soon be facing

  11. Life and Death Decision Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    LIFE SMOKING: CANCER, EMPHYSEMA, SHORTENED LIFE BATHING: FALLING, ELECTROCUTION CONTRACEPTION: DEATH , ILLNESS PREGNANCY: DEATH , ILLNESS ABORTION ...economic effect is the one with the highest probability of causing my death . -13- EXPECTED NET SYSTEM DESIGN BENEFIT TO ME DEATH DEATH (r A(excluding death ...0-AO81 424 STANFORD UNIV CALIF DEPT OF ENGtNEERING-ECONOM!C SYSTEMS F/6 12/1 LIFE ANDI DEATH DECISION ANALYSIS.CU) DEC 79 R A HOWARD N0OOIN-79-C-0036

  12. Estimation of Life-cycle Emission Reduction Benefits for Wind Power Project Based on Interval-number Theory%基于区间数理论的风力发电全寿命周期减排效益估算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾鸣; 邹建平; 许秀; 刘宏志; 刘超

    2011-01-01

    Based on the life-cycle management concept, an estimation method for life-cycle emission reduction benefits of wind power project is proposed. The interval-number theory is introduced to deal with the uncertainty problems, and an interval-number model is built for life-cycle energy saving and emission reduction benefits of wind power project. The model can solve the disturbance from uncertainty factors and provide reliable decision-making basis for the wind power project. Combined with actual data of construction and operating prediction of a million kilowatts wind farm in Inner Mongolia, a comparative analysis on energy saving and emission reduction benefits is made with a selected 600 MW thermal power project as reference, while the sensitivity analysis on two indices of wind power generation and total investment is given. It is proved that wind power project has better environmental benefits in terms of CO2 emission, and the total investment of wind power project has bigger influence on the increase of emission reduction cost while the annual power generation is more sensitive to the emission reduction.%基于全寿命周期管理的理念,提出了风力发电全寿命周期减排效益估算方法;通过引入区间数理论来处理存在的不确定性问题,构建了风力发电项目全寿命周期节能减排效益的区间数模型.该模型可解决许多不确定因素的干扰,为决策者计算风力发电提供更为可靠的决策依据.算例中,结合内蒙某百万千瓦级风电场的实际工程建设和预测运行数据,与选取的600MW火力发电工程项目在节能减排效益方面进行了对标分析,并对风力发电量和风电建设总投资2个指标进行了敏感性分析.结果表明,风力发电技术在CO2减排方面较燃煤发电技术具有更好的环境效益,且总投资对减排成本的增加值影响较大,而年发电量对减排量比较敏感.

  13. Benefits of multi-modal fusion analysis on a large-scale dataset: life-span patterns of inter-subject variability in cortical morphometry and white matter microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Adrian R; Smith, Stephen M; Fjell, Anders M; Tamnes, Christian K; Walhovd, Kristine B; Douaud, Gwenaëlle; Woolrich, Mark W; Westlye, Lars T

    2012-10-15

    Neuroimaging studies have become increasingly multimodal in recent years, with researchers typically acquiring several different types of MRI data and processing them along separate pipelines that provide a set of complementary windows into each subject's brain. However, few attempts have been made to integrate the various modalities in the same analysis. Linked ICA is a robust data fusion model that takes multi-modal data and characterizes inter-subject variability in terms of a set of multi-modal components. This paper examines the types of components found when running Linked ICA on a large magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) morphometric and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data set comprising 484 healthy subjects ranging from 8 to 85 years of age. We find several strong global features related to age, sex, and intracranial volume; in particular, one component predicts age to a high accuracy (r=0.95). Most of the remaining components describe spatially localized modes of variability in white or gray matter, with many components including both tissue types. The multimodal components tend to be located in anatomically-related brain areas, suggesting a morphological and possibly functional relationship. The local components show relationships between surface-based cortical thickness and arealization, voxel-based morphometry (VBM), and between three different DTI measures. Further, we report components related to artifacts (e.g. scanner software upgrades) which would be expected in a dataset of this size. Most of the 100 extracted components showed interpretable spatial patterns and were found to be reliable using split-half validation. This work provides novel information about normal inter-subject variability in brain structure, and demonstrates the potential of Linked ICA as a feature-extracting data fusion approach across modalities. This exploratory approach automatically generates models to explain structure in the data, and may prove especially powerful for large

  14. Carotid revascularization: risks and benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Brien M

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Marlene O'Brien, Ankur Chandra Department of Surgery, Division of Vascular Surgery, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY, USA Abstract: Despite a decline during the recent decades in stroke-related death, the incidence of stroke has remained unchanged or slightly increased, and extracranial carotid artery stenosis is implicated in 20%–30% of all strokes. Medical therapy and risk factor modification are first-line therapies for all patients with carotid occlusive disease. Evidence for the treatment of patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis greater than 70% with either carotid artery stenting (CAS or carotid endarterectomy (CEA is compelling, and several trials have demonstrated a benefit to carotid revascularization in the symptomatic patient population. Asymptomatic carotid stenosis is more controversial, with the largest trials only demonstrating a 1% per year risk stroke reduction with CEA. Although there are sufficient data to advocate for aggressive medical therapy as the primary mode of treatment for asymptomatic carotid stenosis, there are also data to suggest that certain patient populations will benefit from a stroke risk reduction with carotid revascularization. In the United States, consensus and practice guidelines dictate that CEA is reasonable in patients with high-grade asymptomatic stenosis, a reasonable life expectancy, and perioperative risk of less than 3%. Regarding CAS versus CEA, the best-available evidence demonstrates no difference between the two procedures in early perioperative stroke, myocardial infarction, or death, and no difference in 4-year ipsilateral stroke risk. However, because of the higher perioperative risks of stroke in patients undergoing CAS, particularly in symptomatic, female, or elderly patients, it is difficult to recommend CAS over CEA except in populations with prohibitive cardiac risk, previous carotid surgery, or prior neck radiation. Current treatment

  15. APPLE PHYTOCHEMICALS FOR HUMAN BENEFITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Chakole

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Apples are a widely consumed, rich source of phytochemicals, and epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. In the laboratory, apples have been found to have very strong antioxidant activity, inhibit cancer cell proliferation, decrease lipid oxidation, and lower cholesterol. Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of apples varies greatly between different varieties of apples, and there are also small changes in phytochemicals during the maturation and ripening of the fruit. Storage has little to no effect on apple phytochemicals, but processing can greatly affect apple phytochemicals. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior, and the effects of variety, ripening, storage and processing on apple phytochemicals

  16. Benefits of investing in ecosystem restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE Groot, Rudolf S; Blignaut, James; VAN DER Ploeg, Sander; Aronson, James; Elmqvist, Thomas; Farley, Joshua

    2013-12-01

    Measures aimed at conservation or restoration of ecosystems are often seen as net-cost projects by governments and businesses because they are based on incomplete and often faulty cost-benefit analyses. After screening over 200 studies, we examined the costs (94 studies) and benefits (225 studies) of ecosystem restoration projects that had sufficient reliable data in 9 different biomes ranging from coral reefs to tropical forests. Costs included capital investment and maintenance of the restoration project, and benefits were based on the monetary value of the total bundle of ecosystem services provided by the restored ecosystem. Assuming restoration is always imperfect and benefits attain only 75% of the maximum value of the reference systems over 20 years, we calculated the net present value at the social discount rates of 2% and 8%. We also conducted 2 threshold cum sensitivity analyses. Benefit-cost ratios ranged from about 0.05:1 (coral reefs and coastal systems, worst-case scenario) to as much as 35:1 (grasslands, best-case scenario). Our results provide only partial estimates of benefits at one point in time and reflect the lower limit of the welfare benefits of ecosystem restoration because both scarcity of and demand for ecosystem services is increasing and new benefits of natural ecosystems and biological diversity are being discovered. Nonetheless, when accounting for even the incomplete range of known benefits through the use of static estimates that fail to capture rising values, the majority of the restoration projects we analyzed provided net benefits and should be considered not only as profitable but also as high-yielding investments. Beneficios de Invertir en la Restauración de Ecosistemas.

  17. 42 CFR 436.608 - Applications for other benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... obtain any annuities, pensions, and retirement and disability benefits to which they are entitled, unless they can show good cause for not doing so. (b) Annuities, pensions, and retirement and disability benefits include, but are not limited to, veterans' compensation and pensions, OASDI benefits,...

  18. Developing benefits management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Markus

    if they do realize the value of their IT investments (Bradley, 2010; Hunter & Westerman, 2009; Legris & Collerette, 2006), although the relationship between IT and business performance has been known for many years (Melville et al., 2004; Kohli & Grover, 2008). A starting point for any organization is thus......An old quote goes “Rome wasn’t built in a day” which is similar to the practices comprehended by benefits management (BM) in today’s organizations; they mature as organizations improve practices (Ward & Daniel, 2012). The implication is that many organizations are still not realizing or are unsure...

  19. 20 CFR 220.114 - Evaluation of symptoms, including pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... a determination as to the intensity, persistence, or functionally limiting effects of the claimant's... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evaluation of symptoms, including pain. 220.114 Section 220.114 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE...

  20. Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment of Water Reuse Strategies in Residential Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper evaluates the environmental sustainability and economic feasibility of four water reuse designs through economic input-output life cycle assessments (EIO-LCA) and benefit/cost analyses. The water reuse designs include: 1. Simple Greywater Reuse System for Landscape Ir...

  1. Mental health through forgiveness: Exploring the roots and benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Raj

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Forgiveness is conceptualized as the process of making peace with life. The three sources of forgiveness, another person, oneself, and a situation or circumstance are capable of freeing a person from a negative association to the source that has transgressed against a person. Research studies show the mental health benefits associated with forgiveness. The present study explores the experiences of adults who practice forgiveness, specifically, the indicators of forgiveness, the childhood antecedents, and the benefits of forgiving behavior. The study uses a qualitative research approach following a phenomenological framework. A total of 12 adults, ranging from 25 to 40 years of age, who received a high score on Heartland Forgiveness Scale were included in the study. Using semi-structured in-depth interviews, their personal experiences were explored. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The themes emerged show that the childhood antecedents of forgiveness are parental influences and early childhood experiences. The indicators of forgiving behavior include positive emotional state, empathy and perspective taking, and religiosity. The themes identified are enhanced sense of well-being, improved self-acceptance, and competence to deal with challenges. Forgiveness enhanced physical and psychological well-being. The findings of the study have several implications for religious leaders, teachers, parents, mental health professionals, and trainers.

  2. Using nonqualified benefits to recruit and retain physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, M

    2000-10-01

    Financial managers of healthcare organizations often are charged with developing incentives that encourage physicians to join or stay with the organization. Standard incentives such as higher salaries and qualified retirement plans may not attract physicians, because much of a physician's salary increase may be lost to taxes, and regulations limit amounts that physicians can contribute to and receive from qualified retirement plans. Incentives that may be valued more highly by physicians include Section 162 bonus plans, which can allow the healthcare organization to compensate for the fact that bonuses are taxable to physicians; split-dollar welfare benefit plans, which allow the healthcare organization and the physician to split the premium payments, cash values, and death proceeds of a life insurance policy; and discounted stock option plans, which can increase the physician's compensation significantly if the shares appreciate in value by the time they are exercised.

  3. 42 CFR 102.72 - Sufficient documentation for eligibility and benefits determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... benefits determinations. 102.72 Section 102.72 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Sufficient documentation for eligibility and benefits determinations. (a) Eligibility determinations. When... requester, including reconsideration. (b) Benefits determinations. If the Secretary determines that...

  4. Whole grains: benefits and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Julie Miller; Engleson, Jodi

    2010-01-01

    Inclusion of whole grains (WG) in the diet is recommended in dietary guidance around the world because of their associations with increased health and reduced risk of chronic disease. WGs are linked to reduced risk of obesity or weight gain; reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), including coronary heart disease (CHD), hypertension, and stroke; improved gut health and decreased risk of cancers of the upper gut; perhaps reduced risk of colorectal cancer; and lower mortality rate. The 2005 United States Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee has recommended that consumers make "half their grains whole." Yet, whole grains are puzzling both consumers and scientists. Scientists are trying to determine whether their health benefits are due to the synergy of WG components, individual WG components, or the fact that WG eaters make many of the recommended diet and lifestyle choices. Consumers need to understand the WG benefits and how to identify WG foods to have incentive to purchase and use such foods. Industry needs to develop great-tasting, clearly-labeled products. With both these factors working together, it will be possible to change WG consumption habits among consumers.

  5. Cooperation for direct fitness benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leimar, Olof; Hammerstein, Peter

    2010-09-12

    Studies of the evolution of helping have traditionally used the explanatory frameworks of reciprocity and altruism towards relatives, but recently there has been an increasing interest in other kinds of explanations. We review the success or otherwise of work investigating alternative processes and mechanisms, most of which fall under the heading of cooperation for direct benefits. We evaluate to what extent concepts such as by-product benefits, pseudo-reciprocity, sanctions and partner choice, markets and the build-up of cross-species spatial trait correlations have contributed to the study of the evolution of cooperation. We conclude that these alternative ideas are successful and show potential to further increase our understanding of cooperation. We also bring up the origin and role of common interest in the evolution of cooperation, including the appearance of organisms. We note that there are still unresolved questions about the main processes contributing to the evolution of common interest. Commenting on the broader significance of the recent developments, we argue that they represent a justified balancing of the importance given to different major hypotheses for the evolution of cooperation. This balancing is beneficial because it widens considerably the range of phenomena addressed and, crucially, encourages empirical testing of important theoretical alternatives.

  6. Making benefit transfers work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bateman, I.J.; Brouwer, R.; Ferrini, S.

    We develop and test guidance principles for benefits transfers. These argue that when transferring across relatively similar sites, simple mean value transfers are to be preferred but that when sites are relatively dissimilar then value function transfers will yield lower errors. The paper also...... provides guidance on the appropriate specification of transferable value functions arguing that these should be developed from theoretical rather than ad-hoc statistical principles. These principles are tested via a common format valuation study of water quality improvements across five countries. Results...... support our various hypotheses providing a set of principles for future transfer studies. The application also considers new ways of incorporating distance decay, substitution and framing effects within transfers and presents a novel water quality ladder....

  7. Making benefit transfers work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bateman, I. J.; Brouwer, R.; Ferrini, S.

    2011-01-01

    We develop and test guidance principles for benefits transfers. These argue that when transferring across relatively similar sites, simple mean value transfers are to be preferred but that when sites are relatively dissimilar then value function transfers will yield lower errors. The paper also...... provides guidance on the appropriate specification of transferable value functions arguing that these should be developed from theoretical rather than ad-hoc statistical principles. These principles are tested via a common format valuation study of water quality improvements across five countries. Results...... support our various hypotheses providing a set of principles for future transfer studies. The application also considers new ways of incorporating distance decay, substitution and framing effects within transfers and presents a novel water quality ladder....

  8. Predicting Anthracycline Benefit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartlett, John M S; McConkey, Christopher C; Munro, Alison F

    2015-01-01

    as measured with a centromere enumeration probe (CEP17) predicted sensitivity to anthracyclines, we report here an individual patient-level pooled analysis of data from five trials comparing anthracycline-based chemotherapy with CMF (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil) as adjuvant chemotherapy.......6% (TOP2A) of 3,846 patient cases with available tissue. Both CEP17and TOP2A treatment-by-marker interactions remained significant in adjusted analyses for recurrence-free and overall survival, whereas HER2 did not. A combined CEP17 and TOP2A-adjusted model predicted anthracycline benefit across all five...... trials for both recurrence-free (hazard ratio, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.82; P = .001) and overall survival (hazard ratio, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.85; P = .005). CONCLUSION: This prospectively planned individual-patient pooled analysis of patient cases from five adjuvant trials confirms that patients whose...

  9. China Benefits from FDI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华民

    2007-01-01

    While China’s opening up policy has brought about rapid economic growth,it has also resulted in a certain loss of welfare.Many scholars have debated this issue extensively from different perspectives.An article entitled"An Open Economy Calls for New Development Theories"by Zhang Youwen (published in the Sept.2006 issue of China Economist) proposed a"new approach to opening up"-a reflection of the views held by some Chinese scholars. Disagreeing with these views,the author of this article believes that China should give more consideration to her resource endowment and economic growth stages and evaluate scientifically the benefits of"opening up".

  10. Longevity expectations in the pension fund, insurance, and employee benefits industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in many areas of biomedical science since the 1960s, suggesting likely increases in life expectancy and decreases in morbidity and mortality in the adult population. These changes may pose substantial risks to the pensions and benefits industries. While there is no significant statistical evidence demonstrating rapid decreases in mortality rates, there are conflicting opinions among demographers and biogerontologists on the biological limits of the human lifespan and trends in life expectancy. We administered a survey of the International Employee Benefits Association (IEBA), a large, international industry group. Industry professionals employed by consulting (35%), insurance (24%), pension (14%), and other (27%) companies responded to 32 questions. Respondents showed reasonably conservative views on the future of longevity and retirement, including that for women. The respondents formed their personal longevity expectations based on their family history and, to a lesser degree, on the actuarial life tables. Most of the sample expressed no desire to life past age 100 years, even if the enabling technologies required to maintain a healthy youthful state were available, and only a few respondents in the sample expressed a desire to live for the maximum period (at least) offered by the survey question. The majority of the respondents would not undergo any invasive procedures, and only 56% of the respondents would opt for noninvasive therapies to extend their healthy lifespans to 150 years of age if these were available.

  11. Does the "marriage benefit" extend to same-sex union?: Evidence from a sample of married lesbian couples in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducharme, Jamie K; Kollar, Marilou M

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between wellbeing and marital quality in a married lesbian sample from Massachusetts. Two hundred twenty five (225) participants responded to this mailed survey study. Participants completed a demographic questionnaire, the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief Instrument (WHOQOL-Bref). DAS scores were a strong predictor of reported wellbeing in all quality of life domains including physical, psychological, and financial wellbeing. Results support the finding in the heterosexual marriage literature that healthy marriage is associated with distinct wellbeing benefits for lesbian couples. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  12. Preference-based approaches to measuring the benefits of perinatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrou, Stavros; Henderson, Jane

    2003-12-01

    Studies that measure benefits of health care interventions in natural or physical units cannot incorporate the several health changes that might occur within a single measure, and they overlook individuals' preferences for those health changes. This paper discusses and critically appraises the application of preference-based approaches to the measurement of the benefits of perinatal care that have developed out of economic theory. These include quality adjusted life year (QALY)-based approaches, monetary-based approaches, and discrete choice experiments. QALY-based approaches use scaling techniques, such as the rating scale, standard gamble approach, and time trade-off approach, or multi-attribute utility measures, to measure the health-related quality of life weights of health states. Monetary-based approaches include the revealed preference approach, which involves observing decisions that individuals actually make concerning health risks, and the willingness-to-pay approach, which provides a framework for investigating individuals' willingness to pay for benefits of health care interventions. Discrete choice experiments describe health care interventions in terms of their attributes, and elicit preferences for scenarios that combine different levels of those attributes. Empirical examples are used to illustrate each preference-based approach to benefit measurement, and several methodological issues raised by the application of these approaches to the perinatal context are discussed. Particular attention is given to identifying the relevant attributes to incorporate into the measurement instrument, appropriate respondents for the measurement exercise, potential sources of bias in description and valuation processes, and the practicality, reliability, and validity of alternative measurement approaches. The paper's conclusion is that researchers should be explicit and rigorous in their application of preference-based approaches to benefit measurement in the context

  13. Benefit / Cost priorities : achieving commensurability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wedley, W.C.; Choo, E.U.; Wijnmalen, D.J.D.

    2003-01-01

    Traditional Benefit/Cost analysis requires benefits and costs to be expressed in a common currency, usually dollars. More recently, benefits and costs have been expressed and compared as relative priorities. This process has been criticized because there is no guarantee that the two sources of prior

  14. SIMPLE LIFE AND RELIGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet YILDIRIM

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Individuals in terms of the economy in which we live is one of the most important phenomenon of the century. This phenomenon present itself as the only determinant of people's lives by entering almost makes itself felt. The mo st obvious objective needs of the economy by triggering motive is to induce people to consume . Consumer culture pervades all aspects of the situation are people . Therefore, these people have the blessing of culture , beauty and value all in the name of w hatever is consumed. This is way out of the siege of moral and religious values we have is to go back again . Referred by local cultural and religious values, based on today increasingly come to the fore and the Muslim way of life appears to be close to th e plain / lean preferred by many people life has been a way of life. Even the simple life , a way of life in the Western world , a conception of life , a philosophy, a movement as it has become widely accepted. Here in determining the Muslim way of life Pr ophet. Prophet (sa lived the kind of life a very important model, sample, and determining which direction is known. Religious values, which is the carrier of the prophets, sent to the society they have always been examples and models. Because every aspect of human life, his life style and the surrounding area has a feature. We also value his life that he has unknowingly and without learning and skills and to understand it is not possible to live our religion . We also our presentation, we mainly of Islam o utlook on life and predicted life - style, including the Prophet of Islam 's (sa simple life to scrutinize and lifestyle issues related to reveal , in short Islam's how life has embraced and the Prophet. Prophet's will try to find answers to questions reg arding how to live.

  15. 29 CFR 1627.17 - Calculating the amount of qualified retirement benefits for purposes of the exemption for bona...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... within the period of life expectancy of the employee, is $44,000 per year as adjusted. (4) Where an... benefits which are available only after death, it is not necessary to determine the life expectancy of each... other than a straight life annuity (with no ancillary benefits), or if employees contribute to any...

  16. 49 CFR 25.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 25.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 25.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services....

  17. 22 CFR 229.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 229... benefits and services. Subject to § 229.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a recipient shall not discriminate...

  18. 22 CFR 146.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 146... benefits and services. Subject to § 146.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a recipient shall not discriminate...

  19. 15 CFR 8a.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Health and insurance benefits and... benefits and services. Subject to § 8a.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a recipient shall not discriminate...

  20. 29 CFR 36.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 36.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 36.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Health and insurance benefits and services. 36.440...

  1. 24 CFR 3.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Activities Prohibited § 3.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 3.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health and insurance benefits...

  2. 28 CFR 54.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Health and insurance benefits and... benefits and services. Subject to § 54.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a recipient shall not discriminate...

  3. 10 CFR 1042.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1042.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 1042.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services....

  4. 45 CFR 86.39 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.39 Health and insurance benefits and services. In providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services....

  5. 45 CFR 2555.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Activities Prohibited § 2555.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 2555.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services....

  6. 7 CFR 15a.39 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Programs and Activities Prohibited § 15a.39 Health and insurance benefits and services. In providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services....

  7. 34 CFR 106.39 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Prohibited § 106.39 Health and insurance benefits and services. In providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a recipient shall not... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services....

  8. 43 CFR 41.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services... benefits and services. Subject to § 41.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a recipient shall not discriminate...

  9. 32 CFR 196.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Activities Prohibited § 196.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 196.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services....

  10. 45 CFR 618.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 618.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a recipient... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services....

  11. 6 CFR 17.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 17... benefits and services. Subject to § 17.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a recipient shall not discriminate...

  12. 14 CFR 1253.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services... benefits and services. Subject to § 1253.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a recipient shall not discriminate...

  13. 13 CFR 113.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 113.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a recipient... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Health and insurance benefits...

  14. The quality of life of single mothers making the transition from welfare to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kay; Davis, Elise; Smyth, Paul; McKenzie, Hayley

    2009-09-01

    This study examined the quality of life of single mothers making the mandatory transition from welfare to work. The Australian government purported that the benefits of making this transition would include higher incomes, better social participation, and improved wellbeing. It is currently unknown, however, how single mothers currently engaged in welfare to work programs evaluate their quality of life. Quality of life scores for 334 single mothers engaged in welfare to work in Australia were compared with normative data. Participants reported significantly lower quality of life scores than the general population for all quality of life domains, highlighting the need to carefully examine welfare to work policies to ensure they promote participants' quality of life.

  15. Benefit Estimation Model for Tourist Spaceflights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehlich, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    It is believed that the only potential means for significant reduction of the recurrent launch cost, which results in a stimulation of human space colonization, is to make the launcher reusable, to increase its reliability, and to make it suitable for new markets such as mass space tourism. But such space projects, that have long range aspects are very difficult to finance, because even politicians would like to see a reasonable benefit during their term in office, because they want to be able to explain this investment to the taxpayer. This forces planners to use benefit models instead of intuitive judgement to convince sceptical decision-makers to support new investments in space. Benefit models provide insights into complex relationships and force a better definition of goals. A new approach is introduced in the paper that allows to estimate the benefits to be expected from a new space venture. The main objective why humans should explore space is determined in this study to ``improve the quality of life''. This main objective is broken down in sub objectives, which can be analysed with respect to different interest groups. Such interest groups are the operator of a space transportation system, the passenger, and the government. For example, the operator is strongly interested in profit, while the passenger is mainly interested in amusement, while the government is primarily interested in self-esteem and prestige. This leads to different individual satisfactory levels, which are usable for the optimisation process of reusable launch vehicles.

  16. Family Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With Family and Friends > Family Life Request Permissions Family Life Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , ... your outlook on the future. Friends and adult family members The effects of cancer on your relationships ...

  17. A life in books

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siegumfeldt, Inge Birgitte; Auster, Paul

    "Paul Auster's A Life in Words--a wide-ranging dialogue between Auster and the Danish professor I.B. Siegumfeldt--is a remarkably candid and often surprising celebration of one writer's art, craft, and life. It includes many revelations that have never been shared before, such as that he doesn...

  18. Mentoring practices benefiting pediatric nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weese, Meghan M; Jakubik, Louise D; Eliades, Aris B; Huth, Jennifer J

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies examining predictors of pediatric nurse protégé mentoring benefits demonstrated that protégé perception of quality was the single best predictor of mentoring benefits. The ability to identify the mentoring practices that predict specific benefits for individual nurses provides a better understanding of how mentoring relationships can be leveraged within health care organizations promoting mutual mentoring benefits. This descriptive correlational, non-experimental study of nurses at a northeast Ohio, Magnet® recognized, free-standing pediatric hospital advances nursing science by demonstrating how mentoring practices benefit pediatric nurse protégés.

  19. Exercise in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus: what are the benefits and how does it work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duclos, Martine; Virally, Marie-Laure; Dejager, Sylvie

    2011-05-01

    In this article, we examine the results from meta-analyses of studies that have focused on the effects of supervised exercise in patients with established type 2 diabetes mellitus. Exercise has been clearly demonstrated to have benefits on blood glucose control (average reduction of glycated hemoglobin, 0.6%) and cardiovascular risk factors. These benefits are observed independently of any change in body mass index and fat mass, and are also seen in older populations. Multiple mechanisms are involved, and the improved insulin-sensitizing effect of exercise training is not restricted to muscle but extends to hepatic and adipose tissue. However, while the benefits of exercise in type 2 diabetes management are undisputable, it is not as easy to draw correlations between clinical benefit and the amount of physical activity included in daily life. Recent studies have shown encouraging results with moderate increases in physical activity, which are feasible for most patients and are sufficient to induce sustained positive changes for 2 years. Thus, the benefits of structured and supervised exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes have been consistently demonstrated. Currently, the primary challenge is to determine how long-term increased physical activity can be durably implemented in a patient's daily life.

  20. Cryoethics: seeking life after death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David

    2009-11-01

    Cryonic suspension is a relatively new technology that offers those who can afford it the chance to be 'frozen' for future revival when they reach the ends of their lives. This paper will examine the ethical status of this technology and whether its use can be justified. Among the arguments against using this technology are: it is 'against nature', and would change the very concept of death; no friends or family of the 'freezee' will be left alive when he is revived; the considerable expense involved for the freezee and the future society that will revive him; the environmental cost of maintaining suspension; those who wish to use cryonics might not live life to the full because they would economize in order to afford suspension; and cryonics could lead to premature euthanasia in order to maximize chances of success. Furthermore, science might not advance enough to ever permit revival, and reanimation might not take place due to socio-political or catastrophic reasons. Arguments advanced by proponents of cryonics include: the potential benefit to society; the ability to cheat death for at least a few more years; the prospect of immortality if revival is successful; and all the associated benefits that delaying or avoiding dying would bring. It emerges that it might be imprudent not to use the technology, given the relatively minor expense involved and the potential payoff. An adapted and more persuasive version of Pascal's Wager is presented and offered as a conclusive argument in favour of utilizing cryonic suspension.

  1. DUAL RANDOM MODEL OF INCREASING LIFE INSURANCE FOR MULTIPLE-LIFE STATUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangYi; HeWenjiong

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the dual random model of increasing life insurance for multiple-life status is discussed. The rnth moment of the present value of benefits are calculated and the respective expressions of the moments under joint life status or last- survivor status are presented.Fur-thermore,the limiting distribution of average cost of a portfolio of increasing life insurance for multiple-life status is studied.

  2. Cardiovascular benefits of exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal SK

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Shashi K AgarwalMedical Director, Agarwal Health Center, NJ, USAAbstract: Regular physical activity during leisure time has been shown to be associated with better health outcomes. The American Heart Association, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine all recommend regular physical activity of moderate intensity for the prevention and complementary treatment of several diseases. The therapeutic role of exercise in maintaining good health and treating diseases is not new. The benefits of physical activity date back to Susruta, a 600 BC physician in India, who prescribed exercise to patients. Hippocrates (460–377 BC wrote “in order to remain healthy, the entire day should be devoted exclusively to ways and means of increasing one's strength and staying healthy, and the best way to do so is through physical exercise.” Plato (427–347 BC referred to medicine as a sister art to physical exercise while the noted ancient Greek physician Galen (129–217 AD penned several essays on aerobic fitness and strengthening muscles. This article briefly reviews the beneficial effects of physical activity on cardiovascular diseases.Keywords: exercise, cardiovascular disease, lifestyle changes, physical activity, good health

  3. HEALTH BENEFITS OF BARLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of lifestyle diseases is increasing day by day. Mostly the younger generation do not have much awareness about healthy nutritional supplements. One such important cereal grain not used mostly by youngsters is barley It is a good old grain with so many health benefits like weight reduction, decreasing blood pressure, blood cholesterol, blood glucose in Type 2 diabetes and preventing colon cancer. It is easily available and cheap grain. It contains both soluble and insoluble fiber, protein, vitamins B and E, minerals selenium, magnesium and iron, copper, flavonoids and anthocynins. Barley contains soluble fiber, beta glucan binds to bile acids in the intestines and thereby decreasing plasma cholesterol levels. Absorbed soluble fiber decreases cholesterol synthesis by liver and cleansing blood vessels. Insoluble fiber provides bulkiness in the intestines, thereby satiety. decreased appetite. It promotes intestinal movements relieving constipation, cleansing colonic harmful bacteria and reduced incidence of colonic cancer. It is a good source of niacin ,reducing LDL levels and increasing HDL levels. Selenium and vitamin E providing beneficial antioxidant effects. Magnesium, a cofactor for many carbohydrate metabolism enzymes and high fiber content contributes for its blood glucose reducing effect in Type 2 diabetes. It is having good diuretic activity and is useful in urinary tract infections. Barley contains gluten, contraindicated in celiac disease.

  4. Creating new life for hydraulic turbines by upgrading and rehabilitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachter, G.F.

    1998-12-01

    Methods by which to extend the life of aging hydraulic turbines which are still in operation today are discussed. Upgrading some of these turbines which were built as far back as 80 years ago may be feasible with current rehabilitation technology and advanced computer aided hydraulic mechanical design analysis techniques. The benefits achieved with many hydraulic turbine upgrade and rehabilitation programs include: (1) increased performance, (2) extended service life, (3) stopping accelerated deterioration due to cavitation, (4) reducing detrimental symptoms such as unit vibration, component cracking and excessive wearing ring clearances, (5) reducing the possibility of major failures, and (6) reducing unscheduled forced outages. Increased usage of a non-polluting, renewable energy source is an additional benefit of rehabilitation and upgrading of hydro power generating units.2 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  5. Benefits of dietary phytochemical supplementation on eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage: Is including antioxidants enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira Panza, Vilma Simões; Diefenthaeler, Fernando; da Silva, Edson Luiz

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this review was to critically discuss studies that investigated the effects of supplementation with dietary antioxidant phytochemicals on recovery from eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. The performance of physical activities that involve unaccustomed eccentric muscle actions-such as lowering a weight or downhill walking-can result in muscle damage, oxidative stress, and inflammation. These events may be accompanied by muscle weakness and delayed-onset muscle soreness. According to the current evidences, supplementation with dietary antioxidant phytochemicals appears to have the potential to attenuate symptoms associated with eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. However, there are inconsistencies regarding the relationship between muscle damage and blood markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. Furthermore, the effectiveness of strategies appear to depend on a number of aspects inherent to phytochemical compounds as well as its food matrix. Methodological issues also may interfere with the proper interpretation of supplementation effects. Thus, the study may contribute to updating professionals involved in sport nutrition as well as highlighting the interest of scientists in new perspectives that can widen dietary strategies applied to training.

  6. Green mathematics: Benefits of including biological variation in your data analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijskens, L.M.M.; Schouten, R.E.; Unuk, T.; Simcic, M.

    2015-01-01

    Biological variation is omnipresent in nature. It contains useful information that is neglected by the usually applied statistical procedures. To extract this information special procedures have to be applied. Biological variation is seen in properties (e.g. size, colour, firmness), but the underlyi

  7. A Framework for Including Family Health Spillovers in Economic Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Janabi, Hareth; van Exel, Job; Brouwer, Werner; Coast, Joanna

    2016-02-01

    Health care interventions may affect the health of patients' family networks. It has been suggested that these "health spillovers" should be included in economic evaluation, but there is not a systematic method for doing this. In this article, we develop a framework for including health spillovers in economic evaluation. We focus on extra-welfarist economic evaluations where the objective is to maximize health benefits from a health care budget (the "health care perspective"). Our framework involves adapting the conventional cost-effectiveness decision rule to include 2 multiplier effects to internalize the spillover effects. These multiplier effects express the ratio of total health effects (for patients and their family networks) to patient health effects. One multiplier effect is specified for health benefit generated from providing a new intervention, one for health benefit displaced by funding this intervention. We show that using multiplier effects to internalize health spillovers could change the optimal funding decisions and generate additional health benefits to society.

  8. Estimation of Social Benefits in Cost-benefit Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Beáta Fodor

    2012-01-01

    While examining the cost-benefit analysis related to public policy decisions in the Hungarian and international literature, this paper is looking for the answer to the question of what the methodological principles are according to which the benefit impacts can be determined. The processed Hungarian and English-language studies indicate that the theoretical-methodological questions of the determination of benefit impacts are not clear cut. The author has constructed a model that contains the ...

  9. Homework in Physical Education: Benefits and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Benjamin Edward; Lynott, Francis John, III.

    2015-01-01

    This article identifies homework as an underutilized strategy in physical education. It reviews the benefits associated with the use of homework in the physical education setting, and provides guidelines for the effective implementation of this strategy. The guidelines include practical application examples and define structured active homework…

  10. Participants in "Friends with Benefits" Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, Jennifer; Knox, David; Zusman, Marty E.

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of survey data from 1013 undergraduates at a large southeastern university revealed that over half (51%) reported experience in a "friends with benefits" relationship. In comparing the background characteristics of participants with nonpartipants in a FWBR, ten statistically significant findings emerged. Findings included that…

  11. Uses, Value, and Benefits of Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machlup, Fritz

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of the value of knowledge clarifies issues related to the distinction between the process of information and the knowledge transmitted. Topics addressed include practical and intellectual knowledge, the value of education, the private and social value of scientific journals, and benefit-and-cost analysis. (eight references) (MES)

  12. Sustainable Facility Development: Perceived Benefits and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinnett, Brad; Gibson, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the perceived benefits and challenges of implementing sustainable initiatives in collegiate recreational sports facilities. Additionally, this paper intends to contribute to the evolving field of facility sustainability in higher education. Design/methodology/approach The design included qualitative…

  13. Benefits of Exercise Training in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, Robert W; Sandroff, Brian M

    2015-09-01

    Exercise training represents a behavioral approach for safely managing many of the functional, symptomatic, and quality of life consequences of multiple sclerosis (MS). This topical review paper summarizes evidence from literature reviews and meta-analyses, supplemented by recent individual studies, indicating that exercise training can yield small but important improvements in walking, balance, cognition, fatigue, depression, and quality of life in MS. The paper highlights limitations of research on exercise training and its consequences and future research directions and provides an overview for promotion of exercise training in MS based on recent prescriptive guidelines. Collectively, the evidence for the benefits of exercise training in MS suggests that the time is ripe for the promotion of exercise by healthcare providers, particularly neurologists as a central part of the clinical care and management of MS patients.

  14. The economic benefits of reducing physical inactivity: an Australian example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cumming Toby B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity has major impacts on health and productivity. Our aim was to estimate the health and economic benefits of reducing the prevalence of physical inactivity in the 2008 Australian adult population. The economic benefits were estimated as 'opportunity cost savings', which represent resources utilized in the treatment of preventable disease that are potentially available for re-direction to another purpose from fewer incident cases of disease occurring in communities. Methods Simulation models were developed to show the effect of a 10% feasible, reduction target for physical inactivity from current Australian levels (70%. Lifetime cohort health benefits were estimated as fewer incident cases of inactivity-related diseases; deaths; and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs by age and sex. Opportunity costs were estimated as health sector cost impacts, as well as paid and unpaid production gains and leisure impacts from fewer disease events associated with reduced physical inactivity. Workforce production gains were estimated by comparing surveyed participation and absenteeism rates of physically active and inactive adults, and valued using the friction cost approach. The impact of an improvement in health status on unpaid household production and leisure time were modeled from time use survey data, as applied to the exposed and non-exposed population subgroups and valued by suitable proxy. Potential costs associated with interventions to increase physical activity were not included. Multivariable uncertainty analyses and univariate sensitivity analyses were undertaken to provide information on the strength of the conclusions. Results A 10% reduction in physical inactivity would result in 6,000 fewer incident cases of disease, 2,000 fewer deaths, 25,000 fewer DALYs and provide gains in working days (114,000, days of home-based production (180,000 while conferring a AUD96 million reduction in health sector costs

  15. Life Sciences Division Spaceflight Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, B.

    1999-01-01

    The Ames Research Center (ARC) is responsible for the development, integration, and operation of non-human life sciences payloads in support of NASA's Gravitational Biology and Ecology (GB&E) program. To help stimulate discussion and interest in the development and application of novel technologies for incorporation within non-human life sciences experiment systems, three hardware system models will be displayed with associated graphics/text explanations. First, an Animal Enclosure Model (AEM) will be shown to communicate the nature and types of constraints physiological researchers must deal with during manned space flight experiments using rodent specimens. Second, a model of the Modular Cultivation System (MCS) under development by ESA will be presented to highlight technologies that may benefit cell-based research, including advanced imaging technologies. Finally, subsystems of the Cell Culture Unit (CCU) in development by ARC will also be shown. A discussion will be provided on candidate technology requirements in the areas of specimen environmental control, biotelemetry, telescience and telerobotics, and in situ analytical techniques and imaging. In addition, an overview of the Center for Gravitational Biology Research facilities will be provided.

  16. Benefit-cost analysis of commercially available activated carbon filters for indoor ozone removal in single-family homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldred, J R; Darling, E; Morrison, G; Siegel, J; Corsi, R L

    2016-06-01

    This study involved the development of a model for evaluating the potential costs and benefits of ozone control by activated carbon filtration in single-family homes. The modeling effort included the prediction of indoor ozone with and without activated carbon filtration in the HVAC system. As one application, the model was used to predict benefit-to-cost ratios for single-family homes in 12 American cities in five different climate zones. Health benefits were evaluated using disability-adjusted life-years and included city-specific age demographics for each simulation. Costs of commercially available activated carbon filters included capital cost differences when compared to conventional HVAC filters of similar particle removal efficiency, energy penalties due to additional pressure drop, and regional utility rates. The average indoor ozone removal effectiveness ranged from 4 to 20% across the 12 target cities and was largely limited by HVAC system operation time. For the parameters selected in this study, the mean predicted benefit-to-cost ratios for 1-inch filters were >1.0 in 10 of the 12 cities. The benefits of residential activated carbon filters were greatest in cities with high seasonal ozone and HVAC usage, suggesting the importance of targeting such conditions for activated carbon filter applications.

  17. Benefits of Laser Therapy in Postmenopausal Vaginal Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brînzan, Daniela; Pǎiuşan, Lucian; Daşcǎu, Voicu; Furǎu, Gheorghe

    2011-08-01

    Maybe the worst aspect of menopause is the decline of the quality of the sexual life. The aim of the study is to demonstrate the beneficial effects of laser therapy in comparison with topical application of estrogen preparations, for the treatment of vaginal atrophy and sexual dysfunctions induced by menopause. A total of 50 menopausal patients were examined during a one year period. The methods used for objectifying vaginal atrophy and sexual dysfunctions were history taking, local clinical exam and PAP smear. From this group, 40 patients had vaginal atrophy with sexual dysfunctions. They have been treated differently, being included in four groups: patients treated with local estrogens, patients treated with intravaginal laser therapy, patients treated with both laser therapy and estrogens, patients treated with estrogens and placebo laser therapy. Therapeutic benefit, improvement of vaginal atrophy and quality of sexual life, were objectified by anamnesis (questionnaire), local and general clinical examination and PAP smear. The best results have been obtained, by far, in the 3rd group, followed by the women treated only with laser. In conclusion, we can say that laser therapy is the best way for solving the sexual inconveniences of menopause.

  18. Potential benefits of a ceramic thermal barrier coating on large power generation gas turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J. S.; Nainiger, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    Thermal barrier coating design option offers benefit in terms of reduced electricity costs when used in utility gas turbines. Options considered include: increased firing temperature, increased component life, reduced cooling air requirements, and increased corrosion resistance (resulting in increased tolerance for dirty fuels). Performance and cost data were obtained. Simple, recuperated and combined cycle applications were considered, and distillate and residual fuels were assumed. The results indicate that thermal barrier coatings could produce large electricity cost savings if these coatings permit turbine operation with residual fuels at distillate-rated firing temperatures. The results also show that increased turbine inlet temperature can result in substantial savings in fuel and capital costs.

  19. Risks and Benefits of Bisphosphonate Therapies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reyes, Carlen; Hitz, Mette; Prieto-Alhambra, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    -term adverse effects. Some of the adverse effects identified include an increased risk of atypical femur fractures, osteonecrosis of the jaw, gastrointestinal side effects, or atrial fibrillation. The harm/benefit thinking and the constant update regarding these medications are vital in the day-to-day decision......-making in clinical practices. The aims of this review are to compile the basic characteristics of these drugs and outline the most important benefits and side effects and provide a clinical context as well as a research agenda to fill the gaps in our knowledge....

  20. Setting oral health goals that include oral health-related quality of life measures: a study carried out among adolescents in Thailand Incorporação da qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde bucal em metas de saúde bucal: estudo conduzido em adolescentes tailandeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudaduang Krisdapong

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the association between oral diseases and condition-specific oral health-related quality of life (CS-OHRQoL as a basis for proposing OHRQoL-based goals for the population of 15-year-olds in Thailand. Oral examinations and OHRQoL interviews were conducted with 871 15-year-olds as part of the Sixth Thailand National Oral Health Survey. The severity of oral impacts was categorized using "intensity". Associations between oral diseases and CS-OHRQoL were analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression. Thirty-nine percent of 15-year-olds experienced moderate/higher levels oral impacts on quality of life. Compared to those individuals with no tooth decay, adolescents with one or four or more decaying teeth were three and seven times more likely to experience moderate/higher impacts, respectively. Adolescents with extensive gingivitis in 3 or more mouth sextants were twice as likely to experience moderate/higher CS-impacts. Based on these findings, it is proposed that goals should focus on untreated decaying teeth and extensive gingivitis. Oral health goals for 15-year-olds should include specific OHRQoL measures.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a associação entre doença bucal e a condição específica de qualidade de vida associada à saúde bucal (CS-OHRQoL, como base para propor OHRQoL metas para adolescentes tailandeses. Exame clínico bucal e entrevista foram realizados em 871 adolescentes na faixa etária de 15 anos, como parte da 6ª Pesquisa Nacional Tailandesa de Saúde Bucal. A severidade do impacto bucal foi categorizada usando-se a "intensidade". A associação entre doença bucal e CS-OHRQoL foi investigada usando-se o teste qui-quadrado e regressão lógica. Trinta e nove por cento da amostra reportaram impactos bucais de grau moderado/elevado. A probabilidade de reportar um impacto bucal de grau moderado/elevado dos adolescentes com um dente cariado e aqueles com 4 ou mais foi 3 e 7 vezes

  1. Who Benefits from Volunteering? Variations in Perceived Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Hong, Song-Iee; Tang, Fengyan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to document the benefits of volunteering perceived by older adults and to explain variation in these self-perceived benefits. Design and Methods: This is a quantitative study of 13 volunteer programs and 401 older adults serving in those programs. Program directors completed telephone interviews, and older…

  2. Benefits of multidisciplinary teamwork in the management of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor C

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cath Taylor,1 Amanda Shewbridge,2 Jenny Harris,1 James S Green3,4 1Florence Nightingale School of Nursing and Midwifery, King’s College London, London UK; 2Breast Cancer Services, Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK; 3Department of Urology, Barts Health NHS Trust, London, UK; 4Department of Health and Social Care, London South Bank University, London, UK Abstract: The widespread introduction of multidisciplinary team (MDT-work for breast cancer management has in part evolved due to the increasing complexity of diagnostic and treatment decision-making. An MDT approach aims to bring together the range of specialists required to discuss and agree treatment recommendations and ongoing management for individual patients. MDTs are resource-intensive yet we lack strong (randomized controlled trial evidence of their effectiveness. Clinical consensus is generally favorable on the benefits of effective specialist MDT-work. Many studies have shown the benefits of receiving treatment from a specialist center, and evidence continues to accrue from comparative studies of clinical benefits of an MDT approach, including improved survival. Patients’ views of the MDT model of decision-making (and in particular its impact on involvement in decisions about their care have been under-researched. Barriers to effective teamwork and poor decision-making include excessive caseload, low attendance at meetings, lack of leadership, poor communication, role ambiguity, and failure to consider patients’ holistic needs. Breast cancer nurses have a key role in relation to assessing holistic needs, and their specialist contribution has also been associated with improved patient experience and quality of life. This paper examines the evidence for the benefits of MDT-work, in particular for breast cancer. Evidence is considered within a context of growing cancer incidence at a time of increased financial restraint, and it may now be important to

  3. ORANGE: RANGE OF BENEFITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parle Milind

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available No wonder that oranges are one of the most popular fruits in the world. Orange (citrus sinensis is well known for its nutritional and medicinal properties throughout the world. From times immemorial, whole Orange plant including ripe and unripe fruits, juice, orange peels, leaves and flowers are used as a traditional medicine. Citrus sinensis belongs to the family Rutaceae. The fruit is a fleshy, indehiscent, berry that ranges widely in size from 4 cm to 12 cm. The major medicinal properties of orange include anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti- diabetic, cardio- protective, anti-cancer, anti-arthritic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-Tubercular, anti-asthmatic and anti-hypertensive. Phytochemically, whole plant contains limonene, citral, neohesperidin, naringin, rutin, rhamnose, eriocitrin, and vitamin-C. In the present review article, a humble attempt is made to compile all the strange facts available about this tasty fruit.

  4. ORANGE: RANGE OF BENEFITS

    OpenAIRE

    Parle Milind; Chaturvedi Dev

    2012-01-01

    No wonder that oranges are one of the most popular fruits in the world. Orange (citrus sinensis) is well known for its nutritional and medicinal properties throughout the world. From times immemorial, whole Orange plant including ripe and unripe fruits, juice, orange peels, leaves and flowers are used as a traditional medicine. Citrus sinensis belongs to the family Rutaceae. The fruit is a fleshy, indehiscent, berry that ranges widely in size from 4 cm to 12 cm. The major medicinal proper...

  5. Properties and benefits of kefir -A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Moses John

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Kefir is becoming increasingly popular as a result of new research into its health benefits. It is a fermented milk drink which has its origin in the Caucasus Mountains of Russia. Kefir is prepared by inoculating milk with kefir grains which are a combination of bacteria and yeasts in a symbiotic matrix. The common microorganisms present are non-pathogenic bacteria, especially Lactobacillus sp. and yeasts. Kefir has a long history of health benefits in Eastern European countries. It is believed that kefir has therapeutic effects, thus it is important to study the various properties contained in, and exhibited by it. This review includes a critical revision of the antimicrobial, anti-carcinogenic, probiotic and prebiotic properties of kefir. Other health benefits, like reducing cholesterol and improving lactose tolerance are also discussed.

  6. 26 CFR 1.419-1T - Treatment of welfare benefit funds. (Temporary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... respect to which the life insurance company maintains a separate account to provide benefits, then the....419A-1T and the “existing reserves for post-retirement medical or life insurance benefits” under Q&A-4... “existing reserves for post-retirement medical or life insurance benefits” for all taxable years of...

  7. Analysis on Environmental Benefit of Wind Turbines Using Life Cycle Assessment——Case Study of Some Wind Farm in Inner Mongolia%基于全生命周期评价方法的风电环境效益测算——以内蒙古某风电场为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓天

    2012-01-01

    选取内蒙古某风电场作为“三北”地区风电场的典型案例,采用全生命周期评价方法,从原材料生产、运输、施工建设和报废等4个阶段分析其能耗及对环境的影响.经过对比测算,该49.5MW风场与传统300MW的蒸汽轮机发电机组相比,每MWh能耗约为传统火电厂的3.5%,全球变暖潜力只有煤电发电的1.5%,酸化潜力只有煤电的0.8%,该结果论证了在“三北”地区建设风电场的环境效益十分显著.%This paper selects a wind farm in Inner Mongolia as a typical case of the " Three North" , and applies life cycle assessment to analyze its energy consumption and environmental impact from four stages, which are manufacturing, transportation, construction and diposal stage. The research indicates that the per MWh energy consumption, the global warming potential and the acidification potential of the wind farm is 3. 5% , 1. 5% and 0. 8% of the conventional thermal power plants respectively, compared with 300MW Turbine Generator Set. The results demonstrates that wind energy development in the " Three North" will bring significantly environmental benefits.

  8. Community benefit activities of private, nonprofit hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzoli, Gloria J; Clement, Jan P; Hsieh, Hui-Min

    2010-12-01

    The definition of hospital community benefits has been intensely debated for many years. Recently, consensus has developed about one group of activities being central to community benefits because of its focus on care for the poor and on needed community services for which any payments received are low relative to costs. Disagreements continue, however, about the treatment of bad debt expense and Medicare shortfalls. A recent revision of the Internal Revenue Service's Form 990 Schedule H, which is required of all nonprofit hospitals, highlights the agreed-on set of activities but does not dismiss the disputed items. Our study is the first to apply definitions used in the new IRS form to assess how conclusions about the adequacy of nonprofit hospital community benefits could be affected if bad debt expenses and Medicare shortfalls are included or excluded. Specifically, we examine 2005 financial data for California and Florida hospitals. Overall, we find that conclusions about community benefit adequacy are very different depending on which definition of community benefits is used. We provide thoughts on new directions for the current policy debate about the treatment of bad debts and Medicare shortfalls in light of these findings.

  9. Group Life Insurance

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Administration would like to remind you that staff members and fellows have the possibility to take out a life insurance contract on favourable terms through a Group Life Insurance.   This insurance is provided by the company Helvetia and is available to you on a voluntary basis. The premium, which varies depending on the age and gender of the person insured, is calculated on the basis of the amount of the death benefit chosen by the staff member/fellow and can be purchased in slices of 10,000 CHF.    The contract normally ends at the retirement age (65/67 years) or when the staff member/fellow leaves the Organization. The premium is deducted monthly from the payroll.   Upon retirement, the staff member can opt to maintain his membership under certain conditions.   More information about Group Life Insurance can be found at: Regulations (in French) Table of premiums The Pension Fund Benefit Service &...

  10. Benefits for People with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about whether or not you meet Social Security's definition of disability . Use the Benefits Eligibility Screening Tool to find out which programs may be able to pay you benefits. If your application has recently been denied, the Internet Appeal is a starting point to request a ...

  11. Increasing Enrollment through Benefit Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodnow, Betty

    1982-01-01

    The applicability of benefit segmentation, a market research technique which groups people according to benefits expected from a program offering, was tested at the College of DuPage. Preferences and demographic characteristics were analyzed and program improvements adopted, increasing enrollment by 20 percent. (Author/SK)

  12. Taxability of Educational Benefits Trusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple Law Quarterly, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Corporations have found the promise of providing a college education to the children of employees--without the recognition of income to the parent-employee--to be a popular fringe benefit. The Internal Revenue Service has attacked educational benefit trusts in Revenue Ruling 75-448. Implications are discussed. (LBH)

  13. Menopause: A Life Cycle Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evarts, Barbara Kess; Baldwin, Cynthia

    1998-01-01

    Family therapists need to address the issue of menopause proactively to be of benefit to couples and families during this transitional period in the family life cycle. Physical, psychological, and psychosocial factors affecting the menopausal woman and her family, and ways to address these issues in counseling are discussed. (Author/EMK)

  14. Quality-of-Life Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractAs a fairly new interdisciplinary field of inquiry the quality of life research has benefited greatly from the discipline of sociology. The field consists of five overlapping traditions, namely 1) social indicators research, 2) happiness studies, 3) gerontology of successful aging, 4) ps

  15. [Costs and benefits of smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polder, J J; van Gils, P F; Kok, L; Talhout, R; Feenstra, T L

    2017-01-01

    - Two recent societal cost-benefit analyses have documented the costs of smoking and the cost-effectiveness of preventing smoking.- Smoking costs the Netherlands society EUR 33 billion per year.- The majority of this is the monetary value of health loss; these are "soft" euros that cannot be re-spent.- There is not a great deal of difference between costs and benefits when expressed in "hard" euros, which means that there is no clear business case for anti-smoking policy.- The greatest benefit of discouraging smoking is improved health for the individual and increased productivity for the business sector; however, the benefits cannot be easily realised, because even in the most favourable scenario the number of smokers will decrease slowly.- Excise duties seem to offer the most promising avenue for combating smoking. The benefits of anti-smoking policy, therefore, consist mainly of tax revenues for the government.- Stringent policy is required to transform tax revenues into health gains.

  16. 77 FR 3842 - Proposed Information Collection (Conversion from Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance to Veterans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Conversion from Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance to Veterans' Group Life Insurance); Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration, Department of Veterans... members, especially service members with disabilities are informed about their life insurance...

  17. 77 FR 20886 - Agency Information Collection (Conversion From Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance to Veterans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Conversion From Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance to Veterans' Group Life Insurance); Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration, Department of... Evaluation of the Conversion Privilege from Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance (SGLI) to Veterans'...

  18. Benefits of Breastfeeding (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-10-08

    Breastfeeding has well-documented benefits for both newborns and their mothers, and getting off to a good start is important for success. In this podcast, Dr. Cria Perrine discusses the importance of breastfeeding babies during their first year of life.  Created: 10/8/2015 by MMWR.   Date Released: 10/8/2015.

  19. Information and Communications Technology in Teaching Marketing: Benefits and Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadembo, Ernest M.

    2008-01-01

    The advent of a continuous innovation and improvement, particularly in respect of information and communications technology has had a huge impact on the quality of life and in education delivery is an open secret. The benefits from exploiting ICT in education are ernomous but there are abuses that have tarnished its use in education. The…

  20. 20 CFR 404.1312 - World War II service included.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false World War II service included. 404.1312... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1312 World War II service included. Your service was in the active service of the...

  1. Space shuttle and life sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    During the 1980's, some 200 Spacelab missions will be flown on space shuttle in earth-orbit. Within these 200 missions, it is planned that at least 20 will be dedicated to life sciences research, projects which are yet to be outlined by the life sciences community. Objectives of the Life Sciences Shuttle/Spacelab Payloads Program are presented. Also discussed are major space life sciences programs including space medicine and physiology, clinical medicine, life support technology, and a variety of space biology topics. The shuttle, spacelab, and other life sciences payload carriers are described. Concepts for carry-on experiment packages, mini-labs, shared and dedicated spacelabs, as well as common operational research equipment (CORE) are reviewed. Current NASA planning and development includes Spacelab Mission Simulations, an Announcement of Planning Opportunity for Life Sciences, and a forthcoming Announcement of Opportunity for Flight Experiments which will together assist in forging a Life Science Program in space.

  2. Global life satisfaction predicts ambulatory affect, stress, and cortisol in daily life in working adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Joshua M; Zawadzki, Matthew J; Juth, Vanessa; Sciamanna, Christopher N

    2017-04-01

    Global life satisfaction has been linked with long-term health advantages, yet how life satisfaction impacts the trajectory of long-term health is unclear. This paper examines one such possible mechanism-that greater life satisfaction confers momentary benefits in daily life that accumulate over time. A community sample of working adults (n = 115) completed a measure of life satisfaction and then three subsequent days of ecological momentary assessment surveys (6 times/day) measuring affect (i.e., emotional valence, arousal), and perceived stress, and also provided salivary cortisol samples. Multilevel models indicated that people with higher (vs. lower) levels of life satisfaction reported better momentary affect, less stress, marginally lower momentary levels and significantly altered diurnal slopes of cortisol. Findings suggest individuals with high global life satisfaction have advantageous daily experiences, providing initial evidence for potential mechanisms through which global life satisfaction may help explain long-term health benefits.

  3. A Classroom of Bunnies, Blimps, and Werewolves: Teaching Asian Religions Online in Second Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alyson Prude

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Virtual environments promise a myriad of exciting opportunities for college and university online teaching, but how much do they actually deliver? This evaluation of the use of Second Life in an Asian religions course contributes to the small but growing body of literature addressing the incorporation of online virtual worlds into higher education. It discusses benefits and drawback of teaching in Second Life and suggests Asian-inspired Second Life locations that can be useful in the classroom. Given instructor commitment to making use of the unique possibilities Second Life offers, including synchronous communication, virtual world fieldtrips, animations, and the potential for guest lectures and international participation, Second Life can provide a lively and interesting alternative for online Asian-content courses.

  4. The Process to Estimate Economical Benefits of Six Sigma Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kosina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to define the process for the continuous evaluation of the financial benefits during Six Sigma project life time. The financial criteria are critical success factors of a Six Sigma project. The process has been developed as part of the six sigma project monitoring in order to estimate proper allocation of the resources taking in account the expected project benefits as well as evaluationof real achievements. The evaluation of the finacial benefits based on the quality costs is not sufficient in the real life and has to be accomplished with key financial performance indicators of the business to visualize the results. The evaluation based on the savings seems to be too difficult especially for green belts. The early involvement of the finance department in the project definition as well as ongoing evaluation is key. The defined process has been applied to real business enviroment.

  5. Do conditional benefits reduce equilibrium unemployment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, F.

    2006-01-01

    Although unconditional unemployment benefits destroy jobs in competitive and noncompetitive labor markets, conditional benefits can spur job growth in noncompetitive labor markets. Unconditional benefits reduce the penalty of shirking and misconduct, while conditional benefits increase this penalty.

  6. Interconnectivity: Benefits and Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    Access to affordable and reliable electricity supplies is a basic prerequisite for economic and social development, prosperity, health, education and all other aspects of modern society. Electricity can be generated both near and far from the consumption areas as transmission lines, grid interconnections and distribution systems can transport it to the final consumer. In the vast majority of countries, the electricity sector used to be owned and run by the state. The wave of privatisation and market introduction in a number of countries and regions which started in the late 1980's has in many cases involved unbundling of generation from transmission and distribution (T and D). This has nearly everywhere exposed transmission bottlenecks limiting the development of well-functioning markets. Transmission on average accounts for about 10-15% of total final kWh cost paid by the end-user but it is becoming a key issue for effective operation of liberalised markets and for their further development. An integrated and adequate transmission infrastructure is of utmost importance for ensuring the delivery of the most competitively priced electricity, including externalities, to customers, both near and far from the power generating facilities. In this report, the role of interconnectivity in the development of energy systems is examined with the associated socio-economic, environmental, financial and regulatory aspects that must be taken into account for successful interconnection projects.

  7. Physics of the Life Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Newman, Jay

    2008-01-01

    Originally developed for the author's course at Union College, this text is designed for life science students who need to understand the connections of fundamental physics to modern biology and medicine. Almost all areas of modern life sciences integrally involve physics in both experimental techniques and in basic understanding of structure and function. Physics of the Life Sciences is not a watered-down, algebra-based engineering physics book with sections on relevant biomedical topics added as an afterthought. This authoritative and engaging text, which is designed to be covered in a two-semester course, was written with a thoroughgoing commitment to the needs and interests of life science students. Although covering most of the standard topics in introductory physics in a more or less traditional sequence, the author gives added weight and space to concepts and applications of greater relevance to the life sciences. Students benefit from occasional sidebars using calculus to derive fundamental relations,...

  8. General presentation including new structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soons, A.

    2002-12-01

    Electrical, electronic and electro-mechanical components play an essential role in the functional performance, quality, life cycle and costs of space systems. Their standardisation, product specification, development, evaluation, qualification and procurement must be based on a coherent and efficient approach, paying due attention to present and prospective European space policies and must be commensurate with user needs, market developments and technology trends. The European Space Components Coordination (ESCC) is established with the objective of harmonising the efforts concerning the various aspects of EEE space components by ESA. European national and international public space organisations, the component manufacturers and the user industries. The goal of the ESCC is to improve the availability of strategic EEE space components with the required performance and at affordable costs for institutional and commercial space programmes. It is the objective of ESCC to achieve this goal by harmonising the resources and development efforts for space components in the ESA Member States and by providing a single and unified system for the standardisation, product specification, evaluation, qualification and procurement of European EEE space components and for the certification of components and component manufacturers.

  9. 20 CFR 416.1230 - Exclusion of life insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion of life insurance. 416.1230 Section 416.1230 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Resources and Exclusions § 416.1230 Exclusion of life insurance. (a) General....

  10. Patients' quality of life post thyroidectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cashman, E C

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate health related quality of life post thyroidectomy for hyperthyroidism with respect to clinical benefit and patient satisfaction. This is one of the first such studies in the literature evaluating quality of life post thyroidectomy for hyperthyroidism.

  11. The Older Woman: Increased Psychosocial Benefits from Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakat, Diane; Odom, Sarah

    1982-01-01

    Older women who participate in physical activity programs find physical benefits in the improvement of cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems. The psychosocial benefits which result from physical activity include an increase in self-esteem, increased social contacts, a counteraction to depression, and improved stress management. Suggestions…

  12. 38 CFR 3.2600 - Review of benefit claims decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ADJUDICATION Universal Adjudication Rules That Apply to Benefit Claims Governed by Part 3 of This Title... Disagreement with a decision of an agency of original jurisdiction on a benefit claim has a right to a review... an agency of original jurisdiction (including the decision being reviewed or any prior decision...

  13. Who Benefits from Pension Enhancements? Working Paper 76

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koedel, Cory; Ni, Shawn; Podgursky, Michael

    2012-01-01

    During the late 1990s public pension funds across the United States accrued large actuarial surpluses. The seemingly flush conditions of the pension funds led legislators in most states to substantially improve retirement benefits for public workers, including teachers. In this study we examine the benefit enhancements to the teacher pension…

  14. Being empathetic: benefits and challenges for the clinician and client.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott Moore, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the meaning of empathy and how it influences clinicians in their personal and professional lives. Empathy may benefit client and clinician by improving patient satisfaction and pain management, reducing medical errors, and helping to keep clinicians grounded in the priorities of patient care. The cultural and developmental origins and neural basis of empathy are reviewed to provide insight into how a clinician's and client's emotions can interact and influence each other. Methods for cultivating and communicating empathetic responses in the clinical setting are provided, including ways of identifying and dealing with difficult clients. Concepts such as attunement, emotional labor, and parallel emotions are explained. The limitations to empathy and potential challenges or difficulties for the clinician are also explored, along with possible solutions. Narratives from the author's personal and professional life are included to illustrate how a clinician's emotions can play a significant part in interactions with clients. This discussion shows that clinicians must combine both evidenced-based practice and empathy in their interactions with clients to achieve the professional goal of high-quality care.

  15. Quality of Life in Parkinson's Disease Caregivers: The Contribution of Personality Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloise H. Tew

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease imposes significant demands not only on patients but also on those people living and caring for them, who often have a reduction in their quality of life. The factors that may ameliorate these effects, such as an individual's personality, are not understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to look at the relative contribution of caregiver personality on their quality of life, specifically attempting to identify those traits, which may be protective or harmful. Two hundred and seventy-four caregivers of patients with Parkinson's disease were included in this study. Caregivers were given questionnaires to complete, including the Big Five Inventory and the World Health Organisation Quality of Life BREF version. Univariate correlations demonstrated that depression and anxiety were the largest predictors of reduced quality of life amongst caregivers. However, after controlling for these potential confounds, conscientiousness was associated with enhanced psychological quality of life and openness positively predicted benefits in the environmental domain. Neuroticism was associated with reduced quality of life in the psychological domain. Thus, screening for neuroticism may help identify those caregivers who would benefit from intervention strategies, which could in the long term help reduce the need for nursing home placement of Parkinson's disease patients.

  16. Economic benefits of metrology in manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savio, Enrico; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Carmignato, S.

    2016-01-01

    In streamlined manufacturing systems, the added value of inspection activities is often questioned, and metrology in particular is sometimes considered only as an avoidable expense. Documented quantification of economic benefits of metrology is generally not available. This work presents concrete...... examples from industrial production, in which the added value of metrology in manufacturing is discussed and quantified. Case studies include: general manufacturing, forging, machining, and related metrology. The focus of the paper is on the improved effectiveness of metrology when used at product...

  17. Do recommender systems benefit users?

    CERN Document Server

    Yeung, Chi Ho

    2015-01-01

    Recommender systems are present in many web applications to guide our choices. They increase sales and benefit sellers, but whether they benefit customers by providing relevant products is questionable. Here we introduce a model to examine the benefit of recommender systems for users, and found that recommendations from the system can be equivalent to random draws if one relies too strongly on the system. Nevertheless, with sufficient information about user preferences, recommendations become accurate and an abrupt transition to this accurate regime is observed for some algorithms. On the other hand, we found that a high accuracy evaluated by common accuracy metrics does not necessarily correspond to a high real accuracy nor a benefit for users, which serves as an alarm for operators and researchers of recommender systems. We tested our model with a real dataset and observed similar behaviors. Finally, a recommendation approach with improved accuracy is suggested. These results imply that recommender systems ...

  18. Medicare Benefits and Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subscribe to eNews Close Donate Medicare Benefits & Your Eyes Eye Health is Important! As you age, your risk ... that you need. Ask about eye exams! Routine Eye Exams Medicare does not generally cover the costs ...

  19. Ayahuasca Tourism: Participants in Shamanic Rituals and their Personality Styles, Motivation, Benefits and Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavenská, Veronika; Simonová, Hana

    2015-01-01

    Ayahuasca continues to attract tourists to South America, where there has been a growth in the number of centers offering hallucinogenic ayahuasca experiences. The aims of this study were to (1) discover the reasons foreigners seek this type of experience; (2) define what an ayahuasca experience entails; (3) discover subjective perceptions of ayahuasca's benefits and risks; and (4) describe personality styles of participants using the personality questionnaire (PSSI). Participants (N=77) were persons who had travelled to South America to use ayahuasca. Among the most frequent motivations were curiosity, desire to treat mental health problems, need for self-knowledge, interest in psychedelic medicine, spiritual development, and finding direction in life. Frequently mentioned benefits included self-knowledge, change in the way one relates to oneself, spiritual development, improved interpersonal relations, overcoming mental and physical problems, and gaining a new perspective on life. Stated potential risks included lack of trust in the shaman or organizer, inaccurate information provided by the shaman or organizer, and exposure to dangerous situations. PSSI results showed that people using ayahuasca scored significantly above the norm on the scales of intuition, optimism, ambition, charm, and helpfulness and significantly lower on the scales of distrust and quietness.

  20. Employees' motivation and emloyees' benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Nedzelská, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The subject of this bachelor thesis is analysing methods how to stimulate and motivate employees. The theoretical part of the thesis deals with the concept of motivation, concepts close to motivation and selected existing theories of motivation. It also deals with employee benefits, function, division and benefits which are frequently offered to employees. The practical part of the thesis, mainly based on written and online questionnaires, concentrates on motivation of employees at Nedcon Boh...

  1. Benefit adequacy among elderly Social Security retired-worker beneficiaries and the SSI federal benefit rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Kalman; Strand, Alexander; Davies, Paul; Sears, Jim

    2007-01-01

    Both target effectiveness and administrative simplicity are desirable properties in the design of minimum benefit packages for public retirement programs. The federal benefit rate (FBR) of the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program has been proposed by some analysts as a potentially attractive basis of establishing a new minimum benefit for Social Security on both of these grounds. This type of proposal is related to a broader array of minimum benefit proposals that would establish a Social Security benefit floor based on the poverty rate. In contrast to Social Security, the SSI program is means tested, including both an income and asset screen and also a categorical eligibility screen (the requirement to qualify as aged or disabled). The SSI FBR provides an inflation-adjusted, guaranteed income floor for aged and disabled people with low assets. The FBR has been perceived by proponents as a minimal measure of Social Security benefit adequacy because it represents a subpoverty income level for a family of one or two depending on marital status. For this same reason it has been seen as a target-effective tool of designing a minimum Social Security benefit. An FBR-based minimum benefit has also been viewed as administratively simple to implement; the benefit can be calculated from Social Security administrative records using a completely automated electronic process. Therefore-in contrast to the SSI program itself-an FBR-based minimum benefit would incur virtually no ongoing administrative costs, would not require a separate application for a means-tested program, and would avoid the perception of welfare stigma. While these ideas have been discussed in the literature and among policymakers in the United States over the years, and similar proposals have been considered or implemented in several foreign countries, there have been no previous analyses measuring the size of the potentially affected beneficiary population. Nor has there been any systematic assessment

  2. Potential benefits of satiety to the consumer: scientific considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetherington, M M; Cunningham, K; Dye, L; Gibson, E L; Gregersen, N T; Halford, J C G; Lawton, C L; Lluch, A; Mela, D J; Van Trijp, H C M

    2013-06-01

    Foods and dietary patterns that enhance satiety may provide benefit to consumers. The aim of the present review was to describe, consider and evaluate research on potential benefits of enhanced satiety. The proposal that enhanced satiety could only benefit consumers by a direct effect on food intake should be rejected. Instead, it is proposed that there is a variety of routes through which enhanced satiety could (indirectly) benefit dietary control or weight-management goals. The review highlights specific potential benefits of satiety, including: providing appetite control strategies for consumers generally and for those who are highly responsive to food cues; offering pleasure and satisfaction associated with low-energy/healthier versions of foods without feeling 'deprived'; reducing dysphoric mood associated with hunger especially during energy restriction; and improved compliance with healthy eating or weight-management efforts. There is convincing evidence of short-term satiety benefits, but only probable evidence for longer-term benefits to hunger management, possible evidence of benefits to mood and cognition, inadequate evidence that satiety enhancement can promote weight loss, and no evidence on which consumers would benefit most from satiety enhancement. The appetite-reducing effects of specific foods or diets will be much more subtle than those of pharmaceutical compounds in managing hunger; nevertheless, the experience of pharmacology in producing weight loss via effects on appetite suggests that there is potential benefit of satiety enhancement from foods incorporated into the diet to the consumer.

  3. Personality, neuroticism, and coping towards the end of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chochinov, Harvey Max; Kristjanson, Linda J; Hack, Thomas F; Hassard, Thomas; McClement, Susan; Harlos, Mike

    2006-10-01

    The influence of personality characteristics on how patients cope with various challenges at the end of life has not been extensively studied. In order to examine the association between end-of-life experience and neuroticism (defined within the personality literature as a trait tendency to experience psychological distress), a measure of neuroticism was administered to a cohort of dying cancer patients. Various other measures of physical, psychological, and existential distress were also measured to explore their possible connection to patient personality style. The personality characteristic neuroticism demonstrated a significant relationship with several end-of-life sources of distress, including depression, anxiety, sense of dignity, quality of life (rating and satisfaction), hopelessness, concentration, and outlook on the future. Neuroticism appears to have a significant association with the dying experience. This association is expressed across the psychological, existential and, to a lesser extent, physical and social domains of end-of-life distress. This may help clinicians identify vulnerable individuals who are most likely to have poorer adjustments and may benefit from earlier targeted interventional approaches. Exploring the relationship between various facets of personality and end-of-life distress, and mapping this information against optimal therapeutic responses, remains the challenge for future research broaching this intriguing and largely ignored area of palliative care.

  4. Autonomy: Life and Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mary-Anne

    This paper uses robot experience to explore key concepts of autonomy, life and being. Unfortunately, there are no widely accepted definitions of autonomy, life or being. Using a new cognitive agent architecture we argue that autonomy is a key ingredient for both life and being, and set about exploring autonomy as a concept and a capability. Some schools of thought regard autonomy as the key characteristic that distinguishes a system from an agent; agents are systems with autonomy, but rarely is a definition of autonomy provided. Living entities are autonomous systems, and autonomy is vital to life. Intelligence presupposes autonomy too; what would it mean for a system to be intelligent but not exhibit any form of genuine autonomy. Our philosophical, scientific and legal understanding of autonomy and its implications is immature and as a result progress towards designing, building, managing, exploiting and regulating autonomous systems is retarded. In response we put forward a framework for exploring autonomy as a concept and capability based on a new cognitive architecture. Using this architecture tools and benchmarks can be developed to analyze and study autonomy in its own right as a means to further our understanding of autonomous systems, life and being. This endeavor would lead to important practical benefits for autonomous systems design and help determine the legal status of autonomous systems. It is only with a new enabling understanding of autonomy that the dream of Artificial Intelligence and Artificial Life can be realized. We argue that designing systems with genuine autonomy capabilities can be achieved by focusing on agent experiences of being rather than attempting to encode human experiences as symbolic knowledge and know-how in the artificial agents we build.

  5. Synergy of multiple partners, including freeloaders, increases host fitness in a multispecies mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Todd M; Doak, Daniel F; Stanton, Maureen L; Bronstein, Judith L; Kiers, E Toby; Young, Truman P; Goheen, Jacob R; Pringle, Robert M

    2010-10-05

    Understanding cooperation is a central challenge in biology, because natural selection should favor "free-loaders" that reap benefits without reciprocating. For interspecific cooperation (mutualism), most approaches to this paradox focus on costs and benefits of individual partners and the strategies mutualists use to associate with beneficial partners. However, natural selection acts on lifetime fitness, and most mutualists, particularly longer-lived species interacting with shorter-lived partners (e.g., corals and zooxanthellae, tropical trees and mycorrhizae) interact with multiple partner species throughout ontogeny. Determining how multiple partnerships might interactively affect lifetime fitness is a crucial unexplored link in understanding the evolution and maintenance of cooperation. The tropical tree Acacia drepanolobium associates with four symbiotic ant species whose short-term individual effects range from mutualistic to parasitic. Using a long-term dataset, we show that tree fitness is enhanced by partnering sequentially with sets of different ant symbionts over the ontogeny of a tree. These sets include a "sterilization parasite" that prevents reproduction and another that reduces tree survivorship. Trees associating with partner sets that include these "parasites" enhance lifetime fitness by trading off survivorship and fecundity at different life stages. Our results demonstrate the importance of evaluating mutualism within a community context and suggest that lifespan inequalities among mutualists may help cooperation persist in the face of exploitation.

  6. A study on the measurement for forest ecological benefit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰; 李绪尧; 姜秋来; 李长胜; 刘鹏; 董丹峰; 林丽莎; 徐文婷

    2000-01-01

    The indexes of dependent variables of the measurement on the forest ecological benefits were defined according to the analysis of the multiple ecological benefits of forest. This indexes system includes water-reserving, soil and water conservation, wind and sand suppression, microclimate improvement, carbon dioxide assimilation, atmosphere purification, flood and drought mitigation, tourism resource and wild creature protection benefits. The main factors from the numerous factors that affect dependent variables were chosen as independent variables. At last, a multivariate linear model was established for measurement of forest ecological benefit. With this multivariate linear model the forest ecological benefit of China was calculated. The forest ecological benefit of China is 723816 million yuan per year, which equals to 23.07% of the gross domestic product of China.

  7. Combined oral contraceptives: health benefits beyond contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caserta, D; Ralli, E; Matteucci, E; Bordi, G; Mallozzi, M; Moscarini, M

    2014-09-01

    It has been recognized for over 50 years that combined oral contraceptives (COCs) are also capable of offering health benefits beyond contraception through the treatment and prevention of several gynaecological and medical disorders. During the last years a constant attention was given to the adverse effects of COCs, whereas their non-contraceptive benefits were underestimated. To date, most women are still unaware of the therapeutic uses of hormonal contraceptives, while on the contrary there is an extensive and constantly increasing of these non-contraceptive health benefits. This review summarizes the conditions of special interest for physicians, including dysmenorrhoea, menorrhagia, hyperandrogenism (acne, hirsutism, polycystic ovary syndrome), functional ovarian cysts, endometriosis, premenstrual syndrome, myomas, pelvic inflammatory disease, bone mineral density, benign breast disease and endometrial/ovarian and colorectal cancer. The benefits of COCs in rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, menstrual migraine and in perimenopause have also been treated for more comprehensive information. Using COCs specifically for non-contraceptive indications is still outside the product licence in the majority of cases. We strongly believe that these aspects are not of minor relevance and they deserve a special consideration by health providers and by the mass media, which have the main responsibility in the diffusion of scientific information. Thus, counseling and education are necessary to help women make well-informed health-care decisions and it is also crucial to increase awareness among general practitioners and gynaecologists.

  8. 26 CFR 1.79-4T - Questions and answers relating to the nondiscrimination requirements for group-term life...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... January 1, 1984, only if the group policy or policies providing group-term life insurance benefits under... transfer, to be provided with group-term life insurance benefits under a plan that is comparable... life insurance plan be considered discriminatory if active employees receive greater benefits as...

  9. Theory including future not excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagao, K.; Nielsen, H.B.

    2013-01-01

    We study a complex action theory (CAT) whose path runs over not only past but also future. We show that, if we regard a matrix element defined in terms of the future state at time T and the past state at time TA as an expectation value in the CAT, then we are allowed to have the Heisenberg equation......, Ehrenfest's theorem, and the conserved probability current density. In addition,we showthat the expectation value at the present time t of a future-included theory for large T - t and large t - T corresponds to that of a future-not-included theory with a proper inner product for large t - T. Hence, the CAT...

  10. State of the art in benefit-risk analysis: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, H; Tijhuis, M J; Gunnlaugsdóttir, H; Kalogeras, N; Leino, O; Luteijn, J M; Magnússon, S H; Odekerken, G; Pohjola, M V; Tuomisto, J T; Ueland, Ø; White, B C; Holm, F

    2012-01-01

    Risk-taking is normal in everyday life if there are associated (perceived) benefits. Benefit-Risk Analysis (BRA) compares the risk of a situation to its related benefits and addresses the acceptability of the risk. Over the past years BRA in relation to food and food ingredients has gained attention. Food, and even the same food ingredient, may confer both beneficial and adverse effects. Measures directed at food safety may lead to suboptimal or insufficient levels of ingredients from a benefit perspective. In BRA, benefits and risks of food (ingredients) are assessed in one go and may conditionally be expressed into one currency. This allows the comparison of adverse and beneficial effects to be qualitative and quantitative. A BRA should help policy-makers to make more informed and balanced benefit-risk management decisions. Not allowing food benefits to occur in order to guarantee food safety is a risk management decision much the same as accepting some risk in order to achieve more benefits. BRA in food and nutrition is making progress, but difficulties remain. The field may benefit from looking across its borders to learn from other research areas. The BEPRARIBEAN project (Best Practices for Risk-Benefit Analysis: experience from out of food into food; http://en.opasnet.org/w/Bepraribean) aims to do so, by working together with Medicines, Food Microbiology, Environmental Health, Economics & Marketing-Finance and Consumer Perception. All perspectives are reviewed and subsequently integrated to identify opportunities for further development of BRA for food and food ingredients. Interesting issues that emerge are the varying degrees of risk that are deemed acceptable within the areas and the trend towards more open and participatory BRA processes. A set of 6 'state of the art' papers covering the above areas and a paper integrating the separate (re)views are published in this volume.

  11. 26 CFR 1.61-2 - Compensation for services, including fees, commissions, and similar items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the amount of such difference included in gross income (ii)(A) Cost of life insurance on the life of the employee. Generally, life insurance premiums paid by an employer on the life of his employee where... services on the basis of a percentage of profits, commissions on insurance premiums, tips,...

  12. A Life for a Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严寒

    2004-01-01

    The English author, Richard Savage, was once living in London ingreat poverty. In order to earn a little money he had written the story" ofhis life. But not many copies of the book had been sold in the shops, and

  13. Inside the triple helix: technology transfer and commercialization in the life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Eric G; Powers, Joshua B; Blumenthal, David; Biles, Brian

    2004-01-01

    The transfer and subsequent application of academic research results has demonstrable benefits for health care, researchers, universities, companies, and local economies. Nonetheless, at least three general concerns exist: bias in the reporting of results, limited revenues from these activities, and the lack of data to evaluate technology transfer activities. Future efforts with regard to technology transfer in the life sciences will need to recognize its importance without ignoring concerns or overestimating benefits. Next steps include better monitoring of university-industry relationships, the development of a better data system, the dissemination of best practices in technology transfer management, and evaluation of national technology-transfer policies.

  14. Biodiversity conservation including uncharismatic species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Joaquin

    2007-01-01

    Recent papers mention ideas on the topics of biodiversity conservation strategies and priorities (Redford et al. 2003; Lamoreux et al. 2006; Rodrı´guez et al. 2006), the current status of biodiversity (Loreau et al. 2006), the obligations of conservation biologists regarding management policies...... (Chapron 2006; Schwartz 2006), and the main threats to biodiversity (including invasive species) (Bawa 2006). I suggest, however, that these articles do not really deal with biodiversity. Rather, they all focus on a few obviously charismatic groups (mammals, birds, some plants, fishes, human culture...

  15. Benefits of Art and Music Education. ERIC/EECE Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarone, Bernard

    1999-01-01

    Annotates 13 recent documents and journals from the ERIC database that discuss the benefits of art and music education to children's development and academic achievement. Includes art and music education Internet sites. (LBT)

  16. University-Industry Cooperation: A Framework of Benefits and Obstacles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora Valentin, Eva Maria

    2000-01-01

    Universities, industry, and government each gain financial, technological, and strategic benefits from cooperation. Their motivations are educational, political, and epistemological. Barriers to cooperation include industry restrictions, appropriation of research, communication problems, and cultural differences. A legal framework and…

  17. Thermodynamic Function of Life

    CERN Document Server

    Michaelian, K

    2009-01-01

    Darwinian Theory depicts life as being overwhelmingly consumed by a fight for survival in a hostile environment. However, from a thermodynamic perspective, life is a dynamic, out of equilibrium process, stabilizing and coevolving in concert with its abiotic environment. The living component of the biosphere of greatest mass, the plants and cyanobacteria, are involved in the transpiration of vast amounts of water. Transpiration is part of the global water cycle, and it is this cycle that distinguishes Earth from its life barren neighboring planets, Venus and Mars. The water cycle, including the absorption of sunlight in the biosphere, is by far the greatest entropy producing process occurring on Earth. Life, from this perspective, can therefore be viewed as performing an important thermodynamic function; acting as a dynamic catalyst by aiding process such as the water cycle, hurricanes, and ocean and wind currents to produce entropy. The role of animals in this view is that of unwitting but dedicated servants ...

  18. Life after stoma creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Anne Kjærgaard

    2013-01-01

    , as well as an alteration in the bodily design. Research in the field may provide additional information about central elements when adapting to life with a stoma. There are currently no studies that adequately focus on the relationship between health-related quality of life and stoma construction...... in a Danish context, neither for temporary or permanent construction, nor in relation to the importance of stoma handling. Purpose: The overall objective of the study was to investigate health-related quality of life related to stoma creation and patient education. Methodologically, the project......: Impact on everyday life and Educational Needs. The study included 15 participants who were interviewed in groups related to whether they were treated for cancer or non-cancer. The results showed that participants often experienced the stoma as a taboo, and emotions related to stigma were identified...

  19. Opioid growth factor improves clinical benefit and survival in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill P Smith

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Jill P Smith1, Sandra I Bingaman1, David T Mauger2, Harold H Harvey1, Laurence M Demers3, Ian S Zagon41Departments of Medicine, 2Public Health Sciences, 3Pathology, and 4Neurosciences and Anatomy, Pennsylvania State University, College of Medicine, Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA, USABackground: Advanced pancreatic cancer carries the poorest prognosis of all gastrointestinal malignancies. Once the tumor has spread beyond the margins of the pancreas, chemotherapy is the major treatment modality offered to patients; however, chemotherapy does not significantly improve survival.Objective: Opioid growth factor (OGF; [Met5]-enkephalin is a natural peptide that has been shown to inhibit growth of pancreatic cancer in cell culture and in nude mice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of OGF biotherapy on subjects with advanced pancreatic cancer who failed chemotherapy.Methods: In a prospective phase II open-labeled clinical trial, 24 subjects who failed standard chemotherapy for advanced pancreatic cancer were treated weekly with OGF 250 μg/kg intravenously. Outcomes measured included clinical benefit, tumor response by radiographic imaging, quality of life, and survival.Results: Clinical benefit response was experienced by 53% of OGF-treated patients compared to historical controls of 23.8% and 4.8% for gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU, respectively. Of the subjects surviving more than eight weeks, 62% showed either a decrease or stabilization in tumor size by computed tomography. The median survival time for OGF-treated patients was three times that of untreated patients (65.5 versus 21 days, p < 0.001. No adverse effects on hematologic or chemistry parameters were noted, and quality of life surveys suggested improvement with OGF. Limitations: Measurements other than survival were not allowed in control patients, and clinical benefit comparisons were made to historical controls.Conclusion: OGF biotherapy improves the

  20. The costs and benefits of positive illusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makridakis, Spyros; Moleskis, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Positive illusions are associated with unrealistic optimism about the future and an inflated assessment of one's abilities. They are prevalent in normal life and are considered essential for maintaining a healthy mental state, although, there are disagreements to the extent to which people demonstrate these positive illusions and whether they are beneficial or not. But whatever the situation, it is hard to dismiss their existence and their positive and/or negative influence on human behavior and decision making in general. Prominent among illusions is that of control, that is "the tendency for people to overestimate their ability to control events." This paper describes positive illusions, their potential benefits but also quantifies their costs in five specific fields (gambling, stock and other markets, new firms and startups, preventive medicine and wars). It is organized into three parts. First the psychological reasons giving rise to positive illusions are described and their likely harm and benefits stated. Second, their negative consequences are presented and their costs are quantified in five areas seriously affected with emphasis to those related to the illusion of control that seems to dominate those of unrealistic optimism. The costs involved are huge and serious efforts must be undertaken to understand their enormity and steps taken to avoid them in the future. Finally, there is a concluding section where the challenges related to positive illusions are noted and directions for future research are presented.

  1. Astrobiological benefits of human space exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Ian A

    2010-01-01

    An ambitious program of human space exploration, such as that envisaged in the Global Exploration Strategy and considered in the Augustine Commission report, will help advance the core aims of astrobiology in multiple ways. In particular, a human exploration program will confer significant benefits in the following areas: (i) the exploitation of the lunar geological record to elucidate conditions on early Earth; (ii) the detailed study of near-Earth objects for clues relating to the formation of the Solar System; (iii) the search for evidence of past or present life on Mars; (iv) the provision of a heavy-lift launch capacity that will facilitate exploration of the outer Solar System; and (v) the construction and maintenance of sophisticated space-based astronomical tools for the study of extrasolar planetary systems. In all these areas a human presence in space, and especially on planetary surfaces, will yield a net scientific benefit over what can plausibly be achieved by autonomous robotic systems. A number of policy implications follow from these conclusions, which are also briefly considered.

  2. 'The second greatest benefit to mankind'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantler, Cyril

    2002-01-01

    In 1739 Samuel Johnson wrote an essay on the life of Dr Hermann Boerhaave, Professor of Physic at the University of Leiden, who died in 1738. Boerhaave, born 11 years after Harvey's death, could be said to have been influenced by Harvey in that he favoured experimental natural philosophy as the gateway to scientific medicine. He was denied entry into the church because he was accused wrongly of being a follower of the philosopher Baruch Spinoza, regarded as a heretic because he criticised established religious practices; this in spite of strongly supporting the love of God and humanity. Boerhaave decided to become a physician as he was, in Johnson's words, 'equally qualified for a profession, not indeed of equal dignity or importance, but which must undoubtedly claim the second place amongst those which are the greatest benefit to mankind'. It is this claim that I wish to examine. Can we still claim this regard for our profession? Is the medicine we practise, and the way we practise, of the greatest benefit to mankind, and how do we ensure that it is?

  3. Fiber and Prebiotics: Mechanisms and Health Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Slavin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The health benefits of dietary fiber have long been appreciated. Higher intakes of dietary fiber are linked to less cardiovascular disease and fiber plays a role in gut health, with many effective laxatives actually isolated fiber sources. Higher intakes of fiber are linked to lower body weights. Only polysaccharides were included in dietary fiber originally, but more recent definitions have included oligosaccharides as dietary fiber, not based on their chemical measurement as dietary fiber by the accepted total dietary fiber (TDF method, but on their physiological effects. Inulin, fructo-oligosaccharides, and other oligosaccharides are included as fiber in food labels in the US. Additionally, oligosaccharides are the best known “prebiotics”, “a selectively fermented ingredient that allows specific changes, both in the composition and/or activity in the gastrointestinal microflora that confers benefits upon host well-bring and health.” To date, all known and suspected prebiotics are carbohydrate compounds, primarily oligosaccharides, known to resist digestion in the human small intestine and reach the colon where they are fermented by the gut microflora. Studies have provided evidence that inulin and oligofructose (OF, lactulose, and resistant starch (RS meet all aspects of the definition, including the stimulation of Bifidobacterium, a beneficial bacterial genus. Other isolated carbohydrates and carbohydrate-containing foods, including galactooligosaccharides (GOS, transgalactooligosaccharides (TOS, polydextrose, wheat dextrin, acacia gum, psyllium, banana, whole grain wheat, and whole grain corn also have prebiotic effects.

  4. Fiber and prebiotics: mechanisms and health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Joanne

    2013-04-22

    The health benefits of dietary fiber have long been appreciated. Higher intakes of dietary fiber are linked to less cardiovascular disease and fiber plays a role in gut health, with many effective laxatives actually isolated fiber sources. Higher intakes of fiber are linked to lower body weights. Only polysaccharides were included in dietary fiber originally, but more recent definitions have included oligosaccharides as dietary fiber, not based on their chemical measurement as dietary fiber by the accepted total dietary fiber (TDF) method, but on their physiological effects. Inulin, fructo-oligosaccharides, and other oligosaccharides are included as fiber in food labels in the US. Additionally, oligosaccharides are the best known "prebiotics", "a selectively fermented ingredient that allows specific changes, both in the composition and/or activity in the gastrointestinal microflora that confers benefits upon host well-bring and health." To date, all known and suspected prebiotics are carbohydrate compounds, primarily oligosaccharides, known to resist digestion in the human small intestine and reach the colon where they are fermented by the gut microflora. Studies have provided evidence that inulin and oligofructose (OF), lactulose, and resistant starch (RS) meet all aspects of the definition, including the stimulation of Bifidobacterium, a beneficial bacterial genus. Other isolated carbohydrates and carbohydrate-containing foods, including galactooligosaccharides (GOS), transgalactooligosaccharides (TOS), polydextrose, wheat dextrin, acacia gum, psyllium, banana, whole grain wheat, and whole grain corn also have prebiotic effects.

  5. Benefits of exercise during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Heidi; Spitznagle, Tracy; Hunt, Devyani

    2012-11-01

    There is a direct link between healthy mothers and healthy infants. Exercise and appropriate nutrition are important contributors to maternal physical and psychological health. The benefits and potential risks of exercise during pregnancy have gained even more attention, with a number of studies having been published after the 2002 American College of Obstetrics and Gynecologists guidelines. A review of the literature was conducted by using PubMed, Scopus, and Embase to assess the literature regarding the benefits of exercise during pregnancy. The search revealed 219 publications, which the authors then narrowed to 125 publications. The purpose of this review is to briefly summarize the known benefits of exercise to the mother, fetus, and newborn.

  6. 31 CFR 29.344 - Survivor benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Survivor benefits. 29.344 Section 29... Benefit Payments § 29.344 Survivor benefits. (a) The general rule that Federal Benefit Payments are... months of total service at retirement (for elected survivor benefits) or death (for...

  7. Benefits for plants in ant-plant protective mutualisms: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Trager

    Full Text Available Costs and benefits for partners in mutualistic interactions can vary greatly, but surprisingly little is known about the factors that drive this variation across systems. We conducted a meta-analysis of ant-plant protective mutualisms to quantify the effects of ant defenders on plant reproductive output, to evaluate if reproductive effects were predicted from reductions in herbivory and to identify characteristics of the plants, ants and environment that explained variation in ant protection. We also compared our approach with two other recent meta-analyses on ant-plant mutualisms, emphasizing differences in our methodology (using a weighted linear mixed effects model and our focus on plant reproduction rather than herbivore damage. Based on 59 ant and plant species pairs, ant presence increased plant reproductive output by 49% and reduced herbivory by 62%. The effects on herbivory and reproduction within systems were positively correlated, but the slope of this relationship (0.75 indicated that tolerance to foliar herbivory may be a common plant response to absence of ant guards. Furthermore, the relationship between foliar damage and reproduction varied substantially among systems, suggesting that herbivore damage is not a reliable surrogate for fitness consequences of ant protection. Studies that experimentally excluded ants reported a smaller effect of ant protection on plant reproduction than studies that relied upon natural variation in ant presence, suggesting that study methods can affect results in these systems. Of the ecological variables included in our analysis, only plant life history (i.e., annual or perennial explained variation in the protective benefit of mutualistic ants: presence of ants benefitted reproduction of perennials significantly more than that of annuals. These results contrast with other quantitative reviews of these relationships that did not include plant life history as an explanatory factor and raise several

  8. NASA's telemedicine testbeds: Commercial benefit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doarn, Charles R.; Whitten, Raymond

    1998-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been developing and applying telemedicine to support space flight since the Agency's beginning. Telemetry of physiological parameters from spacecraft to ground controllers is critical to assess the health status of humans in extreme and remote environments. Requisite systems to support medical care and maintain readiness will evolve as mission duration and complexity increase. Developing appropriate protocols and procedures to support multinational, multicultural missions is a key objective of this activity. NASA has created an Agency-wide strategic plan that focuses on the development and integration of technology into the health care delivery systems for space flight to meet these challenges. In order to evaluate technology and systems that can enhance inflight medical care and medical education, NASA has established and conducted several testbeds. Additionally, in June of 1997, NASA established a Commercial Space Center (CSC) for Medical Informatics and Technology Applications at Yale University School of Medicine. These testbeds and the CSC foster the leveraging of technology and resources between government, academia and industry to enhance health care. This commercial endeavor will influence both the delivery of health care in space and on the ground. To date, NASA's activities in telemedicine have provided new ideas in the application of telecommunications and information systems to health care. NASA's Spacebridge to Russia, an Internet-based telemedicine testbed, is one example of how telemedicine and medical education can be conducted using the Internet and its associated tools. Other NASA activities, including the development of a portable telemedicine workstation, which has been demonstrated on the Crow Indian Reservation and in the Texas Prison System, show promise in serving as significant adjuncts to the delivery of health care. As NASA continues to meet the challenges of space flight, the

  9. Including Magnetostriction in Micromagnetic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conbhuí, Pádraig Ó.; Williams, Wyn; Fabian, Karl; Nagy, Lesleis

    2016-04-01

    The magnetic anomalies that identify crustal spreading are predominantly recorded by basalts formed at the mid-ocean ridges, whose magnetic signals are dominated by iron-titanium-oxides (Fe3-xTixO4), so called "titanomagnetites", of which the Fe2.4Ti0.6O4 (TM60) phase is the most common. With sufficient quantities of titanium present, these minerals exhibit strong magnetostriction. To date, models of these grains in the pseudo-single domain (PSD) range have failed to accurately account for this effect. In particular, a popular analytic treatment provided by Kittel (1949) for describing the magnetostrictive energy as an effective increase of the anisotropy constant can produce unphysical strains for non-uniform magnetizations. I will present a rigorous approach based on work by Brown (1966) and by Kroner (1958) for including magnetostriction in micromagnetic codes which is suitable for modelling hysteresis loops and finding remanent states in the PSD regime. Preliminary results suggest the more rigorously defined micromagnetic models exhibit higher coercivities and extended single domain ranges when compared to more simplistic approaches.

  10. Small Benefit from Country Size

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuto Masuda

    2010-01-01

    Furceri and Karras(2007, 2008) insisted that smaller countries are subject to more volatile business cycles than larger countries and country size really matters using international data from 1960 to 2000. They measure country size with population size. In this paper, we calculate welfare benefit from the less volatile busine! ss cycle, that is the positive effect of country size in Japan, US and OECD average. For calculating welfare benefit, we use “Welfare Cost of Business Cycle†approac...

  11. Information Portal Costs and Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena BATAGAN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available All transformations of our society are the product of the large use of Information and Communications Technologies (ICT and Internet. ICT are technologies which facilitate communication, processing, and transmission of information by electronic means. It is very important to use the new technologies to the correct value because this determinate an increase of global benefits. Portal provides a consistent way to select, evaluate, prioritize and plan the right information. In research we point the important costs and benefits for an informational portal. The portal for local administrative determinate for citizens the access to information of interest and on the other hand make easier for employer to manage the documents.

  12. 41 CFR 101-4.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 101-4.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a recipient shall not... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Health and...

  13. 40 CFR 5.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 5.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Health and insurance benefits...

  14. 18 CFR 1317.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 1317.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 1317.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a recipient... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health and...

  15. 36 CFR 1211.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Activities Prohibited § 1211.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 1211.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Health and insurance...

  16. 44 CFR 19.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 19.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 19.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health and insurance...

  17. 38 CFR 23.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Prohibited § 23.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 23.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Health and...

  18. Aquaculture in bio-regenerative life support systems (BLSS): Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, John M.

    2009-04-01

    A significant amount of research has been invested into understanding the effects of including fish culture in bio-regenerative life support systems (BLSS) for long duration space habitation. While the benefits of fish culture as a sub-process for waste treatment and food production continue to be identified, other pressing issues arise that affect the overall equivalent system mass associated with fish culture in a BLSS. This paper is meant to provide insight into several issues affecting fish culture in a BLSS that will require attention in the future if fish meant for consumption are to be cultured in a BLSS.

  19. Life Pottery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Zhang Wenzhi creates a rich variety of pottery works by coveringpottery roughcasts of different qualities with a range of coloredglazes,patterns and textures.Her works principally reflect differentsocial and personal themes,are not for practical use but moreendorse her interest in pottery,her feelings on life,and a sense ofmodernity.

  20. Benefits and implementation of home hemodialysis: A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Karkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Home hemodialysis (HD is a modality of renal replacement therapy that can be safely and independently performed at home by end-stage renal disease (ESRD patients. Home HD can be performed at the convenience of the patients on a daily basis, every other day and overnight (nocturnal. Despite the great and many perceived benefits of home HD, including the significant improvements in health outcomes and resource utilization, the adoption of home HD has been limited; lack or inadequate pre-dialysis education and training constitute a major barrier. The lack of self-confidence and/or self-efficacy to manage own therapy, lack of family and/or social support, fear of machine and cannulation of blood access and worries of possible catastrophic events represent other barriers for the implementation of home HD besides inadequate competence and/or expertise in caring for home HD patients among renal care providers (nephrologists, dialysis nurses, educators. A well-studied, planned and prepared and carefully implemented central country program supported by adequate budget can play a positive role in overcoming the challenges to home HD. Healthcare authorities, with the increasingly financial and logistic demands and the relatively higher mortality and morbidity rates of the conventional in-center HD, should tackle home HD as an attractive and cost-effective modality with more freedom, quality of life and improvement of clinical outcomes for the ESRD patients.

  1. Benefits and implementation of home hemodialysis: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkar, Ayman; Hegbrant, Jörgen; Strippoli, Giovanni F M

    2015-11-01

    Home hemodialysis (HD) is a modality of renal replacement therapy that can be safely and independently performed at home by end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Home HD can be performed at the convenience of the patients on a daily basis, every other day and overnight (nocturnal). Despite the great and many perceived benefits of home HD, including the significant improvements in health outcomes and resource utilization, the adoption of home HD has been limited; lack or inadequate pre-dialysis education and training constitute a major barrier. The lack of self-confidence and/or self-efficacy to manage own therapy, lack of family and/or social support, fear of machine and cannulation of blood access and worries of possible catastrophic events represent other barriers for the implementation of home HD besides inadequate competence and/or expertise in caring for home HD patients among renal care providers (nephrologists, dialysis nurses, educators). A well-studied, planned and prepared and carefully implemented central country program supported by adequate budget can play a positive role in overcoming the challenges to home HD. Healthcare authorities, with the increasingly financial and logistic demands and the relatively higher mortality and morbidity rates of the conventional in-center HD, should tackle home HD as an attractive and cost-effective modality with more freedom, quality of life and improvement of clinical outcomes for the ESRD patients.

  2. Is There a Need for Including Spiritual Care in Interdisciplinary Rehabilitation of Chronic Pain Patients? Investigating an Innovative Strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garschagen, A.; Steegers, M.A.H.; Bergen, A.H. van; Jochijms, J.A.; Skrabanja, T.L.M.; Vrijhoef, H.J.; Smeets, R.J.E.M.; Vissers, K.C.P.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Chronic noncancer pain influences patient's quality of life and their ability to cope. Pain relieving medication and other specific treatments commonly integrated in biopsychosocial rehabilitation demonstrate modest benefits in pain relief and improved functioning of individuals. Spiritua

  3. Work Disability Benefits? Depends on the Doc

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163275.html Work Disability Benefits? Depends on the Doc International study found ... widely varying opinions about whether claimants for work disability benefits should get those benefits, researchers report. After ...

  4. 76 FR 21429 - Proposed Information Collection (Disability Benefits Questionnaires-Group 3) Activity: Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    .... Titles a. Central Nervous System and Neuromusculo Diseases, Disability Benefits Questionnaire, VA Form 21... and Pancreas Conditions, Disability Benefits Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0960G-2. f. Intestinal Disorders (Other Than Surgical or Infectious) (Including Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Crohn's...

  5. The Benefits of Watching Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Paul

    The unfounded and sometimes absurd attacks on television have tended to obscure many of the medium's obvious personal, social, and aesthetic benefits. It is easy to watch, and if its content does not always provide viewers with much to think about, television does not ask much of them either: they may eat, sleep, and unwind in front of it,…

  6. Perceived benefits from enterprise architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plessius, Henk; Steenbergen, Marlies van; Slot, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Enterprise Architecture has been developed in order to optimize the alignment between business needs and the (rapidly changing) possibilities of information technology. But do organizations indeed benefit from the application of Enterprise Architecture according to those who are in any way involved

  7. Benefits of ecological engineering practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brüll, A.; Van Bohemen, H.; Costanza, R.; Mitsch, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    With the intention to further promote the field of ecological engineering and the solutions it provides, a workshop on “Benefits of Ecological Engineering Practices” was held 3 Dec 2009. It was conducted by the International Ecological Engineering Society in Paris at the conference “Ecological Engin

  8. Benefits Realization from Information Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ashurst, Dr Colin

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on the author's recent and ongoing research this book explores how to build the organizational capability to realise the strategic potential of information technology. It tackles the gap between theory and practice and how to gain wider adoption of successful socio-technical and benefits-driven approaches to investments in IT.

  9. Nuclear Energy: Benefits Versus Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Walter H.

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the benefits as well as the risks of nuclear-power plants. Suggests that critics who dwell on the risks to the public from nuclear-power plants should compare these risks with the present hazards that would be eliminated. Bibliography. (LC)

  10. Life cycle assessment of rice straw utilization practices in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soam, Shveta; Borjesson, Pal; Sharma, Pankaj K; Gupta, Ravi P; Tuli, Deepak K; Kumar, Ravindra

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study is to find potential utilization practice of rice straw in India from an environmental perspective. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is conducted for four most realistic utilization practices of straw including: (1) incorporation into the field as fertilizer (2) animal fodder (3) electricity (4) biogas. The results show that processing of 1 ton straw to electricity and biogas resulted in net reduction of 1471 and 1023kg CO2 eq., 15.0 and 3.4kg SO2 eq. and 6.7 and 7.1kg C2H6 eq. emissions in global warming, acidification and photochemical oxidation creation potential respectively. Electricity production from straw replaces the coal based electricity and resulted in benefits in most of the environmental impacts whereas use as an animal fodder resulted in eutrophication benefits. The burning of straw is a harmful practice of managing straw in India which can be avoided by utilizing straw for bioenergy.

  11. 26 CFR 20.2042-1 - Proceeds of life insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proceeds of life insurance. 20.2042-1 Section... Proceeds of life insurance. (a) In general. (1) Section 2042 provides for the inclusion in a decedent's gross estate of the proceeds of insurance on the decedent's life (i) receivable by or for the benefit...

  12. Life Prediction Issues in Thermal/Environmental Barrier Coatings in Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ashwin R.; Brewer, David N.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.

    2001-01-01

    Issues and design requirements for the environmental barrier coating (EBC)/thermal barrier coating (TBC) life that are general and those specific to the NASA Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) development program have been described. The current state and trend of the research, methods in vogue related to the failure analysis, and long-term behavior and life prediction of EBCITBC systems are reported. Also, the perceived failure mechanisms, variables, and related uncertainties governing the EBCITBC system life are summarized. A combined heat transfer and structural analysis approach based on the oxidation kinetics using the Arrhenius theory is proposed to develop a life prediction model for the EBC/TBC systems. Stochastic process-based reliability approach that includes the physical variables such as gas pressure, temperature, velocity, moisture content, crack density, oxygen content, etc., is suggested. Benefits of the reliability-based approach are also discussed in the report.

  13. Ecological economic benefit in sustainable development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Xuemin; Ren Long

    2006-01-01

    From the concept of ecological economic benefit, I put forward the general formula for the benefit of ecological economy and the appraisal methods of the ecological economy, Theory on ecological benefit and economic benefit is the base of the benefits of ecological economy To some extent, the development of ecological economy, theory and practice on eco-agriculture are both the production made from opposition and unify of ecological benefit and economic benefit. This paper discusses the "T" type structure, which will give the theoretical bases for enhancing the ecological and economical benefits.

  14. Comparison of benefit between dabigatran and warfarin among patients with atrial fibrillation: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal K Sulieman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Warfarin is recognized as the standard antithrombotic agent for stroke prevention. However, new oral anticoagulant such as dabigatran constitutes huge improvement to compensate for the limitation of warfarin. A literature review was performed to compare and contrast the overall benefit of dabigatran and warfarin among patients with atrial fibrillation. We utilized HighWire as the data source for randomized controlled trials based on inclusion and exclusion criteria (from January 2007 to September 2013. Descriptive and quantitative information related to stroke and major bleeding were extracted from each trial. After a comprehensive screening of 298 search results, 17 studies which enrolled a total of 127,594 patients were included. Warfarin was found to have higher mean event rates for incidence of stroke, major bleeding, and net clinical benefit compared to dabigatran 110 mg and dabigatran 150 mg. Dabigatran 110 mg has higher rate of stroke and net clinical benefit than dabigatran 150 mg with less major hemorrhage. Overall, dabigatran had higher efficacy and safety profile than warfarin. Further research is required to determine the clinical feasibility of dabigatran in real-life practice.

  15. Statistical inference on residual life

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Jong-Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    This is a monograph on the concept of residual life, which is an alternative summary measure of time-to-event data, or survival data. The mean residual life has been used for many years under the name of life expectancy, so it is a natural concept for summarizing survival or reliability data. It is also more interpretable than the popular hazard function, especially for communications between patients and physicians regarding the efficacy of a new drug in the medical field. This book reviews existing statistical methods to infer the residual life distribution. The review and comparison includes existing inference methods for mean and median, or quantile, residual life analysis through medical data examples. The concept of the residual life is also extended to competing risks analysis. The targeted audience includes biostatisticians, graduate students, and PhD (bio)statisticians. Knowledge in survival analysis at an introductory graduate level is advisable prior to reading this book.

  16. Life extension and life cycle management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang, H., E-mail: hoa.hoang@ge.co [GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy, 3901 Castle Hayne Rd., Wilmington, NC 28402 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    as well as historical information (maintenance, repairs, inspections). 3) Perform aging and performance assessments using original system design know-hows and industry experiences. 4) Identify potential corrective action plans (hardware repair/replace/upgrade, procedure change). Plim provides the bases for a business decision-making road map that considers the benefits, costs and risks over the life period of the plant to maximize the return of the nuclear assets. (Author)

  17. Benefits of interrelationships between climate change mitigation and adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Lea Ravnkilde; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl

    2014-01-01

    change mitigation will be estimated on the basis of the amount of carbon sequestrated in the replanted area. The benefits of climate change adaptation are the replanted area’s ability to protect the local community from storms and sea level rise, including the co-benefits of enhanced productivity......The paper demonstrates welfare benefits of climate change mitigation and adaptation as a joint response to climate changes using the theory of multiple-use forestry or joint production by Vincent and Binkley (1993). The production of two products is considered: product 1: climate change mitigation...... and product 2: climate change adaptation. The production possibilities frontier (PPF) summarises the production benefits of the two products. The case study of the paper is the replanting of mangrove forests in the coastal wetland areas of Peam Krasaob Wildlife Sanctuary in Cambodia. The benefits of climate...

  18. State-Level Benefits of Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, Bruce Edward [ORNL

    2007-02-01

    This report describes benefits attributable to state-level energy efficiency programs. Nationwide, state-level energy efficiency programs have targeted all sectors of the economy and have employed a wide range of methods to promote energy efficiency. Standard residential and industrial programs typically identify between 20 to 30% energy savings in homes and plants, respectively. Over a 20 year period of time, an average state that aggressively pursues even a limited array of energy efficiency programs can potentially reduce total state energy use by as much as 20%. Benefit-cost ratios of effective energy efficiency programs typically exceed 3 to 1 and are much higher when non-energy and macroeconomic benefits are included. Indeed, energy efficiency and associated programs and investments can create significant numbers of new jobs and enhance state tax revenues. Several states have incorporated energy efficiency into their economic development programs. It should also be noted that increasing amounts of venture capital are being invested in the energy sector in general and in specific technologies like solar power in particular. Well-designed energy efficiency programs can be expected to help overcome numerous barriers to the market penetration of energy efficient technologies and accelerate the market penetration of the technologies.

  19. Hydroxyurea and sickle cell anemia: effect on quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegelow Charles H

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Multicenter Study of Hydroxyurea (HU in Sickle Cell Anemia (MSH previously showed that daily oral HU reduces painful sickle cell (SS crises by 50% in patients with moderate to severe disease. The morbidity associated with this disease is known to have serious negative impact on the overall quality of life(QOL of affected individuals. Methods The data in this report were collected from the 299 patients enrolled in the MSH. Health quality of llife (HQOL measures were assessed in the MSH as a secondary endpoint to determine if the clinical benefit of HU could translate into a measurable benefit perceptible to the patients. HQOL was assessed with the Profile of Mood States, the Health Status Short Form 36 (SF-36, including 4-week pain recall, and the Ladder of Life, self-administered twice 2-weeks apart pre-treatment and every 6 months during the two-year, randomized, double-blind, treatment phase. The effects of factors including randomized treatment, age, gender, pre-treatment crises frequency, Hb-F level mean, daily pain from 4-week pre-treatment diaries, and 2-year Hb-F response level (low or high were investigated. Results Over two years of treatment, the benefit of HU treatment on QOL, other than pain scales, was limited to those patients taking HU who maintained a high HbF response, compared to those with low HbF response or on placebo. These restricted benefits occurred in social function, pain recall and general health perception. Stratification according to average daily pain prior to treatment showed that responders to HU whose average daily pain score was 5–9 (substantial pain achieved significant reduction in the tension scale compared to the placebo group and to non-responders. HU had no apparent effect on other QOL measures. Conclusion Treatment of SS with HU improves some aspects of QOL in adult patients who already suffer from moderate-to-severe SS.

  20. Hydroxyurea and sickle cell anemia: effect on quality of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballas, Samir K; Barton, Franca B; Waclawiw, Myron A; Swerdlow, Paul; Eckman, James R; Pegelow, Charles H; Koshy, Mabel; Barton, Bruce A; Bonds, Duane R

    2006-01-01

    Background The Multicenter Study of Hydroxyurea (HU) in Sickle Cell Anemia (MSH) previously showed that daily oral HU reduces painful sickle cell (SS) crises by 50% in patients with moderate to severe disease. The morbidity associated with this disease is known to have serious negative impact on the overall quality of life(QOL) of affected individuals. Methods The data in this report were collected from the 299 patients enrolled in the MSH. Health quality of llife (HQOL) measures were assessed in the MSH as a secondary endpoint to determine if the clinical benefit of HU could translate into a measurable benefit perceptible to the patients. HQOL was assessed with the Profile of Mood States, the Health Status Short Form 36 (SF-36), including 4-week pain recall, and the Ladder of Life, self-administered twice 2-weeks apart pre-treatment and every 6 months during the two-year, randomized, double-blind, treatment phase. The effects of factors including randomized treatment, age, gender, pre-treatment crises frequency, Hb-F level mean, daily pain from 4-week pre-treatment diaries, and 2-year Hb-F response level (low or high) were investigated. Results Over two years of treatment, the benefit of HU treatment on QOL, other than pain scales, was limited to those patients taking HU who maintained a high HbF response, compared to those with low HbF response or on placebo. These restricted benefits occurred in social function, pain recall and general health perception. Stratification according to average daily pain prior to treatment showed that responders to HU whose average daily pain score was 5–9 (substantial pain) achieved significant reduction in the tension scale compared to the placebo group and to non-responders. HU had no apparent effect on other QOL measures. Conclusion Treatment of SS with HU improves some aspects of QOL in adult patients who already suffer from moderate-to-severe SS. PMID:16942629

  1. One life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demkova E.E.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It is not easy to care for a special needs child. Especially, it is easy to understand parents’ worries about their grown up children. Living in one’s own family or supported living in the community are much more preferable than the options the state can offer. The author — a mother of a young woman with autism — contemplates about possibilities for independent living for a person with special needs after their parents are gone. She is confident that teaching a child skills for independent living is not less important than giving them school education. The author illustrates her thoughts with real examples of support for adults with disabilities in their independent life or life in a foster family in a city, as well in rural areas.

  2. Pumping life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sitsel, Oleg; Dach, Ingrid; Hoffmann, Robert Daniel

    2012-01-01

    of membrane proteins: P-type ATPase pumps. This article takes the reader on a tour from Aarhus to Copenhagen, from bacteria to plants and humans, and from ions over protein structures to diseases caused by malfunctioning pump proteins. The magazine Nature once titled work published from PUMPKIN ‘Pumping ions......’. Here we illustrate that the pumping of ions means nothing less than the pumping of life....

  3. 20 CFR 410.456 - Determining origin of pneumoconiosis, including statutory presumption-survivor's claim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determining origin of pneumoconiosis, including statutory presumption-survivor's claim. 410.456 Section 410.456 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL..., including statutory presumption—survivor's claim. (a) If a miner was employed for 10 years or more in...

  4. 20 CFR 410.450 - Death due to pneumoconiosis, including statutory presumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Death due to pneumoconiosis, including... COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Total Disability or Death Due to Pneumoconiosis § 410.450 Death due to pneumoconiosis, including statutory...

  5. Benefits and harms of mammography screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løberg, Magnus; Lousdal, Mette Lise; Bretthauer, Michael; Kalager, Mette

    2015-05-01

    Mammography screening for breast cancer is widely available in many countries. Initially praised as a universal achievement to improve women's health and to reduce the burden of breast cancer, the benefits and harms of mammography screening have been debated heatedly in the past years. This review discusses the benefits and harms of mammography screening in light of findings from randomized trials and from more recent observational studies performed in the era of modern diagnostics and treatment. The main benefit of mammography screening is reduction of breast-cancer related death. Relative reductions vary from about 15 to 25% in randomized trials to more recent estimates of 13 to 17% in meta-analyses of observational studies. Using UK population data of 2007, for 1,000 women invited to biennial mammography screening for 20 years from age 50, 2 to 3 women are prevented from dying of breast cancer. All-cause mortality is unchanged. Overdiagnosis of breast cancer is the main harm of mammography screening. Based on recent estimates from the United States, the relative amount of overdiagnosis (including ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive cancer) is 31%. This results in 15 women overdiagnosed for every 1,000 women invited to biennial mammography screening for 20 years from age 50. Women should be unpassionately informed about the benefits and harms of mammography screening using absolute effect sizes in a comprehensible fashion. In an era of limited health care resources, screening services need to be scrutinized and compared with each other with regard to effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and harms.

  6. YOGA - ITS AWARENESS AND BENEFITS ON HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Inspite of the benefits of yoga not much is being done for incorporating it along with conventional methods of treatment for chronic diseases. It has been a subject of research for the past few decades as a complementary therapy for chronic diseases, but still lo t needs to be done regarding it being used as a non - pharmaceutical method for treatment . This study was carried out to find out the benefits of yoga if practiced regularly for a period of 3 months. OBJECTIVES : To find out the awareness regarding the benefi ts of yoga and to find out the benefits on various ailments of regular yoga practice for a period of 3 months. MATERIALS & METHODS : Data was collected from adults who followed a regular regime of Yoga from 3 centers in the city of Kakinada in a pretested q uestionnaire which contained both open and close ended questions in the beginning and at the end of 3 months of regular yoga practice . Analysis was done using epi info and significance was tested using Chi square tests. RESULTS: There was significant impro vement in Joint pains and low back ache, obesity, Stress and digestive problems of the respondents . The general awareness level about the benefits of yoga were low. CONCLUSIONS: The observed favorable effects of yoga on all the said variables needs to be s ubstantiated by more rigorous studies. However much needs to be done to create awareness as well to include yoga as a complementary as well as preventive therapy for most chronic diseases .

  7. Cannabis and neuropsychiatry, 1: benefits and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2016-05-01

    Cannabis is popularly believed to be a relatively benign substance. Cannabis is also considered to have potential medical benefits, and medical marijuana has been legislated in many parts of the world. However, a recent meta-analysis found that cannabinoids were associated with only modest benefits for chemotherapy-related nausea and vomiting, small and inconsistent benefits for pain and spasticity, and inconclusive benefits for other indications such as improvement of appetite and weight, reduction in tic severity, and improvement of mood or sleep. On the flip side, cannabinoids and cannabis have acute and long-term adverse effects. In randomized controlled trials, cannabinoids increase the risk of total adverse events, serious adverse events, and dropout due to adverse events. Cannabis impairs cognition, and driving after cannabis use is associated with an increased risk of traffic accidents, including fatal accidents. Long-term cannabis use may lead to dependence, respiratory conditions, psychosis, and possibly cancer, as well. Cannabis use during pregnancy may compromise certain pregnancy outcomes such as fetal growth, and use during adolescence may compromise neurodevelopment, social adjustment, and vocational success. The composition and bioavailability of cannabis vary across preparations of the substance and routes of administration; this limits the ability to generalize the findings of studies. The findings of older research may no longer apply to current strains of cannabis that are higher in psychotogenic content. It is important for medical professionals and the lay public to understand the limitations of the efficacy data and the seriousness of the risks associated with cannabis use in medical and recreational contexts.

  8. Ivabradine: Do the Benefits Outweigh the Risks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshammari, Thamir M

    2016-10-02

    Ivabradine is a selective I: f current inhibitor that is used to lower the heart rate (HR) of patients with angina and/or heart failure. It is approved for use in several countries, including the United Kingdom, Australia, Saudi Arabia, and the United States. The drug was studied in several clinical trials, and it exhibited beneficial effects on the approved indicators. However, there are some concerns with the safety profile of this drug, especially its effect in reducing HR and causing severe bradycardia. Therefore, the current review assessed the benefit-risk balance of ivabradine. A literature review of the major published studies that assessed the efficacy and safety of ivabradine was performed. The online VigiBase adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting system was also accessed to investigate reports associated with this drug. A full benefit-risk assessment was performed using the collected data from the above-mentioned resources. Most of the reviewed studies concluded that ivabradine exerted beneficial effects with a tolerable safety profile. Specifically, a favorable benefit-risk profile was found when ivabradine was used for patients with an HR ≥70 beats per minute. Reports revealed that the most common ADR was bradycardia, which was expected. Other safety risks or ADRs were comparable to other prescribed drugs. This review presents an up-to-date analysis of ivabradine from the latest literature and reports. These studies suggest that ivabradine exhibits an acceptable and favorable benefit-risk profile, and this drug should be considered as a viable option in patients with angina pectoris and chronic heart failure.

  9. Sequential unilateral lung volume reduction for emphysema - Stretching the benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorramnia, Sadie; Holsworth, Lynda; Mestitz, Hugh; Westall, Glen P; Williams, Trevor J; Gooi, Julian H; Snell, Gregory I

    2017-01-01

    Bronchoscopic Lung Volume Reduction (BLVR) and Surgical Lung Volume Reduction (SLVR) and are two different approaches used to remodel severely emphysematous lungs to improve lung function and quality-of-life. We present a case initially referred for lung transplantation, where sequential left upper lobe BLVR and 7 years later right upper lobe SLVR, providing enduring physiological and functional improvement. The potential for sustained benefit via sequential unilateral lung volume reduction is under-appreciated.

  10. The Benefits of Developing Habits of Mind to English Learners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈颖

    2007-01-01

    In ordinary human life,something can be two different things at the same time. Habit can also be a theory and a solution. In this thesis I will introduce the reasons why we should develop habits of mind and the benefits to English learners. In this way English learners can master some better learning methods and scientific habits of mind to direct and improve their English learning.

  11. WORK / LIFE BALANCE REFLECTIONS ON EMPLOYEE SATISFACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvarani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze the relationship between employee satisfaction andwork/life balance. The construct used for this research consists of career opportunity, recognition,work tasks, payments, benefits, superior subordinate relationship, employee satisfaction, andwork/life balance. The study was conducted on a total of 210 respondents working in IT organization.This study makes a contribution to join two distinct research streams, namely employee satisfaction,and work/life balance. Findings suggest that high correlation exists between work task and employeesatisfaction with a mediator variable namely work-life balance.

  12. A framework for quantifying net benefits of alternative prognostic models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapsomaniki, Eleni; White, Ian R; Wood, Angela M

    2012-01-01

    reduction interventions. We extend previous work in this area by quantifying net benefits in life years, thus linking prognostic performance to health economic measures; by taking full account of the occurrence of events over time; and by considering estimation and cross-validation in a multiple-study......New prognostic models are traditionally evaluated using measures of discrimination and risk reclassification, but these do not take full account of the clinical and health economic context. We propose a framework for comparing prognostic models by quantifying the public health impact (net benefit......) of the treatment decisions they support, assuming a set of predetermined clinical treatment guidelines. The change in net benefit is more clinically interpretable than changes in traditional measures and can be used in full health economic evaluations of prognostic models used for screening and allocating risk...

  13. Journey to Magnet: cost vs. benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Judith

    2010-01-01

    As hospitals and health systems strive to be an "Employer of Choice", one important goal for their nursing leaders has been the decision to embark on their journey of becoming a designated Magnet facility. Approximately 12 months ago, conversations with a few chief nursing executives uncovered a hot topic concerning the achievement/designation of Magnet status and specifically its cost benefits. With more and more hospitals obtaining Magnet status, these nurse leaders did not know how other organizations felt about their journey including outcomes and were very interested in learning more details about their colleagues' experiences.

  14. The paradox of cooperation benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, A; Takács, K

    2010-05-21

    It seems obvious that as the benefits of cooperation increase, the share of cooperators in the population should also increase. It is well known that positive assortment between cooperative types, for instance in spatially structured populations, provide better conditions for the evolution of cooperation than complete mixing. This study demonstrates that, assuming positive assortment, under most conditions higher cooperation benefits also increase the share of cooperators. On the other hand, under a specified range of payoff values, when at least two payoff parameters are modified, the reverse is true. The conditions for this paradox are determined for two-person social dilemmas: the Prisoner's Dilemma, the Hawks and Doves game, and the Stag Hunt game, assuming global selection and positive assortment.

  15. Life cycle assessment of capital goods related to waste incineration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    The environmental impacts from the life cycle of products and systems were evaluated using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) as a tool. Today most LCAs of waste management systems only considers the impacts from the operation of the system but neglects the environmental impacts from construction......, maintenance and demolition of capital goods. Capital goods are defined as buildings, machinery, trucks and infrastructure at the facility. A LCA was performed using two modelling programmes: Simapro and EASEWASTE. This paper assesses the importance of including capital goods when performing LCAs of waste...... incineration with efficient energy recovery. The environmental costs of the capital goods related to an incinerator was assessed and compared to the operation of the incinerator. The environmental loads from the capital goods were found to be insignificant compared to the benefits from the energy recovery from...

  16. [Medicine at the "edge of chaos". Life, entropy and complexity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vito, Eduardo L

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to help physicians and health professionals, who constantly seek to improve their knowledge for the benefit of the ill, to incorporate new conceptual and methodological tools to understand the complexity inherent to the field of medicine. This article contains notions that are unfamiliar to these professionals and are intended to foster reflection and learning. It poses the need to define life from a thermodynamic point of view, linking it closely to complex systems, nonlinear dynamics and chaotic behavior, as well as to redefine conventional physiological control mechanisms based on the concept of homeostasis, and to travel the path that starts with the search for extraterrestrial life up to exposing medicine "near the edge of chaos". Complexity transcends the biological aspects; it includes a subjective and symbolic/social dimension. Viewing disease as a heterogeneous and multi-causal phenomenon can give rise to new approaches for the sick.

  17. Pheromones, sexual attractiveness and quality of life in menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, W B; Genovese, E

    2002-06-01

    Pheromones, and their effects, are reviewed with a special emphasis on their potential contribution to sexual attractiveness in the menopause. Key topics included are biological functions of pheromones in animals and humans, the source of pheromones in humans, the axillary extract studies that led to the independent synthesis of pheromones, olfactory mechanisms for mediating pheromones, and aging, attractiveness and sexual dysfunction. Physical attractiveness is important for a better quality of life. Three separate, double-blind, placebo-controlled investigations, using the same protocol, all demonstrated that a synthesized pheromone, topically applied, increased sexual attractiveness. If partners are available, sexual attractiveness can increase affectionate intimate behavior, which, in turn, increases well-being and quality of life. More research is needed to address ways in which postmenopausal women can benefit from pheromones.

  18. When Measurement Benefits the Measured

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-23

    5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Carnegie Mellon University ,Software Engineering Institute,Pittsburgh,PA...15213 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 11. SPONSOR...versionone.com/assets/ img /files/CHAOSManifesto2013.pdf 4 When Measurement Benefits the Measured Kasunic & Nichols, April 23, 2014 © 2014 Carnegie Mellon

  19. RFID solution benefits Cambridge hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    Keeping track of thousands of pieces of equipment in a busy hospital environment is a considerable challenge, but, according to RFID tagging and asset tracking specialist, Harland Simon, RFID technology can make the task considerably simpler. Here Andrew James, the company's RFID sales manager, describes the positive benefits the technology has brought the Medical Equipment Library (MEL) at Addenbrooke's Hospital, one of the world's most famous teaching hospitals.

  20. Benefits of ecological engineering practices

    OpenAIRE

    Brüll, A.; Van Bohemen, H.; Costanza, R.; Mitsch, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    With the intention to further promote the field of ecological engineering and the solutions it provides, a workshop on “Benefits of Ecological Engineering Practices” was held 3 Dec 2009. It was conducted by the International Ecological Engineering Society in Paris at the conference “Ecological Engineering: from Concepts to Application” organized by the Ecological Engineering Applications Group GAIE. This paper presents the results of the workshop related to three key questions: (1) what are t...

  1. Soybean Consumption And Health Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusuma Neela Bolla

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract soy foods are rich source of dietary protein. soy based foods are rich in a class of compounds called isoflavones. Isoflavones have chemical structure that is similar to the hormone estrogen receptors commonly called phytoestrogens. the consumption of soy isoflavones appears to result in health benefits for cancer heart disease menopausal symptoms and osteoporosis. so as a result soy protein have become major components of food.

  2. Soybean Consumption And Health Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Kusuma Neela Bolla

    2015-01-01

    Abstract soy foods are rich source of dietary protein. soy based foods are rich in a class of compounds called isoflavones. Isoflavones have chemical structure that is similar to the hormone estrogen receptors commonly called phytoestrogens. the consumption of soy isoflavones appears to result in health benefits for cancer heart disease menopausal symptoms and osteoporosis. so as a result soy protein have become major components of food.

  3. Health benefits of particle filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, W J

    2013-10-01

    The evidence of health benefits of particle filtration in homes and commercial buildings is reviewed. Prior reviews of papers published before 2000 are summarized. The results of 16 more recent intervention studies are compiled and analyzed. Also, reviewed are four studies that modeled health benefits of using filtration to reduce indoor exposures to particles from outdoors. Prior reviews generally concluded that particle filtration is, at best, a source of small improvements in allergy and asthma health effects; however, many early studies had weak designs. A majority of recent intervention studies employed strong designs and more of these studies report statistically significant improvements in health symptoms or objective health outcomes, particularly for subjects with allergies or asthma. The percentage improvement in health outcomes is typically modest, for example, 7% to 25%. Delivery of filtered air to the breathing zone of sleeping allergic or asthmatic persons may be more consistently effective in improving health than room air filtration. Notable are two studies that report statistically significant improvements, with filtration, in markers that predict future adverse coronary events. From modeling, the largest potential benefits of indoor particle filtration may be reductions in morbidity and mortality from reducing indoor exposures to particles from outdoor air.

  4. Health Benefits of Particle Filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.

    2013-10-01

    The evidence of health benefits of particle filtration in homes and commercial buildings is reviewed. Prior reviews of papers published before 2000 are summarized. The results of 16 more recent intervention studies are compiled and analyzed. Also reviewed are four studies that modeled health benefits of using filtration to reduce indoor exposures to particles from outdoors. Prior reviews generally concluded that particle filtration is, at best, a source of small improvements in allergy and asthma health effects; however, many early studies had weak designs. A majority of recent intervention studies employed strong designs and more of these studies report statistically significant improvements in health symptoms or objective health outcomes, particularly for subjects with allergies or asthma. The percentage improvement in health outcomes is typically modest, e.g., 7percent to 25percent. Delivery of filtered air to the breathing zone of sleeping allergic or asthmatic persons may be more consistently effective in improving health than room air filtration. Notable are two studies that report statistically significant improvements, with filtration, in markers that predict future adverse coronary events. From modeling, the largest potential benefits of indoor particle filtration may be reductions in morbidity and mortality from reducing indoor exposures to particles from outdoor air.

  5. Health Benefits of Particle Filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.

    2013-10-01

    The evidence of health benefits of particle filtration in homes and commercial buildings is reviewed. Prior reviews of papers published before 2000 are summarized. The results of 16 more recent intervention studies are compiled and analyzed. Also, reviewed are four studies that modeled health benefits of using filtration to reduce indoor exposures to particles from outdoors. Prior reviews generally concluded that particle filtration is, at best, a source of small improvements in allergy and asthma health effects; however, many early studies had weak designs. A majority of recent intervention studies employed strong designs and more of these studies report statistically significant improvements in health symptoms or objective health outcomes, particularly for subjects with allergies or asthma. The percent age improvement in health outcomes is typically modest, for example, 7percent to 25percent. Delivery of filtered air to the breathing zone of sleeping allergic or asthmatic persons may be more consistently effective in improving health than room air filtration. Notable are two studies that report statistically significant improvements, with filtration, in markers that predict future adverse coronary events. From modeling, the largest potential benefits of indoor particle filtration may be reductions in morbidity and mortality from reducing indoor exposures to particles from outdoor air.

  6. Benefits of a Clinical Planning and Coordination Module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sanne; Vingtoft, Søren; Nøhr, Christian

    2013-01-01

    the potential benefits of a planning and coordination module has been assessed in a full-scale simulation test including 18 health care professionals. The results showed that health care professionals can benefit from such a module. Furthermore unexpected new possible benefits concerning communication......Digital Clinical Practice Guidelines are commonly used in Danish health care. Planning and decision support are particularly important to patients with chronic diseases, who often are in contact with General Practitioners, Community Nurses and hospitals. In the Capital Region of Denmark...

  7. Benefits of cooperation with genetic kin in a subsocial spider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, J.M.; Bilde, T.

    2008-01-01

    in prey capture and feed communally. We provide clear experimental evidence for net benefits of cooperating with kin. Genetic relatedness within groups and not association with familiar individuals directly improved feeding efficiency and growth rates, demonstrating a positive effect of kin cooperation...... relatives include the cost of lowering indirect fitness benefits that could otherwise be achieved through the propagation of shared genes. Kin selection theory has been proved to be of general importance for the origin of cooperative behaviors, but other driving forces, such as direct fitness benefits, can....... Hence, in communally feeding spiders, nepotism favors group retention and reduces the conflict between selfish interests and the interests of the group....

  8. Ethical Issues in Second Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botterbusch, Hope R.; Talab, R. S.

    2009-01-01

    There are many unethical and illegal behaviors that take place in Second Life. This article offers several scenarios which represent some of these behaviors, including copyright infringement. It is hoped that the reader will understand how copyright infringement fits in with other unethical behaviors in Second Life. (Contains 20 resources.)

  9. 22 CFR 20.5 - Survivor benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Survivor benefits. 20.5 Section 20.5 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN FORMER SPOUSES § 20.5 Survivor benefits. (a... survivor benefits equal to one of the following; whichever is applicable: (1) 55 percent of the...

  10. Employment effects of the Danish rehabilitation benefit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Palle B; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2012-01-01

    Social benefits aim to bring marginalised citizens back into the labour force. As benefits constitute a burden for tax payers, attention has been given to measure the effect. We used register data to assess the employment effect of rehabilitation benefit; the most liberal social benefit in Denmark....

  11. 20 CFR 229.45 - Employee benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employee benefit. 229.45 Section 229.45 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.45 Employee benefit. The...

  12. Valuing life: a plea for disaggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunstein, Cass R

    2004-11-01

    Each government agency uses a uniform figure to measure the value of a statistical life (VSL). This is a serious mistake. The very theory that underlies current practice calls for far more individuation of the relevant values. According to that theory, VSL should vary across risks. More controversially, VSL should vary across individuals -- even or especially if the result would be to produce a lower number for some people than for others. One practical implication is that a higher value should be given to programs that reduce cancer risks. Another is that government should use a higher VSL for programs that disproportionately benefit the wealthy -- and a lower VSL for programs that disproportionately benefit the poor. But there are two serious complications here. First, bounded rationality raises problems for the use of private willingness to pay, which underlies current calculations of VSL. Second, the beneficiaries of regulation sometimes pay only a fraction or even none of its cost; when this is so, the appropriate VSL for poor people might be higher, on distributional grounds, than market evidence suggests. An understanding of this point has implications for foundational issues about government regulation, including valuation of persons in poor and wealthy nations.

  13. Combined nutritional and environmental life cycle assessment of fruits and vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stylianou, Katerina S.; Fantke, Peter; Jolliet, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    -LCA) framework that compares environmental and nutritional effects of foods in a common end -point metric, Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY). In the assessment, environmental health impact categories include green house gases, particulate matter (PM), and pesticide residues on fruits and vegetables, while......Nutritional health effects from the ‘use stage’ of the life cycle of food products can be substantial, especially for fruits and vegetables. To assess potential one-serving increases in fruit and vegetable consumption in Europe, we employ the Combined Nutritional and Environmental LCA (CONE......; 35 μDALY/serving fruit benefit compared to a factor 10 lower impact. Replacing detrimental foods, such as trans-fat and red meat, with fruits or vegetables further enhances health benefit. This study illustrates the importance of considering nutritional effects in food-LCA....

  14. Floating Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ One in six people in China have left their hometown in search of a better life and the number continues to grow,creating a challenge for host cities,according to a government report.The floating population,or people who live and work outside their permanent home,reached 211 million last year and the number could reach 350 million by 2050 if govemment policies remain unchanged,said the Report on the Development of China's Floating Population issued on June 26 by the National Population and Family Planning Commission (NPFPC).

  15. Chain modeling for life cycle systems engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, J.J. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shapiro, V. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Spatial Automation Lab.

    1997-12-01

    Throughout Sandia`s history, products have been represented by drawings. Solid modeling systems have recently replaced drawings as the preferred means for representing product geometry. These systems are used for product visualization, engineering analysis and manufacturing planning. Unfortunately, solid modeling technology is inadequate for life cycle systems engineering, which requires maintenance of technical history, efficient management of geometric and non-geometric data, and explicit representation of engineering and manufacturing characteristics. Such information is not part of the mathematical foundation of solid modeling. The current state-of-the-art in life cycle engineering is comprised of painstakingly created special purpose tools, which often are incompatible. New research on {open_quotes}chain modeling{close_quotes} provides a method of chaining the functionality of a part to the geometric representation. Chain modeling extends classical solid modeling to include physical, manufacturing, and procedural information required for life cycle engineering. In addition, chain modeling promises to provide the missing theoretical basis for Sandia`s parent/child product realization paradigm. In chain modeling, artifacts and systems are characterized in terms of their combinatorial properties: cell complexes, chains, and their operators. This approach is firmly rooted in algebraic topology and is a natural extension of current technology. The potential benefits of this approach include explicit hierarchical and combinatorial representation of physics, geometry, functionality, test, and legacy data in a common computational framework that supports a rational decision process and partial design automation. Chain modeling will have a significant impact on design preservation, system identification, parameterization, system reliability, and design simplification.

  16. Health benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhyoung Kim

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The existing literature suggests that serious engagement in leisure activities leads to happiness, life satisfaction, and successful aging among older adults. This qualitative study was used to examine the benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults who were members of a sports club. Using an analytic data analysis, we identified three main themes associated with the benefits of serious engagement in leisure activities: 1 the experience of psychological benefits, 2 the creation of social support, and 3 the enhancement of physical health. These themes indicate that, through serious involvement in certain physical activities, participants gain various health benefits, which may contribute to successful aging.

  17. Health benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junhyoung; Yamada, Naoko; Heo, Jinmoo; Han, Areum

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature suggests that serious engagement in leisure activities leads to happiness, life satisfaction, and successful aging among older adults. This qualitative study was used to examine the benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults who were members of a sports club. Using an analytic data analysis, we identified three main themes associated with the benefits of serious engagement in leisure activities: 1) the experience of psychological benefits, 2) the creation of social support, and 3) the enhancement of physical health. These themes indicate that, through serious involvement in certain physical activities, participants gain various health benefits, which may contribute to successful aging. PMID:25059979

  18. Private benefits in corporate control transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Thomas

    with high security benefits, or because the buyer has high private benefits from the control rights that come with the shares? Using voting rights as the vehicle for private benefits, I find that the selling shareholders in block transactions attach more value to private benefits than the buyers. In tender...... shareholders have a very small effect on these results, but that they do attach more value to private benefits....

  19. Motivation of employees and employee benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Haninger, David

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor's thesis examines the subject of employee motivation and employee benefits. The basic terms and theories needed to comprehend the subject are explained in the theoretical part of the work. The theoretical part of the work also focuses on employee benefits, mainly the goal of employee benefits and listing of currently available employee benefits. In the practical part of the work is an analysis and comparison of employee benefits used in two companies that are representing privat...

  20. Including Religious Voices on Disability: Which Ones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaventa, Bill

    2008-01-01

    Religious beliefs and traditions shape cultural and personal understandings of life issues, and, in turn, are shaped by new understanding in other arenas of life, such as medicine, science, and politics. Religious and faith traditions have sometimes enshrined prevailing attitudes about disability and differences but have also challenged them.…

  1. Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Rui

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Apples are a widely consumed, rich source of phytochemicals, and epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. In the laboratory, apples have been found to have very strong antioxidant activity, inhibit cancer cell proliferation, decrease lipid oxidation, and lower cholesterol. Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of apples varies greatly between different varieties of apples, and there are also small changes in phytochemicals during the maturation and ripening of the fruit. Storage has little to no effect on apple phytochemicals, but processing can greatly affect apple phytochemicals. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior, and the effects of variety, ripening, storage and processing on apple phytochemicals.

  2. Psychiatry: life events and social support in late life depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clóvis Alexandrino-Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of life events and social support in the broadly defined category of depression in late life. INTRODUCTION: Negative life events and lack of social support are associated with depression in the elderly. Currently, there are limited studies examining the association between life events, social support and late-life depression in Brazil. METHODS: We estimated the frequency of late-life depression within a household community sample of 367 subjects aged 60 years or greater with associated factors. ''Old age symptomatic depression'' was defined using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 1.1 tool. This diagnostic category included only late-life symptoms and consisted of the diagnoses of depression and dysthymia as well as a subsyndromal definition of depression, termed ''late subthreshold depression''. Social support and life events were assessed using the Comprehensive Assessment and Referral Evaluation (SHORT-CARE inventory. RESULTS: ''Old age symptomatic depression'' occurred in 18.8% of the patients in the tested sample. In univariate analyses, this condition was associated with female gender, lifetime anxiety disorder and living alone. In multivariate models, ''old age symptomatic depression'' was associated with a perceived lack of social support in men and life events in women. DISCUSSION: Social support and life events were determined to be associated with late-life depression, but it is important to keep in mind the differences between genders. Also, further exploration of the role of lifetime anxiety disorder in late-life depression may be of future importance. CONCLUSIONS: We believe that this study helps to provide insight into the role of psychosocial factors in late-life depression.

  3. Total Product Life Cycle (TPLC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Total Product Life Cycle (TPLC) database integrates premarket and postmarket data about medical devices. It includes information pulled from CDRH databases...

  4. Projecting LED product life based on application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendran, Nadarajah; Liu, Yi-wei; Mou, Xi; Thotagamuwa, Dinusha R.; Eshwarage, Oshadhi V. Madihe

    2016-09-01

    LED products have started to displace traditional light sources in many lighting applications. One of the commonly claimed benefits for LED lighting products is their long useful lifetime in applications. Today there are many replacement lamp products using LEDs in the marketplace. Typically, lifetime claims of these replacement lamps are in the 25,000-hour range. According to current industry practice, the time for the LED light output to reach the 70% value is estimated according to IESNA LM-80 and TM-21 procedures and the resulting value is reported as the whole system life. LED products generally experience different thermal environments and switching (on-off cycling) patterns when used in applications. Current industry test methods often do not produce accurate lifetime estimates for LED systems because only one component of the system, namely the LED, is tested under a continuous-on burning condition without switching on and off, and because they estimate for only one failure type, lumen depreciation. The objective of the study presented in this manuscript was to develop a test method that could help predict LED system life in any application by testing the whole LED system, including on-off power cycling with sufficient dwell time, and considering both failure types, catastrophic and parametric. The study results showed for the LED A-lamps tested in this study, both failure types, catastrophic and parametric, exist. The on-off cycling encourages catastrophic failure, and maximum operating temperature influences the lumen depreciation rate and parametric failure time. It was also clear that LED system life is negatively affected by on-off switching, contrary to commonly held belief. In addition, the study results showed that most of the LED systems failed catastrophically much ahead of the LED light output reaching the 70% value. This emphasizes the fact that life testing of LED systems must consider catastrophic failure in addition to lumen depreciation, and

  5. Health Benefits of Fiber Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Wendy J; Agro, Nicole C; Eliasson, Åsa M; Mialki, Kaley L; Olivera, Joseph D; Rusch, Carley T; Young, Carly N

    2017-02-01

    Although fiber is well recognized for its effect on laxation, increasing evidence supports the role of fiber in the prevention and treatment of chronic disease. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the health benefits of fiber and its fermentation, and describe how the products of fermentation may influence disease risk and treatment. Higher fiber intakes are associated with decreased risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and some forms of cancer. Fiber may also have a role in lowering blood pressure and in preventing obesity by limiting weight gain. Fiber is effective in managing blood glucose in type 2 diabetes, useful for weight loss, and may provide therapeutic adjunctive roles in kidney and liver disease. In addition, higher fiber diets are not contraindicated in inflammatory bowel disease or irritable bowel syndrome and may provide some benefit. Common to the associations with disease reduction is fermentation of fiber and its potential to modulate microbiota and its activities and inflammation, specifically the production of anti-inflammatory short chain fatty acids, primarily from saccharolytic fermentation, versus the deleterious products of proteolytic activity. Because fiber intake is inversely associated with all-cause mortality, mechanisms by which fiber may reduce chronic disease risk and provide therapeutic benefit to those with chronic disease need further elucidation and large, randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm causality.Teaching Points• Strong evidence supports the association between higher fiber diets and reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and some forms of cancer.• Higher fiber intakes are associated with lower body weight and body mass index, and some types of fiber may facilitate weight loss.• Fiber is recommended as an adjunctive medical nutritional therapy for type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and certain liver diseases.• Fermentation and the resulting shifts in

  6. Should Listening and Speaking be included in a Language Test?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宗文

    2013-01-01

      Language test is widely used in our daily life for various purposes, while a lot of language tests fail to include listening or speaking for one reason or another. The question that whether this type of test is still valid enough to serve test purposes and have a positive washback for English learning has come up.

  7. Who Benefits from Student Aid? The Economic Incidence of Tax-Based Federal Student Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Federal benefit programs, including federal student aid, are designed to aid targeted populations. Behavioral responses to these programs may alter the incidence of their benefits, a possibility that receives less attention in the literature compared to tax incidence. I demonstrate the importance of benefit incidence analysis by showing that the…

  8. 75 FR 3927 - Proposed Information Collection Request for the ETA 218, Benefit Rights and Experience Report...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... Information Collection Request for the ETA 218, Benefit Rights and Experience Report; Comment Request on... unemployment compensation programs. The data in the ETA 218, Benefit Rights and Experience Report, includes... extension for the collection of the ETA 218, Benefit Rights and Experience report. Comments are...

  9. Controlled Ecological Life Support System. Life Support Systems in Space Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macelroy, R. D. (Editor); Smernoff, D. T. (Editor); Klein, H. P. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Life support systems in space travel, in closed ecological systems were studied. Topics discussed include: (1) problems of life support and the fundamental concepts of bioregeneration; (2) technology associated with physical/chemical regenerative life support; (3) projection of the break even points for various life support techniques; (4) problems of controlling a bioregenerative life support system; (5) data on the operation of an experimental algal/mouse life support system; (6) industrial concepts of bioregenerative life support; and (7) Japanese concepts of bioregenerative life support and associated biological experiments to be conducted in the space station.

  10. Joint audits - benefit or burden?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus; Thinggaard, Frank

    In this paper we examine whether there are perceived and observed benefits or burdens from using two audit firms instead of one. In 2005 the mandatory joint audit requirement was abolished in Denmark. This provides a unique setting for studying the consequences and implications of going from...... a joint audit regime to a single auditor/voluntary joint audit regime. The dataset used in this paper has been collected for the full population of non-financial Danish companies listed on the Copenhagen Stock Exchange (CSE) in the years 2004 and 2005. We find that a majority of firms perceive joint...

  11. Environmental benefits and social cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, H.J.; Kjær, J.; Brüsh, W.

    2007-01-01

    There is a need for introducing interdisciplinary tools and approaches in water management for participatory integrated assessment of water protection costs and environmental benefits for different management scenarios. This is required for the Water Framework Directive. Bayesian belief networks...... (BN) are one example of a possible tool for participatory integrated assessment. BNs allow knowledge and data from economic, social and hydrological domains to be integrated in a transparent, coherent and equitable way. The paper reports on the construction of a BN to assess impacts of pesticide...

  12. 'Strategic approach' can reveal benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Speaking at last October's Healthcare Estates 2010 conference in Manchester, Peter Haggarty, assistant director, Health Facilities Scotland, outlined some of the key steps and priorities for large healthcare providers seeking to establish and implement an effective asset management strategy, focusing particularly on work ongoing in this area in the Scottish public health service. While any radical change to a large healthcare organisation's existing asset management practices could be "challenging", both for the organisation itself, and for its staff, with "sufficient planning, persistence, and support", such changes could, he told delegates, often result in "unanticipated benefits". HEJ editor Jonathan Baillie reports.

  13. Quality of life in chronic pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raffaele Pezzilli; Laura Bini; Lorenzo Fantini; Elena Baroni; Davide Campana; Paola Tomassetti; Roberto Corinaldesi

    2006-01-01

    In an era such as the present one in which there is a high demand for health services with the associated pressure of controlling spending, health care organizations are concerned about the cost-effectiveness of quality improvement interventions. On the other hand,the impact of the disease and the treatment on the patient's overall well-being and functioning has become a topic of growing interest not only in clinical research but also in practice. The clinical evaluation of the benefits of specific treatments for chronic, debilitating and incurable diseases should increasingly include formal assessment of patient activity and well-being. Thus, health-related quality of life as subjectively perceived by the patient,is becoming a major issue in the evaluation of any therapeutic intervention, mainly in patients with chronic or difficult diseases where the aim of the intervention is to keep patients either symptom-free and capable of living in the community for a long time or to reduce the discomfort caused by the disease. In this paper,we review the current knowledge on the quality of life assessment in chronic pancreatitis patients.

  14. Searching for Alien Life Having Unearthly Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry

    2003-01-01

    The search for alien life in the solar system should include exploring unearth-like environments for life having an unearthly biochemistry. We expect alien life to conform to the same basic chemical and ecological constraints as terrestrial life, since inorganic chemistry and the laws of ecosystems appear to be universal. Astrobiologists usually assume alien life will use familiar terrestrial biochemistry and therefore hope to find alien life by searching near water or by supplying hydrocarbons. The assumption that alien life is likely to be based on carbon and water is traditional and plausible. It justifies high priority for missions to search for alien life on Mars and Europa, but it unduly restricts the search for alien life. Terrestrial carbon-water biochemistry is not possible on most of the bodies of our solar system, but all alien life is not necessarily based on terrestrial biochemistry. If alien life has a separate origin from Earth life, and if can survive in an environment extremely different from Earth's, then alien life may have unearthly biochemistry. There may be other solvents than water that support alien life and other elements than carbon that form complex life enabling chain molecules. Rather than making the exploration-restricting assumption that all life requires carbon, water, and terrestrial biochemistry, we should make the exploration-friendly assumption that indigenous, environmentally adapted, alien life forms might flourish using unearthly biochemistry in many places in the solar system. Alien life might be found wherever there is free energy and a physical/chemical system capable of using that energy to build living structures. Alien life may be discovered by the detection of some general non-equilibrium chemistry rather than of terrestrial biochemistry. We should explore all the potential abodes of life in the solar system, including those where life based on terrestrial biochemistry can not exist.

  15. Creativity in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, K A; Tinker, A M

    2014-08-01

    The ageing population presents significant challenges for the provision of social and health services. Strategies are needed to enable older people to cope within a society ill prepared for the impacts of these demographic changes. The ability to be creative may be one such strategy. This review outlines the relevant literature and examines current public health policy related to creativity in old age with the aim of highlighting some important issues. As well as looking at the benefits and negative aspects of creative activity in later life they are considered in the context of the theory of "successful ageing". Creative activity plays an important role in the lives of older people promoting social interaction, providing cognitive stimulation and giving a sense of self-worth. Furthermore, it is shown to be useful as a tool in the multi-disciplinary treatment of health problems common in later life such as depression and dementia. There are a number of initiatives to encourage older people to participate in creative activities such as arts-based projects which may range from visual arts to dance to music to intergenerational initiatives. However, participation shows geographical variation and often the responsibility of provision falls to voluntary organisations. Overall, the literature presented suggests that creative activity could be a useful tool for individuals and society. However, further research is needed to establish the key factors which contribute to patterns of improved health and well-being, as well as to explore ways to improve access to services.

  16. Life cycle and textiles recycling

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Within the vision of development of European textile and clothing industry for 2020 from the standpoint of the European Technology Platform (ETP), the paper analyzes a segment which includes life cycle and recycling of textiles. It is the fact that the complexity of new textile and clothing product has caused the development of new-higher standards. For this reason in development of highly innovative products, today is included also quality assurance during his whole life cycle starting from ...

  17. Life Cycle Assessment of Slurry Management Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wesnæs, Marianne; Wenzel, Henrik; Petersen, Bjørn Molt

    This report contains the results of Life Cycle Assessments of two slurry management technologies - acidification and decentred incineration. The LCA foundation can be used by the contributing companies for evaluating the environmental sustainability of a specific technology from a holistic Life...... Cycle perspective. Through this the companies can evaluate the environmental benefits and disadvantages of introducing a specific technology for slurry management. From a societal perspective the results can contribute to a clarification of which slurry management technologies (or combination...

  18. The parents as assessors of the quality of life of their cochlear implanted children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Andrea BORKOSKI-BARREIRO

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: Quality of life refers to the hability of an individual to enjoy normal life activities, including aspects of functional capacity and well-being. The concept of quality of life has been increasingly used in the field of health assessments. Only recently have the effects of Cochlear implantation from the perspective of emotional and social development begun to be investigate. To examine the results of health-related quality of life in cochlear implanted children between 11 and 12 years of age and their parents. Method: Observational, transversal descriptive study .24 unilateral or successive bilateral children implanted prelingually between 11 and 12 years of age and their parents. The pediatric quality of life questionnaire Persil ™ (Version 4.0, Spanish for Spain was used to measure health-related quality of life. It was completed independently by children and parents. Results: The results were analyzed by means of a T -Student test. The outcomes of children and parents at different scales evaluated show that statistically significant results appear on scales of emotional and academic functioning (p < 0.05. When comparing the overall result of the questionnaire with the different scales evaluated, all show statistically significant results (p < 0.05. Discussion: It has been proven the success of a cochlear implant in speech and language field, this leads us calls into question beyond these areas; yield at home, at school and in different social contexts. There are few studies that explain through parental questionnaires expectations and their perception of the quality of life in cochlear implanted in children. Conclusions: The results of the study show that children enjoy the benefits of using a cochlear implant. They report benefits in all areas studied (physical, emotional, social and academic. Parents are reliable reporters about the state of the overall quality of life of their children since their answers were

  19. The benefits of management training

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    After six years an unusual management course remains very popular. Participants in the most recent session of 3CM course, with the external course leader Ton Bastiaans (left back), Lyn Evans, LHC project leader (3rd from the right) and Sudeshna Datta Cockerill (far right) who organises the management and communication courses. In 1996 a sceptical Lyn Evans agreed to act as the 'sponsor' from CERN's senior management for a new course on 'Introduction to management', aimed at young professionals at CERN who may in the near future have supervisory roles. CERN's LHC Project Leader quickly discovered that it is a 'remarkable course' and six years later he remains enthusiastic about its value. His role is to attend at the end of the last day and to listen to the reactions of the participants - how they have benefited and how they see the benefits to CERN. The session also gives the participants the opportunity to discuss with one of the Directorate their views on problems at CERN. Code-named 3CM, and run by an ex...

  20. Would banning atrazine benefit farmers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Frank; Whited, Melissa; Knight, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Atrazine, an herbicide used on most of the US corn (maize) crop, is the subject of ongoing controversy, with increasing documentation of its potentially harmful health and environmental impacts. Supporters of atrazine often claim that it is of great value to farmers; most recently, Syngenta, the producer of atrazine, sponsored an "Atrazine Benefits Team" (ABT) of researchers who released a set of five papers in 2011, reporting huge economic benefits from atrazine use in US agriculture. A critical review of the ABT papers shows that they have underestimated the growing problem of atrazine-resistant weeds, offered only a partial review of the effectiveness of alternative herbicides, and ignored the promising option of nonchemical weed management techniques. In addition, the most complete economic analysis in the ABT papers implies that withdrawal of atrazine would lead to a decrease in corn yields of 4.4% and an increase in corn prices of 8.0%. The result would be an increase in corn growers' revenues, equal to US$1.7 billion annually under ABT assumptions. Price impacts on consumers would be minimal: at current levels of ethanol production and use, gasoline prices would rise by no more than US$0.03 per gallon; beef prices would rise by an estimated US$0.01 for a 4-ounce hamburger and US$0.05 for an 8-ounce steak. Thus withdrawal of atrazine would boost farm revenues, while only changing consumer prices by pennies.

  1. Human milk benefits and breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fani Anatolitou

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Human milk is uniquely superior for infant feeding and represents the perfect example of individualization in Pediatrics. Human milk is not a uniform body fluid but a secretion of the mammary gland of changing composition. Foremilk differs from hindmilk, and colostrum is strikingly different from transitional and mature milk. Milk changes with time of day and during the course of lactation. Extensive research has demonstrated health, nutritional, immunologic, developmental, psychological, social, economic and environmental benefits of human milk. Breastfeeding results in improved infant and maternal health outcomes in both the industrialized and developing world. Some specific topics will be discussed such as the preventive effect of human milk on infections, overweight, obesity and diabetes, malignant disease, neurodevelopmental outcomes, reduction of necrotizing enterocolitis. Important health benefits of breastfeeding and lactation are also described for mothers. Finally, contraindications to breastfeeding and supplementation of breastfed infants are presented. Interventions to promote breastfeeding are relatively simple and inexpensive. Infant feeding should not be regarded as a lifestyle choice but rather as a basic health issue.

  2. SNAP benefits: Can an adequate benefit be defined?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaktine, Ann L; Caswell, Julie A

    2014-01-01

    The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) increases the food purchasing power of participating households. A committee convened by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) examined the question of whether it is feasible to define SNAP allotment adequacy. Total resources; individual, household, and environmental factors; and SNAP program characteristics that affect allotment adequacy were identified from a framework developed by the IOM committee. The committee concluded that it is feasible to define SNAP allotment adequacy; however, such a definition must take into account the degree to which participants' total resources and individual, household, and environmental factors influence the purchasing power of SNAP benefits and the impact of SNAP program characteristics on the calculation of the dollar value of the SNAP allotment. The committee recommended that the USDA Food and Nutrition Service investigate ways to incorporate these factors and program characteristics into research aimed at defining allotment adequacy.

  3. Risks and benefits of splenectomy versus no splenectomy for hereditary spherocytosis--a personal view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Robert F

    2009-06-01

    Splenectomy is indicated in hereditary spherocytosis to relieve symptoms due to anaemia or splenomegaly, reverse growth failure or skeletal changes due to over-robust erythropoiesis, and prevent recurrent gallstones. A life-long risk of bacterial infection has been recognised for many years as a concomitant cost of splenectomy. The scope of this risk has expanded to include a number of organisms beyond the triad of pneumococcus, meningococcus, and haemophilus influenzae. Recently, it has been demonstrated that splenectomy also confers a significant risk of delayed adverse vascular events in patients with hereditary spherocytosis, just as it does in patients undergoing splenectomy for other indications. Further, these same studies demonstrated a benefit of avoiding splenectomy: hereditary spherocytosis patients with a spleen have significantly fewer adverse vascular events than unaffected family members, probably because of the protective effect of chronic, mild anaemia. Accordingly, this review marshals the evidence favouring a conservative approach to splenectomy in spherocytosis.

  4. Cost-Benefit Analysis and Emission Reduction of Energy Efficient Lighting at the Universiti Tenaga Nasional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. B. Ganandran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the result of an investigation on the potential energy saving of the lighting systems at selected buildings of the Universiti Tenaga Nasional. The scope of this project includes evaluation of the lighting system in the Library, Admin Building, College of Engineering, College of Information Technology, Apartments, and COE Food court of the university. The main objectives of this project are to design the proper retrofit scenario and to calculate the potential electricity saving, the payback period, and the potential environmental benefits. In this survey the policy for retrofitting the old lighting system with the new energy saving LEDs starts with 10% for the first year and continues constantly for 10 years until all the lighting systems have been replaced. The result of the life cycle analysis reveals that after four years, the selected buildings will bring profit for the investment.

  5. Preliminary benefit-cost analysis of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) power addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaway, J.M.; Lezberg, A.J.; Scott, M.J.; Tawil, J.J.

    1984-07-01

    The primary objective of this report is to conduct a preliminary benefit-cost study for the proposed power addition to FFTF to determine whether the project is cost-effective. If the project is authorized, construction will begin in 1986 and end in 1991. Full power operation is scheduled to begin in 1991 and a project life of 20 years is assumed. The undiscounted cost during the construction period of the FFTF power addition is estimated to be approximately $117 million over the construction period (1984 dollars). An additional $3 million is estimated as the opportunity cost - or value of these resources in their most favorable alternative use - of surplus FFTF equipment and unused CRBR equipment, including materials for steam generator fabrication. The annual operating and maintenance cost of the project is estimated to be about $2.1 million in 1984 dollars. 20 references.

  6. Risks and benefits of rapid clozapine titration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannie D. Lochhead

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Clozapine is often considered the gold standard for the treatment of schizophrenia. Clinical guidelines suggest a gradual titration over 2 weeks to reduce the risks of adverse events such as seizures, hypotension, agranulocytosis, and myocarditis. The slow titration often delays time to therapeutic response. This raises the question of whether, in some patients, it may be safe to use a more rapid clozapine titration. The following case illustrates the potential risks associated with the use of multiple antipsychotics and rapid clozapine titration. We present the case of a young man with schizophrenia who developed life threatening neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS during rapid clozapine titration and treatment with multiple antipsychotics. We were unable to find another case in the literature of NMS associated with rapid clozapine titration. This case is meant to urge clinicians to carefully evaluate the risks and benefits of rapid clozapine titration, and to encourage researchers to further evaluate the safety of rapid clozapine titration. Rapid clozapine titration has implications for decreasing health care costs associated with prolonged hospitalizations, and decreasing the emotional suffering associated with uncontrolled symptoms of psychosis. Clozapine is considered the most effective antipsychotic available thus efforts should focus on developing strategies that would allow for safest and most efficient use of clozapine to encourage its utilization for treatment resistance schizophrenia.

  7. 20 CFR 416.421 - Determination of benefits; computation of prorated benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of benefits; computation of prorated benefits. 416.421 Section 416.421 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Amount of Benefits § 416.421 Determination of...

  8. 31 CFR 29.404 - Initial benefit determinations and reconsideration by the Benefits Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initial benefit determinations and... Claims and Appeals Procedures § 29.404 Initial benefit determinations and reconsideration by the Benefits Administrator. (a) Initial benefit determinations. The Benefits Administrator will process applications...

  9. Treatment for Hearing Loss among the Elderly: Auditory Outcomes and Impact on Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique-Huarte, Raquel; Calavia, Diego; Huarte Irujo, Alicia; Girón, Laura; Manrique-Rodríguez, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    The study aim was to determine the benefit of cochlear implantation and hearing aids in older adults diagnosed with hearing loss and to evaluate the index of depression, anxiety and quality of life after such treatments. A retrospective cohort comprised 117 patients older than 65 years and diagnosed with moderate to profound hearing loss who were included and classified into 2 groups (treated vs. non-treated). A battery of tests including auditory (pure-tone average, disyllabic words in quiet at 65 dB SPL) and findings from a series of questions relevant to quality of life were compared between both groups. Auditory outcomes for disyllabic words were 58.21% for the cochlear implant-treated group and 82.8% for the hearing aid-treated group. There was a positive effect on anxiety, depression, health status and quality of life in the cochlear implant group versus the profound hearing loss control group. We conclude that older adults with moderate to profound hearing loss gain benefit from hearing aids or cochlear implants not only in terms of improved hearing function, but also in terms of positive effects on anxiety, depression, health status and quality of life.

  10. Sign Language Benefits Tibetan Deaf-mutes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUO QIONG; SUN WENZHEN

    2007-01-01

    @@ There are in Tibet Autonomous Region 190,000 disabled persons,including more than 30,000 who are deaf-mutes or are hearing impaired.In the Tibetan language,a word is often expressed with different signs.This poses a serious handicap for communication and exchanges among Tibetan deaf-mutes and their effort to participate in social activities.The ongoing research and development of a Tibetan sign language is expected to get rid of that handicap and allow Tibetan deaf-mutes to lead a normal life.

  11. The costs and benefits of nurse migration on families: A Lesotho experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsola E. Ntlale

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The present day migration of nurses from developing countries, to more developed countries,depletes these countries of this vital human resource, which is necessary to provide optimum quality nursing care to their populations. If nurse migration persists, the health systems of these countries face collapse.It is important that a nurse understands the costs and benefits of migration to their families, whom they leave behind. This is not only to curb the problems that may occur, but to help the migrant nurses to realise how migration affects their families, especially their children and spouses, before they decide to leave their home countries to work in foreign lands.The purpose of this study, which was exploratory, descriptive and qualitative, was to investigate and describe the experiences of family members, of migrant nurses, from the Maseru district of Lesotho, about the costs and benefits of nurse migration. The objectives were to explore and describe the disadvantageous costs and the benefits gained by the families of migrant nurses. These were explored through the research question ’What are the experiences of family members of migrating nurses with regard to the costs and benefits of nurse migration?’The target population of the study was families of migrant nurses from Lesotho. Using purposive sampling the families of two migrant nurses, who were colleagues of the researcher, were identified and approached to participate in the study. Snowball sampling was next utilised to recruit the remainder of the participants. In total, six families were identified and included in the study.The semi-structured interviews and field notes were the two data collection methods that were implemented. The Giorgi’s (1970 steps for data analysis, as outlined in (Burns & Grove 2001:610, were followed and seven themes were discovered as findings. The themes that relate to the costs of nurse migration are: emotional instability, weaker family connections

  12. An Aristotelian account of minimal chemical life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedau, Mark A

    2010-12-01

    This paper addresses the open philosophical and scientific problem of explaining and defining life. This problem is controversial, and there is nothing approaching a consensus about what life is. This raises a philosophical meta-question: Why is life so controversial and so difficult to define? This paper proposes that we can attribute a significant part of the controversy over life to use of a Cartesian approach to explaining life, which seeks necessary and sufficient conditions for being an individual living organism, out of the context of other organisms and the abiotic environment. The Cartesian approach contrasts with an Aristotelian approach to explaining life, which considers life only in the whole context in which it actually exists, looks at the characteristic phenomena involving actual life, and seeks the deepest and most unified explanation for those phenomena. The phenomena of life might be difficult to delimit precisely, but it certainly includes life's characteristic hallmarks, borderline cases, and puzzles. The Program-Metabolism-Container (PMC) model construes minimal chemical life as a functionally integrated triad of chemical systems, which are identified as the Program, Metabolism, and Container. Rasmussen diagrams precisely depict the functional definition of minimal chemical life. The PMC model illustrates the Aristotelian approach to life, because it explains eight of life's hallmarks, one of life's borderline cases (the virus), and two of life's puzzles.

  13. An Aristotelian Account of Minimal Chemical Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedau, Mark A.

    2010-12-01

    This paper addresses the open philosophical and scientific problem of explaining and defining life. This problem is controversial, and there is nothing approaching a consensus about what life is. This raises a philosophical meta-question: Why is life so controversial and so difficult to define? This paper proposes that we can attribute a significant part of the controversy over life to use of a Cartesian approach to explaining life, which seeks necessary and sufficient conditions for being an individual living organism, out of the context of other organisms and the abiotic environment. The Cartesian approach contrasts with an Aristotelian approach to explaining life, which considers life only in the whole context in which it actually exists, looks at the characteristic phenomena involving actual life, and seeks the deepest and most unified explanation for those phenomena. The phenomena of life might be difficult to delimit precisely, but it certainly includes life's characteristic hallmarks, borderline cases, and puzzles. The Program-Metabolism-Container (PMC) model construes minimal chemical life as a functionally integrated triad of chemical systems, which are identified as the Program, Metabolism, and Container. Rasmussen diagrams precisely depict the functional definition of minimal chemical life. The PMC model illustrates the Aristotelian approach to life, because it explains eight of life's hallmarks, one of life's borderline cases (the virus), and two of life's puzzles.

  14. Supplemental Security Income Benefits for Mental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, James M; Houtrow, Amy; Kelleher, Kelly; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Stein, Ruth E K; Zima, Bonnie

    2016-07-01

    The Supplemental Security Income Program (SSI) provides financial support to low-income households with children and youth with severe disabilities. The program included children when it began in the early 1970s. The numbers of children receiving SSI benefits increased substantially in the early 1990s, in part through an expansion of the listings of mental health conditions with which children could become eligible. Over the past 20 years, larger numbers of children have received SSI benefits for mental disorders, and these increases have led to questions from the press and Congress regarding these numbers. Do they indicate more of an increase in mental disorders among SSI children than in the general population? The National Academy of Medicine (NAM; formerly the Institute of Medicine) convened a study panel to examine what is known about mental disorders among the child SSI population and how that compares with evidence about mental disorders in children in general. The NAM report provides detailed information about how SSI works, about the changing numbers of children receiving SSI for mental disorders, and some comparisons with other evidence about rising rates of mental disorders in the general population and especially among children living in poverty. The report indicates that increasing numbers of children with mental disorders in SSI mirror similar increases in the population in general. This article summarizes key evidence from the NAM report and suggests the implications for pediatricians.

  15. Sugar substitutes: Health controversy over perceived benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirtida R Tandel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar is an inseparable part of the food we consume. But too much sugar is not ideal for our teeth and waistline. There have been some controversial suggestions that excessive sugar may play an important role in certain degenerative diseases. So artificial sweeteners or artificially sweetened products continue to attract consumers. A sugar substitute (artificial sweetener is a food additive that duplicates the effect of sugar in taste, but usually has less food energy. Besides its benefits, animal studies have convincingly proven that artificial sweeteners cause weight gain, brain tumors, bladder cancer and many other health hazards. Some kind of health related side effects including carcinogenicity are also noted in humans. A large number of studies have been carried out on these substances with conclusions ranging from "safe under all conditions" to "unsafe at any dose". Scientists are divided in their views on the issue of artificial sweetener safety. In scientific as well as in lay publications, supporting studies are often widely referenced while the opposing results are de-emphasized or dismissed. So this review aims to explore the health controversy over perceived benefits of sugar substitutes.

  16. Benefits of kinesiotherapy and aquatic rehabilitation on sickle cell anemia. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinti, G; Somera, R; Valente, F M; Domingos, C R B

    2010-03-02

    The process of hemoglobin polymerization and the consequent sickling of red blood cells that occurs in patients with sickle cell disease shortens the half-life of red blood cells. It causes vaso-occlusive complications, as well as pain and pulmonary and cardiovascular dysfunction. We evaluated an aquatic rehabilitation program used for patients with sickle cell anemia and examined the possible benefits that exercise in warm water has for the circulatory system, for relieving pain, and for increasing lung capacity. The patient was a 32-year-old female. The parameters that we used in this study include respiratory muscle strength (which was calculated by measuring maximum inspiratory pressures and maximum expiratory pressures), the McGill and Wisconsin pain questionnaires (in order to evaluate the patients' characterizations and descriptions of their pain), and the SF-36 Health Survey. The treatment included warm water exercises, stretching, aerobic exercise, and relaxation, during two sessions of 45 min per week for 5 weeks. The patient experienced a significant decrease in pain, a significant increase in the strength of respiratory muscles, and improved quality of life. We conclude that aquatic rehabilitation can be used to improve the clinical condition of sickle cell anemia patients, and we encourage more research on this new treatment regime, in comparison with other types of therapies.

  17. Clinical intervention in aging: ethicolegal issues in assessing risk and benefit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Mallia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Pierre MalliaMedical School, University of Malta, Mater Dei Hospital, MaltaAbstract: The ethical dimension of treating the elderly, including risk–benefit analysis, focuses mainly on quality of life and end-of-life issues. These include arguments on advance directives and the concept of extraordinary treatments. This paper looks more closely at the philosophical approach to aging in order to address questions on the direction of research and issues such as longevity and social construction of the aging process. It is the way society moves to understand the value-laden choices on aging that directs the goals of treatment and research. Whilst these vary culturally, one has to reckon with a postmodern view of aging which may, in turn, reflect on the course of action of future care and research in aging. The paper canvasses how, in reality, four principles act as guidelines for moral discourse, and discusses how changing values in society decide this course of action.Keywords: aging, principles, decision-making, conflict, treatment, clinical decision-making, social construction 

  18. Disentangling the benefits of sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roze, Denis

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the evolutionary advantage of sexual reproduction remains one of the most fundamental questions in evolutionary biology. Most of the current hypotheses rely on the fact that sex increases genetic variation, thereby enhancing the efficiency of natural selection; an important body of theoretical work has defined the conditions under which sex can be favoured through this effect. Over the last decade, experimental evolution in model organisms has provided evidence that sex indeed allows faster rates of adaptation. A new study on facultatively sexual rotifers shows that increased rates of sex can be favoured during adaptation to new environmental conditions and explores the cause of this effect. The results provide support for the idea that the benefits of increasing genetic variation may compensate for the short-term costs of sexual reproduction.

  19. Life Quality of Hemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorallah Tahery

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patients with chronic and advanced kidney failure undergo hemodialysis treatment and because of various drug therapies have basic problems in their life style which affects their psychosocial operation. The purpose of this study was to determine the hemodialysis patients’ quality of life in Abadan and Khorramshahr in 2011. Methods: This is a cross - sectional study in which all patients (80 cases referring to Abadan and Khorramshahr hemodialysis clinics completed a questionnaire which included two sections of demographic data and kidney diseases quality of life (KDQOL. Data analysis was done using SPSS-17 software and statistical tests such as ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficient, and Independent T test were used. Results: The mean score of life quality of the participants was 47.22 ± 8.82 which indicates their low quality of life. Result showed that between quality of life and age (P = 0.04 & r = 0.5 and ESRD patience period (P=0.03 & r= 0.23, there exists a statistically significant relationship. A positive and significant association was also observed between education and quality of life (p= 0.003 and between income level and quality of life (P<0.0001. Conclusion: Life quality of Hemodialysis patients is low and authorities need to provide these patients with more social support and see into their welfare.

  20. 20 CFR 410.410 - Total disability due to pneumoconiosis, including statutory presumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Total Disability or Death Due to Pneumoconiosis § 410.410 Total disability due to pneumoconiosis, including statutory... their death. (For benefits to the eligible survivors of miners whose deaths are determined to have...