WorldWideScience

Sample records for benefit cost analysis

  1. QUANTIFYING BENEFITS FOR COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Attila GYORGY; Nicoleta VINTILA; Florian GAMAN

    2014-01-01

    Cost Benefit Analysis is one of the most widely used financial tools to select future investment projects in public and private sector. This method is based on comparing costs and benefits in terms of constant prices. While costs are easier to predict and monetize, the benefits should be identified not only in direct relation with the investment, but also widening the sphere of analysis to indirect benefits experienced by the community from the neighbourhood or the whole society. During finan...

  2. Cost benefit analysis cost effectiveness analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The comparison of various protection options in order to determine which is the best compromise between cost of protection and residual risk is the purpose of the ALARA procedure. The use of decision-aiding techniques is valuable as an aid to selection procedures. The purpose of this study is to introduce two rather simple and well known decision aiding techniques: the cost-effectiveness analysis and the cost-benefit analysis. These two techniques are relevant for the great part of ALARA decisions which need the use of a quantitative technique. The study is based on an hypothetical case of 10 protection options. Four methods are applied to the data

  3. Sustainability and cost - benefit analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Cesaltina

    1998-01-01

    In this paper I address the issue of incorporating environmental sustainability in project appraisal. I extend the results of Barbier, Markandya, and Pearce on 'operationalizing' a concept of sustainability into appraisal methods for practical decisionmaking. I generalize their results in two directions. First, I abandon their implicit assumption that benefits and costs of a given project in a given period depend only on the level of activity of the project in the same period. Second, I addre...

  4. Ethics and Cost-Benefit Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arler, Finn

    The purpose of this research report is threefold. Firstly, the author traces the origins and justification of cost-benefit analysis in moral and political philosophy. Secondly, he explain some of the basic features of cost-benefit analysis as a planning tool in a step-bystep presentation. Thirdly......, he presents and discusses some of the main ethical difficulties related to the use of cost-benefit analysis as a planning tool....

  5. Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    2010-01-01

    The future use of Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit (LCCB) analysis is discussed in this paper. A more complete analysis including not only the traditional factors and user costs, but also factors which are difficult to include in the analysis is needed in the future.......The future use of Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit (LCCB) analysis is discussed in this paper. A more complete analysis including not only the traditional factors and user costs, but also factors which are difficult to include in the analysis is needed in the future....

  6. Cost benefit analysis methods in public sector

    OpenAIRE

    Kinnunen, T.

    2016-01-01

    Cost-benefit analysis is an economic analysis tool that can be used to support public decision making, when there are several mutually exclusive alternatives being considered. It compares the monetary value of the benefits resulting from a specific project or policy with the costs accrued by it. However, it would appear that it is currently used mainly for investment projects, and not for analyzing public services. This thesis is a literature study on the use of cost-benefit analysis in the p...

  7. Cost-benefit analysis and valuation uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Håkansson, Cecilia

    2007-01-01

    This thesis addresses the economic trade-offs between hydropower and fish production, based on an empirical assessment of the costs and benefits of changing the water flow of the Ume/Vindel River in northern Sweden at a major hydropower plant in ways that would reduce its production of electricity but increase the number of wild salmon in the river. A theoretical framework for dynamic cost benefit analysis (CBA) is presented and applied to the salmon passage-hydropower production conflict. Th...

  8. Incremental ALARA cost/benefit computer analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commonwealth Edison Company has developed and is testing an enhanced Fortran Computer Program to be used for cost/benefit analysis of Radiation Reduction Projects at its six nuclear power facilities and Corporate Technical Support Groups. This paper describes a Macro-Diven IBM Mainframe Program comprised of two different types of analyses-an Abbreviated Program with fixed costs and base values, and an extended Engineering Version for a detailed, more through and time-consuming approach. The extended engineering version breaks radiation exposure costs down into two components-Health-Related Costs and Replacement Labor Costs. According to user input, the program automatically adjust these two cost components and applies the derivation to company economic analyses such as replacement power costs, carrying charges, debt interest, and capital investment cost. The results from one of more program runs using different parameters may be compared in order to determine the most appropriate ALARA dose reduction technique. Benefits of this particular cost / benefit analysis technique includes flexibility to accommodate a wide range of user data and pre-job preparation, as well as the use of proven and standardized company economic equations

  9. Environmentally based Cost-Benefit Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fundamentals of the basic elements of a new comprehensive economic assessment, MILA, developed in Sweden with inspiration from the Total Cost Assessment-model are presented. The core of the MILA approach is an expanded cost and benefit inventory. But MILA also includes a complementary addition of an internal waste stream analysis, a tool for evaluation of environmental conflicts in monetary terms, an extended time horizon and direct allocation of costs and revenues to products and processes. However, MILA does not ensure profitability for environmentally sound projects. Essentially, MILA is an approach of refining investment and profitability analysis of a project, investment or product. 109 refs., 38 figs

  10. Cost-Benefit Analysis in Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouter, N.

    2014-01-01

    In most western countries Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) is used to inform decision makers about positive and negative effects for society of transport policy options. However, the way CBA is perceived by different key individuals that use, carry out or study CBAs has received scant attention in the li

  11. Cost-benefit considerations in regulatory analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mubayi, V.; Sailor, V.; Anandalingam, G.

    1995-10-01

    Justification for safety enhancements at nuclear facilities, e.g., a compulsory backfit to nuclear power plants, requires a value-impact analysis of the increase in overall public protection versus the cost of implementation. It has been customary to assess the benefits in terms of radiation dose to the public averted by the introduction of the safety enhancement. Comparison of such benefits with the costs of the enhancement then requires an estimate of the monetary value of averted dose (dollars/person rem). This report reviews available information on a variety of factors that affect this valuation and assesses the continuing validity of the figure of $1000/person-rem averted, which has been widely used as a guideline in performing value-impact analyses. Factors that bear on this valuation include the health risks of radiation doses, especially the higher risk estimates of the BEIR V committee, recent calculations of doses and offsite costs by consequence codes for hypothesized severe accidents at U.S. nuclear power plants under the NUREG-1150 program, and recent information on the economic consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the Soviet Union and estimates of risk avoidance based on the willingness-to-pay criterion. The report analyzes these factors and presents results on the dollars/person-rem ratio arising from different assumptions on the values of these factors.

  12. Cost-benefit considerations in regulatory analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Justification for safety enhancements at nuclear facilities, e.g., a compulsory backfit to nuclear power plants, requires a value-impact analysis of the increase in overall public protection versus the cost of implementation. It has been customary to assess the benefits in terms of radiation dose to the public averted by the introduction of the safety enhancement. Comparison of such benefits with the costs of the enhancement then requires an estimate of the monetary value of averted dose (dollars/person rem). This report reviews available information on a variety of factors that affect this valuation and assesses the continuing validity of the figure of $1000/person-rem averted, which has been widely used as a guideline in performing value-impact analyses. Factors that bear on this valuation include the health risks of radiation doses, especially the higher risk estimates of the BEIR V committee, recent calculations of doses and offsite costs by consequence codes for hypothesized severe accidents at U.S. nuclear power plants under the NUREG-1150 program, and recent information on the economic consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the Soviet Union and estimates of risk avoidance based on the willingness-to-pay criterion. The report analyzes these factors and presents results on the dollars/person-rem ratio arising from different assumptions on the values of these factors

  13. A Comment on the Conference on Cost-Benefit Analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Gary S. Becker

    2000-01-01

    This comment discusses the importance of politics in understanding cost-benefit analysis. Economists frequently rely on a social planner model, under which cost-benefit analysis has a straightforward role, but a better model is the interest group competition model. In this model, cost-benefit analysis can be used to explain why some regulations are adopted and others are not. Further, cost-benefit analysis may also be useful for undermining misleading claims of self-interested political press...

  14. 48 CFR 570.402-6 - Cost-benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost-benefit analysis. 570... Continued Space Requirements 570.402-6 Cost-benefit analysis. (a) The cost-benefit analysis must consider...) Establish the prices for other potentially available properties by requesting each prospective offeror...

  15. 40 CFR 1502.23 - Cost-benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost-benefit analysis. 1502.23 Section 1502.23 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.23 Cost-benefit analysis. If a cost-benefit analysis relevant to the choice among...

  16. Why Is Cost-Benefit Analysis So Controversial?

    OpenAIRE

    Robert H. Frank

    2000-01-01

    The cost-benefit principle says we should take those actions, and only those actions, whose benefits exceed their costs. For many, this principle's commonsensical ring makes it hard to imagine how anyone could disagree. Yet critics of cost-benefit analysis are both numerous and outspoken. Many of them argue that cost-benefit analysis is unacceptable as a matter of principle. I begin by noting why many find this argument largely unpersuasive. I then examine several conventions adopted by cost-...

  17. Accounting for peak shifting in traditional cost-benefit analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Snarr, Hal W.; Axelsen, Dan

    2007-01-01

    When cost-benefit analysis fails to account for peak-shifting the benefits of road improvement options are miscalculated. Using theory from transportation economics, we derive a simple model that disaggregates the average daily equilibrium into peak, counter-peak, and off-peak equilibria. This paper demonstrates how accounting for peak-shifting improves the performance of cost-benefit analysis.

  18. Cost-benefit analysis in decision making for diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews certain current concepts and methods relating to benefit-risk analysis, in terms of economic costs and raidation risks to health, in relation to the benefits from diagnostic radiology in clinical medicine

  19. Feasibility of Benefit-Cost Analysis of Data Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Bruce D.

    1982-01-01

    A benefit-cost analysis of the 1970 census emphasizes the allocative uses of data. Precedents for evaluating the production, analysis and dissemination of forecasts and projections, data used for determining allocations, and physical monitoring data are discussed. Benefit-cost analysis' greatest potential value may be for social monitoring data.…

  20. A Multiple Account Framework For Cost-Benefit Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Prof Harry Campbell; Assoc Prof Richard Brown

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents a spreadsheet-based multiple account approach to cost-benefit analysis which incorporates all the usual concerns of cost-benefit analysts such as shadow-pricing to account for market failure, distribution of net benefits, sensitivity and risk analysis, cost of public funds, and environmental effects. The approach offers a number of advantages to both analysts and decision-makers, including transparency, a check on internal consistency and a detailed summary of project net b...

  1. Cost benefit analysis of power plant database integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cost benefit analysis of plant wide data integration allows utility management to evaluate integration and automation benefits from an economic perspective. With this evaluation, the utility can determine both the quantitative and qualitative savings that can be expected from data integration. The cost benefit analysis is then a planning tool which helps the utility to develop a focused long term implementation strategy that will yield significant near term benefits. This paper presents a flexible cost benefit analysis methodology which is both simple to use and yields accurate, verifiable results. Included in this paper is a list of parameters to consider, a procedure for performing the cost savings analysis, and samples of this procedure when applied to a utility. A case study is presented involving a specific utility where this procedure was applied. Their uses of the cost-benefit analysis are also described

  2. Costs of public funds in project cost-benefit analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Meunier, David; BEAUD, Mickaël; ROQUIGNY, Quentin

    2014-01-01

    Over the long term, sometimes on the scale of several centuries, transport investments will shape the fundamental character of the country, the quality of its environment and its ability to meet future challenges. This underscores the importance of making decisions in the most informed manner possible, making the best evaluation of the benefits they will provide and the costs they will engender, especially since their funding is largely based on public funds, a scarce resource in general and ...

  3. Cost-benefit analysis conducted for nutrition education in California

    OpenAIRE

    Block Joy, Amy; George GOLDMAN; Pradhan, Vijay

    2006-01-01

    Documenting the cost-effectiveness of nutrition education programs is important to justify and determine expenditures and ensure continued funding. A cost-benefit analysis was conducted using the program demographics and food-related dietary behavior of participants enrolled in California’s Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP), based on methodology developed by Virginia Cooperative Extension. The initial benefit-cost ratio for nutrition education in California was 14.67 to 1....

  4. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Electronic Information: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Gary W.; Crawford, Gregory A.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a study at Pennsylvania State University Harrisburg in which cost-benefit analysis (CBA) was used to examine the cost effectiveness of an electronic database. Concludes that librarians can use the results of CBA studies to justify budgets and acquisitions and to provide insight into the true costs of providing library services. (PEN)

  5. Cost-benefit analysis of wetland restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubgaard, Alex

    2004-01-01

    weighed against benefits? Economic valuation methods and CBA simplify the decision problem by reducing the various effects to single-valued commensurate magnitudes, which - in principle at least - facilitates the identification of a socially optimal solution. The main objective of this article is to...

  6. Cost-benefit analysis and non-utilitarian ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Rosemary Lowry; Martin Peterson

    2012-01-01

    Cost-benefit analysis is commonly understood to be intimately connected with utilitarianism and incompatible with other moral theories, particularly those that focus on deontological concepts such as rights. We reject this claim and argue that cost-benefit analysis can take moral rights as well as other non-utilitarian moral considerations into account in a systematic manner. We discuss three ways of doing this, and claim that two of them (output filters and input filters) can account for a w...

  7. Cost-Benefit Analysis and Relative Position

    OpenAIRE

    Sunstein, Cass Robert; Frank, Robert Allen

    2000-01-01

    Current estimates of regulatory benefits are too low, and likely far too low, because they ignore a central point about valuation - namely, that people care not only about their absolute economic position, but also about their relative economic position. We show that where the government currently pegs the value of a statistical life at about $4 million, it ought to employ a value between $4.7 million and $7 million. A conservative reading of the relevant evidence suggests that when governmen...

  8. Hypergolic Propellant Destruction Evaluation Cost Benefit Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    At space vehicle launch sites such as Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB), Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) and Kennedy Space Center (KSC), toxic vapors and hazardous liquid wastes result from the handling of commodities (hypergolic fuels and oxidizers), most notably from transfer operations where fuel and oxidizer are transferred from bulk storage tanks or transfer tankers to space launch vehicles. During commodity transfer at CCAFS and KSC, wet chemical scrubbers (typically containing four scrubbing towers) are used to neutralize fuel saturated vapors from vent systems on tanks and tanker trailers. For fuel vapors, a citric acid solution is used to scrub out most of the hydrazine. Operation of both the hypergolic fuel and oxidizer vapor scrubbers generates waste scrubber liquor. Currently, scrubber liquor from the fuel vapor scrubber is considered non-hazardous. The scrubber liquor is defined as spent citric acid scrubber solution; the solution contains complexed hydrazine I methylhydrazine and is used to neutralize nonspecification hypergolic fuel generated by CCAFS and KSC. This project is a collaborative effort between Air Force Space Command (AFSPC), Space and Missile Center (SMC), the CCAFS, and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to evaluate microwave destruction technology for the treatment of non-specification hypergolic fuel generated at CCAFS and KSC. The project will capitalize on knowledge gained from microwave treatment work being accomplished by AFSPC and SMC at V AFB. This report focuses on the costs associated with the current non-specification hypergolic fuel neutralization process (Section 2.0) as well as the estimated costs of operating a mobile microwave unit to treat non-specification hypergolic fuel (Section 3.0), and compares the costs for each (Section 4.0).The purpose of this document is to assess the costs associated with waste hypergolic fuel. This document will report the costs associated with the current fuel

  9. The benefits of integrating cost-benefit analysis and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has increasingly been recognized that knowledge of risks in the absence of benefits and costs cannot dictate appropriate public policy choices. Recent evidence of this recognition includes the proposed EPA Risk Assessment and Cost-Benefit Analysis Act of 1995, a number of legislative changes in Canada and the US, and the increasing demand for field studies combining measures of impacts, risks, costs and benefits. Failure to consider relative environmental and human health risks, benefits, and costs in making public policy decisions has resulted in allocating scarce resources away from areas offering the highest levels of risk reduction and improvements in health and safety. The authors discuss the implications of not taking costs and benefits into account in addressing environmental risks, drawing on examples from both Canada and the US. The authors also present the results of their recent field work demonstrating the advantages of considering costs and benefits in making public policy and site remediation decisions, including a study on the benefits and costs of prevention, remediation and monitoring techniques applied to groundwater contamination; the benefits and costs of banning the use of chlorine; and the benefits and costs of Canada's concept of disposing of high-level nuclear waste. The authors conclude that a properly conducted Cost-Benefit Analysis can provide critical input to a Risk Assessment and can ensure that risk management decisions are efficient, cost-effective and maximize improvement to environmental and human health

  10. Cost-benefit analysis in decision making for diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diagnostic medical radiation represents the largest source of man-made radiation exposure to the general population. A brief review is given of certain current concepts and methods relating to benefit-risk analysis, in terms of economic costs and radiation risks to health, in relation to the benefits from diagnostic radiology in clinical medicine. (U.K.)

  11. Infrastructures and Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    2012-01-01

    Design and maintenance of infrastructures using Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit analysis is discussed in this paper with special emphasis on users costs. This is for several infrastructures such as bridges, highways etc. of great importance. Repair or/and failure of infrastructures will usually result in...

  12. Special waste disposal in Austria - cost benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present situation of special waste disposal in Austria is summarized for radioactive and nonradioactive wastes. A cost benefit analysis for regulary collection, transport and disposal of industrial wastes, especially chemical wastes is given and the cost burden for the industry is calculated. (A.N.)

  13. Combined multi-criteria and cost-benefit analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moshøj, Claus Rehfeld

    1996-01-01

    The paper is an introduction to both theory and application of combined Cost-Benefit and Multi-Criteria Analysis. The first section is devoted to basic utility theory and its practical application in Cost-Benefit Analysis. Based on some of the problems encountered, arguments in favour of the...... application of utility-based Multi-Criteria Analyses methods as an extension and refinement of the traditional Cost-Benefit Analysis are provided. The theory presented in this paper is closely related the methods used in the WARP software (Leleur & Jensen, 1989). The presentation is however wider in scope.......The second section introduces the stated preference methodology used in WARP to create weight profiles for project pool sensitivity analysis. This section includes a simple example. The third section discusses how decision makers can get a priori aid to make their pair-wise comparisons based on project pool...

  14. Comparative analysis of EPA cost-benefit methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poch, L.; Gillette, J.; Veil, J.

    1998-05-01

    In recent years, reforming the regulatory process has received much attention from diverse groups such as environmentalists, the government, and industry. A cost-benefit analysis can be a useful way to organize and compare the favorable and unfavorable impacts a proposed action night have on society. Since 1981, two Executive Orders have required the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other regulatory agencies to perform cost-benefit analyses in support of regulatory decision making. At the EPA, a cost-benefit analysis is published as a document called a regulatory impact analysis (RIA). This report reviews cost-benefit methodologies used by three EPA program offices: Office of Air and Radiation, Office of Solid Waste, and Office of Water. These offices were chosen because they promulgate regulations that affect the policies of this study`s sponsor (U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy) and the technologies it uses. The study was conducted by reviewing 11 RIAs recently published by the three offices and by interviewing staff members in the offices. To draw conclusions about the EPA cost-benefit methodologies, their components were compared with those of a standard methodology (i.e., those that should be included in a comprehensive cost-benefit methodology). This study focused on the consistency of the approaches as well as their strengths and weaknesses, since differences in the cost-benefit methodologies themselves or in their application can cause confusion and preclude consistent comparison of regulations both within and among program offices.

  15. Cost-benefit Analysis for Modernization the Agricultural Working Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei C. COVRIG

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available To achieve this CBA we use a series of specific steps and process documentation and references provided by the guide in preparation for submission of projects CBA as 125/FEADR/2010. The content of the cost-benefit analysis it is described in the document developed by the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development ”Recommendations for developing cost-benefit analysis”. For a clear image of thesituation described in the project we will try to analyze three scenarios. The method used in developing the financial analysis is ” discounted cash flow ”. The chosen project is an example, but the dates and figures are real.

  16. cost-benefit analysis of legumes irradiation processing in egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the economics of legumes irradiation such as Chickpea,Lupin,Kidny Bean and broad and the effect of various parameters on unit processing costs. It provides a model for calculating specific unit processing costs by correlating known capital costs with annual operation cost an annual throughputs. We analysed the cost-benefit of the proposed grain irradiation facility. We took into account the cost of the capital investment, operation and other additional parameters and then estimated the unit processing cost. The investment criteria utilized for commercial evaluation were internal rate of return (I.I.R), pay back period (P.B.P), and average rate of return (A.R.R). The irradiation cost and the additional income are also discussed. The results of this analysis showed that the installation of an irradiation unit for legumes processing in Egypt would be economically feasible

  17. Cost benefit analysis in diagnostic radiology: glossary and definitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cost efficiency analyses in clinical radiology require the application of methods and techniques that are not yet part of the academic qualifications of the specialists. The procedures used are borrowed from economics, decision theory, applied social sciences, epidemiology and statistics. Many expressions hail from the angloamerican literature and are presently not yet germanized unequivocally. This survey is intended to present main terms of cost efficiency analysis in the English version as well as a German translation, to give a clear definition and, if necessary, explanatory notes, and to illustrate their application by means of concrete radiologic examples. The selection of the terms is based on the hierarchical models of health technology assessment resp. clinical outcome research by Fryback and Thronbury resp. Maisey and Hutton. In concrete terms, both the differences between benefit, outcomes, and utility and the differences between effectiveness, efficacy and efficiency and the differences between direct, indirect, intangible, and marginal costs are explained. True cost efficiency analysis is compared with cost effectiveness analysis, cost identification analysis, cost minimization analysis, and cost utility analysis. Applied social sciences are represented by the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 and the QALY conception. From decision theory both the analysis of hypothetical alternatives and the Markov model are taken. Finally, sensitivity analysis and the procedures of combined statistical evaluation of comparable results (meta-analysis) are quoted. (orig.)

  18. Benefit-cost analysis of the Indian Family Welfare Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, K R

    1984-01-01

    Periodic benefit-cost analyses of a family welfare program are essential to evaluate its effectiveness and identify areas in need of modification. Such analyses should include both an assessment of the demographic effectiveness of the family planning program and an economic analysis of its results. This paper reports on a benefit-cost analysis of the Family Welfare Program in India. Information is given on family welfare expenditures, the number of sterilzations performed, and the number of births averted in the 1966-79 period. The number of births averted was highest in 1972-73 (101.40 lakhs) and 1976-77 (259.90 lakhs), the 2 years in which the greatest number of sterilizations were performed. The benefit-cost ratio has declined from 82.06 to 7.05 in the 1966-79 period. This ratio was derived from data on family welfare expenditures and the value of averted births. The benefit-cost ratio growth rate has been -17%, indicating that benefits are not increasing with increases in expenditures. Projections for the 1980-2001 period suggest that the benefit-cost ratio will slightly increase to 11.31 in 1980-81 but again gradually decline to 8.75 by 2001. It is noted that this analysis fails to consider the impact of the family welfare program on productivity, capital accumulation, health status, and nutritional status, all of which have represented important assests. On the other hand, the average annual population growth rate of 2.23% indicated by the 1981 Census clearly points to a need to increase the number of family planning acceptors in India so that benefits are accelerated. PMID:12267873

  19. A cost-benefit analysis of spent fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The back end of the fuel cycle is an area of economic risk for utilities having nuclear power plants to generate electricity. A cost-benefit analysis is a method by which utilities can evaluate advantages and drawbacks of alternative back end fuel cycle strategies. The present paper analyzes how spent fuel management can influence the risks and costs incurred by a utility over the lifetime of its power plants and recommends a recycling strategy. (author)

  20. Cost-Benefit analysis of the chosen capital project

    OpenAIRE

    Havelka, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is considered as well known and valuable analytical tool providing information for coherent decision making process. Project or policy is assessed through the procedures within CBA framework and decision makers make judgments whether undertake project or policy or not upon calculated socio economic indicators.

  1. Dual discounting in cost-benefit analysis for environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discounting has been a long-established intertemporal efficiency tool in cost-benefit analysis which focuses on project selection at communal level with a view to maximising the social welfare. However, with the relentless growth in environmental stress that, in good parts, stems from investment projects the established criterion in discounting appears to be inadequate especially when environmental issues are taken into consideration. This paper looks at how dual focus on efficiency and sustainability can be achieved by using dual discounting, i.e. discounting environmental benefits separately and differently from other costs and benefits and applies this alternative criterion to an afforestation scheme in the United Kingdom which contains carbon sequestration in addition to timber benefits.

  2. New nuclear power generation in the UK: Cost benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides an economic analysis of possible nuclear new build in the UK. It compares costs and benefits of nuclear new build against conventional gas-fired generation and low carbon technologies (CCS, wind, etc.). A range of scenarios are considered to allow for uncertainty as regards nuclear and other technology costs, gas prices and carbon prices. In the base case, the analysis suggests that there is a small cost penalty for new nuclear generation relative to conventional gas-fired generation, but that this is offset by environmental and security of supply benefits. More generally nuclear new build has a positive net benefit for a range of plausible nuclear costs, gas prices and carbon prices. This supports the UK policy of developing an enabling framework for nuclear new build in a market-based context. To the extent that assumptions in the analysis are not borne out in reality (e.g. as regards nuclear cost), this is a no regrets policy, given that the market would not invest in nuclear if it is prohibitively costly

  3. Economic Position Does Not Matter: A Cost-Benefit Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Crocker, Keith J; John R. Moran

    2002-01-01

    September 2002 (Revised October 2002). Executive Summary: The current debate over cost-benefit concerns in agencies’ evaluations of government regulations is not so much whether to consider costs and benefits at all but rather what belongs in the estimated costs and benefits. Overlaid is the long-standing belief that the distribution of costs and benefits needs some consideration in policy evaluations. In a recent article in the University of Chicago Law Review, Robert Frank and Cass Sunstein...

  4. Cost-benefit analysis in animal disease control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Animal health economics is a relatively new discipline which is progressively developing a solid framework of concepts, procedures and data to support the decision making process in optimizing animal health management. Research in this field deals primarily with three interrelated aspects: (1) quantifying the financial effects of animal diseases, (2) developing methods for optimizing decisions when individual animals, herds or populations are affected, and (3) determining the costs and benefits of disease control measures. In the paper the four most common economic modelling techniques in animal health economics (i.e. partial budgeting, cost-benefit analysis, decision analysis, and systems simulation) are described and applied on three levels of veterinary decision making: the animal, herd and national level. Outcomes so far are summarized, and shortcomings indicated and discussed. The importance of a close link between economics and epidemiology is stressed for future development, as well as the need for, and possibilities of, an international exchange of models and procedures. (author)

  5. EPA's Use of Benefit-cost Analysis: 1981-1986

    OpenAIRE

    Brett Snyder

    1996-01-01

    EPA's central mission is to carry out its various statutory directives to protect the nation's health, welfare, and environment from the risks posed by pollution. Because the nation's resources are limited, EPA seeks to the extent legally permitted to direct those resources towards the actions that will produce the greatest reductions in environmental risk. Benefit-cost analysis is one of the analytic tools that the Agency uses to help make these environmental decisions. This 1987 report exam...

  6. Social Cost Benefit Analysis for Environmental Policy-Making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Review of the theoretical literature and the current debate on the valuation of environmental goods and services, on the discounting of future benefits and costs, and on how social cost benefit analysis (SCBAs) can be integrated in the policy and decision making process. It is concluded that SCBA can be a good decision support method in environmental policy-making if it is transparent and if all impacts are taken into account. Furthermore, the SCBA process should be participative, and politicians must be prepared to take responsibility for the assumptions behind the SCBA, including the assumptions on valuation and on the discount rate. Such a political role makes each SCBA a unique product of a politically responsible actor, and makes it possible for other stakeholders to have calculated an alternative SCBA based on their own assumptions. This Background Study also contains the proceedings of the international SCBA conference organised by RMNO on 16-17 January 2008

  7. Terrorism risks and cost-benefit analysis of aviation security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Mark G; Mueller, John

    2013-05-01

    We evaluate, for the U.S. case, the costs and benefits of three security measures designed to reduce the likelihood of a direct replication of the 9/11 terrorist attacks. To do so, we assess risk reduction, losses, and security costs in the context of the full set of security layers. The three measures evaluated are installed physical secondary barriers (IPSB) to restrict access to the hardened cockpit door during door transitions, the Federal Air Marshal Service (FAMS), and the Federal Flight Deck Officer (FFDO) Program. In the process, we examine an alternate policy measure: doubling the budget of the FFDO program to $44 million per year, installing IPSBs in all U.S. aircraft at a cost of $13.5 million per year, and reducing funding for FAMS by 75% to $300 million per year. A break-even cost-benefit analysis then finds the minimum probability of an otherwise successful attack required for the benefit of each security measures to equal its cost. We find that the IPSB is costeffective if the annual attack probability of an otherwise successful attack exceeds 0.5% or one attack every 200 years. The FFDO program is costeffective if the annual attack probability exceeds 2%. On the other hand, more than two otherwise successful attacks per year are required for FAMS to be costeffective. A policy that includes IPSBs, an increased budget for FFDOs, and a reduced budget for FAMS may be a viable policy alternative, potentially saving hundreds of millions of dollars per year with consequences for security that are, at most, negligible. PMID:23035984

  8. Cost-benefit analysis of reforming Israel's electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In June 2003, the Israeli government decided to reform the Israeli electricity industry, which is currently dominated by Israel electric corporation (IEC), a government-owned vertically integrated electric utility. The first step of the planned reform will be taken in 2006, when IEC will be functionally separated into generation, transmission, local distribution, and customer services. Immediately thereafter will be the second step, which by 2012 will result in the deregulation and privatization of the wholesale generation and customer services. Transmission and distribution (T and D) services will remain regulated but will be available to all T and D users under mandatory open access. This paper summarizes a cost-benefit analysis of the government's reform plan. Relative to a regulated regime, the government's plan, even if carried out flawlessly, may only yield a small net benefit. However, it entails a large increase in electricity producer profit and government tax receipt, at the expense of electricity consumers. A less-than-perfect transition to competition can easily wipe out the potential gain of the government plan. Market reform experience to date shows that electricity market reform can easily fail, and the factors for success do not exist in Israel. Since the outcome of a failing reform can be disastrous, it will be imprudent to implement the government's plan in 2006, when the current electricity law expires. Hence, we recommend performance-based regulation for the period of 2006-2010. Subject to an updated cost-benefit analysis, possible decentralization, privatization and competition may follow

  9. Cost-benefit analysis for gas infrastructure projects

    OpenAIRE

    Keyaerts, Nico; Glachant, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-01

    QM-AI-14-003-EN-C QM-AI-14-003-EN-N • To reinvigorate the building of new gas infrastructure in Europe, the Euro­pean Union has introduced ‘projects of common interest’ (PCI) in its Energy Infrastructure Package. These PCIs will be evaluated and selected on the basis of systematic cost-benefit analysis (CBA), a method that is novel for the Euro­pean gas industry. A consistent gas-CBA method has to be designed by ENT­SOG, who published a preliminary draft method for public consultation o...

  10. Cost-benefit analysis for combined heat and power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents a methodology and practical application of Cost-Benefit Analysis for Combined Heat and Power Plant (Cogeneration facility). Methodology include up-to-date and real data for cogeneration plant in accordance with the trends ill development of the CHP technology. As a case study a CHP plant that could be built-up in Republic of Macedonia is analyzed. The main economic parameters for project evaluation, such as NPV and IRR are calculated for a number of possible scenarios. The analyze present the economic outputs that could be used as a decision for CHP project acceptance for investment. (Author)

  11. A Comparison of Benefit Cost and Cost Utility Analysis in Practice: Divergent Policies in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Hultkrantz, Lars; Svensson, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    We compare state-of-the-art implementation of Benefit Cost Analysis (BCA) and Cost Utility Analysis (CUA) as tools for making priorities in allocation of national public funds in the transport sector and health sector, respectively, in Sweden. While the principal distinctions between these methods are well known, less notice has been given to a number of other differences that have emerged as national and international practices have evolved over time along separate lines. We compare cost and...

  12. Cost-benefit analysis of avian influenza control in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, S; Lupiani, B; Budke, C M; Karki, N P S; Rushton, J; Ivanek, R

    2015-12-01

    Numerous outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza A strain H5N1 have occurred in Nepal since 2009 despite implementation of a national programme to control the disease through surveillance and culling of infected poultry flocks. The objective of the study was to use cost-benefit analysis to compare the current control programme (CCP) with the possible alternatives of: i) no intervention (i.e., absence of control measures [ACM]) and ii) vaccinating 60% of the national poultry flock twice a year. In terms of the benefit-cost ratio, findings indicate a return of US $1.94 for every dollar spent in the CCP compared with ACM. The net present value of the CCP versus ACM, i.e., the amount of money saved by implementing the CCP rather than ACM, is US $861,507 (the benefits of CCP [prevented losses which would have occurred under ACM] minus the cost of CCP). The vaccination programme yields a return of US $2.32 for every dollar spent when compared with the CCR The net present value of vaccination versus the CCP is approximately US $12 million. Sensitivity analysis indicated thatthe findings were robust to different rates of discounting, whereas results were sensitive to the assumed market loss and the number of birds affected in the outbreaks under the ACM and vaccination options. Overall, the findings of the study indicate that the CCP is economically superior to ACM, but that vaccination could give greater economic returns and may be a better control strategy. Future research should be directed towards evaluating the financial feasibility and social acceptability of the CCP and of vaccination, with an emphasis on evaluating market reaction to the presence of H5N1 infection in the country. PMID:27044153

  13. Modelling User-Costs in Life Cycle Cost-Benefit (LCCB) analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    2008-01-01

    The importance of including user's costs in Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit analysis of structures is discussed in this paper. This is especially for bridges of great importance. Repair or/and failure of a bridge will usually result in user costs greater than the repair or replacement costs of the bridge....... For the society (and the user's) it is therefore of great importance that maintenance or replacement of a bridge is performed in such a way that all costs are minimized - not only the owners cost....

  14. Cost-benefit analysis and the greenhouse effect

    OpenAIRE

    Clive L Spash; Hanley, Nick

    1994-01-01

    This paper looks at the growing concern over Greenhouse Gas emissions and the resulting human induced climate change. The background to a cost-benefit approach is sketched in terms of the scientific understanding and expected impacts. Then the theory behind a cost-benefit approach is explained and some of the studies and their results are critically presented. In the final section the concern for future generations is raised and a cost-benefit approach is shown to violate a right of the in...

  15. ECONOMIC GROWTH – A COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Obreja

    2011-01-01

    This article identifies the theoretical aspects related to the process of growth, definition, determinant factors, costs and benefits genereted by economic growth, hierarchy of the EU countries based on various indicators that quantify the economic growth.

  16. IAEA Safeguards: Cost/benefit analysis of commercial satellite imagery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major milestone in the efforts to strengthen the Safeguards System was reached in May 1997 when the Board of Governors approved a 'Model Protocol Additional to Safeguards Agreements'. The Protocol provides the legal basis necessary to enhance the Agency's ability to detect undeclared nuclear material and activities by using information available from open sources to complement the declarations made by Member States. Commercially available high-resolution satellite data has emerged as one potential complementary open information source to support the traditional and extended Safeguard activities of IAEA. This document constitutes a first report from SSC Satellitbild giving the Agency tentative and initial estimates of the potential cost and time-savings possible with the new proposed technology. The initial cost/benefit simulation will be further finalised in the following 'Implementation Blueprint' study. The general foundation and starting point for the cost/benefit calculation is to simulate a new efficient and relatively small 'imagery unit' within the IAEA, capable of performing advanced image processing as a tool for various safeguards tasks. The image processing capacity is suggested to be task- and interpretation-oriented. The study was performed over a period of 1,5 weeks in late 1998, and is based upon interviews of IAEA staff, reviews of existing IAEA documentation as well as from SSC Satellitbild's long-standing experience of satellite imagery and field missions. The cost/benefit analysis is based on a spreadsheet simulation of five potential applications of commercial satellite imagery: Reference information; Confirmation of Agency acquired and Member State supplied data; Change detection and on-going monitoring; Assessing open source information available to the Agency; Detecting undeclared activities and undeclared sites. The study confirms that the proposed concept of a relatively small 'imagery unit' using high-resolution data will be a sound and

  17. Predicting travel time variability for cost-benefit analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Peer; C. Koopmans; E.T. Verhoef

    2010-01-01

    Unreliable travel times cause substantial costs to travelers. Nevertheless, they are not taken into account in many cost-benefit-analyses (CBA), or only in very rough ways. This paper aims at providing simple rules on how variability can be predicted, based on travel time data from Dutch highways. T

  18. Cost-benefit Analysis of Chestnut Production in Xingtai County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuji; JIN

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of market demand survey of chestnut,this article carries out cost-benefit analysis of the chestnut production in Xingtai County,to understand the profitability and payback period of local chestnut production.It points out that chestnut production has a high rate of return on investment,and chestnut can be promoted on a large scale in Xingtai County.However,there are still some problems in the production and marketing of chestnut in Xingtai County,such as low level of technology,extensive management,low level of organization,market imperfections and weak brand consciousness.Based on these problems,corresponding recommendations are put forth.

  19. Cost benefit analysis for remediation of a nuclear industry landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An old landfill site, licensed to receive inert construction waste, is situated on the top of hard rock cliffs adjacent to the sea at the Dounreay nuclear facility in Scotland. During restoration and investigation work at the landfill, radioactively contaminated material and asbestos was identified. UKAEA subsequently investigated the feasibility of remediating the landfill with the aim of removing any remaining radioactive or otherwise-contaminated material. The cost of landfill remediation would be considerable, making Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) an ideal tool for assessing remediation options. The overall conclusion of the CBA, from a remedial decision making point of view, is that the remediation objective for the landfill should be to reduce any impacts to the current receptors through a comprehensive pathway control scheme. This would be considerably less expensive than even a limited source removal approach. Aggressive source removal objectives are not likely to be economic, even under the most conservative assumptions. A natural monitored attenuation approach will not be economic. All remediation options are considered assuming compliance with the existing regulatory requirements to monitor and cap the landfill before and after closure

  20. A Cost-Benefit Analysis of an Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    Darren McHugh

    2006-01-01

    This paper attempts to estimate the net benefit to Canada of the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic Games. Two particular classes of problems in Olympic CBA are studied in detail. The first is the unique nature of project dependency in an Olympic Games, and this is surmounted by the classification of Olympic-related costs and benefits as "Event-related" or "Infrastructure-related", with rules for handing each in the context of a CBA for an Olympic Games. The second is the estimation of net benefit...

  1. Predicting Travel Time Variability for Cost-Benefit Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Van Peer, S; Koopmans, C.C.; Verhoef, E.T.

    2010-01-01

    Unreliable travel times cause substantial costs to travelers. Nevertheless, they are not taken into account in many cost-benefit-analyses (CBA), or only in very rough ways. This paper aims at providing simple rules on how variability can be predicted, based on travel time data from Dutch highways. The paper uses two different concepts of travel time variability. They differ in their assumptions on information availability to drivers. The first measure is based on the assumption that, for a gi...

  2. Cost-Benefit Analysis: Why Relative Economic Position Does Not Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas J. Kniesner; Viscusi, W Kip

    2002-01-01

    For the original paper by Frank and Sunstein, see "Cost Benefit Analysis and Relative Position." For a related paper, see Besharov, "Three Questions About the Economics of Relative Position." The current debate over cost-benefit concerns in agencies' evaluations of government regulations is not so much whether to consider costs and benefits at all but rather what belongs in the estimated costs and benefits themselves. Overlaid is the long-standing concern that the distribution of costs and be...

  3. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Computer Resources for Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    Machine learning describes pattern-recognition algorithms - in this case, probabilistic neural networks (PNNs). These can be computationally intensive, in part because of the nonlinear optimizer, a numerical process that calibrates the PNN by minimizing a sum of squared errors. This report suggests efficiencies that are expressed as cost and benefit. The cost is computer time needed to calibrate the PNN, and the benefit is goodness-of-fit, how well the PNN learns the pattern in the data. There may be a point of diminishing returns where a further expenditure of computer resources does not produce additional benefits. Sampling is suggested as a cost-reduction strategy. One consideration is how many points to select for calibration and another is the geometric distribution of the points. The data points may be nonuniformly distributed across space, so that sampling at some locations provides additional benefit while sampling at other locations does not. A stratified sampling strategy can be designed to select more points in regions where they reduce the calibration error and fewer points in regions where they do not. Goodness-of-fit tests ensure that the sampling does not introduce bias. This approach is illustrated by statistical experiments for computing correlations between measures of roadless area and population density for the San Francisco Bay Area. The alternative to training efficiencies is to rely on high-performance computer systems. These may require specialized programming and algorithms that are optimized for parallel performance.

  4. Cost-Benefit Analysis for Alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2007-01-01

    NASA and Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) have similar missions and therefore similar facilities and structures in similar environments. The standard practice for protecting metallic substrates in atmospheric environments is the application of an applied coating system. The most common topcoats used in coating systems are polyurethanes that contain isocyanates. Isocyanates are classified as potential human carcinogens and are known to cause cancer in animals. The primary objective of this effort was to demonstrate and validate alternatives to aliphatic isocyanate polyurethanes resulting in one or more isocyanate-free coatings qualified for use at AFSPC and NASA installations participating in this project. This Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) quantifies the estimated capital and process costs of coating alternatives and cost savings relative to the current coatings. The estimates in this CBA are to be used for assessing the relative merits of the selected alternatives. The actual economic effects at any specific facility will depend on the alternative material or technology implemented, the number of actual applications converted, future workloads, and other factors . The participants initially considered eighteen (18) alternative coatings as described in the Potential Alternatives Report entitled Potential Alternatives Report for Validation of Alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes, prepared by ITB. Of those, 8 alternatives were selected for testing in accordance with the Joint Test Protocol entitled Joint Test Protocol for Validation of Alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes, and the Field Test Plan entitled Field Evaluations Test Plan for Validation of Alternatives 10 Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes, both of which were prepared by ITB. A joint Test Report entitled Joint Test Report for Validation of Alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes, prepared by ITB, documents the results of the laboratory and field testing, as well as any

  5. The Cost-Benefit Analysis of Government Loams

    OpenAIRE

    Robert J. Brent

    1991-01-01

    A neglected area of cost-benefit theory is the evaluation of federal government loans Abstract to finance private investment. This article builds on a model by Feldstein (1973) which disaggregated public investment decisions into two parts; one is the expenditure on the good to be purchased by the loan, and the other is the loan itself. The main new result is that distributional considerations can be divorced from economic efficiency in making the first (expenditure) decision. Distributional ...

  6. Cost benefit analysis of the demand side management programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The several cost and benefit components of the demand side management programs for the society groups, including the concessionaire, consumers and society as a whole are studied. The rule evaluations of management programs by demand side, used by North American concessionaire are also discussed. Finally, the numerical examples, that consolidating the concepts and rules evaluation are presented. (C.G.C.). 5 refs, 1 fig, 3 tabs

  7. Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Updating the Commercial Building Energy Code in North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, Katherine A.; Belzer, David B.; Winiarski, David W.; Richman, Eric E.

    2004-04-30

    The state of North Dakota is considering updating its commercial building energy code. This report evaluates the potential costs and benefits to North Dakota residents from updating and requiring compliance with ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2001. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits and costs are assessed in the analysis. Energy and economic impacts are estimated using the Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics (BLAST simulation combined with a Life-cycle Cost (LCC) approach to assess correspodning economic costs and benefits.

  8. Economic impact analysis for global warming: Sensitivity analysis for cost and benefit estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proper policies for the prevention or mitigation of the effects of global warming require profound analysis of the costs and benefits of alternative policy strategies. Given the uncertainty about the scientific aspects of the process of global warming, in this paper a sensitivity analysis for the impact of various estimates of costs and benefits of greenhouse gas reduction strategies is carried out to analyze the potential social and economic impacts of climate change

  9. A cost-benefit analysis of demand for food.

    OpenAIRE

    Hursh, S R; Raslear, T G; Shurtleff, D; Bauman, R; Simmons, L

    1988-01-01

    Laboratory studies of consumer demand theory require assumptions regarding the definition of price in the absence of a medium of exchange (money). In this study we test the proposition that the fundamental dimension of price is a cost-benefit ratio expressed as the effort expended per unit of food value consumed. Using rats as subjects, we tested the generality of this "unit price" concept by varying four dimensions of price: fixed-ratio schedule, number of food pellets per fixed-ratio comple...

  10. Chest X-ray : a cost-diagnostic benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although plain chest radiography is one of the most useful diagnostic tools available to the physician, this procedure has not evolved into a consistent method. Two Large Field of View Image Intensifiers (LFOV-II) became available; the large imaging area makes them suitable for chest imaging. Both modalities supply 100 mm images to the radiologist. In this thesis the 'diagnostic benefits and 'costs' of these modalities are evaluated and related to the 'gold' standard (conventional full-size). The emphasis is on diagnostic image quality using phantoms for observer performance qualities. (author). 170 refs.; 21 figs.; 47 tabs

  11. Renewable energy sources cost benefit analysis and prospects for Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In light of Italy's over-dependency on imported oil, and due to this nation's commitment to the pursuit of the strict environmental protection policies of the European Communities, ENEL (the Italian National Electricity Board) has become actively involved in research efforts aimed at the commercialization of renewable energy sources - photovoltaic, wind, biomass, and mini-hydraulic. Through the use of energy production cost estimates based on current and near- future levels of technological advancement, this paper assesses prospects for the different sources. The advantages and disadvantages of each source in its use as a suitable complementary energy supply satisfying specific sets of constraints regarding siting, weather, capital and operating costs, maintenance, etc., are pointed out. In comparing the various alternatives, the paper also considers environmental benefits and commercialization feasibility in terms of time and outlay

  12. Monetary evaluation of radiation detriment cost in cost/benefit analysis of protective actions after nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the monetary evaluation of radiation detriment cost in the cost/benefit analyses of countermeasures after nuclear accidents. The methods used to determine the so-called α factor in cost/benefit analysis are presented. It is pointed out that the approaches found in current literature to the consideration of individual dose in cost-benefit analyses have some limitations. To overcome those deficiencies, we introduced the concept of individual dose evaluation function in this paper. In addition, we developed a modified approach to cost-benefit analyses of protective actions after nuclear accidents. (author)

  13. Cost/benefit analysis of eliminating poison control in LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the economics of power generation determines, to a large extent,a utility's choice of reactor systems, the cost of electricity from a spectral shift control (SSC) reactor is a crucial measure of the SSC reactor's competitiveness. Thus, a preliminary cost analysis is an important part of our overall assessment. The economic comparisons in this work focus on the cost differences between a standard pressurized water reactor (PWR) and the breeder/moderator controlled/burner light water reactor (BMB-LWR) design concept. The BMB-LWR is a typical large current design PWR with a minimum of changes. The BMB-LWR does not use any poison for reactivity control in the cycle length range of interest (1 to 2 yr) and uses soluble poison only for refueling purposes, to provide a sufficient additional negative reactivity margin to supplement the water displacement system. However, the water displacement system is very similar to the control rod system from a mechanical design point of view, differing mainly in the characteristics of the in-core control pins. Mixing both poison and displacer pins in the same core introduces added complexity, but not necessarily at a large cost impact; e.g., the advanced PWR has substantial water displacement control components, whereas the BMB-LWR primarily increases the displacer-to-poison ratio. The annual credits and penalties of replacing the standard PWR with the BMB-LWR concept are covered in the analysis

  14. Using Benefit-Cost Analysis to Assess Child Abuse Prevention and Intervention Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnick, Robert D.; Deppman, Laurie

    1999-01-01

    Presents a case for using benefit-cost analysis to structure evaluations of child-abuse prevention and intervention programs. Presents the basic concept of benefit-cost analysis, its application in the context of assessing these types of child welfare programs, and limitations on its application to social service programs. (Author)

  15. 7 CFR 2.71 - Director, Office of Risk Assessment and Cost-Benefit Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Chief Economist § 2.71 Director, Office of Risk Assessment and Cost-Benefit Analysis. (a) Delegations..., Office of Risk Assessment and Cost-Benefit Analysis: (1) Responsible for assessing the risks to human... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Director, Office of Risk Assessment and...

  16. Cost-benefit analysis of green roofs in urban areas : case study in Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Nurmi, VÀinö; Votsis, Athanasios; Perrels, Adriaan; LehvÀvirta, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This report presents a green roof cost-benefit analysis. Green roofs are roofs that are partially (or almost completely) covered with vegetation; between the roofing membrane and the vegetation there may be several technical layers. In this report we discuss the benefits and costs of lightweight self-sustaining vegetated roofs that do not require structural modifications from the building. The costs and benefits have been analysed in Helsinki, Finland. Green roofs o...

  17. Life-cycle preferences over consumption and health: when is cost-effectiveness analysis equivalent to cost-benefit analysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleichrodt, H; Quiggin, J

    1999-12-01

    This paper studies life-cycle preferences over consumption and health status. We show that cost-effectiveness analysis is consistent with cost-benefit analysis if the lifetime utility function is additive over time, multiplicative in the utility of consumption and the utility of health status, and if the utility of consumption is constant over time. We derive the conditions under which the lifetime utility function takes this form, both under expected utility theory and under rank-dependent utility theory, which is currently the most important nonexpected utility theory. If cost-effectiveness analysis is consistent with cost-benefit analysis, it is possible to derive tractable expressions for the willingness to pay for quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). The willingness to pay for QALYs depends on wealth, remaining life expectancy, health status, and the possibilities for intertemporal substitution of consumption. PMID:10847930

  18. Improving the problem analysis in cost-benefit analysis for transport projects : an explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annema, J.A.; Mouter, N.

    2013-01-01

    Key actors (consultants, scientists and policy makers) in the Netherlands transport policy cost-benefit analysis (CBA) practice consider ‘problem analysis’ to be one of the important CBA substantive problems. Their idea is that a good-quality problem analysis can help to identify proper solutions, a

  19. Scenario Analysis, Decision Trees and Simulation for Cost Benefit Analysis of the Cargo Screening Process

    OpenAIRE

    Sherman, Galina; Siebers, Peer-Olaf; Aickelin, Uwe; Menachof, David

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present our ideas for conducting a cost benefit analysis by using three different methods: scenario analysis, decision trees and simulation. Then we introduce our case study and examine these methods in a real world situation. We show how these tools can be used and what the results are for each of them. Our aim is to conduct a comparison of these different probabilistic methods of estimating costs for port security risk assessment studies. Methodologically, we are trying ...

  20. An evaluation of the application of economic analysis and cost-benefit analysis tools in the DoD environment

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Carlos J.C.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis reviews the application of cost-benefit analysis (CBA) in the Department of Defense (DOD) and the software and automated tools used in these applications. The thesis focuses on the analytic capabilities of the software and tools as applied to cost-benefit analysis problems in the DOD environment. The principles of cost-benefit analysis are used to evaluate the utility of the existing software applied to DOD cost-benefit analyses. The research identifies the cost-benefit analysis a...

  1. Can cost-benefit analysis guide education policy in developing countries ?

    OpenAIRE

    Jimenez, Emmanuel; Patrinos, Harry Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Cost-benefit analysis in education is an important tool in the economists' arsenal. However, it is essential that research, especially on the social benefits of education, make further progress to make cost-benefit more analysis. There is a need for more research on the effects of policy interventions on outcomes beyond access to a year in school and what they earn as a result, such as o...

  2. Costs and benefits of psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, K; Marinovitch, Z

    1996-01-01

    Cost-benefit analyses to translate treatment costs and effects into monetary units. For a cost-benefit analyses of psychotherapy data, direct costs can be most easily and reliably estimated; but indirect costs of treatment and the effects of treatment are difficult to estimate. Among these are such considerations as lost pay, disruption of relationships, embarrassment and anxiety. There are also costs associated with not having treatment--e.g., compromise of personal and familial immunologic systems, lost productivity. But, for the sake of simplicity, we focus on the direct monetary costs of treatment. We have developed theoretical frameworks--the dosage and phase models--within which to approach a cost-benefit analysis of psychotherapy. The dosage model specifies a lawful relationship between number of sessions and therapeutic benefit. The phase model utilizes a three-component conception of psychotherapy--remoralization, remediation, and rehabilitation--and allows for differential cost-benefit analyses for specific therapeutic benefits. PMID:8766362

  3. Cost-Benefit Analysis and the Marginal Cost of Public Funds

    OpenAIRE

    Lundholm, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The marginal cost of public funds defined as the ratio between the shadow price of tax revenues and the population average of the social marginal utility of income, is analysed within an explicit cost–benefit context. It is shown that for an optimal tax system the measure is always equal to one. Benefit and cost measures congruent with this definition are derived. Under optimal taxes a positive net social benefit is a necessary and sufficient condition for a project that passes the cost–benef...

  4. Controlling Ozone and Fine Particulates: Cost Benefit Analysis with Meteorological Variability

    OpenAIRE

    Krupnick, Alan; Shih, Jhih-Shyang; Bergin, S.; Russell, Armistead

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we develop an integrated cost-benefit analysis framework for ozone and fine particulate control, accounting for variability and uncertainty. The framework includes air quality simulation, sensitivity analysis, stochastic multi-objective air quality management, and stochastic cost-benefit analysis. This paper has two major contributions. The first is the development of stochastic source-receptor (S-R) coefficient matrices for ozone and fine particulate matter using an advanced a...

  5. Cost benefit analysis of policy measures in the transport sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buus Kristensen, N. [COWI (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    The Government has introduced a national target for the reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions from the transport sector, which aims to stabilize emissions at the 1988 level, by the year 2005. This target was first formalized in the Government`s 1990 transport action plan, and later repeated in `Traffic 2005`, published in December 1993. The latter document also makes reference to six strategies, which the Government proposed in order to attain the national target. The majority of the transport policy measures will impact on CO{sub 2} emissions from the sector, even if they are targeted at different objectives, e.g. road safety, air pollution, time savings, etc. A long-list of potential measures, which might be adopted with the primary purpose is to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, has been identified from the six overall strategies. The measures identified have been subjected to detailed analyses, to ascertain all the potential impacts. The main emphasis has been on clarifying the potential efficacy of each of the measures in reducing CO{sub 2} emissions, and the social costs in a wide sense. The analysis assumes that each policy measure is implemented separately. A methodology is developed that presents the respective consequences in commensurate terms. Similar calculations are undertaken for two different combinations of policy measures. (EG)

  6. Cost-benefit analysis of screening for esophageal and gastric cardiac cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Qiang Wei; Chun-Xia Yang; Si-Han Lu; Juan Yang; Bian-Yun Li; Shi-Yong Lian; You-Lin Qiao

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, a program named “Early Detection and Early Treatment of Esophageal and Cardiac Cancer”(EDETEC) was initiated in China. A total of 8279 residents aged 40-69 years old were recruited into the EDETEC program in Linzhou of Henan Province between 2005 and 2008. Howerer, the cost-benefit of the EDETEC program is not very clear yet. We conducted herein a cost-benefit analysis of screening for esophageal and cardiac cancer. The assessed costs of the EDETEC program included screening costs for each subject, as well as direct and indirect treatment costs for esophageal and cardiac severe dyspiasia and cancer detected by screening. The assessed benefits of this program included the saved treatment costs, both direct and indirect, on esophageal and cardiac cancer, as well as the value of prolonged life due to screening, as determined by the human capital approach. The results showed the screening cost of finding esophageal and cardiac severe dysplasia or cancer ranged from ¥2707 to ¥4512, and the total cost on screening and treatment was ¥13 115-¥14 920. The cost benefit was ¥58 944-¥155 110 (the saved treatment cost, ¥17 730, plus the value of prolonged life,¥41 214-¥137 380). The ratio of benefit-to-cost (BCR) was 3.95-11.83. Our results suggest that EDETEC has a high benefit-to-cost ratio in China and could be instituted into high risk areas of China.

  7. Integral Cost-Benefit Analysis of Maglev Rail Projects Under Market Imperfections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Paul Elhorst

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates a new mode of high speed ground transportation, the magnetic levitation rail system (Maglev. The outcomes of this evaluation provide policy information on the interregional redistribution of employment and population and the national welfare improvement of two Dutch urban-conglomeration and two Dutch core-periphery projects. This article also compares the results of an integral cost- benefit analysis with those of a conventional cost-benefit analysis and concludes that the additional economic benefits due to market imperfections vary from –1% to +38% of the direct transport benefits, depending on the type of regions connected and the general condition of the economy.

  8. COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS - TOOL FOR ALLOCATION OF FINANCIAL RESOURCES FOR MAJOR PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMILIA CLIPICI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The judicious selection of investment projects, at the micro and macro level, with recognition of resource constraints and complementary involvement of the private sector, will lead to sustained economic growth, equitable development, poverty reduction and private sector growth. Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA estimates and totals up the equivalent money value of the benefits and costs to the community of projects to establish whether they are worthwhile. This research enterprise proposes the study of the advantages of cost-benefit analysis and identify the several major principles that collectively describe the assumption base, objectives, analytical tasks, and merits of this important project assessment methodology.

  9. Cost-Benefit Analysis for Investment Decisions: Chapter 7 (Principles Underlying The Economic Analysis of Projects)

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn Jenkins; Chun-Yan Kuo; Arnold C. Harberger

    2011-01-01

    While the financial analysis of a project focuses on matters of interest to investors, bankers, public sector budgets, etc., an economic analysis deals with the impact of the project on the entire society. The primary difference between the economic and financial evaluation is that the former aggregates benefits and costs over all the country's residents to determine whether the project improves the level of economic welfare of the country as a whole while the latter conside'rs the project fr...

  10. Is it really possible to build a bridge between cost-benefit analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Paul; Edlin, Richard

    2002-09-01

    Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is a recognised as the economic evaluation technique that accords most with the underlying principles of standard welfare economic theory. However, due to problems associated with the technique, economists evaluating resources allocation decisions in health care have most often used cost-effective analysis (CEA), in which health benefits are expressed in non-monetary units. As a result, attempts have been made to build a welfare economic bridge between cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA). In this paper, we develops these attempts and finds that, while assumptions can be made to facilitate a constant willingness-to-pay per unit of health outcome, these restrictions are highly unrealistic. We develop an impossibility theorem that shows it is not possible to link CBA and CEA if: (i) the axioms of expected utility theory hold; (ii) the quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) model is valid in a welfare economic sense; and (iii) illness affects the ability to enjoy consumption. We conclude that, within a welfare economic framework, it would be unwise to rely on a link between CBA and CEA in economic evaluations. PMID:12349884

  11. The application of cost-benefit analysis to the radiological protection of the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject of this document is the quantification of the potential harm caused to the general public by ionising radiation in normal operating circumstances. The object is to enable the health detriment from a practice involving exposure to ionising radiation to be directly compared with the costs of keeping the ensuing doses as low as reasonably achievable. Chapter headings include: development of radiological protection criteria; principles underlying the valuation of harm from radiation exposure; risk evaluation approach to costing of detriment; monetary valuations; distribution of costs and risk in time. Appendices cover the following: cost benefit analysis (principles); recommendations of ICRP on the use of cost benefit analysis; life valuation studies (review); application of cost benefit analysis to the value of the man sievert. (U.K.)

  12. Behavioral Economics and the Conduct of Benefit-Cost Analysis: Towards Principles and Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Hammitt, James K.; Robinson, Lisa A.

    2010-01-01

    As traditionally conducted, benefit-cost analysis is rooted in neoclassical welfare economics, which assumes that individuals act rationally and are primarily motivated by self-interest, making decisions that maximize their own well-being. Its conduct is now evolving to reflect recent work in behavioral economics, which integrates psychological aspects of decisionmaking. We consider several implications for analyses of social programs. First, benefit-cost analysis often involves valuing nonma...

  13. Cost Benefit Analysis with Applications to Animal Health Programmes: Basics of CBA

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Steve

    1996-01-01

    This discussion paper is one of a series of six papers which brings together both cost-benefit analysis methodology and the problems and issues in evaluation of regional and national animal health programs. Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is a powerful economic technique for evaluating public sector investments, evaluating proposed research projects and programs, estimating the economic impact of new regulations, predicting the economic impacts of resource exploitation and conservation programs, ...

  14. Cost-benefit analysis of a resource and environmental survey of Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Bullock, Craig; Clinch, J. Peter

    2001-01-01

    The Geological Survey of Ireland (GSI) has proposed that a national geochemical and airborne geophysical survey of Ireland be undertaken. Together with independent input from the Geological Survey of Northern Ireland, this would cover the whole county. The proposed survey has been termed the Resource and Environment Survey of Ireland (RESI). This paper contains an ex-ante cost-benefit analysis of the GSI’s proposal. This analysis reveals a benefit-cost ratio of 5.0.

  15. Joint implementation. Cost benefit analysis of global environmental care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strategy in SEP, the interconnected electricity supply undertaking of The Netherlands, for the limitation of greenhouse gas emissions is focussed on the implementation of cost-effective 'no regret' measures at home and abroad. Here, at present, SEP is concentrating on afforestation measures. Through a daughter organization called the FACE Foundation, SEP finances world-wide afforestation projects. FACE is able to take into account, forco-financing, the CO2 absorption capacity of these forests. These re-afforestation projects have proved to be a very cost-effective way of levelling out CO2 emissions in comparison with measures in The Netherlands. (orig.)

  16. A perspective on electric vehicles: cost-benefit analysis and potential demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report proposes some quantitative elements to assess the large scale diffusion of electric vehicles and analyse the potential demand for such vehicles. The first part proposes a cost-benefit analysis of the development of electric vehicles based on estimated costs and expected benefits by 2020. It addresses the following issues: framework and hypothesis, total cost of ownership, costs related to the deployment of a network of recharging infrastructures, assessment of external costs, and comparative cost-benefit analysis of electric vehicles. In the second part, the authors aim at identifying a potential demand for electric vehicles from the 2008 French national transport displacement survey (ENTD 2008) which provides recent data on the mobility of the French population

  17. W-320 pit liner vs. coating cost risk benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report evaluates the costs and the risk trade-offs associated with the two pit lining or confinement options being considered as part of the Tank 241-C-106 Waste Retrieval Project. Both of these pit secondary confinement options (i.e., stainless steel pit liners and epoxy coating) can be implemented in a fashion that complies with criteria for secondary containment systems specified by the Washington Administration Codes (WAC-173-303-604). Direct life cycle costs of the two options including design, fabrication, installation, radiation, exposure, and decontamination and disposal costs are compared. Risk is expressed as probability weighted with the confinement consequences that could be mitigated by the pit liner. The risk impact of the choice of the confinement option is also evaluated in the context of the overall risk associated with the sluicing project and continued storage of the high-heat waste in the Tank 241-C-106 pending completion of the W-320 Project. The two pit secondary containment options are stainless steel line and epoxy coating

  18. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS IN EVALUATING THE EFFICIENCY OF INVESTING IN HIGHER EDUCATION

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiana Camelia Cretan; Yvonne Iulia Lacrois

    2008-01-01

    Applying cost-benefit analysis in education is aimed at evaluating the costs and benefits of public investment in education. The costs and benefits appear both in the present and in the future. One problem encountered in applying cost-benefit analysis in education is the time factor because, in this case, most of the benefits occur in the long term. Also, it is difficult to demonstrate if productivity increases due to higher education. In this situation, taking into account the principles of ...

  19. A Cost-Benefit Analysis of a Campus Computing Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Preston M.

    2011-01-01

    Any major research institution has a substantial number of computer systems on its campus, often in the scale of tens of thousands. Given that a large amount of scientific computing is appropriate for execution in an opportunistic environment, a campus grid is an inexpensive way to build a powerful computational resource. What is missing, though, is a model for making an informed decision on the cost-effectives of a campus grid. In this thesis, the author describes a model for measuring the c...

  20. Radiation: cost or benefit?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a previous issue of SCRAM it was argued that the apparent increased incidence of child leukaemia around nuclear power stations could have been caused by radioactive discharges into the environment. The National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) claim that the known levels of contamination could not be responsible for the observed cancer rates. NRPB estimates of radiation risk are, however, considered to be underestimates. The NRPB is criticised for its study of the Sellafield workforce which excluded ex-employees and which revealed, when a statistical mistake was put right, a significant excess of myeloma amongst the Windscale workforce. The radiation protection philosophy of the NRPB is based on a cost benefit analysis which balances the cost of protection against the benefits of power generation. Criticism is made of NRPB, not only for ignoring long-term risks and costs but also for suggesting that some levels of radiation exposure are acceptable. The Board is also accused of not being independent of the nuclear industry. (UK)

  1. Cost benefit analysis of two policy options for cannabis: status quo and legalisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Shanahan

    Full Text Available AIMS: To date there has been limited analysis of the economic costs and benefits associated with cannabis legalisation. This study redresses this gap. A cost benefit analysis of two cannabis policy options the status quo (where cannabis use is illegal and a legalised-regulated option was conducted. METHOD: A cost benefit analysis was used to value the costs and benefits of the two policies in monetary terms. Costs and benefits of each policy option were classified into five categories (direct intervention costs, costs or cost savings to other agencies, benefits or lost benefits to the individual or the family, other impacts on third parties, and adverse or spill over events. The results are expressed as a net social benefit (NSB. FINDINGS: The mean NSB per annum from Monte Carlo simulations (with the 5 and 95 percentiles for the status quo was $294.6 million AUD ($201.1 to $392.7 million not substantially different from the $234.2 million AUD ($136.4 to $331.1 million for the legalised-regulated model which excludes government revenue as a benefit. When government revenue is included, the NSB for legalised-regulated is higher than for status quo. Sensitivity analyses demonstrate the significant impact of educational attainment and wellbeing as drivers for the NSB result. CONCLUSION: Examining the percentiles around the two policy options, there appears to be no difference between the NSB for these two policy options. Economic analyses are essential for good public policy, providing information about the extent to which one policy is substantially economically favourable over another. In cannabis policy, for these two options this does not appear to be the case.

  2. Cost-benefit analysis for waste segregation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a cost-benefit analysis for the segregation of mixed, hazardous, and nonhazardous wastes at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The cost-benefit analysis was conducted to determine if current waste segregation practices and additional candidates for waste segregation at LLNL might have the potential for significant waste source reduction and annual savings in treatment and disposal costs. In the following cost-benefit analysis, capital costs and recurring costs of waste segregation practices are compared to the economic benefits of savings in treatment and disposal costs. Indirect or overhead costs associated with these wastes are not available and have not been included. Not considered are additional benefits of waste segregation such as decreased potential for liability to LLNL for adverse environmental effects, improved worker safety, and enhanced LLNL image within the community because of environmental improvement. The economic evaluations in this report are presented on a Lab-wide basis. All hazardous wastes generated by a program are turned over to the Hazardous Waste Management (HWM) group, which is responsible for the storage, treatment, or disposal of these wastes and funded funded directly for this work

  3. Potential demand and cost-benefit analysis of electric cars

    OpenAIRE

    Zito, Pietro; Salerno, Silvia

    2004-01-01

    In this study an analysis of electric family car performances is carried out. In particular, the aim of this research is to appraise the possibility of introducing electric cars in urban mobility and the evaluation of its economic feasibility. First of all, we determined the potential electric car demand, which was forecasted using a stated preference (SP) analysis. The survey was carried out at the University of Palermo considering a particular target of consumer: “the hybrid hou...

  4. Cost Benefits Analysis of Anthelmintic Treatment of Cattle and Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laiq Ahmed Athar, Muhammad Nisar Khan*, Muhammad Sohail Sajid, Tauseef-ur-Rehman and Izhar Ahmad Khan1

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to determine the point prevalence of various helminths of cattle and buffalo population of district Toba Tek Singh, Pakistan and economic benefits of deworming with oxyclozanide. Out of 540 fecal samples examined, 205 (37.96% were found infected with helminths. Significantly higher (OR=2.2; P<0.05 prevalence of helminths was recorded in buffaloes (40%; 112/280 as compared to cattle (35.77%; 93/260. Oesophagostomum, Cooperia, Trichostrongylus, Strongyloide, Ostertagia, Fasciola (F. hepatica, F. gigantica and Haemonchus contortus were the helminth species identified in the study area. Oxyclozanide medicated buffaloes (E=96.66% and cattle (E=95.64% showed a significant decrease in fecal egg counts on day 14 post-treatment. An average daily increase of 0.89 and 0.71 liters of milk along with 0.42 and 0.37% more fat per buffalo and cattle, respectively was observed in oxyclozanide medication. The economic value of reduced production of infected animals was estimated as US$ 0.47 (Pak Rupees 40 and US$ 0.41 (Pak Rupees 35 per animal per day for cattle and buffaloes, respectively. It can be concluded that single dose of oxyclozanide is effective against all bovine helminths.

  5. Benefit-Cost Analysis of Security Systems for Multiple Protected Assets Based on Information Entropy

    OpenAIRE

    Qing Cai; Jingjing Dai; Ruimin Hu; Jun Chen

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes a quantitative risk assessment for security systems which have multiple protected assets and a risk-based benefit-cost analysis for decision makers. The proposed methodology consists of five phases: identification of assets, security unit and intrusion path, security unit effectiveness estimation, intrusion path effectiveness estimation, security system risk assessment and benefit-cost estimation. Key innovations in this methodology include its use of effectiveness entro...

  6. Measuring your library's value how to do a cost-benefit analysis for your public library

    CERN Document Server

    Elliott, Donald S; Hayden, Sterling W

    2006-01-01

    Under pressure to quantify the benefits your library provides? Is a cost-benefit analysis right for your institution? With tax-funded organizations under microscopic scrutiny, library directors need to make a strong public case for the value their library provides. Measuring Your Library's Value, designed to serve large to medium sized public libraries, gives librarians the tools to conduct a defensible and credible cost-benefit analysis (CBA). This hands-on reference covers the economic basics with librarian-friendly terms and examples, preparing library leaders to collaborate with economist

  7. IS ALL SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABLE? A COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF SOME PROCUREMENT PROJECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Willis, K.G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines sustainable procurement policy, which aims to benefit society and the economy and minimise damage to the environment. It uses cost-benefit analysis to evaluate a variety of sustainable procurement policies (road construction, video conferencing, LED traffic lights, and utilising unemployed people). It shows under what conditions sustainable procurement is likely to benefit the economy and society. The paper also reveals the impact of project life, the discount rate, and th...

  8. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES IN REALIZING AND APPLYING COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS FOR THE INVESTMENT PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelin Andrei

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cost-benefit analysis represents the most frequent technique used for a rational allocation of resources. This modality of evaluating the expenditure programs is an attempt to measure the costs and gains of a community as a result of running the evaluated

  9. Improving air pollution control policy in China--A perspective based on cost-benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jinglei; Yuan, Zengwei; Liu, Xuewei; Xia, Xiaoming; Huang, Xianjin; Dong, Zhanfeng

    2016-02-01

    To mitigate serious air pollution, the State Council of China promulgated the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan in 2013. To verify the feasibility and validity of industrial energy-saving and emission-reduction policies in the action plan, we conducted a cost-benefit analysis of implementing these policies in 31 provinces for the period of 2013 to 2017. We also completed a scenario analysis in this study to assess the cost-effectiveness of different measures within the energy-saving and the emission-reduction policies individually. The data were derived from field surveys, statistical yearbooks, government documents, and published literatures. The results show that total cost and total benefit are 118.39 and 748.15 billion Yuan, respectively, and the estimated benefit-cost ratio is 6.32 in the S3 scenario. For all the scenarios, these policies are cost-effective and the eastern region has higher satisfactory values. Furthermore, the end-of-pipe scenario has greater emission reduction potential than energy-saving scenario. We also found that gross domestic product and population are significantly correlated with the benefit-cost ratio value through the regression analysis of selected possible influencing factors. The sensitivity analysis demonstrates that benefit-cost ratio value is more sensitive to unit emission-reduction cost, unit subsidy, growth rate of gross domestic product, and discount rate among all the parameters. Compared with other provinces, the benefit-cost ratios of Beijing and Tianjin are more sensitive to changes of unit subsidy than unit emission-reduction cost. These findings may have significant implications for improving China's air pollution prevention policy. PMID:26595398

  10. Using the Kaldor-Hicks Tableau Format for Cost-Benefit Analysis and Policy Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutilla, Kerry

    2005-01-01

    This note describes the Kaldor-Hicks (KH) tableau format as a framework for distributional accounting in cost-benefit analysis and policy evaluation. The KH tableau format can serve as a heuristic aid for teaching microeconomics-based policy analysis, and offer insight to policy analysts and decisionmakers beyond conventional efficiency analysis.

  11. Environmental optimization in fractionating industrial wastes using cost-benefit analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Stenis, Jan

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes that industrial waste be regarded, in a business economic sense, as having the same basic status as regular products. A basic mathematical expression for assigning industrial costs to waste is presented. The expression can be employed in conjunction with cost-benefit analysis for estimating the "true" internal costs of industrial waste. In two case studies presented, industrial waste was found to have a substantial negative impact on profits. This is seen as a po...

  12. The Economic Impact of Eradicating Peste des Petits Ruminants: A Benefit-Cost Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bryony A; Rich, Karl M; Mariner, Jeffrey C; Anderson, John; Jeggo, Martyn; Thevasagayam, Sam; Cai, Yi; Peters, Andrew R; Roeder, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an important cause of mortality and production loss among sheep and goats in the developing world. Despite control efforts in a number of countries, it has continued to spread across Africa and Asia, placing an increasing burden on the livelihoods of livestock keepers and on veterinary resources in affected countries. Given the similarities between PPR and rinderpest, and the lessons learned from the successful global eradication of rinderpest, the eradication of PPR seems appealing, both eliminating an important disease and improving the livelihoods of the poor in developing countries. We conducted a benefit-cost analysis to examine the economic returns from a proposed programme for the global eradication of PPR. Based on our knowledge and experience, we developed the eradication strategy and estimated its costs. The benefits of the programme were determined from (i) the averted mortality costs, based on an analysis of the literature, (ii) the downstream impact of reduced mortality using a social accounting matrix, and (iii) the avoided control costs based on current levels of vaccination. The results of the benefit-cost analysis suggest strong economic returns from PPR eradication. Based on a 15-year programme with total discounted costs of US$2.26 billion, we estimate discounted benefits of US$76.5 billion, yielding a net benefit of US$74.2 billion. This suggests a benefit cost ratio of 33.8, and an internal rate of return (IRR) of 199%. As PPR mortality rates are highly variable in different populations, we conducted a sensitivity analysis based on lower and higher mortality scenarios. All the scenarios examined indicate that investment in PPR eradication would be highly beneficial economically. Furthermore, removing one of the major constraints to small ruminant production would be of considerable benefit to many of the most vulnerable communities in Africa and Asia. PMID:26900944

  13. The Economic Impact of Eradicating Peste des Petits Ruminants: A Benefit-Cost Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bryony A.; Rich, Karl M.; Mariner, Jeffrey C.; Anderson, John; Jeggo, Martyn; Thevasagayam, Sam; Cai, Yi; Peters, Andrew R.; Roeder, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an important cause of mortality and production loss among sheep and goats in the developing world. Despite control efforts in a number of countries, it has continued to spread across Africa and Asia, placing an increasing burden on the livelihoods of livestock keepers and on veterinary resources in affected countries. Given the similarities between PPR and rinderpest, and the lessons learned from the successful global eradication of rinderpest, the eradication of PPR seems appealing, both eliminating an important disease and improving the livelihoods of the poor in developing countries. We conducted a benefit-cost analysis to examine the economic returns from a proposed programme for the global eradication of PPR. Based on our knowledge and experience, we developed the eradication strategy and estimated its costs. The benefits of the programme were determined from (i) the averted mortality costs, based on an analysis of the literature, (ii) the downstream impact of reduced mortality using a social accounting matrix, and (iii) the avoided control costs based on current levels of vaccination. The results of the benefit-cost analysis suggest strong economic returns from PPR eradication. Based on a 15-year programme with total discounted costs of US$2.26 billion, we estimate discounted benefits of US$76.5 billion, yielding a net benefit of US$74.2 billion. This suggests a benefit cost ratio of 33.8, and an internal rate of return (IRR) of 199%. As PPR mortality rates are highly variable in different populations, we conducted a sensitivity analysis based on lower and higher mortality scenarios. All the scenarios examined indicate that investment in PPR eradication would be highly beneficial economically. Furthermore, removing one of the major constraints to small ruminant production would be of considerable benefit to many of the most vulnerable communities in Africa and Asia. PMID:26900944

  14. The Economic Impact of Eradicating Peste des Petits Ruminants: A Benefit-Cost Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryony A Jones

    Full Text Available Peste des petits ruminants (PPR is an important cause of mortality and production loss among sheep and goats in the developing world. Despite control efforts in a number of countries, it has continued to spread across Africa and Asia, placing an increasing burden on the livelihoods of livestock keepers and on veterinary resources in affected countries. Given the similarities between PPR and rinderpest, and the lessons learned from the successful global eradication of rinderpest, the eradication of PPR seems appealing, both eliminating an important disease and improving the livelihoods of the poor in developing countries. We conducted a benefit-cost analysis to examine the economic returns from a proposed programme for the global eradication of PPR. Based on our knowledge and experience, we developed the eradication strategy and estimated its costs. The benefits of the programme were determined from (i the averted mortality costs, based on an analysis of the literature, (ii the downstream impact of reduced mortality using a social accounting matrix, and (iii the avoided control costs based on current levels of vaccination. The results of the benefit-cost analysis suggest strong economic returns from PPR eradication. Based on a 15-year programme with total discounted costs of US$2.26 billion, we estimate discounted benefits of US$76.5 billion, yielding a net benefit of US$74.2 billion. This suggests a benefit cost ratio of 33.8, and an internal rate of return (IRR of 199%. As PPR mortality rates are highly variable in different populations, we conducted a sensitivity analysis based on lower and higher mortality scenarios. All the scenarios examined indicate that investment in PPR eradication would be highly beneficial economically. Furthermore, removing one of the major constraints to small ruminant production would be of considerable benefit to many of the most vulnerable communities in Africa and Asia.

  15. A Conceptual Cost Benefit Analysis of Tailings Matrices Use in Construction Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood Ali A.; Elektorowicz Maria

    2016-01-01

    As part of a comprehensive research program, new tailings matrices are formulated of combinations of tailings and binder materials. The research program encompasses experimental and numerical analysis of the tailings matrices to investigate the feasibility of using them as construction materials in cold climates. This paper discusses a conceptual cost benefit analysis for the use of these new materials. It is shown here that the financial benefits of using the proposed new tailings matrices i...

  16. A practical technique for benefit-cost analysis of computer-aided design and drafting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of benefits and costs associated with the operation of Computer-Aided Design and Drafting Systems (CADDS) are needed to derive economic justification for acquiring new systems, as well as to evaluate the performance of existing installations. In practice, however, such analyses are difficult to perform since most technical and economic advantages of CADDS are ΣirreduciblesΣ, i.e. cannot be readily translated into monetary terms. In this paper, a practical technique for economic analysis of CADDS in a drawing office environment is presented. A Σworst caseΣ approach is taken since increase in productivity of existing manpower is the only benefit considered, while all foreseen costs are taken into account. Methods of estimating benefits and costs are described. The procedure for performing the analysis is illustrated by a case study based on the drawing office activities at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. (auth)

  17. A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Educational Investment in Venezuela: 1989 Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiszbein, Ariel; Psacharopoulos, George

    1993-01-01

    Uses data from the 1989 Venezuelan Household Survey to assess macropriorities among educational investment in that country. An earnings analysis by educational level reveals persisting, if declining, advantages for the more educated. The cost-benefit analysis indicates that primary education yields the highest returns, whereas higher education…

  18. Cost-benefit analysis of tailings and waste rocks disposal in decommissioning uranium mine and mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the three principles in radiation protection, the objective function, the constraining function and the limit equation of tailings and waste rocks disposal in decommission uranium mine and mill have been set up with cost-benefit analysis method. It is an optimum analysis method

  19. Fear Assessment: Cost-Benefit Analysis and the Pricing of Fear and Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Adler, Matthew D.

    2003-01-01

    "Risk assessment" is now a common feature of regulatory practice, but "fear assessment" is not.In particular, environmental, health and safety agencies such as EPA, FDA, OSHA, NHTSA, and CPSC, commonly count death, illness and injury as "costs" for purposes of cost-benefit analysis, but almost never incorporate fear, anxiety or other welfare-reducing mental states into the analysis.This is puzzling, since fear and anxiety are welfare setbacks, and since the very hazards regulated by these age...

  20. Cost-benefit analysis of drug treatment services: review of the literature*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, William S.

    2000-03-01

    BACKGROUND: How valuable is public investment in treatment for drug abuse and dependency in the real world of everyday practice? Does drug abuse treatment provide benefits and how are they valued? What are the costs of obtaining outcomes and benefits? Cost-benefit analysis attempts to answer these questions in a standard analytic framework. AIMS: This paper reviews cost-benefit analyses with scientific merit so that analysts will have a current picture of the state of the research. It will also give public decision-makers information with regards to the available evidence for policy purposes. METHOD: Bibliographic searches were performed. Studies were obtained through the assistance of the Parklawn Health Library system, a component of the US Public Health Service. Selected studies were from the scientific literature with the exception of eight studies published as governmental reports. RESULTS: Cost-benefit studies have fallen into the following categories: (i) planning models for delivery systems in states and cities; (ii) short-term follow-up studies of individuals, (iii) single individual programs and (iv) state system's monitoring of outcomes. In 18 cost-benefit studies, a persistent finding is that benefits exceed costs, even when not all benefits are accounted for in the analysis. Much variation is found in the implementation of cost-benefit methods, and this is detailed across discussions of effectiveness, benefits and costs. Studies have emphasized the cost savings to society from the reduction in external costs created by the behavioral consequences of addiction and drug use. DISCUSSION: Economic analysis of drug treatment requires sophisticated conceptualization and measurement. Cost-benefit analysis of drug treatment has been a significant analytical exercise since the early 1970s when the public drug treatment system was founded in the United States. CONCLUSION: Drug abuse treatment services may be considered as contributing positive economic returns

  1. A practical method of performing cost-benefit analysis of occupational and environmental protective measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A practical method of performing cost-benefit analysis for radiation protective measures relative to specific jobs or projects has been developed. The method is applicable to protective measures for both occupational and public radiation exposures. The method provides a straightforward, consistent procedure for weighing the cost and impact of protective measures against the benefits derived. The procedure employs various decision gates based on person-rem dollar figures and an ALARA factor analysis that weighs nonquantitative parameters. The procedure is designed to be used by job planners, design engineers, or other personnel, with appropriate consultation by qualified health physicists. 2 figs

  2. ICRP-26; cost-benefit analysis and nuclear energy in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cost of an operation and benefits accruing to the society are the basic parameters involved in cost-benefit analysis by using optimisation methodology. Relative importance of the costs imposed on human health by radiation exposure and other economic and social factors are to be considered. Formula to obtain the parameter in monetory terms with respect to the detriment represented by collective dose (Rs/man-rem or $/man-rem) is explained. The collective doses in the public domain and for the occupational workers are mentioned. Estimated monetory values assigned to detriment in different countries are discussed. In absence of accurately known parameters, in particular the economic parameter which is always subject to change, the cost benefit and optimisation exercises would give variable results. (B.G.W.)

  3. Application of benefit/cost analysis to insect pest control using the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Before embarking on area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes involving eradication, exclusion, or suppression of insect pests using the sterile insect technique (SIT), and/or other area-wide control measures, not only their technical but also their economic feasibility needs to be assessed. They may require significant initial capital investments to achieve long-term returns in subsequent periods, and may raise questions about the distribution of benefits or the justification of public or private pest control efforts. A consistent and transparent system is needed to analyse the benefits and costs of such programmes and to demonstrate their value, or in some cases to assess appropriate contributions to the costs by the various stakeholders who gain the benefits. Benefit/cost analysis (BCA) provides such a framework, and has been applied to many AW-IPM programmes that integrate the SIT, in which it has been used to demonstrate the expected value of area-wide eradication, exclusion or suppression. This chapter outlines the process of BCA in which itemized future costs and benefits are compared in terms of present values. It also provides a review and examples of the application of BCA to the SIT. A checklist of BCA inputs, and some examples of benefit/cost outputs, are also presented. (author)

  4. Planning manual for energy resource development on Indian lands. Volume I. Benefit--cost analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-01

    Section II follows a brief introduction and is entitled ''Benefit-Cost Analysis Framework.'' The analytical framework deals with two major steps involved in assessing the pros and cons of energy resource development (or any other type of development). The first is to identify and describe the overall tribal resource planning and decision process. The second is to develop a detailed methodological approach to the assessment of the benefits and costs of energy development alternatives within the context of the tribe's overall planning process. Sections III, IV, and V present the application of the benefit-cost analysis methodology to coal; oil and gas; and uranium, oil shale, and geothermal development, respectively. The methodology creates hypothetical examples that illustrate realistic development opportunities for the majority of tribes that have significant reserves of one or more of the resources that may be economic to develop.

  5. A cost-benefit analysis of landfill mining and material recycling in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Assessing the economic feasibility of landfill mining. • We applied a cost-benefit analysis model for landfill mining. • Four material cycling and energy recovery scenarios were designed. • We used net present value to evaluate the cost-benefit efficiency. - Abstract: Landfill mining is an environmentally-friendly technology that combines the concepts of material recycling and sustainable waste management, and it has received a great deal of worldwide attention because of its significant environmental and economic potential in material recycling, energy recovery, land reclamation and pollution prevention. This work applied a cost-benefit analysis model for assessing the economic feasibility, which is important for promoting landfill mining. The model includes eight indicators of costs and nine indicators of benefits. Four landfill mining scenarios were designed and analyzed based on field data. The economic feasibility of landfill mining was then evaluated by the indicator of net present value (NPV). According to our case study of a typical old landfill mining project in China (Yingchun landfill), rental of excavation and hauling equipment, waste processing and material transportation were the top three costs of landfill mining, accounting for 88.2% of the total cost, and the average cost per unit of stored waste was 12.7 USD ton−1. The top three benefits of landfill mining were electricity generation by incineration, land reclamation and recycling soil-like materials. The NPV analysis of the four different scenarios indicated that the Yingchun landfill mining project could obtain a net positive benefit varying from 1.92 million USD to 16.63 million USD. However, the NPV was sensitive to the mode of land reuse, the availability of energy recovery facilities and the possibility of obtaining financial support by avoiding post-closure care

  6. A cost-benefit analysis of landfill mining and material recycling in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Chuanbin, E-mail: cbzhou@rcees.ac.cn; Gong, Zhe; Hu, Junsong; Cao, Aixin; Liang, Hanwen

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Assessing the economic feasibility of landfill mining. • We applied a cost-benefit analysis model for landfill mining. • Four material cycling and energy recovery scenarios were designed. • We used net present value to evaluate the cost-benefit efficiency. - Abstract: Landfill mining is an environmentally-friendly technology that combines the concepts of material recycling and sustainable waste management, and it has received a great deal of worldwide attention because of its significant environmental and economic potential in material recycling, energy recovery, land reclamation and pollution prevention. This work applied a cost-benefit analysis model for assessing the economic feasibility, which is important for promoting landfill mining. The model includes eight indicators of costs and nine indicators of benefits. Four landfill mining scenarios were designed and analyzed based on field data. The economic feasibility of landfill mining was then evaluated by the indicator of net present value (NPV). According to our case study of a typical old landfill mining project in China (Yingchun landfill), rental of excavation and hauling equipment, waste processing and material transportation were the top three costs of landfill mining, accounting for 88.2% of the total cost, and the average cost per unit of stored waste was 12.7 USD ton{sup −1}. The top three benefits of landfill mining were electricity generation by incineration, land reclamation and recycling soil-like materials. The NPV analysis of the four different scenarios indicated that the Yingchun landfill mining project could obtain a net positive benefit varying from 1.92 million USD to 16.63 million USD. However, the NPV was sensitive to the mode of land reuse, the availability of energy recovery facilities and the possibility of obtaining financial support by avoiding post-closure care.

  7. Cost-benefit analysis of irradiation of vegetables and fruits at the Shanghai irradiation centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Differences between the developing and the developed countries in development and application of food irradiation are discussed, including the objectives of irradiation, scale, and the operation and control of facilities. These represent the chief problems of development of food irradiation in the developing countries. A proposal concerning the economic benefit of a gamma irradiation facility is discussed. In the light of many years' operating experience at the Shanghai Irradiation Centre, the operation cost per hour and coefficient of economic benefit are presented. These data can be used to estimate the economic benefit of gamma irradiated products at any time, and are useful for directing the daily operation of gamma irradiation facilities. From examples of cost-benefit analysis of irradiated garlic and apples it is shown that to improve the benefit of gamma irradiation facilities the annual hours of operation must be increased, so as to reduce the cost of operation. Food irradiated with a low dose provides more economic benefit than other irradiated products; the coefficients of economic benefit will increase as the irradiated processing throughput increases. Practical examples are given relating to garlic and apples, showing the economic benefit to wholesalers and retailers. (author). 4 refs, 3 figs, 7 tabs

  8. Cost-Benefit Analysis for Investment Decisions: Chapter 3 (The Financial Appraisal of Projects)

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn Jenkins; Chun-Yan Kuo; Arnold C. Harberger

    2011-01-01

    The financial analysis of a project helps determine the financial viability and sustainability of the project. Since the integrated project analysis begins with the financial analysis and then the economic analysis, the concepts and data ought to be organized in a consequential and consistent manner. The comparison of either financial or economic benefits with their corresponding costs requires that all relevant data should be organized into a project profile covering the duration of the proj...

  9. When Violence Pays: A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Aggressive Behavior in Animals and Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiev, Alexander V.; Klimczuk, Amanda C. E.; Traficonte, Daniel M.; Maestripieri, Dario

    2013-01-01

    An optimization analysis of human behavior from a comparative perspective can improve our understanding of the adaptiveness of human nature. Intra-specific competition for resources provides the main selective pressure for the evolution of violent aggression toward conspecifics, and variation in the fitness benefits and costs of aggression can account for inter-specific and inter-individual differences in aggressiveness. When aggression reflects competition for resources, its benefits vary in...

  10. Risk-benefit analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis of lung cancer screening by spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mass screening of lung cancer has been widely performed using indirect chest X-ray method in Japan. However reduction of the mortality for lung cancer is questioned. We have proposed that recently developed spiral CT should be adopted for the screening of lung cancer, since CT has an excellent detectability for small nodule. Lung Cancer Screening CT (LSCT) has been developed by author's group using spiral CT with low dose and light weight in order to make a mobile unit. In this paper risk-benefit analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis are described for the LSCT screening of lung cancer. As a risk, radiation carcinogenesis due to exposure from LSCT are compared with gain of life-expectancy by screening and men of 40 years or more and women of 45 years or more are justified. The cost per person-year is estimated for LSCT screening which is better than that of present method, although total cost is higher. The LSCT screening could be recommended if total cost is affordable. (author)

  11. Stochastic Placement and Sizing of Combined Heat and Power Systems Considering Cost/Benefit Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    S. Mehrdad Hosseini; Gholamreza Koohsari; M. Mahdi Zarif; D.B. Hossein Javidi

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a cost/worth analysis approach for optimal Placement and sizing of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) systems. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) as a powerful optimization technique is employed for optimization. Different benefits brought up by CHP systems are taken into account as a multi-objective decision making. Economical factors such as power and heat selling, reliability improvement, loss reduction, deferred upgrading investment and CHP costs are considered in this study...

  12. The Polluter Pays Principle and Cost-Benefit Analysis of Climate Change: An Application of Fund

    OpenAIRE

    Tol, Richard S.J.

    2006-01-01

    I compare and contrast five climate scenarios: (1) no climate policy; (2) non-cooperative cost-benefit analysis (NC CBA); (3) NC CBA with international permit trade; (4) NC CBA with joint and several liability for climate change damages; and (5) NC CBA with liability proportional to a country’s share in cumulative emissions. As estimates of the marginal damage costs are low, standard NC CBA implies only limited emission abatement. With international permit trade, emission abatement is even le...

  13. Cost-Benefit Analysis for Investment Decisions: Chapter 10 (Economic Prices for Tradable Goods and Services)

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn Jenkins; Chun-Yan Kuo; Arnold C Harberger

    2011-01-01

    In the integrated financial and economic analysis, there is a need to choose a numeraire in which all costs and benefits are expressed. The most common practice has been to express all costs and benefits in terms of domestic currency at a domestic price level. This is the natural rule to follow for the construction of the financial cash flow statement of a project that includes all the financial receipts and all the expenditures in each period throughout the duration of the project. When this...

  14. The Welfare Implications of Oil Privatisation: A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Norway’s Statoil

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, C; Michael G. Pollitt

    2009-01-01

    The oil industry is of great economic significance to many countries, and privatisations of National Oil Companies (NOCs) have often been controversial, as have been the benefits from privatisation more generally. We conduct a social cost-benefit analysis of the partial privatisation of Norway’s Statoil and estimate net present welfare improvements of at least NOK 166 billion (US$18.4 billion) in 2001 money, which amounts to 11% of Norway’s GDP in that year. Savings on investment costs are th...

  15. Communicating uncertainty in cost-benefit analysis: A cognitive psychological perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouter, N.; Holleman, M.; Calvert, S.C.; Annema, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Based on a cognitive psychological theory, this paper aims to improve the communication of uncertainty in Cost-Benefit Analysis. The theory is based on different cognitive-personality and cognitive-social psychological constructs that may help explain individual differences in the processing of unce

  16. Economic Benefit-Cost Analysis of Select Secondary Prevention Interventions in LMIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Rachel; Brouwer, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    We present a quantitative economic benefit-cost analysis of 2 secondary prevention targets that are part of the World Health Organization's Global Monitoring Framework for noncommunicable diseases (NCD). These targets are expected to contribute to the achievement of the overall NCD target proposed for the Post-2015 Sustainable Development Goal Framework. We estimate that interventions would need to avert roughly 6 million to 7 million NCD deaths worldwide in 2030 to meet the target. We calculate that the combination of tobacco taxation that achieves 50% reduction in use and 70% coverage of high-risk populations with a multidrug regimen can provide one-half of that mortality reduction in 2030, at a benefit-cost ratio of 7:1, or U.S. $7 in benefits for each U.S. $1 in cost. PMID:26704964

  17. Cost-Benefit Analysis for Investment Decisions: Chapter 13 (Evaluation of Stakeholder Impacts)

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn Jenkins; Chun-Yan Kuo; Arnold C. Harberger

    2011-01-01

    The stakeholder impacts of a project can be estimated by the comparison of the financial and economic impacts of the project on the key stakeholders of a project. This analysis allows one to estimate how the income changes caused by the project that are distributed across the key groups affected by the project. This analysis allow for a reconciliation of the financial, economic, and distributional aspects of a cost benefit analysis. It also identifies if the project does or does not address t...

  18. A cost-benefit analysis of landfill mining and material recycling in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuanbin; Gong, Zhe; Hu, Junsong; Cao, Aixin; Liang, Hanwen

    2015-01-01

    Landfill mining is an environmentally-friendly technology that combines the concepts of material recycling and sustainable waste management, and it has received a great deal of worldwide attention because of its significant environmental and economic potential in material recycling, energy recovery, land reclamation and pollution prevention. This work applied a cost-benefit analysis model for assessing the economic feasibility, which is important for promoting landfill mining. The model includes eight indicators of costs and nine indicators of benefits. Four landfill mining scenarios were designed and analyzed based on field data. The economic feasibility of landfill mining was then evaluated by the indicator of net present value (NPV). According to our case study of a typical old landfill mining project in China (Yingchun landfill), rental of excavation and hauling equipment, waste processing and material transportation were the top three costs of landfill mining, accounting for 88.2% of the total cost, and the average cost per unit of stored waste was 12.7USDton(-1). The top three benefits of landfill mining were electricity generation by incineration, land reclamation and recycling soil-like materials. The NPV analysis of the four different scenarios indicated that the Yingchun landfill mining project could obtain a net positive benefit varying from 1.92 million USD to 16.63 million USD. However, the NPV was sensitive to the mode of land reuse, the availability of energy recovery facilities and the possibility of obtaining financial support by avoiding post-closure care. PMID:25453315

  19. Cost-benefit analysis of improved air quality in an office building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djukanovic, R.; Wargocki, Pawel; Fanger, Povl Ole

    2002-01-01

    recovery. The annual energy cost and first cost of the HVAC system were calculat4ed using DOE 2.1E for different levels of air quality (10-50% dissatisfied). This was achieved by changing the outdoor air supply rate and the pollution loads. Previous studies have documented a 1.1% increase in office...... productivity for every 10% reduction in the proportion of occupants entering a space who are dissatisfied with the air quality. With this assumption, the annual benefit due to improved air quality was always at least 10 times higher than the increase in annual energy and maintenance costs. The payback time of......A cost-benefit analysis of measures to improve air quality in an existing air-conditoned office building (11581 m2, 864 employees) was carried out for hot, temperate and cold climates and for two operating modes: Variable Air Volume (VAV) with economizer; and Constant Air Volume (CAV) with heat...

  20. Cost-benefit analysis of a socio-technical intervention in a Brazilian footwear company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, L B de M; Ribeiro, J L D; Renner, J S

    2012-09-01

    This article presents a costs-benefits analysis of a macroergonomic intervention in a Brazilian footwear company. Comparing results of a pilot line (composed by 100 multiskilled workers organized in teams) with eight traditional lines (still working in a one human being/one task model) the intervention showed to be worth pursuing since achieved gains were higher than intervention costs: there was a reduction in human resource costs (80% reduction in industrial accidents, 100% reduction in work-related musculoskeletal disorders or WMSD, medical consultations and turnover, and a 45.65% reduction in absenteeism) and production improvement (productivity increased in 3% and production waste decrease to less than 1%). The net intervention value of the intervention was around U$ 430,000 with a benefit-to-cost ratio of 7.2. Moreover, employees who worked in the pilot line understood that their quality of work life improved, compensating the anxiety brought up by the radical changes implemented. PMID:22464605

  1. Cost and benefits of offshore wind energy. Re-analysis of the CPB-study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the study of the Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis (CPB) 'Wind Energy at the North Sea. A socio-economical cost benefit analysis' it is concluded that the planned installation of 6000 MW offshore wind energy in the North Sea in 2020 is not cost-effective. However, because the large impact of several parameters (oil price, CO2 emission prices and learning effects) on the results of the analysis the CPB results must be handled with great care. In this report the results of calculations are presented for different, realistic assumptions for the fore-mentioned parameters

  2. Application and importance of cost-benefit analysis in energy efficiency projects implemented in public buildings: The case of Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Đurovic Dejan M.; Obradovic Vladimir Lj.; Vuckovic Aleksandar M.; Mihic Marko M.; Petrovic Dejan C.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to present the advantages of using Cost-Benefit analysis in energy efficiency projects implemented in public buildings, and to prove the hypothesis that Cost-Benefit analysis boosts the effectiveness and efficiency of the said type of projects. The paper offers theoretical and practical explanation of the implementation of Cost-Benefit analysis in the relevant area. Since energy efficiency projects in public buildings usually represent a part of a bro...

  3. Benefit-cost analysis of nuclear power applied to the GPS mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar powered spacecraft are currently being developed for the Global Positioning System (GPS). The development of nuclear power supplies and related technologies have proceeded to the point where nuclear powered spacecraft alternatives are possible and need to receive serious consideration for application to the GPS mission. An analysis was performed of the economic benefits which may result from developing and utilizing nuclear powered spacecraft in place of solar powered spacecraft for the GPS mission. The analysis considers cost uncertainties, launch system and spacecraft subsystem reliability, time phasing of nuclear spacecraft into a system consisting of solar powered spacecraft, a nuclear demonstration experiment, and the likelihood of nuclear operational spacecraft implementation in terms of the successful duration of the experiment, and single and multiple payload launches. It also develops the probability distributions of all pertinent events, annual costs, and present values of costs and benefits

  4. Cost risk benefit analysis to support chemoprophylaxis policy for travellers to malaria endemic countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coutinho Francisco AB

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a number of malaria endemic regions, tourists and travellers face a declining risk of travel associated malaria, in part due to successful malaria control. Many millions of visitors to these regions are recommended, via national and international policy, to use chemoprophylaxis which has a well recognized morbidity profile. To evaluate whether current malaria chemo-prophylactic policy for travellers is cost effective when adjusted for endemic transmission risk and duration of exposure. a framework, based on partial cost-benefit analysis was used Methods Using a three component model combining a probability component, a cost component and a malaria risk component, the study estimated health costs avoided through use of chemoprophylaxis and costs of disease prevention (including adverse events and pre-travel advice for visits to five popular high and low malaria endemic regions and malaria transmission risk using imported malaria cases and numbers of travellers to malarious countries. By calculating the minimal threshold malaria risk below which the economic costs of chemoprophylaxis are greater than the avoided health costs we were able to identify the point at which chemoprophylaxis would be economically rational. Results The threshold incidence at which malaria chemoprophylaxis policy becomes cost effective for UK travellers is an accumulated risk of 1.13% assuming a given set of cost parameters. The period a travellers need to remain exposed to achieve this accumulated risk varied from 30 to more than 365 days, depending on the regions intensity of malaria transmission. Conclusions The cost-benefit analysis identified that chemoprophylaxis use was not a cost-effective policy for travellers to Thailand or the Amazon region of Brazil, but was cost-effective for travel to West Africa and for those staying longer than 45 days in India and Indonesia.

  5. A Conceptual Cost Benefit Analysis of Tailings Matrices Use in Construction Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Ali A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of a comprehensive research program, new tailings matrices are formulated of combinations of tailings and binder materials. The research program encompasses experimental and numerical analysis of the tailings matrices to investigate the feasibility of using them as construction materials in cold climates. This paper discusses a conceptual cost benefit analysis for the use of these new materials. It is shown here that the financial benefits of using the proposed new tailings matrices in terms of environmental sustainability are much higher when compared to normal sand matrices.

  6. Cost-Benefit Analysis of the LHC to 2025 and beyond: Was it Worth it ?

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Social cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of projects has been successfully applied in different fields such as transport, energy, health, education, and environment, climate change policy, but often considered impossible for research infrastructures because of the impredictable benefits of scientific discovery. We have designed a CBA model for large scale research infrastructures and applied it to the LHC. After estimating investment and operation costs spread over 30 years (to 2025), combining data from the CERN and the experiments, we evaluate the benefits of knowledge output (publications), human capital development, technological spillovers, and cultural effects. Additionally, willingness-to-pay for the pure value of discovery at the LHC by the general public is estimated through a survey of around 1,ooo respondendents in four countries. Setting to zero any until now unpredictable economic value of discovery of the Higgs boson (or of any new physics), we compute a probability distribution for the net present va...

  7. Cost-benefit analysis of installing dust control devices in the agate industry, Khambhat (Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagia Lakho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that an exposure to crystalline silica gives rise to silicosis and silico-tuberculosis (TB. In the agate industry of Khambhat (Gujarat not only workers but also people staying in the vicinity of the agate-grinding facilities are exposed to crystalline silica. To reduce their dust exposure, dust control devices were developed. There are approximately 500 grinding machines located in Khambhat. A cost-benefit analysis of installing dust control devices on all agate-grinding machines was carried out by adding all positive factors and benefits and subtracting the negatives and costs. It was concluded that by installing dust control devices not only could the prevalence of silicosis and TB be reduced but also, in the long run, there could be financial benefits.

  8. Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Large Hadron Collider to 2025 and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Florio, Massimo; Sirtori, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    Social cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of projects has been successfully applied in different fields such as transport, energy, health, education, and environment, including climate change. It is often argued that it is impossible to extend the CBA approach to the evaluation of the social impact of research infrastructures, because the final benefit to society of scientific discovery is generally unpredictable. Here, we propose a quantitative approach to this problem, we use it to design an empirically testable CBA model, and we apply it to the the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the highest-energy accelerator in the world, currently operating at CERN. We show that the evaluation of benefits can be made quantitative by determining their value to users (scientists, early-stage researchers, firms, visitors) and non-users (the general public). Four classes of contributions to users are identified: knowledge output, human capital development, technological spillovers, and cultural effects. Benefits for non-users can be ...

  9. Cost-benefit analysis on FR cycle R and D for the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cost-benefit analysis, which evaluate benefit on investment and is often used the policy assessment of a future plan for FR cycle R and D, is performed to promote commercialized FR cycle system in the future. When it is evaluated the cost-benefit analysis on FR cycle R and D for the world scale, i.e. the analysis case for the world, it assume that the market share replaced FR power generation from light water reactor (LWR) power generation gradually on the assumption that nuclear energy will have a fixed market share on the energy supply-and-demand scenario in the future world. In addition to have the effect by having replaced LWR with FR, also into LWR power generation portion which was not replaced by FR, it has the deterrent effect on the price uptrend of natural uranium in this analysis. The economic improvement effect was estimated as the amount of effect to be provided for the future. For example, when it was assumed year 2050 at the time of the introduction of FR and assumed the power generating cost of FR and the power generating cost of LWR to be equal as a reference case, it was obtained the provisional estimate result that the effect of about 44 trillion yen was able to be expected by being able to evade the power generating cost rise according to the rise of the price of the uranium fuel. Although global FR cycle R and D cost (i.e. investment) depends on the cost sharing by the international cooperation in the future, it is estimated to be several trillions of yen in total. Therefore, it was obtained the provisional estimate result that the economic effect more than the R and D investment for FR cycle system was able to be expected by achieving the FR cycle system. Even though a result of the provisional estimate which was evaluated under several assumptions in the precondition of the analysis, the cost-benefit analysis on FR cycle R and D for the world was able to be shown concretely that there is investment efficiently for FR cycle R and D

  10. Cost-benefit analysis of esophageal cancer endoscopic screening in high-risk areas of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Yang; Wen-Qiang Wei; Jin Niu; Zhi-Cai Liu; Chun-Xia Yang; You-Lin Qiao

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To estimate the cost-benefit of endoscopic screening strategies of esophageal cancer (EC) in high-risk areas of China.METHODS:Markov model-based analyses were conducted to compare the net present values (NPVs) and the benefit-cost ratios (BCRs) of 12 EC endoscopic screening strategies.Strategies varied according to the targeted screening age,screening frequencies,and follow-up intervals.Model parameters were collected from population-based studies in China,published literatures,and surveillance data.RESULTS:Compared with non-screening outcomes,all strategies with hypothetical 100 000 subjects saved life years.Among five dominant strategies determined by the incremental cost-effectiveness analysis,screening once at age 50 years incurred the lowest NPV (international dollar-I$55 million) and BCR (2.52).Screening six times between 40-70 years at a 5-year interval [i.e.,six times(40)f-strategy] yielded the highest NPV (I$99 million) and BCR (3.06).Compared with six times(40)fstrategy,screening thrice between 40-70 years at a 10-year interval resulted in relatively lower NPV,but the same BCR.CONCLUSION:EC endoscopic screening is cost-beneficial in high-risk areas of China.Policy-makers should consider the cost-benefit,population acceptance,and local economic status when choosing suitable screening strategies.

  11. Guidebook in using Cost Benefit Analysis and strategic environmental assessment for environmental planning in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Environmental planning in China may benefit from greater use of Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) methodologies. We provide guidance on using these methodologies. Part I and II show the principles behind the methodologies as well as their theoretical structure. Part III demonstrates the methodologies in action in a range of different good practice examples. The case studies and theoretical expositions are intended to teach by way of example as well as by understanding the principles, and to help planners use the methodologies as correctly as possible.(auth)

  12. Economic evaluation of iodine deficiency disorder control program in Sikkim: A cost-benefit analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pandav, Chandrakant S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs) are the most common cause of preventable brain damage globally. The strategy of prevention and control of iodine deficiency is based on iodine supplementation. Edible salt iodization and iodized oil injections are the two most commonly used vehicles for iodine supplementation. The objective of the study was to conduct a cost-benefit analysis of the two programs of iodine supplementation, i.e., iodized salt program (ISP) and iodized oil program (I...

  13. A COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF MAIZE PRODUCTION AND MARKETING IN UGANDA

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn P. Jenkins; Leonard Leung

    2013-01-01

    Maize is important in Uganda because of its dual function both as an income-generating cash crop and as a staple crop that improves food security. Three interventions on the maize sector are selected for a substantive cost-benefit analysis investigation, namely: 1. "Increasing the utilization of commercial inputs"- the focus of the intervention is to overcome the low maize yield situation in Uganda. The purpose of this study is to determine if financial and economic conditions allow the maize...

  14. A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Early Childhood Hygiene Interventions in Uzbekistan

    OpenAIRE

    Raushan ATANIYAZOVA; Jahongir NEGMATOV; Parpiev, Ziyodullo

    2014-01-01

    This paper applies cost-benefit analysis (CBA) technique to estimate the effectiveness of hand hygiene and oral health interventions in Uzbekistan for children of kindergarten age (3-6 years old). Our primary objective in this study is to apply CBA framework to investigate economic viability of hand hygiene and oral health interventions on respiratory diseases (influenza, bronchitis, pneumonia), intestinal diseases (diarrhea, hepatitis A, and helminthiasis), and dental caries a...

  15. The practice of cost benefit analysis in the transport sector: A Mexican perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez Soberanis, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Mexico's public investment process is strengthened by an institutional framework that ensures that projects with a high social return are given preference. The Federal Law of Budget and Financial Responsibility establishes as prerequisite for federal investments the obligation to present a Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA), and to get the Investment Unit approval. This paper describes the use of CBA for the social and economic evaluation of transport infrastructure in Mexico and is made from the po...

  16. The development of a public optometry system in Mozambique: a Cost Benefit Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Loughman, James; Thompson, Stephen; Harris, Geoff; Bilotto, Luigi; Ferrao, Jorge; Naidoo, Kovin

    2014-01-01

    Background: The economic burden of uncorrected refractive error (URE) is thought to be high in Mozambique, largely as a consequence of the lack of resources and systems to tackle this largely avoidable problem. The Mozambique Eyecare Project (MEP) has established the first optometry training and human resource deployment initiative to address the burden of URE in Lusophone Africa. The nature of the MEP programme provides the opportunity to determine, using Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA), whether...

  17. The Development of a Public Optometry System in Mozambique: a Cost Benefit Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Stephen; Loughman, James

    2013-01-01

    The economic burden of uncorrected refractive error (URE) is thought to be high in Mozambique, largely as a consequence of the lack of resources and systems to tackle this largely avoidable problem. The Mozambique Eyecare Project (MEP) has established the first optometry training and human resource deployment initiative to address the burden of URE in Lusophone Africa. The nature of the MEP programme provides the opportunity to determine, using Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA), whether investing i...

  18. Cost Benefit Analysis of Certified Cocoa Production in Ondo State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Oseni, Joseph Olumide; Adams, Adewale Quam

    2013-01-01

    The paper is on Cost-Benefit Analysis of certified cocoa production in Ondo state.Data were collected by purposively choosing three local government areas noted for certified cocoa production, namely Idanre, Ile oluji and Owo local government areas of the state. Simple random sampling technique was used to select thirty certified cocoa farmers from Idanre, twenty certified cocoa farmers from Ile oluji/Oke-igbo and ten certified cocoa farmers from Owo local government areas of the state making...

  19. Valuing Greenhouse Gases Emissions and Uncertainty in Transport Cost Benefit Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Meunier, David; Quinet, Emile

    2015-01-01

    The transport sector has an important and increasing role in greenhouse gases emissions, and cost benefit analysis (CBA) of transport projects should give in this regard accurate and objective information. Indeed, many countries have included this concern in their CBA guidelines, but it typically consists simply in adopting an official value per ton of carbon emitted. Does this mean that the issue is correctly treated by CBA? Since "the devil is in the details" this paper reviews key items in...

  20. Cost-Benefit Analysis applied to the natural gas program for vehicles in the Metropolitan Area of the Aburra Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents the evaluation of the natural gas program for vehicles applied in Metropolitan Area of the Aburra Valley. By using the Cost- Benefit Analysis method, four cost variables were identified: private, fiscal, gas tax, and conversion tax; and three types of benefits: private, fiscal and social. For the environmental social benefit estimation the benefit transfer technique was employed, carrying out meta-analysis function estimation. The cost-benefit net outcome is positive and favors the program application in the study site; in real terms the total profits are about COP$ 803265 million for the complete eight year period it took place (2001- 2008).

  1. Economic evaluation of iodine deficiency disorder control program in Sikkim: A cost-benefit analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakant S Pandav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs are the most common cause of preventable brain damage globally. The strategy of prevention and control of iodine deficiency is based on iodine supplementation. Edible salt iodization and iodized oil injections are the two most commonly used vehicles for iodine supplementation. The objective of the study was to conduct a cost-benefit analysis of the two programs of iodine supplementation, i.e., iodized salt program (ISP and iodized oil program (IOP against no preventive program (NPP option. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in 1990 in the state of Sikkim in India. The costs were calculated on the assumption of universal coverage of ISP and coverage of IOP among all children aged 0-14 years and women in the age group of 15-44 years. Direct and indirect cost of ISP and direct cost of IOP was computed based on the costs of year 1991. The discount rate taken was 10% and all the costs were converted to the year 2010 using wholesale price index (WPI data. Consequences in terms of health effects, Social/emotional effects, and resource use were included. Results: The discounted cost of ISP and IOP was Rs. 59,225,964 and Rs. 46,145,491, respectively. In ISP, 64.1% of the total cost was required for salt iodization, 17.6% for monitoring, and 18.3% for communication. In IOP, 50.9% of the costs were required for iodized oil; rest was for syringes and needles, manpower expenses, travel, and communication. Total resource saving was Rs. 95,566,220 for ISP and Rs. 92,177,548 for IOP. Incremental benefit for ISP was Rs. 36,340,256 and Rs. 46,032,057 for IOP. The cost-benefit ratio for ISP was 1.61 and 2.00 for IOP. Conclusion: IOP has a higher cost-benefit ratio for prevention of IDDs than ISP in the state of Sikkim, India.

  2. Workshop in economics - the problem of climate change benefit-cost analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Could benefit-cost analysis play a larger role in the discussion of policies to deal with the greenhouse effect? The paper also investigates the causes of this lack of influence. Selected forms of benefit-cost research are probed, particularly the critical discussions raised by this type of research, in an effort to suggest where the chances of greater acceptance lie. The paper begins by discussing the search for an appropriate policy: optimal, targeted, or incremental. It then describes the work being done in specifying and estimating climate change damage relationships. A consideration of the work being done in specifying and estimating abatement (both mitigation and adaptation) cost relationships follows. Finally, the paper ends with an examination of the search for the appropriate policy instrument. International and methodological concerns cut across these areas and are discussed in each section. This paper concludes that there seem to be a number of reasons that benefit-cost results play only a limited role in policy development. There is some evidence that the growing interest in market-based approaches to climate change policy and to other environmental control matters is a sign of increased acceptance. Suggestions about research directions are made throughout this paper

  3. Dynamic cost-benefit analysis of large projects: The role of capital and investment costs

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chuan-Zhong; Löfgren, Karl-Gustaf

    2008-01-01

    Based on an ideal index for de.ating after-project prices, we derive a dynamic cost-bene.t rule for evaluating large projects. We show that, in addition to the conventional income and consumer surplus meaures, the rule also entails an extra term involving capital and investment cost changes.

  4. Biomass-cultivation and thermal utilization - a cost-benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overall cost-benefit analysis is made of biomass conversion. Emphasis is placed on the economic evaluation of raw material lines which are selected for the purpose of thermal utilization. The cost, the profits, and the efficiency of biomass conversion are determined for each of the analyzed lines relative to the status quo (present price structures, agricultural production structures, technological and legal conditions). On the basis of this analysis the effects of changed energy and agrarian raw material price relations are investigated with regard to the relative competitiveness of the investigated raw material, process and product lines assuming alternative prices for fossil energy sources. The feasibility of cost-covering domestic-biomass utilization schemes is discussed. (orig./UA)

  5. The impact of immigration under the defined-benefit pension system: An analysis incorporating assimilation costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi Jinno

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Recently, theoretical studies have started a discussion on how the influx of immigrants affects the finances of the host country. OBJECTIVE This paper investigates whether admission of unskilled immigrants, whose children incur assimilation costs in order to become skilled workers, positively influences the net benefits for native residents and immigrants under a defined-benefit pension system (DB system.This paper also compared the results under a DB system with those under a defined-contribution pension system (DC system. METHODS This paper theoretically calculates the net benefits for native residents and immigrants under a DB system and compares the values between under a DB system and under a DC system. RESULTS The study has three main findings. (1 Under a DB system, native residents do not alwaysbecome net beneficiaries, even if the government admits an unlimited number of immigrants.This is unlike the analysis under the DC system. (2 The net benefits for native residents caused by permitting a small (large number of immigrants under the DB system becomes higher (lower than that under the DC system in certain practical situations. (3 Even if all residents who have the right to vote prefer to admit immigrants, there is a possibility that the net benefits for the native residents may be negative. CONCLUSIONS When admitting immigrants, the government must pay attention to the assimilation costs which offspring of immigrants have to pay and the future generation's right to vote becausethey are the main victims of the loss of benefits caused by the assimilation costs under DB system.

  6. Planning and Construction of Low Carbon Cities:The Relevance of Cost-Benefit Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stanley; C.T.YIP

    2011-01-01

    Cities are the major source of carbon dioxide emissions in China,and are the critical locations where emissions should be effectively managed.Adopting a low carbon urban development model is the pathway towards reducing the emissions.A low carbon city development model means achieving efficient and effective urban growth through low energy consumption and low emissions.While many local authorities in China have started to express the intention to construct low carbon cities,it is important to emphasize the need to apply a Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) to low carbon urban policies and development projects.Since all policies and projects will have their costs and benefits to the society,the effects of the policies and projects on reducing emissions should be measured and assessed objectively.Through the setting up of an analysis framework to assess the costs and benefits,one can provide a scientific basis for decision making,and enhance the overall efficiency in the use of resources for the society as a whole.

  7. Cost-benefit analysis of nuclear waste disposal: accounting for safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste discussions have centered, to date, on whether sites can be found and whether storage methods can be made sound enough to prevent accidental leakage into the environment. Seldom raised in public discussion, however, is the threat of intentional release of waste into the environment through acts of terrorism, an issue involving long-term safeguards. Part of the problem lies in the methodology used to evaluate large-scale projects using cost benefit or risk-cost-benefit analyses. After examining the terrorist threat and current planning for safeguards, the authors review the concept of irreversible disposal and other technological steps as well as the possibilities for changing how economists and engineers make decisions. They conclude that no credible means of analysis exists today

  8. Benefit-Cost Analysis of Security Systems for Multiple Protected Assets Based on Information Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Cai

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a quantitative risk assessment for security systems which have multiple protected assets and a risk-based benefit-cost analysis for decision makers. The proposed methodology consists of five phases: identification of assets, security unit and intrusion path, security unit effectiveness estimation, intrusion path effectiveness estimation, security system risk assessment and benefit-cost estimation. Key innovations in this methodology include its use of effectiveness entropy to measure the degree of uncertainty of a security system to complete a protection task, and the fact it measures risk like information theory measures the amount of information. A notional example is provided to demonstrate an application of the proposed methodology.

  9. Cost-Benefit Analysis with Applications to Animal Health Programmes: Valuation of Non-Market Costs and Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Steve

    1996-01-01

    This discussion paper is designed to provide an introduction to the various methods of valuing so-called ‘non-market goods’ for economic analysis of animal health programs. The concept of non-market values is examined, with examples in relation to animal health. Various techniques for estimation of these values are discussed, and the contingent valuation method is examined in detail. Finally, some comments are made about various issues associated with the use of these techniques.

  10. Performance and cost benefits analysis of double-pass solar collector with and without fins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The thermal performances and cost analysis of the double-pass solar collector with and without fins absorber were discussed. • The theoretical and experimental study on the double-pass solar air collector with and without fins absorber was conducted. • The ratio of AC/AEG or the cost benefit ratio was presented. • The double-pass solar collector with fins absorber is more cost-effective compared to without fins absorber. - Abstract: The performance and cost benefit analysis of double-pass solar collector with and without fins have been conducted. The theoretical model using steady state analysis has been developed and compared with the experimental results. The performance curves of the double-pass solar collector with and without fins, which included the effects of mass flow rate and solar intensity on the thermal efficiency of the solar collector, were obtained. Results indicated that the thermal efficiency is proportional to the solar intensity at a specific mass flow rate. The thermal efficiency increased by 9% at a solar intensity of 425–790 W/m2 and mass flow rate of 0.09 kg/s. The theoretical and experimental analysis showed a similar trend as well as close agreement. Moreover, a cost-effectiveness model has been developed examine the cost benefit ratio of double-pass solar collector with and without fins. Evaluation of the annual cost (AC) and the annual energy gain (AEG) of the collector were also performed. The results show that the double-pass solar collector with fins is more cost-effective compared to the double-pass solar collector without fins for mass flow rate of 0.01–0.07 kg/s. Also, simulations were obtained for the double-pass solar collector with fins at Nusselt number of 5.42–36.21. The energy efficiency of collector increases with the increase of Nusselt number. The results show that by increasing the Nusselt number simultaneously would drop the outlet temperature at any solar intensity. Increase in Nusselt number

  11. On the feasibility of benefit-cost analysis applied to remote sensing projects. [California water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merewitz, L.

    1973-01-01

    The following step-wise procedure for making a benefit-cost analysis of using remote sensing techniques could be used either in the limited context of California water resources, or a context as broad as the making of integrated resource surveys of the entire earth resource complex on a statewide, regional, national, or global basis. (1) Survey all data collection efforts which can be accomplished by remote sensing techniques. (2) Carefully inspect the State of California budget and the Budget of the United States Government to find annual cost of data collection efforts. (3) Decide the extent to which remote sensing can obviate each of the collection efforts. (4) Sum the annual costs of all data collection which can be equivalently accomplished through remote sensing. (5) Decide what additional data could and would be collected through remote sensing. (6) Estimate the value of this information. It is not harmful to do a benefit-cost analysis so long as its severe limitations are recalled and it is supplemented with socio-economic impact studies.

  12. Social impact of air pollution abatement. Societal cost benefit analysis of possible National Emission Ceilings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2008, the European Commission will launch new proposals for revision of the NEC guideline (2001/81/EG) in which new emission ceilings are proposed for the year 2020. In order to determine which stand the Netherlands should take during the negotiations, the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs (also on behalf of the Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality) asked CE Delft and Ecorys to conduct a societal cost benefit analysis in collaboration with the Environmental Assessment Agency. This report describes the results of the analysis of two alternative NEC targets for 2020. [mk

  13. The Aviation System Analysis Capability Air Carrier Cost-Benefit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaier, Eric M.; Edlich, Alexander; Santmire, Tara S.; Wingrove, Earl R.., III

    1999-01-01

    To meet its objective of assisting the U.S. aviation industry with the technological challenges of the future, NASA must identify research areas that have the greatest potential for improving the operation of the air transportation system. Therefore, NASA is developing the ability to evaluate the potential impact of various advanced technologies. By thoroughly understanding the economic impact of advanced aviation technologies and by evaluating how the new technologies will be used in the integrated aviation system, NASA aims to balance its aeronautical research program and help speed the introduction of high-leverage technologies. To meet these objectives, NASA is building the Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC). NASA envisions ASAC primarily as a process for understanding and evaluating the impact of advanced aviation technologies on the U.S. economy. ASAC consists of a diverse collection of models and databases used by analysts and other individuals from the public and private sectors brought together to work on issues of common interest to organizations in the aviation community. ASAC also will be a resource available to the aviation community to analyze; inform; and assist scientists, engineers, analysts, and program managers in their daily work. The ASAC differs from previous NASA modeling efforts in that the economic behavior of buyers and sellers in the air transportation and aviation industries is central to its conception. Commercial air carriers, in particular, are an important stakeholder in this community. Therefore, to fully evaluate the implications of advanced aviation technologies, ASAC requires a flexible financial analysis tool that credibly links the technology of flight with the financial performance of commercial air carriers. By linking technical and financial information, NASA ensures that its technology programs will continue to benefit the user community. In addition, the analysis tool must be capable of being incorporated into the

  14. Stochastic Placement and Sizing of Combined Heat and Power Systems Considering Cost/Benefit Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mehrdad Hosseini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a cost/worth analysis approach for optimal Placement and sizing of Combined Heat and Power (CHP systems. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO as a powerful optimization technique is employed for optimization. Different benefits brought up by CHP systems are taken into account as a multi-objective decision making. Economical factors such as power and heat selling, reliability improvement, loss reduction, deferred upgrading investment and CHP costs are considered in this study. In order to incorporate stochastic nature of power system in this study, Monte-Carlo method is used to simulate the effect of uncertainty of loads and system on the optimal location and size of the CHPs in the network. This study conducts two separate case studies, 6-bus meshed test system and 14-bus radial test system to demonstrate economical feasibility for investment planning when cost and CHP benefits are taken into account. The impacts of considering different parameters such as the rate of load growth and interest are studied. Results indicate that the proposed methodology is capable of finding the best location and the optimal size of CHP that can cause improvement in network operation along with financial benefits

  15. Cost-Benefit Analysis of High-Speed Rail Link between Hong Kong and Mainland China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tao

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Legislative Council in Hong Kong has approved a funding of USD$8.60 billion to build the high-speed rail (HSR line linking mainland China. HSR is a break-through technology that allows trains running at a speed over 250 km per hour. The most controversial part of the HSR investment is whether its cost could be compensated by the social benefits. In this study, a cost-benefit analysis of the Hong Kong to mainland HSR (HKM-HSR line is carried out. First, all the direct and indirect costs, and social benefits are defined; then, monetary equivalents are assigned to these elements; third, all the future values are discounted into present values and aggregated. The results show that the project has a positive net present value (NPV up to USD$2,068.49 million, which proves that the investment is worth. In addition, other transport alternatives, i.e. the existing roadway and conventional railway, are examined and compared with HKM-HSR, which unveils that HSR has the largest positive NPV among these three passenger transportation modes because of its excellent performance in ticket revenue, travel time savings and safety improvement.

  16. A Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Use of Phosphogypsum in the Brazilian South Region Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Brazil, about half of the phosphogypsum generated by the phosphoric acid production is used in agriculture as amendment of acid soils and, in less extension, in the cement industry. The advantages of using phosphogypsum in agriculture, as a source of sulphur and calcium and as an amendment for acid soils with high levels of aluminium are well known. In addition, studies on economic-environmental aspects of the use of phosphogypsum in agriculture have shown higher crop yields and best quality of vegetable products. This paper addresses a cost benefit analysis to evaluate the impact of this practice on corn cultivation on the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. Information regarding all costs and benefits (increase in yield of crops due to phosphogypsum use) were compared. A radiological and chemical characterization of the phosphogypsum used was performed and information regarding all costs and benefits (increase in yield of crops due to phosphogypsum use) were compared. The radiological assessment is carried out by calculating the individual effective dose due to ingestion of these products. (author)

  17. Cost/benefit systems analysis and comparison of shallow land burial and greater confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The management of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) has, over the past few years, become an increasingly sophisticated and expensive problem for LLW generators, particularly utilities. The main area in the LLW management system, which includes volume reduction, solidification, packaging, handling, transportation, and disposal, that has really seen a dramatic increase in costs over the last few years is the disposal of LLW. In response, utilities are increasingly looking into various volume reduction alternatives to reduce these disposal costs. The time is ripe and the need evident for an analysis that considers the entire LLW management system, not just selected parts. To help meet this need, a cost/benefit and sensitivity analysis was performed of the entire LLW management system to see if greater confinement disposal is a potential cost effective alternative to shallow land burial. The results of this analysis are presented in this paper which concludes that greater confinement disposal can be a cost effective alternative to shallow land burial for a few LLW management configurations

  18. COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF A SINGLE UNIT SYSTEM WITH SCHEDULED MAINTENANCE AND VARIATION IN DEMAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulshan Taneja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper analyses the reliability and cost-benefit for a single unit system with scheduled maintenance and variation in demand. As Change in demand affects the production of system also, hence sometimes, the system needs to be shut down when the number of produces are in excess as compared to those demanded. Revenue in case of both types of up states i.e., when demand is greater than or equal to production and when demand is less than production have also been taken under consideration while carrying out the cost-benefit analysis. The loss incurred to the system when it is kept shut down due to less demand has also been taken into account. Optimized reliability indices of the system effectiveness are estimated numerically using semi-Markov processes and regenerative point technique. Expression for the expected profit is obtained after obtaining various measures of system effectiveness. We can conclude that cut off points for various rates/probabilities/revenue per unit up time/costs can be obtained which help in deciding the upper/lower acceptable values of rates/costs so that the system is profitable.

  19. Wind energy at the North Sea. A societal cost benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A social cost-benefit analysis (cba) of an investment in wind turbines at the North Sea has been conducted. The analysis reveals that such an investment will only increase welfare if it is done gradually and combined with strict climate policy measures. Building 6000 MW of wind parks at the North Sea by 2020 is economically unviable in all scenarios, variants and sensitivity analyses performed in this study. In a version with more gradual investments in the Strong Europe scenario (with strict climate policy), the balance will be slightly negative. If more favourable assumptions are used on cost decreases over time, higher fuel prices, higher emission prices or a lower discount factor, this would turn the balance to slightly positive. World oil-price developments in the coming decades are not expected to render wind energy economically viable in the absence of climate policy

  20. Using horsechestnut seed extract in the treatment of venous leg ulcers: a cost-benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Matthew J; Pincombe, Jan; Foster, Gigi

    2006-04-01

    Venous leg ulcers affect approximately 0.6% of the western population, consuming millions of healthcare dollars every year. To determine whether an alternative venous ulcer treatment using horsechestnut seed extract-- Aesculus hippocastanum-- and conventional therapy involving dressings and compression was more cost-effective than using conventional therapy alone, a 12-week cost-benefit analysis of horsechestnut seed extract therapy was conducted. The study, using data from a 12-week prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial conducted in South Australia in 2002-2004, involved 54 patients with venous ulceration who received treatment through a large South Australian district nursing service. Taking into account the cost of horsechestnut seed extract, dressing materials, travel, staff salaries, and infrastructure for each patient, horsechestnut seed extract therapy combined with conventional therapy was found to be more cost-effective than conventional therapy alone with an average savings of AUD 95 in organizational costs and AUD 10 in dressing materials per patient. This study confirms that dressing change frequency has a significant impact on the total cost of wound care and suggests that district nursing service operation efficiency may be enhanced through the use of horsechestnut seed extract as a result of less frequent nursing visits. Further study of this treatment modality is warranted. PMID:16636364

  1. Cost/benefit analysis comparing ex situ treatment technologies for removing carbon tetrachloride from Hanford groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a cost/benefit and performance analysis to compare ex situ technologies that can be used to destroy the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in the ground water of Hanford's 200 West Area. The objective of this work was to provide a direct quantitative and qualitative comparison of competing technologies. The technologies examined included a biological system, the Thermochemical Environmental Energy System II (TEES II), and a UV/oxidation system. The factors examined included key system operation parameters, impact on inorganic contaminants in the ground water, and secondary waste production. The cost effectiveness of these destruction technologies was also compared to the cost for an air stripping/granular activated carbon (AS/GAC) system. While the AS/GAC system appeared to be more cost effective at many levels than the CCl4 destruction technologies, the secondary waste produced by this system may lead to significant cost and/or regulatory problems. The factors with the greatest influence on cost for each destruction technology are as follows: nutrient requirements for both of the biological systems, electricity requirements and the type of unit operations for the TEES II process, and electricity requirements for UV/oxidation

  2. Cost benefit analysis for the establishment of food irradiation facilities in some egyptian export sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study discusses the economic aspects of the establishment of food irradiation facility that serves the Egyptian export sites such as Safaga and Suez and the effect of various parameters on the unit processing costs. The study is concerned with carrying out an economic evaluation for the application of irradiation for food exports from Safaga and Suez harbours. The study was carried out according to the approach applied in the evaluation of economic projects and also considering the requirements of technology projects for food preservation. The study comprises the determination of the commodity mix for the Egyptian food commodities that are proposed for irradiation and export from Safaga and Suez. The commodity mix is distributed for the full utilization of the working capacity and the evaluation of the type of the irradiation facility and also the radiation source strength. The financial analysis for such an irradiation facility is also carried out. It provides a model for calculating the specific unit processing costs by correlating known capital costs with annual operation cost and annual throughputs. The study had analyzed the cost-benefit of the proposed food irradiation facility. The study took into account the cost of the capital investment, operation cost and other additional parameters. The investment criteria utilized for commercial evaluation were internal rate of return (IRR) and pay back period (PBP). The irradiation cost and the additional income were also discussed. The results of this analysis showed that the installation of an irradiation unit for food irradiation that serves Safaga and Suez harbours would be economically feasible

  3. Methods for cost-benefit-risk analysis of material-accounting upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have developed a cost-benefit-risk methodology for evaluating material-accounting upgrades at key measurement points in nuclear facilities. The focus of this methodology is on nuclear-material measurements and their effects on inventory differences and shipper/receiver differences. The methodology has three main components: cost, benefits, and risk factors. The fundamental outcome of the methodology is therefore cost-benefit ratios characterizing the proposed upgrades, with the risk factors applied as necessary to the benefits. Examples illustrate the methodology's use

  4. Etik og cost-benefit analyse

    OpenAIRE

    Arler, Finn

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research report is threefold. Firstly, the author traces the origins and justification of cost-benefit analysis in moral and political philosophy. Secondly, he explain some of the basic features of cost-benefit analysis as a planning tool in a step-bystep presentation. Thirdly, he presents and discusses some of the main ethical difficulties related to the use of cost-benefit analysis as a planning tool.

  5. Occupational health values in the Supreme Court: cost-benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, W J; Boden, L I

    1981-11-01

    In American Textile Manufacturers Institute v. Donovan, the Supreme Court refuted an industry challenge, supported by the Reagan administration, to the cotton dust standard established under the Occupational Safety and Health Act. Petitioners argued that the Act required cost-benefit analysis, but the Court ruled in favor of workers' health where toxic materials were concerned. An earlier Supreme Court decision, Industrial Union Dept. v. American Petroleum Institute, invalidated OSHA's standard on occupational exposure to benzene as too stringent for the determined risk. These two decisions provide boundaries within which standards may be promulgated balancing industrial growth and development against worker safety and health. PMID:6794378

  6. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Confidentiality Policies for Advanced Knowledge Management Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, D

    2003-03-01

    Knowledge Discovery (KD) processes can create new information within a Knowledge Management (KM) system. In many domains, including government, this new information must be secured against unauthorized disclosure. Applying an appropriate confidentiality policy achieves this. However, it is not evident which confidentiality policy to apply, especially when the goals of sharing and disseminating knowledge have to be balanced with the requirements to secure knowledge. This work proposes to solve this problem by developing a cost-benefit analysis technique for examining the tradeoffs between securing and sharing discovered knowledge.

  7. A Cost Benefit Analysis of Two Alternative Traffic Lights Systems for the Colourful City of Zamzam

    OpenAIRE

    Machimbirike, Alexious

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Zamzam Infrastructure Bank has been approached by the country’s third largest city to finance the upgrading and expansion of its traffic lights system. Since the project is social in nature, the Bank intends to justify the borrowing on the basis of Colourful City’s ability to service the loan from its consolidated cash flows. A pre-requisite however, is the need to confirm the project’s socio-economic viability through economic cost benefit analysis. The Bank assessed and is satis...

  8. DENINT power plant cost benefit analysis code: Analysis of methane fuelled power plant/district heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DENINT power plant cost benefit analysis code takes into consideration, not only power production costs at the generator terminals, but also, in the case of cogeneration, the costs of the fuel supply and heat and power distribution systems which depend greatly on the location of the plant. The code is able to allow comparisons of alternatives with varying annual operation hours, fuel cost increases, and different types of fossil fuels and production systems. For illustrative purposes, this paper examines two methane fired cogeneration plant/district heating alternatives

  9. Determining Benefits and Costs for Future Generations

    OpenAIRE

    Arrow, K.; Cropper, M.; Gollier, C.; B. Groom; Heal, G; Newell, R.; Nordhaus, W.; Pindyck, R.; Pizer, W.; Portney, P.; Sterner, T; Tol, R.S.J.; Weitzman, Martin L.

    2013-01-01

    In economic project analysis, the rate at which future benefits and costs are discounted relative to current values often determines whether a project passes the benefit-cost test. This is especially true of projects with long time horizons, such as those to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Whether the benefits of climate policies, which can last for centuries, outweigh the costs, many of which are borne today, is especially sensitive to the rate at which future benefits are discounted....

  10. Cost benefits analysis of vibratory compaction technology for DUPIC fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vibratory compaction method has long been considered as a possible alternative to conventional powder pellet route for nuclear fuel fabrication. Despite the predominant adoption of the latter for commercial enterprises, there are interesting features of the former for application especially to remote fabrication of radioactive fuels for proliferation resistance by making advantageous use of its technical simplicity and concomitant cost benefit. For futuristic development of nuclear fuel fabrication, the potential benefits of vibratory compaction alternative may have to be reappraised. An interesting case in such respect can be studied for DUPIC (Direct Use of Spent PWR fuel in CANDU) program at KAERI initiative, which is being undertaken in international cooperation. The DUPIC program is meant to convert spent PWR fuel into CANDU fuel by direct refabrication without any separation of sensitive material. Although the DUPIC program has taken the conventional pellet method as the reference technology, the remote operation and maintenance required for the radioactive processes remain to be a technical challenge. The analysis is a case study for DUPIC fuel fabrication to size up the potential cost benefits of vibratory compaction alternative, but it could be also an example for other studies on fuel fabrication by remote technology. (author)

  11. Application and importance of cost-benefit analysis in energy efficiency projects implemented in public buildings: The case of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurovic Dejan M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present the advantages of using Cost-Benefit analysis in energy efficiency projects implemented in public buildings, and to prove the hypothesis that Cost-Benefit analysis boosts the effectiveness and efficiency of the said type of projects. The paper offers theoretical and practical explanation of the implementation of Cost-Benefit analysis in the relevant area. Since energy efficiency projects in public buildings usually represent a part of a broader portfolio of similar projects and their implementation demands allocation of substantial financial resources, communities are often be interested in achieving maximal economic and non-economic benefits. This paper aims to demonstrate that Cost-Benefit analysis can represent an excellent contribution when attempting to select the projects for implementation within a broader portfolio of energy efficiency projects in public buildings. This hypothesis was demonstrated by putting a greater emphasis on non-economic benefits and the costs arising from implementation of the aforementioned types of projects. In addition, a practical test of this hypothesis was performed through the implementation of an energy efficiency portfolio in public buildings, worth several tens of millions of dollars - the Serbian Energy Efficiency Project. The paper concludes that the use of Cost-Benefit analysis can help us to effectively evaluate and manage projects of this type aimed at achieving maximum benefits for the community in question.

  12. Strategies for diagnosis and treatment of suspected leptospirosis: a cost-benefit analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yupin Suputtamongkol

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Symptoms and signs of leptospirosis are non-specific. Several diagnostic tests for leptospirosis are available and in some instances are being used prior to treatment of leptospirosis-suspected patients. There is therefore a need to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the different treatment strategies in order to avoid misuse of scarce resources and ensure best possible health outcomes for patients. METHODS: The study population was adult patients, presented with uncomplicated acute febrile illness, without an obvious focus of infection or malaria or typical dengue infection. We compared the cost and effectiveness of 5 management strategies: 1 no patients tested or given antibiotic treatment; 2 all patients given empirical doxycycline treatment; patients given doxycycline when a patient is tested positive for leptospirosis using: 3 lateral flow; 4 MCAT; 5 latex test. The framework used is a cost-benefit analysis, accounting for all direct medical costs in diagnosing and treating patients suspected of leptospirosis. Outcomes are measured in length of fever after treatment which is then converted to productivity losses to capture the full economic costs. FINDINGS: Empirical doxycycline treatment was the most efficient strategy, being both the least costly alternative and the one that resulted in the shortest duration of fever. The limited sensitivity of all three diagnostic tests implied that their use to guide treatment was not cost-effective. The most influential parameter driving these results was the cost of treating patients with complications for patients who did not receive adequate treatment as a result of incorrect diagnosis or a strategy of no-antibiotic-treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should continue treating suspected cases of leptospirosis on an empirical basis. This conclusion holds true as long as policy makers are not prioritizing the reduction of use of antibiotics, in which case the use of the latex test would be

  13. Parametric cost-benefit analysis for the installation of photovoltaic parks in the island of Cyprus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work a feasibility study is carried out in order to investigate whether the installation of large photovoltaic (PV) parks in Cyprus, in the absence of relevant feed-in tariff or other measures, is economically feasible. The study takes into account the available solar potential of the island of Cyprus as well as all available data concerning current renewable energy sources (RES) policy of the Cyprus Government and the current RES electricity purchasing tariff from Electricity Authority of Cyprus. In order to identify the least-cost feasible option for the installation of 1 MW PV park a parametric cost-benefit analysis is carried out by varying parameters such as PV park orientation, PV park capital investment, carbon dioxide emission trading system price, etc. For all above cases the electricity unit cost or benefit before tax, as well as after-tax cash flow, net present value, internal rate of return and payback period are calculated. The results indicate that capital expenditure of the PV park is a critical parameter for the viability of the project when no feed-in tariff is available. (author)

  14. Parametric cost-benefit analysis for the installation of photovoltaic parks in the island of Cyprus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work a feasibility study is carried out in order to investigate whether the installation of large photovoltaic (PV) parks in Cyprus, in the absence of relevant feed-in tariff or other measures, is economically feasible. The study takes into account the available solar potential of the island of Cyprus as well as all available data concerning current renewable energy sources (RES) policy of the Cyprus Government and the current RES electricity purchasing tariff from Electricity Authority of Cyprus. In order to identify the least-cost feasible option for the installation of 1 MW PV park a parametric cost-benefit analysis is carried out by varying parameters such as PV park orientation, PV park capital investment, carbon dioxide emission trading system price, etc. For all above cases the electricity unit cost or benefit before tax, as well as after-tax cash flow, net present value, internal rate of return and payback period are calculated. The results indicate that capital expenditure of the PV park is a critical parameter for the viability of the project when no feed-in tariff is available.

  15. Energy Policies and Risks on Energy Markets. A cost-benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The key question dealt with in this report is whether and how governments should be involved in taking measures regarding security of energy supply. In order to answer this question, we developed a framework for cost-benefit analysis and applied this framework to a number of policy options. The options chosen vary from government investments in strategic oil stocks to financial incentives for consumers to reduce their consumption of electricity. The set of options comprises several types of governmental action, including subsidies, regulation and government investments. Moreover, the selection includes measures meant to address risks on all three major energy markets: oil, natural gas, and electricity. The general picture following from the cases studied is that security of supply measures are hardly ever beneficial to welfare: benefits of policy measures do generally not outweigh costs. From an economic point of view, therefore, it would be often wiser to accept consequences of supply disruptions than to pursue security of supply at any cost. This implies that governments should exercise caution in imposing measures regarding security of supply. If serious market failure is detected, careful attention should be paid to the design of the corrective measure. Establishing and maintaining well-functioning markets appears to be an efficient approach in realising a secure supply of energy. That approach would include removal of entry barriers, securing equal access to essential facilities and increasing transparency of markets

  16. Cost-benefit analysis: the first real rule of fight club?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Louise Hillman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Competition is ubiquitous among social animals. Vying against a conspecific to achieve a particular outcome often requires one to act aggressively, but this is a costly and inherently risky behaviour. So why do we aggressively compete, or at the extreme, fight against others? Early work suggested that competitive aggression might stem from an innate aggressive tendency, emanating from subcortical structures. Later work highlighted key cortical regions that contribute towards an instrumental aggression network, one that is recruited or suppressed as needed to achieve a goal. Recent neuroimaging work hints that competitive aggression is upmost a cost-benefit decision, in that it appears to recruit many components of traditional, non-social decision-making networks. This review provides a historical glimpse into the neuroscience of competitive aggression, and proposes a conceptual advancement for studying competitive behaviour by outlining how utility calculations of contested-for resources are skewed, pre- and post-competition. A basic multi-factorial model of utility assessment is proposed to account for competitive endowment effects that stem from the presence of peers, peer salience and disposition, and the tactical effort required for victory. In part, competitive aggression is a learned behaviour that should only be repeated if positive outcomes are achieved. However due to skewed utility assessments, deviations of associative learning occur. Hence truly careful cost-benefit analysis is warranted before choosing to vie against another.

  17. A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Early Childhood Hygiene Interventions in Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raushan ATANIYAZOVA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies cost-benefit analysis (CBA technique to estimate the effectiveness of hand hygiene and oral health interventions in Uzbekistan for children of kindergarten age (3-6 years old. Our primary objective in this study is to apply CBA framework to investigate economic viability of hand hygiene and oral health interventions on respiratory diseases (influenza, bronchitis, pneumonia, intestinal diseases (diarrhea, hepatitis A, and helminthiasis, and dental caries and stomatitis. Though it is often difficult to attribute a specific hygiene intervention to a reduction in specific illness, our study shows that prevention of disease through hygiene promotion is cost-effective. To be the most effective, however, hygiene interventions should be accompanied by education and awareness-raising of teachers, parents and children.

  18. Development of cost-benefit analysis system for FBR research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this research, we performed investigation and evaluation on cost-benefit, and made system construction of basic concept and conceptual design, prior to the system construction which performs (1) evaluation of cost-benefit of FBR development within the country, and (2) evaluation of cost-benefit for every item for R and D relating to the FBR development. As for the methods for cost-benefit, it shall be suitable to assume that success rate differs depending on the future scenario such as fuel prices and to employ discount rates, considering the point of long-term R and D investment. We also pointed out that establishment of discount rates is the biggest issue which influences the results of evaluation of cost-benefit then. When we grasp the effects, it is required to include the effects such as contribution to environmental benefits and energy security, or improvement of safety, other than real generation merits, as it is a public investment. Therefore we made investigations and developments on the way to understand the effects qualitatively. Based on the results, we made a proposal on application to the system, and then showed evaluation flows on the cost-benefit system. We also pointed out that it is a future task to be considered to establish fuel cost scenario or input data or parameters such as value of statistical life or CO2 reduction, as they are primary factors which influence evaluation results or system reliabilities. (author)

  19. A Cost to Benefit Analysis of a Next Generation Electric Power Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Apurva

    This thesis provides a cost to benefit analysis of the proposed next generation of distribution systems- the Future Renewable Electric Energy Distribution Management (FREEDM) system. With the increasing penetration of renewable energy sources onto the grid, it becomes necessary to have an infrastructure that allows for easy integration of these resources coupled with features like enhanced reliability of the system and fast protection from faults. The Solid State Transformer (SST) and the Fault Isolation Device (FID) make for the core of the FREEDM system and have huge investment costs. Some key features of the FREEDM system include improved power flow control, compact design and unity power factor operation. Customers may observe a reduction in the electricity bill by a certain fraction for using renewable sources of generation. There is also a possibility of huge subsidies given to encourage use of renewable energy. This thesis is an attempt to quantify the benefits offered by the FREEDM system in monetary terms and to calculate the time in years required to gain a return on investments made. The elevated cost of FIDs needs to be justified by the advantages they offer. The result of different rates of interest and how they influence the payback period is also studied. The payback periods calculated are observed for viability. A comparison is made between the active power losses on a certain distribution feeder that makes use of distribution level magnetic transformers versus one that makes use of SSTs. The reduction in the annual active power losses in the case of the feeder using SSTs is translated onto annual savings in terms of cost when compared to the conventional case with magnetic transformers. Since the FREEDM system encourages operation at unity power factor, the need for installing capacitor banks for improving the power factor is eliminated and this reflects in savings in terms of cost. The FREEDM system offers enhanced reliability when compared to a

  20. A cost-benefit analysis of power generation from commercial reinforced concrete solar chimney power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We develop an economic model different from related models. • We evaluate the initial investment cost of a plant built in northwest China. • We analyze the cost and benefit of a plant built in northwest China. • By the sensitivity analysis, we examine the sensitivity of TNPV to many parameters. - Abstract: This paper develops a model different from existing models to analyze the cost and benefit of a reinforced concrete solar chimney power plant (RCSCPP) built in northwest China. Based on the model and some assumptions for values of parameters, this work calculates total net present value (TNPV) and the minimum electricity price in each phase by dividing the whole service period into four phases. The results show that the minimum electricity price in the first phase is higher than the current market price of electricity, but the minimum prices in the other phases are far less than the current market price. The analysis indicates that huge advantages of the RCSCPP over coal-fired power plants can be embodied in phases 2–4. In addition, the sensitivity analysis performed in this paper discovers TNPV is very sensitive to changes in the solar electricity price and inflation rate, but responds only slightly to changes in carbon credits price, income tax rate and interest rate of loans. Our analysis predicts that RCSCPPs have very good application prospect. To encourage the development of RCSCPPs, the government should provide subsidy by setting higher electricity price in the first phase, then lower electricity price in the other phases

  1. Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit (LCCB) Analysis of Bridges from a User and Social Point of View

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    2009-01-01

    During the last two decades, important progress has been made in the life-cycle cost-benefit (LCCB) analysis of structures, especially offshore platforms, bridges and nuclear installations. Due to the large uncertainties related to the deterioration, maintenance, and benefits of such structures...... point of view. In the paper, negative benefits (user costs) are discussed in relation to the maintenance of concrete bridges. A limited number of excerpts from published reports that are related to the importance of estimating user costs when repairs of bridges are planned, and when optimized strategies...... are formulated, are shown. These excerpts clearly show that user costs in several cases completely dominate the total costs. In some cases, the user costs are more than ten times higher than the repair costs. A simple example of how to relate and estimate user costs to the repair of a single bridge is...

  2. A Cost-Benefit Analysis of a Family Systems Intervention for Managing Pediatric Chronic Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distelberg, Brian J; Emerson, Natacha D; Gavaza, Paul; Tapanes, Daniel; Brown, Whitney N; Shah, Huma; Williams-Reade, Jacqueline; Montgomery, Susanne

    2016-07-01

    Despite recent increases of psychosocial programs for pediatric chronic illness, few studies have explored their economic benefits. This study investigated the costs-benefits of a family systems-based, psychosocial intervention for pediatric chronic illness (MEND: Mastering Each New Direction). A quasi-prospective study compared the 12-month pre-post direct and indirect costs of 20 families. The total cost for program was estimated to $5,320. Families incurred $15,249 less in direct and $15,627 less in indirect costs after MEND. On average, medical expenses reduced by 86% in direct and indirect costs, for a cost-benefit ratio of 0.17. Therefore, for every dollar spent on the program, families and their third payers saved approximately $5.74. Implications for healthcare policy and reimbursements are discussed. PMID:27282311

  3. Cost Drivers. Evolution and Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary COKINS

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to capture the evolution of applying cost drivers in calculating costs since their initial occurrence until the present times. There are different conceptual approaches of cost drivers, and new insights from applying cost modeling techniques from the Activity-Based Costing method (ABC. The article looks at the typology, criteria for selection of cost drivers and their benefits. The cost allocation method is also presented with specific steps corresponding to the ABC calculation method. In the end, the authors conclusions on the benefits of cost drivers are presented.

  4. Does the Planetree patient-centered approach to care pay off?: a cost-benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulmont, Michel; Roy, Chantale; Dumas, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    Although the Planetree patient-centered approach to care is being implemented in many institutions around the world, its impact is still the subject of some debate. On the one hand, it is viewed as the most cost-effective way to provide care and create a positive work environment that reduces staff burnout. On the other hand, it is argued that it requires higher staffing ratios and a substantial infusion of financial resources and is time consuming, which in turn results in more work. The present study addresses the economic agenda of the Planetree patient-centered approach to care and has been designed to answer the following question: do the advantages of the Planetree patient-centered approach outweigh its costs? This question is of considerable interest for health care administrators and managers because the relevant authorities the world over have limited resources to allocate to health care organizations. Using a trend analysis approach to cost-benefit in a rehabilitation center, this study shows that the revenues the model generates are greater than the costs of implementing it. Fewer grievances and vacant positions, an improved employee retention rate, a better working atmosphere, and a high level of employee satisfaction (higher than in similar establishments) were also noted. PMID:23364422

  5. Some Aspects of Natural Resources Management Based On Cost-Benefit Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Snejana Radukic; Sonja Vucic; Vesna Jankovic-Milic

    2004-01-01

    The strategy of managing natural resources must take into account all assets and resources, human, physical and natural capital, and financial and monetary assets. There are benefits and costs associated with changing the capital stock of natural resources.

  6. Optimal climate policy is a utopia. From quantitative to qualitative cost-benefit analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. [Department of Spatial Economics, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, and Institute for Environmental Studies, Free University, De Boelelaan 1105, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2004-04-20

    The dominance of quantitative cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and optimality concepts in the economic analysis of climate policy is criticised. Among others, it is argued to be based in a misplaced interpretation of policy for a complex climate-economy system as being analogous to individual inter-temporal welfare optimisation. The transfer of quantitative CBA and optimality concepts reflects an overly ambitious approach that does more harm than good. An alternative approach is to focus the attention on extreme events, structural change and complexity. It is argued that a qualitative rather than a quantitative CBA that takes account of these aspects can support the adoption of a minimax regret approach or precautionary principle in climate policy. This means: implement stringent GHG reduction policies as soon as possible.

  7. Cost-Benefit Analysis For Alternative Low-Emission Surface Preparation/ Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2007-01-01

    Stennis Space Center (SSC), Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) identified particulate emissions and waste generated from the depainting process of steel structures as hazardous materials to be eliminated or reduced. A Potential Alternatives Report, Potential Alternatives Report for Validation of Alternative Low Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel, provided a technical analyses of identified alternatives to the current coating removal processes, criteria used to select alternatives for further analysis, and a list of those alternatives recommended for testing. The initial coating removal alternatives list was compiled using literature searches and stakeholder recommendations. The involved project participants initially considered approximately 13 alternatives. In late 2003, core project members selected the following depainting processes to be further evaluated: (1) Plastic Blast Media-Quickstrip(R)-A. (2) Hard Abrasive-Steel-Magic(R). (3) Sponge Blasting-Sponge-Jet(R). (4) Liquid Nitrogen-NItroJet(R). (5) Mechanical Removal with Vacuum Attachment-DESCO and OCM Clean-Air (6) Laser Coating Removal Alternatives were tested in accordance with the Joint Test Protocol for Validation of Alternative Low-Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel, and the Field Evaluation Test Plan for Validation of Alternative Low-Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel. Results of the testing are documented in the Joint Test Report. This Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) focuses on the three alternatives (Quickstrip(R)-A, SteelMagic (R), and Sponge-Jet(R)) that were considered viable alternatives for large area operations based on the results of the field demonstration and lab testing. This CBA was created to help participants determine if implementation of the candidate alternatives is economically justified. Each of the alternatives examined reduced Environmental

  8. A cost-benefit analysis for the economic growth in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, traditional development issues such as income inequality, depletion of natural resources, environmental pollution as well as retardation of infrastructure have occurred in China. In the future, more pressures would be imposed on China by the continuous fast development of industrialization, and with transfer of the world manufacture center to China. Sustainable development, including its economic, environmental and social elements, is a key goal of decision-makers. This paper develops a methodology on cost benefit analysis of economic growth at macroscopic level to identify issues of China's sustainability. In order to address some important issues on how to make policies to improve the quality of economic growth, the CBA framework developed in this study analyses economic-ecological-social interaction, building three accounts that reflect three dimensions of sustainable development that includes 26 sub-models in all, and finally is integrated into an index as Net Progress Proceeds (NPP). The estimation methods of these submodels, such as cost of environmental pollution, depletion of natural resources and defensive expenditures are described in detail. Based on the framework and methods, this paper examines the costs and benefits of economic growth in three aspects of economy, ecology and society. The results illustrate that NPR of China's economic growth had been negative for a long time and has just became positive since year 2000 but was quite low. Even the best was only 1.6% in 2002 (the worst was - 24.2% in 1982). Based on the comparison between three accounts, we can draw a conclusion that ecological cost is the dominant factor that affects China's NPR. The empirical results show that if no other innovative measures or policies are taken in the future the costs of growth would outweigh its benefits, resulting in un-sustainability. Basically, the long-term economic growth would be unsustainable due to increasing environmental damage and depletion of

  9. Kilometer valuation evaluated. Cost benefit analysis business case Rabobank sustainable mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Dutch financial institute (Rabobank) has presented its vision on sustainable mobility, elaborated in a business case. The vision and the business case were evaluated by CE. Also societal costs and benefits have been estimated. It is concluded that considerable benefits can be realized, provided that proposed measures will be elaborated further

  10. A Cost Benefits Analysis of International Education: A Case of Zimbabwean Students in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimucheka, Tendai

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the costs and benefits of international education to Zimbabwean students studying in South African Universities. The objectives of the study were to investigate the actual and perceived benefits of international education to students. The study also investigated the impact of international education on the lives of students,…

  11. Project evaluation, sustainability and accountability: combining cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and multi-criteria analysis (MCA)

    OpenAIRE

    Sijtsma, F.J.

    2006-01-01

    General abstract Decision-makers in governments and businesses must choose among different project alternatives which, in varying degrees, contribute to sustainability. Decision-makers also have to account for their choices to a large audience or a broad range of stakeholders. This thesis is about the positive and negative aspects of using the main judgement-oriented evaluation tools of Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) and Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA) together in the context of sustainability and...

  12. Valuing Non-CO2 GHG Emission Changes in Benefit-Cost Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The climate impacts of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions impose social costs on society. To date, EPA has not had an approach to estimate the economic benefits of reducing emissions of non-CO2 GHGs (or the costs of increasing them) that is consistent with the methodology underlying...

  13. Benefit--cost analysis of new source performance standards. [Fossil-fuel power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croke, K. G.; Hoover, L. J.; Farley, D.; Bright, R. N.

    1975-09-01

    An assessment of the adoption of SO/sub 2/ New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for power generation is presented herein. The cost, effectiveness, and value of new source performance standards were examined in a benefit-cost framework. In order to do this, power plants in Illinois were evaluated with respect to SO/sub 2/ emissions, air quality effects, exposure of adjacent populations to SO/sub 2/, control costs, and health and property damages. In terms of reducing the dosages to humans of SO/sub 2/, it is more cost-effective to control older rural plants than it is to control new rural plants. The cost per man-SOX reduction for new plants would be about $18 per man-SOX versus $10 per man-SOX for existing plants. The costs of the new source performance standards are about 10 times larger than their associated benefits. The reduction in damages per year is about $400,000 while the cost of control is about 8.4 million dollars. Conclusions such as this based on the present state of the art of benefit estimation are, of course, risky; however, the relative cost-effectiveness ratios do seem to indicate a misallocation of resources even if the uncertainties in the benefit estimates are significant.

  14. Application of Bayesian and cost benefit risk analysis in water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varouchakis, E. A.; Palogos, I.; Karatzas, G. P.

    2016-03-01

    Decision making is a significant tool in water resources management applications. This technical note approaches a decision dilemma that has not yet been considered for the water resources management of a watershed. A common cost-benefit analysis approach, which is novel in the risk analysis of hydrologic/hydraulic applications, and a Bayesian decision analysis are applied to aid the decision making on whether or not to construct a water reservoir for irrigation purposes. The alternative option examined is a scaled parabolic fine variation in terms of over-pumping violations in contrast to common practices that usually consider short-term fines. The methodological steps are analytically presented associated with originally developed code. Such an application, and in such detail, represents new feedback. The results indicate that the probability uncertainty is the driving issue that determines the optimal decision with each methodology, and depending on the unknown probability handling, each methodology may lead to a different optimal decision. Thus, the proposed tool can help decision makers to examine and compare different scenarios using two different approaches before making a decision considering the cost of a hydrologic/hydraulic project and the varied economic charges that water table limit violations can cause inside an audit interval. In contrast to practices that assess the effect of each proposed action separately considering only current knowledge of the examined issue, this tool aids decision making by considering prior information and the sampling distribution of future successful audits.

  15. Utilization of recycled asphalt concrete with warm mix asphalt and cost-benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oner, Julide; Sengoz, Burak

    2015-01-01

    The asphalt paving industries are faced with two major problems. These two important challenges are generated with an increase in demand for environmentally friendly paving mixtures and the problem of rapidly rising raw materials. Recycling of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) is a critical necessity to save precious aggregates and reduce the use of costly bitumen. Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) technology provides not only the option of recycling asphalt pavement at a lower temperature than the temperature maintained in hot mixtures but also encourages the utilization of RAP and therefore saves energy and money. This paper describes the feasibility of utilizing three different WMA additives (organic, chemical and water containing) at recommended contents with different percentages of RAP. The mechanical properties and cost-benefit analysis of WMA containing RAP have been performed and compared with WMA without RAP. The results indicated that, 30%, 10% and 20% can be accepted as an optimum RAP addition related to organic, chemical and water containing additives respectively and organic additive with 30% RAP content has an appreciable increase in tensile strength over the control mix. It was also concluded that the RAP with WMA technology is the ability to reduce final cost compared to HMA and WMA mixtures. PMID:25574851

  16. Cost/risk/benefit analysis report on the decontamination and decommissioning of Z-plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed to estimate the cost of decontaminating and decommissioning Z-Plant. All of the buildings in the Z-Plant exclusion area except Building 2736-Z, the plutonium storage vault, are included in the study. The study also excludes all underground facilities within the exclusion area which are not contained within a building and all Z-Plant related facilities outside the perimeter fence. The contamination in Z-Plant is primarily 239Pu which has a half-life of 24,360 years. Because of the long half-life of 239Pu, it is not practical to consider the isolation of the facility to await reduction of the contamination level by natural decay. Therefore, this study analyzes the costs, risk and benefit of decontaminating Z-Plant to four different levels of residual contamination. The three principle criteria used in the analysis are cost, the risk of offsite dose to the public, and the occupational exposure to onsite personnel

  17. Benefit-cost analysis in the Point Lepreau refurbishment planning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an integral part of its operational philosophy the Canadian nuclear power industry carries out ongoing assessments of nuclear plant operation and maintenance as the plants continue to age and as new operational, analytical or research information is acquired. Particular emphasis is given to issues arising out of such assessments that have potentially significant safety and/or regulatory implications. This paper discusses the Benefit-Cost-Analysis (BCA) as a systematic means to contribute to safety-related decision making. NB Power has therefore undertaken the development of a comprehensive BCA process that could be applied during the early stages of the PLR planning process to assist in providing information that would contribute to making appropriate risk informed decisions regarding changes being considered for the PLR project

  18. Cost benefit analysis, sustainability and long-lived radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to examine how far the sustainability concept and the technique of cost-benefit analysis (CBA) can be applied to the problem of radioactive waste management. The paper begins with a slightly altered definition of the problem to the one carried in the Nea's background document (Nea 1994). A preliminary attempt is then be made to ascribe burdens to the various phases of long-lived radioactive waste management. The appropriateness of CBA and the sustainability concept for making decisions about long-term waste management policy is then discussed. The author ends with some conclusions about the appropriateness of systematic assessment approaches in the political process of constructing social consent for technological decisions. (O.L.). 12 refs., 1 tab

  19. Use of cost benefit analysis in the field of industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past decade NRPB has had a program of work on the development of cost benefit analysis (CBA) techniques in the optimisation of radiological protection. A provisional framework for including suggestions for assigning a value to unit collective dose was published for consultation in 1981/82 and after various interim statements this process culminated in formal advice in 1986. As part of this work, and as part of a project for the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) the NRPB has carried out a number of case studies to demonstrate the practical implementation of ALARA or optimisation of protection using CBA. These techniques, used in conjunction with ALARA audits, are now in general use in the NRPB's Radiation Protection Advisor Service. They have been used for a variety of medical and industrial situations, but mainly in industrial radiography as this is the part of the non-nuclear sector where occupational exposure problems predominate. Three cases are presented as representative examples

  20. Adaption to Extreme Rainfall with Open Urban Drainage System: An Integrated Hydrological Cost-Benefit Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qianqian; Panduro, Toke Emil; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark;

    2013-01-01

    with extreme rainfalls is evaluated using a quantitative flood risk approach based on urban inundation modeling and socio-economic analysis of corresponding costs and benefits. A hedonic valuation model is applied to capture the local economic gains or losses from more water bodies in green areas. The...... framework was applied to the northern part of the city of Aarhus, Denmark. We investigated four adaptation strategies that encompassed laissez-faire, larger sewer pipes, local infiltration units, and open drainage system in the urban green structure. We found that when taking into account environmental...... amenity effects, an integration of open drainage basins in urban recreational areas is likely the best adaptation strategy, followed by pipe enlargement and local infiltration strategies. All three were improvements compared to the fourth strategy of no measures taken....

  1. Economic consideration of nuclear safety and cost benefit analysis in nuclear safety regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the optimization of nuclear safety regulation, understanding of economic aspects of it becomes increasingly important together with the technical approach used so far to secure nuclear safety. Relevant economic theories on private and public goods were reviewed to re-illuminate nuclear safety from the economic perspective. The characteristics of nuclear safety as a public good was reviewed and discussed in comparison with the car safety as a private safety good. It was shown that the change of social welfare resulted from the policy change induced can be calculated by the summation of compensating variation(CV) of individuals. It was shown that the value of nuclear safety could be determined in monetary term by this approach. The theoretical background and history of cost benefit analysis of nuclear safety regulation were presented and topics for future study were suggested

  2. Gauging Technology Costs and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaestner, Rich

    2007-01-01

    Regardless of the role technology plays in a school district, district personnel should know the costs associated with technology, understand the consequences of technology purchases, and be able to measure the benefits of technology, so they can make more informed decisions. However, determining costs and benefits of current technology or…

  3. Benefit-cost analysis of selected DOE/OHER investments in coal liquefaction.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaway, J.M.; Fillo, J.P.; Gray, R.H.; Felix, W.D.; Mahlum, D.D.

    1982-09-01

    Based in large part of the lack of specific information about the nature and magnitude of health impacts that could occur from commercialization of a coal liquefaction industry, DOE initiated a broad-based program to study the potential health and environmental fate and effects of process streams from several coal liquefaction process options. Responsibility for this research was assigned to OHER. Specific results of this research program that are important for the purpose of this analysis include findings that: the toxicity and teratogenic potential of coal liquids boiling below 450/sup 0/F is small; mutagenic and carcinogenic activity is typically expressed in coal liquids boiling above 750/sup 0/F; and mutagenic and carcinogenic activity increases markedly in coal liquids boiling above 800/sup 0/F. Based on the above findings, OHER funded research to evaluate the effect of various hydrotreatment levels on the biological activity of coal-derived liquids. Studies using the Ames assay or mammalian cell transformation assays indicated that hydrotreatment was effective in reducing biological activity of coal-derived liquids. Skin-painting studies demonstrated that carcinogenicity was also reduced by hydrotreatment. Studies in progress are evaluating the effects of hydrotreatment severity on biological activity. However, it appears reasonably clear that health risks can be reduced by hydrotreating only materials that boil above 750/sup 0/F. Materials boiling below 750/sup 0/ could be marketed directly without significant risk to individuals exposed to these products. The benefit-cost analysis presented is based on the premise that the cost differential between full and partial hydrotreatment provides the basis for approximating the potential benefits associated with the relevant OHER research investments.

  4. Introducing mandatory standards for select household appliances in Lebanon: A cost-benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebanon's energy sector crisis leads to a lack of access to uninterrupted, basic modern electricity services that affects all sectors of the economy. Energy conservation measures are nearly inexistent yet they can potentially lead to substantial reductions in energy demand growth, environmental damages and public expenditures. This paper presents an analysis of the costs and benefits associated with the introduction of mandatory standards for energy efficiency for four different household appliances (refrigerator/freezers, AC split units, washing machines and lighting) over the period 2013–2027. Our results show potential savings in electricity consumption reaching 2054 GW h annually in 2027 as well as a reduction of subsidies paid to the public utility of 3.6 billion USD in 2027 while CO2 emissions avoided amount to 8.9 million tons over the period of analysis. Furthermore, we propose a financially attractive refrigerator/freezer replacement program for low income households. If this program would cover all existing low-income households in 2013, the savings in electricity consumption would lead to a reduction in subsidies of 9 billion USD (NPV) over the period 2013–2027, while full funding for this program would cost the government 223.8 million USD. This program would thereby benefit consumers, the government and further economic development. - Highlights: ► We model the effect of mandatory appliance standards on electricity consumption. ► We present a refrigerator replacement program contributing to economic development. ► We show that economic efficiency favors the introduction of standards for appliances.

  5. Cost-benefit analysis model: A tool for area-wide fruit fly management. Procedures manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Generic Fruit Fly Cost-Benefit Analysis Model assists in economic decision making associated with area-wide fruit fly control options. The FRUIT FLY COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS PROGRAM (available on 1 CD-ROM from the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture) is an Excel 2000 Windows based program, for which all standard Windows and Excel conventions apply. The Model is user friendly and thus largely self-explanatory. Nevertheless, it includes a procedures manual that has been prepared to guide the user, and thus should be used together with the software. Please note that the table presenting the pest management options in the Introductory Page of the model is controlled by spin buttons and click boxes. These controls are linked to macros that hide non relevant tables and boxes. N.B. it is important that the medium level of security is selected from the Tools menu of Excel, to do this go to Tools|Macros|Security| and select Medium. When the file is opened a form will appear containing three buttons, click on the middle button, 'Enable Macros', so that the macros may be used. Ideally the model should be used as a support tool by working groups aiming at assessing the economic returns of different fruit fly control options (suppression, eradication, containment and prevention). The working group should include professionals in agriculture with experience in area-wide implementation of integrated pest management programmes, an economist or at least someone with basic knowledge in economics, and if relevant, an entomologist with some background in the application of the sterile insect technique (SIT)

  6. Improvement of safety by analysis of costs and benefits of the system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Karkoszka

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of the paper has been the assessment of the dependence between improvement of the implemented occupational health and safety management system and both minimization of costs connected with occupational health and safety assurance and optimization of real work conditions.Design/methodology/approach: used for the analysis has included definition of the occupational health and safety system with regard to the rules and tool allowing for occupational safety assurance in the organisational and technical way, analyses of costs and benefits of the system maintenance as well as study on the tools for potential improvement of processes.Findings: of analysis are as follows: continuously improving occupational safety management system guarantees the advancement of work conditions, the decrease of the rate of occupational illnesses as well as the lowering of the amount of occupational accidents.Research limitations/implications: can apply in case of any organisation, which uses both organizational and technical rules, methods and tools to assure the optimal level of occupational health and safety conditions.Originality/value: of the presented paper has been constituted by the specification of the continuous improvement tools and methods in the system implemented on the basis on quality criterion.

  7. The Effect of Social perception of environmental problems and goods on the practice of cost-benefit analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunuel, M.; Delgado, M. L.

    2002-07-01

    When revealed, willingness to pay (WTP) is considerably lesser than willingness to accept (WTA), as economists explain. Sociological studies in Spain reveal that citizens assign a high value to the environment (high WTA), but are not ready to pay to preserve it (low WTP)because they think that it is industrial sector and the government's responsibility. This is a new factor, not studied before, that may result in underestimating environmental goods when WTP is used. The gap between WTP and WTA makes cost-benefits analysis difficult, creating the risk of environmental political judgments being replaced by pseudo scientific noise instead of by objective economic analysis.hence, it is sometimes convenient to use alternative methods to cost-benefit analysis: cost-effectiveness analysis trade-off analysis, economic-impact valuation, and risk-benefit analysis. (Author)

  8. Decision making based on analysis of benefit versus costs of preventive retrofit versus costs of repair after earthquake hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostenaru Dan, M.

    2012-04-01

    In this presentation interventions on seismically vulnerable early reinforced concrete skeleton buildings, from the interwar time, at different performance levels, from avoiding collapse up to assuring immediate post-earthquake functionality are considered. Between these two poles there are degrees of damage depending on the performance aim set. The costs of the retrofit and post-earthquake repair differ depending on the targeted performance. Not only an earthquake has impact on a heritage building, but also the retrofit measure, for example on its appearance or its functional layout. This way criteria of the structural engineer, the investor, the architect/conservator/urban planner and the owner/inhabitants from the neighbourhood are considered for taking a benefit-cost decision. Benefit-cost analysis based decision is an element in a risk management process. A solution must be found on how much change to accept for retrofit and how much repairable damage to take into account. There are two impact studies. Numerical simulation was run for the building typology considered for successive earthquakes, selected in a deterministic way (1977, 1986 and two for 1991 from Vrancea, Romania and respectively 1978 Thessaloniki, Greece), considering also the case when retrofit is done between two earthquakes. The typology of buildings itself was studied not only for Greece and Romania, but for numerous European countries, including Italy. The typology was compared to earlier reinforced concrete buildings, with Hennebique system, in order to see to which amount these can belong to structural heritage and to shape the criteria of the architect/conservator. Based on the typology study two model buildings were designed, and for one of these different retrofit measures (side walls, structural walls, steel braces, steel jacketing) were considered, while for the other one of these retrofit techniques (diagonal braces, which permits adding also active measures such as energy

  9. Cost-benefit analysis of comprehensive mental health prevention programs in Japanese workplaces: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Sachiko; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Kitamura, Fumihiko; Fukuda, Takashi; Inaba, Ryoichi

    2013-01-01

    We examined the implementation of mental health prevention programs in Japanese workplaces and the costs and benefits. A cross-sectional survey targeting mental health program staff at 11 major companies was conducted. Questionnaires explored program implementation based on the guidelines of the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. Labor, materials, outsourcing costs, overheads, employee mental discomfort, and absentee numbers, and work attendance were examined. Cost-benefit analyses were conducted from company perspectives assessing net benefits per employee and returns on investment. The surveyed companies employ an average of 1,169 workers. The implementation rate of the mental health prevention programs was 66% for primary, 51% for secondary, and 60% for tertiary programs. The program's average cost was 12,608 yen per employee and the total benefit was 19,530 yen per employee. The net benefit per employee was 6,921 yen and the return on investment was in the range of 0.27-16.85. Seven of the 11 companies gained a net benefit from the mental health programs. PMID:24077445

  10. Forecasting the Socio-Economic Impact of the Large Hadron Collider: a Cost-Benefit Analysis to 2025 and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Florio, Massimo; Forte, Stefano; Sirtori, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we develop a cost-benefit analysis of a major research infrastructure, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the highest-energy accelerator in the world, currently operating at CERN. We show that the evaluation of benefits can be made quantitative by estimating their welfare effects on different types of agents. Four classes of direct benefits are identified, according to the main social groups involved: (a) scientists; (b) students and young researchers; (c) firms in the procurement...

  11. A Meta Analysis on Farm-Level Costs and Benefits of GM Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Stupak

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the evidence on the socio-economic impacts of GM crops and analyzes whether there are patterns across space and time. To this end, we investigate the effect of GM crops on farm-level costs and benefits using global data from more than one decade of field trials and surveys. More specifically, we analyze the effects of GM-crops on crop yields, seed costs, pesticide costs, and management and labor costs and finally gross margins. Based on collected data from studies on Bt cotton and Bt maize, statistical analyses are conducted to estimate the effect of GM crop adoption on these parameters. Our results show that, compared to conventional crops, GM crops can lead to yield increases and can lead to reductions in the costs of pesticide application, whereas seed costs are usually substantially higher. Thus, the results presented here do support the contention that the adoption of GM crops leads on average to a higher economic performance, which is also underlined by the high adoption rates for GM crops in a number of countries. However, the kind and magnitude of benefits from GM crops are very heterogeneous between countries and regions, particularly due to differences in pest pressure and pest management practices. Countries with poor pest management practices benefited most from a reduction in yield losses, whereas other countries benefited from cost reductions. However, our study also reveals limitations for meta-analyses on farm-level costs and benefits of GM crops. In particular, published data are skewed towards some countries and the employed individual studies rely on different assumptions, purposes and methodologies (e.g., surveys and field trials. Furthermore, a summary of several (often short-term individual studies may not necessarily capture long-term effects of GM crop adoption.

  12. A Meta Analysis on Farm-Level Costs and Benefits of GM Crops

    OpenAIRE

    Finger, Robert; Benni, Nadja El; KAPHENGST Timo; Evans, Clive; Herbert, Sophie; Lehmann, Bernard; Morse, Stephen; Stupak, Nataliya

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the evidence on the socio-economic impacts of GM crops and analyzes whether there are patterns across space and time. To this end, we investigate the effect of GM crops on farm-level costs and benefits using global data from more than one decade of field trials and surveys. More specifically, we analyze the effects of GM-crops on crop yields, seed costs, pesticide costs, and management and labor costs and finally gross margins. Based on collected data from studies on Bt cot...

  13. CostBenefit Analysis of Different Rice Cropping systems in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    ARAYAPHONG, SUPISRA

    2012-01-01

    System of Rice Intensification (SRI) has been introduced and practiced throughout Thailand. However, the conventional transplanting system is well-accepted among Thai farmers over the country. This paper quantifies and compares costs and benefits of SRI and the conventional system of rice cultivation in Thailand to find the best system for a farmer, the environment and a society. The scope of this paper includes a farmer’s profit, the environmental damages and a society’s net benefits categor...

  14. Social cost-benefit analysis of a watershed development project in Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninan, K N; Lakshmikanthamma, S

    2001-05-01

    Watershed Development Programmes (WDPs) have been initiated in India to improve and sustain productivity and the production potential of the dry and semiarid regions of the country at higher levels, through adoption of appropriate production and conservation techniques. The aim is also to meet the needs of rural communities for food, fuel, fodder, and timber and, thereby, reduce pressure on natural forests. In view of their potential for growth, for improving income, and the natural resource base of the disadvantaged regions of the country, WDPs are being accorded importance in the development plans for India and by donor agencies. This paper presents a social cost-benefit appraisal of a watershed development project in Karnataka, India. Using alternate viability measures, i.e. Net Present Value (NPV), Benefit-Cost Ratio (BCR) and Internal Rate of Return (IRR), and rigorous tests and sensitivity analyses, the results show that if expected full benefits are realized, the benefits derived from the watershed project are quite high, with the IRRs ranging from 19 to 96%. If, however, expected full benefits were to fall short by 25%, and net costs of (including the opportunity cost of grazing benefits foregone by the villagers on account of establishing community woodlots on degraded forestlands and village commons used earlier for free grazing of their cattle) the project will report losses. Even these losses can be contained if the direct benefits from some community woodlots, for which information was not available, and other indirect benefits, mostly of an environmental nature, are included. The findings of this study suggest that watershed development projects initiated to improve the economy and ecology of India's dry and semiarid regions are economically viable and socially desirable. PMID:11436663

  15. The impact of immigration under the defined-benefit pension system: An analysis incorporating assimilation costs

    OpenAIRE

    Masatoshi Jinno

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Recently, theoretical studies have started a discussion on how the influx of immigrants affects the finances of the host country. OBJECTIVE This paper investigates whether admission of unskilled immigrants, whose children incur assimilation costs in order to become skilled workers, positively influences the net benefits for native residents and immigrants under a defined-benefit pension system (DB system).This paper also compared the results under a DB system with those under a def...

  16. Multi-Year Analysis Examines Costs, Benefits, and Impacts of Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-01-01

    As states consider revising renewable portfolio standard (RPS) programs or developing new ones, careful assessments of the costs, benefits, and other impacts of existing policies will be critical. RPS programs currently exist in 29 states and Washington, D.C. Many of these policies, which were enacted largely during the late 1990s and 2000s, will reach their terminal targets by the end of this decade. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) are engaged in a multi-year project to examine the costs, benefits, and other impacts of state RPS polices both retrospectively and prospectively. This fact sheet overviews this work.

  17. Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Updating the Commercial Building Energy Code in Iowa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, Katherine A.; Belzer, David B.; Richman, Eric E.; Winiarski, David W.

    2002-09-07

    The state of Iowa is considering adpoting ASHRAE 90.1-1999 as its commercial building energy code. In an effort to evaluate whether or not this is an appropraite code for the state, the potential benefits and costs of adopting this standard are considered. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits are assessed. The energy simulation and economic results suggest that adopting ASHRAE 90.1-1999 would provide postitive net benefits to the state relative to the building and design requirements currently in place.

  18. Cost benefit analysis of cassava production in Sherpur district of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Afreen, N.; Haque, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to analyze the cost, benefit and profitability of cassava production in selected areas of Sherpur district in Bangladesh. Data were collected by interviewing a representative sample of 100 practicing cassava farmers, taking each 50 sample from traditional farmers of Jhinaigati and commercial cassava farmers of Sreebardi Upazila. Analyses showed that per hectare cost incurred for cassava was BDT 41,417.22 in Jhinaigati whereas BDT 53,642.59 in Sreebardi Upazila. ...

  19. Prophylactic Ankle Taping and Bracing: A Numbers-Needed-to-Treat and Cost-Benefit Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmsted, Lauren C.; Vela, Luzita I.; Denegar, Craig R.; Hertel, Jay

    2004-03-01

    OBJECTIVE: Taping and bracing are thought to decrease the incidence of ankle sprains; however, few investigators have addressed the effect of preventive measures on the rate of ankle sprains. Our purpose was to examine the effectiveness of ankle taping and bracing in reducing ankle sprains by applying a numbers-needed-to-treat (NNT) analysis to previously published studies. DATA SOURCES: We searched PubMed, CINAHL, SPORT Discus, and PEDro for original research from 1966 to 2002 with key words ankle taping, ankle sprains, injury incidence, prevention, ankle bracing, ankle prophylaxis, andnumbers needed to treat. We eliminated articles that did not address the effects of ankle taping or bracing on ankle injury rates using an experimental design. DATA SYNTHESIS: The search produced 8 articles, of which 3 permitted calculation of NNT, which addresses the clinical usefulness of an intervention by providing estimates of the number of treatments needed to prevent 1 injury occurrence. In a study of collegiate intramural basketball players, the prevention of 1 ankle sprain required the taping of 26 athletes with a history of ankle sprain and 143 without a prior history. In a military academy intramural basketball program, prevention of 1 sprain required bracing of 18 athletes with a history of ankle sprain and 39 athletes with no history. A study of ankle bracing in competitive soccer players produced an NNT of 5 athletes with a history of previous sprain and 57 without a prior injury. A cost- benefit analysis of ankle taping versus bracing revealed taping to be approximately 3 times more expensive than bracing. CONCLUSIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS: Greater benefit is achieved in applying prophylactic ankle taping or bracing to athletes with a history of ankle sprain, compared with those without previous sprains. The generalizability of these results to other physically active populations is unknown. PMID:15085217

  20. The Impact of Company-Level ART Provision to a Mining Workforce in South Africa: A Cost-Benefit Analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Gesine Meyer-Rath; Jan Pienaar; Brian Brink; Andrew van Zyl; Debbie Muirhead; Alison Grant; Gavin Churchyard; Charlotte Watts; Peter Vickerman

    2015-01-01

    HIV impacts heavily on the operating costs of companies in sub-Saharan Africa, with many companies now providing antiretroviral therapy (ART) programmes in the workplace. A full cost-benefit analysis of workplace ART provision has not been conducted using primary data. We developed a dynamic health-state transition model to estimate the economic impact of HIV and the cost-benefit of ART provision in a mining company in South Africa between 2003 and 2022.A dynamic health-state transition model...

  1. Cost-benefit analysis in the selection of efficient multipollutant strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chestnut, Lauraine G; Mills, David M; Cohan, Daniel S

    2006-04-01

    Pollution control efforts are motivated by the desire to protect human health and the environment. Often, those efforts involve selecting among multiple options for attaining air quality objectives. For example, state and local decision-makers must choose the mix of control strategies for meeting the requirements of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) and the Regional Haze Rule. We demonstrate that including assessments of the human health and environmental benefits when evaluating alternative strategies may help decision-makers to identify multipollutant attainment strategies that achieve greater net benefits than would accrue under strategies optimized for cost alone. This paper presents a conceptual framework that decision-makers could use to choose among alternative multipollutant control strategies, accounting for the benefits and the costs of different types and locations of emissions reductions. PMID:16681217

  2. Cost benefit analysis of the night-time ventilative cooling in office building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppanen, Olli; Fisk, William J.; Faulkner, David

    2003-06-01

    The indoor temperature can be controlled with different levels of accuracy depending on the building and its HVAC system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential productivity benefits of improved temperature control, and to apply the information for a cost-benefit analyses of night-time ventilative cooling, which is a very energy efficient method of reducing indoor daytime temperatures. We analyzed the literature relating work performance with temperature, and found a general decrement in work performance when temperatures exceeded those associated with thermal neutrality. These studies included physiological modelling, performance of various tasks in laboratory experiments and measured productivity at work in real buildings. The studies indicate an average 2% decrement in work performance per degree C temperature rise, when the temperature is above 25 C. When we use this relationship to evaluate night-time ventilative cooling, the resulting benefit to cost ratio varies from 32 to 120.

  3. Some remarks concerning the Cost/Benefit Analysis applied to LHC at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Schopper, Herwig

    2015-01-01

    The cost/benefit analysis originally developed for infrastructures in the economic sector has recently been extended by Florio et al to infrastructures of basic research. As a case study the large accelerator LHC at CERN and its experiments have been selected since as a paradigmatic example of frontier research they offer an excellent case to test the CBA model. It will be shown that in spite of this improved method the LHC poses serious difficulties for such an analysis. Some principle difficulties are due to the special character of scientific projects. Their main result is the production of new basic scientific knowledge whose net social value cannot be easily expressed in monetary terms. Other problems are related to the very strong integration of LHC into the general activities of CERN providing however, interesting observations concerning a new management style for global projects. Finally the mission of CERN (including LHC) is unique since it was founded with two tasks - promote science and bring natio...

  4. Integration of Socio-Economic Measures in Benefit-Cost Analysis for Groundwater Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaqadan, A. A.; Kaluarachchi, J. J.; Khalil, Y. H.

    2006-12-01

    Groundwater quality is a major concern since sources of contamination are common and degraded water quality has severe economic and health impacts to the society. Management of contaminated groundwater resources has been a challenge due to limited resources committed to monitor and remediate a large number of contaminated sites. Therefore, there is a prominent question on the optimal allocation of resources for additional data collection and actual remedial measures. In this work, we extended the risk assessment methodology under subsurface heterogeneity and population variability proposed by others to estimate individuals' willingness-to-pay(WTP) for a proposed risk reduction by adding socio-economic measures. We introduced one of the early applications of welfare measures namely, health state, utility, and WTP concepts to study the benefits and costs of collecting additional data to reduce uncertainty for groundwater remediation. The proposed framework considered uncertainty due to subsurface heterogeneity and public health risk through a utility theory based approach that can be used in decision-making. Our framework replaced costly contingent valuation approaches and used a meta analysis which considered a theoretical structure on population age, income, and health state and used empirical estimates from previous contingent valuation methods. We also performed sensitivity analysis on important variables such as WTP and utility levels. Our findings showed that health state and age have vital impacts on WTP. The predictions of WTP trends are consistent with patterns expected in economic theory. We illustrated the proposed framework by evaluating two scenarios of gathering additional information to better describe subsurface heterogeneity. In this example we considered a small addition of data at a correlation scale of 112 m versus a large addition of data at a correlation scale of 22 m. The results showed the two scenarios have annual individuals' WTP of 258 and

  5. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Haccp Implementation in the Chinese Slaughtering and Meat Productprocessing Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Shunlong; Ma, Chenglin; Yang, Yinsheng; Bai, Li; He, Linyi

    The paper reports the results of a study of the costs and benefits associated with the implementation and operation of HACCP in the Chinese slaughtering and meat product processing industry. The research results suggest that although some kinds of intangible costs are more regularly referred to, the major costs of implementing and operating HACCP in the industry are still relatively tangible, such as investment in new equipments and product testing. And although most respondents indicated that the costs of implementing and operating HACCP were approximately in accordance with their prior expectations, still a significant majority indicated that some costs exceeded their expectations. The results also suggest that the slaughtering and meat product processing enterprises do derive benefits from implementing and operating HACCP, and some of them have derived distinct benefits. The results have implications for the further adoption of HACCP not only in the industry itself but also in the Chinese food industry as a whole. Policy makers should take account of these research results and make more quantitative researches to offer more comprehensive and classified information to help food enterprises make decisions on HACCP implementation and operation.

  6. Preliminary benefit-cost analysis of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) power addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of this report is to conduct a preliminary benefit-cost study for the proposed power addition to FFTF to determine whether the project is cost-effective. If the project is authorized, construction will begin in 1986 and end in 1991. Full power operation is scheduled to begin in 1991 and a project life of 20 years is assumed. The undiscounted cost during the construction period of the FFTF power addition is estimated to be approximately $117 million over the construction period (1984 dollars). An additional $3 million is estimated as the opportunity cost - or value of these resources in their most favorable alternative use - of surplus FFTF equipment and unused CRBR equipment, including materials for steam generator fabrication. The annual operating and maintenance cost of the project is estimated to be about $2.1 million in 1984 dollars. 20 references

  7. The Norwegian Healthier Goats programme--a financial cost-benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel-Alne, G Elise; Asheim, Leif J; Hardaker, J Brian; Sølverød, Liv; Lindheim, Dag; Valle, Paul S

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the profitability to dairy goat farmers of participating in the Healthier Goats disease control and eradication programme (HG), which was initiated in 2001 and is still running. HG includes the control and eradication of caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAE), caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) and paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in Norwegian goat herds. The profitability of participation was estimated in a financial cost-benefit analysis (CBA) using partial budgeting to quantify the economic consequences of infectious disease control through HG versus taking no action. Historical data were collected from 24 enrolled dairy goat herds and 21 herds not enrolled in HG, and supplemented with information from a questionnaire distributed to the same farmers. Expert opinions were collected to arrive at the best possible estimates. For some input parameters there were uncertainty due to imperfect knowledge, thus these parameters were modelled as PERT probability distributions and a stochastic simulation model was built. The CBA model was used to generate distributions of net present value (NPV) of farmers' net cash flows for choosing to enroll versus not enrolling. This was done for three selected milk quota levels of 30000L, 50000L and 70000L, and both for before and after the introduction of a reduced milk price for the non-enrolled. The NPVs were calculated over time horizons of 5, 10 and 20 years using an inflation-adjusted discount rate of 2.8% per annum. The results show that participation in HG on average was profitable over a time horizon of 10 years or longer for quota levels of 50000L and 70000L, although not without risk of having a negative NPV. If farmers had to pay all the costs themselves, participation in HG would have been profitable only for a time horizon beyond 20 years. In 2012, a reduced milk price was introduced for farmers not enrolled in HG, changing the decision criteria for farmers, and thus, the CBA. When the

  8. 78 FR 64029 - Cost-Benefit Analysis for Radwaste Systems for Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... COMMISSION Cost-Benefit Analysis for Radwaste Systems for Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors AGENCY... Systems for Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors,'' in which the NRC made editorial corrections and... analysis for liquid and gaseous radwaste system components for light water nuclear power...

  9. Comparative analysis of cost benefit division methodologies in a hydrothermal generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development and operation planning of the Brazilian generation system has been realized in a coordinate way by several years, due to some organizations, where the main generating companies from the country take part. The benefit share of the system to each participant of the planning and integrated operation has aroused interest. This paper describes the alternate forms of cost benefit allocation, between the participant companies of a coordinate operation, in order to reach an adequateness of remuneration and incentives. It was analysed two proposal of benefit allocation for energy export/import contracts: share by generation value and share by marginal benefit, concluding that the second one represents the best way of contribution for the several factors that comprising a hydroelectric power plant (storage capacity, effective storage and turbine capacity). (C.G.C.). 1 tab

  10. Cost-Benefit Analysis of a Biomass Power Plant in Morocco and a Photovoltaic Installation in Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents an overview of cost-benefit analysis general methodology, describing its principles and basic characteristics. This methodology was applied to two case studies analyzed in the project INTERSUDMED, one biomass power plant fed by energy crops in El Hajeb (Morocco) and the other a photovoltaic installation in Djanet (Algeria). Both cases have been selected among the ones analyzed in the INTERSUDMED Project because of their interesting social implications and possible alternatives, that make them most suitable for cost-benefit analysis application. Finally, this report addresses the conclusions of both studies and summarizes the most relevant obtained results. (Author) 13 refs

  11. Cost-Benefit Analysis of a Biomass Power Plant in Morocco and a Photovoltaic Installation in Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galan, A.; Gonzalez Leal, J.; Varela, M.

    1999-07-01

    This report presents an overview of cost-benefit analysis general methodology, describing its principles and basic characteristics. This methodology was applied to two case studies analyzed in the project INTERSUDMED, one biomass power plant fed by energy crops in El Hajeb (Morocco) and the other a photovoltaic installation in Djanet (Algeria). Both cases have been selected among the ones analyzed in the INTERSUDMED Project because of their interesting social implications and possible alternatives, that make them most suitable for cost-benefit analysis application. Finally, this report addresses the conclusions of both studies and summarizes the most relevant obtained results. (Author) 13 refs.

  12. Cost-benefit analysis for the installation of cogeneration CSP technology in Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Poullikkas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to investigate whether the installation of an innovative cogeneration of electricity and desalinated water (DSW with concentrated solar power (CSP technology in Cyprus is economically feasible. The study takes into account the following generating technologies, (a CSP-DSW technology 4 MWe, (b CSP-DSW technology 10 MWe, (c CSP-DSW technology 25 MWe and (d CSP-DSW technology 50 MWe with or without CO2 trading for two different cases of electricity purchasing tariff. For all above cases the electricity unit cost or benefit before tax, as well as internal rate of return (IRR and payback period (PBP are calculated. The results indicate that the electricity unit cost or benefit for both cases of electricity purchasing tariff are decreased or increased with the increase of the capacity factor and the capacity size of the plant. Also, the additional benefit due to the CO2 ETS price of 10 €/tCO2 for all scenarios is 0.8 €c/kWh. Specifically, for the electricity purchasing tariff of 26 €c/kWh case, the investment in CSP-DSW technology for every capacity size is very attractive, since, the CSP-DSW scenarios have high after tax IRR and low PBP. Despite the lower electricity unit cost benefit in the case of electricity purchasing tariff of 12.83 €c/kWh compared to that of the 26 €c/kWh case, which in some cases there is cost and not benefit, for CSP-DSW plants of 25 MWe and 50 MWe, the investment in this technology is still attractive.

  13. Analysis of the cost and benefit of bovine artificial insemination in Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field survey was conducted to determine the rate of success of artificial insemination (AI) in cattle in Senegal and the benefit obtained by raising the resulting F1 crossbred heifers. The area selected was the first one in which a public AI programme was implemented. A questionnaire was administered to farmers regarding the management of cattle and the costs and benefits of the AI service. Out of 207 inseminations, 80 were successful, resulting in a calving rate of 38.6%. The F1 crossbreds produced 8.9 litres of milk per day, compared with 2 litres per day for the local breeds, and had a lactation length of 13 months. The death rate for crossbred calves during the first year of life was 22.5%. The total cost for an AI was FCFA 48 143 per cow, and was mostly subsidized by the Senegal State. The net profit for the producer was FCFA 35 (Euro 1 = approx. FCFA 660) per litre of milk produced by a crossbred. The proportional costs of the different components of the AI service were 12.5% for the purchase and conservation of semen, 21.9% for the synchronization of heats and 53% for provision of the AI service. The study identified weaknesses and limitations in the dairy production system. Future actions are recommended to improve the results of AI, to reduce the costs and to increase the benefits to producers. (author)

  14. A thematic cost-benefit analysis of a marine protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Siân E; Attrill, Martin J; Austen, Melanie C; Mangi, Stephen C; Rodwell, Lynda D

    2013-01-15

    The implementation of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) is ultimately a social endeavour to sustain or improve human well-being via the conservation of marine ecosystems. The degree to which ecological gains are realised can depend upon how economic, ecological and social costs (negative impacts) and benefits (positive impacts) are included in the designation and management process. Without the support of key stakeholder groups whose user rights have been affected by the creation of an MPA, human impacts cannot be reduced. This study analyses a three year dataset to understand the themes associated with the economic, environmental and social costs and benefits of an MPA in Lyme Bay, United Kingdom (UK) following its establishment in 2008. Methodologically, the paper presents an ecosystem based management framework for analysing costs and benefits. Two hundred and forty one individuals were interviewed via questionnaire between 2008 and 2010 to determine perceptions and the level of support towards the MPA. Results reveal that despite the contentious manner in which this MPA was established, support for the MPA is strong amongst the majority of stakeholder groups. The level of support and the reasons given for support vary between stakeholder groups. Overall, the stakeholders perceive the social, economic and environmental benefits of the MPA to outweigh the perceived costs. There have been clear social costs of the MPA policy and these have been borne by mobile and static gear fishermen and charter boat operators. Local support for this MPA bodes well for the development of a network of MPAs around the UK coast under the United Kingdom Marine and Coastal Access Act 2009. However, this initial optimism is at risk if stakeholder expectation is not managed and the management vacuum is not filled. PMID:23206804

  15. Aggregation rules for cost-benefit analysis: a health economics perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Josephine

    2008-07-01

    Few willingness-to-pay (WTP) studies in the health sector have used their results within a cost-benefit analysis (CBA), an essential step to informing resource allocation decisions. This paper provides an overview of aggregation methods, reviews current evidence of practice in the health sector, and presents estimates of the total economic value of a women's group programme to improve mother and newborn health using different aggregation rules. A contingent valuation survey was conducted with 93 women's group members, 70 female non-members and 33 husbands. Aggregation was conducted with and without the values of non-users, and with different units of aggregation. The unadjusted mean, median and a weighted mean transfer were used to aggregate values. Equity weights were introduced to adjust WTP for income. Total WTP more than doubled when the values of husbands were added to that of women, and increased over 10-fold when the values of women who were not members of the group were added. The inclusion of non-use values, and the unit of aggregation, had the greatest effect on results. Researchers must reach agreement on the most acceptable method of aggregating WTP values to promote the use of WTP in resource allocation decisions in the health sector. PMID:17992709

  16. Fuzzy - Expert System for Cost Benefit Analysis of Enterprise Information Systems: A Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faith –Michael E. Uzoka

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Enterprise Information Systems (EIS are collections of hardware, software, data, people and procedures that work together to manage organizational information resources, ultimately enhancing decision making, and strategic advantage. One of the key issues in the acquisition and utilization of EIS is the determination of the value of investment in such systems. Traditional capital budgeting models such as NPV, IRR, payback period, and profitability index focus mainly on quantifiable variables. However, there are many intangible variables that make the use of entirely quantitative measures incomplete and less inclusive. The high level of impact of information systems (IS on the entire organizational strategy and the information intensity of IS makes the use of such traditional methods less practicable. Attempts have been made to overcome these shortcomings by utilizing other techniques such as the real options model, goal programming model, knowledge value model and intelligent techniques. This paper proposes the adoption of a hybrid intelligent technique (fuzzy-expert system in carrying out a cost benefit analysis of EIS investment. The study takes high cognizance of intangible variables and vagueness / imprecision in human group decision making that requires a good level of consensus.

  17. Cost benefit analysis of space communications technology: Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, L. D.; Sassone, P. G.; Gallagher, J. J.; Robinette, S. L.; Vogler, F. H.; Zimmer, R. P.

    1976-01-01

    The questions of (1) whether or not NASA should support the further development of space communications technology, and, if so, (2) which technology's support should be given the highest priority are addressed. Insofar as the issues deal principally with resource allocation, an economics perspective is adopted. The resultant cost benefit methodology utilizes the net present value concept in three distinct analysis stages to evaluate and rank those technologies which pass a qualification test based upon probable (private sector) market failure. User-preference and technology state-of-the-art surveys were conducted (in 1975) to form a data base for the technology evaluation. The program encompassed near-future technologies in space communications earth stations and satellites, including the noncommunication subsystems of the satellite (station keeping, electrical power system, etc.). Results of the research program include confirmation of the applicability of the methodology as well as a list of space communications technologies ranked according to the estimated net present value of their support (development) by NASA.

  18. Supporting ALARP decision-making by cost benefit analysis and multi-attribute utility theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current regulation in the UK and elsewhere specify upper and target risk limits for the operation of nuclear plant in terms of frequencies of various kinds of accidents and accidental releases per annum. 'As low as reasonably practicable' (ALARP) arguments are used to justify the acceptance or rejection of policies that lead to risk changes between these limits. We assess the suitability of cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and multi-attribute utility theory (MAUT) for performing ALARP ('as low as reasonably possible') assessments, in particular within the nuclear industry. Four problems stand out in current CBA applications to ALARP, concerning the determination of prices of safety gains or detriments, the valuation of group and individual risk, calculations using 'disproportionality', and the use of discounting to trade off risks through time. This last point has received less attention in the past but is important because of the growing interest in risk-informed regulation in which policies extend over several timeframes and distribute the risk unevenly over these, or in policies that lead to a non-uniform risk within a single timeframe (such as maintenance policies). We discuss the problems associated with giving quantitative support to such decisions. We argue that multi-attribute utility methods (MAUT) provide an alternative methodology to CBA which enable the four problems described above to be addressed in a more satisfactory way. Through sensitivity analysis MAUT can address the perceptions of all stakeholder groups, facilitating constructive discussion and elucidating the key points of disagreement. We also argue that by being explicitly subjective it provides an open, auditable and clear analysis in contrast to the illusory objectivity of CBA. CBA seeks to justify a decision by using a common basis for weights (prices), while MAUT recognizes that different parties may want to give different valuations. It then allows the analyst to explore the ways in which

  19. Do health benefits outweigh the costs of mass recreational programs? An economic analysis of four Ciclovía programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Felipe; Sarmiento, Olga L; Zarama, Roberto; Pratt, Michael; Wang, Guijing; Jacoby, Enrique; Schmid, Thomas L; Ramos, Mauricio; Ruiz, Oscar; Vargas, Olga; Michel, Gabriel; Zieff, Susan G; Valdivia, Juan Alejandro; Cavill, Nick; Kahlmeier, Sonja

    2012-02-01

    One promising public health intervention for promoting physical activity is the Ciclovía program. The Ciclovía is a regular multisectorial community-based program in which streets are temporarily closed for motorized transport, allowing exclusive access to individuals for recreational activities and physical activity. The objective of this study was to conduct an analysis of the cost-benefit ratios of physical activity of the Ciclovía programs of Bogotá and Medellín in Colombia, Guadalajara in México, and San Francisco in the U.S.A. The data of the four programs were obtained from program directors and local surveys. The annual cost per capita of the programs was: U.S. $6.0 for Bogotá, U.S. $23.4 for Medellín, U.S. $6.5 for Guadalajara, and U.S. $70.5 for San Francisco. The cost-benefit ratio for health benefit from physical activity was 3.23-4.26 for Bogotá, 1.83 for Medellín, 1.02-1.23 for Guadalajara, and 2.32 for San Francisco. For the program of Bogotá, the cost-benefit ratio was more sensitive to the prevalence of physically active bicyclists; for Guadalajara, the cost-benefit ratio was more sensitive to user costs; and for the programs of Medellín and San Francisco, the cost-benefit ratios were more sensitive to operational costs. From a public health perspective for promoting physical activity, these Ciclovía programs are cost beneficial. PMID:22170324

  20. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Haemophilus influenzae Type b Vaccination in Children in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    F. Javier Jimenez; Pilar Guallar-Castillon; Carlos Rubio Terres; Eliseo Guallar

    1999-01-01

    Objective: Invasive disease caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), including meningitis, pneumonia, sepsis and epiglottitis, is associated with high mortality and serious neurological sequelae in children under 5 years of age. The availability of an efficacious vaccine suggests the need to perform an economic evaluation of its use. The objective of this study was to evaluate the costs and benefits of introducing a universal vaccination programme for children under 1 year of age in Spa...

  1. Cost Benefit Analysis in Kosmaç Limestone Deposit, Republic of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylejman Hyseni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is present a functional model as very important for theeconomic evaluation study in the deposits of carbonate rocks. One such model is applied to mineral deposit limestone “Kosmaç" which uses the company Doni Fert. So for a fair assessment of investment in technology to acquire a cubic meter of useful minerals, should question Benefit/Cost Analyses (B/C for these mineral resources in Kosovo

  2. A Framework for Benefit-Cost Analysis of Adaptation to Climate Change and Climate Variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential damages of climate change and climate variability are dependent upon the responses or adaptations that people make to their changing environment. By adapting the management of resources, the mix and methods of producing goods and services, choices of leisure activities, and other behavior, people can lessen the damages that would otherwise result. A framework for assessing the benefits and costs of adaptation to both climate change and climate variability is described in the paper. The framework is also suitable for evaluating the economic welfare effects of climate change, allowing for autonomous adaptation by private agents. The paper also briefly addresses complications introduced by uncertainty regarding the benefits of adaptation and irreversibility of investments in adaptation. When investment costs are irreversible and there is uncertainty about benefits, the usual net present value criterion for evaluating the investment gives the wrong decision. If delaying an adaptation project is possible, and if delay will permit learning about future benefits of adaptation, it may be preferable to delay the project even if the expected net present value is positive. Implications of this result for adaptation policy are discussed in the paper. 11 refs

  3. Empirical Analysis of the Typical Breeding Pattern of Clam in Hongdao Town and the Preliminary Estimates of Costs and Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    YANG, Xijuan; Zhang, Shijun

    2014-01-01

    Based on the survey data about clam breeding farmers in Hongdao Town in August 2011, this paper analyzes the production and operation of typical clam breeding pattern, and estimates the costs and benefits. Through the analysis of operation conditions and economic conditions of Hongdao clam breeding, this paper aims to explore a more reasonable and effective breeding pattern so as to reduce breeding costs and market risks, and increase breeding farmers' income.

  4. Empirical Analysis of the Typical Breeding Pattern of Clam in Hongdao Town and the Preliminary Estimates of Costs and Benefits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xijuan; YANG; Shijun; ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    Based on the survey data about clam breeding farmers in Hongdao Town in August 2011,this paper analyzes the production and operation of typical clam breeding pattern,and estimates the costs and benefits. Through the analysis of operation conditions and economic conditions of Hongdao clam breeding,this paper aims to explore a more reasonable and effective breeding pattern so as to reduce breeding costs and market risks,and increase breeding farmers’ income.

  5. Solid waste management based on cost-benefit analysis using the WAMED model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutavchi, Viacheslav

    2012-11-01

    Efficient waste management enables the protection of human health, reducing environmental pollution, saving of natural resources, and achieving sustainable and profitable management of energy. In many countries, the general guidelines for waste management are set by national or local waste management plans. Various models provide local authorities with decision-making tools in planning long-term waste management scenarios. This study aims at providing a special model framework for the evaluation of ecological-economic efficiency (ECO-EE) of waste management. This will serve as an information support tool for decision making by actors of a solid waste management (SWM) scheme, primarily at the municipal and regional levels. The objective of this study is to apply the waste management's efficient decision (WAMED) model along with the company statistical business tool for environmental recovery indicator (COSTBUSTER) model to SWM and municipal solid waste (MSW) schemes in general in order to evaluate and improve their ECO-EE. COSTBUSTER is a mathematical indicator for the size and extent of implementation costs of a certain SWM scheme, compared with the total size of the average financial budget of a SWM actor of a certain kind. In particular, WAMED is proposed for evaluating the suitability to invest in baling technology. Baling of solid waste is an emerging technology which is extensively used worldwide to temporarily store waste for either incineration or recovery of raw materials. The model for efficient use of resources for optimal production economy (the EUROPE model) is for the first time applied to emissions from baling facilities. It has been analysed how cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and full cost accounting (FCA) can facilitate environmental optimisation of SWM schemes. The effort in this work represents a continuation of such ambitions as an enlargement of the research area of CBAbased modelling within SWM. In the thesis, certain theoretical and economic

  6. Cost benefit analysis of remediation alternatives for controlling the flux of strontium-90 into the Columbia River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The release of large volumes of water to waste disposal cribs at the Hanford Site's 100-N Area caused contaminants, principally strontium-90, to be carried toward the Columbia River through the groundwater. Since shutdown of the N Reactor, these releases have been discontinued, although small water flows continue to be discharged to the 1325-N crib. Most of the contamination which is now transported to the river is occurring as a result of the natural groundwater movement. The contaminated groundwater at N Springs flows into the river through seeps and springs along the river's edge. An expedited response action (ERA) has been proposed to eliminate or restrict the flux of strontium-90 into the river. A cost benefit analysis of potential remedial alternatives was completed that recommends the alternative which best meets given selection criteria prescribed by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The methodology used for evaluation, cost analysis, and alternative recommendation is the engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA). Complete remediation of the contaminated groundwater beneath 100-N Area was not a principal objective of the analysis. The objective of the cost benefit analysis was to identify a remedial alternative that optimizes the degree of benefit produced for the costs incurred

  7. Cost and Benefit Analysis of VSC-HVDC Schemes for Offshore Wind Power Transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng WANG; Chunmei FENG; An WEN; Jun LIANG

    2013-01-01

    Due to low load factors of wind power generation,it is possible to reduce transmission capacity to minimize the cost of transmission system construction.Two VSC-HVDC schemes for offshore wind farm,called the point to point (PTP) and DC mesh connections are compared in terms of the utilization of transmission system and its cost.A Weibull distribution is used for estimating offshore wind power generation,besides,the cross correlation between wind farms is considered.The wind energy curtailment is analyzed using the capacity output possibility table (COPT).The system power losses,costs of transmission investment and wind energy curtailment are also computed.A statistic model for the wind generation and transmission is built and simulated in MATLAB to validate the study.It is concluded that a DC mesh transmission can reduce the energy curtailment and power losses.Further benefit is achievable as the wind cross correlation between wind farms decreases.

  8. A French cost-consequence analysis of the renoprotective benefits of irbesartan in patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palmer, Andrew J.; Valentine, William J.; Tucker, Daniel M. D.; Ray, Joshua A.; Roze, Stephane; Annemans, Lieven; Lapuerta, Pablo; Chen, Roland; Gabriel, Sylvie; Carita, Paulo; Rodby, Roger A.; de Zeeuw, Dick; Parving, Hans-Henrik; Laville, Maurice

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: We performed a cost- consequence analysis in a French setting of the renoprotective benefit of irbesartan in hypertensive type 2 diabetes patients over a 25- year period. Research design and methods: A previously published Markov model simulated progression from microalbuminuria to overt

  9. The development of the risk-based cost-benefit analysis framework for risk-informed regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    US NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Committee) introduces the Risk-informed Regulation (RIR) to allocate the resources of NRC effectively and to reduce the unnecessary burden of utilities. This approach inherently includes the cost-benefit analysis (CBA) concept. The CBA method has been widely used for many problems in order to support the decision making by analyzing the effectiveness of the proposed plan and/or activity in the aspect of cost and benefit. However, in general, the conventional CBA method does not use the information such as risk that is the essential element of RIR. So, we developed a revised CBA framework that incorporates the risk information in analyzing the cost and benefit of the regulatory and/or operational activities in nuclear industry

  10. Health damage cost of automotive air pollution: Cost benefit analysis of fuel quality upgradation for Indian cities.

    OpenAIRE

    Sengupta, Ramprasad; Mandal, Subrata

    2005-01-01

    The paper has analysed the economic implication of judicial activism of the apex court of India in the regulation of automotive air pollution. It estimates the health damage cost of urban air pollution for 35 major urban agglomerations of India arising from automotive emissions and the savings that can be achieved by the regulation of fuel quality so as to conform to the Euro norms. It has used the results of some US based study and has applied the transfer of benefit method from the US to th...

  11. CLIMATE CHANGE – BETWEEN COSTS AND BENEFITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMEN VALENTINA RĂDULESCU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change – between costs and benefits. At global and regional levels the effects of climate change start to show up. While some of the countries make efforts to alleviate these effects and to find solutions, others are facing economic or political restrains that prevent them in applying the principle of common responsibility. The complex social, economic, and environmental implications of climate change’s effects focused a growing part of research on the analysis of costs and benefits. Although controversial, one of the methods used – the cost-benefit analysis – revealed that in most of the cases the prevention costs are lower than the costs of inaction. Prevention measures bring benefits by anticipating the impact and minimizing the risks for ecosystems and economy. The paper presents in its first part the controversies regarding the cost-benefit analysis, and continues, in the second part, with estimations on costs and benefits of certain policy instruments that target emission reduction.

  12. Exploratory benefit-cost analysis of environmental controls on hydrothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, M.J.; Wells, K.D.; Currie, J.W.; King, M.J.

    1981-02-01

    A study of the value of environmental benefits generated by environmental regulation of hydrothermal sites was initiated to compare these benefits with the estimated costs of regulation. Primary objectives were to 1) evaluate the environmental damages caused by unregulated hydrothermal resource development, 2) use existing environmental and economic data to estimate the dollar value of preventing expected environmental damages at two sites, and 3) compare the benefits and costs of preventing the damages. The sites chosen for analyses were in the Imperial Valley at Heber and Niland, California. Reasons for this choice were 1) there is a high level of commercial interest in developing the Heber known geothermal resource area (KGRA) and the Salton Sea KGRA; 2) the potential for environmental damage is high; 3) existing data bases for these two sites are more comprehensive than at other sites. The primary impacts analyzed were those related to hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S) emissions and those related to disposal of spent hydrothermal brine. (MHR)

  13. Cost-benefit analysis of the industrial evaluations employing radioactive tracer techniques in the sugar-cane industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A practice with radioactivity is justifiable if the benefit that she brings is greater than the detriment to the health that provokes. This is achieved with an optimization of the radiological protection on the base of the principle ALARA (the dose must be at botommost level that reasonably could be reached). The cost-benefit analysis helps to take a decision of practice optimized to use. Based on the cost-benefit criterion in the framework of the industrial radioprotection, was accomplished an industrial evaluations study employing 99mTc and 131I in industry Cuban sugar-bowl. The results of the analysis demonstrated that the use of the 99mTc as radiotracer is the better option to take

  14. Benefit/cost analysis of plutonium recycle options in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Predictable effects of the recycle of plutonium and uranium recovered from spent LWR fuels were assessed in a final environmental statement (GESMO). Five alternative dispositions of LWR-produced plutonium ranging from prompt recycle of recovered plutonium and uranium to no recovery and no recycle are compared. The assessments consider cumulative effects for the period 1975 through 2000, and are centered on a conservative low growth rate resulting in about 500 LWR's in the U.S. in 2000. A more optimistic growth projection resulting in about 800 LWR's in 2000 is also analyzed in order to assess the effects of industry size upon the impacts. Demands for fuel cycle services were calculated with an ERDA program, NUFUEL, which was modified to include penalties for 236U and 242Pu. Unit cost data, including a simulation of market place reaction to supply-demand functions for uranium costs, were combined with the NUFUEL demand data in an economics code, NUCOST. Environmental impacts were also based upon NUFUEL demand data and were developed using a model plant industry concept. Using the most likely unit costs with a 10% discount rate, present worth incentives for prompt recycle over no recycle of $3.2 billion for the lower growth and about $6 billion for the higher growth were indicated. Present worth costs of delays in recycle of up to 5 years were less than $1 billion. Sensitivity of the economic assessments to unit cost variations and discount rates were also evaluated. Environmental impacts other than radiological were lowest for prompt Pu recycle and highest for no recycle. Radiological impacts for the total world wide total body exposure from U.S. industry for the 26 year period were estimated to be: - No recycle-8.2 million person-rem; U only recycle-9.5 million person-rem; Pu and U recycle-8.8 million person-rem. Comparison of the decreased radiological impact of the no recycle option with its increased costs relative to prompt plutonium recycle resulted in a cost/benefit

  15. Cost-benefit analysis of Xpert MTB/RIF for tuberculosis suspects in German hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diel, Roland; Nienhaus, Albert; Hillemann, Doris; Richter, Elvira

    2016-02-01

    Our objective was to assess the cost-benefit of enhancing or replacing the conventional sputum smear with the real-time PCR Xpert MTB/RIF method in the inpatient diagnostic schema for tuberculosis (TB).Recent data from published per-case cost studies for TB/multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB and from comparative analyses of sputum microscopy, mycobacterial culture, Xpert MTB/RIF and drug susceptibility testing, performed at the German National Reference Center for Mycobacteria, were used. Potential cost savings of Xpert MTB/RIF, based on test accuracy and multiple cost drivers, were calculated for diagnosing TB/MDR-TB suspects from the hospital perspective.Implementing Xpert MTB/RIF as an add-on in smear-positive and smear-negative TB suspects saves on average €48.72 and €503, respectively, per admitted patient as compared with the conventional approach. In smear-positive and smear-negative MDR-TB suspects, cost savings amount to €189.56 and €515.25 per person, respectively. Full replacement of microscopy by Xpert MTB/RIF saves €449.98. In probabilistic Monte-Carlo simulation, adding Xpert MTB/RIF is less costly in 46.4% and 76.2% of smear-positive TB and MDR-TB suspects, respectively, but 100% less expensive in all smear-negative suspects. Full replacement by Xpert MTB/RIF is also consistently cost-saving.Using Xpert MTB/RIF as an add-on to and even as a replacement for sputum smear examination may significantly reduce expenditures in TB suspects. PMID:26647440

  16. [Laparoscopic interventions in gastroesophageal reflux--a cost-benefit analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, K H; Tigges, H; Heimbucher, J; Freys, S M; Thiede, A

    1997-01-01

    On the basis of a cost analysis of conservative and surgical therapy of gastroesophageal reflux disease in 70 patients health economic aspects are discussed. In a prospective documented series of reflux patients a retrolective analysis of medication cost and duration of conservative therapy is performed. In addition, the costs for surgical therapy including preoperative diagnostic workup, cost during hospitalization as well as costs for complications with necessary additional treatment and readmissions are assessed. For the conservative treatment of 70 reflux patients a total of more than DM Omeprazol within 5 years. A mean of approximately DM 2,000 per patient was spent for conservative treatment. Surgical treatment without complications was calculated with DM 5,425 per case. However, in 7 patients complications occurred causing prolonged or even rehospitalization with necessary further treatment summing up to about DM 486,000 for surgical therapy in 70 patients including complications. Cost relevant factors are therefore in conservative treatment patients who need increasing dosages, while, in surgical treatment, the cost relevant patients are those with complications and necessary additional treatment. PMID:9499529

  17. Use of benefit-cost analysis in establishing Federal radiation protection standards: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, L.E.

    1979-10-01

    This paper complements other work which has evaluated the cost impacts of radiation standards on the nuclear industry. It focuses on the approaches to valuation of the health and safety benefits of radiation standards and the actual and appropriate processes of benefit-cost comparison. A brief historical review of the rationale(s) for the levels of radiation standards prior to 1970 is given. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established numerical design objectives for light water reactors (LWRs). The process of establishing these numerical design criteria below the radiation protection standards set in 10 CFR 20 is reviewed. EPA's 40 CFR 190 environmental standards for the uranium fuel cycle have lower values than NRC's radiation protection standards in 10 CFR 20. The task of allocating EPA's 40 CFR 190 standards to the various portions of the fuel cycle was left to the implementing agency, NRC. So whether or not EPA's standards for the uranium fuel cycle are more stringent for LWRs than NRC's numerical design objectives depends on how EPA's standards are implemented by NRC. In setting the numerical levels in Appendix I to 10 CFR 50 and 40 CFR 190 NRC and EPA, respectively, focused on the costs of compliance with various levels of radiation control. A major portion of the paper is devoted to a review and critique of the available methods for valuing health and safety benefits. All current approaches try to estimate a constant value of life and use this to vaue the expected number of lives saved. This paper argues that it is more appropriate to seek a value of a reduction in risks to health and life that varies with the extent of these risks. Additional research to do this is recommended. (DC)

  18. Use of benefit-cost analysis in establishing Federal radiation protection standards: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper complements other work which has evaluated the cost impacts of radiation standards on the nuclear industry. It focuses on the approaches to valuation of the health and safety benefits of radiation standards and the actual and appropriate processes of benefit-cost comparison. A brief historical review of the rationale(s) for the levels of radiation standards prior to 1970 is given. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established numerical design objectives for light water reactors (LWRs). The process of establishing these numerical design criteria below the radiation protection standards set in 10 CFR 20 is reviewed. EPA's 40 CFR 190 environmental standards for the uranium fuel cycle have lower values than NRC's radiation protection standards in 10 CFR 20. The task of allocating EPA's 40 CFR 190 standards to the various portions of the fuel cycle was left to the implementing agency, NRC. So whether or not EPA's standards for the uranium fuel cycle are more stringent for LWRs than NRC's numerical design objectives depends on how EPA's standards are implemented by NRC. In setting the numerical levels in Appendix I to 10 CFR 50 and 40 CFR 190 NRC and EPA, respectively, focused on the costs of compliance with various levels of radiation control. A major portion of the paper is devoted to a review and critique of the available methods for valuing health and safety benefits. All current approaches try to estimate a constant value of life and use this to vaue the expected number of lives saved. This paper argues that it is more appropriate to seek a value of a reduction in risks to health and life that varies with the extent of these risks. Additional research to do this is recommended

  19. Pilot production system cost/benefit analysis: Digital document storage project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The Digital Document Storage (DDS)/Pilot Production System (PPS) will provide cost effective electronic document storage, retrieval, hard copy reproduction, and remote access for users of NASA Technical Reports. The DDS/PPS will result in major benefits, such as improved document reproduction quality within a shorter time frame than is currently possible. In addition, the DDS/PPS will provide an important strategic value through the construction of a digital document archive. It is highly recommended that NASA proceed with the DDS Prototype System and a rapid prototyping development methodology in order to validate recent working assumptions upon which the success of the DDS/PPS is dependent.

  20. Controlling the radiological impact in the nuclear fuel cycle: a cost/benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods that are used to control the radiological impact of the nuclear fuel cycle are discussed. This control is exercised through the application of a series of Federal laws and regulations that are used as the basis for licensing nuclear facilities. These licenses contain technical specifications which define the limits for the release of radioactive materials. The control is exercised more directly in a technical sense by the use of radwaste treatment equipment at the nuclear facilities to limit the release of radioactive materials. The first part of this paper contains a summary of the principal Federal laws and regulations that apply to nuclear fuel cycle facilities and a description of how they are applied in licensing procedures. A detailed discussion is presented of the amounts of radioactive materials that may be released from licensed facilities, and the radiological doses that individuals and populations surrounding these facilities would receive from these releases. These doses are then compared with the radiological doses received from natural background radiation to put them in perspective. Cost/benefit engineering surveys which are being made to determine the cost (in dollars) and the effectiveness of radwaste systems for decreasing the release of radioactive materials from model fuel cycle facilities, and to determine the benefits in terms of reduction in dose commitment to individuals and populations in surrounding areas are described

  1. Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Electric Lines Reclamation in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In Italy is now in preparation a specific decree with the aim to regulate the electromagnetic pollution produced by sources operating at frequency until to 100 kHz; in the application field of the rule, the most important sources are the electric lines and relative plants which operate at 50 Hz frequency. In the respect of the precautionary principle, the Italian approach is to define different reference values to protect the population also by long term effects in addition to acute effects: exposition limits, attention values, quality objectives; respectively, 100 μT, 0.5 μT and 0.2 μT. To support this choice, the Ministry of the Environment asked ANPA, in co-operation with other bodies at national level, to produce a study about the costs of the necessary reclamation measures on the electric lines to respect the new limits and their comparison with the expected sanitary benefits. Only the leukaemia cases are considered to estimate the sanitary benefits; for the costs, the technical solutions more frequently adopted by the managers of the lines and the plants have been evaluated. This report shows the results of the study, which presents as element of weakness a knowledge of the exposed Italian population at different levels of magnetic field that cannot be truly representative. (author)

  2. SCBA (social cost-benefit analysis) Wind energy Flevoland, Netherlands; MKBA Windenergie Flevoland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warringa, G.E.A.; Blom, M.J.; Bles, M.

    2012-02-15

    The Dutch province of Flevoland aims to recover its open landscape by reducing the number of wind turbines , while also generating more wind energy. To this end, an integrated spatial and social exploration was carried out and different policy scenarios were developed. These scenarios have different financial but also social effects, such as stimulating the regional economy, impact on the landscape, etc. It is not clear in advance which of the scenarios scores most favorably from a social perspective. To obtain more insight in the social impact, a social cost-benefit analysis (SCBA) was conducted. The main conclusion is that the net welfare effect can be both positive and negative, depending on the scenario. As with any financial calculation and SCBA, the results depend on the assumptions. Factors such as the price of electricity, the investment, the amount of SDE subsidy (subsidy for production of renewable energy), the time of reorganizing, the discount rate applied, etc., all affect the results and may change over time. Therefore, in parallel with this report, a calculation model was developed which makes it easy to adjust these variables. This way results can easily be adjusted based on modified starting points [Dutch] De provincie Flevoland heeft als oorspronkelijke doelstelling haar open landschap te herstellen door het aantal windmolens te verminderen, en tegelijkertijd meer windenergie op te wekken. Hiertoe is een integrale ruimtelijke en maatschappelijke verkenning uitgevoerd en zijn verschillende beleidsscenario's ontwikkeld. Deze scenario's hebben verschillende financiële maar ook maatschappelijke effecten tot gevolg, zoals stimulering van de regionale economie, effect op het landschap, etc. Het is vooraf niet duidelijk welk van de scenario's vanuit maatschappelijk perspectief het meest gunstig scoort. Om meer inzicht te verkrijgen in het maatschappelijke effect, is daarom een maatschappelijke kosten-batenanalyse (MKBA) uitgevoerd

  3. COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF BIOCONVERSION NEUFCHATEL WHEY INTO RECTIFIED ETHANOL AND ORGANIC LIQUID FERTILIZER IN SEMI PILOT SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemilang Lara UTAMA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aims of the study was to determine the cost-benefit analysis in neufchatel whey bioconversion into rectified ethanol and organic liquid fertilizer. Bioconversion whey into rectified ethanol and organic liquid fertilizer has shown great potential as a way to reduce the pollution resulting from cheese-making process. Semi pilot scale experiment was done to ferment 5 L neufchatel whey using 5% K. lactis at 33°C for 24 h in semi anaerobic plastic container without agitation and then distilled into 96.2% purity. Data collected and analyzed descriptively related to benefit cost ratio/BCR, net present value/NPV and internal rate returns/IRR. The result showed that semi pilot scale bioconversion of neufchatel whey resulting in 106.42 ml rectified ethanol and 4404.22 ml distillery residue. Economic benefit could achieved by the support of distillery residue sales as organic liquid fertilizer.

  4. Environmental cost benefit analysis for a coal-fired power plant. An application of dispersion modelling coupled with GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, local air quality impacts of a proposed conventional coal-fired power at Icel region has been investigated using numerical dispersion modeling studies coupled with a GIS application. Within the impact area of the facility, Industrial Source Complex Short Term (ISCST2) dispersion model has been used to estimate ground level concentrations of air pollutants originating from the power plant. For the same impact area, GIS applications have been utilized to determine the agricultural yield distribution. For this purpose, relevant satellite images were digitized, classified and statistically analyzed. Based on the predicted ground level pollutant concentrations and sensitivity of the agricultural crops to those, agricultural yield loss was estimated for the impact area. The results have been quantified and validated in monetary terms for the purpose of performing an environmental cost benefit analysis. Comparison of the conventional cost benefit analysis with the environmental cost benefit analysis showed the significance of the external cost of the proposed facility, resulting from the environmental damages. 6 refs

  5. COST/BENEFIT ANALYSIS – A TOOL TO IMPROVE RECRUITMENT, SELECTION AND EMPLOYMENT IN ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Valentina FLOREA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Human resource is a major source for organization to obtain competitive advantage and can be very important in obtaining long-term performance. The limits of recruitment process are the cost, the choice made, time and legislation. Any organization looks for minimizing the human resources recruitment, selection and employment costs. This article presents the importance of cost in choosing the best practices of recruitment, selection, employment and integration of new employees in the organization, though, the cost is an important variable for analysis. In this article is presented the research made in large organizations from Dambovita County, Romania, and are also presented the costs and their consequences on medium and long-term over the organization activities These activities are discrimination, sexual harassment, ethics, low performance and results, by choosing the “wrong” people, and implicitly diminishing the level of qualifications, knowledge and abilities, by growing the absenteeism, the direct and indirect costs of these processes and the direct consequences over the time management.

  6. Benefit Cost Analysis of Three Skin Cancer Public Education Mass-Media Campaigns Implemented in New South Wales, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Doran

    Full Text Available Public education mass media campaigns are an important intervention for influencing behaviour modifications. However, evidence on the effectiveness of such campaigns to encourage the population to reduce sun exposure is limited. This study investigates the benefits and costs of three skin cancer campaigns implemented in New South Wales from 2006-2013. This analysis uses Australian dollars (AUD and 2010-11 as the currency and base year, respectively. Historical data on skin cancer were used to project skin cancer rates for the period 2006-2020. The expected number of skin cancer cases is derived by combining skin cancer rates, sunburn rates and relative risk of skin cancers due to sun exposure. Counterfactual estimates are based on sunburn exposure in the absence of the campaigns. Monetary values are attached to direct (treatment and indirect (productivity costs saved due to fewer skin cancer cases. Monetary benefits are compared with the cost of implementing the campaigns and are presented in the form of a benefit-cost ratio. Relative to the counterfactual (i.e., no campaigns there are an estimated 13,174 fewer skin cancers and 112 averted deaths over the period 2006-2013. The net present value of these benefits is $60.17 million and the campaign cost is $15.63 million. The benefit cost ratio is 3.85, suggesting that for every $1 invested a return of $3.85 is achieved. Skin cancer public education mass media campaigns are a good investment given the likely extent to which they reduce the morbidity, mortality and economic burden of skin cancer.

  7. Benefit Cost Analysis of Three Skin Cancer Public Education Mass-Media Campaigns Implemented in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Christopher M; Ling, Rod; Byrnes, Joshua; Crane, Melanie; Shakeshaft, Anthony P; Searles, Andrew; Perez, Donna

    2016-01-01

    Public education mass media campaigns are an important intervention for influencing behaviour modifications. However, evidence on the effectiveness of such campaigns to encourage the population to reduce sun exposure is limited. This study investigates the benefits and costs of three skin cancer campaigns implemented in New South Wales from 2006-2013. This analysis uses Australian dollars (AUD) and 2010-11 as the currency and base year, respectively. Historical data on skin cancer were used to project skin cancer rates for the period 2006-2020. The expected number of skin cancer cases is derived by combining skin cancer rates, sunburn rates and relative risk of skin cancers due to sun exposure. Counterfactual estimates are based on sunburn exposure in the absence of the campaigns. Monetary values are attached to direct (treatment) and indirect (productivity) costs saved due to fewer skin cancer cases. Monetary benefits are compared with the cost of implementing the campaigns and are presented in the form of a benefit-cost ratio. Relative to the counterfactual (i.e., no campaigns) there are an estimated 13,174 fewer skin cancers and 112 averted deaths over the period 2006-2013. The net present value of these benefits is $60.17 million and the campaign cost is $15.63 million. The benefit cost ratio is 3.85, suggesting that for every $1 invested a return of $3.85 is achieved. Skin cancer public education mass media campaigns are a good investment given the likely extent to which they reduce the morbidity, mortality and economic burden of skin cancer. PMID:26824695

  8. Cost-benefit analysis of an emergency alarm and response system: a case study of a long-term care program.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruchlin, H S; Morris, J. N.

    1981-01-01

    Cost-benefit analyses are routinely included in evaluations of acute care programs. In the case of long-term care, it is frequently alleged that cost-benefit analysis cannot be fruitfully applied. This article demonstrates the utility of applying cost-benefit analysis to evaluations of long-term care programs. A case study is presented in which cost-benefit analysis is used to evaluate an emergency alarm and response system developed to monitor the safety of vulnerable and disabled persons in...

  9. Perceived Costs and Benefits of IFRS Adoption of Cross-Border Mergers: A Statistical Analysis of Indian and Chinese Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Mert

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the links between IFRS adoption status, mergers tempo, and perception of IFRS costs and benefits among Indian and Chinese companies. As more capital accrues in India and China, more cross-border mergers activity initiated from these countries should be expected. This paper is trying to extant a research to observe the results related the adaption of IFRS in India and China. During the analyses around 2 authors‘ books were related to this paper. During the study it was focused to collect information observation through published academic books and articles. Some questions raised by the increased tempo of cross-border mergers activity are as follows: (a What are the differences between Indian and Chinese companies‘ perceptions of IFRS costs and benefits? (b What are the differences between IFRS adopters and IFRS non-adopters in perceptions of IFRS costs and benefits? This study identified some significant differences between Indian and Chinese companies‘ perceived IFRS costs and benefits, centering on the role that management accounting played for Chinese companies. Additionally, there were significant differences between how IFRS adopters and non-adopters perceived IFRS in terms of statement simplification, global credibility, and investor attractiveness. This study provides a statistical analysis for the IFRS adaption process of Indian and Chinese companies for the crossborder merger actions.

  10. Information Portal Costs and Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena BATAGAN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available All transformations of our society are the product of the large use of Information and Communications Technologies (ICT and Internet. ICT are technologies which facilitate communication, processing, and transmission of information by electronic means. It is very important to use the new technologies to the correct value because this determinate an increase of global benefits. Portal provides a consistent way to select, evaluate, prioritize and plan the right information. In research we point the important costs and benefits for an informational portal. The portal for local administrative determinate for citizens the access to information of interest and on the other hand make easier for employer to manage the documents.

  11. The economic disease burden of measles in Japan and a benefit cost analysis of vaccination, a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohkusa Yasushi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During 1999-2003, Japan experienced a series of measles epidemics, and in Action Plans to Control Measles and the Future Problems, it was proposed that infants be immunized soon after their one-year birthday. In this study, we attempted to estimate the nationwide economic disease burden of measles based on clinical data and the economic effectiveness of this proposal using the benefit cost ratio. Methods Our survey target was measles patients treated at Chiba-Nishi general hospital from January 1999 to September 2001. Two hundred ninety-one cases were extracted from the database. The survey team composed of 3 pediatricians and 1 physician from Chiba-Nishi general hospital examined patient files and obtained additional information by telephone interview. We analyzed data based on a static model, which assumed that the number of measles patients would be zero after 100% coverage of single-antigen measles vaccine. Costs were defined as the direct cost for measles treatment, vaccination and transportation and the indirect cost of workdays lost due to the nursing of patients, hospital visits for vaccination or nursing due to adverse reactions. Benefits were defined as savings on direct and indirect costs. Based on these definitions, we estimated the nationwide costs of treatment and vaccination. Results Using our static model, the nationwide total cost for measles treatment was estimated to be US$ 404 million, while the vaccination cost was US$165 million. The benefit cost ratio of the base case was 2.48 and ranged from 2.21 to 4.97 with sensitivity analysis. Conclusions Although the model has some limitations, we conclude that the policy of immunizing infants soon after their one-year birthday is economically effective.

  12. The value of information as applied to the Landsat Follow-on benefit-cost analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, D. B.

    1978-01-01

    An econometric model was run to compare the current forecasting system with a hypothetical (Landsat Follow-on) space-based system. The baseline current system was a hybrid of USDA SRS domestic forecasts and the best known foreign data. The space-based system improved upon the present Landsat by the higher spatial resolution capability of the thematic mapper. This satellite system is a major improvement for foreign forecasts but no better than SRS for domestic forecasts. The benefit analysis was concentrated on the use of Landsat Follow-on to forecast world wheat production. Results showed that it was possible to quantify the value of satellite information and that there are significant benefits in more timely and accurate crop condition information.

  13. The Availability Heuristic, Intuitive Cost-Benefit Analysis, and Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because risks are on all sides of social situations, it is not possible to be 'precautionary' in general. The availability heuristic ensures that some risks stand out as particularly salient, whatever their actual magnitude. Taken together with intuitive cost-benefit balancing, the availability heuristic helps to explain differences across groups, cultures, and even nations in the assessment of precautions to reduce the risks associated with climate change. There are complex links among availability, social processes for the spreading of information, and predispositions. If the United States is to take a stronger stand against climate change, it is likely to be a result of available incidents that seem to show that climate change produces serious and tangible harm

  14. Examining the effectiveness of municipal solid waste management systems: An integrated cost-benefit analysis perspective with a financial cost modeling in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to develop a sound material-cycle society, cost-effective municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems are required for the municipalities in the context of the integrated accounting system for MSW management. Firstly, this paper attempts to establish an integrated cost-benefit analysis (CBA) framework for evaluating the effectiveness of MSW management systems. In this paper, detailed cost/benefit items due to waste problems are particularly clarified. The stakeholders of MSW management systems, including the decision-makers of the municipalities and the citizens, are expected to reconsider the waste problems in depth and thus take wise actions with the aid of the proposed CBA framework. Secondly, focusing on the financial cost, this study develops a generalized methodology to evaluate the financial cost-effectiveness of MSW management systems, simultaneously considering the treatment technological levels and policy effects. The impacts of the influencing factors on the annual total and average financial MSW operation and maintenance (O and M) costs are analyzed in the Taiwanese case study with a demonstrative short-term future projection of the financial costs under scenario analysis. The established methodology would contribute to the evaluation of the current policy measures and to the modification of the policy design for the municipalities.

  15. European Union and a Cost Benefits Analysis for its Members: The Case of Historic Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis N. Kallianiotis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study tried to determine the cost and benefits of Greece before and after joining the European Union and some of the problems that the current European (and the prospective Euro-Asian Union has created to all European citizens. Approach: The most severe ones were the social chaos, which was increasing every day, due to the current financial crisis and the worst recession since the great depression of 1929-1930; the economic and political corruption, which were underrated by the officials and the tremendous uncertainty that this artificial and controlled “creature” has generated to its member-nations and their citizens. Results: Europe has a seven thousand years old history, which came from the ancient Hellenic (Greek civilization and was complemented by Christianity and does not have the right to go backwards. Hellas (Greece experienced and continues to have many difficulties, conflicts and invasions by barbarians and other neighboring countries. But at the same time, many good periods with tremendous contribution to the global scene are recorded. After WW II, the nation and citizens enjoyed a huge growth, a stable development, a multiple improvement and a preservation of their traditional social values. Lately, the fear from her neighbors and the pressure from her “friends” made Prime Minister, Constantinos Karamanlis, to “throw Greeks in the deep [but not very clean] waters of the European Union”. Conclusion: This European integration has destroyed the sovereign nation-states and it is ruling undemocratically an entire continent. Its economic and social policies could not satisfy any welfare functions for the Europeans. Overall, the cost of the European Union exceeds manifold its benefits.

  16. Cost-Benefit Analysis for the Advanced Near Net Shape Technology (ANNST) Method for Fabricating Stiffened Cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, Mary Cecilia; Hehir, Austin R.; Ivanco, Marie L.; Domack, Marcia S.

    2016-01-01

    This cost-benefit analysis assesses the benefits of the Advanced Near Net Shape Technology (ANNST) manufacturing process for fabricating integrally stiffened cylinders. These preliminary, rough order-of-magnitude results report a 46 to 58 percent reduction in production costs and a 7-percent reduction in weight over the conventional metallic manufacturing technique used in this study for comparison. Production cost savings of 35 to 58 percent were reported over the composite manufacturing technique used in this study for comparison; however, the ANNST concept was heavier. In this study, the predicted return on investment of equipment required for the ANNST method was ten cryogenic tank barrels when compared with conventional metallic manufacturing. The ANNST method was compared with the conventional multi-piece metallic construction and composite processes for fabricating integrally stiffened cylinders. A case study compared these three alternatives for manufacturing a cylinder of specified geometry, with particular focus placed on production costs and process complexity, with cost analyses performed by the analogy and parametric methods. Furthermore, a scalability study was conducted for three tank diameters to assess the highest potential payoff of the ANNST process for manufacture of large-diameter cryogenic tanks. The analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was subsequently used with a group of selected subject matter experts to assess the value of the various benefits achieved by the ANNST method for potential stakeholders. The AHP study results revealed that decreased final cylinder mass and quality assurance were the most valued benefits of cylinder manufacturing methods, therefore emphasizing the relevance of the benefits achieved with the ANNST process for future projects.

  17. Benefit Evaluation of Wind Turbine Generators in Wind Farms Using Capacity-Factor Analysis and Economic-Cost Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Wang, L.; Yeh, T-H.;

    2009-01-01

    generators (WTGs). To fully capture wind energy, different wind farms (WFs) should select adequate capacity of WTGs to effectively harvest wind energy and maximize their economic benefit. To establish selection criterion, this paper first derives the equations for capacity factor (CF) and pairing performance...... height for WTGs that have been installed in Taiwan. Important outcomes affecting wind cost of energy in comparison with economic results using the proposed economic-analysis methods for different WFs are also presented....

  18. Application of cost-benefit analysis to estimate the value of the protection function of forests against rockfalls

    OpenAIRE

    Dupire, S.; Bruciamacchie, M.

    2014-01-01

    A complex methodology has been implemented to adapt cost-benefit analysis to the interaction between rockfall hazard and mountain forests. It has been tested on six pilot areas situated in the Alps in France, Italy, and Switzerland. Starting from a precise field data collection, it combines the use of GIS software, databases and a tool developed specially to assess the economical calculation. This work allows giving an economical value for the protection function offered by the presence and t...

  19. Quality is free: A cost-benefit analysis of early child development initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Trefler, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    High-quality early child development initiatives are expensive. However, careful analysis of the returns on investment for such initiatives establishes that, from the government’s perspective, the initiatives all but pay for themselves. The explanation for this is twofold. First, early childhood interventions enhance adult employability and earnings of program participants. This generates $8.2 billion in tax revenues that partially offset program costs. Second, early childhood interventions r...

  20. Design and cost-benefit analysis of a mini thermo-acoustic refrigerator driver

    OpenAIRE

    Livvarcin, Omer.

    2000-01-01

    A miniature thermoacoustic refrigerator is being developed for the purpose of cooling integrated circuits below their failure temperature when used in hot environments. This thesis describes the development of an electrically powered acoustic driver that powers the thermoacoustic refrigerator. The driver utilizes a flexural tri-laminar piezoelectric disk to generate one to two Watts of acoustic power at 4 kHz in 15 bar of He-Kr gas mixture. This thesis also provides a cost analysis of the min...

  1. Improvement of safety by analysis of costs and benefits of the system

    OpenAIRE

    Karkoszka, T.; M. Andraczke

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: of the paper has been the assessment of the dependence between improvement of the implemented occupational health and safety management system and both minimization of costs connected with occupational health and safety assurance and optimization of real work conditions.Design/methodology/approach: used for the analysis has included definition of the occupational health and safety system with regard to the rules and tool allowing for occupational safety assurance in the organisationa...

  2. Cost-benefit analysis of the introduction of ELISA for the diagnosis of animal trypanosomosis in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Socio-economic data was requested by questionnaires from researchers in 15 different National Agricultural Research Systems (NARS). The results of the survey were analysed and used for a socio-economic cost-benefit analysis, comparing the costs of 'diagnosis, treatments and drug-resistance' in the two alternatives 'with' ELISA and the 'without' situation. The major assumptions of the cost-scheme used are: 1) an increase in the occurrence of drug-resistance if nothing changes in the current practice of drug-use; 2) large scale diagnosis in test and treatment practice, combined with the use of pour-on's, would lead to the abolishment of the current practice of administering prophylactic drugs. In order for this to be a feasible option, the development and subsequent promotion of Ag-ELISA and pour-on's is recommended. The first alternative, with BCT, has a slightly better cost-benefit ratio (1:53) than the second alternative, with Ag-ELISA (1:44). However, the latter is still considered the only feasible option because of the applicability of pen-side ELISA on local level and the low cost allowing for cost-price savings. The budgetary restrictions for the use of BCT and its labour-intensiveness explain the relatively small amount of diagnoses in current practice. (author)

  3. Rape oil for technical uses - a cost-benefit analysis. A cost-benefit analysis of the production and use of rape oil as fuels and lubricants and for technical purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief description of the methodical fundamentals of cost-benefit analyses, the quantitative analytical models and the relevant data basis is followed by a survey of existing and potential rape oil uses. Basic data for the economic evaluation of rape seed production, rape oil production and rape oil uses are compiled, and the potentials of rape oil marketing in the Federal Republic of Germany are evaluated. The results of an evaluation of the importance of rape oil to the national trade and industry are discussed considering the optimum large-scale expansion of rape oil production, the individual uses, technical concepts, and the economic significance of technical progress. The cost benefit analysis and subsequent evaluation are based on a comparative evaluation of the additional rape oil production and of the grain production which has been giving way to rape production. In accordance with the assumed world market reference conditions rape oil production and rape oil/byproduct uses compete with grain exports at world market prices. The rape oil production costs are estimated applying the marginal costing principle, i.e production costs and follow-up effects are quantified by means of a modified regionally differentiated simulation model assuming the local conditions applicable to the Federal Republic of Germany. Four scenarios for projection of EC agricultural prices, world market prices and energy prices through 2000 are made available to level the different basic economic conditions. (UA)

  4. Aqueous nitrate waste treatment: Technology comparison, cost/benefit, and market analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide information necessary for the Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate the practical utility of the Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic or Glass (NAC/NAG/NAX) process, which is under development in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The NAC/NACx/NAX process can convert aqueous radioactive nitrate-laden waste to a glass, ceramic, or grout solid waste form. The tasks include, but are not limited to, the following: Identify current commercial technologies to meet hazardous and radiological waste disposal requirements. The technologies may be thermal or non-thermal but must be all inclusive (i.e., must convert a radionuclide-containing nitrate waste with a pH around 12 to a stable form that can be disposed at permitted facilities); evaluate and compare DOE-sponsored vitrification, grouting, and minimum additive waste stabilization projects for life-cycle costs; compare the technologies above with respect to material costs, capital equipment costs, operating costs, and operating efficiencies. For the NAC/NAG/NAX process, assume aluminum reactant is government furnished and ammonia gas may be marketed; compare the identified technologies with respect to frequency of use within DOE for environmental management applications with appropriate rationale for use; Assess the potential size of the DOE market for the NAC/NAG/NAX process; assess and off-gas issues; and compare with international technologies, including life-cycle estimates.

  5. Aqueous nitrate waste treatment: Technology comparison, cost/benefit, and market analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide information necessary for the Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate the practical utility of the Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic or Glass (NAC/NAG/NAX) process, which is under development in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The NAC/NACx/NAX process can convert aqueous radioactive nitrate-laden waste to a glass, ceramic, or grout solid waste form. The tasks include, but are not limited to, the following: Identify current commercial technologies to meet hazardous and radiological waste disposal requirements. The technologies may be thermal or non-thermal but must be all inclusive (i.e., must convert a radionuclide-containing nitrate waste with a pH around 12 to a stable form that can be disposed at permitted facilities); evaluate and compare DOE-sponsored vitrification, grouting, and minimum additive waste stabilization projects for life-cycle costs; compare the technologies above with respect to material costs, capital equipment costs, operating costs, and operating efficiencies. For the NAC/NAG/NAX process, assume aluminum reactant is government furnished and ammonia gas may be marketed; compare the identified technologies with respect to frequency of use within DOE for environmental management applications with appropriate rationale for use; Assess the potential size of the DOE market for the NAC/NAG/NAX process; assess and off-gas issues; and compare with international technologies, including life-cycle estimates

  6. The Impact of Company-Level ART Provision to a Mining Workforce in South Africa: A Cost-Benefit Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesine Meyer-Rath

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available HIV impacts heavily on the operating costs of companies in sub-Saharan Africa, with many companies now providing antiretroviral therapy (ART programmes in the workplace. A full cost-benefit analysis of workplace ART provision has not been conducted using primary data. We developed a dynamic health-state transition model to estimate the economic impact of HIV and the cost-benefit of ART provision in a mining company in South Africa between 2003 and 2022.A dynamic health-state transition model, called the Workplace Impact Model (WIM, was parameterised with workplace data on workforce size, composition, turnover, HIV incidence, and CD4 cell count development. Bottom-up cost analyses from the employer perspective supplied data on inpatient and outpatient resource utilisation and the costs of absenteeism and replacement of sick workers. The model was fitted to workforce HIV prevalence and separation data while incorporating parameter uncertainty; univariate sensitivity analyses were used to assess the robustness of the model findings. As ART coverage increases from 10% to 97% of eligible employees, increases in survival and retention of HIV-positive employees and associated reductions in absenteeism and benefit payments lead to cost savings compared to a scenario of no treatment provision, with the annual cost of HIV to the company decreasing by 5% (90% credibility interval [CrI] 2%-8% and the mean cost per HIV-positive employee decreasing by 14% (90% CrI 7%-19% by 2022. This translates into an average saving of US$950,215 (90% CrI US$220,879-US$1.6 million per year; 80% of these cost savings are due to reductions in benefit payments and inpatient care costs. Although findings are sensitive to assumptions regarding incidence and absenteeism, ART is cost-saving under considerable parameter uncertainty and in all tested scenarios, including when prevalence is reduced to 1%-except when no benefits were paid out to employees leaving the workforce and

  7. Estimating Environmental Benefits of Natural Hazard Mitigation with Benefit Transfer: Results from a Benefit-Cost Analysis of FEMA Hazard Mitigation Grants

    OpenAIRE

    John C. Whitehead; Adam Z. Rose

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes methods, data, and results associated with the first major attempt to evaluate the environmental benefits of FEMA natural hazards mitigation grants. The study relied heavily on the refinement of benefit transfer methods. Categories of benefits include water quality for recreational and commercial fishing, drinking water, outdoor recreation, hazardous waste, wetlands and aesthetic, health and safety benefits. Environmental and historic benefits proved to be a very minor p...

  8. Smart Aquifer Characterisation validated using Information Theory and Cost benefit analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    The field data acquisition required to characterise aquifer systems are time consuming and expensive. Decisions regarding field testing, the type of field measurements to make and the spatial and temporal resolution of measurements have significant cost repercussions and impact the accuracy of various predictive simulations. The Smart Aquifer Characterisation (SAC) research programme (New Zealand (NZ)) addresses this issue by assembling and validating a suite of innovative methods for characterising groundwater systems at the large, regional and national scales. The primary outcome is a suite of cost effective tools and procedures provided to resource managers to advance the understanding and management of groundwater systems and thereby assist decision makers and communities in the management of their groundwater resources, including the setting of land use limits that protect fresh water flows and quality and the ecosystems dependent on that fresh water. The programme has focused novel investigation approaches including the use of geophysics, satellite remote sensing, temperature sensing and age dating. The SMART (Save Money And Reduce Time) aspect of the programme emphasises techniques that use these passive cost effective data sources to characterise groundwater systems at both the aquifer and the national scale by: • Determination of aquifer hydraulic properties • Determination of aquifer dimensions • Quantification of fluxes between ground waters and surface water • Groundwater age dating These methods allow either a lower cost method for estimating these properties and fluxes, or a greater spatial and temporal coverage for the same cost. To demonstrate the cost effectiveness of the methods a 'data worth' analysis is undertaken. The data worth method involves quantification of the utility of observation data in terms of how much it reduces the uncertainty of model parameters and decision focussed predictions which depend on these parameters. Such

  9. Smart Aquifer Characterisation validated using Information Theory and Cost benefit analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    The field data acquisition required to characterise aquifer systems are time consuming and expensive. Decisions regarding field testing, the type of field measurements to make and the spatial and temporal resolution of measurements have significant cost repercussions and impact the accuracy of various predictive simulations. The Smart Aquifer Characterisation (SAC) research programme (New Zealand (NZ)) addresses this issue by assembling and validating a suite of innovative methods for characterising groundwater systems at the large, regional and national scales. The primary outcome is a suite of cost effective tools and procedures provided to resource managers to advance the understanding and management of groundwater systems and thereby assist decision makers and communities in the management of their groundwater resources, including the setting of land use limits that protect fresh water flows and quality and the ecosystems dependent on that fresh water. The programme has focused novel investigation approaches including the use of geophysics, satellite remote sensing, temperature sensing and age dating. The SMART (Save Money And Reduce Time) aspect of the programme emphasises techniques that use these passive cost effective data sources to characterise groundwater systems at both the aquifer and the national scale by: • Determination of aquifer hydraulic properties • Determination of aquifer dimensions • Quantification of fluxes between ground waters and surface water • Groundwater age dating These methods allow either a lower cost method for estimating these properties and fluxes, or a greater spatial and temporal coverage for the same cost. To demonstrate the cost effectiveness of the methods a 'data worth' analysis is undertaken. The data worth method involves quantification of the utility of observation data in terms of how much it reduces the uncertainty of model parameters and decision focussed predictions which depend on these parameters. Such

  10. Risk-cost-benefit analysis of atrazine in drinking water from agricultural activities and policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfamichael, Aklilu A.; Caplan, Arthur J.; Kaluarachchi, Jagath J.

    2005-05-01

    This study provides an improved methodology for investigating the trade-offs between the health risks and economic benefits of using atrazine in the agricultural sector by incorporating public attitude to pesticide management in the analysis. Regression models are developed to predict finished water atrazine concentration in high-risk community water supplies in the United States. The predicted finished water atrazine concentrations are then used in a health risk assessment. The computed health risks are compared with the total economic surplus in the U.S. corn market for different atrazine application rates using estimated demand and supply functions developed in this work. Analysis of different scenarios with consumer price premiums for chemical-free and reduced-chemical corn indicate that if the society is willing to pay a price premium, risks can be reduced without a large reduction in the total economic surplus and net benefits may be higher. The results also show that this methodology provides an improved scientific framework for future decision making and policy evaluation in pesticide management.

  11. COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF A SYSTEM UNDER HEADOF- LINE REPAIR APPROACH USING GUMBELHOUGAARD FAMILY COPULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangey Ram

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a new mathematical model of a system with a novel approach,which consists of two independent repairable subsystems. The model is analyzed under “Headof-Line” repair policy considering two types of repair between two successive transitions at astage contrast to the normal practice of assuming single type of transition in all states.Supplementary variable technique, Laplace transformation and Gumbel-Hougaard family copulatechniques are applied to obtain the availability and cost analysis of the system. At last somenumerical examples have been taken to illustrate the model.

  12. A cost-benefit analysis of the requirement that students complete a thesis at the Naval Postgraduate School

    OpenAIRE

    Strobl, Michael R.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis identifies and compares the benefits and costs of the policy requiring master's degree candidates at NPS to complete a thesis. It uses fiscal year 2000 data. The goal is to evaluate the existing policy to determine if the economic benefit of requiring a thesis is greater than the economic cost. The direct benefit of the thesis requirement is the increased productivity of officers due to having completed a thesis. Indirect benefits are found in the valuable research provided by man...

  13. Cost-Benefit Analysis and Emission Reduction of Energy Efficient Lighting at the Universiti Tenaga Nasional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. B. Ganandran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the result of an investigation on the potential energy saving of the lighting systems at selected buildings of the Universiti Tenaga Nasional. The scope of this project includes evaluation of the lighting system in the Library, Admin Building, College of Engineering, College of Information Technology, Apartments, and COE Food court of the university. The main objectives of this project are to design the proper retrofit scenario and to calculate the potential electricity saving, the payback period, and the potential environmental benefits. In this survey the policy for retrofitting the old lighting system with the new energy saving LEDs starts with 10% for the first year and continues constantly for 10 years until all the lighting systems have been replaced. The result of the life cycle analysis reveals that after four years, the selected buildings will bring profit for the investment.

  14. Cost - benefit assessment in medical researches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Parsapour

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the fundamental issues in the ethics of medical researches is cost-benefit assessment which consists a main part of related codes. This article is aimed to propose a model for ethical assessment of researches with judgment about their costs and benefits."nAfter reviewing related materials and our experiences and discussions with experts, we proposed a model for ethical assessment of costs and benefits of medical researches. "nIt seems that there can be a complex table that shows the potential influenced groups such as patients, researchers, their families, society, and ... , and in the other side of the table, we can see the aspects of such influences, including physical, economical, psychological, social, spiritual, political, and so on. So, the authors designed a table showing the above mentioned types of influences, for using in ethical assessments of the costs and benefits of medical researches."nBecause of the complexity that exists in various aspects of the costs and benefits of a research, the researcher can not accomplish this analysis alone. It reveals the philosophy of the composition of the research ethics committees. The proposed table of this article will help the researchers and ethical committees for implementation of the above mentioned principles in research activities.

  15. Cost/benefit analyses of environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various aspects of cost-benefit analyses are considered. Some topics discussed are: regulations of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA); statement of AEC policy and procedures for implementation of NEPA; Calvert Cliffs decision; AEC Regulatory Guide; application of risk-benefit analysis to nuclear power; application of the as low as practicable (ALAP) rule to radiation discharges; thermal discharge restrictions proposed by EPA under the 1972 Amendment to the Water Pollution Control Act; estimates of somatic and genetic insult per unit population exposure; occupational exposure; EPA Point Source Guidelines for Discharges from Steam Electric Power Plants; and costs of closed-cycle cooling using cooling towers. (U.S.)

  16. Comparison of different shielding materials used at proton accelerators and cost-benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During last decades physicians' and physicist's experience and confidence in proton beam radiotherapy has grown significantly. Construction of a number of new proton therapy facilities is already underway, and several are in planning stages for the near future. Cost-effective shielding design of these facilities is important. We present comparative analysis of different shielding materials that are typically used at proton accelerators and in proton radiotherapy facilities. We have used Geant4 tool-kit for simulation of the passage of particles through matter. We have analyzed shielding properties of iron, borated concrete, a water tank with borated polyethylene walls, borated polyethylene, and borated fire retardant plywood. We have simulated 240 MeV protons incident on a thin copper target that generated radiation fields of primary protons as well as secondaries produced in the target incident on the shielding block. We found that iron is most effective per unit length. It may be the most cost-effective option if one considers using the so called SEG blocks in combination with 1 to 2 ft of concrete layer. The material of the SEG block consists primarily of iron from recycled government facility metals, and is slightly radioactive. The slight inherent radioactivity as well as low energy (< 847 keV) secondary neutrons from iron will be shielded by a thin concrete layer. We also find that borated fire retardant plywood can be a cost-effective alternative for borated polyethylene in many shielding applications where borated polyethylene sheets are used that are arguably not less fire hazardous. (authors)

  17. The Trade-Off between Road and Railroad Freight Transport – Cost Benefit Analysis for Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jure Erjavec

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The choice of transportation mode for freight transport has a profound effect on logistics companies, infrastructure providers and society as a whole. The efficiency of freight transport is important because it has a profound effect on several economic and environmental factors. The paper analyses the costs difference between railroad and road freight transport. The stakeholder analysis is used to enable the identification of the interests of various groups. The government is identified as the focal stakeholder. The governmental decision support model that focuses on the Slovenian case of road and railway freight transport is proposed. The proposed model can serve the government with its decision-making process when adopting policies that concern road and railroad transport such as subsidies or increased road tolls in order to promote railroad transport.

  18. Texas State Building Energy Code: Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Commercial Lighting Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richman, Eric E.; Belzer, David B.; Winiarski, David W.

    2005-09-15

    The State Energy Conservation Office of Texas has asked the U.S. Department of Energy to analyze the potential energy effect and cost-effectiveness of the lighting requirements in the 2003 IECC as they consider adoption of this energy code. The new provisions of interest in the lighting section of IECC 2003 include new lighting power densities (LPD) and requirements for automatic lighting shutoff controls. The potential effect of the new LPD values is analyzed as a comparison with previous values in the nationally available IECC codes and ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1. The basis for the analysis is a set of lighting models developed as part of the ASHRAE/IES code process, which is the basis for IECC 2003 LPD values. The use of the models allows for an effective comparison of values for various building types of interest to Texas state. Potential effects from control requirements are discussed, and available case study analysis results are provided but no comprehensive numerical evaluation is provided in this limited analysis effort.

  19. Long-term benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis of screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms from a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, Jes S.; Sørensen, J; Søgaard, R; Henneberg, E W

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to estimate long-term mortality benefits and cost-effectiveness of screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in men aged 64-73 years.......The aim was to estimate long-term mortality benefits and cost-effectiveness of screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in men aged 64-73 years....

  20. A cost-benefit analysis of long-term management options for forests following contamination with 137Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides a description of a cost-benefit analysis applied to determine the cost effectiveness, or otherwise, of nine management strategies potentially applicable to forests contaminated with 137Cs. The management strategies were considered singly and in a number of likely combinations. A management strategy was considered to be cost effective if it resulted in a lower overall monetary detriment than was incurred if use of the contaminated forest was continued on a 'business as usual' basis. Only the banning of mushroom collection and restriction of public access proved to be cost-effective management strategies on the basis of this definition. However, even these strategies only proved cost effective at high levels of 137Cs contamination, at which net savings in detriment in the form of public dose were achieved. Cost-effective savings of doses to forest workers were never achieved at any of the contamination levels considered in this study. It is suggested that novel alternative uses of contaminated forests are required which could provide added value to the standing crop in return for small increases in public and worker doses. One such use might be biofuel production

  1. Modular network construction using eQTL data: an analysis of computational costs and benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Yi eHo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this paper, we consider analytic methods for the integrated analysis of genomic DNA variation and mRNA expression (also named as eQTL data, to discover genetic networks that are associated with a complex trait of interest. Our focus is the systematic evaluation of the trade-off between network size and network search efficiency in the construction of these networks. Results: We developed a modular approach to network construction, building from smaller networks to larger ones, thereby reducing the search space while including more variables in the analysis. The goal is achieving a lower computational cost while maintaining high confidence in the resulting networks. As demonstrated in our simulation results, networks built in this way have low node/edge false discovery rate (FDR and high node/edge sensitivity comparing to greedy search. We further demonstrate our method in a data set of cellular responses to two chemotherapeutic agents: docetaxel and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU, and identify biologically plausible networks that might describe resistances to these drugs.Conclusions: In this study, we suggest that guided comprehensive searches for parsimonious networks should be considered as an alternative to greedy network searches.

  2. Risk-Cost-Benefit Analysis Of Atrazine In Drinking Water From Agricultural Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aklilu, T. A.; Jagath, K. J.; Arthur, C. J.

    2004-12-01

    This study provides a new methodology for investigating the trade-offs between the health risks and economic benefits of using atrazine in the agricultural sector and a more holistic insight to pesticide management issues. Regression models are developed to predict the stream atrazine concentrations and finished water atrazine concentration at high-risk community water supplies in the US using surface water. The predicted finished water atrazine concentrations are then used in health risk assessment. The computed health risks are compared with the total surplus in the US corn market for different atrazine application rates using the demand and supply functions developed in this work. Analysis of different scenarios with consumer price premiums (preferences) for chemical-free to reduced chemical corn provided interesting results on the potential for future pesticide and land use management. This is an interdisciplinary work that has attempted to integrate and consider the interaction between weed sciences, economics, water quality, human health risk and human reaction to changes in different pesticide use scenarios. The results showed that this methodology provides a scientific framework for future decision-making and policy evaluation in pesticide management, especially when better regional and national data are available.

  3. Licensing and regulation of the cannabis market in England and Wales: Towards a cost-benefit analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pudney, Stephen; Bryan, Mark; DelBono, Emilia

    2013-01-01

    This study sets out the potential costs and benefits of a move to a licensed, taxed and regulated cannabis market in England and Wales. It identifies at least 17 sources of social cost/benefit and gives indicative estimates of annual net external benefit for 13 of them. We stress the important role of product regulation as a means of controlling the chemical properties of the cannabis product. Research in neuroscience has demonstrated the harmful effects of one cannabis constituent (THC) and ...

  4. Development of a module for Cost-Benefit analysis of risk reduction measures for natural hazards for the CHANGES-SDSS platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Julian; Bogaard, Thom; Van Westen, Cees; Bakker, Wim; Mostert, Eric; Dopheide, Emile

    2014-05-01

    Cost benefit analysis (CBA) is a well know method used widely for the assessment of investments either in the private and public sector. In the context of risk mitigation and the evaluation of risk reduction alternatives for natural hazards its use is very important to evaluate the effectiveness of such efforts in terms of avoided monetary losses. However the current method has some disadvantages related to the spatial distribution of the costs and benefits, the geographical distribution of the avoided damage and losses, the variation in areas that are benefited in terms of invested money and avoided monetary risk. Decision-makers are often interested in how the costs and benefits are distributed among different administrative units of a large area or region, so they will be able to compare and analyse the cost and benefits per administrative unit as a result of the implementation of the risk reduction projects. In this work we first examined the Cost benefit procedure for natural hazards, how the costs are assessed for several structural and non-structural risk reduction alternatives, we also examined the current problems of the method such as the inclusion of cultural and social considerations that are complex to monetize , the problem of discounting future values using a defined interest rate and the spatial distribution of cost and benefits. We also examined the additional benefits and the indirect costs associated with the implementation of the risk reduction alternatives such as the cost of having a ugly landscape (also called negative benefits). In the last part we examined the current tools and software used in natural hazards assessment with support to conduct CBA and we propose design considerations for the implementation of the CBA module for the CHANGES-SDSS Platform an initiative of the ongoing 7th Framework Programme "CHANGES of the European commission. Keywords: Risk management, Economics of risk mitigation, EU Flood Directive, resilience, prevention

  5. A methodology for cost/benefit safety analysis for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodology is presented that can be used to determine if a proposed fusion power plant design modification, directed at improving plant safety, is cost-effective. Both normal and accident conditions can be handled. An approach for evaluating the maximum justified spending on safety is outlined. The incremental costs involved with a dose reduction measure are identified, and models for their assessment are given. By comparing the spending on the design modification to the justified expenditure ceiling, the cost-effectiveness of the design can be assessed. The utility of this approach is illustrated through two examples. For normal plant conditions, the cost-effectiveness of replacing the steel alloy PCA by low-activation silicon carbide (SiC) in the STARFIRE design is assessed. Based on a specified set of assumptions, it was determined that if the installed cost of SiC components is less than $110/kg, then the low-activation design is cost-effective

  6. COST/BENEFIT ANALYSIS – A TOOL TO IMPROVE RECRUITMENT, SELECTION AND EMPLOYMENT IN ORGANIZATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoleta Valentina FLOREA

    2013-01-01

    Human resource is a major source for organization to obtain competitive advantage and can be very important in obtaining long-term performance. The limits of recruitment process are the cost, the choice made, time and legislation. Any organization looks for minimizing the human resources recruitment, selection and employment costs. This article presents the importance of cost in choosing the best practices of recruitment, selection, employment and integration of new employees in the organ...

  7. To Apply or Not to Apply: A Survey Analysis of Grant Writing Costs and Benefits

    CERN Document Server

    von Hippel, Ted

    2015-01-01

    We surveyed 113 astronomers and 82 psychologists active in applying for federally funded research on their grant-writing history between January, 2009 and November, 2012. We collected demographic data, effort levels, success rates, and perceived non-financial benefits from writing grant proposals. We find that the average proposal takes 116 PI hours and 55 CI hours to write; although time spent writing was not related to whether the grant was funded. Effort did translate into success, however, as academics who wrote more grants received more funding. Participants indicated modest non-monetary benefits from grant writing, with psychologists reporting a somewhat greater benefit overall than astronomers. These perceptions of non-financial benefits were unrelated to how many grants investigators applied for, the number of grants they received, or the amount of time they devoted to writing their proposals. We also explored the number of years an investigator can afford to apply unsuccessfully for research grants a...

  8. Sludge digestion instead of aerobic stabilisation - a cost benefit analysis based on experiences in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gretzschel, Oliver; Schmitt, Theo G; Hansen, Joachim; Siekmann, Klaus; Jakob, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    As a consequence of a worldwide increase of energy costs, the efficient use of sewage sludge as a renewable energy resource must be considered, even for smaller wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with design capacities between 10,000 and 50,000 population equivalent (PE). To find the lower limit for an economical conversion of an aerobic stabilisation plant into an anaerobic stabilisation plant, we derived cost functions for specific capital costs and operating cost savings. With these tools, it is possible to evaluate if it would be promising to further investigate refitting aerobic plants into plants that produce biogas. By comparing capital costs with operation cost savings, a break-even point for process conversion could be determined. The break-even point varies depending on project specific constraints and assumptions related to future energy and operation costs and variable interest rates. A 5% increase of energy and operation costs leads to a cost efficient conversion for plants above 7,500 PE. A conversion of WWTPs results in different positive effects on energy generation and plant operations: increased efficiency, energy savings, and on-site renewable power generation by digester gas which can be used in the plant. Also, the optimisation of energy efficiency results in a reduction of primary energy consumption. PMID:24473316

  9. Low-Cost Carriers, Local Economy and Tourism Development at Four Portuguese Airports. A Model of Cost–Benefit Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Costa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The liberalisation of air transport created a new era in the sector. The entry of low-cost carriers triggered dynamism and consequently changed the behaviours of the demand and supply of air transport services. The volume of traffic at Portuguese airports increased from 17 million passengers in 2002 to more than 30 million in 2012, representing cumulative growth of 75%. The commitment to low-cost carriers (LCCs was a determining factor for this growth in that, in 2012, these carriers recorded a market share of 33%. This study aims to analyse the evolution of LCC air traffic in Portugal and its impact on regional economic development. Through a model of cost–benefit analysis, we determine the costs, benefits and net welfare in the developmet of the region driven by the LCC routes of 4 Portuguese airports, Faro, Lisbon, Funchal and Porto, between 2005 and 2012. The methodology proves the existence of a positive net impact driven by LCCs on the local economy, directly through job creation and increased consumption in the tourism sector and indirectly by the increased demand from other sectors.

  10. Forecasting the Socio-Economic Impact of the Large Hadron Collider: a Cost-Benefit Analysis to 2025 and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Florio, Massimo; Sirtori, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we develop a cost-benefit analysis of a major research infrastructure, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the highest-energy accelerator in the world, currently operating at CERN. We show that the evaluation of benefits can be made quantitative by estimating their welfare effects on different types of agents. Four classes of direct benefits are identified, according to the main social groups involved: (a) scientists; (b) students and young researchers; (c) firms in the procurement chain and other organizations; (d) the general public, including onsite and website visitors and other media users. These benefits are respectively related to the knowledge output of scientists; human capital formation; technological spillovers; and direct cultural effects for the general public. Welfare effects for taxpayers can also be estimated by the contingent valuation of the willingness to pay for a pure public good for which there is no specific direct use (i.e., as non-use value). Using a Monte Carlo approach, w...

  11. Cost-benefit Analysis of Scale Pig Breeding in Shandong Province Based on Modified Entropy Weight-TOPSIS Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanyuan; ZHANG; Shimin; SUN

    2014-01-01

    According to the relevant statistical data in National Agricultural cost-benefit Data Compilation(2001- 2013),we use the modified entropy weight- TOPSIS model to research the cost-benefit status of scale pig breeding in Shandong Province from the perspective of comparing it with that of the entire country and 9 other main pig producing areas. The results show that compared with the national average,the cost-benefit ratio of small scale pig breeding in Shandong Province is lower,while the cost-benefit ratio of medium scale and large scale pig breeding is significantly improved; the cost-benefit ratio of small scale pig breeding in Shandong Province is basically the same as that in 9 other main pig producing areas,while the cost-benefit ratio of medium scale and large scale pig breeding is higher; the output value of main products and the purchase price of piglet are two major bottlenecks restricting the cost-benefit improvement of scale pig breeding in Shandong Province.

  12. The social costs of production and the structure of technology in the Brazilian ethanol industry: A cost-benefit analysis and an infant industry evaluation, 1978-1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Only one country, Brazil, has developed an economy-wide liquid fuel industry which directly substitutes for gasoline. The experience of sugar-cane-based ethanol production in Brazil provides an important case study in the economic efficiency of this petroleum substitute. Partial equilibrium cost-benefit analysis is used to evaluate the net social benefits of ethanol production over the decade beginning in 1978. Ethanol production from the southern region of Brazil is found to be an economically efficient substitute for petroleum when world oil prices are over $20 per barrel. Ethanol production in the northern Brazil has never been economic and will not be until oil prices rise above $40 per barrel. The second half of this thesis uses applied production analysis to determine the source of the ethanol unit cost reductions. For sugar-cane production, a modified symmetric generalized McFadden cost function which includes fixed factors of production is estimated. There is little evidence of technical progress and no evidence of increasing returns to scale in sugar-cane production

  13. The Application of Cost-Benefit Analysis Method in Cost Benefit Management in Hospital%量本利分析法在医院成本效益管理中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李思雯

    2015-01-01

    目的:介绍量本利分析法在医院综合管理中的重要作用。方法运用量本利分析法分别对A医院疝外科门诊和病房成本效益进行分析。结果病房部分产生的边际贡献略大于门诊部分,影响边际贡献的几个因素依次为工作量、成本和医院的管理水平。结论运用量本利分析法能够全面剖析医院成本、工作量、收费价格和收支结余之间的关系,为医院管理者全方位、多维度地分析和探讨提高科室收益和降低运营成本提供参考。%ObjectiveThis paper introduces the important function of cost-benefit analysis method in comprehensive management in the hospital.MethodsUsing cost-benefit analysis to analyze cost benefit of outpatient department and medical ward respectively in hernia surgery. Results The marginal contribution of medical ward was slightly more than outpatient department. Three factors affect the marginal contribution as follows quantity of work, cost and the management level of the hospital. ConclusionCost-beneift analysis method can comprehensive analyze the relationship between cost, quantity of work, price and balance of payments, it can provide reference in many aspects for hospital managers.

  14. A cost/benefit analysis of randomized invasive monitoring for patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, K S; Gomez, M N; Moyers, J R; Carter, J G; Tinker, J H

    1989-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of choice of invasive monitoring on cost, morbidity, and mortality in cardiac surgery. Two hundred and twenty-six adults undergoing elective cardiac surgery were initially assigned at random to receive either a central venous pressure monitoring catheter (group I), a conventional pulmonary artery (PA) catheter (group II), or a mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) measuring PA catheter (group III). If the attending anesthesiologist believed that the patient initially randomized to group I should have a PA catheter, that patient was then reassigned to receive either a conventional PA catheter (group IV) or SvO2 measuring PA catheter (group V). The total costs were defined as the total amount billed to the patient for the catheter used; the professional cost of its insertion; and the determinations of cardiac output, arterial blood gas tensions, hemoglobin level, and hematocrit. Mean total monitoring and laboratory costs in Group I ($591 +/- 67) were statistically significantly (P less than 0.05) less than costs in Group II ($856 +/- 231). Further, mean monitoring and laboratory costs in Group II were statistically significantly (P less than 0.05) less than those in Group III ($1128 +/- 759). Patients in group IV incurred mean total costs of $986 +/- 578, while those in group V had mean total costs of $1126 +/- 382 (NS). There were no significant differences between any of the groups with respect to length of stay in the intensive care unit, morbidity, or mortality.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2505641

  15. Single implant and crown versus fixed partial denture: A cost-benefit, patient-centred analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodacre, Charles J; Naylor, W Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Single implants and their crowns have high survival rates that exceed the survival rates for fixed partial dentures on teeth and most but not all publications have determined single implants are more cost-effective than 3-unit fixed partial dentures. Both initial root canal treatment and retreatment are more cost-effective than tooth extraction and rehabilitation with a single implant and crown. PMID:27314112

  16. Method for Cost-Benefit Analysis of Improved Indoor Climate Conditions and Reduced Energy Consumption in Office Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoras Dorosevas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Indoor climate affects health and productivity of the occupants in office buildings, yet in many buildings of this type indoor climate conditions are not well-controlled due to insufficient heating or cooling capacity, high swings of external or internal heat loads, improper control or operation of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC equipment, etc. However, maintenance of good indoor environmental conditions in buildings requires increased investments and possible higher energy consumption. This paper focuses on the relation between investment costs for retrofitting HVAC equipment as well as decreased energy use and improved performance of occupants in office buildings. The cost-benefit analysis implementation algorithm is presented in this paper, including energy survey of the building, estimation of occupants dissatisfied by key indoor climate indicators using questionnaire survey and measurements. Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS analysis is used in the proposed method for data processing. A case study of an office building is presented in order to introduce an application example of the proposed method. Results of the study verify the applicability of the proposed algorithm and TOPSIS analysis as a practical tool for office building surveys in order to maximize productivity by means of cost efficient technical building retrofitting solutions.

  17. To apply or not to apply: a survey analysis of grant writing costs and benefits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted von Hippel

    Full Text Available We surveyed 113 astronomers and 82 psychologists active in applying for federally funded research on their grant-writing history between January, 2009 and November, 2012. We collected demographic data, effort levels, success rates, and perceived non-financial benefits from writing grant proposals. We find that the average proposal takes 116 PI hours and 55 CI hours to write; although time spent writing was not related to whether the grant was funded. Effort did translate into success, however, as academics who wrote more grants received more funding. Participants indicated modest non-monetary benefits from grant writing, with psychologists reporting a somewhat greater benefit overall than astronomers. These perceptions of non-financial benefits were unrelated to how many grants investigators applied for, the number of grants they received, or the amount of time they devoted to writing their proposals. We also explored the number of years an investigator can afford to apply unsuccessfully for research grants and our analyses suggest that funding rates below approximately 20%, commensurate with current NIH and NSF funding, are likely to drive at least half of the active researchers away from federally funded research. We conclude with recommendations and suggestions for individual investigators and for department heads.

  18. The cost and benefit analysis of a contaminated area remediation: case study of dose level selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years there has been an increasing awareness of the radiological impact of non-nuclear industries that extract and/or process ores and minerals containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Without radiological rules, these industrial activities may result in significant radioactive contamination of installations and sites. Depending on the potential hazardous to the environment and public health, the radioactive contaminated sites may require remediation. The extent of the site cleanup is a function of the size, localization, complexity, potential risks and on possible future uses envisioned for the site. Since worker and public health, public anxiety and economics factors are involved; the selection of an appropriate dose level can be quite complicated. This paper discusses the selection of a dose level criterion to remedy a site, which was contaminated by wastes from monazite processing. The site is located in the Sao Paulo city; the most densely populated Brazilian City. In its 60,000 square meters of area, a preliminary survey showed contaminated zones covering an area of 6,500 square meters. In some places, contamination was found below the superficial layer of the soil, being the radionuclide vertical distribution not uniform. The 228 Ra soil activity concentration reached values up to 33,000 Bq/kg while those for 226 Ra reached values up to 6,700 Bq/kg. Based on pathway analysis model and considering both the current land use and a hypothetical residential scenario, the residual contamination levels of radionuclides in soil have been derived for dose values of 10 mSv/y (dose level for intervention), 5 mSv/y, 3 mSv/y, 1 mSv/y (dose limit for practices) and 0.3 mSv/y (dose constraint for practices). An optimized value o f annual dose of about 5 mSv/y would be a good option for intervention level, but taking into account the public concern and anxiety, the site location and size, and the remediation costs, it is suggested the

  19. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards:A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2007-01-16

    State renewables portfolio standards (RPS) have emerged as one of the most important policy drivers of renewable energy capacity expansion in the U.S. Collectively, these policies now apply to roughly 40% of U.S. electricity load, and may have substantial impacts on electricity markets, ratepayers, and local economies. As RPS policies have been proposed or adopted in an increasing number of states, a growing number of studies have attempted to quantify the potential impacts of these policies, focusing primarily on projecting cost impacts, but sometimes also estimating macroeconomic and environmental effects. This report synthesizes and analyzes the results and methodologies of 28 distinct state or utility-level RPS cost impact analyses completed since 1998. Together, these studies model proposed or adopted RPS policies in 18 different states. We highlight the key findings of these studies on the costs and benefits of RPS policies, examine the sensitivity of projected costs to model assumptions, assess the attributes of different modeling approaches, and suggest possible areas of improvement for future RPS analysis.

  20. A Cost-Benefit Analysis of a Collections Inventory Project: A Statistical Analysis of Inventory Data from a Medium-Sized Academic Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jan S.; Whisler, John A.; Sung, Nackil

    2009-01-01

    Using an electronic shelf-reading system a cost-benefit analysis was conducted of an inventory/shelf-reading project in a medium-sized academic library. Analyses include time spent, cataloging discrepancies, books found with active statuses, mis-shelving rate and distance, and subsequent use of found books. Correctly re-shelving "missing"…

  1. Risk-Cost-Benefit Analysis of Atrazine in Drinking Water from Agricultural Activities and Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Tesfamichael, Aklilu; Caplan, Arthur J.; Kaluarachchi, Jagath

    2005-01-01

    This study provides an improved methodology for investigating the trade-offs between the health risks and economic benefits of using atrazine in the agricultural sector. Regression models are developed to predict finished water atrazine concentration in high-risk community water supplies in the US. The predicted finished water atrazine concentrations are then incorporated in a health risk assessment. The computed health risks are compared with total economic surplus in the US corn market for ...

  2. THE SOCIAL VALUE OF SCIENCE SHOPS: A COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    We describe and apply a method to determine the net social benefits of science shops. University departments operating as science shops coordinate research projects for individuals or civil society organizations (CSO) lacking the financial means to turn to professional consultancy bureaus. Three cases are analyzed; the science shops atWageningen, Brussels and Eindhoven. After investigation, it appears that under the normal assumptions for the application of CBA, the science shops concerned sh...

  3. Who Benefits from Reducing the Cost of Formality? Quantile Regression Discontinuity Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrieli, Tommaso; Galvao, Jr, Antonio F.; Gabriel V. Montes-Rojas

    2010-01-01

    This chapter studies the effect of increasing formality via tax reduction and simplification schemes on micro-firm performance. We develop a simple theoretical model that yields two intuitive results. First, low- and high-ability entrepreneurs are unlikely to be affected by a tax reduction and therefore, the reduction has an impact only on a segment of the microfirm population. Second, the benefits to such reduction, as measured by profits and revenues, are increasing in the entrepreneur's ab...

  4. Should Banks' Stress Test Results be Disclosed? An Analysis of the Costs and Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, Itay; Sapra, Haresh

    2014-01-01

    Stress tests have become an important component of the supervisory toolkit. However, the extent of disclosure of stress-test results remains controversial. We argue that while stress tests uncover unique information to outsiders — because banks operate in second--best environments with multiple imperfections — there are potential endogenous costs associated with such disclosure.

  5. A Comparison of Wind Energy Investment Alternatives Using Interval-Valued Intuitionistic Fuzzy Benefit/Cost Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Kahraman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the tools for maintaining environmental sustainability is transformation from fossil-based energy sources to renewable energy sources in energy consumption. Among renewable energy alternatives, wind energy is the most prominent and reliable energy source for fulfilling energy demand. Traditional investment evaluation techniques based on discounted cash flows are not capable of capturing the uncertainty and vagueness in the data related to the wind energy investment parameters. Fuzzy capital budgeting techniques can capture this vagueness and model the imprecise estimations of parameter values. In this paper, we develop interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy benefit-cost analysis for the evaluation of wind energy technology investments. The fuzzy benefit-cost analyses are based on both present worth and annual worth analyses. The developed analyses can handle the assessments of multiple experts through aggregation operators. In the proposed economic model, the components of each wind energy investment parameter are incorporated into the equations in detail. A real case study is also presented in this paper.

  6. EFFECT OF WATER BORNE DISEASES ON INDIAN ECONOMY: A COST- BENEFIT ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATHAK Hemant

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper expressed the effect of water borne diseases, risk assessment and potential consequences on Indian economy. In Indian sub-continent higher burden of waterborne diseases due to a deteriorating public drinking water distribution system, increasing numbers of unregulated private water systems, and a limited, passive waterborne disease surveillance system. This shows that degraded water quality can contribute to water scarcity as it limits its availability for both human use and for the ecosystem. It isn’t cheap to treat water so that it is safe to drink. But it also isn’t cheap to treat everyone who becomes ill during a waterborne illness outbreak. As the level of protection becomes more effective, the cost of water treatment generally rises, as well. Unfortunately, government agencies generally attempt to minimize costs while the health effects have not been properly assessed.

  7. Cost risk benefit analysis to support chemoprophylaxis policy for travellers to malaria endemic countries

    OpenAIRE

    Coutinho Francisco AB; Behrens Ben C; Massad Eduardo; Behrens Ronald H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In a number of malaria endemic regions, tourists and travellers face a declining risk of travel associated malaria, in part due to successful malaria control. Many millions of visitors to these regions are recommended, via national and international policy, to use chemoprophylaxis which has a well recognized morbidity profile. To evaluate whether current malaria chemo-prophylactic policy for travellers is cost effective when adjusted for endemic transmission risk and durat...

  8. A Cost-benefit Analysis of Cataract Surgery based on the English Longitudinal Survey of Ageing

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Weale

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses the English Longitudinal Survey of Ageing to explore the selfreport effect of cataract operations on eyesight. Calibrating the results to an existing study of the effect of imperfect eyesight on qualty of life, the impact of cataract operations on quality-adjusted life-years is found to be very similar to that established in specific studies and well above the costs of cataract operations. The implications of this for the treatment of medical care in the national accounts are ...

  9. Space station: Cost and benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Costs for developing, producing, operating, and supporting the initial space station, a 4 to 8 man space station, and a 4 to 24 man space station are estimated and compared. These costs include contractor hardware; space station assembly and logistics flight costs; and payload support elements. Transportation system options examined include orbiter modules; standard and extended duration STS fights; reusable spacebased perigee kick motor OTV; and upper stages. Space station service charges assessed include crew hours; energy requirements; payload support module storage; pressurized port usage; and OTV service facility. Graphs show costs for science missions, space processing research, small communication satellites; large GEO transportation; OVT launch costs; DOD payload costs, and user costs.

  10. Improving benefit-cost analysis to overcome financing difficulties in promoting energy-efficient renovation of existing residential buildings in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Financing difficulties hinder energy retrofit of aging residential buildings in China. • New indices based on benefit-cost analysis are presented to overcome barriers. • New indices can be applied to rank energy measures and propose optimum plans. • Improved benefit-cost analysis will attract the government and residents to co-invest. • A “win–win” model means the governments and residents can co-invest and co-benefit. - Abstract: Energy-efficient renovation of existing residential buildings is an important energy policy in China, but financing difficulties seriously hinder the promotion of the policy. In this article, novel indices based on benefit-cost analysis are presented to overcome the barriers. Firstly, benefit-cost analysis is expanded to include the ratio of energy-saving benefit to investment cost (EnIR), the ratio of environmental benefit to investment cost (EvIR), and the ratio of economic benefit to investment cost (EcIR). The above ratios are applied to determine the optimum plans with the highest cost-effectiveness for the buildings to be renovated. Secondly, according to the actual situation regarding both the government and residents, EnIR is modified to the ratio of energy-saving benefit from the retrofit plan to the part of the investment cost undertaken by the government (EnIgR), EvIR to the ratio of environmental benefit from the retrofit plan to the part of the investment cost undertaken by the government (EvIgR), and EcIR to the ratio of economic benefit from the retrofit plan to the part of the investment cost undertaken by residents (EcIrR). The modified ratios can increase awareness of residents in respect of their individual benefits from the adoption of the optimum plans, and can attract them to co-invest. Through these two steps, financing difficulties could be eased or even no longer considered as obstacles to some extent. The ratios are applied to a case study building in Hangzhou. Based on the results

  11. Cost/benefit analysis for dynamic testing in the Fast Flux Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamic tests are being considered for the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). The assembly of a mathematical model, parameter sensitivity studies, planning the dynamic tests, and the estimation of the cost for the tests were performed. Models were developed with different treatments of the fuel heat transfer. Different representations of the reactivity feedback effects were formulated. The models were used to compute time responses and frequency responses for FFTF. The model has also been used to assess the sensitivity of the response to the values used for important system parameters

  12. Cost Benefit Analysis of Utilising Mobile Nodes in Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathur, Prateek; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Prasad, Neeli R.;

    2015-01-01

    Mobile nodes have been found useful for improving performance of network parameters such as coverage, data latency and load balancing in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In spite of the benets which mobile nodes could oer when used in WSNs, they have been often stated as infeasible for use....... As they are expensive compared to static nodes in terms of manufactur- ing and mobility cost. This paper evaluates the utility of mobile nodes for use in WSNs in comparison with static nodes. Novel geometric models to rep- resent the various functionalities for which mobile could be used have been proposed, they have...... utility, mobile nodes are economically benecial for use in WSNs....

  13. Cost-benefit analysis of sustainable energy development using life-cycle co-benefits assessment and the system dynamics approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The energy policy was assessed using the system dynamics approach. • A life table approach was presented to estimate averted loss of life expectancy. • The mortality benefits estimated by VSL and VSLY are found to be similar. • Economic feasibility of the energy policy for climate change mitigation was presented. - Abstract: A novel Air Resource Co-benefits model was developed to estimate the social benefits of a Sustainable Energy Policy, involving both renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency improvements (EEI). The costs and benefits of the policy during 2010–2030 were quantified. A system dynamics model was constructed to simulate the amount of energy saving under the scenario of promoting both RE and EEI. The life-cycle co-reductions of five criteria pollutants (PM10, SO2, NOx, CO, and ozone) and greenhouse gas are estimated by assuming coal fired as marginal electricity suppliers. Moreover, a concise life table approach was developed to estimate averted years of life lost (YOLL). The results showed that YOLL totaling 0.11–0.21 years (41–78 days) per capita, or premature deaths totaling 126,507–251,169, is expected to be averted during 2010–2030 under the RE plus EEI scenario. Specifically, because of the higher investment cost, the benefit-cost ratio of 1.9–2.1 under the EEI scenario is lower than the 7.2–7.9 under the RE scenario. This difference reveals that RE is more socially beneficial than EEI. The net benefit of the RE and EEI scenarios during 2010–2030 totaled approximately US$ 5,972–6,893 per person or US$ 170–190 per MW h. To summarize, this study presents a new approach to estimate averted YOLL, and finds that the health benefits can justify the compliance costs associated with the Sustainable Energy Policy

  14. An Analysis of Costs and Health Co-Benefits for a U.S. Power Plant Carbon Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonocore, Jonathan J; Lambert, Kathleen F; Burtraw, Dallas; Sekar, Samantha; Driscoll, Charles T

    2016-01-01

    Reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from power plants can have important "co-benefits" for public health by reducing emissions of air pollutants. Here, we examine the costs and health co-benefits, in monetary terms, for a policy that resembles the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Clean Power Plan. We then examine the spatial distribution of the co-benefits and costs, and the implications of a range of cost assumptions in the implementation year of 2020. Nationwide, the total health co-benefits were $29 billion 2010 USD (95% CI: $2.3 to $68 billion), and net co-benefits under our central cost case were $12 billion (95% CI: -$15 billion to $51 billion). Net co-benefits for this case in the implementation year were positive in 10 of the 14 regions studied. The results for our central case suggest that all but one region should experience positive net benefits within 5 years after implementation. PMID:27270222

  15. An Analysis of Costs and Health Co-Benefits for a U.S. Power Plant Carbon Standard.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan J Buonocore

    Full Text Available Reducing carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions from power plants can have important "co-benefits" for public health by reducing emissions of air pollutants. Here, we examine the costs and health co-benefits, in monetary terms, for a policy that resembles the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Clean Power Plan. We then examine the spatial distribution of the co-benefits and costs, and the implications of a range of cost assumptions in the implementation year of 2020. Nationwide, the total health co-benefits were $29 billion 2010 USD (95% CI: $2.3 to $68 billion, and net co-benefits under our central cost case were $12 billion (95% CI: -$15 billion to $51 billion. Net co-benefits for this case in the implementation year were positive in 10 of the 14 regions studied. The results for our central case suggest that all but one region should experience positive net benefits within 5 years after implementation.

  16. Measures introduced in Norway after the Chernobyl accident. A cost benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the paper, the measures introduced in Norway to alleviate the adverse effects of the Chernobyl accident, and their economic consequences, are discussed. During the three years after the accident almost 20-30% of the sheep and 30-40% of the reindeer each year had activity levels above the action limits. Activity levels above the action limits were also found in goats, cattle and wild freshwater fish. Three main approaches were used in Norway in order to reduce the potential health risk after the Chernobyl accident: decreasing uptake from soil to vegetation and from fodder to animals, lowering unacceptable activity levels in animals by special feeding programmes, and reducing human intake by food condemnation and dietary advice. The total value of mutton, lamb and goat meat saved as a result of such measures in 1987 amounted to approximately 230 million Norwegian kroner (NOK) (US $33 million). The cost of the measures was approximately NOK 40 million ($5.7 million). In 1987, the total reduction in the radiation dose level to which the population was exposed was 450 man.Sv. In 1988, mutton, lamb and goat meat valued at approximately NOK 290 million ($41 million) was saved from condemnation by similar measures, which cost approximately NOK 60 million ($8,5 million). The resulting dose level reduction was approximately 200 man.Sv. The degree to which resources were used during 1987 and 1988 would appear to be justified in light of the reduction in radiation dose achieved. (author). 13 refs, 1 tab

  17. Going for increased recycling. A social cost-benefit analysis; Inzetten op meer recycling. Een maatschappelijke kosten-batenanalyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warringa, G.E.A.; De Bruyn, M.; Bijleveld, M.M.

    2013-05-15

    While the environmental benefits of scenarios geared to increased recycling have been convincingly demonstrated by previous studies, the question arises whether such scenarios bring economic benefits, too. This study therefore assesses the main economic effects of increased recycling in the Netherlands, providing data that can be used to advance policy development in this area. To address the main issue we performed a social cost-benefit analysis (SCBA), a welfare-theory-based tool that can be used to chart the full range of economic impacts ('welfare impacts') of a project or policy intervention. In doing so, a broad definition of welfare is adopted, encompassing not only financial and economic consequences, but also environmental and employment impacts and so on. Using SimaPro, all the environmental interventions inventoried (including energy consumption, transport and recycling process emissions) were assessed for each individual material flow, with impacts being expressed as far as possible in monetary terms to enable comparison. The main social costs of increased recycling are the higher costs for local authorities associated with separate waste collection. There is also reduced revenue for waste incinerators, because more waste will need to be imported from abroad. Finally, there are the policy costs of incentives for increased recycling and extra efforts to induce citizens to separate their waste. The latter costs were not quantified. Over and against these costs are positive welfare impacts. The main benefits are environmental, expressed monetarily in the present study in terms of avoided damage costs for society as a whole and avoided measures for securing government reduction targets. In addition, the separated waste has a value, reflected in lower processing costs. Increased recycling also creates new jobs, while recycling firms generate more profit than waste incinerators. Finally, there are the benefits accruing from greater innovation and

  18. Comparison of cost-benefit analysis of nitrogen dioxide control in Tokyo, Japan with those in other countries and cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voorhees, A.S.; Araki, S.; Sakai, R.; Sato, H.

    1999-07-01

    To evaluate the economic effectiveness of past NO{sub 2} controls in Tokyo, the authors compared the results of their cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of these controls with other investigations. The authors carried out a CBA of NO{sub 2} controls in Tokyo using Freeman's benefit methodology and EPA and Dixon et al. cost methodologies and they compared their assumptions and results to work done by other researchers for other countries and cities, which were collected from the literature. The authors assumed 2 to 3 days duration per incidence of respiratory illness. Kenkel suggested 4.1 days and Dixon et al. assumed 2 weeks. They estimated avoided incidence per person in adults as 2.6 (upper limit UL 2.7; lower limit LL 2.4) and in children as 0.33 (UL 0.35; LL 0.30). Ostro estimated 0.20 for respiratory symptoms in adults from NO{sub 2} exposure, 5.2 for respiratory symptoms and 0.078 for asthma attacks in adults from particulates. The authors estimated work loss days (WLDs) per person for workers as 4.7 (UL 5.0; LL 4.4) and for working mothers as 0.61 (UL 0.66; LL 0.56). Shin et al.'s per-person estimates included 4.5 WLDs in Bangkok, 3.7 in Beijing, 2.3 in Shanghai, and 1.1 in Kuala Lumpur. They estimated the cost effectiveness of NO{sub 2} control in Tokyo to be $1,400/ton (UL $1,500; LL $1,300) for motor vehicles, $21,000/ton (UL $23,000; LL $19,000) for all NO{sub x} sources, and $91,000/ton (UL $98,000; LL $84,000) for stationary point sources. This compares to $240 to $1,500/ton in West Virginia for all NO{sub x} sources, $2,700/ton in northern Virginia from motor vehicles, $5,600/ton from motor vehicles in Virginia, and $17,000 to $26,000/ton from all NO{sub x} sources in the Chesapeake River Watershed. Herein, the benefits in Tokyo exceeded the costs by a ratio of approximately 6 to 1 (UL 7:1; LL 5:1).

  19. Cost-benefit analysis of a green electricity system in Japan considering the indirect economic impacts of tropical cyclones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global warming is likely to profoundly influence future weather patterns, and one consequence of this is the likelihood of an increase in tropical cyclone intensity. The present paper presents a cost-benefit analysis of introducing significant amounts of green energy in the electricity system in Japan in the light of the economic damage that an increase in tropical cyclone intensity could have on GDP growth between 2010 and 2085. Essentially the passage of a tropical cyclone will result not only in physical damage but also on a decrease in economic productivity due to precautionary cessation of the economic activity, which has an effect on GDP growth. By comparing the economic performance of different electricity system scenarios with the indirect economic damage of tropical cyclones from 2010 to 2085, based on the yearly economic data of green electricity, fossil fuel, GDP and population, it can be seen that the green scenarios are generally a cost-effective way of mitigating the effects of these weather systems, despite the large amount of initial investments necessary. - Highlights: ► Climate change is likely to increase the future strength of tropical cyclones. ► An increase in tropical cyclone strength would reduce GDP growth in Japan. ► Reducing green-house gas emissions is a cost-effective mitigation strategy.

  20. Acidification: cost-benefit analysis zeros in on power producers, refiners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measures reducing sulphur dioxide emissions by Europe's power producers and oil refineries are viewed by the European Commission as among the most cost-effective in combating acidification. The main elements of the Commission's strategy include the establishment of national emission ceilings; EU ratification of the 1994 Sulphur Protocol to further reduce sulphur emissions under the UN ECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution; a revision of directive 93/12/EEC limiting the sulphur content of certain liquid fuels, this time including heavy fuel oils; revision of the 1988 Large Combustion Plants directive; and the designation of the Baltic Sea and the North Sea as SO2 emission control areas. (UK)

  1. Chernobyl exclusion zone protection dyke on the pripyat river: collective dose reduction and cost-benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The periodic floods at spring of the Pripyat river, near the Chernobyl plant, contribute to put back in suspension and to the dissolution of radioactive particles which settled during the accident of 1986 and remain present on the ground surface. These particles are then carried by the Pripyat river, then downstream by the Dnieper, to the black Sea. This secondary contamination is a significant radiological exposure source for the Ukraine population, living near the river. A project of a dam construction on the right side of the river, to supplement an existing similar dam on the left side, has been elaborated. A study of counter-evaluation relative to efficiency of the dam evaluation on a technical and a radiological domain, has been realized by the CEPN and the BG Consulting Engineers Ltd. In this framework, the CEPN realized the doses calculation and the cost benefit analysis. (A.L.B.)

  2. Use of cost-benefit analysis in the decision making process during the recovery stage after nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the recovery stage after an emergency, when the decisions being taken are aimed at re-establishing normal living conditions in the affected zone, technical considerations must be weighed against social and economic considerations. The Argentine licensing authority has made use of differential cost-benefit analysis to specify appropriate intervention levels, and on this basis an intervention level of 10-2 Sv/month was selected for the return of evacuees to the area; levels for contaminated foodstuffs have also been specified below which no restrictions on consumption would apply. The paper extends the application of these criteria to the selection of intervention levels for the removal of restrictions on land use. (author). 5 refs, 2 tabs

  3. The Societal Benefits and Costs of School Dropout Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Catterall, James S.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports an analysis of the societal benefits and costs of recovering school dropouts. Successful recovery is defined by subsequent graduation from high school. The analysis is based on established estimates of the societal costs of dropping out including reduced government tax collections and higher social costs of welfare, healthcare, and crime. These potential costs are cast as benefits when a dropout is recovered. A large dropout recovery program provides the setting for the a...

  4. Benefit-cost analysis of fishery rehabilitation projects: A Great Lakes case study. Spec. issue: Responses to marine resource change/social sciences perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, R.C.; Milliman, S.R.; Boyle, K.J.; Johnson, B.L.

    1990-01-01

    Tools of benefit-cost analysis are used to evaluate a project to rehabilitate the yellow perch (Perca flavescens ) fishery of Green Bay, Wisconsin. Both sport and commercial fishers harvest from this stock, which has been suffering from much reduced productivity since the early 1960s. The project is composed of commercial quotas and other regulations. Measures of benefits and costs were used that explicitly incorporate uncertainly about the potential level of success of the project. The analysis shows that commercial fish producers will more or less break even compared to where they would have been without the project, but that substantial recreational benefits can be expected.

  5. An Analysis of Costs and Health Co-Benefits for a U.S. Power Plant Carbon Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonocore, Jonathan J.; Lambert, Kathleen F.; Burtraw, Dallas; Sekar, Samantha; Driscoll, Charles T.

    2016-01-01

    Reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from power plants can have important “co-benefits” for public health by reducing emissions of air pollutants. Here, we examine the costs and health co-benefits, in monetary terms, for a policy that resembles the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Clean Power Plan. We then examine the spatial distribution of the co-benefits and costs, and the implications of a range of cost assumptions in the implementation year of 2020. Nationwide, the total health co-benefits were $29 billion 2010 USD (95% CI: $2.3 to $68 billion), and net co-benefits under our central cost case were $12 billion (95% CI: -$15 billion to $51 billion). Net co-benefits for this case in the implementation year were positive in 10 of the 14 regions studied. The results for our central case suggest that all but one region should experience positive net benefits within 5 years after implementation. PMID:27270222

  6. Is the contribution of community forest users financially efficient? A household level benefit-cost analysis of community forest management in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar Rai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Community forestry in Nepal is considered an exemplary forest management regime. However, the economics behind managing a community forest is not fully studied. This study examines whether the benefits generated from community forest management justify the contributions of forest users. The study is based on a survey of community forest users in Chitwan, Nepal. A household level benefit-cost analysis was performed to quantify and compare the costs and benefits from community forest management. Only direct benefits were included in the analysis. The study shows that older forest user groups derive more benefits to households compared to more recently established ones. The extent of timber harvesting also substantially influences the size of the household benefits. In addition, redistribution of benefits at the household level, in terms of income generating activities and payment for involvement in forest management activities, also enhances household benefits. Sensitivity analysis suggests that the current practice of community forest management enhances the welfare of rural households in this subsistence community. However, this finding is sensitive to assumptions regarding the opportunity cost of time. The study also found that the household costs of community forest management depend upon two factors – the area of community forest and the size of the forest area relative to the number of households.

  7. Benefit-cost analysis of commercially available activated carbon filters for indoor ozone removal in single-family homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldred, J R; Darling, E; Morrison, G; Siegel, J; Corsi, R L

    2016-06-01

    This study involved the development of a model for evaluating the potential costs and benefits of ozone control by activated carbon filtration in single-family homes. The modeling effort included the prediction of indoor ozone with and without activated carbon filtration in the HVAC system. As one application, the model was used to predict benefit-to-cost ratios for single-family homes in 12 American cities in five different climate zones. Health benefits were evaluated using disability-adjusted life-years and included city-specific age demographics for each simulation. Costs of commercially available activated carbon filters included capital cost differences when compared to conventional HVAC filters of similar particle removal efficiency, energy penalties due to additional pressure drop, and regional utility rates. The average indoor ozone removal effectiveness ranged from 4 to 20% across the 12 target cities and was largely limited by HVAC system operation time. For the parameters selected in this study, the mean predicted benefit-to-cost ratios for 1-inch filters were >1.0 in 10 of the 12 cities. The benefits of residential activated carbon filters were greatest in cities with high seasonal ozone and HVAC usage, suggesting the importance of targeting such conditions for activated carbon filter applications. PMID:25952610

  8. Cost-benefit analysis for waste compaction alternatives at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: Addendum A to the Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Plan of May 31, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a cost-benefit analysis of the potential procurement and operation of various solid waste compactors or of the use of commercial compaction services, for compaction of solid transuranic (TRU), low-level radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Hazardous Waste Management (HWM) facilities. The cost-benefit analysis was conducted to determine if increased compaction capacity at HWM might afford the potential for significant waste volume reduction and annual savings in material, shipping, labor, and disposal costs

  9. An accounting method-based cost-benefit analysis of conformity to certified organic standards for specis in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Akyoo, Adam; Lazaro, Evelyne

    2008-01-01

    Certified organic farming has emerged as a market channel providing participating African small-holders with access to high value markets in the EU. The benefits may include not only a guaranteed produce market, but also premium prices, and higher net revenues. Where training in organic farming techniques is provided there may be also benefits in terms of increased yield. The major cost challenges are those for certification, although in many cases donor support to export-ers is available to ...

  10. Clinical Governance: Costs and Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieran Walsh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Dear Editor, Ravaghi et al. should be congratulated for offering a fascinating insight into the views of senior managers on the implementation of clinical governance (1. Clearly many had experience of challenges in implementation and there were different types of challenges. However, a common theme ran through many of the challenges, and that theme is one of cost. The managers did not mention cost explicitly but the issue was clearly implicit. They spoke of the need for more resources, support and staff engagement—all of which are associated with costs. We would do well to ask outright: what are the costs of implementing clinical governance? Such costs are likely to be significant, and are likely to be made up of all the components of clinical governance including, as the authors outline, “clinical effectiveness, clinical audit, risk management, patient and public involvement, education and training, staff management, and use of information” (2.

  11. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Nanoparticle Albumin-Bound Paclitaxel versus Solvent-Based Paclitaxel for the Treatment of Metastatic Breast Cancer in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichansavakul, Kittaya

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of death among women in the US. Although early detection and treatment help to increase survival rates, some unfortunate patients develop metastatic breast cancer that has no cure. Palliative treatment is the main objective in this group of patients in order to prolong life and reduce toxicities from interventions. In the advancement of treatment for metastatic breast cancer, solvent-based paclitaxel has been widely used. However, solvent-based paclitaxel often causes adverse reactions. Therefore, researchers have developed a new chemotherapy based on nanotechnology. One of these drugs is the Nanoparticle albumin-bound Paclitaxel. This nanodrug aims to increase therapeutic index by reducing adverse reactions from solvents and to improve efficacy of conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy. Breast cancer is a disease with high epidemiological and economic burden. The treatment of metastatic breast cancer has not only high direct costs but also high indirect costs. Breast cancer affects mass populations, especially women younger than 50 years of age. It relates to high indirect costs due to lost productivity and premature death because the majority of these patients are in the workforce. Because of the high cost of breast cancer therapies and short survival rates, the question is raised whether the costs and benefits are worth paying or not. Due to the rising costs in healthcare and new financing policies that have been developed to address this issue, economic evaluation is an important aspect of the development and use of any new interventions. To guide policy makers on how to allocate limited healthcare resources in the most efficient and effective manner, many economic evaluation methods can be used to measure the costs, benefits, and impacts of healthcare innovations. Currently, economic evaluation and health outcomes studies have focused greatly on cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analysis. However, the previous studies

  12. Benefit cost analysis of Rhode Island Red chicken rearing in backyard on the basis of egg production performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Das

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to analyze of the egg production features of backyard chicken rearing with an evaluation of production cost of an egg and there by benefit-cost analysis. Materials and Methods: Study was conducted on 60000 chicken covering five different agroclimatic zones in the state West Bengal, India. Initially each farmer was provided day-old Rhode Island Red chicks, commercial ration upto pre-laying stage having CP of 17.23% and 12.32% in chick and grower mash respectively along with common management support system for backyard poultry rearing viz. separate poultry night shelter and brooding facilities, deworming and vaccination and regular health check up system, later farmers were allowed to use the supplemented feed made by the locally available resources having various crude protein content. Results: It was observed that there was no significant variation in respect of total egg production under various supplemented crude protein containing feed, whereas significantly higher egg production feature is observed in Coastal and Old Alluvial zones. Conclusion: The study concluded that more profit was occurred to those farmers who provided the supplemented feed with less crude protein content along with scavenging. This scope is more in new alluvial zone. It was also observed that profit started from 11 month onwards in each agro-climatic zone as well as in each category of supplemented feed.

  13. Benefit, cost and risk analysis on extending the forest roads network: A case study in Crasna Valley (Romania)

    OpenAIRE

    Marian Drăgoi; Ciprian Palaghianu; Marius Miron- Onciul

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents how the Analytic Hierarchy Process can be used to select the most suitable combination of new forest roads to build onto a forested area provided that social or ecological aspects are not jeopardized. All important features worth being considered when a new network of forest roads is designed were grouped in three types of criteria, which are benefits, costs and risks. Further, in order to ease the pairwise comparisons between criteria, both benefits and costs have been div...

  14. An Analysis of the Costs, Benefits, and Implications of Different Approaches to Capturing the Value of Renewable Energy Tax Incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark

    2014-04-09

    This report compares the relative costs, benefits, and implications of capturing the value of renewable energy tax benefits in these three different ways – applying them against outside income , carrying them forward in time until they can be fully absorbed internally, or monetizing them through third-party tax equity investors – to see which method is most competitive under various scenarios. It finds that under current law and late-2013 market conditions, monetization makes sense for all but the most tax-efficient project sponsors. In other words, for most project sponsors, bringing in third-party tax equity currently provides net benefits to a project.

  15. A cost and benefit analysis of future end-of-life vehicle glazing recycling in France: a systematic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Farel, Romain; Yannou, Bernard; Ghaffari, Asma; Leroy, Yann

    2013-01-01

    International audience As with other European countries, the French automotive industry needs to improve the End of Life Vehicle (ELV) recycling rate in order to reach the minimum reuse and recovery rate required by EU directives. This paper proposes a model to investigate the potential cost and benefit of ELV glazing recycling for all value-chain stakeholders, and for the network as a whole. Key parameters of future changes, namely glass cullet price, landfill cost, network coverage and t...

  16. Study of the cost-benefit analysis method for safety. Meeting of the Permanent Group in charge of nuclear reactors on the 5 July 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a recall of the history of the issue of third decennial visit of the 900 MW reactors, of the IRSN preliminary analysis, of elements given to the Permanent Group, of requests made by the ASN, and a presentation of the analysis performed by the IRSN, this large report presents the cost-benefit analysis method and its potential applications (principle, cost assessment, safety assessment, examples) and reports international experience gained in this area: the risk-informed approach (within the IAEA, in the USA, France and other European countries, the specific cost-benefit approach), existing cost-benefit type methods (comparison between methods used in the USA, in France and in Canada), and monetary assessment of accidents. It reports the application of the cost-benefit method for safety and its limitations, and then its application to modifications which have been implemented after safety re-examinations. It discusses the use of level 1 and 2 safety probabilistic studies, and reports the use of a cost-benefit method for safety within the frame of safety re-examinations

  17. Problems occurring while carrying out cost-benefit analysis for 3H, 14C, 85Kr, iodine and aerosols in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Up to now the retention of radioactive material for nuclear facilities has been based on the maximum individual dose. The maximum individual dose can locally be lowered considerably by higher dissolution. In general, the collective doses are not lowered by this. In order to set up regulations concerning collective doses, the new recommmendations of the ICRP are very welcome. However, the costs of detriment and the period to be considered have not yet been defined. Therefore there are no fixed methods for carrying out a cost-benefit analysis. Furthermore, for nuclear technology the costs and the effectiveness of the retention of radioactive material for non-realized facilities can only be quoted roughly, which makes a cost-benefit analysis more difficult. A cost-benefit analysis for the retention of radioactive material in nuclear power plants with LWRs and reprocessing plants of the PUREX process has been carried out with best estimate data. The results show that the development of further retention facilities for nuclear power plants is not justifiable except possibly for a 14C retention with a decontamination factor (DF) of 2 to 4. For reprocessing plants 3H should be retained with a DF of 6, 14C with a factor of about 20, 129I with a factor of about 200 and the aerosols with a factor of about 109. Whether 85Kr should be retained after a cost-benefit analysis depends on the applied costs of detriment. For 200 US dollar/man.rem 85Kr should be retained with a DF of 100. Nearly the same result occurs, if 2x107 Ci 85Kr per year get into the reprocessing plant instead of 1.2x107 Ci 85Kr per year as assumed here and costs of detriment of 100 dollar/man.rem. The problems occurring while carrying out the cost-benefit analysis are discussed. (author)

  18. The Costs and Benefits of Rinderpest Eradication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to health risk, animal diseases inflict a broad spectrum of direct and indirect economic costs on society, many of which are neither well-understood nor rigorously analysed. Various methods exist to evaluate economic impacts, but many of these focus only on specific aspects or stakeholder interests and how they are affected by a disease, and do not capture the totality of impacts across the economy. However, these economy-wide considerations are essential to comprehensive expost evaluation of disease control or eradication programmes. Direct disease incidence and control costs may be focused on particular stakeholder groupings, but spill-over costs and benefits are dispersed more widely, traversing agricultural supply chains and associated households and enterprises. These extensive indirect effects often outweigh the direct ones. For this reason, cost-benefit analysis of animal disease and policy response must include a broad spectrum of both direct and indirect impacts in the assessment. Rinderpest was once one of the world's most feared livestock diseases, but concerted international control campaigns have now eradicated the disease globally. Despite this success, a major gap remains in the history of rinderpest eradication, namely a comprehensive assessment of the socio-economic costs and benefits of its control and eventual eradication. Such an assessment would make an important additional contribution, offering policy-makers an instrument for assessing the risk, cost and reward of enhanced investment in the control of other (present and future) animal diseases. Although it may be desirable to eradicate any health threat, cost-effectiveness is an important consideration, especially in developing countries, where public resources have many high priorities, and sustained expenditures re-quire clearly discernable benefits for large segments of society. While much has been documented on the epidemiological, technical and institutional lessons resulting

  19. Snuff in Colombia: costs and what benefits?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Smith Araque Solano

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This document analyzes the cost on the health system snuff consumption and compared these with the benefits obtained as employment and tax revenues in the period 1973-2008, this analysis is done from the estimation of quantitative by simple regression models and simultaneous equations model. Estimates of the conditional demand factors indicate that the tobacco industry has its own inertial dynamics, suggesting employability ynamics derived from industrial organization. Additionally, revenue generated by industrial and agricultural jobs in the tobacco industry can be funded with a fraction of the resources spent on health care consumers snuff.

  20. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Flexibility Retrofits for Coal and Gas-Fueled Power Plants: August 2012 - December 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkataraman, S.; Jordan, G.; O' Connor, M.; Kumar, N.; Lefton, S.; Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Palchak, D.; Cochran, J.

    2013-12-01

    High penetrations of wind and solar power plants can induce on/off cycling and ramping of fossil-fueled generators. This can lead to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions for fossil-fueled generators. Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-2) determined these costs and emissions and simulated grid operations to investigate the full impact of wind and solar on the fossil-fueled fleet. This report studies the costs and benefits of retrofitting existing units for improved operational flexibility (i.e., capability to turndown lower, start and stop faster, and ramp faster between load set-points).

  1. Ruling out cardiac failure : Cost-benefit analysis of a sequential testing strategy with NT-proBNP before echocardiography

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrandis, Maria-José; Ryden, Ingvar; Lindahl, Tomas L; Larsson, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To estimate the possible economic benefit of a sequential testing strategy with NT-proBNP to reduce the number of echocardiographies. Methods. Retrospective study in a third-party payer perspective. The costs were calculated from three Swedish counties: Blekinge, Östergötland, and Uppland. Two cut-off levels of NT-proBNP were used: 400 and 300 pg/mL. The cost-effectiveness of the testing strategy was estimated through the short-term cost avoidance and reduction in demand for echoc...

  2. Interconnection Assessment Methodology and Cost Benefit Analysis for High-Penetration PV Deployment in the Arizona Public Service System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baggu, Murali; Giraldez, Julieta; Harris, Tom; Brunhart-Lupo, Nicholas; Lisell, Lars; Narang, David

    2015-06-14

    In an effort to better understand the impacts of high penetrations of photovoltaic (PV) generators on distribution systems, Arizona Public Service and its partners completed a multi-year project to develop the tools and knowledge base needed to safely and reliably integrate high penetrations of utility- and residential-scale PV. Building upon the APS Community Power Project-Flagstaff Pilot, this project investigates the impact of PV on a representative feeder in northeast Flagstaff. To quantify and catalog the effects of the estimated 1.3 MW of PV that will be installed on the feeder (both smaller units at homes and large, centrally located systems), high-speed weather and electrical data acquisition systems and digital 'smart' meters were designed and installed to facilitate monitoring and to build and validate comprehensive, high-resolution models of the distribution system. These models are being developed to analyze the impacts of PV on distribution circuit protection systems (including coordination and anti-islanding), predict voltage regulation and phase balance issues, and develop volt/VAr control schemes. This paper continues from a paper presented at the 2014 IEEE PVSC conference that described feeder model evaluation and high penetration advanced scenario analysis, specifically feeder reconfiguration. This paper presents results from Phase 5 of the project. Specifically, the paper discusses tool automation; interconnection assessment methodology and cost benefit analysis.

  3. The Value of RFID Benefits vs Costs

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    RFID technology presents a great potential for creating competitive advantage. By automating and simplifying data collection, it lets users more accurately track assets and monitor key indicators, which in turn gives greater visibility to the operations. However, the benefits received from this technology will be determined by how well it is integrated with the business processes and overall information flow. Because of the fact that the decision to deploy RFID technology in an enterprise is a business decision instead of a technology decision, cost-benefit analysis is a key component of this decision. If an RFID deployment cannot be justified in terms of its economic value to the company, it is not likely to help the company; and consequently, it is not likely to remain a viable deployment over the long term.   The Value of RFID describes the business value of RFID and explains the costs and benefits of this technology comprehensively. Different investment evaluation models are proposed to use in various ap...

  4. Achieving Cost Benefits in Sustainable Cooperative Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Coimbra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The cooperative housing sector is directed at low and medium income residents who cannot afford to buy their homes in the regular private market. Due to social housing legislation, it is possible to build cooperative housing below regular market costs and use tax benefits, therefore providing affordable dwellings to their owners. Traditional cooperative housing used to provide less comfort and higher running costs in indoor and domestic hot water heating than in standard construction. However, cooperative housing has started to change its method of traditional construction towards sustainable construction, in order to benefit from the savings on energy consumption and domestic water as well as to provide an improvement as far as the comfort of its residents is concerned. Therefore, in this article, the savings in electricity and natural gas in different building settlements, calculated for Madalena building—sustainable construction—and for Azenha de Cima building—traditional construction—will be presented, according to two different criteria of calculation: efficiency of dwellings at a pre-determined standard level of indoor comfort opposed to real consumptions made by residents. For each building under analysis, an energy audit and further monitoring were brought in, in order to issue an energy evaluation according to the Portuguese energy agency rules. Results showed an expected decrease of the operational costs of natural gas and electricity, obtained by the use of efficient building systems and equipment, as well as a decrease of the payback period for each situation.

  5. Renewable Portfolio Standards: Costs and Benefits (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Heeter, J.; Barbose, G.; Weaver, S.; Flores, F.; Kuskova-Burns, K.; Wiser, R.

    2014-10-01

    This report summarizes state-level RPS costs to date, and considers how those costs may evolve going forward given scheduled increases in RPS targets and cost containment mechanisms. The report also summarizes RPS benefits estimates, based on published studies for individual states and discusses key methodological considerations.

  6. Evaluation of the Dutch Electricity Law 1998 and the Natural Gas Law. Part 1 Economic analysis. Part 2 Costs and benefits. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of two studies to evaluate the economics, costs and benefits of the Dutch Electricity Law of 1998 and the Natural Gas Law are presented and discussed. The aim of the economic analysis is to gain insight into, on the one hand the coherence between chances in the market, legislation and the supervision of the Office of Energy Regulation (DTe), and on the other hand the realized effects in the market. More specific this concerns the effects for the whole sale market and the market for small-scale consumers; legal aspects with regard to the realization of a European market for electricity and natural gas; and the contribution of a tariff regulating system to an effective and reliable network control. The study on the quantification of costs and benefits concerns the positive and negative effects of legislation on costs and benefits, e.g. administrative burden for energy companies, cost of supervision by DTe, and the effects on welfare.

  7. The Costs of Benefit Sharing: Historical and Institutional Analysis of Shared Water Development in the Ferghana Valley, the Syr Darya Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkhom Soliev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing discussions on water-energy-food nexus generally lack a historical perspective and more rigorous institutional analysis. Scrutinizing a relatively mature benefit sharing approach in the context of transboundary water management, the study shows how such analysis can be implemented to facilitate understanding in an environment of high institutional and resource complexity. Similar to system perspective within nexus, benefit sharing is viewed as a positive sum approach capable of facilitating cooperation among riparian parties by shifting the focus from the quantities of water to benefits derivable from its use and allocation. While shared benefits from use and allocation are logical corollary of the most fundamental principles of international water law, there are still many controversies as to the conditions under which benefit sharing could serve best as an approach. Recently, the approach has been receiving wider attention in the literature and is increasingly applied in various basins to enhance negotiations. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the costs associated with benefit sharing, particularly in the long run. The study provides a number of concerns that have been likely overlooked in the literature and examines the approach in the case of the Ferghana Valley shared by Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan utilizing data for the period from 1917 to 2013. Institutional analysis traces back the origins of property rights of the transboundary infrastructure, shows cooperative activities and fierce negotiations on various governance levels. The research discusses implications of the findings for the nexus debate and unveils at least four types of costs associated with benefit sharing: (1 Costs related to equity of sharing (horizontal and vertical; (2 Costs to the environment; (3 Transaction costs and risks of losing water control; and (4 Costs as a result of likely misuse of issue linkages.

  8. United States experience in environmental cost-benefit analysis for nuclear power plants with implications for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental cost-benefit analysis in the United States involves a comparison of diverse societal impacts of the proposed developments and its alternatives. Regarding nuclear power plant licensing actions, such analyses include the need for base-load electrical generating capacity versus the no-action alternative; alternative sources of energy; alternative sites for the proposed nuclear plants; and alternative technologies for mitigating environmental impacts. Many U.S. experiences and environmental assessment practices and comparative resource requirements presented in this report will not provide a wholly reliable reflection of the precise situation of each country. Nevertheless, the procedural and substantive issues encountered by the United States in nuclear power plant licensing may exhibit a number of important, if rough, parallelisms for other countries. Procedural issues dealt with include: the scoping of alternatives and impact issues; the problem of balancing incommensurable impacts; and treating uncertainty in measuring or forecasting certain kinds of environmental impacts. Although substantive environmental impact issues will vary appreciably among nations, it is to be expected that many of the substantive impact issues such as impacts on biota, community-related effects, and aesthetic impacts will also have some measure of universal interest to other countries

  9. Environmental benefits vs. costs of geologic mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagwat, S.B.; Berg, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    Boone and Winnebago Counties, Illinois, U.S.A., were selected for this study, required by the Illinois State Senate, because mapping and environmental interpretations were completed there in 1981. Costs of geologic mapping in these counties in 1990 dollars were $290,000. Two estimates of costs of statewide mapping were made, one extrapolated from Boone and Winnebago Counties ($21 million), the other estimated on the basis of differences between the Boone/Winnebago program and proposed mapping program for the State of Illinois ($55 million). Benefits of geologic information come in the form of future avoided costs for environmental cleanup. Only the quantifiable data, available from a few sites, were included. Data collection, based on 55 personal interviews in Boone and Winnebago Counties, were grouped into four cumulative categories with increasing variability. Geologic maps alone cannot account for all avoided costs of future cleanup. Therefore, estimated benefits were reduced by 50, 75, and 90 percent in three scenarios. To account for delays in proper utilization of knowledge gained from a mapping program, a 10-yr delay in benefit realization was assumed. All benefits were converted to 1990 dollars. In benefit category 4, benefit-cost ratios for Boone/Winnebago Counties ranged between 5 and 55. Statewide projection of benefits was based on county areas and an aquifer contamination potential score for each county. Statewide benefit-cost ratio in benefit category 4 ranged from 1.2 to 14 ($21 million mapping costs) and from 0.5 to 5.4 ($55 million mapping costs). ?? 1992 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  10. Comment 2 on workshop in economics - issues in benefit-cost analysis: Amplification channels and discounting long-term environmental damages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many environmental problems have long-term effects. Acid rain has long-term effects on soils, forests, and exposed materials. Global climate change has even longer-term effects. This difference in timing - between the near-term cost of environmental protection and the long-term environmental effects - makes it difficult to conduct a cost-benefit analysis of any program designed to abate environmental damages. The rate at which to discount long-term environmental damages becomes a key question in comparisons of benefits and costs. This comment points out an important facet of the discounting issue. The discount rate for calculating the present value of future environmental benefits may be much lower than the rate of return on investment. Cost-benefit analysis is a framework in which to evaluate policies and decisions. Because global climate change is a complex problem, extensions of cost-benefit theory can be expected to add additional insights, particularly in the following areas: distinguishing distributional effects among nations, over time, and among generations; determining the rate of discount that is appropriate for long-term environmental damages and separating risk aspects from the rate of discount; and assessing amplification effects when policies involve large expenditures relative to the economy or when affected sectors are significant sectors of the economy

  11. The role of social cost-benefit analysis in societal decision-making under large uncertainties with application to robbery at a cash depot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Social cost-benefit analysis is a well-established method for guiding decisions about safety investments, particularly in situations in which it is possible to make accurate predictions of future performance. However, its direct applicability to situations involving large degrees of uncertainty is less obvious and this raises the question of the extent to which social cost-benefit analysis can provide a useful input to the decision framework that has been explicitly developed to deal with safety decisions in which uncertainty is a major factor, namely risk analysis. This is the main focus of the arguments developed in this paper. In particular, we provide new insights by examining the fundamentals of both approaches and our principal conclusion is that social cost-benefit analysis and risk analysis represent complementary input bases to the decision-making process, and even in the case of large uncertainties social cost-benefit analysis may provide very useful decision support. What is required is the establishment of a proper contextual framework which structures and gives adequate weight to the uncertainties. An application to the possibility of a robbery at a cash depot is examined as a practical example.

  12. Perceived Costs and Benefits of IFRS Adoption of Cross-Border Mergers: A Statistical Analysis of Indian and Chinese Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim Mert

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the links between IFRS adoption status, mergers tempo, and perception of IFRS costs and benefits among Indian and Chinese companies. As more capital accrues in India and China, more cross-border mergers activity initiated from these countries should be expected. This paper is trying to extant a research to observe the results related the adaption of IFRS in India and China. During the analyses around 2 authors‘ books were re...

  13. Cost-benefit analysis of unfired PuO2 pellets as an alternative plutonium shipping form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A limited cost-benefit evaluation was performed concerning use of unfired plutonium dioxide pellets as a shipping form. Two specific processing operations are required for this use, one to form the pellet (pelletizing) and a second to reconstitute an acceptable powder upon receipt (reconstitution). The direct costs for the pelletizing operation are approximately $208,000 for equipment and its installation and $122 per kg of plutonium processed (based upon a 20-kg plutonium/day facility). The direct costs for reconstitution are approximately $90,000 for equipment and its installation and $81 per kg of plutonium processed. The indirect cost considered was personnel exposure from these operations. Whole body exposures ranged from 0.04 man-rem per 100 kg of low-exposure plutonium reconstituted to 0.9 man-rem per 100 kg of average-exposure plutonium pelletized. Hand exposures were much higher - 17 man-rem power 100 kg of low-exposure plutonium reconstituted to 67 man-rem per 100 kg of average plutonium pelletized. The principal benefit is a potential twentyfold reduction of airborne release in the event of an accident. An experimental plan is outlined to fill the data gaps uncovered during this study in the areas of pelletizing and reconstitution process parameters and pellet response behavior to accident-generated stresses. A study to enhance the containment potential of the inner packaging used during shipment is also outlined

  14. Status of risk-benefit analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Horn, A.J.; Wilson, R.

    1976-12-01

    The benefits and deficiencies of cost benefit analysis are reviewed. It is pointed out that, if decision making involving risks and benefits is to improve, more attention must be paid to the clear presentation of the assumptions, values, and results. Reports need to present concise summaries which convey the uncertainties and limitations of the analysis in addition to the matrix of costs, risks, and benefits. As the field of risk-benefit analysis advances the estimation of risks and benefits will become more precise and implicit valuations will be made more explicit. Corresponding improvements must also be made to enhance communications between the risk-benefit analyst and the accountable decision maker.

  15. Empirical Analysis on Cost and Energy Saving Benefits of Roof Greening%屋顶绿化成本及节能效益实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方眠; 张雁; 王幼松; 黄亚男

    2015-01-01

    既有屋顶适当绿化可增大城市绿化面积,也能起到室内隔热降温的作用,还具有改善城市空气质量、缓解热岛效应等功能.鉴于其绿化技术、维护成本、节能效益及经济效益方面存有争议,以广州为例,分析研究屋顶绿化的成本和效益,并指出其社会效益和环境效益显著,为大力推广提供依据.%Green roof can increase the green area of the city,can also play an important role in indoor heat insulation and cooling,as well as improve quality of the city air and reduce the greenhouse effect. But there is much debate about greening technology,the cost of maintenance and energy saving and economic benefits at present. This paper selects Guangzhou as an example,using the method of energy saving-benefit analysis and cost-benefit analysis to analyze the cost and benefits for roof greening. The results show that the social benefits and environmental benefits of roof greening is significant,and as a result it's worth promoting.

  16. A cost-benefit analysis of preventative management for zebra and quagga mussels in the Colorado-Big Thompson System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Catherine M.

    2010-01-01

    Zebra and quagga mussels are fresh water invaders that have the potential to cause severe ecological and economic damage. It is estimated that mussels cause $1 billion dollars per year in damages to water infrastructure and industries in the United States (Pimentel et al., 2004). Following their introduction to the Great Lakes in the late 1980s, mussels spread rapidly throughout the Mississippi River Basin and the Eastern U.S. The mussel invasion in the West is young. Mussels were first identified in Nevada in 2007, and have since been identified in California, Arizona, Colorado, Utah, and Texas. Western water systems are very different from those found in the East. The rapid spread of mussels through the eastern system was facilitated by connected and navigable waterways. Western water systems are less connected and are characterized by man-made reservoirs and canals. The main vector of spread for mussels in the West is overland on recreational boats (Bossenbroek et al., 2001). In response to the invasion, many western water managers have implemented preventative management programs to slow the overland spread of mussels on recreational boats. In Colorado, the Colorado Department of Wildlife (CDOW) has implemented a mandatory boat inspection program that requires all trailered boats to be inspected before launching in any Colorado water body. The objective of this study is to analyze the costs and benefits of the CDOW boat inspection program in Colorado, and to identify variables that affect the net benefits of preventative management. Predicting the potential economic benefits of slowing the spread of mussels requires integrating information about mussel dispersal potential with estimates of control costs (Keller et al., 2009). Uncertainty surrounding the probabilities of establishment, the timing of invasions, and the damage costs associated with an invasion make a simulation model an excellent tool for addressing "what if" scenarios and shedding light on the

  17. Creating Carbon Offsets in Agriculture through No-Till Cultivation. A Meta-Analysis of Costs and Carbon Benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon terrestrial sinks are often seen as a low-cost alternative to fuel switching and reduced fossil fuel use for lowering atmospheric CO2. To determine whether this is true for agriculture, one meta-regression analysis (52 studies, 536 observations) examines the costs of switching from conventional tillage to no-till, while another (51 studies, 374 observations) compares carbon accumulation under the two practices. Costs per ton of carbon uptake are determined by combining the two results. The viability of agricultural carbon sinks is found to vary by region and crop, with no-till representing a low-cost option in some regions (costs of less than $10 per tC), but a high-cost option in others (costs of 100-$400 per tC). A particularly important finding is that no-till cultivation may store no carbon at all if measurements are taken at sufficient depth. In some circumstances no-till cultivation may yield a triple dividend of carbon storage, increased returns and reduced soil erosion, but in many others creating carbon offset credits in agricultural soils is not cost effective because reduced tillage practices store little or no carbon

  18. Energy balance and cost-benefit analysis of biogas production from perennial energy crops pretreated by wet oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uellendahl, Hinrich; Wang, Guangtao; Møller, Henrik B.;

    2008-01-01

    conversion into biogas in anaerobic digestion plants shows however much lower specific methane yields for the raw perennial crops like miscanthus and willow due to their lignocellulosic structure. Without pretreatment the net energy gain is therefore lower for the perennials than for corn. When applying wet...... oxidation to the perennial crops, however, the specific methane yield increases significantly and the ratio of energy output to input and of costs to benefit for the whole chain of biomass supply and conversion into biogas becomes higher than for corn. This will make the use of perennial crops as energy...

  19. A cost-utility analysis of lung cancer screening and the additional benefits of incorporating smoking cessation interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea C Villanti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A 2011 report from the National Lung Screening Trial indicates that three annual low-dose computed tomography (LDCT screenings for lung cancer reduced lung cancer mortality by 20% compared to chest X-ray among older individuals at high risk for lung cancer. Discussion has shifted from clinical proof to financial feasibility. The goal of this study was to determine whether LDCT screening for lung cancer in a commercially-insured population (aged 50-64 at high risk for lung cancer is cost-effective and to quantify the additional benefits of incorporating smoking cessation interventions in a lung cancer screening program. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The current study builds upon a previous simulation model to estimate the cost-utility of annual, repeated LDCT screenings over 15 years in a high risk hypothetical cohort of 18 million adults between age 50 and 64 with 30+ pack-years of smoking history. In the base case, the lung cancer screening intervention cost $27.8 billion over 15 years and yielded 985,284 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs gained for a cost-utility ratio of $28,240 per QALY gained. Adding smoking cessation to these annual screenings resulted in increases in both the costs and QALYs saved, reflected in cost-utility ratios ranging from $16,198 per QALY gained to $23,185 per QALY gained. Annual LDCT lung cancer screening in this high risk population remained cost-effective across all sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study indicate that repeat annual lung cancer screening in a high risk cohort of adults aged 50-64 is highly cost-effective. Offering smoking cessation interventions with the annual screening program improved the cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening between 20% and 45%. The cost-utility ratios estimated in this study were in line with other accepted cancer screening interventions and support inclusion of annual LDCT screening for lung cancer in a high risk population in clinical

  20. Multi-dimensional project evaluation: Combining cost-benefit analysis and multi-criteria analysis with the COSIMA software system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    demonstrated by examining the decision problem of choosing between alternatives for a new airport to service the capital of Greenland, Nuuk. Three different alternatives are examined ranging in costs from 90m USD to 400m USD. Furthermore, three sets of different stakeholders’ preferences (decision makers...

  1. The Societal Benefits and Costs of School Dropout Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S. Catterall

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reports an analysis of the societal benefits and costs of recovering school dropouts. Successful recovery is defined by subsequent graduation from high school. The analysis is based on established estimates of the societal costs of dropping out including reduced government tax collections and higher social costs of welfare, healthcare, and crime. These potential costs are cast as benefits when a dropout is recovered. A large dropout recovery program provides the setting for the analysis. Rigorous attention is given to accurate estimation of the number of students who would not have graduated without the program in the year assessed and to the induced public costs of their continued education. Estimated benefits are weighed against the total annual public costs of the program, which operates in 65 school centers and commands an annual budget of about $70 million. The estimated benefit-cost ratio for this program is 3 to 1, a figure comparable to benefit-cost ratio estimates reported in studies of dropout prevention. The sensitivity of this conclusion to specific assumptions within the analysis is discussed.

  2. Benefits of probabilistic cost estimating for nuclear power plant projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses some of the benefits of probabilistic cost estimating, shows the wide range of business/project areas to which it can be applied and indicates the cost of this method of assessing risks. Probabilistic cost estimating (PCE) is a means of identifying and quantifying program risks. The risks which affect cost include the impact of design changes on equipment and construction, the uncertainties of conformance to licensing regulations, project scheduling and manloading uncertainties. Project benefits and the cost of PCE analysis are considered. It is emphasized that a probabilistic cost estimate does not predict future cost outcomes but provides management with information necessary to control uncertainties in cost, scheduling and performance. PCE's require periodic review and revision to assess progress in cost control and to identify new or revised risks

  3. Cost-benefit analysis of remote hybrid wind-diesel power stations: Case study Aegean Sea islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than one third of world population has no direct access to interconnected electrical networks. Hence, the electrification solution usually considered is based on expensive, though often unreliable, stand-alone systems, mainly small diesel-electric generators. Hybrid wind-diesel power systems are among the most interesting and environmental friendly technological alternatives for the electrification of remote consumers, presenting also increased reliability. More precisely, a hybrid wind-diesel installation, based on an appropriate combination of a small diesel-electric generator and a micro-wind converter, offsets the significant capital cost of the wind turbine and the high operational cost of the diesel-electric generator. In this context, the present study concentrates on a detailed energy production cost analysis in order to estimate the optimum configuration of a wind-diesel-battery stand-alone system used to guarantee the energy autonomy of a typical remote consumer. Accordingly, the influence of the governing parameters-such as wind potential, capital cost, oil price, battery price and first installation cost-on the corresponding electricity production cost is investigated using the developed model. Taking into account the results obtained, hybrid wind-diesel systems may be the most cost-effective electrification solution for numerous isolated consumers located in suitable (average wind speed higher than 6.0 m/s) wind potential regions

  4. A critical cost benefit analysis of oilseed biodiesel in Canada : a BIOCAP research integration program synthesis paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigated resources in Canada with the potential for conversion to biodiesel and analyzed strategies for the development of a biodiesel economy in Saskatchewan. Costs and benefits of biodiesel production were investigated. Producer margins for growing biodiesel crops were examined. Grain transportation and storage methods for various feed materials were discussed, as well as oil extraction and refining strategies that influence non-oil co-products. Biodiesel production technologies were also evaluated, and various distribution methods were discussed. The study determined that the costs and benefits of a biodiesel economy would accrue to many different sectors and sub-sectors, including seed production; farming; agricultural chemicals; fertilizers; grain storage and transportation; biodiesel manufacture and distribution; and petroleum manufacture and distribution. Outlines of impacts on each sector were examined under various scenarios. Results of the study demonstrated that the quantity of low-priced canola that is available in a given year has a significant impact on the profitability of a biodiesel industry in Saskatchewan. 16 refs., 13 tabs., 2 figs

  5. Benefits and costs of supported employment from three perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, R E; Xie, H; Becker, D R; Drake, R E

    1998-02-01

    Administrators, consumers, and policy makers are increasingly interested in supported employment as a way of helping persons with severe mental illness get and keep competitive jobs. However, in an atmosphere of increased expectations for performance and declining public financing, administrators want to know the costs and benefits of different approaches before they reallocate scarce treatment or rehabilitative dollars. This article discusses the net benefits of two approaches to supported employment that were compared in a randomized trial: Individual Placement and Support (IPS) and Group Skills Training (GST). The authors analyze costs and benefits from societal, government, and consumer perspectives. Although a previous analysis showed that IPS participants were significantly more likely to find work, worked more hours, and had higher earnings, net benefits of the two programs were not significantly different. The authors also discuss some of the strengths and weaknesses of cost-benefit analysis in mental health care and suggest future directions for policy and research. PMID:9516291

  6. Mapping the economic costs and benefits of conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Robin; Ricketts, Taylor H

    2006-10-01

    Resources for biodiversity conservation are severely limited, requiring strategic investment. Understanding both the economic benefits and costs of conserving ecosystems will help to allocate scarce dollars most efficiently. However, although cost-benefit analyses are common in many areas of policy, they are not typically used in conservation planning. We conducted a spatial evaluation of the costs and benefits of conservation for a landscape in the Atlantic forests of Paraguay. We considered five ecosystem services (i.e., sustainable bushmeat harvest, sustainable timber harvest, bioprospecting for pharmaceutical products, existence value, and carbon storage in aboveground biomass) and compared them to estimates of the opportunity costs of conservation. We found a high degree of spatial variability in both costs and benefits over this relatively small (approximately 3,000 km(2)) landscape. Benefits exceeded costs in some areas, with carbon storage dominating the ecosystem service values and swamping opportunity costs. Other benefits associated with conservation were more modest and exceeded costs only in protected areas and indigenous reserves. We used this cost-benefit information to show that one potential corridor between two large forest patches had net benefits that were three times greater than two otherwise similar alternatives. Spatial cost-benefit analysis can powerfully inform conservation planning, even though the availability of relevant data may be limited, as was the case in our study area. It can help us understand the synergies between biodiversity conservation and economic development when the two are indeed aligned and to clearly understand the trade-offs when they are not. PMID:17076583

  7. The value of Standards and Labelling: an international cost-benefit analysis tool for Standards and Labelling programs with results for Central American countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a cost-benefit spreadsheet analysis tool that provides an evaluation of the net impacts of an appliance standards and labelling (SandL) program. The tool is designed to provide a rough estimate at very low cost to local analysts, while allowing for a more accurate evaluation when detailed local data are available. The methodology takes a bottom-up engineering approach, beginning with appliance-specific engineering parameters relating efficiency improvement and incremental costs associated with specific design technologies. Efficiency improvement afforded by each potential policy option is combined with local appliance use patterns to estimate average annual energy consumption for each appliance. This information is combined with appliance lifetime data and local energy prices to provide a life cycle cost impact assessment at the household level. In addition to household level impacts, the analysis tool forecasts future appliance sales, in order to calculate potential energy savings, consumer financial impacts and carbon emissions reductions at the national level. In order to demonstrate the features of the policy model employed, this poster presents a regional analysis based on the most recent publicly available appliance data. In particular, a set of developing countries in Central America were chosen as an example. Taken as a whole, the Central American results demonstrate the general level of benefit which could be afforded in these countries. Comparison between the countries reveals the key parameters determining the benefit a given country can expect from a standards program

  8. Achieving Cost Benefits in Sustainable Cooperative Housing

    OpenAIRE

    José Coimbra; Manuela Almeida

    2013-01-01

    The cooperative housing sector is directed at low and medium income residents who cannot afford to buy their homes in the regular private market. Due to social housing legislation, it is possible to build cooperative housing below regular market costs and use tax benefits, therefore providing affordable dwellings to their owners. Traditional cooperative housing used to provide less comfort and higher running costs in indoor and domestic hot water heating than in standard construction. However...

  9. The EOS 2D/3D X-ray imaging system: A cost-effectiveness analysis quantifying the health benefits from reduced radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the EOS® 2D/3D X-ray imaging system compared with standard X-ray for the diagnosis and monitoring of orthopaedic conditions. Materials and methods: A decision analytic model was developed to quantify the long-term costs and health outcomes, expressed as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) from the UK health service perspective. Input parameters were obtained from medical literature, previously developed cancer models and expert advice. Threshold analysis was used to quantify the additional health benefits required, over and above those associated with radiation-induced cancers, for EOS® to be considered cost-effective. Results: Standard X-ray is associated with a maximum health loss of 0.001 QALYs, approximately 0.4 of a day in full health, while the loss with EOS® is a maximum of 0.00015 QALYs, or 0.05 of a day in full health. On a per patient basis, EOS® is more expensive than standard X-ray by between £10.66 and £224.74 depending on the assumptions employed. The results suggest that EOS® is not cost-effective for any indication. Health benefits over and above those obtained from lower radiation would need to double for EOS to be considered cost-effective. Conclusion: No evidence currently exists on whether there are health benefits associated with imaging improvements from the use of EOS®. The health benefits from radiation dose reductions are very small. Unless EOS® can generate additional health benefits as a consequence of the nature and quality of the image, comparative patient throughput with X-ray will be the major determinant of cost-effectiveness

  10. Louisiana Superdome: Public Costs and Benefits 1975-1984

    OpenAIRE

    Wade R. Ragas; Ivan J. Miestchovich Jr.; Eddystone C. Nebel III; Ryan, Timothy P.; Kenneth J. Lacho

    1987-01-01

    During 1985, a research effort was undertaken by a five-person team of specialists in tourism, marketing, real estate, and public finance to determine the benefits and costs associated with the Louisiana Superdome. This largest of the enclosed public stadiums was a unique experiment in design and urban location (within an existing central business district). Based on this benefit/cost analysis, construction of the Superdome was found to be a surprisingly efficient public expenditure with a be...

  11. Do the Benefits of Training Justify the Costs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Cynthia A.

    1989-01-01

    Thirty-five training managers in central Ohio were interviewed about their use of cost-benefit analysis. Incentives for its use are justifying and marketing training programs, acquiring resources, setting priorities, and increasing management support. Disadvantages include difficulty of quantifying training effects, subjectivity, cost, and…

  12. Cost-Benefit Analyses of Accreditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidlinger, Charles R.; Prager, Carolyn

    1993-01-01

    Argues that decreasing participation in accreditation will not necessarily realize financial gains for colleges, since other methods of remaining accountable will take its place. Proposes ways to reduce accreditation's real costs while preserving its traditional benefits of self-examination, external scrutiny, and participatory membership. (MAB)

  13. Energy balance and cost-benefit analysis of biogas production from perennial energy crops pretreated by wet oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uellendahl, Hinrich; Wang, Guangtao; Møller, H.B.;

    2008-01-01

    Perennial crops need far less energy to plant, require less fertilizer and pesticides, and show a lower negative environmental impact compared with annual crops like for example corn. This makes the cultivation of perennial crops as energy crops more sustainable than the use of annual crops. The...... conversion into biogas in anaerobic digestion plants shows however much lower specific methane yields for the raw perennial crops like miscanthus and willow due to their lignocellulosic structure. Without pretreatment the net energy gain is therefore lower for the perennials than for corn. When applying wet...... oxidation to the perennial crops, however, the specific methane yield increases significantly and the ratio of energy output to input and of costs to benefit for the whole chain of biomass supply and conversion into biogas becomes higher than for corn. This will make the use of perennial crops as energy...

  14. A probabilistic approach for a cost-benefit analysis of oil spill management under uncertainty: A Bayesian network model for the Gulf of Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helle, Inari; Ahtiainen, Heini; Luoma, Emilia; Hänninen, Maria; Kuikka, Sakari

    2015-08-01

    Large-scale oil accidents can inflict substantial costs to the society, as they typically result in expensive oil combating and waste treatment operations and have negative impacts on recreational and environmental values. Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) offers a way to assess the economic efficiency of management measures capable of mitigating the adverse effects. However, the irregular occurrence of spills combined with uncertainties related to the possible effects makes the analysis a challenging task. We develop a probabilistic modeling approach for a CBA of oil spill management and apply it in the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea. The model has a causal structure, and it covers a large number of factors relevant to the realistic description of oil spills, as well as the costs of oil combating operations at open sea, shoreline clean-up, and waste treatment activities. Further, to describe the effects on environmental benefits, we use data from a contingent valuation survey. The results encourage seeking for cost-effective preventive measures, and emphasize the importance of the inclusion of the costs related to waste treatment and environmental values in the analysis. Although the model is developed for a specific area, the methodology is applicable also to other areas facing the risk of oil spills as well as to other fields that need to cope with the challenging combination of low probabilities, high losses and major uncertainties. PMID:25983196

  15. Costing out a wage and benefit package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R E; Keaveny, T J

    1983-01-01

    Labor costs represent the largest single cost of operation for most organizations. For the unionized employer, the compensation package is determined during contract negotiations. It is important for both union and management negotiators to be able to identify the cost of a proposed agreement. Both parties to a contract should know whether a proposed compensation package is consistent with an organization's ability to pay. In addition, when "trading" demands, both parties should be aware of the cost of the demands being traded. An approach to costing out a labor agreement has been presented in this article. While it can be described as the standard approach, it is subject to several criticisms. Typically, it is applied in a way that assumes that history will repeat itself. In addition, it focuses on the direct cost of a proposed compensation package. While this is certainly relevant, the impact of the compensation package on organization profits is more important. Finally, the time value of money is not taken into account. This would be important if a multi-year contract is being negotiated. While there are legitimate concerns about the approach presented here, our objective is to provide the reader with a basic approach to costing out a wage and benefit package. Anyone involved in contract negotiations or, in the nonunion firm, anyone responsible for administering a wage and benefit program, should be aware of the problems that we have described and seek out reference materials to provide guidance in addressing them. PMID:10260719

  16. Costs without benefits? Methodological issues in assessing costs, benefits and effectiveness of water protection policies. Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walz, R.; Schleich, J.

    2000-07-01

    In the last few years, the conditions for extending environmental policy in general and policy dealing with the prevention of water pollution in particular have undergone extensive changes. On the one hand, there has been indisputable considerable success in preventing water pollution which has led to less direct pressure for policy action. On the other hand, the rising sewage levies and the lower political priority assigned in general to environmental policy documented in, e. g. public opinion surveys, has led to water pollution control policy facing very different pressures of justification: more efficient use of funds, improved planning processes, proof of the achievable benefit, but also stopping the increase in levies or not hindering economic development, these or similar slogans are the objections brought against water pollution control. Regardless of how unambiguous these terms appear when used as slogans in this way, they become diffuse and unclear if regarded more closely. This paper therefore attempts to reveal the reasons for possible misunderstandings and misinterpretations on the one hand and, on the other, to reveal the basic problems and uncertainties which are necessarily linked with an assessment of costs and benefits. In order to do this, three areas are examined: level of actors and analysis, evaluation methods and assessment of costs and benefits. (orig.)

  17. Will the cost-benefit analysis give an additional decision-aid to the retention of radioactive effluents in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To analyse whether the optimum retention of radioactive materials in nuclear facilities can be clearly determined using ICRP 26 recommendations, an attempt was made to apply the cost-benefit analysis to nuclear power stations and reprocessing plants. In view of today's standard emissions of nuclear power plants it can be seen that, except for 14C, the collective doses are so small that only the use of extraordinarily high α values results in a minimum of the total costs. For the reprocessing plants (LWR fuel, PUREX process, 1500t/a), the cost-benefit analysis is applied to the retention of 3H, 14C, 85Kr, 129I and aerosols. Initially, the following assumptions are made: α=200 DM/man.rem; integration time of 105a for the calculation of the collective doses; 4000-km-diam. circle for the calculation of the first pass exposure; amortization factor of 10% for the calculation of the annual costs of retention. According to these values, cost-benefit considerations would suggest that approx. 50% of 14C should be retained in LWRs. In the reprocessing plant, 3H should not be retained. The decontamination factor (DF) for 14C should be approx. 50, for 129I approx. 150 and for aerosols approx. 5x108. The influence of the variation of input-data has been analysed. An α value of 500 DM/man.rem leads to a DF of 5 for 3H, of 250 for 129I and of 5x109 for aerosols. Integration to 500 years instead of 105 years gives a DF of 10 for 14C, whilst other nuclides are not affected (for α=200 DM/man.rem). The study has shown that the cost-benefit analysis yields useful decision-aids if the required data are given. In the case of free choice of the input data, even careful determination of the initial assumptions may lead to very different results, depending on the point of view of the analyst. From the authors' point of view, internationally accepted regulations are required if the cost-benefit analysis is to be a useful decision-aid in the radiological protection of the public. (author)

  18. Hot Issue and Burning Options in Waste Management: A Social Cost Benefit Analysis of Waste-to-Energy in the UK.

    OpenAIRE

    Jamasb, Tooraj; Kiamil, H.; Nepal, R.

    2008-01-01

    The growing stream of municipal solid waste requires a sustainable waste management strategy. Meanwhile, addressing climate change and security of energy supply concerns require increased use of low-carbon and domestic sources of energy. This paper assesses the economic and policy aspects of waste management options focusing on waste to energy (WtE). We conclude that high levels of WtE and recycling are compatible as waste treatment options. We also present a social cost-benefit analysis of w...

  19. Application of the malaria management model to the analysis of costs and benefits of DDT versus non-DDT malaria control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Pedercini

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: DDT is considered to be the most cost-effective insecticide for combating malaria. However, it is also the most environmentally persistent and can pose risks to human health when sprayed indoors. Therefore, the use of DDT for vector control remains controversial. METHODS: In this paper we develop a computer-based simulation model to assess some of the costs and benefits of the continued use of DDT for Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS versus its rapid phase out. We apply the prototype model to the aggregated sub Saharan African region. For putting the question about the continued use of DDT for IRS versus its rapid phase out into perspective we calculate the same costs and benefits for alternative combinations of integrated vector management interventions. RESULTS: Our simulation results confirm that the current mix of integrated vector management interventions with DDT as the main insecticide is cheaper than the same mix with alternative insecticides when only direct costs are considered. However, combinations with a stronger focus on insecticide-treated bed nets and environmental management show higher levels of cost-effectiveness than interventions with a focus on IRS. Thus, this focus would also allow phasing out DDT in a cost-effective manner. Although a rapid phase out of DDT for IRS is the most expensive of the tested intervention combinations it can have important economic benefits in addition to health and environmental impacts that are difficult to assess in monetary terms. Those economic benefits captured by the model include the avoided risk of losses in agricultural exports. CONCLUSIONS: The prototype simulation model illustrates how a computer-based scenario analysis tool can inform debates on malaria control policies in general and on the continued use of DDT for IRS versus its rapid phase out in specific. Simulation models create systematic mechanisms for analyzing alternative interventions and making informed trade

  20. Do Health Benefits Outweigh the Costs of Mass Recreational Programs? An Economic Analysis of Four Ciclovía Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Montes, Felipe; Sarmiento, Olga L; Zarama, Roberto; Pratt, Michael; Wang, Guijing; Jacoby, Enrique; Schmid, Thomas L.; Ramos, Mauricio; Ruiz, Oscar; Vargas, Olga; Michel, Gabriel; Zieff, Susan G.; Valdivia, Juan Alejandro; Cavill, Nick; Kahlmeier, Sonja

    2011-01-01

    One promising public health intervention for promoting physical activity is the Ciclovía program. The Ciclovía is a regular multisectorial community-based program in which streets are temporarily closed for motorized transport, allowing exclusive access to individuals for recreational activities and physical activity. The objective of this study was to conduct an analysis of the cost–benefit ratios of physical activity of the Ciclovía programs of Bogotá and Medellín in Colombia, Guadalajara i...

  1. Assessing energy projects from the viewpoint of individual economic branches and total economy. The role of economic efficiency analysis, cost-benefit analysis and multicriteria methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy is an extremely important good and means of production not only for the individual branches of economy but, due to its essential meaning to the development of a region or a national economy and its external effects connected with production and consumption, also of great interest to all economic branches. This article deals with the relation of analyses in individual economical branches and those in total economy and with the question of what the importance of cost-benefit analyses and other methods is in the analysis in total economy. The author also mentions the planning as in the special literature the planning and evaluation phases are not analytically separated which is seen especially in the discussion about the multi-criteria methods. (orig.)

  2. Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Adopting ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2001 as the Commercial Building Energy Code in Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, Katherine A.; Winiarski, David W.; Belzer, David B.; Richman, Eric E.

    2004-09-30

    ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2001 Energy Standard for Buildings except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (hereafter referred to as ASHRAE 90.1-2001 or 90.1-2001) was developed in an effort to set minimum requirements for the energy efficient design and construction of new commercial buildings. The State of Tennessee is considering adopting ASHRAE 90.1-2001 as its commercial building energy code. In an effort to evaluate whether or not this is an appropriate code for the state, the potential benefits and costs of adopting this standard are considered in this report. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits and costs are assessed. Energy and economic impacts are estimated using the Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics (BLAST) simulations combined with a Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) approach to assess corresponding economic costs and benefits. Tennessee currently has ASHRAE Standard 90A-1980 as the statewide voluntary/recommended commercial energy standard; however, it is up to the local jurisdiction to adopt this code. Because 90A-1980 is the recommended standard, many of the requirements of ASHRAE 90A-1980 were used as a baseline for simulations.

  3. Justification of strategies for agricultural countermeasures in the long term after the Chernobyl accident based on a cost-benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the long term after the Chernobyl accident the introduction of systems of countermeasures in agriculture must be based on the optimization principle. To implement this principle, a concept was used of evaluation of the effectiveness of countermeasures based on a cost-benefit analysis. Countermeasure options were developed separately for collective and private sectors of rural settlements. For each type of farming a range of countermeasures were defined and the optimal ones were identified. The effectiveness of countermeasures was estimated on the basis of integral criteria: cost of averted collective dose (1 man-Sv), overall costs needed for countermeasures introduction and time for fulfilling legal regulations. Based on the most effective countermeasures, optimal combinations (strategies) were developed. An assessment was given of the effectiveness of countermeasures aimed at reducing the radionuclide content in animal products from collective farms and lowering doses to rural residents affected by the Chernobyl accident, based on a comparative cost benefit analysis. A study into the dynamics of 1 man-Sv cost when applying different countermeasures in the collective and private sectors allowed an identification of the most optimal measures for various time periods after the accident. The situation in the private sector is more critical than in the collective one. This is demonstrated by higher costs of countermeasures and costs of potential averted doses in the course of their application, as well as difference in times of legal regulations fulfillment. To optimize costs of the rehabilitation of agricultural lands, the most optimal in terms of meeting the standards strategy was determined, which is an address application of countermeasures. (author)

  4. Further development of the cleanable steel HEPA filter, cost/benefit analysis, and comparison with competing technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have made further progress in developing a cleanable steel fiber HEPA filter. We fabricated a pleated cylindrical cartridge using commercially available steel fiber media that is made with 1 μm stainless steel fibers and sintered into a sheet form. Test results at the Department of Energy (DOE) Filter Test Station at Oak Ridge show the prototype filter cartridge has 99.99% efficiency for 0.3 μm dioctyl phthalate (DOP) aerosols and a pressure drop of 1.5 inches. Filter loading and cleaning tests using AC Fine dust showed the filter could be repeatedly cleaned using reverse air pulses. Our analysis of commercially optimized filters suggest that cleanable steel HEPA filters need to be made from steel fibers less than 1μm, and preferably 0.5 μm, to meet the standard HEPA filter requirements in production units. We have demonstrated that 0.5 μm steel fibers can be produced using the fiber bundling and drawing process. The 0.5 μm steel fibers are then sintered into small filter samples and tested for efficiency and pressure drop. Test results on the sample showed a penetration of 0.0015 % at 0.3 μm and a pressure drop of 1.15 inches at 6.9 ft/min (3.5 cm/s) velocity. Based on these results, steel fiber media can easily meet the requirements of 0.03 % penetration and 1.0 inch of pressure drop by using less fibers in the media. A cost analysis of the cleanable steel HEPA filter shows that, although the steel HEPA filter costs much more than the standard glass fiber HEPA filter, it has the potential to be very cost effective because of the high disposal costs of contaminated HEPA filters. We estimate that the steel HEPA filter will save an average of $16,000 over its 30 year life. The additional savings from the clean-up costs resulting from ruptured glass HEPA filters during accidents was not included but makes the steel HEPA filter even more cost effective. 33 refs., 28 figs., 1 tab

  5. Further development of the cleanable steel HEPA filter, cost/benefit analysis, and comparison with competing technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, W.; Lopez, R.; Wilson, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    We have made further progress in developing a cleanable steel fiber HEPA filter. We fabricated a pleated cylindrical cartridge using commercially available steel fiber media that is made with 1 {mu}m stainless steel fibers and sintered into a sheet form. Test results at the Department of Energy (DOE) Filter Test Station at Oak Ridge show the prototype filter cartridge has 99.99% efficiency for 0.3 {mu}m dioctyl phthalate (DOP) aerosols and a pressure drop of 1.5 inches. Filter loading and cleaning tests using AC Fine dust showed the filter could be repeatedly cleaned using reverse air pulses. Our analysis of commercially optimized filters suggest that cleanable steel HEPA filters need to be made from steel fibers less than 1{mu}m, and preferably 0.5 {mu}m, to meet the standard HEPA filter requirements in production units. We have demonstrated that 0.5 {mu}m steel fibers can be produced using the fiber bundling and drawing process. The 0.5 {mu}m steel fibers are then sintered into small filter samples and tested for efficiency and pressure drop. Test results on the sample showed a penetration of 0.0015 % at 0.3 {mu}m and a pressure drop of 1.15 inches at 6.9 ft/min (3.5 cm/s) velocity. Based on these results, steel fiber media can easily meet the requirements of 0.03 % penetration and 1.0 inch of pressure drop by using less fibers in the media. A cost analysis of the cleanable steel HEPA filter shows that, although the steel HEPA filter costs much more than the standard glass fiber HEPA filter, it has the potential to be very cost effective because of the high disposal costs of contaminated HEPA filters. We estimate that the steel HEPA filter will save an average of $16,000 over its 30 year life. The additional savings from the clean-up costs resulting from ruptured glass HEPA filters during accidents was not included but makes the steel HEPA filter even more cost effective. 33 refs., 28 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Applying global cost-benefit analysis methods to indoor air pollution mitigation interventions in Nepal, Kenya and Sudan: Insights and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor air pollution from burning solid fuels for cooking is a major environmental health problem in developing countries, predominantly affecting children and women. Traditional household energy practices also contribute to substantial time loss and drudgery among households. While effective interventions exist, levels of investment to date have been very low, in part due to lack of evidence on economic viability. Between 2004 and 2007, different combinations of interventions – improved stoves, smoke hoods and a switch to liquefied petroleum gas – were implemented in poor communities in Nepal, Sudan and Kenya. The impacts were extensively evaluated and provided the basis for a household-level cost-benefit analysis, which essentially followed the methodology proposed by the World Health Organization. The results suggest that interventions are justified on economic grounds with estimated internal rates of return of 19%, 429% and 62% in Nepal, Kenya and Sudan, respectively. Time savings constituted by far the most important benefit followed by fuel cost savings; direct health improvements were a small component of the overall benefit. This paper describes the methodology applied, discusses the findings and highlights the methodological challenges that arise when a global approach is applied to a local programme. - Highlights: ► A project to alleviate indoor smoke from cooking fires in Sudan, Kenya and Nepal was evaluated. ► Investments for improving indoor air quality are shown to be justifiable on economic grounds. ► Savings in time and fuel costs, as well as health improvements are key benefits. ► The challenges of applying a global cost-benefit approach to a local programme are examined.

  7. Approach on the Method of Environmental Economic Cost-Benefit Analysis%环境经济损益分析方法探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡应成; 张海清

    2001-01-01

    The environmental economic cost-benefit analysis is discussed in this essay, including identification and screening qualification of impact factor, the calculation and impact of economic cost-benefit. This method is concise and feasible from a real case.%建设项目环境影响评价工作中的环境经济损益分析通常采用费用——效益法。本文对影响因子的类型及其量化方法、经济损益计算方法及经济损益评价方法进行了深入地探讨,实例分析说明这套方法操作简明,行之有效。

  8. [Costs and benefits of quality management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder-Printzen, I

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of quality management (QM) has been mandatory for health care providers of the national health insurance since 2004; however, certification is so far only compulsory for rehabilitation clinics. The costs have so far only been quantified in a few medical studies, while they are widely known in business administration with a basic distinction made between planning, steering, auditing, and declaration costs. Another business economics approach differentiates between prevention, appraisal, and non-conformance costs. The benefits of QM relates to customers, employees, external service providers, and health insurance providers. Also important in our consideration of the patient as a customer is that they should not be considered a customer in the usual business sense because the patient is in an emergency situation and can not freely decide. Improvements in treatment quality and in reducing the rate of adverse events make up the largest portion of the benefits of QM. Furthermore, QM can have a positive influence on motivation and employee recruitment. In addition, the cost savings that result despite costs for QM must not be forgotten. PMID:24452399

  9. Some Economic Benefits and Costs of Vegetarianism

    OpenAIRE

    Lusk, Jayson L.; Norwood, F. Bailey

    2009-01-01

    It is now fashionable in many circles to advocate vegetarianism, and many activist groups are vocal in their aim to convert the human race to vegetarians. What would be the economic costs and benefits of a shift away from meat consumption? In this article we provide some partial answers to this question. In three separate analyses we show (i) that it is much more costly to produce energy and protein from animal-based sources than from some plant-based sources, (ii) that sizable demand shifts ...

  10. Cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analysis of BMPs in controlling agricultural nonpoint source pollution in China based on the SWAT model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruimin; Zhang, Peipei; Wang, Xiujuan; Wang, Jiawei; Yu, Wenwen; Shen, Zhenyao

    2014-12-01

    Best management practices (BMPs) have been widely used in managing agricultural nonpoint source pollution (ANSP) at the watershed level. Most BMPs are related to land use, tillage management, and fertilizer levels. In total, seven BMP scenarios (Reforest1, Reforest2, No Tillage, Contour tillage, and fertilizer level 1-4) that are related to these three factors were estimated in this study. The objectives were to investigate the effectiveness and cost-benefit of these BMPs on ANSP reduction in a large tributary of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) in China, which are based on the simulation results of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. The results indicated that reforestation was the most economically efficient of all BMPs, and its net benefits were up to CNY 4.36×10(7) years(-1) (about USD 7.08×10(6) years(-1)). Regarding tillage practices, no tillage practice was more environmentally friendly than other tillage practices, and contour tillage was more economically efficient. Reducing the local fertilizer level to 0.8-fold less than that of 2010 can yield a satisfactory environmental and economic efficiency. Reforestation and fertilizer management were more effective in reducing total phosphorus (TP), whereas tillage management was more effective in reducing total nitrogen (TN). When CNY 10,000 (about USD 162) was applied to reforestation, no tillage, contour tillage, and an 0.8-fold reduction in the fertilizer level, then annual TN load can be reduced by 0.08, 0.16, 0.11, and 0.04 t and annual TP load can be reduced by 0.04, 0.02, 0.01 and 0.03 t, respectively. The cost-benefit (CB) ratios of the BMPs were as follows: reforestation (207 %) > contour tillage (129 %) > no tillage (114 %) > fertilizer management (96 and 89 %). The most economical and effective BMPs can be designated as follows: BMP1 (returning arable land with slopes greater than 25° to forests and those lands with slopes of 15-25° to orchards), BMP2 (implementing no tillage

  11. Cost-benefit analysis of retrofit of high-intensity discharge factory lighting with energy-saving alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, D.J. [Alabama Industrial Assessment Center, The University of Alabama, 1530 W. Tremont St, Allentown, PA 18102 (United States); Woodbury, K.A. [Alabama Industrial Assessment Center, The University of Alabama, 290 Hardaway Hall, Box 870276, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0276 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Due to increased concern about overall energy costs and the appearance of efficient and inexpensive lighting system alternatives, factories and plants with high-intensity discharge (HID) lighting are forced to consider retrofit with more modern, energy-efficient lighting. The decision is complicated from an economic perspective, and there is a lack of information readily available on the topic. This study provides an analysis of the replacement by retrofit of common probe-start metal halide and high-pressure sodium industrial lighting systems. Retrofit options considered include the more recent pulse-start metal halide lamps and a range of T5 high output and T8 fluorescent lamp configurations. Recent data on lighting system pricing, labor and energy costs, and time required for tasks are reported. The results generated include savings, payback period, and net present value for many retrofit options, as well as the change in energy consumption, carbon footprint, and lumen output for each retrofit. Effects of varying rate of return and daily duration of operation are considered. Based on change in lumen output, payback period, net present value, and comparison of lighting quality, one or two options are recommended from the overall retrofit options considered. A fluorescent retrofit is recommended for each of the HID initial scenarios considered. The payback period is no more than 3 years in any recommended case. The focus of this study is on the potential energy and cost savings, and some proposed solutions may, or may not, be acceptable due to lack of illuminance uniformity.

  12. Cost-benefit analysis of implementing minimum energy efficiency standards for household refrigerator-freezers in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ownership of household electrical appliances especially refrigerator-freezer has increased rapidly in Malaysia. Almost every household in this country has a refrigerator-freezer. To reduce energy consumption in this sector the refrigerator is one of the top priorities of the energy efficiency program for household appliances. Malaysian authority is considering implementing minimum energy efficiency standards for refrigerator-freezer sometime in the coming year. This paper attempts to analyze cost-benefit of implementing minimum energy efficiency standards for household refrigerator-freezers in Malaysia. The calculations were made based on growth of ownership data for refrigerators in Malaysian households. The number of refrigerator-freezer has increased from 175,842 units in 1970 to 4,196,486 in 2000 and it will be about 11,293,043 in the year of 2020. Meanwhile it has accounted for about 26.3% of electricity consumption in a single household. Therefore, efficiency improvement of this appliance will give a significant impact in the future of electricity consumption in this country. Furthermore, it has been found that implementing an energy efficiency standard for household refrigerator-freezers is economically justified

  13. Cost/benefit analysis of biomass energy supply options for rural smallholders in the semi-arid eastern part of Shinyanga Region in Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiskerke, W.T.; Dornburg, V.; Faaij, A.P.C. [Department of Science, Technology and Society, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS, Utrecht (Netherlands); Rubanza, C.D.K. [Tanzania Forestry Research Institute (TAFORI)/National Forest Resource Management and Agroforestry Centre (NACRAF), P.O. Box 1257, Shinyanga (Tanzania); Malimbwi, R.E. [Faculty of Forestry and Natural Resources, Sokoine University, P.O. Box 3010, Morogoro (Tanzania)

    2010-01-15

    This study analyzes the economic feasibility of sustainable smallholder bio-energy production under semi-arid conditions. The eastern part of Shinyanga region in Tanzania was chosen as a case study area. Three different sustainable biomass energy supply systems were compared by means of cost/benefit analysis: a small-scale forestation project for carbon sequestration, a short rotation woodlot and a Jatropha plantation, thereby using the produced Jatropha oil as a substitute for fuelwood or diesel. Rotational woodlots are most profitable with a Net Present Value of up to US${sub 2007} 1165/ha, a return on labour of up to US${sub 2007} 6.69/man-day and a fuelwood production cost of US${sub 2007} 0.53/GJ, compared to a local market price of US${sub 2007} 1.95/GJ. With a production cost of US${sub 2007} 19.60/GJ, Jatropha oil is too expensive to be used as an alternative for fuelwood. Instead it can be utilized economically as a diesel substitute, at an observed diesel cost of US${sub 2007} 1.49/l. The mean annual biomass increment (MAI) in semi-arid East Shinyanga is too low to collect sufficient benefits from trading forestation carbon credits under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) to cover the costs of forestation and forest management. (author)

  14. Cost/benefit analysis of biomass energy supply options for rural smallholders in the semi-arid eastern part of Shinyanga Region in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study analyzes the economic feasibility of sustainable smallholder bio-energy production under semi-arid conditions. The eastern part of Shinyanga region in Tanzania was chosen as a case study area. Three different sustainable biomass energy supply systems were compared by means of cost/benefit analysis: a small-scale forestation project for carbon sequestration, a short rotation woodlot and a Jatropha plantation, thereby using the produced Jatropha oil as a substitute for fuelwood or diesel. Rotational woodlots are most profitable with a Net Present Value of up to US$2007 1165/ha, a return on labour of up to US$2007 6.69/man-day and a fuelwood production cost of US$2007 0.53/GJ, compared to a local market price of US$2007 1.95/GJ. With a production cost of US$2007 19.60/GJ, Jatropha oil is too expensive to be used as an alternative for fuelwood. Instead it can be utilized economically as a diesel substitute, at an observed diesel cost of US$2007 1.49/l. The mean annual biomass increment (MAI) in semi-arid East Shinyanga is too low to collect sufficient benefits from trading forestation carbon credits under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) to cover the costs of forestation and forest management. (author)

  15. Marginal costs and co-benefits of energy efficiency investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key elements of present investment decision-making regarding energy efficiency of new buildings and the refurbishment of existing buildings are the marginal costs of energy efficiency measures and incomplete knowledge of investors and architects about pricing, co-benefits and new technologies. This paper reports on a recently completed empirical study for the Swiss residential sector. It empirically quantifies the marginal costs of energy efficiency investments (i.e. additional insulation, improved window systems, ventilation and heating systems and architectural concepts). For the private sector, first results on the economic valuation of co-benefits such as improved comfort of living, improved indoor air quality, better protection against external noise, etc. may amount to the same order of magnitude as the energy-related benefits are given. The cost-benefit analysis includes newly developed technologies that show large variations in prices due to pioneer market pricing, add-on of learning costs and risk components of the installers. Based on new empirical data on the present cost-situation and past techno-economic progress, the potential of future cost reduction was estimated applying the experience curve concept. The paper shows, for the first time, co-benefits and cost dynamics of energy efficiency investments, of which decision makers in the real estate sector, politics and administrations are scarcely aware

  16. Cost-benefit of computed tomography application in dosimetry calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cost-benefit analysis of CT-assisted radiation therapy treatment planning is incomplete at the moment. In fact, there are those who argue that the analysis will never be completed and cite the failure to obtain comparable data relative to previous technical innovations, e.g., megavoltage radiation (especially very high energy photon beam machines), computerized treatment planning units, and simulators

  17. Mobile Marketing in the Pharmaceutical Industry: Benefits, Costs and Risks

    OpenAIRE

    Nofal, Hani

    2011-01-01

    The project will to look into the increasing trend for the mobile marketing worldwide and in particular the pharmaceutical industry. Afterwards will identify the list of the major benefits that can drive revenue for the pharmaceutical companies. Then, a costing analysis will be initiated to evaluate the budget of implementing such initiatives by exploring the type of cost of implementing such tools and giving specific case analysis for implementing Smartphone apps for Pfizer within for the co...

  18. Further development of the cleanable steel HEPA filter, cost/benefit analysis, and comparison with competing technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have made further progress in developing a cleanable steel fiber HEPA filter. We fabricated a pleated cylindrical cartridge using commercially available steel fiber media that is made with 1 μm stainless steel fibers and sintered into a sheet form. Test results at the Department of Energy (DOE) Filter Test Station at Oak Ridge show the prototype filter cartridge has 99.99% efficiency for 0.3 μm dioctyl phthalate (DOP) aerosols and a pressure drop of 1.5 inches. Filter loading and cleaning tests using AC Fine dust showed the filter could be repeatedly cleaned using reverse air pulses. Our analysis of commercially optimized filters suggest that cleanable steel HEPA filters need to be made from steel fibers less than 1 μm, and preferably 0.5 μm, to meet the standard HEPA filter requirements in production units. We have demonstrated that 0.5 μm steel fibers can be produced using the fiber bundling and drawing process. The 0.5 μm steel fibers are then sintered into small filter samples and tested for efficiency and pressure drop. Test results on the sample showed a penetration of 0.0015% at 0.3 μm and a pressure drop of 1.15 inches at 6.9 ft/min (3.5 cm/s) velocity. Based on these results, steel fiber media can easily meet the requirements of 0.03% penetration and 1.0 inch of pressure drop by using less fibers in the media. A cost analysis of the cleanable steel HEPA filter shows that, although the steel HEPA filter costs much more than the standard glass fiber HEPA filter, it has the potential to be very cost effective because of the high disposal costs of contaminated HEPA filters. We estimate that the steel HEPA filter will save an average of $16,000 over its 30 year life. The additional savings from the clean-up costs resulting from ruptured glass HEPA filters during accidents was not included but makes the steel HEPA filter even more cost effective. We also present the results of our evaluation of competing technologies with metallic and ceramic powder

  19. Costs and benefits with public and investor-owned electric systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discusses the analysis of the costs and benefits associated with public ownership of major utility projects and systems as opposed to private ownership. The topics discussed include the alleged benefits of public power systems, principles of cost benefit analysis, tax-exempt debt, state and local taxes and federal income taxes, benefit of 100 percent debt financing

  20. Costs and benefits of embedded generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project sought to evaluate the costs and benefits of embedded generation in the light of the UK government's consultation paper on the future of green generation, the government's aim to increase the levels of generation from renewable energy sources and cogeneration, the current Review of the Electricity Trading Arrangements, and the form of the Distribution Price Control. Definitions are given for embedded, centrally dispatched, and pooled generation, and licensed suppliers, and commercial and economic values. The commercial and economic value of embedded generation is examined in terms of generation prices, costs to electrical suppliers, losses (electrical, transmission, distribution), and effects on the national grid and distribution network. Diagrams showing the cost elements of trading through the Pool and the elements that are avoided by non-Pool embedded generator trading are presented

  1. NASA Electronic Publishing System: Cost/benefit Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuey, Richard C.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Scientific and Technical Information Office was assigned the responsibility to examine the benefits of the utilization of electronic printing and duplicating systems throughout NASA Installations and Headquarters. The subject of this report is the documentation of the methodology used in justifying the acquisition of the most cost beneficial solution for the printing and duplicating requirements of a duplicating facility that is contemplating the acquisition of an electronic printing and duplicating system. Four alternatives are presented with each alternative costed out with its associated benefits. The methodology goes a step further than just a cost benefit analysis through its comparison of risks associated with each alternative, sensitivity to number of impressions and productivity gains on the selected alternative and finally the return on investment for the selected alternative. The report can be used in conjunction with the two earlier reports, NASA-TM-106242 and TM-106510 in guiding others in determining the cost effective duplicating alternative.

  2. Cost benefit analysis of European air quality targets for sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and fine and suspended particulate matter in cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Commission has proposed air quality standards for NO2, SO2 and PM10 to be in force by 2010. The present paper presents a study that gauged their costs and benefits. An analysis of the expected emissions for 2010 (reference emission scenario), using simplified air quality models, showed that non-compliance with these standards will occur in cities only, not in rural areas. Most compliance problems are expected for PM10, least for SO2. Central estimates of the costs to meet standards range from 21 MECU (SO2), to 79 MECU (NO2) to 87-225 MECU (PM10). The estimated benefits are 83-3783 MECU (SO2), 408-5900 MECU (NO2), and 5007- 51247 MECU (PM10). Uncertainties are high, due to errors and incertitude in various steps of the methodology, mainly the estimation of the human health effects, in particular effects on mortality, and in the valuation of a statistical life. In the case of PM10, additional uncertainty results from the small size of the air quality database. Notwithstanding the uncertainties, the indications are that the benefits exceed the costs. 28 refs

  3. Comparative costs and benefits of hydrogen vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, G.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The costs and benefits of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel are compared to gasoline, natural gas, and battery-powered vehicles. Costs, energy, efficiency, and tail-pipe and full fuel cycle emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases were estimated for hydrogen from a broad range of delivery pathways and scales: from individual vehicle refueling systems to large stations refueling 300 cars/day. Hydrogen production from natural gas, methanol, and ammonia, as well as water electrolysis based on alkaline or polymer electrolytes and steam electrolysis using solid oxide electrolytes are considered. These estimates were compared to estimates for competing fuels and vehicles, and used to construct oil use, air pollutant, and greenhouse gas emission scenarios for the U.S. passenger car fleet from 2005-2050. Fuel costs need not be an overriding concern in evaluating the suitability of hydrogen as a fuel for passenger vehicles. The combined emissions and oil import reduction benefits of hydrogen cars are estimated to be significant, valued at up to {approximately}$400/yr for each hydrogen car when primarily clean energy sources are used for hydrogen production. These benefits alone, however, become tenuous as the basis supporting a compelling rationale for hydrogen fueled vehicles, if efficient, advanced fossil-fuel hybrid electric vehicles (HEV`s) can achieve actual on-road emissions at or below ULEV standards in the 2005-2015 timeframe. It appears a robust rationale for hydrogen fuel and vehicles will need to also consider unique, strategic, and long-range benefits of hydrogen vehicles which can be achieved through the use of production, storage, delivery, and utilization methods for hydrogen which are unique among fuels: efficient use of intermittent renewable energy sources, (e,g, wind, solar), small-scale feasibility, fuel production at or near the point of use, electrolytic production, diverse storage technologies, and electrochemical conversion to electricity.

  4. Cost-benefit Analysis of On-line Retrieval & Web Information Retrieval%联机检索与网络信息检索的成本—收益分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙鹙

    2001-01-01

    From the angle of cost and benefit,this paper describes two important methods for sharing information resources—online retrieval and Web retrieval.Their current characteristics are qualitatively analyzed.Some inspirations drawn from cost-benefit analysis are given.

  5. Predicted costs and benefits of eradicating BVDV from Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stott Alistair W

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV causes an economically important endemic disease (BVD of cattle in Ireland and worldwide. Systematic eradication by detection and removal of infectious (BVDV carrier cattle has been successful in several regions. We therefore assessed the benefits (disease losses avoided and costs (testing and culling regime of a potential eradication programme in Ireland. Published bio-economic models of BVDV spread in beef suckler herds and dairy herds were adapted to estimate potential benefits of eradication in Ireland. A simple model of BVDV spread in beef finisher herds was devised to estimate the benefits of eradication in this sector. A six year eradication programme consisting of 5 inter-related virological and serological testing programmes is outlined and costed. We found that the annualised benefits of BVDV eradication in Ireland exceeded the costs by a factor of 5 in the beef suckler sector and a factor of 14 in the dairy sector. Corresponding payback periods were 1.2 and 0.5 years respectively. These results highlight the significant economic impact of BVDV on the Irish cattle industry and suggest a clear economic benefit to eradication using the proposed approach. This type of cost-benefit analysis is considered an essential prerequisite prior to undertaking an eradication campaign of this magnitude.

  6. Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Adopting ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999 as a Commercial Building Energy Code in Illinois Jurisdictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.; Winiarski, David W.; Richman, Eric E.; Friedrich, Michele

    2002-05-01

    ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999 was developed in an effort to set minimum requirements for energy efficienty design and construction of new commercial buildings. This report assesses the benefits and costs of adopting this standard as the building energy code in Illinois. Energy and economic impacts are estimated using BLAST combined with a Life-Cycle Cost approach to assess corresponding economic costs and benefits.

  7. Hydropower - internalized costs and externalized benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The benefits of hydropower consist of the minimal level of noxious and greenhouse gas emissions, it's energy security from political instability, and its renewable, non-depletable nature. The costs of hydropower consist of negative effects on the river ecosystem and of social changes in communities in the vicinity of large projects. Public awareness of these costs has increased dramatically during the past two decades, and new hydro projects will not get approval unless adequate mitigation measures are taken to avoid, offset, or compensate for adverse environmental and social effects. To a very large extent, the hydropower industry has internalized what were previously social and environmental externalities. However, hydropower operators do not receive any compensation for the benefits, and to date their competitors (coal, natural gas, oil) have not been required to internalize their adverse environmental externalities. (emissions, depletion of supplies, and sometimes dependence on imported primary energy sources). This creates an uneven playing field, and the hydropower industry enthusiastically welcomes a discussion of this issue, and eventually measures to rectify the situation. The IEA Hydropower Agreement has completed a major international study on the environmental and social impacts of hydropower, and one major component of this study was a Life Cycle Assessment and comparison of all the most important electricity generation technologies. (author)

  8. Using a Risk Cost-Benefit Analysis for a Sea Dike to Adapt to the Sea Level in the Vietnamese Mekong River Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vo Thanh Danh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to conduct an economic valuation of creating a concrete sea dike system as an adaptation measure to counter the impacts of a rise in sea level using a risk cost-benefit analysis framework. It uses an ex-ante approach with risk considerations for storms, floods, and salinity by specifying probability distribution functions in a simulation process, in order to incorporate these risk factors into the analysis. The results showed that the benefits of storms and floods avoided dominated the dike options. The benefit of salinity avoided was also valuable, with annual rice and aquaculture productivity losses avoided of USD 331.25 per ha and USD 915 per ha, respectively. This study evaluated a range of dike options to adapt to climate change in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta, showing high levels of benefits compared to costs. The larger in scale the dike system options were, the higher the expected net present values (ENPVs were. Of the dike alternatives applicable to the Vietnamese Mekong Delta, considering the impacts of sea level rise of storms, floods and raised salinity in soil from flooding, small scale dikes that can subsequently be increased in height should be a priority choice. The sensitivity analyses showed that the ENPVs of dike options were very sensitive with changes in discount rate but were not sensitive with increases in salinized areas at all. The findings provide evidence to support the necessity of the construction of a concrete sea dike system in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta, given the context of global climate change.

  9. 29 CFR 1625.10 - Costs and benefits under employee benefit plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...—Individual benefit basis and “benefit package” basis. Cost comparisons and adjustments under section 4(f)(2... year maximum basis. Cost comparisons and adjustments under section 4(f)(2) may be made on the basis of... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Costs and benefits under employee benefit plans....

  10. An analysis of the benefits of photovoltaic-coated glazing on owning and operating costs of high rise commercial buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, Keith Everette

    Energy efficient glazing is necessary to reduce heat gains or losses that contribute to the high-energy use of buildings. However, high-rise commercial buildings that use energy efficient glazing are still consumptive. To reduce their energy use further, recent studies have integrated photovoltaic glazed window systems into the building shell. With limited light transmittance due to their required production of electricity, photovoltaic glazed windows can be developed with thermal properties similar to Low-E coatings. Consequently, these window systems can reduce operating costs of buildings without reducing the human satisfaction of the built environment. To understand the relationship between photovoltaic windows, energy use and human satisfaction, this study investigates the effects of photovoltaic glazed windows on energy use of large commercial buildings and includes an assessment of the overall human satisfaction of the workers within photovoltaic glazed office spaces. This study targets high-rise commercial buildings and their occupants in urban centers of the four census regions---North, Northeast, South, and Midwest. A prototypical building was used to develop the base case simulations for the DOE-2 energy simulation program and the PV F-Chart photovoltaic analysis program. By substituting the appropriate variable in the base case simulation for each site, building was simulated to evaluate the impact of the PV glazing on the building's heat loss/gaining as well as the amount of electricity that could be expected from the PV. To test for human satisfaction, a survey was performed to assess the overall preference of the subjects to the office spaces using the photovoltaic glazed windows. An analysis of the variance was also conducted to test for significantly different treatment means. Overall, the findings of this study show that photovoltaic windows significantly decrease the energy used by high-rise commercial buildings. Payback periods 11 to 20 years

  11. Costs and benefits of calcification in coccolithophorids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anning, T.; Nimer, N.; Merrett, M. J.; Brownlee, C.

    1996-10-01

    Calcification in coccolithophorids requires major intracellular fluxes of inorganic carbon and calcium. This paper summarises the major cellular fluxes of substrates and products of calcification described in a simple four compartment model (cytosol, Golgi, coccolith vesicle and chloroplast). Measurements of the cytosolic and intra-coccolith vesicle pH and electrical potentials across the plasma membrane and coccolith vesicle membrane allow calculations of the proton electrochemical gradients across these membranes and estimates of the free carbonate and calcium concentrations in the coccolith vesicle. Calcification may provide a relatively low cost route for elevating the concentration of carbon dioxide in the chloroplast. This may have benefits in terms of the nutrient requirements for photosynthesis and growth. In particular, a close relationship appears to exist between calcification and the availability of phosphorus which may correlate with the occurrence of large scale blooms of Emiliania huxleyi in the North Atlantic.

  12. Costs and Benefits of In-Kind Transfers: The Case of Medicaid Home Care Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Ethan M.J. Lieber; Lee M. Lockwood

    2013-01-01

    Many large government programs provide benefits in kind as opposed to in cash. Providing benefits in kind potentially distorts decisions and leads to a deadweight loss if recipients value the benefits less than a cost-equivalent cash transfer. Yet providing benefits in kind may have some offsetting benefits, especially in terms of improving the targeting of benefits to desired beneficiaries. We complete what is to our knowledge one of the first empirical studies of the costs and benefits of p...

  13. Adopting the Euro: Costs or Benefits?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Socol

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the present estate of euro implementation in Monetary and Economic Union (EMU. The Romanian admittance in EU at January 2007 increases interest to study the transmission and coordination mechanisms, related to mix common monetary policy - different fiscal policy across the countries in the euro area. Our study focuses on Euro Zone using the Optimum Currency Area Theory and empirical evidences. The controversies beetwen economists regarding the construction process of EMU remain large. The paper evaluates the costs and benefits of adopting the euro and the main effects of Romanian integration in European Monetary Union. What are the consequences of implementing the "tye hands" strategy for Romanian financial authorities? Can Romania solve the potential conflict between real and nominal convergence relating the European integration? What is the best strategy for Romania with the aim to obtain a faster real convergence with the European Union countries? Can Romania maximize the benefits to adopting euro in 2014? Is the European Union a Optimum Currency Area?

  14. Use of cost benefit analysis methodology in the meaning of motorization level from small and medium hydroelectric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical and economic justifications that bringing the waterfall division reformulation between Lucas Nogueira Garcez Plant and Capivara Plant in Paranapanema River (Brazil) are described, including a comparative economic of Canoas (Alta), Canoas I and Canoas II passages, motorization study and energetic benefits. The reasons of the Bulbo turbines choice and dimensioning definition of the installed power by the new reference economic parameters are also presented. (C.G.C.). 5 refs, 11 tabs

  15. A cost-benefit analysis of produced water management opportunities in selected unconventional oil and gas plays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsters, P.; Macknick, J.; Bazilian, M.; Newmark, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    Unconventional oil and gas production in North America has grown enormously over the past decade. The combination of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing has made production from shale and other unconventional resources economically attractive for oil and gas operators, but has also resulted in concerns over potential water use and pollution issues. Hydraulic fracturing operations must manage large volumes of water on both the front end as well as the back end of operations, as significant amounts of water are coproduced with hydrocarbons. This water--often called flowback or produced water--can contain chemicals from the hydraulic fracturing fluid, salts dissolved from the source rock, various minerals, volatile organic chemicals, and radioactive constituents, all of which pose potential management, safety, and public health issues. While the long-term effects of hydraulic fracturing on aquifers, drinking water supplies, and surface water resources are still being assessed, the immediate impacts of produced water on local infrastructure and water supplies are readily evident. Produced water management options are often limited to underground injection, disposal at centralized treatment facilities, or recycling for future hydraulic fracturing operations. The costs of treatment, transport, and recycling are heavily dependent on local regulations, existing infrastructure, and technologies utilized. Produced water treatment costs also change over time during energy production as the quality of the produced water often changes. To date there is no publicly available model that evaluates the cost tradeoffs associated with different produced water management techniques in different regions. This study addresses that gap by characterizing the volume, qualities, and temporal dynamics of produced water in several unconventional oil and gas plays; evaluating potential produced water management options, including reuse and recycling; and assessing how hydraulic

  16. Benefits, risks, and costs of stratospheric geoengineering

    KAUST Repository

    Robock, Alan

    2009-10-02

    Injecting sulfate aerosol precursors into the stratosphere has been suggested as a means of geoengineering to cool the planet and reduce global warming. The decision to implement such a scheme would require a comparison of its benefits, dangers, and costs to those of other responses to global warming, including doing nothing. Here we evaluate those factors for stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols. Using existing U.S. military fighter and tanker planes, the annual costs of injecting aerosol precursors into the lower stratosphere would be several billion dollars. Using artillery or balloons to loft the gas would be much more expensive. We do not have enough information to evaluate more exotic techniques, such as pumping the gas up through a hose attached to a tower or balloon system. Anthropogenic stratospheric aerosol injection would cool the planet, stop the melting of sea ice and land-based glaciers, slow sea level rise, and increase the terrestrial carbon sink, but produce regional drought, ozone depletion, less sunlight for solar power, and make skies less blue. Furthermore it would hamper Earth-based optical astronomy, do nothing to stop ocean acidification, and present many ethical and moral issues. Further work is needed to quantify many of these factors to allow informed decision-making.

  17. COSTS AND BENEFITS OF EURIZATION IN KOSOVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrvete BADIVUKU PANTINA

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the many challenges that Kosovo faced after the conflict of 1999 was the selection of a monetary structure. At the time when the United Nations undertook the administration of Kosovo (UNMIK, adoption of the monetary structure based on the utilization of the German Mark appeared as a natural solution. Utilization of a sustainable currency was important in maintaining macroeconomic stability and played a key role in the reestablishment of people’s trust in the financial sector. There was an immense urgency for assuring cash currency and the abolition of the Yugoslav Dinar as a means of transaction. At the beginning of 2002 when the replacement of the inherited currency in Euro was carried out in the Eurozone countries, it was also necessary to replace the German Mark in Kosovo. In accordance with UNMIK Regulation No. 1999/4, EURO (“EUR” was adopted as an official currency in Kosovo as of January 1st 2002. EURO replaced the German Mark (“DEM” which was the measurement and reporting currency in the territory of Kosovo. The objective of this paper is to present the costs and benefits brought to the Kosovo economy by the utilization of Euro as its main currency in circulation, and to what extent are the costs acceptable compared to the advantages that were brought by the introduction of Euro in the Kosovo economy.

  18. Analysis of benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Kováříková, Kamila

    2012-01-01

    This master thesis deals with employee benefits in the current labour market, especially from the perspective of young employees. The first part is focused on the theory of motivation and employee benefits also with their tax impact on employee's income. Employee benefits in the current labour market, employee's satisfaction and employer's attitude to this issue are analyzed in the second part of this thesis.

  19. CSR BENEFITS AND COSTS IN A STRATEGIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Corina Gligor – Cimpoieru

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades corporate social responsibility (CSR has captured the interest of both practitioners and academics, being a concept extensively analyzed and discussed in terms of its many facets. But maybe due its complexity, still lacking a unified approach and a widely accepted definition, CSR is still often seen as having a peripheral role, auxiliary for a business organization, without even understanding its essence and having overlooked its extraordinary potential to determine multiple bivalent benefits for companies and local communities. Even if CSR benefits are identified, the analysis is often limited to an optimistic view, lacking a realistic approach that recognizes and takes into account also the costs and risks associated. With this paper we aim at identifying the most significant CSR benefits and costs in an attempt to offer a realistic pledging for the importance of CSR implementation in a strategic approach.

  20. Cost/benefit tradeoffs for reducing the energy consumption of the commercial air transportation system. Volume 1: Technical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, E. F.

    1976-01-01

    The effectiveness and associated costs of operational and technical options for reduced fuel consumption by Douglas aircraft in the domestic airline fleet are assessed. Areas explored include alternative procedures for airline and flight operations, advanced and state of the art technology, modification and derivative configurations, new near-term aircraft, turboprop configuration studies, and optimum aircraft geometry. Data for each aircraft studied is presented in tables and graphs.

  1. Radon in indoor environments - a cost-benefit analysis of adoption of the new recommendations of WHO for radon limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report's goal is to investigate the consequences of the authorities to adopt the new WHO recommended limit and guideline for radon in homes of 100 Bq/m3. The report's purpose is to provide a basis for decision if the radon and radon guideline limit should be lowered. 400,000 houses and 230,000 apartments in Sweden have a radon concentration of 100-200 Bq/m3, and thus must be decontaminated of radon if the guideline value would be raised. This corresponds to about 1.3 million residents. The cost of such a radon mitigation is estimated at 14-19 billion SEK (2-3 billion USD). The increase in operating costs is estimated at 500 million SEK per year. Remediation measures are not economically reasonable. For the cost to be reasonable, 65-85 lung cancer cases should be prevented per year. Reduction in lung cancer cases, with a reduction in guideline value is estimated at 40 cases. Remediation costs for individual buildings with blue concrete can be very high. Close to 5000 people each year move into newly built homes with radon levels higher than 100 Bq/m3 under the 2010 construction forecast. The cost of mitigation measures necessary to bring down radon below 100 Bq/m3 for new constructions is estimated at 130 million SEK for 2010. These measures are not economically reasonable. For the cost to be reasonable 0.45 lung cancer cases should be prevented per year. The decrease in the number of lung cancers, with a reduction in the limit is estimated at 0.15 cases or new buildings. The Radon Coordinating Group recommends retaining the current target and limit for radon in dwellings of 200 Bq/m3. It is not economically reasonable to implement a tightening of the guide and limit values. The benchmark and the limit for radon should be remain unaltered. To have different guidelines and limits for old and new dwellings will create confusion in the industry and can lead to decreased respect for the limits. It is unclear whether there are ways to get down radon concentrations

  2. Cost-Benefit Study on Nature Reserves Group in Qinling Mountains: Cost-Benefit Comparison and Analysis%秦岭自然保护区群成本效益研究(I)——成本效益比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昌海; 温亚利; 李强; 司开创; 胡崇德

    2012-01-01

    slowly and even drop. This study also measured the effectiveness of protection policy from the view of nature reserve cost and benefit. There are three purposes for this study: 1) To inform the comprehensive benefit and cost produced by biodiversity protection of QNRG from the perspective of cost-benefit analysis; 2) To analyze the cost and benefit shared by stakeholders of QNRG from the perspective of Stakeholder Theory; 3) To quantitatively analyze the development tendency of comprehensive benefits and costs in QNRG. This study can serve as an empirical base for the adjustment of biodiversity protection policies in nature reserves. In this paper, the correlation between cost and benefit of the QNRG was studied through the regress analysis with cross-sectional data. And our study may provide useful information for the forest management, particularly in investment budge, compensation and so on.

  3. Analysis of Employee Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Fuková, Kateřina

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to present system of employee benefits in specific company and according to the provided research judge the employee satisfaction with this system. The theoretical part of this bachelor's thesis defines the term employee benefits, their meaning, objectives, structure and the ways of providing. This part also deals with current trends in benefits and outsourcing. The practical part describes company Toyota Peugeot Citroën Automobile, s.r.o. and its system o...

  4. Assessing the costs and benefits of an oral vaccine for raccoon rabies: a possible model.

    OpenAIRE

    Meltzer, M. I.

    1996-01-01

    Any cost-benefit analysis of the use of an oral vaccine to control raccoon rabies should include calculating both costs and benefits in terms of $/unit area. Further, cost savings must be adjusted to match the stages of an epizootic: pre-epizootic, epizootic, and post-epizootic. A generic model, which can be adapted to different sites, illustrates the use of threshold analysis to link distribution costs, cost savings, bait density, and vaccine price. Initial results indicate the need to lower...

  5. Environmental benefits of medfly sterile insect technique in Madeira and their inclusion in a cost-benefit analysis. Study sponsored by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    -spectrum insecticides affect access to the market because of the long harvest intervals and residues in fruit. High damage to fruit crops leads to the abandonment of agriculture, which has negative social and environmental consequences. In 1998, the Regional Government of Madeira, with the support of the IAEA and FAO, through a technical cooperation project implemented the Madeira-Med project aimed at controlling the medfly using an integrated approach based on the sterile insect technique (SIT). A mass rearing and sterilization facility with a production capacity of 50 million sterile males per week was built and is currently in operation. Madeira-Med was referred to as an essential stepping-stone for Madeira fruit production to be able to withstand future challenges. The present study sets out to quantify the different categories of benefits that would be obtained by effectively controlling the medfly using SIT and the costs of the control programme. The economic analysis will evaluate how Madeira-Med benefits society as a whole and not only fruit producers. It includes gains from increase in production volumes and the reduction of production costs, which are direct benefits for the farmers. In addition it includes improvements in environmental quality and health that will benefit both farmers and fruit consumers. Recent cost benefit analyses for proposed insect pest eradication or suppression programmes have included some environmental factors, but a systematic valuation of these factors is new to this study

  6. Value-based benefit-cost of local DSM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Value-based benefits and costs of demand-side management (DSM) were discussed in the context of local electricity resource planning in downtown Toronto. The analysis considered the effects on local customer interruption as a result of DSM, and the deferment in need for local transmission and distribution upgrades. The life cycle and cash flow benefits and costs of DSM were discussed from the perspectives of the electric utility, the DSM-participating and non-participating customers, and society as a whole. Cashflow and lifecycle analyses results were reconciled. The Toronto Integrated Electrical Service (TIES) study, the basis for this paper, was described. Two main conclusions were reached, i.e. since the savings in the generationg system as a whole were far greater than the local savings,the value of a specific DSM program would be similar across a utility's service area, and (2) while cashflow analysis illustrated the short and medium term benefits and costs in a way most people intuitively understand, in effect,the lifecycle-cost estimates produce a clearer indicator of long-run economics

  7. Public opinion – a stumbling block to enlargement? : an analysis of the relation between costs and benefits of eastern enlargement and their perception in current EU member-states

    OpenAIRE

    Husz, Dora

    2003-01-01

    The present paper investigates how one factor, the public perception of costs and benefits of enlargement in the current EU member-states might play a role in influencing the form and the content of eastern enlargement. The core of the analysis is focused on the demonstration and explanation of discrepancies between the costs and benefits of eastern enlargement for the EU and their public perception in the current member-states.

  8. Nuclear enterprises at the Institute for Energy Technology - IFE. A socio-economic cost/benefit analysis; Nukleaere virksomheter ved Institutt for energiteknikk - IFE. En samfunnsoekonomisk kost/nytte-analyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-03-15

    A cost-benefit analysis concerning the research reactors JEEP II at Kjeller and the Halden Reactor in Halden, operated by the Institute for Energy Technology. It is concluded for both of the reactors that the benefits of continued operations are outweigh the cost. Financing, accident risk, waste management and nuclear competence are some of the aspects treated. The Norwegian Ministry of Trade and Industry initiated the evaluation on behalf of the Norwegian Government

  9. Mitigation of radon in drinking water of Finnish drilled wells. Present state and Cost-benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual collective dose from natural radioactivity of ingested drinking water in Finland is estimated at 260 manSv. The users of drilled wells receive about half of the collective dose, although their proportion of the population is only about 5%. Radon causes approximately 70% of the ingestion dose. Apart from ingested water, consumers are exposed to radon and its decay products when radon is released into indoor air in situations like showering and washing cloths and dishes. The lung cancer risk from inhaled decay products of radon depends strongly on the smoking prevalence in the exposed population. To combine the both exposure paths, ingestion and breathing, it is more feasible to calculate the number of cancer deaths rather than doses. In addition to the number of annual cases, the cost per averted cancer case is influenced by the total costs of the chosen removal method, frequency distribution of radon concentration in the wells and the action level applied. When the action level for radon in drinking water in a private well is exceeded, STUK recommends joining the municipal water system or a water co-operative as a primary alternative. These options assure both the quality of drinking water and a proper wastewater disposal. However, neither of these alternatives is commonly available in sparsely populated areas. Another viable choice is to dig a well into the soil. If none of these alternatives is possible, two methods can be used for removing radon from drinking water: aeration and activated carbon filtration. If the filtration method is used without adequate shielding, an additional dose may incur due to external gamma radiation emitted by the short-lived decay products of radon that are retained in the carbon. STUK recommends that an activated carbon filter unit not be installed inside a dwelling, but be placed in a separate building or in the subsurface service space beside the drilled well. Until now, about one thousand drilled wells are equipped

  10. Medical tourism: a cost or benefit to the NHS?

    OpenAIRE

    Johanna Hanefeld; Daniel Horsfall; Neil Lunt; Richard Smith

    2013-01-01

    'Medical Tourism' - the phenomenon of people travelling abroad to access medical treatment - has received increasing attention in academic and popular media. This paper reports findings from a study examining effect of inbound and outbound medical tourism on the UK NHS, by estimating volume of medical tourism and associated costs and benefits. A mixed methods study it includes analysis of the UK International Passenger Survey (IPS); interviews with 77 returning UK medical tourists, 63 policym...

  11. A Cost-Benefit Model for an Enterprise Information Security

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Kiran Kumar Kommineni; Dr. Adimulam Yesu Babu,

    2013-01-01

    A Cost-Benefit model for an enterprise information security is presented in this paper. Economical analysis of information security investments that enterprises can use as guidance when applying the recommended risk mitigation plans are developed. An enterprises information security risk management associated with economical metrics. An economical analytical model is presented that enables the assessment of the necessary investment in the recommended information security. This model would be ...

  12. Cost benefit analysis of energy renovation and structural retrofitting of Tobačna Ljubljana factory building

    OpenAIRE

    Jankovič, Gabrijela

    2015-01-01

    The thesis presents design of energy renovation and structural retrofitting of the building of Tobačna Ljubljana factory. First, we have obtained the necessary information about the current state of object. For this purpose, we have also used infrared thermography and the heat flow meter. Images and measurements, obtained by non-destructive techniques, were used as a part of input data for the analysis of building energy efficiency. In ArchiMAID program we created energy performan...

  13. BENEFIT COST FOR BIOMASS CO-FIRING IN ELECTRICITY GENERATION: CASE OF UTAH, U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man-Keun Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Policy making regarding biomass co-firing is difficult. The article provides a benefit-cost analysis for decision makers to facilitate policy making process to implement efficient biomass co-firing policy. The additional cost is the sum of cost of the biomass procurement and biomass transportation. Co-benefits are sales of greenhouse gas emission credits and health benefit from reducing harmful air pollutants, especially particulate matter. The benefit-cost analysis is constructed for semi-arid U.S. region, Utah, where biomass supply is limited. Results show that biomass co-firing is not economically feasible in Utah but would be feasible when co-benefits are considered. Benefit-cost ratio is critically dependent upon biomass and carbon credit prices. The procedure to build the benefit-cost ratio can be applied for any region with other scenarios suggested in this study.

  14. Increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of environmental decisions: Benefit-cost analysis and effluent fees: A critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this critical review is to evaluate and summarize the literature on economic tools used to improve environmental decision making. Environmental decisions are complicated by pervasive uncertainty, and the lack of consensus on goals and on tradeoffs, such as air versus water pollution and versus loss of coal mining jobs. Five decision frameworks are used by regulatory agencies to simplify decision making. Congress' choice of a decision framework designates the amount of data and analysis that will be required and the range and depth of social values that must be considered. Economic incentives have worked well for phasing out lead in gasoline, for increasing recycling and for reducing the volume of municipal solid waste. Congress has mandated incentives for acid rain and CFCs, and several countries have implemented carbon taxes to abate greenhouse gas emissions. Economic tools have become more central to the analysis and implementation of environmental policies; their role should continue to increase. We conclude that economic tools are extremely valuable, although their application is difficult

  15. The Benefits and Costs of Intervening in Banking Crises

    OpenAIRE

    Edward J. Frydl; Marc Quintyn

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides a framework to assess the benefits and costs of intervening in a banking crisis. Intervention involves liquidity support and resolution actions. Principal benefits of intervention include avoiding panic and eliminating the economic costs of distorted incentives. Principal costs include fiscal costs and the economic costs of delay. The government’s main decision concerns the length of the resolution horizon—whether to adopt a deliberate or an aggressive resolution strategy....

  16. Understanding the compliance costs of benefits and tax credits

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, Fran; Brewer, Mike; Shaw, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    This report describes a scoping study to understand more about the nature of the 'costs of compliance' that claimants of social security benefits and (personal) tax credits incur, and discusses possible ways of measuring such costs. 'Costs of compliance' refers to the costs - time, money and psychological costs - that are imposed on applicants for, and recipients of, benefits and tax credits and on others by meeting all the various requirements placed on them by social security and tax credit...

  17. Applying the Net-Benefit Framework for Analyzing and Presenting Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of a Maternal and Newborn Health Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Hounton, Sennen; Newlands, David

    2012-01-01

    Background Coverage of maternal and newborn health (MNH) interventions is often influenced by important determinants and decision makers are often concerned with equity issues. The net-benefit framework developed and applied alongside clinical trials and in pharmacoeconomics offers the potential for exploring how cost-effectiveness of MNH interventions varies at the margin by important covariates as well as for handling uncertainties around the ICER estimate. Aim We applied the net-benefit fr...

  18. Ex-ante benefit-cost analysis of the elimination of a Glossina palpalis gambiensis population in the Niayes of Senegal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Bouyer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2005, the Government of Senegal embarked on a campaign to eliminate a Glossina palpalis gambiensis population from the Niayes area (∼ 1000 km(2 under the umbrella of the Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC. The project was considered an ecologically sound approach to intensify cattle production. The elimination strategy includes a suppression phase using insecticide impregnated targets and cattle, and an elimination phase using the sterile insect technique, necessary to eliminate tsetse in this area.Three main cattle farming systems were identified: a traditional system using trypanotolerant cattle and two "improved" systems using more productive cattle breeds focusing on milk and meat production. In improved farming systems herd size was 45% lower and annual cattle sales were €250 (s.d. 513 per head as compared to €74 (s.d. 38 per head in traditional farming systems (p<10-3. Tsetse distribution significantly impacted the occurrence of these farming systems (p = 0.001, with 34% (s.d. 4% and 6% (s.d. 4% of improved systems in the tsetse-free and tsetse-infested areas, respectively. We calculated the potential increases of cattle sales as a result of tsetse elimination considering two scenarios, i.e. a conservative scenario with a 2% annual replacement rate from traditional to improved systems after elimination, and a more realistic scenario with an increased replacement rate of 10% five years after elimination. The final annual increase of cattle sales was estimated at ∼ €2800/km(2 for a total cost of the elimination campaign reaching ∼ €6400/km(2.Despite its high cost, the benefit-cost analysis indicated that the project was highly cost-effective, with Internal Rates of Return (IRR of 9.8% and 19.1% and payback periods of 18 and 13 years for the two scenarios, respectively. In addition to an increase in farmers' income, the benefits of tsetse elimination include a reduction of grazing pressure on

  19. Physical Vulnerability Assessment Based on Fluid and Classical Mechanics to Support Cost-Benefit Analysis of Flood Risk Mitigation Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Volcan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of flood events that occurred in autumn 2011 in the Italian regions of Liguria and Tuscany revived the engagement of the public decision-maker to enhance the synergy of flood control and land use planning. In this context, the design of efficient flood risk mitigation strategies and their subsequent implementation critically relies on a careful vulnerability analysis of the fixed and mobile elements exposed to flood hazard. In this paper we develop computation schemes enabling dynamic vulnerability and risk analyses for a broad typological variety of elements at risk. To show their applicability, a series of prime examples are discussed in detail, e.g. a bridge deck impacted by the flood and a car, first displaced and subsequently exposed to collision with fixed objects. We hold the view that it is essential that the derivation of the computational schemes to assess the vulnerability of endangered objects should be based on classical and fluid mechanics. In such a way, we aim to complement from a methodological perspective the existing, mainly empirical, vulnerability and risk assessment approaches and to support the design of effective flood risk mitigation strategies by defusing the main criticalities within the systems prone to flood risk.

  20. Cost-benefit analysis of forestry-based carbon sequestration in Northwest Ecuador[Background paper for Human Dimensions of Greenhouse Gas Management Canada (part of BIOCAP Canada)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benitez, P.C. [Victoria Univ., BC (Canada). Dept. of Economics, Resource and Environmental Economics and Policy Analysis (REPA) Research Group; Olschewski, R. [Georg-August Univ., Gottingen (Germany). Inst. of Forest Economics

    2005-07-01

    This study presents an economic analysis of the costs of carbon sequestration in northwest Ecuador, an area of high deforestation rates due to timber extraction and conversion to agricultural land. The study provides a better understanding of the economics of the supply and demand for carbon sequestration in tropical forestry. The objective of the study was to determine if revenues from carbon sequestration generated by the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol are sufficient to make tropical forestry competitive with agricultural land uses such as pasture for cattle ranching. The authors determined minimum compensation payments for carbon sequestration through tree planting and natural regeneration of secondary forests. Accounting regimes for CDM sinks were used to determine carbon benefits. A comparison of afforestation methods showed that secondary forestry is a better option because of its low establishment cost and early revenues from timber. Although this methodology supports the supply side of carbon sequestration, it was noted that not all zones are economically suited for carbon sequestration. Potential carbon revenues depend on future market for certified emission reductions (CER) which are certificates of greenhouse gas emission (GHG) reductions obtained from project activities in developing countries. They include emission reductions through emission avoidance and mitigation of emissions by carbon sequestration as measured in tons of carbon dioxide. 37 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs., 1 appendix.

  1. Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Adopting ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999 as a Commercial Building Energy Code in Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, Katherine A.; Belzer, David B.; Halverson, Mark A.; Richman, Eric E.; Winiarski, David W.

    2002-09-30

    The state of Michigan is considering adpoting ASHRAE 90.1-1999 as its commercial building energy code. In an effort to evaluate whether or not this is an appropraite code for the state, the potential benefits and costs of adopting this standard are considered. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits are assessed. The energy simulation and economic results suggest that adopting ASHRAE 90.1-1999 would provide postitive net benefits to the state relative to the building and design requirements currently in place.

  2. Cost-benefit analysis from the hospital perspective of universal active screening followed by contact precautions for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnell, James A; Bartsch, Sarah M; Lee, Bruce Y; Huang, Susan S; Miller, Loren G

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the economic impact to a hospital of universal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) screening. METHODS We used a decision tree model to estimate the direct economic impact to an individual hospital of starting universal MRSA screening and contact precautions. Projected costs and benefits were based on literature-derived data. Our model examined outcomes of several strategies including non-nares MRSA screening and comparison of culture versus polymerase chain reaction-based screening. RESULTS Under baseline conditions, the costs of universal MRSA screening and contact precautions outweighed the projected benefits generated by preventing MRSA-related infections, resulting in economic costs of $104,000 per 10,000 admissions (95% CI, $83,000-$126,000). Cost-savings occurred only when the model used estimates at the extremes of our key parameters. Non-nares screening and polymerase chain reaction-based testing, both of which identified more MRSA-colonized persons, resulted in more MRSA infections averted but increased economic costs of the screening program. CONCLUSIONS We found that universal MRSA screening, although providing potential benefit in preventing MRSA infection, is relatively costly and may be economically burdensome for a hospital. Policy makers should consider the economic burden of MRSA screening and contact precautions in relation to other interventions when choosing programs to improve patient safety and outcomes. PMID:25627755

  3. Análisis costo beneficio del Programa de Detección Oportuna del Cáncer Cervicouterino Cost benefit analysis of the Cervical Cancer Screening Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIA HERNÁNDEZ-PEÑA

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar el costo beneficio de la reorganización del Programa de Detección Oportuna del Cáncer Cervicouterino (PDOC mediante intervenciones de garantía de calidad. Material y métodos. Se siguieron tres etapas: a identificación y cuantificación de costos; b identificación y cuantificación de beneficios, y c evaluación económica del costo beneficio. Resultados. El costo unitario de operación por citología -obtención, fijación, el traslado al centro de lectura, su tinción e interpretación y la notificación de resultados- se estimó en USD$ 11.6. En conjunto, las intervenciones en calidad al PDOC elevarían el costo de cada citología en 32.7%. Sin embargo, la nueva organización generaría una razón beneficio/costo de 2 y un beneficio neto de 88 millones de dólares para los próximos cinco años. Conclusiones. La operación del programa propuesto resulta socialmente deseable, siempre y cuando las modificaciones se lleven a cabo, particularmente la capacitación, la notificación personalizada de los casos positivos, el incremento de cobertura, la introducción de mecanismos de control de calidad, el monitoreo contínuo y el tratamiento en mujeres con anormalidades detectadas.Objective. Previous researches pointed out the critical changes needed to increase the efficiency of the National Screening Programme of Cervical Cancer in Mexico. These changes were assessed through a cost-benefit analysis. This paper presents the results of that appraisal. Figures are presented as USDollars of 1996 valued as 7.5 pesos for each dollar. Results. The operational unitary cost of the integral process of the cytology –the obtention of the Pap smear, its transportation to the interpretation centre, its analysis, and the notification of results to users– was estimated in US$ 11.6. If the proposed changes are operated, the cost of each citology would increase by 32.7%. The benefit/cost ratio would be 2 and the net benefit of 88

  4. FIMCAR XIII: Cost Benefit Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Mervyn; WISCH, Marcus; Pastor, Claus; Price, Jennifer; Broughton, Jeremy; Adolph, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    Although the number of road accident casualties in Europe is falling the problem still remains substantial. In 2011 there were still over 30,000 road accident fatalities [EC 2012]. Approximately half of these were car occupants and about 60 percent of these occurred in frontal impacts. The next stage to improve a car’s safety performance in frontal impacts is to improve its compatibility for car-to-car impacts and for collisions against objects and HGVs. Compatibility consists of improving bo...

  5. Does Increasing Community and Liquor Licensees’ Awareness, Police Activity, and Feedback Reduce Alcohol-Related Violent Crime? A Benefit-Cost Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Petrie

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Approximately half of all alcohol-related crime is violent crime associated with heavy episodic drinking. Multi-component interventions are highly acceptable to communities and may be effective in reducing alcohol-related crime generally, but their impact on alcohol-related violent crime has not been examined. This study evaluated the impact and benefit-cost of a multi-component intervention (increasing community and liquor licensees’ awareness, police activity, and feedback on crimes typically associated with alcohol-related violence. The intervention was tailored to weekends identified as historically problematic in 10 experimental communities in NSW, Australia, relative to 10 control ones. There was no effect on alcohol-related assaults and a small, but statistically significant and cost-beneficial, effect on alcohol-related sexual assaults: a 64% reduction in in the experimental relative to control communities, equivalent to five fewer alcohol-related sexual assaults, with a net social benefit estimated as AUD$3,938,218. The positive benefit-cost ratio was primarily a function of the value that communities placed on reducing alcohol-related harm: the intervention would need to be more than twice as effective for its economic benefits to be comparable to its costs. It is most likely that greater reductions in crimes associated with alcohol-related violence would be achieved by a combination of complementary legislative and community-based interventions.

  6. Limitations on cost-benefit analyses involving low radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to examine some limitations on cost-benefit analyses related to activities involving individual exposures below ∼0.1 to 1 Sv. Previous papers have presented evidence showing the likelihood that there is no purely linear dose-response component at low radiation levels that most dose-response functions where the response is the induction of an initial cancer cell are likely to be curvilinear (concave) upward at the lowest exposure levels. There is also considerable evidence that hormetic effects in this dose region, including those that can repair or kill initiated cancer cells as well as those that might provide beneficial health effects, are likely to be superimposed on any dose-response functions for the carcinogenic process alone. These phenomena impose such large uncertainties in response at low doses that current risk factors obtained by extrapolation of linear-quadratic models fitted to human cancer data at high dose levels are inapplicable for use in low-dose cost-benefit analyses; this is true at least insofar as such analyses cannot be expected in themselves to necessarily result in optimum choices between alternative actions. The influence of these uncertainties on cost-benefit analysis has been examined using methods for such analyses as given in Ref. 5

  7. Costs and benefits in hunter-gatherer punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Christopher

    2012-02-01

    Hunter-gatherer punishment involves costs and benefits to individuals and groups, but the costs do not necessarily fit with the assumptions made in models that consider punishment to be altruistic--which brings in the free-rider problem and the problem of second-order free-riders. In this commentary, I present foragers' capital punishment patterns ethnographically, in the interest of establishing whether such punishment is likely to be costly; and I suggest that in many cases abstentions from punishment that might be taken as defections by free-riders are actually caused by social-structural considerations rather than being an effect of free-rider genes. This presentation of data supplements the ethnographic analysis provided by Guala. PMID:22289308

  8. HACCP in Pork Processing: Costs and Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Helen H.; Unnevehr, Laurian J.

    1999-01-01

    To help pork processing firms evaluate the costs of pathogen-reducing interventions, Jensen and Unnevehr explore the various trade-offs associated with multiple pathogen reduction targets. They find that the costs of individual pathogen reduction technologies range from $0.03 to $0.20 per carcass for hogs, and the costs of optimal combinations of technologies may be as high a $0.47 per carcass. While these estimates represent less than 2 percent of packing costs, they are still considerably l...

  9. Costs and Benefits of Producer Board Deregulation

    OpenAIRE

    Geoff Sinclair

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers evidence on whether deregulation of single-buyer Producer Boards is likely to yield net benefits to producers, relevant industries and the New Zealand economy. It assumes some familiarity with industry structures and the ongoing debate. The discussion focuses on the static and dynamic effects of the statutory single buyer powers of the Dairy, Apple & Pear and Kiwifruit Boards, and concludes that on balance, the benefits of deregulation are expected to significantly outwei...

  10. Costs and Benefits of Stem Cell Research and Treatment: Media Presentation and Audience Understanding in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Vicsek, Lilla

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the press coverage and audience understanding of the costs and benefits of stem cell research/treatment in Hungary. A content analysis of five newspapers and a focus group study was conducted. The way participants talked about the costs and benefits in many aspects echoed the dominant framing of the issue in the press (medical benefits = main benefit, high expense of treatment = dominant negative aspect). Even though participants applied analogical reasoning to formulate s...

  11. Ecophysiological Traits of Terrestrial and Aquatic Carnivorous Plants: Are the Costs and Benefits the Same?

    OpenAIRE

    Adamec, Lubomír; Ellison, Aaron M.

    2011-01-01

    Identification of trade-offs among physiological and morphological traits and their use in cost-benefit models and ecological or evolutionary optimization arguments have been hallmarks of ecological analysis for at least 50 years. Carnivorous plants are model systems for studying a wide range of ecophysiological and ecological processes and the application of a cost-benefit model for the evolution of carnivory by plants has provided many novel insights into trait-based cost-benefit models. Ce...

  12. Costs and Benefits of New Apprenticeships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockery, A. M.; Kelly, R.; Norris, K.; Stromback, T.

    2001-01-01

    Case studies of 60 employers assessed the impact of Australia's efforts to develop a more encompassing system of employment-based vocational education and training. Employers were positive about competency-based assessment and training flexibility. The net cost of employing trainees did not change but the cost of apprentices increased. (JOW)

  13. Costs and benefits of cold acclimation in field released Drosophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Torsten N; Hoffmann, Ary A; Overgaard, Johannes;

    2008-01-01

    -acclimated were up to 36 times more likely to find food than the cold-acclimated flies when temperatures were warm. Such costs and strong benefits were not evident in laboratory tests where we found no reduction in heat survival of the cold-acclimated flies. Field release studies, therefore, reveal costs of cold...... for costs and benefits of developmental or adult cold acclimation. Both types of cold acclimation had enormous benefits at low temperatures in the field; in the coldest releases only cold-acclimated flies were able to find a resource. However, this advantage came at a huge cost; flies that had not been cold...

  14. Do the benefits of college still outweigh the costs?

    OpenAIRE

    Jaison R. Abel; Deitz, Richard

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, students have been paying more to attend college and earning less upon graduation—trends that have led many observers to question whether a college education remains a good investment. However, an analysis of the economic returns to college since the 1970s demonstrates that the benefits of both a bachelor’s degree and an associate’s degree still tend to outweigh the costs, with both degrees earning a return of about 15 percent over the past decade. The return has remained hig...

  15. Cost/Benefits of Solid Waste Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Helmut W.

    1975-01-01

    Municipalities and industry are being forced to seek alternatives to sanitary landfills and incineration as means of eliminating solid wastes. Based on the Columbia study, the two most cost-effective, environmentally acceptable alternatives are the high temperature, oxygen-fed pyrolysis process and the co-combustion of refuse-derived fuel in…

  16. School-enterprise Cooperation Research Based on Cost-benefit Analysis%基于成本-收益分析的校企合作研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭少柱

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarizes the current major mode of school-enterprise cooperation, and evaluates cost-benefit of the different cooperation modes. Cost-benefit balance is the prerequisite and basis for rational decision-making, is the key to en-sure school-enterprise cooperation initiative. This article analyzes factors what affect the cost-benefit balance both schools and enterprises, and put forward some suggestions to promote school-enterprise cooperation.%本文归纳总结了目前校企合作的主要模式,并对不同合作模式中校企双方的成本-收益情况进行了评价。成本-收益平衡是理性决策的前提和基础,是确保校企双方合作积极性的关键。文章对影响校企双方成本-收益平衡的因素进行了分析,提出了促进校企合作的几点建议。

  17. Costs and benefits of energy efficiency improvements in ceiling fans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Nihar; Sathaye, Nakul; Phadke, Amol; Letschert, Virginie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technology Division

    2013-10-15

    Ceiling fans contribute significantly to residential electricity consumption, especially in developing countries with warm climates. The paper provides analysis of costs and benefits of several options to improve the efficiency of ceiling fans to assess the global potential for electricity savings and green house gas (GHG) emission reductions. Ceiling fan efficiency can be cost-effectively improved by at least 50% using commercially available technology. If these efficiency improvements are implemented in all ceiling fans sold by 2020, 70 terawatt hours per year could be saved and 25 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-e) emissions per year could be avoided, globally. We assess how policies and programs such as standards, labels, and financial incentives can be used to accelerate the adoption of efficient ceiling fans in order to realize potential savings.

  18. Financial benefits, travel costs, and bankruptcy

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhed, Vyacheslav; Scholnick, Barry

    2014-01-01

    We are the first to show that the cost of personal bankruptcy filers traveling to their bankruptcy trustees affects bankruptcy choices. We use detailed balance sheet, income statement, and location data from 400,000 Canadian bankruptcies. To control for endogenous trustee selection, we use the location of local government offices as an instrument for the location of bankruptcy trustees (while filers interact with trustees, and trustees interact with local government, filers do not interact wi...

  19. The Costs and Benefits of Metaphor

    OpenAIRE

    Noveck, Ira; Bianco, Maryse; Castry, Alain

    2000-01-01

    Many researchers consider metaphor so fundamental to psychological activity that they claim that it does not require extra cognitive effort to process. While not disputing that metaphors are natural to human cognition, we argue that a metaphor's relative ease-of-use ought not be confounded with an expectation that it prompts no extra effort. As many studies show (including those presented here), metaphors often come with costs when compared to non-figurative controls (e.g. longer processing t...

  20. Cost-benefit considerations in regulatory decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atomic Energy Control Board is investigating the feasibility of developing methods for factoring cost-benefit considerations into its regulatory decision-making. This initiative results, in part, from the federal government policy requiring cost-benefit considerations to be taken into account in regulatory processes, and from the recommendations of an Advisory Panel on Regulatory Review in 1993, submitted to the Minister of Natural Resources Canada. One of these recommendations stated: 'that mechanisms be developed to examine cost-benefit issues and work towards some consensus of opinion among stakeholders; a task force on the subject could be an appropriate starting point'. (author)