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Sample records for beneficiary identification code

  1. ACE - Manufacturer Identification Code (MID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The ACE Manufacturer Identification Code (MID) application is used to track and control identifications codes for manufacturers. A manufacturer is identified on an...

  2. Error-Detecting Identification Codes for Algebra Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, David C.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses common error-detecting identification codes using linear algebra terminology to provide an interesting application of algebra. Presents examples from the International Standard Book Number, the Universal Product Code, bank identification numbers, and the ZIP code bar code. (YP)

  3. Permanent phonetic identification code for radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatua, R.; Somasundaram, S.; Srivastava, D.N.

    1987-01-01

    This report describes a system of self-checking short and easily memorisable 4-digit 'Permanent Phonetic Radiation Code' (PPRC) using radix 128 for Indians occupationally exposed to radiation, to facilitate entry of all radiation dose data pertaining to an individual in a single record of a file. The logic of PPRC is computer compatible. The necessary computer program has been developed in Health Physics Division for printing the PPRCs in Devanagari script through dot-matrix printers for making it understandable to the majority of the persons concerned. (author)

  4. DNA Bar-Coding for Phytoplasma Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarova, Olga; Contaldo, Nicoletta; Paltrinieri, Samanta

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplasma identi fi cation has proved dif fi cult due to their inability to be maintained in vitro. DNA barcoding is an identi fi cation method based on comparison of a short DNA sequence with known sequences from a database. A DNA barcoding tool has been developed for phytoplasma identi fi cat...... genes, can be used to identify the following phytoplasma groups: 16SrI, 16SrII, 16SrIII, 16SrIV, 16SrV, 16SrVI, 16SrVII, 16SrIX, 16SrX, 16SrXI, 16SrXII, 16SrXV, 16SrXX, 16SrXXI....... cation. While other sequencebased methods may be well adapted to identification of particular strains of phytoplasmas, often they cannot be used for the simultaneous identification of phytoplasmas from different groups. The phytoplasma DNA barcoding protocol in this chapter, based on the tuf and 16SrRNA......Phytoplasma identi fi cation has proved dif fi cult due to their inability to be maintained in vitro. DNA barcoding is an identi fi cation method based on comparison of a short DNA sequence with known sequences from a database. A DNA barcoding tool has been developed for phytoplasma identi fi...

  5. Code for plant identification (KKS) key in PC version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pannenbaecker, K.

    1991-01-01

    The plant identification system (KKS) as a common development of german plant operators, erection firms and also power plant oriented organisations have decisively influenced the technical-organizing activities of planning and erections as operations and maintenance of all kind of power plants. Fundamentals are three key parts, operation, armatures and function keys. Their management and application is executed by a plantidentification-key code in a PC version, which is briefly described in this report. (orig.) [de

  6. Identification of coding and non-coding mutational hotspots in cancer genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piraino, Scott W; Furney, Simon J

    2017-01-05

    The identification of mutations that play a causal role in tumour development, so called "driver" mutations, is of critical importance for understanding how cancers form and how they might be treated. Several large cancer sequencing projects have identified genes that are recurrently mutated in cancer patients, suggesting a role in tumourigenesis. While the landscape of coding drivers has been extensively studied and many of the most prominent driver genes are well characterised, comparatively less is known about the role of mutations in the non-coding regions of the genome in cancer development. The continuing fall in genome sequencing costs has resulted in a concomitant increase in the number of cancer whole genome sequences being produced, facilitating systematic interrogation of both the coding and non-coding regions of cancer genomes. To examine the mutational landscapes of tumour genomes we have developed a novel method to identify mutational hotspots in tumour genomes using both mutational data and information on evolutionary conservation. We have applied our methodology to over 1300 whole cancer genomes and show that it identifies prominent coding and non-coding regions that are known or highly suspected to play a role in cancer. Importantly, we applied our method to the entire genome, rather than relying on predefined annotations (e.g. promoter regions) and we highlight recurrently mutated regions that may have resulted from increased exposure to mutational processes rather than selection, some of which have been identified previously as targets of selection. Finally, we implicate several pan-cancer and cancer-specific candidate non-coding regions, which could be involved in tumourigenesis. We have developed a framework to identify mutational hotspots in cancer genomes, which is applicable to the entire genome. This framework identifies known and novel coding and non-coding mutional hotspots and can be used to differentiate candidate driver regions from

  7. Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Characteristics and Perceptions of the Medicare Population Data from the 2010 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey is a series of source books based on the...

  8. Unique identification code for medical fundus images using blood vessel pattern for tele-ophthalmology applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anushikha; Dutta, Malay Kishore; Sharma, Dilip Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Identification of fundus images during transmission and storage in database for tele-ophthalmology applications is an important issue in modern era. The proposed work presents a novel accurate method for generation of unique identification code for identification of fundus images for tele-ophthalmology applications and storage in databases. Unlike existing methods of steganography and watermarking, this method does not tamper the medical image as nothing is embedded in this approach and there is no loss of medical information. Strategic combination of unique blood vessel pattern and patient ID is considered for generation of unique identification code for the digital fundus images. Segmented blood vessel pattern near the optic disc is strategically combined with patient ID for generation of a unique identification code for the image. The proposed method of medical image identification is tested on the publically available DRIVE and MESSIDOR database of fundus image and results are encouraging. Experimental results indicate the uniqueness of identification code and lossless recovery of patient identity from unique identification code for integrity verification of fundus images. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of ICD Codes Suggestive of Child Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzer, Patricia G.; Slusher, Paula L.; Kruse, Robin L.; Tarleton, Molly M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In order to be reimbursed for the care they provide, hospitals in the United States are required to use a standard system to code all discharge diagnoses: the International Classification of Disease, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9). Although ICD-9 codes specific for child maltreatment exist, they do not identify all…

  10. Enhancing lineup identification accuracy: two codes are better than one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melara, R D; DeWitt-Rickards, T S; O'Brien, T P

    1989-10-01

    Ways of improving identification accuracy were explored by comparing the conventional visual lineup with an auditory/visual lineup, one that paired color photographs with voice recordings. This bimodal lineup necessitated sequential presentation of lineup members; Experiment 1 showed that performance in sequential lineups was better than performance in traditional simultaneous lineups. In Experiments 2A and 2B unimodal and bimodal lineups were compared by using a multiple-lineup paradigm: Ss viewed 3 videotaped episodes depicting standard police procedures and were tested in 4 sequential lineups. Bimodal lineups were more diagnostic than either visual or auditory lineups alone. The bimodal lineup led to a 126% improvement in number of correct identifications over the conventional visual lineup, with no concomitant increase in number of false identifications. These results imply strongly that bimodal procedures should be adopted in real-world lineups. The nature of memorial processes underlying this bimodal advantage is discussed.

  11. Genome-wide identification of coding and non-coding conserved sequence tags in human and mouse genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggi Giorgio P

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The accurate detection of genes and the identification of functional regions is still an open issue in the annotation of genomic sequences. This problem affects new genomes but also those of very well studied organisms such as human and mouse where, despite the great efforts, the inventory of genes and regulatory regions is far from complete. Comparative genomics is an effective approach to address this problem. Unfortunately it is limited by the computational requirements needed to perform genome-wide comparisons and by the problem of discriminating between conserved coding and non-coding sequences. This discrimination is often based (thus dependent on the availability of annotated proteins. Results In this paper we present the results of a comprehensive comparison of human and mouse genomes performed with a new high throughput grid-based system which allows the rapid detection of conserved sequences and accurate assessment of their coding potential. By detecting clusters of coding conserved sequences the system is also suitable to accurately identify potential gene loci. Following this analysis we created a collection of human-mouse conserved sequence tags and carefully compared our results to reliable annotations in order to benchmark the reliability of our classifications. Strikingly we were able to detect several potential gene loci supported by EST sequences but not corresponding to as yet annotated genes. Conclusion Here we present a new system which allows comprehensive comparison of genomes to detect conserved coding and non-coding sequences and the identification of potential gene loci. Our system does not require the availability of any annotated sequence thus is suitable for the analysis of new or poorly annotated genomes.

  12. Who are the beneficiaries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tännsjö, Torbjörn

    1992-10-01

    Is it defensible that society spends money on medical or research projects intended to help people solve their fertility problems? Suppose that we want to answer this question from the point of view of a utilitarian cost-benefit analysis. The answer to the question then depends, of course, on how expensive these projects turn out to be, relative to the costs of other possible projects. But it depends also on how we assess the benefits of these projects. To whom do they accrue? Who are the beneficiaries of these projects?

  13. 27 CFR 73.12 - What security controls must I use for identification codes and passwords?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES AND PRACTICES ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES; ELECTRONIC SUBMISSION OF FORMS Electronic Signatures § 73.12 What security controls must I use for identification codes and passwords? If you use electronic signatures based upon use...

  14. Chronic Conditions among Medicare Beneficiaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The data used in the chronic condition reports are based upon CMS administrative enrollment and claims data for Medicare beneficiaries enrolled in the...

  15. Computerized Dental Comparison: A Critical Review of Dental Coding and Ranking Algorithms Used in Victim Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Bradley J; Aschheim, Kenneth W

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of antemortem and postmortem dental records is a leading method of victim identification, especially for incidents involving a large number of decedents. This process may be expedited with computer software that provides a ranked list of best possible matches. This study provides a comparison of the most commonly used conventional coding and sorting algorithms used in the United States (WinID3) with a simplified coding format that utilizes an optimized sorting algorithm. The simplified system consists of seven basic codes and utilizes an optimized algorithm based largely on the percentage of matches. To perform this research, a large reference database of approximately 50,000 antemortem and postmortem records was created. For most disaster scenarios, the proposed simplified codes, paired with the optimized algorithm, performed better than WinID3 which uses more complex codes. The detailed coding system does show better performance with extremely large numbers of records and/or significant body fragmentation. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Validation of ICD-9-CM coding algorithm for improved identification of hypoglycemia visits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieberman Rebecca M

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate identification of hypoglycemia cases by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM codes will help to describe epidemiology, monitor trends, and propose interventions for this important complication in patients with diabetes. Prior hypoglycemia studies utilized incomplete search strategies and may be methodologically flawed. We sought to validate a new ICD-9-CM coding algorithm for accurate identification of hypoglycemia visits. Methods This was a multicenter, retrospective cohort study using a structured medical record review at three academic emergency departments from July 1, 2005 to June 30, 2006. We prospectively derived a coding algorithm to identify hypoglycemia visits using ICD-9-CM codes (250.3, 250.8, 251.0, 251.1, 251.2, 270.3, 775.0, 775.6, and 962.3. We confirmed hypoglycemia cases by chart review identified by candidate ICD-9-CM codes during the study period. The case definition for hypoglycemia was documented blood glucose 3.9 mmol/l or emergency physician charted diagnosis of hypoglycemia. We evaluated individual components and calculated the positive predictive value. Results We reviewed 636 charts identified by the candidate ICD-9-CM codes and confirmed 436 (64% cases of hypoglycemia by chart review. Diabetes with other specified manifestations (250.8, often excluded in prior hypoglycemia analyses, identified 83% of hypoglycemia visits, and unspecified hypoglycemia (251.2 identified 13% of hypoglycemia visits. The absence of any predetermined co-diagnosis codes improved the positive predictive value of code 250.8 from 62% to 92%, while excluding only 10 (2% true hypoglycemia visits. Although prior analyses included only the first-listed ICD-9 code, more than one-quarter of identified hypoglycemia visits were outside this primary diagnosis field. Overall, the proposed algorithm had 89% positive predictive value (95% confidence interval, 86–92 for

  17. CERPI and CEREL, two computer codes for the automatic identification and determination of gamma emitters in thermal neutron activated samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannini, M.; Oliva, P.R.; Ramorino, C.

    1978-01-01

    A description is given of a computer code which automatically analyses gamma-ray spectra obtained with Ge(Li) detectors. The program contains features as automatic peak location and fitting, determination of peak energies and intensities, nuclide identification and calculation of masses and errors. Finally the results obtained with our computer code for a lunar sample are reported and briefly discussed

  18. Identification of Thioredoxin Target Disulfides Using Isotope-Coded Affinity Tags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hägglund, Per; Bunkenborg, Jakob; Maeda, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Thioredoxins (Trx) are small redox proteins that reduce disulfide bonds in various target proteins and maintain cellular thiol redox control. Here, a thiol-specific labeling and affinity enrichment approach for identification and relative quantification of Trx target disulfides in complex protein...... reduction is determined by LC-MS/MS-based quantification of tryptic peptides labeled with "light" (12C) and "heavy" (13C) ICAT reagents. The methodology can be adapted to monitor the effect of different reductants or oxidants on the redox status of thiol/disulfide proteomes in biological systems....... extracts is described. The procedure utilizes the isotope-coded affinity tag (ICAT) reagents containing a thiol reactive iodoacetamide group and a biotin affinity tag to target peptides containing reduced cysteine residues. The identification of substrates for Trx and the extent of target disulfide...

  19. A new method for species identification via protein-coding and non-coding DNA barcodes by combining machine learning with bioinformatic methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-bing Zhang

    Full Text Available Species identification via DNA barcodes is contributing greatly to current bioinventory efforts. The initial, and widely accepted, proposal was to use the protein-coding cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI region as the standard barcode for animals, but recently non-coding internal transcribed spacer (ITS genes have been proposed as candidate barcodes for both animals and plants. However, achieving a robust alignment for non-coding regions can be problematic. Here we propose two new methods (DV-RBF and FJ-RBF to address this issue for species assignment by both coding and non-coding sequences that take advantage of the power of machine learning and bioinformatics. We demonstrate the value of the new methods with four empirical datasets, two representing typical protein-coding COI barcode datasets (neotropical bats and marine fish and two representing non-coding ITS barcodes (rust fungi and brown algae. Using two random sub-sampling approaches, we demonstrate that the new methods significantly outperformed existing Neighbor-joining (NJ and Maximum likelihood (ML methods for both coding and non-coding barcodes when there was complete species coverage in the reference dataset. The new methods also out-performed NJ and ML methods for non-coding sequences in circumstances of potentially incomplete species coverage, although then the NJ and ML methods performed slightly better than the new methods for protein-coding barcodes. A 100% success rate of species identification was achieved with the two new methods for 4,122 bat queries and 5,134 fish queries using COI barcodes, with 95% confidence intervals (CI of 99.75-100%. The new methods also obtained a 96.29% success rate (95%CI: 91.62-98.40% for 484 rust fungi queries and a 98.50% success rate (95%CI: 96.60-99.37% for 1094 brown algae queries, both using ITS barcodes.

  20. A new method for species identification via protein-coding and non-coding DNA barcodes by combining machine learning with bioinformatic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ai-bing; Feng, Jie; Ward, Robert D; Wan, Ping; Gao, Qiang; Wu, Jun; Zhao, Wei-zhong

    2012-01-01

    Species identification via DNA barcodes is contributing greatly to current bioinventory efforts. The initial, and widely accepted, proposal was to use the protein-coding cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) region as the standard barcode for animals, but recently non-coding internal transcribed spacer (ITS) genes have been proposed as candidate barcodes for both animals and plants. However, achieving a robust alignment for non-coding regions can be problematic. Here we propose two new methods (DV-RBF and FJ-RBF) to address this issue for species assignment by both coding and non-coding sequences that take advantage of the power of machine learning and bioinformatics. We demonstrate the value of the new methods with four empirical datasets, two representing typical protein-coding COI barcode datasets (neotropical bats and marine fish) and two representing non-coding ITS barcodes (rust fungi and brown algae). Using two random sub-sampling approaches, we demonstrate that the new methods significantly outperformed existing Neighbor-joining (NJ) and Maximum likelihood (ML) methods for both coding and non-coding barcodes when there was complete species coverage in the reference dataset. The new methods also out-performed NJ and ML methods for non-coding sequences in circumstances of potentially incomplete species coverage, although then the NJ and ML methods performed slightly better than the new methods for protein-coding barcodes. A 100% success rate of species identification was achieved with the two new methods for 4,122 bat queries and 5,134 fish queries using COI barcodes, with 95% confidence intervals (CI) of 99.75-100%. The new methods also obtained a 96.29% success rate (95%CI: 91.62-98.40%) for 484 rust fungi queries and a 98.50% success rate (95%CI: 96.60-99.37%) for 1094 brown algae queries, both using ITS barcodes.

  1. Flow regime identification methodology with MCNP-X code and artificial neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgado, Cesar M.; Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear; Schirru, Roberto; Brandao, Luis E.B.; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents flow regimes identification methodology in multiphase system in annular, stratified and homogeneous oil-water-gas regimes. The principle is based on recognition of the pulse height distributions (PHD) from gamma-ray with supervised artificial neural network (ANN) systems. The detection geometry simulation comprises of two NaI(Tl) detectors and a dual-energy gamma-ray source. The measurement of scattered radiation enables the dual modality densitometry (DMD) measurement principle to be explored. Its basic principle is to combine the measurement of scattered and transmitted radiation in order to acquire information about the different flow regimes. The PHDs obtained by the detectors were used as input to ANN. The data sets required for training and testing the ANN were generated by the MCNP-X code from static and ideal theoretical models of multiphase systems. The ANN correctly identified the three different flow regimes for all data set evaluated. The results presented show that PHDs examined by ANN may be applied in the successfully flow regime identification. (author)

  2. Container for waste, identification code reading device thereof, method and system for controlling waste by using them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Yoshida, Tomiji; Omote, Tatsuyuki.

    1991-01-01

    In the conventional method of controlling waste containers by labels attached thereto, the data relevant to wastes contained in the waste containers are limited. Further, if the label should be peeled off, there is a possibility that the wastes therein can no more be identified. Then, in the present invention, an identification plate is previously attached, to which mechanically readable codes or visually readable letters or numerical figures are written. Then, the identification codes can be read in a remote control manner at high speed and high reliability and the waste containers can be managed only by the identification codes of the containers. Further, the identification codes on the container are made so as to be free from aging degradation, thereby enabling to manage waste containers for long time storage. With such a constitution, since data can be inputted from an input terminal and a great amount of data such as concerning the source of wastes can be managed collectively on a software, the data can be managed easily. (T.M.)

  3. OASDI Beneficiaries by State and County, 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This annual publication focuses on the Social Security beneficiary population receiving Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) benefits at the local...

  4. OASDI Beneficiaries by State and County, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This annual publication focuses on the Social Security beneficiary population receiving Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) benefits at the local...

  5. OASDI Beneficiaries by State and County, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This annual publication focuses on the Social Security beneficiary population receiving Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) benefits at the local...

  6. OASDI Beneficiaries by State and County, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This annual publication focuses on the Social Security beneficiary population people receiving Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) benefits at the...

  7. OASDI Beneficiaries by State and County, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This annual publication focuses on the Social Security beneficiary population receiving Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) benefits at the local...

  8. OASDI Beneficiaries by State and County, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This annual publication focuses on the Social Security beneficiary population receiving Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) benefits at the local...

  9. OASDI Beneficiaries by State and County, 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This annual publication focuses on the Social Security beneficiary population - people receiving Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) benefits at the...

  10. OASDI Beneficiaries by State and County, 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This annual publication focuses on the Social Security beneficiary population receiving Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) benefits at the local...

  11. OASDI Beneficiaries by State and County, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This annual publication focuses on the Social Security beneficiary population receiving Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) benefits at the local...

  12. OASDI Beneficiaries by State and County, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This annual publication focuses on the Social Security beneficiary population receiving Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) benefits at the local...

  13. OASDI Beneficiaries by State and County, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This annual publication focuses on the Social Security beneficiary population receiving Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) benefits at the local...

  14. OASDI Beneficiaries by State and County, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This annual publication focuses on the Social Security beneficiary population receiving Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) benefits at the local...

  15. OASDI Beneficiaries by State and County, 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This annual publication focuses on the Social Security beneficiary population receiving Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) benefits at the local...

  16. OASDI Beneficiaries by State and County, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This annual publication focuses on the Social Security beneficiary population receiving Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) benefits at the local...

  17. OASDI Beneficiaries by State and County, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This annual publication focuses on the Social Security beneficiary population receiving Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) benefits at the local...

  18. OASDI Beneficiaries by State and County, 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This annual publication focuses on the Social Security beneficiary population receiving Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) benefits at the local...

  19. OASDI Beneficiaries by State and County, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This annual publication focuses on the Social Security beneficiary population people receiving Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) benefits at the...

  20. Cataract surgery among Medicare beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Oliver D; Cassard, Sandra D; Tielsch, James M; Gower, Emily W

    2012-10-01

    To present descriptive epidemiology of cataract surgery among Medicare recipients in the United States. Cataract surgery performed on Medicare beneficiaries in 2003 and 2004. Medicare claims data were used to identify all cataract surgery claims for procedures performed in the United States in 2003-2004. Standard assumptions were used to limit the claims to actual cataract surgery procedures performed. Summary statistics were created to determine the number of procedures performed for each outcome of interest: cataract surgery rates by age, sex, race and state; surgical volume by facility type and surgeon characteristics; time interval between first- and second-eye cataract surgery. The national cataract surgery rate for 2003-2004 was 61.8 per 1000 Medicare beneficiary person-years. The rate was significantly higher for females and for those aged 75-84 years. After adjustment for age and sex, blacks had approximately a 30% lower rate of surgery than whites. While only 5% of cataract surgeons performed more than 500 cataract surgeries annually, these surgeons performed 26% of the total cataract surgeries. Increasing surgical volume was found to be highly correlated with use of ambulatory surgical centers and reduced time interval between first- and second-eye surgery in the same patient. The epidemiology of cataract surgery in the United States Medicare population documents substantial variation in surgical rates by race, sex, age, and by certain provider characteristics.

  1. Mycoplasma non-coding RNA: identification of small RNAs and targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele Maboni Siqueira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial non-coding RNAs act by base-pairing as regulatory elements in crucial biological processes. We performed the identification of trans-encoded small RNAs (sRNA from the genomes of Mycoplama hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma flocculare and Mycoplasma hyorhinis, which are Mycoplasma species that have been identified in the porcine respiratory system. Results A total of 47, 15 and 11 putative sRNAs were predicted in M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis, respectively. A comparative genomic analysis revealed the presence of species or lineage specific sRNA candidates. Furthermore, the expression profile of some M. hyopneumoniae sRNAs was determined by a reverse transcription amplification approach, in three different culture conditions. All tested sRNAs were transcribed in at least one condition. A detailed investigation revealed a differential expression profile for two M. hyopneumoniae sRNAs in response to oxidative and heat shock stress conditions, suggesting that their expression is influenced by environmental signals. Moreover, we analyzed sRNA-mRNA hybrids and accessed putative target genes for the novel sRNA candidates. The majority of the sRNAs showed interaction with multiple target genes, some of which could be linked to pathogenesis and cell homeostasis activity. Conclusion This study contributes to our knowledge of Mycoplasma sRNAs and their response to environmental changes. Furthermore, the mRNA target prediction provides a perspective for the characterization and comprehension of the function of the sRNA regulatory mechanisms.

  2. Common micronutrient deficiencies among food aid beneficiaries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Abstract. Background: Ethiopia is amongst the African countries that have received significant food aid. Nonetheless, the common micronutrient deficiencies among food aid beneficiaries are not well documented. Objective: To find out the common micronutrient deficiencies among food aid beneficiaries in the country based ...

  3. Code for plant identification (KKS) key in PC version. KKS-Schluessel-Programm in PC-Version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pannenbaecker, K. (GABO Gesellschaft fuer Ablauforganisation und Informationsverarbeitung mbH, Erlangen (Germany) GABO Gesellschaft fuer Ablauforganisation und Informationsverarbeitung mbH, Muenchen (Germany))

    1991-11-01

    The plant identification system (KKS) as a common development of german plant operators, erection firms and also power plant oriented organisations have decisively influenced the technical-organizing activities of planning and erections as operations and maintenance of all kind of power plants. Fundamentals are three key parts, operation, armatures and function keys. Their management and application is executed by a plantidentification-key code in a PC version, which is briefly described in this report. (orig.).

  4. Five-way Smoking Status Classification Using Text Hot-Spot Identification and Error-correcting Output Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Aaron M.

    2008-01-01

    We participated in the i2b2 smoking status classification challenge task. The purpose of this task was to evaluate the ability of systems to automatically identify patient smoking status from discharge summaries. Our submission included several techniques that we compared and studied, including hot-spot identification, zero-vector filtering, inverse class frequency weighting, error-correcting output codes, and post-processing rules. We evaluated our approaches using the same methods as the i2...

  5. The identification and characterization of non-coding and coding RNAs and their modified nucleosides by mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, Kirk W; Limbach, Patrick A

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of ribonucleic acids (RNA) by mass spectrometry has been a valuable analytical approach for more than 25 years. In fact, mass spectrometry has become a method of choice for the analysis of modified nucleosides from RNA isolated out of biological samples. This review summarizes recent progress that has been made in both nucleoside and oligonucleotide mass spectral analysis. Applications of mass spectrometry in the identification, characterization and quantification of modified nucleosides are discussed. At the oligonucleotide level, advances in modern mass spectrometry approaches combined with the standard RNA modification mapping protocol enable the characterization of RNAs of varying lengths ranging from low molecular weight short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to the extremely large 23 S rRNAs. New variations and improvements to this protocol are reviewed, including top-down strategies, as these developments now enable qualitative and quantitative measurements of RNA modification patterns in a variety of biological systems. PMID:25616408

  6. The identification and characterization of non-coding and coding RNAs and their modified nucleosides by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, Kirk W; Limbach, Patrick A

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of ribonucleic acids (RNA) by mass spectrometry has been a valuable analytical approach for more than 25 years. In fact, mass spectrometry has become a method of choice for the analysis of modified nucleosides from RNA isolated out of biological samples. This review summarizes recent progress that has been made in both nucleoside and oligonucleotide mass spectral analysis. Applications of mass spectrometry in the identification, characterization and quantification of modified nucleosides are discussed. At the oligonucleotide level, advances in modern mass spectrometry approaches combined with the standard RNA modification mapping protocol enable the characterization of RNAs of varying lengths ranging from low molecular weight short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to the extremely large 23 S rRNAs. New variations and improvements to this protocol are reviewed, including top-down strategies, as these developments now enable qualitative and quantitative measurements of RNA modification patterns in a variety of biological systems.

  7. Five-way smoking status classification using text hot-spot identification and error-correcting output codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Aaron M

    2008-01-01

    We participated in the i2b2 smoking status classification challenge task. The purpose of this task was to evaluate the ability of systems to automatically identify patient smoking status from discharge summaries. Our submission included several techniques that we compared and studied, including hot-spot identification, zero-vector filtering, inverse class frequency weighting, error-correcting output codes, and post-processing rules. We evaluated our approaches using the same methods as the i2b2 task organizers, using micro- and macro-averaged F1 as the primary performance metric. Our best performing system achieved a micro-F1 of 0.9000 on the test collection, equivalent to the best performing system submitted to the i2b2 challenge. Hot-spot identification, zero-vector filtering, classifier weighting, and error correcting output coding contributed additively to increased performance, with hot-spot identification having by far the largest positive effect. High performance on automatic identification of patient smoking status from discharge summaries is achievable with the efficient and straightforward machine learning techniques studied here.

  8. National Beneficiary Survey (NBS) Round 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — A cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of social security beneficiaries age 18-64 receiving disability benefits in active pay status as of...

  9. National Beneficiary Survey (NBS) Round 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — A cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of 4,864 social security beneficiaries age 18-64 receiving disability benefits in active pay status as...

  10. National Beneficiary Survey (NBS) Round 4

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — A cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of social security beneficiaries age 18-64 receiving disability benefits in active pay status as of...

  11. OASDI Beneficiaries and Benefits by State, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This annual map focuses on the Social Security beneficiary population receiving Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) benefits at the state level in...

  12. Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey - Limited Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS) is a continuous, multipurpose survey of a representative national sample of the Medicare population. There are two...

  13. Beneficiary Activation in the Medicare Population

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to findings reported in Beneficiary Activation in the Medicare Population, published in Volume 4, Issue 4 of the Medicare and Medicaid Research Review,...

  14. National Beneficiary Survey (NBS) Round 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — A cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of 6,520 social security beneficiaries age 18-64 receiving disability benefits in active pay status as...

  15. Costs and Clinical Quality Among Medicare Beneficiaries..

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Authors of Costs and Clinical Quality Among Medicare Beneficiaries - Associations with Health Center Penetration of Low-Income Residents, published in Volume 4,...

  16. Assessment of Factors Influencing Beneficiary Participation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN 0794-5698. Assessment of Factors Influencing Beneficiary Participation in Fadama II Project ... project implementation (80%) in the stages of project development. Women .... the project as they appeared to have more family burden to ...

  17. OASDI Beneficiaries and Benefits by State- 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This annual map focuses on the Social Security beneficiary population receiving Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) benefits at the state level in...

  18. Knowledge of Precision Farming Beneficiaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Greena

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Precision Farming is one of the many advanced farming practices that make production more efficient by better resource management and reducing wastage. TN-IAMWARM is a world bank funded project aims to improve the farm productivity and income through better water management. The present study was carried out in Kambainallur sub basin of Dharmapuri district with 120 TN-IAMWARM beneficiaries as respondents. The result indicated that more than three fourth (76.67 % of the respondents had high level of knowledge on precision farming technologies which was made possible by the implementation of TN-IAMWARM project. The study further revealed that educational status, occupational status and exposure to agricultural messages had a positive and significant contribution to the knowledge level of the respondents at 0.01 level of probability whereas experience in precision farming and social participation had a positive and significant contribution at 0.05 level of probability.

  19. A QR code identification technology in package auto-sorting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    di, Yi-Juan; Shi, Jian-Ping; Mao, Guo-Yong

    2017-07-01

    Traditional manual sorting operation is not suitable for the development of Chinese logistics. For better sorting packages, a QR code recognition technology is proposed to identify the QR code label on the packages in package auto-sorting system. The experimental results compared with other algorithms in literatures demonstrate that the proposed method is valid and its performance is superior to other algorithms.

  20. Identification and Analysis of Critical Gaps in Nuclear Fuel Cycle Codes Required by the SINEMA Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miron, Adrian; Valentine, Joshua; Christenson, John; Hawwari, Majd; Bhatt, Santosh; Dunzik-Gougar, Mary Lou; Lineberry, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The current state of the art in nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) modeling is an eclectic mixture of codes with various levels of applicability, flexibility, and availability. In support of the advanced fuel cycle systems analyses, especially those by the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), University of Cincinnati in collaboration with Idaho State University carried out a detailed review of the existing codes describing various aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle and identified the research and development needs required for a comprehensive model of the global nuclear energy infrastructure and the associated nuclear fuel cycles. Relevant information obtained on the NFC codes was compiled into a relational database that allows easy access to various codes' properties. Additionally, the research analyzed the gaps in the NFC computer codes with respect to their potential integration into programs that perform comprehensive NFC analysis.

  1. Identification and Analysis of Critical Gaps in Nuclear Fuel Cycle Codes Required by the SINEMA Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adrian Miron; Joshua Valentine; John Christenson; Majd Hawwari; Santosh Bhatt; Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar: Michael Lineberry

    2009-10-01

    The current state of the art in nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) modeling is an eclectic mixture of codes with various levels of applicability, flexibility, and availability. In support of the advanced fuel cycle systems analyses, especially those by the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), Unviery of Cincinnati in collaboration with Idaho State University carried out a detailed review of the existing codes describing various aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle and identified the research and development needs required for a comprehensive model of the global nuclear energy infrastructure and the associated nuclear fuel cycles. Relevant information obtained on the NFC codes was compiled into a relational database that allows easy access to various codes' properties. Additionally, the research analyzed the gaps in the NFC computer codes with respect to their potential integration into programs that perform comprehensive NFC analysis.

  2. TPASS: a gamma-ray spectrum analysis and isotope identification computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickens, J.K.

    1981-03-01

    The gamma-ray spectral data-reduction and analysis computer code TPASS is described. This computer code is used to analyze complex Ge(Li) gamma-ray spectra to obtain peak areas corrected for detector efficiencies, from which are determined gamma-ray yields. These yields are compared with an isotope gamma-ray data file to determine the contributions to the observed spectrum from decay of specific radionuclides. A complete FORTRAN listing of the code and a complex test case are given

  3. CERPI and CEREL, two computer codes for the automatic identification and determination of gamma emitters in thermal-neutron-activated samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannini, M.; Oliva, P.R.; Ramorino, M.C.

    1979-01-01

    A computer code that automatically analyzes gamma-ray spectra obtained with Ge(Li) detectors is described. The program contains such features as automatic peak location and fitting, determination of peak energies and intensities, nuclide identification, and calculation of masses and errors. Finally, the results obtained with this computer code for a lunar sample are reported and briefly discussed

  4. NODC Standard Format Marine Toxic Substances and Pollutants (F144) chemical identification codes (NODC Accession 9200273)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival information package contains a listing of codes and chemical names that were used in NODC Standard Format Marine Toxic Substances and Pollutants (F144)...

  5. Use the Bar Code System to Improve Accuracy of the Patient and Sample Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Shu-Hsia; Yeh, Huy-Pzu; Chi, Kun-Hung; Ku, Hsueh-Chen

    2018-01-01

    In time and correct sample collection were highly related to patient's safety. The sample error rate was 11.1%, because misbranded patient information and wrong sample containers during January to April, 2016. We developed a barcode system of "Specimens Identify System" through process of reengineering of TRM, used bar code scanners, add sample container instructions, and mobile APP. Conclusion, the bar code systems improved the patient safety and created green environment.

  6. Validation of coding algorithms for the identification of patients hospitalized for alcoholic hepatitis using administrative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Jack X Q; Ross, Erin; Borman, Meredith A; Zimmer, Scott; Kaplan, Gilaad G; Heitman, Steven J; Swain, Mark G; Burak, Kelly W; Quan, Hude; Myers, Robert P

    2015-09-11

    Epidemiologic studies of alcoholic hepatitis (AH) have been hindered by the lack of a validated International Classification of Disease (ICD) coding algorithm for use with administrative data. Our objective was to validate coding algorithms for AH using a hospitalization database. The Hospital Discharge Abstract Database (DAD) was used to identify consecutive adults (≥18 years) hospitalized in the Calgary region with a diagnosis code for AH (ICD-10, K70.1) between 01/2008 and 08/2012. Medical records were reviewed to confirm the diagnosis of AH, defined as a history of heavy alcohol consumption, elevated AST and/or ALT (34 μmol/L, and elevated INR. Subgroup analyses were performed according to the diagnosis field in which the code was recorded (primary vs. secondary) and AH severity. Algorithms that incorporated ICD-10 codes for cirrhosis and its complications were also examined. Of 228 potential AH cases, 122 patients had confirmed AH, corresponding to a positive predictive value (PPV) of 54% (95% CI 47-60%). PPV improved when AH was the primary versus a secondary diagnosis (67% vs. 21%; P codes for ascites (PPV 75%; 95% CI 63-86%), cirrhosis (PPV 60%; 47-73%), and gastrointestinal hemorrhage (PPV 62%; 51-73%) had improved performance, however, the prevalence of these diagnoses in confirmed AH cases was low (29-39%). In conclusion the low PPV of the diagnosis code for AH suggests that caution is necessary if this hospitalization database is used in large-scale epidemiologic studies of this condition.

  7. IDGAM. A PC code and database to help nuclide identification in activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paviotti Corcuera, R.; Moraes Cunha, M. de; Jayanthi, K.A.

    1994-01-01

    The document describes a PC diskette containing a code and database which helps researchers to identify the nuclides in a radioactive sample. Data can be retrieved by gamma-ray energy, nuclide or element. The PC diskette is available, costfree, from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, upon request. (author). 6 refs, 5 figs

  8. Identification of Sparse Audio Tampering Using Distributed Source Coding and Compressive Sensing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valenzise G

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, a large amount of techniques have been proposed to identify whether a multimedia content has been illegally tampered or not. Nevertheless, very few efforts have been devoted to identifying which kind of attack has been carried out, especially due to the large data required for this task. We propose a novel hashing scheme which exploits the paradigms of compressive sensing and distributed source coding to generate a compact hash signature, and we apply it to the case of audio content protection. The audio content provider produces a small hash signature by computing a limited number of random projections of a perceptual, time-frequency representation of the original audio stream; the audio hash is given by the syndrome bits of an LDPC code applied to the projections. At the content user side, the hash is decoded using distributed source coding tools. If the tampering is sparsifiable or compressible in some orthonormal basis or redundant dictionary, it is possible to identify the time-frequency position of the attack, with a hash size as small as 200 bits/second; the bit saving obtained by introducing distributed source coding ranges between 20% to 70%.

  9. Identification of evolutionarily conserved non-AUG-initiated N-terminal extensions in human coding sequences.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ivanov, Ivaylo P

    2011-05-01

    In eukaryotes, it is generally assumed that translation initiation occurs at the AUG codon closest to the messenger RNA 5\\' cap. However, in certain cases, initiation can occur at codons differing from AUG by a single nucleotide, especially the codons CUG, UUG, GUG, ACG, AUA and AUU. While non-AUG initiation has been experimentally verified for a handful of human genes, the full extent to which this phenomenon is utilized--both for increased coding capacity and potentially also for novel regulatory mechanisms--remains unclear. To address this issue, and hence to improve the quality of existing coding sequence annotations, we developed a methodology based on phylogenetic analysis of predicted 5\\' untranslated regions from orthologous genes. We use evolutionary signatures of protein-coding sequences as an indicator of translation initiation upstream of annotated coding sequences. Our search identified novel conserved potential non-AUG-initiated N-terminal extensions in 42 human genes including VANGL2, FGFR1, KCNN4, TRPV6, HDGF, CITED2, EIF4G3 and NTF3, and also affirmed the conservation of known non-AUG-initiated extensions in 17 other genes. In several instances, we have been able to obtain independent experimental evidence of the expression of non-AUG-initiated products from the previously published literature and ribosome profiling data.

  10. Medicare Beneficiary Knowledge of the Part D Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Medicare Beneficiary Knowledge of the Part D Program and Its Relationship with Voluntary Enrollment According to findings appearing in Medicare Beneficiary Knowledge...

  11. Common micronutrient deficiencies among food aid beneficiaries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Vitamin A and iron deficiencies were the most prevalent micronutrient deficiencies among food aid beneficiaries. Other probable deficiencies prevailing were zinc, vitamins thiamine, riboflavin, niacin folate, cyano-cobalamine, ascorbic acid vitamin D and calcium because of the low intake of dairy products and meat.

  12. Tax system competition – instruments and beneficiaries

    OpenAIRE

    Krzysztof Biernacki

    2014-01-01

    Tax competition among states and jurisdictions has already been examined many times in the economic literature. However, the main scope of the research was focused on a tax rates competition in income taxes and its consequences in bringing direct investments. This scripture/commentary tries to analyze various instruments and beneficiaries of the tax system competition and provide a general overview on this subject.

  13. 38 CFR 9.4 - Beneficiaries and options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Beneficiaries and options... SERVICEMEMBERS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.4 Beneficiaries and options. Any designation of beneficiary or election of settlement options is subject to the provisions of 38 U.S.C. 1970...

  14. 32 CFR 728.58 - Federal Aviation Agency (FAA) beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal Aviation Agency (FAA) beneficiaries. 728... Federal Agencies § 728.58 Federal Aviation Agency (FAA) beneficiaries. (a) Beneficiaries. Air Traffic Control Specialists (ATCS) of the FAA when appropriate authorization has been furnished by the FAA...

  15. Angra 2 small break LOCA flow regime identification through RELAP5 code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Marcelo da Silva; Sabundjian, Gaiane; Belchior Junior, Antonio; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de; Torres, Walmir Maximo; Conti, Thadeu das Neves; Macedo, Luiz Alberto; Umbehaun, Pedro Ernesto; Mesquita, Roberto Navarro de; Masotti, Paulo Henrique Ferraz, E-mail: msrocha@ipen.br, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.br, E-mail: abelchior@ipen.br, E-mail: delvonei@ipen.br, E-mail: wmtorres@ipen.br, E-mail: tnconti@ipen.br, E-mail: lamacedo@ipen.br, E-mail: umbehaun@ipen.br, E-mail: s, E-mail: rnavarro@ipen.br, E-mail: pmasotti@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify the flow regimes in the core of Angra 2 nuclear reactor with RELAP5/MOD3.2.gamma code (RELAP5, 2001). The postulated accident is the loss of coolant through a small break in the primary circuit (SBLOCA), which is described in Chapter 15 of the Final Safety Analysis Report of Angra 2 - FSAR (ETN, 2006). As the primary circuit pressure decreases due to the loss of coolant, several alternating two phase flow regimes are established in the primary circuit. This paper analyses the coolant two-phase flow behavior in the nuclear reactor core during the postulated accident. (author)

  16. Genome-wide identification and characterization of long intergenic non-coding RNAs in Ganoderma lucidum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqin Li

    Full Text Available Ganoderma lucidum is a white-rot fungus best-known for its medicinal activities. We have previously sequenced its genome and annotated the protein coding genes. However, long non-coding RNAs in G. lucidum genome have not been analyzed. In this study, we have identified and characterized long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNA in G. lucidum systematically. We developed a computational pipeline, which was used to analyze RNA-Seq data derived from G. lucidum samples collected from three developmental stages. A total of 402 lincRNA candidates were identified, with an average length of 609 bp. Analysis of their adjacent protein-coding genes (apcGenes revealed that 46 apcGenes belong to the pathways of triterpenoid biosynthesis and lignin degradation, or families of cytochrome P450, mating type B genes, and carbohydrate-active enzymes. To determine if lincRNAs and these apcGenes have any interactions, the corresponding pairs of lincRNAs and apcGenes were analyzed in detail. We developed a modified 3' RACE method to analyze the transcriptional direction of a transcript. Among the 46 lincRNAs, 37 were found unidirectionally transcribed, and 9 were found bidirectionally transcribed. The expression profiles of 16 of these 37 lincRNAs were found to be highly correlated with those of the apcGenes across the three developmental stages. Among them, 11 are positively correlated (r>0.8 and 5 are negatively correlated (r<-0.8. The co-localization and co-expression of lincRNAs and those apcGenes playing important functions is consistent with the notion that lincRNAs might be important regulators for cellular processes. In summary, this represents the very first study to identify and characterize lincRNAs in the genomes of basidiomycetes. The results obtained here have laid the foundation for study of potential lincRNA-mediated expression regulation of genes in G. lucidum.

  17. Application of Inverse Gamma Transport to Material Thickness Identification with SGRD Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humbert Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available SGRD (Spectroscopy, Gamma rays, Rapid, Deterministic code is used to infer the dimensions of a one dimensional model of a shielded gamma ray source. The method is based on the simulation of the uncollided leakage current of discrete gamma lines that are produced by nuclear decay. Experimentally, the unscattered gamma lines leakage current is obtained by processing high precision gamma spectroscopy measurements. The material thicknesses are computed with SGRD using a fast ray-tracing algorithm embedded in a non-linear multidimensional iterative optimization procedure that minimizes the error metric between calculated and measured signatures. For verification, numerical results on a test problem are presented.

  18. Identification of Genes Coding Aminoglycoside Modifying Enzymes in E. coli of UTI Patients in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rouf Mir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is to probe the pattern of antibiotic resistance against aminoglycosides and its mechanism in E. coli obtained from patients from Chennai, India. Isolation and identification of pathogens were done on MacConkey agar. Antimicrobial sensitivity testing was done by disc diffusion test. The identification of genes encoding aminoglycoside modifying enzymes was done by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. Out of 98 isolates, 71 (72.45% isolates were identified as E. coli and the remaining 27 (27.55% as other bacteria. Disc diffusion method results showed a resistance level of 72.15% for streptomycin, 73.4% for gentamicin, 63.26% for neomycin, 57.14% for tobramycin, 47.9% for netilmicin, and 8.16% for amikacin in E. coli. PCR screening showed the presence of four genes, namely, rrs, aacC2, aacA-aphD, and aphA3, in their plasmid DNA. The results point towards the novel mechanism of drug resistance in E. coli from UTI patients in India as they confirm the presence of genes encoding enzymes that cause resistance to aminoglycoside drugs. This could be an alarm for drug prescription to UTI patients.

  19. Identification of Genes Coding Aminoglycoside Modifying Enzymes in E. coli of UTI Patients in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Abdul Rouf; Bashir, Yasir; Dar, Firdous Ahmad; Sekhar, M

    This study is to probe the pattern of antibiotic resistance against aminoglycosides and its mechanism in E. coli obtained from patients from Chennai, India. Isolation and identification of pathogens were done on MacConkey agar. Antimicrobial sensitivity testing was done by disc diffusion test. The identification of genes encoding aminoglycoside modifying enzymes was done by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Out of 98 isolates, 71 (72.45%) isolates were identified as E. coli and the remaining 27 (27.55%) as other bacteria. Disc diffusion method results showed a resistance level of 72.15% for streptomycin, 73.4% for gentamicin, 63.26% for neomycin, 57.14% for tobramycin, 47.9% for netilmicin, and 8.16% for amikacin in E. coli. PCR screening showed the presence of four genes, namely, rrs, aacC2, aacA-aphD, and aphA3, in their plasmid DNA. The results point towards the novel mechanism of drug resistance in E. coli from UTI patients in India as they confirm the presence of genes encoding enzymes that cause resistance to aminoglycoside drugs. This could be an alarm for drug prescription to UTI patients.

  20. Co-expression analysis and identification of fecundity-related long non-coding RNAs in sheep ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Xiangyang; Luo, Qingmiao; Zhao, Huijing; Qin, Xiaoyu

    2016-12-16

    Small Tail Han sheep, including the FecB B FecB B (Han BB) and FecB + FecB + (Han++) genotypes, and Dorset sheep exhibit different fecundities. To identify novel long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) associated with sheep fecundity to better understand their molecular mechanisms, a genome-wide analysis of mRNAs and lncRNAs from Han BB, Han++ and Dorset sheep was performed. After the identification of differentially expressed mRNAs and lncRNAs, 16 significant modules were explored by using weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA) followed by functional enrichment analysis of the genes and lncRNAs in significant modules. Among these selected modules, the yellow and brown modules were significantly related to sheep fecundity. lncRNAs (e.g., NR0B1, XLOC_041882, and MYH15) in the yellow module were mainly involved in the TGF-β signalling pathway, and NYAP1 and BCORL1 were significantly associated with the oxytocin signalling pathway, which regulates several genes in the coexpression network of the brown module. Overall, we identified several gene modules associated with sheep fecundity, as well as networks consisting of hub genes and lncRNAs that may contribute to sheep prolificacy by regulating the target mRNAs related to the TGF-β and oxytocin signalling pathways. This study provides an alternative strategy for the identification of potential candidate regulatory lncRNAs.

  1. Identification of novel non-coding RNAs as potential antisense regulators in the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    tang, T. H.; Polacek, N.; Zywicki, M.

    2005-01-01

    By generating a specialized cDNA library from the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus, we have identified 57 novel small non-coding RNA (ncRNA) candidates and confirmed their expression by Northern blot analysis. The majority was found to belong to one of two classes, either antisense or antisense...... elements by inhibiting expression of the transposase mRNA. Surprisingly, the class of antisense RNAs also contained RNAs complementary to tRNAs or sRNAs (small-nucleolar-like RNAs). For the antisense-box ncRNAs, the majority could be assigned to the class of C/D sRNAs, which specify 2'-O-methylation sites...... on rRNAs or tRNAs. Five C/D sRNAs of this group are predicted to target methylation at six sites in 13 different tRNAs, thus pointing to the widespread role of these sRNA species in tRNA modification in Archaea. Another group of antisense-box RNAs, lacking typical C/D sRNA motifs, was predicted...

  2. PSP: rapid identification of orthologous coding genes under positive selection across multiple closely related prokaryotic genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Fei; Ou, Hong-Yu; Tao, Fei; Tang, Hongzhi; Xu, Ping

    2013-12-27

    With genomic sequences of many closely related bacterial strains made available by deep sequencing, it is now possible to investigate trends in prokaryotic microevolution. Positive selection is a sub-process of microevolution, in which a particular mutation is favored, causing the allele frequency to continuously shift in one direction. Wide scanning of prokaryotic genomes has shown that positive selection at the molecular level is much more frequent than expected. Genes with significant positive selection may play key roles in bacterial adaption to different environmental pressures. However, selection pressure analyses are computationally intensive and awkward to configure. Here we describe an open access web server, which is designated as PSP (Positive Selection analysis for Prokaryotic genomes) for performing evolutionary analysis on orthologous coding genes, specially designed for rapid comparison of dozens of closely related prokaryotic genomes. Remarkably, PSP facilitates functional exploration at the multiple levels by assignments and enrichments of KO, GO or COG terms. To illustrate this user-friendly tool, we analyzed Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus genomes and found that several genes, which play key roles in human infection and antibiotic resistance, show significant evidence of positive selection. PSP is freely available to all users without any login requirement at: http://db-mml.sjtu.edu.cn/PSP/. PSP ultimately allows researchers to do genome-scale analysis for evolutionary selection across multiple prokaryotic genomes rapidly and easily, and identify the genes undergoing positive selection, which may play key roles in the interactions of host-pathogen and/or environmental adaptation.

  3. Identification of neural firing patterns, frequency and temporal coding mechanisms in individual aortic baroreceptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaguang eGu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In rabbit depressor nerve fibers, an on-off firing pattern, period-1 firing, and integer multiple firing with quiescent state were observed as the static pressure level was increased. A bursting pattern with bursts at the systolic phase of blood pressure, continuous firing, and bursting with burst at diastolic phase and quiescent state at systolic phase were observed as the mean level of the dynamic blood pressure was increased. For both static and dynamic pressures, the firing frequency of the first two firing patterns increased and of the last firing pattern decreased due to the quiescent state. If the quiescent state is disregarded, the spike frequency becomes an increasing trend. The instantaneous spike frequency of the systolic phase bursting, continuous firing, and diastolic phase bursting can reflect the temporal process of the systolic phase, whole procedure, and diastolic phase of the dynamic blood pressure signal, respectively. With increasing the static current corresponding to pressure level, the deterministic Hodgkin-Huxley (HH model manifests a process from a resting state first to period-1 firing via a subcritical Hopf bifurcation and then to a resting state via a supercritical Hopf bifurcation, and the firing frequency increases. The on-off firing and integer multiple firing were here identified as noise-induced firing patterns near the subcritical and supercritical Hopf bifurcation points, respectively, using the stochastic HH model. The systolic phase bursting and diastolic phase bursting were identified as pressure-induced firings near the subcritical and supercritical Hopf bifurcation points, respectively, using an HH model with a dynamic signal. The firing, spike frequency, and instantaneous spike frequency observed in the experiment were simulated and explained using HH models. The results illustrate the dynamics of different firing patterns and the frequency and temporal coding mechanisms of aortic baroreceptor.

  4. 5 CFR 1651.10 - Deceased and non-existent beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... beneficiary form dies before the participant, the beneficiary's share will be paid equally to other living beneficiaries bearing the same relationship to the participant as the deceased beneficiary. However, if the... descendants, if any. If there are no other beneficiaries bearing the same relationship or, in the case of...

  5. Development of PARA-ID Code to Simulate Inelastic Constitutive Equations and Their Parameter Identifications for the Next Generation Reactor Designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Lee, J. H.

    2006-03-01

    The establishment of the inelastic analysis technology is essential issue for a development of the next generation reactors subjected to elevated temperature operations. In this report, the peer investigation of constitutive equations in points of a ratcheting and creep-fatigue analysis is carried out and the methods extracting the constitutive parameters from experimental data are established. To perform simulations for each constitutive model, the PARA-ID (PARAmeter-IDentification) computer program is developed. By using this code, various simulations related with the parameter identification of the constitutive models are carried out

  6. Refining the accuracy of validated target identification through coding variant fine-mapping in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahajan, Anubha

    2018-01-01

    , compelling evidence for coding variant causality was obtained for only 16 signals. At 13 others, the associated coding variants clearly represent 'false leads' with potential to generate erroneous mechanistic inference. Coding variant associations offer a direct route to biological insight for complex...

  7. Changes in agri-business outcomes among the dairy beneficiaries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study compared changes in uptake of agri-business practices, productivity and wealth creation between dairy beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries of Contracted Extension Service Delivery Model (CESDM) implemented by Kenya Agricultural Productivity and Agribusiness Project (KAPAP) in selected counties of Kenya ...

  8. Recent Health Care Use and Medicaid Entry of Medicare Beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keohane, Laura M; Trivedi, Amal N; Mor, Vincent

    2017-10-01

    To examine the relationship between Medicaid entry and recent health care use among Medicare beneficiaries. We identified Medicare beneficiaries without full Medicaid or use of hospital or nursing home services in 2008 (N = 2,163,387). A discrete survival analysis estimated beneficiaries' monthly likelihood of entry into the full Medicaid program between January 2009 and June 2010. During the 18-month study period, Medicaid entry occurred for 1.1% and 3.7% of beneficiaries who aged into Medicare or originally qualified for Medicare due to disability, respectively. Among beneficiaries who aged into Medicare, 49% of new Medicaid participants had no use of inpatient, skilled nursing facility, or nursing home services during the study period. Individuals who recently used inpatient, skilled nursing facility or nursing home services had monthly rates of 1.9, 14.0, and 38.1 new Medicaid participants per 1,000 beneficiaries, respectively, compared with 0.4 new Medicaid participants per 1,000 beneficiaries with no recent use of these services. Although recent health care use predicted greater likelihood of Medicaid entry, half of new Medicaid participants used no hospital or nursing home care during the study period. These patterns should be considered when designing and evaluating interventions to reform health care delivery for dual-eligible beneficiaries. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Fadama III Beneficiaries' Adherence to Project Guidelines in Ogun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was recommended that the implementers should keep up their efforts at sensitising beneficiaries on the implementation guidelines of the project, re-work their strategies at addressing procurement and FUEF inadequacies among the beneficiaries and fast-track the delivery of project benefits in the communities. Key words: ...

  10. Major influence of interobserver reliability on polytrauma identification with the Injury Severity Score (ISS): Time for a centralised coding in trauma registries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduz, Roman; Kugelmeier, Patrick; Meili, Severin; Döring, Robert; Meier, Christoph; Wahl, Peter

    2017-04-01

    The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and the Injury Severity Score (ISS) find increasingly widespread use to assess trauma burden and to perform interhospital benchmarking through trauma registries. Since 2015, public resource allocation in Switzerland shall even be derived from such data. As every trauma centre is responsible for its own coding and data input, this study aims at evaluating interobserver reliability of AIS and ISS coding. Interobserver reliability of the AIS and ISS is analysed from a cohort of 50 consecutive severely injured patients treated in 2012 at our institution, coded retrospectively by 3 independent and specifically trained observers. Considering a cutoff ISS≥16, only 38/50 patients (76%) were uniformly identified as polytraumatised or not. Increasing the cut off to ≥20, this increased to 41/50 patients (82%). A difference in the AIS of ≥ 1 was present in 261 (16%) of possible codes. Excluding the vast majority of uninjured body regions, uniformly identical AIS severity values were attributed in 67/193 (35%) body regions, or 318/579 (55%) possible observer pairings. Injury severity all too often is neither identified correctly nor consistently when using the AIS. This leads to wrong identification of severely injured patients using the ISS. Improving consistency of coding through centralisation is recommended before scores based on the AIS are to be used for interhospital benchmarking and resource allocation in the treatment of severely injured patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Improving the identification of people with dementia in primary care: evaluation of the impact of primary care dementia coding guidance on identified prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Paul; Banerjee, Sube; Watt, Jen; Adleman, Rosalyn; Agoe, Belinda; Burnie, Nerida; Carefull, Alex; Chandan, Kiran; Constable, Dominie; Daniels, Mark; Davies, David; Deshmukh, Sid; Huddart, Martin; Jabin, Ashrafi; Jarrett, Penelope; King, Jenifer; Koch, Tamar; Kumar, Sanjoy; Lees, Stavroula; Mir, Sinan; Naidoo, Dominic; Nyame, Sylvia; Sasae, Ryuichiro; Sharma, Tushar; Thormod, Clare; Vedavanam, Krish; Wilton, Anja; Flaherty, Breda

    2013-12-23

    Improving dementia care is a policy priority nationally and internationally; there is a 'diagnosis gap' with less than half of the cases of dementia ever diagnosed. The English Health Department's Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) encourages primary care recognition and recording of dementia. The codes for dementia are complex with the possibility of underidentification through miscoding. We developed guidance on coding of dementia; we report the impact of applying this to 'clean up' dementia coding and records at a practice level. The guidance had five elements: (1) identify Read Codes for dementia; (2) access QOF dementia register; (3) generate lists of patients who may have dementia; (4) compare search with QOF data and (5) review cases. In each practice, one general practitioner conducted the exercise. The number of dementia QOF registers before and after the exercise was recorded with the hours taken to complete the exercise. London primary care. 23 (85%) of 27 practices participated, covering 79 312 (19 562 over 65 s) participants. The number on dementia QOF registers; time taken. The number of people with dementia on QOF registers increased from 1007 to 1139 (χ(2)=8.17, p=0.004), raising identification rates by 8.8%. It took 4.7 h per practice, on an average. These data demonstrate the potential of a simple primary care coding exercise, requiring no specific training, to increase the dementia identification rate. An improvement of 8.8% between 2011 and 2012 is equivalent to that of the fourth most improved primary care trust in the UK. In absolute terms, if this effects were mirrored across the UK primary care, the number of cases with dementia identified would rise by over 70 000 from 364 329 to 434 488 raising the recognition rate from 46% to 54.8%. Implementing this exercise appears to be a simple and effective way to improve recognition rates in primary care.

  12. Beneficiary contact moderates relationship between authentic leadership and engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caren B. Scheepers

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Beneficiary contact moderates the relationship between authentic leadership and work engagement. Research purpose: The objective of this study was to examine the moderating effect of the breadth, depth and frequency of employee interaction with the beneficiaries of their work on the positive impact of authentic leadership on work engagement. Motivation for the study: Investigating the boundary conditions of the relationship between leaders and followers is vital to enhance the positive effect of leadership. Authentic leadership has not previously been examined with respect to beneficiary contact as a specific situational factor. The researchers therefore set out to ascertain whether beneficiary contact has a strengthening or weakening effect on the impact of authentic leadership on work engagement. Research design, approach and method: The researchers administered the Authentic Leadership Questionnaire (ALQ, the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9 and Grant’s scale on Beneficiary Contact. Main findings: The findings showed that beneficiary contact had a weakening effect on the positive relationship between authentic leadership and work engagement. Practical/managerial implications: Ideally, organisations create environments conducive to work engagement in which leadership plays an important role. This study found that one factor in the work environment, namely beneficiary contact, might have an adverse effect on the positive relationship that authentic leadership has on work engagement. Leaders should therefore take organisational contextual realities into account, such as regular, intense interaction of employees with the beneficiaries of their work. This situation could create strain for individual employees, requiring additional organisational support. Contribution/value-add: Organisations need to recognise the impact of beneficiary contact on the relationship between authentic leadership and work engagement. The researchers

  13. The fusion protein signal-peptide-coding region of canine distemper virus: a useful tool for phylogenetic reconstruction and lineage identification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Sarute

    Full Text Available Canine distemper virus (CDV; Paramyxoviridae, Morbillivirus is the etiologic agent of a multisystemic infectious disease affecting all terrestrial carnivore families with high incidence and mortality in domestic dogs. Sequence analysis of the hemagglutinin (H gene has been widely employed to characterize field strains, permitting the identification of nine CDV lineages worldwide. Recently, it has been established that the sequences of the fusion protein signal-peptide (Fsp coding region are extremely variable, suggesting that analysis of its sequence might be useful for strain characterization studies. However, the divergence of Fsp sequences among worldwide strains and its phylogenetic resolution has not yet been evaluated. We constructed datasets containing the Fsp-coding region and H gene sequences of the same strains belonging to eight CDV lineages. Both datasets were used to evaluate their phylogenetic resolution. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that both datasets clustered the same strains into eight different branches, corresponding to CDV lineages. The inter-lineage amino acid divergence was fourfold greater for the Fsp peptide than for the H protein. The likelihood mapping revealed that both datasets display strong phylogenetic signals in the region of well-resolved topologies. These features indicate that Fsp-coding region sequence analysis is suitable for evolutionary studies as it allows for straightforward identification of CDV lineages.

  14. The fusion protein signal-peptide-coding region of canine distemper virus: a useful tool for phylogenetic reconstruction and lineage identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarute, Nicolás; Calderón, Marina Gallo; Pérez, Ruben; La Torre, José; Hernández, Martín; Francia, Lourdes; Panzera, Yanina

    2013-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV; Paramyxoviridae, Morbillivirus) is the etiologic agent of a multisystemic infectious disease affecting all terrestrial carnivore families with high incidence and mortality in domestic dogs. Sequence analysis of the hemagglutinin (H) gene has been widely employed to characterize field strains, permitting the identification of nine CDV lineages worldwide. Recently, it has been established that the sequences of the fusion protein signal-peptide (Fsp) coding region are extremely variable, suggesting that analysis of its sequence might be useful for strain characterization studies. However, the divergence of Fsp sequences among worldwide strains and its phylogenetic resolution has not yet been evaluated. We constructed datasets containing the Fsp-coding region and H gene sequences of the same strains belonging to eight CDV lineages. Both datasets were used to evaluate their phylogenetic resolution. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that both datasets clustered the same strains into eight different branches, corresponding to CDV lineages. The inter-lineage amino acid divergence was fourfold greater for the Fsp peptide than for the H protein. The likelihood mapping revealed that both datasets display strong phylogenetic signals in the region of well-resolved topologies. These features indicate that Fsp-coding region sequence analysis is suitable for evolutionary studies as it allows for straightforward identification of CDV lineages.

  15. Cloning and identification of the gene coding for the 140-kd subunit of Drosophila RNA polymerase II

    OpenAIRE

    Faust, Daniela M.; Renkawitz-Pohl, Renate; Falkenburg, Dieter; Gasch, Alexander; Bialojan, Siegfried; Young, Richard A.; Bautz, Ekkehard K. F.

    1986-01-01

    Genomic clones of Drosophila melanogaster were isolated from a λ library by cross-hybridization with the yeast gene coding for the 150-kd subunit of RNA polymerase II. Clones containing a region of ∼2.0 kb with strong homology to the yeast gene were shown to code for a 3.9-kb poly(A)+-RNA. Part of the coding region was cloned into an expression vector. A fusion protein was obtained which reacted with an antibody directed against RNA polymerase II of Drosophila. Peptide mapping of the fusion p...

  16. 42 CFR 424.54 - Payment to the beneficiary's legal guardian or representative payee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment to the beneficiary's legal guardian or... Ordinarily Made § 424.54 Payment to the beneficiary's legal guardian or representative payee. Medicare may pay amounts due a beneficiary to the beneficiary's legal guardian or representative payee. ...

  17. Beneficiary price sensitivity in the Medicare prescription drug plan market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frakt, Austin B; Pizer, Steven D

    2010-01-01

    The Medicare stand-alone prescription drug plan (PDP) came into existence in 2006 as part of the Medicare prescription drug benefit. It is the most popular plan type among Medicare drug plans and large numbers of plans are available to all beneficiaries. In this article we present the first analysis of beneficiary price sensitivity in the PDP market. Our estimate of elasticity of enrollment with respect to premium, -1.45, is larger in magnitude than has been found in the Medicare HMO market. This high degree of beneficiary price sensitivity for PDPs is consistent with relatively low product differentiation, low fixed costs of entry in the PDP market, and the fact that, in contrast to changing HMOs, beneficiaries can select a PDP without disrupting doctor-patient relationships.

  18. Basic Stand Alone Skilled Nursing Facility Beneficiary PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Skilled Nursing Facility (SNF) Beneficiary Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare SNF claims. The...

  19. U.S. Outpatient Beneficiary Satisfaction at Korean Hospitals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hayman, Alex L

    2008-01-01

    .... The analysis measured overall patient satisfaction as it relates to beneficiary category, gender and command sponsorship. The project data was utilized to verify and/or identify potential target areas of patient satisfaction.

  20. Observation Status, Poverty, and High Financial Liability Among Medicare Beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Jennifer N; Zhang, Zugui; Schwartz, J Sanford; Hicks, LeRoi S

    2018-01-01

    Medicare beneficiaries hospitalized under observation status are subject to cost-sharing with no spending limit under Medicare Part B. Because low-income status is associated with increased hospital use, there is concern that such beneficiaries may be at increased risk for high use and out-of-pocket costs related to observation care. Our objective was to determine whether low-income Medicare beneficiaries are at risk for high use and high financial liability for observation care compared with higher-income beneficiaries. We performed a retrospective, observational analysis of Medicare Part B claims and US Census Bureau data from 2013. Medicare beneficiaries with Part A and B coverage for the full calendar year, with 1 or more observation stay(s), were included in the study. Beneficiaries were divided into quartiles representing poverty level. The associations between poverty quartile and high use of observation care and between poverty quartile and high financial liability for observation care were evaluated. After multivariate adjustment, the risk of high use was higher for beneficiaries in the poor (Quartile 3) and poorest (Quartile 4) quartiles compared with those in the wealthiest quartile (Quartile 1) (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-1.31; AOR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.16-1.33). The risk of high financial liability was higher in every poverty quartile compared with the wealthiest and peaked in Quartile 3, which represented the poor but not the poorest beneficiaries (AOR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.10-1.24). Poverty predicts high use of observation care. The poor or near poor may be at highest risk for high liability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification of Novel Long Non-coding and Circular RNAs in Human Papillomavirus-Mediated Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide and the fourth leading cause of cancer-associated mortality in women. Accumulating evidence indicates that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs and circular RNAs (circRNAs may play key roles in the carcinogenesis of different cancers; however, little is known about the mechanisms of lncRNAs and circRNAs in the progression and metastasis of cervical cancer. In this study, we explored the expression profiles of lncRNAs, circRNAs, miRNAs, and mRNAs in HPV16 (human papillomavirus genotype 16 mediated cervical squamous cell carcinoma and matched adjacent non-tumor (ATN tissues from three patients with high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq. In total, we identified 19 lncRNAs, 99 circRNAs, 28 miRNAs, and 304 mRNAs that were commonly differentially expressed (DE in different patients. Among the non-coding RNAs, 3 lncRNAs and 44 circRNAs are novel to our knowledge. Functional enrichment analysis showed that DE lncRNAs, miRNAs, and mRNAs were enriched in pathways crucial to cancer as well as other gene ontology (GO terms. Furthermore, the co-expression network and function prediction suggested that all 19 DE lncRNAs could play different roles in the carcinogenesis and development of cervical cancer. The competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA network based on DE coding and non-coding RNAs showed that each miRNA targeted a number of lncRNAs and circRNAs. The link between part of the miRNAs in the network and cervical cancer has been validated in previous studies, and these miRNAs targeted the majority of the novel non-coding RNAs, thus suggesting that these novel non-coding RNAs may be involved in cervical cancer. Taken together, our study shows that DE non-coding RNAs could be further developed as diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers of cervical cancer. The complex ceRNA network also lays the foundation for future research of the roles of coding and non-coding RNAs in cervical cancer.

  2. Identification of Novel Long Non-coding and Circular RNAs in Human Papillomavirus-Mediated Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbo; Zhao, Yingchao; Chen, Mingyue; Cui, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide and the fourth leading cause of cancer-associated mortality in women. Accumulating evidence indicates that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and circular RNAs (circRNAs) may play key roles in the carcinogenesis of different cancers; however, little is known about the mechanisms of lncRNAs and circRNAs in the progression and metastasis of cervical cancer. In this study, we explored the expression profiles of lncRNAs, circRNAs, miRNAs, and mRNAs in HPV16 (human papillomavirus genotype 16) mediated cervical squamous cell carcinoma and matched adjacent non-tumor (ATN) tissues from three patients with high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). In total, we identified 19 lncRNAs, 99 circRNAs, 28 miRNAs, and 304 mRNAs that were commonly differentially expressed (DE) in different patients. Among the non-coding RNAs, 3 lncRNAs and 44 circRNAs are novel to our knowledge. Functional enrichment analysis showed that DE lncRNAs, miRNAs, and mRNAs were enriched in pathways crucial to cancer as well as other gene ontology (GO) terms. Furthermore, the co-expression network and function prediction suggested that all 19 DE lncRNAs could play different roles in the carcinogenesis and development of cervical cancer. The competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network based on DE coding and non-coding RNAs showed that each miRNA targeted a number of lncRNAs and circRNAs. The link between part of the miRNAs in the network and cervical cancer has been validated in previous studies, and these miRNAs targeted the majority of the novel non-coding RNAs, thus suggesting that these novel non-coding RNAs may be involved in cervical cancer. Taken together, our study shows that DE non-coding RNAs could be further developed as diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers of cervical cancer. The complex ceRNA network also lays the foundation for future research of the roles of coding and non-coding RNAs in cervical cancer. PMID:28970820

  3. Identification of small non-coding RNA classes expressed in swine whole blood during HP-PRRSV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been established that reduced susceptibility to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has a genetic component. This genetic component may take the form of small non-coding RNAs (sncRNA), which are molecules that function as regulators of gene expression. Various sncRNAs ...

  4. Self-reported Function, Health Resource Use, and Total Health Care Costs Among Medicare Beneficiaries With Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prager, Alisa J; Liebmann, Jeffrey M; Cioffi, George A; Blumberg, Dana M

    2016-04-01

    The effect of glaucoma on nonglaucomatous medical conditions and resultant secondary health care costs is not well understood. To assess self-reported medical conditions, the use of medical services, and total health care costs among Medicare beneficiaries with glaucoma. Longitudinal observational study of 72,587 Medicare beneficiaries in the general community using the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (2004-2009). Coding to extract data started in January 2015, and analyses were performed between May and July 2015. Self-reported health, the use of health care services, adjusted mean annual total health care costs per person, and adjusted mean annual nonoutpatient costs per person. Participants were 72,587 Medicare beneficiaries 65 years or older with (n = 4441) and without (n = 68,146) a glaucoma diagnosis in the year before collection of survey data. Their mean age was 76.9 years, and 43.2% were male. Patients with glaucoma who responded to survey questions on visual disability were stratified into those with (n = 1748) and without (n = 2639) self-reported visual disability. Medicare beneficiaries with glaucoma had higher adjusted odds of inpatient hospitalizations (odds ratio [OR], 1.27; 95% CI, 1.17-1.39; P total health care costs and $2599 (95% CI, $1985-$3212; P total and nonoutpatient medical costs. Perception of vision loss among patients with glaucoma may be associated with depression, falls, and difficulty walking. Reducing the prevalence and severity of glaucoma may result in improvements in associated nonglaucomatous medical conditions and resultant reduction in health care costs.

  5. Identification and antigenic characterization of virulence-associated, plasmid-coded proteins of Shigella spp. and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Hale, T L; Oaks, E V; Formal, S B

    1985-01-01

    Seven plasmid-coded polypeptides, designated a through g, were identified by two-dimensional nonequilibrium pH gradient electrophoresis of radiolabeled extracts from minicells of virulent Shigella flexneri serotypes 2a and 5 and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli O143. These polypeptides were deemed to be products of 140-megadalton (MDa) virulence-associated plasmids because they were not synthesized in minicells which were not harboring a 140-MDa plasmid or in minicells which were carrying an F...

  6. Flu shots and the characteristics of unvaccinated elderly Medicare beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochner, Kimberly A; Wynne, Marc

    2011-12-21

    Data from the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey, 2009. • Overall, 73% of Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years and older reported receiving a flu shot for the 2008 flu season, but vaccination rates varied by socio-demographic characteristics. Flu vaccination was lowest for beneficiaries aged 65-74 years old, who were non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanics, were not married, had less than a high school education, or who were eligible for Medicaid (i.e., dual eligibles). • Healthcare utilization and personal health behavior were also related to vaccination rates, with current smokers and those with no hospitalizations or physician visits being less likely to be vaccinated. • Among those beneficiaries who reported receiving a flu shot, 59% received it in a physician's office or clinic, with the next most common setting being in the community (21%); e.g., grocery store, shopping mall, library, or church. • Among those beneficiaries who did not receive a flu shot, the most common reasons were beliefs that the shot could cause side effects or disease (20%), that they didn't think the shot could prevent the flu (17%), or that the shot wasn't needed (16%). Less than 1% reported that they didn't get the flu shot because of cost. Elderly persons (aged 65 years and older) are at increased risk of complications from influenza, with the majority of influenza-related hospitalizations and deaths occurring among the elderly (Fiore et al., 2010). Most physicians recommend their elderly patients get a flu shot each year, and many hospitals inquire about elderly patient's immunization status upon admission, providing a vaccination if requested. The importance of getting a flu shot is underscored by the Department of Health and Human Services' Healthy People initiative, which has set a vaccination goal of 90% for the Nation's elderly by the year 2020 (Department of Health and Human Services [DHHS], 2011). Although all costs related to flu shots are covered by Medicare, requiring

  7. IdentiCS – Identification of coding sequence and in silico reconstruction of the metabolic network directly from unannotated low-coverage bacterial genome sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng An-Ping

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A necessary step for a genome level analysis of the cellular metabolism is the in silico reconstruction of the metabolic network from genome sequences. The available methods are mainly based on the annotation of genome sequences including two successive steps, the prediction of coding sequences (CDS and their function assignment. The annotation process takes time. The available methods often encounter difficulties when dealing with unfinished error-containing genomic sequence. Results In this work a fast method is proposed to use unannotated genome sequence for predicting CDSs and for an in silico reconstruction of metabolic networks. Instead of using predicted genes or CDSs to query public databases, entries from public DNA or protein databases are used as queries to search a local database of the unannotated genome sequence to predict CDSs. Functions are assigned to the predicted CDSs simultaneously. The well-annotated genome of Salmonella typhimurium LT2 is used as an example to demonstrate the applicability of the method. 97.7% of the CDSs in the original annotation are correctly identified. The use of SWISS-PROT-TrEMBL databases resulted in an identification of 98.9% of CDSs that have EC-numbers in the published annotation. Furthermore, two versions of sequences of the bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae with different genome coverage (3.9 and 7.9 fold, respectively are examined. The results suggest that a 3.9-fold coverage of the bacterial genome could be sufficiently used for the in silico reconstruction of the metabolic network. Compared to other gene finding methods such as CRITICA our method is more suitable for exploiting sequences of low genome coverage. Based on the new method, a program called IdentiCS (Identification of Coding Sequences from Unfinished Genome Sequences is delivered that combines the identification of CDSs with the reconstruction, comparison and visualization of metabolic networks (free to download

  8. Utilizing elements of the CSAU phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT) to qualify a PWR non-LOCA transients system code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, K.R.; Fletcher, C.D.; Gottula, R.C.; Lindquist, T.R.; Stitt, B.D. [Framatome ANP, Richland, WA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Licensing analyses of Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Standard Review Plan (SRP) Chapter 15 non-LOCA transients are an important part of establishing operational safety limits and design limits for nuclear power plants. The applied codes and methods are generally qualified using traditional methods of benchmarking and assessment, sample problems, and demonstration of conservatism. Rigorous formal methods for developing code and methodology have been created and applied to qualify realistic methods for Large Break Loss-of-Coolant Accidents (LBLOCA's). This methodology, Code Scaling, Applicability, and Uncertainty (CSAU), is a very demanding, resource intensive, process to apply. It would be challenging to apply a comprehensive and complete CSAU level of analysis, individually, to each of the more than 30 non-LOCA transients that comprise Chapter 15 events. However, certain elements of the process can be easily adapted to improve quality of the codes and methods used to analyze non- LOCA transients. One of these elements is the Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT). This paper presents the results of an informally constructed PIRT that applies to non-LOCA transients for Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR's) of the Westinghouse and Combustion Engineering design. A group of experts in thermal-hydraulics and safety analysis identified and ranked the phenomena. To begin the process, the PIRT was initially performed individually by each expert. Then through group interaction and discussion, a consensus was reached on both the significant phenomena and the appropriate ranking. The paper also discusses using the PIRT as an aid to qualify a 'conservative' system code and methodology. Once agreement was obtained on the phenomena and ranking, the table was divided into six functional groups, by nature of the transients, along the same lines as Chapter 15. Then, assessment and disposition of the significant phenomena was performed. The PIRT and

  9. Identification and Functional Analysis of Long Intergenic Non-coding RNAs Underlying Intramuscular Fat Content in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Zou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Intramuscular fat (IMF content is an important trait that can affect pork quality. Previous studies have identified many genes that can regulate IMF. Long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs are emerging as key regulators in various biological processes. However, lincRNAs related to IMF in pig are largely unknown, and the mechanisms by which they regulate IMF are yet to be elucidated. Here we reconstructed 105,687 transcripts and identified 1,032 lincRNAs in pig longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM of four stages with different IMF contents based on published RNA-seq. These lincRNAs show typical characteristics such as shorter length and lower expression compared with protein-coding genes. Combined with methylation data, we found that both the promoter and genebody methylation of lincRNAs can negatively regulate lincRNA expression. We found that lincRNAs exhibit high correlation with their protein-coding neighbors in expression. Co-expression network analysis resulted in eight stage-specific modules, gene ontology and pathway analysis of them suggested that some lincRNAs were involved in IMF-related processes, such as fatty acid metabolism and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathway. Furthermore, we identified hub lincRNAs and found six of them may play important roles in IMF development. This work detailed some lincRNAs which may affect of IMF development in pig, and facilitated future research on these lincRNAs and molecular assisted breeding for pig.

  10. Analysis of Satisfaction Degree of the Public Insurance System Beneficiaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela PANAITESCU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The public insurance system provides financial benefits to individuals that are obtained by collecting the due contributions. The analysis of satisfaction degree of the beneficiaries of the system was carried out to determine the challenges the system is facing and for determining the needs of the beneficiaries. In order to reduce the financial constraints the public insurance system is facing, it is necessary to create an appropriate insurance system that meets the needs of the beneficiaries. The research took into account that the public insurance system determines the quality of life of the population and has a strong influence on the economy, particularly on the labour market and the capital market.

  11. Properties of non-coding DNA and identification of putative cis-regulatory elements in Theileria parva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Xiang

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parasites in the genus Theileria cause lymphoproliferative diseases in cattle, resulting in enormous socio-economic losses. The availability of the genome sequences and annotation for T. parva and T. annulata has facilitated the study of parasite biology and their relationship with host cell transformation and tropism. However, the mechanism of transcriptional regulation in this genus, which may be key to understanding fundamental aspects of its parasitology, remains poorly understood. In this study, we analyze the evolution of non-coding sequences in the Theileria genome and identify conserved sequence elements that may be involved in gene regulation of these parasitic species. Results Intergenic regions and introns in Theileria are short, and their length distributions are considerably right-skewed. Intergenic regions flanked by genes in 5'-5' orientation tend to be longer and slightly more AT-rich than those flanked by two stop codons; intergenic regions flanked by genes in 3'-5' orientation have intermediate values of length and AT composition. Intron position is negatively correlated with intron length, and positively correlated with GC content. Using stringent criteria, we identified a set of high-quality orthologous non-coding sequences between T. parva and T. annulata, and determined the distribution of selective constraints across regions, which are shown to be higher close to translation start sites. A positive correlation between constraint and length in both intergenic regions and introns suggests a tight control over length expansion of non-coding regions. Genome-wide searches for functional elements revealed several conserved motifs in intergenic regions of Theileria genomes. Two such motifs are preferentially located within the first 60 base pairs upstream of transcription start sites in T. parva, are preferentially associated with specific protein functional categories, and have significant similarity to know

  12. Identification and characterization of wheat long non-protein coding RNAs responsive to powdery mildew infection and heat stress by using microarray analysis and SBS sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Huiru

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biotic and abiotic stresses, such as powdery mildew infection and high temperature, are important limiting factors for yield and grain quality in wheat production. Emerging evidences suggest that long non-protein coding RNAs (npcRNAs are developmentally regulated and play roles in development and stress responses of plants. However, identification of long npcRNAs is limited to a few plant species, such as Arabidopsis, rice and maize, no systematic identification of long npcRNAs and their responses to abiotic and biotic stresses is reported in wheat. Results In this study, by using computational analysis and experimental approach we identified 125 putative wheat stress responsive long npcRNAs, which are not conserved among plant species. Among them, some were precursors of small RNAs such as microRNAs and siRNAs, two long npcRNAs were identified as signal recognition particle (SRP 7S RNA variants, and three were characterized as U3 snoRNAs. We found that wheat long npcRNAs showed tissue dependent expression patterns and were responsive to powdery mildew infection and heat stress. Conclusion Our results indicated that diverse sets of wheat long npcRNAs were responsive to powdery mildew infection and heat stress, and could function in wheat responses to both biotic and abiotic stresses, which provided a starting point to understand their functions and regulatory mechanisms in the future.

  13. Mobile, hybrid Compton/coded aperture imaging for detection, identification and localization of gamma-ray sources at stand-off distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornga, Shawn R.

    The Stand-off Radiation Detection System (SORDS) program is an Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD) project through the Department of Homeland Security's Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) with the goal of detection, identification and localization of weak radiological sources in the presence of large dynamic backgrounds. The Raytheon-SORDS Tri-Modal Imager (TMI) is a mobile truck-based, hybrid gamma-ray imaging system able to quickly detect, identify and localize, radiation sources at standoff distances through improved sensitivity while minimizing the false alarm rate. Reconstruction of gamma-ray sources is performed using a combination of two imaging modalities; coded aperture and Compton scatter imaging. The TMI consists of 35 sodium iodide (NaI) crystals 5x5x2 in3 each, arranged in a random coded aperture mask array (CA), followed by 30 position sensitive NaI bars each 24x2.5x3 in3 called the detection array (DA). The CA array acts as both a coded aperture mask and scattering detector for Compton events. The large-area DA array acts as a collection detector for both Compton scattered events and coded aperture events. In this thesis, developed coded aperture, Compton and hybrid imaging algorithms will be described along with their performance. It will be shown that multiple imaging modalities can be fused to improve detection sensitivity over a broader energy range than either alone. Since the TMI is a moving system, peripheral data, such as a Global Positioning System (GPS) and Inertial Navigation System (INS) must also be incorporated. A method of adapting static imaging algorithms to a moving platform has been developed. Also, algorithms were developed in parallel with detector hardware, through the use of extensive simulations performed with the Geometry and Tracking Toolkit v4 (GEANT4). Simulations have been well validated against measured data. Results of image reconstruction algorithms at various speeds and distances will be presented as well as

  14. cDNA sequence of human transforming gene hst and identification of the coding sequence required for transforming activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taira, M.; Yoshida, T.; Miyagawa, K.; Sakamoto, H.; Terada, M.; Sugimura, T.

    1987-01-01

    The hst gene was originally identified as a transforming gene in DNAs from human stomach cancers and from a noncancerous portion of stomach mucosa by DNA-mediated transfection assay using NIH3T3 cells. cDNA clones of hst were isolated from the cDNA library constructed from poly(A) + RNA of a secondary transformant induced by the DNA from a stomach cancer. The sequence analysis of the hst cDNA revealed the presence of two open reading frames. When this cDNA was inserted into an expression vector containing the simian virus 40 promoter, it efficiently induced the transformation of NIH3T3 cells upon transfection. It was found that one of the reading frames, which coded for 206 amino acids, was responsible for the transforming activity

  15. Identification of Thioredoxin Disulfide Targets Using a Quantitative Proteomics Approach Based on Isotope-Coded Affinity Tags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hägglund, Per; Bunkenborg, Jakob; Maeda, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    Thioredoxin (Trx) is a ubiquitous protein disulfide reductase involved in a wide range of cellular redox processes. A large number of putative target proteins have been identified using proteomics approaches, but insight into target specificity at the molecular level is lacking since the reactivity...... of Trx toward individual disulfides has not been quantified. Here, a novel proteomics procedure is described for quantification of Trx-mediated target disulfide reduction based on thiol-specific differential labeling with the iodoacetamide-based isotope-coded affinity tag (ICAT) reagents. Briefly......, protein extract of embryos from germinated barley seeds was treated +/- Trx, and thiols released from target protein disulfides were irreversibly blocked with iodoacetamide. The remaining cysteine residues in the Trx-treated and the control (-Trx) samples were then chemically reduced and labeled...

  16. Identification of small non-coding RNA classes expressed in swine whole blood during HP-PRRSV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Damarius S; Miller, Laura C

    2018-04-01

    It has been established that reduced susceptibility to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has a genetic component. This genetic component may take the form of small non-coding RNAs (sncRNA), which are molecules that function as regulators of gene expression. Various sncRNAs have emerged as having an important role in the immune system in humans. The study uses transcriptomic read counts to profile the type and quantity of both well and lesser characterized sncRNAs, such as microRNAs and small nucleolar RNAs to identify and quantify the classes of sncRNA expressed in whole blood between healthy and highly pathogenic PRRSV-infected pigs. Our results returned evidence on nine classes of sncRNA, four of which were consistently statistically significantly different based on Fisher's Exact Test, that can be detected and possibly interrogated for their effect on host dysregulation during PRRSV infections. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. 78 FR 53507 - Agency Information Collection (Beneficiary Travel Mileage Reimbursement Application Form...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-NEW] Agency Information Collection (Beneficiary Travel Mileage Reimbursement Application Form) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Health... Control No. 2900- NEW (Beneficiary Travel Mileage Reimbursement Application Form)'' in any correspondence...

  18. 7 CFR 1710.104 - Service to non-RE Act beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... GUARANTEES Loan Purposes and Basic Policies § 1710.104 Service to non-RE Act beneficiaries. (a) To the... made to finance electric facilities to serve consumers that are not RE Act beneficiaries. (b) Loan...

  19. Identification of developmentally regulated PCP-responsive non-coding RNA, prt6, in the rat thalamus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironao Takebayashi

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia and similar psychoses induced by NMDA-type glutamate receptor antagonists, such as phencyclidine (PCP and ketamine, usually develop after adolescence. Moreover, adult-type behavioral disturbance following NMDA receptor antagonist application in rodents is observed after a critical period at around 3 postnatal weeks. These observations suggest that the schizophrenic symptoms caused by and psychotomimetic effects of NMDA antagonists require the maturation of certain brain neuron circuits and molecular networks, which differentially respond to NMDA receptor antagonists across adolescence and the critical period. From this viewpoint, we have identified a novel developmentally regulated phencyclidine-responsive transcript from the rat thalamus, designated as prt6, as a candidate molecule involved in the above schizophrenia-related systems using a DNA microarray technique. The transcript is a non-coding RNA that includes sequences of at least two microRNAs, miR132 and miR212, and is expressed strongly in the brain and testis, with trace or non-detectable levels in the spleen, heart, liver, kidney, lung and skeletal muscle, as revealed by Northern blot analysis. The systemic administration of PCP (7.5 mg/kg, subcutaneously (s.c. significantly elevated the expression of prt6 mRNA in the thalamus at postnatal days (PD 32 and 50, but not at PD 8, 13, 20, or 24 as compared to saline-treated controls. At PD 50, another NMDA receptor antagonist, dizocilpine (0.5 mg/kg, s.c., and a schizophrenomimetic dopamine agonist, methamphetamine (4.8 mg/kg, s.c., mimicked a significant increase in the levels of thalamic prt6 mRNAs, while a D2 dopmamine receptor antagonist, haloperidol, partly inhibited the increasing influence of PCP on thalamic prt6 expression without its own effects. These data indicate that prt6 may be involved in the pathophysiology of the onset of drug-induced schizophrenia-like symptoms and schizophrenia through the possible

  20. 32 CFR 728.59 - Peace Corps beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... beneficiaries seeking dental care will be requested, whenever possible, to furnish advanced authorization. (5... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL MEDICAL AND DENTAL CARE... sponsor. (4) Dental care. Limit dental care to emergencies. Render only that care essential to relieve...

  1. 29 CFR 4.133 - Beneficiary of contract services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... service and laundry and dry cleaning service for personnel at military installations. Furthermore, there... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Beneficiary of contract services. 4.133 Section 4.133 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor LABOR STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SERVICE CONTRACTS Application of the...

  2. Wellbeing of Beneficiaries of the University Based Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E M IGBOKWE

    The possibility of doing this won't be without the efforts of ... Nigeria in different higher institutions of learning have been adopted in different ... of UBAES and ADP are to engage in programmes that will see to the ... 6 months span) and weighted mean was used to rate beneficiaries access to these ... cars, farm size etc.

  3. Micronutrient deficiencies in food aid beneficiaries: A review of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... in food aid beneficiary populations and to guide the formulation of food aid products, this ... In some cases, food aid rations provide insufficient quantity and quality of ... studies found documenting the nutritional status of non-emergency food aid recipients.

  4. Differences between paid and unpaid social services for beneficiaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, Judith; Roza, Lonneke; Meijs, Lucas; van Baren, Eva; Hoogervorst, Niek

    2017-01-01

    In many Western welfare states, social work services that have traditionally been provided by paid employees are being replaced by family support, community support, informal networks and volunteering. For the field of social work, it is relevant to know what it matters to beneficiaries whether

  5. 42 CFR 478.40 - Beneficiary's right to a hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATIONS RECONSIDERATIONS AND APPEALS Utilization and Quality Control Quality Improvement Organization (QIO) Reconsiderations and Appeals § 478.40 Beneficiary's right to a... under the Hospital Insurance Program, of part 405 of this chapter apply to hearings and appeals under...

  6. 42 CFR 412.507 - Limitation on charges to beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... prospective payment system. If Medicare has paid the full LTC-DRG payment, that payment applies to the... SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Long-Term Care Hospitals § 412.507 Limitation on charges to beneficiaries. (a) Prohibited...

  7. A Marketing Assessment of Beneficiaries at Kimbrough Army Community Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    environment, organizational goal formulation, strategy formulation, Marketing Assessment 10 organization and systems design ( Kotler , 1987). Second...environmental analysis itself is concerned with identifying marketing opportunities, threats, environmental trends and their implications ( Kotler , 1987...decision to develop beneficiary subgroups was based on the marketing principle of market segmentation which assumes that no one strategy will work for

  8. Body Pain Reporting in Tricare Eligible Beneficiaries with Orofacial Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    provider performed a standard orofacial pain clinical examination. This included at a minimum a cranial nerve exam, shoulder and cervical range of...Attachment 2 Date The author hereby certifies that the use of any copyrighted material in the thesis manuscript entitled: Body pain reporting in...Tricare eligible beneficiaries with orofacial pain

  9. 5 CFR 1651.4 - How to change or cancel a designation of beneficiary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of beneficiary, the participant must submit to the TSP record keeper a new TSP designation of beneficiary form meeting the requirements of § 1651.3 to the TSP record keeper. If the TSP receives more than... the participant. A participant may change a TSP beneficiary at any time, without the knowledge or...

  10. Identification of long non-coding RNAs in two anthozoan species and their possible implications for coral bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen; Morlighem, Jean-Étienne R L; Cai, Jing; Liao, Qiwen; Perez, Carlos Daniel; Gomes, Paula Braga; Guo, Min; Rádis-Baptista, Gandhi; Lee, Simon Ming-Yuen

    2017-07-13

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to play regulatory roles in a diverse range of biological processes and are associated with the outcomes of various diseases. The majority of studies about lncRNAs focus on model organisms, with lessened investigation in non-model organisms to date. Herein, we have undertaken an investigation on lncRNA in two zoanthids (cnidarian): Protolpalythoa varibilis and Palythoa caribaeorum. A total of 11,206 and 13,240 lncRNAs were detected in P. variabilis and P. caribaeorum transcriptome, respectively. Comparison using NONCODE database indicated that the majority of these lncRNAs is taxonomically species-restricted with no identifiable orthologs. Even so, we found cases in which short regions of P. caribaeorum's lncRNAs were similar to vertebrate species' lncRNAs, and could be associated with lncRNA conserved regulatory functions. Consequently, some high-confidence lncRNA-mRNA interactions were predicted based on such conserved regions, therefore revealing possible involvement of lncRNAs in posttranscriptional processing and regulation in anthozoans. Moreover, investigation of differentially expressed lncRNAs, in healthy colonies and colonial individuals undergoing natural bleaching, indicated that some up-regulated lncRNAs in P. caribaeorum could posttranscriptionally regulate the mRNAs encoding proteins of Ras-mediated signal transduction pathway and components of innate immune-system, which could contribute to the molecular response of coral bleaching.

  11. Promoting pneumococcal immunizations among rural Medicare beneficiaries using multiple strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Elizabeth A; Harwell, Todd S; Donahue, Peg M; Weisner, M'liss A; McInerney, Michael J; Holzman, Greg S; Helgerson, Steven D

    2003-01-01

    Vaccine-preventable diseases among adults are major contributing causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States. However, adult immunizations continue to be underutilized in both urban and rural areas. To evaluate the effectiveness of a community-wide education campaign and mailed reminders promoting pneumococcal immunizations to rural Medicare beneficiaries. We implemented a community-wide education campaign, and mailed reminders were sent to Medicare beneficiaries in 1 media market in Montana to increase pneumococcal immunizations. In a second distinct media market, mailed reminders only were sent to beneficiaries. The proportion of respondents aged 65 years and older aware of pneumococcal immunizations increased significantly from baseline to follow-up among respondents both in the education-plus-reminder (63% to 78%, P = 0.04) and the reminder-only (64% to 74%, P = 0.05) markets. Overall from 1998 to 1999, there was a 3.7-percentage-point increase in pneumococcal immunization claims for Medicare beneficiaries in the education-plus-reminder market and a 1.5-percentage-point increase in the reminder-only market. Medicare beneficiaries sent reminders in the education-plus-reminder market compared to those in the reminder-only market were more likely to have a claim for pneumococcal immunization in 1999 (odds ratio 1.18, 95% confidence interval 1.08 to 1.28). The results suggest that these quality improvement strategies (community education plus reminders and reminders alone) modestly increased pneumococcal immunization awareness and pneumococcal immunization among rural adults. Mailed reminder exposure was associated with an increased prevalence of pneumococcal immunizations between 1998 and 1999 and was augmented somewhat by the education campaign.

  12. Perceptions of Usefulness: Using the Holland Code Theory, Multiple Intelligences Theory, and Role Model Identification to Determine a Career Niche in the Fashion Industry for First-Quarter Fashion Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Crystal D.

    2010-01-01

    This action research study investigated the perceptions that student participants had on the development of a career exploration model and a career exploration project. The Holland code theory was the primary assessment used for this research study, in addition to the Multiple Intelligences theory and the identification of a role model for the…

  13. Systematic identification of non-coding RNA 2,2,7-trimethylguanosine cap structures in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skogerbø Geir

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 2,2,7-trimethylguanosine (TMG cap structure is an important functional characteristic of ncRNAs with critical cellular roles, such as some snRNAs. Here we used immunoprecipitation with both K121 and R1131 anti-TMG antibodies to systematically identify the TMG cap structures for all presently characterized ncRNAs in C. elegans. Results The two anti-TMG antibodies precipitated a similar group of the C. elegans ncRNAs. All snRNAs known to have a TMG cap structure were found in the precipitate, indicating that our identification system was efficient. Other ncRNA families related to splicing, such as SL RNAs and Sm Y RNAs, were also found in the precipitate, as were 7 C/D box snoRNAs. Further analysis showed that the SL RNAs and the Sm Y RNAs shared a very similar Sm binding site element (AAU4–5GGA, which sequence composition differed somewhat from those of other U snRNAs. There were also 16 ncRNAs without an Sm binding site element in the precipitate, suggesting that for these ncRNAs, TMG formation may occur independently of Sm proteins. Conclusion Our results showed that most ncRNAs predicted to be transcribed by RNA polymerase II had a TMG cap, while those predicted to be transcribed by RNA plymerase III or located in introns did not have a TMG cap structure. Compared to ncRNAs without a TMG cap, TMG-capped ncRNAs tended to have higher expression levels. Five functionally non-annotated ncRNAs also have a TMG cap structure, which might be helpful for identifying the cellular roles of these ncRNAs.

  14. Identification of microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs involved in fatty acid biosynthesis in tree peony seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Dan-Dan; Li, Shan-Shan; Shu, Qing-Yan; Gu, Zhao-Yu; Wu, Qian; Feng, Cheng-Yong; Xu, Wen-Zhong; Wang, Liang-Sheng

    2018-08-05

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) act as important molecular regulators in a wide range of biological processes during plant development and seed formation, including oil production. Tree peony seeds contain >90% unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) and high proportions of α-linolenic acid (ALA, > 40%). To dissect the non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) pathway involved in fatty acids synthesis in tree peony seeds, we construct six small RNA libraries and six transcriptome libraries from developing seeds of two cultivars (J and S) containing different content of fatty acid compositions. After deep sequencing the RNA libraries, the ncRNA expression profiles of tree peony seeds in two cultivars were systematically and comparatively analyzed. A total of 318 known and 153 new miRNAs and 22,430 lncRNAs were identified, among which 106 conserved and 9 novel miRNAs and 2785 lncRNAs were differentially expressed between the two cultivars. In addition, potential target genes of the microRNA and lncRNAs were also predicted and annotated. Among them, 9 miRNAs and 39 lncRNAs were predicted to target lipid related genes. Results showed that all of miR414, miR156b, miR2673b, miR7826, novel-m0027-5p, TR24651|c0_g1, TR24544|c0_g15, and TR27305|c0_g1 were up-regulated and expressed at a higher level in high-ALA cultivar J when compared to low-ALA cultivar S, suggesting that these ncRNAs and target genes are possibly involved in different fatty acid synthesis and lipid metabolism through post-transcriptional regulation. These results provide a better understanding of the roles of ncRNAs during fatty acid biosynthesis and metabolism in tree peony seeds. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Genome-wide identification and characterization of long non-coding RNAs in developmental skeletal muscle of fetal goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Siyuan; Dong, Yao; Zhao, Wei; Guo, Jiazhong; Zhong, Tao; Wang, Linjie; Li, Li; Zhang, Hongping

    2016-08-22

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been studied extensively over the past few years. Large numbers of lncRNAs have been identified in mouse, rat, and human, and some of them have been shown to play important roles in muscle development and myogenesis. However, there are few reports on the characterization of lncRNAs covering all the development stages of skeletal muscle in livestock. RNA libraries constructed from developing longissimus dorsi muscle of fetal (45, 60, and 105 days of gestation) and postnatal (3 days after birth) goat (Capra hircus) were sequenced. A total of 1,034,049,894 clean reads were generated. Among them, 3981 lncRNA transcripts corresponding to 2739 lncRNA genes were identified, including 3515 intergenic lncRNAs and 466 anti-sense lncRNAs. Notably, in pairwise comparisons between the libraries of skeletal muscle at the different development stages, a total of 577 transcripts were differentially expressed (P development-related processes, indicating they may be in cis-regulatory relationships. Additionally, Pearson's correlation coefficients of co-expression levels suggested 1737 lncRNAs and 19,422 mRNAs were possibly in trans-regulatory relationships (r > 0.95 or r development-related biological processes such as muscle system processes, regulation of cell growth, muscle cell development, regulation of transcription, and embryonic morphogenesis. This study provides a catalog of goat muscle-related lncRNAs, and will contribute to a fuller understanding of the molecular mechanism underpinning muscle development in mammals.

  16. Identification of an ICP27-responsive element in the coding region of a herpes simplex virus type 1 late gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlackova, Lenka; Perkins, Keith D; Meyer, Julia; Strain, Anna K; Goldman, Oksana; Rice, Stephen A

    2010-03-01

    During productive herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection, a subset of viral delayed-early (DE) and late (L) genes require the immediate-early (IE) protein ICP27 for their expression. However, the cis-acting regulatory sequences in DE and L genes that mediate their specific induction by ICP27 are unknown. One viral L gene that is highly dependent on ICP27 is that encoding glycoprotein C (gC). We previously demonstrated that this gene is posttranscriptionally transactivated by ICP27 in a plasmid cotransfection assay. Based on our past results, we hypothesized that the gC gene possesses a cis-acting inhibitory sequence and that ICP27 overcomes the effects of this sequence to enable efficient gC expression. To test this model, we systematically deleted sequences from the body of the gC gene and tested the resulting constructs for expression. In so doing, we identified a 258-bp "silencing element" (SE) in the 5' portion of the gC coding region. When present, the SE inhibits gC mRNA accumulation from a transiently transfected gC gene, unless ICP27 is present. Moreover, the SE can be transferred to another HSV-1 gene, where it inhibits mRNA accumulation in the absence of ICP27 and confers high-level expression in the presence of ICP27. Thus, for the first time, an ICP27-responsive sequence has been identified in a physiologically relevant ICP27 target gene. To see if the SE functions during viral infection, we engineered HSV-1 recombinants that lack the SE, either in a wild-type (WT) or ICP27-null genetic background. In an ICP27-null background, deletion of the SE led to ICP27-independent expression of the gC gene, demonstrating that the SE functions during viral infection. Surprisingly, the ICP27-independent gC expression seen with the mutant occurred even in the absence of viral DNA synthesis, indicating that the SE helps to regulate the tight DNA replication-dependent expression of gC.

  17. The affordable care ACT on loyalty programs for federal beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentino, Justin J; Williams, Karl G

    2014-02-01

    To discuss changes in the law that allow community pharmacy loyalty programs to include and offer incentives to Medicare and Medicaid beneficiaries. The retailer rewards exception of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 and its change to the definition of remuneration in the civil monetary penalties of the Anti-Kickback Statute now allow incentives to be earned on federal benefit tied prescription out-of-pocket costs. The criteria required to design a compliant loyalty program are discussed. Community pharmacies can now include Medicare and Medicaid beneficiaries in compliant customer loyalty programs, where allowed by state law. There is a need for research directly on the influence of loyalty programs and nominal incentives on adherence.

  18. The phenomenon of factoring, benefits for beneficiary and national economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasavica Petar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The essay encompasses three thematic units focused on the phenomenon of factoring and its benefits for beneficiaries and national economies. In the first part the essay analyses background, concept and participants, types of factoring products, and how factoring functions from the perspective of involved risks. In the second part the essay analyses benefits of factoring for beneficiaries, especially their financial performances and how factoring decreases collection risk and costs of working capital financing. In the third part the essay analyses benefits of factoring for national economies tackling its capabilities to support declining companies and how factoring upgrades macroeconomic figures and features of financial sector. This part explains the way how national economies are organized through international factoring based on two factor systems. The goal of the essay is to pinpoint micro benefits and their impact on macro environment, i.e. national economy.

  19. Rates, Amounts, and Determinants of Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring Claim Reimbursements Among Medicare Beneficiaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Shia T.; Shimbo, Daichi; Huang, Lei; Diaz, Keith M.; Viera, Anthony J.; Kilgore, Meredith; Oparil, Suzanne; Muntner, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) can be used to identify white coat hypertension and guide hypertensive treatment. We determined the percentage of ABPM claims submitted between 2007–2010 that were reimbursed. Among 1,970 Medicare beneficiaries with submitted claims, ABPM was reimbursed for 93.8% of claims that had an ICD-9 diagnosis code of 796.2 (“elevated blood pressure reading without diagnosis of hypertension”) versus 28.5% of claims without this code. Among claims without an ICD-9 diagnosis code of 796.2 listed, those for the component (e.g., recording, scanning analysis, physician review, reporting) versus full ABPM procedures and performed by institutional versus non-institutional providers were each more than two times as likely to be successfully reimbursed. Of the claims reimbursed, the median payment was $52.01 (25–75th percentiles: $32.95–$64.98). In conclusion, educating providers on the ABPM claims reimbursement process and evaluation of Medicare reimbursement may increase the appropriate use of ABPM and improve patient care. PMID:25492833

  20. The Expanded Public Works Programme: Perspectives of direct beneficiaries

    OpenAIRE

    Mondli S. Hlatshwayo

    2017-01-01

    Scholarship on the Expanded Public Works Programme (EPWP) in South Africa tends to focus on quantitative evaluation to measure the progress made in the implementation of EPWP projects. The number of employment opportunities created by EPWP, demographic profiling, skills acquired by beneficiaries and training opportunities related to the Programme form the basis of typical statistical evaluations of it, but exclude comment by the workers who participate in its projects. Based on primary source...

  1. Use of gonioscopy in medicare beneficiaries before glaucoma surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Anne L; Yu, Fei; Evans, Stacy J

    2006-12-01

    The American Academy of Ophthalmology Preferred Practice Patterns for angle closure and open-angle glaucoma (OAG) patients recommends performing bilateral gonioscopy upon initial presentation to evaluate the possibility of narrow angle or angle-closure glaucoma (ACG) and then repeating the examination at least every 5 years. This study aims to assess how commonly eye care providers perform gonioscopy before planned glaucoma surgery in OAG, anatomic narrow angle, and ACG in the Medicare population. Data obtained from a 5% random sample of Medicare beneficiaries undergoing glaucoma surgery in the United States in 1999 were retrospectively reviewed. The proportion of patients with evidence of at least one gonioscopic examination before glaucoma surgery was determined for the period of 1995 to 1999. Demographic and clinical factors potentially influencing the decision to perform gonioscopy were also examined. Overall, gonioscopy is apparently performed in 49% of Medicare beneficiaries during the 4 to 5 years preceding glaucoma surgery. This rate was significantly lower (P gonioscopy rates (P Gonioscopy examination before glaucoma surgery in Medicare beneficiaries is underused, undercoded, and/or miscoded, given current recommendations. Underuse is of particular concern in patients undergoing laser iridotomy as it is the diagnostic test of choice in ACG.

  2. Site investigation SFR. Rock type coding, overview geological mapping and identification of rock units and possible deformation zones in drill cores from the construction of SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersson, Jesper (Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Stockholm (Sweden)); Curtis, Philip; Bockgaard, Niclas (Golder Associates AB (Sweden)); Mattsson, Haakan (GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden))

    2011-01-15

    This report presents the rock type coding, overview lithological mapping and identification of rock units and possible deformation zones in drill cores from 32 boreholes associated with the construction of SFR. This work can be seen as complementary to single-hole interpretations of other older SFR boreholes earlier reported in /Petersson and Andersson 2010/: KFR04, KFR08, KFR09, KFR13, KFR35, KFR36, KFR54, KFR55, KFR7A, KFR7B and KFR7C. Due to deficiencies in the available material, the necessary activities have deviated somewhat from the established methodologies used during the recent Forsmark site investigations for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The aim of the current work has been, wherever possible, to allow the incorporation of all relevant material from older boreholes in the ongoing SFR geological modelling work in spite of the deficiencies. The activities include: - Rock type coding of the original geological mapping according to the nomenclature used during the preceding Forsmark site investigation. As part of the Forsmark site investigation such rock type coding has already been performed on most of the old SFR boreholes if the original geological mapping results were available. This earlier work has been complemented by rock type coding on two further boreholes: KFR01 and KFR02. - Lithological overview mapping, including documentation of (1) rock types, (2) ductile and brittle-ductile deformation and (3) alteration for drill cores from eleven of the boreholes for which no original geological borehole mapping was available (KFR31, KFR32, KFR34, KFR37,KFR38, KFR51, KFR69, KFR70, KFR71, KFR72 and KFR89). - Identification of possible deformation zones and merging of similar rock types into rock units. This follows SKB's established criteria and methodology of the geological Single-hole interpretation (SHI) process wherever possible. Deviations from the standard SHI process are associated with the lack of data, for example BIPS images

  3. Site investigation SFR. Rock type coding, overview geological mapping and identification of rock units and possible deformation zones in drill cores from the construction of SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersson, Jesper; Curtis, Philip; Bockgaard, Niclas; Mattsson, Haakan

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the rock type coding, overview lithological mapping and identification of rock units and possible deformation zones in drill cores from 32 boreholes associated with the construction of SFR. This work can be seen as complementary to single-hole interpretations of other older SFR boreholes earlier reported in /Petersson and Andersson 2010/: KFR04, KFR08, KFR09, KFR13, KFR35, KFR36, KFR54, KFR55, KFR7A, KFR7B and KFR7C. Due to deficiencies in the available material, the necessary activities have deviated somewhat from the established methodologies used during the recent Forsmark site investigations for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The aim of the current work has been, wherever possible, to allow the incorporation of all relevant material from older boreholes in the ongoing SFR geological modelling work in spite of the deficiencies. The activities include: - Rock type coding of the original geological mapping according to the nomenclature used during the preceding Forsmark site investigation. As part of the Forsmark site investigation such rock type coding has already been performed on most of the old SFR boreholes if the original geological mapping results were available. This earlier work has been complemented by rock type coding on two further boreholes: KFR01 and KFR02. - Lithological overview mapping, including documentation of (1) rock types, (2) ductile and brittle-ductile deformation and (3) alteration for drill cores from eleven of the boreholes for which no original geological borehole mapping was available (KFR31, KFR32, KFR34, KFR37,KFR38, KFR51, KFR69, KFR70, KFR71, KFR72 and KFR89). - Identification of possible deformation zones and merging of similar rock types into rock units. This follows SKB's established criteria and methodology of the geological Single-hole interpretation (SHI) process wherever possible. Deviations from the standard SHI process are associated with the lack of data, for example BIPS images, or a

  4. Discontinuity of Medicaid Coverage: Impact on Cost and Utilization Among Adult Medicaid Beneficiaries With Major Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xu; Wilk, Adam S; Druss, Benjamin G; Lally, Cathy; Cummings, Janet R

    2017-08-01

    Gaps in Medicaid coverage may disrupt access to and continuity of care. This can be detrimental for beneficiaries with chronic conditions, such as major depression, for whom disruptions in access to outpatient care may lead to increased use of acute care. However, little is known about how Medicaid coverage discontinuities impact acute care utilization among adults with depression. Examine the relationship between Medicaid discontinuities and service utilization among adults with major depression. A total of 139,164 adults (18-64) with major depression was identified using the 2003-2004 Medicaid Analytic eXtract Files. We used generalized linear and two-part models to examine the effect of Medicaid discontinuity on service utilization. To establish causality in this relationship, we used instrumental variables analysis, relying on exogenous variation in a state-level policy for identification. Emergency department (ED) visits, inpatient episodes, inpatient days, and Medicaid-reimbursed costs. Approximately 29.4% of beneficiaries experienced coverage disruptions. In instrumental variables models, those with coverage disruptions incurred an increase of $650 in acute care costs per-person per Medicaid-covered month compared with those with continuous coverage, evidenced by an increase in ED use (0.1 more ED visits per-person-month) and inpatient days (0.6 more days per-person-month). The increase in acute costs contributed to an overall increase in all-cause costs by $310 per-person-month (all P-valuesMedicaid coverage may help prevent acute episodes requiring high-cost interventions.

  5. Code Cactus; Code Cactus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fajeau, M; Nguyen, L T; Saunier, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1966-09-01

    This code handles the following problems: -1) Analysis of thermal experiments on a water loop at high or low pressure; steady state or transient behavior; -2) Analysis of thermal and hydrodynamic behavior of water-cooled and moderated reactors, at either high or low pressure, with boiling permitted; fuel elements are assumed to be flat plates: - Flowrate in parallel channels coupled or not by conduction across plates, with conditions of pressure drops or flowrate, variable or not with respect to time is given; the power can be coupled to reactor kinetics calculation or supplied by the code user. The code, containing a schematic representation of safety rod behavior, is a one dimensional, multi-channel code, and has as its complement (FLID), a one-channel, two-dimensional code. (authors) [French] Ce code permet de traiter les problemes ci-dessous: 1. Depouillement d'essais thermiques sur boucle a eau, haute ou basse pression, en regime permanent ou transitoire; 2. Etudes thermiques et hydrauliques de reacteurs a eau, a plaques, a haute ou basse pression, ebullition permise: - repartition entre canaux paralleles, couples on non par conduction a travers plaques, pour des conditions de debit ou de pertes de charge imposees, variables ou non dans le temps; - la puissance peut etre couplee a la neutronique et une representation schematique des actions de securite est prevue. Ce code (Cactus) a une dimension d'espace et plusieurs canaux, a pour complement Flid qui traite l'etude d'un seul canal a deux dimensions. (auteurs)

  6. Depression Following Thrombotic Cardiovascular Events in Elderly Medicare Beneficiaries: Risk of Morbidity and Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Blanchette

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Depression and antidepressant use may independently increase the risk of acute myocardial infarction and mortality in adults. However, no studies have looked at the effect of depression on a broader thrombotic event outcome, assessed antidepressant use, or evaluated elderly adults. Methods. A cohort of 7,051 community-dwelling elderly beneficiaries who experienced a thrombotic cardiovascular event (TCE were pooled from the 1997 to 2002 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey and followed for 12 months. Baseline characteristics, antidepressant utilization, and death were ascertained from the survey, while indexed TCE, recurrent TCE, and depression (within 6 months of indexed TCE were taken from ICD-9 codes on Medicare claims. Time to death and first recurrent TCE were assessed using descriptive and multivariate statistics. Results. Of the elders with a depression claim, 71.6% had a recurrent TCE and 4.7% died within 12 months of their indexed TCE, compared to 67.6% and 3.9% of those elders without a depression claim. Of the antidepressant users, 72.6% experienced a recurrent TCE and 3.9% died, compared to 73.7% and 4.6% in the subset of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI users. Depression was associated with a shorter time to death (P=.008 in the unadjusted analysis. However, all adjusted comparisons revealed no effect by depression, antidepressant use, or SSRI use. Conclusions. Depression was not associated with time to death or recurrent TCEs in this study. Antidepressant use, including measures of any antidepressant use and SSRI use, was not associated with shorter time to death or recurrent TCE.

  7. Transgender Medicare Beneficiaries and Chronic Conditions: Exploring Fee-for-Service Claims Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerino, Paul; Ewald, Erin; Laffan, Alison M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Data on the health and well-being of the transgender population are limited. However, using claims data we can identify transgender Medicare beneficiaries (TMBs) with high confidence. We seek to describe the TMB population and provide comparisons of chronic disease burden between TMBs and cisgender Medicare beneficiaries (CMBs), thus laying a foundation for national level TMB health disparity research. Methods: Using a previously validated claims algorithm based on ICD-9-CM codes relating to transsexualism and gender identity disorder, we identified a cohort of TMBs using Medicare Fee-for-Service (FFS) claims data. We then describe the demographic characteristics and chronic disease burden of TMBs (N = 7454) and CMBs (N = 39,136,229). Results: Compared to CMBs, a greater observed proportion of TMBs are young (under age 65) and Black, although these differences vary by entitlement. Regardless of entitlement, TMBs have more chronic conditions than CMBs, and more TMBs have been diagnosed with asthma, autism spectrum disorder, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, depression, hepatitis, HIV, schizophrenia, and substance use disorders. TMBs also have higher observed rates of potentially disabling mental health and neurological/chronic pain conditions, as well as obesity and other liver conditions (nonhepatitis), compared to CMBs. Conclusion: This is the first systematic look at chronic disease burden in the transgender population using Medicare FFS claims data. We found that TMBs experience multiple chronic conditions at higher rates than CMBs, regardless of Medicare entitlement. TMBs under age 65 show an already heavy chronic disease burden which will only be exacerbated with age. PMID:29125908

  8. Determinants of Medicare plan choices: are beneficiaries more influenced by premiums or benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Paul D; Buntin, Melinda B

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the sensitivity of Medicare beneficiaries to premiums and benefits when selecting healthcare plans after the introduction of Part D. We matched respondents in the 2008 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey to the Medicare Advantage (MA) plans available to them using the Bid Pricing Tool and previously unavailable data on beneficiaries' plan choices. We estimated a 2-stage nested logit model of Medicare plan choice decision making, including the decision to choose traditional fee-for-service (FFS) Medicare or an MA plan, and for those choosing MA, which specific plan they chose. Beneficiaries living in areas with higher average monthly rebates available from MA plans were more likely to choose MA rather than FFS. When choosing MA plans, beneficiaries are roughly 2 to 3 times more responsive to dollars spent to reduce cost sharing than reductions in their premium. We calculated an elasticity of plan choice with respect to the monthly MA premium of -0.20. Beneficiaries with lower incomes are more sensitive to plan premiums and cost sharing than higher-income beneficiaries. MA plans appear to have a limited incentive to aggressively price their products, and seem to compete primarily over reduced beneficiary cost sharing. Given the limitations of the current plan choice environment, policies designed to encourage the selection of lower-cost plans may require increasing premium differences between plans and providing the tools to enable beneficiaries to easily assess those differences.

  9. Study and Redefining Beneficiary Participation in Process Of House Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monshizadeh Morteza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since housing has a special place in human life and his physical, psychological and interactions, so in addition the unity of humans, multiplicity and diversity of them must be considered. This possible only by beneficiary participation in the design process, but because society has different economic and social texture and classes; and settling suit because of the time and place of special indexes are entitled, so prepare a comprehensive model includes the testimony and circumstances; identify factors influencing participation optimum need to selection population and certain species of private construction. Standard tool to study topic does not exist, so in order to produce tools using qualitative research methods; interpretation - historical correlation to extract components and variables and their effects on each other and enjoyed target table Content consisting of four domains of general knowledge - specialized knowledge of participation - participation mechanisms and factors influencing participation achieved. Extracted factors are: the initial formation of partnership - partnership executive process - the role of participant - optimal participation; by study and analyze the theoretical model. Due to history and social aspects; cultural participation in Shiraz; promote scientific and participatory approach designed to make operating housing; bed and new horizons of development of facilities and areas in the design of residential environment created and due consultation and decision making in addition to beneficiary participation to promote optimum utility of space; mutual flexibility and utilization of space; increase fixation and motivation will lead beneficiary reside” and the main question: “how is the model of scientific position optimal participation planning instrument in private housing in the city of Shiraz, in the process of design, implementation and use”.

  10. Economic burden of hospitalizations of Medicare beneficiaries with heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilgore M

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Meredith Kilgore,1 Harshali K Patel,2 Adrian Kielhorn,2 Juan F Maya,2 Pradeep Sharma1 1Department of Health Care Organization and Policy, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, 2Amgen, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, USA Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the costs associated with the hospitalization and the cumulative 30-, 60-, and 90-day readmission rates in a cohort of Medicare beneficiaries with heart failure (HF.Methods: This was a retrospective, observational study based on data from the national 5% sample of Medicare beneficiaries. Inpatient data were gathered for Medicare beneficiaries with at least one HF-related hospitalization between July 1, 2005, and December 31, 2011. The primary end point was the average per-patient cost of hospitalization for individuals with HF. Secondary end points included the cumulative rate of hospitalization, the average length of hospital stay, and the cumulative 30-, 60-, and 90-day readmission rates.Results: Data from 63,678 patients with a mean age of 81.8 years were included in the analysis. All costs were inflated to $2,015 based on the medical care component of the Consumer Price Index. The mean per-patient cost of an HF-related hospitalization was $14,631. The mean per-patient cost of a cardiovascular (CV-related or all-cause hospitalization was $16,000 and $15,924, respectively. The cumulative rate of all-cause hospitalization was 218.8 admissions per 100 person-years, and the median length of stay for HF-related, CV-related, and all-cause hospitalizations was 5 days. Also, 22.3% of patients were readmitted within 30 days, 33.3% were readmitted within 60 days, and 40.2% were readmitted within 90 days.Conclusion: The costs associated with hospitalization for Medicare beneficiaries with HF are substantial and are compounded by a high rate of readmission. Keywords: heart failure, Medicare, health economics, hospitalization, costs

  11. Impact of HIV Infection on Medicare Beneficiaries with Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. Y.; Moore, P. C.; Lensing, S. Y.

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of lung cancer among individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is elevated compared to that among the general population. This study examines the prevalence of HIV and its impact on outcomes among Medicare beneficiaries who are 65 years of age or older and were diagnosed with non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) between 1997 and 2008. Prevalence of HIV was estimated using the Poisson point estimate and its 95% confidence interval. Relative risks for potential risk factors were estimated using the log-binomial model. A total of 111,219 Medicare beneficiaries met the study criteria. The prevalence of HIV was 156.4 per 100,000 (95% CI: 140.8 to 173.8) and has increased with time. Stage at NSCLC diagnosis did not vary by HIV status. Mortality rates due to all causes were 44%, 76%, and 88% for patients with stage I/II, III, and IV NSCLC, respectively. Across stages of disease, there was no difference between those who were HIV-infected and those who were not with respect to overall mortality. HIV patients, however, were more likely to die of causes other than lung cancer than their immunocompetent counterparts.

  12. Medication adherence and Medicare expenditure among beneficiaries with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopert, Ruth; Shoemaker, J Samantha; Davidoff, Amy; Shaffer, Thomas; Abdulhalim, Abdulla M; Lloyd, Jennifer; Stuart, Bruce

    2012-09-01

    To (1) measure utilization of and adherence to heart failure medications and (2) assess whether better adherence is associated with lower Medicare spending. Pooled cross-sectional design using six 3-year cohorts of Medicare beneficiaries with congestive heart failure (CHF) from 1997 through 2005 (N = 2204). Adherence to treatment was measured using average daily pill counts. Bivariate and multivariate methods were used to examine the relationship between medication adherence and Medicare spending. Multivariate analyses included extensive variables to control for confounding, including healthy adherer bias. Approximately 58% of the cohort were taking an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), 72% a diuretic, 37% a beta-blocker, and 34% a cardiac glycoside. Unadjusted results showed that a 10% increase in average daily pill count for ACE inhibitors or ARBs, beta-blockers, diuretics, or cardiac glycosides was associated with reductions in Medicare spending of $508 (not significant [NS]), $608 (NS), $250 (NS), and $1244 (P <.05), respectively. Estimated adjusted marginal effects of a 10% increase in daily pill counts for beta-blockers and cardiac glycosides were reductions in cumulative 3-year Medicare spending of $510 to $561 and $750 to $923, respectively (P <.05). Higher levels of medication adherence among Medicare beneficiaries with CHF were associated with lower cumulative Medicare spending over 3 years, with savings generally exceeding the costs of the drugs in question.

  13. The Expanded Public Works Programme: Perspectives of direct beneficiaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mondli S. Hlatshwayo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Scholarship on the Expanded Public Works Programme (EPWP in South Africa tends to focus on quantitative evaluation to measure the progress made in the implementation of EPWP projects. The number of employment opportunities created by EPWP, demographic profiling, skills acquired by beneficiaries and training opportunities related to the Programme form the basis of typical statistical evaluations of it, but exclude comment by the workers who participate in its projects. Based on primary sources, including in-depth interviews, newspaper reports and internet sources, this article seeks to provide a qualitative review of the EPWP from the perspective of the beneficiaries of municipal EPWP projects. Various South African government sectors hire EPWP workers to provide local services such as cleaning and maintaining infrastructure, but the employment of these workers can still be regarded as precarious, in the sense that they have no job security, earn low wages and have no benefits such as medical aid or pension fund. The interviewees indicated that, although they appreciate the temporary employment opportunities provided by the EPWP, they also experience health and safety risks and lack the advantages of organised labour groupings. Their main disadvantage, however, is that they cannot access permanent employment, which offers better wages and concomitant benefits.

  14. Inflammatory bowel disease and risk of Parkinson's disease in Medicare beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Soto, Alejandra; Gross, Anat; Searles Nielsen, Susan; Dey, Neelendu; Racette, Brad A

    2018-05-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction precedes the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) by several years. PD patients have abnormal aggregation of intestinal α-synuclein, the accumulation of which may be promoted by inflammation. The relationship between intestinal α-synuclein aggregates and central nervous system neuropathology is unknown. Recently, we observed a possible inverse association between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and PD as part of a predictive model of PD. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the relationship between PD risk and IBD and IBD-associated conditions and treatment. Using a case-control design, we identified 89,790 newly diagnosed PD cases and 118,095 population-based controls >65 years of age using comprehensive Medicare data from 2004-2009 including detailed claims data. We classified IBD using International Classification of Diseases version 9 (ICD-9) diagnosis codes. We used logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to evaluate the association between PD and IBD. Covariates included age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking, Elixhauser comorbidities, and health care use. PD was inversely associated with IBD overall (OR = 0.85, 95% CI 0.80-0.91) and with both Crohn's disease (OR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.74-0.93) and ulcerative colitis (OR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.82-0.96). Among beneficiaries with ≥2 ICD-9 codes for IBD, there was an inverse dose-response association between number of IBD ICD-9 codes, as a potential proxy for IBD severity, and PD (p-for-trend = 0.006). IBD is associated with a lower risk of developing PD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 42 CFR 423.6 - Cost-sharing in beneficiary education and enrollment-related costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost-sharing in beneficiary education and enrollment-related costs. 423.6 Section 423.6 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... BENEFIT General Provisions § 423.6 Cost-sharing in beneficiary education and enrollment-related costs. The...

  16. Assessing Medicare beneficiaries' willingness-to-pay for medication therapy management services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelfel, Joseph A; Carr-Lopez, Sian M; Delos Santos, Melanie; Bui, Ann; Patel, Rajul A; Walberg, Mark P; Galal, Suzanne M

    2014-02-01

    To assess Medicare beneficiaries' willingness-to-pay (WTP) for medication therapy management (MTM) services and determine sociodemographic and clinical characteristics influencing this payment amount. A cross-sectional, descriptive study design was adopted to elicit Medicare beneficiaries' WTP for MTM. Nine outreach events in cities across Central/Northern California during Medicare's 2011 open-enrollment period. A total of 277 Medicare beneficiaries participated in the study. Comprehensive MTM was offered to each beneficiary. Pharmacy students conducted the MTM session under the supervision of licensed pharmacists. At the end of each MTM session, beneficiaries were asked to indicate their WTP for the service. Medication, self-reported chronic conditions, and beneficiary demographic data were collected and recorded via a survey during the session. The mean WTP for MTM was $33.15 for the 277 beneficiaries receiving the service and answering the WTP question. WTP by low-income subsidy recipients (mean ± standard deviation; $12.80 ± $24.10) was significantly lower than for nonsubsidy recipients ($41.13 ± $88.79). WTP was significantly (positively) correlated with number of medications regularly taken and annual out-of-pocket drug costs. The mean WTP for MTM was $33.15. WTP for MTM significantly varied by race, subsidy status, and number of prescription medications taken. WTP was significantly higher for nonsubsidy recipients than subsidy recipients, and significantly positively correlated with the number of medications regularly taken and the beneficiary rating of the delivered services.

  17. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(8)-1 - Fraternal beneficiary societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... beneficiary societies. (a) A fraternal beneficiary society is exempt from tax only if operated under the lodge system or for the exclusive benefit of the members so operating. Operating under the lodge system means... parent organization and largely self-governing, called lodges, chapters, or the like. In order to be...

  18. 42 CFR 411.51 - Beneficiary's responsibility with respect to no-fault insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-fault insurance. 411.51 Section 411.51 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... PAYMENT Limitations on Medicare Payment for Services Covered Under Liability or No-Fault Insurance § 411.51 Beneficiary's responsibility with respect to no-fault insurance. (a) The beneficiary is...

  19. [Characteristics of beneficiaries of a GP-centred health care contract in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Tobias; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Ose, Dominik

    2010-11-01

    Since 2004, primary care in Germany has increasingly been provided in special general practitioner (GP)-centred health care contracts (HZV). To date there is limited evidence about the characteristics of their beneficiaries regarding morbidity burden and health care utilization. We analysed insurance claims data from all beneficiaries of the "Allgemeine Ortskrankenkasse (AOK) Baden-Württemberg" listed in 10 general practices that contracted in a special GP-centred health care contract (HZV). We compared beneficiaries enrolled in the HZV with those who were not enrolled in the contract. Comparisons included the number of hospital admissions in 2007-2008 and the Charlson comorbidity index. Insurance claims data of 6,026 beneficiaries were available for analysis. In the third quarter of 2009, 51% (3,066) of the beneficiaries were enrolled in the HZV. They were significantly older (mean 61 years [SD 18 years] vs. 49 years [SD 22 years]; p contract tended to be older and suffered from a higher morbidity burden when compared with beneficiaries of the same health care fund who were not enrolled in the contract. Besides, beneficiaries of the contract had higher numbers of hospital admissions during the two year period before enrolment. These findings have substantial implications for individualized care management approaches that may be offered to beneficiaries of GP-centred health care contracts.

  20. Purchased Behavioral Health Care Received by Military Health System Beneficiaries in Civilian Medical Facilities, 2000-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, Nikki R; Brittingham, Jordan A; Pitner, Ronald O; Tavakoli, Abbas S; Jeffery, Diana D; Haddock, K Sue

    2018-02-06

    Behavioral health conditions are a significant concern for the U.S. military and the Military Health System (MHS) because of decreased military readiness and increased health care utilization. Although MHS beneficiaries receive direct care in military treatment facilities, a disproportionate majority of behavioral health treatment is purchased care received in civilian facilities. Yet, limited evidence exists about purchased behavioral health care received by MHS beneficiaries. This longitudinal study (1) estimated the prevalence of purchased behavioral health care and (2) identified patient and visit characteristics predicting receipt of purchased behavioral health care in acute care facilities from 2000 to 2014. Medical claims with Major Diagnostic Code 19 (mental disorders/diseases) or 20 (alcohol/drug disorders) as primary diagnoses and TRICARE as the primary/secondary payer were analyzed for MHS beneficiaries (n = 17,943) receiving behavioral health care in civilian acute care facilities from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2014. The primary dependent variable, receipt of purchased behavioral health care, was modeled for select mental health and substance use disorders from 2000 to 2014 using generalized estimating equations. Patient characteristics included time, age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Visit types included inpatient hospitalization and emergency department (ED). Time was measured in days and visits were assumed to be correlated over time. Behavioral health care was described by both frequency of patients and visit type. The University of South Carolina Institutional Review Board approved this study. From 2000 to 2014, purchased care visits increased significantly for post-traumatic stress disorder, adjustment, anxiety, mood, bipolar, tobacco use, opioid/combination opioid dependence, nondependent cocaine abuse, psychosocial problems, and suicidal ideation among MHS beneficiaries. The majority of care was received for mental health disorders (78

  1. Disease management for chronically ill beneficiaries in traditional Medicare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bott, David M; Kapp, Mary C; Johnson, Lorraine B; Magno, Linda M

    2009-01-01

    We summarize the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' (CMS's) experience with disease management (DM) in fee-for-service Medicare. Since 1999, the CMS has conducted seven DM demonstrations involving some 300,000 beneficiaries in thirty-five programs. Programs include provider-based, third-party, and hybrid models. Reducing costs sufficient to cover program fees has proved particularly challenging. Final evaluations on twenty programs found three with evidence of quality improvement at or near budget-neutrality, net of fees. Interim monitoring covering at least twenty-one months on the remaining fifteen programs suggests that four are close to covering their fees. Characteristics of the traditional Medicare program present a challenge to these DM models.

  2. Screening and Identification of putative long non coding RNAs from transcriptome data of a high yielding blackgram (Vigna mungo, Cv. T9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar Singh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Blackgram (Vigna mungo is one of primary legumes cultivated throughout India, Cv.T9 being one of its common high yielding cultivar. This article reports RNA sequencing data and a pipeline for prediction of novel long non-coding RNAs from the sequenced data. The raw data generated during sequencing are available at Sequence Read Archive (SRA of NCBI with accession number- SRX1558530 Keywords: Blackgram, Long non-coding RNA, Legumes, RNA sequencing data

  3. Health care utilization and expenditures among Medicaid beneficiaries with neuropathic pain following spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margolis JM

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Jay M Margolis,1 Paul Juneau,1 Alesia Sadosky,2 Joseph C Cappelleri,3 Thomas N Bryce,4 Edward C Nieshoff5 1Truven Health Analytics, Bethesda, MD, USA; 2Pfizer Inc., New York, NY, USA; 3Pfizer Inc., Groton, CT, USA; 4Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, The Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA; 5Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA Background: The study aimed to evaluate health care resource utilization (HRU and costs for neuropathic pain (NeP secondary to spinal cord injury (SCI among Medicaid beneficiaries. Methods: The retrospective longitudinal cohort study used Medicaid beneficiary claims with SCI and evidence of NeP (SCI-NeP cohort matched with a cohort without NeP (SCI-only cohort. Patients had continuous Medicaid eligibility 6 months pre- and 12 months postindex, defined by either a diagnosis of central NeP (ICD-9-CM code 338.0x or a pharmacy claim for an NeP-related antiepileptic or antidepressant drug within 12 months following first SCI diagnosis. Demographics, clinical characteristics, HRU, and expenditures were compared between cohorts. Results: Propensity score-matched cohorts each consisted of 546 patients. Postindex percentages of patients with physician office visits, emergency department visits, SCI- and pain-related procedures, and outpatient prescription utilization were all significantly higher for SCI-NeP (P<0.001. Using regression models to account for covariates, adjusted mean expenditures were US$47,518 for SCI-NeP and US$30,150 for SCI only, yielding incremental costs of US$17,369 (95% confidence interval US$9,753 to US$26,555 for SCI-NeP. Factors significantly associated with increased cost included SCI type, trauma-related SCI, and comorbidity burden. Conclusion: Significantly higher HRU and total costs were incurred by Medicaid patients with NeP secondary to SCI compared with matched SCI-only patients. Keywords: spinal

  4. Market characteristics and awareness of managed care options among elderly beneficiaries enrolled in traditional Medicare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittler, Jessica N; Landon, Bruce E; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Cleary, Paul D

    2011-10-14

    Medicare beneficiaries' awareness of Medicare managed care plans is critical for realizing the potential benefits of coverage choices. To assess the relationships of the number of Medicare risk plans, managed care penetration, and stability of plans in an area with traditional Medicare beneficiaries' awareness of the program. Cross-sectional analysis of Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey data about beneficiaries' awareness and knowledge of Medicare managed care plan availability. Logistic regression models used to assess the relationships between awareness and market characteristics. Traditional Medicare beneficiaries (n = 3,597) who had never been enrolled in Medicare managed care, but had at least one plan available in their area in 2002, and excluding beneficiaries under 65, receiving Medicaid, or with end stage renal disease. Traditional Medicare beneficiaries' knowledge of Medicare managed care plans in general and in their area. Having more Medicare risk plans available was significantly associated with greater awareness, and having an intermediate number of plans (2-4) was significantly associated with more accurate knowledge of Medicare risk plan availability than was having fewer or more plans. Medicare may have more success engaging consumers in choice and capturing the benefits of plan competition by more actively selecting and managing the plan choice set. Public Domain.

  5. Phonological coding during reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinenger, Mallorie

    2014-11-01

    The exact role that phonological coding (the recoding of written, orthographic information into a sound based code) plays during silent reading has been extensively studied for more than a century. Despite the large body of research surrounding the topic, varying theories as to the time course and function of this recoding still exist. The present review synthesizes this body of research, addressing the topics of time course and function in tandem. The varying theories surrounding the function of phonological coding (e.g., that phonological codes aid lexical access, that phonological codes aid comprehension and bolster short-term memory, or that phonological codes are largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers) are first outlined, and the time courses that each maps onto (e.g., that phonological codes come online early [prelexical] or that phonological codes come online late [postlexical]) are discussed. Next the research relevant to each of these proposed functions is reviewed, discussing the varying methodologies that have been used to investigate phonological coding (e.g., response time methods, reading while eye-tracking or recording EEG and MEG, concurrent articulation) and highlighting the advantages and limitations of each with respect to the study of phonological coding. In response to the view that phonological coding is largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers, research on the use of phonological codes in prelingually, profoundly deaf readers is reviewed. Finally, implications for current models of word identification (activation-verification model, Van Orden, 1987; dual-route model, e.g., M. Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001; parallel distributed processing model, Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989) are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Serotype identification and VP1 coding sequence analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus from outbreaks in Eastern and Northern Uganda in 2008/9

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasambula, L.; Belsham, Graham; Siegismund, H. R.

    2012-01-01

    regions, and the presence of FMDV RNA in these samples was determined using a standard diagnostic RT-PCR assay. From the total of 27 positive samples, the VP1 coding region was amplified and sequenced. Each of these sequences showed >99% identity to each other, and just five distinct sequences were...

  7. Coding for effective denial management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jackie; Lineberry, Joe

    2004-01-01

    Nearly everyone will agree that accurate and consistent coding of diagnoses and procedures is the cornerstone for operating a compliant practice. The CPT or HCPCS procedure code tells the payor what service was performed and also (in most cases) determines the amount of payment. The ICD-9-CM diagnosis code, on the other hand, tells the payor why the service was performed. If the diagnosis code does not meet the payor's criteria for medical necessity, all payment for the service will be denied. Implementation of an effective denial management program can help "stop the bleeding." Denial management is a comprehensive process that works in two ways. First, it evaluates the cause of denials and takes steps to prevent them. Second, denial management creates specific procedures for refiling or appealing claims that are initially denied. Accurate, consistent and compliant coding is key to both of these functions. The process of proactively managing claim denials also reveals a practice's administrative strengths and weaknesses, enabling radiology business managers to streamline processes, eliminate duplicated efforts and shift a larger proportion of the staff's focus from paperwork to servicing patients--all of which are sure to enhance operations and improve practice management and office morale. Accurate coding requires a program of ongoing training and education in both CPT and ICD-9-CM coding. Radiology business managers must make education a top priority for their coding staff. Front office staff, technologists and radiologists should also be familiar with the types of information needed for accurate coding. A good staff training program will also cover the proper use of Advance Beneficiary Notices (ABNs). Registration and coding staff should understand how to determine whether the patient's clinical history meets criteria for Medicare coverage, and how to administer an ABN if the exam is likely to be denied. Staff should also understand the restrictions on use of

  8. Coding Partitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Burderi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the study of decipherability conditions for codes weaker than Unique Decipherability (UD, we introduce the notion of coding partition. Such a notion generalizes that of UD code and, for codes that are not UD, allows to recover the ``unique decipherability" at the level of the classes of the partition. By tacking into account the natural order between the partitions, we define the characteristic partition of a code X as the finest coding partition of X. This leads to introduce the canonical decomposition of a code in at most one unambiguouscomponent and other (if any totally ambiguouscomponents. In the case the code is finite, we give an algorithm for computing its canonical partition. This, in particular, allows to decide whether a given partition of a finite code X is a coding partition. This last problem is then approached in the case the code is a rational set. We prove its decidability under the hypothesis that the partition contains a finite number of classes and each class is a rational set. Moreover we conjecture that the canonical partition satisfies such a hypothesis. Finally we consider also some relationships between coding partitions and varieties of codes.

  9. Review of current severe accident management approaches in Europe and identification of related modelling requirements for the computer code ASTEC V2.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermsmeyer, S.

    2015-01-01

    The severe accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) has led to a worldwide review of nuclear safety approaches and is bringing a refocussing of R and D in the field. To support these efforts several new Euratom FP7 projects have been launched. The CESAM project focuses on the improvement of the ASTEC computer code. ASTEC is jointly developed by IRSN and GRS and is considered as the European reference code for Severe Accident Analyses since it capitalizes knowledge from the extensive Euro-pean R and D in the field. The project aims at the code's enhancement and extension for use in Severe Accident Management (SAM) analysis of the NPPs of Generation II-III presently under operation or foreseen in the near future in Europe, spent fuel pools included. The work reported here is concerned with the importance, for the further development of the code, of SAM strategies to be simulated. To this end, SAM strategies applied in the EU have been compiled. This compilation is mainly based on the public information made available in the frame of the EU ''stress tests'' for NPPs and has been complemented by information pro-vided by the different CESAM partners. The context of SAM is explained and the strategies are presented. The modelling capabilities for the simulation of these strategies in the current production version 2.0 of ASTEC are discussed. Furthermore, the requirements for the next version of ASTEC V2.1 that is supported in the CESAM project are highlighted. They are a necessary complement to the list of code improvements that is drawn from consolidating new fields of application, like SFP and BWR model enhancements, and from new experimental results on severe accident phenomena.

  10. Review of current severe accident management approaches in Europe and identification of related modelling requirements for the computer code ASTEC V2.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermsmeyer, S. [European Commission JRC, Petten (Netherlands). Inst. for Energy and Transport; Herranz, L.E.; Iglesias, R. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); and others

    2015-07-15

    The severe accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) has led to a worldwide review of nuclear safety approaches and is bringing a refocussing of R and D in the field. To support these efforts several new Euratom FP7 projects have been launched. The CESAM project focuses on the improvement of the ASTEC computer code. ASTEC is jointly developed by IRSN and GRS and is considered as the European reference code for Severe Accident Analyses since it capitalizes knowledge from the extensive Euro-pean R and D in the field. The project aims at the code's enhancement and extension for use in Severe Accident Management (SAM) analysis of the NPPs of Generation II-III presently under operation or foreseen in the near future in Europe, spent fuel pools included. The work reported here is concerned with the importance, for the further development of the code, of SAM strategies to be simulated. To this end, SAM strategies applied in the EU have been compiled. This compilation is mainly based on the public information made available in the frame of the EU ''stress tests'' for NPPs and has been complemented by information pro-vided by the different CESAM partners. The context of SAM is explained and the strategies are presented. The modelling capabilities for the simulation of these strategies in the current production version 2.0 of ASTEC are discussed. Furthermore, the requirements for the next version of ASTEC V2.1 that is supported in the CESAM project are highlighted. They are a necessary complement to the list of code improvements that is drawn from consolidating new fields of application, like SFP and BWR model enhancements, and from new experimental results on severe accident phenomena.

  11. Medicare hospital spending per patient (Medicare Spending per Beneficiary) – Additional Decimal Places

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The "Medicare hospital spending per patient (Medicare Spending per Beneficiary)" measure shows whether Medicare spends more, less or about the same per Medicare...

  12. 78 FR 78342 - Extension of Autism Services Demonstration Project for TRICARE Beneficiaries Under the Extended...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Extension of Autism Services Demonstration Project... (the Department) Enhanced Access to Autism Services Demonstration Project (Autism Demonstration) under the Extended Care Health Option (ECHO) for beneficiaries diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder...

  13. 76 FR 80903 - Extension of Autism Services Demonstration Project for TRICARE Beneficiaries Under the Extended...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Extension of Autism Services Demonstration Project... Enhanced Access to Autism Services Demonstration Project under the Extended Care Health Option for beneficiaries diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Under the demonstration, the Department...

  14. The price sensitivity of Medicare beneficiaries: a regression discontinuity approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmueller, Thomas C; Grazier, Kyle; Hirth, Richard A; Okeke, Edward N

    2013-01-01

    We use 4 years of data from the retiree health benefits program of the University of Michigan to estimate the effect of price on the health plan choices of Medicare beneficiaries. During the period of our analysis, changes in the University's premium contribution rules led to substantial price changes. A key feature of this 'natural experiment' is that individuals who had retired before a certain date were exempted from having to pay any premium contributions. This 'grandfathering' creates quasi-experimental variation that is ideal for estimating the effect of price. Using regression discontinuity methods, we compare the plan choices of individuals who retired just after the grandfathering cutoff date and were therefore exposed to significant price changes to the choices of a 'control group' of individuals who retired just before that date and therefore did not experience the price changes. The results indicate a statistically significant effect of price, with a $10 increase in monthly premium contributions leading to a 2 to 3 percentage point decrease in a plan's market share. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. How Medicare Could Provide Dental, Vision, and Hearing Care for Beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willink, Amber; Shoen, Cathy; Davis, Karen

    2018-01-01

    The Medicare program specifically excludes coverage of dental, vision, and hearing services. As a result, many beneficiaries do not receive necessary care. Those that do are subject to high out-of-pocket costs. Examine gaps in access to dental, vision, and hearing services for Medicare beneficiaries and design a voluntary dental, vision, and hearing benefit plan with cost estimates. Uses the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey, Cost and Use File, 2012, with population and costs projected to 2016 values. Among Medicare beneficiaries, 75 percent of people who needed a hearing aid did not have one; 70 percent of people who had trouble eating because of their teeth did not go to the dentist in the past year; and 43 percent of people who had trouble seeing did not have an eye exam in the past year. Lack of access was particularly acute for poor beneficiaries. Because few people have supplemental insurance covering these additional services, among people who received care, three-fourths of their costs of dental and hearing services and 60 percent of their costs of vision services were paid out of pocket. We propose a basic benefit package for dental, vision, and hearing services offered as a premium-financed voluntary insurance option under Medicare. Assuming the benefit package could be offered for $25 per month, we estimate the total coverage costs would be $1.924 billion per year, paid for by premiums. Subsidies to reach low-income beneficiaries would follow the same design as the Part D subsidy.

  16. Use of MAAP code for identification of key plant vulnerabilities for the beyond design accidents and their mitigation at NPP Krsko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajnc, B.

    1995-01-01

    NPP Krsko performed according to GL 88-20, Supplement 1-4 and RUJV requirement the Individual Plant Examination analyses. For the required deterministic analyses the MAAP 3.0B code was used. It was proven that such severe accident analysis can be used for evaluation of the overall level of safety improvement that can be gained with the different modifications and alternate design. In this paper one such important outcomes from these analyses will be presented. (author)

  17. Exceeding of Official Powers (Art. 286 of the Criminal Code of Russian Federation: Identification and Analysis of Signs of Object and Victim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey D. Brazhnik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article authors defines attributes of object and victim in the framework of offense "abuse of power" (Article 286 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation and conduct comparative analysis. At the first place questions of what should be considered as object of crime in the Russian legal doctrine. Author believe that "vertical" objects are divided into general, intragenic, clan, group, specific and direct, "horizontal" - at primary, secondary and optional. Author carried out a comprehensive analysis of each object under consideration provisions of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation. Authors give particular attention to the study of victims of this crime. According to authors, lack of the unified approach to this issue is largely generated by the procedural legislation. Author concludes that victims of the power abuse in the criminal law sense may be citizens (any individual, organizations (legal entities, irrespective of their legal form, society and the state. Based on the comprehensive analysis of legal acts, court practice and a wide range of scientific sources authors justify the appropriateness of amending Criminal Code of the Russian Federation.

  18. Improvement of genome assembly completeness and identification of novel full-length protein-coding genes by RNA-seq in the giant panda genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meili; Hu, Yibo; Liu, Jingxing; Wu, Qi; Zhang, Chenglin; Yu, Jun; Xiao, Jingfa; Wei, Fuwen; Wu, Jiayan

    2015-12-11

    High-quality and complete gene models are the basis of whole genome analyses. The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) genome was the first genome sequenced on the basis of solely short reads, but the genome annotation had lacked the support of transcriptomic evidence. In this study, we applied RNA-seq to globally improve the genome assembly completeness and to detect novel expressed transcripts in 12 tissues from giant pandas, by using a transcriptome reconstruction strategy that combined reference-based and de novo methods. Several aspects of genome assembly completeness in the transcribed regions were effectively improved by the de novo assembled transcripts, including genome scaffolding, the detection of small-size assembly errors, the extension of scaffold/contig boundaries, and gap closure. Through expression and homology validation, we detected three groups of novel full-length protein-coding genes. A total of 12.62% of the novel protein-coding genes were validated by proteomic data. GO annotation analysis showed that some of the novel protein-coding genes were involved in pigmentation, anatomical structure formation and reproduction, which might be related to the development and evolution of the black-white pelage, pseudo-thumb and delayed embryonic implantation of giant pandas. The updated genome annotation will help further giant panda studies from both structural and functional perspectives.

  19. Rising Prices of Targeted Oral Anticancer Medications and Associated Financial Burden on Medicare Beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ya-Chen Tina; Xu, Ying; Liu, Lei; Smieliauskas, Fabrice

    2017-08-01

    Purpose The high cost of oncology drugs threatens the affordability of cancer care. Previous research identified drivers of price growth of targeted oral anticancer medications (TOAMs) in private insurance plans and projected the impact of closing the coverage gap in Medicare Part D in 2020. This study examined trends in TOAM prices and patient out-of-pocket (OOP) payments in Medicare Part D and estimated the actual effects on patient OOP payments of partial filling of the coverage gap by 2012. Methods Using SEER linked to Medicare Part D, 2007 to 2012, we identified patients who take TOAMs via National Drug Codes in Part D claims. We calculated total drug costs (prices) and OOP payments per patient per month and compared their rates of inflation with general health care prices. Results The study cohort included 42,111 patients who received TOAMs between 2007 and 2012. Although the general prescription drug consumer price index grew at 3% per year over 2007 to 2012, mean TOAM prices increased by nearly 12% per year, reaching $7,719 per patient per month in 2012. Prices increased over time for newly and previously launched TOAMs. Mean patient OOP payments dropped by 4% per year over the study period, with a 40% drop among patients with a high financial burden in 2011, when the coverage gap began to close. Conclusion Rising TOAM prices threaten the financial relief patients have begun to experience under closure of the coverage gap in Medicare Part D. Policymakers should explore methods of harnessing the surge of novel TOAMs to increase price competition for Medicare beneficiaries.

  20. Are Press Depictions of Affordable Care Act Beneficiaries Favorable to Policy Durability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    If successfully implemented and enduring, the Affordable Care Act (ACA) stands to expand health insurance access in absolute terms, reduce inter-group disparities in that access, and reduce exposure to the financial vulnerabilities illness entails. Its durability--meaning both avoidance of outright retrenchment and fidelity to its policy aims--is thus of scholarly interest. Past literature suggests that social constructions of a policy's beneficiaries may impact durability. This paper first describes media portrayals of ACA beneficiaries with an eye toward answering three descriptive questions: (1) Do portrayals depict beneficiaries as economically heterogeneous? (2) Do portrayals focus attention on groups that have acquired new political relevance due to the ACA, such as young adults? (3) What themes that have served as messages about beneficiary "deservingness" in past social policy are most frequent in ACA beneficiary portrayals? The paper then assesses how the portrayal patterns that these questions uncover may work both for and against the ACA's durability, finding reasons for confidence as well as caution. Using manual and automated methods, this paper analyzes newspaper text from August 2013 through January 2014 to trace portrayals of two ACA "target populations" before and during the new law's first open-enrollment period: those newly eligible for Medicaid, and those eligible for subsidies to assist in the purchase of private health insurance under the ACA. This paper also studies newspaper text portrayals of two groups informally crafted by the ACA in this timeframe: those gaining health insurance and those losing it. The text data uncover the following answers to the three descriptive questions for the timeframe studied: (1) Portrayals may underplay beneficiaries' economic heterogeneity. (2) Portrayals pay little attention to young adults. (3) Portrayals emphasize themes of workforce participation, economic self-sufficiency, and insider status. Health

  1. Factors influencing Poverty Alleviation among Women Credit Beneficiaries in Tanzania: A Case Study of FINCA’s Women Credit beneficiaries in Mwanza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Nyambega Nyang’au

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many credit schemes in Tanzania channel their funds to womenwith the objective of alleviating poverty among them. Despite this, majority ofwomen in the country continue to wallow in poverty. The present research wascarried out among the Foundation for International Community Assistance’s womencredit beneficiaries in Mwanza. The study set out to address the followingobjectives: to analyze the influence of the husband’s cooperation, relevanttraining and interest rate on poverty alleviation among women creditbeneficiaries in Tanzania taking Foundation for International CommunityAssistance in Mwanza as a case study. Using simple regression model, resultsshowed that cooperation from the husband as well as relevant training influencespoverty alleviation among women credit beneficiaries in Tanzania by 56 and 36percent respectively. But interest rate was found to have no significantinfluence at all. The paper recommends that seminars be conducted so thathusbands can be taught the importance of cooperating with their wives. Aboveall giving training to women credit beneficiaries will go a long way insharpening their business skills. Future researchers should research onlaziness and complacency among women credit beneficiaries and the influence onpoverty.

  2. Genome-wide identification and functional prediction of nitrogen-responsive intergenic and intronic long non-coding RNAs in maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yuanda; Liang, Zhikai; Ge, Min; Qi, Weicong; Zhang, Tifu; Lin, Feng; Peng, Zhaohua; Zhao, Han

    2016-05-11

    Nitrogen (N) is an essential and often limiting nutrient to plant growth and development. Previous studies have shown that the mRNA expressions of numerous genes are regulated by nitrogen supplies; however, little is known about the expressed non-coding elements, for example long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) that control the response of maize (Zea mays L.) to nitrogen. LncRNAs are a class of non-coding RNAs larger than 200 bp, which have emerged as key regulators in gene expression. In this study, we surveyed the intergenic/intronic lncRNAs in maize B73 leaves at the V7 stage under conditions of N-deficiency and N-sufficiency using ribosomal RNA depletion and ultra-deep total RNA sequencing approaches. By integration with mRNA expression profiles and physiological evaluations, 7245 lncRNAs and 637 nitrogen-responsive lncRNAs were identified that exhibited unique expression patterns. Co-expression network analysis showed that the nitrogen-responsive lncRNAs were enriched mainly in one of the three co-expressed modules. The genes in the enriched module are mainly involved in NADH dehydrogenase activity, oxidative phosphorylation and the nitrogen compounds metabolic process. We identified a large number of lncRNAs in maize and illustrated their potential regulatory roles in response to N stress. The results lay the foundation for further in-depth understanding of the molecular mechanisms of lncRNAs' role in response to nitrogen stresses.

  3. Genome-wide identification of long non-coding RNA genes and their association with insecticide resistance and metamorphosis in diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feiling; Guo, Dianhao; Yuan, Zhuting; Chen, Chen; Xiao, Huamei

    2017-11-20

    Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) is a class of noncoding RNA >200 bp in length that has essential roles in regulating a variety of biological processes. Here, we constructed a computational pipeline to identify lncRNA genes in the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella), a major insect pest of cruciferous vegetables. In total, 3,324 lncRNAs corresponding to 2,475 loci were identified from 13 RNA-Seq datasets, including samples from parasitized, insecticide-resistant strains and different developmental stages. The identified P. xylostella lncRNAs had shorter transcripts and fewer exons than protein-coding genes. Seven out of nine randomly selected lncRNAs were validated by strand-specific RT-PCR. In total, 54-172 lncRNAs were specifically expressed in the insecticide resistant strains, among which one lncRNA was located adjacent to the sodium channel gene. In addition, 63-135 lncRNAs were specifically expressed in different developmental stages, among which three lncRNAs overlapped or were located adjacent to the metamorphosis-associated genes. These lncRNAs were either strongly or weakly co-expressed with their overlapping or neighboring mRNA genes. In summary, we identified thousands of lncRNAs and presented evidence that lncRNAs might have key roles in conferring insecticide resistance and regulating the metamorphosis development in P. xylostella.

  4. Hospice utilization of Medicare beneficiaries in Hawai‘i compared to other states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Taira

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to examine hospice utilization among Medicare beneficiaries in Hawai‘i compared to other states. Data were from the 2014 Medicare Hospice Utilization and Payment Public Use File, which included information on 4,025 hospice providers, more than 1.3 million hospice beneficiaries, and over $15 billion in Medicare payments. Multivariable linear regression models were estimated to compare hospice utilization in Hawai‘i to that of other states. Control variables included age, gender, and type of Medicare coverage. Medicare beneficiaries using hospice in Hawai‘i differed significantly from beneficiaries in other states in several ways. Hawai‘i beneficiaries were more likely to be Asian (57% vs. 1%, p < .001 and “other race” (10% vs. 0.1%, p < .001, and less likely to be White (28% vs. 84%, p < .001. Hawai‘i beneficiaries were also more likely to have Medicare Advantage (55% vs. 30%, p = .05. Regarding primary diagnoses, hospice users in Hawai‘i were significantly more likely to have a primary diagnosis of stroke (11% vs. 8%, p = .03 and less likely to have respiratory disease (5% vs. 11%, p = .003. In addition, hospice users in Hawai‘i were more likely to use services in their homes (74% vs. 52%, p = .03. Hawai‘i hospice users were also less likely to die while in hospice (42% vs. 47%, p = .002. Characteristics of Medicare beneficiaries in Hawai‘i differ from those in other states, regarding demographic characteristics, type of coverage, primary diagnoses, likelihood of using services in their homes, and death rates. Further research is needed to better understand factors affecting these differences and whether these differences warrant changes in policy or practice.

  5. Racial disparities in poverty account for mortality differences in US medicare beneficiaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul L. Kimmel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Higher mortality in Blacks than Whites has been consistently reported in the US, but previous investigations have not accounted for poverty at the individual level. The health of its population is an important part of the capital of a nation. We examined the association between individual level poverty and disability and racial mortality differences in a 5% Medicare beneficiary random sample from 2004 to 2010. Cox regression models examined associations of race with all-cause mortality, adjusted for demographics, comorbidities, disability, neighborhood income, and Medicare “Buy-in” status (a proxy for individual level poverty in 1,190,510 Black and White beneficiaries between 65 and 99 years old as of January 1, 2014, who had full and primary Medicare Part A and B coverage in 2004, and lived in one of the 50 states or Washington, DC.Overall, black beneficiaries had higher sex-and-age adjusted mortality than Whites (hazard ratio [HR] 1.18. Controlling for health-related measures and disability reduced the HR for Black beneficiaries to 1.03. Adding “Buy-in” as an individual level covariate lowered the HR for Black beneficiaries to 0.92. Neither of the residential measures added to the predictive model. We conclude that poorer health status, excess disability, and most importantly, greater poverty among Black beneficiaries accounts for racial mortality differences in the aged US Medicare population. Poverty fosters social and health inequalities, including mortality disparities, notwithstanding national health insurance for the US elderly. Controlling for individual level poverty, in contrast to the common use of area level poverty in previous analyses, accounts for the White survival advantage in Medicare beneficiaries, and should be a covariate in analyses of administrative databases. Keywords: USA, Poverty, Socioeconomic status, Mortality, Race, Neighborhood, Disability, Disparities, Buy-in, Dual-eligible, Medicare, Medicaid, USRDS

  6. Biometric Fingerprint System to Enable Rapid and Accurate Identification of Beneficiaries

    OpenAIRE

    Storisteanu, Daniel Matthew L; Norman, Toby L; Grigore, Alexandra; Norman, Tristram L

    2015-01-01

    Inability to uniquely identify clients impedes access to services and contributes to inefficiencies. Using a pocket-sized fingerprint scanner that wirelessly syncs with a health worker's smartphone, the SimPrints biometric system can link individuals' fingerprints to their health records. A pilot in Bangladesh will assess its potential.

  7. 42 CFR 136a.16 - Beneficiary Identification Cards and verification of tribal membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the charter, articles of incorporation, or other legal instruments or traditional processes of the... making their determination. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0915...

  8. Low-pass shotgun sequencing of the barley genome facilitates rapid identification of genes, conserved non-coding sequences and novel repeats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graner Andreas

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Barley has one of the largest and most complex genomes of all economically important food crops. The rise of new short read sequencing technologies such as Illumina/Solexa permits such large genomes to be effectively sampled at relatively low cost. Based on the corresponding sequence reads a Mathematically Defined Repeat (MDR index can be generated to map repetitive regions in genomic sequences. Results We have generated 574 Mbp of Illumina/Solexa sequences from barley total genomic DNA, representing about 10% of a genome equivalent. From these sequences we generated an MDR index which was then used to identify and mark repetitive regions in the barley genome. Comparison of the MDR plots with expert repeat annotation drawing on the information already available for known repetitive elements revealed a significant correspondence between the two methods. MDR-based annotation allowed for the identification of dozens of novel repeat sequences, though, which were not recognised by hand-annotation. The MDR data was also used to identify gene-containing regions by masking of repetitive sequences in eight de-novo sequenced bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC clones. For half of the identified candidate gene islands indeed gene sequences could be identified. MDR data were only of limited use, when mapped on genomic sequences from the closely related species Triticum monococcum as only a fraction of the repetitive sequences was recognised. Conclusion An MDR index for barley, which was obtained by whole-genome Illumina/Solexa sequencing, proved as efficient in repeat identification as manual expert annotation. Circumventing the labour-intensive step of producing a specific repeat library for expert annotation, an MDR index provides an elegant and efficient resource for the identification of repetitive and low-copy (i.e. potentially gene-containing sequences regions in uncharacterised genomic sequences. The restriction that a particular

  9. Comprehensive Identification of Long Non-coding RNAs in Purified Cell Types from the Brain Reveals Functional LncRNA in OPC Fate Determination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Dong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs (> 200 bp play crucial roles in transcriptional regulation during numerous biological processes. However, it is challenging to comprehensively identify lncRNAs, because they are often expressed at low levels and with more cell-type specificity than are protein-coding genes. In the present study, we performed ab initio transcriptome reconstruction using eight purified cell populations from mouse cortex and detected more than 5000 lncRNAs. Predicting the functions of lncRNAs using cell-type specific data revealed their potential functional roles in Central Nervous System (CNS development. We performed motif searches in ENCODE DNase I digital footprint data and Mouse ENCODE promoters to infer transcription factor (TF occupancy. By integrating TF binding and cell-type specific transcriptomic data, we constructed a novel framework that is useful for systematically identifying lncRNAs that are potentially essential for brain cell fate determination. Based on this integrative analysis, we identified lncRNAs that are regulated during Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cell (OPC differentiation from Neural Stem Cells (NSCs and that are likely to be involved in oligodendrogenesis. The top candidate, lnc-OPC, shows highly specific expression in OPCs and remarkable sequence conservation among placental mammals. Interestingly, lnc-OPC is significantly up-regulated in glial progenitors from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE mouse models compared to wild-type mice. OLIG2-binding sites in the upstream regulatory region of lnc-OPC were identified by ChIP (chromatin immunoprecipitation-Sequencing and validated by luciferase assays. Loss-of-function experiments confirmed that lnc-OPC plays a functional role in OPC genesis. Overall, our results substantiated the role of lncRNA in OPC fate determination and provided an unprecedented data source for future functional investigations in CNS cell types. We present our datasets and

  10. Out-of-pocket health spending by poor and near-poor elderly Medicare beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, D J; Alecxih, L; Gibson, M J; Corea, J; Caplan, C; Brangan, N

    1999-04-01

    To estimate out-of-pocket health care spending by lower-income Medicare beneficiaries, and to examine spending variations between those who receive Medicaid assistance and those who do not receive such aid. DATA SOURCES AND COLLECTION: 1993 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS) Cost and Use files, supplemented with data from the Bureau of the Census (Current Population Survey); the Congressional Budget Office; the Health Care Financing Administration, Office of the Actuary (National Health Accounts); and the Social Security Administration. We analyzed out-of-pocket spending through a Medicare Benefits Simulation model, which projects out-of-pocket health care spending from the 1993 MCBS to 1997. Out-of-pocket health care spending is defined to include Medicare deductibles and coinsurance; premiums for private insurance, Medicare Part B, and Medicare HMOs; payments for non-covered goods and services; and balance billing by physicians. It excludes the costs of home care and nursing facility services, as well as indirect tax payments toward health care financing. Almost 60 percent of beneficiaries with incomes below the poverty level did not receive Medicaid assistance in 1997. We estimate that these beneficiaries spent, on average, about half their income out-of-pocket for health care, whether they were enrolled in a Medicare HMO or in the traditional fee-for-service program. The 75 percent of beneficiaries with incomes between 100 and 125 percent of the poverty level who were not enrolled in Medicaid spent an estimated 30 percent of their income out-of-pocket on health care if they were in the traditional program and about 23 percent of their income if they were enrolled in a Medicare HMO. Average out-of-pocket spending among fee-for-service beneficiaries varied depending on whether beneficiaries had Medigap policies, employer-provided supplemental insurance, or no supplemental coverage. Those without supplemental coverage spent more on health care goods and

  11. Speaking Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Geoff

    Speaking Code begins by invoking the “Hello World” convention used by programmers when learning a new language, helping to establish the interplay of text and code that runs through the book. Interweaving the voice of critical writing from the humanities with the tradition of computing and software...

  12. The Use of Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring Among Medicare Beneficiaries in 2007-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimbo, Daichi; Kent, Shia T; Diaz, Keith M; Huang, Lei; Viera, Anthony J; Kilgore, Meredith; Oparil, Suzanne; Muntner, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The US Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Services reimburses ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) for suspected white coat hypertension. We estimated ABPM use between 2007 and 2010 among a 5% random sample of Medicare beneficiaries (≥ 65 years). In 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010, the percentage of beneficiaries with ABPM claims was 0.10%, 0.11%, 0.10%, and 0.09% respectively. A prior diagnosis of hypertension was more common among those with versus without an ABPM claim (77.7% versus 47.0%). Among hypertensive beneficiaries, 95.2% of those with an ABPM claim were taking antihypertensive medication. Age 75-84 versus 65-74 years, having coronary heart disease, chronic kidney disease, multiple prior hypertension diagnoses, and having filled multiple classes of antihypertensive medication were associated with an increased odds for an ABPM claim among hypertensive beneficiaries. ABPM use was very low among Medicare beneficiaries and was not primarily used for diagnosing white coat hypertension in untreated individuals. PMID:25492832

  13. Classification of the financial sustainability of health insurance beneficiaries through data mining techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Maria Dias Pedro Rebouças

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Advances in information technologies have led to the storage of large amounts of data by organizations. An analysis of this data through data mining techniques is important support for decision-making. This article aims to apply techniques for the classification of the beneficiaries of an operator of health insurance in Brazil, according to their financial sustainability, via their sociodemographic characteristics and their healthcare cost history. Beneficiaries with a loss ratio greater than 0.75 are considered unsustainable. The sample consists of 38875 beneficiaries, active between the years 2011 and 2013. The techniques used were logistic regression and classification trees. The performance of the models was compared to accuracy rates and receiver operating Characteristic curves (ROC curves, by determining the area under the curves (AUC. The results showed that most of the sample is composed of sustainable beneficiaries. The logistic regression model had a 68.43% accuracy rate with AUC of 0.7501, and the classification tree obtained 67.76% accuracy and an AUC of 0.6855. Age and the type of plan were the most important variables related to the profile of the beneficiaries in the classification. The highlights with regard to healthcare costs were annual spending on consultation and on dental insurance.

  14. Reforming Access: Trends in Medicaid Enrollment for New Medicare Beneficiaries, 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keohane, Laura M; Rahman, Momotazur; Mor, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate whether aligning the Part D low-income subsidy and Medicaid program enrollment pathways in 2010 increased Medicaid participation among new Medicare beneficiaries. Medicare enrollment records for years 2007-2011. We used a multinomial logistic model with state fixed effects to examine the annual change in limited and full Medicaid enrollment among new Medicare beneficiaries for 2 years before and after the reforms (2008-2011). We identified new Medicare beneficiaries in the years 2008-2011 and their participation in Medicaid based on Medicare enrollment records. The percentage of beneficiaries enrolling in limited Medicaid at the start of Medicare coverage increased in 2010 by 0.3 percentage points for individuals aging into Medicare and by 1.3 percentage points for those qualifying due to disability (p < .001). There was no significant difference in the size of enrollment increases between states with and without concurrent limited Medicaid eligibility expansions. Our findings suggest that streamlining financial assistance programs may improve Medicare beneficiaries' access to benefits. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  15. Measuring coding intensity in the Medicare Advantage program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronick, Richard; Welch, W Pete

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, Medicare implemented a system of paying Medicare Advantage (MA) plans that gave them greater incentive than fee-for-service (FFS) providers to report diagnoses. Risk scores for all Medicare beneficiaries 2004-2013 and Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS) data, 2006-2011. Change in average risk score for all enrollees and for stayers (beneficiaries who were in either FFS or MA for two consecutive years). Prevalence rates by Hierarchical Condition Category (HCC). Each year the average MA risk score increased faster than the average FFS score. Using the risk adjustment model in place in 2004, the average MA score as a ratio of the average FFS score would have increased from 90% in 2004 to 109% in 2013. Using the model partially implemented in 2014, the ratio would have increased from 88% to 102%. The increase in relative MA scores appears to largely reflect changes in diagnostic coding, not real increases in the morbidity of MA enrollees. In survey-based data for 2006-2011, the MA-FFS ratio of risk scores remained roughly constant at 96%. Intensity of coding varies widely by contract, with some contracts coding very similarly to FFS and others coding much more intensely than the MA average. Underpinning this relative growth in scores is particularly rapid relative growth in a subset of HCCs. Medicare has taken significant steps to mitigate the effects of coding intensity in MA, including implementing a 3.4% coding intensity adjustment in 2010 and revising the risk adjustment model in 2013 and 2014. Given the continuous relative increase in the average MA risk score, further policy changes will likely be necessary.

  16. Identification of novel growth phase- and media-dependent small non-coding RNAs in Streptococcus pyogenes M49 using intergenic tiling arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patenge Nadja

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs have attracted attention as a new class of gene regulators in both eukaryotes and bacteria. Genome-wide screening methods have been successfully applied in Gram-negative bacteria to identify sRNA regulators. Many sRNAs are well characterized, including their target mRNAs and mode of action. In comparison, little is known about sRNAs in Gram-positive pathogens. In this study, we identified novel sRNAs in the exclusively human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes M49 (Group A Streptococcus, GAS M49, employing a whole genome intergenic tiling array approach. GAS is an important pathogen that causes diseases ranging from mild superficial infections of the skin and mucous membranes of the naso-pharynx, to severe toxic and invasive diseases. Results We identified 55 putative sRNAs in GAS M49 that were expressed during growth. Of these, 42 were novel. Some of the newly-identified sRNAs belonged to one of the common non-coding RNA families described in the Rfam database. Comparison of the results of our screen with the outcome of two recently published bioinformatics tools showed a low level of overlap between putative sRNA genes. Previously, 40 potential sRNAs have been reported to be expressed in a GAS M1T1 serotype, as detected by a whole genome intergenic tiling array approach. Our screen detected 12 putative sRNA genes that were expressed in both strains. Twenty sRNA candidates appeared to be regulated in a medium-dependent fashion, while eight sRNA genes were regulated throughout growth in chemically defined medium. Expression of candidate genes was verified by reverse transcriptase-qPCR. For a subset of sRNAs, the transcriptional start was determined by 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends-PCR (RACE-PCR analysis. Conclusions In accord with the results of previous studies, we found little overlap between different screening methods, which underlines the fact that a comprehensive analysis of s

  17. Barriers to Employment Among Social Security Disability Insurance Beneficiaries in the Mental Health Treatment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milfort, Roline; Bond, Gary R; McGurk, Susan R; Drake, Robert E

    2015-12-01

    This study examined barriers to employment among Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) beneficiaries who received comprehensive vocational and mental health services but were not successful in returning to work. This study examined barriers to employment among 430 SSDI beneficiaries with mental disorders who received evidence-based vocational and mental health services for two years but worked less than one month or not at all. Comprehensive care teams, which included employment specialists, made consensus judgments for each participant, identifying the top three barriers to employment from a checklist of 14 common barriers. Teams most frequently identified three barriers to employment: poorly controlled symptoms of mental illness (55%), nonengagement in supported employment (44%), and poorly controlled general medical problems (33%). Other factors were identified much less frequently. Some SSDI beneficiaries, despite having access to comprehensive services, continued to experience psychiatric impairments, difficulty engaging in vocational services, and general medical problems that limited their success in employment.

  18. A profile of social security child beneficiaries and their families: sociodemographic and economic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborini, Christopher R; Cupito, Emily; Shoffner, Dave

    2011-01-01

    Using a rich dataset that links the Census Bureau's Survey of Income and Program Participation calendar-year 2004 file with Social Security benefit records, this article provides a portrait of the sociodemographic and economic characteristics of Social Security child beneficiaries. We find that the incidence ofbenefit receipt in the child population differs substantially across individual and family-level characteristics. Average benefit amounts also vary across subgroups and benefit types. The findings provide a better understanding of the importance of Social Security to families with beneficiary children. Social Security is a major source of family income for many child beneficiaries, particularly among those with low income or family heads with lower education and labor earnings.

  19. Favorable Risk Selection in Medicare Advantage: Trends in Mortality and Plan Exits Among Nursing Home Beneficiaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Elizabeth M.; Trivedi, Amal N.; Mor, Vincent; Jung, Hye-Young; Rahman, Momotazur

    2016-01-01

    The 2003 Medicare Modernization Act (MMA) increased payments to Medicare Advantage plans and instituted a new risk-adjustment payment model to reduce plans' incentives to enroll healthier Medicare beneficiaries and avoid those with higher costs. Whether the MMA reduced risk selection remains debatable. This study uses mortality differences, nursing home utilization, and switch rates to assess whether the MMA successfully decreased risk selection from 2000 to 2012. We found no decrease in the mortality difference or adjusted difference in nursing home use between plan beneficiaries pre- and post the MMA. Among beneficiaries with nursing home use, disenrollment from Medicare Advantage plans declined from 20% to 12%, but it remained 6 times higher than the switch rate from traditional Medicare to Medicare Advantage. These findings suggest that the MMA was not associated with reductions in favorable risk selection, as measured by mortality, nursing home use, and switch rates. PMID:27516452

  20. Coding Labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony McCosker

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available As well as introducing the Coding Labour section, the authors explore the diffusion of code across the material contexts of everyday life, through the objects and tools of mediation, the systems and practices of cultural production and organisational management, and in the material conditions of labour. Taking code beyond computation and software, their specific focus is on the increasingly familiar connections between code and labour with a focus on the codification and modulation of affect through technologies and practices of management within the contemporary work organisation. In the grey literature of spreadsheets, minutes, workload models, email and the like they identify a violence of forms through which workplace affect, in its constant flux of crisis and ‘prodromal’ modes, is regulated and governed.

  1. The Use of Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring Among Medicare Beneficiaries in 2007-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Shimbo, Daichi; Kent, Shia T; Diaz, Keith M; Huang, Lei; Viera, Anthony J; Kilgore, Meredith; Oparil, Suzanne; Muntner, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The US Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Services reimburses ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) for suspected white coat hypertension. We estimated ABPM use between 2007 and 2010 among a 5% random sample of Medicare beneficiaries (≥ 65 years). In 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010, the percentage of beneficiaries with ABPM claims was 0.10%, 0.11%, 0.10%, and 0.09% respectively. A prior diagnosis of hypertension was more common among those with versus without an ABPM claim (77.7% versus 47.0%)...

  2. Nonemergency medical transportation and health care visits among chronically ill urban and rural medicaid beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Leela V; Wedel, Kenneth R

    2014-01-01

    Inaccessibility to health care services due to lack of transportation affects the most vulnerable segments of the society. The effect of Medicaid-provided nonemergency medical transportation (NEMT) in Oklahoma on health care visits for the management of chronic illnesses is examined. Analyses of claims data show that African Americans are the highest users of NEMT. Medicaid beneficiaries who use NEMT services are significantly more likely to make the recommended number of annual visits for the management of chronic conditions than those who do not use NEMT. Increased use of NEMT by making the services more accommodating and convenient for beneficiaries is proposed.

  3. The Final Beneficiaries are Actors Active Little and Influential in Decisions on Public Policy in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diolina Rodrigues Santiago Silva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Public policies are government programs that directly influence the citizens' lives. In the formulation and implementation of these policies, there is the presence of political and private actors. The final beneficiaries are between different types of private actors. Some laws require the government listen to society at the time of decision-making in public policy and in national conferences and public consultations. The final beneficiaries, actual users of these public policies have to reach some mechanisms of direct participation in the formulation of these policies, but the number of participants is smaller and doesn't influence in making government decisions.

  4. Home Health Agency Characteristics and Quality Outcomes for Medicare Beneficiaries With Rehabilitation-Sensitive Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroz, Tracy M; Meadow, Ann; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Leff, Bruce; Wolff, Jennifer L

    2018-06-01

    To examine associations between organizational characteristics of home health agencies (eg, profit status, rehabilitation therapy staffing model, size, and rurality) and quality outcomes in Medicare beneficiaries with rehabilitation-sensitive conditions, conditions for which occupational, physical, and/or speech therapy have the potential to improve functioning, prevent or slow substantial decline in functioning, or increase ability to remain at home safely. Retrospective analysis. Home health agencies. Fee-for-service beneficiaries (N=1,006,562) admitted to 9250 Medicare-certified home health agencies in 2009. Not applicable. Institutional admission during home health care, community discharge, and institutional admission within 30 days of discharge. Nonprofit (vs for-profit) home health agencies were more likely to discharge beneficiaries to the community (odds ratio [OR], 1.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-1.33) and less likely to have beneficiaries incur institutional admissions within 30 days of discharge (OR, .93; 95% CI, .88-.97). Agencies in rural (vs urban) counties were less likely to discharge patients to the community (OR, .83; 95% CI, .77-.90) and more likely to have beneficiaries incur institutional admissions during home health (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.18-1.30) and within 30 days of discharge (OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.10-1.22). Agencies with contract (vs in-house) therapy staff were less likely to discharge beneficiaries to the community (OR, .79, 95% CI, .70-.91) and more likely to have beneficiaries incur institutional admissions during home health (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.03-1.15) and within 30 days of discharge (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.07-1.28). As payers continue to test and implement reimbursement mechanisms that seek to reward value over volume of services, greater attention should be paid to organizational factors that facilitate better coordinated, higher quality home health care for beneficiaries who may benefit from rehabilitation. Copyright © 2017

  5. Cross-Linguistic Variation in the Treatment of Beneficiaries and the Argument vs. Adjunct Distinction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Creissels

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the expression of beneficiaries with that of typical arguments and typical adjuncts in a sample of languages illustrating the variation in the extent to which NPs encoding beneficiaries show a syntactic behavior more or less similar to that of typical arguments or typical adjuncts. The observations support the position according to which semantic argumenthood as a comparative concept must be distinguished from its possible syntactic correlates, and must be defined as a scalar rather than categorical concept reflecting the interaction between the various factors that may contribute to defining the degree of involvement of participants in an event.

  6. 45 CFR 205.25 - Eligibility of supplemental security income beneficiaries for food stamps or surplus commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... beneficiaries for food stamps or surplus commodities. 205.25 Section 205.25 Public Welfare Regulations Relating....25 Eligibility of supplemental security income beneficiaries for food stamps or surplus commodities... XVI of the Social Security Act, the State agency shall make the following determinations: (1) The...

  7. Choice of Personal Assistance Services Providers by Medicare Beneficiaries Using a Consumer-Directed Benefit: Rural-Urban Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Hongdao; Friedman, Bruce; Wamsley, Brenda R.; Van Nostrand, Joan F.; Eggert, Gerald M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the impact of an experimental consumer-choice voucher benefit on the selection of independent and agency personal assistance services (PAS) providers among rural and urban Medicare beneficiaries with disabilities. Methods: The Medicare Primary and Consumer-Directed Care Demonstration enrolled 1,605 Medicare beneficiaries in 19…

  8. 20 CFR 10.17 - Is a beneficiary who defrauds the Government in connection with a claim for benefits still...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... connection with a claim for benefits, the beneficiary's entitlement to any further compensation benefits will... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Is a beneficiary who defrauds the Government in connection with a claim for benefits still entitled to those benefits? 10.17 Section 10.17...

  9. 76 FR 59663 - Limitations of Duty- and Quota-Free Imports of Apparel Articles Assembled in Beneficiary Sub...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... of Apparel Articles Assembled in Beneficiary Sub-Saharan African Countries From Regional and Third... Acceleration Act of 2004, Pub. L. 108-274; Division D, Title VI, section 6002 of the Tax Relief and Health Care... beneficiary sub-Saharan African countries. Section 112(b)(3) of TDA 2000 provides duty- and quota-free...

  10. 78 FR 59917 - Limitations of Duty- and Quota-Free Imports of Apparel Articles Assembled in Beneficiary Sub...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... of Apparel Articles Assembled in Beneficiary Sub-Saharan African Countries From Regional and Third... 6002 of the Tax Relief and Health Care Act of 2006 (TRHCA 2006), Public Law 109-432, and section 1... apparel articles wholly assembled in one or more beneficiary sub-Saharan African countries from fabric...

  11. 20 CFR 411.566 - May an EN use outcome or milestone payments to make payments to the beneficiary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May an EN use outcome or milestone payments... an EN use outcome or milestone payments to make payments to the beneficiary? Yes, an EN may use milestone or outcome payments to make payments to a beneficiary. [73 FR 29350, May 20, 2008] ...

  12. 26 CFR 1.1312-5 - Correlative deductions and inclusions for trusts or estates and legatees, beneficiaries, or heirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., heirs, or legatees; or (4) The exclusion of such amounts from the income of the beneficiaries, heirs, or... invalid the clause directing accumulation and determines that the income is required to be currently... beneficiary's tax for the year 1954, based on the exclusion from 1954 gross income of the capital gains...

  13. Characteristics and healthcare utilisation patterns of high-cost beneficiaries in the Netherlands: a cross-sectional claims database study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wammes, J.J.G.; Tanke, M.A.C.; Jonkers, W.; Westert, G.P.; Wees, P.J. van der; Jeurissen, P.P.T.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine medical needs, demographic characteristics and healthcare utilisation patterns of the top 1% and top 2%-5% high-cost beneficiaries in the Netherlands. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study using 1 year claims data. We broke down high-cost beneficiaries by demographics, the most

  14. Coding-Sequence Identification and Transcriptional Profiling of Nine AMTs and Four NRTs From Tobacco Revealed Their Differential Regulation by Developmental Stages, Nitrogen Nutrition, and Photoperiod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai-Hua Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Although many members encoding different ammonium- and nitrate-transporters (AMTs, NRTs were identified and functionally characterized from several plant species, little is known about molecular components for NH4+- and NO3- acquisition/transport in tobacco, which is often used as a plant model for biological studies besides its agricultural and industrial interest. We reported here the first molecular identification in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum of nine AMTs and four NRTs, which are respectively divided into four (AMT1/2/3/4 and two (NRT1/2 clusters and whose functionalities were preliminarily evidenced by heterologous functional-complementation in yeast or Arabidopsis. Tissue-specific transcriptional profiling by qPCR revealed that NtAMT1.1/NRT1.1 mRNA occurred widely in leaves, flower organs and roots; only NtAMT1.1/1.3/2.1NRT1.2/2.2 were strongly transcribed in the aged leaves, implying their dominant roles in N-remobilization from source/senescent tissues. N-dependent expression analysis showed a marked upregulation of NtAMT1.1 in the roots by N-starvation and resupply with N including NH4+, suggesting a predominant action of NtAMT1.1 in NH4+ uptake/transport whenever required. The obvious leaf-expression of other NtAMTs e.g., AMT1.2 responsive to N indicates a major place, where they may play transport roles associated with plant N-status and (NH4+-N movement within aerial-parts. The preferentially root-specific transcription of NtNRT1.1/1.2/2.1 responsive to N argues their importance for root NO3- uptake and even sensing in root systems. Moreover, of all NtAMTs/NRTs, only NtAMT1.1/NRT1.1/1.2 showed their root-expression alteration in a typical diurnal-oscillation pattern, reflecting likely their significant roles in root N-acquisition regulated by internal N-demand influenced by diurnal-dependent assimilation and translocation of carbohydrates from shoots. This suggestion could be supported at least in part by sucrose- and MSX

  15. Coding-Sequence Identification and Transcriptional Profiling of Nine AMTs and Four NRTs From Tobacco Revealed Their Differential Regulation by Developmental Stages, Nitrogen Nutrition, and Photoperiod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lai-Hua; Fan, Teng-Fei; Shi, Dong-Xue; Li, Chang-Jun; He, Ming-Jie; Chen, Yi-Yin; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Chao; Cheng, Xiao-Yuan; Chen, Xu; Li, Di-Qin; Sun, Yi-Chen

    2018-01-01

    Although many members encoding different ammonium- and nitrate-transporters (AMTs, NRTs) were identified and functionally characterized from several plant species, little is known about molecular components for NH4+- and NO3- acquisition/transport in tobacco, which is often used as a plant model for biological studies besides its agricultural and industrial interest. We reported here the first molecular identification in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) of nine AMTs and four NRTs, which are respectively divided into four (AMT1/2/3/4) and two (NRT1/2) clusters and whose functionalities were preliminarily evidenced by heterologous functional-complementation in yeast or Arabidopsis. Tissue-specific transcriptional profiling by qPCR revealed that NtAMT1.1/NRT1.1 mRNA occurred widely in leaves, flower organs and roots; only NtAMT1.1/1.3/2.1NRT1.2/2.2 were strongly transcribed in the aged leaves, implying their dominant roles in N-remobilization from source/senescent tissues. N-dependent expression analysis showed a marked upregulation of NtAMT1.1 in the roots by N-starvation and resupply with N including NH4+, suggesting a predominant action of NtAMT1.1 in NH4+ uptake/transport whenever required. The obvious leaf-expression of other NtAMTs e.g., AMT1.2 responsive to N indicates a major place, where they may play transport roles associated with plant N-status and (NH4+-)N movement within aerial-parts. The preferentially root-specific transcription of NtNRT1.1/1.2/2.1 responsive to N argues their importance for root NO3- uptake and even sensing in root systems. Moreover, of all NtAMTs/NRTs, only NtAMT1.1/NRT1.1/1.2 showed their root-expression alteration in a typical diurnal-oscillation pattern, reflecting likely their significant roles in root N-acquisition regulated by internal N-demand influenced by diurnal-dependent assimilation and translocation of carbohydrates from shoots. This suggestion could be supported at least in part by sucrose- and MSX-affected transcriptional

  16. Identification of genes for small non-coding RNAs that belong to the regulon of the two-component regulatory system CiaRH in Streptococcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakenbeck Regine

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-transcriptional regulation by small RNAs (sRNAs in bacteria is now recognized as a wide-spread regulatory mechanism modulating a variety of physiological responses including virulence. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, an important human pathogen, the first sRNAs to be described were found in the regulon of the CiaRH two-component regulatory system. Five of these sRNAs were detected and designated csRNAs for cia-dependent small RNAs. CiaRH pleiotropically affects β-lactam resistance, autolysis, virulence, and competence development by yet to be defined molecular mechanisms. Since CiaRH is highly conserved among streptococci, it is of interest to determine if csRNAs are also included in the CiaRH regulon in this group of organisms consisting of commensal as well as pathogenic species. Knowledge on the participation of csRNAs in CiaRH-dependent regulatory events will be the key to define the physiological role of this important control system. Results Genes for csRNAs were predicted in streptococcal genomes and data base entries other than S. pneumoniae by searching for CiaR-activated promoters located in intergenic regions that are followed by a transcriptional terminator. 61 different candidate genes were obtained specifying csRNAs ranging in size from 51 to 202 nt. Comparing these genes among each other revealed 40 different csRNA types. All streptococcal genomes harbored csRNA genes, their numbers varying between two and six. To validate these predictions, S. mitis, S. oralis, and S. sanguinis were subjected to csRNA-specific northern blot analysis. In addition, a csRNA gene from S. thermophilus plasmid pST0 introduced into S. pneumoniae was also tested. Each of the csRNAs was detected on these blots and showed the anticipated sizes. Thus, the method applied here is able to predict csRNAs with high precision. Conclusions The results of this study strongly suggest that genes for small non-coding RNAs, csRNAs, are part of

  17. Explaining the increased health care expenditures associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease among elderly Medicare beneficiaries with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a cost-decomposition analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajmera M

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mayank Ajmera,1 Amit D Raval,1 Chan Shen,2 Usha Sambamoorthi1 1Department of Pharmaceutical Systems and Policy, School of Pharmacy, School of Medicine, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA; 2Department of Biostatistics and Health Services Research, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA Objective: To estimate excess health care expenditures associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD among elderly individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and examine the contribution of predisposing characteristics, enabling resources, need variables, personal health care practices, and external environment factors to the excess expenditures, using the Blinder-Oaxaca linear decomposition technique. Methods: This study utilized a cross-sectional, retrospective study design, using data from multiple years (2006-2009 of the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey linked with fee-for-service Medicare claims. Presence of COPD and GERD was identified using diagnoses codes. Health care expenditures consisted of inpatient, outpatient, prescription drugs, dental, medical provider, and other services. For the analysis, t-tests were used to examine unadjusted subgroup differences in average health care expenditures by the presence of GERD. Ordinary least squares regressions on log-transformed health care expenditures were conducted to estimate the excess health care expenditures associated with GERD. The Blinder-Oaxaca linear decomposition technique was used to determine the contribution of predisposing characteristics, enabling resources, need variables, personal health care practices, and external environment factors, to excess health care expenditures associated with GERD. Results: Among elderly Medicare beneficiaries with COPD, 29.3% had co-occurring GERD. Elderly Medicare beneficiaries with COPD/GERD had 1.5 times higher ($36,793 vs $24,722 [P<0.001] expenditures than did those with COPD/no GERD. Ordinary

  18. Speech coding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

    1998-05-08

    Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the

  19. Optimal codes as Tanner codes with cyclic component codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Pinero, Fernando; Zeng, Peng

    2014-01-01

    In this article we study a class of graph codes with cyclic code component codes as affine variety codes. Within this class of Tanner codes we find some optimal binary codes. We use a particular subgraph of the point-line incidence plane of A(2,q) as the Tanner graph, and we are able to describe ...

  20. Aztheca Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quezada G, S.; Espinosa P, G.; Centeno P, J.; Sanchez M, H.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents the Aztheca code, which is formed by the mathematical models of neutron kinetics, power generation, heat transfer, core thermo-hydraulics, recirculation systems, dynamic pressure and level models and control system. The Aztheca code is validated with plant data, as well as with predictions from the manufacturer when the reactor operates in a stationary state. On the other hand, to demonstrate that the model is applicable during a transient, an event occurred in a nuclear power plant with a BWR reactor is selected. The plant data are compared with the results obtained with RELAP-5 and the Aztheca model. The results show that both RELAP-5 and the Aztheca code have the ability to adequately predict the behavior of the reactor. (Author)

  1. 42 CFR 415.162 - Determining payment for physician services furnished to beneficiaries in teaching hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... furnished to beneficiaries in teaching hospitals. 415.162 Section 415.162 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... BY PHYSICIANS IN PROVIDERS, SUPERVISING PHYSICIANS IN TEACHING SETTINGS, AND RESIDENTS IN CERTAIN SETTINGS Physician Services in Teaching Settings § 415.162 Determining payment for physician services...

  2. 28 CFR 104.52 - Distribution of award to decedent's beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... VICTIM COMPENSATION FUND OF 2001 Payment of Claims § 104.52 Distribution of award to decedent's beneficiaries. The Personal Representative shall distribute the award in a manner consistent with the law of the decedent's domicile or any applicable rulings made by a court of competent jurisdiction. The Personal...

  3. Substantial Physician Turnover And Beneficiary 'Churn' In A Large Medicare Pioneer ACO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John; Vogeli, Christine; Price, Mary; Brand, Richard; Chernew, Michael E; Mohta, Namita; Chaguturu, Sreekanth K; Weil, Eric; Ferris, Timothy G

    2017-04-01

    Alternative payment models, such as accountable care organizations (ACOs), attempt to stimulate improvements in care delivery by better alignment of payer and provider incentives. However, limited attention has been paid to the physicians who actually deliver the care. In a large Medicare Pioneer ACO, we found that the number of beneficiaries per physician was low (median of seventy beneficiaries per physician, or less than 5 percent of a typical panel). We also found substantial physician turnover: More than half of physicians either joined (41 percent) or left (18 percent) the ACO during the 2012-14 contract period studied. When physicians left the ACO, most of their attributed beneficiaries also left the ACO. Conversely, about half of the growth in the beneficiary population was because of new physicians affiliating with the ACO; the remainder joined after switching physicians. These findings may help explain the muted financial impact ACOs have had overall, and they raise the possibility of future gaming on the part of ACOs to artificially control spending. Policy refinements include coordinated and standardized risk-sharing parameters across payers to prevent any dilution of the payment incentives or confusion from a cacophony of incentives across payers. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  4. 75 FR 32480 - Funding Opportunity: Affordable Care Act Medicare Beneficiary Outreach and Assistance Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Administration on Aging Funding Opportunity: Affordable Care Act Medicare Beneficiary Outreach and Assistance Program Funding for Title VI Native American Programs Purpose of Notice: Availability of funding opportunity announcement. Funding Opportunity Title/Program Name: Affordable Care Act Medicare...

  5. 78 FR 66972 - Submission for Review: Designation of Beneficiary: Civil Service Retirement System (CSRS), SF 2808

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Designation of Beneficiary: Civil Service Retirement System (CSRS), SF 2808 AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: 60-Day notice and... Retirement System, SF 2808. As required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-13, 44 U.S.C...

  6. 32 CFR 728.53 - Department of Labor, Office of Workers' Compensation Programs (OWCP) beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DEPARTMENT FACILITIES Beneficiaries of Other Federal Agencies § 728.53 Department of Labor, Office of Workers... injury) incurred while engaged in: (i) Training. (ii) Flight instructions. (iii) Travel to or from... injury.) This category includes but is not limited to: (i) Civilian student employees in training at Navy...

  7. 42 CFR 409.42 - Beneficiary qualifications for coverage of services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Home Health Services Under Hospital... home health services, a beneficiary must meet each of the following requirements: (a) Confined to the..., management and evaluation of a patient care plan is considered a reasonable and necessary skilled service...

  8. 75 FR 8927 - Autism Services Demonstration Project for TRICARE Beneficiaries Under the Extended Care Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Autism Services Demonstration Project for TRICARE... Access to Autism Services Demonstration Project under the Extended Care Health Option for beneficiaries diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Under the demonstration, the Department implemented a...

  9. 26 CFR 1.167(h)-1 - Life tenants and beneficiaries of trusts and estates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reserve) allocable to each. For example: (1) If under the trust instrument or local law the income of a... local law the income of a trust is to be distributed to a named beneficiary, but the trustee is directed... otherwise provided in this paragraph when the trust instrument or local law requires or permits the trustee...

  10. 26 CFR 1.679-2 - Trusts treated as having a U.S. beneficiary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... beneficiaries generally does not include heirs who will benefit from the trust under the laws of intestate... of the trust instrument do not allow the trust to be amended to benefit a U.S. person, but the law... law. A creates and funds FT for the benefit of C. The terms of FT (which, according to the trust...

  11. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendations and cancer screening among female Medicare beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Ramzi G; Kohler, Racquel E; Jensen, Gail A; Sheridan, Stacey L; Carpenter, William R; Biddle, Andrea K

    2014-03-01

    Medicare covers several cancer screening tests not currently recommended by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force). In September 2002, the Task Force relaxed the upper age limit of 70 years for breast cancer screening recommendations, and in March 2003 an upper age limit of 65 years was introduced for cervical cancer screening recommendations. We assessed whether mammogram and Pap test utilization among women with Medicare coverage is influenced by changes in the Task Force's recommendations for screening. We identified female Medicare beneficiaries aged 66-80 years and used bivariate probit regression to examine the receipt of breast (mammogram) and cervical (Pap test) cancer screening reflecting changes in the Task Force recommendations. We analyzed 9,760 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey responses from 2001 to 2007. More than two-thirds reported receiving a mammogram and more than one-third a Pap test in the previous 2 years. Lack of recommendation was given as a reason for not getting screened among the majority (51% for mammogram and 75% for Pap). After controlling for beneficiary-level socioeconomic characteristics and access to care factors, we did not observe a significant change in breast and cervical cancer screening patterns following the changes in Task Force recommendations. Although there is evidence that many Medicare beneficiaries adhere to screening guidelines, some women may be receiving non-recommended screening services covered by Medicare.

  12. 38 CFR 3.666 - Incarcerated beneficiaries and fugitive felons-pension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incarcerated beneficiaries and fugitive felons-pension. 3.666 Section 3.666 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation...

  13. 38 CFR 3.714 - Improved pension elections-public assistance beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Improved pension elections-public assistance beneficiaries. 3.714 Section 3.714 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation...

  14. 42 CFR 405.1205 - Notifying beneficiaries of hospital discharge appeal rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...” is defined as any facility providing care at the inpatient hospital level, whether that care is short... basis, limited to specialty care or providing a broader spectrum of services. This definition includes... beneficiary refuses to sign the notice. The hospital may annotate its notice to indicate the refusal, and the...

  15. 26 CFR 1.673(c)-1 - Reversionary interest after income beneficiary's death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reversionary interest after income beneficiary's death. 1.673(c)-1 Section 1.673(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.673(c)-1 Reversionary interest after...

  16. 78 FR 36035 - Proposed Information Collection Activity: [Beneficiary Travel Mileage Reimbursement Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... provided for their convenience. This collection of information is necessary to enable the VHA to provide... online through FDMS. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Cynthia Harvey-Pryor at (202) 461-5870 or Fax (202... use of other forms of information technology. Titles: Beneficiary Travel Mileage Reimbursement...

  17. 19 CFR 10.178 - Direct costs of processing operations performed in the beneficiary developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Direct costs of processing operations performed in... processing operations performed in the beneficiary developing country. (a) Items included in the direct costs of processing operations. As used in § 10.176, the words “direct costs of processing operations...

  18. Habitat and Recreational Fishing Opportunity in Tampa Bay: Linking Ecological and Ecosystem Services to Human Beneficiaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estimating value of estuarine habitat to human beneficiaries requires that we understand how habitat alteration impacts function through both production and delivery of ecosystem goods and services (EGS). Here we expand on the habitat valuation technique of Bell (1997) with an es...

  19. Preventable hospitalizations among adult Medicaid beneficiaries with concurrent substance use disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kit Sang Leung

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Substance use disorder is statistically associated with hospitalizations for most Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions but not with length of hospital stay for Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions, after adjusting for covariates. The significant associations between substance use disorder and Ambulatory Care Sensitive Condition admissions suggest unmet primary health care needs for substance use disorder beneficiaries and a need for integrated primary/behavioral healthcare.

  20. NHRIC (National Health Related Items Code)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Health Related Items Code (NHRIC) is a system for identification and numbering of marketed device packages that is compatible with other numbering...

  1. 48 CFR 853.215-70 - VA Form 10-1170, Application for Furnishing Nursing Home Care to Beneficiaries of VA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Application for Furnishing Nursing Home Care to Beneficiaries of VA. 853.215-70 Section 853.215-70 Federal... 853.215-70 VA Form 10-1170, Application for Furnishing Nursing Home Care to Beneficiaries of VA. VA Form 10-1170, Application for Furnishing Nursing Home Care to Beneficiaries of VA, will be used for...

  2. Vocable Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soon, Winnie; Cox, Geoff

    2018-01-01

    a computational and poetic composition for two screens: on one of these, texts and voices are repeated and disrupted by mathematical chaos, together exploring the performativity of code and language; on the other, is a mix of a computer programming syntax and human language. In this sense queer code can...... be understood as both an object and subject of study that intervenes in the world’s ‘becoming' and how material bodies are produced via human and nonhuman practices. Through mixing the natural and computer language, this article presents a script in six parts from a performative lecture for two persons...

  3. NSURE code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rattan, D.S.

    1993-11-01

    NSURE stands for Near-Surface Repository code. NSURE is a performance assessment code. developed for the safety assessment of near-surface disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW). Part one of this report documents the NSURE model, governing equations and formulation of the mathematical models, and their implementation under the SYVAC3 executive. The NSURE model simulates the release of nuclides from an engineered vault, their subsequent transport via the groundwater and surface water pathways tot he biosphere, and predicts the resulting dose rate to a critical individual. Part two of this report consists of a User's manual, describing simulation procedures, input data preparation, output and example test cases

  4. The Redox Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dean P; Sies, Helmut

    2015-09-20

    The redox code is a set of principles that defines the positioning of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD, NADP) and thiol/disulfide and other redox systems as well as the thiol redox proteome in space and time in biological systems. The code is richly elaborated in an oxygen-dependent life, where activation/deactivation cycles involving O₂ and H₂O₂ contribute to spatiotemporal organization for differentiation, development, and adaptation to the environment. Disruption of this organizational structure during oxidative stress represents a fundamental mechanism in system failure and disease. Methodology in assessing components of the redox code under physiological conditions has progressed, permitting insight into spatiotemporal organization and allowing for identification of redox partners in redox proteomics and redox metabolomics. Complexity of redox networks and redox regulation is being revealed step by step, yet much still needs to be learned. Detailed knowledge of the molecular patterns generated from the principles of the redox code under defined physiological or pathological conditions in cells and organs will contribute to understanding the redox component in health and disease. Ultimately, there will be a scientific basis to a modern redox medicine.

  5. The Aster code; Code Aster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbecq, J.M

    1999-07-01

    The Aster code is a 2D or 3D finite-element calculation code for structures developed by the R and D direction of Electricite de France (EdF). This dossier presents a complete overview of the characteristics and uses of the Aster code: introduction of version 4; the context of Aster (organisation of the code development, versions, systems and interfaces, development tools, quality assurance, independent validation); static mechanics (linear thermo-elasticity, Euler buckling, cables, Zarka-Casier method); non-linear mechanics (materials behaviour, big deformations, specific loads, unloading and loss of load proportionality indicators, global algorithm, contact and friction); rupture mechanics (G energy restitution level, restitution level in thermo-elasto-plasticity, 3D local energy restitution level, KI and KII stress intensity factors, calculation of limit loads for structures), specific treatments (fatigue, rupture, wear, error estimation); meshes and models (mesh generation, modeling, loads and boundary conditions, links between different modeling processes, resolution of linear systems, display of results etc..); vibration mechanics (modal and harmonic analysis, dynamics with shocks, direct transient dynamics, seismic analysis and aleatory dynamics, non-linear dynamics, dynamical sub-structuring); fluid-structure interactions (internal acoustics, mass, rigidity and damping); linear and non-linear thermal analysis; steels and metal industry (structure transformations); coupled problems (internal chaining, internal thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling, chaining with other codes); products and services. (J.S.)

  6. Activity Limitation Stages Are Associated With Risk of Hospitalization Among Medicare Beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Ling; Pan, Qiang; Xie, Dawei; Kurichi, Jibby E; Streim, Joel E; Bogner, Hillary R; Saliba, Debra; Hennessy, Sean

    2017-05-01

    Activity limitation stages based on activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) are associated with 3-year mortality in elderly Medicare beneficiaries, yet their associations with hospitalization risk in this population have not been studied. To examine the independent association of activity limitation stages with risk of hospitalization within a year among Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years and older. Cohort study. Community. A total of 9447 community-dwelling elderly Medicare beneficiaries from the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey for years 2005-2009. Stages were derived for ADLs and IADLs separately. Associations of stages with time to first hospitalization and time to recurrent hospitalizations within a year were assessed with Cox proportional hazards models, with which we accounted for baseline sociodemographics, smoking status, comorbidities, and the year of survey entry. Time to first hospitalization and time to recurrent hospitalizations within 1 year. The adjusted risk of first hospitalization increased with greater activity limitation stages (except stage III). The hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for ADL stages I-IV compared with stage 0 (no limitations) were 1.49 (1.36-1.63), 1.61 (1.44-1.80), 1.54 (1.35-1.76), and 2.06 (1.61-2.63), respectively. The pattern for IADL stages was similar. For recurrent hospitalizations, activity limitation stages were associated with the risk of the first hospitalization but not with subsequent hospitalizations. Activity limitation stages are associated with the risk of first hospitalization in the subsequent year among elderly Medicare beneficiaries. Stages capture clinically interpretable profiles of ADL and IADL functionality and describe preserved functions and activity limitation in an aggregated measure. Stage can inform interventions to ameliorate disability and thus reduce the risk of a subsequent hospitalization in this population. IV. Copyright © 2017

  7. Direct observation of Medicaid beneficiary attempts to fill prescriptions for nicotine replacement medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Kimber P; Shergina, Elena; Grodie, Amanda; Massey, Justin K; Ellerbeck, Edward F; Applegate, Amanda; Faseru, Babalola

    2018-04-21

    Although many states have expanded Medicaid coverage of cessation medications, utilization remains low. Anecdotal reports suggest that beneficiaries are at times denied coverage of cessation medications at the pharmacy counter. We conducted an observational community-wide case study of Medicaid beneficiary attempts to fill over-the-counter nicotine replacement therapy at pharmacies. We recruited tobacco-using beneficiaries from a Federally Qualified Health Center, whose providers wrote paper prescriptions for nicotine patches. Study staff escorted beneficiaries to all eligible pharmacies (n = 18) in a Midwestern community to observe fill attempts. Study staff recorded encounters via smartphone into a secure database on a university server. Seven of 18 pharmacies (39%) did not fill the prescription on the day of the attempt. Of these, 6 offered to order the patch for pick-up at a later date. All (4/4) chain pharmacies filled the prescription; 2/3 mass merchant pharmacies failed to fill. Combining successful same-day fills with offers to order for pick-up, 17/18 (94%) would ultimately have been able to obtain patches. This pilot study found that many beneficiaries left pharmacies without a prescription in hand. Successful same-day fills varied markedly by store type. For people with low incomes, transportation presents a major barrier for delayed pick-up. In addition, delays can fuel ambivalence toward quitting. Future research based on this pilot study might address whether patients who fail to secure a same-day prescription ever fill the prescription and, if not, the degree to which this barrier contributes to success or failure in quitting. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Variations in Influenza and Pneumonia Immunizations for Medicare Beneficiaries Served by Rural Health Clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Thomas T H; Lin, Yi-Ling; Ortiz, Judith

    2017-08-01

    The availability of a rural health clinic (RHC) database over the period of 6 years (2008-2013) offers a unique opportunity to examine the trends and patterns of disparities in immunization for influenza and pneumonia among Medicare beneficiaries in the southeastern states. The purpose of this exploratory study was twofold. First, it examined the rural trends and patterns of immunization rates before (2008-2009) and after (2010-2013) the Affordable Care Act (ACA) enactment by state and year. Second, it investigated how contextual, organizational, and aggregate patient characteristics may influence the variations in immunization for influenza and pneumonia of Medicare beneficiaries served by RHCs. Four data sources from federal agencies were merged to perform a longitudinal analysis of the influences of contextual, organizational, and aggregate patient characteristics on the disparities in immunization rates of rural Medicare beneficiaries for influenza and pneumonia. We included both time-varying and time-constant predictors in a multivariate analysis using Generalized Estimating Equation. This study revealed the increased immunization rates for both influenza and pneumonia over a period of 6 years. The ACA had a positive effect on increased immunization rates for pneumonia, but not for influenza, in rural Medicare beneficiaries in the eight states. The RHCs that served more dually-eligible patients had higher immunization rates. For influenza immunization, provider-based RHCs had a higher rate than the independent RHCs. For pneumonia immunization, no organizational variables were relevant in the explanation of the variability. The results also showed that no single dominant factor influenced health care disparities. This investigation suggested further improvements in preventive care are needed to target poor and isolated rural beneficiaries. Furthermore, the integration of immunization data from multiple sources is critically needed for understanding health

  9. Governing sexual behaviour through humanitarian codes of conduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matti, Stephanie

    2015-10-01

    Since 2001, there has been a growing consensus that sexual exploitation and abuse of intended beneficiaries by humanitarian workers is a real and widespread problem that requires governance. Codes of conduct have been promoted as a key mechanism for governing the sexual behaviour of humanitarian workers and, ultimately, preventing sexual exploitation and abuse (PSEA). This article presents a systematic study of PSEA codes of conduct adopted by humanitarian non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and how they govern the sexual behaviour of humanitarian workers. It draws on Foucault's analytics of governance and speech act theory to examine the findings of a survey of references to codes of conduct made on the websites of 100 humanitarian NGOs, and to analyse some features of the organisation-specific PSEA codes identified. © 2015 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2015.

  10. Coding Class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Hansbøl, Mikala

    Denne rapport rummer evaluering og dokumentation af Coding Class projektet1. Coding Class projektet blev igangsat i skoleåret 2016/2017 af IT-Branchen i samarbejde med en række medlemsvirksomheder, Københavns kommune, Vejle Kommune, Styrelsen for IT- og Læring (STIL) og den frivillige forening...... Coding Pirates2. Rapporten er forfattet af Docent i digitale læringsressourcer og forskningskoordinator for forsknings- og udviklingsmiljøet Digitalisering i Skolen (DiS), Mikala Hansbøl, fra Institut for Skole og Læring ved Professionshøjskolen Metropol; og Lektor i læringsteknologi, interaktionsdesign......, design tænkning og design-pædagogik, Stine Ejsing-Duun fra Forskningslab: It og Læringsdesign (ILD-LAB) ved Institut for kommunikation og psykologi, Aalborg Universitet i København. Vi har fulgt og gennemført evaluering og dokumentation af Coding Class projektet i perioden november 2016 til maj 2017...

  11. Uplink Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Ken; Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Moision, Bruce; Hamkins, Jon; Pollara, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the objectives, meeting goals and overall NASA goals for the NASA Data Standards Working Group. The presentation includes information on the technical progress surrounding the objective, short LDPC codes, and the general results on the Pu-Pw tradeoff.

  12. ANIMAL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemuth, I.R.

    1979-01-01

    This report describes ANIMAL, a two-dimensional Eulerian magnetohydrodynamic computer code. ANIMAL's physical model also appears. Formulated are temporal and spatial finite-difference equations in a manner that facilitates implementation of the algorithm. Outlined are the functions of the algorithm's FORTRAN subroutines and variables

  13. Network Coding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 7. Network Coding. K V Rashmi Nihar B Shah P Vijay Kumar. General Article Volume 15 Issue 7 July 2010 pp 604-621. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/015/07/0604-0621 ...

  14. MCNP code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    The MCNP code is the major Monte Carlo coupled neutron-photon transport research tool at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and it represents the most extensive Monte Carlo development program in the United States which is available in the public domain. The present code is the direct descendent of the original Monte Carlo work of Fermi, von Neumaum, and Ulam at Los Alamos in the 1940s. Development has continued uninterrupted since that time, and the current version of MCNP (or its predecessors) has always included state-of-the-art methods in the Monte Carlo simulation of radiation transport, basic cross section data, geometry capability, variance reduction, and estimation procedures. The authors of the present code have oriented its development toward general user application. The documentation, though extensive, is presented in a clear and simple manner with many examples, illustrations, and sample problems. In addition to providing the desired results, the output listings give a a wealth of detailed information (some optional) concerning each state of the calculation. The code system is continually updated to take advantage of advances in computer hardware and software, including interactive modes of operation, diagnostic interrupts and restarts, and a variety of graphical and video aids

  15. Expander Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 1. Expander Codes - The Sipser–Spielman Construction. Priti Shankar. General Article Volume 10 ... Author Affiliations. Priti Shankar1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science Bangalore 560 012, India.

  16. Changes in health care spending and quality for Medicare beneficiaries associated with a commercial ACO contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, J Michael; Landon, Bruce E; Chernew, Michael E

    2013-08-28

    In a multipayer system, new payment incentives implemented by one insurer for an accountable care organization (ACO) may also affect spending and quality of care for another insurer's enrollees served by the ACO. Such spillover effects reflect the extent of organizational efforts to reform care delivery and can contribute to the net impact of ACOs. We examined whether the Blue Cross Blue Shield (BCBS) of Massachusetts' Alternative Quality Contract (AQC), an early commercial ACO initiative associated with reduced spending and improved quality for BCBS enrollees, was also associated with changes in spending and quality for Medicare beneficiaries, who were not covered by the AQC. Quasi-experimental comparisons from 2007-2010 of elderly fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries in Massachusetts (1,761,325 person-years) served by 11 provider organizations entering the AQC in 2009 or 2010 (intervention group) vs beneficiaries served by other providers (control group). Using a difference-in-differences approach, we estimated changes in spending and quality for the intervention group in the first and second years of exposure to the AQC relative to concurrent changes for the control group. Regression and propensity score methods were used to adjust for differences in sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. The primary outcome was total quarterly medical spending per beneficiary. Secondary outcomes included spending by setting and type of service, 5 process measures of quality, potentially avoidable hospitalizations, and 30-day readmissions. Before entering the AQC, total quarterly spending per beneficiary for the intervention group was $150 (95% CI, $25-$274) higher than for the control group and increased at a similar rate. In year 2 of the intervention group's exposure to the AQC, this difference was reduced to $51 (95% CI, -$109 to $210; P = .53), constituting a significant differential change of -$99 (95% CI, -$183 to -$16; P = .02) or a 3.4% savings

  17. Panda code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altomare, S.; Minton, G.

    1975-02-01

    PANDA is a new two-group one-dimensional (slab/cylinder) neutron diffusion code designed to replace and extend the FAB series. PANDA allows for the nonlinear effects of xenon, enthalpy and Doppler. Fuel depletion is allowed. PANDA has a completely general search facility which will seek criticality, maximize reactivity, or minimize peaking. Any single parameter may be varied in a search. PANDA is written in FORTRAN IV, and as such is nearly machine independent. However, PANDA has been written with the present limitations of the Westinghouse CDC-6600 system in mind. Most computation loops are very short, and the code is less than half the useful 6600 memory size so that two jobs can reside in the core at once. (auth)

  18. How Do Pharmacists Assist Medicare Beneficiaries with Limited Income? A Cross-Sectional Study of Community Pharmacies in Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrick, Salisa C; Hastings, Tessa J; McFarland, Stuart J; Hohmann, Lindsey A; Hohmann, Natalie S

    2016-09-01

    Many Medicare beneficiaries have limited income and report problems paying for their medications. Programs are available to assist these low-income individuals. However, these programs are underused because of lack of general awareness and perceived complexity of program applications. To (a) determine the frequency of encounters by pharmacists with Medicare beneficiaries who cannot afford prescription drugs; (b) identify strategies that pharmacists use to assist Medicare beneficiaries who cannot afford prescription drugs; and (c) explore what pharmacists know about programs for Medicare beneficiaries with limited income. This study used a mixed-mode survey of 350 randomly sampled community pharmacies located in 32 counties in Alabama with a high proportion of Medicare beneficiaries who were potentially eligible for low-income subsidy programs. Measures included frequency of encounters by pharmacists with Medicare beneficiaries who could not afford their medications, strategies used to assist Medicare beneficiaries, and pharmacists' knowledge of programs for Medicare beneficiaries with limited income. Of 350 surveys sent, 12 were nondeliverable, and 151 were completed (response rate=44.6%). About 50% of respondents reported encountering Medicare beneficiaries who could not afford their medications at least weekly. Various strategies were reported, including refiling claims that were previously denied every day (40.7%), contacting insurance companies at least once per week (43.2%), and loaning medications at least 2-3 times per month (29.1%). Only 12.6% reported referring beneficiaries to the Aging and Disability Resource Centers (ADRCs) to assess eligibility for limited-income programs. When asked about programs for beneficiaries with limited income, the answers were predominantly "don't know for sure." Several strategies were used by pharmacists in an attempt to help limited-income Medicare beneficiaries obtain their medications. Lack of knowledge about financial

  19. CANAL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gara, P.; Martin, E.

    1983-01-01

    The CANAL code presented here optimizes a realistic iron free extraction channel which has to provide a given transversal magnetic field law in the median plane: the current bars may be curved, have finite lengths and cooling ducts and move in a restricted transversal area; terminal connectors may be added, images of the bars in pole pieces may be included. A special option optimizes a real set of circular coils [fr

  20. Pre-Enrollment Reimbursement Patterns of Medicare Beneficiaries Enrolled in “At-Risk” HMOs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, Paul W.; Prihoda, Ronald

    1982-01-01

    The Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) has initiated several demonstration projects to encourage HMOs to participate in the Medicare program under a risk mechanism. These demonstrations are designed to test innovative marketing techniques, benefit packages, and reimbursement levels. HCFA's current method for prospective payments to HMOs is based on the Adjusted Average Per Capita Cost (AAPCC). An important issue in prospective reimbursement is the extent to which the AAPCC adequately reflects the risk factors which arise out of the selection process of Medicare beneficiaries into HMOs. This study examines the pre-enrollment reimbursement experience of Medicare beneficiaries who enrolled in the demonstration HMOs to determine whether or not a non-random selection process took place. The three demonstration HMOs included in the study are the Fallon Community Health Plan, the Greater Marshfield Community Health Plan, and the Kaiser-Permanente medical program of Portland, Oregon. The study includes 18,085 aged Medicare beneficiaries who had enrolled in the three plans as of April, 1981. We included comparison groups consisting of a 5 percent random sample of aged Medicare beneficiaries (N = 11,240) living in the same geographic areas as the control groups. The study compares the groups by total Medicare reimbursements for the years 1976 through 1979. Adjustments were made for AAPCC factor differences in the groups (age, sex, institutional status, and welfare status). In two of the HMO areas there was evidence of a selection process among the HMOs enrollees. Enrollees in the Fallon and Kaiser health plans were found to have had 20 percent lower Medicare reimbursements than their respective comparison groups in the four years prior to enrollment. This effect was strongest for inpatient services, but a significant difference also existed for use of physician and outpatient services. In the Marshfield HMO there was no statistically significant difference in pre

  1. A multisite randomized controlled trial on time to self-support among sickness absence beneficiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Maj Britt D.; Vinsløv Hansen, Jørgen; Aust, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2010, the Danish Government launched the Danish national return-to-work (RTW) programme to reduce sickness absence and promote labour market attainment. Multidisciplinary teams delivered the RTW programme, which comprised a coordinated, tailored and multidisciplinary effort (CTM......) for sickness absence beneficiaries at high risk for exclusion from the labour market. The aim of this article was to evaluate the effectiveness of the RTW programme on self-support. METHODS: Beneficiaries from three municipalities (denoted M1, M2 and M3) participated in a randomized controlled trial. We.......54-0.95). In M1, we found no difference between the two groups (HR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.84-1.17). CONCLUSION: The effect of the CTM programme on return to self-support differed substantially across the three participating municipalities. Thus, generalizing the study results to other Danish municipalities...

  2. THE AUDIT OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS PREPARED BY THE BENEFICIARIES OF EU GRANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danut Rada

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The patrimonial economic entities - public institutions or economic agents, beneficiaries of EU grants, are required to maintain separate accounts situations of the use of these financial resources and also to prepare financial statements in which to be reflected the fees occurred by implementing of projects. The audit of these financial statements is specific and is based on the provisions of international audit standards ISRS 4400 “international standard for related services” and ISAE 3000 “international standard for certification measures”. In some cases, considering the request of the audit beneficiary, can be applied the provisions of ISA 800, International Audit Standard “Special Considerations-Audit of financial statements prepared in accordance with special purpose frameworks”.

  3. Early Hospital Readmission is a Predictor of One-Year Mortality in Community-Dwelling Older Medicare Beneficiaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lum, H.D.; Studenski, S.A.; Degenholtz, H.B.; Hardy, S.E.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hospital readmission within thirty days is common among Medicare beneficiaries, but the relationship between rehospitalization and subsequent mortality in older adults is not known. OBJECTIVE: To compare one-year mortality rates among community-dwelling elderly hospitalized Medicare

  4. Risk factors for dementia after critical illness in elderly medicare beneficiaries

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra, Carmen; Linde-Zwirble, Walter T; Wunsch, Hannah

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Hospitalization increases the risk of a subsequent diagnosis of dementia. We aimed to identify diagnoses or events during a hospitalization requiring critical care that are associated with a subsequent dementia diagnosis in the elderly. Methods A cohort study of a random 5% sample of Medicare beneficiaries who received intensive care in 2005 and survived to hospital discharge, with three years of follow-up (through 2008) was conducted using Medicare claims files. We defined demen...

  5. Sample Loss and Survey Bias in Estimates of Social Security Beneficiaries: A Tale of Two Surveys.

    OpenAIRE

    John L. Czajka; James Mabli; Scott Cody

    2008-01-01

    Data from the Census Bureau’s Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) and the Current Population Survey (CPS) provide information on current and potential beneficiaries served by Social Security Administration (SSA) programs. SSA also links administrative records to the records of survey respondents who provide Social Security numbers. These matched data expand the content of the SIPP and CPS files to fields available only through SSA and Internal Revenue Service records—such as l...

  6. THE AUDIT OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS PREPARED BY THE BENEFICIARIES OF EU GRANT

    OpenAIRE

    Danut Rada; Doina Rada

    2013-01-01

    The patrimonial economic entities - public institutions or economic agents, beneficiaries of EU grants, are required to maintain separate accounts situations of the use of these financial resources and also to prepare financial statements in which to be reflected the fees occurred by implementing of projects. The audit of these financial statements is specific and is based on the provisions of international audit standards ISRS 4400 “international standard for related services” and ISAE 3000 ...

  7. Enhancing and diluting the legal status of subsidiary protection beneficiaries under Union law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Louise Halleskov

    2016-01-01

    Is it in accordance with the Qualification Directive (QD) to restrict the freedom of movement within the host country of beneficiaries of subsidiary protection (a form of protection parallel to refugee status) in receipt of social security benefits? This question was addressed by the CJEU in its...... and the substantive content of subsidiary protection while it, on the other hand, creates uncertainty about the applicable non-discrimination standard in such cases...

  8. From concatenated codes to graph codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Høholdt, Tom

    2004-01-01

    We consider codes based on simple bipartite expander graphs. These codes may be seen as the first step leading from product type concatenated codes to more complex graph codes. We emphasize constructions of specific codes of realistic lengths, and study the details of decoding by message passing...

  9. Comparing Hospital Processes and Outcomes in California Medicare Beneficiaries: Simulation Prompts Reconsideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Gabriel J; Baker, Jennifer M; Turk, Benjamin J; Draper, David; Liu, Vincent; Kipnis, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    This article is not a traditional research report. It describes how conducting a specific set of benchmarking analyses led us to broader reflections on hospital benchmarking. We reexamined an issue that has received far less attention from researchers than in the past: How variations in the hospital admission threshold might affect hospital rankings. Considering this threshold made us reconsider what benchmarking is and what future benchmarking studies might be like. Although we recognize that some of our assertions are speculative, they are based on our reading of the literature and previous and ongoing data analyses being conducted in our research unit. We describe the benchmarking analyses that led to these reflections. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' Hospital Compare Web site includes data on fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries but does not control for severity of illness, which requires physiologic data now available in most electronic medical records.To address this limitation, we compared hospital processes and outcomes among Kaiser Permanente Northern California's (KPNC) Medicare Advantage beneficiaries and non-KPNC California Medicare beneficiaries between 2009 and 2010. We assigned a simulated severity of illness measure to each record and explored the effect of having the additional information on outcomes. We found that if the admission severity of illness in non-KPNC hospitals increased, KPNC hospitals' mortality performance would appear worse; conversely, if admission severity at non-KPNC hospitals' decreased, KPNC hospitals' performance would appear better. Future hospital benchmarking should consider the impact of variation in admission thresholds.

  10. Parkinson’s Disease and Home Healthcare Use and Expenditures among Elderly Medicare Beneficiaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandipan Bhattacharjee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study estimated excess home healthcare use and expenditures among elderly Medicare beneficiaries (age ≥ 65 years with Parkinson’s disease (PD compared to those without PD and analyzed the extent to which predisposing, enabling, need factors, personal health choice, and external environment contribute to the excess home healthcare use and expenditures among individuals with PD. A retrospective, observational, cohort study design using Medicare 5% sample claims for years 2006-2007 was used for this study. Logistic regressions and Ordinary Least Squares regressions were used to assess the association of PD with home health use and expenditures, respectively. Postregression nonlinear and linear decomposition techniques were used to understand the extent to which differences in home healthcare use and expenditures among elderly Medicare beneficiaries with and without PD can be explained by individual-level factors. Elderly Medicare beneficiaries with PD had higher home health use and expenditures compared to those without PD. 27.5% and 18% of the gap in home health use and expenditures, respectively, were explained by differences in characteristics between the PD and no PD groups. A large portion of the differences in home healthcare use and expenditures remained unexplained.

  11. Access to Care for Medicare-Medicaid Dually Eligible Beneficiaries: The Role of State Medicaid Payment Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Nan Tracy; Haber, Susan; Hoover, Sonja; Feng, Zhanlian

    2017-12-01

    Medicaid programs are not required to pay the full Medicare coinsurance and deductibles for Medicare-Medicaid dually eligible beneficiaries. We examined the association between the percentage of Medicare cost sharing paid by Medicaid and the likelihood that a dually eligible beneficiary used evaluation and management (E&M) services and safety net provider services. Medicare and Medicaid Analytic eXtract enrollment and claims data for 2009. Multivariate analyses used fee-for-service dually eligible and Medicare-only beneficiaries in 20 states. A comparison group of Medicare-only beneficiaries controlled for state factors that might influence utilization. Paying 100 percent of the Medicare cost sharing compared to 20 percent increased the likelihood (relative to Medicare-only) that a dually eligible beneficiary had any E&M visit by 6.4 percent. This difference in the percentage of cost sharing paid decreased the likelihood of using safety net providers, by 37.7 percent for federally qualified health centers and rural health centers, and by 19.8 percent for hospital outpatient departments. Reimbursing the full Medicare cost-sharing amount would improve access for dually eligible beneficiaries, although the magnitude of the effect will vary by state and type of service. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  12. Variables Associated With Inpatient and Outpatient Resource Utilization Among Medicare Beneficiaries With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease With or Without Cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayiner, Mehmet; Otgonsuren, Munkhzul; Cable, Rebecca; Younossi, Issah; Afendy, Mariam; Golabi, Pegah; Henry, Linda; Younossi, Zobair M

    2017-03-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the leading causes of chronic liver disease worldwide with tremendous clinical burden. The economic burden of NAFLD is not well studied. To assess the economic burden of NAFLD. Medicare beneficiaries (January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2010) with NAFLD diagnosis by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes in the absence of other liver diseases were selected. Inpatient and outpatient resource utilization parameters were total charges and total provider payments. NAFLD patients with compensated cirrhosis (CC) were compared with decompensated cirrhosis (DC). A total of 976 inpatients and 4742 outpatients with NAFLD were included-87% were white, 36% male, 30% had cardiovascular disease (CVD) or metabolic syndrome conditions, and 12% had cirrhosis. For inpatients, median total hospital charge was $36,289. NAFLD patients with cirrhosis had higher charges and payments than noncirrhotic NAFLD patients ($61,151 vs. $33,863 and $18,804 vs. $10,146, P<0.001). Compared with CC, NAFLD patients with DC had higher charges and payments (P<0.02). For outpatients, median total charge was $9,011. NAFLD patients with cirrhosis had higher charges and payments than noncirrhotic NAFLD patients ($12,049 vs. $8,830 and $2,586 vs. $1,734, P<0.001). Compared with CC, DC patients had higher total charges ($15,187 vs. $10,379, P=0.04). In multivariate analysis, variables associated with increased inpatient resource utilization were inpatient mortality, DC, and CVD; for outpatients, having CVD, obesity, and hypertension (all P<0.001). NAFLD is associated with significant economic burden to Medicare. Presence of cirrhosis and CVD are associated with increased resource utilization.

  13. Thermal processes identification using virtual instrumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iosif OLAH

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the experimental identification problem of thermal processes is presented, in order to establish their mathematical models which permit the adoption of the automation solutions, respectively the specification of a suitable control law. With this aim in view, the authors resorted to use Virtual Instrumentation with the aid of the LabVIEW development medium. In order to solve the problem of acquisition and processing data from physical real processes, Virtual Instruments which provide at the end a mathematical model which is basis of choosing the automation equipment of the aim followed was designed and achieved. The achieved Virtual Instruments get the opportunity to be used either in student instruction field with the virtual processes identification techniques or to put the identification of some real processes to good use of diverse beneficiaries. The results of some experimental attempts which were achieved during different thermal processes, illustrate the utility of the demarches performed in this paper.

  14. Enhancing Privacy for Biometric Identification Cards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Most developed countries have started the implementation of biometric electronic identification cards, especially passports. The European Union and the United States of America struggle to introduce and standardize these electronic documents. Due to the personal nature of the biometric elements used for the generation of these cards, privacy issues were raised on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, leading to civilian protests and concerns. The lack of transparency from the public authorities responsible with the implementation of such identification systems, and the poor technological approaches chosen by these authorities, are the main reasons for the negative popularity of the new identification methods. The following article shows an approach that provides all the benefits of modern technological advances in the fields of biometrics and cryptography, without sacrificing the privacy of those that will be the beneficiaries of the new system

  15. Automatic coding method of the ACR Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kwi Ae; Ihm, Jong Sool; Ahn, Woo Hyun; Baik, Seung Kook; Choi, Han Yong; Kim, Bong Gi

    1993-01-01

    The authors developed a computer program for automatic coding of ACR(American College of Radiology) code. The automatic coding of the ACR code is essential for computerization of the data in the department of radiology. This program was written in foxbase language and has been used for automatic coding of diagnosis in the Department of Radiology, Wallace Memorial Baptist since May 1992. The ACR dictionary files consisted of 11 files, one for the organ code and the others for the pathology code. The organ code was obtained by typing organ name or code number itself among the upper and lower level codes of the selected one that were simultaneous displayed on the screen. According to the first number of the selected organ code, the corresponding pathology code file was chosen automatically. By the similar fashion of organ code selection, the proper pathologic dode was obtained. An example of obtained ACR code is '131.3661'. This procedure was reproducible regardless of the number of fields of data. Because this program was written in 'User's Defined Function' from, decoding of the stored ACR code was achieved by this same program and incorporation of this program into program in to another data processing was possible. This program had merits of simple operation, accurate and detail coding, and easy adjustment for another program. Therefore, this program can be used for automation of routine work in the department of radiology

  16. Patient-Centered Medical Home Features and Health Care Expenditures of Medicare Beneficiaries with Chronic Disease Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpot, Lindsey M; Stockbridge, Erica L; Padrón, Norma A; Pagán, José A

    2016-06-01

    Three out of 4 Medicare beneficiaries have multiple chronic conditions, and managing the care of this growing population can be complex and costly because of care coordination challenges. This study assesses how different elements of the patient-centered medical home (PCMH) model may impact the health care expenditures of Medicare beneficiaries with the most prevalent chronic disease dyads (ie, co-occurring high cholesterol and high blood pressure, high cholesterol and heart disease, high cholesterol and diabetes, high cholesterol and arthritis, heart disease and high blood pressure). Data from the 2007-2011 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey suggest that increased access to PCMH features may differentially impact the distribution of health care expenditures across health care service categories depending on the combination of chronic conditions experienced by each beneficiary. For example, having no difficulty contacting a provider after regular hours was associated with significantly lower outpatient expenditures for beneficiaries with high cholesterol and diabetes (n = 635; P = 0.038), but it was associated with significantly higher inpatient expenditures for beneficiaries with high blood pressure and high cholesterol (n = 1599; P = 0.015), and no significant differences in expenditures in any category for beneficiaries with high blood pressure and heart disease (n = 1018; P > 0.05 for all categories). However, average total health care expenditures are largely unaffected by implementing the PCMH features considered. Understanding how the needs of Medicare beneficiaries with multiple chronic conditions can be met through the adoption of the PCMH model is important not only to be able to provide high-quality care but also to control costs. (Population Health Management 2016;19:206-211).

  17. Error-correction coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinds, Erold W. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the progress made towards the completion of a specific task on error-correcting coding. The proposed research consisted of investigating the use of modulation block codes as the inner code of a concatenated coding system in order to improve the overall space link communications performance. The study proposed to identify and analyze candidate codes that will complement the performance of the overall coding system which uses the interleaved RS (255,223) code as the outer code.

  18. Dynamic Shannon Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Gagie, Travis

    2005-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for dynamic prefix-free coding, based on Shannon coding. We give a simple analysis and prove a better upper bound on the length of the encoding produced than the corresponding bound for dynamic Huffman coding. We show how our algorithm can be modified for efficient length-restricted coding, alphabetic coding and coding with unequal letter costs.

  19. Fundamentals of convolutional coding

    CERN Document Server

    Johannesson, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Fundamentals of Convolutional Coding, Second Edition, regarded as a bible of convolutional coding brings you a clear and comprehensive discussion of the basic principles of this field * Two new chapters on low-density parity-check (LDPC) convolutional codes and iterative coding * Viterbi, BCJR, BEAST, list, and sequential decoding of convolutional codes * Distance properties of convolutional codes * Includes a downloadable solutions manual

  20. Codes Over Hyperfields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atamewoue Surdive

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we define linear codes and cyclic codes over a finite Krasner hyperfield and we characterize these codes by their generator matrices and parity check matrices. We also demonstrate that codes over finite Krasner hyperfields are more interesting for code theory than codes over classical finite fields.

  1. Code-Mixing and Code Switchingin The Process of Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diyah Atiek Mustikawati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe a form of code switching and code mixing specific form found in the teaching and learning activities in the classroom as well as determining factors influencing events stand out that form of code switching and code mixing in question.Form of this research is descriptive qualitative case study which took place in Al Mawaddah Boarding School Ponorogo. Based on the analysis and discussion that has been stated in the previous chapter that the form of code mixing and code switching learning activities in Al Mawaddah Boarding School is in between the use of either language Java language, Arabic, English and Indonesian, on the use of insertion of words, phrases, idioms, use of nouns, adjectives, clauses, and sentences. Code mixing deciding factor in the learning process include: Identification of the role, the desire to explain and interpret, sourced from the original language and its variations, is sourced from a foreign language. While deciding factor in the learning process of code, includes: speakers (O1, partners speakers (O2, the presence of a third person (O3, the topic of conversation, evoke a sense of humour, and just prestige. The significance of this study is to allow readers to see the use of language in a multilingual society, especially in AL Mawaddah boarding school about the rules and characteristics variation in the language of teaching and learning activities in the classroom. Furthermore, the results of this research will provide input to the ustadz / ustadzah and students in developing oral communication skills and the effectiveness of teaching and learning strategies in boarding schools.

  2. Understanding the increase in the number of childbirth-related leave beneficiaries in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanić Katarina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past number of years, the public expenditures for childbirth-related leave benefits have more than doubled – in 2015 amounted to 0.7% GDP in relation to 0.3% GDP in 2002. This increase can mainly be attributed to the increased number of beneficiaries that grew consistently from 24 thousand in 2002 up to 40 thousand in 2015, despite the fact that the annual number of live births has been almost continually decreasing and the registered employment has dropped by almost 20 per cent in the observed period. One of the clear reasons explaining part of this increase is the extension of 3+ order of birth leaves in 2006, from one to two years, which can explain the increase of around 3.5 thousand of beneficiaries. Another reason is high number of beneficiaries using special child-care leave meant for parents with children with disabilities, but which, in reality, is very often used simply as the extension of parental leave. The average number of special child-care leave beneficiaries in the second half of 2015 amounted to 2.8 thousand. When these two effects are taken into account, we still notice significant increase of beneficiaries of around 10 thousand in the observed period. Fictitious employment during the pregnancy can explain this increase to some extent. Available data unambiguously show that a number of women formally employing during the second and third trimester of pregnancy has increased from 800 in 2002 to almost 3.5 thousand monthly average in the second half of 2015. There are two flaws of the childbirth-related leave programme in Serbia, which together lead to the constant increase of the number of beneficiaries. First is the lack of flexibility of the programme, both in terms of eligibility for acquiring the right as well as in terms of flexibility in use. Maternity/parental leave benefit may acquire only those in „standard employment” i.e. employed under employment contract (and entrepreneurs while other type of

  3. Prevalence and Geographic Variations of Polypharmacy Among West Virginia Medicaid Beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xue; Tan, Xi; Riley, Brittany; Zheng, Tianyu; Bias, Thomas K; Becker, James B; Sambamoorthi, Usha

    2017-11-01

    West Virginia (WV) residents are at high risk for polypharmacy given its considerable chronic disease burdens. To evaluate the prevalence, correlates, outcomes, and geographic variations of polypharmacy among WV Medicaid beneficiaries. In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed 2009-2010 WV Medicaid fee-for-service (FFS) claims data for adults aged 18-64 (N=37,570). We defined polypharmacy as simultaneous use of drugs from five or more different drug classes on a daily basis for at least 60 consecutive days in one year. Multilevel logistic regression was used to explore the individual- and county-level factors associated with polypharmacy. Its relationship with healthcare utilization was assessed using negative binomial regression and logistic regression. The univariate local indicators of spatial association method was applied to explore spatial patterns of polypharmacy in WV. The prevalence of polypharmacy among WV Medicaid beneficiaries was 44.6%. High-high clusters of polypharmacy were identified in southern WV, indicating counties with above-average prevalence surrounded by counties with above-average prevalence. Polypharmacy was associated with being older, female, eligible for Medicaid due to cash assistance or medical eligibility, having any chronic conditions or more chronic conditions, and living in a county with lower levels of education. Polypharmacy was associated with more hospitalizations, emergency department visits, and outpatient visits, as well as higher non-drug medical expenditures. Polypharmacy was prevalent among WV Medicaid beneficiaries and was associated with substantial healthcare utilization and expenditures. The clustering of high prevalence of polypharmacy in southern WV may suggest targeted strategies to reduce polypharmacy burden in these areas.

  4. From theoretical to actual ecosystem services: mapping beneficiaries and spatial flows in ecosystem service assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J. Bagstad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem services mapping and modeling has focused more on supply than demand, until recently. Whereas the potential provision of economic benefits from ecosystems to people is often quantified through ecological production functions, the use of and demand for ecosystem services has received less attention, as have the spatial flows of services from ecosystems to people. However, new modeling approaches that map and quantify service-specific sources (ecosystem capacity to provide a service, sinks (biophysical or anthropogenic features that deplete or alter service flows, users (user locations and level of demand, and spatial flows can provide a more complete understanding of ecosystem services. Through a case study in Puget Sound, Washington State, USA, we quantify and differentiate between the theoretical or in situ provision of services, i.e., ecosystems' capacity to supply services, and their actual provision when accounting for the location of beneficiaries and the spatial connections that mediate service flows between people and ecosystems. Our analysis includes five ecosystem services: carbon sequestration and storage, riverine flood regulation, sediment regulation for reservoirs, open space proximity, and scenic viewsheds. Each ecosystem service is characterized by different beneficiary groups and means of service flow. Using the ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services (ARIES methodology we map service supply, demand, and flow, extending on simpler approaches used by past studies to map service provision and use. With the exception of the carbon sequestration service, regions that actually provided services to people, i.e., connected to beneficiaries via flow paths, amounted to 16-66% of those theoretically capable of supplying services, i.e., all ecosystems across the landscape. These results offer a more complete understanding of the spatial dynamics of ecosystem services and their effects, and may provide a sounder basis for

  5. Outcomes associated with comorbid atrial fibrillation and heart failure in Medicare beneficiaries with acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Yin; Crivera, Concetta; Stokes, Michael; Boulanger, Luke; Schein, Jeff

    2014-02-20

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF) are both common comorbid conditions of elderly patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), but published data on their associated clinical and economic outcomes are limited. Our study included patients from the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey with an incident hospitalization for ACS between 03/01/2002 and 12/31/2006. Applying population weights, we identified 795 incident ACS patients, representing more than 2.5 million Medicare beneficiaries. Of this population, 13.1% had comorbid AF, and 22.9% had HF, which were identified from Medicare claims during the 6 months prior to the first ACS event (index date) Subsequent cardiovascular (CV) hospitalizations and mortality were compared using Kaplan-Meier curves. Cox proportional hazards regressions were used to estimate the relative risk of AF and HF on CV events and mortality. Healthcare costs were summarized for the calendar year in which the incident ACS event occurred. HF was associated with a 41% higher risk of mortality (HR = 1.41; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.89). Both AF (HR = 1.46; 95% CI 1.14-1.87) and HF (HR = 1.61; 95% CI 1.26-2.06) were associated with higher risks of subsequent CV events. During the year of the incident ACS event, ACS patients with comorbid AF or HF had approximately $18,000 higher total healthcare costs than those without these comorbidities. Using a nationally representative sample of Medicare beneficiaries, we observed a significantly higher clinical and economic burden of patients hospitalized for ACS with comorbid AF and HF compared with those without these conditions.

  6. From theoretical to actual ecosystem services: mapping beneficiaries and spatial flows in ecosystem service assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Villa, Ferdinando; Batker, David; Harrison-Cox, Jennifer; Voigt, Brian; Johnson, Gary W.

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem services mapping and modeling has focused more on supply than demand, until recently. Whereas the potential provision of economic benefits from ecosystems to people is often quantified through ecological production functions, the use of and demand for ecosystem services has received less attention, as have the spatial flows of services from ecosystems to people. However, new modeling approaches that map and quantify service-specific sources (ecosystem capacity to provide a service), sinks (biophysical or anthropogenic features that deplete or alter service flows), users (user locations and level of demand), and spatial flows can provide a more complete understanding of ecosystem services. Through a case study in Puget Sound, Washington State, USA, we quantify and differentiate between the theoretical or in situ provision of services, i.e., ecosystems’ capacity to supply services, and their actual provision when accounting for the location of beneficiaries and the spatial connections that mediate service flows between people and ecosystems. Our analysis includes five ecosystem services: carbon sequestration and storage, riverine flood regulation, sediment regulation for reservoirs, open space proximity, and scenic viewsheds. Each ecosystem service is characterized by different beneficiary groups and means of service flow. Using the ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services (ARIES) methodology we map service supply, demand, and flow, extending on simpler approaches used by past studies to map service provision and use. With the exception of the carbon sequestration service, regions that actually provided services to people, i.e., connected to beneficiaries via flow paths, amounted to 16-66% of those theoretically capable of supplying services, i.e., all ecosystems across the landscape. These results offer a more complete understanding of the spatial dynamics of ecosystem services and their effects, and may provide a sounder basis for economic

  7. 75 FR 10414 - Researcher Identification Card

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... capturing administrative information on the characteristics of our users. Other forms of identification are... use bar-codes on researcher identification cards in the Washington, DC, area. The plastic cards we... plastic researcher identification cards as part of their security systems, we issue a plastic card to...

  8. Vector Network Coding Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahimi, Javad; Fragouli, Christina

    2010-01-01

    We develop new algebraic algorithms for scalar and vector network coding. In vector network coding, the source multicasts information by transmitting vectors of length L, while intermediate nodes process and combine their incoming packets by multiplying them with L x L coding matrices that play a similar role as coding c in scalar coding. Our algorithms for scalar network jointly optimize the employed field size while selecting the coding coefficients. Similarly, for vector coding, our algori...

  9. User's guide for Reactor Incident Root Cause Coding Tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, D.A.; Paradies, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    The Reactor Incident (RI) Cause Coding Tree is designed to allow identification of root causes of RI's, thereby leading to trending of useful information and developing of corrective actions to prevent recurrence. This guide explains the terminology of the RI Cause Coding Tree and how to use the tree. Using this guide for cause coding is stressed to allow consistency of coding among all RI investigators. 8 figs

  10. Homological stabilizer codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Jonas T., E-mail: jonastyleranderson@gmail.com

    2013-03-15

    In this paper we define homological stabilizer codes on qubits which encompass codes such as Kitaev's toric code and the topological color codes. These codes are defined solely by the graphs they reside on. This feature allows us to use properties of topological graph theory to determine the graphs which are suitable as homological stabilizer codes. We then show that all toric codes are equivalent to homological stabilizer codes on 4-valent graphs. We show that the topological color codes and toric codes correspond to two distinct classes of graphs. We define the notion of label set equivalencies and show that under a small set of constraints the only homological stabilizer codes without local logical operators are equivalent to Kitaev's toric code or to the topological color codes. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that Kitaev's toric codes are equivalent to homological stabilizer codes on 4-valent graphs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that toric codes and color codes correspond to homological stabilizer codes on distinct graphs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find and classify all 2D homological stabilizer codes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find optimal codes among the homological stabilizer codes.

  11. Patient satisfaction and loyalty among military healthcare beneficiaries enrolled in a managed care program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, B M; Loan, L A

    1999-11-01

    A study was performed to evaluate military beneficiaries' motivation for choosing to change from a civilian managed care system to the military managed care system. Concerns about healthcare cost, quality, and access underpin major reform in military healthcare. The military health system (MHS) is implementing managed care through an initiative known as TRICARE. Patient choice and satisfaction are highly relevant to all healthcare delivery systems; they are being explored aggressively in the MHS as TRICARE evolves. This descriptive study was conducted using a telephone survey consisting of 63 items derived from four pre-existing instruments as well as five facility-specific questions and demographics. The population of interest targeted military beneficiaries on a TRICARE waiting list who, at the time of enrollment, indicated a desire to receive care at the military facility. Consumers were inclined to return to the military system because of loyalty. Also, this study provided evidence that staff courtesy is important to those who seek healthcare. Good quality and accessibility were verified as essential elements in sustaining a consumer's positive view of and attraction to a particular healthcare system. Cost was proven to be a less substantial factor of consumer decision making. Surveys such as this give healthcare providers more information about aspects of care, such as patient loyalty and interpersonal dynamics, that attract people to their healthcare delivery systems. For healthcare systems to thrive, consumer influence and the power of patient dissatisfaction must be understood.

  12. Affiliation of the beneficiaries of a deferred pension to the CERN Health Insurance Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Subsequent to the modifications to the Rules and Regulations of the Pension Fund allowing members of the personnel having five years of affiliation to the Fund to opt for a deferred retirement pension, the Organization wishes to recall the rules relating to the affiliation of those beneficiaries to the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS). In accordance with Articles III 2.02 and VIII 4.02 of the CHIS Rules, beneficiaries of a deferred retirement pension can only be Members of the CHIS as CERN pensioners if they applied to remain Members of the Scheme upon termination of their compulsory membership as a member of the personnel and if their membership has been uninterrupted up to the moment they become CERN pensioners. The applicable contribution for this intermediate period is indicated in Articles III 5.03 and X 1.02 of the CHIS Rules. The amount is revised annually, and is set at 936 CHF/ month for 2003. Human Resources Division Tel. 73635

  13. Knowledge, awareness, and utilization pattern of services under Janani Suraksha Yojana among beneficiaries in rural area of Himachal Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Lal Chauhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Safe motherhood is perceived as a human right, and the health sector is always encouraged to provide quality services to ensure the same. Government of India launched a scheme called Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY on April 11, 2005, under the flagship of National Rural Health Mission to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality, by promoting institutional deliveries for which financial incentives are provided to mothers delivering in the health facilities. Objective: To study the knowledge, awareness, and utilization pattern of services under JSY among the beneficiaries in rural area of Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among the 78 JSY beneficiaries residing in the rural field practice area of Indira Gandhi Medical College Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India. These beneficiaries were interviewed with pretested, predesigned, semi-structured close ended questionnaire by house-to-house visits, after obtaining informed consent. Results: Majority of the JSY beneficiaries (50; 64% were in the age group of 20–25 years and 43 (55.1% of them heard about the JSY scheme before the present pregnancy. Anganwadi workers 78 (100% and female health workers (62; 79.5% were the main sources of information. More than half of the study participants (44; 56% had good knowledge about the scheme and 42 (53.85% registered their name in health institution during thefirst trimester of last pregnancy. Forty-four (56.4% beneficiaries had undergone three antenatal checkups and only 11 (14.1% of them received three postnatal (PN visits. All the beneficiaries received the JSY incentives 1-week the following delivery. Conclusions: Awareness regarding the JSY scheme, early antenatal registration, minimum three antenatal care visits, and three PN visits is still low among rural women which needs strengthening through intensification of IEC activities.

  14. Use of the Spine Adverse Events Severity System (SAVES) in patients with traumatic spinal cord injury. A comparison with institutional ICD-10 coding for the identification of acute care adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, J T; Thorogood, N P; Cheung, A; Noonan, V K; Chen, J; Fisher, C G; Dvorak, M F

    2013-06-01

    Observational cohort comparison. To compare the previously validated Spine Adverse Events Severity system (SAVES) with International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision codes (ICD-10) codes for identifying adverse events (AEs) in patients with traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI). Quaternary Care Spine Program. Patients discharged between 2006 and 2010 were identified from our prospective registry. Two consecutive cohorts were created based on the system used to record acute care AEs; one used ICD-10 coding by hospital coders and the other used SAVES data prospectively collected by a multidisciplinary clinical team. The ICD-10 codes were appropriately mapped to the SAVES. There were 212 patients in the ICD-10 cohort and 173 patients in the SAVES cohort. Analyses were adjusted to account for the different sample sizes, and the two cohorts were comparable based on age, gender and motor score. The SAVES system identified twice as many AEs per person as ICD-10 coding. Fifteen unique AEs were more reliably identified using SAVES, including neuropathic pain (32 × more; Ppatient age and severity of paralysis were more reliably correlated to AEs collected through SAVES than ICD-10. Implementation of the SAVES system for patients with TSCI captured more individuals experiencing AEs and more AEs per person compared with ICD-10 codes. This study demonstrates the utility of prospectively collecting AE data using validated tools.

  15. Diagnostic Coding for Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Korwyn; Nuwer, Marc R; Buchhalter, Jeffrey R

    2016-02-01

    Accurate coding is an important function of neurologic practice. This contribution to Continuum is part of an ongoing series that presents helpful coding information along with examples related to the issue topic. Tips for diagnosis coding, Evaluation and Management coding, procedure coding, or a combination are presented, depending on which is most applicable to the subject area of the issue.

  16. Coding of Neuroinfectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley, Gregory L

    2015-12-01

    Accurate coding is an important function of neurologic practice. This contribution to Continuum is part of an ongoing series that presents helpful coding information along with examples related to the issue topic. Tips for diagnosis coding, Evaluation and Management coding, procedure coding, or a combination are presented, depending on which is most applicable to the subject area of the issue.

  17. 20 CFR 411.555 - Can the EN keep the milestone and outcome payments even if the beneficiary does not achieve all...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can the EN keep the milestone and outcome payments even if the beneficiary does not achieve all outcome months? 411.555 Section 411.555 Employees... Payment Systems § 411.555 Can the EN keep the milestone and outcome payments even if the beneficiary does...

  18. 19 CFR 10.26 - Articles assembled or processed in a beneficiary country in whole of U.S. components or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., material, ingredient, or article remained under the control of the customs authority of the non-beneficiary... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles assembled or processed in a beneficiary... textile components cut to shape in the United States. 10.26 Section 10.26 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND...

  19. Vector Network Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahimi, Javad; Fragouli, Christina

    2010-01-01

    We develop new algebraic algorithms for scalar and vector network coding. In vector network coding, the source multicasts information by transmitting vectors of length L, while intermediate nodes process and combine their incoming packets by multiplying them with L X L coding matrices that play a similar role as coding coefficients in scalar coding. Our algorithms for scalar network jointly optimize the employed field size while selecting the coding coefficients. Similarly, for vector co...

  20. Entropy Coding in HEVC

    OpenAIRE

    Sze, Vivienne; Marpe, Detlev

    2014-01-01

    Context-Based Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coding (CABAC) is a method of entropy coding first introduced in H.264/AVC and now used in the latest High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard. While it provides high coding efficiency, the data dependencies in H.264/AVC CABAC make it challenging to parallelize and thus limit its throughput. Accordingly, during the standardization of entropy coding for HEVC, both aspects of coding efficiency and throughput were considered. This chapter describes th...

  1. Generalized concatenated quantum codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassl, Markus; Shor, Peter; Smith, Graeme; Smolin, John; Zeng Bei

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the concept of generalized concatenated quantum codes. This generalized concatenation method provides a systematical way for constructing good quantum codes, both stabilizer codes and nonadditive codes. Using this method, we construct families of single-error-correcting nonadditive quantum codes, in both binary and nonbinary cases, which not only outperform any stabilizer codes for finite block length but also asymptotically meet the quantum Hamming bound for large block length.

  2. Rateless feedback codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Koike-Akino, Toshiaki; Orlik, Philip

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a concept called rateless feedback coding. We redesign the existing LT and Raptor codes, by introducing new degree distributions for the case when a few feedback opportunities are available. We show that incorporating feedback to LT codes can significantly decrease both...... the coding overhead and the encoding/decoding complexity. Moreover, we show that, at the price of a slight increase in the coding overhead, linear complexity is achieved with Raptor feedback coding....

  3. Multiple Schemes for Mobile Payment Authentication Using QR Code and Visual Cryptography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available QR code (quick response code is used due to its beneficial properties, especially in the mobile payment field. However, there exists an inevitable risk in the transaction process. It is not easily perceived that the attacker tampers with or replaces the QR code that contains merchant’s beneficiary account. Thus, it is of great urgency to conduct authentication of QR code. In this study, we propose a novel mechanism based on visual cryptography scheme (VCS and aesthetic QR code, which contains three primary schemes for different concealment levels. The main steps of these schemes are as follows. Firstly, one original QR code is split into two shadows using VC multiple rules; secondly, the two shadows are embedded into the same background image, respectively, and the embedded results are fused with the same carrier QR code, respectively, using XOR mechanism of RS and QR code error correction mechanism. Finally, the two aesthetic QR codes can be stacked precisely and the original QR code is restored according to the defined VCS. Experiments corresponding to three proposed schemes are conducted and demonstrate the feasibility and security of the mobile payment authentication, the significant improvement of the concealment for the shadows in QR code, and the diversity of mobile payment authentication.

  4. Advanced video coding systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Wen

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive and accessible text/reference presents an overview of the state of the art in video coding technology. Specifically, the book introduces the tools of the AVS2 standard, describing how AVS2 can help to achieve a significant improvement in coding efficiency for future video networks and applications by incorporating smarter coding tools such as scene video coding. Topics and features: introduces the basic concepts in video coding, and presents a short history of video coding technology and standards; reviews the coding framework, main coding tools, and syntax structure of AV

  5. Coding for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    Hands-on exercises help you learn to code like a pro No coding experience is required for Coding For Dummies,your one-stop guide to building a foundation of knowledge inwriting computer code for web, application, and softwaredevelopment. It doesn't matter if you've dabbled in coding or neverwritten a line of code, this book guides you through the basics.Using foundational web development languages like HTML, CSS, andJavaScript, it explains in plain English how coding works and whyit's needed. Online exercises developed by Codecademy, a leading online codetraining site, help hone coding skill

  6. Out of Pocket expenditure among beneficiaries of Janani Shishu Suraksha Karyakaram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Tyagi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: About 67,000 women in India die every year (MoHFW, 2011, due to pregnancy related complications. Similarly, every year more than 13 lacs infants die, within 1 year of the birth and out of these approximately 9 lacs i.e. 2/3rd of the infant deaths take place within the first four weeks of life (1.Out of these, approximately 7 lacs i.e. 75% of the deaths take place within a week of the birth and a majority of these occur in the first two days after birth (1. In view of the difficulty being faced by the pregnant women and parents of sick new-born (MoHFW,2011, along with high out-of-pocket expenses incurred by them on delivery and treatment of sick new-born, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare has taken a major initiative, to provide completely free and cashless services to pregnant women including normal deliveries and caesarean operations and sick new born (up to 30 days after birth in Government health institutions in both rural & urban areas. Material & Methods: In this community based descriptive cross-sectional study, data was collected from 100 mothers, who had delivered in last one year at District Hospital Maternal Wing situated at Morar Block of Gwalior District M.P and MO, ANM’s, ASHA’s, using Semi structured close ended Interview schedule and an open ended questionnaire respectively. Data were compared by using SPSS (ver. 22.0 Result: Expenses were divided under two heads, medical and non-medical. 15% of the total beneficiaries incurred the medical expenses in the form of medicines, diagnostics etc. and almost 99% of all the respondents incurred the non-medical expenses in the form of transport, food etc. Conclusion: Based on the outcome of the study the overall impression was that 59% of the beneficiaries were not aware of the JSSK scheme. Only during pregnancies through the initiatives of the ASHAs the beneficiaries came to know about the free entitlements of the scheme. There was unavailability of ambulance when

  7. Cross-Sectional Analysis of Per Capita Supply of Doctors of Chiropractic and Opioid Use in Younger Medicare Beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, William B; Goertz, Christine M

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the per-capita supply of doctors of chiropractic (DCs) or Medicare spending on chiropractic care was associated with opioid use among younger, disabled Medicare beneficiaries. Using 2011 data, at the hospital referral region level, we correlated the per-capita supply of DCs and spending on chiropractic manipulative therapy (CMT) with several measures of per-capita opioid use by younger, disabled Medicare beneficiaries. Per-capita supply of DCs and spending on CMT were strongly inversely correlated with the percentage of younger Medicare beneficiaries who had at least 1, as well as with 6 or more, opioid prescription fills. Neither measure was correlated with mean daily morphine equivalents per opioid user or per chronic opioid user. A higher per-capita supply of DCs and Medicare spending on CMT were inversely associated with younger, disabled Medicare beneficiaries obtaining an opioid prescription. However, neither measure was associated with opioid dosage among patients who obtained opioid prescriptions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. 19 CFR 10.196 - Cost or value of materials produced in a beneficiary country or countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... country where it is tanned to create nonperishable “crust leather”. The tanned product is then imported... tanned to create nonperishable “crust leather”. The tanned skin is then imported directly into the U.S... composed is not wholly the growth, product, or manufacture of a beneficiary country and (2) the tanning...

  9. 20 CFR 30.17 - Is a beneficiary who defrauds the government in connection with a claim for EEOICPA benefits...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS COMPENSATION PROGRAM ACT OF 2000, AS AMENDED General Provisions Rights and Penalties § 30... for benefits under the Act or any other federal or state workers' compensation law, the beneficiary... trial) any entitlement to any further benefits for any injury, illness or death covered by this part for...

  10. 42 CFR 411.12 - Charges imposed by an immediate relative or member of the beneficiary's household.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Natural or adoptive parent, child, or sibling. (3) Stepparent, stepchild, stepbrother, or stepsister. (4... if the physician who ordered or supervised the services has an excluded relationship to the... provider or supplier if the owner has an excluded relationship to the beneficiary; and (ii) Charges imposed...

  11. Disability and Hospital Care Expenses among National Health Insurance Beneficiaries: Analyses of Population-Based Data in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lan-Ping; Lee, Jiunn-Tay; Lin, Fu-Gong; Lin, Pei-Ying; Tang, Chi-Chieh; Chu, Cordia M.; Wu, Chia-Ling; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2011-01-01

    Nationwide data were collected concerning inpatient care use and medical expenditure of people with disabilities (N = 937,944) among national health insurance beneficiaries in Taiwan. Data included gender, age, hospitalization frequency and expenditure, healthcare setting and service department, discharge diagnose disease according to the ICD-9-CM…

  12. Medicare Part D is associated with reducing the financial burden of health care services in Medicare beneficiaries with diagnosed diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Gregg, Edward W; Barker, Lawrence E; Zhang, Ping; Zhang, Fang; Zhuo, Xiaohui; Williams, Desmond E; Soumerai, Steven B

    2013-10-01

    Medicare Part D, implemented in 2006, provided coverage for prescription drugs to all Medicare beneficiaries. To examine the effect of Part D on the financial burden of persons with diagnosed diabetes. We conducted an interrupted time-series analysis using data from the 1996 to 2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (11,178 persons with diabetes who were covered by Medicare, and 8953 persons aged 45-64 y with diabetes who were not eligible for Medicare coverage). We then compared changes in 4 outcomes: (1) annual individual out-of-pocket expenditure (OOPE) for prescription drugs; (2) annual individual total OOPE for all health care services; (3) annual total family OOPE for all health care services; and (4) percentage of persons with high family financial burden (OOPE ≥10% of income). For Medicare beneficiaries with diabetes, Part D was associated with a 28% ($530) decrease in individual annual OOPE for prescription drugs, a 23% ($560) reduction in individual OOPE for all health care, a 23% ($863) reduction in family OOPE for all health care, and a 24% reduction in the percentage of families with high financial burden in 2006. There were similar reductions in 2007 and 2008. By 2008, the percentage of Medicare beneficiaries with diabetes living in high financial burden families was 37% lower than it would have been had Part D not been in place. Introduction of Part D coverage was associated with a substantial reduction in the financial burden of Medicare beneficiaries with diabetes and their families.

  13. 75 FR 60066 - Limitations of Duty- and Quota-Free Imports of Apparel Articles Assembled in Beneficiary ATPDEA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... set of Harmonized System lines listed in the Annex to the World Trade Organization Agreement on... COMMITTEE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Limitations of Duty- and Quota-Free Imports of Apparel Articles Assembled in Beneficiary ATPDEA Countries From Regional Country Fabric AGENCY...

  14. Discriminative sparse coding on multi-manifolds

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, J.J.-Y.; Bensmail, H.; Yao, N.; Gao, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Sparse coding has been popularly used as an effective data representation method in various applications, such as computer vision, medical imaging and bioinformatics. However, the conventional sparse coding algorithms and their manifold-regularized variants (graph sparse coding and Laplacian sparse coding), learn codebooks and codes in an unsupervised manner and neglect class information that is available in the training set. To address this problem, we propose a novel discriminative sparse coding method based on multi-manifolds, that learns discriminative class-conditioned codebooks and sparse codes from both data feature spaces and class labels. First, the entire training set is partitioned into multiple manifolds according to the class labels. Then, we formulate the sparse coding as a manifold-manifold matching problem and learn class-conditioned codebooks and codes to maximize the manifold margins of different classes. Lastly, we present a data sample-manifold matching-based strategy to classify the unlabeled data samples. Experimental results on somatic mutations identification and breast tumor classification based on ultrasonic images demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed data representation and classification approach. 2013 The Authors. All rights reserved.

  15. Discriminative sparse coding on multi-manifolds

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, J.J.-Y.

    2013-09-26

    Sparse coding has been popularly used as an effective data representation method in various applications, such as computer vision, medical imaging and bioinformatics. However, the conventional sparse coding algorithms and their manifold-regularized variants (graph sparse coding and Laplacian sparse coding), learn codebooks and codes in an unsupervised manner and neglect class information that is available in the training set. To address this problem, we propose a novel discriminative sparse coding method based on multi-manifolds, that learns discriminative class-conditioned codebooks and sparse codes from both data feature spaces and class labels. First, the entire training set is partitioned into multiple manifolds according to the class labels. Then, we formulate the sparse coding as a manifold-manifold matching problem and learn class-conditioned codebooks and codes to maximize the manifold margins of different classes. Lastly, we present a data sample-manifold matching-based strategy to classify the unlabeled data samples. Experimental results on somatic mutations identification and breast tumor classification based on ultrasonic images demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed data representation and classification approach. 2013 The Authors. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation and implementation of QR Code Identity Tag system for Healthcare in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Uzun, Vassilya; Bilgin, Sami

    2016-01-01

    For this study, we designed a QR Code Identity Tag system to integrate into the Turkish healthcare system. This system provides QR code-based medical identification alerts and an in-hospital patient identification system. Every member of the medical system is assigned a unique QR Code Tag; to facilitate medical identification alerts, the QR Code Identity Tag can be worn as a bracelet or necklace or carried as an ID card. Patients must always possess the QR Code Identity bracelets within hospi...

  17. Potential Beneficiaries of the Obama Administration’s Executive Action Programs Deeply Embedded in US Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Kerwin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Obama administration has developed two broad programs to defer immigration enforcement actions against undocumented persons living in the United States: (1 Deferred Action for Parents of Americans and Lawful Permanent Residents (DAPA; and (2 Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA. The DACA program, which began in August 2012, was expanded on November 20, 2014. DAPA and the DACA expansion (hereinafter referred to as “DACA-plus” are currently under review by the US Supreme Court and subject to an active injunction.This paper offers a statistical portrait of the intended direct beneficiaries of DAPA, DACA, and DACA-plus. It finds that potential DAPA, DACA, and DACA-plus recipients are deeply embedded in US society, with high employment rates, extensive US family ties, long tenure, and substantial rates of English-language proficiency. The paper also notes various groups that would benefit indirectly from the full implementation of DAPA and DACA or, conversely, would suffer from the removal of potential beneficiaries of these programs. For example, all those who would rely on the retirement programs of the US government will benefit from the high employment rates and relative youth of the DACA population, while many US citizens who rely on the income of a DAPA-eligible parent would fall into poverty or extreme poverty should that parent be removed from the United States.This paper offers an analysis of potential DAPA and DACA beneficiaries. In an earlier study, the authors made the case for immigration reform based on long-term trends related to the US undocumented population, including potential DAPA and DACA beneficiaries (Warren and Kerwin 2015. By contrast, this paper details the degree to which these populations have become embedded in US society. It also compares persons eligible for the original DACA program with those eligible for DACA-plus.As stated, the great majority of potential DAPA and DACA recipients enjoy strong family

  18. When is a lie acceptable? Work and private life lying acceptance depends on its beneficiary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarero, Katarzyna; Szarota, Piotr; Stamkou, Eftychia; Navas, Marisol; Dominguez Espinosa, Alejandra Del Carmen

    2018-01-01

    In this article we show that when analyzing attitude towards lying in a cross-cultural setting, both the beneficiary of the lie (self vs other) and the context (private life vs. professional domain) should be considered. In a study conducted in Estonia, Ireland, Mexico, The Netherlands, Poland, Spain, and Sweden (N = 1345), in which participants evaluated stories presenting various types of lies, we found usefulness of relying on the dimensions. Results showed that in the joint sample the most acceptable were other-oriented lies concerning private life, then other-oriented lies in the professional domain, followed by egoistic lies in the professional domain; and the least acceptance was shown for egoistic lies regarding one's private life. We found a negative correlation between acceptance of a behavior and the evaluation of its deceitfulness.

  19. Cruise Tourism in Dominica: Benefits and Beneficiaries Bruno Marques, Romain Cruse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Marques

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The impressive growth of cruise tourism in Dominica, inside highly competitive area of the Caribbean basin, gives the island an astonishing flavor of success. By adopting a systemic approach the article demonstrates that three agents concentrate more than 70% of the financial impact of the cruise activity in Dominica: the local travel agencies, souvenir shops and the cruise lines. The low dispersion of the beneficiaries is concomitant with a spatial concentration and a minimal macroeconomic benefit. This case study, devoted to Dominica, suggests a highly concentrated model of cruise tourism in the Caribbean underpinned by organized tours as the main mode of experiencing the stopovers and a source of revenue for cruise lines, whose subcontractor: the local travel agencies are the primary distribution channel of cruise tourism revenue, high level of economic and spatial concentration generating low trickle down macroeconomic effect.

  20. Recessions and seniors' health, health behaviors, and healthcare use: analysis of the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, Melissa; Mellor, Jennifer M

    2012-09-01

    A number of studies report that U.S. state mortality rates, particularly for the elderly, decline during economic downturns. Further, several prior studies use microdata to show that as state unemployment rates rise, physical health improves, unhealthy behaviors decrease, and medical care use declines. We use data on elderly mortality rates and data from the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey from a time period that encompasses the start of the Great Recession. We find that elderly mortality is countercyclical during most of the 1994-2008 period. Further, as unemployment rates rise, seniors report worse mental health and are no more likely to engage in healthier behaviors. We find suggestive evidence that inpatient utilization increases perhaps because of an increased physician willingness to accept Medicare patients. Our findings suggest that either elderly individuals respond differently to recessions than do working age adults, or that the relationship between unemployment and health has changed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Work participation and health-related characteristics of sickness absence beneficiaries with multiple somatic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momsen, A H; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Nielsen, M B D

    2016-01-01

    unemployed was higher for this group than for those with a low score. Adjusting for general health reduced the association between symptoms and unemployment, whereas problems with social relations only affected it marginally. Conclusions: Sick-listed individuals reporting high levels of symptoms were more......Objectives: The primary aim was to study whether high levels of multiple symptoms influenced sick-listed individuals' employment status or desire to return to work (RTW) and whether this was associated with social relations at work. Study design: A cross-sectional study nested in a clinical trial......-listing, and use of health care were register-data. Multivariate logistic regression analyses with adjustments were performed. Results: Beneficiaries with high SCL-SOM score (n = 218, 33%) reported poorer health, job satisfaction, a lower desire to RTW and more problems with supervisors. The risk of being...

  2. Discussion on LDPC Codes and Uplink Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Ken; Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Moision, Bruce; Hamkins, Jon; Pollara, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the progress that the workgroup on Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) for space link coding. The workgroup is tasked with developing and recommending new error correcting codes for near-Earth, Lunar, and deep space applications. Included in the presentation is a summary of the technical progress of the workgroup. Charts that show the LDPC decoder sensitivity to symbol scaling errors are reviewed, as well as a chart showing the performance of several frame synchronizer algorithms compared to that of some good codes and LDPC decoder tests at ESTL. Also reviewed is a study on Coding, Modulation, and Link Protocol (CMLP), and the recommended codes. A design for the Pseudo-Randomizer with LDPC Decoder and CRC is also reviewed. A chart that summarizes the three proposed coding systems is also presented.

  3. Structural Identification Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvorov Aleksei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification problem of the existing structures though the Quasi-Newton and its modification, Trust region algorithms is discussed. For the structural problems, which could be represented by means of the mathematical modelling of the finite element code discussed method is extremely useful. The nonlinear minimization problem of the L2 norm for the structures with linear elastic behaviour is solved by using of the Optimization Toolbox of Matlab. The direct and inverse procedures for the composition of the desired function to minimize are illustrated for the spatial 3D truss structure as well as for the problem of plane finite elements. The truss identification problem is solved with 2 and 3 unknown parameters in order to compare the computational efforts and for the graphical purposes. The particular commands of the Matlab codes are present in this paper.

  4. Benefits and costs of intensive lifestyle modification programs for symptomatic coronary disease in Medicare beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wu; Stason, William B; Fournier, Stephen; Razavi, Moaven; Ritter, Grant; Strickler, Gail K; Bhalotra, Sarita M; Shepard, Donald S

    2013-05-01

    This study reports outcomes of a Medicare-sponsored demonstration of two intensive lifestyle modification programs (LMPs) in patients with symptomatic coronary heart disease: the Cardiac Wellness Program of the Benson-Henry Mind Body Institute (MBMI) and the Dr Dean Ornish Program for Reversing Heart Disease® (Ornish). This multisite demonstration, conducted between 2000 and 2008, enrolled Medicare beneficiaries who had had an acute myocardial infarction or a cardiac procedure within the preceding 12 months or had stable angina pectoris. Health and economic outcomes are compared with matched controls who had received either traditional or no cardiac rehabilitation following similar cardiac events. Each program included a 1-year active intervention of exercise, diet, small-group support, and stress reduction. Medicare claims were used to examine 3-year outcomes. The analysis includes 461 elderly, fee-for-service, Medicare participants and 1,795 controls. Cardiac and non-cardiac hospitalization rates were lower in participants than controls in each program and were statistically significant in MBMI (P costs of $3,801 and $4,441 per participant for the MBMI and Ornish Programs, respectively, were offset by reduced health care costs yielding non-significant three-year net savings per participant of about $3,500 in MBMI and $1,000 in Ornish. A trend towards lower mortality compared with controls was observed in MBMI participants (P = .07). Intensive, year-long LMPs reduced hospitalization rates and suggest reduced Medicare costs in elderly beneficiaries with symptomatic coronary heart disease. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Variation in Postsepsis Readmission Patterns: A Cohort Study of Veterans Affairs Beneficiaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: Rehospitalization is common after sepsis, but little is known about the variation in readmission patterns across patient groups and care locations. Objectives: To examine the variation in postsepsis readmission rates and diagnoses by patient age, nursing facility use, admission year, and hospital among U.S. Veterans Affairs (VA) beneficiaries. Methods: Observational cohort study of VA beneficiaries who survived a sepsis hospitalization (2009–2011) at 114 VA hospitals, stratified by age (readmission after sepsis hospitalization and proportion of readmissions resulting from specific diagnoses, including the proportion of “potentially preventable” readmissions. Readmission diagnoses were similar from 2009 to 2011, with little variation in readmission rates across hospitals. The top six readmission diagnoses (heart failure, pneumonia, sepsis, urinary tract infection, acute renal failure, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) accounted for 30% of all readmissions. Although about one in five readmissions had a principal diagnosis for infection, 58% of all readmissions received early systemic antibiotics. Infection accounted for a greater proportion of readmissions among patients discharged to nursing facilities compared with patients discharged to home (25.0–27.1% vs. 16.8%) and among older vs. younger patients (22.2% vs. 15.8%). Potentially preventable readmissions accounted for a quarter of readmissions overall and were more common among older patients and patients discharged to nursing facilities. Conclusions: Hospital readmission rates after sepsis were similar by site and admission year. Heart failure, pneumonia, sepsis, and urinary tract infection were common readmission diagnoses across all patient groups. Readmission for infection and potentially preventable diagnoses were more common in older patients and patients discharged to nursing facilities. PMID:27854510

  6. A comparative study of mid-day meal beneficiaries and private school attendees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavi Bhargava

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: India is undergoing a rapid demographic transition accompanied by an epidemiologic and nutritional transition. The nutritional status of school-going children who form a major section of the population, can give an indication of the changing trends in nutritional profile of the population. According to Planning Commission report, 2010, Mid Day Meal (MDM Program has been successful in addressing classroom hunger and the objective of social equity in government school attendees. Aims & Objectives: To study the pattern of school lunch intake and nutritional status in private and government school-going children of district Dehradun. Material & Methods: This was an observational cross-sectional study in district Dehradun in government and private schools, with participants from class 1 to 12. A 24-hour dietary recall was done to measure caloric intake. Height and weight were measured using Microtoise (accuracy 0.1cm and digital weighing machine (Omron Model: HN286, accuracy 100 gm. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS, version 22. Nutritional status was classified using WHO cut-offs and analyzed using AnthroPlus Software. Student t-test was used to compare caloric intake of subgroups. Association between nutritional status and other variables was assessed using Chi-squared test. Results: Using WHO cut-offs, the proportion of thin children was 5.4% in private school and 21.5% in MDM beneficiaries of government schools. The proportion of children who were overweight was 27.7% in private schools and 3.6% in government schools (p<.0.05. The caloric content of school lunch was 271 Kcal in private school attendees and 375 Kcal in MDM beneficiaries. Proportion of children who skipped school lunch increased as they progressed in higher classes, and this proportion was greater in students of government schools beyond class VIII. Conclusion: The study highlights the need for more large scale nutritional surveys with school lunch in focus.

  7. Utilization of Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS Scheme by child beneficiaries in Coastal Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saranya Sivanesan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: India’s main early childhood development intervention the ICDS Scheme has been sustained for 40 years and has been successful in some ways. However, nearly half of the children under six years are still under nourished. The program in reducing the proportion of undernourished children over the past decade has been modest and slower in India than what has been achieved in other countries with comparable socio-economic indicators. Aims & Objectives: 1. To study the utilization of services offered to children under ICDS, 2. To assess the perception about the services. Materials & Methods: A community based cross sectional study was done among mothers of 271 children in the age group three to six years registered in anganwadis. Results: Median duration of absenteeism to anganwadi was five months during the last six months enquired. About 95.9% of registered child beneficiaries utilized supplementary nutrition services and only 48.7% mothers of child beneficiaries were attending nutrition and health education sessions. Among mothers who were aware of growth monitoring, only 73.6% of their children’s weight was checked regularly.  About 60% of mothers were not happy with the quality of food served to their children in the anganwadi. Among children adherent to anganwadi, 72.5% children’s weight remained normal. Conclusion: Only 75% children were regularly attending. Median duration of adherence to anganwadi services was only 12 months and the most common reason for not adhering to the services is due to their simultaneous enrollment in other private nursery school.

  8. Certain aspects of the accounting of the bank guarantee at the principal and the beneficiary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Zimakova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For any kind of business such category as risks is peculiar. The research of this category was conducted by scientists from the different sides, certain approaches of protection against risks were developed and instruments of decrease in financial risks are offered. The bank guarantee is one of the most demanded instruments of additional financial protection today. Its active using of the commercial organizations courses questions of the organization of the detailed accounting of guarantees at the principal and the beneficiary. A little concerning the historical aspect of the bank guarantee, authors provided the overview of the determinations of "bank guarantee" characterizing it as the banking service providing distribution of responsibility between the guarantor and the principal under certain conditions. Having considered the essence of the legal nature and features of the bank guarantee recommendations about the organization of the disaggregated financial accounting on off-balance accounts were developed. In particular, need of allocation of a currency type as the directions of conducting the analytics providing correctness of reflection of cost criterion is proved. For the purpose of control of timeliness of carrying out calculations it is recommended to allocate guarantees: coincident and in coincident with primary obligation; short-term and long-term. From the point of view of nature of guarantees payment guarantees and guarantees of obligation fulfilment were allocated. These recommendations concern the beneficiary, and lack of accounting entries at a principal generates need of creation of additional registers and analytical reports which forms were offered by authors. The provided recommendations will allow obtaining transparent information on bank guarantees for the purpose of its full disclosure in the financial reporting.

  9. Trends in Hospitalization Rates and Outcomes of Endocarditis among Medicare Beneficiaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikdeli, Behnood; Wang, Yun; Kim, Nancy; Desai, Mayur M.; Quagliarello, Vincent; Krumholz, Harlan M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the hospitalization rates and outcomes of endocarditis among older adults. Background Endocarditis is the most serious cardiovascular infection and is especially common among older adults. Little is known about recent trends for endocarditis hospitalizations and outcomes. Methods Using Medicare inpatient Standard Analytic Files, we identified all Fee-For-Service beneficiaries aged ≥65 years with a principal or secondary diagnosis of endocarditis from 1999-2010. We used Medicare Denominator Files to report hospitalizations per 100,000 person-years. Rates of 30-day and 1-year mortality were calculated using Vital Status Files. We used mixed-effects models to calculate adjusted rates of hospitalization and mortality and to compare the results before and after 2007, when the American Heart Association revised recommendations for endocarditis prophylaxis. Results Overall, 262,658 beneficiaries were hospitalized with endocarditis. The adjusted hospitalization rate increased from 1999-2005, reaching 83.5 per 100,000 person-years in 2005, and declined during 2006-2007. After 2007, the decline continued, reaching 70.6 per 100,000 person-years in 2010. Adjusted 30-day and 1-year mortality rates ranged from 14.2% to 16.5% and from 32.6% to 36.2%, respectively. There were no consistent changes in adjusted rates of 30-day and 1-year mortality after 2007. Trends in rates of hospitalization and outcomes were consistent across demographic subgroups. Adjusted rates of hospitalization and mortality declined consistently in the subgroup with principal diagnosis of endocarditis. Conclusions Our study highlights the high burden of endocarditis among older adults. We did not observe an increase in adjusted rates of hospitalization or mortality associated with endocarditis after publication of the 2007 guidelines. PMID:23994421

  10. Antihypertensive medication classes used among medicare beneficiaries initiating treatment in 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Shia T; Shimbo, Daichi; Huang, Lei; Diaz, Keith M; Kilgore, Meredith L; Oparil, Suzanne; Muntner, Paul

    2014-01-01

    After the 2003 publication of the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7) guidelines, there was a 5-10% increase in patients initiating antihypertensive medication with a thiazide-type diuretic, but most patients still did not initiate treatment with this class. There are few contemporary published data on antihypertensive medication classes filled by patients initiating treatment. We used the 5% random Medicare sample to study the initiation of antihypertensive medication between 2007 and 2010. Initiation was defined by the first antihypertensive medication fill preceded by 365 days with no antihypertensive medication fills. We restricted our analysis to beneficiaries ≥ 65 years who had two or more outpatient visits with a hypertension diagnosis and full Medicare fee-for-service coverage for the 365 days prior to initiation of antihypertensive medication. Between 2007 and 2010, 32,142 beneficiaries in the 5% Medicare sample initiated antihypertensive medication. Initiation with a thiazide-type diuretic decreased from 19.2% in 2007 to 17.9% in 2010. No other changes in medication classes initiated occurred over this period. Among those initiating antihypertensive medication in 2010, 31.3% filled angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-Is), 26.9% filled beta blockers, 17.2% filled calcium channel blockers, and 14.4% filled angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). Initiation with >1 antihypertensive medication class decreased from 25.6% in 2007 to 24.1% in 2010. Patients initiated >1 antihypertensive medication class most commonly with a thiazide-type diuretic and either an ACE-I or ARB. These results suggest that JNC 7 had a limited long-term impact on the choice of antihypertensive medication class and provide baseline data prior to the publication of the 2014 Evidence-Based Guideline for the Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults from the Panel Members Appointed to

  11. Locally orderless registration code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    This is code for the TPAMI paper "Locally Orderless Registration". The code requires intel threadding building blocks installed and is provided for 64 bit on mac, linux and windows.......This is code for the TPAMI paper "Locally Orderless Registration". The code requires intel threadding building blocks installed and is provided for 64 bit on mac, linux and windows....

  12. Decoding Codes on Graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shannon limit of the channel. Among the earliest discovered codes that approach the. Shannon limit were the low density parity check (LDPC) codes. The term low density arises from the property of the parity check matrix defining the code. We will now define this matrix and the role that it plays in decoding. 2. Linear Codes.

  13. Manually operated coded switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnette, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    The disclosure related to a manually operated recodable coded switch in which a code may be inserted, tried and used to actuate a lever controlling an external device. After attempting a code, the switch's code wheels must be returned to their zero positions before another try is made

  14. Coding in Muscle Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lyell K; Ney, John P

    2016-12-01

    Accurate coding is critically important for clinical practice and research. Ongoing changes to diagnostic and billing codes require the clinician to stay abreast of coding updates. Payment for health care services, data sets for health services research, and reporting for medical quality improvement all require accurate administrative coding. This article provides an overview of administrative coding for patients with muscle disease and includes a case-based review of diagnostic and Evaluation and Management (E/M) coding principles in patients with myopathy. Procedural coding for electrodiagnostic studies and neuromuscular ultrasound is also reviewed.

  15. The Influence of Co-Morbidity and Other Health Measures on Dental and Medical Care Use among Medicare beneficiaries 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiyan; Moeller, John; Manski, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of co-morbidity and other health measures on the use of dental and medical care services among the community-based Medicare population with data from the 2002 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey. Methods A co-morbidity index is the main independent variable of our study. It includes oral cancer as a co-morbidity condition and was developed from Medicare claims data. The two outcome variables indicate whether a beneficiary had a dental visit during the year and whether the beneficiary had an inpatient hospital stay during the year. Logistic regressions estimated the relationship between the outcome variables and co-morbidity after controlling for other explanatory variables. Results High scores on the co-morbidity index, high numbers of self-reported physical limitations, and fair or poor self-reported health status were correlated with higher hospital use and lower dental care utilization. Similar results were found for other types of medical care including medical provider visits, outpatient care, and prescription drugs. A multiple imputation technique was used for the approximate 20% of the sample with missing claims, but the resulting co-morbidity index performed no differently than the index constructed without imputation. Conclusions Co-morbidities and other health status measures are theorized to play either a predisposing or need role in determining health care utilization. The study’s findings confirm the dominant role of these measures as predisposing factors limiting access to dental care for Medicare beneficiaries and as need factors producing higher levels of inpatient hospital and other medical care for Medicare beneficiaries. PMID:21972460

  16. Patient Satisfaction and Prognosis for Functional Improvement and Deterioration, Institutionalization, and Death Among Medicare Beneficiaries Over 2 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogner, Hillary R; de Vries McClintock, Heather F; Kurichi, Jibby E; Kwong, Pui L; Xie, Dawei; Hennessy, Sean; Streim, Joel E; Stineman, Margaret G

    2017-01-01

    To examine how patient satisfaction with care coordination and quality and access to medical care influence functional improvement or deterioration (activity limitation stage transitions), institutionalization, or death among older adults. National representative sample with 2-year follow-up. Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey from calendar years 2001 to 2008. Community-dwelling adults (N=23,470) aged ≥65 years followed for 2 years. Not applicable. A multinomial logistic regression model taking into account the complex survey design was used to examine the association between patient satisfaction with care coordination and quality and patient satisfaction with access to medical care and activities of daily living (ADL) stage transitions, institutionalization, or death after 2 years, adjusting for baseline socioeconomics and health-related characteristics. Out of 23,470 Medicare beneficiaries, 14,979 (63.8% weighted) remained stable in ADL stage, 2508 (10.7% weighted) improved, 3210 (13.3% weighted) deteriorated, 582 (2.5% weighted) were institutionalized, and 2281 (9.7% weighted) died. Beneficiaries who were in the top quartile of satisfaction with care coordination and quality were less likely to be institutionalized (adjusted relative risk ratio [RRR], .68; 95% confidence interval [CI], .54-.86). Beneficiaries who were in the top quartile of satisfaction with access to medical care were less likely to functionally deteriorate (adjusted RRR, .87; 95% CI, .79-.97), be institutionalized (adjusted RRR, .72; 95% CI, .56-.92), or die (adjusted RRR, .86; 95% CI, .75-.98). Knowledge of patient satisfaction with medical care and risk of functional deterioration may be helpful for monitoring and addressing disability-related health care disparities and the effect of ongoing policy changes among Medicare beneficiaries. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. QR Codes 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Helen; LaFrance, Jason; van 't Hooft, Mark

    2012-01-01

    A QR (quick-response) code is a two-dimensional scannable code, similar in function to a traditional bar code that one might find on a product at the supermarket. The main difference between the two is that, while a traditional bar code can hold a maximum of only 20 digits, a QR code can hold up to 7,089 characters, so it can contain much more…

  18. Influenza vaccination coverage estimates in the fee-for service Medicare beneficiary population 2006 - 2016: Using population-based administrative data to support a geographic based near real-time tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Angela K; Warnock, Rob; Brereton, Stephaeno; McKean, Stephen; Wernecke, Michael; Chu, Steve; Kelman, Jeffrey A

    2018-04-11

    Older adults are at great risk of developing serious complications from seasonal influenza. We explore vaccination coverage estimates in the Medicare population through the use of administrative claims data and describe a tool designed to help shape outreach efforts and inform strategies to help raise influenza vaccination rates. This interactive mapping tool uses claims data to compare vaccination levels between geographic (i.e., state, county, zip code) and demographic (i.e., race, age) groups at different points in a season. Trends can also be compared across seasons. Utilization of this tool can assist key actors interested in prevention - medical groups, health plans, hospitals, and state and local public health authorities - in supporting strategies for reaching pools of unvaccinated beneficiaries where general national population estimates of coverage are less informative. Implementing evidence-based tools can be used to address persistent racial and ethnic disparities and prevent a substantial number of influenza cases and hospitalizations.

  19. Comparing the Health Care Experiences of Medicare Beneficiaries with and without Depressive Symptoms in Medicare Managed Care versus Fee-for-Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Steven C; Elliott, Marc N; Haviland, Amelia M; Saliba, Debra; Burkhart, Q; Kanouse, David E

    2016-06-01

    To compare patient experiences and disparities for older adults with depressive symptoms in managed care (Medicare Advantage [MA]) versus Medicare Fee-for-Service (FFS). Data came from the 2010 Medicare CAHPS survey, to which 220,040 MA and 135,874 FFS enrollees aged 65 and older responded. Multivariate linear regression was used to test whether case-mix-adjusted associations between depressive symptoms and patient experience differed for beneficiaries in MA versus FFS. Dependent measures included four measures of beneficiaries' experiences with doctors (e.g., reports of doctor communication) and seven measures of beneficiaries' experiences with plans (e.g., customer service). Beneficiaries with depressive symptoms reported worse experiences than those without depressive symptoms regardless of coverage type. For measures assessing interactions with the plan (but not for measures assessing interactions with doctors), the disadvantage for beneficiaries with versus without depressive symptoms was larger in MA than in FFS. Disparities in care experienced by older Medicare beneficiaries with depressive symptoms tend to be more negative in managed care than in FFS. Efforts are needed to identify and address the barriers these beneficiaries encounter to help them better traverse the managed care environment. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  20. 21 CFR 206.10 - Code imprint required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Code imprint required. 206.10 Section 206.10 Food...: GENERAL IMPRINTING OF SOLID ORAL DOSAGE FORM DRUG PRODUCTS FOR HUMAN USE § 206.10 Code imprint required... imprint that, in conjunction with the product's size, shape, and color, permits the unique identification...

  1. Codes and curves

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, Judy L

    2000-01-01

    When information is transmitted, errors are likely to occur. Coding theory examines efficient ways of packaging data so that these errors can be detected, or even corrected. The traditional tools of coding theory have come from combinatorics and group theory. Lately, however, coding theorists have added techniques from algebraic geometry to their toolboxes. In particular, by re-interpreting the Reed-Solomon codes, one can see how to define new codes based on divisors on algebraic curves. For instance, using modular curves over finite fields, Tsfasman, Vladut, and Zink showed that one can define a sequence of codes with asymptotically better parameters than any previously known codes. This monograph is based on a series of lectures the author gave as part of the IAS/PCMI program on arithmetic algebraic geometry. Here, the reader is introduced to the exciting field of algebraic geometric coding theory. Presenting the material in the same conversational tone of the lectures, the author covers linear codes, inclu...

  2. Oil royalties payment impact on socio-economic beneficiary countries development; O impacto do pagamento de royalties do petroleo no desenvolvimento socio-economico dos municipios beneficiarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucchesi, Cesar Augusto M.; Anuatti Neto, Francisco [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Economia, Administracao e Contabilidade

    2004-07-01

    This research proposes to evaluate oil royalties payment impact on socio-economic beneficiary counties indicators. In the first step, it has been made royalties payments distribution among beneficiary counties (942), what showed a meaningful paid resources concentration between 1993 and 1999, when 20% of the beneficiaries apportioned of 98,5% from this period paid royalties. For these 188 greatest exaction counties the royalties impact analyses on County Human Development Index (IDH-M) evolution showed the received royalties amount positively influenced the 2000 IDH-M additional comparing to 1991. It indicates the petroleum industry contribution to municipal development of those counties which receive these resources. (author)

  3. Oil and gas field code master list, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-16

    This document contains data collected through October 1993 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the United States. Other Federal and State government agencies, as well as industry, use the EIA Oil and Gas Field Code Master List as the standard for field identification. A machine-readable version of the Oil and Gas Field Code Master List is available from the National Technical Information Service.

  4. An introduction to using QR codes in scholarly journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hwa Chang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Quick Response (QR code was first developed in 1994 by Denso Wave Incorporated, Japan. From that point on, it came into general use as an identification mark for all kinds of commercial products, advertisements, and other public announcements. In scholarly journals, the QR code is used to provide immediate direction to the journal homepage or specific content such as figures or videos. To produce a QR code and print it in the print version or upload to the web is very simple. Using a QR code producing program, an editor can add simple information to a website. After that, a QR code is produced. A QR code is very stable, such that it can be used for a long time without loss of quality. Producing and adding QR codes to a journal costs nothing; therefore, to increase the visibility of their journals, it is time for editors to add QR codes to their journals.

  5. On fuzzy semantic similarity measure for DNA coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Muneer; Jung, Low Tang; Bhuiyan, Md Al-Amin

    2016-02-01

    A coding measure scheme numerically translates the DNA sequence to a time domain signal for protein coding regions identification. A number of coding measure schemes based on numerology, geometry, fixed mapping, statistical characteristics and chemical attributes of nucleotides have been proposed in recent decades. Such coding measure schemes lack the biologically meaningful aspects of nucleotide data and hence do not significantly discriminate coding regions from non-coding regions. This paper presents a novel fuzzy semantic similarity measure (FSSM) coding scheme centering on FSSM codons׳ clustering and genetic code context of nucleotides. Certain natural characteristics of nucleotides i.e. appearance as a unique combination of triplets, preserving special structure and occurrence, and ability to own and share density distributions in codons have been exploited in FSSM. The nucleotides׳ fuzzy behaviors, semantic similarities and defuzzification based on the center of gravity of nucleotides revealed a strong correlation between nucleotides in codons. The proposed FSSM coding scheme attains a significant enhancement in coding regions identification i.e. 36-133% as compared to other existing coding measure schemes tested over more than 250 benchmarked and randomly taken DNA datasets of different organisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The materiality of Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soon, Winnie

    2014-01-01

    This essay studies the source code of an artwork from a software studies perspective. By examining code that come close to the approach of critical code studies (Marino, 2006), I trace the network artwork, Pupufu (Lin, 2009) to understand various real-time approaches to social media platforms (MSN......, Twitter and Facebook). The focus is not to investigate the functionalities and efficiencies of the code, but to study and interpret the program level of code in order to trace the use of various technological methods such as third-party libraries and platforms’ interfaces. These are important...... to understand the socio-technical side of a changing network environment. Through the study of code, including but not limited to source code, technical specifications and other materials in relation to the artwork production, I would like to explore the materiality of code that goes beyond technical...

  7. Coding for optical channels

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan; Vasic, Bane

    2010-01-01

    This unique book provides a coherent and comprehensive introduction to the fundamentals of optical communications, signal processing and coding for optical channels. It is the first to integrate the fundamentals of coding theory and optical communication.

  8. SEVERO code - user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacramento, A.M. do.

    1989-01-01

    This user's manual contains all the necessary information concerning the use of SEVERO code. This computer code is related to the statistics of extremes = extreme winds, extreme precipitation and flooding hazard risk analysis. (A.C.A.S.)

  9. Are trends in billing for high-intensity emergency care explained by changes in services provided in the emergency department? An observational study among US Medicare beneficiaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Laura G; Wild, Robert C; Orav, E John; Hsia, Renee Y

    2018-01-01

    Objective There has been concern that an increase in billing for high-intensity emergency care is due to changes in coding practices facilitated by electronic health records. We sought to characterise the trends in billing for high-intensity emergency care among Medicare beneficiaries and to examine the degree to which trends in high-intensity billing are explained by changes in patient characteristics and services provided in the emergency department (ED). Design, setting and participants Observational study using traditional Medicare claims to identify ED visits at non-federal acute care hospitals for elderly beneficiaries in 2006, 2009 and 2012. Outcomes measures Billing intensity was defined by emergency physician evaluation and management (E&M) codes. We tested for overall trends in high-intensity billing (E&M codes 99285, 99291 and 99292) and in services provided over time using linear regression models, adjusting for patient characteristics. Additionally, we tested for time trends in rates of admission to the hospital and to the intensive care unit (ICU). Next, we classified outpatient visits into 39 diagnosis categories and analysed the change in proportion of high-intensity visits versus the change in number of services. Finally, we quantified the extent to which trends in high-intensity billing are explained by changes in patient demographics and services provided in the ED using multivariable modelling. Results High-intensity visits grew from 45.8% of 671 103 visits in 2006 to 57.8% of 629 010 visits in 2012 (2.0% absolute increase per year; 95% CI 1.97% to 2.03%) as did the mean number of services provided for admitted (1.28 to 1.41; +0.02 increase in procedures per year; 95% CI 0.018 to 0.021) and discharged ED patients (7.1 to 8.6; +0.25 increase in services per year; 95% CI 0.245 to 0.255). There was a reduction in hospital admission rate from 40.1% to 35.9% (−0.68% per year; 95% CI −0.71% to −0.65%; Pbilled as high intensity

  10. Antihypertensive medication classes used among medicare beneficiaries initiating treatment in 2007-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shia T Kent

    Full Text Available After the 2003 publication of the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7 guidelines, there was a 5-10% increase in patients initiating antihypertensive medication with a thiazide-type diuretic, but most patients still did not initiate treatment with this class. There are few contemporary published data on antihypertensive medication classes filled by patients initiating treatment.We used the 5% random Medicare sample to study the initiation of antihypertensive medication between 2007 and 2010. Initiation was defined by the first antihypertensive medication fill preceded by 365 days with no antihypertensive medication fills. We restricted our analysis to beneficiaries ≥ 65 years who had two or more outpatient visits with a hypertension diagnosis and full Medicare fee-for-service coverage for the 365 days prior to initiation of antihypertensive medication. Between 2007 and 2010, 32,142 beneficiaries in the 5% Medicare sample initiated antihypertensive medication. Initiation with a thiazide-type diuretic decreased from 19.2% in 2007 to 17.9% in 2010. No other changes in medication classes initiated occurred over this period. Among those initiating antihypertensive medication in 2010, 31.3% filled angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-Is, 26.9% filled beta blockers, 17.2% filled calcium channel blockers, and 14.4% filled angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs. Initiation with >1 antihypertensive medication class decreased from 25.6% in 2007 to 24.1% in 2010. Patients initiated >1 antihypertensive medication class most commonly with a thiazide-type diuretic and either an ACE-I or ARB.These results suggest that JNC 7 had a limited long-term impact on the choice of antihypertensive medication class and provide baseline data prior to the publication of the 2014 Evidence-Based Guideline for the Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults from the Panel

  11. Synthesizing Certified Code

    OpenAIRE

    Whalen, Michael; Schumann, Johann; Fischer, Bernd

    2002-01-01

    Code certification is a lightweight approach for formally demonstrating software quality. Its basic idea is to require code producers to provide formal proofs that their code satisfies certain quality properties. These proofs serve as certificates that can be checked independently. Since code certification uses the same underlying technology as program verification, it requires detailed annotations (e.g., loop invariants) to make the proofs possible. However, manually adding annotations to th...

  12. FERRET data analysis code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmittroth, F.

    1979-09-01

    A documentation of the FERRET data analysis code is given. The code provides a way to combine related measurements and calculations in a consistent evaluation. Basically a very general least-squares code, it is oriented towards problems frequently encountered in nuclear data and reactor physics. A strong emphasis is on the proper treatment of uncertainties and correlations and in providing quantitative uncertainty estimates. Documentation includes a review of the method, structure of the code, input formats, and examples

  13. Stylize Aesthetic QR Code

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Mingliang; Su, Hao; Li, Yafei; Li, Xi; Liao, Jing; Niu, Jianwei; Lv, Pei; Zhou, Bing

    2018-01-01

    With the continued proliferation of smart mobile devices, Quick Response (QR) code has become one of the most-used types of two-dimensional code in the world. Aiming at beautifying the appearance of QR codes, existing works have developed a series of techniques to make the QR code more visual-pleasant. However, these works still leave much to be desired, such as visual diversity, aesthetic quality, flexibility, universal property, and robustness. To address these issues, in this paper, we pro...

  14. Enhancing QR Code Security

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Linfan; Zheng, Shuang

    2015-01-01

    Quick Response code opens possibility to convey data in a unique way yet insufficient prevention and protection might lead into QR code being exploited on behalf of attackers. This thesis starts by presenting a general introduction of background and stating two problems regarding QR code security, which followed by a comprehensive research on both QR code itself and related issues. From the research a solution taking advantages of cloud and cryptography together with an implementation come af...

  15. Opening up codings?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensig, Jakob; Heinemann, Trine

    2015-01-01

    doing formal coding and when doing more “traditional” conversation analysis research based on collections. We are more wary, however, of the implication that coding-based research is the end result of a process that starts with qualitative investigations and ends with categories that can be coded...

  16. Gauge color codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bombin Palomo, Hector

    2015-01-01

    Color codes are topological stabilizer codes with unusual transversality properties. Here I show that their group of transversal gates is optimal and only depends on the spatial dimension, not the local geometry. I also introduce a generalized, subsystem version of color codes. In 3D they allow...

  17. Refactoring test code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Deursen (Arie); L.M.F. Moonen (Leon); A. van den Bergh; G. Kok

    2001-01-01

    textabstractTwo key aspects of extreme programming (XP) are unit testing and merciless refactoring. Given the fact that the ideal test code / production code ratio approaches 1:1, it is not surprising that unit tests are being refactored. We found that refactoring test code is different from

  18. Sequence of the intron/exon junctions of the coding region of the human androgen receptor gene and identification of a point mutation in a family with complete androgen insensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubahn, D.B.; Simental, J.A.; Higgs, H.N.; Wilson, E.M.; French, F.S.; Brown, T.R.; Migeon, C.J.

    1989-01-01

    Androgens act through a receptor protein (AR) to mediate sex differentiation and development of the male phenotype. The authors have isolated the eight exons in the amino acid coding region of the AR gene from a human X chromosome library. Nucleotide sequences of the AR gene intron/exon boundaries were determined for use in designing synthetic oligonucleotide primers to bracket coding exons for amplification by the polymerase chain reaction. Genomic DNA was amplified from 46, XY phenotypic female siblings with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome. AR binding affinity for dihydrotestosterone in the affected siblings was lower than in normal males, but the binding capacity was normal. Sequence analysis of amplified exons demonstrated within the AR steroid-binding domain (exon G) a single guanine to adenine mutation, resulting in replacement of valine with methionine at amino acid residue 866. As expected, the carrier mother had both normal and mutant AR genes. Thus, a single point mutation in the steroid-binding domain of the AR gene correlated with the expression of an AR protein ineffective in stimulating male sexual development

  19. National Law Restrictions on Family Reunification Rights of International Protection Beneficiaries from a ECHR/EU Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Louise Halleskov

    n light of the refugee crisis, European countries are exploring new ways to restrict access of migrants to their territory. One such restriction relates to family reunification rights of international protection beneficiaries. Proposals in this area have already been adopted or are currently being...... considered in countries such as Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Austria and Germany most commonly in the form of waiting periods before applications for family reunification can be submitted and/or age requirements. The personal scope of these proposals differs. In some countries the restrictions apply/are intended...... to apply to international beneficiaries in general while they in other countries are applicable/envisaged applicable only to persons with subsidiary protection status or persons fleeing from generalised violence. The intention of the paper is to examine whether this legislative trend is in conformity...

  20. Software Certification - Coding, Code, and Coders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelund, Klaus; Holzmann, Gerard J.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a certification approach for software development that has been adopted at our organization. JPL develops robotic spacecraft for the exploration of the solar system. The flight software that controls these spacecraft is considered to be mission critical. We argue that the goal of a software certification process cannot be the development of "perfect" software, i.e., software that can be formally proven to be correct under all imaginable and unimaginable circumstances. More realistically, the goal is to guarantee a software development process that is conducted by knowledgeable engineers, who follow generally accepted procedures to control known risks, while meeting agreed upon standards of workmanship. We target three specific issues that must be addressed in such a certification procedure: the coding process, the code that is developed, and the skills of the coders. The coding process is driven by standards (e.g., a coding standard) and tools. The code is mechanically checked against the standard with the help of state-of-the-art static source code analyzers. The coders, finally, are certified in on-site training courses that include formal exams.

  1. The network code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Network Code defines the rights and responsibilities of all users of the natural gas transportation system in the liberalised gas industry in the United Kingdom. This report describes the operation of the Code, what it means, how it works and its implications for the various participants in the industry. The topics covered are: development of the competitive gas market in the UK; key points in the Code; gas transportation charging; impact of the Code on producers upstream; impact on shippers; gas storage; supply point administration; impact of the Code on end users; the future. (20 tables; 33 figures) (UK)

  2. Coding for Electronic Mail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, R. F.; Lee, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Scheme for coding facsimile messages promises to reduce data transmission requirements to one-tenth current level. Coding scheme paves way for true electronic mail in which handwritten, typed, or printed messages or diagrams sent virtually instantaneously - between buildings or between continents. Scheme, called Universal System for Efficient Electronic Mail (USEEM), uses unsupervised character recognition and adaptive noiseless coding of text. Image quality of resulting delivered messages improved over messages transmitted by conventional coding. Coding scheme compatible with direct-entry electronic mail as well as facsimile reproduction. Text transmitted in this scheme automatically translated to word-processor form.

  3. On Coding Non-Contiguous Letter Combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric eDandurand

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the hypothesis that printed word identification initially involves the parallel mapping of visual features onto location-specific letter identities, we analyze the type of information that would be involved in optimally mapping this location-specific orthographic code onto a location-invariant lexical code. We assume that some intermediate level of coding exists between individual letters and whole words, and that this involves the representation of letter combinations. We then investigate the nature of this intermediate level of coding given the constraints of optimality. This intermediate level of coding is expected to compress data while retaining as much information as possible about word identity. Information conveyed by letters is a function of how much they constrain word identity and how visible they are. Optimization of this coding is a combination of minimizing resources (using the most compact representations and maximizing information. We show that in a large proportion of cases, non-contiguous letter sequences contain more information than contiguous sequences, while at the same time requiring less precise coding. Moreover, we found that the best predictor of human performance in orthographic priming experiments was within-word ranking of conditional probabilities, rather than average conditional probabilities. We conclude that from an optimality perspective, readers learn to select certain contiguous and non-contiguous letter combinations as information that provides the best cue to word identity.

  4. ALL MEMBERS AND BENEFICIARIES OF THE PENSION FUND ARE INVITED TO ATTEND THE ANNUAL GENERAL ASSEMBLY

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Annual General Assembly to be held in the CERN Auditorium on Wednesday 4 October 2000 at 14.30 hrs The Agenda comprises: 1. Opening Remarks: - P. Levaux 2. The Swiss provident system: - C. Cuénoud recent trends 3. Annual Report 1999: - C. Cuénoud Presentation and results Copies of the Report are available from divisional secretariats. 4. Pension Fund’s investment policy and performance: - G. Maurin 5. Questions from members and beneficiaries Persons wishing to ask questions are encouraged to submit them, where possible, in writing in advance, addressed to Mr C. Cuénoud, Administrator of the Fund. 5. Conclusions P. Levaux As usual, participants are invited to drinks after the assembly. NB The minutes of the 1999 General Assembly are available from the Administration of the Fund (tel.(+4122)767 9194; e-mail Graziella.Praire@cern.ch) SOME ASPECTS OF THE FUND’S ACTIVITIES IN 1999 The Governing Board (at 31 December 1999) Members Appointed by C. Bovet (Alternate: E. Chiaveri...

  5. Reductions in mortality among Medicare beneficiaries following the implementation of Medicare Part D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semilla, April P; Chen, Fang; Dall, Timothy M

    2015-07-01

    Medicare Part D is a prescription drug program that provides seniors and disabled individuals enrolled in Medicare with outpatient drug coverage benefits. Part D has been shown to increase access to medicines and improve medication adherence; however, the effect of Part D on health outcomes has not yet been extensively studied. In this study, we used a published and validated Markov-based microsimulation model to quantify the relationships among medication use, disease incidence and severity, and mortality. Based on the simulation results, we estimate that since the implementation of Part D in 2006, nearly 200,000 Medicare beneficiaries have lived at least 1 year longer. Reductions in mortality have occurred because of fewer deaths associated with medication-sensitive conditions such as diabetes, congestive heart failure, stroke, and myocardial infarction. Improved access to medication through Medicare Part D helps patients improve blood pressure, cholesterol, and blood glucose levels, which in turn can prevent or delay the onset of disease and the incidence of adverse health events, thus reducing mortality.

  6. ESTIMATING MORAL DEVELOPMENT IN A SAMPLE OF ALTERNATIVE FORMULAS OF PRISON SENTENCED BENEFICIARIES FROM WEST VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS ENRIQUE ZERPA

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The level of moral development in a sampled of convicts from West Venezuela is presented. The studywas carried out by means of Defining Issues Test (DIT evaluation. The sample includes 50 persons between19 and 55 years old (M = 34,33 y DT = 8,76, out of them 39 were males (average age 33,74,DT=8,24 an 11 were females (average age 35,91, DT=10,67. All of them were beneficiaries of alternativesformulas of their respective sentences such as social work, parole or conditional suspension ofsentences and following the corresponding process or rehabilitation out of prisons. This sample registereda moral principles index of 19,67 and a non-relevant answers index of 12,07 as well as fourthmoral developmental stage of 41,3 which are unusually high. The results suggest that there is not astatistically significant difference in the pattern of moral development depending on sex, age, or institutionfor sentenced fulfillment. However, the unusual high pattern of answers and the inverse correspondence between the duration of sentences and the resulting level of moral principles suggest that thesample behaves in a way, which is different from what is expected in no-out-law samples. Findings andimplications are discused.

  7. Possible causes of poverty within a group of land reform beneficiaries in the midlands of KwaZulu-Natal: Analysis and policy recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Shinns, L.H.; Lyne, Michael C.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates possible causes of poverty afflicting a community of land reform beneficiaries in the Midlands of KwaZulu-Natal. The 38 beneficiary households had previously been clustered into four groups displaying different symptoms of poverty. Linear Discriminant Analysis was used first to distinguish households that were relatively income and asset "rich" from those that were relatively income and asset "poor", and second to distinguish households that were relatively income poor...

  8. States With Medically Needy Pathways: Differences in Long-Term and Temporary Medicaid Entry for Low-Income Medicare Beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keohane, Laura M; Trivedi, Amal; Mor, Vincent

    2017-10-01

    Medically needy pathways may provide temporary catastrophic coverage for low-income Medicare beneficiaries who do not otherwise qualify for full Medicaid benefits. Between January 2009 and June 2010, states with medically needy pathways had a higher percentage of low-income beneficiaries join Medicaid than states without such programs (7.5% vs. 4.1%, p < .01). However, among new full Medicaid participants, living in a state with a medically needy pathway was associated with a 3.8 percentage point (adjusted 95% confidence interval [1.8, 5.8]) increase in the probability of switching to partial Medicaid and a 4.5 percentage point (adjusted 95% confidence interval [2.9, 6.2]) increase in the probability of exiting Medicaid within 12 months. The predicted risk of leaving Medicaid was greatest when new Medicaid participants used only hospital services, rather than nursing home services, in their first month of Medicaid benefits. Alternative strategies for protecting low-income Medicare beneficiaries' access to care could provide more stable coverage.

  9. "I don't want to go back to the farm": A case study of Working for Water beneficiaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan A. Hough

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In addition to clearing invasive alien plants, the Working for Water (WfW Programme, as a South African government public works programme, provides short-term employment and training to empower the poor in finding alternative employment within the labour market. Several studies indicate that its beneficiaries become financially dependent on WfW projects and tend to be reluctant to leave the programme. The sociological reasons for this reluctance, however, remain largely unstudied. We therefore address this gap by reporting on a case study of four WfW projects in the Western Cape Province. Face-to-face interviews with beneficiaries suggest that a number of push and pull factors contribute to their dependency on WfW. Chief among these factors is a fear among previous farmworkers of returning to farm work. It was found that the latter can be linked to a historical power-relations legacy between landowners and farmworkers, mainly created by institutional racism still prevailing on many Western Cape farms. These findings bear important implications for the implementation of a new draft WfW policy aimed at encouraging private landowners to employ WfW beneficiaries on their land as clearers of invasive alien plants.

  10. [Dietary diversity in women who live in food insecurity settings in Mexico, beneficiaries of a food support program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Ruán, María Del Carmen; Valenzuela Bravo, Danae Gabriela; Jiménez Aguilar, Alejandra; Cuevas Nasu, Lucía; Méndez Gómez Humarán, Ignacio; Shamah Levy, Teresa

    2018-02-16

    food diversity is an approximation of diet quality. In Mexico, the Food Support Program (PAL, by its acronym in Spanish) grants support to families facing food poverty, in form of cash (PAL EFECTIVO) or through monetary transfers on a card intended exclusively for the purchase of food (PAL SIN-HAMBRE), seeking to improve their food diversity. to compare the dietary diversity in women beneficiaries of both schemes and their association with the level of food insecurity (FI) at household level. a cross-sectional study was carried out in a national random sample of 243 women beneficiaries from PAL EFECTIVO and 277 from PAL SIN-HAMBRE in 14 states. A multinomial logistic regression model was constructed to measure the association between the FI perception index and its relationship with the PAL and the dietary diversity index. the PAL SIN-HAMBRE scheme is associated with a lower probability of mild and severe FI with respect to the PAL EFECTIVO. The interaction between the type of scheme and the dietary diversity index showed that the PAL EFECTIVO had a lower probability of severe FI when the dietary diversity index was greater with respect to the PAL SIN-HAMBRE. the FI in the household and the low dietary diversity seem to be strongly associated in women of childbearing age and this relationship is higher in those beneficiaries of the PAL SIN-HAMBRE scheme.

  11. NAGRADATA. Code key. Geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, W.H.; Schneider, B.; Staeuble, J.

    1984-01-01

    This reference manual provides users of the NAGRADATA system with comprehensive keys to the coding/decoding of geological and technical information to be stored in or retreaved from the databank. Emphasis has been placed on input data coding. When data is retreaved the translation into plain language of stored coded information is done automatically by computer. Three keys each, list the complete set of currently defined codes for the NAGRADATA system, namely codes with appropriate definitions, arranged: 1. according to subject matter (thematically) 2. the codes listed alphabetically and 3. the definitions listed alphabetically. Additional explanation is provided for the proper application of the codes and the logic behind the creation of new codes to be used within the NAGRADATA system. NAGRADATA makes use of codes instead of plain language for data storage; this offers the following advantages: speed of data processing, mainly data retrieval, economies of storage memory requirements, the standardisation of terminology. The nature of this thesaurian type 'key to codes' makes it impossible to either establish a final form or to cover the entire spectrum of requirements. Therefore, this first issue of codes to NAGRADATA must be considered to represent the current state of progress of a living system and future editions will be issued in a loose leave ringbook system which can be updated by an organised (updating) service. (author)

  12. XSOR codes users manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jow, Hong-Nian; Murfin, W.B.; Johnson, J.D.

    1993-11-01

    This report describes the source term estimation codes, XSORs. The codes are written for three pressurized water reactors (Surry, Sequoyah, and Zion) and two boiling water reactors (Peach Bottom and Grand Gulf). The ensemble of codes has been named ''XSOR''. The purpose of XSOR codes is to estimate the source terms which would be released to the atmosphere in severe accidents. A source term includes the release fractions of several radionuclide groups, the timing and duration of releases, the rates of energy release, and the elevation of releases. The codes have been developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in support of the NUREG-1150 program. The XSOR codes are fast running parametric codes and are used as surrogates for detailed mechanistic codes. The XSOR codes also provide the capability to explore the phenomena and their uncertainty which are not currently modeled by the mechanistic codes. The uncertainty distributions of input parameters may be used by an. XSOR code to estimate the uncertainty of source terms

  13. Reactor lattice codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulikowska, T.

    1999-01-01

    The present lecture has a main goal to show how the transport lattice calculations are realised in a standard computer code. This is illustrated on the example of the WIMSD code, belonging to the most popular tools for reactor calculations. Most of the approaches discussed here can be easily modified to any other lattice code. The description of the code assumes the basic knowledge of reactor lattice, on the level given in the lecture on 'Reactor lattice transport calculations'. For more advanced explanation of the WIMSD code the reader is directed to the detailed descriptions of the code cited in References. The discussion of the methods and models included in the code is followed by the generally used homogenisation procedure and several numerical examples of discrepancies in calculated multiplication factors based on different sources of library data. (author)

  14. DLLExternalCode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-05-14

    DLLExternalCode is the a general dynamic-link library (DLL) interface for linking GoldSim (www.goldsim.com) with external codes. The overall concept is to use GoldSim as top level modeling software with interfaces to external codes for specific calculations. The DLLExternalCode DLL that performs the linking function is designed to take a list of code inputs from GoldSim, create an input file for the external application, run the external code, and return a list of outputs, read from files created by the external application, back to GoldSim. Instructions for creating the input file, running the external code, and reading the output are contained in an instructions file that is read and interpreted by the DLL.

  15. Flow regimes and heat transfer modes identification in ANGRA 2 core, during small break in the primary loop with area of 100 cm2, simulated with RELAP5 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Eduardo M.; Sabundjian, Gaiane

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the flow regimes and the heat transfer modes is important for the analysis of accidents such as the Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA). The aim of this paper is to identify the flow regimes, the heat transfer modes, and the correlations used in the RELAP5/MOD3.2.gama code in ANGRA 2 during the Small-Break Loss-of-Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) with a 100cm 2 -rupture area in the cold leg of primary loop. The Chapter 15 of the Final Safety Analysis Report of ANGRA 2 (FSAR - A2) reports this specific kind of accident. The results from this work demonstrated the several flow regimes and heat transfer modes that can be present in the core of ANGRA 2 during the postulated accident. (author)

  16. Flow regimes and heat transfer modes identification in ANGRA 2 core, during small break in the primary loop with area of 100 cm{sup 2}, simulated with RELAP5 code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Eduardo M.; Sabundjian, Gaiane, E-mail: gdgian@ipen.br, E-mail: borges.em@hotmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Identifying the flow regimes and the heat transfer modes is important for the analysis of accidents such as the Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA). The aim of this paper is to identify the flow regimes, the heat transfer modes, and the correlations used in the RELAP5/MOD3.2.gama code in ANGRA 2 during the Small-Break Loss-of-Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) with a 100cm{sup 2}-rupture area in the cold leg of primary loop. The Chapter 15 of the Final Safety Analysis Report of ANGRA 2 (FSAR - A2) reports this specific kind of accident. The results from this work demonstrated the several flow regimes and heat transfer modes that can be present in the core of ANGRA 2 during the postulated accident. (author)

  17. Identification of flow regimes and heat transfer modes in Angra-2 core during the simulation of the small break loss of coolant accident of 250 cm2 in the cold leg of primary loop using RELAP5 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Eduardo M.; Sabundjian, Gaiane

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify the flow regimes, the heat transfer modes, and the correlations used by RELAP5/MOD3.2. gamma code in Angra-2 during the Small-Break Loss-of-Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) with a 250cm 2 of rupture area in the cold leg of primary loop. The Chapter 15 of the Final Safety Analysis Report of Angra-2 (FSAR-A2) reports this specific kind of accident. The results from this work demonstrated the several flow regimes and heat transfer modes that can be present in the core of Angra-2 during the postulated accident. The results obtained for Angra-2 nuclear reactor core during the postulated accident were satisfactory when compared with the FSAR-A2. Additionally, the results showed the correct actuation of the ECCS guaranteeing the integrity of the reactor core. (author)

  18. Identification of flow regimes and heat transfer modes in Angra-2 core during the simulation of the small break loss of coolant accident of 250 cm{sup 2} in the cold leg of primary loop using RELAP5 code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Eduardo M.; Sabundjian, Gaiane, E-mail: borges.em@hotmail.com, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNE-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify the flow regimes, the heat transfer modes, and the correlations used by RELAP5/MOD3.2. gamma code in Angra-2 during the Small-Break Loss-of-Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) with a 250cm{sup 2} of rupture area in the cold leg of primary loop. The Chapter 15 of the Final Safety Analysis Report of Angra-2 (FSAR-A2) reports this specific kind of accident. The results from this work demonstrated the several flow regimes and heat transfer modes that can be present in the core of Angra-2 during the postulated accident. The results obtained for Angra-2 nuclear reactor core during the postulated accident were satisfactory when compared with the FSAR-A2. Additionally, the results showed the correct actuation of the ECCS guaranteeing the integrity of the reactor core. (author)

  19. Offering lung cancer screening to high-risk medicare beneficiaries saves lives and is cost-effective: an actuarial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyenson, Bruce S; Henschke, Claudia I; Yankelevitz, David F; Yip, Rowena; Dec, Ellynne

    2014-08-01

    By a wide margin, lung cancer is the most significant cause of cancer death in the United States and worldwide. The incidence of lung cancer increases with age, and Medicare beneficiaries are often at increased risk. Because of its demonstrated effectiveness in reducing mortality, lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) imaging will be covered without cost-sharing starting January 1, 2015, by nongrandfathered commercial plans. Medicare is considering coverage for lung cancer screening. To estimate the cost and cost-effectiveness (ie, cost per life-year saved) of LDCT lung cancer screening of the Medicare population at high risk for lung cancer. Medicare costs, enrollment, and demographics were used for this study; they were derived from the 2012 Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) beneficiary files and were forecast to 2014 based on CMS and US Census Bureau projections. Standard life and health actuarial techniques were used to calculate the cost and cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening. The cost, incidence rates, mortality rates, and other parameters chosen by the authors were taken from actual Medicare data, and the modeled screenings are consistent with Medicare processes and procedures. Approximately 4.9 million high-risk Medicare beneficiaries would meet criteria for lung cancer screening in 2014. Without screening, Medicare patients newly diagnosed with lung cancer have an average life expectancy of approximately 3 years. Based on our analysis, the average annual cost of LDCT lung cancer screening in Medicare is estimated to be $241 per person screened. LDCT screening for lung cancer in Medicare beneficiaries aged 55 to 80 years with a history of ≥30 pack-years of smoking and who had smoked within 15 years is low cost, at approximately $1 per member per month. This assumes that 50% of these patients were screened. Such screening is also highly cost-effective, at <$19,000 per life-year saved. If all eligible Medicare

  20. Innovative care models for high-cost Medicare beneficiaries: delivery system and payment reform to accelerate adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Karen; Buttorff, Christine; Leff, Bruce; Samus, Quincy M; Szanton, Sarah; Wolff, Jennifer L; Bandeali, Farhan

    2015-05-01

    About a third of Medicare beneficiaries are covered by Medicare Advantage (MA) plans or accountable care organizations (ACOs). As a result of assuming financial risk for Medicare services and/or being eligible for shared savings, these organizations have an incentive to adopt models of delivering care that contribute to better care, improved health outcomes, and lower cost. This paper identifies innovative care models across the care continuum for high-cost Medicare beneficiaries that MA plans and ACOs could adopt to improve care while potentially achieving savings. It suggests policy changes that would accelerate testing and spread of promising care delivery model innovations. Targeted review of the literature to identify care delivery models focused on high-cost or high-risk Medicare beneficiaries. This paper presents select delivery models for high-risk Medicare beneficiaries across the care continuum that show promise of yielding better care at lower cost that could be considered for adoption by MA plans and ACOs. Common to these models are elements of the Wagner Chronic Care Model, including practice redesign to incorporate a team approach to care, the inclusion of nonmedical personnel, efforts to promote patient engagement, supporting provider education on innovations,and information systems allowing feedback of information to providers. The goal of these models is to slow the progression to long-term care, reduce health risks, and minimize adverse health impacts, all while achieving savings.These models attempt to maintain the ability of high-risk individuals to live in the home or a community-based setting, thereby avoiding costly institutional care. Identifying and implementing promising care delivery models will become increasingly important in launching successful population health initiatives. MA plans and ACOs stand to benefit financially from adopting care delivery models for high-risk Medicare beneficiaries that reduce hospitalization. Spreading

  1. Remote-Handled Transuranic Content Codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The Remote-Handled Transuranic (RH-TRU) Content Codes (RH-TRUCON) document represents the development of a uniform content code system for RH-TRU waste to be transported in the 72-Bcask. It will be used to convert existing waste form numbers, content codes, and site-specific identification codes into a system that is uniform across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites.The existing waste codes at the sites can be grouped under uniform content codes without any lossof waste characterization information. The RH-TRUCON document provides an all-encompassing description for each content code and compiles this information for all DOE sites. Compliance with waste generation, processing, and certification procedures at the sites (outlined in this document foreach content code) ensures that prohibited waste forms are not present in the waste. The content code gives an overall description of the RH-TRU waste material in terms of processes and packaging, as well as the generation location. This helps to provide cradle-to-grave traceability of the waste material so that the various actions required to assess its qualification as payload for the 72-B cask can be performed. The content codes also impose restrictions and requirements on the manner in which a payload can be assembled. The RH-TRU Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (RH-TRAMPAC), Appendix 1.3.7 of the 72-B Cask Safety Analysis Report (SAR), describes the current governing procedures applicable for the qualification of waste as payload for the 72-B cask. The logic for this classification is presented in the 72-B Cask SAR. Together, these documents (RH-TRUCON, RH-TRAMPAC, and relevant sections of the 72-B Cask SAR) present the foundation and justification for classifying RH-TRU waste into content codes. Only content codes described in thisdocument can be considered for transport in the 72-B cask. Revisions to this document will be madeas additional waste qualifies for transport. Each content code uniquely

  2. Toric Varieties and Codes, Error-correcting Codes, Quantum Codes, Secret Sharing and Decoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johan Peder

    We present toric varieties and associated toric codes and their decoding. Toric codes are applied to construct Linear Secret Sharing Schemes (LSSS) with strong multiplication by the Massey construction. Asymmetric Quantum Codes are obtained from toric codes by the A.R. Calderbank P.W. Shor and A.......M. Steane construction of stabilizer codes (CSS) from linear codes containing their dual codes....

  3. An Optimal Linear Coding for Index Coding Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Pezeshkpour, Pouya

    2015-01-01

    An optimal linear coding solution for index coding problem is established. Instead of network coding approach by focus on graph theoric and algebraic methods a linear coding program for solving both unicast and groupcast index coding problem is presented. The coding is proved to be the optimal solution from the linear perspective and can be easily utilize for any number of messages. The importance of this work is lying mostly on the usage of the presented coding in the groupcast index coding ...

  4. The Aesthetics of Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    Computer art is often associated with computer-generated expressions (digitally manipulated audio/images in music, video, stage design, media facades, etc.). In recent computer art, however, the code-text itself – not the generated output – has become the artwork (Perl Poetry, ASCII Art, obfuscated...... code, etc.). The presentation relates this artistic fascination of code to a media critique expressed by Florian Cramer, claiming that the graphical interface represents a media separation (of text/code and image) causing alienation to the computer’s materiality. Cramer is thus the voice of a new ‘code...... avant-garde’. In line with Cramer, the artists Alex McLean and Adrian Ward (aka Slub) declare: “art-oriented programming needs to acknowledge the conditions of its own making – its poesis.” By analysing the Live Coding performances of Slub (where they program computer music live), the presentation...

  5. Majorana fermion codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravyi, Sergey; Terhal, Barbara M; Leemhuis, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    We initiate the study of Majorana fermion codes (MFCs). These codes can be viewed as extensions of Kitaev's one-dimensional (1D) model of unpaired Majorana fermions in quantum wires to higher spatial dimensions and interacting fermions. The purpose of MFCs is to protect quantum information against low-weight fermionic errors, that is, operators acting on sufficiently small subsets of fermionic modes. We examine to what extent MFCs can surpass qubit stabilizer codes in terms of their stability properties. A general construction of 2D MFCs is proposed that combines topological protection based on a macroscopic code distance with protection based on fermionic parity conservation. Finally, we use MFCs to show how to transform any qubit stabilizer code to a weakly self-dual CSS code.

  6. Theory of epigenetic coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, D

    1984-06-07

    The logic of genetic control of development may be based on a binary epigenetic code. This paper revises the author's previous scheme dealing with the numerology of annelid metamerism in these terms. Certain features of the code had been deduced to be combinatorial, others not. This paradoxical contrast is resolved here by the interpretation that these features relate to different operations of the code; the combinatiorial to coding identity of units, the non-combinatorial to coding production of units. Consideration of a second paradox in the theory of epigenetic coding leads to a new solution which further provides a basis for epimorphic regeneration, and may in particular throw light on the "regeneration-duplication" phenomenon. A possible test of the model is also put forward.

  7. DISP1 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vokac, P.

    1999-12-01

    DISP1 code is a simple tool for assessment of the dispersion of the fission product cloud escaping from a nuclear power plant after an accident. The code makes it possible to tentatively check the feasibility of calculations by more complex PSA3 codes and/or codes for real-time dispersion calculations. The number of input parameters is reasonably low and the user interface is simple enough to allow a rapid processing of sensitivity analyses. All input data entered through the user interface are stored in the text format. Implementation of dispersion model corrections taken from the ARCON96 code enables the DISP1 code to be employed for assessment of the radiation hazard within the NPP area, in the control room for instance. (P.A.)

  8. The aeroelastic code FLEXLAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, B. [Stork Product Eng., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1996-09-01

    To support the discussion on aeroelastic codes, a description of the code FLEXLAST was given and experiences within benchmarks and measurement programmes were summarized. The code FLEXLAST has been developed since 1982 at Stork Product Engineering (SPE). Since 1992 FLEXLAST has been used by Dutch industries for wind turbine and rotor design. Based on the comparison with measurements, it can be concluded that the main shortcomings of wind turbine modelling lie in the field of aerodynamics, wind field and wake modelling. (au)

  9. MORSE Monte Carlo code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    The MORSE code is a large general-use multigroup Monte Carlo code system. Although no claims can be made regarding its superiority in either theoretical details or Monte Carlo techniques, MORSE has been, since its inception at ORNL in the late 1960s, the most widely used Monte Carlo radiation transport code. The principal reason for this popularity is that MORSE is relatively easy to use, independent of any installation or distribution center, and it can be easily customized to fit almost any specific need. Features of the MORSE code are described

  10. QR codes for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Waters, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Find out how to effectively create, use, and track QR codes QR (Quick Response) codes are popping up everywhere, and businesses are reaping the rewards. Get in on the action with the no-nonsense advice in this streamlined, portable guide. You'll find out how to get started, plan your strategy, and actually create the codes. Then you'll learn to link codes to mobile-friendly content, track your results, and develop ways to give your customers value that will keep them coming back. It's all presented in the straightforward style you've come to know and love, with a dash of humor thrown

  11. Tokamak Systems Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, R.L.; Barrett, R.J.; Brown, T.G.

    1985-03-01

    The FEDC Tokamak Systems Code calculates tokamak performance, cost, and configuration as a function of plasma engineering parameters. This version of the code models experimental tokamaks. It does not currently consider tokamak configurations that generate electrical power or incorporate breeding blankets. The code has a modular (or subroutine) structure to allow independent modeling for each major tokamak component or system. A primary benefit of modularization is that a component module may be updated without disturbing the remainder of the systems code as long as the imput to or output from the module remains unchanged

  12. Changes in Initial Treatment for Prostate Cancer Among Medicare Beneficiaries, 1999–2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinan, Michaela A.; Robinson, Timothy J.; Zagar, Timothy M.; Scales, Charles D.; Curtis, Lesley H.; Reed, Shelby D.; Lee, W. Robert; Schulman, Kevin A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In the absence of evidence from large clinical trials, optimal therapy for localized prostate cancer remains unclear; however, treatment patterns continue to change. We examined changes in the management of patients with prostate cancer in the Medicare population. Methods and Materials: We conducted a retrospective claims-based analysis of the use of radiation therapy, surgery, and androgen deprivation therapy in the 12 months after diagnosis of prostate cancer in a nationally representative 5% sample of Medicare claims. Patients were Medicare beneficiaries 67 years or older with incident prostate cancer diagnosed between 1999 and 2007. Results: There were 20,918 incident cases of prostate cancer between 1999 and 2007. The proportion of patients receiving androgen deprivation therapy decreased from 55% to 36%, and the proportion of patients receiving no active therapy increased from 16% to 23%. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy replaced three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy as the most common method of radiation therapy, accounting for 77% of external beam radiotherapy by 2007. Minimally invasive radical prostatectomy began to replace open surgical approaches, being used in 49% of radical prostatectomies by 2007. Conclusions: Between 2002 and 2007, the use of androgen deprivation therapy decreased, open surgical approaches were largely replaced by minimally invasive radical prostatectomy, and intensity-modulated radiation therapy replaced three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy as the predominant method of radiation therapy in the Medicare population. The aging of the population and the increasing use of newer, higher-cost technologies in the treatment of patients with prostate cancer may have important implications for nationwide health care costs.

  13. Breast reconstruction after mastectomy among Department of Defense beneficiaries by race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enewold, Lindsey R; McGlynn, Katherine A; Zahm, Shelia H; Poudrier, Jill; Anderson, William F; Shriver, Craig D; Zhu, Kangmin

    2014-10-01

    Postmastectomy breast reconstruction increased approximately 20% between 1998 and 2008 in the United States and has been found to improve body image, self-esteem, and quality of life. These procedures, however, tend to be less common among minority women, which may be due to variations in health care access. The Department of Defense provides equal health care access, thereby affording an exceptional environment in which to assess whether racial variations persist when access to care is equal. Linked Department of Defense cancer registry and medical claims data were used. The receipt of reconstruction was compared between white women (n = 2974) and black women (n = 708) who underwent mastectomies to treat incident histologically confirmed breast cancer diagnosed from 1998 through 2007. During the study period, postmastectomy reconstruction increased among both black (27.3% to 40.0%) and white (21.8% to 40.6%) female patients with breast cancer. Receipt of reconstruction did not vary significantly by race (odds ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.76-1.15). Reconstruction decreased significantly with increasing age, tumor stage, and receipt of radiotherapy and was significantly more common in more recent years and among active service women, TRICARE Prime (health maintenance organization) beneficiaries, and women whose sponsor was an officer. The receipt of breast reconstruction did not vary by race within this equal-access health system, indicating that the racial disparities reported in previous studies may have been due in part to variations in access to health care. Additional research to determine why a large percentage of patients with breast cancer do not undergo reconstruction might be beneficial, particularly because these procedures have been associated with noncosmetic benefits. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. Comparison of postarthroplasty functional outcomes in skilled nursing facilities among Medicare and Managed Care beneficiaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon A. Haghverdian, BSc

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: After home health care, the skilled nursing facility (SNF is the most commonly used postacute care modality, among Medicare beneficiaries, after total joint arthroplasty. Prior studies demonstrated that a loss in postsurgical ambulatory gains is incurred in the interval between hospital discharge and arrival at the SNF. The aim of this present study is to determine the consequences of that loss in function, as well as compare SNF-related outcomes in patients with Medicare vs Managed Care (MC insurance. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 80 patients (54 Medicare and 26 MC who attended an SNF after hospitalization for total joint arthroplasty. Outcomes from physical therapy records were abstracted from each patient's SNF file. Results: There was an approximately 40% drop-off in gait achievements between hospital discharge and SNF admission. This decline in ambulation was significantly greater in Medicare patients (Medicare: 94.6 ± 123.2 ft, MC: 40.0 ± 48.9 ft, P = .034. Larger reductions in gait achievements between hospital discharge and SNF admission were significantly correlated with longer SNF lengths of stay and poorer gait achievements by SNF discharge. Patients with MC insurance made significant improvements in gait training at the SNF beyond that which was acquired at the hospital, whereas Medicare patients did not (PMedicare = .28, PMC = .003. Conclusions: Large losses in motor function between hospital discharge and SNF admission were associated with poor functional outcomes and longer stays at the SNF. These effects were more pronounced in Medicare patients than those with MC insurance. Keywords: Total joint arthroplasty, Skilled nursing facility, Medicare, Managed Care, Physical therapy

  15. Efficient Coding of Information: Huffman Coding -RE ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to a stream of equally-likely symbols so as to recover the original stream in the event of errors. The for- ... The source-coding problem is one of finding a mapping from U to a ... probability that the random variable X takes the value x written as ...

  16. NR-code: Nonlinear reconstruction code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yu; Pen, Ue-Li; Zhu, Hong-Ming

    2018-04-01

    NR-code applies nonlinear reconstruction to the dark matter density field in redshift space and solves for the nonlinear mapping from the initial Lagrangian positions to the final redshift space positions; this reverses the large-scale bulk flows and improves the precision measurement of the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) scale.

  17. Optimal patch code design via device characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wencheng; Dalal, Edul N.

    2012-01-01

    In many color measurement applications, such as those for color calibration and profiling, "patch code" has been used successfully for job identification and automation to reduce operator errors. A patch code is similar to a barcode, but is intended primarily for use in measurement devices that cannot read barcodes due to limited spatial resolution, such as spectrophotometers. There is an inherent tradeoff between decoding robustness and the number of code levels available for encoding. Previous methods have attempted to address this tradeoff, but those solutions have been sub-optimal. In this paper, we propose a method to design optimal patch codes via device characterization. The tradeoff between decoding robustness and the number of available code levels is optimized in terms of printing and measurement efforts, and decoding robustness against noises from the printing and measurement devices. Effort is drastically reduced relative to previous methods because print-and-measure is minimized through modeling and the use of existing printer profiles. Decoding robustness is improved by distributing the code levels in CIE Lab space rather than in CMYK space.

  18. Hominoid-specific de novo protein-coding genes originating from long non-coding RNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tinkering with pre-existing genes has long been known as a major way to create new genes. Recently, however, motherless protein-coding genes have been found to have emerged de novo from ancestral non-coding DNAs. How these genes originated is not well addressed to date. Here we identified 24 hominoid-specific de novo protein-coding genes with precise origination timing in vertebrate phylogeny. Strand-specific RNA-Seq analyses were performed in five rhesus macaque tissues (liver, prefrontal cortex, skeletal muscle, adipose, and testis, which were then integrated with public transcriptome data from human, chimpanzee, and rhesus macaque. On the basis of comparing the RNA expression profiles in the three species, we found that most of the hominoid-specific de novo protein-coding genes encoded polyadenylated non-coding RNAs in rhesus macaque or chimpanzee with a similar transcript structure and correlated tissue expression profile. According to the rule of parsimony, the majority of these hominoid-specific de novo protein-coding genes appear to have acquired a regulated transcript structure and expression profile before acquiring coding potential. Interestingly, although the expression profile was largely correlated, the coding genes in human often showed higher transcriptional abundance than their non-coding counterparts in rhesus macaque. The major findings we report in this manuscript are robust and insensitive to the parameters used in the identification and analysis of de novo genes. Our results suggest that at least a portion of long non-coding RNAs, especially those with active and regulated transcription, may serve as a birth pool for protein-coding genes, which are then further optimized at the transcriptional level.

  19. Synthesizing Certified Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Michael; Schumann, Johann; Fischer, Bernd

    2002-01-01

    Code certification is a lightweight approach to demonstrate software quality on a formal level. Its basic idea is to require producers to provide formal proofs that their code satisfies certain quality properties. These proofs serve as certificates which can be checked independently. Since code certification uses the same underlying technology as program verification, it also requires many detailed annotations (e.g., loop invariants) to make the proofs possible. However, manually adding theses annotations to the code is time-consuming and error-prone. We address this problem by combining code certification with automatic program synthesis. We propose an approach to generate simultaneously, from a high-level specification, code and all annotations required to certify generated code. Here, we describe a certification extension of AUTOBAYES, a synthesis tool which automatically generates complex data analysis programs from compact specifications. AUTOBAYES contains sufficient high-level domain knowledge to generate detailed annotations. This allows us to use a general-purpose verification condition generator to produce a set of proof obligations in first-order logic. The obligations are then discharged using the automated theorem E-SETHEO. We demonstrate our approach by certifying operator safety for a generated iterative data classification program without manual annotation of the code.

  20. Code of Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Division for Early Childhood, Council for Exceptional Children, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Code of Ethics of the Division for Early Childhood (DEC) of the Council for Exceptional Children is a public statement of principles and practice guidelines supported by the mission of DEC. The foundation of this Code is based on sound ethical reasoning related to professional practice with young children with disabilities and their families…

  1. Interleaved Product LDPC Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Baldi, Marco; Cancellieri, Giovanni; Chiaraluce, Franco

    2011-01-01

    Product LDPC codes take advantage of LDPC decoding algorithms and the high minimum distance of product codes. We propose to add suitable interleavers to improve the waterfall performance of LDPC decoding. Interleaving also reduces the number of low weight codewords, that gives a further advantage in the error floor region.

  2. Insurance billing and coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, Rebecca H; Bruelheide, Lori S; Demann, Eric T K; Haug, Richard H

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the importance of understanding various numeric and alpha-numeric codes for accurately billing dental and medically related services to private pay or third-party insurance carriers. In the United States, common dental terminology (CDT) codes are most commonly used by dentists to submit claims, whereas current procedural terminology (CPT) and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD.9.CM) codes are more commonly used by physicians to bill for their services. The CPT and ICD.9.CM coding systems complement each other in that CPT codes provide the procedure and service information and ICD.9.CM codes provide the reason or rationale for a particular procedure or service. These codes are more commonly used for "medical necessity" determinations, and general dentists and specialists who routinely perform care, including trauma-related care, biopsies, and dental treatment as a result of or in anticipation of a cancer-related treatment, are likely to use these codes. Claim submissions for care provided can be completed electronically or by means of paper forms.

  3. Error Correcting Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Science and Automation at ... the Reed-Solomon code contained 223 bytes of data, (a byte ... then you have a data storage system with error correction, that ..... practical codes, storing such a table is infeasible, as it is generally too large.

  4. Scrum Code Camps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Lene; Pries-Heje, Jan; Dalgaard, Bente

    2013-01-01

    is required. In this paper we present the design of such a new approach, the Scrum Code Camp, which can be used to assess agile team capability in a transparent and consistent way. A design science research approach is used to analyze properties of two instances of the Scrum Code Camp where seven agile teams...

  5. RFQ simulation code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysenko, W.P.

    1984-04-01

    We have developed the RFQLIB simulation system to provide a means to systematically generate the new versions of radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac simulation codes that are required by the constantly changing needs of a research environment. This integrated system simplifies keeping track of the various versions of the simulation code and makes it practical to maintain complete and up-to-date documentation. In this scheme, there is a certain standard version of the simulation code that forms a library upon which new versions are built. To generate a new version of the simulation code, the routines to be modified or added are appended to a standard command file, which contains the commands to compile the new routines and link them to the routines in the library. The library itself is rarely changed. Whenever the library is modified, however, this modification is seen by all versions of the simulation code, which actually exist as different versions of the command file. All code is written according to the rules of structured programming. Modularity is enforced by not using COMMON statements, simplifying the relation of the data flow to a hierarchy diagram. Simulation results are similar to those of the PARMTEQ code, as expected, because of the similar physical model. Different capabilities, such as those for generating beams matched in detail to the structure, are available in the new code for help in testing new ideas in designing RFQ linacs

  6. Error Correcting Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 3. Error Correcting Codes - Reed Solomon Codes. Priti Shankar. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 3 March ... Author Affiliations. Priti Shankar1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India ...

  7. 78 FR 18321 - International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... Energy Conservation Code. International Existing Building Code. International Fire Code. International... Code. International Property Maintenance Code. International Residential Code. International Swimming Pool and Spa Code International Wildland-Urban Interface Code. International Zoning Code. ICC Standards...

  8. Validation of thermalhydraulic codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkie, D.

    1992-01-01

    Thermalhydraulic codes require to be validated against experimental data collected over a wide range of situations if they are to be relied upon. A good example is provided by the nuclear industry where codes are used for safety studies and for determining operating conditions. Errors in the codes could lead to financial penalties, to the incorrect estimation of the consequences of accidents and even to the accidents themselves. Comparison between prediction and experiment is often described qualitatively or in approximate terms, e.g. ''agreement is within 10%''. A quantitative method is preferable, especially when several competing codes are available. The codes can then be ranked in order of merit. Such a method is described. (Author)

  9. Fracture flow code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dershowitz, W; Herbert, A.; Long, J.

    1989-03-01

    The hydrology of the SCV site will be modelled utilizing discrete fracture flow models. These models are complex, and can not be fully cerified by comparison to analytical solutions. The best approach for verification of these codes is therefore cross-verification between different codes. This is complicated by the variation in assumptions and solution techniques utilized in different codes. Cross-verification procedures are defined which allow comparison of the codes developed by Harwell Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and Golder Associates Inc. Six cross-verification datasets are defined for deterministic and stochastic verification of geometric and flow features of the codes. Additional datasets for verification of transport features will be documented in a future report. (13 figs., 7 tabs., 10 refs.) (authors)

  10. Prevalence, incidence, and demographics of systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus nephritis from 2000 to 2004 among children in the US Medicaid beneficiary population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraki, Linda T; Feldman, Candace H; Liu, Jun; Alarcón, Graciela S; Fischer, Michael A; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C; Costenbader, Karen H

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the nationwide prevalence, incidence, and sociodemographics of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and lupus nephritis among children in the US Medicaid beneficiary population. Children ages 3 years to Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision [ICD-9] code of 710.0 for SLE, each >30 days apart) were identified from the US Medicaid Analytic eXtract database from 2000 to 2004. This database contains all inpatient and outpatient Medicaid claims for 47 US states and the District of Columbia. Lupus nephritis was identified from ≥2 ICD-9 billing codes for glomerulonephritis, proteinuria, or renal failure, each recorded >30 days apart. The prevalence and incidence of SLE and lupus nephritis were calculated among Medicaid-enrolled children overall and within sociodemographic groups. Of the 30,420,597 Medicaid-enrolled children during these years, 2,959 were identified as having SLE. The prevalence of SLE was 9.73 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 9.38-10.08) per 100,000 Medicaid-enrolled children. Among the children with SLE, 84% were female, 40% were African American, 25% were Hispanic, 21% were White, and 42% resided in the South region of the US. Moreover, of the children with SLE, 1,106 (37%) had lupus nephritis, representing a prevalence of 3.64 (95% CI 3.43-3.86) per 100,000 children. The average annual incidence of SLE was 2.22 cases (95% CI 2.05-2.40) and that of lupus nephritis was 0.72 cases (95% CI 0.63-0.83) per 100,000 Medicaid enrollees per year. The prevalence and incidence rates of SLE and lupus nephritis increased with age, were higher in girls than in boys, and were higher in all non-White racial/ethnic groups. In the current study, the prevalence and incidence rates of SLE among Medicaid-enrolled children in the US are high compared to studies in other populations. In addition, these data represent the first population-based estimates of the prevalence and incidence of lupus nephritis in the US to date. Copyright © 2012 by the American

  11. Clinical Analysis of Icotinib on Beneficiary of 
Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer with EGFR Common Mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowen JIANG

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Targeted therapy has become an indispensable therapy method in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC treatment. Epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI can significantly prolong the survival of patients harboring EGFR gene mutation. Icotinb is China's first EGFR-TKI with independent intellectual property rights. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical characteristics about the beneficiary of advanced NSCLC patients with EGFR Common mutation who were treated with Icotinib. Retrospectively collect the data about beneficiary [progression-free survival (PFS≥6 months] and analysis of the related risk factors for prognosis. Methods From September 1, 2011 to September 30, 2015, 231 cases of advanced NSCLC beneficiary with EGFR common mutation were enrolled for treatment with icotinib in Zhejiang Cancer Hospital. Results The one year benefit rate was 67.9% in the group treated with Icotinib as first line, and in the groupas second line or above was 53.6%, which is statisticallysignificant. The two years benefit rate was 18.7% and 9.3%, respectively. The median PFS of first line group and the second line or above was 16.7 and 12.4 months, respectively. The presence of brain metastasis (P=0.010, Prior chemotherapy (P=0.001, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG score (P=0.001 were the main factors influencing the prognosis. The most common adverse were skin rashes (51 cases, 22.1% and diarrhea (27 cases, 11.7%. Conclusion Icotinib offers long-term clinical benefit and good tolerance for advanced NSCLC harboring EGFR gene mutation. Its advantage groups in addition to the patients with brain metastases and better ECOG score, the curative effect of patients with the first-line treatment is superior to second or further line.

  12. [Clinical Analysis of Icotinib on Beneficiary of 
Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer with EGFR Common Mutation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaowen; Wang, Wenxian; Zhang, Yiping

    2016-04-20

    Targeted therapy has become an indispensable therapy method in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment. Epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) can significantly prolong the survival of patients harboring EGFR gene mutation. Icotinb is China's first EGFR-TKI with independent intellectual property rights. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical characteristics about the beneficiary of advanced NSCLC patients with EGFR Common mutation who were treated with Icotinib. Retrospectively collect the data about beneficiary [progression-free survival (PFS)≥6 months] and analysis of the related risk factors for prognosis. From September 1, 2011 to September 30, 2015, 231 cases of advanced NSCLC beneficiary with EGFR common mutation were enrolled for treatment with icotinib in Zhejiang Cancer Hospital. The one year benefit rate was 67.9% in the group treated with Icotinib as first line, and in the groupas second line or above was 53.6%, which is statisticallysignificant. The two years benefit rate was 18.7% and 9.3%, respectively. The median PFS of first line group and the second line or above was 16.7 and 12.4 months, respectively. The presence of brain metastasis (P=0.010), Prior chemotherapy (P=0.001), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) score (P=0.001) were the main factors influencing the prognosis. The most common adverse were skin rashes (51 cases, 22.1%) and diarrhea (27 cases, 11.7%). Icotinib offers long-term clinical benefit and good tolerance for advanced NSCLC harboring EGFR gene mutation. Its advantage groups in addition to the patients with brain metastases and better ECOG score, the curative effect of patients with the first-line treatment is superior to second or further line. 
.

  13. Storage, preparation, and usage of fortified food aid among Guatemalan, Ugandan, and Malawian beneficiaries: a field study report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Jonathan P; Brodegard, William C; Pike, Oscar A; Steele, Frost M; Dunn, Michael L

    2008-09-01

    An important consideration in determining the ability of fortified food-aid commodities to meet the nutritional needs of beneficiaries is the manner in which commodities are utilized and prepared and the degree to which micronutrient losses occur during handling and cooking by the beneficiaries. A field study was conducted in Uganda, Malawi, and Guatemala to obtain data on storage, preparation, and usage of fortified blended foods provided by the US Agency for International Development. Interview and observational data on the use of corn-soy blend, cornmeal, soy-fortified cornmeal, soy-fortified bulgur, and fortified vegetable oil were collected from more than 100 households and two wet-feeding sites (where food is prepared and served by staff on-site) in 32 villages. Storage practices by beneficiaries appeared to be appropriate, and all commodities observed were free from off-flavors and odors. Cooking water was typically obtained from boreholes or open wells with a pH range of 4.7 to 7.7 Food preparation usually took place in covered areas with the use of an aluminum or clay pot over a wood-fueled fire. Thin or thick porridges were the most common dishes prepared from cereal-based products, with concentration ranges of 10% to 31% (wt/ wt) in water. Cooking times for porridges ranged from 5 to 53 minutes, with a mean of 26 minutes. Tortillas and beverages were other preparations commonly observed in Guatemala. Vegetable oil was typically used for pan frying. Cooking fuel could be saved and nutritional quality probably improved if relief agencies emphasized shorter cooking times. These data can be used to simulate preparation methods in the laboratory for assessment of the nutritional impact of cooking.

  14. Huffman coding in advanced audio coding standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzuchalski, Grzegorz

    2012-05-01

    This article presents several hardware architectures of Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) Huffman noiseless encoder, its optimisations and working implementation. Much attention has been paid to optimise the demand of hardware resources especially memory size. The aim of design was to get as short binary stream as possible in this standard. The Huffman encoder with whole audio-video system has been implemented in FPGA devices.

  15. Association Between Treatment by Locum Tenens Internal Medicine Physicians and 30-Day Mortality Among Hospitalized Medicare Beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Daniel M; Olenski, Andrew R; Tsugawa, Yusuke; Jena, Anupam B

    2017-12-05

    Use of locum tenens physicians has increased in the United States, but information about their quality and costs of care is lacking. To evaluate quality and costs of care among hospitalized Medicare beneficiaries treated by locum tenens vs non-locum tenens physicians. A random sample of Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries hospitalized during 2009-2014 was used to compare quality and costs of hospital care delivered by locum tenens and non-locum tenens internal medicine physicians. Treatment by locum tenens general internal medicine physicians. The primary outcome was 30-day mortality. Secondary outcomes included inpatient Medicare Part B spending, length of stay, and 30-day readmissions. Differences between locum tenens and non-locum tenens physicians were estimated using multivariable logistic regression models adjusted for beneficiary clinical and demographic characteristics and hospital fixed effects, which enabled comparisons of clinical outcomes between physicians practicing within the same hospital. In prespecified subgroup analyses, outcomes were reevaluated among hospitals with different levels of intensity of locum tenens physician use. Of 1 818 873 Medicare admissions treated by general internists, 38 475 (2.1%) received care from a locum tenens physician; 9.3% (4123/44 520) of general internists were temporarily covered by a locum tenens physician at some point. Differences in patient characteristics, demographics, comorbidities, and reason for admission between locum tenens and non-locum tenens physicians were not clinically relevant. Treatment by locum tenens physicians, compared with treatment by non-locum tenens physicians (n = 44 520 physicians), was not associated with a significant difference in 30-day mortality (8.83% vs 8.70%; adjusted difference, 0.14%; 95% CI, -0.18% to 0.45%). Patients treated by locum tenens physicians had significantly higher Part B spending ($1836 vs $1712; adjusted difference, $124; 95% CI, $93 to $154

  16. Long-term declines in ADLs, IADLs, and mobility among older Medicare beneficiaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolinsky Fredric D

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most prior studies have focused on short-term (≤ 2 years functional declines. But those studies cannot address aging effects inasmuch as all participants have aged the same amount. Therefore, the authors studied the extent of long-term functional decline in older Medicare beneficiaries who were followed for varying time lengths, and the authors also identified the risk factors associated with those declines. Methods The analytic sample included 5,871 self- or proxy-respondents who had complete baseline and follow-up survey data that could be linked to their Medicare claims for 1993-2007. Functional status was assessed using activities of daily living (ADLs, instrumental ADLs (IADLs, and mobility limitations, with declines defined as the development of two of more new difficulties. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to focus on the associations involving respondent status, health lifestyle, continuity of care, managed care status, health shocks, and terminal drop. Results The average amount of time between the first and final interviews was 8.0 years. Declines were observed for 36.6% on ADL abilities, 32.3% on IADL abilities, and 30.9% on mobility abilities. Functional decline was more likely to occur when proxy-reports were used, and the effects of baseline function on decline were reduced when proxy-reports were used. Engaging in vigorous physical activity consistently and substantially protected against functional decline, whereas obesity, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption were only associated with mobility declines. Post-baseline hospitalizations were the most robust predictors of functional decline, exhibiting a dose-response effect such that the greater the average annual number of hospital episodes, the greater the likelihood of functional status decline. Participants whose final interview preceded their death by one year or less had substantially greater odds of functional status decline

  17. A prospective cohort study of long-term cognitive changes in older Medicare beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinsky, Fredric D; Bentler, Suzanne E; Hockenberry, Jason; Jones, Michael P; Weigel, Paula A; Kaskie, Brian; Wallace, Robert B

    2011-09-20

    Promoting cognitive health and preventing its decline are longstanding public health goals, but long-term changes in cognitive function are not well-documented. Therefore, we first examined long-term changes in cognitive function among older Medicare beneficiaries in the Survey on Assets and Health Dynamics among the Oldest Old (AHEAD), and then we identified the risk factors associated with those changes in cognitive function. We conducted a secondary analysis of a prospective, population-based cohort using baseline (1993-1994) interview data linked to 1993-2007 Medicare claims to examine cognitive function at the final follow-up interview which occurred between 1995-1996 and 2006-2007. Besides traditional risk factors (i.e., aging, age, race, and education) and adjustment for baseline cognitive function, we considered the reason for censoring (entrance into managed care or death), and post-baseline continuity of care and major health shocks (hospital episodes). Residual change score multiple linear regression analysis was used to predict cognitive function at the final follow-up using data from telephone interviews among 3,021 to 4,251 (sample size varied by cognitive outcome) baseline community-dwelling self-respondents that were ≥ 70 years old, not in managed Medicare, and had at least one follow-up interview as self-respondents. Cognitive function was assessed using the 7-item Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS-7; general mental status), and the 10-item immediate and delayed (episodic memory) word recall tests. Mean changes in the number of correct responses on the TICS-7, and 10-item immediate and delayed word recall tests were -0.33, -0.75, and -0.78, with 43.6%, 54.9%, and 52.3% declining and 25.4%, 20.8%, and 22.9% unchanged. The main and most consistent risks for declining cognitive function were the baseline values of cognitive function (reflecting substantial regression to the mean), aging (a strong linear pattern of increased decline

  18. Report number codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R.N. (ed.)

    1985-05-01

    This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name.

  19. Report number codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.N.

    1985-05-01

    This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name

  20. Isotope Identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-18

    The objective of this training modules is to examine the process of using gamma spectroscopy for radionuclide identification; apply pattern recognition to gamma spectra; identify methods of verifying energy calibration; and discuss potential causes of isotope misidentification.

  1. Cryptography cracking codes

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    While cracking a code might seem like something few of us would encounter in our daily lives, it is actually far more prevalent than we may realize. Anyone who has had personal information taken because of a hacked email account can understand the need for cryptography and the importance of encryption-essentially the need to code information to keep it safe. This detailed volume examines the logic and science behind various ciphers, their real world uses, how codes can be broken, and the use of technology in this oft-overlooked field.

  2. Coded Splitting Tree Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to multiple access control called coded splitting tree protocol. The approach builds on the known tree splitting protocols, code structure and successive interference cancellation (SIC). Several instances of the tree splitting protocol are initiated, each...... instance is terminated prematurely and subsequently iterated. The combined set of leaves from all the tree instances can then be viewed as a graph code, which is decodable using belief propagation. The main design problem is determining the order of splitting, which enables successful decoding as early...

  3. Transport theory and codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clancy, B.E.

    1986-01-01

    This chapter begins with a neutron transport equation which includes the one dimensional plane geometry problems, the one dimensional spherical geometry problems, and numerical solutions. The section on the ANISN code and its look-alikes covers problems which can be solved; eigenvalue problems; outer iteration loop; inner iteration loop; and finite difference solution procedures. The input and output data for ANISN is also discussed. Two dimensional problems such as the DOT code are given. Finally, an overview of the Monte-Carlo methods and codes are elaborated on

  4. Gravity inversion code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhard, N.R.

    1979-01-01

    The gravity inversion code applies stabilized linear inverse theory to determine the topography of a subsurface density anomaly from Bouguer gravity data. The gravity inversion program consists of four source codes: SEARCH, TREND, INVERT, and AVERAGE. TREND and INVERT are used iteratively to converge on a solution. SEARCH forms the input gravity data files for Nevada Test Site data. AVERAGE performs a covariance analysis on the solution. This document describes the necessary input files and the proper operation of the code. 2 figures, 2 tables

  5. Bar code usage in nuclear materials accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mee, W.T.

    1983-01-01

    The age old method of physically taking an inventory of materials by listing each item's identification number has lived beyond its usefulness. In this age of computerization, which offers the local grocery store a quick, sure, and easy means to inventory, it is time for nuclear materials facilities to automate accountability activities. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant began investigating the use of automated data collection devices in 1979. At that time, bar code and optical-character-recognition (OCR) systems were reviewed with the purpose of directly entering data into DYMCAS (Dynamic Special Nuclear Materials Control and Accountability System). Both of these systems appeared applicable; however, other automated devices already employed for production control made implementing the bar code and OCR seem improbable. However, the DYMCAS was placed on line for nuclear material accountability, a decision was made to consider the bar code for physical inventory listings. For the past several months a development program has been underway to use a bar code device to collect and input data to the DYMCAS on the uranium recovery operations. Programs have been completed and tested, and are being employed to ensure that data will be compatible and useful. Bar code implementation and expansion of its use for all nuclear material inventory activity in Y-12 is presented

  6. Fulcrum Network Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Fulcrum network codes, which are a network coding framework, achieve three objectives: (i) to reduce the overhead per coded packet to almost 1 bit per source packet; (ii) to operate the network using only low field size operations at intermediate nodes, dramatically reducing complexity...... in the network; and (iii) to deliver an end-to-end performance that is close to that of a high field size network coding system for high-end receivers while simultaneously catering to low-end ones that can only decode in a lower field size. Sources may encode using a high field size expansion to increase...... the number of dimensions seen by the network using a linear mapping. Receivers can tradeoff computational effort with network delay, decoding in the high field size, the low field size, or a combination thereof....

  7. Supervised Convolutional Sparse Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Affara, Lama Ahmed; Ghanem, Bernard; Wonka, Peter

    2018-01-01

    coding, which aims at learning discriminative dictionaries instead of purely reconstructive ones. We incorporate a supervised regularization term into the traditional unsupervised CSC objective to encourage the final dictionary elements

  8. SASSYS LMFBR systems code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, F.E.; Prohammer, F.G.; Weber, D.P.

    1983-01-01

    The SASSYS LMFBR systems analysis code is being developed mainly to analyze the behavior of the shut-down heat-removal system and the consequences of failures in the system, although it is also capable of analyzing a wide range of transients, from mild operational transients through more severe transients leading to sodium boiling in the core and possible melting of clad and fuel. The code includes a detailed SAS4A multi-channel core treatment plus a general thermal-hydraulic treatment of the primary and intermediate heat-transport loops and the steam generators. The code can handle any LMFBR design, loop or pool, with an arbitrary arrangement of components. The code is fast running: usually faster than real time

  9. OCA Code Enforcement

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The Office of the County Attorney (OCA) processes Code Violation Citations issued by County agencies. The citations can be viewed by issued department, issued date...

  10. The fast code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, L.N.; Wilson, R.E. [Oregon State Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The FAST Code which is capable of determining structural loads on a flexible, teetering, horizontal axis wind turbine is described and comparisons of calculated loads with test data are given at two wind speeds for the ESI-80. The FAST Code models a two-bladed HAWT with degrees of freedom for blade bending, teeter, drive train flexibility, yaw, and windwise and crosswind tower motion. The code allows blade dimensions, stiffnesses, and weights to differ and models tower shadow, wind shear, and turbulence. Additionally, dynamic stall is included as are delta-3 and an underslung rotor. Load comparisons are made with ESI-80 test data in the form of power spectral density, rainflow counting, occurrence histograms, and azimuth averaged bin plots. It is concluded that agreement between the FAST Code and test results is good. (au)

  11. Code Disentanglement: Initial Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlbier, John Greaton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kelley, Timothy M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rockefeller, Gabriel M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Calef, Matthew Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-01-27

    The first step to making more ambitious changes in the EAP code base is to disentangle the code into a set of independent, levelized packages. We define a package as a collection of code, most often across a set of files, that provides a defined set of functionality; a package a) can be built and tested as an entity and b) fits within an overall levelization design. Each package contributes one or more libraries, or an application that uses the other libraries. A package set is levelized if the relationships between packages form a directed, acyclic graph and each package uses only packages at lower levels of the diagram (in Fortran this relationship is often describable by the use relationship between modules). Independent packages permit independent- and therefore parallel|development. The packages form separable units for the purposes of development and testing. This is a proven path for enabling finer-grained changes to a complex code.

  12. Induction technology optimization code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caporaso, G.J.; Brooks, A.L.; Kirbie, H.C.

    1992-01-01

    A code has been developed to evaluate relative costs of induction accelerator driver systems for relativistic klystrons. The code incorporates beam generation, transport and pulsed power system constraints to provide an integrated design tool. The code generates an injector/accelerator combination which satisfies the top level requirements and all system constraints once a small number of design choices have been specified (rise time of the injector voltage and aspect ratio of the ferrite induction cores, for example). The code calculates dimensions of accelerator mechanical assemblies and values of all electrical components. Cost factors for machined parts, raw materials and components are applied to yield a total system cost. These costs are then plotted as a function of the two design choices to enable selection of an optimum design based on various criteria. (Author) 11 refs., 3 figs

  13. VT ZIP Code Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) A ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA) is a statistical geographic entity that approximates the delivery area for a U.S. Postal Service five-digit...

  14. Bandwidth efficient coding

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, John B

    2017-01-01

    Bandwidth Efficient Coding addresses the major challenge in communication engineering today: how to communicate more bits of information in the same radio spectrum. Energy and bandwidth are needed to transmit bits, and bandwidth affects capacity the most. Methods have been developed that are ten times as energy efficient at a given bandwidth consumption as simple methods. These employ signals with very complex patterns and are called "coding" solutions. The book begins with classical theory before introducing new techniques that combine older methods of error correction coding and radio transmission in order to create narrowband methods that are as efficient in both spectrum and energy as nature allows. Other topics covered include modulation techniques such as CPM, coded QAM and pulse design.

  15. Reactor lattice codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulikowska, T.

    2001-01-01

    The description of reactor lattice codes is carried out on the example of the WIMSD-5B code. The WIMS code in its various version is the most recognised lattice code. It is used in all parts of the world for calculations of research and power reactors. The version WIMSD-5B is distributed free of charge by NEA Data Bank. The description of its main features given in the present lecture follows the aspects defined previously for lattice calculations in the lecture on Reactor Lattice Transport Calculations. The spatial models are described, and the approach to the energy treatment is given. Finally the specific algorithm applied in fuel depletion calculations is outlined. (author)

  16. Cross-index to DOE-prescribed occupational safety codes and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This Cross-Index volume is the 1981 compilation of detailed information from more than three hundred and fifty DOE prescribed or OSHA referenced industrial safety codes and standards and is revised yearly to provide information from current codes. Condensed data from individual code portions are listed according to reference code, section, paragraph and page. Each code is given a two-digit reference code number or letter in the Contents section (pages C to L) of this volume. This reference code provides ready identification of any code listed in the Cross-Index. The computerized information listings are on the left-hand portion of Cross-Index page; in order to the right of the listing are the reference code letters or numbers, the section, paragraph and page of the referenced code containing expanded information on the individual listing

  17. Critical Care Coding for Neurologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuwer, Marc R; Vespa, Paul M

    2015-10-01

    Accurate coding is an important function of neurologic practice. This contribution to Continuum is part of an ongoing series that presents helpful coding information along with examples related to the issue topic. Tips for diagnosis coding, Evaluation and Management coding, procedure coding, or a combination are presented, depending on which is most applicable to the subject area of the issue.

  18. Lattice Index Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Natarajan, Lakshmi; Hong, Yi; Viterbo, Emanuele

    2014-01-01

    The index coding problem involves a sender with K messages to be transmitted across a broadcast channel, and a set of receivers each of which demands a subset of the K messages while having prior knowledge of a different subset as side information. We consider the specific case of noisy index coding where the broadcast channel is Gaussian and every receiver demands all the messages from the source. Instances of this communication problem arise in wireless relay networks, sensor networks, and ...

  19. Towards advanced code simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scriven, A.H.

    1990-01-01

    The Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) uses advanced thermohydraulic codes extensively to support PWR safety analyses. A system has been developed to allow fully interactive execution of any code with graphical simulation of the operator desk and mimic display. The system operates in a virtual machine environment, with the thermohydraulic code executing in one virtual machine, communicating via interrupts with any number of other virtual machines each running other programs and graphics drivers. The driver code itself does not have to be modified from its normal batch form. Shortly following the release of RELAP5 MOD1 in IBM compatible form in 1983, this code was used as the driver for this system. When RELAP5 MOD2 became available, it was adopted with no changes needed in the basic system. Overall the system has been used for some 5 years for the analysis of LOBI tests, full scale plant studies and for simple what-if studies. For gaining rapid understanding of system dependencies it has proved invaluable. The graphical mimic system, being independent of the driver code, has also been used with other codes to study core rewetting, to replay results obtained from batch jobs on a CRAY2 computer system and to display suitably processed experimental results from the LOBI facility to aid interpretation. For the above work real-time execution was not necessary. Current work now centers on implementing the RELAP 5 code on a true parallel architecture machine. Marconi Simulation have been contracted to investigate the feasibility of using upwards of 100 processors, each capable of a peak of 30 MIPS to run a highly detailed RELAP5 model in real time, complete with specially written 3D core neutronics and balance of plant models. This paper describes the experience of using RELAP5 as an analyzer/simulator, and outlines the proposed methods and problems associated with parallel execution of RELAP5

  20. Cracking the Gender Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rennison, Betina Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    extensive work to raise the proportion of women. This has helped slightly, but women remain underrepresented at the corporate top. Why is this so? What can be done to solve it? This article presents five different types of answers relating to five discursive codes: nature, talent, business, exclusion...... in leadership management, we must become more aware and take advantage of this complexity. We must crack the codes in order to crack the curve....

  1. PEAR code review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wit, R.; Jamieson, T.; Lord, M.; Lafortune, J.F.

    1997-07-01

    As a necessary component in the continuous improvement and refinement of methodologies employed in the nuclear industry, regulatory agencies need to periodically evaluate these processes to improve confidence in results and ensure appropriate levels of safety are being achieved. The independent and objective review of industry-standard computer codes forms an essential part of this program. To this end, this work undertakes an in-depth review of the computer code PEAR (Public Exposures from Accidental Releases), developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) to assess accidental releases from CANDU reactors. PEAR is based largely on the models contained in the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) N288.2-M91. This report presents the results of a detailed technical review of the PEAR code to identify any variations from the CSA standard and other supporting documentation, verify the source code, assess the quality of numerical models and results, and identify general strengths and weaknesses of the code. The version of the code employed in this review is the one which AECL intends to use for CANDU 9 safety analyses. (author)

  2. KENO-V code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    The KENO-V code is the current release of the Oak Ridge multigroup Monte Carlo criticality code development. The original KENO, with 16 group Hansen-Roach cross sections and P 1 scattering, was one ot the first multigroup Monte Carlo codes and it and its successors have always been a much-used research tool for criticality studies. KENO-V is able to accept large neutron cross section libraries (a 218 group set is distributed with the code) and has a general P/sub N/ scattering capability. A supergroup feature allows execution of large problems on small computers, but at the expense of increased calculation time and system input/output operations. This supergroup feature is activated automatically by the code in a manner which utilizes as much computer memory as is available. The primary purpose of KENO-V is to calculate the system k/sub eff/, from small bare critical assemblies to large reflected arrays of differing fissile and moderator elements. In this respect KENO-V neither has nor requires the many options and sophisticated biasing techniques of general Monte Carlo codes

  3. Code, standard and specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    Radiography also same as the other technique, it need standard. This standard was used widely and method of used it also regular. With that, radiography testing only practical based on regulations as mentioned and documented. These regulation or guideline documented in code, standard and specifications. In Malaysia, level one and basic radiographer can do radiography work based on instruction give by level two or three radiographer. This instruction was produced based on guideline that mention in document. Level two must follow the specifications mentioned in standard when write the instruction. From this scenario, it makes clearly that this radiography work is a type of work that everything must follow the rule. For the code, the radiography follow the code of American Society for Mechanical Engineer (ASME) and the only code that have in Malaysia for this time is rule that published by Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB) known as Practical code for radiation Protection in Industrial radiography. With the existence of this code, all the radiography must follow the rule or standard regulated automatically.

  4. How Social Care Beneficiaries in Poland Rate Relative Harmfulness of Various Tobacco and Nicotine-Containing Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milcarz, Marek; Polańska, Kinga; Bak-Romaniszyn, Leokadia; Kaleta, Dorota

    2017-09-07

    The aim of the study was to examine how social care beneficiaries rate the relative harmfulness of tobacco/nicotine-containing products compared to traditional cigarettes. This information is crucial for the development of effective tobacco control strategies targeting disadvantaged populations. The cross-sectional study covered 1817 respondents who were taking advantage of social aid services offered by the local social care institutions in the Piotrkowski district, via face-to-face interviews. The linear regression analysis indicated that relative to women, men consider slim cigarettes, smokeless tobacco and e-cigarettes to be more harmful than traditional cigarettes ( p traditional cigarettes reported menthol cigarettes to be less harmful than traditional cigarettes, relative to the non-smokers ( p = 0.05). The current results demonstrate that social care beneficiaries are not aware of the fact that some products are less harmful than others. Education concerning tobacco/nicotine products should include advice on how to reduce the adverse health effects of smoking (e.g., avoiding inhalation of combusted products), while driving the awareness that no nicotine-containing products are safe.

  5. Costs and clinical quality among Medicare beneficiaries: associations with health center penetration of low-income residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ravi; Lebrun-Harris, Lydie A; Ngo-Metzger, Quyen

    2014-01-01

    Determine the association between access to primary care by the underserved and Medicare spending and clinical quality across hospital referral regions (HRRs). Data on elderly fee-for-service beneficiaries across 306 HRRs came from CMS' Geographic Variation in Medicare Spending and Utilization database (2010). We merged data on number of health center patients (HRSA's Uniform Data System) and number of low-income residents (American Community Survey). We estimated access to primary care in each HRR by "health center penetration" (health center patients as a proportion of low-income residents). We calculated total Medicare spending (adjusted for population size, local input prices, and health risk). We assessed clinical quality by preventable hospital admissions, hospital readmissions, and emergency department visits. We sorted HRRs by health center penetration rate and compared spending and quality measures between the high- and low-penetration deciles. We also employed linear regressions to estimate spending and quality measures as a function of health center penetration. The high-penetration decile had 9.7% lower Medicare spending ($926 per capita, p=0.01) than the low-penetration decile, and no different clinical quality outcomes. Compared with elderly fee-for-service beneficiaries residing in areas with low-penetration of health center patients among low-income residents, those residing in high-penetration areas may accrue Medicare cost savings. Limited evidence suggests that these savings do not compromise clinical quality.

  6. Smoking Patterns and Smoking Cessation Willingness—A Study among Beneficiaries of Government Welfare Assistance in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Milcarz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the prevalence and tobacco use patterns among adult social assistance beneficiaries and their interest in quitting. The results are based on data collected in a cross-sectional survey conducted among adults in the Piotrkowski district. A sample of 3636 social assistance beneficiaries produced a total of 1817 respondents who completed face-to-face questionnaires. Overall, 37.1% of the respondents, including 52.8% men and 29.6% women, were current smokers. Over one third of the smokers reported their willingness to quit. In the study population, several characteristics were significantly associated with the current daily smoking: male gender, low educational attainment, unemployment or temporary employment, lack of awareness of smoking-associated health risks, use of e-cigarettes, and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS. The intention to quit smoking among the daily smokers was positively correlated with their awareness of smoking-associated health risks, lack of previous quit attempts, and low exposure to ETS. Smoking prevalence among social assistance recipients tends to be higher than in the general population, but more than half of the smokers are willing to quit. There is an urgency to develop policies tailored to the needs of these disadvantaged population groups.

  7. The Effect of Clinical Care Location on Clinical Outcomes After Peripheral Vascular Intervention in Medicare Beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turley, Ryan S; Mi, Xiaojuan; Qualls, Laura G; Vemulapalli, Sreekanth; Peterson, Eric D; Patel, Manesh R; Curtis, Lesley H; Jones, W Schuyler

    2017-06-12

    Modifications in reimbursement rates by Medicare in 2008 have led to peripheral vascular interventions (PVI) being performed more commonly in outpatient and office-based clinics. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of this shift in clinical care setting on clinical outcomes after PVI. Modifications in reimbursement have led to peripheral vascular intervention (PVI) being more commonly performed in outpatient hospital settings and office-based clinics. Using a 100% national sample of Medicare beneficiaries from 2010 to 2012, we examined 30-day and 1-year rates of all-cause mortality, major lower extremity amputation, repeat revascularization, and all-cause hospitalization by clinical care location of index PVI. A total of 218,858 Medicare beneficiaries underwent an index PVI between 2010 and 2012. Index PVIs performed in inpatient settings were associated with higher 1-year rates of all-cause mortality (23.6% vs. 10.4% and 11.7%; p index revascularization and geographic region on the occurrence of all-cause hospitalization, repeat revascularization, and lower extremity amputation. Index PVI performed in office-based settings was associated with a higher hazard of repeat revascularization when compared with other settings. Differences in clinical outcomes across treatment settings and geographic regions suggest that inconsistent application of PVI may exist and highlights the need for studies to determine optimal delivery of PVI in clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A randomized controlled trial of intensive care management for disabled Medicaid beneficiaries with high health care costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Janice F; Krupski, Antoinette; Joesch, Jutta M; West, Imara I; Atkins, David C; Court, Beverly; Mancuso, David; Roy-Byrne, Peter

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate outcomes of a registered nurse-led care management intervention for disabled Medicaid beneficiaries with high health care costs. Washington State Department of Social and Health Services Client Outcomes Database, 2008-2011. In a randomized controlled trial with intent-to-treat analysis, outcomes were compared for the intervention (n = 557) and control groups (n = 563). A quasi-experimental subanalysis compared outcomes for program participants (n = 251) and propensity score-matched controls (n = 251). Administrative data were linked to describe costs and use of health services, criminal activity, homelessness, and death. In the intent-to-treat analysis, the intervention group had higher odds of outpatient mental health service use and higher prescription drug costs than controls in the postperiod. In the subanalysis, participants had fewer unplanned hospital admissions and lower associated costs; higher prescription drug costs; higher odds of long-term care service use; higher drug/alcohol treatment costs; and lower odds of homelessness. We found no health care cost savings for disabled Medicaid beneficiaries randomized to intensive care management. Among participants, care management may have the potential to increase access to needed care, slow growth in the number and therefore cost of unplanned hospitalizations, and prevent homelessness. These findings apply to start-up care management programs targeted at high-cost, high-risk Medicaid populations. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  9. Fast Coding Unit Encoding Mechanism for Low Complexity Video Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yuan; Liu, Pengyu; Wu, Yueying; Jia, Kebin; Gao, Guandong

    2016-01-01

    In high efficiency video coding (HEVC), coding tree contributes to excellent compression performance. However, coding tree brings extremely high computational complexity. Innovative works for improving coding tree to further reduce encoding time are stated in this paper. A novel low complexity coding tree mechanism is proposed for HEVC fast coding unit (CU) encoding. Firstly, this paper makes an in-depth study of the relationship among CU distribution, quantization parameter (QP) and content ...

  10. Triboelectric-Based Transparent Secret Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zuqing; Du, Xinyu; Li, Nianwu; Yin, Yingying; Cao, Ran; Zhang, Xiuling; Zhao, Shuyu; Niu, Huidan; Jiang, Tao; Xu, Weihua; Wang, Zhong Lin; Li, Congju

    2018-04-01

    Private and security information for personal identification requires an encrypted tool to extend communication channels between human and machine through a convenient and secure method. Here, a triboelectric-based transparent secret code (TSC) that enables self-powered sensing and information identification simultaneously in a rapid process method is reported. The transparent and hydrophobic TSC can be conformed to any cambered surface due to its high flexibility, which extends the application scenarios greatly. Independent of the power source, the TSC can induce obvious electric signals only by surface contact. This TSC is velocity-dependent and capable of achieving a peak voltage of ≈4 V at a resistance load of 10 MΩ and a sliding speed of 0.1 m s -1 , according to a 2 mm × 20 mm rectangular stripe. The fabricated TSC can maintain its performance after reciprocating rolling for about 5000 times. The applications of TSC as a self-powered code device are demonstrated, and the ordered signals can be recognized through the height of the electric peaks, which can be further transferred into specific information by the processing program. The designed TSC has great potential in personal identification, commodity circulation, valuables management, and security defense applications.

  11. SPECTRAL AMPLITUDE CODING OCDMA SYSTEMS USING ENHANCED DOUBLE WEIGHT CODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.N. HASOON

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A new code structure for spectral amplitude coding optical code division multiple access systems based on double weight (DW code families is proposed. The DW has a fixed weight of two. Enhanced double-weight (EDW code is another variation of a DW code family that can has a variable weight greater than one. The EDW code possesses ideal cross-correlation properties and exists for every natural number n. A much better performance can be provided by using the EDW code compared to the existing code such as Hadamard and Modified Frequency-Hopping (MFH codes. It has been observed that theoretical analysis and simulation for EDW is much better performance compared to Hadamard and Modified Frequency-Hopping (MFH codes.

  12. Nuclear code abstracts (1975 edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akanuma, Makoto; Hirakawa, Takashi

    1976-02-01

    Nuclear Code Abstracts is compiled in the Nuclear Code Committee to exchange information of the nuclear code developments among members of the committee. Enlarging the collection, the present one includes nuclear code abstracts obtained in 1975 through liaison officers of the organizations in Japan participating in the Nuclear Energy Agency's Computer Program Library at Ispra, Italy. The classification of nuclear codes and the format of code abstracts are the same as those in the library. (auth.)

  13. Some new ternary linear codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumen Daskalov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Let an $[n,k,d]_q$ code be a linear code of length $n$, dimension $k$ and minimum Hamming distance $d$ over $GF(q$. One of the most important problems in coding theory is to construct codes with optimal minimum distances. In this paper 22 new ternary linear codes are presented. Two of them are optimal. All new codes improve the respective lower bounds in [11].

  14. Algebraic and stochastic coding theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kythe, Dave K

    2012-01-01

    Using a simple yet rigorous approach, Algebraic and Stochastic Coding Theory makes the subject of coding theory easy to understand for readers with a thorough knowledge of digital arithmetic, Boolean and modern algebra, and probability theory. It explains the underlying principles of coding theory and offers a clear, detailed description of each code. More advanced readers will appreciate its coverage of recent developments in coding theory and stochastic processes. After a brief review of coding history and Boolean algebra, the book introduces linear codes, including Hamming and Golay codes.

  15. Optical coding theory with Prime

    CERN Document Server

    Kwong, Wing C

    2013-01-01

    Although several books cover the coding theory of wireless communications and the hardware technologies and coding techniques of optical CDMA, no book has been specifically dedicated to optical coding theory-until now. Written by renowned authorities in the field, Optical Coding Theory with Prime gathers together in one volume the fundamentals and developments of optical coding theory, with a focus on families of prime codes, supplemented with several families of non-prime codes. The book also explores potential applications to coding-based optical systems and networks. Learn How to Construct

  16. Signal trend identification with fuzzy methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reifman, J.; Tsoukalas, L. H.; Wang, X.; Wei, T. Y. C.

    1999-01-01

    A fuzzy-logic-based methodology for on-line signal trend identification is introduced. Although signal trend identification is complicated by the presence of noise, fuzzy logic can help capture important features of on-line signals and classify incoming power plant signals into increasing, decreasing and steady-state trend categories. In order to verify the methodology, a code named PROTREN is developed and tested using plant data. The results indicate that the code is capable of detecting transients accurately, identifying trends reliably, and not misinterpreting a steady-state signal as a transient one

  17. The Aster code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delbecq, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Aster code is a 2D or 3D finite-element calculation code for structures developed by the R and D direction of Electricite de France (EdF). This dossier presents a complete overview of the characteristics and uses of the Aster code: introduction of version 4; the context of Aster (organisation of the code development, versions, systems and interfaces, development tools, quality assurance, independent validation); static mechanics (linear thermo-elasticity, Euler buckling, cables, Zarka-Casier method); non-linear mechanics (materials behaviour, big deformations, specific loads, unloading and loss of load proportionality indicators, global algorithm, contact and friction); rupture mechanics (G energy restitution level, restitution level in thermo-elasto-plasticity, 3D local energy restitution level, KI and KII stress intensity factors, calculation of limit loads for structures), specific treatments (fatigue, rupture, wear, error estimation); meshes and models (mesh generation, modeling, loads and boundary conditions, links between different modeling processes, resolution of linear systems, display of results etc..); vibration mechanics (modal and harmonic analysis, dynamics with shocks, direct transient dynamics, seismic analysis and aleatory dynamics, non-linear dynamics, dynamical sub-structuring); fluid-structure interactions (internal acoustics, mass, rigidity and damping); linear and non-linear thermal analysis; steels and metal industry (structure transformations); coupled problems (internal chaining, internal thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling, chaining with other codes); products and services. (J.S.)

  18. Adaptive distributed source coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varodayan, David; Lin, Yao-Chung; Girod, Bernd

    2012-05-01

    We consider distributed source coding in the presence of hidden variables that parameterize the statistical dependence among sources. We derive the Slepian-Wolf bound and devise coding algorithms for a block-candidate model of this problem. The encoder sends, in addition to syndrome bits, a portion of the source to the decoder uncoded as doping bits. The decoder uses the sum-product algorithm to simultaneously recover the source symbols and the hidden statistical dependence variables. We also develop novel techniques based on density evolution (DE) to analyze the coding algorithms. We experimentally confirm that our DE analysis closely approximates practical performance. This result allows us to efficiently optimize parameters of the algorithms. In particular, we show that the system performs close to the Slepian-Wolf bound when an appropriate doping rate is selected. We then apply our coding and analysis techniques to a reduced-reference video quality monitoring system and show a bit rate saving of about 75% compared with fixed-length coding.

  19. Speech coding code- excited linear prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Bäckström, Tom

    2017-01-01

    This book provides scientific understanding of the most central techniques used in speech coding both for advanced students as well as professionals with a background in speech audio and or digital signal processing. It provides a clear connection between the whys hows and whats thus enabling a clear view of the necessity purpose and solutions provided by various tools as well as their strengths and weaknesses in each respect Equivalently this book sheds light on the following perspectives for each technology presented Objective What do we want to achieve and especially why is this goal important Resource Information What information is available and how can it be useful and Resource Platform What kind of platforms are we working with and what are their capabilities restrictions This includes computational memory and acoustic properties and the transmission capacity of devices used. The book goes on to address Solutions Which solutions have been proposed and how can they be used to reach the stated goals and ...

  20. JUPITER PROJECT - JOINT UNIVERSAL PARAMETER IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION OF RELIABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The JUPITER (Joint Universal Parameter IdenTification and Evaluation of Reliability) project builds on the technology of two widely used codes for sensitivity analysis, data assessment, calibration, and uncertainty analysis of environmental models: PEST and UCODE.

  1. Spatially coded backscatter radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thangavelu, S.; Hussein, E.M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Conventional radiography requires access to two opposite sides of an object, which makes it unsuitable for the inspection of extended and/or thick structures (airframes, bridges, floors etc.). Backscatter imaging can overcome this problem, but the indications obtained are difficult to interpret. This paper applies the coded aperture technique to gamma-ray backscatter-radiography in order to enhance the detectability of flaws. This spatial coding method involves the positioning of a mask with closed and open holes to selectively permit or block the passage of radiation. The obtained coded-aperture indications are then mathematically decoded to detect the presence of anomalies. Indications obtained from Monte Carlo calculations were utilized in this work to simulate radiation scattering measurements. These simulated measurements were used to investigate the applicability of this technique to the detection of flaws by backscatter radiography

  2. Aztheca Code; Codigo Aztheca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quezada G, S.; Espinosa P, G. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Centeno P, J.; Sanchez M, H., E-mail: sequga@gmail.com [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Ciudad Universitaria, Circuito Exterior s/n, 04510 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2017-09-15

    This paper presents the Aztheca code, which is formed by the mathematical models of neutron kinetics, power generation, heat transfer, core thermo-hydraulics, recirculation systems, dynamic pressure and level models and control system. The Aztheca code is validated with plant data, as well as with predictions from the manufacturer when the reactor operates in a stationary state. On the other hand, to demonstrate that the model is applicable during a transient, an event occurred in a nuclear power plant with a BWR reactor is selected. The plant data are compared with the results obtained with RELAP-5 and the Aztheca model. The results show that both RELAP-5 and the Aztheca code have the ability to adequately predict the behavior of the reactor. (Author)

  3. The Coding Question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C R

    2017-07-01

    Recent electrophysiological results imply that the duration of the stimulus onset asynchrony in eyeblink conditioning is encoded by a mechanism intrinsic to the cerebellar Purkinje cell. This raises the general question - how is quantitative information (durations, distances, rates, probabilities, amounts, etc.) transmitted by spike trains and encoded into engrams? The usual assumption is that information is transmitted by firing rates. However, rate codes are energetically inefficient and computationally awkward. A combinatorial code is more plausible. If the engram consists of altered synaptic conductances (the usual assumption), then we must ask how numbers may be written to synapses. It is much easier to formulate a coding hypothesis if the engram is realized by a cell-intrinsic molecular mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Revised SRAC code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchihashi, Keichiro; Ishiguro, Yukio; Kaneko, Kunio; Ido, Masaru.

    1986-09-01

    Since the publication of JAERI-1285 in 1983 for the preliminary version of the SRAC code system, a number of additions and modifications to the functions have been made to establish an overall neutronics code system. Major points are (1) addition of JENDL-2 version of data library, (2) a direct treatment of doubly heterogeneous effect on resonance absorption, (3) a generalized Dancoff factor, (4) a cell calculation based on the fixed boundary source problem, (5) the corresponding edit required for experimental analysis and reactor design, (6) a perturbation theory calculation for reactivity change, (7) an auxiliary code for core burnup and fuel management, etc. This report is a revision of the users manual which consists of the general description, input data requirements and their explanation, detailed information on usage, mathematics, contents of libraries and sample I/O. (author)

  5. Code query by example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaucouleur, Sebastien

    2011-02-01

    We introduce code query by example for customisation of evolvable software products in general and of enterprise resource planning systems (ERPs) in particular. The concept is based on an initial empirical study on practices around ERP systems. We motivate our design choices based on those empirical results, and we show how the proposed solution helps with respect to the infamous upgrade problem: the conflict between the need for customisation and the need for upgrade of ERP systems. We further show how code query by example can be used as a form of lightweight static analysis, to detect automatically potential defects in large software products. Code query by example as a form of lightweight static analysis is particularly interesting in the context of ERP systems: it is often the case that programmers working in this field are not computer science specialists but more of domain experts. Hence, they require a simple language to express custom rules.

  6. The correspondence between projective codes and 2-weight codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.E.; Eupen, van M.J.M.; Tilborg, van H.C.A.; Willems, F.M.J.

    1994-01-01

    The hyperplanes intersecting a 2-weight code in the same number of points obviously form the point set of a projective code. On the other hand, if we have a projective code C, then we can make a 2-weight code by taking the multiset of points E PC with multiplicity "Y(w), where W is the weight of

  7. Visualizing code and coverage changes for code review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterwaal, Sebastiaan; van Deursen, A.; De Souza Coelho, R.; Sawant, A.A.; Bacchelli, A.

    2016-01-01

    One of the tasks of reviewers is to verify that code modifications are well tested. However, current tools offer little support in understanding precisely how changes to the code relate to changes to the tests. In particular, it is hard to see whether (modified) test code covers the changed code.

  8. Turbo-Gallager Codes: The Emergence of an Intelligent Coding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Today, both turbo codes and low-density parity-check codes are largely superior to other code families and are being used in an increasing number of modern communication systems including 3G standards, satellite and deep space communications. However, the two codes have certain distinctive characteristics that ...

  9. Code of Medical Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . SZD-SZZ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Te Code was approved on December 12, 1992, at the 3rd regular meeting of the General Assembly of the Medical Chamber of Slovenia and revised on April 24, 1997, at the 27th regular meeting of the General Assembly of the Medical Chamber of Slovenia. The Code was updated and harmonized with the Medical Association of Slovenia and approved on October 6, 2016, at the regular meeting of the General Assembly of the Medical Chamber of Slovenia.

  10. Supervised Convolutional Sparse Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Affara, Lama Ahmed

    2018-04-08

    Convolutional Sparse Coding (CSC) is a well-established image representation model especially suited for image restoration tasks. In this work, we extend the applicability of this model by proposing a supervised approach to convolutional sparse coding, which aims at learning discriminative dictionaries instead of purely reconstructive ones. We incorporate a supervised regularization term into the traditional unsupervised CSC objective to encourage the final dictionary elements to be discriminative. Experimental results show that using supervised convolutional learning results in two key advantages. First, we learn more semantically relevant filters in the dictionary and second, we achieve improved image reconstruction on unseen data.

  11. CONCEPT computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delene, J.

    1984-01-01

    CONCEPT is a computer code that will provide conceptual capital investment cost estimates for nuclear and coal-fired power plants. The code can develop an estimate for construction at any point in time. Any unit size within the range of about 400 to 1300 MW electric may be selected. Any of 23 reference site locations across the United States and Canada may be selected. PWR, BWR, and coal-fired plants burning high-sulfur and low-sulfur coal can be estimated. Multiple-unit plants can be estimated. Costs due to escalation/inflation and interest during construction are calculated

  12. Principles of speech coding

    CERN Document Server

    Ogunfunmi, Tokunbo

    2010-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that all forms of communication-including voice-will be transmitted through packet-switched networks based on the Internet Protocol (IP). Therefore, the design of modern devices that rely on speech interfaces, such as cell phones and PDAs, requires a complete and up-to-date understanding of the basics of speech coding. Outlines key signal processing algorithms used to mitigate impairments to speech quality in VoIP networksOffering a detailed yet easily accessible introduction to the field, Principles of Speech Coding provides an in-depth examination of the

  13. Out-of-pocket medical expenses for inpatient care among beneficiaries of the National Health Insurance Program in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobe, Makoto; Stickley, Andrew; del Rosario, Rodolfo B; Shibuya, Kenji

    2013-08-01

    OBJECTIVE The National Health Insurance Program (NHIP) in the Philippines is a social health insurance system partially subsidized by tax-based financing which offers benefits on a fee-for-service basis up to a fixed ceiling. This paper quantifies the extent to which beneficiaries of the NHIP incur out-of-pocket expenses for inpatient care, and examines the characteristics of beneficiaries making these payments and the hospitals in which these payments are typically made. METHODS Probit and ordinary least squares regression analyses were carried out on 94 531 insurance claims from Benguet province and Baguio city during the period 2007 to 2009. RESULTS Eighty-six per cent of claims involved an out-of-pocket payment. The median figure for out-of-pocket payments was Philippine Pesos (PHP) 3016 (US$67), with this figure varying widely [inter-quartile range (IQR): PHP 9393 (US$209)]. Thirteen per cent of claims involved very large out-of-pocket payments exceeding PHP 19 213 (US$428)-the equivalent of 10% of the average annual household income in the region. Membership type, disease severity, age and residential location of the patient, length of hospitalization, and ownership and level of the hospital were all significantly associated with making out-of-pocket payments and/or the size of these payments. CONCLUSION Although the current NHIP reduces the size of out-of-pocket payments, NHIP beneficiaries are not completely free from the risk of large out-of-pocket payments (as the size of these payments varies widely and can be extremely large), despite NHIP's attempts to mitigate this by setting different benefit ceilings based on the level of the hospital and the severity of the disease. To reduce these large out-of-pocket payments and to increase financial risk protection further, it is essential to ensure more investment for health from social health insurance and/or tax-based government funding as well as shifting the provider payment mechanism from a fee

  14. CERN access cards - Introduction of a bar code (Reminder)

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    In accordance with the latest revised version of the implementation measures relating to Operational Circular No. 2, CERN access cards may bear a bar code transcribing the holder's identification number (the revised version of this subsidiary document to the aforementioned Circular will be published shortly). Relations with the Host States Service http://www.cern.ch/relations/ relations.secretariat@cern.ch Tel. 72848

  15. Evaluation Codes from an Affine Veriety Code Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geil, Hans Olav

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation codes (also called order domain codes) are traditionally introduced as generalized one-point geometric Goppa codes. In the present paper we will give a new point of view on evaluation codes by introducing them instead as particular nice examples of affine variety codes. Our study...... includes a reformulation of the usual methods to estimate the minimum distances of evaluation codes into the setting of affine variety codes. Finally we describe the connection to the theory of one-pointgeometric Goppa codes. Contents 4.1 Introduction...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 4.9 Codes form order domains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 4.10 One-point geometric Goppa codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 4.11 Bibliographical Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 References...

  16. Suture Coding: A Novel Educational Guide for Suture Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Mohamed; Abdel-Wahed, Ramadan

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to provide a helpful guide to perform tissue suturing successfully using suture coding-a method for identification of suture patterns and techniques by giving full information about the method of application of each pattern using numbers and symbols. Suture coding helps construct an infrastructure for surgical suture science. It facilitates the easy understanding and learning of suturing techniques and patterns as well as detects the relationship between the different patterns. Guide points are fixed on both edges of the wound to act as a guideline to help practice suture pattern techniques. The arrangement is fixed as 1-3-5-7 and a-c-e-g on one side (whether right or left) and as 2-4-6-8 and b-d-f-h on the other side. Needle placement must start from number 1 or letter "a" and continue to follow the code till the end of the stitching. Some rules are created to be adopted for the application of suture coding. A suture trainer containing guide points that simulate the coding process is used to facilitate the learning of the coding method. (120) Is the code of simple interrupted suture pattern; (ab210) is the code of vertical mattress suture pattern, and (013465)²/3 is the code of Cushing suture pattern. (0A1) Is suggested as a surgical suture language that gives the name and type of the suture pattern used to facilitate its identification. All suture patterns known in the world should start with (0), (A), or (1). There is a relationship between 2 or more surgical patterns according to their codes. It can be concluded that every suture pattern has its own code that helps in the identification of its type, structure, and method of application. Combination between numbers and symbols helps in the understanding of suture techniques easily without complication. There are specific relationships that can be identified between different suture patterns. Coding methods facilitate suture patterns learning process. The use of suture coding can be a good

  17. Trends in stricture management among male Medicare beneficiaries: underuse of urethroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anger, Jennifer T; Buckley, Jill C; Santucci, Richard A; Elliott, Sean P; Saigal, Christopher S

    2011-02-01

    To analyze the trends in male urethral stricture management using the 1992-2001 Medicare claims data and to determine whether certain racial and ethnic groups have a disproportionate burden of urethral stricture disease. We analyzed the Medicare claims for fiscal years 1992, 1995, 1998, and 2001. The "International Classification of Disease, 9th revision," diagnosis codes were used to identify men with urethral stricture. The demographic characteristics assessed included patient age, race, and comorbidities, as measured using the Charlson index. Treatments were identified using the Physician Current Procedural Terminology Coding System, 4th edition, procedure codes and stratified into 4 treatment types: urethral dilation, direct vision internal urethrotomy, urethral stent/steroid injection, and urethroplasty. The overall rates of stricture diagnosis decreased from 10,088/100,000 population in 1992 to 6897 in 2001 (from 1.4% to 0.9%). The stricture prevalence was greatest among black and Hispanic men, although the urethroplasty rates were greatest among white men. Direct vision internal urethrotomy was the most common treatment, followed by urethral dilation, urethral stent/steroid injection, and urethroplasty. The urethroplasty rates remained stable, but quite low (0.6%-0.8%), during the study period. The overall rates of stricture diagnosis decreased from 1992 to 2001. Despite the poor overall efficacy of urethrotomy and urethral dilation relative to urethroplasty and despite the known complications of stent placement in this setting, the urethroplasty rates were the lowest of all treatments. Although we could not determine the treatment success with these data, these findings suggest an underuse of the most efficacious treatment of urethral stricture disease, urethroplasty. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Improvement of QR Code Recognition Based on Pillbox Filter Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Shing Sheu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to perform the innovation design for improving the recognition of a captured QR code image with blur through the Pillbox filter analysis. QR code images can be captured by digital video cameras. Many factors contribute to QR code decoding failure, such as the low quality of the image. Focus is an important factor that affects the quality of the image. This study discusses the out-of-focus QR code image and aims to improve the recognition of the contents in the QR code image. Many studies have used the pillbox filter (circular averaging filter method to simulate an out-of-focus image. This method is also used in this investigation to improve the recognition of a captured QR code image. A blurred QR code image is separated into nine levels. In the experiment, four different quantitative approaches are used to reconstruct and decode an out-of-focus QR code image. These nine reconstructed QR code images using methods are then compared. The final experimental results indicate improvements in identification.

  19. Simple method for identification of plasmid-coded proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sancar, A.; Hack, A.M.; Rupp, W.D.

    1979-01-01

    Proteins encoded by plasmid DNA are specifically labeled in uv-irradiated cells of Escherichia coli carrying recA and uvrA mutations because extensive degradation of the chromosome DNA occurs concurrently with amplification of plasmid DNA

  20. 49 CFR 178.502 - Identification codes for packagings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... construction, as follows: (i) “A” means steel (all types and surface treatments). (ii) “B” means aluminum. (iii) “C” means natural wood. (iv) “D” means plywood. (v) “F” means reconstituted wood. (vi) “G” means...

  1. 38 CFR 3.1000 - Entitlement under 38 U.S.C. 5121 to benefits due and unpaid upon death of a beneficiary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entitlement under 38 U.S.C. 5121 to benefits due and unpaid upon death of a beneficiary. 3.1000 Section 3.1000 Pensions... Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Accrued § 3.1000 Entitlement under 38 U.S.C. 5121 to benefits due and...

  2. 26 CFR 1.642(h)-3 - Meaning of “beneficiaries succeeding to the property of the estate or trust”.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... property of the estate or trustâ. 1.642(h)-3 Section 1.642(h)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.642(h)-3 Meaning of “beneficiaries succeeding to the property of the estate or trust”. (a) The... excess of deductions over gross income for which a deduction is allowed, under section 642(h). (b) With...

  3. Patient Satisfaction, Empowerment, and Health and Disability Status Effects of a Disease Management-Health Promotion Nurse Intervention among Medicare Beneficiaries with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Bruce; Wamsley, Brenda R.; Liebel, Dianne V.; Saad, Zabedah B.; Eggert, Gerald M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To report the impact on patient and informal caregiver satisfaction, patient empowerment, and health and disability status of a primary care-affiliated disease self-management-health promotion nurse intervention for Medicare beneficiaries with disabilities and recent significant health services use. Design and Methods: The Medicare…

  4. Will the beneficiaries of the “Minha Casa, Minha Vida” program be satisfied? Empirical evidence in the state of Minas Gerais [doi: 10.21529/RECADM.2017008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Souza Moreira

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The “Minha Casa, Minha Vida” Program (PMCMV is the main Brazilian government initiative to remedy the country's housing deficit, which, due to its reality, requires adequate management, avoiding detours that could make it unfeasible. In this sense, the objective was to evaluate the PMCMV results based on the perception of the beneficiary families. The theoretical framework was based on the concepts of evaluation of social programs and their application to the housing context. The investigation occurred in Minas Gerais, considering a sample of 110 families distributed in eight municipalities. We adopted three categories: housing unit, housing complex and environment. In relation to the housing unit, beneficiaries of horizontal housing were more satisfied; large families showed lower satisfaction and the second phase of the Program was better evaluated. On the housing set, beneficiaries of the vertical groups, with less members and of enterprises of the second phase were more satisfied. As for the environment, there was a decrease in satisfaction with infrastructure and access to the city as family size increased. From the contact with the beneficiaries was clear the social importance of the PMCMV and the modification promoted in their lives. It is considered necessary, based on the critical points raised, to continue making corrections in the Program so that the promoted improvements can solve the social inequalities.   Keywords Housing; Evaluation; Public policy; Satisfaction.

  5. 26 CFR 1.662(a)-1 - Inclusion of amounts in gross income of beneficiaries of estates and complex trusts; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inclusion of amounts in gross income of beneficiaries of estates and complex trusts; general. 1.662(a)-1 Section 1.662(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... Trusts Which May Accumulate Income Or Which Distribute Corpus § 1.662(a)-1 Inclusion of amounts in gross...

  6. Dual Coding in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, John K.; Wildman, Terry M.

    The purpose of this study was to test the applicability of the dual coding hypothesis to children's recall performance. The hypothesis predicts that visual interference will have a small effect on the recall of visually presented words or pictures, but that acoustic interference will cause a decline in recall of visually presented words and…

  7. Physical layer network coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukui, Hironori; Popovski, Petar; Yomo, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Physical layer network coding (PLNC) has been proposed to improve throughput of the two-way relay channel, where two nodes communicate with each other, being assisted by a relay node. Most of the works related to PLNC are focused on a simple three-node model and they do not take into account...

  8. Radioactive action code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    A new coding system, 'Hazrad', for buildings and transportation containers for alerting emergency services personnel to the presence of radioactive materials has been developed in the United Kingdom. The hazards of materials in the buildings or transport container, together with the recommended emergency action, are represented by a number of codes which are marked on the building or container and interpreted from a chart carried as a pocket-size guide. Buildings would be marked with the familiar yellow 'radioactive' trefoil, the written information 'Radioactive materials' and a list of isotopes. Under this the 'Hazrad' code would be written - three symbols to denote the relative radioactive risk (low, medium or high), the biological risk (also low, medium or high) and the third showing the type of radiation emitted, alpha, beta or gamma. The response cards indicate appropriate measures to take, eg for a high biological risk, Bio3, the wearing of a gas-tight protection suit is advised. The code and its uses are explained. (U.K.)

  9. Building Codes and Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, John L.

    The hazard of fire is of great concern to libraries due to combustible books and new plastics used in construction and interiors. Building codes and standards can offer architects and planners guidelines to follow but these standards should be closely monitored, updated, and researched for fire prevention. (DS)

  10. Physics of codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.K.; Jones, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    The title given this paper is a bit presumptuous, since one can hardly expect to cover the physics incorporated into all the codes already written and currently being written. The authors focus on those codes which have been found to be particularly useful in the analysis and design of linacs. At that the authors will be a bit parochial and discuss primarily those codes used for the design of radio-frequency (rf) linacs, although the discussions of TRANSPORT and MARYLIE have little to do with the time structures of the beams being analyzed. The plan of this paper is first to describe rather simply the concepts of emittance and brightness, then to describe rather briefly each of the codes TRANSPORT, PARMTEQ, TBCI, MARYLIE, and ISIS, indicating what physics is and is not included in each of them. It is expected that the vast majority of what is covered will apply equally well to protons and electrons (and other particles). This material is intended to be tutorial in nature and can in no way be expected to be exhaustive. 31 references, 4 figures

  11. Reliability and code level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasperski, M.; Geurts, C.P.W.

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes the work of the IAWE Working Group WBG - Reliability and Code Level, one of the International Codification Working Groups set up at ICWE10 in Copenhagen. The following topics are covered: sources of uncertainties in the design wind load, appropriate design target values for the

  12. Ready, steady… Code!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    This summer, CERN took part in the Google Summer of Code programme for the third year in succession. Open to students from all over the world, this programme leads to very successful collaborations for open source software projects.   Image: GSoC 2013. Google Summer of Code (GSoC) is a global programme that offers student developers grants to write code for open-source software projects. Since its creation in 2005, the programme has brought together some 6,000 students from over 100 countries worldwide. The students selected by Google are paired with a mentor from one of the participating projects, which can be led by institutes, organisations, companies, etc. This year, CERN PH Department’s SFT (Software Development for Experiments) Group took part in the GSoC programme for the third time, submitting 15 open-source projects. “Once published on the Google Summer for Code website (in April), the projects are open to applications,” says Jakob Blomer, one of the o...

  13. CERN Code of Conduct

    CERN Document Server

    Department, HR

    2010-01-01

    The Code is intended as a guide in helping us, as CERN contributors, to understand how to conduct ourselves, treat others and expect to be treated. It is based around the five core values of the Organization. We should all become familiar with it and try to incorporate it into our daily life at CERN.

  14. Nuclear safety code study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, H.H.; Ford, D.; Le, H.; Park, S.; Cooke, K.L.; Bleakney, T.; Spanier, J.; Wilburn, N.P.; O' Reilly, B.; Carmichael, B.

    1981-01-01

    The objective is to analyze an overpower accident in an LMFBR. A simplified model of the primary coolant loop was developed in order to understand the instabilities encountered with the MELT III and SAS codes. The computer programs were translated for switching to the IBM 4331. Numerical methods were investigated for solving the neutron kinetics equations; the Adams and Gear methods were compared. (DLC)

  15. Revised C++ coding conventions

    CERN Document Server

    Callot, O

    2001-01-01

    This document replaces the note LHCb 98-049 by Pavel Binko. After a few years of practice, some simplification and clarification of the rules was needed. As many more people have now some experience in writing C++ code, their opinion was also taken into account to get a commonly agreed set of conventions

  16. Corporate governance through codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haxhi, I.; Aguilera, R.V.; Vodosek, M.; den Hartog, D.; McNett, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The UK's 1992 Cadbury Report defines corporate governance (CG) as the system by which businesses are directed and controlled. CG codes are a set of best practices designed to address deficiencies in the formal contracts and institutions by suggesting prescriptions on the preferred role and

  17. Error Correcting Codes -34 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    information and coding theory. A large scale relay computer had failed to deliver the expected results due to a hardware fault. Hamming, one of the active proponents of computer usage, was determined to find an efficient means by which computers could detect and correct their own faults. A mathematician by train-.

  18. Broadcast Coded Slotted ALOHA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivanov, Mikhail; Brännström, Frederik; Graell i Amat, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    We propose an uncoordinated medium access control (MAC) protocol, called all-to-all broadcast coded slotted ALOHA (B-CSA) for reliable all-to-all broadcast with strict latency constraints. In B-CSA, each user acts as both transmitter and receiver in a half-duplex mode. The half-duplex mode gives ...

  19. Software Defined Coded Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Paola, Carla; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Palazzo, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    the quality of each link and even across neighbouring links and using simulations to show that an additional reduction of packet transmission in the order of 40% is possible. Second, to advocate for the use of network coding (NC) jointly with software defined networking (SDN) providing an implementation...

  20. New code of conduct

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    During his talk to the staff at the beginning of the year, the Director-General mentioned that a new code of conduct was being drawn up. What exactly is it and what is its purpose? Anne-Sylvie Catherin, Head of the Human Resources (HR) Department, talked to us about the whys and wherefores of the project.   Drawing by Georges Boixader from the cartoon strip “The World of Particles” by Brian Southworth. A code of conduct is a general framework laying down the behaviour expected of all members of an organisation's personnel. “CERN is one of the very few international organisations that don’t yet have one", explains Anne-Sylvie Catherin. “We have been thinking about introducing a code of conduct for a long time but lacked the necessary resources until now”. The call for a code of conduct has come from different sources within the Laboratory. “The Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel (read also the "Equal opportuni...