WorldWideScience

Sample records for beneficiary identification code

  1. Secure surface identification codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekhof, F.; Voloshynovskiy, S.; Koval, O.; Villan, R.; Pun, T.

    2008-02-01

    This paper introduces an identification framework for random microstructures of material surfaces. These microstructures represent a kind of unique fingerprints that can be used to track and trace an item as well as for anti-counterfeiting. We first consider the architecture for mobile phone-based item identification and then introduce a practical identification algorithm enabling fast searching in large databases. The proposed algorithm is based on reference list decoding. The link to digital communications and robust perceptual hashing is shown. We consider a practical construction of reference list decoding, which comprizes computational complexity, security, memory storage and performance requirements. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated on experimental data obtained from natural paper surfaces.

  2. 49 CFR 178.905 - Large Packaging identification codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Large Packaging identification codes. 178.905... FOR PACKAGINGS Large Packagings Standards § 178.905 Large Packaging identification codes. Large packaging code designations consist of: two numerals specified in paragraph (a) of this section; followed...

  3. Permanent phonetic identification code for radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a system of self-checking short and easily memorisable 4-digit 'Permanent Phonetic Radiation Code' (PPRC) using radix 128 for Indians occupationally exposed to radiation, to facilitate entry of all radiation dose data pertaining to an individual in a single record of a file. The logic of PPRC is computer compatible. The necessary computer program has been developed in Health Physics Division for printing the PPRCs in Devanagari script through dot-matrix printers for making it understandable to the majority of the persons concerned. (author)

  4. Bar code technology improves positive patient identification and transfusion safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, S G; Langeberg, A; Dohnalek, L

    2005-01-01

    As a result of human error, an estimated 1 in 12,000 blood transfusions is given to the wrong patient. The cause of nearly all of these errors is failure of hospital personnel to identify positively intended transfusion recipients, their blood samples for cross-matching, or their correct blood components. We describe our experience using a point-of-care bar code transfusion safety system that links patients' bar-coded wristbands, with bar-coded labels on blood sample tubes, blood component bags, and nurses' identification badges. The result was 100 % accuracy of matching patients, their blood samples, and components for transfusions. For verifying information before starting blood transfusions, nurses preferred bar code "double checks" to conventional visual "double checks" by a second nurse. Methods are needed to reinforce nurses' proficiency with technological approaches to transfusion safety, such as software-driven bar code scanning, in situations where transfusions are administered infrequently. PMID:16050151

  5. Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Characteristics and Perceptions of the Medicare Population Data from the 2010 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey is a series of source books based on the...

  6. 21 CFR 11.300 - Controls for identification codes/passwords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES GENERAL ELECTRONIC RECORDS; ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES Electronic Signatures § 11.300 Controls for identification codes/passwords. Persons who use electronic signatures based upon use of identification codes in... using suitable, rigorous controls. (d) Use of transaction safeguards to prevent unauthorized use...

  7. Proposing national identification number on dental prostheses as universal personal identification code - A revolution in forensic odontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baad, Rajendra K; Belgaumi, Uzma; Vibhute, Nupura; Kadashetti, Vidya; Chandrappa, Pramod Redder; Gugwad, Sushma

    2015-01-01

    The proper identification of a decedent is not only important for humanitarian and emotional reasons, but also for legal and administrative purposes. During the reconstructive identification process, all necessary information is gathered from the unknown body of the victim and hence that an objective reconstructed profile can be established. Denture marking systems are being used in various situations, and a number of direct and indirect methods are reported. We propose that national identification numbers be incorporated in all removable and fixed prostheses, so as to adopt a single and definitive universal personal identification code with the aim of achieving a uniform, standardized, easy, and fast identification method worldwide for forensic identification. PMID:26005294

  8. Satisfaction with Health Care of Dually Eligible Older Beneficiaries

    OpenAIRE

    Burton, Lynda C; Weiner, Jonathan P; Folkemer, John; Kasper, Judith; German, Pearl S.; Stevens, Gregory D

    2001-01-01

    Satisfaction with health care was compared for dually eligible older beneficiaries receiving care in three settings: a managed care organization (MCO) that is at risk for providing Medicare and Medicaid benefits (n=200); the fee-for-service (FFS) sector in the same ZIP Code (n=201); and respondents to the national Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS) (n=531). Patients in the MCO were more likely to be highly satisfied in three domains—global quality, access to care, and technical skills...

  9. Who are the beneficiaries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tännsjö, Torbjörn

    1992-10-01

    Is it defensible that society spends money on medical or research projects intended to help people solve their fertility problems? Suppose that we want to answer this question from the point of view of a utilitarian cost-benefit analysis. The answer to the question then depends, of course, on how expensive these projects turn out to be, relative to the costs of other possible projects. But it depends also on how we assess the benefits of these projects. To whom do they accrue? Who are the beneficiaries of these projects?

  10. Validation of ICD-9-CM coding algorithm for improved identification of hypoglycemia visits

    OpenAIRE

    Lieberman Rebecca M; Blanc Phillip G; Ginde Adit A; Camargo Carlos A

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Accurate identification of hypoglycemia cases by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes will help to describe epidemiology, monitor trends, and propose interventions for this important complication in patients with diabetes. Prior hypoglycemia studies utilized incomplete search strategies and may be methodologically flawed. We sought to validate a new ICD-9-CM coding algorithm for accurate identification of hypoglyc...

  11. Identification of ICD Codes Suggestive of Child Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzer, Patricia G.; Slusher, Paula L.; Kruse, Robin L.; Tarleton, Molly M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In order to be reimbursed for the care they provide, hospitals in the United States are required to use a standard system to code all discharge diagnoses: the International Classification of Disease, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9). Although ICD-9 codes specific for child maltreatment exist, they do not identify all…

  12. Proposing national identification number on dental prostheses as universal personal identification code - A revolution in forensic odontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra K Baad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The proper identification of a decedent is not only important for humanitarian and emotional reasons, but also for legal and administrative purposes. During the reconstructive identification process, all necessary information is gathered from the unknown body of the victim and hence that an objective reconstructed profile can be established. Denture marking systems are being used in various situations, and a number of direct and indirect methods are reported. We propose that national identification numbers be incorporated in all removable and fixed prostheses, so as to adopt a single and definitive universal personal identification code with the aim of achieving a uniform, standardized, easy, and fast identification method worldwide for forensic identification.

  13. Chronic Conditions among Medicare Beneficiaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The data used in the chronic condition reports are based upon CMS administrative enrollment and claims data for Medicare beneficiaries enrolled in the...

  14. Dental Services Among Medicare Beneficiaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS) has a data highlight based on the 2012 Cost and Use Research Files. This work highlights dental information...

  15. Computational RNomics:Structure identification and functional prediction of non-coding RNAs in silico

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The eukaryotic genome contains varying numbers of non-coding RNA(ncRNA) genes."Computational RNomics" takes a multidisciplinary approach,like information science,to resolve the structure and function of ncRNAs.Here,we review the main issues in "Computational RNomics" of data storage and management,ncRNA gene identification and characterization,ncRNA target identification and functional prediction,and we summarize the main methods and current content of "computational RNomics".

  16. A simple and inexpensive bar-coding technique for denture identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali N Nalawade

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of commercial methods for identifying dentures are available. They can be either invasive or noninvasive techniques. The less sophisticated procedures include simple engraving with bur, and more sophisticated procedures use labels or chips. Bar coding system is a way of transferring data to the computer and huge data can be stored as a record. Bar coding can be easily incorporated during acrylization of the denture and thus could be used in individual identification.

  17. 27 CFR 73.12 - What security controls must I use for identification codes and passwords?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES AND PRACTICES ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES; ELECTRONIC SUBMISSION OF FORMS Electronic Signatures § 73.12 What security controls must I use for identification codes and passwords? If you use electronic signatures based upon...

  18. Towards a spectrum-based bar code for identification of weakly fluorescent microparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spectrally resolved detection of fluorescent probes can be used to identify multiple labeled target molecules in an unknown mixture. We study how the spectral shape, the experimental noise, and the number of spectral detection channels affect the success of identification of weakly fluorescent beads on basis of their emission spectra. The proposed formalism allows to estimate the performance of the spectral identification procedure with a given set of spectral codes on the basis of the reference spectra only. We constructed a simple prism-based setup for spectral detection and demonstrate that seven distinct but overlapping spectral codes realized by combining up to three fluorescent dyes bound to a single bead in a barcode-based manner can be reliably identified. The procedure allows correct identification even in the presence of known autofluorescence background stronger than the actual signal. (paper)

  19. One-time collision arbitration algorithm in radio-frequency identification based on the Manchester code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen-Chung; Chan, Yin-Tsung

    2011-02-01

    In radio-requency identification (RFID) systems, when multiple tags transmit data to a reader simultaneously, these data may collide and create unsuccessful identifications; hence, anticollision algorithms are needed to reduce collisions (collision cycles) to improve the tag identification speed. We propose a one-time collision arbitration algorithm to reduce both the number of collisions and the time consumption for tags' identification in RFID. The proposed algorithm uses Manchester coding to detect the locations of collided bits, uses the divide-and-conquer strategy to find the structure of colliding bits to generate 96-bit query strings as the 96-bit candidate query strings (96BCQSs), and uses query-tree anticollision schemes with 96BCQSs to identify tags. The performance analysis and experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has three advantages: (i) reducing the number of collisions to only one, so that the time complexity of tag identification is the simplest O(1), (ii) storing identified identification numbers (IDs) and the 96BCQSs in a register to save the used memory, and (iii) resulting in the number of bits transmitted by both the reader and tags being evidently less than the other algorithms in one-tag identification or in all tags identification.

  20. 78 FR 57807 - Aged Beneficiary Designation Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... record- keeper in regulations on June 13, 1997 (62 FR 32426). All beneficiary designation forms in an...; ] FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD 5 CFR Part 1651 Aged Beneficiary Designation Forms AGENCY... beneficiary designation form is valid only if it is received by the TSP record- keeper not more than one...

  1. Predicting and Classifying User Identification Code System Based on Support Vector Machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In digital fingerprinting, preventing piracy of images by colluders is an important and tedious issue. Each image will be embedded with a unique User IDentification (U ID) code that is the fingerprint for tracking the authorized user. The proposed hiding scheme makes use of a random number generator to scramble two copies of a UID,which will then be hidden in the randomly selected medium frequency coefficients of the host image. The linear support vector machine (SVM) will be used to train classifications by calculating the normalized correlation (NC) for the 2-class UID codes. The trained classifications will be the models used for identifying unreadable UID codes.Experimental results showed that the success of predicting the unreadable UID codes can be increased by applying SVM. The proposed scheme can be used to provide protections to intellectual property rights of digital images and to keep track of users to prevent collaborative piracies.

  2. Malnutrition: The Importance of Identification, Documentation, and Coding in the Acute Care Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Greg; Itsiopoulos, Catherine; Naunton, Mark; Luff, Narelle

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition is a significant issue in the hospital setting. This cross-sectional, observational study determined the prevalence of malnutrition amongst 189 adult inpatients in a teaching hospital using the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment tool and compared data to control groups for coding of malnutrition to determine the estimated unclaimed financial reimbursement associated with this comorbidity. Fifty-three percent of inpatients were classified as malnourished. Significant associations were found between malnutrition and increasing age, decreasing body mass index, and increased length of stay. Ninety-eight percent of malnourished patients were coded as malnourished in medical records. The results of the medical history audit of patients in control groups showed that between 0.9 and 5.4% of patients were coded as malnourished which is remarkably lower than the 52% of patients who were coded as malnourished from the point prevalence study data. This is most likely to be primarily due to lack of identification. The estimated unclaimed annual financial reimbursement due to undiagnosed or undocumented malnutrition based on the point prevalence study was AU$8,536,200. The study found that half the patients were malnourished, with older adults being particularly vulnerable. It is imperative that malnutrition is diagnosed and accurately documented and coded, so appropriate coding, funding reimbursement, and treatment can occur. PMID:27774317

  3. Catching Of Stolen Vehicles With Unique Identification Code Using Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Kumar Shakya

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this concept is to catch the stolen vehicles by a latest technology. This research work is developing a smart logic to identify the stolen vehicle on check post or Toll base. Still there is no technique to identify the vehicle on check posts by any mean. To employ this technology in use, we issue one unique identification code to every vehicle. This unique number is stored in the silicon chip and the chip is installed in the vehicle. No one can change this number because this UID chip is installed in the engine of the vehicle. This vehicle number is not available in the market. Now the vehicle is equipped with the UID code. This code is also stored in the Data base of check post or Toll base. Now when any vehicle passed through the check post/Toll then at the check post/Toll RF passive vehicle reader generates a 125 kHz frequency for decoding RF tag( which has been installed in the vehicle. If the data base does not find the stolen UID code then security gate gets OPEN and if the stolen UID code is matched with the data base then security gate remains closed and alarm becomes ON automatically and finally the stolen vehicle is caught

  4. OASDI Beneficiaries by State and County, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This annual publication focuses on the Social Security beneficiary population people receiving Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) benefits at the...

  5. OASDI Beneficiaries by State and County, 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This annual publication focuses on the Social Security beneficiary population people receiving Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) benefits at the...

  6. OASDI Beneficiaries by State and County, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This annual publication focuses on the Social Security beneficiary population people receiving Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) benefits at the...

  7. OASDI Beneficiaries by State and County, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This annual publication focuses on the Social Security beneficiary population people receiving Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) benefits at the...

  8. OASDI Beneficiaries by State and County, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This annual publication focuses on the Social Security beneficiary population people receiving Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) benefits at the...

  9. OASDI Beneficiaries by State and County, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This annual publication focuses on the Social Security beneficiary population people receiving Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) benefits at the...

  10. OASDI Beneficiaries by State and County, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This annual publication focuses on the Social Security beneficiary population people receiving Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) benefits at the...

  11. OASDI Beneficiaries by State and County, 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This annual publication focuses on the Social Security beneficiary population people receiving Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) benefits at the...

  12. OASDI Beneficiaries by State and County, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This annual publication focuses on the Social Security beneficiary population people receiving Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) benefits at the...

  13. OASDI Beneficiaries by State and County, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This annual publication focuses on the Social Security beneficiary population people receiving Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) benefits at the...

  14. OASDI Beneficiaries by State and County, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This annual publication focuses on the Social Security beneficiary population people receiving Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) benefits at the...

  15. OASDI Beneficiaries by State and County, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This annual publication focuses on the Social Security beneficiary population people receiving Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) benefits at the...

  16. OASDI Beneficiaries and Benefits by State-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This annual map focuses on the Social Security beneficiary population- people receiving Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) benefits- at the state...

  17. OASDI Beneficiaries and Benefits by State- 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This annual map focuses on the Social Security beneficiary population- people receiving Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) benefits- at the state...

  18. OASDI Beneficiaries by State and County, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This annual publication focuses on the Social Security beneficiary population people receiving Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) benefits at the...

  19. OASDI Beneficiaries by State and County, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This annual publication focuses on the Social Security beneficiary population people receiving Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) benefits at the...

  20. OASDI Beneficiaries by State and County, 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This annual publication focuses on the Social Security beneficiary population people receiving Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) benefits at the...

  1. A new method for species identification via protein-coding and non-coding DNA barcodes by combining machine learning with bioinformatic methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-bing Zhang

    Full Text Available Species identification via DNA barcodes is contributing greatly to current bioinventory efforts. The initial, and widely accepted, proposal was to use the protein-coding cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI region as the standard barcode for animals, but recently non-coding internal transcribed spacer (ITS genes have been proposed as candidate barcodes for both animals and plants. However, achieving a robust alignment for non-coding regions can be problematic. Here we propose two new methods (DV-RBF and FJ-RBF to address this issue for species assignment by both coding and non-coding sequences that take advantage of the power of machine learning and bioinformatics. We demonstrate the value of the new methods with four empirical datasets, two representing typical protein-coding COI barcode datasets (neotropical bats and marine fish and two representing non-coding ITS barcodes (rust fungi and brown algae. Using two random sub-sampling approaches, we demonstrate that the new methods significantly outperformed existing Neighbor-joining (NJ and Maximum likelihood (ML methods for both coding and non-coding barcodes when there was complete species coverage in the reference dataset. The new methods also out-performed NJ and ML methods for non-coding sequences in circumstances of potentially incomplete species coverage, although then the NJ and ML methods performed slightly better than the new methods for protein-coding barcodes. A 100% success rate of species identification was achieved with the two new methods for 4,122 bat queries and 5,134 fish queries using COI barcodes, with 95% confidence intervals (CI of 99.75-100%. The new methods also obtained a 96.29% success rate (95%CI: 91.62-98.40% for 484 rust fungi queries and a 98.50% success rate (95%CI: 96.60-99.37% for 1094 brown algae queries, both using ITS barcodes.

  2. 42 CFR 422.262 - Beneficiary premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Beneficiary premiums. 422.262 Section 422.262... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Submission of Bids, Premiums, and Related Information and Plan Approval § 422.262 Beneficiary premiums. (a) Determination of MA monthly basic...

  3. 5 CFR 870.909 - Designations and changes of beneficiary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Assignments of Life... may designate a beneficiary or beneficiaries to receive insurance benefits upon the death of the... the primary beneficiary and name another contingent beneficiary(ies) to receive insurance benefits...

  4. Medicare Accountable Care Organizations: Beneficiary Assignment Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Thomas; MacKinney, A Clinton; Mueller, Keith J; Ullrich, Fred; Zhu, Xi

    2016-06-01

    This brief updates Brief No. 2014-3 and explains changes in the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) Accountable Care Organization (ACO) regulations issued in June 2015 pertaining to beneficiary assignment for Medicare Shared Savings Program ACOs. Overall, the regulatory changes are intended to (1) encourage ACOs to participate in two-sided risk contracts, (2) increase the likelihood that beneficiaries are assigned to the physician (and ACO) from whom they receive most of their primary care services, and (3) make it easier for Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) and Rural Health Clinics (RHCs) to participate in ACOs. Understanding ACO beneficiary assignment policies is critical for ACO in managing their panel of ACO providers and beneficiaries. PMID:27416650

  5. Beneficiary Activation in the Medicare Population

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to findings reported in Beneficiary Activation in the Medicare Population, published in Volume 4, Issue 4 of the Medicare and Medicaid Research Review,...

  6. Medicare Accountable Care Organizations: Beneficiary Assignment Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Thomas; MacKinney, A Clinton; Mueller, Keith J; Ullrich, Fred; Zhu, Xi

    2016-06-01

    This brief updates Brief No. 2014-3 and explains changes in the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) Accountable Care Organization (ACO) regulations issued in June 2015 pertaining to beneficiary assignment for Medicare Shared Savings Program ACOs. Overall, the regulatory changes are intended to (1) encourage ACOs to participate in two-sided risk contracts, (2) increase the likelihood that beneficiaries are assigned to the physician (and ACO) from whom they receive most of their primary care services, and (3) make it easier for Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) and Rural Health Clinics (RHCs) to participate in ACOs. Understanding ACO beneficiary assignment policies is critical for ACO in managing their panel of ACO providers and beneficiaries.

  7. National Beneficiary Survey (NBS) Round 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — A cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of social security beneficiaries age 18-64 receiving disability benefits in active pay status as of...

  8. National Beneficiary Survey (NBS) Round 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — A cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of 4,864 social security beneficiaries age 18-64 receiving disability benefits in active pay status...

  9. National Beneficiary Survey (NBS) Round 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — A cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of 6,520 social security beneficiaries age 18-64 receiving disability benefits in active pay status...

  10. National Beneficiary Survey (NBS) Round 4

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — A cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of social security beneficiaries age 18-64 receiving disability benefits in active pay status as of...

  11. Basic Stand Alone Medicare Hospice Beneficiary PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Hospice Beneficiary Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare hospice claims. The CMS BSA Hospice...

  12. Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey - Limited Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS) is a continuous, multipurpose survey of a representative national sample of the Medicare population. There are two...

  13. Costs and Clinical Quality Among Medicare Beneficiaries..

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Authors of Costs and Clinical Quality Among Medicare Beneficiaries - Associations with Health Center Penetration of Low-Income Residents, published in Volume 4,...

  14. Genome-wide identification of non-coding RNAs interacted with microRNAs in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuyu eYe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of RNA species interacting with microRNAs (miRNAs form a complex gene regulation network and play vital roles in diverse biological processes. In this study, we performed a genome-wide identification of endogenous target mimics (eTMs for miRNAs and phased-siRNA-producing loci (PHAS in soybean with a focus on those involved in lipid metabolism. The results showed that a large number of eTMs and PHAS genes could be found in soybean. Additionally, we found that lipid metabolism related genes were potentially regulated by 28 miRNAs, and nine of them were potentially further regulated by a number of eTMs with expression evidence. Thirty-three miRNAs were found to trigger production of phasiRNAs from 49 PHAS genes, which were able to target lipid metabolism related genes. Degradome data supported miRNA- and/or phasiRNA-mediated cleavage of genes involved in lipid metabolism. Most eTMs for miRNAs involved in lipid metabolism and phasiRNAs targeting lipid metabolism related genes showed a tissue-specific expression pattern. Our bioinformatical evidences suggested that lipid metabolism in soybean is potentially regulated by a complex non-coding network, including miRNAs, eTMs and phasiRNAs, and the results extended our knowledge on functions of non-coding RNAs.

  15. Method for non-destructive measurement of heat affected zone of identification code on nuclear fuel rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a method for the nondestructive measurement of the depth of the heat affected zone underneath a laser generated identification code on a nuclear fuel rod tube, the change in impedance of an electromagnetic foil produced by a portion of the tube is measured before and after the etching of a bar code is performed by use of laser power. The impedance change in the coil produced by the bar code-bearing tube portion is compared with the impedance change produced in the coil by the same tube portion before the bar code is generated thereon to determine whether a maximum allowed depth of the heat affected zone of the tube portion has been exceeded. (author)

  16. Medicare Beneficiary Knowledge of the Part D Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Medicare Beneficiary Knowledge of the Part D Program and Its Relationship with Voluntary Enrollment According to findings appearing in Medicare Beneficiary...

  17. 42 CFR 423.293 - Collection of monthly beneficiary premium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Collection of monthly beneficiary premium. 423.293... Monthly Beneficiary Premiums; Plan Approval § 423.293 Collection of monthly beneficiary premium. (a) General rules. Part D sponsors must— (1) Charge enrollees a consolidated monthly Part D premium equal...

  18. Proposing national identification number on dental prostheses as universal personal identification code - A revolution in forensic odontology

    OpenAIRE

    Baad, Rajendra K.; Uzma Belgaumi; Nupura Vibhute; Vidya Kadashetti; Pramod Redder Chandrappa; Sushma Gugwad

    2015-01-01

    The proper identification of a decedent is not only important for humanitarian and emotional reasons, but also for legal and administrative purposes. During the reconstructive identification process, all necessary information is gathered from the unknown body of the victim and hence that an objective reconstructed profile can be established. Denture marking systems are being used in various situations, and a number of direct and indirect methods are reported. We propose that national identifi...

  19. 42 CFR 411.23 - Beneficiary's cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM EXCLUSIONS FROM MEDICARE AND LIMITATIONS ON MEDICARE PAYMENT Insurance Coverage That Limits Medicare Payment: General Provisions § 411.23 Beneficiary's cooperation. (a) If CMS takes action to...

  20. Coupling scanning electronc microscopy with DNA bar coding: A novel approach for thrips identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    The small size and cryptic nature of thrips pests help them acquire microhabitats of a plant and in the field, often making their monitoring and the identification process difficult. Accurate identification of such pests is a fundamental requirement in development of any effective quarantine and man...

  1. Identification and Analysis of Critical Gaps in Nuclear Fuel Cycle Codes Required by the SINEMA Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current state of the art in nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) modeling is an eclectic mixture of codes with various levels of applicability, flexibility, and availability. In support of the advanced fuel cycle systems analyses, especially those by the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), University of Cincinnati in collaboration with Idaho State University carried out a detailed review of the existing codes describing various aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle and identified the research and development needs required for a comprehensive model of the global nuclear energy infrastructure and the associated nuclear fuel cycles. Relevant information obtained on the NFC codes was compiled into a relational database that allows easy access to various codes' properties. Additionally, the research analyzed the gaps in the NFC computer codes with respect to their potential integration into programs that perform comprehensive NFC analysis.

  2. Identification and Analysis of Critical Gaps in Nuclear Fuel Cycle Codes Required by the SINEMA Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adrian Miron; Joshua Valentine; John Christenson; Majd Hawwari; Santosh Bhatt; Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar: Michael Lineberry

    2009-10-01

    The current state of the art in nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) modeling is an eclectic mixture of codes with various levels of applicability, flexibility, and availability. In support of the advanced fuel cycle systems analyses, especially those by the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), Unviery of Cincinnati in collaboration with Idaho State University carried out a detailed review of the existing codes describing various aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle and identified the research and development needs required for a comprehensive model of the global nuclear energy infrastructure and the associated nuclear fuel cycles. Relevant information obtained on the NFC codes was compiled into a relational database that allows easy access to various codes' properties. Additionally, the research analyzed the gaps in the NFC computer codes with respect to their potential integration into programs that perform comprehensive NFC analysis.

  3. Comparative Determinants of Productivity among Cassava Farmer-Beneficiaries and Non-Beneficiaries of Microfinance Institutions (MFIs) in Abia State Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Obike, Kingsley Chukwuemeka; Osundu, Charles Kelechi

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study investigated the comparative determinants of productivity among cassava farmer-beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries of Microfinance Institution (MFIs) in Abia state, Nigeria. Specifically, the study identified and examined factors influencing productivity of cassava farmers who are beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries of Microfinance Institutions (MFIs). Multistage random sampling technique was implored in sorting out respondents who are beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries o...

  4. TPASS: a gamma-ray spectrum analysis and isotope identification computer code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickens, J.K.

    1981-03-01

    The gamma-ray spectral data-reduction and analysis computer code TPASS is described. This computer code is used to analyze complex Ge(Li) gamma-ray spectra to obtain peak areas corrected for detector efficiencies, from which are determined gamma-ray yields. These yields are compared with an isotope gamma-ray data file to determine the contributions to the observed spectrum from decay of specific radionuclides. A complete FORTRAN listing of the code and a complex test case are given.

  5. On the Linearization of Human Identification Protocols: Attacks based on Linear Algebra, Coding Theory and Lattices

    OpenAIRE

    Asghar, HJ; Steinfeld, R.; Li, S.; Kaafar, MA; Pieprzyk, J

    2015-01-01

    Human identification protocols are challenge-response protocols that rely on human computational ability to reply to random challenges from the server based on a public function of a shared secret and the challenge to authenticate the human user. One security criterion for a human identification protocol is the number of challenge-response pairs the adversary needs to observe before it can deduce the secret. In order to increase this number, protocol designers have tried to construct protocol...

  6. Automatic Screening of Missing Objects and Identification with Group Coding of RF Tags

    OpenAIRE

    G. Vijayaraju

    2013-01-01

    Here the container of the shipping based phenomena it is a collection of the objects in a well oriented fashion by which there is a group oriented fashion related to the well efficient strategy of the objects based on the physical phenomena in a well efficient fashion respectively. Here by the enabling of the radio frequency identification based strategy in which object identification takes place in the system in a well efficient fashion and followed by the container oriented strategy in ...

  7. Method for Face Identification with Facial Action Coding System: FACS Based on Eigen Value Decomposion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Method for face identification based on eigen value decomposition together with tracing trajectories in the eigen space after the eigen value decomposition is proposed. The proposed method allows person to person differences due to faces in the different emotions. By using the well known action unit approach, the proposed method admits the faces in the different emotions. Experimental results show that recognition performance depends on the number of targeted peoples. The face identification rate is 80% for four peoples of targeted number while 100% is achieved for the number of targeted number of peoples is two.

  8. Identification of Sparse Audio Tampering Using Distributed Source Coding and Compressive Sensing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valenzise G

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, a large amount of techniques have been proposed to identify whether a multimedia content has been illegally tampered or not. Nevertheless, very few efforts have been devoted to identifying which kind of attack has been carried out, especially due to the large data required for this task. We propose a novel hashing scheme which exploits the paradigms of compressive sensing and distributed source coding to generate a compact hash signature, and we apply it to the case of audio content protection. The audio content provider produces a small hash signature by computing a limited number of random projections of a perceptual, time-frequency representation of the original audio stream; the audio hash is given by the syndrome bits of an LDPC code applied to the projections. At the content user side, the hash is decoded using distributed source coding tools. If the tampering is sparsifiable or compressible in some orthonormal basis or redundant dictionary, it is possible to identify the time-frequency position of the attack, with a hash size as small as 200 bits/second; the bit saving obtained by introducing distributed source coding ranges between 20% to 70%.

  9. Identification of minority resistance mutations in the HIV-1 integrase coding region using next generation sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonager, Jannik; Larsson, Jonas T; Hussing, Christian;

    2015-01-01

    : raltegravir (RAL), elvitegravir (EVG) and dolutegravir (DTG). STUDY DESIGN: NGS and Sseq were used to analyze RT-PCR products of the HIV-1 integrase coding region from six patients and in serial samples from two patients. NGS sequences were assembled and analyzed using the low frequency variant detection...

  10. Identification of evolutionarily conserved non-AUG-initiated N-terminal extensions in human coding sequences.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ivanov, Ivaylo P

    2011-05-01

    In eukaryotes, it is generally assumed that translation initiation occurs at the AUG codon closest to the messenger RNA 5\\' cap. However, in certain cases, initiation can occur at codons differing from AUG by a single nucleotide, especially the codons CUG, UUG, GUG, ACG, AUA and AUU. While non-AUG initiation has been experimentally verified for a handful of human genes, the full extent to which this phenomenon is utilized--both for increased coding capacity and potentially also for novel regulatory mechanisms--remains unclear. To address this issue, and hence to improve the quality of existing coding sequence annotations, we developed a methodology based on phylogenetic analysis of predicted 5\\' untranslated regions from orthologous genes. We use evolutionary signatures of protein-coding sequences as an indicator of translation initiation upstream of annotated coding sequences. Our search identified novel conserved potential non-AUG-initiated N-terminal extensions in 42 human genes including VANGL2, FGFR1, KCNN4, TRPV6, HDGF, CITED2, EIF4G3 and NTF3, and also affirmed the conservation of known non-AUG-initiated extensions in 17 other genes. In several instances, we have been able to obtain independent experimental evidence of the expression of non-AUG-initiated products from the previously published literature and ribosome profiling data.

  11. Identification of maize long non-coding RNAs responsive to drought stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs represent a class of riboregulators that either directly act in long form or are processed to shorter miRNAs and siRNAs. Emerging evidence shows that lncRNAs participate in stress responsive regulation. In this study, to identify the putative maize lncRNAs responsive to drought stress, 8449 drought responsive transcripts were first uploaded to the Coding Potential Calculator website for classification as protein coding or non-coding RNAs, and 1724 RNAs were identified as potential non-coding RNAs. A Perl script was written to screen these 1724 ncRNAs and 664 transcripts were ultimately identified as drought-responsive lncRNAs. Of these 664 transcripts, 126 drought-responsive lncRNAs were highly similar to known maize lncRNAs; the remaining 538 transcripts were considered as novel lncRNAs. Among the 664 lncRNAs identified as drought responsive, 567 were upregulated and 97 were downregulated in drought-stressed leaves of maize. 8 lncRNAs were identified as miRNA precursor lncRNAs, 62 were classified as both shRNA and siRNA precursors, and 279 were classified as siRNA precursors. The remaining 315 lncRNAs were classified as other lncRNAs that are likely to function as longer molecules. Among these 315 lncRNAs, 10 are identified as antisense lncRNAs and 7 could pair with 17 CDS sequences with near-perfect matches. Finally, RT-qPCR results confirmed that all selected lncRNAs could respond to drought stress. These findings extend the current view on lncRNAs as ubiquitous regulators under stress conditions.

  12. MCBS Highlights: Prescription Drug Coverage Among Medicare Beneficiaries

    OpenAIRE

    Regan, Joseph F.; Petroski, Cara A.

    2007-01-01

    The Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS) is a longitudinal survey of a nationally-representative sample of Medicare enrollees. The survey collects information on a variety of topics, including beneficiaries' health status; health care use and financing; and social, economic, and demographic characteristics. Medicare administrative data is regularly coupled with the information collected through the survey for validation purposes.

  13. 42 CFR 424.127 - Payment to the beneficiary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM CONDITIONS FOR MEDICARE PAYMENT Special Conditions: Services Furnished in a Foreign Country § 424.127 Payment to the beneficiary. (a) Conditions for payment of inpatient hospital... amount payable to the beneficiary is determined in accordance with § 424.109(b). (c) Conditions...

  14. Identification of protein-coding sequences using the hybridization of 18S rRNA and mRNA during translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Chuanhua; Bitzer, Donald L; Alexander, Winser E; Vouk, Mladen A; Stomp, Anne-Marie

    2009-02-01

    We introduce a new approach in this article to distinguish protein-coding sequences from non-coding sequences utilizing a period-3, free energy signal that arises from the interactions of the 3'-terminal nucleotides of the 18S rRNA with mRNA. We extracted the special features of the amplitude and the phase of the period-3 signal in protein-coding regions, which is not found in non-coding regions, and used them to distinguish protein-coding sequences from non-coding sequences. We tested on all the experimental genes from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The identification was consistent with the corresponding information from GenBank, and produced better performance compared to existing methods that use a period-3 signal. The primary tests on some fly, mouse and human genes suggests that our method is applicable to higher eukaryotic genes. The tests on pseudogenes indicated that most pseudogenes have no period-3 signal. Some exploration of the 3'-tail of 18S rRNA and pattern analysis of protein-coding sequences supported further our assumption that the 3'-tail of 18S rRNA has a role of synchronization throughout translation elongation process. This, in turn, can be utilized for the identification of protein-coding sequences.

  15. Employment among Social Security disability program beneficiaries, 1996-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamun, Arif; O'Leary, Paul; Wittenburg, David C; Gregory, Jesse

    2011-01-01

    We use linked administrative data from program and earnings records to summarize the 2007 employment rates of Social Security disability program beneficiaries at the national and state levels, as well as changes in employment since 1996. The findings provide new information on the employment activities of beneficiaries that should be useful in assessing current agency policies and providing benchmarks for ongoing demonstration projects and future return-to-work initiatives. The overall employment rate--which we define as annual earnings over $1,000--was 12 percent in 2007. Substantial variation exists within the population. Disability Insurance beneficiaries and those younger than age 40 were much more likely to work relative to other Social Security beneficiaries. Additionally, substantial regional variation exists across states; employment rates ranged from 7 percent (West Virginia) to 23 percent (North Dakota). Moreover, we find that the employment rates among beneficiaries were sensitive to the business cycle and persistent over time.

  16. A Bar Code and Radio-Frequency Identification System for Transfusion Safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sandler SG; DiBandi L; Langeberg A; Gibble J; Wilson C; Feldman CF

    2006-01-01

    This presentation will describe a pilot study of radio-frequency (RF) identification tags ("chips") that was conducted in parallel with standard procedures for the collection and testing of Red Blood Cells (Greater Chesapeake and Potomac Region, American Red Cross Biomedical Services, Baltimore, MD) and transfusion (Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, DC). The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether multi-write RF chips could be attached to blood bags, programmed, and used to facilitate the collection of information from (1) a blood bag manufacturer to (2) a blood collection center and, subsequently, to (3) a hospital transfusion service.

  17. Genome-wide identification and characterization of long intergenic non-coding RNAs in Ganoderma lucidum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqin Li

    Full Text Available Ganoderma lucidum is a white-rot fungus best-known for its medicinal activities. We have previously sequenced its genome and annotated the protein coding genes. However, long non-coding RNAs in G. lucidum genome have not been analyzed. In this study, we have identified and characterized long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNA in G. lucidum systematically. We developed a computational pipeline, which was used to analyze RNA-Seq data derived from G. lucidum samples collected from three developmental stages. A total of 402 lincRNA candidates were identified, with an average length of 609 bp. Analysis of their adjacent protein-coding genes (apcGenes revealed that 46 apcGenes belong to the pathways of triterpenoid biosynthesis and lignin degradation, or families of cytochrome P450, mating type B genes, and carbohydrate-active enzymes. To determine if lincRNAs and these apcGenes have any interactions, the corresponding pairs of lincRNAs and apcGenes were analyzed in detail. We developed a modified 3' RACE method to analyze the transcriptional direction of a transcript. Among the 46 lincRNAs, 37 were found unidirectionally transcribed, and 9 were found bidirectionally transcribed. The expression profiles of 16 of these 37 lincRNAs were found to be highly correlated with those of the apcGenes across the three developmental stages. Among them, 11 are positively correlated (r>0.8 and 5 are negatively correlated (r<-0.8. The co-localization and co-expression of lincRNAs and those apcGenes playing important functions is consistent with the notion that lincRNAs might be important regulators for cellular processes. In summary, this represents the very first study to identify and characterize lincRNAs in the genomes of basidiomycetes. The results obtained here have laid the foundation for study of potential lincRNA-mediated expression regulation of genes in G. lucidum.

  18. Identification of Genes Coding Aminoglycoside Modifying Enzymes in E. coli of UTI Patients in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rouf Mir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is to probe the pattern of antibiotic resistance against aminoglycosides and its mechanism in E. coli obtained from patients from Chennai, India. Isolation and identification of pathogens were done on MacConkey agar. Antimicrobial sensitivity testing was done by disc diffusion test. The identification of genes encoding aminoglycoside modifying enzymes was done by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. Out of 98 isolates, 71 (72.45% isolates were identified as E. coli and the remaining 27 (27.55% as other bacteria. Disc diffusion method results showed a resistance level of 72.15% for streptomycin, 73.4% for gentamicin, 63.26% for neomycin, 57.14% for tobramycin, 47.9% for netilmicin, and 8.16% for amikacin in E. coli. PCR screening showed the presence of four genes, namely, rrs, aacC2, aacA-aphD, and aphA3, in their plasmid DNA. The results point towards the novel mechanism of drug resistance in E. coli from UTI patients in India as they confirm the presence of genes encoding enzymes that cause resistance to aminoglycoside drugs. This could be an alarm for drug prescription to UTI patients.

  19. Evaluvation of Antenatal Checkup Practices Observed among Beneficiaries & Non Beneficiaries Under Janani Suraksha Yojana Scheme in Indore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shireen Sharma, V K Arora, Ahmed Shahjada, Piyusha Mahashabde, Abhishek Bachhotiya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Maternal mortality has been considered as a sign of social injustice to basic human health. GOI initiated some schemes to promote institutional deliveries with the ultimate objective of bringing down IMR and MMR one such scheme is Janani Suraksha Yojana under this scheme cash incentive is given to women opting for institutional delivery. Objective: To find out the utilization and association between services of ANC among Beneficiary and non- Beneficiary. Material & Method: A cross sectional study conducted over a period of one year, by using 30 clusters random sampling technique, with sample size of 450. Result: 69.5% was beneficiaries and 30.4% non-beneficiaries. 82.5% beneficiaries and 81.8% were found to be literate. Registration for ANC services, among beneficiary was found out to be 99.6% as compared to non-beneficiaries which was 97.8%. 74.4% beneficiaries had received 2tetanus and 72.8% had received more than 90 IFA tablets.

  20. Automatic Screening of Missing Objects and Identification with Group Coding of RF Tags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Vijayaraju

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Here the container of the shipping based phenomena it is a collection of the objects in a well oriented fashion by which there is a group oriented fashion related to the well efficient strategy of the objects based on the physical phenomena in a well efficient fashion respectively. Here by the enabling of the radio frequency identification based strategy in which object identification takes place in the system in a well efficient fashion and followed by the container oriented strategy in a well effective fashion respectively. Here there is a problem with respect to the present strategy in which there is a problem with respect to the design oriented mechanism by which there is a no proper analysis takes place for the accurate identification of the objects based on the missing strategy plays a major role in the system based aspect respectively. Here a new technique is proposed in order to overcome the problem of the previous method here the present design oriented powerful strategy includes the object oriented determination of the ID based on the user oriented phenomena in a well effective manner where the data related to the strategy of the missing strategy plays a major role in the system based aspect in a well effective fashion by which that is from the perfect analysis takes place from the same phenomena without the help of the entire database n a well respective fashion takes place in the system respectively. Here the main key aspect of the present method is to effectively divide the entire data related to the particular aspect and define based on the present strategy in a well effective manner in which there is coordination has to be maintained in the system based aspect respectively. Simulations have been conducted on the present method and a lot of analysis takes place on the large number of the data sets in a well oriented fashion with respect to the different environmental conditions where there is an accurate analysis with respect to

  1. [Identification of Spatial Coding Schemes by Errors Distribuition of Human Memory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyakhovetskii, V A; Karpinskaia, V Ju; Bobrova, E V

    2015-01-01

    The error distributions of sensory screen touches at kinesthetically memorization and reproduction of visual stimuli containing Muller-Lyer illusion and neutral stimuli were investigated. One group of right-handers begins the task with the right hand and continues with the left one, while the other group--vice versa. It was shown that the errors are distributed either exponentially (with the maximal amount of small errors) either with the maxima at the 2nd bin. The number of errors distributions decaying exponentially is higher for the group beginning the task with the right hand. The errors distributions of touches on the upper segment by the right hand decay exponentially faster than other distributions. Comparison of these data with the simulation results supports the hypothesis of specific for the right and left hemisphere positional and vector coding schemes at human memory. PMID:26601502

  2. DD3MAT - a code for yield criteria anisotropy parameters identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, P. D.; Carvalho, P. D.; Alves, J. L.; Oliveira, M. C.; Menezes, L. F.

    2016-08-01

    This work presents the main strategies and algorithms adopted in the DD3MAT inhouse code, specifically developed for identifying the anisotropy parameters. The algorithm adopted is based on the minimization of an error function, using a downhill simplex method. The set of experimental values can consider yield stresses and r -values obtained from in-plane tension, for different angles with the rolling direction (RD), yield stress and r -value obtained for biaxial stress state, and yield stresses from shear tests performed also for different angles to RD. All these values can be defined for a specific value of plastic work. Moreover, it can also include the yield stresses obtained from in-plane compression tests. The anisotropy parameters are identified for an AA2090-T3 aluminium alloy, highlighting the importance of the user intervention to improve the numerical fit.

  3. Beneficiary contact moderates relationship between authentic leadership and engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caren B. Scheepers

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Beneficiary contact moderates the relationship between authentic leadership and work engagement.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to examine the moderating effect of the breadth, depth and frequency of employee interaction with the beneficiaries of their work on the positive impact of authentic leadership on work engagement.Motivation for the study: Investigating the boundary conditions of the relationship between leaders and followers is vital to enhance the positive effect of leadership. Authentic leadership has not previously been examined with respect to beneficiary contact as a specific situational factor. The researchers therefore set out to ascertain whether beneficiary contact has a strengthening or weakening effect on the impact of authentic leadership on work engagement.Research design, approach and method: The researchers administered the Authentic Leadership Questionnaire (ALQ, the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9 and Grant’s scale on Beneficiary Contact.Main findings: The findings showed that beneficiary contact had a weakening effect on the positive relationship between authentic leadership and work engagement.Practical/managerial implications: Ideally, organisations create environments conducive to work engagement in which leadership plays an important role. This study found that one factor in the work environment, namely beneficiary contact, might have an adverse effect on the positive relationship that authentic leadership has on work engagement. Leaders should therefore take organisational contextual realities into account, such as regular, intense interaction of employees with the beneficiaries of their work. This situation could create strain for individual employees, requiring additional organisational support.Contribution/value-add: Organisations need to recognise the impact of beneficiary contact on the relationship between authentic leadership and work engagement. The researchers

  4. Combining protein identification and quantification: C-terminal isotope-coded tagging using sulfanilic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchaud, Alexandre; Guillaume, Elisabeth; Affolter, Michael; Robert, Fabien; Moreillon, Philippe; Kussmann, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Two methods of differential isotopic coding of carboxylic groups have been developed to date. The first approach uses d0- or d3-methanol to convert carboxyl groups into the corresponding methyl esters. The second relies on the incorporation of two 18O atoms into the C-terminal carboxylic group during tryptic digestion of proteins in H(2)18O. However, both methods have limitations such as chromatographic separation of 1H and 2H derivatives or overlap of isotopic distributions of light and heavy forms due to small mass shifts. Here we present a new tagging approach based on the specific incorporation of sulfanilic acid into carboxylic groups. The reagent was synthesized in a heavy form (13C phenyl ring), showing no chromatographic shift and an optimal isotopic separation with a 6 Da mass shift. Moreover, sulfanilic acid allows for simplified fragmentation in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) due the charge fixation of the sulfonate group at the C-terminus of the peptide. The derivatization is simple, specific and minimizes the number of sample treatment steps that can strongly alter the sample composition. The quantification is reproducible within an order of magnitude and can be analyzed either by electrospray ionization (ESI) or MALDI. Finally, the method is able to specifically identify the C-terminal peptide of a protein by using GluC as the proteolytic enzyme.

  5. A multiple copyright identification watermarking algorithm based on code division multiple access

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Fan; Li Jie; Su Yuting; Zhang Chun tian

    2008-01-01

    A multiple watermarking algorithm is presented according to the multiple accessing technique of the code division multiple access (CDMA) system. Multiple watermarks are embedded into digital images in the wavelet transform domain. Each of the watermarks is embedded and extracted independently without impacts to each other. Multiple watermarks are convolution encoded and block interleaved, and the orthogonal Gold sequences are used to spread spectrum of the copyright messages. CDMA encoded watermark messages are embedded into the wavelet sub-bands excluding the wavelet HH1 sub-bands. The embedment amplitude is decided by Watson's perceptual model of wavelet transform domain, and the embedment position in the selected wavelet sub-bands is decided randomly by a pseudo-random noise (PN) sequence. As a blind watermarking algorithm, watermarks are extracted without original image. The watermarking capacity of proposed algorithm is also discussed. When two watermarks are embedded in an image at the same time, the capacity is larger than the capacity when a single watermark is embedded, and is smaller than the sum of the capacity of two separately embedded watermarks. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm improves the detection bits error rate (BER) observably, and the multiple watermarks have a preferable robustness and invisibility.

  6. Identification of neural firing patterns, frequency and temporal coding mechanisms in individual aortic baroreceptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaguang eGu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In rabbit depressor nerve fibers, an on-off firing pattern, period-1 firing, and integer multiple firing with quiescent state were observed as the static pressure level was increased. A bursting pattern with bursts at the systolic phase of blood pressure, continuous firing, and bursting with burst at diastolic phase and quiescent state at systolic phase were observed as the mean level of the dynamic blood pressure was increased. For both static and dynamic pressures, the firing frequency of the first two firing patterns increased and of the last firing pattern decreased due to the quiescent state. If the quiescent state is disregarded, the spike frequency becomes an increasing trend. The instantaneous spike frequency of the systolic phase bursting, continuous firing, and diastolic phase bursting can reflect the temporal process of the systolic phase, whole procedure, and diastolic phase of the dynamic blood pressure signal, respectively. With increasing the static current corresponding to pressure level, the deterministic Hodgkin-Huxley (HH model manifests a process from a resting state first to period-1 firing via a subcritical Hopf bifurcation and then to a resting state via a supercritical Hopf bifurcation, and the firing frequency increases. The on-off firing and integer multiple firing were here identified as noise-induced firing patterns near the subcritical and supercritical Hopf bifurcation points, respectively, using the stochastic HH model. The systolic phase bursting and diastolic phase bursting were identified as pressure-induced firings near the subcritical and supercritical Hopf bifurcation points, respectively, using an HH model with a dynamic signal. The firing, spike frequency, and instantaneous spike frequency observed in the experiment were simulated and explained using HH models. The results illustrate the dynamics of different firing patterns and the frequency and temporal coding mechanisms of aortic baroreceptor.

  7. 19 CFR 10.177 - Cost or value of materials produced in the beneficiary developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... beneficiary developing country. 10.177 Section 10.177 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... produced in the beneficiary developing country. (a) “Produced in the beneficiary developing country...) Wholly the growth, product, or manufacture of the beneficiary developing country; or (2)...

  8. Genome Wide Identification and Functional Prediction of Long Non-Coding RNAs Responsive to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Infection in Brassica napus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Raj Kumar; Megha, Swati; Basu, Urmila; Rahman, Muhammad H.; Kav, Nat N. V.

    2016-01-01

    Sclerotinia stem rot caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum affects canola production worldwide. Emerging evidence suggests that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in the regulation of gene expression in plants, in response to both abiotic and biotic stress. So far, identification of lncRNAs has been limited to a few model plant species, and their roles in mediating responses to biotic stresses are yet to be characterized in Brassica napus. The present study reports the identification of novel lncRNAs responsive to S. sclerotiorum infection in B. napus at two time points after infection (24 hpi and 48 hpi) using a stranded RNA-Sequencing technique and a detection pipeline for lncRNAs. Of the total 3,181 lncRNA candidates, 2,821 lncRNAs were intergenic, 111 were natural antisense transcripts, 76 possessed exonic overlap with the reference coding transcripts while the remaining 173 represented novel lnc- isoforms. Forty one lncRNAs were identified as the precursors for microRNAs (miRNAs) including miR156, miR169 and miR394, with significant roles in mediating plant responses to fungal phytopathogens. A total of 931 differentially expressed lncRNAs were identified in response to S. sclerotiorum infection and the expression of 12 such lncRNAs was further validated using qRT-PCR. B. napus antisense lncRNA, TCONS_00000966, having 90% overlap with a plant defensin gene, showed significant induction at both infection stages, suggesting its involvement in the transcriptional regulation of defense responsive genes under S. sclerotiorum infection. Additionally, nine lncRNAs showed overlap with cis-regulatory regions of differentially expressed genes of B. napus. Quantitative RT-PCR verification of a set of S. sclerotiorum responsive sense/antisense transcript pairs revealed contrasting expression patterns, supporting the hypothesis that steric clashes of transcriptional machinery may lead to inactivation of sense promoter. Our findings highlight the potential

  9. Identification and characterization of small non-coding RNAs from Chinese fir by high throughput sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Li-Chuan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs play key roles in plant development, growth and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. At least four classes of sRNAs have been well characterized in plants, including repeat-associated siRNAs (rasiRNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs, trans-acting siRNAs (tasiRNAs and natural antisense transcript-derived siRNAs. Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata is one of the most important coniferous evergreen tree species in China. No sRNA from Chinese fir has been described to date. Results To obtain sRNAs in Chinese fir, we sequenced a sRNA library generated from seeds, seedlings, leaves, stems and calli, using Illumina high throughput sequencing technology. A comprehensive set of sRNAs were acquired, including conserved and novel miRNAs, rasiRNAs and tasiRNAs. With BLASTN and MIREAP we identified a total of 115 conserved miRNAs comprising 40 miRNA families and one novel miRNA with precursor sequence. The expressions of 16 conserved and one novel miRNAs and one tasiRNA were detected by RT-PCR. Utilizing real time RT-PCR, we revealed that four conserved and one novel miRNAs displayed developmental stage-specific expression patterns in Chinese fir. In addition, 209 unigenes were predicted to be targets of 30 Chinese fir miRNA families, of which five target genes were experimentally verified by 5' RACE, including a squamosa promoter-binding protein gene, a pentatricopeptide (PPR repeat-containing protein gene, a BolA-like family protein gene, AGO1 and a gene of unknown function. We also demonstrated that the DCL3-dependent rasiRNA biogenesis pathway, which had been considered absent in conifers, existed in Chinese fir. Furthermore, the miR390-TAS3-ARF regulatory pathway was elucidated. Conclusions We unveiled a complex population of sRNAs in Chinese fir through high throughput sequencing. This provides an insight into the composition and function of sRNAs in Chinese fir and sheds new light on land plant sRNA evolution.

  10. Beneficiary price sensitivity in the Medicare prescription drug plan market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frakt, Austin B; Pizer, Steven D

    2010-01-01

    The Medicare stand-alone prescription drug plan (PDP) came into existence in 2006 as part of the Medicare prescription drug benefit. It is the most popular plan type among Medicare drug plans and large numbers of plans are available to all beneficiaries. In this article we present the first analysis of beneficiary price sensitivity in the PDP market. Our estimate of elasticity of enrollment with respect to premium, -1.45, is larger in magnitude than has been found in the Medicare HMO market. This high degree of beneficiary price sensitivity for PDPs is consistent with relatively low product differentiation, low fixed costs of entry in the PDP market, and the fact that, in contrast to changing HMOs, beneficiaries can select a PDP without disrupting doctor-patient relationships. PMID:19191252

  11. Shared Savings Program ACO Beneficiary-level RIF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Centers for Medicare (CM) has created a set of standard analytical files that contain Shared Savings Program Accountable Care Organizations. Beneficiary-level...

  12. Longitudinal Statistics for New Social Security Disability Insurance Beneficiaries.

    OpenAIRE

    David Stapleton; Su Liu; Dawn Phelps; Sarah Prenovitz

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from a longitudinal examination regarding the extent to which new Social Security Disability Insurance beneficiaries return to work and use disability insurance work incentives, based on Social Security Administration data.

  13. Basic Stand Alone Skilled Nursing Facility Beneficiary PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Skilled Nursing Facility (SNF) Beneficiary Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare SNF claims. The...

  14. Earnings and Work Expectations of Social Security Disability Beneficiaries.

    OpenAIRE

    Gina A. Livermore

    2008-01-01

    The Ticket to Work and Work Incentives Improvement Act of 1999 prompted changes in the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) programs to help beneficiaries get and stay employed. This brief, the first in a new series from the Center for Studying Disability Policy at Mathematica, highlights the extent to which SSI and SSDI beneficiaries are working or trying to return to work. It also examines their interest in increasing their earnings and self-suf...

  15. Development of PARA-ID Code to Simulate Inelastic Constitutive Equations and Their Parameter Identifications for the Next Generation Reactor Designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Lee, J. H

    2006-03-15

    The establishment of the inelastic analysis technology is essential issue for a development of the next generation reactors subjected to elevated temperature operations. In this report, the peer investigation of constitutive equations in points of a ratcheting and creep-fatigue analysis is carried out and the methods extracting the constitutive parameters from experimental data are established. To perform simulations for each constitutive model, the PARA-ID (PARAmeter-IDentification) computer program is developed. By using this code, various simulations related with the parameter identification of the constitutive models are carried out.

  16. Defining Beneficiaries of Collective Reparations: The experience of the IACtHR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Contreras-Garduño

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Under international law, it is uncontested that the victims of gross and systematic human rights violations have the right to reparation. International tribunals have granted collective reparations as the most appropriate kind of reparation for these violations. This has been re-affirmed by the recent decision on reparations of the International Criminal Court in the Lubanga case. Since gross and systematic human rights violations involve large numbers of victims, collective reparations seem to be appropriate as they seek to provide redress to groups and communities. Yet, while there is a trend of international tribunals adjudicating gross human rights violations resorting to collective reparations, these reparations face numerous ambiguities such as the lack of a single definition and clear guidelines for the identification of their beneficiaries. This article examines the experience of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, pioneer of collective reparations, in the identification of beneficiaries of gross and systematic human rights violations.

  17. Postoperative Staphylococcus aureus infections in Medicare beneficiaries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moaven Razavi

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus infections are important because of their increasing frequency, resistance to antibiotics, and high associated rates of disabilities and deaths. We examined the incidence and correlates of S. aureus infections following 219,958 major surgical procedures in a 5% random sample of fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries from 2004-2007. Of these surgical patients, 0.3% had S. aureus infections during the hospitalizations when index surgical procedures were performed; and 1.7% and 2.3%, respectively, were hospitalized with infections within 60 days or 180 days following admissions for index surgeries. S. aureus infections occurred within 180 days in 1.9% of patients following coronary artery bypass graft surgery, 2.3% following hip surgery, and 5.9% following gastric or esophageal surgery. Of patients first hospitalized with any major infection reported during the first 180 days after index surgery, 15% of infections were due to S. aureus, 18% to other documented organisms, and no specific organism was reported on claim forms in 67%. Patient-level predictors of S. aureus infections included transfer from skilled nursing facilities or chronic hospitals and comorbid conditions (e.g., diabetes, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and chronic renal disease. In a logarithmic regression, elective index admissions with S. aureus infection stayed 130% longer than comparable patients without that infection. Within 180 days of the index surgery, 23.9% of patients with S. aureus infection and 10.6% of patients without this infection had died. In a multivariate logistic regression of death within 180 days of admission for the index surgery with adjustment for demographics, co-morbidities, and other risks, S. aureus was associated with a 42% excess risk of death. Due to incomplete documentation of organisms in Medicare claims, these statistics may underestimate the magnitude of S. aureus infection

  18. Identification of a positive transcription regulatory element within the coding region of the nifLA operon in Azotobacter vinelandii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Ranjana; Das, Hirendra K; Dixit, Aparna

    2005-07-01

    Nitrogen fixation in Azotobacter vinelandii is regulated by the nifLA operon. NifA activates the transcription of nif genes, while NifL antagonizes the transcriptional activator NifA in response to fixed nitrogen and molecular oxygen levels. However, transcriptional regulation of the nifLA operon of A. vinelandii itself is not fully understood. Using the S1 nuclease assay, we mapped the transcription start site of the nifLA operon, showing it to be similar to the sigma54-dependent promoters. We also identified a positive cis-acting regulatory element (+134 to +790) of the nifLA operon within the coding region of the nifL gene of A. vinelandii. Deletion of this element results in complete loss of promoter activity. Several protein factors bind to this region, and the specific binding sites have been mapped by DNase I foot printing. Two of these sites, namely dR1 (+134 to +204) and dR2 (+745 to +765), are involved in regulating the nifLA promoter activity. The absence of NtrC-like binding sites in the upstream region of the nifLA operon in A. vinelandii makes the identification of these downstream elements a highly significant finding. The interaction of the promoter with the proteins binding to the dR2 region spanning +745 to +765 appears to be dependent on the face of the helix as introduction of 4 bases just before this region completely disrupts promoter activity. Thus, the positive regulatory element present within the BglII-BglII fragment may play, in part; an important role in nifLA regulation in A. vinelandii. PMID:16000781

  19. Research on Framework of Verification Code Rapid Identification Based on PIL%基于PIL的验证码快速识别框架的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡光中; 欧阳鸿志

    2012-01-01

    The verification code is widely used on the network as a Turing test, the study of the verification code identification technology helps verification code development and solves some emerging issues. This paper presents a framework based on PIL library, through a combination of excellent features of Python and known identification methods, can quickly respond to common verification code in the form, and can achieve better recognition results.%验证码是网络上普遍采用的一种图灵测试,研究验证码识别技术有助于验证码发展和解决一些新生问题.本文提出一种基于PIL类库的识别框架,通过结合Python的优良特性和己知识别方法,能够快速应时常见验证码形式,并能达到较好的识别效果.

  20. Local population characteristics and hemoglobin A1c testing rates among diabetic medicare beneficiaries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C Yasaitis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Proposed payment reforms in the US healthcare system would hold providers accountable for the care delivered to an assigned patient population. Annual hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c tests are recommended for all diabetics, but some patient populations may face barriers to high quality healthcare that are beyond providers' control. The magnitude of fine-grained variations in care for diabetic Medicare beneficiaries, and their associations with local population characteristics, are unknown. METHODS: HbA1c tests were recorded for 480,745 diabetic Medicare beneficiaries. Spatial analysis was used to create ZIP code-level estimated testing rates. Associations of testing rates with local population characteristics that are outside the control of providers--population density, the percent African American, with less than a high school education, or living in poverty--were assessed. RESULTS: In 2009, 83.3% of diabetic Medicare beneficiaries received HbA1c tests. Estimated ZIP code-level rates ranged from 71.0% in the lowest decile to 93.1% in the highest. With each 10% increase in the percent of the population that was African American, associated HbA1c testing rates were 0.24% lower (95% CI -0.32--0.17; for identical increases in the percent with less than a high school education or the percent living in poverty, testing rates were 0.70% lower (-0.95--0.46 and 1.6% lower (-1.8--1.4, respectively. Testing rates were lowest in the least and most densely populated ZIP codes. Population characteristics explained 5% of testing rate variations. CONCLUSIONS: HbA1c testing rates are associated with population characteristics, but these characteristics fail to explain the vast majority of variations. Consequently, even complete risk-adjustment may have little impact on some process of care quality measures; much of the ZIP code-related variations in testing rates likely result from provider-based differences and idiosyncratic local factors not related to

  1. Medicare spending by beneficiaries with various types of supplemental insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandker, R K; McCormack, L A

    1999-06-01

    The authors analyzed Medicare spending by elderly noninstitutionalized Medicare beneficiaries with and without supplemental insurance such as Medigap, employer-sponsored plans, and Medicaid. Use of a detailed survey of Medicare beneficiaries and their Medicare health insurance claims enabled the authors to control for health status, chronic conditions, functional limitations, and other factors that explain spending variations across supplemental insurance categories. The authors found that supplemental insurance was associated with a higher probability and level of Medicare spending, particularly for Part B services. Beneficiaries with both Medigap and employer plans had the highest levels of spending ceteris paribus, suggesting a possible moral hazard effect of insurance. Findings from this study are discussed in the context of the overall financing of health care for the elderly. PMID:10373721

  2. Analysis of Satisfaction Degree of the Public Insurance System Beneficiaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela PANAITESCU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The public insurance system provides financial benefits to individuals that are obtained by collecting the due contributions. The analysis of satisfaction degree of the beneficiaries of the system was carried out to determine the challenges the system is facing and for determining the needs of the beneficiaries. In order to reduce the financial constraints the public insurance system is facing, it is necessary to create an appropriate insurance system that meets the needs of the beneficiaries. The research took into account that the public insurance system determines the quality of life of the population and has a strong influence on the economy, particularly on the labour market and the capital market.

  3. 基于链码跟踪的Data Matrix二维条码快速识别%Quick identification of Data Matrix two-dimensional bar code based on chain code tracking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐义钊; 白瑞林; 余震虹; 吉峰

    2012-01-01

    为实现工业现场中Data Matrix二维条码的快速识别,提出一种基于链码跟踪、直线段提取的条码快速识别方法.首先采用Sobel算子提取图像边缘;然后基于链码跟踪方法,跟踪图像的边缘点,记录链码;接着根据快速直线段提取方法,将直线相似度低于阈值的线段剔除,结合线形连接方法合并断裂线段,并使用长度判别剔除不可靠的线段;最后结合Data Matrix二维条码的特征,定位Data Matrix二维条码.实际测试表明,该识别方法能够快速、准确地定位二维条码区域,识别正确率可达99.39%以上,具有实时性强、可靠性好等特点,满足工业现场要求.%A two-dimensional bar code recognition method based on chain code tracking and straight line segment extraction was proposed in order to realize quick identification of the Data Matrix two-dimensional bar code in the industrial field. Firstly, the Sobel operator was used to extract the edge of image. Secondly, the image edge points were tracked and chain codes were recorded based on chain code tracking method. Thirdly, line segment whose straight line similarity was below the threshold was removed with fast straight line segment extraction method. The fracture line was combined with the linear connection method and the unreliable line was excluded by length discrimination. Finally, the Data Matrix bar code was located with the characteristics of the Data Matrix two-dimensional bar code. The application test shows that the two-dimensional bar code area can be quickly and accurately located by the recognition method with the recognition rate of 99. 39%. The proposed method is ready to meet the requirements of industrial field with strong real-time ability and high reliability.

  4. The fusion protein signal-peptide-coding region of canine distemper virus: a useful tool for phylogenetic reconstruction and lineage identification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Sarute

    Full Text Available Canine distemper virus (CDV; Paramyxoviridae, Morbillivirus is the etiologic agent of a multisystemic infectious disease affecting all terrestrial carnivore families with high incidence and mortality in domestic dogs. Sequence analysis of the hemagglutinin (H gene has been widely employed to characterize field strains, permitting the identification of nine CDV lineages worldwide. Recently, it has been established that the sequences of the fusion protein signal-peptide (Fsp coding region are extremely variable, suggesting that analysis of its sequence might be useful for strain characterization studies. However, the divergence of Fsp sequences among worldwide strains and its phylogenetic resolution has not yet been evaluated. We constructed datasets containing the Fsp-coding region and H gene sequences of the same strains belonging to eight CDV lineages. Both datasets were used to evaluate their phylogenetic resolution. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that both datasets clustered the same strains into eight different branches, corresponding to CDV lineages. The inter-lineage amino acid divergence was fourfold greater for the Fsp peptide than for the H protein. The likelihood mapping revealed that both datasets display strong phylogenetic signals in the region of well-resolved topologies. These features indicate that Fsp-coding region sequence analysis is suitable for evolutionary studies as it allows for straightforward identification of CDV lineages.

  5. 42 CFR 424.62 - Payment after beneficiary's death: Bill has been paid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... beneficiary; (ii) The child or children, who were, for the month of death, entitled to monthly social security... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment after beneficiary's death: Bill has been... Made in Special Situations § 424.62 Payment after beneficiary's death: Bill has been paid. (a)...

  6. 42 CFR 424.64 - Payment after beneficiary's death: Bill has not been paid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment after beneficiary's death: Bill has not... Made in Special Situations § 424.64 Payment after beneficiary's death: Bill has not been paid. (a... has died and the bill has not been paid. (b) Situation. (1) The beneficiary has received covered...

  7. 75 FR 9360 - Investment Advice-Participants and Beneficiaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... beneficiaries of individual retirement accounts and certain similar plans (IRAs) (74 FR 3822). The rules..., 2009. On February 4, 2009, the Department published in the Federal Register (74 FR 6007) an invitation... 74 FR 11847). In order to afford the Department additional time to consider the issues raised...

  8. 38 CFR 6.6 - Change of beneficiary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... privilege given under the provisions of a United States Government life insurance policy without the consent... “beneficiary” clause in United States Government life insurance policies are hereby amended accordingly. ... GOVERNMENT LIFE INSURANCE Beneficiary of United States Government Life Insurance § 6.6 Change of......

  9. The Work Experiences of New SSI Beneficiaries: A Longitudinal Perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    Yonatan Ben-Shalom; David Stapleton

    2012-01-01

    This issue brief uses longitudinal data to follow a group of Social Security Insurance beneficiaries and examine their efforts to return to work. Compared with shorter-term cross-sectional data, the longitudinal statistics show higher levels of employment and suspensions of benefits due to work.

  10. 32 CFR 728.56 - Treasury Department beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 728.56 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL MEDICAL AND DENTAL CARE FOR ELIGIBLE PERSONS AT NAVY MEDICAL DEPARTMENT FACILITIES Beneficiaries of Other...) Secret Service Special Agents and support personnel. (2) Secret Service Agents providing protection...

  11. 42 CFR 411.402 - Indemnification of beneficiary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....402 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM EXCLUSIONS FROM MEDICARE AND LIMITATIONS ON MEDICARE PAYMENT Payment for Certain Excluded Services § 411.402 Indemnification of beneficiary. (a) Conditions for indemnification. If Medicare...

  12. Impact of Critical Access Hospital Conversion on Beneficiary Liability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Boyd H.

    2008-01-01

    Context: While the Medicare Critical Access Hospital (CAH) program has improved the financial viability of small rural hospitals and enhanced access to care in rural communities, the program puts beneficiaries at risk for paying a larger share of the cost of services covered under the Medicare part B benefit. Purpose: This paper examines the…

  13. Identification of a long non-coding RNA gene, growth hormone secretagogue receptor opposite strand, which stimulates cell migration in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, Eliza J; Seim, Inge; Pauli, Jana P; O'Keeffe, Angela J; Thomas, Patrick B; Carter, Shea L; Walpole, Carina M; Fung, Jenny N T; Josh, Peter; Herington, Adrian C; Chopin, Lisa K

    2013-08-01

    The molecular mechanisms involved in non‑small cell lung cancer tumourigenesis are largely unknown; however, recent studies have suggested that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are likely to play a role. In this study, we used public databases to identify an mRNA-like, candidate long non-coding RNA, GHSROS (GHSR opposite strand), transcribed from the antisense strand of the ghrelin receptor gene, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR). Quantitative real-time RT-PCR revealed higher expression of GHSROS in lung cancer tissue compared to adjacent, non-tumour lung tissue. In common with many long non-coding RNAs, GHSROS is 5' capped and 3' polyadenylated (mRNA-like), lacks an extensive open reading frame and harbours a transposable element. Engineered overexpression of GHSROS stimulated cell migration in the A549 and NCI-H1299 non-small cell lung cancer cell lines, but suppressed cell migration in the Beas-2B normal lung-derived bronchoepithelial cell line. This suggests that GHSROS function may be dependent on the oncogenic context. The identification of GHSROS, which is expressed in lung cancer and stimulates cell migration in lung cancer cell lines, contributes to the growing number of non-coding RNAs that play a role in the regulation of tumourigenesis and metastatic cancer progression.

  14. 彩色比特码自动识别技术在图书馆中的应用研究%Application Research on Color Bit Code Automatic Identification technology in the Libraries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海华

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces the basic identification principles and features of Color Bit Code Automatic Identification technology the application of the technology in many fields of foreign, analyzes the feasibility of domestic libraries by using Color Bit Code Automatic Identification technology. In the end of this paper, the paper has put forward the format of Color Bit Code Automatic Identification technology protocol.%对彩色比特码的定义及工作原理进行了概述,简单介绍了该技术在国外各领域的应用现状,分析了目前国内在图书馆领域应用彩色比特码自动识别技术的可行性,并提出了一种基于彩色比特码技术的图书管理协议格式。

  15. PCR assay based on DNA coding for 16S rRNA for detection and identification of mycobacteria in clinical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kox, L F; van Leeuwen, J; Knijper, S; Jansen, H M; Kolk, A H

    1995-01-01

    A PCR and a reverse cross blot hybridization assay were developed for the detection and identification of mycobacteria in clinical samples. The PCR amplifies a part of the DNA coding for 16S rRNA with a set of primers that is specific for the genus Mycobacterium and that flanks species-specific sequences within the genes coding for 16S rRNA. The PCR product is analyzed in a reverse cross blot hybridization assay with probes specific for M. tuberculosis complex (pTub1), M. avium (pAvi3), M. intracellulare (pInt5 and pInt7), M. kansasii complex-M. scrofulaceum complex (pKan1), M. xenopi (pXen1), M. fortuitum (pFor1), M. smegmatis (pSme1), and Mycobacterium spp. (pMyc5a). The PCR assay can detect 10 fg of DNA, the equivalent of two mycobacteria. The specificities of the probes were tested with 108 mycobacterial strains (33 species) and 31 nonmycobacterial strains (of 17 genera). The probes pAvi3, pInt5, pInt7, pKan1, pXen1, and pMyc5a were specific. With probes pTub1, pFor1, and pSme1, slight cross hybridization occurred. However, the mycobacterial strains from which the cross-hybridizing PCR products were derived belonged to nonpathogenic or nonopportunistic species which do not occur in clinical samples. The test was used on 31 different clinical specimens obtained from patients suspected of having mycobacterial disease, including a patient with a double mycobacterial infection. The samples included sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage, tissue biopsy samples, cerebrospinal fluid, pus, peritoneal fluid, pleural fluid, and blood. The results of the PCR assay agreed with those of conventional identification methods or with clinical data, showing that the test can be used for the direct and rapid detection and identification of mycobacteria in clinical samples. PMID:8586707

  16. Managed Care and Medical Expenditures of Medicare Beneficiaries

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Chernew; Philip DeCicca; Robert Town

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of Medicare HMO penetration on the medical care expenditures incurred by Medicare fee-for-service enrollees. We find that increasing penetration leads to reduced health care spending on fee-for-service beneficiaries. In particular, a one percentage point increase in Medicare HMO penetration reduces such spending by .9 percent. We estimate similar models for various measures of health care utilization and find penetration-induced reductions, consistent with o...

  17. Longitudinal Statistics for New Supplemental Security Income Beneficiaries

    OpenAIRE

    Yonatan Ben-Shalom; David Stapleton; Dawn Phelps; Maura Bardos

    2012-01-01

    Using Social Security Administration data, this paper presents findings from a longitudinal analysis of the extent to which new Supplemental Security Income (SSI) disability beneficiaries return to work and use SSI work incentives. Longitudinal statistics show that more than 8 percent of those first awarded SSI benefits as adults in 2001 had their benefits suspended due to work for at least a month by December 2007.

  18. 20 CFR 411.400 - Can an EN to which a beneficiary's ticket is assigned refer the beneficiary to a State VR agency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can an EN to which a beneficiary's ticket is... Rehabilitation Agencies' Participation Referrals by Employment Networks to State Vr Agencies § 411.400 Can an EN...? Yes. An EN may refer a beneficiary it is serving under the Ticket to Work program to a State VR...

  19. Use of Statins by Medicare Beneficiaries Post Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary C. Schroeder PhD

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Even though guidelines strongly recommend that patients receive a statin for secondary prevention after an acute myocardial infarction (MI, many elderly patients do not fill a statin prescription within 30 days of discharge. This paper assesses whether patterns of statin use by Medicare beneficiaries post-discharge may be due to a mix of high-quality and low-quality physicians. Our data come from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS Chronic Condition Data Warehouse (CCW and include 100% of Medicare beneficiaries hospitalized for an acute myocardial infarction in 2008 or 2009. Our study sample included physicians treating at least 10 Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries during their MI institutional stay. Physician-specific statin fill rates (the proportion of each physician’s patients with a statin within 30 days post-discharge were calculated to assess physician quality. We hypothesized that if the observed statin rates reflected a mix of high-quality and low-quality physicians, then physician-specific statin fill rates should follow a u-shaped or bimodal distribution. In our sample, 62% of patients filled a statin prescription within 30 days of discharge. We found that the distribution of statin fill rates across physicians was normal, with no clear distinctions in physician quality. Physicians, especially cardiologists, with relatively younger and healthier patient populations had higher rates of statin use. Our results suggest that physicians were engaging in patient-centered care, tailoring treatments to patient characteristics.

  20. Association of dementia with early rehospitalization among Medicare beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daiello, Lori A; Gardner, Rebekah; Epstein-Lubow, Gary; Butterfield, Kristen; Gravenstein, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Preventable hospital readmissions have been recognized as indicators of hospital quality, a source of increased healthcare expenditures, and a burden for patients, families, and caregivers. Despite growth of initiatives targeting risk factors associated with potentially avoidable hospital readmissions, the impact of dementia on the likelihood of rehospitalization is poorly characterized. Therefore, the primary objective of this retrospective cohort study was to investigate whether dementia was an independent predictor of 30-day readmissions. Administrative claims data for all admissions to Rhode Island hospitals in 2009 was utilized to identify hospitalizations of Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease or other dementias. Demographics, measures of comorbid disease burden, and other potential confounders were extracted from the data and the odds of 30-day readmission to any United States hospital was calculated from conditional logistic regression models. From a sample of 25,839 hospitalizations, there were 3908 index admissions of Medicare beneficiaries who fulfilled the study criteria for a dementia diagnosis. Nearly 20% of admissions (n=5133) were followed by a readmission within thirty days. Hospitalizations of beneficiaries with a dementia diagnosis were more likely to be followed by a readmission within thirty days (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.18; 95% CI, 1.08, 1.29), compared to hospitalizations of those of without dementia. Controlling for discharge site of care did not attenuate the association (AOR 1.21; 95% CI, 1.10, 1.33). PMID:24661400

  1. 基于组织机构代码的污染源标识研究%Study on the Identification of Pollution Sources Based on Organization Codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁步先; 刘定; 张学雷

    2015-01-01

    In this paper,the present condition of pollution source codes in multiple environmental protection businesses was de-scribed briefly.The encoding rules for pollution sources were established independently according to the needs of environmental management.However,the different ways of identification were unpredictable and incompatible on coding format for pollution sources,leading to multiple isolated information islands,which was a disadvantage towards the mutual communication of the basic information on pollution sources.The new encoding rules for pollution sources were proposed based on organization codes.The enco-ding structure and representation form were determined on the basis of the new encoding rules,which therefore had better practica-bility,uniqueness of identification and regularity of structures.Based on the pollution source codes,the environmental information resources could be effectively integrated to form an archive of pollution sources,which provides a comprehensive and detailed data support for the environmental regulation.Recommendations for the future implementing works were given according to the reality of the information system for the present environmental management businesses.%简述了中国环境保护多项业务中污染源代码现状,其污染源编码都是根据当时的环境管理工作需要,独立确定的一套编码规则,这些不同的标识方式,在污染源的编码格式上不具有稳定性与统一性,不利于污染源基础信息的共享,形成多个信息孤岛。提出了基于组织机构代码的污染源编码规则,确定了编码结构及表示形式,使新污染源编码规则具有较强的实用性、标识的唯一性以及结构的规范性。基于污染源代码,可以有效整合环境信息资源,形成污染源档案,为环境监管提供全面的、详实的数据支撑。根据当前环境管理业务信息系统的实际,提出了今后实施工作的建议。

  2. Depression Following Thrombotic Cardiovascular Events in Elderly Medicare Beneficiaries: Risk of Morbidity and Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Blanchette

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Depression and antidepressant use may independently increase the risk of acute myocardial infarction and mortality in adults. However, no studies have looked at the effect of depression on a broader thrombotic event outcome, assessed antidepressant use, or evaluated elderly adults. Methods. A cohort of 7,051 community-dwelling elderly beneficiaries who experienced a thrombotic cardiovascular event (TCE were pooled from the 1997 to 2002 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey and followed for 12 months. Baseline characteristics, antidepressant utilization, and death were ascertained from the survey, while indexed TCE, recurrent TCE, and depression (within 6 months of indexed TCE were taken from ICD-9 codes on Medicare claims. Time to death and first recurrent TCE were assessed using descriptive and multivariate statistics. Results. Of the elders with a depression claim, 71.6% had a recurrent TCE and 4.7% died within 12 months of their indexed TCE, compared to 67.6% and 3.9% of those elders without a depression claim. Of the antidepressant users, 72.6% experienced a recurrent TCE and 3.9% died, compared to 73.7% and 4.6% in the subset of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI users. Depression was associated with a shorter time to death (P=.008 in the unadjusted analysis. However, all adjusted comparisons revealed no effect by depression, antidepressant use, or SSRI use. Conclusions. Depression was not associated with time to death or recurrent TCEs in this study. Antidepressant use, including measures of any antidepressant use and SSRI use, was not associated with shorter time to death or recurrent TCE.

  3. Identification of Tissue-Specific Protein-Coding and Noncoding Transcripts across 14 Human Tissues Using RNA-seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinhang; Chen, Geng; Zhu, Sibo; Li, Suqing; Wen, Zhuo; Bin Li; Zheng, Yuanting; Shi, Leming

    2016-06-22

    Many diseases and adverse drug reactions exhibit tissue specificity. To better understand the tissue-specific expression characteristics of transcripts in different human tissues, we deeply sequenced RNA samples from 14 different human tissues. After filtering many lowly expressed transcripts, 24,729 protein-coding transcripts and 1,653 noncoding transcripts were identified. By analyzing highly expressed tissue-specific protein-coding transcripts (TSCTs) and noncoding transcripts (TSNTs), we found that testis expressed the highest numbers of TSCTs and TSNTs. Brain, monocytes, ovary, and heart expressed more TSCTs than the rest tissues, whereas brain, placenta, heart, and monocytes expressed more TSNTs than other tissues. Co-expression network constructed based on the TSCTs and TSNTs showed that each hub TSNT was co-expressed with several TSCTs, allowing functional annotation of TSNTs. Important biological processes and KEGG pathways highly related to the specific functions or diseases of each tissue were enriched with the corresponding TSCTs. These TSCTs and TSNTs may participate in the tissue-specific physiological or pathological processes. Our study provided a unique data set and systematic analysis of expression characteristics and functions of both TSCTs and TSNTs based on 14 distinct human tissues, and could facilitate future investigation of the mechanisms behind tissue-specific diseases and adverse drug reactions.

  4. Identification and characterization of wheat long non-protein coding RNAs responsive to powdery mildew infection and heat stress by using microarray analysis and SBS sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Huiru

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biotic and abiotic stresses, such as powdery mildew infection and high temperature, are important limiting factors for yield and grain quality in wheat production. Emerging evidences suggest that long non-protein coding RNAs (npcRNAs are developmentally regulated and play roles in development and stress responses of plants. However, identification of long npcRNAs is limited to a few plant species, such as Arabidopsis, rice and maize, no systematic identification of long npcRNAs and their responses to abiotic and biotic stresses is reported in wheat. Results In this study, by using computational analysis and experimental approach we identified 125 putative wheat stress responsive long npcRNAs, which are not conserved among plant species. Among them, some were precursors of small RNAs such as microRNAs and siRNAs, two long npcRNAs were identified as signal recognition particle (SRP 7S RNA variants, and three were characterized as U3 snoRNAs. We found that wheat long npcRNAs showed tissue dependent expression patterns and were responsive to powdery mildew infection and heat stress. Conclusion Our results indicated that diverse sets of wheat long npcRNAs were responsive to powdery mildew infection and heat stress, and could function in wheat responses to both biotic and abiotic stresses, which provided a starting point to understand their functions and regulatory mechanisms in the future.

  5. 基于结构化识别码的朝鲜文识别策略%A strategy of Korean character recognition based on structured identification code

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔荣一

    2000-01-01

    从文字识别的角度讨论了朝鲜文字母和文字的组成规则,采用字母结构化识别码分析了字母的基本要素与组成规律,并通过文字生成图和文字结构图分析了文字的时空特征.同时还讨论了文字复杂性的来源以及off-line手写体朝鲜文字识别的一种策略.%This paper discusses the combination rules of Korean grapheme and character from the point of view of character recognition. The essential components and combination rules of Korean grapheme are analyzed by adopting the structured identification code (ID-code), and the time-spece characteristics are analyzed with character generation diagram(CGD) and character structure diagram (CSD). The source of character complexity and a strategy of off-line handwritten Korean character recognition are also discussed.

  6. Properties of non-coding DNA and identification of putative cis-regulatory elements in Theileria parva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Xiang

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parasites in the genus Theileria cause lymphoproliferative diseases in cattle, resulting in enormous socio-economic losses. The availability of the genome sequences and annotation for T. parva and T. annulata has facilitated the study of parasite biology and their relationship with host cell transformation and tropism. However, the mechanism of transcriptional regulation in this genus, which may be key to understanding fundamental aspects of its parasitology, remains poorly understood. In this study, we analyze the evolution of non-coding sequences in the Theileria genome and identify conserved sequence elements that may be involved in gene regulation of these parasitic species. Results Intergenic regions and introns in Theileria are short, and their length distributions are considerably right-skewed. Intergenic regions flanked by genes in 5'-5' orientation tend to be longer and slightly more AT-rich than those flanked by two stop codons; intergenic regions flanked by genes in 3'-5' orientation have intermediate values of length and AT composition. Intron position is negatively correlated with intron length, and positively correlated with GC content. Using stringent criteria, we identified a set of high-quality orthologous non-coding sequences between T. parva and T. annulata, and determined the distribution of selective constraints across regions, which are shown to be higher close to translation start sites. A positive correlation between constraint and length in both intergenic regions and introns suggests a tight control over length expansion of non-coding regions. Genome-wide searches for functional elements revealed several conserved motifs in intergenic regions of Theileria genomes. Two such motifs are preferentially located within the first 60 base pairs upstream of transcription start sites in T. parva, are preferentially associated with specific protein functional categories, and have significant similarity to know

  7. Study and Redefining Beneficiary Participation in Process Of House Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monshizadeh Morteza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since housing has a special place in human life and his physical, psychological and interactions, so in addition the unity of humans, multiplicity and diversity of them must be considered. This possible only by beneficiary participation in the design process, but because society has different economic and social texture and classes; and settling suit because of the time and place of special indexes are entitled, so prepare a comprehensive model includes the testimony and circumstances; identify factors influencing participation optimum need to selection population and certain species of private construction. Standard tool to study topic does not exist, so in order to produce tools using qualitative research methods; interpretation - historical correlation to extract components and variables and their effects on each other and enjoyed target table Content consisting of four domains of general knowledge - specialized knowledge of participation - participation mechanisms and factors influencing participation achieved. Extracted factors are: the initial formation of partnership - partnership executive process - the role of participant - optimal participation; by study and analyze the theoretical model. Due to history and social aspects; cultural participation in Shiraz; promote scientific and participatory approach designed to make operating housing; bed and new horizons of development of facilities and areas in the design of residential environment created and due consultation and decision making in addition to beneficiary participation to promote optimum utility of space; mutual flexibility and utilization of space; increase fixation and motivation will lead beneficiary reside” and the main question: “how is the model of scientific position optimal participation planning instrument in private housing in the city of Shiraz, in the process of design, implementation and use”.

  8. lncRNA-MFDL: identification of human long non-coding RNAs by fusing multiple features and using deep learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiao-Nan; Zhang, Shao-Wu

    2015-03-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as a novel class of noncoding RNAs and potent gene regulators, which play an important and varied role in cellular functions. lncRNAs are closely related with the occurrence and development of some diseases. High-throughput RNA-sequencing techniques combined with de novo assembly have identified a large number of novel transcripts. The discovery of large and 'hidden' transcriptomes urgently requires the development of effective computational methods that can rapidly distinguish between coding and long noncoding RNAs. In this study, we developed a powerful predictor (named as lncRNA-MFDL) to identify lncRNAs by fusing multiple features of the open reading frame, k-mer, the secondary structure and the most-like coding domain sequence and using deep learning classification algorithms. Using the same human training dataset and a 10-fold cross validation test, lncRNA-MFDL can achieve 97.1% prediction accuracy which is 5.7, 3.7, and 3.4% higher than that of CPC, CNCI and lncRNA-FMFSVM predictors, respectively. Compared with CPC and CNCI predictors in other species (e.g., anole lizard, zebrafish, chicken, gorilla, macaque, mouse, lamprey, orangutan, xenopus and C. elegans) testing datasets, the new lncRNA-MFDL predictor is also much more effective and robust. These results show that lncRNA-MFDL is a powerful tool for identifying lncRNAs. The lncRNA-MFDL software package is freely available at for academic users. PMID:25588719

  9. Identification of developmentally regulated PCP-responsive non-coding RNA, prt6, in the rat thalamus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironao Takebayashi

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia and similar psychoses induced by NMDA-type glutamate receptor antagonists, such as phencyclidine (PCP and ketamine, usually develop after adolescence. Moreover, adult-type behavioral disturbance following NMDA receptor antagonist application in rodents is observed after a critical period at around 3 postnatal weeks. These observations suggest that the schizophrenic symptoms caused by and psychotomimetic effects of NMDA antagonists require the maturation of certain brain neuron circuits and molecular networks, which differentially respond to NMDA receptor antagonists across adolescence and the critical period. From this viewpoint, we have identified a novel developmentally regulated phencyclidine-responsive transcript from the rat thalamus, designated as prt6, as a candidate molecule involved in the above schizophrenia-related systems using a DNA microarray technique. The transcript is a non-coding RNA that includes sequences of at least two microRNAs, miR132 and miR212, and is expressed strongly in the brain and testis, with trace or non-detectable levels in the spleen, heart, liver, kidney, lung and skeletal muscle, as revealed by Northern blot analysis. The systemic administration of PCP (7.5 mg/kg, subcutaneously (s.c. significantly elevated the expression of prt6 mRNA in the thalamus at postnatal days (PD 32 and 50, but not at PD 8, 13, 20, or 24 as compared to saline-treated controls. At PD 50, another NMDA receptor antagonist, dizocilpine (0.5 mg/kg, s.c., and a schizophrenomimetic dopamine agonist, methamphetamine (4.8 mg/kg, s.c., mimicked a significant increase in the levels of thalamic prt6 mRNAs, while a D2 dopmamine receptor antagonist, haloperidol, partly inhibited the increasing influence of PCP on thalamic prt6 expression without its own effects. These data indicate that prt6 may be involved in the pathophysiology of the onset of drug-induced schizophrenia-like symptoms and schizophrenia through the possible

  10. Genome-wide long non-coding RNA screening, identification and characterization in a model microorganism Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Wang, Yuting; Chen, Meirong; Xiao, Peng; Hu, Changxing; Zeng, Zhiyong; Wang, Chaogang; Wang, Jiangxin; Hu, Zhangli

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae are regarded as the most promising biofuel candidates and extensive metabolic engineering were conducted but very few improvements were achieved. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) investigation and manipulation may provide new insights for this issue. LncRNAs refer to transcripts that are longer than 200 nucleotides, do not encode proteins but play important roles in eukaryotic gene regulation. However, no information of potential lncRNAs has been reported in eukaryotic alga. Recently, we performed RNA sequencing in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and obtained totally 3,574 putative lncRNAs. 1440 were considered as high-confidence lncRNAs, including 936 large intergenic, 310 intronic and 194 anti-sense lncRNAs. The average transcript length, ORF length and numbers of exons for lncRNAs are much less than for genes in this green alga. In contrast with human lncRNAs of which more than 98% are spliced, the percentage in C. reinhardtii is only 48.1%. In addition, we identified 367 lncRNAs responsive to sulfur deprivation, including 36 photosynthesis-related lncRNAs. This is the first time that lncRNAs were explored in the unicellular model organism C. reinhardtii. The lncRNA data could also provide new insights into C. reinhardtii hydrogen production under sulfur deprivation. PMID:27659799

  11. 26 CFR 1.167(h)-1 - Life tenants and beneficiaries of trusts and estates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Life tenants and beneficiaries of trusts and estates. 1.167(h)-1 Section 1.167(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... and Corporations § 1.167(h)-1 Life tenants and beneficiaries of trusts and estates. (a) Life...

  12. 19 CFR 10.178 - Direct costs of processing operations performed in the beneficiary developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Direct costs of processing operations performed in the beneficiary developing country. 10.178 Section 10.178 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER... processing operations performed in the beneficiary developing country. (a) Items included in the direct...

  13. 26 CFR 20.2206-1 - Liability of life insurance beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liability of life insurance beneficiaries. 20.2206-1 Section 20.2206-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... § 20.2206-1 Liability of life insurance beneficiaries. With respect to the right of the...

  14. 78 FR 47017 - Submission for Review: Designation of Beneficiary: Federal Employees' Group Life Insurance, SF 2823

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Designation of Beneficiary: Federal Employees' Group Life Insurance, SF..., Designation of Beneficiary: Federal Employees' Group Life Insurance, SF 2823. As required by the Paperwork... or retiree covered by the Federal Employees' Group Life Insurance (FEGLI) Program, or an assignee...

  15. 78 FR 66972 - Submission for Review: Designation of Beneficiary: Civil Service Retirement System (CSRS), SF 2808

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Designation of Beneficiary: Civil Service Retirement System (CSRS), SF 2808... collection request (ICR) 3206-0142, Designation of Beneficiary: Civil Service Retirement System, SF 2808. As....Benson@opm.gov or faxed to (202) 606- 0910. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: SF 2808 is used by persons...

  16. Are Consumer-Directed Home Care Beneficiaries Satisfied? Evidence from Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Joshua M.; Anderson, Wayne L.; Khatutsky, Galina

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study analyzed the effect of consumer-directed versus agency-directed home care on satisfaction with paid personal assistance services among Medicaid beneficiaries in Washington State. Design and Methods: The study analyzed a survey of 513 Medicaid beneficiaries receiving home- and community-based services. As part of a larger study,…

  17. 42 CFR 423.6 - Cost-sharing in beneficiary education and enrollment-related costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost-sharing in beneficiary education and... BENEFIT General Provisions § 423.6 Cost-sharing in beneficiary education and enrollment-related costs. The... established by CMS for cost sharing of enrollment related costs apply to PDP sponsors under Part D....

  18. Identification of long non-coding RNA involved in osteogenic differentiation from mesenchymal stem cells using RNA-Seq data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W Q; Gu, W Q; Qian, Y B; Ma, X; Mao, Y J; Liu, W J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) associated with osteogenic differentiation from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) using high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) data. RNA-Seq dataset was obtained from the European Bioinformatics Institute (accession No. PRJEB4496), including two replicates each for immortalized mesenchymal stem cells iMSC#3 cultured in growth medium (GM) and differentiation medium (DM) for 28 days. The clean reads were aligned to a hg19 reference genome by Tophat and assembled by Cufflinks to identify the known and novel transcripts. RPKM values were calculated to screen for differentially expressed RNA. Novel lncRNA were screened based on various filter criteria. Subsequently, the underlying function of novel lncRNAs were predicted by functional annotation by ERPIN, a co-expression network was constructed by WGCNA and the KEGG pathway enriched by KOBAS. A total of 3171 RNA differentially expressed between the DM and GM groups (2597 mRNA and 574 lncRNA) were identified. Among the 574 differentially expressed lncRNA, 357 were known and 217 were novel lncRNA. Furthermore, 32 novel lncRNA were found to be miRNA precursors (including miR-689, miR-640, miR-601, and miR-544). A total of 14,275 co-expression relationships and 217 co-expression networks were obtained between novel lncRNA and mRNA. The differentially expressed lncRNA and mRNA were enriched into 6 significant pathways, including those for cancer, ECM-receptor interaction, and focal adhesion. Therefore, novel lncRNAwere identified and their underlying function predicted, which may provide the basis for future analyses of the role of lncRNA in osteoblastic differentiation.

  19. Associations Between Vitamin D Level and Hospitalizations With and Without an Infection in a National Cohort of Medicare Beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempker, Jordan A; Magee, Matthew J; Cegielski, J Peter; Martin, Greg S

    2016-05-15

    Research has implicated low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level as a risk factor for infection; however, results have not been consistent. To further determine the nature of this relationship, we conducted a cohort study using Medicare beneficiaries participating in the 2001-2002 and 2003-2004 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with data individually linked to hospital records from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. The primary exposure was a 25(OH)D level of ng/mL versus ≥15 ng/mL. The outcomes were a hospitalization with or without an infection within 1 year of participation in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, as determined from the final hospital discharge codes (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification). Of 1,713 individuals, 348 had a baseline serum 25(OH)D level of ng/mL, 77 experienced a hospitalization with an infection, and 287 experienced a hospitalization without an infection. In multivariable analyses, a serum 25(OH)D level of ng/mL was associated with a higher risk of hospitalization with an infection (risk ratio = 2.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.3, 5.9, P ng/mL and a higher subsequent risk for hospitalization with an infection among Medicare beneficiaries. PMID:27189328

  20. Reactor inlet header critical break identification and analysis for KAPP-3 and 4 using computer code RELAP-5/Mod.3.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakrapar Atomic Power Project units-3 and 4 (KAPP-3 and 4) are 700 MWe Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWR) are presently under construction. This paper presents the identification of critical break in Reactor Inlet Header and its analysis performed, for KAPP-3 and 4 as a part of safety studies to investigate the plant behavior. The limiting/critical break size at Reactor Inlet Header is identified by considering the peak sheath temperature during the Loss of coolant accident. System thermal hydraulics code RELAP-5/MOD3.2 has been used for the analysis. Here the overall thermal hydraulics of the plant along with various control systems, trip and actuation logics have been simulated. High pressure accumulators and low pressure recirculation system of emergency core cooling system are modeled. The modeling of secondary system includes modeling of Atmospheric Steam Discharge Valves (ASDVs), Safety Relief Valves (SRVs), Condensate Steam Discharge Valves (CSDVs), and Governor Valves, the U-tubes of the steam generator, the riser, the separator and the steam drum. Using this model, critical break size in the Reactor Outlet Header was identified and consequence of the event on maximum peak clad temperature and core parameters were evaluated. Following postulated accidents, the event progression and the variations of different parameters like different Header pressures, mass flow rate in the core, fuel clad temperature and rate of discharge from break etc have been studied. (author)

  1. Factors Associated with Preoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Use among Medicare Beneficiaries with Nonmetastatic Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Louise M; Weiss, Julie; Hubbard, Rebecca A; O'Donoghue, Cristina; DeMartini, Wendy B; Buist, Diana S M; Kerlikowske, Karla; Goodrich, Martha; Virnig, Beth; Tosteson, Anna N A; Lehman, Constance D; Onega, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    Preoperative breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) use among Medicare beneficiaries with breast cancer has substantially increased from 2005 to 2009. We sought to identify factors associated with preoperative breast MRI use among women diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) or stage I-III invasive breast cancer (IBC). Using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results and Medicare data from 2005 to 2009 we identified women ages 66 and older with DCIS or stage I-III IBC who underwent breast-conserving surgery or mastectomy. We compared preoperative breast MRI use by patient, tumor and hospital characteristics stratified by DCIS and IBC using multivariable logistic regression. From 2005 to 2009, preoperative breast MRI use increased from 5.9% to 22.4% of women diagnosed with DCIS and 7.0% to 24.3% of women diagnosed with IBC. Preoperative breast MRI use was more common among women who were younger, married, lived in higher median income zip codes and had no comorbidities. Among women with IBC, those with lobular disease, smaller tumors (2 cm). The likelihood of receiving preoperative breast MRI is similar for women diagnosed with DCIS and IBC. Use of MRI is more common in women with IBC for tumors that are lobular and smaller while for DCIS MRI is used for evaluation of larger lesions. PMID:26511204

  2. Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm in medicare beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermerhorn, Marc; Zwolak, Robert; Velazquez, Omaida; Makaroun, Michel; Fairman, Ronald; Cronenwett, Jack

    2008-01-01

    Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) has been shown to be beneficial and cost-effective for men aged 65-74. However, most screening studies have been conducted in Europe and Australia, where attendance for screening was higher than the single large U.S. study involving only veterans. The prevalence of AAA in the U.S. general population is not well defined, nor is the best method of recruitment for screening. Letters of invitation for a free screening ultrasound for AAA were sent to 30,000 randomly selected Medicare beneficiaries from the hospital referral region of three university-affiliated hospitals without restriction by age, gender, or comorbidity. Attendance for screening was calculated by age, gender, and travel distance to the screening center. Telephone calls to a random sample of nonresponders were made to determine the reason for failure to attend. Prevalence of AAA by ultrasound and known risk factors for AAA (e.g., age, gender, smoking status) were determined. The attendance rate was 7% (2,005). Attendance was greater with male gender (p Medicare beneficiaries for ultrasound screening for AAA results in a low attendance and low yield of AAA. The prevalence estimates from this study may not reflect the entire Medicare population given the low attendance and may reflect the healthy habits of those most interested in screening. Patients should be selected for screening based on their suitability for repair if an AAA is found as well as their risk factors for AAA. The best method of recruitment for screening of those most at risk for AAA in the United States remains to be determined. PMID:18055170

  3. Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm in medicare beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermerhorn, Marc; Zwolak, Robert; Velazquez, Omaida; Makaroun, Michel; Fairman, Ronald; Cronenwett, Jack

    2008-01-01

    Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) has been shown to be beneficial and cost-effective for men aged 65-74. However, most screening studies have been conducted in Europe and Australia, where attendance for screening was higher than the single large U.S. study involving only veterans. The prevalence of AAA in the U.S. general population is not well defined, nor is the best method of recruitment for screening. Letters of invitation for a free screening ultrasound for AAA were sent to 30,000 randomly selected Medicare beneficiaries from the hospital referral region of three university-affiliated hospitals without restriction by age, gender, or comorbidity. Attendance for screening was calculated by age, gender, and travel distance to the screening center. Telephone calls to a random sample of nonresponders were made to determine the reason for failure to attend. Prevalence of AAA by ultrasound and known risk factors for AAA (e.g., age, gender, smoking status) were determined. The attendance rate was 7% (2,005). Attendance was greater with male gender (p Medicare beneficiaries for ultrasound screening for AAA results in a low attendance and low yield of AAA. The prevalence estimates from this study may not reflect the entire Medicare population given the low attendance and may reflect the healthy habits of those most interested in screening. Patients should be selected for screening based on their suitability for repair if an AAA is found as well as their risk factors for AAA. The best method of recruitment for screening of those most at risk for AAA in the United States remains to be determined.

  4. Health care utilization and expenditures among Medicaid beneficiaries with neuropathic pain following spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margolis JM

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Jay M Margolis,1 Paul Juneau,1 Alesia Sadosky,2 Joseph C Cappelleri,3 Thomas N Bryce,4 Edward C Nieshoff5 1Truven Health Analytics, Bethesda, MD, USA; 2Pfizer Inc., New York, NY, USA; 3Pfizer Inc., Groton, CT, USA; 4Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, The Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA; 5Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA Background: The study aimed to evaluate health care resource utilization (HRU and costs for neuropathic pain (NeP secondary to spinal cord injury (SCI among Medicaid beneficiaries. Methods: The retrospective longitudinal cohort study used Medicaid beneficiary claims with SCI and evidence of NeP (SCI-NeP cohort matched with a cohort without NeP (SCI-only cohort. Patients had continuous Medicaid eligibility 6 months pre- and 12 months postindex, defined by either a diagnosis of central NeP (ICD-9-CM code 338.0x or a pharmacy claim for an NeP-related antiepileptic or antidepressant drug within 12 months following first SCI diagnosis. Demographics, clinical characteristics, HRU, and expenditures were compared between cohorts. Results: Propensity score-matched cohorts each consisted of 546 patients. Postindex percentages of patients with physician office visits, emergency department visits, SCI- and pain-related procedures, and outpatient prescription utilization were all significantly higher for SCI-NeP (P<0.001. Using regression models to account for covariates, adjusted mean expenditures were US$47,518 for SCI-NeP and US$30,150 for SCI only, yielding incremental costs of US$17,369 (95% confidence interval US$9,753 to US$26,555 for SCI-NeP. Factors significantly associated with increased cost included SCI type, trauma-related SCI, and comorbidity burden. Conclusion: Significantly higher HRU and total costs were incurred by Medicaid patients with NeP secondary to SCI compared with matched SCI-only patients. Keywords: spinal

  5. How Many Disability Beneficiaries Forgo Cash Benefits Because of Work? Evidence from a New Measure.

    OpenAIRE

    Jody Schimmel; David Stapleton

    2012-01-01

    This issue brief summarizes findings from a longer report by Mathematica's disability experts, who used a new indicator to determine how many beneficiaries receiving Social Security Disability Insurance and Supplemental Security Income forgo cash benefits because of work.

  6. 78 FR 53507 - Agency Information Collection (Beneficiary Travel Mileage Reimbursement Application Form...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... for the beneficiary travel mileage reimbursement benefit in an efficient, convenient and accurate... Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Health Administration, Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Notice... announces that the Veterans Health Administration (VHA), Department of Veterans Affairs, will submit...

  7. 78 FR 36035 - Proposed Information Collection Activity: [Beneficiary Travel Mileage Reimbursement Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... beneficiary travel mileage reimbursement benefit in an efficient, convenient and accurate manner. VHA must... Form]; Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Health Administration, Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) is announcing an opportunity for public...

  8. The Work Incentives Planning and Assistance Program Promoting Employment Among Social Security Disability Beneficiaries

    OpenAIRE

    Jody Schimmel; Bonnie O'Day; Allison Roche

    2012-01-01

    This issue brief summarizes findings from the Work Incentives Planning and Assistance program, a Social Security Administration program to promote employment by providing beneficiaries with information about federal work supports.

  9. Medicare hospital spending per patient (Medicare Spending per Beneficiary) – Additional Decimal Places

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The "Medicare hospital spending per patient (Medicare Spending per Beneficiary)" measure shows whether Medicare spends more, less or about the same per Medicare...

  10. Out-of-pocket health spending by poor and near-poor elderly Medicare beneficiaries.

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, D J; Alecxih, L; Gibson, M J; Corea, J; Caplan, C; Brangan, N

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate out-of-pocket health care spending by lower-income Medicare beneficiaries, and to examine spending variations between those who receive Medicaid assistance and those who do not receive such aid. DATA SOURCES AND COLLECTION: 1993 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS) Cost and Use files, supplemented with data from the Bureau of the Census (Current Population Survey); the Congressional Budget Office; the Health Care Financing Administration, Office of the Actuary (Na...

  11. Designing health insurance information for the Medicare beneficiary: a policy synthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, B N

    1988-01-01

    Can Medicare beneficiaries make rational and informed decisions about their coverage under the Medicare program? Recent policy developments in the Medicare program have been based on the theory of competition in medical care. One of the key assumptions of the competitive model is the free flow of adequate information, enabling the consumer to make an informed choice from among the various sellers of a particular product. Options for Medicare beneficiaries in supplementing their basic Medicare...

  12. Estimating Medicare Advantage Lock-In Provisions Impact on Vulnerable Medicare Beneficiaries

    OpenAIRE

    Laschober, Mary

    2005-01-01

    Beginning January 2006, Medicare beneficiaries will have limited ability to change health plans. We examine the Medicare managed care enrollment and disenrollment behavior of traditionally vulnerable beneficiaries from 1999-2001 to estimate the potential impact of the new enrollment restrictions. Findings that several such groups were more likely to make multiple health plan elections, leave their managed care plan midyear, and/or have higher voluntary disenrollment rates and transfers to ori...

  13. Factors influencing Poverty Alleviation among Women Credit Beneficiaries in Tanzania: A Case Study of FINCA’s Women Credit beneficiaries in Mwanza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Nyambega Nyang’au

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many credit schemes in Tanzania channel their funds to womenwith the objective of alleviating poverty among them. Despite this, majority ofwomen in the country continue to wallow in poverty. The present research wascarried out among the Foundation for International Community Assistance’s womencredit beneficiaries in Mwanza. The study set out to address the followingobjectives: to analyze the influence of the husband’s cooperation, relevanttraining and interest rate on poverty alleviation among women creditbeneficiaries in Tanzania taking Foundation for International CommunityAssistance in Mwanza as a case study. Using simple regression model, resultsshowed that cooperation from the husband as well as relevant training influencespoverty alleviation among women credit beneficiaries in Tanzania by 56 and 36percent respectively. But interest rate was found to have no significantinfluence at all. The paper recommends that seminars be conducted so thathusbands can be taught the importance of cooperating with their wives. Aboveall giving training to women credit beneficiaries will go a long way insharpening their business skills. Future researchers should research onlaziness and complacency among women credit beneficiaries and the influence onpoverty.

  14. Transformation invariant sparse coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard

    2011-01-01

    Sparse coding is a well established principle for unsupervised learning. Traditionally, features are extracted in sparse coding in specific locations, however, often we would prefer invariant representation. This paper introduces a general transformation invariant sparse coding (TISC) model....... The model decomposes images into features invariant to location and general transformation by a set of specified operators as well as a sparse coding matrix indicating where and to what degree in the original image these features are present. The TISC model is in general overcomplete and we therefore invoke...... sparse coding to estimate its parameters. We demonstrate how the model can correctly identify components of non-trivial artificial as well as real image data. Thus, the model is capable of reducing feature redundancies in terms of pre-specified transformations improving the component identification....

  15. Evaluating the Initiation of Novel Oral Anticoagulants in Medicare Beneficiaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Seo Hyon; Hernandez, Inmaculada; Zhang, Yuting

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND As alternatives to warfarin, 2 novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs), dabigatran and rivaroxaban, were approved in 2010 and 2011 to prevent stroke and other thromboembolic events in patients with atrial fibrillation. It is unclear how patient characteristics are associated with the initiation of anticoagulants. OBJECTIVE To evaluate how patient demographics, clinical characteristics, types of insurance, and patient out-of-pocket spending affect the initiation of warfarin and 2 NOACs—dabigatran and rivaroxaban. METHODS We used pharmacy claims data from a 5% random sample of Medicare beneficiaries to identify patients who were newly diagnosed with atrial fibrillation between October 1, 2010, and October 31, 2012, and who were prescribed an oral anticoagulant within 60 days of diagnosis. We identified key predictors of initiation of NOACs using a multinomial logistic regression model with generalized logit link. RESULTS Patients who were black and who had a history of acute myocardial infarction, stroke or transient ischemic attack, chronic kidney disease, or congestive heart failure were significantly associated with lower odds of receiving NOACs compared with warfarin. Age greater than 65 years, a history of hypertension, and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were positively associated with the initiation of NOACs. Rivaroxaban was most likely to be initiated among women, followed by warfarin and dabigatran. Individuals receiving a low-income subsidy were more likely to initiate warfarin than NOACs, even though they paid little copayment. Individuals with supplemental Part D drug coverage, such as national Programs for All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly or employer-sponsored plans, were more likely to initiate NOACs compared with warfarin. CONCLUSIONS We found that race, sex, type of Part D plans, and some clinical conditions were associated with the initiation of NOACs relative to warfarin. But patient demographic and clinical characteristics did

  16. Healthcare costs and utilization for Medicare beneficiaries with Alzheimer's

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo Tzu-Chun

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease (AD is a neurodegenerative disorder incurring significant social and economic costs. This study uses a US administrative claims database to evaluate the effect of AD on direct healthcare costs and utilization, and to identify the most common reasons for AD patients' emergency room (ER visits and inpatient admissions. Methods Demographically matched cohorts age 65 and over with comprehensive medical and pharmacy claims from the 2003–2004 MEDSTAT MarketScan® Medicare Supplemental and Coordination of Benefits (COB Database were examined: 1 25,109 individuals with an AD diagnosis or a filled prescription for an exclusively AD treatment; and 2 75,327 matched controls. Illness burden for each person was measured using Diagnostic Cost Groups (DCGs, a comprehensive morbidity assessment system. Cost distributions and reasons for ER visits and inpatient admissions in 2004 were compared for both cohorts. Regression was used to quantify the marginal contribution of AD to health care costs and utilization, and the most common reasons for ER and inpatient admissions, using DCGs to control for overall illness burden. Results Compared with controls, the AD cohort had more co-morbid medical conditions, higher overall illness burden, and higher but less variable costs ($13,936 s. $10,369; Coefficient of variation = 181 vs. 324. Significant excess utilization was attributed to AD for inpatient services, pharmacy, ER visits, and home health care (all p Conclusion Patients with AD have significantly more co-morbid medical conditions and higher healthcare costs and utilization than demographically-matched Medicare beneficiaries. Even after adjusting for differences in co-morbidity, AD patients incur excess ER visits and inpatient admissions.

  17. Variations Among Medicare Beneficiaries Living in Different Settings: Demographics, Health Status, and Service Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenholtz, Howard B; Park, Mijung; Kang, Yihuang; Nadash, Pamela

    2016-07-01

    Older people with complex health issues and needs for functional support are increasingly living in different types of residential care environments as alternatives to nursing homes. This study aims to compare the demographics and health-care expenditures of Medicare beneficiaries by the setting in which they live: nursing homes, residential care settings, and at home using data from the 2002 to 2010 Medicare Current Beneficiary Study (MCBS), a nationally representative survey of the Medicare population. All Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years or older who participated in the fall MCBS interview (years 2002-2010) and were alive for the full year (N = 83,507) were included in the sample. We found that there is a gradient in health status, physical and cognitive functioning, and health-care use and spending across settings. Minority elderly are overrepresented in facilities and underrepresented in alternative living settings.

  18. Variations Among Medicare Beneficiaries Living in Different Settings: Demographics, Health Status, and Service Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenholtz, Howard B; Park, Mijung; Kang, Yihuang; Nadash, Pamela

    2016-07-01

    Older people with complex health issues and needs for functional support are increasingly living in different types of residential care environments as alternatives to nursing homes. This study aims to compare the demographics and health-care expenditures of Medicare beneficiaries by the setting in which they live: nursing homes, residential care settings, and at home using data from the 2002 to 2010 Medicare Current Beneficiary Study (MCBS), a nationally representative survey of the Medicare population. All Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years or older who participated in the fall MCBS interview (years 2002-2010) and were alive for the full year (N = 83,507) were included in the sample. We found that there is a gradient in health status, physical and cognitive functioning, and health-care use and spending across settings. Minority elderly are overrepresented in facilities and underrepresented in alternative living settings. PMID:26269562

  19. Coding Partitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Burderi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the study of decipherability conditions for codes weaker than Unique Decipherability (UD, we introduce the notion of coding partition. Such a notion generalizes that of UD code and, for codes that are not UD, allows to recover the ``unique decipherability" at the level of the classes of the partition. By tacking into account the natural order between the partitions, we define the characteristic partition of a code X as the finest coding partition of X. This leads to introduce the canonical decomposition of a code in at most one unambiguouscomponent and other (if any totally ambiguouscomponents. In the case the code is finite, we give an algorithm for computing its canonical partition. This, in particular, allows to decide whether a given partition of a finite code X is a coding partition. This last problem is then approached in the case the code is a rational set. We prove its decidability under the hypothesis that the partition contains a finite number of classes and each class is a rational set. Moreover we conjecture that the canonical partition satisfies such a hypothesis. Finally we consider also some relationships between coding partitions and varieties of codes.

  20. Identification and Functional Characterization of G6PC2 Coding Variants Influencing Glycemic Traits Define an Effector Transcript at the G6PC2-ABCB11 Locus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Anubha; Sim, Xueling; Ng, Hui Jin; Manning, Alisa; Rivas, Manuel A.; Highland, Heather M.; Locke, Adam E.; Grarup, Niels; Im, Hae Kyung; Cingolani, Pablo; Flannick, Jason; Fontanillas, Pierre; Fuchsberger, Christian; Gaulton, Kyle J.; Teslovich, Tanya M.; Rayner, N. William; Robertson, Neil R.; Beer, Nicola L.; Rundle, Jana K.; Bork-Jensen, Jette; Ladenvall, Claes; Blancher, Christine; Buck, David; Buck, Gemma; Burtt, Noël P.; Gabriel, Stacey; Gjesing, Anette P.; Groves, Christopher J.; Hollensted, Mette; Huyghe, Jeroen R.; Jackson, Anne U.; Jun, Goo; Justesen, Johanne Marie; Mangino, Massimo; Murphy, Jacquelyn; Neville, Matt; Onofrio, Robert; Small, Kerrin S.; Stringham, Heather M.; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Trakalo, Joseph; Abecasis, Goncalo; Bell, Graeme I.; Blangero, John; Cox, Nancy J.; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Hanis, Craig L.; Seielstad, Mark; Wilson, James G.; Christensen, Cramer; Brandslund, Ivan; Rauramaa, Rainer; Surdulescu, Gabriela L.; Doney, Alex S. F.; Lannfelt, Lars; Linneberg, Allan; Isomaa, Bo; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Jørgensen, Marit E.; Jørgensen, Torben; Kuusisto, Johanna; Uusitupa, Matti; Salomaa, Veikko; Spector, Timothy D.; Morris, Andrew D.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Collins, Francis S.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Bergman, Richard N.; Ingelsson, Erik; Lind, Lars; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Hansen, Torben; Watanabe, Richard M.; Prokopenko, Inga; Dupuis, Josee; Karpe, Fredrik; Groop, Leif; Laakso, Markku; Pedersen, Oluf; Florez, Jose C.; Morris, Andrew P.; Altshuler, David; Meigs, James B.; Boehnke, Michael; McCarthy, Mark I.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Gloyn, Anna L.

    2015-01-01

    Genome wide association studies (GWAS) for fasting glucose (FG) and insulin (FI) have identified common variant signals which explain 4.8% and 1.2% of trait variance, respectively. It is hypothesized that low-frequency and rare variants could contribute substantially to unexplained genetic variance. To test this, we analyzed exome-array data from up to 33,231 non-diabetic individuals of European ancestry. We found exome-wide significant (P<5×10-7) evidence for two loci not previously highlighted by common variant GWAS: GLP1R (p.Ala316Thr, minor allele frequency (MAF)=1.5%) influencing FG levels, and URB2 (p.Glu594Val, MAF = 0.1%) influencing FI levels. Coding variant associations can highlight potential effector genes at (non-coding) GWAS signals. At the G6PC2/ABCB11 locus, we identified multiple coding variants in G6PC2 (p.Val219Leu, p.His177Tyr, and p.Tyr207Ser) influencing FG levels, conditionally independent of each other and the non-coding GWAS signal. In vitro assays demonstrate that these associated coding alleles result in reduced protein abundance via proteasomal degradation, establishing G6PC2 as an effector gene at this locus. Reconciliation of single-variant associations and functional effects was only possible when haplotype phase was considered. In contrast to earlier reports suggesting that, paradoxically, glucose-raising alleles at this locus are protective against type 2 diabetes (T2D), the p.Val219Leu G6PC2 variant displayed a modest but directionally consistent association with T2D risk. Coding variant associations for glycemic traits in GWAS signals highlight PCSK1, RREB1, and ZHX3 as likely effector transcripts. These coding variant association signals do not have a major impact on the trait variance explained, but they do provide valuable biological insights. PMID:25625282

  1. Identification and functional characterization of G6PC2 coding variants influencing glycemic traits define an effector transcript at the G6PC2-ABCB11 locus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubha Mahajan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Genome wide association studies (GWAS for fasting glucose (FG and insulin (FI have identified common variant signals which explain 4.8% and 1.2% of trait variance, respectively. It is hypothesized that low-frequency and rare variants could contribute substantially to unexplained genetic variance. To test this, we analyzed exome-array data from up to 33,231 non-diabetic individuals of European ancestry. We found exome-wide significant (P<5×10-7 evidence for two loci not previously highlighted by common variant GWAS: GLP1R (p.Ala316Thr, minor allele frequency (MAF=1.5% influencing FG levels, and URB2 (p.Glu594Val, MAF = 0.1% influencing FI levels. Coding variant associations can highlight potential effector genes at (non-coding GWAS signals. At the G6PC2/ABCB11 locus, we identified multiple coding variants in G6PC2 (p.Val219Leu, p.His177Tyr, and p.Tyr207Ser influencing FG levels, conditionally independent of each other and the non-coding GWAS signal. In vitro assays demonstrate that these associated coding alleles result in reduced protein abundance via proteasomal degradation, establishing G6PC2 as an effector gene at this locus. Reconciliation of single-variant associations and functional effects was only possible when haplotype phase was considered. In contrast to earlier reports suggesting that, paradoxically, glucose-raising alleles at this locus are protective against type 2 diabetes (T2D, the p.Val219Leu G6PC2 variant displayed a modest but directionally consistent association with T2D risk. Coding variant associations for glycemic traits in GWAS signals highlight PCSK1, RREB1, and ZHX3 as likely effector transcripts. These coding variant association signals do not have a major impact on the trait variance explained, but they do provide valuable biological insights.

  2. Choice of Personal Assistance Services Providers by Medicare Beneficiaries Using a Consumer-Directed Benefit: Rural-Urban Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Hongdao; Friedman, Bruce; Wamsley, Brenda R.; Van Nostrand, Joan F.; Eggert, Gerald M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the impact of an experimental consumer-choice voucher benefit on the selection of independent and agency personal assistance services (PAS) providers among rural and urban Medicare beneficiaries with disabilities. Methods: The Medicare Primary and Consumer-Directed Care Demonstration enrolled 1,605 Medicare beneficiaries in 19…

  3. 45 CFR 205.25 - Eligibility of supplemental security income beneficiaries for food stamps or surplus commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....25 Eligibility of supplemental security income beneficiaries for food stamps or surplus commodities... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility of supplemental security income beneficiaries for food stamps or surplus commodities. 205.25 Section 205.25 Public Welfare Regulations...

  4. Time That Beneficiaries Spend Off the Rolls Due to Work and the Payments Generated for Employment Networks

    OpenAIRE

    David Stapleton; Jody Schimmel; Miriam Loewenberg; Sarah Prenovitz

    2010-01-01

    This report examines the extent to which Social Security Disability Insurance and Supplemental Security Income beneficiaries forgo benefits due to work (that is, were in non-payment status following suspension or termination because of earnings) from 2002 to 2006. The findings represent beneficiary experiences before the 2008 changes in the Ticket to Work regulations.

  5. The Impact of Changing Financial Work Incentives on the Earnings of Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) Beneficiaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathers, Robert R., II; Hemmeter, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    SSDI beneficiaries lose their entire cash benefit if they perform work that is substantial gainful activity (SGA) after using Social Security work incentive programs. The complete loss of benefits might be a work disincentive for beneficiaries. We report results from a pilot project that replaces the complete loss of benefits with a gradual…

  6. 20 CFR 411.566 - May an EN use outcome or milestone payments to make payments to the beneficiary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May an EN use outcome or milestone payments to make payments to the beneficiary? 411.566 Section 411.566 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... an EN use outcome or milestone payments to make payments to the beneficiary? Yes, an EN may...

  7. 20 CFR 411.570 - Can an EN request payment from the beneficiary who assigned a ticket to the EN?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can an EN request payment from the beneficiary who assigned a ticket to the EN? 411.570 Section 411.570 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... an EN request payment from the beneficiary who assigned a ticket to the EN? No. Section 1148(b)(4)...

  8. code {poems}

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishac Bertran

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available "Exploring the potential of code to communicate at the level of poetry," the code­ {poems} project solicited submissions from code­writers in response to the notion of a poem, written in a software language which is semantically valid. These selections reveal the inner workings, constitutive elements, and styles of both a particular software and its authors.

  9. Explaining the increased health care expenditures associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease among elderly Medicare beneficiaries with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a cost-decomposition analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajmera M

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mayank Ajmera,1 Amit D Raval,1 Chan Shen,2 Usha Sambamoorthi1 1Department of Pharmaceutical Systems and Policy, School of Pharmacy, School of Medicine, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA; 2Department of Biostatistics and Health Services Research, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA Objective: To estimate excess health care expenditures associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD among elderly individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and examine the contribution of predisposing characteristics, enabling resources, need variables, personal health care practices, and external environment factors to the excess expenditures, using the Blinder-Oaxaca linear decomposition technique. Methods: This study utilized a cross-sectional, retrospective study design, using data from multiple years (2006-2009 of the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey linked with fee-for-service Medicare claims. Presence of COPD and GERD was identified using diagnoses codes. Health care expenditures consisted of inpatient, outpatient, prescription drugs, dental, medical provider, and other services. For the analysis, t-tests were used to examine unadjusted subgroup differences in average health care expenditures by the presence of GERD. Ordinary least squares regressions on log-transformed health care expenditures were conducted to estimate the excess health care expenditures associated with GERD. The Blinder-Oaxaca linear decomposition technique was used to determine the contribution of predisposing characteristics, enabling resources, need variables, personal health care practices, and external environment factors, to excess health care expenditures associated with GERD. Results: Among elderly Medicare beneficiaries with COPD, 29.3% had co-occurring GERD. Elderly Medicare beneficiaries with COPD/GERD had 1.5 times higher ($36,793 vs $24,722 [P<0.001] expenditures than did those with COPD/no GERD. Ordinary

  10. 48 CFR 853.215-70 - VA Form 10-1170, Application for Furnishing Nursing Home Care to Beneficiaries of VA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Application for Furnishing Nursing Home Care to Beneficiaries of VA. 853.215-70 Section 853.215-70 Federal... 853.215-70 VA Form 10-1170, Application for Furnishing Nursing Home Care to Beneficiaries of VA. VA Form 10-1170, Application for Furnishing Nursing Home Care to Beneficiaries of VA, will be used...

  11. Identification of bacterial species associated with the sheep scab mite (Psoroptes ovis) by using amplified genes coding for 16S rRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, J C; Lehane, M J

    1999-09-01

    This was the first molecular study of the bacterial flora of the sheep scab mite (Psoroptes ovis). A sequence analysis of genes coding for 16S rRNA revealed that Serratia marcescens and bacteria closely related to Staphylococcus intermedius or Staphylococcus chromogens and Alloiococcus otitidis were present. These bacteria were associated with skin lesions, dermatitis, and otitis media caused by P. ovis.

  12. Identification of Bacterial Species Associated with the Sheep Scab Mite (Psoroptes ovis) by Using Amplified Genes Coding for 16S rRNA

    OpenAIRE

    Hogg, J. C.; Lehane, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    This was the first molecular study of the bacterial flora of the sheep scab mite (Psoroptes ovis). A sequence analysis of genes coding for 16S rRNA revealed that Serratia marcescens and bacteria closely related to Staphylococcus intermedius or Staphylococcus chromogens and Alloiococcus otitidis were present. These bacteria were associated with skin lesions, dermatitis, and otitis media caused by P. ovis.

  13. Review of current severe accident management approaches in Europe and identification of related modelling requirements for the computer code ASTEC V2.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermsmeyer, S. [European Commission JRC, Petten (Netherlands). Inst. for Energy and Transport; Herranz, L.E.; Iglesias, R. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); and others

    2015-07-15

    The severe accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) has led to a worldwide review of nuclear safety approaches and is bringing a refocussing of R and D in the field. To support these efforts several new Euratom FP7 projects have been launched. The CESAM project focuses on the improvement of the ASTEC computer code. ASTEC is jointly developed by IRSN and GRS and is considered as the European reference code for Severe Accident Analyses since it capitalizes knowledge from the extensive Euro-pean R and D in the field. The project aims at the code's enhancement and extension for use in Severe Accident Management (SAM) analysis of the NPPs of Generation II-III presently under operation or foreseen in the near future in Europe, spent fuel pools included. The work reported here is concerned with the importance, for the further development of the code, of SAM strategies to be simulated. To this end, SAM strategies applied in the EU have been compiled. This compilation is mainly based on the public information made available in the frame of the EU ''stress tests'' for NPPs and has been complemented by information pro-vided by the different CESAM partners. The context of SAM is explained and the strategies are presented. The modelling capabilities for the simulation of these strategies in the current production version 2.0 of ASTEC are discussed. Furthermore, the requirements for the next version of ASTEC V2.1 that is supported in the CESAM project are highlighted. They are a necessary complement to the list of code improvements that is drawn from consolidating new fields of application, like SFP and BWR model enhancements, and from new experimental results on severe accident phenomena.

  14. Review of current severe accident management approaches in Europe and identification of related modelling requirements for the computer code ASTEC V2.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The severe accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) has led to a worldwide review of nuclear safety approaches and is bringing a refocussing of R and D in the field. To support these efforts several new Euratom FP7 projects have been launched. The CESAM project focuses on the improvement of the ASTEC computer code. ASTEC is jointly developed by IRSN and GRS and is considered as the European reference code for Severe Accident Analyses since it capitalizes knowledge from the extensive Euro-pean R and D in the field. The project aims at the code's enhancement and extension for use in Severe Accident Management (SAM) analysis of the NPPs of Generation II-III presently under operation or foreseen in the near future in Europe, spent fuel pools included. The work reported here is concerned with the importance, for the further development of the code, of SAM strategies to be simulated. To this end, SAM strategies applied in the EU have been compiled. This compilation is mainly based on the public information made available in the frame of the EU ''stress tests'' for NPPs and has been complemented by information pro-vided by the different CESAM partners. The context of SAM is explained and the strategies are presented. The modelling capabilities for the simulation of these strategies in the current production version 2.0 of ASTEC are discussed. Furthermore, the requirements for the next version of ASTEC V2.1 that is supported in the CESAM project are highlighted. They are a necessary complement to the list of code improvements that is drawn from consolidating new fields of application, like SFP and BWR model enhancements, and from new experimental results on severe accident phenomena.

  15. Brassica genomics: a complement to, and early beneficiary of, the Arabidopsis sequence

    OpenAIRE

    Paterson, Andrew H.; Lan, Tien-Hung; Amasino, Richard; Osborn, Thomas C; Quiros, Carlos

    2001-01-01

    Those studying the genus Brassica will be among the early beneficiaries of the now-completed Arabidopsis sequence. The remarkable morphological diversity of Brassica species and their relatives offers valuable opportunities to advance our knowledge of plant growth and development, and our understanding of rapid phenotypic evolution.

  16. 42 CFR 422.314 - Special rules for beneficiaries enrolled in MA MSA plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... plans. 422.314 Section 422.314 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Payments to Medicare Advantage Organizations § 422.314 Special rules for beneficiaries enrolled in MA MSA plans....

  17. 42 CFR 409.42 - Beneficiary qualifications for coverage of services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... 409.42 Section 409.42 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Home Health Services Under Hospital Insurance § 409.42 Beneficiary qualifications for coverage of services. To qualify for Medicare coverage...

  18. 75 FR 78807 - Agency Information Collection (Notice to Department of Veterans Affairs of Veteran or Beneficiary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... Incarcerated in Penal Institution) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration... Veterans Affairs of Veteran or Beneficiary Incarcerated in Penal Institution, VA Form 21-4193. OMB Control... should be reduced or terminated when he or she is incarcerated in a penal institution in excess of...

  19. Disability Insurance Beneficiaries with Visual Impairments in Vocational Rehabilitation: Socio-Demographic Influences on Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesen, J. Martin; Cavenaugh, Brenda S.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Given mutual concerns of vocational rehabilitation and the Social Security Administration, our purpose was to evaluate the effect of current individual and economic factors on competitive employment for Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) beneficiaries with visual impairments in vocational rehabilitation. Methods: Using…

  20. 76 FR 32996 - Submission for Review: Designation of Beneficiary (FERS) [SF 3102

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Designation of Beneficiary (FERS) [SF 3102] AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: 60-day notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: The Retirement...

  1. 76 FR 76773 - Submission for Review: 3206-0173, Designation of Beneficiary (FERS), SF 3102

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ... Volume 76 FR 32996 allowing for a 60-day public comment period. No comments were received for this... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: 3206-0173, Designation of Beneficiary (FERS), SF 3102 AGENCY: U.S. Office... (FERS), SF 3102. As required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, (Pub. L. 104-13, 44 U.S.C....

  2. 75 FR 8927 - Autism Services Demonstration Project for TRICARE Beneficiaries Under the Extended Care Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... Notice in the Federal Register (FR) (72 FR 68130) of a TRICARE demonstration to increase access to IBI... of the Secretary Autism Services Demonstration Project for TRICARE Beneficiaries Under the Extended...: This notice provides a 2-year extension of the Department of Defense Enhanced Access to Autism...

  3. Is There Disparity in Physician Service Use? A Comparison of Hispanic and White Medicare Beneficiaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Mei

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates general physician service use by a national sample of non-Hispanic white and Hispanic Medicare beneficiaries age 65 and older. Using the health behavior model as the conceptual framework, Oaxaca decomposition multivariate analyses were conducted to examine predictors for contact with a physician and the number of…

  4. Impact and the Art of Motivation Maintenance: The Effects of Contact with Beneficiaries on Persistence Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Adam M.; Campbell, Elizabeth M.; Chen, Grace; Cottone, Keenan; Lapedis, David; Lee, Karen

    2007-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that employees are willing to maintain their motivation when their work is relationally designed to provide opportunities for respectful contact with the beneficiaries of their efforts. In Experiment 1, a longitudinal field experiment in a fundraising organization, callers in an intervention group briefly interacted with a…

  5. 75 FR 5253 - Request for Information Regarding Lifetime Income Options for Participants and Beneficiaries in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... future retirement age based on the assumption of continued contributions? Should lifetime income payments... Regarding Lifetime Income Options for Participants and Beneficiaries in Retirement Plans AGENCY: Employee... ``Agencies'') are currently reviewing the rules under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA)...

  6. 42 CFR 424.86 - Prohibition of assignment of claims by beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... beneficiaries. 424.86 Section 424.86 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM CONDITIONS FOR MEDICARE PAYMENT Limitations on...) Basic prohibition. Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, Medicare does not pay...

  7. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(9)-4 - Determination of the designated beneficiary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... if it is possible, to identify the class member with the shortest life expectancy. The fact that an... the designated beneficiary whose life expectancy will be used to determine the distribution period and... annuity over the life of the employee and another individual, the plan does not satisfy section...

  8. 38 CFR 3.714 - Improved pension elections-public assistance beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Improved pension elections-public assistance beneficiaries. 3.714 Section 3.714 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity...

  9. 38 CFR 3.666 - Incarcerated beneficiaries and fugitive felons-pension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incarcerated beneficiaries and fugitive felons-pension. 3.666 Section 3.666 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity...

  10. 42 CFR 435.1007 - Categorically needy, medically needy, and qualified Medicare beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Limitations on Ffp § 435.1007 Categorically needy, medically needy, and qualified Medicare beneficiaries. (a) FFP is available in expenditures for covered services provided to categorically needy recipients.... (b) Except as provided in paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section, FFP is not available in...

  11. Habitat and Recreational Fishing Opportunity in Tampa Bay: Linking Ecological and Ecosystem Services to Human Beneficiaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estimating value of estuarine habitat to human beneficiaries requires that we understand how habitat alteration impacts function through both production and delivery of ecosystem goods and services (EGS). Here we expand on the habitat valuation technique of Bell (1997) with an es...

  12. 77 FR 14769 - Meeting of the Uniform Formulary Beneficiary Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... Department of Defense (DoD) announces the following Federal Advisory Committee meeting of the Uniform... Formulary Beneficiary Advisory Panel, 4130 Stanley Road, Suite 208, Building 1000, San Antonio, TX 78234...: Dipeptidyl Peptidase--4(DPP-4) Inhibitors. d. Designated Newly Approved Drugs in Already-Reviewed Classes....

  13. 76 FR 80903 - Extension of Autism Services Demonstration Project for TRICARE Beneficiaries Under the Extended...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... Register (FR) (72 FR 68130) of a TRICARE demonstration to increase access to IBI services. The purpose of... Federal Register (FR) (75 FR 8928) on February 26, 2010 that extended the Demonstration through March 14... of the Secretary Extension of Autism Services Demonstration Project for TRICARE Beneficiaries...

  14. 26 CFR 1.679-2 - Trusts treated as having a U.S. beneficiary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trusts treated as having a U.S. beneficiary. 1.679-2 Section 1.679-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... transfer to which paragraph (a)(1) of this section applied. For rules regarding the recognition of gain...

  15. Holographic codes

    CERN Document Server

    Latorre, Jose I

    2015-01-01

    There exists a remarkable four-qutrit state that carries absolute maximal entanglement in all its partitions. Employing this state, we construct a tensor network that delivers a holographic many body state, the H-code, where the physical properties of the boundary determine those of the bulk. This H-code is made of an even superposition of states whose relative Hamming distances are exponentially large with the size of the boundary. This property makes H-codes natural states for a quantum memory. H-codes exist on tori of definite sizes and get classified in three different sectors characterized by the sum of their qutrits on cycles wrapped through the boundaries of the system. We construct a parent Hamiltonian for the H-code which is highly non local and finally we compute the topological entanglement entropy of the H-code.

  16. Serotype identification and VP1 coding sequence analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus from outbreaks in Eastern and Northern Uganda in 2008/9

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasambula, L.; Belsham, Graham; Siegismund, H. R.;

    2012-01-01

    identified. BLAST searches and phylogenetic analysis of the complete variable protein (VP)1 coding sequences revealed that they belonged to serotype O, topotype EA-2. The close similarity between the virus sequences suggested introduction from a single source. We therefore conclude that FMD in the northern...... region of Uganda was most likely introduced from the outbreak in the eastern region across Lake Kyoga through movement of live animals. This has significant implications for the effectiveness of the current FMD control measures....

  17. Exceeding of Official Powers (Art. 286 of the Criminal Code of Russian Federation: Identification and Analysis of Signs of Object and Victim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey D. Brazhnik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article authors defines attributes of object and victim in the framework of offense "abuse of power" (Article 286 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation and conduct comparative analysis. At the first place questions of what should be considered as object of crime in the Russian legal doctrine. Author believe that "vertical" objects are divided into general, intragenic, clan, group, specific and direct, "horizontal" - at primary, secondary and optional. Author carried out a comprehensive analysis of each object under consideration provisions of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation. Authors give particular attention to the study of victims of this crime. According to authors, lack of the unified approach to this issue is largely generated by the procedural legislation. Author concludes that victims of the power abuse in the criminal law sense may be citizens (any individual, organizations (legal entities, irrespective of their legal form, society and the state. Based on the comprehensive analysis of legal acts, court practice and a wide range of scientific sources authors justify the appropriateness of amending Criminal Code of the Russian Federation.

  18. Improvement of genome assembly completeness and identification of novel full-length protein-coding genes by RNA-seq in the giant panda genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meili; Hu, Yibo; Liu, Jingxing; Wu, Qi; Zhang, Chenglin; Yu, Jun; Xiao, Jingfa; Wei, Fuwen; Wu, Jiayan

    2015-12-11

    High-quality and complete gene models are the basis of whole genome analyses. The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) genome was the first genome sequenced on the basis of solely short reads, but the genome annotation had lacked the support of transcriptomic evidence. In this study, we applied RNA-seq to globally improve the genome assembly completeness and to detect novel expressed transcripts in 12 tissues from giant pandas, by using a transcriptome reconstruction strategy that combined reference-based and de novo methods. Several aspects of genome assembly completeness in the transcribed regions were effectively improved by the de novo assembled transcripts, including genome scaffolding, the detection of small-size assembly errors, the extension of scaffold/contig boundaries, and gap closure. Through expression and homology validation, we detected three groups of novel full-length protein-coding genes. A total of 12.62% of the novel protein-coding genes were validated by proteomic data. GO annotation analysis showed that some of the novel protein-coding genes were involved in pigmentation, anatomical structure formation and reproduction, which might be related to the development and evolution of the black-white pelage, pseudo-thumb and delayed embryonic implantation of giant pandas. The updated genome annotation will help further giant panda studies from both structural and functional perspectives.

  19. Characteristics of Medicare Advantage and Fee-for-Service Beneficiaries Upon Enrollment in Medicare at Age 65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eric A; Decker, Sandra L; Parker, Jennifer D

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has found differences in characteristics of beneficiaries enrolled in Medicare fee-for-service versus Medicare Advantage (MA), but there has been limited research using more recent MA enrollment data. We used 1997-2005 National Health Interview Survey data linked to 2000-2009 Medicare enrollment data to compare characteristics of Medicare beneficiaries before their initial enrollment into Medicare fee-for-service or MA at age 65 and whether the characteristics of beneficiaries changed from 2006 to 2009 compared with 2000 to 2005. During this period of MA growth, the greatest increase in enrollment appears to have come from those with no chronic conditions and men.

  20. Characteristics of Medicare Advantage and Fee-for-Service Beneficiaries Upon Enrollment in Medicare at Age 65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eric A; Decker, Sandra L; Parker, Jennifer D

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has found differences in characteristics of beneficiaries enrolled in Medicare fee-for-service versus Medicare Advantage (MA), but there has been limited research using more recent MA enrollment data. We used 1997-2005 National Health Interview Survey data linked to 2000-2009 Medicare enrollment data to compare characteristics of Medicare beneficiaries before their initial enrollment into Medicare fee-for-service or MA at age 65 and whether the characteristics of beneficiaries changed from 2006 to 2009 compared with 2000 to 2005. During this period of MA growth, the greatest increase in enrollment appears to have come from those with no chronic conditions and men. PMID:27232684

  1. Identification of intermediate-size non-coding RNAs involved in the UV-induced DNA damage response in C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aqian Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A network of DNA damage response (DDR mechanisms functions coordinately to maintain genome integrity and prevent disease. The Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER pathway is known to function in the response to UV-induced DNA damage. Although numbers of coding genes and miRNAs have been identified and reported to participate in UV-induced DNA damage response (UV-DDR, the precise role of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs in UV-DDR remains largely unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used high-throughput RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq to discover intermediate-size (70-500 nt ncRNAs (is-ncRNAs in C. elegans, using the strains of L4 larvae of wild-type (N2, UV-irradiated (N2/UV100 and NER-deficient mutant (xpa-1, and 450 novel non-coding transcripts were initially identified. A customized microarray assay was then applied to examine the expression profiles of both novel transcripts and known is-ncRNAs, and 57 UV-DDR-related is-ncRNA candidates showed expression variations at different levels between UV irradiated strains and non- irradiated strains. The top ranked is-ncRNA candidates with expression differences were further validated by qRT-PCR analysis, of them, 8 novel is-ncRNAs were significantly up-regulated after UV irradiation. Knockdown of two novel is-ncRNAs, ncRNA317 and ncRNA415, by RNA interference, resulted in higher UV sensitivity and significantly decreased expression of NER-related genes in C. elegans. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The discovery of above two novel is-ncRNAs in this study indicated the functional roles of is-ncRNAs in the regulation of UV-DDR network, and aided our understanding of the significance of ncRNA involvement in the UV-induced DNA damage response.

  2. Identification of Potential Key Long Non-Coding RNAs and Target Genes Associated with Pneumonia Using Long Non-Coding RNA Sequencing (lncRNA-Seq): A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sai; Feng, Cong; Chen, Li; Huang, Zhi; Zhou, Xuan; Li, Bei; Wang, Li-li; Chen, Wei; Lv, Fa-qin; Li, Tan-shi

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to identify the potential key long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and target genes associated with pneumonia using lncRNA sequencing (lncRNA-seq). Material/Methods A total of 9 peripheral blood samples from patients with mild pneumonia (n=3) and severe pneumonia (n=3), as well as volunteers without pneumonia (n=3), were received for lncRNA-seq. Based on the sequencing data, differentially expressed lncRNAs (DE-lncRNAs) were identified by the limma package. After the functional enrichment analysis, target genes of DE-lncRNAs were predicted, and the regulatory network was constructed. Results In total, 99 DE-lncRNAs (14 upregulated and 85 downregulated ones) were identified in the mild pneumonia group and 85 (72 upregulated and 13 downregulated ones) in the severe pneumonia group, compared with the control group. Among these DE-lncRNAs, 9 lncRNAs were upregulated in both the mild and severe pneumonia groups. A set of 868 genes were predicted to be targeted by these 9 DE-lncRNAs. In the network, RP11-248E9.5 and RP11-456D7.1 targeted the majority of genes. RP11-248E9.5 regulated several genes together with CTD-2300H10.2, such as QRFP and EPS8. Both upregulated RP11-456D7.1 and RP11-96C23.9 regulated several genes, such as PDK2. RP11-456D7.1 also positively regulated CCL21. Conclusions These novel lncRNAs and their target genes may be closely associated with the progression of pneumonia. PMID:27663962

  3. Low-pass shotgun sequencing of the barley genome facilitates rapid identification of genes, conserved non-coding sequences and novel repeats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graner Andreas

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Barley has one of the largest and most complex genomes of all economically important food crops. The rise of new short read sequencing technologies such as Illumina/Solexa permits such large genomes to be effectively sampled at relatively low cost. Based on the corresponding sequence reads a Mathematically Defined Repeat (MDR index can be generated to map repetitive regions in genomic sequences. Results We have generated 574 Mbp of Illumina/Solexa sequences from barley total genomic DNA, representing about 10% of a genome equivalent. From these sequences we generated an MDR index which was then used to identify and mark repetitive regions in the barley genome. Comparison of the MDR plots with expert repeat annotation drawing on the information already available for known repetitive elements revealed a significant correspondence between the two methods. MDR-based annotation allowed for the identification of dozens of novel repeat sequences, though, which were not recognised by hand-annotation. The MDR data was also used to identify gene-containing regions by masking of repetitive sequences in eight de-novo sequenced bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC clones. For half of the identified candidate gene islands indeed gene sequences could be identified. MDR data were only of limited use, when mapped on genomic sequences from the closely related species Triticum monococcum as only a fraction of the repetitive sequences was recognised. Conclusion An MDR index for barley, which was obtained by whole-genome Illumina/Solexa sequencing, proved as efficient in repeat identification as manual expert annotation. Circumventing the labour-intensive step of producing a specific repeat library for expert annotation, an MDR index provides an elegant and efficient resource for the identification of repetitive and low-copy (i.e. potentially gene-containing sequences regions in uncharacterised genomic sequences. The restriction that a particular

  4. Perception of beneficiaries towards adoption of e-money in the distribution of social assistance in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sartika Djamaluddin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Wide access to formal finance for poor households through distribution of social assistance via electronic money (E-money is believed to accelerate eradication of poverty. We would like to find out the beneficiaries response to this payment method. This aims of this study is to investigate the perception of beneficiaries towards distribution of social assistance through e-money. We surveyed 230 beneficiaries in Jakarta, Cirebon and Pasuruan. The result of research indicates that the perception of PKH beneficiaries related to the cost, benefits and security of e-money is relatively good. However, from the aspect of ease of use and the respondents’ desire to use e-money, the perception is quite low. 

  5. 42 CFR 413.35 - Limitations on coverage of costs: Charges to beneficiaries if cost limits are applied to services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... beneficiaries). (d) Definition of emergency services. For purposes of paragraph (a)(2) of this section... of the health of the individual, and which, because of the threat to the life or health of...

  6. An evaluation of the influence of primary care team functioning on the health of Medicare beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roblin, Douglas W; Howard, David H; Junling Ren; Becker, Edmund R

    2011-04-01

    In service industries other than health care, unit employees who report a favorable service climate--characterized by commitment to a team concept and intrateam interactions that are supportive, collegial, and collaborative--have high levels of consumer satisfaction and work unit productivity. The authors evaluated whether similar primary care team (PCT) functioning influenced the short-term future health (SF-36) of elderly Medicare beneficiaries (N = 991) in a group model managed care organization (MCO). PCT functioning was assessed by surveys of practitioners and support staff on the MCO's 14 primary care practices and included measures of perceived task delegation, role collaboration, patient orientation, and team ownership. On average, patient physical and emotional health declined over 2 years. Medicare beneficiaries empanelled to relatively high functioning PCTs had significantly better physical and emotional health at 2 years following baseline assessment than those empanelled to relatively low functioning PCTs.

  7. Community-Based Case Management, Hospital Utilization, and Patient-Focused Outcomes in Medicare Beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Jee Young

    2014-07-01

    There is limited research about the impact of community-based case management (CBCM) services and its outcomes with longitudinal analysis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a CBCM intervention on patient outcomes in Medicare beneficiaries with chronic illness in a CBCM service in the rural Midwest. A descriptive, repeated-measures design was used, and a secondary analysis of a data set containing longitudinal CBCM data, originally collected from 2002 to 2007, was conducted. Two years of case management (CM) interventions, three health-service utilization outcomes, and three patient-focused outcomes were examined. The study findings showed that a CBCM had significant effect on reducing patients' number of hospitalizations and increasing patients' symptom control and quality of life. The impact of CM on length of stay and emergency department visits was indeterminate. Findings suggest that CBCM can be used as an effective intervention program for Medicare beneficiaries. PMID:24335076

  8. Identification of mRNA-like non-coding RNAs and validation of a mighty one named MAR in Panax ginseng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meizhen Wang; Bin Wu; Chao Chen; Shanfa Lu

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that long non‐coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play significant roles in plants. However, little is known about lncRNAs in Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, an economical y significant medicinal plant species. A total of 3,688 mRNA‐like non‐coding RNAs (mlncRNAs), a class of lncRNAs, were identified in P. ginseng. Approximately 40%of the identified mlncRNAs were processed into smal RNAs, implying their regulatory roles via smal RNA‐mediated mechanisms. Eleven miRNA‐generating mlncRNAs also pro-duced siRNAs, suggesting the coordinated production of miRNAs and siRNAs in P. ginseng. The mlncRNA‐derived smal RNAs might be 21‐, 22‐, or 24‐nt phased and could be generated from both or only one strand of mlncRNAs, or from super long hairpin structures. A ful‐length mlncRNA, termed MAR (multiple‐function‐associated mlncRNA), was cloned. It gener-ated the most abundant siRNAs. The MAR siRNAs were predominantly 24‐nt and some of them were distributed in a phased pattern. A total of 228 targets were predicted for 71 MAR siRNAs. Degradome sequencing validated 68 predicted targets involved in diverse metabolic pathways, suggesting the significance of MAR in P. ginseng. Consistently, MAR was detected in al tissues analyzed and responded to methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment. It sheds light on the function of mlncRNAs in plants.

  9. Sequence analysis and identification of new variations in the coding sequence of melatonin receptor gene (MTNR1A of Indian Chokla sheep breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Saxena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin receptor 1A gene is the prime receptor mediating the effect of melatonin at the neuroendocrine level for control of seasonal reproduction in sheep. The aims of this study were to examine the polymorphism pattern of coding sequence of MTNR1A gene in Chokla sheep, a breed of Indian arid tract and to identify new variations in relation to its aseasonal status. Genomic DNAs of 101 Chokla sheep were collected and an 824 bp coding sequence of Exon II was amplified. RFLP was performed with enzyme RsaI and MnlI to assess the presence of polymorphism at position C606T and G612A, respectively. Genotyping revealed significantly higher frequency of M and R alleles than m and r alleles. RR and MM were found to be dominantly present in the group of studied population. Cloning and sequencing of Exon II followed by mutation/polymorphism analysis revealed ten mutations of which three were non-synonymous mutations (G706A, C893A, G931C. G706A leads to substitution of valine by isoleucine Val125I (U14109 in the fifth transmembrane domain. C893A leads to substitution of alanine by aspartic acid in the third extracellular loop. G931C mutation brings about substitution of amino acid alanine by proline in the seventh transmembrane helix, can affect the conformational stability of the molecule. Polyphen-2 analysis revealed that the polymorphism at position 931 is potentially damaging while the mutations at positions 706 and 893 were benign. It is concluded that G931C mutation of MTNR 1A gene, may explain, in part, the importance of melatonin structure integrity in influencing seasonality in sheep.

  10. Molecular Characterization of the Tumor Suppressor Candidate 5 Gene: Regulation by PPARγ and Identification of TUSC5 Coding Variants in Lean and Obese Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trina A. Knotts

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor suppressor candidate 5 (TUSC5 is a gene expressed abundantly in white adipose tissue (WAT, brown adipose tissue (BAT, and peripheral afferent neurons. Strong adipocyte expression and increased expression following peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ agonist treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes suggested a role for Tusc5 in fat cell proliferation and/or metabolism. However, the regulation of Tusc5 in WAT and its potential association with obesity phenotypes remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that the TUSC5 gene is a bona fide PPARγ target and evaluated whether its WAT expression or single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the TUSC5 coding region are associated with human obesity. Induction of Tusc5 mRNA levels in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by troglitazone and GW1929 followed a dose-response consistent with these agents' binding affinities for PPARγ. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP experiments confirmed that PPARγ protein binds a ∼−1.1 kb promotor sequence of murine TUSC5 transiently during 3T3-L1 adipogenesis, concurrent with histone H3 acetylation. No change in Tusc5 mRNA or protein levels was evident in type 2 diabetic patients treated with pioglitazone. Tusc5 expression was not induced appreciably in liver preparations overexpressing PPARs, suggesting that tissue-specific factors regulate PPARγ responsiveness of the TUSC5 gene. Finally, we observed no differences in Tusc5 WAT expression or prevalence of coding region SNPs in lean versus obese human subjects. These studies firmly establish the murine TUSC5 gene locus as a PPARγ target, but the significance of Tusc5 in obesity phenotypes or in the pharmacologic actions of PPARγ agonists in humans remains equivocal.

  11. DataView: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance of Aged Medicare Beneficiaries, 1995

    OpenAIRE

    Arday, David R.; Arday, Susan L.; Bolen, Julie; Rhodes, Luann; Chin, Joseph; Minor, Patrick

    1997-01-01

    The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is an ongoing State-based telephone survey of adults, administered through State health departments. The survey estimates health status and the prevalence of various risk factors among respondents, who include both fee-for-service and managed care Medicare beneficiaries. In this article the authors present an overview of the BRFSS and report 1995 regional results among respondents who were 65 years of age or over and who had health insura...

  12. Functional Limitations, Medication Support, and Responses to Drug Costs among Medicare Beneficiaries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Whaley

    Full Text Available Standard Medicare Part D prescription drug benefits include substantial and complex cost-sharing. Many beneficiaries also have functional limitations that could affect self-care capabilities, including managing medications, but also have varying levels of social support to help with these activities. We examined the associations between drug cost responses, functional limitations, and social support.We conducted telephone interviews in a stratified random sample of community-dwelling Medicare Advantage beneficiaries (N = 1,201, response rate = 70.0%. Participants reported their functional status (i.e., difficulty with activities of daily living and social support (i.e., receiving help with medications. Drug cost responses included cost-reducing behaviors, cost-related non-adherence, and financial stress.We used multivariate logistic regression to assess associations among functional status, help with medications, and drug cost responses, adjusting for patient characteristics.Respondents with multiple limitations who did not receive help with their medications were more likely to report cost-related non-adherence (OR = 3.2, 95% CI: 1.2-8.5 and financial stress (OR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.3-4.5 compared to subjects with fewer limitations and no help; however, those with multiple limitations and with medication help had similar odds of unfavorable cost responses as those with fewer limitations.The majority of beneficiaries with functional limitations did not receive help with medications. Support with medication management for beneficiaries who have functional limitations could improve adherence and outcomes.

  13. Educational Development of NGO Beneficiaries in Bangladesh: A Disjunction between Programmes and Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Aktaruzzaman Khan; Md. Aminul Islam; Anees Janee Ali

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between NGO programmes and their clients’ educational development. NGOs play a very significant role with a view to achieving their development goal. Developing countries consider education as the key aspect for their socio-economic development. The study focuses on this perspective and asks the relationship between NGOs’ socio-economic and training programmes (by Kirkpatrick’s training taxonomy) and educational development of their beneficiaries. A quanti...

  14. Work-Oriented Social Security Disability Beneficiaries: Characteristics and Employment-Related Activities.

    OpenAIRE

    Gina A. Livermore

    2009-01-01

    This brief discusses the characteristics of working-age individuals receiving Social Security disability benefits and describes their employment success. The findings suggest that beneficiaries fall into three broad groups based on work-related efforts and expectations. For 60 percent, gainful employment seems to be neither a plan nor an option. Of the 40 percent who are interested in working, about 20 percent are actively pursuing and achieving this goal.

  15. Return-to-Work Outcomes Among Social Security Disability Insurance Program Beneficiaries.

    OpenAIRE

    Yonatan Ben-Shalom; Arif Mamun

    2013-01-01

    This report follows a sample of working-age Social Security Disability Insurance program beneficiaries for five years after their first benefit award to learn how certain factors help or hinder achieving four important milestones: (1) first enrollment for employment services provided by a state vocational rehabilitation agency or employment network, (2) start of trial work period, (3) completion of trial work period, and (4) suspension or termination of benefits because of work. Younger benef...

  16. WorkOriented Social Security Disability Beneficiaries Characteristics and EmploymentRelated Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Gina A. Livermore

    2009-01-01

    This brief discusses the characteristics of working-age individuals receiving Social Security disability benefits and describes their employment success. The findings suggest that beneficiaries fall into three broad groups based on work-related efforts and expectations. For 60 percent, gainful employment seems to be neither a plan nor an option. Of the 40 percent who are interested in working, about 20 percent are actively pursuing and achieving this goal.

  17. The Effect of Medicaid Payment Generosity on Access and Use among Beneficiaries

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Yu-Chu; Zuckerman, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the effects of Medicaid payment generosity on access and care for adult and child Medicaid beneficiaries. Data Source: Three years of the National Surveys of America's Families (1997, 1999, 2002) are linked to the Urban Institute Medicaid capitation rate surveys, the Area Resource File, and the American Hospital Association survey files. Study Design: In order to identify the effect of payment generosity apart from unmeasured differences across areas, ...

  18. A prospective cohort study of long-term cognitive changes in older Medicare beneficiaries

    OpenAIRE

    Jones Michael P; Hockenberry Jason; Bentler Suzanne E; Wolinsky Fredric D; Weigel Paula A; Kaskie Brian; Wallace Robert B

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Promoting cognitive health and preventing its decline are longstanding public health goals, but long-term changes in cognitive function are not well-documented. Therefore, we first examined long-term changes in cognitive function among older Medicare beneficiaries in the Survey on Assets and Health Dynamics among the Oldest Old (AHEAD), and then we identified the risk factors associated with those changes in cognitive function. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of ...

  19. Multimorbidity, Mental Illness, and Quality of Care: Preventable Hospitalizations among Medicare Beneficiaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Ajmera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Individuals with multimorbidity are vulnerable to poor quality of care due to issues related to care coordination. Ambulatory care sensitive hospitalizations (ACSHs are widely accepted quality indicators because they can be avoided by timely, appropriate, and high-quality outpatient care. Objective. To examine the association between multimorbidity, mental illness, and ACSH. Study Design. We used a longitudinal panel design with data from multiple years (2000–2005 of Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey. Individuals were categorized into three groups: (1 multimorbidity with mental illness (MM/MI; (2 MM/no MI; (3 no MM. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to analyze the association between multimorbidity and ACSH. Results. Any ACSH rates varied from 10.8% in MM/MI group to 8.8% in MM/No MI group. Likelihood of any ACSH was higher among beneficiaries with MM/MI (AOR = 1.62; 95% CI = 1.14, 2.30 and MM (AOR = 1.54; 95% CI = 1.12, 2.11 compared to beneficiaries without multimorbidity. There was no statistically significant difference in likelihood of ACSH between MM/MI and MM/No MI groups. Conclusion. Multimorbidity (with or without MI had an independent and significant association with any ACSH. However, presence of mental illness alone was not associated with poor quality of care as measured by ACSH.

  20. Parkinson’s Disease and Home Healthcare Use and Expenditures among Elderly Medicare Beneficiaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandipan Bhattacharjee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study estimated excess home healthcare use and expenditures among elderly Medicare beneficiaries (age ≥ 65 years with Parkinson’s disease (PD compared to those without PD and analyzed the extent to which predisposing, enabling, need factors, personal health choice, and external environment contribute to the excess home healthcare use and expenditures among individuals with PD. A retrospective, observational, cohort study design using Medicare 5% sample claims for years 2006-2007 was used for this study. Logistic regressions and Ordinary Least Squares regressions were used to assess the association of PD with home health use and expenditures, respectively. Postregression nonlinear and linear decomposition techniques were used to understand the extent to which differences in home healthcare use and expenditures among elderly Medicare beneficiaries with and without PD can be explained by individual-level factors. Elderly Medicare beneficiaries with PD had higher home health use and expenditures compared to those without PD. 27.5% and 18% of the gap in home health use and expenditures, respectively, were explained by differences in characteristics between the PD and no PD groups. A large portion of the differences in home healthcare use and expenditures remained unexplained.

  1. Identification of novel growth phase- and media-dependent small non-coding RNAs in Streptococcus pyogenes M49 using intergenic tiling arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patenge Nadja

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs have attracted attention as a new class of gene regulators in both eukaryotes and bacteria. Genome-wide screening methods have been successfully applied in Gram-negative bacteria to identify sRNA regulators. Many sRNAs are well characterized, including their target mRNAs and mode of action. In comparison, little is known about sRNAs in Gram-positive pathogens. In this study, we identified novel sRNAs in the exclusively human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes M49 (Group A Streptococcus, GAS M49, employing a whole genome intergenic tiling array approach. GAS is an important pathogen that causes diseases ranging from mild superficial infections of the skin and mucous membranes of the naso-pharynx, to severe toxic and invasive diseases. Results We identified 55 putative sRNAs in GAS M49 that were expressed during growth. Of these, 42 were novel. Some of the newly-identified sRNAs belonged to one of the common non-coding RNA families described in the Rfam database. Comparison of the results of our screen with the outcome of two recently published bioinformatics tools showed a low level of overlap between putative sRNA genes. Previously, 40 potential sRNAs have been reported to be expressed in a GAS M1T1 serotype, as detected by a whole genome intergenic tiling array approach. Our screen detected 12 putative sRNA genes that were expressed in both strains. Twenty sRNA candidates appeared to be regulated in a medium-dependent fashion, while eight sRNA genes were regulated throughout growth in chemically defined medium. Expression of candidate genes was verified by reverse transcriptase-qPCR. For a subset of sRNAs, the transcriptional start was determined by 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends-PCR (RACE-PCR analysis. Conclusions In accord with the results of previous studies, we found little overlap between different screening methods, which underlines the fact that a comprehensive analysis of s

  2. Identification of a novel Drosophila melanogaster heat-shock gene, lethal(2)denticleless [l(2)dtl], coding for an 83-kDa protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzik-Dumke, U; Neubauer, M; Debes, A

    1996-06-01

    In this study, we describe the identification of a novel Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) gene, l(2)dtl, characterized by elevated expression under heat-shock (HS) conditions. It encodes a protein of 83 kDa with no homology to known members of the HSP90 family and other proteins. Gene l(2)dtl is located on the right arm of the second chromosome at locus 59F5, close to the tumor suppressor gene l(2)tid, a homolog of the dnaJ encoding a chaperone strongly conserved in evolution. In the following, we present the sequence of l(2)dtl, the putative protein it encodes, and its molecular localization in a closely interspaced gene cluster consisting of at least four nested genes spanning an approximately 10-kb genomic interval. Furthermore, we present the temporal expression of l(2)dtl in the wild type under normal and HS conditions, and describe the isolation and the phenotype of eight embryonic lethal l(2)dtl mutants.

  3. NHRIC (National Health Related Items Code)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Health Related Items Code (NHRIC) is a system for identification and numbering of marketed device packages that is compatible with other numbering...

  4. Speech coding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

    1998-05-08

    Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the

  5. Speaking Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Geoff

    development, Speaking Code unfolds an argument to undermine the distinctions between criticism and practice, and to emphasize the aesthetic and political aspects of software studies. Not reducible to its functional aspects, program code mirrors the instability inherent in the relationship of speech......; alternatives to mainstream development, from performances of the live-coding scene to the organizational forms of commons-based peer production; the democratic promise of social media and their paradoxical role in suppressing political expression; and the market’s emptying out of possibilities for free...... expression in the public realm. The book’s line of argument defends language against its invasion by economics, arguing that speech continues to underscore the human condition, however paradoxical this may seem in an era of pervasive computing....

  6. Identification of Long Non‐Coding RNAs Deregulated in Multiple Myeloma Cells Resistant to Proteasome Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Malek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available While the clinical benefit of proteasome inhibitors (PIs for multiple myeloma (MM treatment remains unchallenged, dose‐limiting toxicities and the inevitable emergence of drug resistance limit their long‐term utility. Disease eradication is compromised by drug resistance that is either present de novo or therapy‐induced, which accounts for the majority of tumor relapses and MM‐related deaths. Non‐coding RNAs (ncRNAs are a broad class of RNA molecules, including long non‐coding RNAs (lncRNAs, that do not encode proteins but play a major role in regulating the fundamental cellular processes that control cancer initiation, metastasis, and therapeutic resistance. While lncRNAs have recently attracted significant attention as therapeutic targets to potentially improve cancer treatment, identification of lncRNAs that are deregulated in cells resistant to PIs has not been previously addressed. We have modeled drug resistance by generating three MM cell lines with acquired resistance to either bortezomib, carfilzomib, or ixazomib. Genome‐wide profiling identified lncRNAs that were significantly deregulated in all three PIresistant cell lines relative to the drug‐sensitive parental cell line. Strikingly, certain lncRNAs deregulated in the three PI‐resistant cell lines were also deregulated in MM plasma cells isolated from newly diagnosed patients compared to healthy plasma cells. Taken together, these preliminary studies strongly suggest that lncRNAs represent potential therapeutic targets to prevent or overcome drug resistance. More investigations are ongoing to expand these initial studies in a greater number of MM patients to better define lncRNAs signatures that contribute to PI resistance in MM.

  7. The Aster code; Code Aster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbecq, J.M

    1999-07-01

    The Aster code is a 2D or 3D finite-element calculation code for structures developed by the R and D direction of Electricite de France (EdF). This dossier presents a complete overview of the characteristics and uses of the Aster code: introduction of version 4; the context of Aster (organisation of the code development, versions, systems and interfaces, development tools, quality assurance, independent validation); static mechanics (linear thermo-elasticity, Euler buckling, cables, Zarka-Casier method); non-linear mechanics (materials behaviour, big deformations, specific loads, unloading and loss of load proportionality indicators, global algorithm, contact and friction); rupture mechanics (G energy restitution level, restitution level in thermo-elasto-plasticity, 3D local energy restitution level, KI and KII stress intensity factors, calculation of limit loads for structures), specific treatments (fatigue, rupture, wear, error estimation); meshes and models (mesh generation, modeling, loads and boundary conditions, links between different modeling processes, resolution of linear systems, display of results etc..); vibration mechanics (modal and harmonic analysis, dynamics with shocks, direct transient dynamics, seismic analysis and aleatory dynamics, non-linear dynamics, dynamical sub-structuring); fluid-structure interactions (internal acoustics, mass, rigidity and damping); linear and non-linear thermal analysis; steels and metal industry (structure transformations); coupled problems (internal chaining, internal thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling, chaining with other codes); products and services. (J.S.)

  8. Patient-Centered Medical Home Features and Health Care Expenditures of Medicare Beneficiaries with Chronic Disease Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpot, Lindsey M; Stockbridge, Erica L; Padrón, Norma A; Pagán, José A

    2016-06-01

    Three out of 4 Medicare beneficiaries have multiple chronic conditions, and managing the care of this growing population can be complex and costly because of care coordination challenges. This study assesses how different elements of the patient-centered medical home (PCMH) model may impact the health care expenditures of Medicare beneficiaries with the most prevalent chronic disease dyads (ie, co-occurring high cholesterol and high blood pressure, high cholesterol and heart disease, high cholesterol and diabetes, high cholesterol and arthritis, heart disease and high blood pressure). Data from the 2007-2011 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey suggest that increased access to PCMH features may differentially impact the distribution of health care expenditures across health care service categories depending on the combination of chronic conditions experienced by each beneficiary. For example, having no difficulty contacting a provider after regular hours was associated with significantly lower outpatient expenditures for beneficiaries with high cholesterol and diabetes (n = 635; P = 0.038), but it was associated with significantly higher inpatient expenditures for beneficiaries with high blood pressure and high cholesterol (n = 1599; P = 0.015), and no significant differences in expenditures in any category for beneficiaries with high blood pressure and heart disease (n = 1018; P > 0.05 for all categories). However, average total health care expenditures are largely unaffected by implementing the PCMH features considered. Understanding how the needs of Medicare beneficiaries with multiple chronic conditions can be met through the adoption of the PCMH model is important not only to be able to provide high-quality care but also to control costs. (Population Health Management 2016;19:206-211). PMID:26440215

  9. Optimal codes as Tanner codes with cyclic component codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Pinero, Fernando; Zeng, Peng

    2014-01-01

    In this article we study a class of graph codes with cyclic code component codes as affine variety codes. Within this class of Tanner codes we find some optimal binary codes. We use a particular subgraph of the point-line incidence plane of A(2,q) as the Tanner graph, and we are able to describe...... the codes succinctly using Gröbner bases....

  10. MCNP code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MCNP code is the major Monte Carlo coupled neutron-photon transport research tool at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and it represents the most extensive Monte Carlo development program in the United States which is available in the public domain. The present code is the direct descendent of the original Monte Carlo work of Fermi, von Neumaum, and Ulam at Los Alamos in the 1940s. Development has continued uninterrupted since that time, and the current version of MCNP (or its predecessors) has always included state-of-the-art methods in the Monte Carlo simulation of radiation transport, basic cross section data, geometry capability, variance reduction, and estimation procedures. The authors of the present code have oriented its development toward general user application. The documentation, though extensive, is presented in a clear and simple manner with many examples, illustrations, and sample problems. In addition to providing the desired results, the output listings give a a wealth of detailed information (some optional) concerning each state of the calculation. The code system is continually updated to take advantage of advances in computer hardware and software, including interactive modes of operation, diagnostic interrupts and restarts, and a variety of graphical and video aids

  11. ANIMAL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes ANIMAL, a two-dimensional Eulerian magnetohydrodynamic computer code. ANIMAL's physical model also appears. Formulated are temporal and spatial finite-difference equations in a manner that facilitates implementation of the algorithm. Outlined are the functions of the algorithm's FORTRAN subroutines and variables

  12. Irradiation test of bar code label

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiation test of bar code label tagged on radioactive waste container was done to determine the effect of radiation. Low and medium radioactive waste is that below total activity of 4,000Bq/g according to the Korean nuclear law. The irradiation amount to radiate bar code label tagged on radioactive waste container was calculated by MCNP-4b computer code. The nuclide such as Co-60 and Cs-137 was assumed to contribute 50 % of total activity. Real irradiation amount for bar code label was finally calculated by the dimensions of the container and the bar code label. The identification of post and the physical deflection of irradiated bar code label was tested by the bar code reader. The coated bar code label was suitable to use on low and medium radioactive waste container

  13. Multiple Encryption-based Algorithm of Agricultural Product Trace Code

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    To establish a sound traceability system of agricultural products and guarantee security of agricultural products,an algorithm is proposed to encrypt trace code of agricultural products.Original trace code consists of 34 digits indicating such information as place of origin,name of product,date of production and authentication.Area code is used to indicate enterprise information,the encrypted algorithm is designed because of the increasing code length,such coding algorithms as system conversion and section division are applied for the encrypted conversion of code of origin place and production date code,moreover,section identification code and authentication code are permutated and combined to produce check code.Through the multiple encryption and code length compression,34 digits are compressed to 20 on the basis of ensuring complete coding information,shorter code length and better encryption enable the public to know information about agricultural products without consulting professional database.

  14. The association between office-based provider visits and emergency department utilization among Medicaid beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, Andrew J; Basu, Rashmita; Hochhalter, Angela K

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of our study was to describe the relationship between office-based provider visits and emergency department (ED) utilization by adult Medicaid beneficiaries. Data were extracted from the publicly-available Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, a nationally representative sample of the civilian non-institutionalized population in the United States. The sample included 1,497 respondents who had full year Medicaid coverage in 2009. Study variables included insurance coverage type, usual source of care, chronic illnesses, and beneficiary demographics. Multivariate analyses were conducted to describe associations between individual characteristics and (a) likelihood of any ED utilization, and (b) number of ED visits by those who utilized the ED at least once in the study year. The analysis was adjusted for demographic characteristics and chronic health conditions. A greater number of office-based provider visits was associated with a higher likelihood of ED utilization. Among those with at least one ED visit, a greater number of office-based visits was associated with a higher number of ED visits. A respondent's age, history of hypertension or myocardial infarction, and Hispanic/Latino ethnicity were associated with having one or more ED visits; age and Hispanic/Latino ethnicity were associated with total number of ED visits among those with at least one. In this representative sample of adult Medicaid beneficiaries, there was no evidence that office-based provider visits reduced ED utilization. Office visits were associated with higher ED utilization, as were certain chronic conditions, older age, and Hispanic/Latino ethnicity. Findings do not support efforts to reduce ED utilization by increasing office-based visits alone.

  15. From theoretical to actual ecosystem services: mapping beneficiaries and spatial flows in ecosystem service assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Villa, Ferdinando; Batker, David; Harrison-Cox, Jennifer; Voigt, Brian; Johnson, Gary W.

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem services mapping and modeling has focused more on supply than demand, until recently. Whereas the potential provision of economic benefits from ecosystems to people is often quantified through ecological production functions, the use of and demand for ecosystem services has received less attention, as have the spatial flows of services from ecosystems to people. However, new modeling approaches that map and quantify service-specific sources (ecosystem capacity to provide a service), sinks (biophysical or anthropogenic features that deplete or alter service flows), users (user locations and level of demand), and spatial flows can provide a more complete understanding of ecosystem services. Through a case study in Puget Sound, Washington State, USA, we quantify and differentiate between the theoretical or in situ provision of services, i.e., ecosystems’ capacity to supply services, and their actual provision when accounting for the location of beneficiaries and the spatial connections that mediate service flows between people and ecosystems. Our analysis includes five ecosystem services: carbon sequestration and storage, riverine flood regulation, sediment regulation for reservoirs, open space proximity, and scenic viewsheds. Each ecosystem service is characterized by different beneficiary groups and means of service flow. Using the ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services (ARIES) methodology we map service supply, demand, and flow, extending on simpler approaches used by past studies to map service provision and use. With the exception of the carbon sequestration service, regions that actually provided services to people, i.e., connected to beneficiaries via flow paths, amounted to 16-66% of those theoretically capable of supplying services, i.e., all ecosystems across the landscape. These results offer a more complete understanding of the spatial dynamics of ecosystem services and their effects, and may provide a sounder basis for economic

  16. From theoretical to actual ecosystem services: mapping beneficiaries and spatial flows in ecosystem service assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J. Bagstad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem services mapping and modeling has focused more on supply than demand, until recently. Whereas the potential provision of economic benefits from ecosystems to people is often quantified through ecological production functions, the use of and demand for ecosystem services has received less attention, as have the spatial flows of services from ecosystems to people. However, new modeling approaches that map and quantify service-specific sources (ecosystem capacity to provide a service, sinks (biophysical or anthropogenic features that deplete or alter service flows, users (user locations and level of demand, and spatial flows can provide a more complete understanding of ecosystem services. Through a case study in Puget Sound, Washington State, USA, we quantify and differentiate between the theoretical or in situ provision of services, i.e., ecosystems' capacity to supply services, and their actual provision when accounting for the location of beneficiaries and the spatial connections that mediate service flows between people and ecosystems. Our analysis includes five ecosystem services: carbon sequestration and storage, riverine flood regulation, sediment regulation for reservoirs, open space proximity, and scenic viewsheds. Each ecosystem service is characterized by different beneficiary groups and means of service flow. Using the ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services (ARIES methodology we map service supply, demand, and flow, extending on simpler approaches used by past studies to map service provision and use. With the exception of the carbon sequestration service, regions that actually provided services to people, i.e., connected to beneficiaries via flow paths, amounted to 16-66% of those theoretically capable of supplying services, i.e., all ecosystems across the landscape. These results offer a more complete understanding of the spatial dynamics of ecosystem services and their effects, and may provide a sounder basis for

  17. How prevalent and costly are Choosing Wisely low-value services? Evidence from Medicare beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Megan

    2014-10-01

    (1) Through the Choosing Wisely initiative, medical specialty societies identified non-indicated cardiac testing in low-risk patients and short-interval dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) or bone density testing as low-value care. (2) Nationally, 13 percent of low-risk Medicare beneficiaries received non-indicated cardiac tests, and 10 percent of DXAs reimbursed by Medicare were administered at inappropriately short intervals. There is significant geographic variation in the provision of these services. (2) Carefully designed policy and payment changes will likely prove most effective in reducing low-value care.

  18. Hammerstein Model for Speech Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turunen Jari

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear Hammerstein model is proposed for coding speech signals. Using Tsay's nonlinearity test, we first show that the great majority of speech frames contain nonlinearities (over 80% in our test data when using 20-millisecond speech frames. Frame length correlates with the level of nonlinearity: the longer the frames the higher the percentage of nonlinear frames. Motivated by this result, we present a nonlinear structure using a frame-by-frame adaptive identification of the Hammerstein model parameters for speech coding. Finally, the proposed structure is compared with the LPC coding scheme for three phonemes /a/, /s/, and /k/ by calculating the Akaike information criterion of the corresponding residual signals. The tests show clearly that the residual of the nonlinear model presented in this paper contains significantly less information compared to that of the LPC scheme. The presented method is a potential tool to shape the residual signal in an encode-efficient form in speech coding.

  19. NOVEL BIPHASE CODE -INTEGRATED SIDELOBE SUPPRESSION CODE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Feixue; Ou Gang; Zhuang Zhaowen

    2004-01-01

    A kind of novel binary phase code named sidelobe suppression code is proposed in this paper. It is defined to be the code whose corresponding optimal sidelobe suppression filter outputs the minimum sidelobes. It is shown that there do exist sidelobe suppression codes better than the conventional optimal codes-Barker codes. For example, the sidelobe suppression code of length 11 with filter of length 39 has better sidelobe level up to 17dB than that of Barker code with the same code length and filter length.

  20. From concatenated codes to graph codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Høholdt, Tom

    2004-01-01

    We consider codes based on simple bipartite expander graphs. These codes may be seen as the first step leading from product type concatenated codes to more complex graph codes. We emphasize constructions of specific codes of realistic lengths, and study the details of decoding by message passing...... in trees....

  1. Concatenated codes with convolutional inner codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Thommesen, Christian; Zyablov, Viktor

    1988-01-01

    The minimum distance of concatenated codes with Reed-Solomon outer codes and convolutional inner codes is studied. For suitable combinations of parameters the minimum distance can be lower-bounded by the product of the minimum distances of the inner and outer codes. For a randomized ensemble of...... concatenated codes a lower bound of the Gilbert-Varshamov type is proved...

  2. Ideas and Countermeasures for Perfecting Rural Public Product Supply from the Perspective of Main Beneficiaries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of defining the concept of rural public product supply, the weaknesses of the supply mechanism of rural public product are analyzed. The shortages of rural public product supply lead to the difficult ties in developing agriculture and rural economy; enriching farmers and narrowing the urban and rural income gap. Problems in rural public product supply are further analyzed. Firstly, the national finance used in agriculture is low. Secondly, farmers are not separated from decision system and the beneficiaries separate from the decision-makers. Thirdly, farmers are not fully treated as civilians. Fourthly, rural areas lack the selection and supervision mechanism of public product. The ideas and countermeasures on perfecting rural public product are put forward from the perspective of main beneficiaries. The supply of rural public product should take intensifying the self development capability of farmers as core; farmers should actively participate in the making the rural public product decision and fight for their right to say. Farmers should unit together through organizations to improve the organizational level. Farmers should actively participate in trainings on them and try to get the updated information from the local government. The village collective should protect the supply of rural public product.

  3. GRADUATION DETERMINANTS OF PRODUCTIVE SAFETY NET PROGRAM BENEFICIARY HOUSEHOLDS: A LOGISTIC ANALYSIS, TIGRAI-ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibrah Hagos Gebresilassie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Household food security issues have become the concern of international communities as well as national government of Ethiopia. Social safety nets (like Productive Safety Net Program in Ethiopia are programs that offer protection to poor rural people by providing income through transfer programs and employment opportunities. The main objective of this study was to identify the major graduation determinants of Productive safety Net Program beneficiary rural households using a logistic regression technique from a total of 400 sample respondents using Eastern zone of Tigrai regional national state, northern Ethiopia, as case study site. The researcher was initially identified about sixteen predicting factors of which just ten of them were found to be statistically significant, and all exhibited the expected signs. Regression results revealed thatan introduction to integrated agricultural package make use of, male-headed household, age squared of the household head, educational status of the household head, saving culture, male adults, non-government organizations follow-up, access to credit, access to petty trading and irrigation have led productive safety net program beneficiary households to have more probability of graduation. Finally, it is recommended that assisting farming rural households to diversify and expand their sources of income in order to be able to meet their minimum food requirement and graduate soon through the provision of integrated agricultural packages. Besides, program participants should be followed up by non-government organizations and highly engaged in petty trading to graduate sooner, boost their income and food secure.

  4. Enhancing and diluting the legal status of subsidiary protection beneficiaries under Union law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Louise Halleskov

    2016-01-01

    Is it in accordance with the Qualification Directive (QD) to restrict the freedom of movement within the host country of beneficiaries of subsidiary protection (a form of protection parallel to refugee status) in receipt of social security benefits? This question was addressed by the CJEU in its ...... and the substantive content of subsidiary protection while it, on the other hand, creates uncertainty about the applicable non-discrimination standard in such cases......Is it in accordance with the Qualification Directive (QD) to restrict the freedom of movement within the host country of beneficiaries of subsidiary protection (a form of protection parallel to refugee status) in receipt of social security benefits? This question was addressed by the CJEU in its...... ruling of 1 March 2015 in the Alo and Osso case. The Court’s answer and its reasoning is equally interesting, groundbreaking and controversial as it, on the one hand, strengthens the impact of the Geneva Convention (the United Nations Convention on the Status of Refugees) on the QD standards...

  5. Medicare beneficiaries more likely to receive appropriate ambulatory services in HMOs than in traditional medicare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayanian, John Z; Landon, Bruce E; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Saunders, Robert C; Pawlson, L Gregory; Newhouse, Joseph P

    2013-07-01

    With quality-of-care bonus payments now available for Medicare Advantage health maintenance organizations (HMOs) and for accountable care organizations in traditional Medicare, the need to understand the relative quality of care delivered to Medicare enrollees has increased. We compared the quality of ambulatory care from 2003 through 2009 between beneficiaries enrolled in Medicare Advantage HMOs and those enrolled in traditional Medicare, and we assessed how the performance of various types of Medicare HMOs differed from that of traditional Medicare for these same measures. We found that beneficiaries in Medicare HMOs were consistently more likely than those in traditional Medicare to receive appropriate breast cancer screening, diabetes care, and cholesterol testing for cardiovascular disease. We also found that Medicare HMO physicians were rated less favorably by their patients than were physicians in traditional Medicare in 2003; however, by 2009 the opposite was true. Not-for-profit, larger, and older Medicare HMOs performed consistently more favorably on clinical measures and ratings of care than for-profit, smaller, and newer HMOs. Our results suggest that the positive effects of more-integrated delivery systems on the quality of ambulatory care in Medicare HMOs may outweigh the potential incentives to restrict care under capitated payments.

  6. Dx for a careful approach to moving dual-eligible beneficiaries into managed care plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Patricia; Lyons, Barbara; Rentas, Jennifer; Rowland, Diane

    2012-06-01

    Policy makers are moving rapidly to develop and test reforms aimed at doing a better job of managing the costs and care for people dually eligible for Medicare and Medicaid. This commentary underscores the importance of pursuing new initiatives to address care coordination and spending concerns. It then focuses on key issues raised by proposals that would shift dual-eligible beneficiaries into managed care plans. The paper describes the heterogeneity and complexity of this population, emphasizing the need for approaches closely tied to the needs of particular subgroups of dual-eligible beneficiaries. It warns against moving too quickly, noting the time and resources required to build capacity to serve patients, secure provider networks, and develop an infrastructure for integrating and managing both Medicare and Medicaid services. The commentary cautions that optimistic savings assumptions might not materialize, raises questions about how savings will be allocated, and highlights the need for accountability as new models are being developed and tested to improve care for a population with complex needs. PMID:22665830

  7. A 12-year prospective study of stroke risk in older Medicare beneficiaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlik Claire E

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 5.8 M living Americans have experienced a stroke at some time in their lives, 780K had either their first or a recurrent stroke this year, and 150K died from strokes this year. Stroke costs about $66B annually in the US, and also results in serious, long-term disability. Therefore, it is prudent to identify all possible risk factors and their effects so that appropriate intervention points may be targeted. Methods Baseline (1993–1994 interview data from the nationally representative Survey on Assets and Health Dynamics among the Oldest Old (AHEAD were linked to 1993–2005 Medicare claims. Participants were 5,511 self-respondents ≥ 70 years old. Two ICD9-CM case-identification approaches were used. Two approaches to stroke case-identification based on ICD9-CM codes were used, one emphasized sensitivity and the other emphasized specificity. Participants were censored at death or enrollment into managed Medicare. Baseline risk factors included sociodemographic, socioeconomic, place of residence, health behavior, disease history, and functional and cognitive status measures. A time-dependent marker reflecting post-baseline non-stroke hospitalizations was included to reflect health shocks, and sensitivity analyses were conducted to identify its peak effect. Competing risk, proportional hazards regression was used. Results Post-baseline strokes occurred for 545 (9.9%; high sensitivity approach and 374 (6.8%; high specificity approach participants. The greatest static risks involved increased age, being widowed or never married, living in multi-story buildings, reporting a baseline history of diabetes, hypertension, or stroke, and reporting difficulty picking up a dime, refusing to answer the delayed word recall test, or having poor cognition. Risks were similar for both case-identification approaches and for recurrent and first-ever vs. only first-ever strokes. The time-dependent health shock (recent hospitalization marker did

  8. 20 CFR 10.706 - How will a beneficiary know if OWCP or SOL has determined that action against a third party is...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How will a beneficiary know if OWCP or SOL... Third Party Liability § 10.706 How will a beneficiary know if OWCP or SOL has determined that action... is transferred to SOL, a second notification may be issued....

  9. 基于改进链码法的LuGre摩擦模型动态参数辨识%Parameters identification for LuGre friction model based on modified chain code recognition method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘柏希

    2012-01-01

    Aimed at the shortcoming of traditional parameters identification methods for LuGre friction model,a new parameters identification method based on genetic algorithms and modified chain code recognition method was presented.Firstly,LuGre friction model was briefly introduced.Secondly,the optimization objective function with measured and simulated friction force in stead state was established.Thirdly,the relationships among displacement-friction force curve in presliding regime,stiffness coefficient and damping coefficient of LuGre friction model were studied.Many displacement-friction force curves with different shape were simulated using different stiffness coefficients.The shape characteristics of those simulated displacement-friction force curves were extracted using modified chain code and Fourier descriptor.The Euclidean distance based on shape characteristics was employed as the measurement of similar degree between measured displacement-friction force curves and simulated displacement-friction force curves.When the distance is less than the given error,the corresponding stiffness coefficient of simulated displacement-friction force curve is regarded as the true one.In the end,a numerical example was given to show the correctness and effectiveness of the presented method.%针对现有LuGre摩擦模型动态参数辨识方法辨识精度不高,收敛性难以保证及参数初值难以确定等不足,提出了一种基于改进链码特征识别法的参数辨识方法。首先,研究LuGre摩擦模型中两个动态参数-鬃毛刚度系数与阻尼系数之间的关系,以及鬃毛刚度系数与预滑动阶段位移-摩擦力曲线形状之间的对应关系;然后,改进现有Freeman链码的采样方式和码间距,利用改进的链码结合傅立叶描绘子提取位移-摩擦力曲线的形状特征并形成特征向量;最后,以加噪声原始位移-摩擦力曲线和仿真位移-摩擦力曲线的特征向量为参数建立度量两曲线相似程度

  10. Quantum Cyclic Code

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Sagarmoy

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we define and study \\emph{quantum cyclic codes}, a generalisation of cyclic codes to the quantum setting. Previously studied examples of quantum cyclic codes were all quantum codes obtained from classical cyclic codes via the CSS construction. However, the codes that we study are much more general. In particular, we construct cyclic stabiliser codes with parameters $[[5,1,3

  11. 多入单出正交空时分组码系统的调制识别%Modulation Identification for Orthogonal Space-time Block Code in Multiple Input Single Output Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱国兵; 李立萍; 郭亨艺

    2015-01-01

    在现代无线通信系统中,采用正交空时分组码(STBC)的多天线发射技术是提高通信速率和可靠性,并且能够实现简单译码的关键技术。该文针对瑞利信道系统模型,提出一种适用于多入单出正交空时分组码(OSTBC)的调制识别算法。该算法通过对接收到的数据进行重排,将多入单出的系统模型转化为类似多入多出的系统模型,并且根据信源的特殊性用最大似然的思想实现调制类型的识别。仿真结果验证了所提算法的有效性。%In modern wireless communication systems, multiple-antenna-transmitting in association with Orthogonal Space-Time Block Code (OSTBC) is a key technology to improve communication rate, reliability, and decoding complexity. In this paper, a modulation identification algorithm is proposed which is well suitable for the Multiple Input Single Output (MISO)-OSTBC system. First, the MISO system is transformed into a Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) system by reshaping the received data. Then, maximum likelihood based approach is used to identify the modulation. Simulations validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  12. Enhancing Privacy for Biometric Identification Cards

    CERN Document Server

    Balanoiu, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Most developed countries have started the implementation of biometric electronic identification cards, especially passports. The European Union and the United States of America struggle to introduce and standardize these electronic documents. Due to the personal nature of the biometric elements used for the generation of these cards, privacy issues were raised on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, leading to civilian protests and concerns. The lack of transparency from the public authorities responsible with the implementation of such identification systems, and the poor technological approaches chosen by these authorities, are the main reasons for the negative popularity of the new identification methods. The following article shows an approach that provides all the benefits of modern technological advances in the fields of biometrics and cryptography, without sacrificing the privacy of those that will be the beneficiaries of the new system.

  13. Enhancing Privacy for Biometric Identification Cards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Most developed countries have started the implementation of biometric electronic identification cards, especially passports. The European Union and the United States of America struggle to introduce and standardize these electronic documents. Due to the personal nature of the biometric elements used for the generation of these cards, privacy issues were raised on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, leading to civilian protests and concerns. The lack of transparency from the public authorities responsible with the implementation of such identification systems, and the poor technological approaches chosen by these authorities, are the main reasons for the negative popularity of the new identification methods. The following article shows an approach that provides all the benefits of modern technological advances in the fields of biometrics and cryptography, without sacrificing the privacy of those that will be the beneficiaries of the new system

  14. System Identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keesman, K.J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary System Identification Introduction.- Part I: Data-based Identification.- System Response Methods.- Frequency Response Methods.- Correlation Methods.- Part II: Time-invariant Systems Identification.- Static Systems Identification.- Dynamic Systems Identification.- Part III: Time-varying Syste

  15. Accurate discrimination of conserved coding and non-coding regions through multiple indicators of evolutionary dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pesole Graziano

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The conservation of sequences between related genomes has long been recognised as an indication of functional significance and recognition of sequence homology is one of the principal approaches used in the annotation of newly sequenced genomes. In the context of recent findings that the number non-coding transcripts in higher organisms is likely to be much higher than previously imagined, discrimination between conserved coding and non-coding sequences is a topic of considerable interest. Additionally, it should be considered desirable to discriminate between coding and non-coding conserved sequences without recourse to the use of sequence similarity searches of protein databases as such approaches exclude the identification of novel conserved proteins without characterized homologs and may be influenced by the presence in databases of sequences which are erroneously annotated as coding. Results Here we present a machine learning-based approach for the discrimination of conserved coding sequences. Our method calculates various statistics related to the evolutionary dynamics of two aligned sequences. These features are considered by a Support Vector Machine which designates the alignment coding or non-coding with an associated probability score. Conclusion We show that our approach is both sensitive and accurate with respect to comparable methods and illustrate several situations in which it may be applied, including the identification of conserved coding regions in genome sequences and the discrimination of coding from non-coding cDNA sequences.

  16. DNA Bar-Coding for Phytoplasma Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarova, Olga; Contaldo, Nicoletta; Paltrinieri, Samanta;

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplasma identi fi cation has proved dif fi cult due to their inability to be maintained in vitro. DNA barcoding is an identi fi cation method based on comparison of a short DNA sequence with known sequences from a database. A DNA barcoding tool has been developed for phytoplasma identi fi cat...

  17. Disability and Hospital Care Expenses among National Health Insurance Beneficiaries: Analyses of Population-Based Data in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lan-Ping; Lee, Jiunn-Tay; Lin, Fu-Gong; Lin, Pei-Ying; Tang, Chi-Chieh; Chu, Cordia M.; Wu, Chia-Ling; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2011-01-01

    Nationwide data were collected concerning inpatient care use and medical expenditure of people with disabilities (N = 937,944) among national health insurance beneficiaries in Taiwan. Data included gender, age, hospitalization frequency and expenditure, healthcare setting and service department, discharge diagnose disease according to the ICD-9-CM…

  18. 75 FR 60066 - Limitations of Duty- and Quota-Free Imports of Apparel Articles Assembled in Beneficiary ATPDEA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... Organization Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (ATC), and the conversion factors for units of measure into... IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Limitations of Duty- and Quota-Free Imports of Apparel Articles Assembled in Beneficiary ATPDEA Countries From Regional Country Fabric AGENCY: Committee for the Implementation of...

  19. Early Hospital Readmission is a Predictor of One-Year Mortality in Community-Dwelling Older Medicare Beneficiaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lum, H.D.; Studenski, S.A.; Degenholtz, H.B.; Hardy, S.E.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hospital readmission within thirty days is common among Medicare beneficiaries, but the relationship between rehospitalization and subsequent mortality in older adults is not known. OBJECTIVE: To compare one-year mortality rates among community-dwelling elderly hospitalized Medicare bene

  20. 19 CFR 10.196 - Cost or value of materials produced in a beneficiary country or countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... composed is not wholly the growth, product, or manufacture of a beneficiary country and (2) the tanning... would be eligible for duty-free treatment only if the direct costs attributable to the tanning operation... transporting the materials to the manufacturer's plant; (iii) The actual cost of waste or spoilage...

  1. Costs and outcomes associated with clopidogrel discontinuation in Medicare beneficiaries with acute coronary syndrome in the coverage gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Page RL 2nd

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Robert Lee Page II,1,2 Vahram Ghushchyan,1 Richard R Allen,3 Lisa Roper,4 Don Beck,4 Bamrom H Jonathan,4 Feride Frech-Tamas,5 Wing Chan,5 R Brett McQueen,1 Kavita V Nair11School of Pharmacy, Department of Clinical Pharmacy, 2School of Medicine, Department of Family Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, 3Peakstat Statistical Services, Evergreen, CO, 4Universal American, Houston, TX, 5Novartis Pharmaceuticals, East Hanover, New Jersey, USABackground: Current guidelines for acute coronary syndrome recommend clopidogrel for an optimal period of 12 months in order to reduce the risk of reinfarction and mortality. Premature clopidogrel discontinuation has been associated with higher rates of rehospitalization, coronary stent thrombosis, and mortality. No data exist regarding the effect of the Medicare Part D coverage gap on medical costs and outcomes in Medicare beneficiaries who discontinue their clopidogrel upon entering the coverage gap.Methods: Beneficiaries with a Medicare Advantage plan in 2009 who had a diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome were taking clopidogrel 75 mg daily, and reached the gap in the same year representing the study sample. From this cohort, those who filled at least two prescriptions for clopidogrel (continued versus those that did not (discontinued while in the gap were compared with regard to outcomes related to acute coronary syndrome and expenditure 30 days after the last prescription was filled and during any time while in the gap. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were used to compare these differences.Results: A total of 1365 beneficiaries with acute coronary syndrome met the inclusion criteria, of which 705 beneficiaries entered into the coverage gap, wherein 103 (14.6% and 602 (85.4% of beneficiaries discontinued and continued clopidogrel, respectively. Compared with those who continued clopidogrel during the gap, beneficiaries who discontinued clopidogrel showed a higher trend in

  2. Potential Beneficiaries of the Obama Administration’s Executive Action Programs Deeply Embedded in US Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Kerwin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Obama administration has developed two broad programs to defer immigration enforcement actions against undocumented persons living in the United States: (1 Deferred Action for Parents of Americans and Lawful Permanent Residents (DAPA; and (2 Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA. The DACA program, which began in August 2012, was expanded on November 20, 2014. DAPA and the DACA expansion (hereinafter referred to as “DACA-plus” are currently under review by the US Supreme Court and subject to an active injunction.This paper offers a statistical portrait of the intended direct beneficiaries of DAPA, DACA, and DACA-plus. It finds that potential DAPA, DACA, and DACA-plus recipients are deeply embedded in US society, with high employment rates, extensive US family ties, long tenure, and substantial rates of English-language proficiency. The paper also notes various groups that would benefit indirectly from the full implementation of DAPA and DACA or, conversely, would suffer from the removal of potential beneficiaries of these programs. For example, all those who would rely on the retirement programs of the US government will benefit from the high employment rates and relative youth of the DACA population, while many US citizens who rely on the income of a DAPA-eligible parent would fall into poverty or extreme poverty should that parent be removed from the United States.This paper offers an analysis of potential DAPA and DACA beneficiaries. In an earlier study, the authors made the case for immigration reform based on long-term trends related to the US undocumented population, including potential DAPA and DACA beneficiaries (Warren and Kerwin 2015. By contrast, this paper details the degree to which these populations have become embedded in US society. It also compares persons eligible for the original DACA program with those eligible for DACA-plus.As stated, the great majority of potential DAPA and DACA recipients enjoy strong family

  3. Fundamentals of convolutional coding

    CERN Document Server

    Johannesson, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Fundamentals of Convolutional Coding, Second Edition, regarded as a bible of convolutional coding brings you a clear and comprehensive discussion of the basic principles of this field * Two new chapters on low-density parity-check (LDPC) convolutional codes and iterative coding * Viterbi, BCJR, BEAST, list, and sequential decoding of convolutional codes * Distance properties of convolutional codes * Includes a downloadable solutions manual

  4. Geographic disparities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD hospitalization among Medicare beneficiaries in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holt JB

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available James B Holt, Xingyou Zhang, Letitia Presley-Cantrell, Janet B CroftNational Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USABackground: Hospitalizations for persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD result in significant health care resource use and excess expenditures. Despite well-documented sociodemographic disparities in COPD outcomes, no study has characterized geographic variations in COPD hospitalization across the US.Methods: Almost 3.8 million COPD hospitalization records were extracted from Medicare claims for 1995–2006, and the total population of eligible Medicare beneficiaries was extracted from the Medicare enrollment records to calculate COPD hospitalization rates by Health Service Area (HSA, (n = 949. Spatial cluster analysis and Bayesian hierarchical spatial modeling were used to characterize the geography of COPD hospitalizations.Results: The overall COPD hospitalization rate was 11.30 per 1,000 beneficiaries for the aggregated period 1995–2006. HSA-level COPD hospitalization rates had a median of 11.7 and a range of 3.0 (Cache, UT to 76.3 (Pike, KY. Excessive hospitalization risk was concentrated in Appalachia, the southern Great Lakes, the Mississippi Delta, the Deep South, and west Texas. In the Bayesian spatial mixture model, 73% of variability of COPD hospitalization relative risk was attributed to unidentified regional social and physical environments shared by HSAs rather than to unique local HSA factors (27%.Conclusion: We discovered distinct geographic patterns in COPD hospitalization rates and risks attributed to both regionally-shared environmental risk factors and HSA-unique environmental contexts. The correlates of these geographic patterns remain to be determined. Geographic comparisons of COPD hospitalization risk provide insights for better public health practice, policies, and programs for COPD prevention

  5. Benefit adequacy among elderly Social Security retired-worker beneficiaries and the SSI federal benefit rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Kalman; Strand, Alexander; Davies, Paul; Sears, Jim

    2007-01-01

    Both target effectiveness and administrative simplicity are desirable properties in the design of minimum benefit packages for public retirement programs. The federal benefit rate (FBR) of the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program has been proposed by some analysts as a potentially attractive basis of establishing a new minimum benefit for Social Security on both of these grounds. This type of proposal is related to a broader array of minimum benefit proposals that would establish a Social Security benefit floor based on the poverty rate. In contrast to Social Security, the SSI program is means tested, including both an income and asset screen and also a categorical eligibility screen (the requirement to qualify as aged or disabled). The SSI FBR provides an inflation-adjusted, guaranteed income floor for aged and disabled people with low assets. The FBR has been perceived by proponents as a minimal measure of Social Security benefit adequacy because it represents a subpoverty income level for a family of one or two depending on marital status. For this same reason it has been seen as a target-effective tool of designing a minimum Social Security benefit. An FBR-based minimum benefit has also been viewed as administratively simple to implement; the benefit can be calculated from Social Security administrative records using a completely automated electronic process. Therefore-in contrast to the SSI program itself-an FBR-based minimum benefit would incur virtually no ongoing administrative costs, would not require a separate application for a means-tested program, and would avoid the perception of welfare stigma. While these ideas have been discussed in the literature and among policymakers in the United States over the years, and similar proposals have been considered or implemented in several foreign countries, there have been no previous analyses measuring the size of the potentially affected beneficiary population. Nor has there been any systematic assessment

  6. Strong Trinucleotide Circular Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian J. Michel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, we identified a hierarchy relation between trinucleotide comma-free codes and trinucleotide circular codes (see our previous works. Here, we extend our hierarchy with two new classes of codes, called DLD and LDL codes, which are stronger than the comma-free codes. We also prove that no circular code with 20 trinucleotides is a DLD code and that a circular code with 20 trinucleotides is comma-free if and only if it is a LDL code. Finally, we point out the possible role of the symmetric group ∑4 in the mathematical study of trinucleotide circular codes.

  7. Code-Mixing in Social Media Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitava Das

    Full Text Available Automatic understanding of noisy social media text is one of the prime presentday research areas. Most research has so far concentrated on English texts; however, more than half of the users are writing in other languages, making language identification a prerequisite for comprehensive processing of social media text. Though language identification has been considered an almost solved problem in other applications, language detectors fail in the social media context due to phenomena such as code-mixing, code-switching, lexical borrowings, Anglicisms, and phonetic typing. This paper reports an initial study to understand the characteristics of code-mixing in the social media context and presents a system developed to automatically detect language boundaries in code-mixed social media text, here exemplified by Facebook messages in mixed English-Bengali and English-Hindi.

  8. Oil royalties payment impact on socio-economic beneficiary countries development; O impacto do pagamento de royalties do petroleo no desenvolvimento socio-economico dos municipios beneficiarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucchesi, Cesar Augusto M.; Anuatti Neto, Francisco [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Economia, Administracao e Contabilidade

    2004-07-01

    This research proposes to evaluate oil royalties payment impact on socio-economic beneficiary counties indicators. In the first step, it has been made royalties payments distribution among beneficiary counties (942), what showed a meaningful paid resources concentration between 1993 and 1999, when 20% of the beneficiaries apportioned of 98,5% from this period paid royalties. For these 188 greatest exaction counties the royalties impact analyses on County Human Development Index (IDH-M) evolution showed the received royalties amount positively influenced the 2000 IDH-M additional comparing to 1991. It indicates the petroleum industry contribution to municipal development of those counties which receive these resources. (author)

  9. Joint source channel coding using arithmetic codes

    CERN Document Server

    Bi, Dongsheng

    2009-01-01

    Based on the encoding process, arithmetic codes can be viewed as tree codes and current proposals for decoding arithmetic codes with forbidden symbols belong to sequential decoding algorithms and their variants. In this monograph, we propose a new way of looking at arithmetic codes with forbidden symbols. If a limit is imposed on the maximum value of a key parameter in the encoder, this modified arithmetic encoder can also be modeled as a finite state machine and the code generated can be treated as a variable-length trellis code. The number of states used can be reduced and techniques used fo

  10. Model Children's Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque. American Indian Law Center.

    The Model Children's Code was developed to provide a legally correct model code that American Indian tribes can use to enact children's codes that fulfill their legal, cultural and economic needs. Code sections cover the court system, jurisdiction, juvenile offender procedures, minor-in-need-of-care, and termination. Almost every Code section is…

  11. Using the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey to conduct research on Medicare-eligible veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Jonk, PhD

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS is a longitudinal, multipurpose panel survey of a nationally representative sample of Medicare beneficiaries sponsored by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS. The MCBS serves as a comprehensive data source on self-reported health and socioeconomic status, health insurance, healthcare utilization and costs, and patient satisfaction. CMS uses Medicare claims data to validate self-reported Medicare Fee-For-Service (FFS utilization. Because the Veterans Health Administration (VHA does not bill for services, CMS imputes VHA costs. This article addresses the quality of the MCBS dataset for conducting research on Medicare-eligible veterans by addressing the sample's representativeness, quality of self-reported data, and accuracy of imputed VHA cost estimates. We compared demographic data from the 1992 and 2001 National Survey of Veterans (NSV with the MCBS 1992 and 2001 Cost and Use files. We compared self-reported VHA utilization and CMS's imputed costs with VHA administrative datasets. The VHA's Pharmacy Benefits Management (PBM database is available from fiscal year (FY 1999 onward, and the VHA Health Economics Resource Center's (HERC Average Cost datasets are available from FY1998 onward. While the samples were comparable in terms of age, sex, and race, the MCBS respondents were in better health, less likely to be married, and more likely to be widowed than NSV respondents. MCBS underreporting rates were higher for VHA than Medicare outpatient events. Underreporting and differences between CMS's and HERC's costing methodologies contributed to lower MCBS versus VHA administrative person- and event- level costs. Alternatively, average annual VHA prescription costs per capita were higher in the MCBS than in the PBM data. Differences in socioeconomic characteristics of the NSV and MCBS samples may be attributable to differences in sampling methodologies. Higher underreporting rates for VHA

  12. Antihypertensive medication classes used among medicare beneficiaries initiating treatment in 2007-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shia T Kent

    Full Text Available After the 2003 publication of the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7 guidelines, there was a 5-10% increase in patients initiating antihypertensive medication with a thiazide-type diuretic, but most patients still did not initiate treatment with this class. There are few contemporary published data on antihypertensive medication classes filled by patients initiating treatment.We used the 5% random Medicare sample to study the initiation of antihypertensive medication between 2007 and 2010. Initiation was defined by the first antihypertensive medication fill preceded by 365 days with no antihypertensive medication fills. We restricted our analysis to beneficiaries ≥ 65 years who had two or more outpatient visits with a hypertension diagnosis and full Medicare fee-for-service coverage for the 365 days prior to initiation of antihypertensive medication. Between 2007 and 2010, 32,142 beneficiaries in the 5% Medicare sample initiated antihypertensive medication. Initiation with a thiazide-type diuretic decreased from 19.2% in 2007 to 17.9% in 2010. No other changes in medication classes initiated occurred over this period. Among those initiating antihypertensive medication in 2010, 31.3% filled angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-Is, 26.9% filled beta blockers, 17.2% filled calcium channel blockers, and 14.4% filled angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs. Initiation with >1 antihypertensive medication class decreased from 25.6% in 2007 to 24.1% in 2010. Patients initiated >1 antihypertensive medication class most commonly with a thiazide-type diuretic and either an ACE-I or ARB.These results suggest that JNC 7 had a limited long-term impact on the choice of antihypertensive medication class and provide baseline data prior to the publication of the 2014 Evidence-Based Guideline for the Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults from the Panel

  13. Trends in Antihypertensive Medication Discontinuation and Low Adherence Among Medicare Beneficiaries Initiating Treatment From 2007 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajeu, Gabriel S; Kent, Shia T; Kronish, Ian M; Huang, Lei; Krousel-Wood, Marie; Bress, Adam P; Shimbo, Daichi; Muntner, Paul

    2016-09-01

    Low antihypertensive medication adherence is common. During recent years, the impact of low medication adherence on increased morbidity and healthcare costs has become more recognized, leading to interventions aimed at improving adherence. We analyzed a 5% sample of Medicare beneficiaries initiating antihypertensive medication between 2007 and 2012 to assess whether reductions occurred in discontinuation and low adherence. Discontinuation was defined as having no days of antihypertensive medication supply for the final 90 days of the 365 days after initiation. Low adherence was defined as having a proportion of days covered gap in the previous year. In conclusion, low adherence to antihypertensive medication has decreased among Medicare beneficiaries; however, rates of discontinuation and low adherence remain high. PMID:27432867

  14. The Complex Relationship Between Quality and Resource Use Among Medicare Fee-for-Service Beneficiaries with Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wendy Yi; Abraham, Jean; Marmor, Schelomo; Knutson, David; Virnig, Beth A

    2016-02-01

    This study examines the relationship between Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set-based diabetes quality measures and resource use for evaluation and management (E&M), inpatient facility, and surgical procedure services for a national sample of Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries in 1685 Hospital Service Areas. Using multivariate regression analyses, the study findings suggest that higher rates of beneficiaries' receipt of HbA1c, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and retinal eye exam tests ("composite quality") during the year is inversely related to average inpatient resource use. However, no association is found between composite quality and E&M services, suggesting that quality improvement with respect to increased rates of testing could be achieved without significant increases in resource use.

  15. Easing the Part D Transition An Evaluation of Federal and State Efforts to Ensure Dual Eligibles and Other LowIncome Beneficiaries Maintain Prescription Drug Coverage

    OpenAIRE

    Ann Bagchi; Matthew Hodges; Christine Yip; Sandra Nelson

    2008-01-01

    The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) anticipated problems transitioning drug coverage for dual eligible beneficiaries from Medicaid to Medicare when Medicare Part D was implemented in 2006. This report examines the administrative efficiency of the "Point-of-Sale Facilitated Enrollment" process and state-to-plan demonstrations, set up to facilitate the transition, by examining characteristics of beneficiaries in the two programs. It also looks at alternative approaches for ensuri...

  16. Nonbinary quantum codes

    OpenAIRE

    Eric M. Rains

    1997-01-01

    We present several results on quantum codes over general alphabets (that is, in which the fundamental units may have more than 2 states). In particular, we consider codes derived from finite symplectic geometry assumed to have additional global symmetries. From this standpoint, the analogues of Calderbank-Shor-Steane codes and of GF(4)-linear codes turn out to be special cases of the same construction. This allows us to construct families of quantum codes from certain codes over number fields...

  17. Rateless feedback codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Koike-Akino, Toshiaki; Orlik, Philip

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a concept called rateless feedback coding. We redesign the existing LT and Raptor codes, by introducing new degree distributions for the case when a few feedback opportunities are available. We show that incorporating feedback to LT codes can significantly decrease both...... the coding overhead and the encoding/decoding complexity. Moreover, we show that, at the price of a slight increase in the coding overhead, linear complexity is achieved with Raptor feedback coding....

  18. Affine Grassmann codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Beelen, Peter; Ghorpade, Sudhir Ramakant

    2010-01-01

    We consider a new class of linear codes, called affine Grassmann codes. These can be viewed as a variant of generalized Reed-Muller codes and are closely related to Grassmann codes.We determine the length, dimension, and the minimum distance of any affine Grassmann code. Moreover, we show that...... affine Grassmann codes have a large automorphism group and determine the number of minimum weight codewords....

  19. Longitudinal Statistics on Work Activity and Use of Employment Supports for New Social Security Disability Insurance Beneficiaries

    OpenAIRE

    Su Liu; David C. Stapleton

    2011-01-01

    Using Social Security Administration data, this paper presents findings from a longitudinal analysis of the extent to which new Supplemental Security Income (SSI) disability beneficiaries return to work and use SSI work incentives. Longitudinal statistics show that more than 8 percent of those first awarded SSI benefits as adults in 2001 had their benefits suspended due to work for at least a month by December 2007.

  20. Coding for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    Hands-on exercises help you learn to code like a pro No coding experience is required for Coding For Dummies,your one-stop guide to building a foundation of knowledge inwriting computer code for web, application, and softwaredevelopment. It doesn't matter if you've dabbled in coding or neverwritten a line of code, this book guides you through the basics.Using foundational web development languages like HTML, CSS, andJavaScript, it explains in plain English how coding works and whyit's needed. Online exercises developed by Codecademy, a leading online codetraining site, help hone coding skill

  1. Advanced video coding systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Wen

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive and accessible text/reference presents an overview of the state of the art in video coding technology. Specifically, the book introduces the tools of the AVS2 standard, describing how AVS2 can help to achieve a significant improvement in coding efficiency for future video networks and applications by incorporating smarter coding tools such as scene video coding. Topics and features: introduces the basic concepts in video coding, and presents a short history of video coding technology and standards; reviews the coding framework, main coding tools, and syntax structure of AV

  2. Polyphase alternating codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Markkanen

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a new class of alternating codes. Instead of the customary binary phase codes, the new codes utilize either p or p–1 phases, where p is a prime number. The first class of codes has code length pm, where m is a positive integer, the second class has code length p–1. We give an actual construction algorithm, and explain the principles behind it. We handle a few specific examples in detail. The new codes offer an enlarged collection of code lengths for radar experiments.

  3. Fluorescent taggants with temporally coded signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Siyang; Vyas, Raul; Dwyer, Chris

    2016-07-11

    In this paper, resonance energy transfer (RET) networks between chromophores are used to implement fluorescent taggants with temporally coded signatures. Because the temporal signature of such a fluorescent taggant is a phase-type distribution defined by the geometry of its RET network, the taggant design is not constrained by resolvable dyes and has a significantly larger coding capacity than spectrally or lifetime coded fluorescent taggants. Meanwhile, the detection process becomes highly efficient when the signatures are coded in the time domain. The taggant identification method is based on the multinomial distribution of detected photons and Maximum Likelihood Estimation, which guarantees high accuracy even with only a few hundred photons and also applies to a mixture of taggants in multiplex detection. Therefore, these temporally coded fluorescent taggants have great potential for both in situ and Lidar applications. PMID:27410827

  4. Perspective on Beneficiaries Experiences of Participation in Community-Based Agriculture and Rural Development Program in Guba, Northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sule Ahmadu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to explore beneficiaries’ experiences on participation in the on-going International Fund for Agriculture Development/Community-based agriculture and rural development program (IFAD/CBARDP among farmers in Guba community in Northern Nigeria. The paper illustrates beneficiaries’ experiences on how they are participating and the factors that motivated their participation in the program using qualitative research methods of data collection and analysis. Data for the study was collected from eight key informants purposely selected as being participants of the program. Although, theoretically, participation entails the full involvement of beneficiaries in all the stages of the development process, findings of the study revealed that beneficiaries’ participation in the program was only evident in some stages of the development cycle. Several factors were found to have motivated beneficiaries’ participation in the program but the desire for meeting tangible material benefits featured above all other considerations. However, group leadership style, workshops and seminars, the approach adopted in the program, the officials/beneficiaries relationship and the publicity accorded to the program were found to have motivated beneficiaries’ participation as well. At the end, the paper recommended the active and full involvement of beneficiaries in future development initiatives in order to achieve sustainable rural development programs.

  5. THE PROTECTION OF CONTRADICTORY IN THE BRAZILIAN NEW CIVIL PROCEDURE CODE: THE PROHIBITION OF “SUPRISE DECISIONS”; CONDITION TO THE EXTENSION OF THE OBJECTIVE LIMITS OF “RES JUDICATA”; IDENTIFICATION OF UNMOTIVATED DECISIONS.

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Henrique dos Santos Lucon

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to analyze different kinds of judicial protection to the contradictory principle in the new Civil Procedure Code. As a procedural fundamental right, contradictory demands real application by judges and legislators. The new Civil Procedure Code ruled the theme properly, which can be identified by the prohibition of “suprise decisions”; the prevision of contradictory as a condition to the extension of the objective limits of “res judicata” to the so called “prejudicial questio...

  6. Coupling CFD code with system code and neutron kinetic code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Coupling interface between CFD code Fluent and system code Athlet was created. • Athlet code is internally coupled with neutron kinetic code Dyn3D. • Explicit coupling of overlapped computational domains was used. • A coupled system of Athlet/Dyn3D+Fluent codes was successfully tested on a real case. - Abstract: The aim of this work was to develop the coupling interface between CFD code Fluent and system code Athlet internally coupled with neutron kinetic code Dyn3D. The coupling interface is intended for simulation of complex transients such as Main Steam Line Break scenarios, which cannot be modeled separately first by system and neutron kinetic code and then by CFD code, because of the feedback between the codes. In the first part of this article, the coupling method is described. Explicit coupling of overlapped computational domains is used in this work. The second part of the article presents a demonstration simulation performed by the coupled system of Athlet/Dyn3D and Fluent. The “Opening a Steam Dump to the Atmosphere” test carried out at the Temelin NPP (VVER-1000) was simulated by the coupled system. In this simulation, the primary and secondary circuits were modeled by Athlet, mixing in downcomer and lower plenum was simulated by Fluent and heat generation in the core was calculated by Dyn3D. The results of the simulation with Athlet/Dyn3D+Fluent were compared with the experimental data and the results from a calculation performed with Athlet/Dyn3D without Fluent

  7. Determinants of Repayment of Loan Beneficiaries of Micro Finance Institutions in Southeast States of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Chukwuemeka Okorji

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the loan repayment, its determinantsand socio-economic characteristics of microfinance loanbeneficiaries in the Southeast states of Nigeria. It was carriedout in three states of the five southeast states. Using a multistagesampling technique, a total of 144 loan beneficiaries in thethree segments of MFIs, namely; formal (commercial and developmentbanks; semi-formal (NGOs-MFIs and informal(ROSCAS, “Isusu” and co-operative societies were randomlyselected and interviewed in the three states. An ordinary leastsquare (OLS multiple regression analysis was carried out toisolate and examine the determinants of loan repayment fromthe respondents’ perspective. Results showed that beneficiarieshad low level of education, operated enterprises at a relativelysmall scale, had large family size and were of middle age.Further, it was found out that the majority of the respondentswere involved in farming enterprise (crop and poultry eventhough trading was the most prominent single non-farmingenterprise (trading, processing and artisanship. The result affirmedthat the informal sector respondents recorded the bestrepayment rate, followed by the respondents of semi-formaland the banks brought the rear. Outstanding among the determinantsof loan repayments from the respondents’ perspectivewere; loan size, level of education, experience, profitabilityand portfolio diversity. These, therefore deserve special attentionin loan administration of MFIs.

  8. Reductions in mortality among Medicare beneficiaries following the implementation of Medicare Part D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semilla, April P; Chen, Fang; Dall, Timothy M

    2015-07-01

    Medicare Part D is a prescription drug program that provides seniors and disabled individuals enrolled in Medicare with outpatient drug coverage benefits. Part D has been shown to increase access to medicines and improve medication adherence; however, the effect of Part D on health outcomes has not yet been extensively studied. In this study, we used a published and validated Markov-based microsimulation model to quantify the relationships among medication use, disease incidence and severity, and mortality. Based on the simulation results, we estimate that since the implementation of Part D in 2006, nearly 200,000 Medicare beneficiaries have lived at least 1 year longer. Reductions in mortality have occurred because of fewer deaths associated with medication-sensitive conditions such as diabetes, congestive heart failure, stroke, and myocardial infarction. Improved access to medication through Medicare Part D helps patients improve blood pressure, cholesterol, and blood glucose levels, which in turn can prevent or delay the onset of disease and the incidence of adverse health events, thus reducing mortality. PMID:26295437

  9. Survey on the Viewpoints of Credit Beneficiaries Qua Consumers in Order to increase Banking Accountability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoş Ilie

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to demonstrate that the unprecedented granting of consumer credits to population in recent years, under the circumstances of a spectacular goods supply growth, has adversely affected some consumers, and jeopardized the protection of their life, health and safety. The research method consists in a survey that gave, to a number of 560 credit beneficiaries, qua consumers, the opportunity to freely express their viewpoints. Data collection and processing has resulted in the filling of a 14 queries questionnaire by each of the 560 consumers in the South-Western Oltenia region and, subsequently, in data analysis. The main findings show that consumers have experienced a decline in what concerns their standard of living and that sustainable consumption of goods was barely stimulated. Based on the survey results, the paper proposes a banking accountability indicators system and a consumer credits quality pattern of analysis that would increase banking accountability towards such credits by reducing their negative externalities on people’s lives, stimulating sustainable consumption, giving thorough and accurate information, managing complaints and disputes, educating and raising consumers awareness.

  10. ALL MEMBERS AND BENEFICIARIES OF THE PENSION FUND ARE INVITED TO ATTEND THE ANNUAL GENERAL ASSEMBLY

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Annual General Assembly to be held in the CERN Auditorium on Wednesday 4 October 2000 at 14.30 hrs The Agenda comprises: 1. Opening Remarks: - P. Levaux 2. The Swiss provident system: - C. Cuénoud recent trends 3. Annual Report 1999: - C. Cuénoud Presentation and results Copies of the Report are available from divisional secretariats. 4. Pension Fund’s investment policy and performance: - G. Maurin 5. Questions from members and beneficiaries Persons wishing to ask questions are encouraged to submit them, where possible, in writing in advance, addressed to Mr C. Cuénoud, Administrator of the Fund. 5. Conclusions P. Levaux As usual, participants are invited to drinks after the assembly. NB The minutes of the 1999 General Assembly are available from the Administration of the Fund (tel.(+4122)767 9194; e-mail Graziella.Praire@cern.ch) SOME ASPECTS OF THE FUND’S ACTIVITIES IN 1999 The Governing Board (at 31 December 1999) Members Appointed by C. Bovet (Alternate: E. Chiaveri...

  11. Discriminative sparse coding on multi-manifolds

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, J.J.-Y.

    2013-09-26

    Sparse coding has been popularly used as an effective data representation method in various applications, such as computer vision, medical imaging and bioinformatics. However, the conventional sparse coding algorithms and their manifold-regularized variants (graph sparse coding and Laplacian sparse coding), learn codebooks and codes in an unsupervised manner and neglect class information that is available in the training set. To address this problem, we propose a novel discriminative sparse coding method based on multi-manifolds, that learns discriminative class-conditioned codebooks and sparse codes from both data feature spaces and class labels. First, the entire training set is partitioned into multiple manifolds according to the class labels. Then, we formulate the sparse coding as a manifold-manifold matching problem and learn class-conditioned codebooks and codes to maximize the manifold margins of different classes. Lastly, we present a data sample-manifold matching-based strategy to classify the unlabeled data samples. Experimental results on somatic mutations identification and breast tumor classification based on ultrasonic images demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed data representation and classification approach. 2013 The Authors. All rights reserved.

  12. Locally Orderless Registration Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    This is code for the TPAMI paper "Locally Orderless Registration". The code requires intel threadding building blocks installed and is provided for 64 bit on mac, linux and windows.......This is code for the TPAMI paper "Locally Orderless Registration". The code requires intel threadding building blocks installed and is provided for 64 bit on mac, linux and windows....

  13. QR Codes 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Helen; LaFrance, Jason; van 't Hooft, Mark

    2012-01-01

    A QR (quick-response) code is a two-dimensional scannable code, similar in function to a traditional bar code that one might find on a product at the supermarket. The main difference between the two is that, while a traditional bar code can hold a maximum of only 20 digits, a QR code can hold up to 7,089 characters, so it can contain much more…

  14. Polyphase alternating codes

    CERN Document Server

    Markkanen, Markku

    2007-01-01

    This work introduces a method for constructing polyphase alternating codes in which the length of a code transmission cycle can be $p^m$ or $p-1$, where $p$ is a prime number and $m$ is a positive integer. The relevant properties leading to the construction alternating codes and the algorithm for generating alternating codes is described. Examples of all practical and some not that practical polyphase code lengths are given.

  15. Constructing quantum codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Quantum error correcting codes are indispensable for quantum information processing and quantum computation.In 1995 and 1996,Shor and Steane gave first several examples of quantum codes from classical error correcting codes.The construction of efficient quantum codes is now an active multi-discipline research field.In this paper we review the known several constructions of quantum codes and present some examples.

  16. The application of bar coding technology at WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar coding at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) can be used to track waste containers within the facility, control transuranic (TRU) waste inventory flow, and reduce manpower and error in recording package identification or control parameters. By choosing where and when to bar code, precise timelines or time-and-motion studies can be conducted to aid in streamlining waste handling throughput at WIPP. Additionally, the use of bar codes as waste container identification (ID) numbers increases the accuracy of recording the ID numbers by four orders of magnitude. The bar code label can also be utilized for other functions, such as shipping labels. Also, the bar code is integrated with the waste management data base such that the entire data base can be accessed on a computer using a bar code

  17. Automatic Identification of Modal, Breathy and Creaky Voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Sharma

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a way for the automatic identification of different voice qualities present in a speech signal which is very beneficiary for detecting any kind of speech by an efficient speech recognition system. Proposed technique is based on three important characteristics of speech signal namely Zero Crossing Rate, Short Time Energy and Fundamental Frequency. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated using the data collected from three different speakers and an overall accuracy of 87.2 % is achieved.

  18. Association between age and use of intensive care among surgical Medicare beneficiaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunsch, Hannah; Gershengorn, Hayley B.; Guerra, Carmen; Rowe, John; Li, Guohua

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine the role age plays in use of intensive care for patients who have major surgery. Materials and Methods Retrospective cohort study examining the association between age and admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) for all Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 or older who had a hospitalization for one of five surgical procedures: esophagectomy, cystectomy, pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD), elective open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (open AAA), and elective endovascular AAA repair (endo AAA) from 2004–08. The primary outcome was admission to an ICU. Secondary outcomes were complications and hospital mortality. We used multi-level mixed-effects logistic regression to adjust for other patient and hospital-level factors associated with each outcome. Results The percentage of hospitalized patients admitted to ICU ranged from 41.3% for endo AAA to 81.5% for open AAA. In-hospital mortality also varied, from 1.1% for endo AAA to 6.8% for esophagectomy. After adjusting for other factors, age was associated with admission to ICU for cystectomy (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 1.56 (95% CI 1.36–1.78) for age 80–84+; 2.25 (1.85–2.75) age 85+ compared with age 65–69), PD (AOR 1.26 (1.06–1.50) age 80–84; 1.49 (1.11–1.99) age 85+) and esophagectomy (AOR 1.26 (1.02–1.55) age 80–84; 1.28 (0.91–1.80) age 85+). Age was not associated with use of intensive care for open or endo AAA. Older age was associated with increases in complication rates and in-hospital mortality for all five surgical procedures. Conclusions The association between age and use of intensive care was procedure-specific. Complication rates and in-hospital mortality increased with age for all five surgical procedures. PMID:23787024

  19. Changes in Initial Treatment for Prostate Cancer Among Medicare Beneficiaries, 1999–2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: In the absence of evidence from large clinical trials, optimal therapy for localized prostate cancer remains unclear; however, treatment patterns continue to change. We examined changes in the management of patients with prostate cancer in the Medicare population. Methods and Materials: We conducted a retrospective claims-based analysis of the use of radiation therapy, surgery, and androgen deprivation therapy in the 12 months after diagnosis of prostate cancer in a nationally representative 5% sample of Medicare claims. Patients were Medicare beneficiaries 67 years or older with incident prostate cancer diagnosed between 1999 and 2007. Results: There were 20,918 incident cases of prostate cancer between 1999 and 2007. The proportion of patients receiving androgen deprivation therapy decreased from 55% to 36%, and the proportion of patients receiving no active therapy increased from 16% to 23%. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy replaced three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy as the most common method of radiation therapy, accounting for 77% of external beam radiotherapy by 2007. Minimally invasive radical prostatectomy began to replace open surgical approaches, being used in 49% of radical prostatectomies by 2007. Conclusions: Between 2002 and 2007, the use of androgen deprivation therapy decreased, open surgical approaches were largely replaced by minimally invasive radical prostatectomy, and intensity-modulated radiation therapy replaced three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy as the predominant method of radiation therapy in the Medicare population. The aging of the population and the increasing use of newer, higher-cost technologies in the treatment of patients with prostate cancer may have important implications for nationwide health care costs.

  20. Changes in Initial Treatment for Prostate Cancer Among Medicare Beneficiaries, 1999-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinan, Michaela A.; Robinson, Timothy J. [Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (United States); Zagar, Timothy M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (United States); Scales, Charles D. [Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (United States); Department of Surgery, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (United States); Curtis, Lesley H.; Reed, Shelby D. [Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (United States); Department of Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (United States); Lee, W. Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (United States); Schulman, Kevin A., E-mail: kevin.schulman@duke.edu [Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (United States); Department of Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: In the absence of evidence from large clinical trials, optimal therapy for localized prostate cancer remains unclear; however, treatment patterns continue to change. We examined changes in the management of patients with prostate cancer in the Medicare population. Methods and Materials: We conducted a retrospective claims-based analysis of the use of radiation therapy, surgery, and androgen deprivation therapy in the 12 months after diagnosis of prostate cancer in a nationally representative 5% sample of Medicare claims. Patients were Medicare beneficiaries 67 years or older with incident prostate cancer diagnosed between 1999 and 2007. Results: There were 20,918 incident cases of prostate cancer between 1999 and 2007. The proportion of patients receiving androgen deprivation therapy decreased from 55% to 36%, and the proportion of patients receiving no active therapy increased from 16% to 23%. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy replaced three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy as the most common method of radiation therapy, accounting for 77% of external beam radiotherapy by 2007. Minimally invasive radical prostatectomy began to replace open surgical approaches, being used in 49% of radical prostatectomies by 2007. Conclusions: Between 2002 and 2007, the use of androgen deprivation therapy decreased, open surgical approaches were largely replaced by minimally invasive radical prostatectomy, and intensity-modulated radiation therapy replaced three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy as the predominant method of radiation therapy in the Medicare population. The aging of the population and the increasing use of newer, higher-cost technologies in the treatment of patients with prostate cancer may have important implications for nationwide health care costs.

  1. Turbo Codes Extended with Outer BCH Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Dahl

    1996-01-01

    The "error floor" observed in several simulations with the turbo codes is verified by calculation of an upper bound to the bit error rate for the ensemble of all interleavers. Also an easy way to calculate the weight enumerator used in this bound is presented. An extended coding scheme is proposed...

  2. Oil and gas field code master list, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-16

    This document contains data collected through October 1993 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the United States. Other Federal and State government agencies, as well as industry, use the EIA Oil and Gas Field Code Master List as the standard for field identification. A machine-readable version of the Oil and Gas Field Code Master List is available from the National Technical Information Service.

  3. Nonbinary quantum codes

    CERN Document Server

    Rains, E M

    1997-01-01

    We present several results on quantum codes over general alphabets (that is, in which the fundamental units may have more than 2 states). In particular, we consider codes derived from finite symplectic geometry assumed to have additional global symmetries. From this standpoint, the analogues of Calderbank-Shor-Steane codes and of GF(4)-linear codes turn out to be special cases of the same construction. This allows us to construct families of quantum codes from certain codes over number fields; in particular, we get analogues of quadratic residue codes, including a single-error correcting code encoding one letter in five, for any alphabet size. We also consider the problem of fault-tolerant computation through such codes, generalizing ideas of Gottesman.

  4. Polyphase alternating codes

    OpenAIRE

    M. Markkanen; Vierinen, J.; Markkanen, J.

    2007-01-01

    We present a new class of alternating codes. Instead of the customary binary phase codes, the new codes utilize either p or p–1 phases, where p is a prime number. The first class of codes has code length pm, where m is a positive integer, the second class has code length p–1. We give an actual construction algorithm, and explain the principles behind it. We ...

  5. From Barcode to QR Code Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Várallyai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the Zsohár Horticulture Company in Nagyrákos, how they want to change their barcode identification system to QR code. They cultivate herbaceous, perpetual decorational plants, rock-garden, flower-bed and swamp perpetuals, decorational grasses and spices. A part of the perpetuals are evergreens, but most of them has special organs - such as onions, thick-, bulbous roots, "winter-proof" buds - so they can survive winter. In the first part of the paper I introduce the different barcode standards, how can it be printed and how can it be read. In the second part of the paper I give details about the quick response code (QR code and the two-dimensional (2D barcode. Third part of this paper illustrates the QR code usability in agriculture focused on the gardening.

  6. On Medicare But At Risk: A State-Level Analysis of Beneficiaries Who Are Underinsured or Facing High Total Cost Burdens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Cathy; Solís-Román, Claudia; Huober, Nick; Kelchner, Zachary

    2016-05-01

    Medicare provides essential health coverage for older and disabled adults, yet it does not limit out-of-pocket costs for covered benefits and excludes dental, hearing, and longer-term care. The resulting out-of-pocket costs can add up to a substantial share of income. Based on U.S. Census surveys, nearly a quarter of Medicare beneficiaries (11.5 million) were underinsured in 2013–14, meaning they spent a high share of their income on health care. Adding premiums to medical care expenses, we find that 16 percent of beneficiaries (8 million) spent 20 percent or more of their income on insurance plus care. At the state level, the proportion of beneficiaries underinsured ranged from 16 percent to 32 percent, while the proportion with a high total cost burden ranged from 11 percent to 26 percent. Low-income beneficiaries were most at risk. The findings underscore the need to assess beneficiary impacts of any proposal to redesign Medicare.

  7. Network coding for computing: Linear codes

    CERN Document Server

    Appuswamy, Rathinakumar; Karamchandani, Nikhil; Zeger, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    In network coding it is known that linear codes are sufficient to achieve the coding capacity in multicast networks and that they are not sufficient in general to achieve the coding capacity in non-multicast networks. In network computing, Rai, Dey, and Shenvi have recently shown that linear codes are not sufficient in general for solvability of multi-receiver networks with scalar linear target functions. We study single receiver networks where the receiver node demands a target function of the source messages. We show that linear codes may provide a computing capacity advantage over routing only when the receiver demands a `linearly-reducible' target function. % Many known target functions including the arithmetic sum, minimum, and maximum are not linearly-reducible. Thus, the use of non-linear codes is essential in order to obtain a computing capacity advantage over routing if the receiver demands a target function that is not linearly-reducible. We also show that if a target function is linearly-reducible,...

  8. Clinical Analysis of Icotinib on Beneficiary of 
Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer with EGFR Common Mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowen JIANG

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Targeted therapy has become an indispensable therapy method in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC treatment. Epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI can significantly prolong the survival of patients harboring EGFR gene mutation. Icotinb is China's first EGFR-TKI with independent intellectual property rights. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical characteristics about the beneficiary of advanced NSCLC patients with EGFR Common mutation who were treated with Icotinib. Retrospectively collect the data about beneficiary [progression-free survival (PFS≥6 months] and analysis of the related risk factors for prognosis. Methods From September 1, 2011 to September 30, 2015, 231 cases of advanced NSCLC beneficiary with EGFR common mutation were enrolled for treatment with icotinib in Zhejiang Cancer Hospital. Results The one year benefit rate was 67.9% in the group treated with Icotinib as first line, and in the groupas second line or above was 53.6%, which is statisticallysignificant. The two years benefit rate was 18.7% and 9.3%, respectively. The median PFS of first line group and the second line or above was 16.7 and 12.4 months, respectively. The presence of brain metastasis (P=0.010, Prior chemotherapy (P=0.001, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG score (P=0.001 were the main factors influencing the prognosis. The most common adverse were skin rashes (51 cases, 22.1% and diarrhea (27 cases, 11.7%. Conclusion Icotinib offers long-term clinical benefit and good tolerance for advanced NSCLC harboring EGFR gene mutation. Its advantage groups in addition to the patients with brain metastases and better ECOG score, the curative effect of patients with the first-line treatment is superior to second or further line.

  9. Construction of Codes for Network Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Elsenhans, Andreas-Stephan; Wassermann, Alfred

    2010-01-01

    Based on ideas of K\\"otter and Kschischang we use constant dimension subspaces as codewords in a network. We show a connection to the theory of q-analogues of a combinatorial designs, which has been studied in Braun, Kerber and Laue as a purely combinatorial object. For the construction of network codes we successfully modified methods (construction with prescribed automorphisms) originally developed for the q-analogues of a combinatorial designs. We then give a special case of that method which allows the construction of network codes with a very large ambient space and we also show how to decode such codes with a very small number of operations.

  10. TIPONLINE Code Table

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coded items are entered in the tiponline data entry program. The codes and their explanations are necessary in order to use the data

  11. SEVERO code - user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This user's manual contains all the necessary information concerning the use of SEVERO code. This computer code is related to the statistics of extremes = extreme winds, extreme precipitation and flooding hazard risk analysis. (A.C.A.S.)

  12. Unfolding the color code

    OpenAIRE

    Kubica, Aleksander; Yoshida, Beni; Pastawski, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The topological color code and the toric code are two leading candidates for realizing fault-tolerant quantum computation. Here we show that the color code on a $d$-dimensional closed manifold is equivalent to multiple decoupled copies of the $d$-dimensional toric code up to local unitary transformations and adding or removing ancilla qubits. Our result not only generalizes the proven equivalence for $d=2$, but also provides an explicit recipe of how to decouple independent components of the ...

  13. The materiality of Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soon, Winnie

    2014-01-01

    to understand the socio-technical side of a changing network environment. Through the study of code, including but not limited to source code, technical specifications and other materials in relation to the artwork production, I would like to explore the materiality of code that goes beyond technical...

  14. Informal control code logic

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstra, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    General definitions as well as rules of reasoning regarding control code production, distribution, deployment, and usage are described. The role of testing, trust, confidence and risk analysis is considered. A rationale for control code testing is sought and found for the case of safety critical embedded control code.

  15. Refactoring test code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deursen, A. van; Moonen, L.M.F.; Bergh, A. van den; Kok, G.

    2001-01-01

    Two key aspects of extreme programming (XP) are unit testing and merciless refactoring. Given the fact that the ideal test code / production code ratio approaches 1:1, it is not surprising that unit tests are being refactored. We found that refactoring test code is different from refactoring product

  16. Informal Control code logic

    CERN Document Server

    Bergstra, Jan A

    2010-01-01

    General definitions as well as rules of reasoning regarding control code production, distribution, deployment, and usage are described. The role of testing, trust, confidence and risk analysis is considered. A rationale for control code testing is sought and found for the case of safety critical embedded control code.

  17. Gauge color codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bombin Palomo, Hector

    2015-01-01

    Color codes are topological stabilizer codes with unusual transversality properties. Here I show that their group of transversal gates is optimal and only depends on the spatial dimension, not the local geometry. I also introduce a generalized, subsystem version of color codes. In 3D they allow the...

  18. ARC Code TI: CODE Software Framework

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CODE is a software framework for control and observation in distributed environments. The basic functionality of the framework allows a user to observe a...

  19. ARC Code TI: ROC Curve Code Augmentation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curve Code Augmentation was written by Rodney Martin and John Stutz at NASA Ames Research Center and is a modification of...

  20. The Procions` code; Le code Procions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deck, D.; Samba, G.

    1994-12-19

    This paper presents a new code to simulate plasmas generated by inertial confinement. This multi-kinds kinetic code is done with no angular approximation concerning ions and will work in plan and spherical geometry. First, the physical model is presented, using Fokker-Plank. Then, the numerical model is introduced in order to solve the Fokker-Plank operator under the Rosenbluth form. At the end, several numerical tests are proposed. (TEC). 17 refs., 27 figs.

  1. On Coding Non-Contiguous Letter Combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric eDandurand

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the hypothesis that printed word identification initially involves the parallel mapping of visual features onto location-specific letter identities, we analyze the type of information that would be involved in optimally mapping this location-specific orthographic code onto a location-invariant lexical code. We assume that some intermediate level of coding exists between individual letters and whole words, and that this involves the representation of letter combinations. We then investigate the nature of this intermediate level of coding given the constraints of optimality. This intermediate level of coding is expected to compress data while retaining as much information as possible about word identity. Information conveyed by letters is a function of how much they constrain word identity and how visible they are. Optimization of this coding is a combination of minimizing resources (using the most compact representations and maximizing information. We show that in a large proportion of cases, non-contiguous letter sequences contain more information than contiguous sequences, while at the same time requiring less precise coding. Moreover, we found that the best predictor of human performance in orthographic priming experiments was within-word ranking of conditional probabilities, rather than average conditional probabilities. We conclude that from an optimality perspective, readers learn to select certain contiguous and non-contiguous letter combinations as information that provides the best cue to word identity.

  2. Universal Rateless Codes From Coupled LT Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Aref, Vahid

    2011-01-01

    It was recently shown that spatial coupling of individual low-density parity-check codes improves the belief-propagation threshold of the coupled ensemble essentially to the maximum a posteriori threshold of the underlying ensemble. We study the performance of spatially coupled low-density generator-matrix ensembles when used for transmission over binary-input memoryless output-symmetric channels. We show by means of density evolution that the threshold saturation phenomenon also takes place in this setting. Our motivation for studying low-density generator-matrix codes is that they can easily be converted into rateless codes. Although there are already several classes of excellent rateless codes known to date, rateless codes constructed via spatial coupling might offer some additional advantages. In particular, by the very nature of the threshold phenomenon one expects that codes constructed on this principle can be made to be universal, i.e., a single construction can uniformly approach capacity over the cl...

  3. (Sigma-Delta) Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Boulagouaz, M.; Leroy, A

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the notion of cyclic ($f(t),\\sigma,\\delta$)-codes for $f(t)\\in \\Ore$. These codes generalize the $\\theta$-codes as introduced by D. Boucher, F. Ulmer, W. Geiselmann \\cite{BGU}. We construct generic and control matrices for these codes. As a particular case the ($\\si,\\de$)-$W$-code associated to a Wedderburn polynomial are defined and we show that their control matrices are given by generalized Vandermonde matrices. All the Wedderburn polynomials of $\\mathbb F_q[t;\\t...

  4. Testing algebraic geometric codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Property testing was initially studied from various motivations in 1990’s. A code C  GF (r)n is locally testable if there is a randomized algorithm which can distinguish with high possibility the codewords from a vector essentially far from the code by only accessing a very small (typically constant) number of the vector’s coordinates. The problem of testing codes was firstly studied by Blum, Luby and Rubinfeld and closely related to probabilistically checkable proofs (PCPs). How to characterize locally testable codes is a complex and challenge problem. The local tests have been studied for Reed-Solomon (RS), Reed-Muller (RM), cyclic, dual of BCH and the trace subcode of algebraicgeometric codes. In this paper we give testers for algebraic geometric codes with linear parameters (as functions of dimensions). We also give a moderate condition under which the family of algebraic geometric codes cannot be locally testable.

  5. Noisy Network Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Sung Hoon; Gamal, Abbas El; Chung, Sae-Young

    2010-01-01

    A noisy network coding scheme for sending multiple sources over a general noisy network is presented. For multi-source multicast networks, the scheme naturally extends both network coding over noiseless networks by Ahlswede, Cai, Li, and Yeung, and compress-forward coding for the relay channel by Cover and El Gamal to general discrete memoryless and Gaussian networks. The scheme also recovers as special cases the results on coding for wireless relay networks and deterministic networks by Avestimehr, Diggavi, and Tse, and coding for wireless erasure networks by Dana, Gowaikar, Palanki, Hassibi, and Effros. The scheme involves message repetition coding, relay signal compression, and simultaneous decoding. Unlike previous compress--forward schemes, where independent messages are sent over multiple blocks, the same message is sent multiple times using independent codebooks as in the network coding scheme for cyclic networks. Furthermore, the relays do not use Wyner--Ziv binning as in previous compress-forward sch...

  6. Testing algebraic geometric codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hao

    2009-01-01

    Property testing was initially studied from various motivations in 1990's.A code C (∩)GF(r)n is locally testable if there is a randomized algorithm which can distinguish with high possibility the codewords from a vector essentially far from the code by only accessing a very small (typically constant) number of the vector's coordinates.The problem of testing codes was firstly studied by Blum,Luby and Rubinfeld and closely related to probabilistically checkable proofs (PCPs).How to characterize locally testable codes is a complex and challenge problem.The local tests have been studied for Reed-Solomon (RS),Reed-Muller (RM),cyclic,dual of BCH and the trace subcode of algebraicgeometric codes.In this paper we give testers for algebraic geometric codes with linear parameters (as functions of dimensions).We also give a moderate condition under which the family of algebraic geometric codes cannot be locally testable.

  7. Chinese remainder codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Aili; LIU Xiufeng

    2006-01-01

    Chinese remainder codes are constructed by applying weak block designs and the Chinese remainder theorem of ring theory.The new type of linear codes take the congruence class in the congruence class ring R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In for the information bit,embed R/Ji into R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In,and assign the cosets of R/Ji as the subring of R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In and the cosets of R/Ji in R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In as check lines.Many code classes exist in the Chinese remainder codes that have high code rates.Chinese remainder codes are the essential generalization of Sun Zi codes.

  8. Chinese Remainder Codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱丽; 刘秀峰; 靳蕃

    2004-01-01

    Chinese Remainder Codes are constructed by applying weak block designs and Chinese Remainder Theorem of ring theory. The new type of linear codes take the congruence class in the congruence class ring R/I1∩I2∩…∩In for the information bit, embed R/Ji into R/I1∩I2∩…∩In, and asssign the cosets of R/Ji as the subring of R/I1∩I2∩…∩In and the cosets of R/Ji in R/I1∩I2∩…∩In as check lines. There exist many code classes in Chinese Remainder Codes, which have high code rates. Chinese Remainder Codes are the essential generalization of Sun Zi Codes.

  9. Comparative learning of pitch and loudness identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtsma, A J; Durlach, N I; Horowitz, D M

    1987-01-01

    This study investigated possible similarities between the ability to identify pitches and the ability to identify loudnesses. Systematic training of musically naive subjects indicated that frequency identification performance improves at about the same rate as intensity identification performance. Examination of frequency and intensity identification behavior of musically trained subjects showed that their ability to code pitch information efficiently does not generalize to an ability to encode loudness information more efficiently than untrained subjects. Intensity identification training curves of musically trained and untrained subjects are similar, but final performance levels are below frequency identification performance levels exhibited by musically trained subjects, especially those with absolute pitch. PMID:3819170

  10. cDNA cloning and transient expression of the Epstein-Barr virus-determined nuclear antigen EBNA3B in human cells and identification of novel transcripts from its coding region.

    OpenAIRE

    Kerdiles, B; Walls, D; Triki, H.; Perricaudet, M; Joab, I

    1990-01-01

    Recombinant plasmids containing sequences from the BamHI-E rightward reading frames 2a and 2b (BERF2a and 2b) of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome were isolated from a library of cDNA clones which had been previously made from the EBV B95-8 lymphoblastoid cell line (M. Bodescot, O. Brison, and M. Perricaudet, Nucleic Acids Res. 14:7103-7114, 1986). The characterization of these clones in combination with RNase mapping experiments led to the identification of one leftward and several rightwa...

  11. Remote-Handled Transuranic Content Codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Remote-Handled Transuranic (RH-TRU) Content Codes (RH-TRUCON) document represents the development of a uniform content code system for RH-TRU waste to be transported in the 72-Bcask. It will be used to convert existing waste form numbers, content codes, and site-specific identification codes into a system that is uniform across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites.The existing waste codes at the sites can be grouped under uniform content codes without any lossof waste characterization information. The RH-TRUCON document provides an all-encompassing description for each content code and compiles this information for all DOE sites. Compliance with waste generation, processing, and certification procedures at the sites (outlined in this document foreach content code) ensures that prohibited waste forms are not present in the waste. The content code gives an overall description of the RH-TRU waste material in terms of processes and packaging, as well as the generation location. This helps to provide cradle-to-grave traceability of the waste material so that the various actions required to assess its qualification as payload for the 72-B cask can be performed. The content codes also impose restrictions and requirements on the manner in which a payload can be assembled. The RH-TRU Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (RH-TRAMPAC), Appendix 1.3.7 of the 72-B Cask Safety Analysis Report (SAR), describes the current governing procedures applicable for the qualification of waste as payload for the 72-B cask. The logic for this classification is presented in the 72-B Cask SAR. Together, these documents (RH-TRUCON, RH-TRAMPAC, and relevant sections of the 72-B Cask SAR) present the foundation and justification for classifying RH-TRU waste into content codes. Only content codes described in thisdocument can be considered for transport in the 72-B cask. Revisions to this document will be madeas additional waste qualifies for transport. Each content code uniquely

  12. Collision Codes: Decoding Superimposed BPSK Modulated Wireless Transmissions

    CERN Document Server

    Foh, Chuan Heng; Qureshi, Jalaluddin; 10.1109/CCNC.2010.5421745

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of physical layer network coding gives rise to the concept of turning a collision of transmissions on a wireless channel useful. In the idea of physical layer network coding, two synchronized simultaneous packet transmissions are carefully encoded such that the superimposed transmission can be decoded to produce a packet which is identical to the bitwise binary sum of the two transmitted packets. This paper explores the decoding of superimposed transmission resulted by multiple synchronized simultaneous transmissions. We devise a coding scheme that achieves the identification of individual transmission from the synchronized superimposed transmission. A mathematical proof for the existence of such a coding scheme is given.

  13. Sequence of the intron/exon junctions of the coding region of the human androgen receptor gene and identification of a point mutation in a family with complete androgen insensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androgens act through a receptor protein (AR) to mediate sex differentiation and development of the male phenotype. The authors have isolated the eight exons in the amino acid coding region of the AR gene from a human X chromosome library. Nucleotide sequences of the AR gene intron/exon boundaries were determined for use in designing synthetic oligonucleotide primers to bracket coding exons for amplification by the polymerase chain reaction. Genomic DNA was amplified from 46, XY phenotypic female siblings with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome. AR binding affinity for dihydrotestosterone in the affected siblings was lower than in normal males, but the binding capacity was normal. Sequence analysis of amplified exons demonstrated within the AR steroid-binding domain (exon G) a single guanine to adenine mutation, resulting in replacement of valine with methionine at amino acid residue 866. As expected, the carrier mother had both normal and mutant AR genes. Thus, a single point mutation in the steroid-binding domain of the AR gene correlated with the expression of an AR protein ineffective in stimulating male sexual development

  14. Sequence of the intron/exon junctions of the coding region of the human androgen receptor gene and identification of a point mutation in a family with complete androgen insensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubahn, D.B.; Simental, J.A.; Higgs, H.N.; Wilson, E.M.; French, F.S. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (USA)); Brown, T.R.; Migeon, C.J. (Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1989-12-01

    Androgens act through a receptor protein (AR) to mediate sex differentiation and development of the male phenotype. The authors have isolated the eight exons in the amino acid coding region of the AR gene from a human X chromosome library. Nucleotide sequences of the AR gene intron/exon boundaries were determined for use in designing synthetic oligonucleotide primers to bracket coding exons for amplification by the polymerase chain reaction. Genomic DNA was amplified from 46, XY phenotypic female siblings with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome. AR binding affinity for dihydrotestosterone in the affected siblings was lower than in normal males, but the binding capacity was normal. Sequence analysis of amplified exons demonstrated within the AR steroid-binding domain (exon G) a single guanine to adenine mutation, resulting in replacement of valine with methionine at amino acid residue 866. As expected, the carrier mother had both normal and mutant AR genes. Thus, a single point mutation in the steroid-binding domain of the AR gene correlated with the expression of an AR protein ineffective in stimulating male sexual development.

  15. Opening up codings?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensig, Jakob; Heinemann, Trine

    2015-01-01

    doing formal coding and when doing more “traditional” conversation analysis research based on collections. We are more wary, however, of the implication that coding-based research is the end result of a process that starts with qualitative investigations and ends with categories that can be coded....... Instead we propose that the promise of coding-based research lies in its ability to open up new qualitative questions.......We welcome Tanya Stivers’s discussion (Stivers, 2015/this issue) of coding social interaction and find that her descriptions of the processes of coding open up important avenues for discussion, among other things of the precise ad hoc considerations that researchers need to bear in mind, both when...

  16. On Polynomial Remainder Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Jiun-Hung

    2012-01-01

    Polynomial remainder codes are a large class of codes derived from the Chinese remainder theorem that includes Reed-Solomon codes as a special case. In this paper, we revisit these codes and study them more carefully than in previous work. We explicitly allow the code symbols to be polynomials of different degrees, which leads to two different notions of weight and distance. Algebraic decoding is studied in detail. If the moduli are not irreducible, the notion of an error locator polynomial is replaced by an error factor polynomial. We then obtain a collection of gcd-based decoding algorithms, some of which are not quite standard even when specialized to Reed-Solomon codes.

  17. The Aesthetics of Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    avant-garde’. In line with Cramer, the artists Alex McLean and Adrian Ward (aka Slub) declare: “art-oriented programming needs to acknowledge the conditions of its own making – its poesis.” By analysing the Live Coding performances of Slub (where they program computer music live), the presentation......Computer art is often associated with computer-generated expressions (digitally manipulated audio/images in music, video, stage design, media facades, etc.). In recent computer art, however, the code-text itself – not the generated output – has become the artwork (Perl Poetry, ASCII Art, obfuscated...... code, etc.). The presentation relates this artistic fascination of code to a media critique expressed by Florian Cramer, claiming that the graphical interface represents a media separation (of text/code and image) causing alienation to the computer’s materiality. Cramer is thus the voice of a new ‘code...

  18. Generating code adapted for interlinking legacy scalar code and extended vector code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwind, Michael K

    2013-06-04

    Mechanisms for intermixing code are provided. Source code is received for compilation using an extended Application Binary Interface (ABI) that extends a legacy ABI and uses a different register configuration than the legacy ABI. First compiled code is generated based on the source code, the first compiled code comprising code for accommodating the difference in register configurations used by the extended ABI and the legacy ABI. The first compiled code and second compiled code are intermixed to generate intermixed code, the second compiled code being compiled code that uses the legacy ABI. The intermixed code comprises at least one call instruction that is one of a call from the first compiled code to the second compiled code or a call from the second compiled code to the first compiled code. The code for accommodating the difference in register configurations is associated with the at least one call instruction.

  19. Security of QR Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Kapsalis, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    The 2-dimensional barcodes known as QR (Quick Response) Codesare increasing their popularity as they appear in more places in theurban environment. QR Codes can be considered as physical hyper-linksthat give the ability to users to access, through their mobile devicesthat are able to scan QR Codes, additional information located in aweb-page. Apart from marketing, QR Codes have been also adopted indifferent areas such as the on-line payments. This development alongwith the trend that some of ...

  20. Practices in Code Discoverability

    OpenAIRE

    Teuben, Peter; Allen, Alice; Nemiroff, Robert J.; Shamir, Lior

    2012-01-01

    Much of scientific progress now hinges on the reliability, falsifiability and reproducibility of computer source codes. Astrophysics in particular is a discipline that today leads other sciences in making useful scientific components freely available online, including data, abstracts, preprints, and fully published papers, yet even today many astrophysics source codes remain hidden from public view. We review the importance and history of source codes in astrophysics and previous efforts to d...

  1. The aeroelastic code FLEXLAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, B. [Stork Product Eng., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1996-09-01

    To support the discussion on aeroelastic codes, a description of the code FLEXLAST was given and experiences within benchmarks and measurement programmes were summarized. The code FLEXLAST has been developed since 1982 at Stork Product Engineering (SPE). Since 1992 FLEXLAST has been used by Dutch industries for wind turbine and rotor design. Based on the comparison with measurements, it can be concluded that the main shortcomings of wind turbine modelling lie in the field of aerodynamics, wind field and wake modelling. (au)

  2. Progressive fractal coding

    OpenAIRE

    Kopilovic, Ivan; Saupe, Dietmar; Hamzaoui, Raouf

    2001-01-01

    Progressive coding is an important feature of compression schemes. Wavelet coders are well suited for this purpose because the wavelet coefficients can be naturally ordered according to decreasing importance. Progressive fractal coding is feasible, but it was proposed only for hybrid fractal-wavelet schemes. We introduce a progressive fractal image coder in the spatial domain. A Lagrange optimization based on rate-distortion performance estimates determines an optimal ordering of the code bit...

  3. Hominoid-specific de novo protein-coding genes originating from long non-coding RNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tinkering with pre-existing genes has long been known as a major way to create new genes. Recently, however, motherless protein-coding genes have been found to have emerged de novo from ancestral non-coding DNAs. How these genes originated is not well addressed to date. Here we identified 24 hominoid-specific de novo protein-coding genes with precise origination timing in vertebrate phylogeny. Strand-specific RNA-Seq analyses were performed in five rhesus macaque tissues (liver, prefrontal cortex, skeletal muscle, adipose, and testis, which were then integrated with public transcriptome data from human, chimpanzee, and rhesus macaque. On the basis of comparing the RNA expression profiles in the three species, we found that most of the hominoid-specific de novo protein-coding genes encoded polyadenylated non-coding RNAs in rhesus macaque or chimpanzee with a similar transcript structure and correlated tissue expression profile. According to the rule of parsimony, the majority of these hominoid-specific de novo protein-coding genes appear to have acquired a regulated transcript structure and expression profile before acquiring coding potential. Interestingly, although the expression profile was largely correlated, the coding genes in human often showed higher transcriptional abundance than their non-coding counterparts in rhesus macaque. The major findings we report in this manuscript are robust and insensitive to the parameters used in the identification and analysis of de novo genes. Our results suggest that at least a portion of long non-coding RNAs, especially those with active and regulated transcription, may serve as a birth pool for protein-coding genes, which are then further optimized at the transcriptional level.

  4. Tokamak Systems Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FEDC Tokamak Systems Code calculates tokamak performance, cost, and configuration as a function of plasma engineering parameters. This version of the code models experimental tokamaks. It does not currently consider tokamak configurations that generate electrical power or incorporate breeding blankets. The code has a modular (or subroutine) structure to allow independent modeling for each major tokamak component or system. A primary benefit of modularization is that a component module may be updated without disturbing the remainder of the systems code as long as the imput to or output from the module remains unchanged

  5. QR codes for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Waters, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Find out how to effectively create, use, and track QR codes QR (Quick Response) codes are popping up everywhere, and businesses are reaping the rewards. Get in on the action with the no-nonsense advice in this streamlined, portable guide. You'll find out how to get started, plan your strategy, and actually create the codes. Then you'll learn to link codes to mobile-friendly content, track your results, and develop ways to give your customers value that will keep them coming back. It's all presented in the straightforward style you've come to know and love, with a dash of humor thrown

  6. ARC Code TI: ACCEPT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ACCEPT consists of an overall software infrastructure framework and two main software components. The software infrastructure framework consists of code written to...

  7. Flow regimes and heat transfer modes identification in ANGRA 2 core, during small break in the primary loop with area of 100 cm2, simulated with RELAP5 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Identifying the flow regimes and the heat transfer modes is important for the analysis of accidents such as the Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA). The aim of this paper is to identify the flow regimes, the heat transfer modes, and the correlations used in the RELAP5/MOD3.2.gama code in ANGRA 2 during the Small-Break Loss-of-Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) with a 100cm2-rupture area in the cold leg of primary loop. The Chapter 15 of the Final Safety Analysis Report of ANGRA 2 (FSAR - A2) reports this specific kind of accident. The results from this work demonstrated the several flow regimes and heat transfer modes that can be present in the core of ANGRA 2 during the postulated accident. (author)

  8. Flow regimes and heat transfer modes identification in ANGRA 2 core, during small break in the primary loop with area of 100 cm{sup 2}, simulated with RELAP5 code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Eduardo M.; Sabundjian, Gaiane, E-mail: gdgian@ipen.br, E-mail: borges.em@hotmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Identifying the flow regimes and the heat transfer modes is important for the analysis of accidents such as the Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA). The aim of this paper is to identify the flow regimes, the heat transfer modes, and the correlations used in the RELAP5/MOD3.2.gama code in ANGRA 2 during the Small-Break Loss-of-Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) with a 100cm{sup 2}-rupture area in the cold leg of primary loop. The Chapter 15 of the Final Safety Analysis Report of ANGRA 2 (FSAR - A2) reports this specific kind of accident. The results from this work demonstrated the several flow regimes and heat transfer modes that can be present in the core of ANGRA 2 during the postulated accident. (author)

  9. 26 CFR 1.642(h)-3 - Meaning of “beneficiaries succeeding to the property of the estate or trust”.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... property of the estate or trustâ. 1.642(h)-3 Section 1.642(h)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.642(h)-3 Meaning of “beneficiaries succeeding to the property of the estate or trust”. (a) The... excess of deductions over gross income for which a deduction is allowed, under section 642(h). (b)...

  10. Providing Health Benefits and WorkRelated Services to Social Security Disability Insurance Beneficiaries SixMonth Results from the Accelerated Benefits Demonstration

    OpenAIRE

    David Wittenburg; Anne Warren; Deborah Peikes; Stephen Freedman

    2010-01-01

    This brief, the second in a series, evaluates the impacts of the Accelerated Benefits Demonstration, which provides earlier access to health coverage and related services to uninsured beneficiaries. Early findings indicate that the demonstration increased the use of health care services and reduced reported unmet health care needs for these individuals during the first six months following random assignment.

  11. 26 CFR 1.662(a)-1 - Inclusion of amounts in gross income of beneficiaries of estates and complex trusts; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inclusion of amounts in gross income of beneficiaries of estates and complex trusts; general. 1.662(a)-1 Section 1.662(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... Trusts Which May Accumulate Income Or Which Distribute Corpus § 1.662(a)-1 Inclusion of amounts in...

  12. 20 CFR 411.520 - How are beneficiaries whose tickets are assigned to an EN affected by a change in that EN's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... assigned to an EN affected by a change in that EN's elected payment system? 411.520 Section 411.520... Employment Network Payment Systems § 411.520 How are beneficiaries whose tickets are assigned to an EN affected by a change in that EN's elected payment system? A change in an EN's (or State VR...

  13. 20 CFR 411.555 - Can the EN keep the milestone and outcome payments even if the beneficiary does not achieve all...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can the EN keep the milestone and outcome... Payment Systems § 411.555 Can the EN keep the milestone and outcome payments even if the beneficiary does not achieve all outcome months? (a) Yes. The EN (or State VR agency acting as an EN) can keep...

  14. Patient Satisfaction, Empowerment, and Health and Disability Status Effects of a Disease Management-Health Promotion Nurse Intervention among Medicare Beneficiaries with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Bruce; Wamsley, Brenda R.; Liebel, Dianne V.; Saad, Zabedah B.; Eggert, Gerald M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To report the impact on patient and informal caregiver satisfaction, patient empowerment, and health and disability status of a primary care-affiliated disease self-management-health promotion nurse intervention for Medicare beneficiaries with disabilities and recent significant health services use. Design and Methods: The Medicare…

  15. Research on universal combinatorial coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Zhang, Zhuo; Mo, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The conception of universal combinatorial coding is proposed. Relations exist more or less in many coding methods. It means that a kind of universal coding method is objectively existent. It can be a bridge connecting many coding methods. Universal combinatorial coding is lossless and it is based on the combinatorics theory. The combinational and exhaustive property make it closely related with the existing code methods. Universal combinatorial coding does not depend on the probability statistic characteristic of information source, and it has the characteristics across three coding branches. It has analyzed the relationship between the universal combinatorial coding and the variety of coding method and has researched many applications technologies of this coding method. In addition, the efficiency of universal combinatorial coding is analyzed theoretically. The multicharacteristic and multiapplication of universal combinatorial coding are unique in the existing coding methods. Universal combinatorial coding has theoretical research and practical application value.

  16. The relationship between type of drug therapy and blood glucose self-monitoring test strips claimed by beneficiaries of the Seniors' Pharmacare Program in Nova Scotia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sketris Ingrid

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The healthcare expenditure on self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG test strips under the Nova Scotia Seniors' Pharmacare Program (NSSPP has increased significantly in recent years. The objective of this study was to identify the frequency and cost of claims for blood glucose monitoring test strips by NSSPP beneficiaries in the fiscal year 2005/06 and to explore the variation in the use of test strips by type of treatment, age and sex. Methods Retrospective analysis was conducted using pharmacy administrative claims data for NSSPP beneficiaries. Study subjects were aged ≥ 65 years on October 1, 2004, received SMBG test strips in the 110 days prior to April 1, 2005, and were alive throughout the twelve month study period. Subjects were categorized into four groups: insulin only, oral antihyperglycemic agents (OAA only, both OAA and insulin; and no reimbursed diabetes medications. Statistical analysis was performed to identify differences in expenditure by medication group and in frequency of SMBG test strips claimed by medication group, age, and sex. Results Of 13,564 included beneficiaries, 13.2% were categorized as insulin only, 53.5% OAA only, 7.2% both OAA and insulin, and 26.0% no reimbursed diabetes medications. Over half (58.7% were femle. The insulin only category had the highest mean (± SD number of SMBG test strips claimed per day (2.0 ± 1.5 with a mean annual total cost of $615 ± $441/beneficiary. Beneficiaries aged 80 years and above claimed fewer test strips than beneficiaries below 80 years. Conclusion This population based study shows that in Nova Scotia the SMBG test strips claimed by the majority of seniors were within Canadian guidelines. However, a small proportion of beneficiaries claimed for SMBG test strips infrequently or too frequently, which suggests areas for improvement. The provincial drug plan covers the majority of the costs of test strip utilization, suggesting that the majority of test

  17. Code Generation = A* + BURS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nymeyer, A.; Katoen, J.P.; Westra, Y.; Alblas, H.; Gyimóthy, T.

    1996-01-01

    A system called BURS that is based on term rewrite systems and a search algorithm A* are combined to produce a code generator that generates optimal code. The theory underlying BURS is re-developed, formalised and explained in this work. The search algorithm uses a cost heuristic that is derived fro

  18. Nuremberg code turns 60

    OpenAIRE

    Thieren, Michel; Mauron, Alex

    2007-01-01

    This month marks sixty years since the Nuremberg code – the basic text of modern medical ethics – was issued. The principles in this code were articulated in the context of the Nuremberg trials in 1947. We would like to use this anniversary to examine its ability to address the ethical challenges of our time.

  19. Code of Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Division for Early Childhood, Council for Exceptional Children, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Code of Ethics of the Division for Early Childhood (DEC) of the Council for Exceptional Children is a public statement of principles and practice guidelines supported by the mission of DEC. The foundation of this Code is based on sound ethical reasoning related to professional practice with young children with disabilities and their families…

  20. Codes of Conduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Million, June

    2004-01-01

    Most schools have a code of conduct, pledge, or behavioral standards, set by the district or school board with the school community. In this article, the author features some schools that created a new vision of instilling code of conducts to students based on work quality, respect, safety and courtesy. She suggests that communicating the code…

  1. Code A1 Revised

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Secretariat

    2004-01-01

    Please note that the revised safety code A1 entitled 'MEDICAL CODE' is available on the web at the following url: https://edms.cern.ch/document/335476/last_released Paper copies can also be obtained from the SC Secretariat, e-mail : sc.secretariat@cern.ch SC Secretariat

  2. Safety Code A12

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Secretariat

    2005-01-01

    Please note that the Safety Code A12 (Code A12) entitled "THE SAFETY COMMISSION (SC)" is available on the web at the following url: https://edms.cern.ch/document/479423/LAST_RELEASED Paper copies can also be obtained from the SC Unit Secretariat, e-mail: sc.secretariat@cern.ch SC Secretariat

  3. Computerized mega code recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, T W; Bock, H C

    1988-04-01

    A system has been developed to facilitate recording of advanced cardiac life support mega code testing scenarios. By scanning a paper "keyboard" using a bar code wand attached to a portable microcomputer, the person assigned to record the scenario can easily generate an accurate, complete, timed, and typewritten record of the given situations and the obtained responses. PMID:3354937

  4. READING A NEURAL CODE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BIALEK, W; RIEKE, F; VANSTEVENINCK, RRD; WARLAND, D

    1991-01-01

    Traditional approaches to neural coding characterize the encoding of known stimuli in average neural responses. Organisms face nearly the opposite task - extracting information about an unknown time-dependent stimulus from short segments of a spike train. Here the neural code was characterized from

  5. AZIMUT code abstract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brief description of the AZIMUT code for calculation the neutron flux in a cluster cell is presented. Code takes into account 1 and 2 azimuthal harmonics in the one-group P3-approximation and uses the heterogeneous approach. 2 refs

  6. Barriers and facilitators for implementation of a return-to-work intervention for sickness absence beneficiaries with mental health problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Marie H. T.; Moefelt, Louise; Dahl Nielsen, Maj Britt;

    2015-01-01

    , different interpretations of sickness absence legislation among stakeholders, competing rehabilitation alternatives, and lack of managerial support for the intervention. An important facilitator was the motivation and availability of resources to solve disagreements through extensive communication......AIMS: Evidence for the effectiveness of return-to-work (RTW) interventions aimed at sickness absence beneficiaries with mental health problems (MHPs) is still relatively sparse and mostly inconclusive. This may in part reflect the varying settings and inconsistent implementations associated....... Data sources were individual and group interviews, observations, national registers, and documents used in the intervention. RESULTS: The quality of the implementation varied greatly across the three settings. Barriers included lack of skills to assess MHPs according to the inclusion criteria...

  7. Astrophysics Source Code Library

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Alice; Berriman, Bruce; Hanisch, Robert J; Mink, Jessica; Teuben, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    The Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL), founded in 1999, is a free on-line registry for source codes of interest to astronomers and astrophysicists. The library is housed on the discussion forum for Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD) and can be accessed at http://ascl.net. The ASCL has a comprehensive listing that covers a significant number of the astrophysics source codes used to generate results published in or submitted to refereed journals and continues to grow. The ASCL currently has entries for over 500 codes; its records are citable and are indexed by ADS. The editors of the ASCL and members of its Advisory Committee were on hand at a demonstration table in the ADASS poster room to present the ASCL, accept code submissions, show how the ASCL is starting to be used by the astrophysics community, and take questions on and suggestions for improving the resource.

  8. Fracture flow code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hydrology of the SCV site will be modelled utilizing discrete fracture flow models. These models are complex, and can not be fully cerified by comparison to analytical solutions. The best approach for verification of these codes is therefore cross-verification between different codes. This is complicated by the variation in assumptions and solution techniques utilized in different codes. Cross-verification procedures are defined which allow comparison of the codes developed by Harwell Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and Golder Associates Inc. Six cross-verification datasets are defined for deterministic and stochastic verification of geometric and flow features of the codes. Additional datasets for verification of transport features will be documented in a future report. (13 figs., 7 tabs., 10 refs.) (authors)

  9. Combustion chamber analysis code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przekwas, A. J.; Lai, Y. G.; Krishnan, A.; Avva, R. K.; Giridharan, M. G.

    1993-05-01

    A three-dimensional, time dependent, Favre averaged, finite volume Navier-Stokes code has been developed to model compressible and incompressible flows (with and without chemical reactions) in liquid rocket engines. The code has a non-staggered formulation with generalized body-fitted-coordinates (BFC) capability. Higher order differencing methodologies such as MUSCL and Osher-Chakravarthy schemes are available. Turbulent flows can be modeled using any of the five turbulent models present in the code. A two-phase, two-liquid, Lagrangian spray model has been incorporated into the code. Chemical equilibrium and finite rate reaction models are available to model chemically reacting flows. The discrete ordinate method is used to model effects of thermal radiation. The code has been validated extensively against benchmark experimental data and has been applied to model flows in several propulsion system components of the SSME and the STME.

  10. Legal Interpretation on Abstract Designation of Insurance Beneficiary%抽象指定下保险受益人确定的法理解释

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娟

    2015-01-01

    我国保险实务上,被保险人指定受益人时多采用抽象指定方式,即身份指定方式。一旦被保险人与受益人身份关系发生变化,如何确定受益人,司法裁判与学术界分歧颇大。依保险法与民法之法理解释,受益人确定应尊重被保险人真意,其路径应为对抽象指定方式这一意思表示行为本身进行解释。由此得出的结论是,受益人应该为被保险人死亡之时具有与之相关身份之人。%In the insurance practice in China,sometimes the insured appoints beneficiary by means of abstract designation,that is to say an identity designation.If the relationship between the in-sured and the beneficiary changes,who is the real beneficiary will be a problem.On this issue,the judicial and academic circles have disagreements.In accordance with legal interpretation of the in-surance law and civil law,the insured′s wish about who is beneficiary should be respected,and the solution to the problem is to interpret the abstract designation itself.The paper concludes that the beneficiary should have the corresponding relationship with the insured when the insured dies.

  11. Oral health service utilization by elderly beneficiaries of the Mexican Institute of Social Security in México city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solórzano-Santos Fortino

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aging population poses a challenge to Mexican health services. The aim of this study is to describe recent oral health services utilization and its association with socio-demographic characteristics and co-morbidity in Mexican Social Security beneficiaries 60 years and older. Methods A sample of 700 individuals aged 60+ years was randomly chosen from the databases of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS. These participants resided in the southwest of Mexico City and made up the final sample of a cohort study for identifying risk factors for root caries in elderly patients. Sociodemographic variables, presence of cognitive decline, depression, morbidity, medication consumption, and utilization of as well as reasons for seeking oral health services within the past 12 months were collected through a questionnaire. Clinical oral assessments were carried out to determine coronal and root caries experience. Results The sample consisted of 698 individuals aged 71.6 years on average, of whom 68.3% were women. 374 participants (53.6% had made use of oral health services within the past 12 months. 81% of those who used oral health services sought private medical care, 12.8% sought social security services, and 6.2% public health services. 99.7% had experienced coronal caries and 44.0% root caries. Female sex (OR = 2.0, 6 years' schooling or less (OR = 1.4, and caries experience in more than 22 teeth (OR = 0.6 are factors associated with the utilization of these services. Conclusion About half the elderly beneficiaries of social security have made use of oral health services within the past 12 months, and many of them have to use private services. Being a woman, having little schooling, and low caries experience are factors associated with the use of these services.

  12. Privacy Act of 1974; matching program--HCFA. Notice of a matching program--the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), the Social Security Administration (SSA), and HCFA--disclosure of IRS taxpayer identity and filing status information to be matched with SSA earned income information for Medicare beneficiaries and their spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-21

    As required by Section 6202 of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1989 (OBRA 1989), Public Law 101-239, the Department of Health and Human Services is providing public notice that the IRS and the SSA will disclose certain information regarding the taxpayer identification and filing status and the earned income of Medicare beneficiaries and their spouses for HCFA's use in identifying Medicare secondary payer (MSP) situations. This will enable HCFA to seek recovery of identified mistaken payments that were the liability of another primary insurer or other type of payer. The matching report set forth below is in compliance with the Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988 (Pub. L. No. 100-503). PMID:10107026

  13. Application of RS Codes in Decoding QR Code

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Suxia(朱素霞); Ji Zhenzhou; Cao Zhiyan

    2003-01-01

    The QR Code is a 2-dimensional matrix code with high error correction capability. It employs RS codes to generate error correction codewords in encoding and recover errors and damages in decoding. This paper presents several QR Code's virtues, analyzes RS decoding algorithm and gives a software flow chart of decoding the QR Code with RS decoding algorithm.

  14. Report number codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name

  15. Fulcrum Network Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Fulcrum network codes, which are a network coding framework, achieve three objectives: (i) to reduce the overhead per coded packet to almost 1 bit per source packet; (ii) to operate the network using only low field size operations at intermediate nodes, dramatically reducing complexity in the net...... the number of dimensions seen by the network using a linear mapping. Receivers can tradeoff computational effort with network delay, decoding in the high field size, the low field size, or a combination thereof.......Fulcrum network codes, which are a network coding framework, achieve three objectives: (i) to reduce the overhead per coded packet to almost 1 bit per source packet; (ii) to operate the network using only low field size operations at intermediate nodes, dramatically reducing complexity...... in the network; and (iii) to deliver an end-to-end performance that is close to that of a high field size network coding system for high-end receivers while simultaneously catering to low-end ones that can only decode in a lower field size. Sources may encode using a high field size expansion to increase...

  16. Report number codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R.N. (ed.)

    1985-05-01

    This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name.

  17. Optimizing ATLAS code with different profilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the current maintenance period, the LHC will provide higher energy collisions with increased luminosity. In order to keep up with these higher rates, ATLAS software needs to speed up substantially. However, ATLAS code is composed of approximately 6M lines, written by many different programmers with different backgrounds, which makes code optimisation a challenge. To help with this effort different profiling tools and techniques are being used. These include well known tools, such as the Valgrind suite and Intel Amplifier; less common tools like Pin, PAPI, and GOoDA; as well as techniques such as library interposing. In this paper we will mainly focus on Pin tools and GOoDA. Pin is a dynamic binary instrumentation tool which can obtain statistics such as call counts, instruction counts and interrogate functions' arguments. It has been used to obtain CLHEP Matrix profiles, operations and vector sizes for linear algebra calculations which has provided the insight necessary to achieve significant performance improvements. Complimenting this, GOoDA, an in-house performance tool built in collaboration with Google, which is based on hardware performance monitoring unit events, is used to identify hot-spots in the code for different types of hardware limitations, such as CPU resources, caches, or memory bandwidth. GOoDA has been used in improvement of the performance of new magnetic field code and identification of potential vectorization targets in several places, such as Runge-Kutta propagation code

  18. Bar code usage in nuclear materials accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The age old method of physically taking an inventory of materials by listing each item's identification number has lived beyond its usefulness. In this age of computerization, which offers the local grocery store a quick, sure, and easy means to inventory, it is time for nuclear materials facilities to automate accountability activities. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant began investigating the use of automated data collection devices in 1979. At that time, bar code and optical-character-recognition (OCR) systems were reviewed with the purpose of directly entering data into DYMCAS (Dynamic Special Nuclear Materials Control and Accountability System). Both of these systems appeared applicable; however, other automated devices already employed for production control made implementing the bar code and OCR seem improbable. However, the DYMCAS was placed on line for nuclear material accountability, a decision was made to consider the bar code for physical inventory listings. For the past several months a development program has been underway to use a bar code device to collect and input data to the DYMCAS on the uranium recovery operations. Programs have been completed and tested, and are being employed to ensure that data will be compatible and useful. Bar code implementation and expansion of its use for all nuclear material inventory activity in Y-12 is presented

  19. The human {alpha}2(XI) collagen gene (COL11A2): Completion of coding information, identification of the promoter sequence, and precise localization within the major histocompatibility complex reveal overlap with the KE5 gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lui, V.C.H.; Ng, Ling Jim; Sat, E.W.Y.; Cheah, K.S.E. [Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    1996-03-05

    Type XI collagen, a fibril-forming collagen, is important for the integrity and development of the skeleton because mutations in the genes encoding its consituent {alpha} chains have been found in some osteochondrodysplasias. We provide data that complete information for the coding sequence of human {alpha}2(XI) procollagen, with details of the promoter region and intron-exon organization at the 5{prime} and 3{prime} ends of the gene (COL11A2), including the transcription start and polyadenylation sites. COL11A2 is 30.5 kb with a minimum of 62 exons, differing from other reported fibrillar collagen genes because the amino propeptide is encoded by 14 not 5 to 8 exons. But exon numbers for the carboxy propeptide and 3{prime}-untranslated region are conserved. The promoter region of COL11A2 lacks a TATA box but is GC-rich with two potential SP1 binding sites. Mouse {alpha}2(XI) collagen mRNAs undergo complex alternative splicing involving three amino-terminal propeptide exons but only one of these has been reported for COL11A2. We have located these missing human exons and have identified splice signals that point to additional splice variants. We have precisely mapped COL11A2 within the major histocompatibility complex on chromosome 6. The retinoid X receptor {beta} (RXR{beta}) gene is located 1.1 kb upstream of COL11A2. KE5, previously thought to be a distinct transcribed gene sequence, was mapped within COL11A2 in the alternatively spliced region, raising the question whether KE5 and COL11A2 are separate genes. 37 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Cryptography cracking codes

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    While cracking a code might seem like something few of us would encounter in our daily lives, it is actually far more prevalent than we may realize. Anyone who has had personal information taken because of a hacked email account can understand the need for cryptography and the importance of encryption-essentially the need to code information to keep it safe. This detailed volume examines the logic and science behind various ciphers, their real world uses, how codes can be broken, and the use of technology in this oft-overlooked field.

  1. FORIST unfolding code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FERDOR method is widely used to unfold neutron energy spectra from pulse-height distributions measured with NE-213 spectrometers. Two unfolding codes COOLC (developed at ORNL) and FORIST (modified version of COOLC developed at UIUC) implement the FERDOR method and are distributed by RSIC. Each code package contains an NE-213 response matrix, sample input data, and sample output. The smoothing (window) widths which are distributed with COOLC are not the most appropriate for all neutron spectrum measurements. The FORIST code determines an optimum set of window widths according to the desired statistical error in the smoothed spectrum

  2. Classical Holographic Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Brehm, Enrico M

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we introduce classical holographic codes. These can be understood as concatenated probabilistic codes and can be represented as networks uniformly covering hyperbolic space. In particular, classical holographic codes can be interpreted as maps from bulk degrees of freedom to boundary degrees of freedom. Interestingly, they are shown to exhibit features similar to those expected from the AdS/CFT correspondence. Among these are a version of the Ryu-Takayanagi formula and intriguing properties regarding bulk reconstruction and boundary representations of bulk operations. We discuss the relation of our findings with expectations from AdS/CFT and, in particular, with recent results from quantum error correction.

  3. Distributed multiple description coding

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Huihui; Zhao, Yao

    2011-01-01

    This book examines distributed video coding (DVC) and multiple description coding (MDC), two novel techniques designed to address the problems of conventional image and video compression coding. Covering all fundamental concepts and core technologies, the chapters can also be read as independent and self-sufficient, describing each methodology in sufficient detail to enable readers to repeat the corresponding experiments easily. Topics and features: provides a broad overview of DVC and MDC, from the basic principles to the latest research; covers sub-sampling based MDC, quantization based MDC,

  4. Laser propagation code study

    OpenAIRE

    Rockower, Edward B.

    1985-01-01

    A number of laser propagation codes have been assessed as to their suitability for modeling Army High Energy Laser (HEL) weapons used in an anti- sensor mode. We identify a number of areas in which systems analysis HEL codes are deficient. Most notably, available HEL scaling law codes model the laser aperture as circular, possibly with a fixed (e.g. 10%) obscuration. However, most HELs have rectangular apertures with up to 30% obscuration. We present a beam-quality/aperture shape scaling rela...

  5. OCA Code Enforcement

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The Office of the County Attorney (OCA) processes Code Violation Citations issued by County agencies. The citations can be viewed by issued department, issued date...

  6. Der Code der Transparenz

    OpenAIRE

    Alloa, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    In allen Bereichen der Gesellschaft werden gegenwärtig Forderungen nach mehr Transparenz laut. Was steht hinter diesem Wort? Für Emmanuel Alloa wohnt der Transparenzforderung die Paradoxie inne, ein "codefreier Code" sein zu wollen.

  7. The fast code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, L.N.; Wilson, R.E. [Oregon State Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The FAST Code which is capable of determining structural loads on a flexible, teetering, horizontal axis wind turbine is described and comparisons of calculated loads with test data are given at two wind speeds for the ESI-80. The FAST Code models a two-bladed HAWT with degrees of freedom for blade bending, teeter, drive train flexibility, yaw, and windwise and crosswind tower motion. The code allows blade dimensions, stiffnesses, and weights to differ and models tower shadow, wind shear, and turbulence. Additionally, dynamic stall is included as are delta-3 and an underslung rotor. Load comparisons are made with ESI-80 test data in the form of power spectral density, rainflow counting, occurrence histograms, and azimuth averaged bin plots. It is concluded that agreement between the FAST Code and test results is good. (au)

  8. Fulcrum Network Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Fulcrum network codes, which are a network coding framework, achieve three objectives: (i) to reduce the overhead per coded packet to almost 1 bit per source packet; (ii) to operate the network using only low field size operations at intermediate nodes, dramatically reducing complexity...... in the network; and (iii) to deliver an end-to-end performance that is close to that of a high field size network coding system for high-end receivers while simultaneously catering to low-end ones that can only decode in a lower field size. Sources may encode using a high field size expansion to increase...... the number of dimensions seen by the network using a linear mapping. Receivers can tradeoff computational effort with network delay, decoding in the high field size, the low field size, or a combination thereof....

  9. Code-Pointer Integrity

    OpenAIRE

    Volodymyr Kuznetsov; Laszlo Szekeres; Mathias Payer; George Candea; Sekar, R.; Dawn Song

    2014-01-01

    Systems code is often written in low-level languages like C/C++, which offer many benefits but also delegate memory management to programmers. This invites memory safety bugs that attackers can exploit to divert control flow and compromise the system. Deployed defense mechanisms (e.g., ASLR, DEP) are incomplete, and stronger defense mechanisms (e.g., CFI) often have high overhead and limited guarantees [19, 15, 9]. We introduce code-pointer integrity (CPI), a new design point that guarantees...

  10. Secure Fractal Image Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Lian, Shiguo

    2007-01-01

    In recent work, various fractal image coding methods are reported, which adopt the self-similarity of images to compress the size of images. However, till now, no solutions for the security of fractal encoded images have been provided. In this paper, a secure fractal image coding scheme is proposed and evaluated, which encrypts some of the fractal parameters during fractal encoding, and thus, produces the encrypted and encoded image. The encrypted image can only be recovered by the correct ke...

  11. Coded Splitting Tree Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to multiple access control called coded splitting tree protocol. The approach builds on the known tree splitting protocols, code structure and successive interference cancellation (SIC). Several instances of the tree splitting protocol are initiated, each...... as possible. Evaluations show that the proposed protocol provides considerable gains over the standard tree splitting protocol applying SIC. The improvement comes at the expense of an increased feedback and receiver complexity....

  12. Coding of auditory space

    OpenAIRE

    Konishi­, Masakazu

    2003-01-01

    Behavioral, anatomical, and physiological approaches can be integrated in the study of sound localization in barn owls. Space representation in owls provides a useful example for discussion of place and ensemble coding. Selectivity for space is broad and ambiguous in low-order neurons. Parallel pathways for binaural cues and for different frequency bands converge on high-order space-specific neurons, which encode space more precisely. An ensemble of broadly tuned place-coding neurons may conv...

  13. KENO-V code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The KENO-V code is the current release of the Oak Ridge multigroup Monte Carlo criticality code development. The original KENO, with 16 group Hansen-Roach cross sections and P1 scattering, was one ot the first multigroup Monte Carlo codes and it and its successors have always been a much-used research tool for criticality studies. KENO-V is able to accept large neutron cross section libraries (a 218 group set is distributed with the code) and has a general P/sub N/ scattering capability. A supergroup feature allows execution of large problems on small computers, but at the expense of increased calculation time and system input/output operations. This supergroup feature is activated automatically by the code in a manner which utilizes as much computer memory as is available. The primary purpose of KENO-V is to calculate the system k/sub eff/, from small bare critical assemblies to large reflected arrays of differing fissile and moderator elements. In this respect KENO-V neither has nor requires the many options and sophisticated biasing techniques of general Monte Carlo codes

  14. Atypical Fiscal States: Fiscal Inactivity State and the Fiscal Body Ex-Officio Cancellation of the Registration Code for VAT Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răducu Emil Buziernescu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The state of fiscal inactivity of a tax payer, as well as the cancellation of the registration code for VAT purposes, generate important fiscal effects, both for the tax payers concerned and for the beneficiaries that purchase goods and services from them. In case these tax payers continue to develop economic activities, they are subject to the obligations regarding the payment of the taxes and dues stipulated by the law, but, in the respective period, they do not benefit from the right of deductibility of expenses and of the value added tax corresponding to the purchases performed. Correlatively, the beneficiaries that purchase goods and services from such persons do not have the right to deduct the value added tax corresponding to the acquisitions performed and of the respective expenses. In this article, we shall present the legal status of these atypical fiscal states, respectively: the situations that generate these states, the fiscal effects produced on the suppliers/providers; the fiscal effects on the beneficiaries; the situations of reactivating or re-registering of the tax p

  15. Accumulative Landings System Code Tables

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Code Tables Used In Landings System. These tables assign meanings to the codes that appear in the data tables. Code tables exist for species, gear, state, county,...

  16. Product Codes for Optical Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Dahl

    2002-01-01

    Many optical communicaton systems might benefit from forward-error-correction. We present a hard-decision decoding algorithm for the "Block Turbo Codes", suitable for optical communication, which makes this coding-scheme an alternative to Reed-Solomon codes.......Many optical communicaton systems might benefit from forward-error-correction. We present a hard-decision decoding algorithm for the "Block Turbo Codes", suitable for optical communication, which makes this coding-scheme an alternative to Reed-Solomon codes....

  17. Algebraic geometric codes with applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hao

    2007-01-01

    The theory of linear error-correcting codes from algebraic geomet-ric curves (algebraic geometric (AG) codes or geometric Goppa codes) has been well-developed since the work of Goppa and Tsfasman, Vladut, and Zink in 1981-1982. In this paper we introduce to readers some recent progress in algebraic geometric codes and their applications in quantum error-correcting codes, secure multi-party computation and the construction of good binary codes.

  18. Optical coding theory with Prime

    CERN Document Server

    Kwong, Wing C

    2013-01-01

    Although several books cover the coding theory of wireless communications and the hardware technologies and coding techniques of optical CDMA, no book has been specifically dedicated to optical coding theory-until now. Written by renowned authorities in the field, Optical Coding Theory with Prime gathers together in one volume the fundamentals and developments of optical coding theory, with a focus on families of prime codes, supplemented with several families of non-prime codes. The book also explores potential applications to coding-based optical systems and networks. Learn How to Construct

  19. Polynomial weights and code constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massey, J; Costello, D; Justesen, Jørn

    1973-01-01

    that are subcodes of the binary Reed-Muller codes and can be very simply instrumented, 3) a new class of constacyclic codes that are subcodes of thep-ary "Reed-Muller codes," 4) two new classes of binary convolutional codes with large "free distance" derived from known binary cyclic codes, 5) two new classes...... of long constraint length binary convolutional codes derived from2^r-ary Reed-Solomon codes, and 6) a new class ofq-ary "repeated-root" constacyclic codes with an algebraic decoding algorithm....

  20. Error coding simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Viveca K.

    1993-01-01

    There are various elements such as radio frequency interference (RFI) which may induce errors in data being transmitted via a satellite communication link. When a transmission is affected by interference or other error-causing elements, the transmitted data becomes indecipherable. It becomes necessary to implement techniques to recover from these disturbances. The objective of this research is to develop software which simulates error control circuits and evaluate the performance of these modules in various bit error rate environments. The results of the evaluation provide the engineer with information which helps determine the optimal error control scheme. The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) recommends the use of Reed-Solomon (RS) and convolutional encoders and Viterbi and RS decoders for error correction. The use of forward error correction techniques greatly reduces the received signal to noise needed for a certain desired bit error rate. The use of concatenated coding, e.g. inner convolutional code and outer RS code, provides even greater coding gain. The 16-bit cyclic redundancy check (CRC) code is recommended by CCSDS for error detection.

  1. Physical Layer Network Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Shengli, Zhang; Lam, Patrick P K

    2007-01-01

    A main distinguishing feature of a wireless network compared with a wired network is its broadcast nature, in which the signal transmitted by a node may reach several other nodes, and a node may receive signals from several other nodes simultaneously. Rather than a blessing, this feature is treated more as an interference-inducing nuisance in most wireless networks today (e.g., IEEE 802.11). This paper shows that the concept of network coding can be applied at the physical layer to turn the broadcast property into a capacity-boosting advantage in wireless ad hoc networks. Specifically, we propose a physical-layer network coding (PNC) scheme to coordinate transmissions among nodes. In contrast to straightforward network coding which performs coding arithmetic on digital bit streams after they have been received, PNC makes use of the additive nature of simultaneously arriving electromagnetic (EM) waves for equivalent coding operation. And in doing so, PNC can potentially achieve 100% and 50% throughput increase...

  2. CERN access card: Introduction of a bar code

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    Before the latest version of the implementation measures relating to Operational Circular No. 2 comes into force, we would like to inform you that, in future, CERN access cards may bear a bar code to transcribe the holder's identification number. Relations with the Host States Service http://www.cern.ch/relations/ Tel. 72848

  3. CERN access cards - Introduction of a bar code (Reminder)

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    In accordance with the latest revised version of the implementation measures relating to Operational Circular No. 2, CERN access cards may bear a bar code transcribing the holder's identification number (the revised version of this subsidiary document to the aforementioned Circular will be published shortly). Relations with the Host States Service http://www.cern.ch/relations/ relations.secretariat@cern.ch Tel. 72848

  4. Nested Quantum Error Correction Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhuo; Fan, Hen; Vedral, Vlatko

    2009-01-01

    The theory of quantum error correction was established more than a decade ago as the primary tool for fighting decoherence in quantum information processing. Although great progress has already been made in this field, limited methods are available in constructing new quantum error correction codes from old codes. Here we exhibit a simple and general method to construct new quantum error correction codes by nesting certain quantum codes together. The problem of finding long quantum error correction codes is reduced to that of searching several short length quantum codes with certain properties. Our method works for all length and all distance codes, and is quite efficient to construct optimal or near optimal codes. Two main known methods in constructing new codes from old codes in quantum error-correction theory, the concatenating and pasting, can be understood in the framework of nested quantum error correction codes.

  5. Graph Codes with Reed-Solomon Component Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Justesen, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    We treat a specific case of codes based on bipartite expander graphs coming from finite geometries. The code symbols are associated with the branches and the symbols connected to a given node are restricted to be codewords in a Reed-Solomon code. We give results on the parameters of the codes and...

  6. Phase-coded pulse aperiodic transmitter coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Virtanen

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Both ionospheric and weather radar communities have already adopted the method of transmitting radar pulses in an aperiodic manner when measuring moderately overspread targets. Among the users of the ionospheric radars, this method is called Aperiodic Transmitter Coding (ATC, whereas the weather radar users have adopted the term Simultaneous Multiple Pulse-Repetition Frequency (SMPRF. When probing the ionosphere at the carrier frequencies of the EISCAT Incoherent Scatter Radar facilities, the range extent of the detectable target is typically of the order of one thousand kilometers – about seven milliseconds – whereas the characteristic correlation time of the scattered signal varies from a few milliseconds in the D-region to only tens of microseconds in the F-region. If one is interested in estimating the scattering autocorrelation function (ACF at time lags shorter than the F-region correlation time, the D-region must be considered as a moderately overspread target, whereas the F-region is a severely overspread one. Given the technical restrictions of the radar hardware, a combination of ATC and phase-coded long pulses is advantageous for this kind of target. We evaluate such an experiment under infinitely low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR conditions using lag profile inversion. In addition, a qualitative evaluation under high-SNR conditions is performed by analysing simulated data. The results show that an acceptable estimation accuracy and a very good lag resolution in the D-region can be achieved with a pulse length long enough for simultaneous E- and F-region measurements with a reasonable lag extent. The new experiment design is tested with the EISCAT Tromsø VHF (224 MHz radar. An example of a full D/E/F-region ACF from the test run is shown at the end of the paper.

  7. Improvement of QR Code Recognition Based on Pillbox Filter Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Shing Sheu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to perform the innovation design for improving the recognition of a captured QR code image with blur through the Pillbox filter analysis. QR code images can be captured by digital video cameras. Many factors contribute to QR code decoding failure, such as the low quality of the image. Focus is an important factor that affects the quality of the image. This study discusses the out-of-focus QR code image and aims to improve the recognition of the contents in the QR code image. Many studies have used the pillbox filter (circular averaging filter method to simulate an out-of-focus image. This method is also used in this investigation to improve the recognition of a captured QR code image. A blurred QR code image is separated into nine levels. In the experiment, four different quantitative approaches are used to reconstruct and decode an out-of-focus QR code image. These nine reconstructed QR code images using methods are then compared. The final experimental results indicate improvements in identification.

  8. Coding and traceability for cells, tissues and organs for transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, D Michael; Shinozaki, Naoshi

    2010-11-01

    Modern transplantation of cells, tissues and organs has been practiced within the last century achieving both life saving and enhancing results. Associated risks have been recognized including infectious disease transmission, malignancy, immune mediated disease and graft failure. This has resulted in establishment of government regulation, professional standard setting and establishment of vigilance and surveillance systems for early detection and prevention and to improve patient safety. The increased transportation of grafts across national boundaries has made traceability difficult and sometimes impossible. Experience during the first Gulf War with mis-identification of blood units coming from multiple countries without standardized coding and labeling has led international organizations to develop standardized nomenclature and coding for blood. Following this example, cell therapy and tissue transplant practitioners have also moved to standardization of coding systems. Establishment of an international coding system has progressed rapidly and implementation for blood has demonstrated multiple advantages. WHO has held two global consultations on human cells and tissues for transplantation, which recognized the global circulation of cells and tissues and growing commercialization and the need for means of coding to identify tissues and cells used in transplantation, are essential for full traceability. There is currently a wide diversity in the identification and coding of tissue and cell products. For tissues, with a few exceptions, product terminology has not been standardized even at the national level. Progress has been made in blood and cell therapies with a slow and steady trend towards implementation of the international code ISBT 128. Across all fields, there are now 3,700 licensed facilities in 66 countries. Efforts are necessary to encourage the introduction of a standardized international coding system for donation identification numbers, such as ISBT

  9. Main food sources of carotenoids, according to the purpose and degree of processing, for beneficiaries of the 'Bolsa Família' in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Giovanini de Oliveira Sartori; Marina Vieira da Silva

    2014-01-01

    The intake of carotenoids is associated with antioxidant properties and some of these substances have activity of pro-vitamin A. This study aimed to estimate the intake of carotenoids (average values) by the Brazilian population focusing on beneficiaries of the 'Bolsa Família' Program and identify the dietary sources, according to the purpose and degree of processing and the inclusion of food additives. The database used is the personal food consumption module of the Household Budget Survey o...

  10. A Mirage or a Rural Life Line? Analysing the impact of Mahatma Gandhi Rural Employment Guarantee Act on Women Beneficiaries of Assam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rituparna Bhattacharyya

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA, launched in February 2006 was renamed in October 02, 2009 as the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (henceforth, MGNREGA. It is an anti-poverty flagship programme of the Government of India. The key purpose of MGNREGA is to enhance wage employment in the rural areas by providing at least 100 days of guaranteed employment to every household in a financial year.  The MGNREGA implementation status report for the financial year 2012-2013 unfolds that the programme has already provided employment to 44.9 million households across 28 districts and five union territories. Hence, it is becoming increasingly difficult to ignore the impact of MGNREGA on women beneficiaries. A plethora of research argues that MGNREGA, which promotes inclusive growth, is a vehicle of change, a lifeline for rural women. So far, however, there has been very little discussion about the impact of MGNREGA on women beneficiaries of Assam. This research is an attempt to examine the participation of women in MGNREGA, Assam. It critically looks at the issues, problems and challenges confronted by the women while working at MGNREGA. Written from a feminist perspective on gender, poverty and women’s empowerment, the research seeks to address the problems of the women beneficiaries through their lived experiences. For this, we conducted in-depth interviews with the women beneficiaries in the months of August and September, 2009 in four remote areas namely, Burka, Chandrapur, Barbhang and Muguriya, the first two situated in Kamrup, while the third and the fourth in Barpeta districts of Assam, where the programme of MGNREGA is on-going. The findings of the research suggest measures so that the programme can be made more effective in the long run.

  11. Self-reported colorectal cancer screening of Medicare beneficiaries in family medicine vs. internal medicine practices in the United States: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higgins Angela Y

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The benefit of screening for decreasing the risk of death from colorectal cancer (CRC has been shown, yet many patients in primary care are still not undergoing screening according to guidelines. There are known variations in delivery of preventive health care services among primary care physicians. This study compared self-reported CRC screening rates and patient awareness of the need for CRC screening of patients receiving care from family medicine (FPs vs. internal medicine (internists physicians. Methods Nationally representative sample of non-institutionalized beneficiaries who received medical care from FPs or internists in 2006 (using Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey. The main outcome was the percentage of patients screened in 2007. We also examined the percentage of patients offered screening. Results Patients of FPs, compared to those of internists, were less likely to have received an FOBT kit or undergone home FOBT, even after accounting for patients' characteristics. Compared to internists, FPs' patients were more likely to have heard of colonoscopy, but were less likely to receive a screening colonoscopy recommendation (18% vs. 27%, or undergo a colonoscopy (43% vs. 46%, adjusted odds ratios [AOR], 95% confidence interval [CI]-- 0.65, 0.51-0.81 or any CRC screening (52% vs. 60%, AOR, CI--0.80, 0.68-0.94. Among subgroups examined, higher income beneficiaries receiving care from internists had the highest screening rate (68%, while disabled beneficiaries receiving care from FPs had the lowest screening rate (34%. Conclusion Patients cared for by FPs had a lower rate of screening compared to those cared for by internists, despite equal or higher levels of awareness; a difference that remained statistically significant after accounting for socioeconomic status and access to healthcare. Both groups of patients remained below the national goal of 70 percent.

  12. Adjoint code generator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Qiang; CAO JianWen; WANG Bin; ZHANG HaiBin

    2009-01-01

    The adjoint code generator (ADG) is developed to produce the adjoint codes, which are used to analytically calculate gradients and the Hessian-vector products with the costs independent of the number of the independent variables. Different from other automatic differentiation tools, the implementation of ADG has advantages of using the least program behavior decomposition method and several static dependence analysis techniques. In this paper we first address the concerned concepts and fundamentals, and then introduce the functionality and the features of ADG. In particular, we also discuss the design architecture of ADG and implementation details including the recomputation and storing strategy and several techniques for code optimization. Some experimental results in several applications are presented at the end.

  13. MHD Generation Code

    CERN Document Server

    Frutos-Alfaro, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    A program to generate codes in Fortran and C of the full Magnetohydrodynamic equations is shown. The program used the free computer algebra system software REDUCE. This software has a package called EXCALC, which is an exterior calculus program. The advantage of this program is that it can be modified to include another complex metric or spacetime. The output of this program is modified by means of a LINUX script which creates a new REDUCE program to manipulate the MHD equations to obtain a code that can be used as a seed for a MHD code for numerical applications. As an example, we present part of output of our programs for Cartesian coordinates and how to do the discretization.

  14. Code query by example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaucouleur, Sebastien

    2011-02-01

    We introduce code query by example for customisation of evolvable software products in general and of enterprise resource planning systems (ERPs) in particular. The concept is based on an initial empirical study on practices around ERP systems. We motivate our design choices based on those empirical results, and we show how the proposed solution helps with respect to the infamous upgrade problem: the conflict between the need for customisation and the need for upgrade of ERP systems. We further show how code query by example can be used as a form of lightweight static analysis, to detect automatically potential defects in large software products. Code query by example as a form of lightweight static analysis is particularly interesting in the context of ERP systems: it is often the case that programmers working in this field are not computer science specialists but more of domain experts. Hence, they require a simple language to express custom rules.

  15. From Barcode to QR Code Applications

    OpenAIRE

    László Várallyai

    2012-01-01

    This paper shows the Zsohár Horticulture Company in Nagyrákos, how they want to change their barcode identification system to QR code. They cultivate herbaceous, perpetual decorational plants, rock-garden, flower-bed and swamp perpetuals, decorational grasses and spices. A part of the perpetuals are evergreens, but most of them has special organs - such as onions, thick-, bulbous roots, "winter-proof" buds - so they can survive winter. In the first part of the paper I introduce the different ...

  16. Name—Merely a Personal Code

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟瑜佳

    2015-01-01

    <正>Name,everyone has one.There is no doubt that a name is a label of identification.But is it all?Is a name nothing but a code to distinguish one from others?If that’s the case,an ID number is enough and a name is no longer crucial.People who claim this may have a vague idea what their own names mean so that they cannot realize the significance of names.To explore the importance and meaning of names,we should give them much more thoughts and think about not merely names themselves but

  17. Malnutrition coding 101: financial impact and more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannopoulos, Georgia A; Merriman, Louise R; Rumsey, Alissa; Zwiebel, Douglas S

    2013-12-01

    Recent articles have addressed the characteristics associated with adult malnutrition as published by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (the Academy) and the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.). This article describes a successful interdisciplinary program developed by the Department of Food and Nutrition at New York-Presbyterian Hospital to maintain and monitor clinical documentation, ensure accurate International Classification of Diseases 9th Edition (ICD-9) coding, and identify subsequent incremental revenue resulting from the early identification, documentation, and treatment of malnutrition in an adult inpatient population. The first step in the process requires registered dietitians to identify patients with malnutrition; then clear and specifically worded diagnostic statements that include the type and severity of malnutrition are documented in the medical record by the physician, nurse practitioner, or physician's assistant. This protocol allows the Heath Information Management/Coding department to accurately assign ICD-9 codes associated with protein-energy malnutrition. Once clinical coding is complete, a final diagnosis related group (DRG) is generated to ensure appropriate hospital reimbursement. Successful interdisciplinary programs such as this can drive optimal care and ensure appropriate reimbursement.

  18. Non-coding genome functions in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebola, Inês; Pasquali, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Most of the genetic variation associated with diabetes, through genome-wide association studies, does not reside in protein-coding regions, making the identification of functional variants and their eventual translation to the clinic challenging. In recent years, high-throughput sequencing-based methods have enabled genome-scale high-resolution epigenomic profiling in a variety of human tissues, allowing the exploration of the human genome outside of the well-studied coding regions. These experiments unmasked tens of thousands of regulatory elements across several cell types, including diabetes-relevant tissues, providing new insights into their mechanisms of gene regulation. Regulatory landscapes are highly dynamic and cell-type specific and, being sensitive to DNA sequence variation, can vary with individual genomes. The scientific community is now in place to exploit the regulatory maps of tissues central to diabetes etiology, such as pancreatic progenitors and adult islets. This giant leap forward in the understanding of pancreatic gene regulation is revolutionizing our capacity to discriminate between functional and non-functional non-coding variants, opening opportunities to uncover regulatory links between sequence variation and diabetes susceptibility. In this review, we focus on the non-coding regulatory landscape of the pancreatic endocrine cells and provide an overview of the recent developments in this field. PMID:26438568

  19. Aeroacoustic Prediction Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliebe, P; Mani, R.; Shin, H.; Mitchell, B.; Ashford, G.; Salamah, S.; Connell, S.; Huff, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This report describes work performed on Contract NAS3-27720AoI 13 as part of the NASA Advanced Subsonic Transport (AST) Noise Reduction Technology effort. Computer codes were developed to provide quantitative prediction, design, and analysis capability for several aircraft engine noise sources. The objective was to provide improved, physics-based tools for exploration of noise-reduction concepts and understanding of experimental results. Methods and codes focused on fan broadband and 'buzz saw' noise and on low-emissions combustor noise and compliment work done by other contractors under the NASA AST program to develop methods and codes for fan harmonic tone noise and jet noise. The methods and codes developed and reported herein employ a wide range of approaches, from the strictly empirical to the completely computational, with some being semiempirical analytical, and/or analytical/computational. Emphasis was on capturing the essential physics while still considering method or code utility as a practical design and analysis tool for everyday engineering use. Codes and prediction models were developed for: (1) an improved empirical correlation model for fan rotor exit flow mean and turbulence properties, for use in predicting broadband noise generated by rotor exit flow turbulence interaction with downstream stator vanes: (2) fan broadband noise models for rotor and stator/turbulence interaction sources including 3D effects, noncompact-source effects. directivity modeling, and extensions to the rotor supersonic tip-speed regime; (3) fan multiple-pure-tone in-duct sound pressure prediction methodology based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis; and (4) low-emissions combustor prediction methodology and computer code based on CFD and actuator disk theory. In addition. the relative importance of dipole and quadrupole source mechanisms was studied using direct CFD source computation for a simple cascadeigust interaction problem, and an empirical combustor

  20. Securing mobile code.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, Hamilton E.; Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Neumann, William Douglas; Campbell, Philip LaRoche; Beaver, Cheryl Lynn; Pierson, Lyndon George; Anderson, William Erik

    2004-10-01

    If software is designed so that the software can issue functions that will move that software from one computing platform to another, then the software is said to be 'mobile'. There are two general areas of security problems associated with mobile code. The 'secure host' problem involves protecting the host from malicious mobile code. The 'secure mobile code' problem, on the other hand, involves protecting the code from malicious hosts. This report focuses on the latter problem. We have found three distinct camps of opinions regarding how to secure mobile code. There are those who believe special distributed hardware is necessary, those who believe special distributed software is necessary, and those who believe neither is necessary. We examine all three camps, with a focus on the third. In the distributed software camp we examine some commonly proposed techniques including Java, D'Agents and Flask. For the specialized hardware camp, we propose a cryptographic technique for 'tamper-proofing' code over a large portion of the software/hardware life cycle by careful modification of current architectures. This method culminates by decrypting/authenticating each instruction within a physically protected CPU, thereby protecting against subversion by malicious code. Our main focus is on the camp that believes that neither specialized software nor hardware is necessary. We concentrate on methods of code obfuscation to render an entire program or a data segment on which a program depends incomprehensible. The hope is to prevent or at least slow down reverse engineering efforts and to prevent goal-oriented attacks on the software and execution. The field of obfuscation is still in a state of development with the central problem being the lack of a basis for evaluating the protection schemes. We give a brief introduction to some of the main ideas in the field, followed by an in depth analysis of a technique called &apos

  1. Principles of speech coding

    CERN Document Server

    Ogunfunmi, Tokunbo

    2010-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that all forms of communication-including voice-will be transmitted through packet-switched networks based on the Internet Protocol (IP). Therefore, the design of modern devices that rely on speech interfaces, such as cell phones and PDAs, requires a complete and up-to-date understanding of the basics of speech coding. Outlines key signal processing algorithms used to mitigate impairments to speech quality in VoIP networksOffering a detailed yet easily accessible introduction to the field, Principles of Speech Coding provides an in-depth examination of the

  2. The association of longitudinal and interpersonal continuity of care with emergency department use, hospitalization, and mortality among Medicare beneficiaries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne E Bentler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Continuity of medical care is widely believed to lead to better health outcomes and service utilization patterns for patients. Most continuity studies, however, have only used administrative claims to assess longitudinal continuity with a provider. As a result, little is known about how interpersonal continuity (the patient's experience at the visit relates to improved health outcomes and service use. METHODS: We linked claims-based longitudinal continuity and survey-based self-reported interpersonal continuity indicators for 1,219 Medicare beneficiaries who completed the National Health and Health Services Use Questionnaire. With these linked data, we prospectively evaluated the effect of both types of continuity of care indicators on emergency department use, hospitalization, and mortality over a five-year period. RESULTS: Patient-reported continuity was associated with reduced emergency department use, preventable hospitalization, and mortality. Most of the claims-based measures, including those most frequently used to assess continuity, were not associated with reduced utilization or mortality. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that the patient- and claims-based indicators of continuity have very different effects on these important health outcomes, suggesting that reform efforts must include the patient-provider experience when evaluating health care quality.

  3. The impact of rehabilitation and counseling services on the labor market activity of Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathers, Robert R; Bailey, Michelle Stegman

    2014-01-01

    We use data from a social experiment to estimate the impact of a rehabilitation and counseling program on the labor market activity of newly entitled Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) beneficiaries. Our results indicate that the program led to a 4.6 percentage point increase in the receipt of employment services within the first year following random assignment and a 5.1 percentage point increase in participation in the Social Security Administration's Ticket to Work program within the first three years following random assignment. The program led to a 5.3 percentage point increase, or almost 50 percent increase, in employment, and an $831 increase in annual earnings in the second calendar year after the calendar year of random assignment. The employment and earnings impacts are smaller and not statistically significant in the third calendar year following random assignment, and we describe SSDI rules that are consistent with this finding. Our findings indicate that disability reform proposals focusing on restoring the work capacity of people with disabilities can increase the disability employment rate. PMID:24988653

  4. New code match strategy for wideband code division multiple access code tree management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Orthogonal variable spreading factor channelization codes are widely used to provide variable data rates for supporting different bandwidth requirements in wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA) systems. A new code match scheme for WCDMA code tree management was proposed. The code match scheme is similar to the existing crowed-first scheme. When choosing a code for a user, the code match scheme only compares the one up layer of the allocated codes, unlike the crowed-first scheme which perhaps compares all up layers. So the operation of code match scheme is simple, and the average time delay is decreased by 5.1%. The simulation results also show that the code match strategy can decrease the average code blocking probability by 8.4%.

  5. JUPITER PROJECT - JOINT UNIVERSAL PARAMETER IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION OF RELIABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The JUPITER (Joint Universal Parameter IdenTification and Evaluation of Reliability) project builds on the technology of two widely used codes for sensitivity analysis, data assessment, calibration, and uncertainty analysis of environmental models: PEST and UCODE.

  6. Evaluation and implementation of QR Code Identity Tag system for Healthcare in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Vassilya; Bilgin, Sami

    2016-01-01

    For this study, we designed a QR Code Identity Tag system to integrate into the Turkish healthcare system. This system provides QR code-based medical identification alerts and an in-hospital patient identification system. Every member of the medical system is assigned a unique QR Code Tag; to facilitate medical identification alerts, the QR Code Identity Tag can be worn as a bracelet or necklace or carried as an ID card. Patients must always possess the QR Code Identity bracelets within hospital grounds. These QR code bracelets link to the QR Code Identity website, where detailed information is stored; a smartphone or standalone QR code scanner can be used to scan the code. The design of this system allows authorized personnel (e.g., paramedics, firefighters, or police) to access more detailed patient information than the average smartphone user: emergency service professionals are authorized to access patient medical histories to improve the accuracy of medical treatment. In Istanbul, we tested the self-designed system with 174 participants. To analyze the QR Code Identity Tag system's usability, the participants completed the System Usability Scale questionnaire after using the system. PMID:27652030

  7. Evaluation and implementation of QR Code Identity Tag system for Healthcare in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Vassilya; Bilgin, Sami

    2016-01-01

    For this study, we designed a QR Code Identity Tag system to integrate into the Turkish healthcare system. This system provides QR code-based medical identification alerts and an in-hospital patient identification system. Every member of the medical system is assigned a unique QR Code Tag; to facilitate medical identification alerts, the QR Code Identity Tag can be worn as a bracelet or necklace or carried as an ID card. Patients must always possess the QR Code Identity bracelets within hospital grounds. These QR code bracelets link to the QR Code Identity website, where detailed information is stored; a smartphone or standalone QR code scanner can be used to scan the code. The design of this system allows authorized personnel (e.g., paramedics, firefighters, or police) to access more detailed patient information than the average smartphone user: emergency service professionals are authorized to access patient medical histories to improve the accuracy of medical treatment. In Istanbul, we tested the self-designed system with 174 participants. To analyze the QR Code Identity Tag system's usability, the participants completed the System Usability Scale questionnaire after using the system.

  8. Coded Random Access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paolini, Enrico; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Liva, Gianluigi;

    2015-01-01

    as waste. However, if the common receiver (e.g., base station) is capable to store the collision slots and use them in a transmission recovery process based on successive interference cancellation, the design space for access protocols is radically expanded. We present the paradigm of coded random access...

  9. Ready, steady… Code!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    This summer, CERN took part in the Google Summer of Code programme for the third year in succession. Open to students from all over the world, this programme leads to very successful collaborations for open source software projects.   Image: GSoC 2013. Google Summer of Code (GSoC) is a global programme that offers student developers grants to write code for open-source software projects. Since its creation in 2005, the programme has brought together some 6,000 students from over 100 countries worldwide. The students selected by Google are paired with a mentor from one of the participating projects, which can be led by institutes, organisations, companies, etc. This year, CERN PH Department’s SFT (Software Development for Experiments) Group took part in the GSoC programme for the third time, submitting 15 open-source projects. “Once published on the Google Summer for Code website (in April), the projects are open to applications,” says Jakob Blomer, one of the o...

  10. Physical Layer Network Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukui, Hironori; Yomo, Hironori; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    Physical layer network coding (PLNC) has the potential to improve throughput of multi-hop networks. However, most of the works are focused on the simple, three-node model with two-way relaying, not taking into account the fact that there can be other neighboring nodes that can cause...

  11. New code of conduct

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    During his talk to the staff at the beginning of the year, the Director-General mentioned that a new code of conduct was being drawn up. What exactly is it and what is its purpose? Anne-Sylvie Catherin, Head of the Human Resources (HR) Department, talked to us about the whys and wherefores of the project.   Drawing by Georges Boixader from the cartoon strip “The World of Particles” by Brian Southworth. A code of conduct is a general framework laying down the behaviour expected of all members of an organisation's personnel. “CERN is one of the very few international organisations that don’t yet have one", explains Anne-Sylvie Catherin. “We have been thinking about introducing a code of conduct for a long time but lacked the necessary resources until now”. The call for a code of conduct has come from different sources within the Laboratory. “The Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel (read also the "Equal opportuni...

  12. On Asymmetric Quantum MDS Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Ezerman, Martianus Frederic; Ling, San

    2010-01-01

    Assuming the validity of the MDS Conjecture, the weight distribution of all MDS codes is known. Using a recently-established characterization of asymmetric quantum error-correcting codes, linear MDS codes can be used to construct asymmetric quantum MDS codes with $d_{z} \\geq d_{x}\\geq 2$ for all possible values of length $n$ for which linear MDS codes over $\\F_{q}$ are known to exist.

  13. Comparative Evaluation of Cash Benefit Scheme of Janani Suraksha Yojana for Beneficiary Mothers from Different Health Care Settings of Rewa District, Madhya Pradesh, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trivedi R

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: For better outcomes in mother and child health, Government of India launched the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM in 2005 with a major objective of providing accessible, affordable and quality health care to the rural population; especially the vulnerable. Reduction in MMR to 100/100,000 is one of its goals and the Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY is the key strategy of NRHM to achieve this reduction. The JSY, as a safe motherhood intervention and modified alternative of the National Maternity Benefit Scheme (NMBS, has been implemented in all states and Union territories with special focus on low performing states. The main objective and vision of JSY is to reduce maternal, neo-natal mortality and promote institutional delivery among the poor pregnant women of rural and urban areas. This scheme is 100% centrally sponsored and has an integrated delivery and post delivery care with the help of a key person i.e. ASHA (Accredited Social Health Activist, followed by cash monetary help to the women. Objectives: 1To evaluate cash benefit service provided under JSY at different health care settings. 2 To know the perception and elicit suggestions of beneficiaries on quality of cash benefit scheme of JSY. Methodology: This is a health care institute based observational cross sectional study including randomly selected 200 JSY beneficiary mothers from the different health care settings i.e., Primary Health Centres, Community Health Centres, District Hospital and Medical College Hospital of Rewa District of Madhya Pradesh state. Data was collected with the help of set pro forma and then analysed with Epi Info 2000. Chi square test was applied appropriately. Results: 60% and 80% beneficiaries from PHC and CHC received cash within 1 week after discharge whereas 100% beneficiaries of District Hospital and Medical College Hospital received cash at the time of discharge; the overall distribution of time of cash disbursement among beneficiaries of

  14. Evaluation Codes from an Affine Veriety Code Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geil, Hans Olav

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation codes (also called order domain codes) are traditionally introduced as generalized one-point geometric Goppa codes. In the present paper we will give a new point of view on evaluation codes by introducing them instead as particular nice examples of affine variety codes. Our study inclu...... includes a reformulation of the usual methods to estimate the minimum distances of evaluation codes into the setting of affine variety codes. Finally we describe the connection to the theory of one-pointgeometric Goppa codes. Contents 4.1 Introduction...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 4.2 Affine variety codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 4.3 Some Gr¨obner basis theoretical tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 4.4 A bound on the minimum distance of C(I,L) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 4.5 The Feng-Rao bound...... for C(I,L)? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 4.6 Using weighted degree orderings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 4.7 The order domain conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 4.8 Weight functions and order domains...

  15. Rate-adaptive BCH codes for distributed source coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salmistraro, Matteo; Larsen, Knud J.; Forchhammer, Søren

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) codes for distributed source coding. A feedback channel is employed to adapt the rate of the code during the decoding process. The focus is on codes with short block lengths for independently coding a binary source X and decoding it given its...... correlated side information Y. The proposed codes have been analyzed in a high-correlation scenario, where the marginal probability of each symbol, Xi in X, given Y is highly skewed (unbalanced). Rate-adaptive BCH codes are presented and applied to distributed source coding. Adaptive and fixed checking...... strategies for improving the reliability of the decoded result are analyzed, and methods for estimating the performance are proposed. In the analysis, noiseless feedback and noiseless communication are assumed. Simulation results show that rate-adaptive BCH codes achieve better performance than low...

  16. "Go Forth and Coordinate!" What Special Needs Coordinators Think about the Code of Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Philip

    1996-01-01

    In Britain, the Code of Practice on the Identification and Assessment of Special Educational Needs (1994) places new implementation and management responsibility on special needs coordinators. Interview data from several coordinators suggest that the code brings benefits (enhanced status and more effective provision for students) and drawbacks…

  17. A Code Level Based Programmer Assessment and Selection Criterion Using Metric Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Ezekiel U. Okike

    2014-01-01

    this study presents a code level measurement of computer programs developed by computer programmers using a Chidamber and Kemerer Java metric (CKJM) tool and the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) tool. The identification of potential computer programmers using personality trait factors does not seem to be the best approach without a code level measurement of the quality of programs. Hence the need to evolve a metric tool which measures both personality traits of programmers and code level qu...

  18. Decoding Generalized Concatenated Codes Using Interleaved Reed-Solomon Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Senger, Christian; Bossert, Martin; Zyablov, Victor

    2008-01-01

    Generalized Concatenated codes are a code construction consisting of a number of outer codes whose code symbols are protected by an inner code. As outer codes, we assume the most frequently used Reed-Solomon codes; as inner code, we assume some linear block code which can be decoded up to half its minimum distance. Decoding up to half the minimum distance of Generalized Concatenated codes is classically achieved by the Blokh-Zyablov-Dumer algorithm, which iteratively decodes by first using the inner decoder to get an estimate of the outer code words and then using an outer error/erasure decoder with a varying number of erasures determined by a set of pre-calculated thresholds. In this paper, a modified version of the Blokh-Zyablov-Dumer algorithm is proposed, which exploits the fact that a number of outer Reed-Solomon codes with average minimum distance d can be grouped into one single Interleaved Reed-Solomon code which can be decoded beyond d/2. This allows to skip a number of decoding iterations on the one...

  19. CTI Correction Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Richard; Stoughton, Chris; Leauthaud, Alexie; Rhodes, Jason; Koekemoer, Anton; Ellis, Richard; Shaghoulian, Edgar

    2013-07-01

    Charge Transfer Inefficiency (CTI) due to radiation damage above the Earth's atmosphere creates spurious trailing in images from Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) imaging detectors. Radiation damage also creates unrelated warm pixels, which can be used to measure CTI. This code provides pixel-based correction for CTI and has proven effective in Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys raw images, successfully reducing the CTI trails by a factor of ~30 everywhere in the CCD and at all flux levels. The core is written in java for speed, and a front-end user interface is provided in IDL. The code operates on raw data by returning individual electrons to pixels from which they were unintentionally dragged during readout. Correction takes about 25 minutes per ACS exposure, but is trivially parallelisable to multiple processors.

  20. The NIMROD Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnack, D. D.; Glasser, A. H.

    1996-11-01

    NIMROD is a new code system that is being developed for the analysis of modern fusion experiments. It is being designed from the beginning to make the maximum use of massively parallel computer architectures and computer graphics. The NIMROD physics kernel solves the three-dimensional, time-dependent two-fluid equations with neo-classical effects in toroidal geometry of arbitrary poloidal cross section. The NIMROD system also includes a pre-processor, a grid generator, and a post processor. User interaction with NIMROD is facilitated by a modern graphical user interface (GUI). The NIMROD project is using Quality Function Deployment (QFD) team management techniques to minimize re-engineering and reduce code development time. This paper gives an overview of the NIMROD project. Operation of the GUI is demonstrated, and the first results from the physics kernel are given.

  1. Sinusoidal transform coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcaulay, Robert J.; Quatieri, Thomas F.

    1988-01-01

    It has been shown that an analysis/synthesis system based on a sinusoidal representation of speech leads to synthetic speech that is essentially perceptually indistinguishable from the original. Strategies for coding the amplitudes, frequencies and phases of the sine waves have been developed that have led to a multirate coder operating at rates from 2400 to 9600 bps. The encoded speech is highly intelligible at all rates with a uniformly improving quality as the data rate is increased. A real-time fixed-point implementation has been developed using two ADSP2100 DSP chips. The methods used for coding and quantizing the sine-wave parameters for operation at the various frame rates are described.

  2. Epetra developers coding guidelines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heroux, Michael Allen; Sexton, Paul Michael

    2003-12-01

    Epetra is a package of classes for the construction and use of serial and distributed parallel linear algebra objects. It is one of the base packages in Trilinos. This document describes guidelines for Epetra coding style. The issues discussed here go beyond correct C++ syntax to address issues that make code more readable and self-consistent. The guidelines presented here are intended to aid current and future development of Epetra specifically. They reflect design decisions that were made in the early development stages of Epetra. Some of the guidelines are contrary to more commonly used conventions, but we choose to continue these practices for the purposes of self-consistency. These guidelines are intended to be complimentary to policies established in the Trilinos Developers Guide.

  3. Confocal coded aperture imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, Jr., Kenneth William (Harriman, TN); Thomas, Jr., Clarence E. (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A method for imaging a target volume comprises the steps of: radiating a small bandwidth of energy toward the target volume; focusing the small bandwidth of energy into a beam; moving the target volume through a plurality of positions within the focused beam; collecting a beam of energy scattered from the target volume with a non-diffractive confocal coded aperture; generating a shadow image of said aperture from every point source of radiation in the target volume; and, reconstructing the shadow image into a 3-dimensional image of the every point source by mathematically correlating the shadow image with a digital or analog version of the coded aperture. The method can comprise the step of collecting the beam of energy scattered from the target volume with a Fresnel zone plate.

  4. Code of Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Code of Practice introduces accepted safety procedures associated with the use of alpha, beta, gamma and X-radiation in secondary schools (pupils aged 12 to 18) in Ireland, and summarises good practice and procedures as they apply to radiation protection. Typical dose rates at various distances from sealed sources are quoted, and simplified equations are used to demonstrate dose and shielding calculations. The regulatory aspects of radiation protection are outlined, and references to statutory documents are given

  5. MELCOR computer code manuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. MELCOR is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission as a second-generation plant risk assessment tool and the successor to the Source Term Code Package. A broad spectrum of severe accident phenomena in both boiling and pressurized water reactors is treated in MELCOR in a unified framework. These include: thermal-hydraulic response in the reactor coolant system, reactor cavity, containment, and confinement buildings; core heatup, degradation, and relocation; core-concrete attack; hydrogen production, transport, and combustion; fission product release and transport; and the impact of engineered safety features on thermal-hydraulic and radionuclide behavior. Current uses of MELCOR include estimation of severe accident source terms and their sensitivities and uncertainties in a variety of applications. This publication of the MELCOR computer code manuals corresponds to MELCOR 1.8.3, released to users in August, 1994. Volume 1 contains a primer that describes MELCOR's phenomenological scope, organization (by package), and documentation. The remainder of Volume 1 contains the MELCOR Users Guides, which provide the input instructions and guidelines for each package. Volume 2 contains the MELCOR Reference Manuals, which describe the phenomenological models that have been implemented in each package

  6. MELCOR computer code manuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, R.M.; Cole, R.K. Jr.; Smith, R.C.; Stuart, D.S.; Thompson, S.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hodge, S.A.; Hyman, C.R.; Sanders, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. MELCOR is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission as a second-generation plant risk assessment tool and the successor to the Source Term Code Package. A broad spectrum of severe accident phenomena in both boiling and pressurized water reactors is treated in MELCOR in a unified framework. These include: thermal-hydraulic response in the reactor coolant system, reactor cavity, containment, and confinement buildings; core heatup, degradation, and relocation; core-concrete attack; hydrogen production, transport, and combustion; fission product release and transport; and the impact of engineered safety features on thermal-hydraulic and radionuclide behavior. Current uses of MELCOR include estimation of severe accident source terms and their sensitivities and uncertainties in a variety of applications. This publication of the MELCOR computer code manuals corresponds to MELCOR 1.8.3, released to users in August, 1994. Volume 1 contains a primer that describes MELCOR`s phenomenological scope, organization (by package), and documentation. The remainder of Volume 1 contains the MELCOR Users Guides, which provide the input instructions and guidelines for each package. Volume 2 contains the MELCOR Reference Manuals, which describe the phenomenological models that have been implemented in each package.

  7. Identification of Genes Coding for Exported Proteins of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans

    OpenAIRE

    Mintz, Keith P.; Fives-Taylor, Paula M.

    1999-01-01

    Random fusions of genomic DNA fragments to a partial gene encoding a signal sequence-deficient bacterial alkaline phosphatase were utilized to screen for exported proteins of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in Escherichia coli. Twenty-four PhoA+ clones were isolated and sequenced. Membrane localization signals in the form of signal sequences were deduced from most of these sequences. Several of the deduced amino acid sequences were found to be homologous to known exported or membrane-ass...

  8. Structural coding versus free-energy predictive coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Helm, Peter A

    2016-06-01

    Focusing on visual perceptual organization, this article contrasts the free-energy (FE) version of predictive coding (a recent Bayesian approach) to structural coding (a long-standing representational approach). Both use free-energy minimization as metaphor for processing in the brain, but their formal elaborations of this metaphor are fundamentally different. FE predictive coding formalizes it by minimization of prediction errors, whereas structural coding formalizes it by minimization of the descriptive complexity of predictions. Here, both sides are evaluated. A conclusion regarding competence is that FE predictive coding uses a powerful modeling technique, but that structural coding has more explanatory power. A conclusion regarding performance is that FE predictive coding-though more detailed in its account of neurophysiological data-provides a less compelling cognitive architecture than that of structural coding, which, for instance, supplies formal support for the computationally powerful role it attributes to neuronal synchronization. PMID:26407895

  9. Hierarchical Character-Word Models for Language Identification

    OpenAIRE

    Jaech, Aaron; Mulcaire, George; Hathi, Shobhit; Ostendorf, Mari; Smith, Noah A.

    2016-01-01

    Social media messages' brevity and unconventional spelling pose a challenge to language identification. We introduce a hierarchical model that learns character and contextualized word-level representations for language identification. Our method performs well against strong base- lines, and can also reveal code-switching.

  10. Decoding of concatenated codes with interleaved outer codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Thommesen, Christian; Høholdt, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Recently Bleichenbacher et al. proposed a decoding algorithm for interleaved Reed/Solomon codes, which allows close to errors to be corrected in many cases. We discuss the application of this decoding algorithm to concatenated codes. (NK) N-K......Recently Bleichenbacher et al. proposed a decoding algorithm for interleaved Reed/Solomon codes, which allows close to errors to be corrected in many cases. We discuss the application of this decoding algorithm to concatenated codes. (NK) N-K...

  11. Coding Opportunity Densification Strategies for Instantly Decodable Network Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Sorour, Sameh; Valaee, Shahrokh

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to identify the strategies that can maximize and monotonically increase the density of the coding opportunities in instantly decodable network coding (IDNC).Using the well-known graph representation of IDNC, first derive an expression for the exact evolution of the edge set size after the transmission of any arbitrary coded packet. From the derived expressions, we show that sending commonly wanted packets for all the receivers can maximize the number of coding opportunit...

  12. TASS code topical report. V.1 TASS code technical manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TASS 1.0 code has been developed at KAERI for the initial and reload non-LOCA safety analysis for the operating PWRs as well as the PWRs under construction in Korea. TASS code will replace various vendor's non-LOCA safety analysis codes currently used for the Westinghouse and ABB-CE type PWRs in Korea. This can be achieved through TASS code input modifications specific to each reactor type. The TASS code can be run interactively through the keyboard operation. A simimodular configuration used in developing the TASS code enables the user easily implement new models. TASS code has been programmed using FORTRAN77 which makes it easy to install and port for different computer environments. The TASS code can be utilized for the steady state simulation as well as the non-LOCA transient simulations such as power excursions, reactor coolant pump trips, load rejections, loss of feedwater, steam line breaks, steam generator tube ruptures, rod withdrawal and drop, and anticipated transients without scram (ATWS). The malfunctions of the control systems, components, operator actions and the transients caused by the malfunctions can be easily simulated using the TASS code. This technical report describes the TASS 1.0 code models including reactor thermal hydraulic, reactor core and control models. This TASS code models including reactor thermal hydraulic, reactor core and control models. This TASS code technical manual has been prepared as a part of the TASS code manual which includes TASS code user's manual and TASS code validation report, and will be submitted to the regulatory body as a TASS code topical report for a licensing non-LOCA safety analysis for the Westinghouse and ABB-CE type PWRs operating and under construction in Korea. (author). 42 refs., 29 tabs., 32 figs

  13. Containment Code Validation Matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) formed the CCVM (Containment Code Validation Matrix) task group in 2002. The objective of this group was to define a basic set of available experiments for code validation, covering the range of containment (ex-vessel) phenomena expected in the course of light and heavy water reactor design basis accidents and beyond design basis accidents/severe accidents. It was to consider phenomena relevant to pressurised heavy water reactor (PHWR), pressurised water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) designs of Western origin as well as of Eastern European VVER types. This work would complement the two existing CSNI validation matrices for thermal hydraulic code validation (NEA/CSNI/R(1993)14) and In-vessel core degradation (NEA/CSNI/R(2001)21). The report initially provides a brief overview of the main features of a PWR, BWR, CANDU and VVER reactors. It also provides an overview of the ex-vessel corium retention (core catcher). It then provides a general overview of the accident progression for light water and heavy water reactors. The main focus is to capture most of the phenomena and safety systems employed in these reactor types and to highlight the differences. This CCVM contains a description of 127 phenomena, broken down into 6 categories: - Containment Thermal-hydraulics Phenomena; - Hydrogen Behaviour (Combustion, Mitigation and Generation) Phenomena; - Aerosol and Fission Product Behaviour Phenomena; - Iodine Chemistry Phenomena; - Core Melt Distribution and Behaviour in Containment Phenomena; - Systems Phenomena. A synopsis is provided for each phenomenon, including a description, references for further information, significance for DBA and SA/BDBA and a list of experiments that may be used for code validation. The report identified 213 experiments, broken down into the same six categories (as done for the phenomena). An experiment synopsis is provided for each test. Along with a test description

  14. Combinatorial neural codes from a mathematical coding theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curto, Carina; Itskov, Vladimir; Morrison, Katherine; Roth, Zachary; Walker, Judy L

    2013-07-01

    Shannon's seminal 1948 work gave rise to two distinct areas of research: information theory and mathematical coding theory. While information theory has had a strong influence on theoretical neuroscience, ideas from mathematical coding theory have received considerably less attention. Here we take a new look at combinatorial neural codes from a mathematical coding theory perspective, examining the error correction capabilities of familiar receptive field codes (RF codes). We find, perhaps surprisingly, that the high levels of redundancy present in these codes do not support accurate error correction, although the error-correcting performance of receptive field codes catches up to that of random comparison codes when a small tolerance to error is introduced. However, receptive field codes are good at reflecting distances between represented stimuli, while the random comparison codes are not. We suggest that a compromise in error-correcting capability may be a necessary price to pay for a neural code whose structure serves not only error correction, but must also reflect relationships between stimuli. PMID:23724797

  15. High Energy Transport Code HETC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physics contained in the High Energy Transport Code (HETC), in particular the collision models, are discussed. An application using HETC as part of the CALOR code system is also given. 19 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  16. The Tap code - a code similar to Morse code for communication by tapping

    OpenAIRE

    Rafler, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    A code is presented for fast, easy and efficient communication over channels that allow only two signal types: a single sound (e.g. a knock), or no sound (i.e. silence). This is a true binary code while Morse code is a ternary code and does not work in such situations. Thus the presented code is more universal than Morse and can be used in much more situations. Additionally it is very tolerant to variations in signal strength or duration. The paper contains various ways in which the code can ...

  17. Genotypic Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    In comparison with traditional, phenotype-based procedures for detection and identification of foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, molecular techniques are superior in terms of sensitivity, specificity and speed. This chapter provides a comprehensive review on the use of molecular methods for...

  18. Decoding Xing-Ling codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Refslund

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes an efficient decoding method for a recent construction of good linear codes as well as an extension to the construction. Furthermore, asymptotic properties and list decoding of the codes are discussed.......This paper describes an efficient decoding method for a recent construction of good linear codes as well as an extension to the construction. Furthermore, asymptotic properties and list decoding of the codes are discussed....

  19. Multiple LDPC decoding for distributed source coding and video coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Luong, Huynh Van; Huang, Xin

    2011-01-01

    Distributed source coding (DSC) is a coding paradigm for systems which fully or partly exploit the source statistics at the decoder to reduce the computational burden at the encoder. Distributed video coding (DVC) is one example. This paper considers the use of Low Density Parity Check Accumulate...... (LDPCA) codes in a DSC scheme with feed-back. To improve the LDPC coding performance in the context of DSC and DVC, while retaining short encoder blocks, this paper proposes multiple parallel LDPC decoding. The proposed scheme passes soft information between decoders to enhance performance. Experimental...

  20. Ethical Codes in the Professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeiser, Cynthia B.

    1992-01-01

    Whether the measurement profession should consider developing and adopting a code of professional conduct is explored after a brief review of existing references to standards of conduct and a review of other professional codes. Issues include the need for a code of ethics, its usefulness, and its enforcement. (SLD)

  1. Order functions and evaluation codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Pellikaan, Ruud; van Lint, Jack

    1997-01-01

    Based on the notion of an order function we construct and determine the parameters of a class of error-correcting evaluation codes. This class includes the one-point algebraic geometry codes as wella s the generalized Reed-Muller codes and the parameters are detremined without using the heavy mac...

  2. Coding Issues in Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Alireza

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses grounded theory as one of the qualitative research designs. It describes how grounded theory generates from data. Three phases of grounded theory--open coding, axial coding, and selective coding--are discussed, along with some of the issues which are the source of debate among grounded theorists, especially between its…

  3. Direct construction of code loops

    OpenAIRE

    Nagy, Gabor P.

    2004-01-01

    Code loops were introduced by R. L. Griess. R.L. Griess and T. Hsu gave methods to construct the corresponding code loop from any given doubly even binary code; both these methods used some kind of induction. In this paper, we present a global construction of the loop, where we apply the correspondance between the concepts of Moufang loops and groups with triality.

  4. From Skew-Cyclic Codes to Asymmetric Quantum Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Ezerman, Martianus Frederic; Sole, Patrick; Yemen, Olfa

    2010-01-01

    We introduce an additive but not $\\F_{4}$-linear map $S$ from $\\F_{4}^{n}$ to $\\F_{4}^{2n}$ and exhibit some of its interesting structural properties. If $C$ is a linear $[n,k,d]_4$-code, then $S(C)$ is an additive $(2n,2^{2k},2d)_4$-code. If $C$ is an additive cyclic code then $S(C)$ is an additive quasi-cyclic code of index $2$. Moreover, if $C$ is a module $\\theta$-cyclic code, a recently introduced type of code which will be explained below, then $S(C)$ is equivalent to an additive cyclic code if $n$ is odd and to an additive quasi-cyclic code of index $2$ if $n$ is even. Given any $(n,M,d)_4$-code $C$, the code $S(C)$ is self-orthogonal under the trace Hermitian inner product. Since the mapping $S$ preserves nestedness, it can be used as a tool in constructing additive asymmetric quantum codes.

  5. TWEED Code Book

    OpenAIRE

    Engene, Jan Oskar

    2006-01-01

    The TWEED data set contains information on more than 11.000 events related to internal (or domestic) terrorism in 18 West European countries for the 1950 through 2004 period. The code book describes the structure of the data set, the countries covered, and the variables included and functions as a user’s guide to the data set. The data set is available at: http://www.uib.no/people/sspje/tweed.htm The data set Terrorism in Western Europe: Events Data, TWEED, contains information on events r...

  6. Code Generation with Templates

    CERN Document Server

    Arnoldus, Jeroen; Serebrenik, A

    2012-01-01

    Templates are used to generate all kinds of text, including computer code. The last decade, the use of templates gained a lot of popularity due to the increase of dynamic web applications. Templates are a tool for programmers, and implementations of template engines are most times based on practical experience rather than based on a theoretical background. This book reveals the mathematical background of templates and shows interesting findings for improving the practical use of templates. First, a framework to determine the necessary computational power for the template metalanguage is presen

  7. Correct Code Containing Containers

    OpenAIRE

    Dross, Claire; Filliâtre, Jean-Christophe; Moy, Yannick

    2011-01-01

    For critical software development, containers such as lists, vectors, sets or maps are an attractive alternative to ad-hoc data structures based on pointers. As standards like DO-178C put formal verification and testing on an equal footing, it is important to give users the ability to apply both to the verification of code using containers. In this paper, we present a definition of containers whose aim is to facilitate their use in certified software, using modern proof technology and novel s...

  8. Physical layer network coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukui, Hironori; Popovski, Petar; Yomo, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Physical layer network coding (PLNC) has been proposed to improve throughput of the two-way relay channel, where two nodes communicate with each other, being assisted by a relay node. Most of the works related to PLNC are focused on a simple three-node model and they do not take into account...... the impact of interference from other transmissions. Unlike these conventional studies, in this paper, we apply PLNC to a large-scale cellular network in the presence of intercell interference (ICI). In cellular networks, a terminal and a Base Station (BS) have different transmission power, which causes...

  9. Cinder begin creative coding

    CERN Document Server

    Rijnieks, Krisjanis

    2013-01-01

    Presented in an easy to follow, tutorial-style format, this book will lead you step-by-step through the multi-faceted uses of Cinder.""Cinder: Begin Creative Coding"" is for people who already have experience in programming. It can serve as a transition from a previous background in Processing, Java in general, JavaScript, openFrameworks, C++ in general or ActionScript to the framework covered in this book, namely Cinder. If you like quick and easy to follow tutorials that will let yousee progress in less than an hour - this book is for you. If you are searching for a book that will explain al

  10. New quantum codes constructed from quaternary BCH codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gen; Li, Ruihu; Guo, Luobin; Ma, Yuena

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we firstly study construction of new quantum error-correcting codes (QECCs) from three classes of quaternary imprimitive BCH codes. As a result, the improved maximal designed distance of these narrow-sense imprimitive Hermitian dual-containing quaternary BCH codes are determined to be much larger than the result given according to Aly et al. (IEEE Trans Inf Theory 53:1183-1188, 2007) for each different code length. Thus, families of new QECCs are newly obtained, and the constructed QECCs have larger distance than those in the previous literature. Secondly, we apply a combinatorial construction to the imprimitive BCH codes with their corresponding primitive counterpart and construct many new linear quantum codes with good parameters, some of which have parameters exceeding the finite Gilbert-Varshamov bound for linear quantum codes.

  11. ON CLASSICAL BCH CODES AND QUANTUM BCH CODES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Yajie; Ma Zhi; Zhang Chunyuan

    2009-01-01

    It is a regular way of constructing quantum error-correcting codes via codes with self-orthogonal property, and whether a classical Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) code is self-orthogonal can be determined by its designed distance. In this paper, we give the sufficient and necessary condition for arbitrary classical BCH codes with self-orthogonal property through algorithms. We also give a better upper bound of the designed distance of a classical narrow-sense BCH code which contains its Euclidean dual. Besides these, we also give one algorithm to compute the dimension of these codes. The complexity of all algorithms is analyzed. Then the results can be applied to construct a series of quantum BCH codes via the famous CSS constructions.

  12. Security Embedding Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Ly, Hung D; Blankenship, Yufei

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of simultaneously communicating two messages, a high-security message and a low-security message, to a legitimate receiver, referred to as the security embedding problem. An information-theoretic formulation of the problem is presented. A coding scheme that combines rate splitting, superposition coding, nested binning and channel prefixing is considered and is shown to achieve the secrecy capacity region of the channel in several scenarios. Specifying these results to both scalar and independent parallel Gaussian channels (under an average individual per-subchannel power constraint), it is shown that the high-security message can be embedded into the low-security message at full rate (as if the low-security message does not exist) without incurring any loss on the overall rate of communication (as if both messages are low-security messages). Extensions to the wiretap channel II setting of Ozarow and Wyner are also considered, where it is shown that "perfect" security embedding...

  13. Supervised Transfer Sparse Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Shedivat, Maruan

    2014-07-27

    A combination of the sparse coding and transfer learn- ing techniques was shown to be accurate and robust in classification tasks where training and testing objects have a shared feature space but are sampled from differ- ent underlying distributions, i.e., belong to different do- mains. The key assumption in such case is that in spite of the domain disparity, samples from different domains share some common hidden factors. Previous methods often assumed that all the objects in the target domain are unlabeled, and thus the training set solely comprised objects from the source domain. However, in real world applications, the target domain often has some labeled objects, or one can always manually label a small num- ber of them. In this paper, we explore such possibil- ity and show how a small number of labeled data in the target domain can significantly leverage classifica- tion accuracy of the state-of-the-art transfer sparse cod- ing methods. We further propose a unified framework named supervised transfer sparse coding (STSC) which simultaneously optimizes sparse representation, domain transfer and classification. Experimental results on three applications demonstrate that a little manual labeling and then learning the model in a supervised fashion can significantly improve classification accuracy.

  14. Sub-Transport Layer Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas; Krigslund, Jeppe; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani;

    2014-01-01

    oblivious to the congestion control algorithms of the utilised transport layer protocol. Although our coding shim is indifferent towards the transport layer protocol, we focus on the performance of TCP when ran on top of our proposed coding mechanism due to its widespread use. The coding shim provides gains......Packet losses in wireless networks dramatically curbs the performance of TCP. This paper introduces a simple coding shim that aids IP-layer traffic in lossy environments while being transparent to transport layer protocols. The proposed coding approach enables erasure correction while being...

  15. The Art of Readable Code

    CERN Document Server

    Boswell, Dustin

    2011-01-01

    As programmers, we've all seen source code that's so ugly and buggy it makes our brain ache. Over the past five years, authors Dustin Boswell and Trevor Foucher have analyzed hundreds of examples of "bad code" (much of it their own) to determine why they're bad and how they could be improved. Their conclusion? You need to write code that minimizes the time it would take someone else to understand it-even if that someone else is you. This book focuses on basic principles and practical techniques you can apply every time you write code. Using easy-to-digest code examples from different languag

  16. Three Paradigms for Mixing Coding and Games: Coding in a Game, Coding as a Game, and Coding for a Game

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Games for teaching coding have been an educational holy grail since at least the early 1980s. Yet for decades, with games more popular than ever and with the need to teach kids coding having been well-recognized, no blockbuster coding games have arisen (see Chapter 2). Over the years, the research community has made various games for teaching computer science: a survey made by shows that most do not teach coding, and of the ones that do teach coding, most are research prototypes (not produc...

  17. On constructing disjoint linear codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Weiguo; CAI Mian; XIAO Guozhen

    2007-01-01

    To produce a highly nonlinear resilient function,the disjoint linear codes were originally proposed by Johansson and Pasalic in IEEE Trans.Inform.Theory,2003,49(2):494-501.In this paper,an effective method for finding a set of such disjoint linear codes is presented.When n≥2k,we can find a set of[n,k] disjoint linear codes with joint linear codes exists with cardinality at least 2.We also describe a result on constructing a set of [n,k] disjoint linear codes with minimum distance at least some fixed positive integer.

  18. An algebraic approach to graph codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinero, Fernando

    related to the iterative encoding of graph codes with MDS component code. The last chapter deals with affine Grassmann codes and Grassmann codes. We begin with some previously known codes and prove that they are also Tanner codes of the incidence graph of the point–line partial geometry......This thesis consists of six chapters. The first chapter, contains a short introduction to coding theory in which we explain the coding theory concepts we use. In the second chapter, we present the required theory for evaluation codes and also give an example of some fundamental codes in coding...... theory as evaluation codes. Chapter three consists of the introduction to graph based codes, such as Tanner codes and graph codes. In Chapter four, we compute the dimension of some graph based codes with a result combining graph based codes and subfield subcodes. Moreover, some codes in chapter four...

  19. Allele coding in genomic evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Standen, Ismo; Christensen, Ole Fredslund

    2011-01-01

    coding methods imply different models. Finally, allele coding affects the mixing of Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms, with the centered coding being the best. \\paragraph*{Conclusions:} Different allele coding methods lead to the same inference in the marker-based and equivalent models when a fixed...... effects. In the second approach, genomic breeding values are estimated directly using an equivalent model with a genomic relationship matrix. Allele coding is the method chosen to assign values to the regression coefficients in the statistical model. A common allele coding is zero for the homozygous...... genotype of the first allele, one for the heterozygote, and two for the homozygous genotype for the other allele. Another common allele coding changes these regression coefficients by subtracting a value from each marker such that the mean of regression coefficients is zero within each marker. We call...

  20. Practices in Code Discoverability: Astrophysics Source Code Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, A.; Teuben, P.; Nemiroff, R. J.; Shamir, L.

    2012-09-01

    Here we describe the Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL), which takes an active approach to sharing astrophysics source code. ASCL's editor seeks out both new and old peer-reviewed papers that describe methods or experiments that involve the development or use of source code, and adds entries for the found codes to the library. This approach ensures that source codes are added without requiring authors to actively submit them, resulting in a comprehensive listing that covers a significant number of the astrophysics source codes used in peer-reviewed studies. The ASCL now has over 340 codes in it and continues to grow. In 2011, the ASCL has on average added 19 codes per month. An advisory committee has been established to provide input and guide the development and expansion of the new site, and a marketing plan has been developed and is being executed. All ASCL source codes have been used to generate results published in or submitted to a refereed journal and are freely available either via a download site or from an identified source. This paper provides the history and description of the ASCL. It lists the requirements for including codes, examines the advantages of the ASCL, and outlines some of its future plans.

  1. Making your code citable with the Astrophysics Source Code Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Alice; DuPrie, Kimberly; Schmidt, Judy; Berriman, G. Bruce; Hanisch, Robert J.; Mink, Jessica D.; Nemiroff, Robert J.; Shamir, Lior; Shortridge, Keith; Taylor, Mark B.; Teuben, Peter J.; Wallin, John F.

    2016-01-01

    The Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL, ascl.net) is a free online registry of codes used in astronomy research. With nearly 1,200 codes, it is the largest indexed resource for astronomy codes in existence. Established in 1999, it offers software authors a path to citation of their research codes even without publication of a paper describing the software, and offers scientists a way to find codes used in refereed publications, thus improving the transparency of the research. It also provides a method to quantify the impact of source codes in a fashion similar to the science metrics of journal articles. Citations using ASCL IDs are accepted by major astronomy journals and if formatted properly are tracked by ADS and other indexing services. The number of citations to ASCL entries increased sharply from 110 citations in January 2014 to 456 citations in September 2015. The percentage of code entries in ASCL that were cited at least once rose from 7.5% in January 2014 to 17.4% in September 2015. The ASCL's mid-2014 infrastructure upgrade added an easy entry submission form, more flexible browsing, search capabilities, and an RSS feeder for updates. A Changes/Additions form added this past fall lets authors submit links for papers that use their codes for addition to the ASCL entry even if those papers don't formally cite the codes, thus increasing the transparency of that research and capturing the value of their software to the community.

  2. Finite-Length Analysis of BATS Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Shenghao; Ng, Tsz-Ching; Yeung, Raymond W.

    2013-01-01

    BATS codes were proposed for communication through networks with packet loss. A BATS code consists of an outer code and an inner code. The outer code is a matrix generation of a fountain code, which works with the inner code that comprises random linear coding at the intermediate network nodes. In this paper, the performance of finite-length BATS codes is analyzed with respect to both belief propagation (BP) decoding and inactivation decoding. Our results enable us to evaluate efficiently the...

  3. Les codes correcteurs

    OpenAIRE

    Rigo, Michel

    2009-01-01

    Qu'on le veuille ou non, nous vivons dans un monde où les informations et les moyens de communication sont omniprésents. Les exemples où se mêlent informatique et télécommunications sont nombreux. Que ce soit l'Internet, la musique achetée en ligne ou gravée sur CD, les baladeurs de type iPod et autres appareils portables, les supports mémoire de tout type, la photographie numérique, la présence d'ordinateurs de bord sophistiqués dans nos voitures, etc. Sans code correcteur, le CD (implémenta...

  4. Homomorphic encryption from codes

    CERN Document Server

    Bogdanov, Andrej

    2011-01-01

    We propose a new homomorphic encryption scheme based on the hardness of decoding under independent random noise from certain affine families of codes. Unlike in previous lattice-based homomorphic encryption schemes, where the message is hidden in the noisy part of the ciphertext, our scheme carries the message in the affine part of the transformation and applies noise only to achieve security. Our scheme can tolerate noise of arbitrary magnitude, as long as the noise vector has sufficiently small hamming weight (and its entries are independent). Our design achieves "proto-homomorphic" properties in an elementary manner: message addition and multiplication are emulated by pointwise addition and multiplication of the ciphertext vectors. Moreover, the extremely simple nature of our decryption makes the scheme easily amenable to bootstrapping. However, some complications are caused by the inherent presence of noticeable encryption error. Our main technical contribution is the development of two new techniques for...

  5. Codes of Good Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Sørensen, Ditte-Lene

    2013-01-01

    Good governance is a broad concept used by many international organizations to spell out how states or countries should be governed. Definitions vary, but there is a clear core of common public values, such as transparency, accountability, effectiveness, and the rule of law. It is quite likely...... as conceptions of good governance from other international organizations. While values converge, they are balanced and communicated differently, and seem to some extent to be translated into the national cultures. The set of global public values derived from this analysis include public interest, regime dignity......, transparency, neutrality, impartiality, effectiveness, accountability, and legality. The normative context of public administration, as expressed in codes, seems to ignore the New Public Management and Reinventing Government reform movements....

  6. Crystalizing the genetic code

    CERN Document Server

    Frappat, L; Sorba, Paul

    2000-01-01

    New developments are presented in the framework of the model introduced by the authors in refs. [1,2] and in which nucleotides as well as codons are classified in crystal bases of the quantum group U_q(sl(2)+sl(2)) in the limit q -> 0. An operator which gives the correspondence between the amino-acids and the codons is now obtained for any known genetic code. The free energy released by base pairing of dinucleotides as well as the relative hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity of the dinucleosides are also computed. For the vertebrate series, a universal behaviour in the ratios of codon usage frequencies is put in evidence and is shown to fit nicely in our model. Then a first attempt to represent the mutations relative to the deletion of a pyrimidine by action of a suitable crystal spinor operator is proposed. Finally recent theoretical descriptions are reviewed and compared with our model.

  7. Selection of Code and Interleaver for Turbo Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Dahl

    1998-01-01

    The selection of component codes for turbo coding has often been based on the performance at high SNR's. However, we will argue that the selection mainly should be based on the performance at low SNR's, i.e. the convergence properties. Further, we will present a way to construct interleavers...... that significantly improve the performance of the turbo coding scheme at high SNR's, i.e. lowers the error floor...

  8. Bit-Interleaved Coded Multiple Beamforming with Perfect Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Boyu

    2010-01-01

    When the channel state information is known by the transmitter as well as the receiver, beamforming techniques that employ Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) are commonly used in Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems. Without channel coding, when a single symbol is transmitted, these systems achieve the full diversity order. Whereas, this property is lost when multiple symbols are simultaneously transmitted. Full diversity can be restored when channel coding is added, as long as the code rate Rc and the number of employed subchannels S satisfy the condition RcS =< 1. Moreover, by adding a proper constellation precoder, full diversity can be achieved for both uncoded and coded SVD systems, e.g., Fully Precoded Multiple Beamforming (FPMB) and Bit-Interleaved Coded Multiple Beamforming with Full Precoding (BICMB-FP). Perfect Space-Time Block Code (PSTBC) is a full-rate full-diversity space-time code, which achieves maximum coding gain for MIMO systems. Previously, Perfect Coded Multiple Beamforming (P...

  9. Practices in Code Discoverability: Astrophysics Source Code Library

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Alice; Nemiroff, Robert J; Shamir, Lior

    2012-01-01

    Here we describe the Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL), which takes an active approach to sharing astrophysical source code. ASCL's editor seeks out both new and old peer-reviewed papers that describe methods or experiments that involve the development or use of source code, and adds entries for the found codes to the library. This approach ensures that source codes are added without requiring authors to actively submit them, resulting in a comprehensive listing that covers a significant number of the astrophysics source codes used in peer-reviewed studies. The ASCL now has over 340 codes in it and continues to grow. In 2011, the ASCL (http://ascl.net) has on average added 19 new codes per month. An advisory committee has been established to provide input and guide the development and expansion of the new site, and a marketing plan has been developed and is being executed. All ASCL source codes have been used to generate results published in or submitted to a refereed journal and are freely available ei...

  10. CODING IN THE MAMMALIAN GUSTATORY SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleton, Alan; Accolla, Riccardo; Simon, Sidney A.

    2010-01-01

    To understand gustatory physiology and associated dysfunctions it is important to know how stimuli placed in the mouth are encoded both in the periphery and in taste-related brain centres. The identification of distinct taste receptors, together with electrophysiological recordings and behavioural assessments in response to taste stimuli, suggest that information about distinct taste modalities (e.g., sweet versus bitter) are transmitted from the periphery to the brain via segregated pathways. In contrast, gustatory neurons throughout the brain are more broadly tuned, indicating that ensembles of neurons encode taste qualities. Recent evidence reviewed here suggests that the coding of gustatory stimuli is not immutable, but is dependant on a variety of factors including appetite regulating molecules and associative learning. PMID:20493563

  11. Digital Image Analysis for Detechip Code Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Lyon

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available DETECHIP® is a molecular sensing array used for identification of a large variety of substances. Previous methodology for the analysis of DETECHIP® used human vision to distinguish color changes induced by the presence of the analyte of interest. This paper describes several analysis techniques using digital images of DETECHIP®. Both a digital camera and flatbed desktop photo scanner were used to obtain Jpeg images. Color information within these digital images was obtained through the measurement of redgreen-blue (RGB values using software such as GIMP, Photoshop and ImageJ. Several different techniques were used to evaluate these color changes. It was determined that the flatbed scanner produced in the clearest and more reproducible images. Furthermore, codes obtained using a macro written for use within ImageJ showed improved consistency versus pervious methods.

  12. Digital Image Analysis for Detechip Code Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Lyon

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available DETECHIP® is a molecular sensing array used for identification of a large variety of substances. Previous methodology for the analysis of DETECHIP® used human vision to distinguish color changes induced by the presence of the analyte of interest. This paper describes several analysis techniques using digital images of DETECHIP® . Both a digital camera and flatbed desktop photo scanner were used to obtain Jpeg images. Color information within these digital images was obtained through the measurement of redgreen-blue (RGB values using software such as GIMP, Photoshop and ImageJ. Several different techniques were used to evaluate these color changes. It was determined that the flatbed scanner produced in the clearest and more reproducible images. Furthermore, codes obtained using a macro written for use within ImageJ showed improved consistency versus pervious methods.

  13. Elements of algebraic coding systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso da Rocha, Jr, Valdemar

    2014-01-01

    Elements of Algebraic Coding Systems is an introductory textto algebraic coding theory. In the first chapter, you'll gain insideknowledge of coding fundamentals, which is essential for a deeperunderstanding of state-of-the-art coding systems.This book is a quick reference for those who are unfamiliar withthis topic, as well as for use with specific applications such as cryptographyand communication. Linear error-correcting block codesthrough elementary principles span eleven chapters of the text.Cyclic codes, some finite field algebra, Goppa codes, algebraic decodingalgorithms, and applications in public-key cryptography andsecret-key cryptography are discussed, including problems and solutionsat the end of each chapter. Three appendices cover the Gilbertbound and some related derivations, a derivation of the Mac-Williams' identities based on the probability of undetected error,and two important tools for algebraic decoding-namely, the finitefield Fourier transform and the Euclidean algorithm for polynomials.

  14. QR code for medical information uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontelo, Paul; Liu, Fang; Ducut, Erick G

    2008-01-01

    We developed QR code online tools, simulated and tested QR code applications for medical information uses including scanning QR code labels, URLs and authentication. Our results show possible applications for QR code in medicine. PMID:18998785

  15. Low complexity hevc intra coding

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Coll, José Damián

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few decades, much research has focused on the development and optimization of video codecs for media distribution to end-users via the Internet, broadcasts or mobile networks, but also for videoconferencing and for the recording on optical disks for media distribution. Most of the video coding standards for delivery are characterized by using a high efficiency hybrid schema, based on inter-prediction coding for temporal picture decorrelation, and intra-prediction coding for spat...

  16. High performance scalable image coding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gan Tao; He Yanmin; Zhu Weile

    2007-01-01

    A high performance scalable image coding algorithm is proposed. The salient features of this algorithm are the ways to form and locate the significant clusters. Thanks to the list structure, the new coding algorithm achieves fine fractional bit-plane coding with negligible additional complexity. Experiments show that it performs comparably or better than the state-of-the-art coders. Furthermore, the flexible codec supports both quality and resolution scalability, which is very attractive in many network applications.

  17. Numerical Coding of Nominal Data

    OpenAIRE

    Gniazdowski, Zenon; GRABOWSKI Michal

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel approach for coding nominal data is proposed. For the given nominal data, a rank in a form of complex number is assigned. The proposed method does not lose any information about the attribute and brings other properties previously unknown. The approach based on these knew properties can been used for classification. The analyzed example shows that classification with the use of coded nominal data or both numerical as well as coded nominal data is more effective than the...

  18. BILINEAR FORMS AND LINEAR CODES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高莹

    2004-01-01

    Abraham Lempel et al[1] made a connection between linear codes and systems of bilinear forms over finite fields. In this correspondence, a new simple proof of a theorem in [1] is presented; in addition, the encoding process and the decoding procedure of RS codes are simplified via circulant matrices. Finally, the results show that the correspondence between bilinear forms and linear codes is not unique.

  19. Prefix Code Translation by Mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋贤春

    1994-01-01

    This paper introduces a new way of prefix code translation.It helps to finish the whole translation by mapping once (only one comparison instruction is needed for getting the length of prefix code),and returns the original data and the length of prefix code element.The decoding time is only about four times as many as the time accessing original data directly.

  20. Generalized PCM coding of Images

    OpenAIRE

    Prades Nebot, José; MORBEE, MARLEEN; DELP, EDWARD

    2012-01-01

    Pulse-code modulation (PCM) with embedded quantization allows the rate of the PCM bitstream to be reduced by simply removing a fixed number of least significant bits from each codeword. Although this source coding technique is extremely simple, it has poor coding efficiency. In this paper, we present a generalized PCM (GPCM) algorithm for images that simply removes bits from each codeword. In contrast to PCM, however, the number and the specific bits that a GPCM encoder removes in each cod...