WorldWideScience

Sample records for beneficial reuse program

  1. SRS stainless steel beneficial reuse program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boettinger, W.L.

    1997-02-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) has thousands of tons of stainless steel radioactive scrap metal (RSNI). Much of the metal is volumetrically contaminated. There is no {open_quotes}de minimis{close_quotes} free release level for volumetric material, and therefore no way to recycle the metal into the normal commercial market. If declared waste, the metal would qualify as low level radioactive waste (LLW) and ultimately be dispositioned through shallow land buried at a cost of millions of dollars. The metal however could be recycled in a {open_quotes}controlled release{close_quote} manner, in the form of containers to hold other types of radioactive waste. This form of recycle is generally referred to as {open_quotes}Beneficial Reuse{close_quotes}. Beneficial reuse reduces the amount of disposal space needed and reduces the need for virgin containers which would themselves become contaminated. Stainless steel is particularly suited for long term storage because of its resistance to corrosion. To assess the practicality of stainless steel RSM recycle the SRS Benficial Reuse Program began a demonstration in 1994, funded by the DOE Office of Science and Technology. This paper discusses the experiences gained in this program.

  2. Beneficially reusing LLRW the Savannah River Site Stainless Steel Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With 68 radioactively contaminated excess Process Water Heat Exchangers the Savannah River Site launched its program to turn potential LLRW metal liabilities into assets. Each Heat Exchanger contains approximately 100 tons of 304 Stainless Steel and could be disposed as LLRW by land burial. Instead the 7000 tons of metal will be recycled into LLRW, HLW, and TRU waste containers thereby eliminating the need for near term land disposal and also eliminating the need to add more clean metal to the waste stream. Aspects of the partnership between DOE and Private Industry necessary to accomplish this new mission are described. A life cycle cost analysis associated with past practices of using carbon steel containers to indefinitely store material (contributing to the creation of today's legacy waste problems) is presented. The avoided cost calculations needed to support the economics of the ''Indifference'' decision process in assessing the Beneficial Reuse option relative to the Burial option are described

  3. Fernald scrap metal recycling and beneficial reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motl, G.P.; Burns, D.D.

    1993-10-01

    The Fernald site, formerly the Feed Materials Production Facility, produced uranium metal products to meet defense production requirements for the Department of Energy from 1953 to 1989. In this report is is described how the Fernald scrap metal project has demonstrated that contractor capabilities can be used successfully to recycle large quantities of Department of Energy scrap metal. The project has proven that the {open_quotes}beneficial reuse{close_quotes} concept makes excellent economic sense when a market for recycled products can be identified. Topics covered in this report include the scrap metal pile history, the procurement strategy, scrap metal processing, and a discussion of lessons learned.

  4. Beneficial Reuse of San Ardo Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert A. Liske

    2006-07-31

    This DOE funded study was performed to evaluate the potential for treatment and beneficial reuse of produced water from the San Ardo oilfield in Monterey County, CA. The potential benefits of a successful full-scale implementation of this project include improvements in oil production efficiency and additional recoverable oil reserves as well as the addition of a new reclaimed water resource. The overall project was conducted in two Phases. Phase I identified and evaluated potential end uses for the treated produced water, established treated water quality objectives, reviewed regulations related to treatment, transport, storage and use of the treated produced water, and investigated various water treatment technology options. Phase II involved the construction and operation of a small-scale water treatment pilot facility to evaluate the process's performance on produced water from the San Ardo oilfield. Cost estimates for a potential full-scale facility were also developed. Potential end uses identified for the treated water include (1) agricultural use near the oilfield, (2) use by Monterey County Water Resources Agency (MCWRA) for the Salinas Valley Water Project or Castroville Seawater Intrusion Project, (3) industrial or power plant use in King City, and (4) use for wetlands creation in the Salinas Basin. All of these uses were found to have major obstacles that prevent full-scale implementation. An additional option for potential reuse of the treated produced water was subsequently identified. That option involves using the treated produced water to recharge groundwater in the vicinity of the oil field. The recharge option may avoid the limitations that the other reuse options face. The water treatment pilot process utilized: (1) warm precipitation softening to remove hardness and silica, (2) evaporative cooling to meet downstream temperature limitations and facilitate removal of ammonia, and (3) reverse osmosis (RO) for removal of dissolved salts, boron

  5. Beneficial reuse of US DOE Radioactive scrap metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motl, G.P.

    1995-01-19

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has more than 2.5 million tons of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) that is either in inventory or expected to be generated over the next 25 years as major facilities within the weapons complex are decommissioned. Since much of this metal cannot be decontaminated easily, past practice has been to either retain this material in inventory or ship it to DOE disposal sites for burial. In an attempt to conserve natural resources and to avoid burial of this material at DOE disposal sites, options are now being explored to ``beneficially reuse`` this material. Under the beneficial reuse concept, RSM that cannot be decontaminated and free released is used in applications where the inherent contamination is not a detriment to its end use. This paper describes initiatives currently in progress in the United States that support the DOE beneficial reuse concept.

  6. Beneficial reuse of US DOE Radioactive scrap metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has more than 2.5 million tons of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) that is either in inventory or expected to be generated over the next 25 years as major facilities within the weapons complex are decommissioned. Since much of this metal cannot be decontaminated easily, past practice has been to either retain this material in inventory or ship it to DOE disposal sites for burial. In an attempt to conserve natural resources and to avoid burial of this material at DOE disposal sites, options are now being explored to ''beneficially reuse'' this material. Under the beneficial reuse concept, RSM that cannot be decontaminated and free released is used in applications where the inherent contamination is not a detriment to its end use. This paper describes initiatives currently in progress in the United States that support the DOE beneficial reuse concept

  7. Beneficial Reuse of San Ardo Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert A. Liske

    2003-09-26

    This report summarizes the work performed from 1 April 2003 to 30 September 2003 and recommends the tasks to be performed during Phase II (Pilot Evaluation). During this period discussions were held with various water agencies regarding use of the treated produced water either directly or indirectly through a water trading arrangement. In particular, several discussions were held with Monterey County Water Resources Agency, that has been charged with the long-term management and preservation of water resources in Monterey County. The Agency is very supportive of the program. However, they would like to see water quality/cost estimate data for the treated produced water from the pilot study prior to evaluating water use/water trade options. The agency sent a letter encouraging the project team to perform the pilot study to evaluate feasibility of the project. In addition, the regulations related to use of the treated water for various applications were updated during this period. Finally, the work plan, health and safety plan and sample analyses plan for performing pilot study to treat the oilfield produced water were developed during this period.

  8. Beneficial reuse `96: The fourth annual conference on the recycle and reuse of radioactive scrap metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    From October 22-24, 1996 the University of Tennessee`s Energy, Environment and Resources Center and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Center for Risk Management cosponsored Beneficial Reuse `96: The Fourth Annual Conference on the Recycle and Reuse of Radioactive Materials. Along with the traditional focus on radioactive scrap metals, this year`s conference included a wide range of topics pertaining to naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), and contaminated concrete reuse applications. As with previous Beneficial Reuse conferences, the primary goal of this year`s conference was to bring together stakeholder representatives for presentations, panel sessions and workshops on significant waste minimization issues surrounding the recycle and reuse of contaminated metals and other materials. A wide range of industry, government and public stakeholder groups participated in this year`s conference. An international presence from Canada, Germany and Korea helped to make Beneficial Reuse `96 a well-rounded affair. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  9. Beneficial Reuse of Dredged Materials in Upland Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Haus, Nicholas Wes

    2011-01-01

    Sediments excavated from dredging operations are known as dredged materials. Beneficial reuse of dredged materials in confined utilization facilities (CUFs) is a new approach that has the potential to productively utilize large quantities of dredged materials. However, several factors can inhibit the use of dredged materials in CUFs. In this study, high levels of salts and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated. In the first part of this study, 176,000 m3 of saline dred...

  10. Beneficial reuse of a national resource from the nuclear enterprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a vital national resource existing within and being generated by the US nuclear enterprise and current and planned technologies and techniques for its beneficial use. Several million tons of radioactively contaminated metals, considered scrap and waste, have been identified at the many commercial and federal sites involved in the nuclear enterprise. Both the public and private sectors have several concerns regarding the disposition of existing inventories and potential generation of contaminated scrap metals. In the past, good metal has been buried as waste. The time has come and is long overdue for that practice to cease. In the late eighties, the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge office pioneered the move to involve private industry in dealing with the contaminated scrap metal under its purview. Consequently, the Scientific Ecology Group, Inc. (SEG) emerged as the leader in processing contaminated metal for beneficial reuse. To use and advance the technologies and techniques for disposal of radioactively contaminated metals, SEG has built and operates in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, a metal processing facility (MPF). This MPF is used to process radioactively contaminated metals, rid them of most of the contamination, and form them into customized shield blocks and other beneficial-use items. Significant volume reduction for scrap metals (estimated to be in excess of 20 to 1) is achieved with metal-melting services

  11. COOPERATIVE LAND REUSE PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1999-07-30

    The objective of this study was to determine what financial return, if any, DOE would realize if they invest solely in removal of the asbestos from these three Hanford steam plants and the associated large bore distribution piping at the site. Once the asbestos was removed the strategy was to bring in companies that specialize in salvage and material re-use and have them remove, at no cost to DOE, the plants and the associated large bore piping. The salvage companies we contacted had said that if they didn't have to remove asbestos, they may be able to realize enough value from these plants to offset their demolition and/or dismantling cost. The results were not what we expected but they do offer DOE some favorable financial alternatives to their present approach. The study concluded that there was very little salvage and/or re-use value remaining in the steam plant material that could be used to offset the demolition and/or dismantling cost. The notable exception to this is the removal of the 24 inch steam piping that runs from 200E to 200W areas (see IDM executive summary under Dismantling cost). It is estimated that the re-use value of the 24-inch piping would more than pay for the dismantling cost of this piping. On a more favorable note, it does appear as though the cost of conventional demolition can be reduced by a factor of 3 to 5 if the asbestos is removed first and the demolition is performed using competitive and commercial practices. Both estimates in this study are similar except that IDM did not include floor slab removal nor remove the same quantity of piping. This is why we are using a range of 3 to 5 as a reduction factor. The IDM estimate (using union labor) for demolition after removal of asbestos was approximately $1.5M versus $10.0M for accomplishing the work using Hanford practices and rates.

  12. Fate of water treatment residual : an entire profile of Ireland regarding beneficial reuse

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Y. Q.; Doherty, L.P.; Doyle, D.

    2011-01-01

    Ireland's water treatment residual (WTR) production rate and reuse situation was investigated to complement the novel research on WTR reuse development in University College Dublin, Ireland. The resulting GIS maps reveal the state of WTR production, disposal and beneficial reuse throughout the country. The total WTR production in Ireland is 15,679 tonnes of dry solids per annum with over 90% of WTR being aluminium-salt-coagulated WTR. Only 8% of WTR is recycled or reused via composting, lands...

  13. Beneficial Re-use of Decommissioned Former Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the decision to decommission a nuclear facility, it is necessary to evaluate whether to fully demolish a facility or to re-use the facility in some capacity. This evaluation is often primarily driven by both the past mission of the site and the facility and the site's perceived future mission. In the case where the facility to be decommissioned is located within a large research or industrial complex and represents a significant resource to the site's future mission, it may be a perfect candidate to be re-used in some fashion. However, if the site is a rather remote older facility with little chance of being modified to today's standards for its re-use, the chances for its re-use will be substantially reduced. In this presentation, some specific cases of former nuclear facilities being decommissioned and re-used will be reviewed and some factors required to be considered in making this decision will be reviewed

  14. Beneficial reuse of empty DUF{sub 6} cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.; Arnish, J.; Nabelssi, B. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-02-01

    This paper discusses options for the disposal of depleted UF{sub 6} storage cylinders as they are freed over the next 20 years. Presently there are 46,000 mild steel cylinders in use, and projections show 600,000 tons of steel being freed over 20 years. The paper discusses the results of studies which have looked at various aspects of this issue: health risks; environmental impacts; costs and hassles; impact of DOE metal recycle policy. The general conclusions were that chemical and trauma risks dominate the risk evaluations, that risk levels are broadly speaking level for the studied disposition options, that environmental risks are highest for burial, and lowest for free release, while costs are higher for burial and recycling, than for reuse or free release.

  15. Asset Recovery of Hazardous Materials Beneficial Reuse of Radiologically Encumbered Lead Stocks ''Getting the Lead Out''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underutilized and surplus lead stocks and leaded components are a common legacy environmental problem across much of the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. While seeking to dispose of these items through its Environmental Management Program, DOE operational programs continue to pursue contemporary mission requirements such as managing and/or storing radioactive isotopes that require lead materials for shielding. This paradox was identified in late 1999 when DOES policies for managing scrap metal were assessed. In January 2000, the Secretary of Energy directed the National Center of Excellence for Materials Recycle (NMR) to develop and implement a comprehensive lead reuse program for all of DOE. Fluor Hanford, contractor for DOE Richland Operations, subsequently contacted NMR to pilot lead reclamation and reuse at the Hanford Site, This relationship resulted in the development of a beneficial reuse pathway for lead reclaimed from spent fuel transport railcars being stored at Hanford. The 1.3 million pounds of lead in the railcars is considered radiologically encumbered due to its prior use. Further, the material was considered a mixed Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) low-level radioactive waste that would require expensive storage or macro encapsulation to meet land disposal restrictions prior to burial. Working closely with Flour Hanford and the Office of Air, Water, and Radiation (EH-412), NMR developed a directed reuse pathway for this and other radiologically encumbered lead When derived supplemental release limits were used, the lead recovered from these railcars became eligible for reuse in shielding products to support DOE and commercial nuclear industry operations. Using this disposition pathway has saved Hanford one third of the cost of disposing of the lead and the cost of acquiring additional lead for nuclear shielding applications. Furthermore, the environmental costs associated with mining and producing new lead for shielding products and

  16. ASSET RECOVERY OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS BENEFICIAL REUSE OF RADIOLOGICALLY ENCUMBERED LEAD STOCKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd, E.R.; Meehan, R.W.

    2003-02-27

    Underutilized and surplus lead stocks and leaded components are a common legacy environmental problem across much of the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. While seeking to dispose of these items through its Environmental Management Program, DOE operational programs continue to pursue contemporary mission requirements such as managing and/or storing radioactive isotopes that require lead materials for shielding. This paradox was identified in late 1999 when DOE's policies for managing scrap metal were assessed. In January 2000, the Secretary of Energy directed the National Center of Excellence for Materials Recycle (NMR) to develop and implement a comprehensive lead reuse program for all of DOE. Fluor Hanford, contractor for DOE Richland Operations, subsequently contacted NMR to pilot lead reclamation and reuse at the Hanford Site. This relationship resulted in the development of a beneficial reuse pathway for lead reclaimed from spent fuel transport railcars being stored at Hanford. The 1.3 million pounds of lead in the railcars is considered radiologically encumbered due to its prior use. Further, the material was considered a mixed Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) low-level radioactive waste that would require expensive storage or macro encapsulation to meet land disposal restrictions prior to burial. Working closely with Flour Hanford and the Office of Air, Water, and Radiation (EH-412), NMR developed a directed reuse pathway for this and other radiologically encumbered lead. When derived supplemental release limits were used, the lead recovered from these railcars became eligible for reuse in shielding products to support DOE and commercial nuclear industry operations. Using this disposition pathway has saved Hanford one third of the cost of disposing of the lead and the cost of acquiring additional lead for nuclear shielding applications. Furthermore, the environmental costs associated with mining and producing new lead for shielding

  17. Fernald scrap metal and recycling and beneficial reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motl, G.P. (Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States))

    1993-01-01

    The Fernald plant, formerly known as the Feed Materials Production Facility, is located on a 1050-acre site 17 miles northwest of downtown Cincinnati, Ohio. Site construction was initiated in 1951 to fabricate uranium metal to meet defense production requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In October 1990, the DOE transferred management responsibility for the site from its Defense Programs organization to the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. In August 1991, the site was renamed the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) to reflect the site's new cleanup mission. During 40 yr of plant operation, a scrap metal storage area grew to contain 5000 t of scrap metal. Material in the pile, such as structural steel, crushed drums, tanks, and pipes, is contaminated with uranium to levels up to 200,000 disintegrations per minute alpha. In July 1991, cleanup of this pile was designated a CERCLA removal action under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act and a consent agreement executed between the DOE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

  18. Constructive approaches towards water treatment works sludge management : an international review of beneficial re-uses

    OpenAIRE

    Babatunde, A.O.; Zhao, Y. Q.

    2007-01-01

    Till date, virtually all known drinking water processing systems generate an enormous amount of residual sludge, and what else to do with this rapidly increasing 'waste' stream in an economic and environmentally sustainable manner remains a significant environmental issue. Perhaps, the realization of this fact has led to series of concerted efforts aimed at beneficial re-uses in an effort to close the loop between efficient water treatment and sustainable sludge management. This paper therefo...

  19. Beneficial Re-Use of Metal from Decommissioning of Power Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utilities and contractors decommissioning nuclear power reactors can recycle a high proportion of the scrap metal generated during dismantling either by free release for general re-use directly from the point of generation, or by recycling off-site at facilities specifically licensed for radioactive material. The worldwide commercial vendors operate different commercial models of volumetric decontamination of ferrous metals by thermal treatment. Some aim to achieve free release of output metals for general use, while others accept higher activity metals as feedstock for the manufacture of steel products which contain residual radioactivity, which we term 'Beneficial Re-use'. It is estimated that 10-30% of metals from light water reactor decommissioning have been exposed to neutron radiation (activated) and/or are contaminated to such an extent that free release is not achievable. This paper outlines a cost-effective alternative to managed storage or disposal for lightly activated or contaminated metal, utilising a 'Beneficial Re-Use' programme which has been in routine operation in the United States for over 20 years. 'Beneficial Re-Use' describes the manufacture of products such as radiation shielding from radioactive scrap metal. Unlike recycling practised in Europe, such products remain under control in licensed facilities and the metal does not find its way into general circulation or consumer products. Since 1992, EnergySolutions and its predecessor Duratek has been melting scrap at their Bear Creek, Tennessee facility to produce shield blocks for use in high energy research facilities. Over 62,300 t of scrap steel have been re-used, and the demand for shielding products continues long into the future. 3,000 t of this feedstock originated outside the US. This paper proposes the potential for activated steel that will not be acceptable at European recycling facilities to enter the Beneficial Re-use programme. Acceptance criteria

  20. Phosphorus recovery as AlPO4 from beneficially reused aluminium sludge arising from water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X H; Zhao, Y Q; Kearney, P

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an efficient and, possibly, a practically operated methodology to recover phosphorus (P) from P-saturated dewatered aluminium sludge cakes (DASC) after the DASC have been beneficially reused as constructed wetlands substrate for P-rich wastewater treatment. A three-step procedure of 1) P extraction by H2SO4, 2) decolorization of extraction leachate via H2O2 oxidation, and 3) AlPO4 precipitation by pH adjustment, has been explored. The optimal conditions to form the precipitates of AlPO4 were determined, with 97% of P and 99% of Al being recovered. The obtained compounds were identified by XRD, FTIR and SEM analyses. Although the purity, structure, characteristics and production control of the compounds are worthy of further investigation, this study provides a showcase of a 'closed loop' regarding the beneficial reuse of a 'waste' and the recovery of useful elements after the reuse. PMID:23530339

  1. Code Component Composition Reuse Is a New Programming Paradigm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    After describing the characteristics of programming paradigm,this pap er introduces the approach of code component composition reuse in detail, propos es and discusses viewpoint that code component composition reuse is a kind of ne w programming paradigm. This paper also specifies the characteristics of this ne w programming paradigm in detail, and points out some issues that must be resolv ed for using this new programming paradigm.

  2. Building enterprise reuse program--A model-based approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅宏; 杨芙清

    2002-01-01

    Reuse is viewed as a realistically effective approach to solving software crisis. For an organization that wants to build a reuse program, technical and non-technical issues must be considered in parallel. In this paper, a model-based approach to building systematic reuse program is presented. Component-based reuse is currently a dominant approach to software reuse. In this approach, building the right reusable component model is the first important step. In order to achieve systematic reuse, a set of component models should be built from different perspectives. Each of these models will give a specific view of the components so as to satisfy different needs of different persons involved in the enterprise reuse program. There already exist some component models for reuse from technical perspectives. But less attention is paid to the reusable components from a non-technical view, especially from the view of process and management. In our approach, a reusable component model--FLP model for reusable component--is introduced. This model describes components from three dimensions (Form, Level, and Presentation) and views components and their relationships from the perspective of process and management. It determines the sphere of reusable components, the time points of reusing components in the development process, and the needed means to present components in terms of the abstraction level, logic granularity and presentation media. Being the basis on which the management and technical decisions are made, our model will be used as the kernel model to initialize and normalize a systematic enterprise reuse program.

  3. Beneficial uses of radioisotopic waste program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activities include efforts to: (1) develop a cost-effective radioisotope separation technology based on column separation techniques associated with the Sandia Solidification Process and (2) develop a broader technology for beneficial applications of the separated isotopes, including engineered radioactive sources and applications facilities and/or devices, and studies related to cost-effectiveness, safety, and security of these sources, facilities, and devices. (LK)

  4. Towards An Algorithms Ontology Cluster: for Modular Code Reuse and Polyglot Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karabo Selaolo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Code reuse is rarely practiced and polyglot programming an informal discipline. This paper proposes the use of ontologies in tackling these issues, seeing as ontologies inherently encourage reuse and are often used as bridges between languages. This paper also reviews existing research and literature in the fields of ontologies in software engineering, code reuse and polyglot programming.

  5. Beneficial uses program. Progress report, period ending June 30, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Beneficial Uses Program is a comprehensive program aimed at developing necessary technologies for cost/beneficial uses of existing and future surplus radioactive materials. The major portion of the work at Sandia has been concentrated in two subprograms: the Waste Resources Utilization Program and the Separation Technology and Source Development Program. Mutagenicity testing of sludge by the Ames method was initiated this quarter. Rats were procured and maintained on phenobarbital to enduce liver enzymes used in the preparation of the S-9 fraction for the Ames tests. Initial tests in the absence of S-9 metabolic activation did not show raw and digested sludges to be mutagenic. Settling studies using centrifugation techniques have confirmed that radiation treatment causes a significant increase in prompt settlability, while at longer times, the improvement is insignificant compared to the effectiveness of polymer-conditioning agents. The use of gamma irradiation to improve the settlability of sewage sludge will have limited application. The conveyor system for the dried sludge irradiation pilot plant was received from Gough Econ, Staffordshire, England. Both esophageal-fistulated and intact steers were fitted with fecal collection bags and used in grazing experiments. Supplementation with dried irradiated primary sewage solids improved not only the protein status of the steers, but also exerted measurable and important effects on the composition of forage selectively grazed

  6. Beneficial uses program. Progress report, period ending 31 December 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress is reported on studies designed to develop the necessary technologies for cost-beneficial uses of existing and future surplus radioactive materials. The purpose of the Waste Resources Utilization Program is to develop a technology to utilize cesium-137, a nuclear power plant by-product, to modify sewage sludge for safe application as a fertilizer or as an animal feed supplement. A major portion of the effort this quarter was directed toward establishment of thermoradiation treatment levels for elimination of pathogenic organisms in sludge. Three groups of pathogenic microorganisms are being studied: viruses, bacteria, and parasites. Other areas of study included physical-chemical properties of thermoradiation treated sewage sludge such as ''settling'' and ''filterability'' and pilot plant design for a plant to thermoradiate up to 75 kiloliters of sludge per day. In the Separation Technology and Source Development Program previous work has demonstrated the feasibility of applying the Sandia Solidification Process to the recovery of radiocesium from high-level liquid wastes. The influence of various parameters on 137Cs source intensities was explored. A multiple ceramic 137Cs source package was found to be essentially the same from a radiation process viewpoint as a single 137Cs source. The tolerable impurity levels in the ceramic sources, in terms of perturbation of the gamma flux, are relatively high (a few percent)

  7. Beneficial role of conflict in radioactive waste management programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of the technical, political, and social problems associated with radioactive waste management, least is known about the latter two. Lay persons tend to generalize negative attitudes about other nuclear activity to radioactive waste management. Thus, conflict appears inevitable between the general public, citizen action groups, and decision-makers on radioactive waste management. The basis of conflict, we believe, can be found in the value orientation of certain groups and in differing perceptions of risk. Research on similar controversial issues reveals that conflict may be beneficial in the long run by contributing to the public's participation level and understanding of the issues, and to the decision-makers' appreciation of the lay perspective. The paper is in three parts. First, we review the sources of conflict over radioactive waste management issues. The negative attitudes and fears of the public toward different types of projects involving radioactivity, value conflicts, and differential perceptions of risk are cited as sources. Next we discuss the consequences of conflict in terms of sociological theory. Finally, we discuss how conflict can be directed and managed to produce an informed decision-making process. When the public is sensitized to an issue, when prevailing attitudes on the issue are negative, and when perceived risks are high - all of which are characteristic of waste management issues - specific steps should be taken to establish a legitimate process of communication and interaction between the public and the sponsor agency. When conflict is recognized as inevitable, the goal of a communications program is no longer to avoid it. It is to use the increased awareness to increase knowledge about waste management issues and public participation in decisions so that the final solution is acceptable at some level to all parties

  8. United States Department of Energy/United States Environmental Protection Agency beneficial uses program for the use of cesium-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of the United States Department of Energy (US DOE) Beneficial Uses Program for use of Cesium-137 is to identify and develop ways in which this isotope can be utilized to aid in the solution of major national and international problems. Gamma radiation from Cesium-137 has been shown to be effective in reducing pathogens in sewage sludge to levels where reuse of the material in public areas meets current regulatory criteria for safety. The first full-scale demonstration of this technology is being actively pursued in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Similar gamma treatment has also proved effective in ridding food commodities of destructive insects. This paper discusses program research and engineering history related to sludge irradiation, current activities and future plans for sludge irradiation and plans regarding food irradiation

  9. RLISP'88 an evolutionary approach to program design and reuse

    CERN Document Server

    Marti, J

    1993-01-01

    The RLISP '88 programming system introduces an evolutionary approach to software development that enables small groups of programmers to advance the state of the art over a period of many years. Each new system is built on top of the old; yet, like an Irishman's hammer, little remains of the original program code. This book presents a style of durable programming for domain specialists and computer scientists alike. Exercises at the end of each chapter encourage its use as a textbook.

  10. Results of cost-beneficial licensing actions programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) formally established the cost-beneficial licensing action (CBLA) initiative in April 1993. This initiative provides an opportunity for nuclear plant licensees to reduce costs through either relief from regulatory requirements or changes in their commitments that are marginal to plant safety. The NRC recognized that licensees may have open-quotes overcommittedclose quotes to meet regulatory requirements and that revisions to these commitments Could result in cost savings. The NRC has defined CBLA as those licensee actions that are of relatively high cost and low safety significance. Since the CBLA initiative was established, licensees have made - 150 CBLA requests to the NRC. However, before and after the CBLA initiative became effective, licensees had made hundreds of regulatory reduction and commitment change requests to the NRC that were not identified as CBLA. The CBLAs discussed in this paper include both types of requests. Two types of cost savings can result from CBLAs - direct and averted. Direct cost savings result in an immediate cost reduction from the open-quotes bottom lineclose quotes as a result of the elimination of personnel or equipment. Averted cost savings, commonly known as resource reallocation, occur when a licensee action that takes up a small percentage of an employee's time is eliminated. In this instance, the employee would not be terminated, so no direct cost savings result, but that employee is available to perform other, more safety-significant actions

  11. Hanford general employee training - A million dollar cost beneficial program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In January 1990, Westinghouse Hanford Company implemented an interactive videodisc training program entitled Hanford General Employee Training. Covering all Institute of Nuclear Power Operations general employee training objectives, training mandated by US Department of Energy orders, and training prescribed by internal Westinghouse Hanford Company policies, Hanford General Employee Training presents and manages engaging training programs individually tailored to each of the 9,000 employees. Development costs for a sophisticated program such as Hanford General Employee Training were high compared to similar costs for developing ''equivalent'' traditional training. Hardware ($500,000) and labor costs ($400,000) totaled $900,000. Annual maintenance costs, equipment plus labor, are totalling about $200,000. On the benefit side, by consolidating some 17 previous Westinghouse Hanford Company courses and more effectively managing the instructional process, Hanford General Employee Training reduced the average student training time from over 11 hours to just under 4 hours. For 9,000 employees, the computed net annual savings exceeds $1.3 million. 2 refs

  12. Selectivity lists of pesticides to beneficial arthropods for IPM programs in carrot--first results.

    OpenAIRE

    Hautier, L.; Jansen, J.-P.; Mabon, N.; Schiffers, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve IPM programs in carrot, 7 fungicides, 12 herbicides and 9 insecticides commonly used in Belgium were tested for their toxicity towards five beneficial arthropods representative of most important natural enemies encountered in carrot: parasitic wasps- Aphidius rhopalosiphi (De Stefani-Perez) (Hym., Aphidiidae), ladybirds - Adalia bipunctata (L.) (Col., Coccinellidae), hoverfly - Episyrphus balteatus (Dipt., Syrphidae), rove beetle - Aleochara bilineata (Col., Staphyllinida...

  13. Software Reuse in the Planetary Context: The JPL/MIPL Mars Program Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deen, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Reuse greatly reduces development costs. Savings can be invested in new/improved capabilities Or returned to sponsor Worth the extra time to "do it right" Operator training greatly reduced. MIPL MER personnel can step into MSL easily because the programs are familiar. Application programs much easier to write. Can assume core capabilities exist already. Multimission Instrument (Image) Processing Lab at MIPL Responsible for the ground-based instrument data processing for (among other things) all recent in-situ Mars missions: Mars Pathfinder Mars Polar Lander (MPL) Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) Phoenix Mars Science Lab (MSL) Responsibilities for in-situ missions Reconstruction of instrument data from telemetry Systematic creation of Reduced Data Records (RDRs) for images Creation of special products for operations, science, and public outreach In the critical path for operations MIPL products required for planning the next Sol s activities

  14. Methods, Metrics, and Indicators Available for Identifying and Quantifying Economic and Social Impacts Associated with Beneficial Reuse Decisions: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Industries in the United States generate large volumes of non-hazardous wastes, sludges, by-products, and spent materials that require disposal or other end-of-life management. Solid-waste management stakeholders are increasingly employing or researching methods for beneficial r...

  15. Reclamation and reuse of distributed wastewater and programming based on cost analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jun-guo; HAN Bao-ping; XU Chun-sheng; LI Ke; ZHANG Jie

    2010-01-01

    In order to improve the water environment of Songhua River,develop and maintain a healthy water cycle,the article has made theoretical and mathematical analyses of wastewater treatment and reuse.It proposes that the important link of sustainable utilization of urban water resources is wastewater treatment and reuse,and the main approach of sustainable utilization of water resources is water saving,wastewater reclamation and reuse.Through establishing the cost equation of recycle water system and optimizing it by Matlab,an optimal treatment scale of the city recycle distributed wastewater system is obtained.The principles of recycle water system in northern areas are put forward based on the research of sustainable utilization of water resource in Songbei district.The results can provide experiences and references for water saving,wastewater reclamation and reuse in northern cities of China.

  16. The Oxnard advanced water purification facility: combining indirect potable reuse with reverse osmosis concentrate beneficial use to ensure a California community's water sustainability and provide coastal wetlands restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozier, Jim; Ortega, Ken

    2010-01-01

    The City of Oxnard in California is implementing a strategic water resources program known as the Groundwater Recovery Enhancement and Treatment (GREAT) program, which includes an Advanced Water Purification Facility (AWPF) that will use a major portion of the secondary effluent from the City's existing Water Pollution Control Facility to produce high-quality treated water to be used for irrigation of edible food crops, landscape irrigation, injection into the groundwater basin to form a barrier to seawater intrusion, and other industrial uses. The AWPF, currently under design by CH2M HILL, will employ a multiple-barrier treatment train consisting of microfiltration, reverse osmosis, and ultravioletlightbased advanced oxidation processes to purify the secondary effluent to conform to California Department of Public Health Title 22 Recycled Water Criteria for groundwater recharge. The AWPF, which will have initial and build-out capacities of ca. 24,000 and ca 95,000 m(3)/day, respectively, was limited to a 1.8-hectare site, with 0.4 hectares dedicated to a Visitor's Center and administration building. Further, the depth below grade and height of the AWPF's structures were constrained because of the high groundwater table at the site, the high cost of excavation and dewatering, and local codes. To accommodate these various restrictions, an innovative design approach has been developed. This paper summarizes the design constraints and innovative solutions for the design of the AWPF. PMID:20220237

  17. Executive strategy plan for beneficial uses program: cesium-137 sewage sludge irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy-efficient disinfection of sewage sludge, permitting its use as a fertilizer and soil conditioner in areas open to public access or on certain food chain crops, is possible using the process technology developed by Sandia National Laboratories under DOE and EPA joint support. This process accomplishes disinfection by gamma ray irradiation with cesium-137, a by-product isotope recovered from reprocessing of defense production waste. Disinfection with cesium-137 gamma irradiation provides an energy-efficient option for the Nation's cities to beneficially utilize sewage sludge, while at the same time conserving energy by utilizing a radioisotope, traditionally considered waste, in a beneficial manner. While the Sandia sludge irradiation technology has successfully completed its research and development phase, a major consideration remains: the introduction of a new technology into a marketplace which traditionally is skeptical of new products or process technologies until their performance is well proven. This document analyzes the factors important to market introduction of this new technology, develops options, and recommends a program strategy for transfer of the Sandia sludge irradiation technology to the marketplace by developing public awareness and acceptance, and by stimulating private sector commercialization interest

  18. PHYTOREMEDIATING DREDGED SEDIMENTS: A BENEFICIAL REUSE PROTOCOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Jones Island Confined Disposal Facility (CDF) located in Milwaukee Harbor Wisconsin, receives dredged materials from normal maintenance of Milwaukee's waterways. Like many CDFs they face the dilemma of steady inputs and no feasible alternative for expansion. The Army Corps of...

  19. WASTEWATER REUSE

    OpenAIRE

    Milan R. Radosavljević; Vanja M. Šušteršič

    2013-01-01

    Water scarcity and water pollution are some of the crucial issues that must be addressed within local and global perspectives. One of the ways to reduce the impact of water scarcity  and to minimizine water pollution is to expand water and wastewater reuse. The local conditions including regulations, institutions, financial mechanisms, availability of local technology and stakeholder participation have a great influence on the decisions for wastewater reuse. The increasing awareness of food s...

  20. Object-oriented design and programming with C++ your hands-on guide to C++ programming, with special emphasis on design, testing, and reuse

    CERN Document Server

    Leach, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Object-Oriented Design and Programming with C++: Your Hands-On Guide to C++ Programming, with Special Emphasis on Design, Testing, and Reuse provides a list of software engineering principles to guide the software development process. This book presents the fundamentals of the C++ language.Organized into two parts encompassing 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of C++ and describes object-oriented programming and the history of C++. This text then introduces classes, polymorphism, inheritance, and overloading. Other chapters consider the C++ preprocessor and organization of class l

  1. Characterization of Reuse Activities at Contaminated Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Vitulli; Charlotte Dougherty; Kimberly Bosworth

    2004-01-01

    Given the increased focus on reuse activity within EPA and state site cleanup programs, policy makers would benefit from looking across programs to better understand the extent and nature of reuse; examine site characteristics that influence reuse; leverage lessons learned; and coordinate reuse activities, data collection, and information management. This research paper begins to examine these issues. It reports the results of a preliminary review and analysis of available EPA and state progr...

  2. Implementation proposal of a water conservation and reuse program at the TRANSPETRO; Proposta de implementacao de um programa de conservacao e reuso de agua na TRANSPETRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, Andrea Dietrich; Alves, Anibal Jose Constantino; Melo Neto, Joao Evangelista de [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The great amount of water that is used by industries and the ascendant preoccupation about the quantity and quality of water resources in Brazil and in the world are important justifications to start thinking of more efficient proposals for water application. Between the alternatives for water consume reduction in industry there is the reuse as the principle of those. A study of PricewaterhouseCoopers about this matter at the main national industries identified that 48% have reuse goals. The present work intends to show a methodology and the justifications to implement a conservation and water reuse program at the Terminals of PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. - TRANSPETRO. Therefore are presented the many possible applications for reuse water at TRANSPETRO and the stages to the implementation of this kind of project. The methodology presented, based on FIESP Proposal, has as the objective both water consumed reduction and water discharged reduction. Then it must be realized an identification of several water consumed sources and water discharged sources, focusing on the many reuse possible. (author)

  3. Designing monitoring programs for chemicals of emerging concern in potable reuse ⋯ What to include and what not to include?

    KAUST Repository

    Drewes, Jorg

    2012-11-01

    This study discussed a proposed process to prioritize chemicals for reclaimed water monitoring programs, selection of analytical methods required for their quantification, toxicological relevance of chemicals of emerging concern regarding human health, and related issues. Given that thousands of chemicals are potentially present in reclaimed water and that information about those chemicals is rapidly evolving, a transparent, science-based framework was developed to guide prioritization of which compounds of emerging concern (CECs) should be included in reclaimed water monitoring programs. The recommended framework includes four steps: (1) compile environmental concentrations (e.g., measured environmental concentration or MEC) of CECs in the source water for reuse projects; (2) develop a monitoring trigger level (MTL) for each of these compounds (or groups thereof) based on toxicological relevance; (3) compare the environmental concentration (e.g., MEC) to the MTL; CECs with a MEC/MTL ratio greater than 1 should be prioritized for monitoring, compounds with a ratio less than \\'1\\' should only be considered if they represent viable treatment process performance indicators; and (4) screen the priority list to ensure that a commercially available robust analytical method is available for that compound. © IWA Publishing 2013.

  4. Wastewater reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan R. Radosavljević

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity and water pollution are some of the crucial issues that must be addressed within local and global perspectives. One of the ways to reduce the impact of water scarcity  and to minimizine water pollution is to expand water and wastewater reuse. The local conditions including regulations, institutions, financial mechanisms, availability of local technology and stakeholder participation have a great influence on the decisions for wastewater reuse. The increasing awareness of food safety and the influence of the countries which import food are influencing policy makers and agriculturists to improve the standards of wastewater reuse in agriculture. The environmental awareness of consumers has been putting pressure on the producers (industries to opt for environmentally sound technologies including those which conserve water and reduce the level of pollution. It may be observed that we have to move forwards to implement strategies and plans for wastewater reuse. However, their success and sustainability will depend on political will, public awareness and active support from national and international agencies to create favorable    environment for the promotion of environmentally sustainable technologies. Wastewater treatment has a long history, especially in agriculture, but also in industry and households. Poor quality of wastewater can pose a significant risk to the health of farmers and users of agricultural products. The World Health Organization (WHO is working on a project for the reuse of wastewater in agriculture. To reduce effects of human activities to the minimum, it is necessary to provide such technical and technological solutions that would on the one hand ensure complying with  the existing regulations and legislation, and on the other hand provide economically viable systems as seen through investments and operating costs. The use of wastewater The practice of using wastewater varies from country to country. Its

  5. Beneficial uses program. Progress report for period ending March 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-07-01

    Progress is reported in a program aimed at recovering radiation sources from radioactive wastes and using these sources, mainly /sup 137/Cs, for irradiating sewage sludge. Information is included on: development and cost of dried sludge irradiator; heat and radiation inactivation of sludge-contained viruses and bacteria; virucidal agents in sludge; use of thermoradiated sludge as animal feed; and a comparison of the efficiency of various source materials. (LCL)

  6. Hanford general employee training: A million dollar cost-beneficial program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In January, 1990, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) implemented an interactive videodisc training program entitled Hanford General Employee Training (HGET). Following an introduction by the course instructor, students begin the interactive video segment of the course by taking a tour of an office building. In fact, this tour is simply a setting in which to give the student a checkout on safety, security, and quality issues. For example, at one point the guide leaves the room and the phone suddenly begins a steady ring. This is a particular alarm at WHC, and the student is challenged to respond correctly. Missed questions flag corresponding tutorials to be delivered either immediately or on completion of the tour. Instructors receive notification of weakoesses left unremedied. Development costs for a sophisticated program such as HGET were high compared to similar costs for developing equivalent traditional training. Hardware and labor totaled $900K. Annual maintenance costs, equipment plus labor, appear to be running about $200K. On the benefit side, by consolidating some seventeen previous WHC courses and more effectively managing the instructional process, HGET reduced the average student training time from over eleven hours to just under four hours. In the development and implementation of HGET a number of issues were resolved, some more successfully than others: (1) what about job security for former instructors? (2) how should the course be run on a daily basis? (we envisioned a combination of instructor and videodisc); (3) how high will the maintenance costs be? (higher than projected); etc. Many obstacles arise, most in connection with the large number of groups and personnel whose efforts had to be coordinated

  7. Beneficial biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara R Robertson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface-adherent biofilm growth is a common trait of bacteria and other microorganisms in nature. Within biofilms, organisms are present in high density and are enmeshed in an organic matrix containing polysaccharides and other molecules. The close proximity of organisms within biofilms facilitates microbial interactions and signaling, including many metabolic processes in which consortia rather than individual organisms participate. Biofilm growth also enables microorganisms to withstand chemical and biological stresses. Here, we review some current literature and document representative beneficial aspects of biofilms using examples from wastewater treatment, microbial fuel cells, biological repair (biocementation of stonework, and biofilm protection against Candida albicans infections. Finally, we address a chemical ecology strategy whereby desired microbial succession and beneficial biofilm formation can be encouraged via manipulation of culture conditions and bacterial signaling.

  8. Beneficial rhizobacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Charlotte Frydenlund

    , a number of beneficial fungal-inhibiting bacteria were isolated from a Rhizoctonia solani suppressive potato soil in Inneruulalik, South Greenland. Especially one bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens In5, showed high antifungal activity against ascomycetes, basidiomycetes, and oomycetes, and it was...... able to protect tomato seedlings against R. solani infection. Various molecular and biochemical methods, such as PCR and sequence analysis, genome mining, gene knock-out, heterologous recombination, TLC and HPLC analyses were used in order to assess the antifungal mechanisms of P. fluorescens In5. In...... addition, the fairly new technology, Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time Of Flight Imaging Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF IMS) combined with genome mining were conducted to detect, identify and characterize antifungal compounds produced by P. fluorescens In5. Novel bioactive compounds from P...

  9. Beneficial Uses of Depleted Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring uranium contains 0.71 wt% 235U. In order for the uranium to be useful in most fission reactors, it must be enriched the concentration of the fissile isotope 235U must be increased. Depleted uranium (DU) is a co-product of the processing of natural uranium to produce enriched uranium, and DU has a 235U concentration of less than 0.71 wt%. In the United States, essentially all of the DU inventory is in the chemical form of uranium hexafluoride (UF6) and is stored in large cylinders above ground. If this co-product material were to be declared surplus, converted to a stable oxide form, and disposed, the costs are estimated to be several billion dollars. Only small amounts of DU have at this time been beneficially reused. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has begun the Beneficial Uses of DU Project to identify large-scale uses of DU and encourage its reuse for the primary purpose of potentially reducing the cost and expediting the disposition of the DU inventory. This paper discusses the inventory of DU and its rate of increase; DU disposition options; beneficial use options; a preliminary cost analysis; and major technical, institutional, and regulatory issues to be resolved

  10. Packaging Software Assets for Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattmann, C. A.; Marshall, J. J.; Downs, R. R.

    2010-12-01

    The reuse of existing software assets such as code, architecture, libraries, and modules in current software and systems development projects can provide many benefits, including reduced costs, in time and effort, and increased reliability. Many reusable assets are currently available in various online catalogs and repositories, usually broken down by disciplines such as programming language (Ibiblio for Maven/Java developers, PyPI for Python developers, CPAN for Perl developers, etc.). The way these assets are packaged for distribution can play a role in their reuse - an asset that is packaged simply and logically is typically easier to understand, install, and use, thereby increasing its reusability. A well-packaged asset has advantages in being more reusable and thus more likely to provide benefits through its reuse. This presentation will discuss various aspects of software asset packaging and how they can affect the reusability of the assets. The characteristics of well-packaged software will be described. A software packaging domain model will be introduced, and some existing packaging approaches examined. An example case study of a Reuse Enablement System (RES), currently being created by near-term Earth science decadal survey missions, will provide information about the use of the domain model. Awareness of these factors will help software developers package their reusable assets so that they can provide the most benefits for software reuse.

  11. Maximizing reuse: Applying common sense and discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waligora, Sharon; Langston, James

    1992-01-01

    Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC)/System Sciences Division (SSD) has maintained a long-term relationship with NASA/Goddard, providing satellite mission ground-support software and services for 23 years. As a partner in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) since 1976, CSC has worked closely with NASA/Goddard to improve the software engineering process. This paper examines the evolution of reuse programs in this uniquely stable environment and formulates certain recommendations for developing reuse programs as a business strategy and as an integral part of production. It focuses on the management strategy and philosophy that have helped make reuse successful in this environment.

  12. Greywater Treatment and Reuse

    OpenAIRE

    Üstün, Gökhan Ekrem; Ayşenur TIRPANCI

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study, to examine grey water treatment and reuse. For this aim, previous literature studies been research on and interpreted. Project began with study of physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the gray water. At the second part; grey water treatment and reuse were examined. At the third part; the technologies used for the methods treatment of gray water were explained. Then from costs and previous studies about grey water reuse were mentioned.

  13. Greywater Treatment and Reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Ekrem ÜSTÜN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study, to examine grey water treatment and reuse. For this aim, previous literature studies been research on and interpreted. Project began with study of physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the gray water. At the second part; grey water treatment and reuse were examined. At the third part; the technologies used for the methods treatment of gray water were explained. Then from costs and previous studies about grey water reuse were mentioned.

  14. Water Reclamation and Reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel W.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of water reclamation and reuse. This review covers: (1) water resources planning; (2) agriculture and irrigation; (3) ground recharge; (4) industrial reuse; (5) health considerations; and (6) technology developments. A list of 217 references is also presented. (HM)

  15. Beneficial Effects of Rosmarinus Officinalis for Treatment of Opium Withdrawal Syndrome during Addiction Treatment Programs: A Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Solhi, Hassan; Salehi, Bahman; Alimoradian, Abbas; Pazouki, Shirin; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Saleh, Ali Mohammad; Kazemifar, Amir Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Background Withdrawal syndrome may influence patient's motivation for participation in addiction treatment programs. Management of the symptoms can improve the success rate of addiction treatment programs. In the present study, we have evaluated the efficiency of an herbal product as adjunct therapy for alleviation of withdrawal syndrome in opium abuse. Methods In the present clinical trial, 81 patients were assigned into case and control groups. The control group was treated with methadone a...

  16. Reuse rate of treated wastewater in water reuse system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Yao-bo; YANG Wen-bo; LI Gang; WU Lin-lin; WEI Yuan-song

    2005-01-01

    A water quality model for water reuse was made by mathematics induction. The relationship among the reuse rate of treated wastewater(R), pollutant concentration of reused water( Cs ), pollutant concentration of influent( C0 ), removal efficiency of pollutant in wastewater(E), and the standard of reuse water were discussed in this study. According to the experiment result of a toilet wastewater treatment and reuse with membrane bioreactors, R would be set at less than 40%, on which all the concerned parameters could meet with the reuse water standards. To raise R of reuse water in the toilet, an important way was to improve color removal of the wastewater.

  17. Management optimization in Thermal complex through water reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water reuse involves the concept of the exploitation of a previously used water, for a new, beneficial purpose. Actually, in Uruguay, thermal water is just utilised for balneological purposes, in this paper is proposed the water reuse taking the excess of used swimming pool water, and using it for heating and greenhouse irrigation, and australian lobster breeding. An important aspect of sustainable thermal water management is the protection of the exploted thermal water resources, so water reuse plays an important role in water resource, and ecosystem management, because it reduces the volume discharged and also reduces the risk of thermal pollution

  18. Water Reuse: Using Reclaimed Water For Irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Haering, Kathryn C.; Evanylo, Gregory K.; Benham, Brian Leslie, 1960-; Goatley, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Describes water reuse and reclaimed water, explains how reclaimed water is produced, options for water reuse, water reuse regulations, and agronomic concerns with water reuse, and provides several case studies of water reuse.

  19. Code Reuse and Modularity in Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Turkel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Computer programs can become long, unwieldy and confusing without special mechanisms for managing complexity. This lesson will show you how to reuse parts of your code by writing Functions and break your programs into Modules, in order to keep everything concise and easier to debug. Being able to remove a single dysfunctional module can save time and effort.

  20. CO{sub 2} Reuse in Petrochemical Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason Trembly; Brian Turk; Maruthi Pavani; Jon McCarty; Chris Boggs; Aqil Jamal; Raghubir Gupta

    2010-12-31

    To address public concerns regarding the consequences of climate change from anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions, the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) is actively funding a CO{sub 2} management program to develop technologies capable of mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions from power plant and industrial facilities. Over the past decade, this program has focused on reducing the costs of carbon capture and storage technologies. Recently, DOE/NETL launched an alternative CO{sub 2} mitigation program focused on beneficial CO{sub 2} reuse to support the development of technologies that mitigate emissions by converting CO{sub 2} into valuable chemicals and fuels. RTI, with DOE/NETL support, has been developing an innovative beneficial CO{sub 2} reuse process for converting CO{sub 2} into substitute natural gas (SNG) by using by-product hydrogen (H{sub 2)-containing fuel gas from petrochemical facilities. This process leveraged commercial reactor technology currently used in fluid catalytic crackers in petroleum refining and a novel nickel (Ni)-based catalyst developed by RTI. The goal was to generate an SNG product that meets the pipeline specifications for natural gas, making the SNG product completely compatible with the existing natural gas infrastructure. RTI's technology development efforts focused on demonstrating the technical feasibility of this novel CO{sub 2} reuse process and obtaining the necessary engineering information to design a pilot demonstration unit for converting about 4 tons per day (tons/day) of CO{sub 2} into SNG at a suitable host site. This final report describes the results of the Phase I catalyst and process development efforts. The methanation activity of several commercial fixed-bed catalysts was evaluated under fluidized-bed conditions in a bench-scale reactor to identify catalyst performance targets. RTI developed two fluidizable Ni-based catalyst formulations (Cat-1 and Cat

  1. Wastewater reclamation and reuse in China: Opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Sidan; Chen, Weiping; Zhang, Weiling; Fan, Yupeng; Jiao, Wentao

    2016-01-01

    The growing water stress both in terms of water scarcity and quality deterioration promotes the development of reclaimed water as a new water resource use. This paper reviewed wastewater reuse practices in China, and the opportunities and challenges of expanding reclaimed water use were analyzed. Rapid urbanization with the increasing of water demand and wastewater discharge provides an opportunity for wastewater reuse. The vast amount of wastewater discharge and low reclaimed water production mean that wastewater reuse still has a great potential in China. Many environmental and economic benefits and successful reclamation technologies also provide opportunities for wastewater reuse. In addition, the overall strategy in China is also encouraging for wastewater reuse. In the beginning stage of wastewater reclamation and reuse, there are many significant challenges to expand wastewater reuse in China including slow pace in adopting urban wastewater reuse programs, the establishment of integrated water resources management framework and guidelines for wastewater reuse programs, incoherent water quality requirements, the limited commercial development of reclaimed water and the strengthening of public awareness and cooperation among stakeholders. PMID:26899648

  2. Patient Safety Threat - Syringe Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HAIs HICPAC One & Only Campaign A Patient Safety Threat – Syringe Reuse Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... need to be aware of a very serious threat to their health - the reuse of needles or ...

  3. A Case Study of Horizontal Reuse in a Project-Driven Organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Røn, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    This experience paper presents observations, lessons learned, and recommendations based on a case study of reuse. The case study is concerned with the development, maturation, and reuse of a business domain independent software component (horizontal reuse) in a project-driven organisation that ha...... knowledge is transferred within an organisation; (c) design patterns can be as risky as they can be beneficial; and (d) there is more to architectural mismatch than “merely ” packaging mismatch....... little previous experience with systematic software reuse. The main lessons learned are that: (a) even though domain analysis can alleviate reuse mismatch problems one should not underestimate the technical problems that may arise when reusing; (b) a side-effect of reuse is that software engineering...

  4. Measuring reuse in hazard analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazard analysis for safety-critical systems require sufficient coverage and rigour to instill confidence that the majority of hazardous consequences have been identified. These requirements are commonly met through the use of exhaustive hazard analysis techniques. However, such techniques are time consuming and error-prone. As an attempt at exhaustive coverage, hazard analysts typically employ reuse mechanisms such as copy-and-paste. Unfortunately, if reuse is applied inappropriately there is a risk that the reuse is at the cost of rigour in the analysis. This potential risk to the validity of the analysis is dependent on the nature and amount of reuse applied. This paper investigates hazard analysis reuse over two case studies. Initially reuse in an existing safety argument is described. Argument structures within the hazard analysis are identified and the amount of verbatim reuse examined. A second study is concerned with how reuse changes as a result of tool support. In contrast to the first case, the defined arguments are more diverse-reuse has occurred but is less verbatim in nature. Although tool support has aided the customisation of the reused arguments, many are only trivially customised. An edit distance algorithm is utilised to identify and enumerate verbatim and trivial reuse in the arguments

  5. Dynamics of beneficial epidemics

    CERN Document Server

    Berdahl, Andrew; De Bacco, Caterina; Dumas, Marion; Ferdinand, Vanessa; Grochow, Joshua A; Hébert-Dufresne, Laurent; Kallus, Yoav; Kempes, Christopher P; Kolchinsky, Artemy; Larremore, Daniel B; Libby, Eric; Power, Eleanor A; Stern, Caitlin A; Tracey, Brendan

    2016-01-01

    Pathogens can spread epidemically through populations. Beneficial contagions, such as viruses that enhance host survival or technological innovations that improve quality of life, also have the potential to spread epidemically. How do the dynamics of beneficial biological and social epidemics differ from those of detrimental epidemics? We investigate this question using three theoretical approaches as well as an empirical analysis of concept propagation. First, in evolutionary models, we show that a beneficial horizontally-transmissible element, such as viral DNA, spreads super-exponentially through a population, substantially more quickly than a beneficial mutation. Second, in an epidemiological social network approach, we show that infections that cause increased connectivity lead to faster-than-exponential fixation in the population. Third, in a sociological model with strategic rewiring, we find that preferences for increased global infection accelerate spread and produce super-exponential fixation rates,...

  6. TECHNICAL IMPEDIMENTS TO SOFTWARE REUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.JALENDER,

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A good software reuse process facilitates the increase of productivity, quality, reliability, and the decrease of costs and implementation time. One of major impediments to realizing software reusability in many organizations is the inability to locate and retrieve existing software components. An initial investment is required to start a software reuse process, but that investment pays for itself in a few reuses. In short, the development of a reuse process and repository produces a base of knowledge that improves in quality after every reuse, minimizing the amount of development work required for future projects and ultimately reducing the risk of new projects that are based on repository knowledge. This paper addresses the technical impediments to software component reuse technology.

  7. Wastewater and sludge reuse in agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalavrouziotis, Ioannis

    2016-04-01

    The reuse of Municipal wastewaters (TMWW) for irrigation of crops, and of sludge for the amendment of soils, is a multidimensional disposal practice aiming at: (i) minimizing the environmental problems by releasing the pressure exerted by these two inputs on the environment, (ii) providing the growing plants with water and nutrients and (ii) improving soil fertility and productivity, The research work conducted in our University in relation to accomplishing a safe reuse has been focused on the study of the following aspects of reuse: (i) heavy metal accumulation in soils and plants with emphasis on their edible part. This aspect has been studied by conducting a series of experiments aiming at the study of the accumulation of heavy metals in soils, and in plant roots, stalks, leaves and fruits. The conclusions drawn so far with regard to the order of accumulation of heavy metals are: Roots>leaves>stalks>fruits ( edible parts) (ii) interactions between heavy metals, plant nutrients and soil chemical and physical properties. After the examinations of hundreds of interactions, and the development of a quantification of the interactions contribution, it was found that considerable quantities of heavy metals and nutrients are contributed to the soil and to various plant parts , emphasizing the important role of the elemental interactions in plants.(iii) assessment of soil pollution with heavy metals based on pollution indices, Three pollution Indices have been established by our research team and were proposed internationally for application in actual practice for the prediction of soil pollution due to long term reuse of wastewater and sludge. These indices are as follows: (a) Elemental pollution Index (EPI), (b) Heavy Metal Load (HML), and (c) Total Concentration Factor (TCF) and (iv) construction of a computer program for the control of the reuse of TMWW and sludge, and forecasting soil pollution due to accumulation of heavy metal by means of pollution indices.

  8. Integrated Energy System with Beneficial Carbon Dioxide (CO{sub 2}) Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xiaolei; Rink, Nancy

    2011-04-30

    To address the public concerns regarding the consequences of climate change from anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions, the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE-NETL) is actively funding a CO{sub 2} management program to develop technologies capable of reducing the CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel power plants and other industrial facilities. Over the past decade, this program has focused on reducing the costs of carbon capture and storage technologies. Recently, DOE-NETL launched an alternative CO{sub 2} mitigation program focusing on beneficial CO{sub 2} reuse and supporting the development of technologies that mitigate emissions by converting CO{sub 2} to solid mineral form that can be utilized for enhanced oil recovery, in the manufacturing of concrete or as a benign landfill, in the production of valuable chemicals and/or fuels. This project was selected as a CO{sub 2} reuse activity which would conduct research and development (R&D) at the pilot scale via a cost-shared Cooperative Agreement number DE-FE0001099 with DOE-NETL and would utilize funds setaside by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 for Industrial Carbon Capture and Sequestration R&D,

  9. Beneficial rhizosphere pseudomonads

    OpenAIRE

    Lugtenberg, B; Kamilova, F.

    2008-01-01

    Among the many bacteria present on and around the root, Pseudomonas bacteria are (among) the best root colonizers and therefore very suitable to apply for beneficial purposes. In this chapter, we discuss the possibilities to use such bacteria for the following purposes: fertilization of the plant, stimulation of plant growth and yield, reduction of plant stress, and reduction of plant diseases. This research was supported by numerous grants, especially from the Dutch Organization for scientif...

  10. The Design of Water-reusing Network with a Hybrid Structure Through Mathematical Programming%通过数学规划方法设计具有混合结构的水回用网络

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永忠; 段海涛; 冯霄

    2008-01-01

    A new design method for a water-reusing network, with a hybrid structure, to reduce the complexity of the network and to minimize freshwater consumption, is proposed. The unique feature of the methodology proposed in this article is to control the complexity of the water network by regulation of the control number in a water-reusing system. It combines the advantages of a conventional water-reusing network and a water-reusing network with internal water mains. To illustrate the proposed method, a single contaminant system and a multiple contaminant system serve as examples of the problems.

  11. Theoretical information reuse and integration

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Information Reuse and Integration addresses the efficient extension and creation of knowledge through the exploitation of Kolmogorov complexity in the extraction and application of domain symmetry. Knowledge, which seems to be novel, can more often than not be recast as the image of a sequence of transformations, which yield symmetric knowledge. When the size of those transformations and/or the length of that sequence of transforms exceeds the size of the image, then that image is said to be novel or random. It may also be that the new knowledge is random in that no such sequence of transforms, which produces it exists, or is at least known. The nine chapters comprising this volume incorporate symmetry, reuse, and integration as overt operational procedures or as operations built into the formal representations of data and operators employed. Either way, the aforementioned theoretical underpinnings of information reuse and integration are supported.

  12. Emergy Evaluation of Different Straw Reuse Technologies in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxian Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Open burning of straw in China has degraded agricultural environments and has become a contributor to air pollution. Development of efficient straw-reuse technologies not only can yield economic benefits but also can protect the environment and can provide greater benefit to society. Thus, the overall benefits of straw-reuse technologies must be considered when making regional development planning and enterprise technology decisions. In addition, agricultural areas in China cross several climatic zones and have different weather characteristics and cultural conditions. In the present study, we assessed five types of straw-reuse technologies (straw-biogas production, -briquetting, -based power generation, -gasification, and -bioethanol production, using emergy analysis, in northeast China. Within each type, five individual cases were investigated, and the highest-performing cases were used for comparison across technologies. Emergy indices for comprehensive benefits for each category, namely, EYR, ELR, and ESI were calculated. Calculated indices suggest that straw-briquetting and -biogas production are the most beneficial technologies in terms of economy, environmental impact, and sustainability compared to straw-based power generation, -gasification, and -bioethanol production technologies. These two technologies can thus be considered the most suitable for straw reuse in China.

  13. Beneficial uses of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overall decline in technical literacy within the American public has come at a time when technological advances are accelerating in the United States and around the world. This had led to a large communication gulf between the general public and the technologists. Nowhere is this more evident then with the topic of radiation. Regrettably, too few people know about sources of radiation, the pervasiveness, amounts, and variabilities, and do not have a true understanding of the environment in which we live. Nor do many people know that radiation has been used in beneficial ways for decades around the world. While the general public does not know of the scientific applications to which radiation has been deployed, it nevertheless had benefited tremendously from these efforts. Thanks to the well know properties of radiation, scientific ingenuity has found many uses of radiation in chemical and agricultural research, biomedical research, in the diagnoses and treatment of hundreds of types of diseases, in industrial applications, food irradiation, and many others. This paper provides a sample of the types of uses to which radiation has been used to help advance the betterment of humankind

  14. Beneficial bacteria inhibit cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varian, Bernard J; Goureshetti, Sravya; Poutahidis, Theofilos; Lakritz, Jessica R; Levkovich, Tatiana; Kwok, Caitlin; Teliousis, Konstantinos; Ibrahim, Yassin M; Mirabal, Sheyla; Erdman, Susan E

    2016-03-15

    Muscle wasting, known as cachexia, is a debilitating condition associated with chronic inflammation such as during cancer. Beneficial microbes have been shown to optimize systemic inflammatory tone during good health; however, interactions between microbes and host immunity in the context of cachexia are incompletely understood. Here we use mouse models to test roles for bacteria in muscle wasting syndromes. We find that feeding of a human commensal microbe, Lactobacillus reuteri, to mice is sufficient to lower systemic indices of inflammation and inhibit cachexia. Further, the microbial muscle-building phenomenon extends to normal aging as wild type animals exhibited increased growth hormone levels and up-regulation of transcription factor Forkhead Box N1 [FoxN1] associated with thymus gland retention and longevity. Interestingly, mice with a defective FoxN1 gene (athymic nude) fail to inhibit sarcopenia after L. reuteri therapy, indicating a FoxN1-mediated mechanism. In conclusion, symbiotic bacteria may serve to stimulate FoxN1 and thymic functions that regulate inflammation, offering possible alternatives for cachexia prevention and novel insights into roles for microbiota in mammalian ontogeny and phylogeny. PMID:26933816

  15. Laboratory solvent reuse -- Liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinlin, W.T.; Schaffer, C.L.

    1992-11-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a method for reduction of waste solvent in the Process Engineering Chemistry Laboratory. The liquid chromatographs are the largest generators of explosive-contaminated waste in the laboratory. We developed a successful process for the reuse of solvents from the liquid chromatographs and demonstrated the utility of the process in the assay of hexanitrostilbene.

  16. Reuse of residual materials from repair and dismantling of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major concern in the reuse of decontaminated materials is the radiation levels permitted for various types of reuse, e.g. in the nuclear industry, in other types of restricted reuse, and in possible general public contact with the materials. This was discussed at length including the resulting worst case scenarios for calculation of the public maximum individual dose resulting from this reuse. Reuse programs as well as the major conclusions reached during this meeting concerning boundary radiation limits for various reuse techniques and the influence of these limits on radiation measuring techniques have been discussed in the papers. The different contributions have been prepared separately for inpunt into the databases INIS and ENERGY. (orig./RB)

  17. Improving component reuse in software development

    OpenAIRE

    Forsell, Marko

    2002-01-01

    This study concerns reuse in the software development process. The focus is in the reuse of components when creating new software. The aim is to improve current software processes to adapt them to the purposes of reuse. The specific research questions are: 1) What are the specific limitations for reuse in the current component-based software development methods? 2) How should reusable components be created and used in software development? 3) How should the components that are created be docu...

  18. Software reuse in the Naval Open Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Greathouse, Carlus A.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes a web-based continuous learning module (CLM) for use in introducing members of the Department of the Navy's acquisition community to software reuse in the context of Naval Open Architecture. The CLM introduces the student to principles for effective software reuse, explains the unique challenges of software reuse, discusses software reuse within the context of the Naval Open Architecture under the current Department of Defense and DoN policy and guidance, provides a stra...

  19. A DOMAIN ONTLOGY FOR SOFTWARE PROCESS REUSING

    OpenAIRE

    Aoussat, Fadila; Oussalah, Mourad Chabane; Ahmed-Nacer, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Reuse the best practices and know-how capitalized from existing Software Process Models is a promising approach to model high quality Software Processes. This paper presents a part of an approach for software processes reuse based on software architectures. This contribution is based on exploiting Software Process know-how and the solution proposed after the study of existing work on software process reuse field, our study focuses on approaches for reusing based on software architectures and ...

  20. Finding source code on the web for remix and reuse

    CERN Document Server

    York, Springer New

    2013-01-01

    First comprehensive treatment of the topic, bringing together results from multiple research areas including information retrieval, programming, software tools, software reuse, testing, and social aspects Presents essential reading for researchers new to the area Includes contributions from leading companies and experts in data structure, software engineering, and HCI

  1. RESEARCH ON REUSE-BASED WEB SERVICES COMPOSITION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rao Yuan; Li Zunchao; Feng Boqin

    2005-01-01

    Objective To solve the three principal problems for reusing the software components, i.e., existence, discovery and availability principles, web services provided a new solution for reusing and assembling web software or components under distributed environment with a series of XML-based protocols. Methods A 4+1 meta-model between atomic services, such as Sequence, Parallelism, Alternation, Substitute and Iteration, and a kind of service composition description language in composition process are investigated. Furthermore, an architecture-based service composition model with Ontology Engine is proposed, which is based on the software architecture life-cycle model and provides a mechanism for services composition with dynamic management and deployment. Results The results of the prototype system development show that the service-composed application not only reused the web service components, but also reused the data resources located in distributed databases. Conclusion The method of reused-based web services composition observably decreases the period and cost of development and greatly improves the programming efficiency.

  2. Formalisms for reuse and systems integration

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Reuse and integration are defined as synergistic concepts, where reuse addresses how to minimize redundancy in the creation of components; while, integration focuses on component composition. Integration supports reuse and vice versa. These related concepts support the design of software and systems for maximizing performance while minimizing cost. Knowledge, like data, is subject to reuse; and, each can be interpreted as the other. This means that inherent complexity, a measure of the potential utility of a system, is directly proportional to the extent to which it maximizes reuse and integration. Formal methods can provide an appropriate context for the rigorous handling of these synergistic concepts. Furthermore, formal languages allow for non ambiguous model specification; and, formal verification techniques provide support for insuring the validity of reuse and integration mechanisms.   This edited book includes 12 high quality research papers written by experts in formal aspects of reuse and integratio...

  3. Value-based management of design reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo, Juan Antonio; Cohn, David L.; Belluomini, Wendy; Montoye, Robert K.

    2003-06-01

    Effective design reuse in electronic products has the potential to provide very large cost savings, substantial time-to-market reduction, and extra sources of revenue. Unfortunately, critical reuse opportunities are often missed because, although they provide clear value to the corporation, they may not benefit the business performance of an internal organization. It is therefore crucial to provide tools to help reuse partners participate in a reuse transaction when the transaction provides value to the corporation as a whole. Value-based Reuse Management (VRM) addresses this challenge by (a) ensuring that all parties can quickly assess the business performance impact of a reuse opportunity, and (b) encouraging high-value reuse opportunities by supplying value-based rewards to potential parties. In this paper we introduce the Value-Based Reuse Management approach and we describe key results on electronic designs that demonstrate its advantages. Our results indicate that Value-Based Reuse Management has the potential to significantly increase the success probability of high-value electronic design reuse.

  4. Development of a novel, two-step process for treating municipal biosolids for beneficial reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivard, C J; Duff, B W; Nagle, N J

    1998-01-01

    Modern municipal sewage waste treatment plants use conventional mechanical and biological processes to reclaim wastewaters. This process has an overall effect of converting a water pollution problem into a solid waste disposal problem (sludges or biosolids). An estimated 10 million tons of biosolids, which require final disposal, are produced annually in the United States. Although numerous disposal options for biosolids are available, including land application, landfilling, and incineration, disposal costs have risen, partly because of increased federal and local environmental restrictions. A novel, thermomechanical biosolids pre-treatment process, which allows for a variety of potential value-added uses, was developed. This two-step process first employs thermal explosive decompression to inactivate or kill the microbial cells and viruses. This primary step also results in the rupture of a small amount of the microbial biomass and increases the intrinsic fluidity of the biosolids. The second step uses shear to effect a near-complete rupturing of the microbial biomass, and shears the nondigested organics, which increases the overall surface area. Pretreated biosolids may be subjected to a secondary anaerobic digestion process to produce additional fuel gas, and to provide for a high-quality, easily dewatered compost product. This novel biosolids pretreatment process was recently allowed a United States patent. PMID:18576022

  5. Remediation and Reuse of Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zihms, Stephanie; Switzer, Christine; Tarantino, Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    Links between contaminant remediation and impacts on soil properties have not been explored in a systematic way. Most remediation studies focus on the effectiveness of the remediation process. Contamination and remediation can have significant effects on soil properties and function. Considering that in most remediation cases the soil will be re-used in some way, it is important to understand the effects of the remediation process on soil properties and the post-remediation soil behaviour. This understanding can help to determine the best re-use of the soil and therefore improve post-remediation site development. Laboratory experiments on coal tar contaminated soil treated with smouldering remediation show that thermal treatments affect a variety of soil properties ranging from mineralogical composition, particle size distribution, and pH. Dynamic responses like permeability and shear strength are impacted as well and these responses are linked to the changes in soil properties. Soil permeability, capillary rise, and contact angle change dramatically after this remediation process, indicating some degree of hydrophobicity and significant implications for water movement through the post-remediation soil. The observed changes in permeability are linked to physical changes to the soil grain surface combined with small amounts (residue. Decoupling these effects is essential to understanding the extent of impact remediation processes have on long-term soil function. While chemical residue within the pores can be removed through "polishing" remediation steps, physical changes are likely to be permanent. Physical changes and chemical residue also have important implications with respect to the response of the soil under shear. These observed changes indicate that the remediated soil and its behaviour should be considered by remediation research. Monitoring of soil properties and behaviour during aggressive remediation can improve prediction of changes to infiltration

  6. Software design by reusing architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhansali, Sanjay; Nii, H. Penny

    1992-01-01

    Abstraction fosters reuse by providing a class of artifacts that can be instantiated or customized to produce a set of artifacts meeting different specific requirements. It is proposed that significant leverage can be obtained by abstracting software system designs and the design process. The result of such an abstraction is a generic architecture and a set of knowledge-based, customization tools that can be used to instantiate the generic architecture. An approach for designing software systems based on the above idea are described. The approach is illustrated through an implemented example, and the advantages and limitations of the approach are discussed.

  7. Encouraging Reuse of Design Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Saeema

    2005-01-01

    The long-term aim of this research is to develop a method to index design knowledge that is intuitive to an engineering designer and therefore encourage the reuse of information. Eighteen interviews were carried out to understand how designers described the process of designing a particular...... component or assembly. The analysis led to the development of a method of indexing design knowledge, which has been evaluated in two stages: 1) evaluation of individual taxonomies within the method and; 2) indexing of 92 reports using the method. The research contributes to the development of an ontology...

  8. ICT reuse in socio-economic enterprises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ongondo, F.O., E-mail: f.ongondo@soton.ac.uk [Centre for Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, Lanchester Building, University of Southampton, University Rd., Highfield, Southampton, Hampshire SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Williams, I.D. [Centre for Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, Lanchester Building, University of Southampton, University Rd., Highfield, Southampton, Hampshire SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Dietrich, J. [Technische Universität Berlin, Centre for Scientific Continuing Education and Cooperation, Cooperation and Consulting for Environmental Questions (kubus) FH10-1, Fraunhoferstraße 33-36, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Carroll, C. [Centre for Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, Lanchester Building, University of Southampton, University Rd., Highfield, Southampton, Hampshire SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • We analyse ICT equipment reuse operations of socio-economic enterprises. • Most common ICT products dealt with are computers and related equipment. • In the UK in 2010, ∼143,750 appliances were reused. • Marketing and legislative difficulties are the common hurdles to reuse activities. • Socio-economic enterprises can significantly contribute to resource efficiency. - Abstract: In Europe, socio-economic enterprises such as charities, voluntary organisations and not-for-profit companies are involved in the repair, refurbishment and reuse of various products. This paper characterises and analyses the operations of socio-economic enterprises that are involved in the reuse of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment. Using findings from a survey, the paper specifically analyses the reuse activities of socio-economic enterprises in the UK from which Europe-wide conclusions are drawn. The amount of ICT products handled by the reuse organisations is quantified and potential barriers and opportunities to their operations are analysed. By-products from reuse activities are discussed and recommendations to improve reuse activities are provided. The most common ICT products dealt with by socio-economic enterprises are computers and related equipment. In the UK in 2010, an estimated 143,750 appliances were reused. However, due to limitations in data, it is difficult to compare this number to the amount of new appliances that entered the UK market or the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment generated in the same period. Difficulties in marketing products and numerous legislative requirements are the most common barriers to reuse operations. Despite various constraints, it is clear that organisations involved in reuse of ICT could contribute significantly to resource efficiency and a circular economy. It is suggested that clustering of their operations into “reuse parks” would enhance both their profile and their

  9. ICT reuse in socio-economic enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We analyse ICT equipment reuse operations of socio-economic enterprises. • Most common ICT products dealt with are computers and related equipment. • In the UK in 2010, ∼143,750 appliances were reused. • Marketing and legislative difficulties are the common hurdles to reuse activities. • Socio-economic enterprises can significantly contribute to resource efficiency. - Abstract: In Europe, socio-economic enterprises such as charities, voluntary organisations and not-for-profit companies are involved in the repair, refurbishment and reuse of various products. This paper characterises and analyses the operations of socio-economic enterprises that are involved in the reuse of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment. Using findings from a survey, the paper specifically analyses the reuse activities of socio-economic enterprises in the UK from which Europe-wide conclusions are drawn. The amount of ICT products handled by the reuse organisations is quantified and potential barriers and opportunities to their operations are analysed. By-products from reuse activities are discussed and recommendations to improve reuse activities are provided. The most common ICT products dealt with by socio-economic enterprises are computers and related equipment. In the UK in 2010, an estimated 143,750 appliances were reused. However, due to limitations in data, it is difficult to compare this number to the amount of new appliances that entered the UK market or the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment generated in the same period. Difficulties in marketing products and numerous legislative requirements are the most common barriers to reuse operations. Despite various constraints, it is clear that organisations involved in reuse of ICT could contribute significantly to resource efficiency and a circular economy. It is suggested that clustering of their operations into “reuse parks” would enhance both their profile and their

  10. Increasing productivity through Total Reuse Management (TRM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, M. P.

    1991-01-01

    Total Reuse Management (TRM) is a new concept currently being promoted by the NASA Langley Software Engineering and Ada Lab (SEAL). It uses concepts similar to those promoted in Total Quality Management (TQM). Both technical and management personnel are continually encouraged to think in terms of reuse. Reuse is not something that is aimed for after a product is completed, but rather it is built into the product from inception through development. Lowering software development costs, reducing risk, and increasing code reliability are the more prominent goals of TRM. Procedures and methods used to adopt and apply TRM are described. Reuse is frequently thought of as only being applicable to code. However, reuse can apply to all products and all phases of the software life cycle. These products include management and quality assurance plans, designs, and testing procedures. Specific examples of successfully reused products are given and future goals are discussed.

  11. Reuse of the compact nuclear simulator software under PC with Linux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was approached to reuse source programs for a nuclear simulator under PC with Open Source Software(OSS) and to extend its applicability. Source programs in the Compact Nuclear Simulator(CNS), which has been operated for institutional research and training in KAERI, were reused and implemented for Linux-PC environment with the aim of supporting the study. PC with 500 MHz processor and Linux 2.2.5-22 kernel were utilized for the reuse implementation and it was investigated for some applications, through the functional testing for its main functions as interfaced with compact control panels in the current CNS. Development and upgrade of small-scale simulators, establishment of process simulation for PC, and development of prototype predictive simulation, can effectively be enabled with the experience though the reuse implementation was limited to port only CNS programs for PC with Linux

  12. Application Reuse Library for Software, Requirements, and Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jane T.; Thronesbery, Carroll

    1994-01-01

    Better designs are needed for expert systems and other operations automation software, for more reliable, usable and effective human support. A prototype computer-aided Application Reuse Library shows feasibility of supporting concurrent development and improvement of advanced software by users, analysts, software developers, and human-computer interaction experts. Such a library expedites development of quality software, by providing working, documented examples, which support understanding, modification and reuse of requirements as well as code. It explicitly documents and implicitly embodies design guidelines, standards and conventions. The Application Reuse Library provides application modules with Demo-and-Tester elements. Developers and users can evaluate applicability of a library module and test modifications, by running it interactively. Sub-modules provide application code and displays and controls. The library supports software modification and reuse, by providing alternative versions of application and display functionality. Information about human support and display requirements is provided, so that modifications will conform to guidelines. The library supports entry of new application modules from developers throughout an organization. Example library modules include a timer, some buttons and special fonts, and a real-time data interface program. The library prototype is implemented in the object-oriented G2 environment for developing real-time expert systems.

  13. A Survey of Software Reuse Repositories

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Jiang; Luqi

    2000-01-01

    Reuse libraries are organizations of personnel, procedures, tools, and software components directed toward facilitating software component reuse to meet specific cost-effectiveness and productivity goals. The paper gives a survey of the major software reusable component repositories. This survey will be a base to develop future efficiently searchable, user-friendly, useful, and well-organized repositories.

  14. Re-use of disposable coil dialysers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Re-use of disposable dialysers has been in practice for over 16 years throughout the world but it still is a polemical subject. The main justification for it is the reduction of costs in the hemodialytic treatment. We evaluated the technique of re-use that we adopt by studying 33 patients who should re-utilize coil dialysers for 8 consecutive hemodialysis sessions. We investigated: 1) small and middle molecules clearances trough a radioisotopic method; 2) the integrity of the system regarding bacterial invasion; 3) the frequency of anti-N antibodies; 4) aspects of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of dialysis membrane after re-use. We observed no changes in the dialysers performance during re-use. We conclude that the re-use of dialyzers is feasible, without risks for the patients, allowing marked reduction of costs, thus making possible to offer treatment to a larger number of uremic patients. (author)

  15. Human Factors and Software Reuse: The Manager's Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, John A.; Henry, Sallie M.; Kafura, Dennis G.; Schulman, Robert S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a controlled experiment designed to evaluate the impact of human factors on software reuse. The experiment concludes that (1) software reuse promotes higher productivity than no reuse, (2) reuse resulting from both moderate and strong encouragement promote higher productivity than no reuse, and (3) while strong managerial encouragement did not create a significant difference in productivity, it does tend to promote improper reuse activities.

  16. Software Reuse in Agile Development Organizations - A Conceptual Management Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Spoelstra, Wouter; Iacob, Maria; Sinderen, van, Marten

    2011-01-01

    The reuse of knowledge is considered a major factor for increasing productivity and quality. In the software industry knowledge is embodied in software assets such as code components, functional designs and test cases. This kind of knowledge reuse is also referred to as software reuse. Although the benefits can be substantial, software reuse has never reached its full potential. Organizations are not aware of the different levels of reuse or do not know how to address reuse issues. This paper...

  17. E-learning Materials Development: Applying and Implementing Software Reuse Principles and Granularity Levels in the Small

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Arman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available E-learning materials development is typically acknowledged as an expensive, complicated, and lengthy process, often producing materials that are of low quality and difficult to adaptand maintain. It has always been a challenge to identify proper e-learning materials that can be reused at a reasonable cost and effort. In this paper, software engineering reuse principlesare applied to e-learning materials development process. These principles are then applied and implemented in a prototype that is integrated with an open-source course management systems. The reuse of existing e-learning materials is beneficial in improving developers of elearning materials productivity. E-learning material reuse is performed, in this research, based on construct’s granularity rather than on unified constructs of one size.

  18. The implications of household greywater treatment and reuse for municipal wastewater flows and micropollutant loads

    OpenAIRE

    Revitt, D. Mike; Eriksson, Eva; Donner, Erica

    2011-01-01

    An increasing worldwide interest in water recycling technologies such as greywater treatment and reuse suggests that additional research to elucidate the fate of xenobiotics during such practices would be beneficial. In this paper, scenario analyses supported by empirical data are used for highlighting the potential fate of a selection of xenobiotic micropollutants in decentralised greywater treatment systems, and for investigation of the possible implications of greywater recycling for the w...

  19. Automated Reuse of Scientific Subroutine Libraries through Deductive Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Michael R.; Pressburger, Thomas; VanBaalen, Jeffrey; Roach, Steven

    1997-01-01

    Systematic software construction offers the potential of elevating software engineering from an art-form to an engineering discipline. The desired result is more predictable software development leading to better quality and more maintainable software. However, the overhead costs associated with the formalisms, mathematics, and methods of systematic software construction have largely precluded their adoption in real-world software development. In fact, many mainstream software development organizations, such as Microsoft, still maintain a predominantly oral culture for software development projects; which is far removed from a formalism-based culture for software development. An exception is the limited domain of safety-critical software, where the high-assuiance inherent in systematic software construction justifies the additional cost. We believe that systematic software construction will only be adopted by mainstream software development organization when the overhead costs have been greatly reduced. Two approaches to cost mitigation are reuse (amortizing costs over many applications) and automation. For the last four years, NASA Ames has funded the Amphion project, whose objective is to automate software reuse through techniques from systematic software construction. In particular, deductive program synthesis (i.e., program extraction from proofs) is used to derive a composition of software components (e.g., subroutines) that correctly implements a specification. The construction of reuse libraries of software components is the standard software engineering solution for improving software development productivity and quality.

  20. Reuse of Hydrotreating Spent Catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All hydro treating catalysts used in petroleum refining processes gradually lose activity through coking, poisoning by metal, sulfur or halides or lose surface area from sintering at high process temperatures. Waste hydrotreating catalyst, which have been used in re-refining of waste lube oil at Alexandria Petroleum Company (after 5 years lifetime) compared with the same fresh catalyst were used in the present work. Studies are conducted on partial extraction of the active metals of spent catalyst (Mo and Ni) using three leaching solvents,4% oxidized oxalic acid, 10% aqueous sodium hydroxide and 10% citric acid. The leaching experiments are conducting on the de coked extrude [un crushed] spent catalyst samples. These steps are carried out in order to rejuvenate the spent catalyst to be reused in other reactions. The results indicated that 4% oxidized oxalic acid leaching solution gave total metal removal 45.6 for de coked catalyst samples while NaOH gave 35% and citric acid gave 31.9 % The oxidized leaching agent was the most efficient leaching solvent to facilitate the metal removal, and the rejuvenated catalyst was characterized by the unchanged crystalline phase The rejuvenated catalyst was applied for hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of vacuum gas oil as a feedstock, under different hydrogen pressure 20-80 bar in order to compare its HDS activity

  1. DECONTAMINATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR FACILITY REUSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossart, Steven J.; Blair, Danielle M.

    2003-02-27

    As nuclear research and production facilities across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons complex are slated for deactivation and decommissioning (D&D), there is a need to decontaminate some facilities for reuse for another mission or continued use for the same mission. Improved technologies available in the commercial sector and tested by the DOE can help solve the DOE's decontamination problems. Decontamination technologies include mechanical methods, such as shaving, scabbling, and blasting; application of chemicals; biological methods; and electrochemical techniques. Materials to be decontaminated are primarily concrete or metal. Concrete materials include walls, floors, ceilings, bio-shields, and fuel pools. Metallic materials include structural steel, valves, pipes, gloveboxes, reactors, and other equipment. Porous materials such as concrete can be contaminated throughout their structure, although contamination in concrete normally resides in the top quarter-inch below the surface. Metals are normally only contaminated on the surface. Contamination includes a variety of alpha, beta, and gamma-emitting radionuclides and can sometimes include heavy metals and organic contamination regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This paper describes several advanced mechanical, chemical, and other methods to decontaminate structures, equipment, and materials.

  2. Public opinion on water reuse options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Public policy on waste water reuse options must be informed by public opinion because it is the public who must pay the cost of developing the option and who will be served by the option in the future. For public policy on reuse, guidance for innovative reuse is not as simple as first believed. It seems that public opinion regarding actual community reuse options is affected by the linkage of several factors, including water conservation, health protection, treatment and distribution costs, and environmental enhancement. Probability sampling was used in 7 studies to select respondents who were queried regarding their opinions on various reclaimed water uses such as ranging from cooling tower water to full domestic use. These 7 are briefly reviewed

  3. Electrostatic Beneficiation of Lunar Simulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigwell, Steve; Captain, James; Captain, Janine; Arens, Ellen; Quinn, Jacqueline; Calle, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    Electrostatic beneficiation of lunar regolith is a method allowing refinement of specific minerals in the material for processing on the moon. The use of tribocharging the regolith prior to separation was investigated on the lunar simulant MLS-I by passing the dust through static mixers constructed from different materials; aluminum, copper, stainless steel, and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The amount of charge acquired by the simulant was dependent upon the difference in the work function of the dust and the charging material. XPS and SEM were used to characterize the simulant after it was sieved into five size fractions (> 100 pm, 75-100 pm, 50- 75 pm, 50-25 pm, and 100 pm) size fractions were beneficiated through a charge separator using the aluminum (charged the simulant negatively) and PTFE (charged positively) mixers. The mass fractions of the separated simulant revealed that for the larger particle size, significant unipolar charging was observed for both mixers, whereas for the smaller particle sizes, more bipolar charging was observed, probably due to the finer simulant adhering to the inside of the mixers shielding the dust from the charging material. Subsequent XPS analysis of the beneficiated fractions showed the larger particle size fraction having some species differentiation, but very little difference for the smaller.size. Although MLS-1 was made to have similar chemistry to actual lunar dust, its mineralogy is quite different. On-going experiments are using NASA JSC-1 lunar simulant. A vacuum chamber has been constructed, and future experiments are planned in a simulated lunar environment.

  4. Reuse in Software Development Organizations in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Kotovs, V

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a survey, which aims to investigate the field of software reuse in software development organizations in Latvia. The topic has a particular significance since reuse may provide some economic benefits by reducing software development and operating costs, and by efficient utilization of development knowledge and corporate expertise. The objective of the study is to identify the key factors to be considered by the companies interested in establishing a software ...

  5. Beneficiation of beach magnetite sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Münevver TEL

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, beneficiation of beach magnetite sand was investigated by applying high intensity dry magnetic separator. The effect of feed particle size, feed rate, roll rotation speed, induced magnetic field intensity, and separator knife angle on Fe grade and recovery of the magnetite concentrate were investigated. As a result of dry magnetic separation at about 750 Gauss magnetic field conducted with -0.212+0.106 mm size fraction under optimum conditions, a magnetite concentrate assaying 54.41% Fe was obtained with 63.46% recovery where the beach sand sample contained %48.41 Fe.

  6. Is vitamin C supplementation beneficial?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to the promised ‘antioxidant miracle' of the 1980s, several randomised controlled trials have shown no effect of antioxidant supplements on hard endpoints such as morbidity and mortality. The former over-optimistic attitude has clearly called for a more realistic assessment of the...... benefit:harm ratio of antioxidant supplements. We have examined the literature on vitamin C intervention with the intention of drawing a conclusion on its possible beneficial or deleterious effect on health and the result is discouraging. One of several important issues is that vitamin C uptake is tightly...... controlled, resulting in a wide-ranging bioavailability depending on the current vitamin C status. Lack of proper selection criteria dominates the currently available literature. Thus, while supplementation with vitamin C is likely to be without effect for the majority of the Western population due to...

  7. ADAPTIVE REUSE FOR NEW SOCIAL AND MUNICIPAL FUNCTIONS AS AN ACCEPTABLE APPROACH FOR CONSERVATION OF INDUSTRIAL HERITAGE ARCHITECTURE IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Fetisov

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with a problem of conservation and adaptive reuse of industrial heritage architecture. The relevance and topicality of the problem of adaptive reuse of industrial heritage architecture for new social and municipal functions as the conservation concept are defined. New insights on the typology of industrial architecture are reviewed (e. g. global changes in all European industry, new concepts and technologies in manufacturing, new features of industrial architecture and their construction and typology, first results of industrialization and changes in the typology of industrial architecture in post-industrial period. General goals and tasks of conservation in context of adaptive reuse of industrial heritage architecture are defined (e. g. historical, architectural and artistic, technical. Adaptive reuse as an acceptable approach for conservation and new use is proposed and reviewed. Moreover, the logical model of adaptive reuse of industrial heritage architecture as an acceptable approach for new use has been developed. Consequently, three general methods for the conservation of industrial heritage architecture by the adaptive reuse approach are developed: historical, architectural and artistic, technical. Relevant functional methods' concepts (social concepts are defined and classified. General beneficial effect of the adaptive reuse approach is given. On the basis of analysis results of experience in adaptive reuse of industrial architecture with new social functions general conclusions are developed.

  8. Treated Wastewater Reuse on Potato (Solanum Tuberosum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battilani, A; Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann;

    2014-01-01

    ) was treated by Membrane Bio Reactor (MBR) technology and gravel filter (FTS) during three cropping seasons. Treated wastewater, soil and tubers were analysed for the faecal indicator bacterium E. coli and heavy metals contents. Potato total yield was similar for tap and reused water, while the...... contents. Only for boron and zinc were differences recorded. The reused water contribution in term of nutrients value for FTS was up to 108 euro ha-1 while MBR water reduced fertiliser costs by up to 114 euro ha-1....

  9. Reuse-based software production technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Software reuse is viewed as a key technology to improve software product quality and productivity. This paper discusses a series of technologies related with software reuse and software component technology: component model, which describes component's essential characteristics; component acquisition technology, of which domain engineering is the main approach; component management technology, of which component library is the kernel; application integration and composition technology, of which application engineering is the main approach; software evolution technology, of which software reengineering is the main approach, etc. This paper introduces the software development environment: JadeBird Software Production Line System, which effectively integrates the above-mentioned technologies.

  10. Progress in developments of dry coal beneficiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuemin Zhao; Xuliang Yang; Zhenfu Luo; Chenlong Duan; Shulei Song

    2014-01-01

    China’s energy supply heavily relies on coal and China’s coal resource and water resource has a reverse distribution. The problem of water shortages restricts the applications of wet coal beneficiation technologies in drought regions. The present situation highlights the significance and urgency of developing dry beneficiation technologies of coal. Besides, other countries that produce large amounts of coal also encounter serious problem of lack of water for coal beneficiation, such as American, Australia, Canada, South Africa, Turkey and India. Thus, dry coal beneficiation becomes the research hot-points in the field of coal cleaning worldwide in recent years. This paper systematically reviewed the promising research efforts on dry coal beneficiation reported in literature in last 5 years and discussed the progress in developments of dry coal beneficiation worldwide. Finally, we also elaborated the prospects and the challenges of the development of dry coal beneficiation.

  11. Buildings and site release and reuse the Spanish regulator's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants causes an enormous amount of residual materials with very low level of contamination. A risk optimisation analysis would indicate that some of these residual materials need not to be handled, processed or disposed of with any reference to their radioactivity content in order to allow more beneficial allocation for the limited social resources. The same analysis could also be applied to the site release once a particular facility is decommissioned. Remedial or restoration actions in pieces of land to be released should be subjected to a similar radiological optimisation process for selecting the best strategy of remedial actions. Up to now, the Ministry has not yet implemented any clearance levels for residual materials or any clean up criteria for lands or sites to be applied in a general way. As part of the licensing procedure of the decommissioning program, ENRESA has recently submitted the 'Site Restoration Plan' for the partial release of Vandellos 1 nuclear site. CSN technical staff is currently reviewing the radiological criteria and different scenarios considered in the proposal. Any free release of former regulated material or site has to demonstrate that the radiological detriment it causes in the environment is as low as reasonable achievable. The sites should be remedied to reduce the residual risk as far as reasonable to do so, taking into account the cost and risks associated with the remedial measures. Accepted radiological criteria for the clearance of buildings and building rubble assume that the effective dose to be incurred, by any individual member of the public, is of the order of 10 μSv or less in a year, and the collective dose committed during one year is no more than about 1 man Sv. Three main situations are considered in three different generic conditional clearance levels: Clearance of building for any purpose (reuse and future demolition), Clearance of buildings for demolition only, and Clearance

  12. Quantifying the Reuse of Learning Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Kristine; Sweeney, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of one case study from a larger project, which aims to quantify the claimed efficiencies of reusing learning objects to develop e-learning resources. The case study describes how an online inquiry project "Diabetes: A waste of energy" was developed by searching for, evaluating, modifying and then integrating as many…

  13. DYEBATH REUSE SAVES MONEY AND REDUCES POLLUTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The article discusses an evaluation of the potential for wastewater recycle or reuse in textile finishing mills. Over a dozen recycle technologies were evaluated in six separate mills. Results of these preliminary studies showed that most of the recycle technologies were technica...

  14. Adaptive reuse in Dutch care accommodation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, P.; Remøy, H.T.; van der Voordt, D.J.M.; van der Kuij, R.S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – Identifying opportunities for adaptive reuse in a changing (increasing market driven) context for Dutch care accommodation. Design/methodology/approach – Combination of two student thesis, both based on case study and decision model development. Findings – Due to new courses in the Dutch

  15. WATER REUSE IN A PAPER REPROCESSING PLANT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project was undertaken to determine the feasibility of water reuse in a paper reprocessing plant with the goal being to 'close the loop' or to demonstrate zero discharge technology. Before the project began, Big Chief Roofing Company at Ardmore, OK, was discharging 7.89 1/se...

  16. An overview of reclaimed water reuse in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lili Yi; Wentao Jiao; Xiaoning Chen; Weiping Chen

    2011-01-01

    China is facing severe water problems including scarcity and pollution which are now becoming key factors restricting developments.Creating an alternative water resource and reducing effluent discharges,water reuse has been recognized as an integral part of water and wastewater management scheme in China.The government has launched nationwide efforts to optimize the benefits of utilizing reclaimed water.This article reviewed the water reuse activities in China,including:(1) application history and current status; (2)potentials of reclaimed water reuse; (3) laws,policies and regulations governing reclaimed water reuse; (4) risks associated with reclaimed water reuse; (5) issues in reclaimed water reuse.Reclaimed water in Beijing and Tianjin were given as examples.Suggestions for improving the efficiencies of reusing urban wastewater were advanced.Being the largest user of reclaimed wastewater in the world,China's experience can benefit the development of water reuse in other regions.

  17. Vertical Test Reuse for Embedded Systems: A Systematic Mapping Study

    OpenAIRE

    Flemström, Daniel; Sundmark, Daniel; Afzal, Wasif

    2015-01-01

    Abstract —Vertical test reuse refers to the the reuse of test cases or other test artifacts over different integration levels in the software or system engineering process. Vertical test reuse has previously been proposed for reducing test effort and improving test effectiveness, particularly for embedded system development. The goal of this study is to provide an overview of the state of the art in the field of vertical test reuse for e...

  18. Aerobic treatment of kitchen wastewater using sequence batch reactor (SBR and reuse for irrigation landscape purposes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sule Abubakar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The trend towards reuse of effluent for landscape irrigation from kitchen is driven by the need to maximise limited water resources and benefit from the plant nutrients available in the effluent. The significant impact upon the value of the wastewater for reuse is its chemical properties as well as biochemical oxygen demand and suspended solids. While treatment plant is expected to treat all wastewater received to a minimum environmental standard, not much effort are given for wastewater reuse in Malaysia due to the fact that Malaysia is not experiencing shortage in portable water yet but as population increases water availability will be more scares according to WHO prediction. The improvement in effluent quality will have significant beneficial effects upon land application and human health. This study investigate the performance of SBR on treating kitchen wastewater and the possible reuse for irrigation purposes with hydraulic retention time (HRT 5 hours varying the aeration time at 15 minute interval for 12 cycles. The operation volume of the rectors was 20 litres which comprises of 13 litres of kitchen wastewater and 7 litres of sludge in every cycle for treatment. Wastewater used was taken from University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM cafeteria and the sludge used is from a pond inside the campus. Laboratory analyses were carried out in influent and effluent in order to achieve maximum efficiency reduction in effluent. Parameters tested for both in influent and effluent are pH, DO, COD, BOD, PO4, NH4, NO3 and TSS. Total percentage removal obtained for COD, BOD, PO4, NH4 and NO3 are: 63, 67, 78, 85 and 86% respectively which are all in compliance with the standard A and B regulation for effluent discharge or reuse. The data were analysed using Microsoft excel.

  19. Patterns of Learning Object Reuse in the Connexions Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    Since the term "learning object" was first published, there has been either an explicit or implicit expectation of reuse. There has also been a lot of speculation about why learning objects are, or are not, reused. This study quantitatively examined the actual amount and type of learning object use, to include reuse, modification, and translation,…

  20. "Green" Counseling: Integrating Reused Household Materials into Creative Counseling Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Nicole A.; Kress, Victoria E.

    2011-01-01

    The use of reused or recycled materials in counseling interventions provides counselors with an opportunity to use unique counseling mediums while simultaneously being socially and fiscally responsible. In this article, ways that reused or recycled items can be used in counseling are discussed. Practical suggestions for using reused or recycled…

  1. Planning and implementation of non-potable water reuse projects at U.S. Naval installations

    OpenAIRE

    Malkin, Joshua Benjamin

    2003-01-01

    With the passage of Executive Orders 12902 and 13123, the U.S. Navy has been forced to develop water conservation programs and evaluate how water is used at each of its installations. The central goal of these orders is to reduce potable water consumption at federal facilities. Water reuse and recycling has been listed as a best management practice for achieving this goal. However, only a handful of Navy facilities have implemented water reuse projects to date. One of the reasons for this phe...

  2. SkyMine Beneficial CO2 Use Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, Jerel [Skyonic Corporation, Austin, TX (United States)

    2016-02-15

    This Final Report addresses accomplishments achieved during Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the SkyMine® Carbon Mineralization Commercial Scale Pilot Project. The primary objectives of this project were to design, construct, and operate a system to capture CO₂ from a slipstream of flue gas from a commercial coal-fired cement kiln, convert that CO₂ into products having commercial value as an example of Carbon Capture and Beneficial Re-Use, show the economic viability of the CO₂ capture and conversion process, and thereby advance the technology to a level of commercial scale completion with the ability for further proliferation. The project also substantiates market opportunities for the technology by sales of chemicals into existing markets, and has identified opportunities to improve technology performance and reduce costs during the normal course of operations. The primary objectives of Phase 1 of the project were to elaborate proven SkyMine® process chemistry to commercial pilot-scale operation and complete the preliminary design for the pilot plant to be built and operated in Phase 2. During Phase 2, Pilot System Engineering Design, Construction and Testing, supporting research and development was conducted at a field test unit to collect data that aided in detailed designs of the commercial scale pilot unit; final detailed designs were completed; the commercial scale pilot plant is in its final stages of construction; and a test program has been designed and will be implemented to collect data from the facility to evaluate the technical viability of the process for resulting in an overall net reduction in CO2 emitted into the atmosphere through a process that is run and conducted in a carbon negative manner. The objective of Phase 2b was to build the commercial scale pilot plant to be operated and tested in Phase 2c. By June 30, 2015, the plant was +99% constructed and completed.

  3. Clinical supervision, is it mutually beneficial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Clinical education in Nuclear Medicine is essential for student learning as it enables them to develop knowledge and competence and put theory into practice. While the benefit to the student is clear, the clinical education experience should be mutually beneficial. The role of the clinical supervisor involves teaching, role modelling, management and assessment. It could be assumed that the Supervisor would find the teaching role leading to increased knowledge; role modelling leading to increased reflection which improves practice; management skills being enhanced and assessment improving critical evaluation skills. The aim of this study was to assess the perceived benefits of taking on the role of a clinical supervisor. Clinical Supervisors participating in the Nuclear Medicine program were surveyed. Questions were grouped into three main categories - professional, interpersonal and communication. A Likert scale was used to assess perceived level of benefit and open-ended questions were included to obtain additional understanding of Supervisors' perceptions. Results from the survey indicate that 64% of supervisors felt an increase in work satisfaction by taking students, 68% agreed their level of performance was improved and 61% agreed that it deepened their understanding of Nuclear Medicine. It is concluded that respondents perceived a positive benefit to areas within the role of Clinical Supervisor. Copyright (2000) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  4. Support for life-cycle product reuse in NASA's SSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shotton, Charles

    1989-01-01

    The Software Support Environment (SSE) is a software factory for the production of Space Station Freedom Program operational software. The SSE is to be centrally developed and maintained and used to configure software production facilities in the field. The PRC product TTCQF provides for an automated qualification process and analysis of existing code that can be used for software reuse. The interrogation subsystem permits user queries of the reusable data and components which have been identified by an analyzer and qualified with associated metrics. The concept includes reuse of non-code life-cycle components such as requirements and designs. Possible types of reusable life-cycle components include templates, generics, and as-is items. Qualification of reusable elements requires analysis (separation of candidate components into primitives), qualification (evaluation of primitives for reusability according to reusability criteria) and loading (placing qualified elements into appropriate libraries). There can be different qualifications for different installations, methodologies, applications and components. Identifying reusable software and related components is labor-intensive and is best carried out as an integrated function of an SSE.

  5. Constructed wetlands for advanced treatment and reuse

    OpenAIRE

    Frazer-Williams, Ronnie

    2007-01-01

    Constructed wetland technology is gaining increasing attention as a low cost-efficient alternative to high-tech treatment systems for treating municipal and industrial wastewaters especially in small communities. However, its application for grey water reuse has been rarely investigated whilst performance for nutrients (N and P) still remains relatively poor. Pilot scale study was conducted in which three differently configured subsurface constructed wetlands: a horizontal f...

  6. Reuse and recycling of radioactive material packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human development is directly linked to energy consumption. The political decisions (to this human development) result in economic, social and environmental aspects, whose magnitude should maintain the sustainability of every aspect for not to collapsing. The environmental aspect has been a target of research because of the excessive emission of gases which contributes to the greenhouse effect. The production processes emit gases due to the consumption of energy to get it, but it is necessary to maintain the environmental sustainability in order to minimize the contribution to the emission of greenhouse gases. The population control and the energetic efficiency are factors that contribute to the environmental sustainability. Besides them, the culture of consumption is another factor that, when applied to the reduction of emissions, also contributes to the sustainability of the environment. The reuse of materials is one of the sub-factors which contribute to the reduction of emissions. The Radiopharmacy Directory (DIRF) at IPEN-CNEN/SP, produces radiopharmaceuticals that are necessary to improve the Brazilian population's life quality. The radiopharmaceuticals are transported in packaging to the transport of radioactive material. These packages are considered non-biodegradable, because some metals, which make up these packages, pollute the environment. These packages have increased costs, in addition, because it must be approved in tests of integrity. The reuse of packaging in favorable situations to the same purpose is a way to help the environment degradation and costs reduction. The packaging reuse in unfavorable situations disobey rules or return logistics that become effective the transport back, but the consumption culture strengthening can change this situation. This paper describes IPEN's packaging, form and quantities distribution, and the packaging that comes back to be reused. (author)

  7. SANITARY SEWAGE REUSE IN AGRICULTURAL CROP IRRIGATION

    OpenAIRE

    Lidiane Bittencourt Barroso; Delmira Beatriz Wolff

    2011-01-01

    The water availability was exceeded by demand, becoming a limiting factor in irrigated agriculture. This study aimed to provide a general theoretical framework on the issue of water reuse for agricultural purposes. This is due to the fact that we need a prior knowledge of the state of the art concerning the matter. To that end, we performed a review of irrigated agriculture, the effects on cultivated land and the development of agricultural crops as well as aspects of security to protect grou...

  8. Electrodialysis and water reuse novel approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, Marco; Ferreira, Jane

    2014-01-01

    This book presents novel techniques to evaluate electrodialysis processes, to synthesize ionic membranes and to characterize their properties. It shows the potential use of membrane process to the treatment of effluents generated in many industrial sectors such as refineries, leather industries, mining and electroplating processes. The book is based on the results obtained by the author's research group during the past decade. It is useful for students, researchers and engineers interested in membrane technologies for water reuse.

  9. Hygiene Aspects of Greywater and Greywater Reuse

    OpenAIRE

    Ottosson, Jakob

    2003-01-01

    Greywater is domestic household wastewater without inputfrom the toilet, i.e. wastewater from sinks, the shower,washing machine and dishwasher in a home. Source separation ofgreywater can be a strategy to enhance recirculation of plantnutrients and/or improve water use. The risk for transmissionof disease when reusing greywater is largely dependent on thecross-contamination by faeces. High levels of faecalindicators, mainly thermotolerant coliform bacteria, have beenreported in greywater, ind...

  10. Reuse of catheters for angiography. 2. Contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reuse of sterile medical devices designated for single use is a controversal practice, known to be performed in many countries. As far as catheters for angiography are concerned, various methods for cleaning and sterilisation are in use. However, interactions of detergents and ethylene oxide used in reprocessing with polyethylene materials of the catheters have not been investigated systematically. This paper presents a physico-chemical characterisation of common angiographic catheters. The interaction of polyethylene and ethylene oxide is examined. (orig.)

  11. Improving quality model construction through knowledge reuse

    OpenAIRE

    Carvallo Vega, Juan Pablo; Franch Gutiérrez, Javier; Quer Bosor, Maria Carme

    2015-01-01

    Software quality models provide a framework to measure and evaluate software quality of software systems. They are the basis upon which classify requirements and may be eventually used to guide the quantification of these requirements, especially non-functional requirements. Lots of approaches for building quality models have been proposed in the last decades, but still their reuse along different projects is a challenge. In this paper we present several types of knowledge repositories and re...

  12. Improving statechart composition and reuse in UML

    OpenAIRE

    Vauttier, Sylvain; Urtado, Christelle

    2000-01-01

    National audience Composite objects reveal themselves to be very useful in component-based development processes for the modeling, the management and the reuse of component assemblies. Although the composition relationship notion has been widely studied, in order to use the composite objects' structure as a mean to model and manage complex data, few works have investigated the modeling of composite object behavior. Indeed, as far as component based development is concerned, the point is no...

  13. 75 FR 11207 - Policy Statement on Obtaining and Retaining Beneficial Ownership Information for Anti-Money...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... this provision. Special Due Diligence Programs for Certain Foreign Accounts, 72 FR 44768-44775 (August... COMMISSION Policy Statement on Obtaining and Retaining Beneficial Ownership Information for Anti-Money... retaining beneficial ownership information for anti-money laundering purposes. DATES: Effective Date:...

  14. Beneficiation of industrial minerals by air classification

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Clive John; Inglethorpe, Simon; Morgan, David

    1992-01-01

    Workshop handout accompanying poster which summarises the use of air classification for the beneficiation (mineral processing) of industrial minerals. Illustrated with examples of processing trials on graphite, feldspar and diatomite.

  15. DETECTION OF CROSS-PROJECT BENEFICIAL CLONES

    OpenAIRE

    Ms.Kavitha Esther Rajakumari; Dr.T.Jebarajan

    2014-01-01

    Duplicate codes are also known as code clones. They are considered as one of the main factors that deteriorate the quality of software. They are usually discarded by using automatic clone detection tools. In this paper the clones are detected using a data mining approach. The clones are well analyzed and the beneficial code clones are retained. These clones are maintained separately and are used in software maintenance. The beneficial clones will definitely help in reducing the overall time s...

  16. New municipal solid waste processing technology reduces volume and provides beneficial reuse applications for soil improvement and dust control

    Science.gov (United States)

    A garbage-processing technology has been developed that shreds, sterilizes, and separates inorganic and organic components of municipal solid waste. The technology not only greatly reduces waste volume, but the non-composted byproduct of this process, Fluff®, has the potential to be utilized as a s...

  17. Comparative Study on Beneficiation Technique Programs of some Iron Ore from Xinjiang%新疆某铁矿石选矿试验方案对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭月琴; 靳建平; 吴天娇

    2013-01-01

    To beneficiate an iron ore from Xinjiang, comparative study was carried out to evaluate processing approaches, including flowsheets of Fe/S bulk flotation-Fe/S separation, Fe flotation-S flotation, and S flotation-Fe flotation. A closed-circuit flowsheet of Fe/S bulk flotation-Fe/S separation, namely, gravity concentration-magnetic separation-gravity concentration-flotation, was adopted. An iron concentrate with TFe grade of 66.10%, sulfur content of 0.28% and iron recovery of 79.45%, and a sulfur concentrate with sulfur grade and recovery of 46.14% and 67.01%, respectively, were obtained.%对新疆某铁矿石进行了选矿试验方案对比研究.铁硫混选再分离流程、先选铁后选硫流程和先浮硫后选铁流程对比试验结果表明,为确保铁精矿的质量和总铁回收率,选择铁硫混选再分离流程,即采用重选-磁选-重选-浮选闭路流程,可获得含TFe66.10%、S 0.28%、铁回收率79.45%的铁精矿和含S 46.14%、硫回收率67.01%的硫精矿.

  18. Results on reuse of reclaimed shower water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verostko, Charles E.; Garcia, Rafael; Pierson, Duane L.; Reysa, Richard P.; Irbe, Robert

    1986-01-01

    The Waste Water Recovery System that has been used in conjunction with a microgravity whole body shower to test a closed loop shower water reclamation system applicable to the NASA Space Station employs a Thermoelectric Integrated Hollow Fiber Membrane Evaporation Subsystem. Attention is given to the suitability of a Space Shuttle soap for such crew showers, the effects of shower water on the entire system, and the purification qualities of the recovered water. The chemical pretreatment of the shower water for microorganism control involved activated carbon, mixed ion exchange resin beds, and iodine bactericide dispensing units. The water was recycled five times, demonstrating the feasibility of reuse.

  19. Incinerate, recycle, or wash and reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubbe, M. A.

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available What is the best way to minimize the environmental impact of using a product such as paper? Three debating teams were formed within a university class. One team advocated increased recycling of paper. Another team pointed to evidence showing reduced environmental impact and lower net CO2 emissions if the paper is incinerated rather than recycled. A third team advocated the replacement of paper by items such as porcelain plates and video screens, cutting costs and reducing waste by multiple reuse.

  20. Adaptive Reuse: Reusing Buildings for Future Generations while Maintaining Connections to the Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, John M.

    2003-01-01

    Describes adaptive reuse of college buildings, which involves reconfiguring existing buildings for entirely new functions, including its benefits. Examples include Bartlett Hall at the University of Chicago, Annenberg Hall and Locker Chambers at Harvard University, Goodrich Hall at Williams College, and Sarratt Student Center at Vanderbilt…

  1. Relevance and Benefits of Urban Water Reuse in Tourist Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Gaston Tong Sang; Valentina Lazarova; Vincent Sturny

    2012-01-01

    Urban water reuse is one of the most rapidly growing water reuse applications worldwide and one of the major elements of the sustainable management of urban water cycle. Because of the high probability of direct contact between consumers and recycled water, many technical and regulatory challenges have to be overcome in order to minimize health risks at affordable cost. This paper illustrates the keys to success of one of the first urban water reuse projects in the island Bora Bora, French Po...

  2. Is Scarcity a Real Driver for Water Reuse ?

    OpenAIRE

    Hermanowicz, S W

    2006-01-01

    Conventional knowledge suggests that water reclamation and reuse is implemented as a response to scarcity of natural water resources. As water demand increases natural water resources (surface waters or groundwater) become insufficient and individual communities or larger regions turn to water reuse to meet an increasing fraction of their needs. However, the analysis of data on water consumption and water reuse collected by the US Geological Survey indicate that water scarcity is perhaps on...

  3. Patterns of Learning Object Reuse in the Connexions Repository

    OpenAIRE

    Duncan, S M

    2009-01-01

    Doctoral Dissertation abstract: Since the term learning object was first published, there has been either an explicit or implicit expectation of reuse. There has also been a lot of speculation about why learning objects are, or are not, reused. This study quantitatively examined the actual amount and type of learning object use, to include reuse, modification, and translation, within a single open educational resource repositoryâConnexions. The results indicate that about a quarter of used ob...

  4. SANITARY SEWAGE REUSE IN AGRICULTURAL CROP IRRIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiane Bittencourt Barroso

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The water availability was exceeded by demand, becoming a limiting factor in irrigated agriculture. This study aimed to provide a general theoretical framework on the issue of water reuse for agricultural purposes. This is due to the fact that we need a prior knowledge of the state of the art concerning the matter. To that end, we performed a review of irrigated agriculture, the effects on cultivated land and the development of agricultural crops as well as aspects of security to protect groups at risk. The amount of macro and micronutrients in the effluent may reduce or eliminate the use of commercial fertilizers. And this addition of organic matter acts as a soil conditioner, increasing its capacity to retain water. Depending on the characteristics of sewage, the practice of irrigation for long periods may lead to accumulation of toxic compounds and the significant increase of salinity. The inhibition of plant growth by salinity may be due to osmotic effect, causing drought and / or specific effects of ions, which can cause toxicity or nutritional imbalance. The minimization of human exposure to the practice of agricultural reuse is based on a set of mitigation measures that must be implemented by the authorities responsible for operating and monitoring systems for water recycling. It is concluded that the use of sewage depends on management of irrigation, monitoring of soil characteristics and culture.

  5. OAI Object Re-Use and Exchange

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Jacobs, Neil

    2007-01-01

    YouTube, Flickr, del.icio.us, blogs, message boards and other "Web 2.0" related technologies are indicative of the contemporary web experience. There is a growing interest in appropriating these tools and modalities to support the scholarly communication process. This begins with leveraging the intrinsic value of scholarly digital objects beyond the borders of the hosting repository. There are numerous examples of the need to re-use objects across repositories in scholarly communication. These include citation, preservation, virtual collections of distributed objects, and the progression of units of scholarly communication through the registration-certification-awareness-archiving chain. The last several years have brought about numerous open source repository systems and their associated communities. The Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH) has been the initial catalyst for repository interoperability. However, there is now a rising interest in repositories no longer being stat...

  6. OAI Object Re-Use and Exchange

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing interest in appropriating these tools and modalities to support the scholarly communication process. This begins with leveraging the intrinsic value of scholarly digital objects beyond the borders of the hosting repository. There are numerous examples of the need to re-use objects across repositories in scholarly communication. These include citation, preservation, virtual collections of distributed objects, and the progression of units of scholarly communication through the registration-certification-awareness-archiving chain. The last several years have brought about numerous open source repository systems and their associated communities. The Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH) has been the initial catalyst for repository interoperability. However, there is now a rising interest in repositories no longer bein...

  7. Water reuse by membrane bioreactors (MBR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper shows an up-to date overview of the use of membrane bioreactor (MBR) to obtain water treated for reusing it. Considering the existing rules. it has been presented a summary of published studies in which the quality of the effluent is analyzed in terms on physico-chemical and biological parameters. Furthermore, MBR results are compared with the conventional treatment ones. Due to the suitability of MBR technology for removing pathogens, particular attention has been paid to disinfection process and the mechanism that govern it. Results from reviewed studies of MBR have showed equal or better quality of water treated than conventional treatments (activated sludge plus disinfection tertiary treatment by the addition of antibacterial agents). (Author) 32 refs.

  8. Technology for reuse of contaminated concrete constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During decommissioning activities of nuclear installations, large amounts of contaminated concrete will have to be processed. All this concrete has to be treated and stored as radioactive waste, which implies major economical and environmental consequences. It was shown that the contamination is mainly concentrated in the porous cement stone. By separating this cement stone from the clean dense aggregate particles, a considerable volume reduction can be reached. KEMA has developed, designed and constructed a pilot plant scale test installation for separation of aggregate from contaminated concrete. The separation is based on a thermal treatment followed by milling and sieving. The clean aggregate can be re-used in concrete, whereas the (slightly) contaminated cement stone could be upgraded to a binder for concrete used in the nuclear industry. (author)

  9. Waste water reuse pathways for processing tomato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battilani, A; Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann;

    allow a safe use of waste water produced by small communities/industries (≤2000 EI) or of treated water discharged in irrigation channels. Water treatment technologies are coupled with irrigation strategies and technologies to obtain a flexible, easy to use, integrated management.......  Direct or indirect water reuse involves several aspects: contamination by faecal, inorganic and xenobiotic pollutants; high levels of suspended solids and salinity; rational use of the dissolved nutrients (particularly nitrogen). The challenge is apply new strategies and technologies which allows...... to use the lowest irrigation water quality without harming nor food safety neither yield and fruit or derivatives quality. The EU project SAFIR aims help farmers solve problems with low quality water and decreased access to water. New water treatment devices (prototypes) are under development to...

  10. Library reuse in a rapid development environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhde, JO; Weed, Daniel; Gottlieb, Robert; Neal, Douglas

    1995-01-01

    The Aeroscience and Flight Mechanics Division (AFMD) established a Rapid Development Laboratory (RDL) to investigate and improve new 'rapid development' software production processes and refine the use of commercial, off-the-shelf (COTS) tools. These tools and processes take an avionics design project from initial inception through high fidelity, real-time, hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) testing. One central theme of a rapid development process is the use and integration of a variety of COTS tools: This paper discusses the RDL MATRIX(sub x)(R) libraries, as well as the techniques for managing and documenting these libraries. This paper also shows the methods used for building simulations with the Advanced Simulation Development System (ASDS) libraries, and provides metrics to illustrate the amount of reuse for five complete simulations. Combining ASDS libraries with MATRIX(sub x)(R) libraries is discussed.

  11. The Roles of Beneficiation in Lunar Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, Doug L.

    2010-01-01

    Natural feedstocks used for any process are intrinsically variable. They may also contain deleterious components or low concentrations of desired fractions. For these three reasons it is standard industrial practice to beneficiate feedstocks. This is true across all industries which trans-form raw materials into standardized units. On the Moon there are three natural resources: vacuum, radiation and regolith. To utilize in situ resources on the Moon it is reasonable to presume some beneficiation of the regolith (ground rock) resource will be desirable if not essential. As on Earth, this will require fundamental understanding of the physics and chemistry of the relevant processes, which are exceeding complex in detail. Further, simulants are essential test articles for evaluation of components and systems planned for lunar deployment. Simulants are of course made from geologic feedstocks. Therefore, there is variation, deleterious components and incorrect concentrations of desired fractions in the feedstocks used for simulants. Thus, simulant production can benefit from beneficiation of the input feedstocks. Beneficiation of geologic feedstocks is the subject of extractive metallurgy. Clearly, NASA has two discrete interests pertaining to the science and technology of extractive metallurgy.

  12. Modulation of host immunity by beneficial microbes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zamioudis, C; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    In nature, plants abundantly form beneficial associations with soilborne microbes that are important for plant survival and, as such, affect plant biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Classical examples of symbiotic microbes are mycorrhizal fungi that aid in the uptake of water and minerals, and

  13. [Prebiotics: concept, properties and beneficial effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corzo, N; Alonso, J L; Azpiroz, F; Calvo, M A; Cirici, M; Leis, R; Lombó, F; Mateos-Aparicio, I; Plou, F J; Ruas-Madiedo, P; Rúperez, P; Redondo-Cuenca, A; Sanz, M L; Clemente, A

    2015-01-01

    Prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients (oligosaccharides) that reach the colon and are used as substrate by microorganisms producing energy, metabolites and micronutrients used for the host; in addition they also stimulate the selective growth of certain beneficial species (mainly bifidobacteria and lactobacilli) in the intestinal microbiota. In this article, a multidisciplinary approach to understand the concept of prebiotic carbohydrates, their properties and beneficial effects in humans has been carried out. Definitions of prebiotics, reported by relevant international organizations and researchers, are described. A comprehensive description of accepted prebiotics having strong scientific evidence of their beneficial properties in humans (inulin-type fructans, FOS, GOS, lactulose and human milk oligosaccharides) is reported. Emerging prebiotics and those which are in the early stages of study have also included in this study. Taken into account that the chemical structure greatly influences carbohydrates prebiotic properties, the analytical techniques used for their analysis and characterization are discussed. In vitro and in vivo models used to evaluate the gastrointestinal digestion, absorption resistance and fermentability in the colon of prebiotics as well as major criteria to design robust intervention trials in humans are described. Finally, a comprehensive summary of the beneficial effects of prebiotics for health at systemic and intestinal levels is reported. The research effort on prebiotics has been intensive in last decades and has demonstrated that a multidisciplinary approach is necessary in order to claim their health benefits. PMID:25659062

  14. FULL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF TEXTILE DYE WASTEWATER REUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of an examination of technologies by which textile processing wastewaters could be recycled or reused, thereby reducing the amounts discharged. One of these technologies, dyebath reconstitution and reuse, was investigated in detail: it was found to be envi...

  15. Recycling and reuse of wastewater from uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium mining/milling process, and the sources, recycling/reuse approach and treatment methods of process wastewater are introduced. The wastewater sources of uranium mining and milling include effluent, raffinate, tailings water, mine discharge, resin form converted solution, and precipitation mother liquor. Wastewater can be recycled/reused for leachant, eluent, stripping solution,washing solution and tailings slurry. (authors)

  16. Re-Engineering for Reuse: Integrating Reuse Techniques into the Reengineering Process

    OpenAIRE

    Panagiotis K. Linos; Sascha Molterer; Barbara Paech; Chris Salzmann

    2016-01-01

    In this report, we present an overview of the existing software re-engineering process and its related concepts. We also classify existing software reuse techniques and we propose how to integrate such techniques into the software re-engineering process by following a component-based approach. In addition, we demonstrate how our methodology can be applied on a client-server legacy system.

  17. Patterns of Text Reuse in a Scientific Corpus

    CERN Document Server

    Citron, Daniel T

    2014-01-01

    We consider the incidence of text "reuse" by researchers, via a systematic pairwise comparison of the text content of all articles deposited to arXiv.org from 1991--2012. We measure the global frequencies of three classes of text reuse, and measure how chronic text reuse is distributed among authors in the dataset. We infer a baseline for accepted practice, perhaps surprisingly permissive compared with other societal contexts, and a clearly delineated set of aberrant authors. We find a negative correlation between the amount of reused text in an article and its influence, as measured by subsequent citations. Finally, we consider the distribution of countries of origin of articles containing large amounts of reused text.

  18. Evaluation of the technical instruction for monitoring and control of water reuse in the health areas managed by the environmental health service of the Region of Murcia

    OpenAIRE

    Dolores Gómez Castelló; Carmen Martínez López; Rosa López Casares; María Saquero Martínez; María José Herrera Díaz; Francisca Sintas Lozano

    2016-01-01

    One of the basic activities of the Water Reuse Monitoring and Control Program is the supervision of self-control programs–which should be put into practice by the concessionaires that reuse the water provided by the River Basin Organization, in the Health Areas managed by the Environmental Health Service–to check compliance with Annex I of Royal Decree 1620/2007. To facilitate these tasks, this Service issued a Water Reuse Monitoring and Control Technical Instruction in June 2012.In order to ...

  19. Irrigation Water Quality Standards for Indirect Wastewater Reuse in Agriculture: A Contribution toward Sustainable Wastewater Reuse in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanseok Jeong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and the subsequent change in agricultural conditions increase the vulnerability of agricultural water use. Wastewater reuse is a common practice around the globe and is considered as an alternative water resource in a changing agricultural environment. Due to rapid urbanization, indirect wastewater reuse, which is the type of agricultural wastewater reuse that is predominantly practiced, will increase, and this can cause issues of unplanned reuse. Therefore, water quality standards are needed for the safe and sustainable practice of indirect wastewater reuse in agriculture. In this study, irrigation water quality criteria for wastewater reuse were discussed, and the standards and guidelines of various countries and organizations were reviewed to suggest preliminary standards for indirect wastewater reuse in South Korea. The proposed standards adopted a probabilistic consideration of practicality and classified the use of irrigation water into two categories: upland and rice paddy. The standards suggest guidelines for E. coli, electric conductivity (EC, turbidity, suspended solids (SS, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, pH, odor, and trace elements. Through proposing the standards, this study attempts to combine features of both the conservative and liberal approaches, which in turn could suggest a new and sustainable practice of agricultural wastewater reuse.

  20. 9 CFR 317.10 - Reuse of official inspection marks; reuse of containers bearing official marks, labels, etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reuse of official inspection marks; reuse of containers bearing official marks, labels, etc. 317.10 Section 317.10 Animals and Animal... official marks, labels, etc. (a) No official inspection legend or other official mark which has...

  1. Dialyzer Reuse and Outcomes of High Flux Dialysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Argyropoulos

    Full Text Available The bulk of randomized trial evidence for the expanding use of High Flux (HF hemodialysis worldwide comes from two randomized controlled trials, one of which (HEMODIALYSIS, HEMO allowed, while the other (Membrane Outcomes Permeability, MPO excluded, the reuse of membranes. It is not known whether dialyzer reuse has a differential impact on outcomes with HF vs low flyx (LF dialyzers.Proportional Hazards Models and Joint Models for longitudinal measures and survival outcomes were used in HEMO to analyze the relationship between β2-microglobulin (β2M concentration, flux, and reuse. Meta-analysis and regression techniques were used to synthesize the evidence for HF dialysis from HEMO and MPO.In HEMO, minimally reused (< 6 times HF dialyzers were associated with a hazard ratio (HR of 0.67 (95% confidence interval, 95%CI: 0.48-0.92, p = 0.015, 0.64 (95%CI: 0.44 - 0.95, p = 0.03, 0.61 (95%CI: 0.41 - 0.90, p = 0.012, 0.53 (95%CI: 0.28 - 1.02, p = 0.057 relative to minimally reused LF ones for all cause, cardiovascular, cardiac and infectious mortality respectively. These relationships reversed for extensively reused membranes (p for interaction between reuse and flux < 0.001, p = 0.005 for death from all cause and cardiovascular causes, while similar trends were noted for cardiac and infectious mortality (p of interaction between reuse and flux of 0.10 and 0.08 respectively. Reduction of β2M explained only 1/3 of the effect of minimally reused HF dialyzers on all cause mortality, while non-β2M related factors explained the apparent attenuation of the benefit with more extensively reused dialyzers. Meta-regression of HEMO and MPO estimated an adjusted HR of 0.63 (95% CI: 0.51-0.78 for non-reused HF dialyzers compared with non-reused LF membranes.This secondary analysis and synthesis of two large hemodialysis trials supports the widespread use of HF dialyzers in clinical hemodialysis over the last decade. A mechanistic understanding of the effects of

  2. Advancing data reuse in phyloinformatics using an ontology-driven Semantic Web approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahiazar, Maryam; Sheth, Amit P; Ranabahu, Ajith; Vos, Rutger A; Leebens-Mack, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Phylogenetic analyses can resolve historical relationships among genes, organisms or higher taxa. Understanding such relationships can elucidate a wide range of biological phenomena, including, for example, the importance of gene and genome duplications in the evolution of gene function, the role of adaptation as a driver of diversification, or the evolutionary consequences of biogeographic shifts. Phyloinformaticists are developing data standards, databases and communication protocols (e.g. Application Programming Interfaces, APIs) to extend the accessibility of gene trees, species trees, and the metadata necessary to interpret these trees, thus enabling researchers across the life sciences to reuse phylogenetic knowledge. Specifically, Semantic Web technologies are being developed to make phylogenetic knowledge interpretable by web agents, thereby enabling intelligently automated, high-throughput reuse of results generated by phylogenetic research. This manuscript describes an ontology-driven, semantic problem-solving environment for phylogenetic analyses and introduces artefacts that can promote phyloinformatic efforts to promote accessibility of trees and underlying metadata. PhylOnt is an extensible ontology with concepts describing tree types and tree building methodologies including estimation methods, models and programs. In addition we present the PhylAnt platform for annotating scientific articles and NeXML files with PhylOnt concepts. The novelty of this work is the annotation of NeXML files and phylogenetic related documents with PhylOnt Ontology. This approach advances data reuse in phyloinformatics. PMID:24565381

  3. Recycling, reducing and reusing: A theoretical framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macroeconomic models are generally based on a particular national income accounting framework. The current approach treats waste and pollution generation in such a way that any increase in these activities increases directly the gross domestic product of the economy. A reformulation is suggested for the accounting framework so as to treat waste management and pollution abatement as services to business whose costs should be charged against business revenue. Even such costs to households may be considered as costs to output. In this way such expenses appear as a cost to society and not as a final output. A new theoretical framework is developed to correspond to the reformulated accounting principle that allows clear identification of recycling activity and waste management. The rectangular input-output framework is particularly suited for this treatment as it allows different industries to produce the same output and identifies different commodities as inputs in the production of the same output. With the new framework, it is possible to examine the socioeconomic consequences of increased use and production of recyclables. Equally important is the ability to assess the relative efficiency of alternative policies to reuse or reduce the use of products and resources through price incentives and full cost charges. 2 tabs

  4. A PATTERN LANGUAGE FOR REUSING WEB TEACHING MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Bouz-Asal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Internet enables sharing of content between educators, which can reduce the time and effort needed to create custom teaching materials and improve the quality of students’ learning experiences. There are, however, significant obstacles to effective educational content sharing and reuse, especially in developing countries. To address this problem, we have taken a user-centric approach to discover and analyze teachers’ needs and to understand the main barriers to web content reuse among K-12 educators in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Based on this analysis, we have developed a novel pattern language for reusing web teaching materials.

  5. FCC catalyst finds three safe reuse outlets in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on three usages in the area of construction materials which offer a potential outlet for the reuse of spent fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalyst that far exceeds the supply from European refineries. The proximity of the spent catalyst source to the point-of-use is critical because this determines the transportation cost-the major element in the cost of disposal/reuse. This is why a balance geographical spread of reuse outlets throughout Europe is sought. Asphalt, cement, and red bricks containing spent fluid catalytic cracking catalyst, have all passed environmental acceptability tests

  6. Design of single object model of software reuse framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Liu

    2011-12-01

    In order to embody the reuse significance of software reuse framework fully, this paper will analyze in detail about the single object model mentioned in the article "The overall design of software reuse framework" and induce them as add and delete and modify mode, check mode, and search and scroll and display integrated mode. Three modes correspond to their own interface design template, class and database design concept. The modelling idea helps developers clear their minds and speed up. Even laymen can complete the development task easily.

  7. A Case Study of Framework Design for Horizontal Reuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Røn, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    In this experience report, we present a case study in designing, implementing and reusing an object-oriented framework for constructing and editing complex search expressions over arbitrary data domains. We present a framework design that achieves a large degree of business domain decoupling...... through the application of design patterns. We outline the reuse process and analyse and classify the problems encountered during the first-instance framework reuse. The major lessons learned are: (1) that, while design patterns are well-known for providing decoupling solutions at the code level, the lack...

  8. The implications of household greywater treatment and reuse for municipal wastewater flows and micropollutant loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revitt, Michael; Eriksson, Eva; Donner, Erica

    2011-01-01

    highlighting the potential fate of a election of xenobiotic micropollutants in decentralised greywater treatment systems, and for investigation of the possible implications of greywater recycling for the wider urban water cycle. Potential potable water savings of up to 43% are predicted for greywater recycling......An increasing worldwide interest in water recycling technologies such as greywater treatment and reuse suggests that additional research to elucidate the fate of xenobiotics during such practices would be beneficial. In this paper, scenario analyses supported by empirical data are used for...... based on Danish water use statistics and priority substance monitoring at a greywater treatment plant in Denmark. Adsorption represents an important mechanism for the removal of cadmium, nickel, lead and nonylphenol from influent greywater and therefore the disposal route adopted for the generated...

  9. Beneficial Insect Attraction to Milkweeds (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis) in Washington State, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, David G; Seymour, Lorraine; Lauby, Gerry; Buckley, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Native plant and beneficial insect associations are relatively unstudied yet are important in native habitat restoration programs for improving and sustaining conservation biological control of arthropod pests in agricultural crops. Milkweeds (Asclepias spp.) are currently the focus of restoration programs in the USA aimed at reversing a decline in populations of the milkweed-dependent monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus); however, little is known of the benefits of these plants to other beneficial insects. Beneficial insects (predators, parasitoids, pollinators) attracted to two milkweed species (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis) in central Washington State, WA, USA were identified and counted on transparent sticky traps attached to blooms over five seasons. Combining all categories of beneficial insects, means of 128 and 126 insects per trap were recorded for A. speciosa and A. fascicularis, respectively. Predatory and parasitic flies dominated trap catches for A. speciosa while parasitic wasps were the most commonly trapped beneficial insects on A. fascicularis. Bees were trapped commonly on both species, especially A. speciosa with native bees trapped in significantly greater numbers than honey bees. Beneficial insect attraction to A. speciosa and A. fascicularis was substantial. Therefore, these plants are ideal candidates for habitat restoration, intended to enhance conservation biological control, and for pollinator conservation. In central Washington, milkweed restoration programs for enhancement of D. plexippus populations should also provide benefits for pest suppression and pollinator conservation. PMID:27367733

  10. Beneficial Insect Attraction to Milkweeds (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis in Washington State, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. James

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Native plant and beneficial insect associations are relatively unstudied yet are important in native habitat restoration programs for improving and sustaining conservation biological control of arthropod pests in agricultural crops. Milkweeds (Asclepias spp. are currently the focus of restoration programs in the USA aimed at reversing a decline in populations of the milkweed-dependent monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus; however, little is known of the benefits of these plants to other beneficial insects. Beneficial insects (predators, parasitoids, pollinators attracted to two milkweed species (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis in central Washington State, WA, USA were identified and counted on transparent sticky traps attached to blooms over five seasons. Combining all categories of beneficial insects, means of 128 and 126 insects per trap were recorded for A. speciosa and A. fascicularis, respectively. Predatory and parasitic flies dominated trap catches for A. speciosa while parasitic wasps were the most commonly trapped beneficial insects on A. fascicularis. Bees were trapped commonly on both species, especially A. speciosa with native bees trapped in significantly greater numbers than honey bees. Beneficial insect attraction to A. speciosa and A. fascicularis was substantial. Therefore, these plants are ideal candidates for habitat restoration, intended to enhance conservation biological control, and for pollinator conservation. In central Washington, milkweed restoration programs for enhancement of D. plexippus populations should also provide benefits for pest suppression and pollinator conservation.

  11. Beneficial uses program. Progress report ending December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    Progress is reported in research on uses of irradiated sewage sludge, particularly as a cattle feed supplement and commercial fertilizer additive, on potential sites for irradiator demonstration plants, and on the inactivation of enteric bacteria by radiation treatment. (LCL)

  12. Beneficial uses program. Progress report, period ending June 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    Progress in research on the irradiation of sewage sludge, the potential use of dried sewage sludge as animal feed or soil conditioners, the inactivation of rotavirus in sewage sludge, fruit fly control by the irradiation of citrus fruits, and the production of /sup 137/Cs source pellets is reported. (LCL)

  13. ReStore: Reusing Results of MapReduce Jobs

    CERN Document Server

    Elghandour, Iman

    2012-01-01

    Analyzing large scale data has emerged as an important activity for many organizations in the past few years. This large scale data analysis is facilitated by the MapReduce programming and execution model and its implementations, most notably Hadoop. Users of MapReduce often have analysis tasks that are too complex to express as individual MapReduce jobs. Instead, they use high-level query languages such as Pig, Hive, or Jaql to express their complex tasks. The compilers of these languages translate queries into workflows of MapReduce jobs. Each job in these workflows reads its input from the distributed file system used by the MapReduce system and produces output that is stored in this distributed file system and read as input by the next job in the workflow. The current practice is to delete these intermediate results from the distributed file system at the end of executing the workflow. One way to improve the performance of workflows of MapReduce jobs is to keep these intermediate results and reuse them fo...

  14. Supplemental Release Limits for the Directed Reuse of Lead in Shielding Products by the Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, R.L.

    2001-08-22

    The DOE National Center of Excellence for Metals Recycle (NMR) proposes to define and implement a complex-wide directed reuse strategy for surplus radiologically impacted lead (Pb) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's commitment to the safe and cost-effective recycle or reuse of excess materials and equipment across the DOE complex. NMR will, under this proposal, act on behalf of the DOE Office of Environmental Management, Office of Technical Program Integration (specifically EM-22), as the Department's clearinghouse for DOE surplus lead and lead products by developing and maintaining a cost-effective commercially-based contaminated lead recycle program. It is NMR's intention, through this directed reuse strategy, to mitigate the adverse environmental and economic consequences of managing surplus lead as a waste within the complex. This approach would promote the safe and cost-effective reuse of DOE's scrap and surplus lead in support of the Department's goals of resource utilization, energy conservation, pollution prevention and waste minimization. This report discusses recommendations for supplemental radiological limits for the directed reuse of contaminated lead and lead products by the DOE within the nuclear industry. The limits were selected--with slight modification--from the recently published American National Standards Institute and Health Physics Society standard N13.12 titled Surface and Volume Radioactivity Standards for Clearance (ANSI/HPS 1999) and are being submitted for formal approval by the DOE. Health and measurement implications from the adoption and use of the limits for directed reuse scenarios are discussed within this report.

  15. Proceedings of Trombay symposium on desalination and water reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The symposium Desalination and Water Reuse gave an overview of desalination technologies, R and D on desalination, a few case studies of large size desalination plants and desalination using nuclear energy. The papers related to INIS are indexed separately

  16. How to Trust the Re-use of Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karafili, Erisa; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Research in natural sciences and life sciences involve carrying out experiments to collect data as well as carrying out analysis to interpret the data. Increasingly data is being made available to other scientists in big databases. The scientific process builds on the idea that research results can...... be independently validated by other researchers. However, the concern about the correct re-use of data is also increasing. As illustrated by a currently evolving case of alleged scientific mispractice there is a need to support a reliable re-use of data. To solve this challenge we introduce an enriched...... coordination language based on Klaim, that can model the coordination of the re-use of data in the research community. We define the formal semantics of our language and develop a static analysis that can be used to check whether we have a trustable re-use of data....

  17. Relevance and Benefits of Urban Water Reuse in Tourist Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaston Tong Sang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban water reuse is one of the most rapidly growing water reuse applications worldwide and one of the major elements of the sustainable management of urban water cycle. Because of the high probability of direct contact between consumers and recycled water, many technical and regulatory challenges have to be overcome in order to minimize health risks at affordable cost. This paper illustrates the keys to success of one of the first urban water reuse projects in the island Bora Bora, French Polynesia. Special emphasis is given on the reliability of operation of the membrane tertiary treatment, economic viability in terms of pricing of recycled water and operating costs, as well as on the benefits of water reuse for the sustainable development of tourist areas.

  18. A Community-Driven Workflow Recommendation and Reuse Infrastructure Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Promote and encourage process and workflow reuse  within NASA Earth eXchange (NEX) by developing a proactive recommendation technology based on collective NEX...

  19. Development of Policies, Institutions and Procedures for Water Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demouche, L.; Pfiefer, J.; Hanson, A.; Skaggs, R.

    2009-12-01

    In the arid, water scarce region of New Mexico and West Texas there is growing interest in the potential for water reuse to extend existing supplies and mitigate drought shortage impacts. There are no new sources of water in New Mexico, except reclaimed water. Communities and individuals are uncertain about and have many unanswered questions about polices, institutions involved (agencies), legal and regulatory requirements, and procedures governing water reuse. Issues to be addressed by this project include: the legal ability to reuse water, ownership of water rights, downstream or third party impacts, regulatory and procedural requirements, water quality concerns, state and local agency involvement, and cost effectiveness of water reuse compared to alternative sources. Presently, there is very little implementation or directives in New Mexico policy that addresses reuse, reclamation, or recycled water. The only regulations pertaining to reuse is New Mexico Environmental Department currently allows the use of reclaimed domestic wastewater for irrigation of golf courses and green spaces, which is listed in the Policy for the Above Ground Use of Reclaimed Domestic Wastewater (NMED, 2003). This document identifies the various reclaimed quality classifications that are required for specific applications and the permits required for application. This document does not identify or address policy applications on the distribution, ownership, or trading of reclaimed water. Even though reclaimed water reuse projects are currently being implemented in many cities in the U.S., mainly for commercial and municipal irrigation (golf courses and green space), its potential has not yet been exploited. A policy analysis matrix (PAM) is being designed to identify and examine the policy framework and consequences of non-policy implementation for decision makers and interest groups and assist them in understanding the consequences of policy actions and project outcomes if no laws or

  20. On the formalization and reuse of scientific research

    OpenAIRE

    King, R. D.

    2011-01-01

    Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The reuse of scientific knowledge obtained from one investigation in another investigation is basic to the advance of science. Scientific investigations should therefore be recorded in ways that promote the reuse of the knowledge ...

  1. Emergy Evaluation of Different Straw Reuse Technologies in Northeast China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoxian Zhang; Fang Ma

    2015-01-01

    Open burning of straw in China has degraded agricultural environments and has become a contributor to air pollution. Development of efficient straw-reuse technologies not only can yield economic benefits but also can protect the environment and can provide greater benefit to society. Thus, the overall benefits of straw-reuse technologies must be considered when making regional development planning and enterprise technology decisions. In addition, agricultural areas in China cross several clim...

  2. Qualitative methods for researching teachers’ (re)use of OER

    OpenAIRE

    Beaven, Tita

    2013-01-01

    The literature on Open Educational Resources (OER) points to a need to further research how best to foster teachers’ reuse of OER (Masterman and Wild, 2011), and how best to enable the infrastructure for sharing OER to appropriately support the needs of teachers (Davis et al., 2010). This paper proposes variations around the themes of Peer Observation of Teaching and Professional Conversations as tools to investigate the use and reuse of OER by teachers. It reports on two qualitative stud...

  3. Pretreatment options for municipal wastewater reuse using membrane technology

    OpenAIRE

    Hatt, Juliette W.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing freshwater scarcity across the world means that wastewater reclamation is being considered as a key method in which to meet the growing demand. Evolution of water reuse schemes where high quality product is required such as for indirect potable reuse has led to the adoption in recent years of the integrated membrane scheme using a combination of microfiltration or ultrafiltration with reverse osmosis membrane. However, despite technological advancements, these mem...

  4. Coagulant recovery and reuse for drinking water treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Keeley, James; Jarvis, Peter; Smith, Andrea D.; Judd, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Coagulant recovery and reuse from waterworks sludge has the potential to significantly reduce waste disposal and chemicals usage for water treatment. Drinking water regulations demand purification of recovered coagulant before they can be safely reused, due to the risk of disinfection by-product precursors being recovered from waterworks sludge alongside coagulant metals. While several full-scale separation technologies have proven effective for coagulant purification, none have matched virgi...

  5. Optimal waste heat recovery and reuse in industrial zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant energy efficiency gains in zones with concentrated activity from energy intensive industries can often be achieved by recovering and reusing waste heat between processing plants. We present a systematic approach to target waste heat recovery potentials and design optimal reuse options across plants in industrial zones. The approach first establishes available waste heat qualities and reuse feasibilities considering distances between individual plants. A targeting optimization problem is solved to establish the maximum possible waste heat recovery for the industrial zone. Then, a design optimization problem is solved to identify concrete waste heat recovery options considering economic objectives. The paper describes the approach and illustrates its application with a case study. -- Highlights: → Developed a systematic approach to target waste heat recovery potentials and to design optimal recovery and reuse options across plants in industrial zones. → Five stage approach involving data acquisition, analysis, assessment, targeting and design. → Targeting optimization problem establishes the maximum possible waste heat recovery and reuse limit for the industrial zone. → Design optimization problem provides concrete waste heat recovery and reuse network design options considering economic objectives.

  6. Scenario of solid waste reuse in Khulna city of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reuse and recycling of waste materials are now sincerely considered to be an integral part of solid waste management in many parts of the world. In this context, a vast number of options ranging from small scale decentralized to larger scale centralized plants have been adopted. This study aimed at investigating the waste reuse schemes in Khulna city located in the southern part of Bangladesh and ranked third largest city in the country. The shops for reusable material (SRM) were mostly situated around railway, waterway, and truck station markets which provided easy transportation to further locations. For the reuses of waste materials and products, a chain system was found to collect reusable wastes under a total number of 310 identified SRM with 859 persons directly or indirectly involved in the scheme. This was a decentralized waste management system with self sufficient (autonomous) management. According to mass balance, about 38.52 tons d−1 solid wastes were reused in Khulna city area, accounting for 7.65% of the total generated wastes. This study revealed that apparently a silent, systematic, smooth, and clean reuse chain has been established in Khulna city area under private initiatives, whose sustainability was confirmed over the years in the country without any official or formal funds. However, proper adjustment between the higher and lower chain in the materials flow path, as well as personal hygiene training for the workers, would further improve the achievements of the established reuse scheme.

  7. The slurry-column coal beneficiation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, G.F.; Noah, K.S. [Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Biotechnology Dept.

    1997-11-01

    The slurry-column coal beneficiation process is described. It is a second-generation process developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for the beneficiation of fine (60 mesh x 10 {mu}m) coal by a combination of the physical separation of mineral matter and the biooxidation of pyrite. The bioreactor is slurry-type airlift, specifically designed to allow the large liberated inclusions of pyrite and other insoluble minerals to settle out. They are transferred to a similar reactor, called the rougher/propagator, that gives a second stage of physical separation, as well as the longer residence time for the biodegradation of the large pyritic inclusions and the associated bacterial growth. The bioreactors operate in sequencing-batch mode, and also serve as settlers for coal/water separation when the air turned off. This separation allows counter-current flow of coal and water, which minimizes the volumes of water consumed and wastewater generated. The complete flow sheet incorporates two-stage washing to remove sulfate and bacteria from the product coal, and recycle of bacteria into the process to inoculate the feed coal. A description of the process illustrates some general principles applicable to the optimum design of any coal bioprocess. 17 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Tribocharging Lunar Soil for Electrostatic Beneficiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Future human lunar habitation requires using in situ materials for both structural components and oxygen production. Lunar bases must be constructed from thermal-and radiation-shielding materials that will provide significant protection from the harmful cosmic energy which normally bombards the lunar surface. In addition, shipping oxygen from Earth is weight-prohibitive, and therefore investigating the production of breathable oxygen from oxidized mineral components is a major ongoing NASA research initiative. Lunar regolith may meet the needs for both structural protection and oxygen production. Already a number of oxygen production technologies are being tested, and full-scale bricks made of lunar simulant have been sintered. The beneficiation, or separation, of lunar minerals into a refined industrial feedstock could make production processes more efficient, requiring less energy to operate and maintain and producing higher-performance end products. The method of electrostatic beneficiation used in this research charges mineral powders (lunar simulant) by contact with materials of a different composition. The simulant acquires either a positive or negative charge depending upon its composition relative to the charging material.

  9. Water sector fund (CT-hi dro) and wastewater reuse activities: initiatives to promote environment ally sustainable development in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian Water Sector Fund (CT-Hidro) is presented as an innovative mechanism to foster the scientific and technological sector of the country as well as a model instrument to promote environmentally sustainable development in Brazil and in other developing countries. CT-Hidro is shown as an instrument that provides support for scientific and technological development research activities in the following areas: experimental technological development, scientific and technological research projects, development of basic industrial technology and implantation of research infrastructure. CT-Hidro is presented as a key mechanism to finance wastewater reuse projects as an imperative action to fight poverty and promote social inclusion in Brazil. The concept of wastewater reuse for beneficial purposes is presented. Its growing importance as an essential part of the planning of the integrated and sustainable water resources management is also evidenced. In this perspective, the need for sanitation, wastewater treatment and its reuse in agriculture for food production are presented as imperative measures that must be taken in Brazil in order to promote sustainable development, fight poverty, improve public health conditions and enhance environmental quality in the country. (author)

  10. Recycling and Reuse of Radioactive Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dou, Thomas Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The Radiochemistry Program at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) has a Radiation Protection Program that was designed to provide students with the ability to safely work with radioactive materials in quantities that are not available in other academic environments. Requirements for continuous training and supervision make this unique…

  11. Data reuse and the open data citation advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather A. Piwowar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Attribution to the original contributor upon reuse of published data is important both as a reward for data creators and to document the provenance of research findings. Previous studies have found that papers with publicly available datasets receive a higher number of citations than similar studies without available data. However, few previous analyses have had the statistical power to control for the many variables known to predict citation rate, which has led to uncertain estimates of the “citation benefit”. Furthermore, little is known about patterns in data reuse over time and across datasets. Method and Results. Here, we look at citation rates while controlling for many known citation predictors and investigate the variability of data reuse. In a multivariate regression on 10,555 studies that created gene expression microarray data, we found that studies that made data available in a public repository received 9% (95% confidence interval: 5% to 13% more citations than similar studies for which the data was not made available. Date of publication, journal impact factor, open access status, number of authors, first and last author publication history, corresponding author country, institution citation history, and study topic were included as covariates. The citation benefit varied with date of dataset deposition: a citation benefit was most clear for papers published in 2004 and 2005, at about 30%. Authors published most papers using their own datasets within two years of their first publication on the dataset, whereas data reuse papers published by third-party investigators continued to accumulate for at least six years. To study patterns of data reuse directly, we compiled 9,724 instances of third party data reuse via mention of GEO or ArrayExpress accession numbers in the full text of papers. The level of third-party data use was high: for 100 datasets deposited in year 0, we estimated that 40 papers in PubMed reused a

  12. Electrostatic Separator for Beneficiation of Lunar Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jacqueline; Arens, Ellen; Trigwell, Steve; Captain, James

    2010-01-01

    A charge separator has been constructed for use in a lunar environment that will allow for separation of minerals from lunar soil. In the present experiments, whole lunar dust as received was used. The approach taken here was that beneficiation of ores into an industrial feedstock grade may be more efficient. Refinement or enrichment of specific minerals in the soil before it is chemically processed may be more desirable as it would reduce the size and energy requirements necessary to produce the virgin material, and it may significantly reduce the process complexity. The principle is that minerals of different composition and work function will charge differently when tribocharged against different materials, and hence be separated in an electric field.

  13. Produced Water Management and Beneficial Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry Brown; Carol Frost; Thomas Hayes; Leo Heath; Drew Johnson; David Lopez; Demian Saffer; Michael Urynowicz; John Wheaton; Mark Zoback

    2007-10-31

    Large quantities of water are associated with the production of coalbed methane (CBM) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. The chemistry of co-produced water often makes it unsuitable for subsequent uses such as irrigated agriculture. However, co-produced waters have substantial potential for a variety of beneficial uses. Achieving this potential requires the development of appropriate water management strategies. There are several unique characteristics of co-produced water that make development of such management strategies a challenge. The production of CBM water follows an inverse pattern compared to traditional wells. CBM wells need to maintain low reservoir pressures to promote gas production. This need renders the reinjection of co-produced waters counterproductive. The unique water chemistry of co-produced water can reduce soil permeability, making surface disposal difficult. Unlike traditional petroleum operations where co-produced water is an undesirable by-product, co-produced water in the PRB often is potable, making it a highly valued resource in arid western states. This research project developed and evaluated a number of water management options potentially available to CBM operators. These options, which focus on cost-effective and environmentally-sound practices, fall into five topic areas: Minimization of Produced Water, Surface Disposal, Beneficial Use, Disposal by Injection and Water Treatment. The research project was managed by the Colorado Energy Research Institute (CERI) at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) and involved personnel located at CERI, CSM, Stanford University, Pennsylvania State University, the University of Wyoming, the Argonne National Laboratory, the Gas Technology Institute, the Montana Bureau of Mining and Geology and PVES Inc., a private firm.

  14. Produced Water Management and Beneficial Use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large quantities of water are associated with the production of coalbed methane (CBM) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. The chemistry of co-produced water often makes it unsuitable for subsequent uses such as irrigated agriculture. However, co-produced waters have substantial potential for a variety of beneficial uses. Achieving this potential requires the development of appropriate water management strategies. There are several unique characteristics of co-produced water that make development of such management strategies a challenge. The production of CBM water follows an inverse pattern compared to traditional wells. CBM wells need to maintain low reservoir pressures to promote gas production. This need renders the reinjection of co-produced waters counterproductive. The unique water chemistry of co-produced water can reduce soil permeability, making surface disposal difficult. Unlike traditional petroleum operations where co-produced water is an undesirable by-product, co-produced water in the PRB often is potable, making it a highly valued resource in arid western states. This research project developed and evaluated a number of water management options potentially available to CBM operators. These options, which focus on cost-effective and environmentally-sound practices, fall into five topic areas: Minimization of Produced Water, Surface Disposal, Beneficial Use, Disposal by Injection and Water Treatment. The research project was managed by the Colorado Energy Research Institute (CERI) at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) and involved personnel located at CERI, CSM, Stanford University, Pennsylvania State University, the University of Wyoming, the Argonne National Laboratory, the Gas Technology Institute, the Montana Bureau of Mining and Geology and PVES Inc., a private firm

  15. Quantitative mineralogical characterization of chrome ore beneficiation plant tailing and its beneficiated products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S. K.

    2015-04-01

    Mineralogical characterization and liberation of valuable minerals are primary concerns in mineral processing industries. The present investigation focuses on quantitative mineralogy, elemental deportment, and locking-liberation characteristics of the beneficiation of tailings from a chrome ore beneficiation plant in the Sukinda region, Odisha; methods used for the study of the beneficiated tailings are QEMSCAN®, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and mineral chemistry by a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS). The tailing sample was fine grained (69.48wt% below 45 μm size), containing 20.25wt% Cr2O3 and 39.19wt% Fe2O3, with a Cr:Fe mass ratio of 0.51. Mineralogical investigations using QEMSCAN studies revealed that chromite, goethite, and gibbsite are the dominant mineral phases with minor amounts of hematite, kaolinite, and quartz. The sample contained 34.22wt% chromite, and chromite liberation is more than 80% for grains smaller than 250 μm in size. Based on these results, it was predicted that liberated chromite and high-grade middling chromite particles could be separated from the gangue by various concentration techniques. The tailing sample was beneficiated by hydrocyclone, tabling, wet high-intensity magnetic separation (WHIMS), and flotation in order to recover the chromite. A chromite concentrate with 45.29wt% Cr2O3 and a Cr:Fe mass ratio of 1.85 can be produced from these low-grade chromite ore beneficiation plant rejects.

  16. Software Reuse Success Strategy Model: An Empirical Study of Factors Involved in the Success of Software Reuse in Information System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Kiet T.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between information technology (IT) governance and software reuse success. Software reuse has been mostly an IT problem but rarely a business one. Studies in software reuse are abundant; however, to date, none has a deep appreciation of IT governance. This study demonstrated that IT governance had a positive…

  17. Foundry Wastes Reuse and Recycling in Concrete Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Fiore

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The industrial process of a cast iron foundry plant located in the North of Italy was analyzed in order to determine the amount and kind of produced wastes. The main fractions are core and moulding sands, muds and powders from dust abatement plants, furnace and ladle slags, and exhaust lime, making about 750-800 t/d of residues for a production of about 800 t/d of globular and grey cast iron. All wastes were sampled and characterized by means of particle-size distribution and chemical analyses to evaluate the best reuse and recycling solutions. On the grounds of the gathered results, the residues may be divided in three categories according to the particle-size dimensions: below 0.1 mm, between 0.1 and 0.6 mm and above 0.6 mm. The fraction above 0.6 mm, mainly made of metallic iron, may be reused in the furnaces. The fraction between 0.1 mm and 0.6 mm may be reused in cores production, after a regeneration treatment. The fraction between 0.1 and 0.025 mm may be recycled as raw material for the concrete industry, and the below 0.025 mm fraction may be reused in green moulding operations. An economic evaluation of the proposed reuse and recycling solutions was performed.

  18. Marine ecology service reuse through taxonomy-oriented SPL development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccella, Agustina; Cechich, Alejandra; Pol`la, Matias; Arias, Maximiliano; del Socorro Doldan, Maria; Morsan, Enrique

    2014-12-01

    Nowadays, reusing software applications encourages researchers and industrials to collaborate in order to increase software quality and to reduce software development costs. However, effective reuse is not easy and only a limited portion of reusable models actually offers effective evidence regarding their appropriateness, usability and/or effectiveness. Focusing reuse on a particular domain, such as marine ecology, allows us to narrow the scope; and along with a systematic approach such as software product line development, helps us to potentially improving reuse. From our experiences developing a subdomain-oriented software product line (SPL for the marine ecology subdomain), in this paper we describe semantic resources created for assisting this development and thus promoting systematic software reuse. The main contributions of our work are focused on the definition of a standard conceptual model for marine ecology applications together with a set of services and guides which assist the process of product derivation. The services are structured in a service taxonomy (as a specialization of the ISO 19119 std) in which we create a new set of categories and services built over a conceptual model for marine ecology applications. We also define and exemplify a set of guides for composing the services of the taxonomy in order to fulfill different functionalities of particular systems in the subdomain.

  19. Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

    1990-11-01

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a three-year project on Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.'' The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are being run at the cleaning facility in Homer City, Pennsylvania, to produce 20-ton batches of fuels for shipment to CE's laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. CE then processes the products into either a coal-water fuel (CVVT) or a dry microfine pulverized coal (DMPC) form for combustion testing. The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. The technical approach used to develop the technical data includes: bench-scale fuel property, combustion, and ash deposition tests; pilot-scale combustion and ash effects tests; and full-scale combustion tests. Subcontractors to CE to perform parts of the test work are the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Physical Science, Inc. Technology Company (PSIT) and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC). Twenty fuels will be characterized during the three-year base program: three feed coals, fifteen BCFS, and two conventionally cleaned coals for full-scale tests. Approximately, nine BCFs will be in dry microfine coal (DMPC) form, and six BCFs will be in coal-water fuel (CWF) form. Additional BCFs would be characterized during optional project supplements.

  20. Open Source Software Reuse in the Airborne Cloud Computing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudikyan, S. E.; Hart, A. F.; Hardman, S.; Freeborn, D.; Davoodi, F.; Resneck, G.; Mattmann, C. A.; Crichton, D. J.

    2012-12-01

    Earth science airborne missions play an important role in helping humans understand our climate. A challenge for airborne campaigns in contrast to larger NASA missions is that their relatively modest budgets do not permit the ground-up development of data management tools. These smaller missions generally consist of scientists whose primary focus is on the algorithmic and scientific aspects of the mission, which often leaves data management software and systems to be addressed as an afterthought. The Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE), developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to support Earth Science Airborne Program, is a reusable, multi-mission data system environment for NASA airborne missions. ACCE provides missions with a cloud-enabled platform for managing their data. The platform consists of a comprehensive set of robust data management capabilities that cover everything from data ingestion and archiving, to algorithmic processing, and to data delivery. Missions interact with this system programmatically as well as via browser-based user interfaces. The core components of ACCE are largely based on Apache Object Oriented Data Technology (OODT), an open source information integration framework at the Apache Software Foundation (ASF). Apache OODT is designed around a component-based architecture that allows for selective combination of components to create highly configurable data management systems. The diverse and growing community that currently contributes to Apache OODT fosters on-going growth and maturation of the software. ACCE's key objective is to reduce cost and risks associated with developing data management systems for airborne missions. Software reuse plays a prominent role in mitigating these problems. By providing a reusable platform based on open source software, ACCE enables airborne missions to allocate more resources to their scientific goals, thereby opening the doors to increased scientific discovery.

  1. Reuseable Objects Software Environment (ROSE): Introduction to Air Force Software Reuse Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, William L.

    1994-01-01

    The Reusable Objects Software Environment (ROSE) is a common, consistent, consolidated implementation of software functionality using modern object oriented software engineering including designed-in reuse and adaptable requirements. ROSE is designed to minimize abstraction and reduce complexity. A planning model for the reverse engineering of selected objects through object oriented analysis is depicted. Dynamic and functional modeling are used to develop a system design, the object design, the language, and a database management system. The return on investment for a ROSE pilot program and timelines are charted.

  2. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales -- Beneficiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, M.J.; Lau, F.S.; Mensinger, M.C. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Schultz, C.W.; Mehta, R.K.; Lamont, W.E. (Alabama Univ., University, AL (United States)); Chiang, S.H.; Venkatadri, R. (Pittsburgh Univ., PA (United States)); Misra, M. (Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States))

    1992-05-01

    The Mineral Resources Institute at the University of Alabama, along with investigators from the University of Pittsburgh and the University of Nevada-Reno, have conducted a research program on the beneficiation, of Eastern oil shales. The objective of the research program was to evaluate and adapt those new and emerging technologies that have the potential to improve the economics of recovering oil from Eastern oil shales. The technologies evaluated in this program can be grouped into three areas: fine grinding kerogen/mineral matter separation, and waste treatment and disposal. Four subtasks were defined in the area of fine grinding. They were as follows: Ultrasonic Grinding, Pressure Cycle Comminution, Stirred Ball Mill Grinding, and Grinding Circuit Optimization. The planned Ultrasonic grinding research was terminated when the company that had contracted to do the research failed. Three technologies for effecting a separation of kerogen from its associated mineral matter were evaluated: column flotation, the air-sparged hydrocyclone, and the LICADO process. Column flotation proved to be the most effective means of making the kerogen/mineral matter separation. No problems are expected in the disposal of oil shale tailings. It is assumed that the tailings will be placed in a sealed pond and the water recycled to the plant as is the normal practice. It may be advantageous, however, to conduct further research on the recovery of metals as by-products and to assess the market for tailings as an ingredient in cement making.

  3. Radiological control criteria for materials considered for recycle and reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting technical analyses to support the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Guidance, Air, Water, and Radiation Division (DOE/EH-232) in developing radiological control criteria for recycling or reuse of metals or equipment containing residual radioactive contamination from DOE operations. The criteria, framed as acceptable concentrations for release of materials for recycling or reuse, are risk-based and were developed through analysis of generic radiation exposure scenarios and pathways. The analysis includes evaluation of relevant radionuclides, potential mechanisms of exposure, and non-health-related impacts of residual radioactivity on electronics and film. The analysis considers 42 key radionuclides that DOE operations are known to generate and that may be contained in recycled or reused metals or equipment. The preliminary results are compared with similar results reported by the International Atomic Energy Agency, by radionuclide grouping. (author)

  4. Radiological control criteria for materials considered for recycle and reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting technical analyses to support the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Guidance, Air, Water, and Radiation Division (DOE/EH-232) in developing radiological control criteria for recycling or reuse of metals or equipment containing residual radioactive contamination from DOE operations. The criteria, framed as acceptable concentrations for release of materials for recycling or reuse, are risk-based and were developed through analysis of generic radiation exposure scenarios and pathways. The analysis includes evaluation of relevant radionuclides, potential mechanisms of exposure, and non-health-related impacts of residual radioactivity on electronics and film. The analysis considers 42 key radionuclides that DOE operations are known to generate and that may be contained in recycled or reused metals or equipment. Preliminary results are compared with similar results reported by the International Atomic Energy Agency, by radionuclide grouping

  5. Reuse and Interoperability of Avionics for Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, Robert F.

    2007-01-01

    The space environment presents unique challenges for avionics. Launch survivability, thermal management, radiation protection, and other factors are important for successful space designs. Many existing avionics designs use custom hardware and software to meet the requirements of space systems. Although some space vendors have moved more towards a standard product line approach to avionics, the space industry still lacks similar standards and common practices for avionics development. This lack of commonality manifests itself in limited reuse and a lack of interoperability. To address NASA s need for interoperable avionics that facilitate reuse, several hardware and software approaches are discussed. Experiences with existing space boards and the application of terrestrial standards is outlined. Enhancements and extensions to these standards are considered. A modular stack-based approach to space avionics is presented. Software and reconfigurable logic cores are considered for extending interoperability and reuse. Finally, some of the issues associated with the design of reusable interoperable avionics are discussed.

  6. REUSE OF AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENTS FROM DISMANTLED END OF LIFE VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr NOWAKOWSKI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of recycling end of life automotive vehicles is serious worldwide. It is one of the most important streams of waste in developed countries. It has big importance as recycling potential of raw materials content in automotive vehicles is valuable. Different parts and assemblies after dismantling can also be reused in vehicles where replacement of specific component is necessary. Reuse of the components should be taken into consideration in selecting the vehicles dismantling strategy. It also complies with European Union policy concerning end of life vehicles (ELV. In the paper it is presented systematic approach to dismantling strategies including disassembly oriented on further reuse of components. It is focused on decision making and possible benefits calculation from economic and environmental point of view.

  7. Selecting a Sustainable Disinfection Technique for Wastewater Reuse Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Curiel-Esparza

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an application of the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP by integrating a Delphi process for selecting the best sustainable disinfection technique for wastewater reuse projects. The proposed methodology provides project managers a tool to evaluate problems with multiple criteria and multiple alternatives which involve non-commeasurable decision criteria, with expert opinions playing a major role in the selection of these treatment technologies. Five disinfection techniques for wastewater reuse have been evaluated for each of the nine criteria weighted according to the opinions of consulted experts. Finally, the VIKOR method has been applied to determine a compromise solution, and to establish the stability of the results. Therefore, the expert system proposed to select the optimal disinfection alternative is a hybrid method combining the AHP with the Delphi method and the VIKOR technique, which is shown to be appropriate in realistic scenarios where multiple stakeholders are involved in the selection of a sustainable disinfection technique for wastewater reuse projects.

  8. Optimisation of industrial wastes reuse as construction materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collivignarelli, C; Sorlini, S

    2001-12-01

    This study concerns the reuse of two inorganic wastes, foundry residues and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration, as "recycled aggregate" in concrete production. This kind of reuse was optimised by waste treatment with the following steps: waste washing with water; waste stabilisation-solidification treatment with inorganic reagents; final grinding of the stabilised waste after curing for about 10-20 days. Both the treated wastes were reused in concrete production with different mix-designs. Concrete specimens were characterised by means of conventional physical-mechanical tests (compression, elasticity modulus, shrinkage) and different leaching tests. Experimental results showed that a good structural and environmental quality of "recycled concrete" is due both to a correct waste treatment and to a correct mix-design for concrete mixture. PMID:12201684

  9. Beneficial insects attracted to native flowering buckwheats (Eriogonum Michx) in central Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, David G; Seymour, Lorraine; Lauby, Gerry; Buckley, Katie

    2014-08-01

    Native plant and beneficial insect associations are relatively unstudied yet are important in native habitat restoration programs aimed at improving conservation biological control in perennial crops such as wine grapes. Beneficial insects (predators, parasitoids, pollinators) attracted to 10 species of flowering native wild buckwheat (Eriogonum spp.) in central Washington were identified and counted on transparent sticky traps. Combining all categories of beneficial insects, the mean number per trap ranged from 48.5 (Eriogonum umbellatum) to 167.7 (Eriogonum elatum). Three Eriogonum spp. (E. elatum, Eriogonum compositum, and Eriogonum niveum) attracted significantly more beneficial insects than the lowest-ranked species. E. niveum attracted greatest numbers of bees and parasitic wasps, and E. elatum was highly attractive to predatory true bugs and beneficial flies. Blooming periods of Eriogonum spp. extended from mid April to the end of September. This study demonstrates the attraction of beneficial insects to native flowering buckwheats and suggests their potential as a component of habitat restoration strategies to improve and sustain conservation biological control in Washington viticulture. PMID:24960157

  10. Beneficial health properties of iridoids terpenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Carreras, N.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Food components can have biological activity and healthy properties. Some of them, produced by plants, are named phytochemicals. The diversity of phytochemicals is amazing and this term refers in fact to a wide variety of compounds. Some of them, biosynthesized from isoprene, are named terpenes, and an important group of biciclic monoterpenes, derived fromgeraniol, are named iridoids.Iridoids can have open structures (secoiridoids or closed structures (really iridoids and they appear usua lly as heteroside compounds, in particular as glycosides. They have beneficial effects on liver and bi -liary function. Moreover, they have also demonstrated anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anti-carcinogenic and antiviral activity, and they can be used as antidote in mushroom intoxications, in particular, those caused byAmanita type. Iridoids are present in particular in plants such as olive, harpagophytum, the valerian plant, the gentian plant and the ash tree. All these plants have been reported to be used as traditional medicine inmany cultures. Nowadays, their leaves, tubercles, roots, seeds, and extracts are also considered important for pharmacology, and some of their active compounds have been identified. This review refers to the origin and biosynthetic pathways of iridoids. It describes the characteristics and properties of the plants mentioned above, and it also mentions the principal iridoids isolated from them.

  11. Nanoscale particles in technological processes of beneficiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey I. Popel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cavitation is a rather common and important effect in the processes of destruction of nano- and microscale particles in natural and technological processes. A possible cavitation disintegration of polymineral nano- and microparticles, which are placed into a liquid, as a result of the interaction of the particles with collapsed cavitation bubbles is considered. The emphasis is put on the cavitation processes on the interface between liquid and fine solid particles, which is suitable for the description of the real situations.Results: The results are illustrated for the minerals that are most abundant in gold ore. The bubbles are generated by shock loading of the liquid heated to the boiling temperature. Possibilities of cavitation separation of nano- and microscale monomineral fractions from polymineral nano- and microparticles and of the use of cavitation for beneficiation are demonstrated.Conclusion: The cavitation disintegration mechanism is important because the availability of high-grade deposits in the process of mining and production of noble metals is decreasing. This demands for an enhancement of the efficiency in developing low-grade deposits and in reprocessing ore dumps and tailings, which contain a certain amount of noble metals in the form of finely disseminated fractions. The cavitation processes occuring on the interface between liquid and fine solid particles are occasionally more effective than the bulk cavitation processes that were considered earlier.

  12. FACEBOOK AND WHATSAPP: BENEFICIAL OR HARMFUL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankalp Raj

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available New innovations and advances in science and technology in the present day have made considerable and significant changes in the lifestyle of people all around the globe. Communication from one part of the world to another is possible at the hit of a button . Social networking is being rampantly used everywhere and by everybody, be it youngsters or the older generation. Facebook and Whatsapp are the most commonly used means of communication in social networking at present. Smart phones functioning as minicomp uters with fast internet connectivity in the pockets of today’s technosavy generation have made them create and spend most of their time interacting with people in a virtual world. There is an urgent need to understand the dynamics of social media and its effects on the lifestyle of people. Studies documenting the same have been very few. This study was conducted to understand the benefits and harms towards health and academics of MBBS students. This cross - sectional study on 147 MBBS students revealed inter esting findings and opinions of the students. Effects of Facebook and What Sapp on productivity and sleep disturbances due to it were the significant findings of the study. Facebook and Whatsapp can be considered both beneficial and harmful and it solely d epends on how it is being put to use

  13. Beneficial and adverse effects of chemopreventive agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Mu; Park, Kwang-Kyun

    2003-03-01

    The beneficial and adverse effects of some chemopreventive agents, such as Vitamins A, C, E, beta-carotene, indole-3-carbinol, capsaicin, garlic, and aloe are reviewed. Two large randomized trials with a lung cancer endpoint, the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene (ATBC) Prevention Study and the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET), suggested that antioxidants might be harmful in smokers. However, the results of the Linxian study and of the ATBC or the CARET studies were significantly different in this respect, and therefore, the relationship between antioxidant and carcinogenesis remains open to debate. Indole-3-carbinol has cancer promoting activities in the colon, thyroid, pancreas, and liver, whereas capsaicin alters the metabolism of chemical carcinogens and may promote carcinogenesis at high doses. Organosulfur compounds and selenium from garlic have no or a little enhancing effect on cancer promotion stage. Information upon chemopreventive mechanisms that inhibit carcinogenesis is imperfect, although the causes and natures of certain human cancers are known. Therefore, definitive preventive guidelines should be carefully offered for various types of tumors, which properly consider ethnic variations, and the efficacies and the safety of chemopreventive agents.

  14. Beneficial and adverse effects of chemopreventive agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The beneficial and adverse effects of some chemopreventive agents, such as Vitamins A, C, E, beta-carotene, indole-3-carbinol, capsaicin, garlic, and aloe are reviewed. Two large randomized trials with a lung cancer endpoint, the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene (ATBC) Prevention Study and the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET), suggested that antioxidants might be harmful in smokers. However, the results of the Linxian study and of the ATBC or the CARET studies were significantly different in this respect, and therefore, the relationship between antioxidant and carcinogenesis remains open to debate. Indole-3-carbinol has cancer promoting activities in the colon, thyroid, pancreas, and liver, whereas capsaicin alters the metabolism of chemical carcinogens and may promote carcinogenesis at high doses. Organosulfur compounds and selenium from garlic have no or a little enhancing effect on cancer promotion stage. Information upon chemopreventive mechanisms that inhibit carcinogenesis is imperfect, although the causes and natures of certain human cancers are known. Therefore, definitive preventive guidelines should be carefully offered for various types of tumors, which properly consider ethnic variations, and the efficacies and the safety of chemopreventive agents

  15. Service Registry: A Key Piece for Enhancing Reuse in SOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo García-González

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the promises of adopting a service-oriented approach in organizations is the potential cost savings that result from the reuse of existing services. A service registry is one of the fundamental pieces of service oriented architecture (SOA for achieving reuse. It refers to a place in which service providers can impart information about their offered services and potential clients can search for services. In this article, we provide advice for implementing an enterprise-wide service registry. We also discuss open issues in industry and academia that affect the management of service- repository information.

  16. Wastewater Treatment and Reuse: Past, Present, and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas N. Angelakis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the Special Issue on Wastewater Treatment and Reuse: Past, Present, and Future. The papers selected for publication include advanced wastewater treatment and monitoring technologies, such as membrane bioreactors, electrochemical systems; denitrifying biofilters, and disinfection technologies. The Issue also contains articles related to best management practices of biosolids, the influence of organic matter on pathogen inactivation and nutrient removal. Collectively, the Special Issue presents an evolution of technologies, from conventional through advanced, for reliable and sustainable wastewater treatment and reuse.

  17. Servicizing and construction of the reuse system of schoolbook

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Recently the phenomenon of disposable schoolbook in China not only has wasted so many resources that produce unfavorable influence, but also has increased unnecessary impact burdens on consumptions of Chinese families The paper analyzes value of the reuse of schoolbooks and main obstacles, introduces the concept of servicizing, discusses the problem of the muse of schoolbooks from construct, on of product-service system, and puts forward that realization of the reuse of schoolbooks depends on innovation of present system and model. Construction of schoolbook-service system needs shift from value to consumption habits and behaviors, and active participation of every social class.

  18. Reuse: Creating a Next Life For Common Items

    OpenAIRE

    Brain, Roslynn; Waldbillig, H.

    2012-01-01

    If you are looking for ways to save money and add creative flair to your daily life, reusing everyday items you are likely to throw away could be the answer! We produce an average of 4.4 pounds each of trash a day in the U.S., which amounts to 1,600 pounds per person each year (Environmental Protection Agency, 2011). This yearly waste produced by each one of us is more than the typical weight of a Bison, America’s largest land animal! Often overshadowed by recycling, reusing is a zero-impact ...

  19. An alternative process to treat boiler feed water for reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirgis, Adel; Ghosh, Jyoti P; Achari, Gopal; Langford, Cooper H; Banerjee, Daliya

    2012-09-01

    A bench-scale process to treat boiler feed water for reuse in steam generation was developed. Industrial water samples from a steam-assisted gravity drainage plant in northern Alberta, Canada, were obtained and samples characterized. The technology, which consists of coagulation-settling to remove oil/grease and particulates followed by an advanced oxidative treatment, led to clean water samples with negligible organic carbon. Coagulation followed by settling removed most particulates and some insoluble organics. The advanced oxidative treatment removed any remaining color in the samples, decreased the organic content to near-zero, and provided water ready for reuse. PMID:23012772

  20. Formal Ontology: Foundation of Domain Knowledge Sharing and Reusing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆汝钤; 金芝

    2002-01-01

    Domain analysis is the activity of identifying and representing the relevantinformation in a domain, so that the information can be shared and reused in similar systems.But until now, no efficient approaches are available for capturing and representing the results ofdomain analysis and then for sharing and reusing the domain knowledge. This paper proposesan ontology-oriented approach for formalizing the domain models. The architecture for themultiple-layer structure of the domain knowledge base is also discussed. And finally, somegenetic algorithm-based methods have been given for supporting the knowledge sharing andreusing.

  1. Performing Verification and Validation in Reuse-Based Software Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addy, Edward A.

    1999-01-01

    The implementation of reuse-based software engineering not only introduces new activities to the software development process, such as domain analysis and domain modeling, it also impacts other aspects of software engineering. Other areas of software engineering that are affected include Configuration Management, Testing, Quality Control, and Verification and Validation (V&V). Activities in each of these areas must be adapted to address the entire domain or product line rather than a specific application system. This paper discusses changes and enhancements to the V&V process, in order to adapt V&V to reuse-based software engineering.

  2. Facilitating Reuse of Safety Case Artefacts Using Safety Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Šljivo, Irfan

    2015-01-01

     Safety-critical systems usually need to comply with a domain-specific safety standard, which often require a safety case in form of an explained argument supported by evidence to show that the system is acceptably safe to operate in a given context. Developing such systems to comply with a safety standard is a time-consuming and costly process. Reuse within development of such systems is used to reduce the cost and time needed to both develop the system and the accompanying safety case. Reus...

  3. Markov Chain for Reuse Strategies of Product Families

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Jia; JIANG Lan

    2007-01-01

    A methodology is presented to plan reuse strategies of common modules in a product family by using the concepts of function degradation, reliability, function requirement, cost and life time. Markov chain model is employed to predict function degradation and reliability. A utility model is used to evaluate the preference between used modules and new modules. An example of cascading-requirment product family illustrates the main ideas of our work. The Markov models are used effectively to predict function degradation and reliability. Utility theory is helpful to evaluate the reuse options of common modules.

  4. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales -- Beneficiation. Topical report for Task 4, Beneficiation research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, M.J.; Lau, F.S.; Mensinger, M.C. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Schultz, C.W.; Mehta, R.K.; Lamont, W.E. [Alabama Univ., University, AL (United States); Chiang, S.H.; Venkatadri, R. [Pittsburgh Univ., PA (United States); Misra, M. [Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States)

    1992-05-01

    The Mineral Resources Institute at the University of Alabama, along with investigators from the University of Pittsburgh and the University of Nevada-Reno, have conducted a research program on the beneficiation, of Eastern oil shales. The objective of the research program was to evaluate and adapt those new and emerging technologies that have the potential to improve the economics of recovering oil from Eastern oil shales. The technologies evaluated in this program can be grouped into three areas: fine grinding kerogen/mineral matter separation, and waste treatment and disposal. Four subtasks were defined in the area of fine grinding. They were as follows: Ultrasonic Grinding, Pressure Cycle Comminution, Stirred Ball Mill Grinding, and Grinding Circuit Optimization. The planned Ultrasonic grinding research was terminated when the company that had contracted to do the research failed. Three technologies for effecting a separation of kerogen from its associated mineral matter were evaluated: column flotation, the air-sparged hydrocyclone, and the LICADO process. Column flotation proved to be the most effective means of making the kerogen/mineral matter separation. No problems are expected in the disposal of oil shale tailings. It is assumed that the tailings will be placed in a sealed pond and the water recycled to the plant as is the normal practice. It may be advantageous, however, to conduct further research on the recovery of metals as by-products and to assess the market for tailings as an ingredient in cement making.

  5. Cost Effective Recovery of Low-TDS Frac Flowback Water for Re-use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claire Henderson; Harish Acharya; Hope Matis; Hareesh Kommepalli; Brian Moore; Hua Wang

    2011-03-31

    disposal costs and regulations, a parametric value assessment tool was created to assess the economic attractiveness of a given flowback recovery process relative to conventional disposal for any combination of anticipated flowback TDS and local disposal cost. It is concluded that membrane systems in combination with appropriate pretreatment technologies can provide cost-effective recovery of low-TDS flow-back water for either beneficial reuse or safe surface discharge.

  6. Reuse dan Reduce dalam Penciptaan Aksesoris Multifungsi Berbahan Tekstil

    OpenAIRE

    Alfi Luviani

    2014-01-01

    Penciptaan aksesoris multifungsi dipandang penting di tengah gempuran produkaksesoris mass production dari China yang menyerbu konsumen Indonesia. Aksesorismultifungsi berbahan tekstil dengan konsep reuse dan reduce berdasarkan ide ecofriendly ini mencoba menawarkan sebuah alternatif dalam suatu produk aksesoris,serta turut serta berpartisipasi dalam ide karya seni yang ramah lingkungan.Metode yang dipakai dalam pembuatannya adalah eksplorasi, eksperimen, danmelalui proses perwujudan. Pencipt...

  7. Reusing open data for learning database design through project development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose-Norberto MAZÓN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a novel methodology based on reusing open data for applying project-based learning in a Database Design subject of a university degree. This methodology is applied to the ARA (Alto Rendimiento Académico or High Academic Performance group taught in the degree in Computer Engineering at the University of Alicante (Spain during 2012/2013, 2013/2014, and 2014/2015. Openness philosophy implies that huge amount of data is available to students in tabular format, ready for reusing. In our teaching experience, students propose an original scenario where different open data can be reused to a specific goal. Then, it is proposed to design a database in order to manage this data in the envisioned scenario. Open data in the subject helps in instilling a creative and entrepreneur attitude in students, as well as encourages autonomous and lifelong learning. Surveys made to students at the end of each year shown that reusing open data within project-based learning methodologies makes more motivated students since they are using real data.

  8. Development of an advanced water treatment system for wastewater reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, H; Ku, B; Gregory, J

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this research was to develop an optimal reuse system applying various types of advanced oxidation processes such as titanium dioxide (TiO2), ozone (O3) and electro-coagulation/oxidation methods. This system is suitable for improving the treatment efficiency of difficult wastewaters, and for the efficient reuse of wastewater. The connecting systems were divided into various types to investigate the stability and treatment efficiency according to the kinds of waste load. Different treatment sequences were examined taking into consideration the characteristics and economical efficiency. In the case of electro-coagulation/oxidation + ozone system, the mean treatment efficiency in terms of BOD5, CODCr and SS removal was 98.7%. The effluent concentration was 50.2 mg l(-1), 38.3 mg l(-1), 30.4 mg l(-1), respectively. In considering the economical efficiency and commercial use, around an eighth of the treatment expenses and around a fifth of the maintenance expenses could be saved compared with existing water treatment systems. The initial construction expenses could be reduced by a third to a fifth. Therefore, if a proper implementation of this research is carried out in relation to site conditions and the purpose of the water reuse, the water reuse rate will be higher and water resources can be protected. PMID:18844120

  9. Reusing Design Knowledge Based on Design Cases and Knowledge Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng; Liu, Zheng; Wang, Haobai; Shen, Jiaoqi

    2013-01-01

    Design knowledge was reused for innovative design work to support designers with product design knowledge and help designers who lack rich experiences to improve their design capacity and efficiency. First, based on the ontological model of product design knowledge constructed by taxonomy, implicit and explicit knowledge was extracted from some…

  10. Using Linked Open Data to Improve Data Reuse in Zooarchaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Whitcher Kansa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The inability of journals and books to accommodate data and to make it reusable has led to the gradual loss of vast amounts of information. The practice of disseminating selected sub-sets of data (usually in summary tables permits only very limited types of reuse, and thus hampers scholarship. In recent years, largely in response to increasing government and institutional requirements for full data access, the scholarly community is giving data more attention, and solutions for data management are emerging. However, seeing data management primarily as a matter of compliance means that the research community faces continued data loss, as many datasets enter repositories without adequate description to enable their reuse. Furthermore, because many archaeologists do not yet have experience in data reuse, they lack understanding of what “good” data management means in terms of their own research practices. This paper discusses Linked Open Data (LOD as an approach to improving data description, intelligibility and discoverability to facilitate reuse. I present examples of how annotating zooarchaeology datasets with LOD can facilitate data integration without forcing standardization. I conclude by recognizing that data sharing is not without its challenges. However, the research community’s careful attention and recognition of datasets as valuable scholarly outputs will go a long way toward ensuring that the products of our work are more widely useful.

  11. Evaluation of optimal reuse system for hydrofluoric acid wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Chan-Hee [Department of Environmental Engineering, Chonbuk National University, 567 Bakje-daero, Deokjin-Gu, Jeonju, Jeollabuk-Do, 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jeongyun [R and D Center, Samsung Engineering Co. Ltd., 415-10 Woncheon-Dong, Youngtong-Gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-Do, 443-823 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jinwook, E-mail: jin-wook.chung@samsung.com [R and D Center, Samsung Engineering Co. Ltd., 415-10 Woncheon-Dong, Youngtong-Gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-Do, 443-823 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coagulation and ion exchange technologies were ineffective in removing fluoride. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polyamide RO was more efficacious than cellulose RO due to its high flux and rejection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spiral wound RO system was more preferential to disc tube RO system for reusing raw hydrofluoric acid wastewater. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combined coagulation and RO technology can be applied to reuse raw hydrofluoric acid wastewater. - Abstract: The treatment of hydrofluoric acid (HF) wastewater has been an important environmental issue in recent years due to the extensive use of hydrofluoric acid in the chemical and electronics industries, such as semiconductor manufacturers. Coagulation/precipitation and ion exchange technologies have been used to treat HF wastewater, but these conventional methods are ineffective in removing organics, salts, and fluorides, limiting its reuse for water quality and economic feasibility. One promising alternative is reverse osmosis (RO) after lime treatment. Based on pilot-scale experiment using real HF wastewater discharged from semiconductor facility, the spiral wound module equipped with polyamide membranes has shown excellent flux and chemical cleaning cycles. Our results suggest that coagulation/precipitation and spiral wound RO constitute the optimal combination to reuse HF wastewater.

  12. Treatment and reuse for irrigation of wastewater in Cagliari

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D.M. 12 June 2003 n. 185 gives national rules about wastewater recycling and reuse. Increasing in water consumption for new agricultural practise and uncertainty about availability of water resource in summer due to climatic instability make necessary to search new available fonts. In most part of Italian territory surface water volumes are taken into civil water distribution system for domestic use and, in summer, rivers are often in dry condition before arriving in urban tracts and in quality condition typical of domestic wastewater more or less treated in downstream. This work explains an experience in reclamation and irrigation reuse of a large flowrate of domestic wastewater carried out in Cagliari and discuss results in order to test reliability and efficiency with reference to existent Italian laws about discharge (D.Lgs n. 152/99) and reuse (D.M. n. 185/2003). Simbrizzi artificial basin make possible agricultural recycling and reuse realizing adequate retention basins for storage and final finishing of wastewater, at the same time permits to avoid every discharge in seawater during summer

  13. Discovery and Reuse of Open Datasets: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This article analyzes twenty cited or downloaded datasets and the repositories that house them, in order to produce insights that can be used by academic libraries to encourage discovery and reuse of research data in institutional repositories. Methods: Using Thomson Reuters’ Data Citation Index and repository download statistics, we identified twenty cited/downloaded datasets. We documented the characteristics of the cited/downloaded datasets and their corresponding repositories in a self-designed rubric. The rubric includes six major categories: basic information; funding agency and journal information; linking and sharing; factors to encourage reuse; repository characteristics; and data description. Results: Our small-scale study suggests that cited/downloaded datasets generally comply with basic recommendations for facilitating reuse: data are documented well; formatted for use with a variety of software; and shared in established, open access repositories. Three significant factors also appear to contribute to dataset discovery: publishing in discipline-specific repositories; indexing in more than one location on the web; and using persistent identifiers. The cited/downloaded datasets in our analysis came from a few specific disciplines, and tended to be funded by agencies with data publication mandates. Conclusions: The results of this exploratory research provide insights that can inform academic librarians as they work to encourage discovery and reuse of institutional datasets. Our analysis also suggests areas in which academic librarians can target open data advocacy in their communities in order to begin to build open data success stories that will fuel future advocacy efforts.

  14. Resource Recovery and Reuse in Organic Solid Waste Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, P.N.L.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Hoitink, H.; Bidlingmaier, W.

    2004-01-01

    Uncontrolled spreading of waste materials leads to health problems and environmental damage. To prevent these problems a waste management infrastructure has been set to collect and dispose of the waste, based on a hierarchy of three principles: waste prevention, recycling/reuse, and final disposal.

  15. TREATMENT OF ORGANIC CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING WASTEWATER FOR REUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research demonstrated the quality of water produced by each step of a state-of-the-art, commercially available process sequence and determined the feasibility and economics of renovating organic chemical watewater for reuse as boiler feedwater or cycle cooling water. The 5-g...

  16. The reuse of scrap and decontamination waste water from decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huge amount of radioactive scrap with low activity will be generated from reactor decommissioning; the decontamination is concentrated in the surface layer of the scrap. The decontaminated substance can be removed by high pressure water jet to appear the base metal and to reuse the metal. Big amount of radioactive waste water will be generated by this decontamination technology; the radioactive of the waste water is mainly caused by the solid particle from decontamination. To remove the solid particle as clean as possible, the waste water can be reused. Different possible technology to remove the solid particle from the water had been investigated, such as the gravity deposit separation, the filtration and the centrifugal separation etc. The centrifugal separation technology is selected; it includes the hydraulic vortex, the centrifugal filtration and the centrifugal deposit. After the cost benefit analysis at last the centrifugal deposit used butterfly type separator is selected. To reuse the waste water the fresh water consumption and the cost for waste water treatment can be reduced. To reuse the radioactive scrap and the waste water from decommissioning will minimize the radioactive waste. (authors)

  17. Wastewater re-use and groundwater quality: introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenvoorden, J.H.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    In many parts of the world regional water resources and future water supply are at risk as a result of climate change and population increase. Innovative measures are necessary to find socio-economically acceptable solutions to combat the existing scarcity of water. Re-use of (pre-)treated wastewate

  18. Factors Affecting the Intention to Reuse Mobile Banking Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceva Lavenja Arahita

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The accelerated advancement in technology resulted to the appearance of Self Service Technology. One form of self-service technology in the banking sector is the presence of mobile banking. This study aims to examine the influence of five factors toward the reusing of Mobile Bank Central Asia (BCA in Bandung. Those factors used in this study were the extension of Technology Acceptance Model (TAM constructs, i.e perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, perceived credibility, customer awareness and social influence. Data was collected through distributed questionnaire to 100 respondents who used Mobile BCA by using judgment sampling. Multiple linear regression technique was employed to investigate the influence among variables. This study empirically concluded that consumer intention to reuse BCA mobile services was positively influenced by perceived ease of use, customer awareness and social influence. On the other hand, perceived usefulness and perceived credibility did not influence the intention of reusing Mobile BCA in Bandung. Further study is suggested to use probability sampling technique to cover the real voice of mobile banking user in Bandung and to explore the lack influence of perceived usefulness and perceived credibility toward reusing of Mobile BCA.

  19. Shared Learning: Feminist Student Research on Household Reuse Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medley, Kimberly E.; Zhou, Ying; Condon, Darcy

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes collaborative student research on waste management that first compiled home interviews with women professors in Oxford, Ohio, USA, and Beijing, China, on household reuse for a graduate thesis and then communicated the findings in a handbook for undergraduate students. The women participants described diverse household reuse…

  20. Beneficiation of ilmenite from lumar analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadorai, G.; Dean, R.

    1992-01-01

    must be emphasized that improved grades and recoveries can be obtained with the -400 mesh fines. However, beneficiation of these extremely fine materials is not possible in a practical process scheme.

  1. Greywater reuse: A strategy for water demand management in Harare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madungwe, Emaculate; Sakuringwa, Saniso

    Greywater is wastewater from baths, sinks and washing machines, accounting for about 60% of the outflow from homes. It contains little pathogens and 90% less nitrogen than toilet water, so does not require the same treatment process. With the increasing demand for freshwater, its use may reduce irrigation water needs, increasing its availability of freshwater for other primary uses. Agriculture is the main water consumer in Africa, which cannot be compromised due to its role in domestic food security and export supplies. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate findings of the research done on benefits of greywater reuse in some countries, applicable to African countries. In Australia, greywater reuse has reduced freshwater demand, strain on wastewater treatment plants and energy consumption. Aquifer recharge has improved due to increased infiltration flows from greywater uses. In Lebanon, greywater is a valuable resource for encouraging plant growth from nutrients that may otherwise have been wasted. Palestine shares similar climate and water scarcity conditions with most arid sub-Saharan African countries, yet utilizes grey water in production of crops and citrus fruits. Thus use of grey water should be possible in African cities such as Harare, where nearly two thirds of the population rely on agriculture for livelihoods. The problem of blue green algae in sewerage ponds and water reservoirs is significantly reduced by household reuse of grey water in Mexico. Water savings are increased and expenses reduced, as illustrated by the reduction in consumption of municipality freshwater supplies in South African urban areas. Rural communities and schools in Namibia and Egypt have raised funds from grey water reuse in banana plantations. A possible constraint to this strategy could be the unavailability of appropriate technology for primary treatment of grey water before reuse. This strategy may pose health risks where water quality tests are unknown or unavailable

  2. The Side Effects of Insecticide Efficient Biocidals to Beneficial Insects

    OpenAIRE

    Şimşek, Muharrem; ÖZKAN, Cem

    2015-01-01

    Unawares usage of biocidals effects not only natural resources, environment and human health but also can damage beneficial insects which suppresses pests. Herein, the side effects of insecticide efficient biocidals to important beneficial insects was handled and measures on sustainable biocidal usages was discussed. The side effects of Deltamethrin, Azadirachtin, Spinosad and Bacillus thuringinensis biocidals to certain important beneficial insects were evaluated with literature data. Negati...

  3. License Risks from Ad-Hoc Reuse of Code from the Internet: An Empirical Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Sojer, Joachim Henkel

    2014-01-01

    Reusing code that is downloadable from the Internet—particularly open source software (OSS) code—in commercial software development is attractive for both firms and their software developers. However, to avoid serious economic and legal consequences for firms, the license obligations of the reused code have to be met. While this risk seems to be manageable in systematic reuse, colloquial evidence suggests that when reusing Internet code in ad-hoc fashion, individual professional software deve...

  4. A framework for software reuse in safety-critical system of systems

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, Bradley R.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis concerns the effective and safe software reuse in safety-critical system-of-systems. Software reuse offers many unutilized benefits such as achieving rapid system development, saving resources and time, and keeping up technologically in an increasingly advancing global environment. System software needs to be designed for both reuse and safety and available information shared effectively. We introduce a process neutral framework for software reuse in safety-critical system of ...

  5. A Proposal on Using Reuse Readiness Levels to Measure Software Reusability

    OpenAIRE

    Downs, Robert R.; Marshall, James J.

    2010-01-01

    The use of scientific data is becoming increasingly dependent on the software that fosters such use. As the ability to reuse software contributes to capabilities for reusing software-dependent data, instruments for measuring software reusability contribute to the reuse of software and related data. The development and current state of a proposed set of Reuse Readiness Levels (RRLs) are summarized, and potential uses of the software reusability measures are described, along with proposed use c...

  6. Beneficiation-hydroretort processing of US oil shales, engineering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.R.; Riley, R.H.

    1988-12-01

    This report describes a beneficiation facility designed to process 1620 tons per day of run-of-mine Alabama oil shale containing 12.7 gallons of kerogen per ton of ore (based on Fischer Assay). The beneficiation facility will produce briquettes of oil shale concentrate containing 34.1 gallons of kerogen per ton (based on Fischer Assay). The beneficiation facility will produce briquettes of oil shale concentrate containing 34.1 gallons of kerogen per ton (based on Fischer Assay) suitable for feed to a hydroretort oil extraction facility of nominally 20,000 barrels per day capacity. The beneficiation plant design prepared includes the operations of crushing, grinding, flotation, thickening, filtering, drying, briquetting, conveying and tailings empoundment. A complete oil shale beneficiation plant is described including all anticipated ancillary facilities. For purposes of determining capital and operating costs, the beneficiation facility is assumed to be located on a generic site in the state of Alabama. The facility is described in terms of the individual unit operations with the capital costs being itemized in a similar manner. Additionally, the beneficiation facility estimated operating costs are presented to show operating costs per ton of concentrate produced, cost per barrel of oil contained in concentrate and beneficiation cost per barrel of oil extracted from concentrate by hydroretorting. All costs are presented in fourth quarter of 1988 dollars.

  7. A holistic approach to managing palm oil mill effluent (POME): biotechnological advances in the sustainable reuse of POME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ta Yeong; Mohammad, Abdul Wahab; Jahim, Jamaliah Md; Anuar, Nurina

    2009-01-01

    During the last century, a great deal of research and development as well as applications has been devoted to waste. These include waste minimization and treatment, the environmental assessment of waste, minimization of environmental impact, life cycle assessment and others. The major reason for such huge efforts is that waste generation constitutes one of the major environmental problems where production industries are concerned. Until now, an increasing pressure has been put on finding methods of reusing waste, for instance through cleaner production, thus mirroring rapid changes in environmental policies. The palm oil industry is one of the leading industries in Malaysia with a yearly production of more than 13 million tons of crude palm oil and plantations covering 11% of the Malaysian land area. However, the production of such amounts of crude palm oil result in even larger amounts of palm oil mill effluent (POME), estimated at nearly three times the quantity of crude palm oil. Normally, POME is treated using end-of-pipe processes, but it is worth considering the potential value of POME prior to its treatment through introduction of a cleaner production. It is envisaged that POME can be sustainably reused as a fermentation substrate in the production of various metabolites, fertilizers and animal feeds through biotechnological advances. The present paper thus discusses various technically feasible and economically beneficial means of transforming the POME into low or preferably high value added products. PMID:18804158

  8. Managing Residual Contaminants Reuse and Isolation Case Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contaminants remaining on sites after regulatory-approved environmental remediation operations are complete represent continued risk to human health and the environment. Many sites require continued management efforts to: (1) protect the integrity of the engineered remedy/control, (2) limit the exposure of individuals to residual contamination by limiting reuse activities, (3) maintain ready access to accurate records/information, and (4) protect against vulnerabilities from intentional threats/actions. This paper presents performance information from selected case studies to provide insight into various management approaches employed for addressing the risks associated with residual contaminants. The case studies involve sites remediated within the U.S. CERCLA framework, and illustrate two prevailing management approaches for addressing the risks. Sacrifice Zones are sites that are purposefully isolated to prevent human access onto the property. Reuse Sites provide limited access for specific use

  9. Practical application of wastewater reuse in tourist resorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antakyali, D; Krampe, J; Steinmetz, H

    2008-01-01

    A medium-scale membrane bioreactor was tested in a large tourist resort on the south-western coast of Turkey with the treated wastewater subsequently being used for irrigational purposes. The wastewater treatment system was designed to eliminate carbonaceous and nitrogenous substances. Treatment efficiency was monitored by means of regular chemical and microbiological analyses. Information was collected on water use at different locations of the hotel. Specific values based on the number of guests were determined. Wastewater streams from kitchen, laundry and rooms were analysed to investigate the various contribution from these points. The social acceptance of the guests concerning the on-site wastewater treatment and reuse in the hotel was analysed using a questionnaire. The investigations indicated that the treated wastewater provides the required chemical and hygienic conditions to satisfy requirement for its reuse in irrigation. The acceptance by guests was encouraging for such applications. PMID:18587197

  10. Investigation of Adaptive Reuse of Heritage Buildings in Penang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasme N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Burra Charter has defined building adaptation as modifying a place to suit the existing or proposed use. Many historical buildings in the world have been changed or transformed for alternative uses or functions to meet current needs while remaining of significant value to younger generations. In order to protect and manage the historical buildings in Malaysia, various relevant agencies adopted a few general statutory frameworks such as the National Heritage Act (2005 and the Town and Country Planning Act (1979 for implementation at the national level while, for use at the local level, the Guideline for Conservation Areas and Heritage Buildings (GCAHB is used in George Town, Penang. Even though standards and guidelines have been made, there are still many buildings that have been adaptively reused without following the regulations, thereby, losing the building’s authenticity and historical significance. This paper will focus on an evaluation of adaptive reuse buildings in Penang in compliance with the GCAHB.

  11. Retrieving Reusable Design Cases: Exploiting Adaptation Knowledge in Design Reuse

    OpenAIRE

    Smyth, Barry; Keane, Mark T.

    1994-01-01

    Case-based reasoning has been identified as a potentially fruitful candidate technology with which to investigate the development of automated design systems. Two critical stages in case-based design are design retrieval and design adaptation. In the former, designs that can be reused for a new design problem must be located. In the latter, retrieved designs must be modified to meet the specific demands of the new target situation. In this paper we will address both of these stage...

  12. Enhance Reuse of Standard e-Business XML Schema Documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhwan, Jeong [POSTECH University, South Korea; Kulvatunyou, Boonserm [ORNL; Ivezic, Nenad [ORNL; Jones, Albert [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

    2005-07-01

    Ideally, e-Business application interfaces would be built from highly reusable specifications of business document standards. Since many of these specifications are poorly understood, users often create new ones or customize existing ones every time a new integration problem arises. Consequently, even though there is a potential for reuse, the lack of a component discovery tool means that the cost of reuse is still prohibitively high. In this paper, we explore the potential of using similarity metrics to discover standard XML Schema documents. Our goal is to enhance reuse of XML Schema document/component standards in new integration contexts through the discovery process. We are motivated by the increasing access to the application interface specifications expressed in the form of XML Schema. These specifications are created to facilitate business documents exchange among software applications. Reuse can reduce both the proliferation of standards and the interoperability costs. To demonstrate these potential benefits, we propose and position our research based on an experimental scenario and a novel evaluation approach to qualify alternative similarity metrics on schema discovery. The edge equality in the evaluation method provides a conservative quality measure. We review a number of fundamental approaches to developing similarity metrics, and we organize these metrics into lexical, structural, and logical categories. For each of the metrics, we discuss its relevance and potential issues in its application to the XML Schema discovery task. We conclude that each of the similarity measures has its own strengths and weaknesses and each is expected to yield different results in different search situations. It is important, in the context of an application of these measures to e-Business standards that a schema discovery engine capable of assigning appropriate weights to different similarity measures be used when the search conditions change. This is a subject of our

  13. Efficiency of domestic wastewater treatment plant for agricultural reuse

    OpenAIRE

    Claudinei Fonseca Souza; Reinaldo Gaspar Bastos; Marcus Paulo de Moraes Gomes; André Arashiro Pulschen

    2015-01-01

    The increasing demand for water has made the treatment and reuse of wastewater a topic of global importance. This work aims to monitor and evaluate the efficiency of a wastewater treatment plant’s (WWTP) physical and biological treatment of wastewater by measuring the reduction of organic matter content of the effluent during the treatment and the disposal of nutrients in the treated residue. The WWTP has been designed to treat 2500 liters of wastewater per day in four compartments: a septic ...

  14. Wastewater Treatment and Reuse: Past, Present, and Future

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas N. Angelakis; Snyder, Shane A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the Special Issue on Wastewater Treatment and Reuse: Past, Present, and Future. The papers selected for publication include advanced wastewater treatment and monitoring technologies, such as membrane bioreactors, electrochemical systems; denitrifying biofilters, and disinfection technologies. The Issue also contains articles related to best management practices of biosolids, the influence of organic matter on pathogen inactivation and nutrient removal. Colle...

  15. MAGNESIUM CARBONATE AS A COAGULANT, RECOVERY AND REUSE

    OpenAIRE

    M.Shariat; M.Kashefi-Alasl

    1982-01-01

    In order to prevent water losses through disposing hydrous sludge during treatment of water, also recovery and reuse of chemicals; treatment by magnesium carbonate as a coagulant was examined in batch and continuous systems. 600 mg/1 MgCO3 as optimum dosage reduced 80% turbidity of a highly turbid water containing 200 NTU. Sulfates decreased, but hardness and alkalinity showed some increases. Recarbonation by CO2 resulted in recovery of 45% of magnesium carbonate which was used again as part ...

  16. On the detection of SOurce COde re-use

    OpenAIRE

    FLORES SÁEZ, ENRIQUE; Rosso, Paolo; Moreno Boronat, Lidia Ana; Villatoro-Tello, Esaú

    2014-01-01

    © {Owner/Author | ACM} {2014}. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here for your personal use. Not for redistribution. The definitive Version of Record was published in FIRE '14 Proceedings of the Forum for Information Retrieval Evaluation, http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2824864.2824878" This paper summarizes the goals, organization and results of the first SOCO competitive evaluation campaign for systems that automatically detect the source code re-use phenomenon. ...

  17. Semantic Cooperation and Knowledge Reuse by Using Autonomous Ontologies

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yuting; Wang, Kewen; Topor, Rodney; Pan, Jeff Z.; Giunchiglia, Fausto

    2007-01-01

    Several proposals have been put forward to support distributed agent cooperation in the SemanticWeb, by allowing concepts and roles in one ontology be reused in another ontology. In general, these proposals reduce the autonomy of each ontology by defining the semantics of the ontology to depend on the semantics of the other ontologies. We propose a new framework for managing autonomy in a set of cooperating ontologies (or ontology space). In this framework, each language entity concept/role/i...

  18. The status of water reuse in European textile sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajnhandl, Simona; Valh, Julija Volmajer

    2014-08-01

    The textile finishing industry is known as a very fragmented and heterogeneous industrial sector dominated mainly by small and medium enterprises (SMEs). As with many other industrial sectors in Europe, it is obliged to act more sustainably in regard to increasingly limited natural resources such as water. This paper presents in-depth survey of wastewater reuse programmes over the last ten years covering the European textile finishing industry. Different wastewater treatment solutions developed are presented and discussed. Special attention is given to the project AquaFit4Use (7th Framework Programme), where almost five years of project work has resulted in valuable know-how practices in water reuse for the most water consuming sectors in Europe i.e. paper, food, chemical and textile. Only the latter is discussed in this paper. The main negative impacts by the textile finishing sector on the environment are still related to intensive water consumption and wastewater discharge, characterised by greater amounts of organic chemicals and colouring agents, low biodegradability, and high salinity. End of pipe treatment of such complex effluents in order to produce reusable water is not feasible. Therefore, separation of waste effluents regarding their pollution level and their separate treatment was the basic approach used in the project. As a result waste effluents with a big reuse potential could be effectively treated by combination of conventional treatment technologies. Proposed water treatment scenarios enable more than 40% reduction in fresh water consumption. Since different guidelines of minimum water quality to be safely reuse in textile processes exist at this stage this issue is discussed as well. PMID:24768832

  19. Design, Development and Reuse of Pedagogically Sound Learning Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Churchill, D.

    2005-01-01

    This seminar is co-organized by CITE & the Faculty of Education Due to the request by participants from the previous seminar on 18th of February, 2005, Dr Churchill decided to conduct an additional session. After a brief review of the concepts from the previous seminar, this session will examine issues of design, development and reuse of learning objects. Particular attention will be given to design of conceptual models of subject matter expert’s cognitive resources. Some simple tools for...

  20. Reuse of Digital Learning Resources in Collaborative Learning Environments

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    PhD thesis With background in the proliferation of Information- and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in educational institutions, there is a growing interest in deploying ICT that complies with specifications and standards for learning technologies in these institutions. A key to obtaining the benefits of cost-efficiency and quality that motivate this interest is reuse of digital learning resources. Despite the significant efforts being made in design and deployment of learning technology...

  1. Object-oriented hypertext design: authoring for reuse

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrikx, Koen; Olivié, Hendrik; Duval, Erik

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we present a new approach for the development of hypertext information systems that avoids a number of traditional hypermedia authoring problems, and facilitates the maintenance of links and the reuse of information resources. The model is set-based, and integrates features from object-oriented software design models. This helps authors to make a comprehensive (and comprehensible) design before starting an implementation. We also briefly describe an authoring system that impleme...

  2. Unrestricted re-use of decommissioned nuclear laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornelissen, R.; Noynaert, L.; Harnie, S.; Marien, J.

    1996-09-18

    A decommissioning strategy was developed by the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN. In this strategy decommissioning works are limited to the radioactive parts of the nuclear installation. After obtaining an attestation for unrestricted reuse of the building after removal of all radioactivity, the building can be used for new industrial purposes outside the nuclear field. The decommissioning activities according to this strategy have been applied in four buildings. The results are described.

  3. Data Conservancy: Infrastructure for Data Re-Use and Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, G. S.

    2011-12-01

    The Data Conservancy (DC) embraces a shared vision: scientific data curation is a means to collect, organize, validate and preserve data so that scientists can find new ways to address the grand research challenges that face society. DC has explicitly focused on a diverse range of data, disciplines and communities to maximize the potential for data re-use and sharing, particularly in unanticipated ways or by new communities. Rather than rely on a road map, DC has embraced the concept of principles of navigation outlined in socio-technical research related to infrastructure development. One of the key principles of navigation is that preservation fosters re-use. Many of the actions required to prepare data for ingestion and preservation resonate with or reinforce eventual data re-use and sharing. DC's architecture and infrastructure development are consistent with the Open Archival Information System (OAIS) reference model for digital archiving. DC's approach not only ensures a robust, full-fledged preservation framework but also supports rich, nuanced discovery, access and sharing capabilities and policies for a range of diverse data. For example, rather than assume encumbered data (e.g., endangered species location) is either available or unavailable, DC has considered approaches such as "data fuzzing" or the deliberate obfuscation of location to balance utility and confidentiality. Most recently, DC has developed the concept of a Data Conservancy Instance (DCI) that comprises hardware, software, staffing, policies and a sustainability model to support data re-use and sharing for designated communities. DC is planning to launch three DCIs by July 2012 at Colorado University/National Snow and Ice Data Center, the Marine Biological Laboratory and Johns Hopkins University. In subsequent years, these DCIs will work as an interoperable network providing "key integrators" such as data replication or query capabilities (e.g., geo-spatial, taxonomic) across the DCIs

  4. Conservation and adaptive reuse of industrial heritage in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Song

    2007-01-01

    This paper takes a retrospective review of the evolution of the conservation of industrial heritage in urban Shanghai since the 1990s within the context of the international industrial heritage conservation movement,with the emphasis on the construction of preservation systems,technical regulation compilation and conservation practice.Active conservation and adaptive reuse is the focus within the framework of the conservation of the architectural characteristics of industrial buildings and the townscape of industrial districts.

  5. Tools to Support the Reuse of Software Assets for the NASA Earth Science Decadal Survey Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattmann, Chris A.; Downs, Robert R.; Marshall, James J.; Most, Neal F.; Samadi, Shahin

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Earth Science Data Systems (ESDS) Software Reuse Working Group (SRWG) is chartered with the investigation, production, and dissemination of information related to the reuse of NASA Earth science software assets. One major current objective is to engage the NASA decadal missions in areas relevant to software reuse. In this paper we report on the current status of these activities. First, we provide some background on the SRWG in general and then discuss the group s flagship recommendation, the NASA Reuse Readiness Levels (RRLs). We continue by describing areas in which mission software may be reused in the context of NASA decadal missions. We conclude the paper with pointers to future directions.

  6. Reuse dan Reduce dalam Penciptaan Aksesoris Multifungsi Berbahan Tekstil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfi Luviani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Penciptaan aksesoris multifungsi dipandang penting di tengah gempuran produkaksesoris mass production dari China yang menyerbu konsumen Indonesia. Aksesorismultifungsi berbahan tekstil dengan konsep reuse dan reduce berdasarkan ide ecofriendly ini mencoba menawarkan sebuah alternatif dalam suatu produk aksesoris,serta turut serta berpartisipasi dalam ide karya seni yang ramah lingkungan.Metode yang dipakai dalam pembuatannya adalah eksplorasi, eksperimen, danmelalui proses perwujudan. Penciptaan karya aksesoris multifungsi ini diharapkandapat memperkaya dunia aksesoris di Indonesia, sehingga masyarakat tidak lagimemandang aksesoris sebagai sebuah pernak-pernik yang tidak penting, melainkanmampu menjadi ide yang kritis tentang produk yang ramah lingkungan sertamemberikan kontribusi positif bagi perkembangan dunia perhiasan dan fashion diIndonesia. Reuse and Reduce on Creating Multifunctional Textile Accessories. The creationof multifunctional accesorries is important in order to encounter the mass productionof Chinese accessories coming to Indonesia in the recent years. These multifunctionalaccessories made of textile with the concept of reuse and reduce which are based on theeco-friendly idea try to offer a different perspective of accessory products and to participatein creating the eco-friendly products as well. The research methods which have been usedare the exploration, experimentation, and materialization. This creation is expected to beable to enrich the accessories world in Indonesia, so the community would not perceiveaccessories merely as something unimportant anymore, yet it could be an object thatbrings a critical idea about the eco-friendly artworks/products. Also, it can give a positivecontribution for the development of fashion and jewelry worlds in Indonesia.

  7. Biological treatment and nanofiltration of denim textile wastewater for reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahinkaya, Erkan; Uzal, Nigmet; Yetis, Ulku [Middle East Technical University, Department of Environmental Engineering, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Dilek, Filiz B. [Middle East Technical University, Department of Environmental Engineering, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: fdilek@metu.edu.tr

    2008-05-30

    This study aims at coupling of activated sludge treatment with nanofiltration to improve denim textile wastewater quality to reuse criteria. In the activated sludge reactor, the COD removal efficiency was quite high as it was 91 {+-} 2% and 84 {+-} 4% on the basis of total and soluble feed COD, respectively. The color removal efficiency was 75 {+-} 10%, and around 50-70% of removed color was adsorbed on biomass or precipitated within the reactor. The high conductivity of the wastewater, as high as 8 mS/cm, did not adversely affect system performance. Although biological treatment is quite efficient, the wastewater does not meet the reuse criteria. Hence, further treatment to improve treated water quality was investigated using nanofiltration. Dead-end microfiltration (MF) with 5 {mu}m pore size was applied to remove coarse particles before nanofiltration. The color rejection of nanofiltration was almost complete and permeate color was always lower than 10 Pt-Co. Similarly, quite high rejections were observed for COD (80-100%). Permeate conductivity was between 1.98 and 2.67 mS/cm (65% conductivity rejection). Wastewater fluxes were between 31 and 37 L/m{sup 2}/h at 5.07 bars corresponding to around 45% flux declines compared to clean water fluxes. In conclusion, for denim textile wastewaters nanofiltration after biological treatment can be applied to meet reuse criteria.

  8. Biological treatment and nanofiltration of denim textile wastewater for reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims at coupling of activated sludge treatment with nanofiltration to improve denim textile wastewater quality to reuse criteria. In the activated sludge reactor, the COD removal efficiency was quite high as it was 91 ± 2% and 84 ± 4% on the basis of total and soluble feed COD, respectively. The color removal efficiency was 75 ± 10%, and around 50-70% of removed color was adsorbed on biomass or precipitated within the reactor. The high conductivity of the wastewater, as high as 8 mS/cm, did not adversely affect system performance. Although biological treatment is quite efficient, the wastewater does not meet the reuse criteria. Hence, further treatment to improve treated water quality was investigated using nanofiltration. Dead-end microfiltration (MF) with 5 μm pore size was applied to remove coarse particles before nanofiltration. The color rejection of nanofiltration was almost complete and permeate color was always lower than 10 Pt-Co. Similarly, quite high rejections were observed for COD (80-100%). Permeate conductivity was between 1.98 and 2.67 mS/cm (65% conductivity rejection). Wastewater fluxes were between 31 and 37 L/m2/h at 5.07 bars corresponding to around 45% flux declines compared to clean water fluxes. In conclusion, for denim textile wastewaters nanofiltration after biological treatment can be applied to meet reuse criteria

  9. Mitigating Environmental Risks of Wastewater Reuse for Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Busaidi, Ahmed; Ahmed, Mushtaque

    2016-04-01

    Low rainfall and overexploitation of conventional water resources present a critical problem in many regions of the Middle East and North Africa. Therefore, there is a dire need for judicious management of existing water supplies, including incorporating the use of non-conventional water resources. Treated wastewater has shown high potential for reuse in agricultural production, which can thereby contribute to the conservation of surface water and groundwater resources. Therefore, the aim of the study was to optimize treated wastewater reuse in conjunction with other available water resources by taking into consideration their quantity and quality, in addition to the agronomic, environmental, and economic components. It was a joint project between three countries (Oman, Jordan and Tunisia) and funded by USAID. In Oman, the study was done in open field at Sultan Qaboos University. Three types of crops (sweet corn, okra and maize) were grown and irrigated by four types of water (A: 50% groundwater and 50% treated wastewater, B: 100% groundwater, C: 75% treated wastewater and 25% groundwater, and D: 100% treated wastewater). Soil physicochemical properties did not show significant differences with treated wastewater irrigation as compared to groundwater. Heavy metals concentrations for both waters (treated wastewater & groundwater) were very close to each other. However, some significant differences were found between some treatments which could be an indicator for long term changes in soil chemical properties. On other hand, some chemical properties significantly increased (phealth or environmental problems, reuse of treated wastewater should be subjected to continuous monitoring and fruit qualities should be evaluated.

  10. Electron beam irradiation and adsorption as possibilities for wastewater reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of water for life and for the industrial processes is forcing the development of combined technologies for wastewater improvement. The limitations of biological treatment for reducing micro-pollutants and the constant introduction of different chemical into environment make Ionizing Radiation a more interesting technique for pollutants abatement. Electron Accelerators are the main radiation source for cleaning waters purpose. Remazol Orange and Black B were decomposed by Electron Beam Irradiation. Another research consisted in reuse of burnt coal for cleaning wastewater and the Orange and Red dyes were adsorbed onto zeolitic material. Both color and toxicity were the main parameters to evaluate the efficacy of the process and also the recommended criteria which allow further industrial reuse. Real effluents were also treated by both technologies in batch scale. The radiation dose suggested for real effluents varied from 2.5kGy up to 5kGy. The characteristics of obtained zeolite will be presented. The removal of color and toxicity was enough to allow the industrial reuse of those products (wastewater). (author)

  11. Supplemental Release Limits for the Directed Reuse of Steel in Road Barriers and Lead in Shielding Products by the Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, RL

    2006-04-07

    The DOE National Center of Excellence for Metals Recycle (NMR) proposes to define and implement a complex-wide directed reuse strategy for surplus radiologically impacted lead (Pb) and steel as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's commitment to the safe and cost-effective recycle or reuse of excess materials and equipment across the DOE complex. NMR will, under this proposal, act on behalf of the DOE Office of Environmental Management, Office of Technical Program Integration (specifically EM-22), as the Department's clearinghouse for DOE surplus lead, steel and products created from these materials by developing and maintaining a cost-effective commercially-based contaminated lead and steel recycle program. It is NMR's intention, through this directed reuse strategy, to mitigate the adverse environmental and economic consequences of managing surplus lead and steel as a waste within the complex. This approach promotes the safe and cost-effective reuse of scrap metals in support of the Department's goals of resource utilization, energy conservation, pollution prevention and waste minimization. This report discusses recommendations for supplemental radiological release limits for the directed reuse of contaminated lead and steel by the DOE within the nuclear industry. The limits were originally selected from the American National Standards Institute and Health Physics Society standard N13.12 titled ''Surface and Volume Radioactivity Standards for Clearance'' (Health Physics Society, 1999) but were subsequently modified as a result of application-specific issues. Both the health and measurement implications from the adoption and use of the limits for directed reuse scenarios are discussed within this report.

  12. Water reuse in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia - Status, prospects and research needs

    KAUST Repository

    Drewes, Jorg

    2012-10-01

    Saudi Arabia is one of the driest countries in the world. While desalination plants currently installed in the country represent 30% of the world\\'s desalination capacity, seawater desalination alone will not be able to provide sufficient supplies to meet the increasing freshwater demand. However, with only 9% of the total municipal wastewater generated currently being reused, the kingdom is projected as the third largest reuse market after China and the USA, and reuse capacities are projected to increase by 800% by 2016. This projected growth and the change in water portfolios offer tremendous opportunities to integrate novel approaches of water reclamation and reuse. This paper highlights the current status of reuse in the kingdom, discusses prospects of using distributed infrastructure for reuse tailored to local needs as well as the use of artificial recharge and recovery systems for reclaimed water. It also suggests research needs to helping overcoming barriers for wastewater reuse. Copyright © IWA Publishing 2012.

  13. Beneficial effect of Curcumin in Letrozole induced polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sushma Reddy

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Curcumin showed beneficial effects in Letrozole induced PCOS in female Wistar rats. Its effect was comparable to that of Clomiphene citrate, most widely used treatment for ovulation induction in PCOS condition.

  14. Lunar Oxygen and Silicon Beneficiation Using Only Solar Power Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Element beneficiation from a moving, ionized plasma can be accomplished through the principles of mass spectroscopy. Two US patents were recently awarded to the PI...

  15. Characterization and Beneficiation of an Egyptian Nepheline Syenite Ore

    OpenAIRE

    Abouzeid, Abdel-Zaher M.; Negm, Abdel-Tawab A.

    2014-01-01

    Nepheline syenite ore is an essential constituent in ceramics and glass raw material meals, as a flux and as a source of alumina. The natural nepheline syenite rocks contain some undesired minerals, which are usually eliminated or reduced to the allowable limits by beneficiation. The present paper is concerned with characterization and beneficiation of an Egyptian nepheline syenite rock, at Abu Khruq locality, Eastern Desert, Egypt. The ore is exceptionally hard, with high crushing strength o...

  16. Geochemical Variability and the Potential for Beneficial Use of Waste Water Coproduced with Oil from Permian Basin of the Southwest USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, N. A.; Holguin, F. O.; Xu, P.; Engle, M.; Dungan, B.; Hunter, B.; Carroll, K. C.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. generates 21 billion barrels/year of coproduced water from oil and gas exploration, which is generally considered waste water. Growth in unconventional oil and gas production has spurred interest in beneficial uses of produced water, especially in arid regions such as the Permian Basin of Texas and New Mexico, the largest U.S. tight oil producer. Produced waters have variable chemistries, but generally contain high levels of organics and salts. In order to evaluate the environmental impact, treatment, and reuse potential, there is a need to characterize the compositional variability of produced water. In the present study, produced water samples were collected from 12 wells across the Permian Basin. Compositional analyses including coupled gas chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy were conducted. The samples show elevated benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, xylene, alkyl benzenes, propyl-benzene, and naphthalene compared to other heteroaromatics; they also contain complex hydrocarbon compounds containing oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur. Van Krevelen diagrams show an increase in the concentration of heteroaromatic hydrocarbons with increasing well depth. The salinity, dominated by sodium-chloride, also increases with depth, ranging from 37-150 g/L TDS. Depth of wells (or producing formation) is a primary control on predicting water quality for treatment and beneficial use. Our results suggest that partial treatment by removing suspended solids and organic contaminants would support some beneficial uses such as onsite reuse, bioenergy production, and other industrial uses. Due to the high salinity, conventional desalination processes are not applicable or very costly, making beneficial uses requiring low salinity not feasible.

  17. Disposition of legacy materials at LBNL and reuse of valuable items in target preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AlMahamid, Ilham; Sudowe, Ralf [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Shaughnessy, Dawn A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2005-07-01

    One of the most demanding missions of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) is to manage the radioactive waste. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) gets its share of radioactive materials and waste but at a much smaller scale than other national labs. Disposition of legacy materials at LBNL includes characterization and purification, reuse of valuable materials, and submitting waste items in accordance with federal and state regulations. During the clean up of legacy materials at LBNL, several items were identified for use in collaboration with the CEA/ DSM under the Mini-Inca program to perform transmutation studies. Cm and Np targets were prepared using an electroplating technique. Additional targets of Pu, Am, and Cf are planned for the next set of experiments. An overview of the clean up operation of two facilities will be given. An outline of items assigned to the collaboration and a brief description of the target preparation and electrodeposition set-up will be provided. (authors)

  18. Disposition of legacy materials at LBNL and reuse of valuable items in target preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most demanding missions of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) is to manage the radioactive waste. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) gets its share of radioactive materials and waste but at a much smaller scale than other national labs. Disposition of legacy materials at LBNL includes characterization and purification, reuse of valuable materials, and submitting waste items in accordance with federal and state regulations. During the clean up of legacy materials at LBNL, several items were identified for use in collaboration with the CEA/ DSM under the Mini-Inca program to perform transmutation studies. Cm and Np targets were prepared using an electroplating technique. Additional targets of Pu, Am, and Cf are planned for the next set of experiments. An overview of the clean up operation of two facilities will be given. An outline of items assigned to the collaboration and a brief description of the target preparation and electrodeposition set-up will be provided. (authors)

  19. Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 8, January--March 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

    1991-07-01

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches of fuels for shipment to CE`s laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. CE then processes the products into either a coal-water fuel (CWF) or a dry microfine pulverized coa1 (DMPC) form for combustion testing. The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. During the third quarter of 1991, the following technical progress was made: Calculated the kinetic characteristics of chars from the combustion of spherical oil agglomeration beneficiated products; continued drop tube devolatilization tests of the spherical oil agglomeration beneficiated products; continued analyses of the data and samples from the CE pilot-scale tests of nine fuels; and started writing a summary topical report to include all results on the nine fuels tested.

  20. Evaluation of the technical instruction for monitoring and control of water reuse in the health areas managed by the environmental health service of the Region of Murcia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Gómez Castelló

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the basic activities of the Water Reuse Monitoring and Control Program is the supervision of self-control programs–which should be put into practice by the concessionaires that reuse the water provided by the River Basin Organization, in the Health Areas managed by the Environmental Health Service–to check compliance with Annex I of Royal Decree 1620/2007. To facilitate these tasks, this Service issued a Water Reuse Monitoring and Control Technical Instruction in June 2012.In order to test the e effectiveness of monitoring activities concerning water reuse after the issuance of the Technical Instruction, the results obtained from the inspection activities carried out in 2012 were compared with those obtained after the 2014 inspections.The results obtained show that the performance of inspections and the sending of reports to the Basin Organization have led to an increase in compliance with R.D. 1620/2007. All of the inspected plants have a self-control program in place. Furthermore, the number of inspected plants that perform analytical determinations with a frequency below that set by current regulations has decreased drastically.

  1. Pilot-scale treatment of gasification wastewater and reuse in a cooling tower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willson, W.G.; Mayer, G.G.; Hendrikson, J.G.; Winton, S.L.

    1985-04-01

    The University of North Dakota Energy Research Center has operated a 910 kg/hr, oxygen-blown fixed-bed gasifier to produce lignite-derived effluents for characterization, treatment, and reuse studies. Reuse of waste water in a cooling tower was investigated to define environmental and process effects as a function of pretreatment. The gasification wastewater was pretreated in pilot wastewater treatement units which simulate available technology. During the first phase of the program, wastewater was pretreated by solvent extraction and steam stripping to produce phenol and ammonia concentrations comparable to those expected at the Great Plains Gasification Associates plant. This pretreated wastewater was concentrated in a cooling tower to 10 cycles of concentration. No biocides or corrosion inhibitors were added. Severe fouling of heat exchange surfaces and high corrosion rates of carbon steel were encountered. Over 90% of the phenol entering the cooling tower was found to be stripped into the cooling tower exhaust air stream. The high levels of organics remaining in this minimally treated wastewater suggested that further biological treatment and possibly polishing by carbon adsorption would be necessary to prepare a satisfactory feed. In the second phase of the program, the SGL was further treated in an activated sludge process followed by granular activated carbon adsorption. Biotreatment removed 96% of the BOD with a three-day retention time while obtaining satisfactory sludge settling rates in spite of varied influent concentrations. Biorefractory materials were adsorbed on GAC to reach an effuent COD level of 150 mg/l. This upgrading was sufficient to reduce organic emissions from the cooling tower, but corrosion rates were higher than in the previous test, again showing the necessity for corrosion inhibitors. 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Can Data be Organized for Science and Reuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermann, T.; Shasharina, S.; Jelenak, A.; Fillmore, D. W.

    2015-12-01

    The Data Life Cycle is an important general concept for thinking about data collection, management, and preservation practices across the geophysical scientific data community. The cycle generally spans the scientific process from ideation, through experimental design, observation collection, data analysis and visualization, publication, archive, distributions and eventual reuse. During the cycle, the data may change through new analyses, presentations, and responsible parties, but, historically, the format and organization of the data have generally remained the same. Data collected as a time series at a point remains as a time series and data collected/calculated as grids remains as grids. BIP is BIP and BSQ is BSQ. In fact, in many large data centers, the native format remains sacrosanct and, in the scientific community, reformatting is avoided because of fear of losing information or introducing data quality problems and irreproducible results. This traditional approach has worked well in areas where data are collected and used for a single purpose throughout the life cycle and domains where comparisons across different data sets are rare and problematic due to conflicting data organizational structures or incomplete documentation. This is not the world we live in today. Reuse for unexpected purposes and data (and model) comparisons are becoming increasingly common (e.g. climate model / observation comparisons). Data sets are preserved for future global investigators that may be unaware of the original project or purpose of the data. Also, it is becoming more common for data to be restructured and reformatted for particular problem or to support a flexible web service. Unfortunately, many of these efforts do not preserve the metadata that, hopefully, accompanies the data in the original format. In this presentation we will discuss alternative approaches to data management that will facilitate data reuse across teams and disciplines.

  3. Forward osmosis niches in seawater desalination and wastewater reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Valladares Linares, Rodrigo

    2014-12-01

    This review focuses on the present status of forward osmosis (FO) niches in two main areas: seawater desalination and wastewater reuse. Specific applications for desalination and impaired-quality water treatment and reuse are described, as well as the benefits, advantages, challenges, costs and knowledge gaps on FO hybrid systems are discussed. FO can play a role as a bridge to integrate upstream and downstream water treatment processes, to reduce the energy consumption of the entire desalination or water recovery and reuse processes, thus achieving a sustainable solution for the water-energy nexus. FO hybrid membrane systems showed to have advantages over traditional membrane process like high pressure reverse osmosis and nanofiltration for desalination and wastewater treatment: (i) chemical storage and feed water systems may be reduced for capital, operational and maintenance cost, (ii) water quality is improved, (iii) reduced process piping costs, (iv) more flexible treatment units, and (v) higher overall sustainability of the desalination and wastewater treatment process. Nevertheless, major challenges make FO systems not yet a commercially viable technology, the most critical being the development of a high flux membrane, capable of maintaining an elevated salt rejection and a reduced internal concentration polarization effect, and the availability of appropriate draw solutions (cost effective and non-toxic), which can be recirculated via an efficient recovery process. This review article highlights the features of hybrid FO systems and specifically provides the state-of-the-art applications in the water industry in a novel classification and based on the latest developments toward scaling up these systems.

  4. Towards Use And Reuse Driven Big Data Management

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Zhiwu; Chen, Yinlin; Speer, Julie; Walters, Tyler; Tarazaga, Pablo A; Kasarda, Mary

    2015-01-01

    We propose a use and reuse driven big data management approach that fuses the data repository and data processing capabilities in a co-located, public cloud. It answers to the urgent data management needs from the growing number of researchers who don’t fit in the big science/small science dichotomy. This approach will allow researchers to more easily use, manage, and collaborate around big data sets, as well as give librarians the opportunity to work alongside the researchers to preserve and...

  5. Submerged membrane bioreactor for domestic wastewater treatment and reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mediterranean basin (and particularly North African countries) is one of the poorest regions in the world in terms of water resources. In Tunisia, treated municipal wastewater is becoming one of the main alternative sources of water. Indeed, in 2007, 99 municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) has treated a quantity of 215 millions of m3 from which more than 30 pour cent are reused. The treated volume in 2011 is expected to be 266 millions m3, whereas the reused wastewaters should reach more than 50 pour cent. However, especially in the eastern and northern Mediterranean regions, wastewaters are inefficiently treated and re-used for irrigation or sanitary purposes, serving as a carrier for diseases or causing water pollution when discharged to water bodies. In the last decade, several water treatment technologies have been used in the region with little success in pathogen removal. Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology is a very promising alternative to those conventional water treatments as membranes act as a barrier against bacteria and viruses achieving a high degree of water purification. However, most membrane bioreactors currently in use have very high running costs because of the high pressure drop and high air-flushing rate required for their operation. The objective of this PURATREAT FP 6 EU project was to study a new approach to the operation of membrane bioreactors. This study was included a comparison of three leading membrane technologies. The operating procedure to be studied is expected to yield very low energy consumption and reduced maintenance costs. After the start up period, the MBR3 was operated with a MLSS concentration of 4.5 and 9 g/L, respectively. Different fluxes as 16, 18, 20 and 22 Lh-1m-2 were tested. When the flux increase from 16 to 22 Lh-1m-2, the treatment energy consumption decreased from 7 to 5 kWh/m3. However the increases of MLSS concentration from 4.5 and 9 g/L raise the membrane fouling frequency from 1 time every 3

  6. A processing method for orthodontic mini-screws reuse

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed Noorollahian; Shiva Alavi; Mohammad Monirifard

    2012-01-01

    Background: The possibility of mini-screws reuse would reduce treatment cost. The aim of this study is to introduce a new method (application of phosphoric acid 37% for 10 minutes followed by sodium hypochlorite 5.25% for 30 minutes) for cleansing of mini-screws and assessing the efficacy of this method. The effects of this processing on the insertion, removal, and fracture torques of mini-screws were evaluated. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was done in two parts. In part...

  7. A processing method for orthodontic mini-screws reuse

    OpenAIRE

    Noorollahian, Saeed; Alavi, Shiva; Monirifard, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Background: The possibility of mini-screws reuse would reduce treatment cost. The aim of this study is to introduce a new method (application of phosphoric acid 37% for 10 minutes followed by sodium hypochlorite 5.25% for 30 minutes) for cleansing of mini-screws and assessing the efficacy of this method. The effects of this processing on the insertion, removal, and fracture torques of mini-screws were evaluated. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was done in two parts. In part I t...

  8. Reuse of clips in cartoon animation based on language instructions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Bao-gang; ZHU Wen-hao; YU Jin-hui

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a new framework for reusing hand-drawn cartoon clips based on language understanding approach. Our framework involves two stages: a preprocessing phase, in which a hand-drawn clip library with mixed architecture is constructed, and the on-line phase, in which the domain dependent language instructions parsing is carried out and clips in the clip library are matched by use of some matching values calculated from the information derived from instruction parsing. An important feature of our approach is its ability to preserve the artistic quality of clips in the produced cartoon animations.

  9. Component-Based Software Reuse on the World Wide Web

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Component-based software reuse (CBSR) has been widely used in software developing practice and has an even more brilliant future with the rapid extension of the Internet, because World Wide Web (WWW) makes the large scale of component resources from different vendors become available to software developers. In this paper, an abstract component model suitable for representing components on WWW isproposed, which plays important roles both in achieving interoperability among components and amongreusable component libraries (RCLs). Some necessary changes to many aspects of component management brought by WWW are also discussed, such as the classification of components and the corresponding searching methods, and the certification of components.

  10. Experiences in Recycling and Reuse of Radioactive Sources in BRIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT), a unit of the Department of Atomic Energy in India, produces and supplies various types of sealed radiation sources in India. The sealed sources include teletherapy sources using 60Co, industrial radiography sources using 60Co and 192Ir, nucleonic gauging sources using 60Co, 137Cs, among others, and 137Cs brachytherapy sources. BRIT has acquired considerable experience in the reuse and recycling of these sealed sources. This has proved to be very useful in continuous control of these sources over the life cycle. (author)

  11. V&V Within Reuse-Based Software Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addy, Edward A.

    1996-01-01

    Verification and Validation (V&V) is used to increase the level of assurance of critical software, particularly that of safety-critical and mission-critical software. V&V is a systems engineering discipline that evaluates the software in a systems context, and is currently applied during the development of a specific application system. In order to bring the effectiveness of V&V to bear within reuse-based software engineering, V&V must be incorporated within the domain engineering process.

  12. Software development with C++ maximizing reuse with object technology

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Kjell

    2014-01-01

    Software Development with C++: Maximizing Reuse with Object Technology is about software development and object-oriented technology (OT), with applications implemented in C++. The basis for any software development project of complex systems is the process, rather than an individual method, which simply supports the overall process. This book is not intended as a general, all-encompassing treatise on OT. The intent is to provide practical information that is directly applicable to a development project. Explicit guidelines are offered for the infusion of OT into the various development phases.

  13. Evidence of Cross-boundary Use and Reuse of Digital Educational Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riina Vuorikari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study an investigation using log-files of teachers’ Collections of educational resources in two different platforms was conducted. The goal was to find empirical evidence from the field that teachers use and reuse learning resources that are in a language other than their mother tongue and originate from different countries than they do, for this, the term cross-boundary use of learning resources is used. In both contexts behavioural evidence was found that cross-boundary use and reuse takes place, and it was shown that it correlates with the general use and reuse trends. Moreover, it was found that cross-boundary reuse, when compared to 20% of general reuse, was notably less (37% to 55% of it. The motivation to study cross-boundary use and reuse is to set a baseline for future studies, and to understand how it can be supported and enhanced in the future.

  14. Cooperative Spatial Reuse with Transmit Beamforming in Multi-rate Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Chenguang; Fitzek, Frank; Eggers, Patrick Claus F.

    2009-01-01

    We present a cooperative spatial reuse (CSR) scheme as a cooperative extension of the current TDMA-based MAC to enable spatial reuse in multi-rate wireless networks. We model spatial reuse as a cooperation problem on utilizing the time slots obtained from the TDMA-based MAC. In CSR, there are two...... operation modes. One is TDMA mode while the other is spatial reuse mode in which links transmit simultaneously. Links contribute their own time slots to form a cooperative group to do spatial reuse. Each link joins the group only if it can benefit in capacity or energy efficiency. Otherwise, the link will...... leave spatial reuse mode and switch back to TDMA. In this work, we focus on the transmit beamforming techniques to enable CSR by interference cancellation on MISO (Multiple Input Single Output) links. We compare the CSR scheme using zero-forcing (ZF) transmit beamforming, namely ZF-CSR, to the TDMA...

  15. Influence of reusing filter backwashing water directly on the water quality of waterworks plants%滤池反冲洗水直接回用对给水厂水质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张弓; 孙敏; 付永华

    2012-01-01

    The influence of reusing V-filter backwashing water directly on the water quality of waterworks plants have been studied. The results show that the reused V-filter backwashing wastewater is beneficial to the removal of turbidity of the settled water. When the reuse ratio is less than 10% ,the turbidity of the settled water shows a downward trend.And at the same time of backwashing water reuse, the CODmn,, of the settled water may decrease, and a slight decrease of the UV254 of the settled water also appears. It is noticed that the total bacteria in the settled water increases remarkably,when the reuse ratio of filter backwashing water is more than 10%. At the end,by means of mathematical method, it is verified that the best reuse ratio of the backwashing water in the waterworks plant is 3%-10%.%研究了V型滤池反冲洗水直接回用对给水厂水质的影响.结果表明:回用滤池反冲洗废水有利于对沉后水浊度的去除,回用比例小于10%时,沉后水浊度呈下降趋势.回用反冲洗水同时会降低沉后水CODMN,还可以小幅度降低沉后水的UV254.当滤池反冲洗水回用比例大于10%时,沉后水中细菌总数有明显提高.最后通过数学方法确定了水厂反冲洗水的最佳回用比为3%~10%.

  16. Analytical Performance Evaluation of Various Frequency Reuse and Scheduling Schemes in Cellular OFDMA Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Maqbool, Masood; Godlewski, Philippe; Coupechoux, Marceau; Kélif, Jean-Marc

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present an analytical solution to carry out performance analysis of various frequency reuse schemes in an OFDMA based cellular network. We study the performance in downlink in terms of signal to interference (SIR) ratio and total cell data rate. The latter is analyzed while keeping in view three different scheduling schemes: equal data rate, equal bandwidth and opportunist. Analytical models are proposed for integer frequency reuse (IFR), fractional frequency reuse (FFR) and...

  17. On the Relationship Between the Object-Oriented Paradigm and Software Reuse: An Empirical Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, John A.; Henry, Sallie M.; Kafura, Dennis G.; Schulman, Robert S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a controlled experiment designed to evaluate the impact of the object-oriented paradigm on software reuse. The experiment concludes that (1) the object-oriented paradigm substantially improves productivity over the procedural paradigm, (2) language differences are far more important when programmers reuse than when they do not, (3) under both moderate and strong encouragement to reuse, the object-oriented paradigm promotes higher productivity than the proce...

  18. The Suitability of Adaptive Reuse Practices on Historic Residential Buildings to National Memorials

    OpenAIRE

    Nor Syahila Ab Rashid; Nila Inangda Manyam Keumala H. Daud

    2014-01-01

    In order to prolong the life of the old buildings in the country through building conservation practices, there is a tendency by the government to acquire and reuse Malaysian leadership figures’ residential buildings as memorials. However, it raises the question of whether there is any adaptive reuse guidelines to reuse historic residential buildings in Malaysia as national memorials in maintaining those buildings as an exhibition space on the history of their leadership. The absence of guide...

  19. The application of artificial intelligence in optimisation of automotive components for reuse

    OpenAIRE

    D. A. Wahab; L. Amelia; N.K. Hooi; C.H. Che Haron; C.H. Azhari

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Automotive component reuse as one of the product recovery strategy is now gaining importance in viewof its impact on the environment. Research and development on components design and manufacturing as wellas tools and methods to facilitate reuse are under way in many countries. To enable reuse, components have to beassessed and its reliability and life time predicted. This paper presents the development work on an optimisationmodel for assessing potential automotive components for re...

  20. Membrane filtration and sonication for industrial wastewater reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caretti, C; Coppini, E; Fatarella, E; Lubello, C

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study aimed at estimating the efficiency of the innovative process of ultrafiltration (UF) combined with sonication (Son.) for the refinement of treated effluent to be reused in wet textile processes. Such a novel approach, which has not yet been employed on a full industrial scale, has been experienced at pilot scale on the secondary effluent of the Baciacavallo wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), which treats part of the effluent from one of the largest textile industry districts in Italy. The combined treatment efficiency was assessed both on ozonated and non-ozonated Baciacavallo secondary effluent. The membrane filtration process was optimized in terms of running time, backwash, chemical addition and cleaning procedures. The sonication treatment was optimized on laboratory-scale with synthetic solutions (demineralized water added with dyestuffs) in terms of hydroxyl radicals formation rate, frequency, acoustic power, hydrogen peroxide addition, contact time and pH. The optimal conditions have been applied on the pilot-scale sonicator which was used in combination with the UF treatment. According to the experimental results, the best configuration within the Baciacavallo WWTP was the sonication of non-ozonated wastewater followed by the UF. The combined treatment guaranteed the compliance with the target values for wastewater reuse in wet textile industries. This study is part of the Research Project PURIFAST (Purification of industrial and mixed wastewater by combined membrane filtration and sonochemical technologies) LIFE + ENV/IT/000439. PMID:22170847

  1. Treatment and Reuse of Wastewater from Beverage Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summary: Water is used in most process industries for a wide range of applications. Processes and systems using water today are being subjected to increasingly stringent environmental regulations on effluents and there is growing demand for fresh water. These changes have increased the need for better water management and wastewater minimization. The combination of water demand management and cleaner production concepts have resulted in both economical and ecological benefits. Beverage industry requires huge amount of fresh water, generating considerable amount of polluted waste water during different processes including drink production, washing bottles, plant washdown as well as washing the floors and the general work area. Most of the industries do not reuse the waste water and consuming bulk of fresh water. The beverage industry is one of the major industries in Pakistan and the present study was conducted on the beverage/soft drink industry at Hattar Industrial Estate, Hattar, Pakistan to assess the feasibility of reuse of wastewater form bottle washing plant by conducting treatment test, like dilution of the waste water in different ratios, reverse osmosis and ion exchange. (author)

  2. Identifying the Importance of Software Reuse in COCOMO81, COCOMOII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.N.V.R Swarup Kumar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Software project management is an interpolation of project planning, project monitoring and project termination. The substratal goals of planning are to scout for the future, to diagnose the attributes that are essentially done for the consummation of the project successfully, animate the scheduling and allocate resources for the attributes. Software cost estimation is a vital role in preeminent software project decisions such as resource allocation and bidding. This paper articulates the conventional overview of software cost estimation modus operandi available. The cost, effort estimates of software projects done by the various companies are congregated, the results are segregated with the present cost models and the MRE (Mean Relative Error is enumerated. We have administered the historical data to COCOMO 81, COCOMOII model and identified that the stellar predicament is that no cost model gives the exact estimate of a software project. This is due to the fact that a lot of productivity factors are not contemplated in estimation process. The vital dilemma we identified is that “software reuse” is being eclipsed although most of the contemporary software projects are based on object oriented development where no component is made from scratch (Inheritance. By using the principal of software reuse the ROI (Return of Investment is also bolstered for the companies. So further research exposure is in “software Reuse” and Reuse software cost estimation model.

  3. Modelling microbial health risk of wastewater reuse: A systems perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudequin, Denise; Harden, Fiona; Roiko, Anne; Stratton, Helen; Lemckert, Charles; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2015-11-01

    There is a widespread need for the use of quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) to determine reclaimed water quality for specific uses, however neither faecal indicator levels nor pathogen concentrations alone are adequate for assessing exposure health risk. The aim of this study was to build a conceptual model representing factors contributing to the microbiological health risks of reusing water treated in maturation ponds. This paper describes the development of an unparameterised model that provides a visual representation of theoretical constructs and variables of interest. Information was collected from the peer-reviewed literature and through consultation with experts from regulatory authorities and academic disciplines. In this paper we explore how, considering microbial risk as a modular system, following the QMRA framework enables incorporation of the many factors influencing human exposure and dose response, to better characterise likely human health impacts. By using and expanding upon the QMRA framework we deliver new insights into this important field of environmental exposures. We present a conceptual model of health risk of microbial exposure which can be used for maturation ponds and, more importantly, as a generic tool to assess health risk in diverse wastewater reuse scenarios. PMID:26277638

  4. A Software Architecture To Encourage Internal And External Software Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truslove, I.; Billingsley, B. W.; Lacy, J.; Reed, S.; Lewis, S.; Brodzik, M.; Kaminski, M.; Lopez, L.; McNulty, M.; Wu, H.

    2011-12-01

    At the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) we have build several systems that provide greater access to cryospheric data and tools to the external community. Internally, many of our projects have overlapping goals and mechanisms. To develop our latest generation of applications we have adopted a flexible architecture using componentized back-end libraries and data services, standards-based RESTful web services, and rich service-based web applications in order to increase primary and secondary uses of our services, and to encourage internal reuse of code modules and libraries. Our web applications are designed to allow end users simple and intuitive access to data. The services and data model is designed to easily allow integration of third-party standards-based services into our applications and services. Additionally our services are designed to be consumed by others, ideally to the degree that they could recreate our applications, explore our services to discover new data or tools, and even create as-yet unenvisioned mashups using multiple data services. Internally our aim is to reduce the amount of single-use code by creating a high quality reusable library of code and services. We present architectural and implementation details and cover some of the successes this model has given us both in terms of internal and external reuse.

  5. Efficiency of domestic wastewater treatment plant for agricultural reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudinei Fonseca Souza

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for water has made the treatment and reuse of wastewater a topic of global importance. This work aims to monitor and evaluate the efficiency of a wastewater treatment plant’s (WWTP physical and biological treatment of wastewater by measuring the reduction of organic matter content of the effluent during the treatment and the disposal of nutrients in the treated residue. The WWTP has been designed to treat 2500 liters of wastewater per day in four compartments: a septic tank, a microalgae tank, an upflow anaerobic filter and wetlands with cultivation of Zantedeschia aethiopica L. A plant efficiency of 90% of organic matter removal was obtained, resulting in a suitable effluent for fertigation, including Na and Ca elements that showed high levels due to the accumulation of organic matter in the upflow anaerobic filter and wetlands. The WWTP removes nitrogen and phosphorus by the action of microalgae and macrophytes used in the process. The final effluent includes important agricultural elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium and potassium and, together with the load of organic matter and salts, meets the determination of NBR 13,969/1997 (Standard of the Brazilian Technical Standards Association for reuse in agriculture, but periodic monitoring of soil salinity is necessary.

  6. Reusing the VLT control system on the VISTA Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrett, D. L.; Stewart, Malcolm

    2010-07-01

    Once it was decided that the VISTA infra-red survey telescope would be built on Paranal and operated by ESO it was clear that there would be many long term advantages in basing the control system on that of the VLTs. Benefits over developing a new system such as lower development costs or disadvantages such as constraints on the design were not the most important factors in deciding how to implement the TCS, but now that the telescope is complete the pros and cons of re-using an existing system can be evaluated. This paper reviews the lessons learned during construction and commissioning and attempts to show where reusing an existing system was a help and where it was a hindrance. It highlights those things that could have been done differently to better exploit the fact the we were using a system that was already proven to work and where, with hindsight, we would have been better to re-implement components from scratch rather than modifying an existing one.

  7. Modern processes for Indian power plant coal beneficiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, F.; Schwerdtfeger, J.

    1997-12-31

    Presently in India 160 Mio tonnes per year of non-coking coal are mined for power generation, which have not been at all beneficiated until today. In order to beneficiate the whole amount of raw coal, an investment of approximately 45 billion Rupees is required. Due to the fact that the beneficiation costs are increasing drastically, when beneficiating finer material, it is recommended to wash in a first step the grainsize 400-30 mm only. This amounts to 110 Mio tonnes per year. The required beneficiation plants will need an investment of approximately 8 billion INR. The washed grain size {gt}40 mm, which is approximately 65% of the entire raw coal, dewaters without any mechanical assistance to 4% moisture. It can be crushed down and mixed with the unwashed fine coal without increasing the moisture content compared to the r.o.m. coal. For this duty - to wash the raw coal 400-30 mm - in close cooperation with Indian mining engineers the ROMJIG has been developed and tested during the operation. 3 figs.

  8. A Community-Driven Workflow Recommendations and Reuse Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Votava, P.; Lee, T. J.; Lee, C.; Xiao, S.; Nemani, R. R.; Foster, I.

    2013-12-01

    Aiming to connect the Earth science community to accelerate the rate of discovery, NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) has established an online repository and platform, so that researchers can publish and share their tools and models with colleagues. In recent years, workflow has become a popular technique at NEX for Earth scientists to define executable multi-step procedures for data processing and analysis. The ability to discover and reuse knowledge (sharable workflows or workflow) is critical to the future advancement of science. However, as reported in our earlier study, the reusability of scientific artifacts at current time is very low. Scientists often do not feel confident in using other researchers' tools and utilities. One major reason is that researchers are often unaware of the existence of others' data preprocessing processes. Meanwhile, researchers often do not have time to fully document the processes and expose them to others in a standard way. These issues cannot be overcome by the existing workflow search technologies used in NEX and other data projects. Therefore, this project aims to develop a proactive recommendation technology based on collective NEX user behaviors. In this way, we aim to promote and encourage process and workflow reuse within NEX. Particularly, we focus on leveraging peer scientists' best practices to support the recommendation of artifacts developed by others. Our underlying theoretical foundation is rooted in the social cognitive theory, which declares people learn by watching what others do. Our fundamental hypothesis is that sharable artifacts have network properties, much like humans in social networks. More generally, reusable artifacts form various types of social relationships (ties), and may be viewed as forming what organizational sociologists who use network analysis to study human interactions call a 'knowledge network.' In particular, we will tackle two research questions: R1: What hidden knowledge may be extracted from

  9. Reuse and Securing of Mining Waste : Need of the hour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Neha; Dino, Giovanna; Ajmone-Marsan, Franco; De Luca, Domenico Antonio

    2016-04-01

    With recent advancements in technology and rising standards of living the demand for minerals has increased drastically. Increased reliance on mining industry has led to unmanageable challenges of Mining waste generated out of Mining and Quarrying activities. According to Statistics from EuroStat Mining and Quarrying generated 734 million Tons in Europe in 2012 which accounted for 29.19 % of the total waste, becoming second most important sector in terms of waste generation after Construction Industry. Mining waste can be voluminous and/ or chemically active and can cause environmental threats like groundwater pollution due to leaching of pollutants, surface water pollution due to runoffs during rainy season, river and ocean pollution due to intentional dumping of tailings by mining companies. Most of the big mining companies have not adopted policies against dumping of tailings in rivers and oceans. Deep Sea Tailings Placement (DSTP) is creating havoc in remote and pristine environment of deep-sea beds e.g. Bismarck Sea. Furthermore, mining waste is contaminating soil in nearby areas by disturbing soil microbial activity and other physio-chemical and biological properties of soil (e.g. Barruecopardo village - Spain). Mining waste stored in heaps and dams has led to many accidents and on an average, worldwide, there is one major accident in a year involving tailings dams (e.g. Myanmar, Brazil, 2015). Pollution due to tailings is causing local residents to relocate and become 'ecological migrants'. The above issues linked to mining waste makes reuse and securing of mining waste one of the urgent challenge to deal with. The studies done previously on mining show that most of the researches linked with mining waste reuse and securing are very site specific. For instance, the type of recovery method should not only provide environmental clean-up but also economic benefits to promise sustainability of the method. Environmental risk assessment of using mining waste as

  10. Economic analysis of irrigation re-use systems in the Macalister Irrigation District of Eastern Victoria

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Ben D.; Tarrant, Katherine A.; Ho, Christie K.M.

    2012-01-01

    Irrigation re-use systems are a common way of improving water use efficiency on irrigated dairy farms in the Macalister Irrigation District. A partial budget analysis of installing a range of irrigation re-use systems on an existing dairy farm was conducted using a case study approach. Two re-use dam sizes were tested – 6 ML and 9 ML. The analysis quantified the benefits of installing a re-use system through growing and consuming additional grazed pasture. There are also potentially other b...

  11. Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, O.K.; Levasseur, A.A.

    1995-11-01

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the U.S. Department of Energy is sponsoring the development of advanced coal-cleaning technologies aimed at expanding the use of the nation`s vast coal reserves in an environmentally and economically acceptable manner. Because of the lack of practical experience with deeply beneficiated coal-based fuels, PETC has contracted Combustion Engineering, Inc. to perform a multi-year project on `Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.` The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels (BCs) influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs.

  12. Survey and evaluation of current and potential coal beneficiation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S. P.N.; Peterson, G. R.

    1979-03-01

    Coal beneficiation is a generic term used for processes that prepare run-of-mine coal for specific end uses. It is also referred to as coal preparation or coal cleaning and is a means of reducing the sulfur and the ash contents of coal. Information is presented regarding current and potential coal beneficiation processes. Several of the processes reviewed, though not yet commercial, are at various stages of experimental development. Process descriptions are provided for these processes commensurate with the extent of information and time available to perform the evaluation of these processes. Conceptual process designs, preliminary cost estimates, and economic evaluations are provided for the more advanced (from a process development hierarchy viewpoint) processes based on production levels of 1500 and 15,000 tons/day (maf) of cleaned product coal. Economic evaluations of the coal preparation plants are conducted for several project financing schemes and at 12 and 15% annual after-tax rates of return on equity capital. A 9% annual interest rate is used on the debt fraction of the plant capital. Cleaned product coal prices are determined using the discounted cash flow procedure. The study is intended to provide information on publicly known coal beneficiation processes and to indicate the relative costs of various coal beneficiation processes. Because of severe timeconstraints, several potential coal beneficiation processes are not evaluated in great detail. It is recommended that an additional study be conducted to complement this study and to more fully appreciate the potentially significant role of coal beneficiation in the clean burning of coal.

  13. Study and adjustment of ceramic effluent treatment system for reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Cardoso dos Santos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The main paper aim was to present the preliminary results referring to the study and adjustment of the effluent treatment system for reuse in the ceramic floor production process. For this propose methods and techniques for solid and liquid separation were carried out. The focus was the less alteration in the treatment plant the better. So, there were analyzed some alternatives for the effluent treatment and, among them, the primary sedimentation without chemicals followed by the coagulation and flocculation applying ferric chlorine and synthetic polymer, sedimentation and filtration presented the best results. Thus, a new layout for the treatment plant was proposed by integrating the existent units in a different way so they could attend the laboratory established conditions.

  14. Reuse of Friying Oil on Alternative Soap Fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Baldasso

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the garbage needs especial attention due to the quantity and its contamination. The used friying oil does not mix with water and can contaminate our clean water. With the recycling of the used friying oil, it can be transformed into soap. The objective of this research was the reuse of friying oil on alternative soap fabrication. The used friying oil was used in three different recipes to test its characteristics. Among the recipes used are the traditional soap, the corn soap and the avocado soap. Most part of the people listened save the friying oil and give it to someone to make the soap, or they themselves make the own soap. The Best soap was the traditional one, but the corn and avocado soap showed good results too.

  15. CASE-BASED PRODUCT CONFIGURATION AND REUSE IN MASS CUSTOMIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Shiwei; Tan Jianrong; Zhang Shuyou; Wang Xin; He Chenqi

    2004-01-01

    The increasing complexity and size of configuration knowledge bases requires the provision of advanced methods supporting the development of the actual configuration process and design reuse.A new framework to find a feasible and practical product configuration method is presented in mass customization.The basic idea of the approach is to integrate case-based reasoning (CBR) with a constraint satisfaction problem(CSP).The similarity measure between a crisp and range is also given,which is common in case retrieves.Based on the configuration model,a product platform and customer needs,case adaptation is carried out with the repair-based algorithm.Lastly,the methodology in the elevator configuration design domain is tested.

  16. Development of international exemption principles for recycle and reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been investigating the possibility of exempting certain radiation sources and practices from regulatory control as an extension of its earlier work in the area of de minimis. Because of the potential value of scrap materials recovered during decommissioning of commercial reactors, and because of national and international efforts to minimize radioactive wastes, exemption criteria for recycle and reuse have gained attention. The IAEA has established basic principles for exemption that limit the radiation dose that individuals or population groups may receive from exempted practices or sources. This paper discusses the recent IAEA Advisory Group's recommendations on principles for radiation practices and sources in the recycling of retired components and materials from nuclear facilities. The background of the Advisory Group's work is discussed, then its methods and preliminary recommendations are summarized. Finally, a similar effort sponsored by the Commission of the European Communities is summarized and compared to the IAEA approach. 8 refs., 3 tabs

  17. A Macro for Reusing Abstract Functions and Theorems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiaan J. C. Joosten

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Even though the ACL2 logic is first order, the ACL2 system offers several mechanisms providing users with some operations akin to higher order logic ones. In this paper, we propose a macro, named instance-of-defspec, to ease the reuse of abstract functions and facts proven about them. Defspec is an ACL2 book allowing users to define constrained functions and their associated properties. It contains macros facilitating the definition of such abstract specifications and instances thereof. Currently, lemmas and theorems derived from these abstract functions are not automatically instantiated. This is exactly the purpose of our new macro. instance-of-defspec will not only instantiate functions and theorems within a specification but also many more functions and theorems built on top of the specification. As a working example, we describe various fold functions over monoids, which we gradually built from arbitrary functions.

  18. Indirect Potable Reuse: A Sustainable Water Supply Alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemencia Rodriguez

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The growing scarcity of potable water supplies is among the most important issues facing many cities, in particular those using single sources of water that are climate dependent. Consequently, urban centers are looking to alternative sources of water supply that can supplement variable rainfall and meet the demands of population growth. A diversified portfolio of water sources is required to ensure public health, as well as social, economical and environmental sustainability. One of the options considered is the augmentation of drinking water supplies with advanced treated recycled water. This paper aims to provide a state of the art review of water recycling for drinking purposes with emphasis on membrane treatment processes. An overview of significant indirect potable reuse projects is presented followed by a description of the epidemiological and toxicological studies evaluating any potential human health impacts. Finally, a summary of key operational measures to protect human health and the areas that require further research are discussed.

  19. Objetos tenaces : adaptive reuse en Meatpacking, 1970–1985

    OpenAIRE

    Ruescas Baztán, Juan

    2016-01-01

    OBJETOS TENACES versa sobre la práctica del adaptive reuse (la “reutilización adaptativa”, la reconversión) explicado a través del fenómeno de ruptura, suspensión y reconfiguración de vínculos que el objeto arquitectónico tiene con respecto a su medio económico, sociocultural, normativo y de utilitas. Se trata de un fenómeno en tres fases, muy próximo al mecanismo empleado por el readymade y por el display, que en arquitectura parte de la crisis que supone un cambio de circunstancias, un desa...

  20. Characterization of electric arc furnace dust aiming reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aims to study the characterize of steelmaking dust, from the primary refining of steel in Electric Arc Furnace, in order to verify feasibility of reuse through the addition of hot metal in the form of briquette. The techniques used to characterize the dust was chemical analyses, size separation tests, X-ray diffraction analyses (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). After characterization, was the calculation of reductant considering the complete reduction of iron oxides and then to briquetting. The waste sample is composed essentially of spherical particles and has a very small particle size (85% below 10 μm). The XRD has presented compounds such as ZnFe2O4, Fe3O4, ZnO e SiO2. This work showed that its possible recovery approximately 92% of metal iron from dust generated during steelmaking.This (author)

  1. System level design model with reuse of system IP

    CERN Document Server

    Cavalloro, Patrizia; Kronlöf, Klaus; Mermet, Jean; van Sas, J; Tiensyrjä, Kari; Voros, Nikolaos

    2007-01-01

    Preface. Acknowledgements. 1. Introduction; K. Kronlöf. 2. System Design Practices in Industry Today; K. Kronlöf, N.S. Voros. 3. System Design - Informal Walk-Through; K. Tiensyrjä. 4. System Design Conceptual Model; K. Tiensyrjä, J. Mermet. 5. Concepts for System Design Languages; P. Cavalloro. 6. System Performance Analysis; C. Gendarme, J. van Sas. 7. System Design Reuse; N.S. Voros. 8. Example of Using the System Design Conceptual Model; N.S. Voros. A1: Glossary; K. Kronlöf. A2: Action Semantics; J. Mermet. A3: Language Analysis Framework; P. Cavalloro. A4: Guidelines for System-Level Perf

  2. PUBLIC DOMAIN PROTECTION. USES AND REUSES OF PUBLIC DOMAIN WORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Adriana LUPAȘCU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study tries to highlight the necessity of an awareness of the right of access to the public domain, particularly using the example of works whose protection period has expired, as well as the ones which the law considers to be excluded from protection. Such works are used not only by large libraries from around the world, but also by rights holders, via different means of use, including incorporations into original works or adaptations. However, the reuse that follows these uses often only remains at the level of concept, as the notion of the public’s right of access to public domain works is not substantiated, nor is the notion of the correct or legal use of such works.

  3. Recycling and Reuse of Ionic Liquid in Homogeneous Cellulose Acetylation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Kelin; WU Rui; CAO Yan; LI Huiquan; WANG Jinshu

    2013-01-01

    Molecular distillation was used to recover ionic liquid (IL) 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AmimC1) in homogeneous cellulose acetylation.The five factors that affect the separation efficiency of molecular distillation,namely,feed flow rate,distillation temperature,feed temperature,wiper rotating speed,and distillation pressure,are discussed.The optimal recovery condition was determined via orthogonal experiments using an OA9(34) design.The IL was recycled and reused 5 times in the homogeneous cellulose acetylation system under optimal conditions.The purity of recycled IL the 5th time reached 99.56%.FT-IR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and 1H NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy showed that the structure of the recovered IL is not changed.This work proves that AmirnCl has excellent reusability,and that molecular distillation is an effective method for recovering IL in homogeneous cellulose acetylation.

  4. Beneficial Effects of Tactile Stimulation on Early Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Rick

    2000-01-01

    Reviews selected research on the beneficial effects of tactile stimulation on infants. Examines the results of studies with animals, preterm infants, cocaine- and HIV-exposed preterm infants, and normal full-term infants. Briefly discusses caregiving implications and offers suggestions on how caregivers can incorporate tactile stimulation in…

  5. THE BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF SPORT ON ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Perrotta

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that exercise increases energy levels and mood state. At least 20 published studies, indicate a link between physical activity and signs of prosperity. There is much medical evidence showing the beneficial effects of exercise on cardiovascular disease, obesity and diabetes. Currently there is growing interest to see ifphysical activity can also improve symptoms of mental illness

  6. A review on the beneficial aspects of food processing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Fogliano, V.; Pellegrini, N.; Stanton, C.; Scholz, G.; Lalljie, S.P.D.; Somoza, V.; Knorr, D.; Rao Jasti, P.; Eisenbrand, G.

    2010-01-01

    The manuscript reviews beneficial aspects of food processing with main focus on cooking/heat treatment, including other food-processing techniques (e.g. fermentation). Benefits of thermal processing include inactivation of food-borne pathogens, natural toxins or other detrimental constituents, prolo

  7. 241-SY-101 mulitport riser acceptance for beneficial use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document formally demonstrates that the Acceptance for Beneficial USE (ABU) process for the SY tank farm Multiport Riser assembly has been properly completed in accordance with the ABU checklist. For each item required on the ABU checklist, a bibliography of the documentation prepared and released to satisfy the requirement is provided

  8. Research Priorities for Robust and Beneficial Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, Stuart; University of California, Berkeley; Dewey, Daniel; Oxford University; Tegmark, Max; Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2016-01-01

    Success in the quest for artificial intelligence has the potential to bring unprecedented benefits to humanity, and it is therefore worthwhile to investigate how to maximize these benefits while avoiding potential pitfalls. This article gives numerous examples (which should by no means be construed as an exhaustive list) of such worthwhile research aimed at ensuring that AI remains robust and beneficial.

  9. The non-target impact of spinosyns on beneficial arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Antonio; Mommaerts, Veerle; Smagghe, Guy; Viñuela, Elisa; Zappalà, Lucia; Desneux, Nicolas

    2012-12-01

    Spinosyn-based products, mostly spinosad, have been widely recommended by extension specialists and agribusiness companies; consequently, they have been used to control various pests in many different cropping systems. Following the worldwide adoption of spinosad-based products for integrated and organic farming, an increasing number of ecotoxicological studies have been published in the past 10 years. These studies are primarily related to the risk assessment of spinosad towards beneficial arthropods. This review takes into account recent data with the aim of (i) highlighting potentially adverse effects of spinosyns on beneficial arthropods (and hence on ecosystem services that they provide in agroecosystems), (ii) clarifying the range of methods used to address spinosyn side effects on biocontrol agents and pollinators in order to provide new insights for the development of more accurate bioassays, (iii) identifying pitfalls when analysing laboratory results to assess field risks and (iv) gaining increasing knowledge on side effects when using spinosad for integrated pest management (IPM) programmes and organic farming. For the first time, a thorough review of possible risks of spinosad and novel spinosyns (such as spinetoram) to beneficial arthropods (notably natural enemies and pollinators) is provided. The acute lethal effect and multiple sublethal effects have been identified in almost all arthropod groups studied. This review will help to optimise the future use of spinosad and new spinosyns in IPM programmes and for organic farming, notably by preventing the possible side effects of spinosyns on beneficial arthropods. PMID:23109262

  10. Children's Illnesses: Their Beneficial Effects on Behavioral Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmelee, Arthur H. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses potential beneficial effects of children's illnesses on their behavioral development. It is argued, on the basis of clinical experience and related research, that minor illnesses give children many opportunities to increase knowledge of self, other, prosocial behavior, and empathy and to realistically understand the sick role. (Author/RH)

  11. Coagulant recovery and reuse for drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, James; Jarvis, Peter; Smith, Andrea D; Judd, Simon J

    2016-01-01

    Coagulant recovery and reuse from waterworks sludge has the potential to significantly reduce waste disposal and chemicals usage for water treatment. Drinking water regulations demand purification of recovered coagulant before they can be safely reused, due to the risk of disinfection by-product precursors being recovered from waterworks sludge alongside coagulant metals. While several full-scale separation technologies have proven effective for coagulant purification, none have matched virgin coagulant treatment performance. This study examines the individual and successive separation performance of several novel and existing ferric coagulant recovery purification technologies to attain virgin coagulant purity levels. The new suggested approach of alkali extraction of dissolved organic compounds (DOC) from waterworks sludge prior to acidic solubilisation of ferric coagulants provided the same 14:1 selectivity ratio (874 mg/L Fe vs. 61 mg/L DOC) to the more established size separation using ultrafiltration (1285 mg/L Fe vs. 91 mg/L DOC). Cation exchange Donnan membranes were also examined: while highly selective (2555 mg/L Fe vs. 29 mg/L DOC, 88:1 selectivity), the low pH of the recovered ferric solution impaired subsequent treatment performance. The application of powdered activated carbon (PAC) to ultrafiltration or alkali pre-treated sludge, dosed at 80 mg/mg DOC, reduced recovered ferric DOC contamination to <1 mg/L but in practice, this option would incur significant costs. The treatment performance of the purified recovered coagulants was compared to that of virgin reagent with reference to key water quality parameters. Several PAC-polished recovered coagulants provided the same or improved DOC and turbidity removal as virgin coagulant, as well as demonstrating the potential to reduce disinfection byproducts and regulated metals to levels comparable to that attained from virgin material. PMID:26521220

  12. Beneficial Use of Dredge Materials for Soil Reconstruction and Development of Dredge Screening Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koropchak, Sara C; Daniels, W Lee; Wick, Abbey; Whittecar, G Richard; Haus, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Upland placement of dredge sediments has the potential to provide beneficial reuse of suitable sediments for agricultural uses or urban soil reconstruction. However, the use of many dredge materials is limited by contaminants, and most established screening protocols focus on limiting major contaminants such as heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and generally ignore fundamental agronomic parameters. Since 2001, we have placed over 450,000 m of Potomac River fresh water dredge materials and 250,000 m of saline materials from various locations into monitored confined upland facilities in Charles City, VA, and documented their conversion to agricultural uses. Groundwater and soil quality monitoring has indicated no adverse effects from material placement and outstanding agricultural productivity for the freshwater materials. Once placed, saline materials rapidly leach and ripen with quick declines in pH, electrical conductivity, and sodicity, but potentials for local groundwater impacts must be considered. Our experience to date indicates that the most important primary screening parameter is acid-base accounting (potential acidity or lime demand), which should become a mandatory analytical requirement. Our second level of acceptance screening is based on a combination of federal and state residual waste and soil screening standards and basic agronomic principles. High silt+clay and total organic C may also limit rapid use of many dredge materials due to extended dewatering times and physical limitations. This dredge material screening system separates potential upland placement candidates into three soil quality management categories (unsuitable, suitable, and clean fill) with differing monitoring requirements. Similar use of these sediments in urban soil reconstruction is also recommended. PMID:26828161

  13. Neural reuse leads to associative connections between concrete (physical) and abstract (social) concepts and motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yimeng; Bargh, John A

    2016-01-01

    Consistent with neural reuse theory, empirical tests of the related "scaffolding" principle of abstract concept development show that higher-level concepts "reuse" and are built upon fundamental motives such as survival, safety, and consumption. This produces mutual influence between the two levels, with far-ranging impacts from consumer behavior to political attitudes. PMID:27561234

  14. Adaptive Re-Use Principles in Historic Hotel Buildings in Melaka And George Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ab Wahab Lilawati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive re-use of historic buildings is a process of changing the original function of the historic buildings to another function that can optimise the use of existing historic buildings. The selection of appropriate new function is an important factor in determining the success of adaptive re-use of historic buildings. However, adaptive re-use work done on historic buildings on the World Heritage Site is not an easy task due to rules and principles outlined by local and international charters that must be abide by. This research is conducted to gather the true picture of applied adaptive re-use principles that has been done on heritage hotels available in Melaka and George Town World Heritage Sites. This research is started with an inventory that led to the discovery of 35 hotels which applied the principle of adaptive re-use of historic buildings. Based on this finding, 4 historic hotels from adaptive re-use applications have been selected as the case studies. Results of the case studies carried out show that the level of conservation of heritage hotel is moderate and measures of control should be taken to ensure the privileges of heritage hotel. As a result of this research, a number of suggestions are made to ensure that adaptive re-use work done in the future will be conducted as optimum as possible according to the adaptive re-use and conservation principles.

  15. Development of transformations from business process models to implementations by reuse

    OpenAIRE

    Dirgahayu, Teduh; Quartel, Dick; Sinderen, van, Marten; Ferreira Pires, L.; Hammoudi, S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for developing transformations from business process models to implementations that facilitates reuse. A transformation is developed as a composition of three smaller tasks: pattern recognition, pattern realization and activity transformation. The approach allows one to reuse the definition and implementation of pattern recognition and pattern realization in the development of transformations targeting different business process modeling and implementation lang...

  16. Development of Transformations from Business Process Models to Implementations by Reuse

    OpenAIRE

    Dirgahayu, Teduh; Quartel, Dick; Sinderen, van, Marten

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for developing transformations from business process models to implementations that facilitates reuse. A transformation is developed as a composition of three smaller tasks: pattern recognition, pattern realization and activity transformation. The approach allows one to reuse the definition and implementation of pattern recognition and pattern realization in the development of transformations targeting different business process modeling and implementation lang...

  17. Guidelines for Supporting Re-Use of Existing Digital Learning Materials and Methods in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonenboom, Judith; Sligte, Henk; Kliphuis, Eja

    2009-01-01

    The literature on the re-use of learning materials has largely focused on the development of materials. This paper explores how re-use can be stimulated after learning materials have been developed and made available. We searched for and developed guidelines that support staff and/or management most frequently adopt in cases of (un)successful…

  18. Beyond User Acceptance: A Legitimacy Framework for Potable Water Reuse in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris-Lovett, Sasha R; Binz, Christian; Sedlak, David L; Kiparsky, Michael; Truffer, Bernhard

    2015-07-01

    Water resource managers often tout the potential of potable water reuse to provide a reliable, local source of drinking water in water-scarce regions. Despite data documenting the ability of advanced treatment technologies to treat municipal wastewater effluent to meet existing drinking water quality standards, many utilities face skepticism from the public about potable water reuse. Prior research on this topic has mainly focused on marketing strategies for garnering public acceptance of the process. This study takes a broader perspective on the adoption of potable water reuse based on concepts of societal legitimacy, which is the generalized perception or assumption that a technology is desirable or appropriate within its social context. To assess why some potable reuse projects were successfully implemented while others faced fierce public opposition, we performed a series of 20 expert interviews and reviewed in-depth case studies from potable reuse projects in California. Results show that proponents of a legitimated potable water reuse project in Orange County, California engaged in a portfolio of strategies that addressed three main dimensions of legitimacy. In contrast, other proposed projects that faced extensive public opposition relied on a smaller set of legitimation strategies that focused near-exclusively on the development of robust water treatment technology. Widespread legitimation of potable water reuse projects, including direct potable water reuse, may require the establishment of a portfolio of standards, procedures, and possibly new institutions. PMID:26030335

  19. 40 CFR 761.378 - Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decontamination, reuse, and disposal...-Porous Surfaces § 761.378 Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment. (a) Decontamination. Decontaminate solvents and non-porous surfaces on equipment in accordance with the standards...

  20. The application of artificial intelligence in optimisation of automotive components for reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Wahab

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Automotive component reuse as one of the product recovery strategy is now gaining importance in viewof its impact on the environment. Research and development on components design and manufacturing as wellas tools and methods to facilitate reuse are under way in many countries. To enable reuse, components have to beassessed and its reliability and life time predicted. This paper presents the development work on an optimisationmodel for assessing potential automotive components for reuse using artificial intelligence approaches.Design/methodology/approach: As a part of the study, the paper currently focuses on initial study on ease ofdisassembly design. The model for predicting reliability and durability of reuse components is then developedusing Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs and further optimised for reliability and life cycle cost using GeneticAlgorithm (GA.Findings: The proposed model will enable the local automotive industry to effectively assess potentialcomponents for reuse in support of further design and manufacturing improvements.Research limitations/implications: This study hopes to contribute to design for reuse by assessing highpotential and reliable reuse components at the lowest costs.Originality/value: Artificial intelligence methods, such as artificial neural networks (ANNs and geneticalgorithm (GA, can be applied to solve problem as they can provide satisfactory and acceptable solutions formany complex problems.

  1. Reuse of Use Cases Diagrams: An Approach based on Ontologies and Semantic Web Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belen Bonilla-Morales

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Software reuse is defined as the use of any artifact, or part thereof, created before, on a new Project. This practice has significant benefits in reducing costs and increasing quality and productivity in software development. Numerous approaches have been proposed aimed mostly at the source code reuse, but this type of reuse has its limitations because development platforms and technologies are constantly changing. Then, it is necessary to apply reuse over software artifacts created at higher levels of software life cycle such as requirements specification. This paper presents a tool for the reuse of use case diagrams by storing their information in OWL ontology and the use of Semantic Web technologies.

  2. An Ontology Based Reuse Algorithm towards Process Planning in Software Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Sharma

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The process planning task for specified design provisions in software development can be significantly developed by referencing the knowledge reuse scheme. Reuse is considered to be one of the most promising techniques to improve software excellence and productivity. Reuse during software development depends much on the existing design knowledge in meta-model, a “read only” repository of information. We have proposed, an ontology based reuse algorithm towards process planning in software development. According to the common conceptual base facilitated by ontology and the characteristics of knowledge, the concepts and the entities are represented into meta-model and endeavor prospects. The relations between these prospects and its linkage knowledge are used to construct an ontology based reuse algorithm. In addition, our experiment illustrates realization of process planning in software development by practicing this algorithm. Subsequently, its benefits are delineated.

  3. Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 9, April--June 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

    1991-08-01

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches of fuels for shipment to CE`s laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. CE then processes the products into either a coal-water fuel (CWF) or a dry microfine pulverized coa1 (DMPC) form for combustion testing. The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. During the second quarter of 1991, the following technical progress was made: completed drop tube furnace devolatilization tests of the spherical oil agglomeration beneficiated products; continued analyses of samples to determine devolatilization kinetics; continued analyses of the data and samples from the CE pilot-scale tests of nine fuels; completed writing a summary topical report including all results to date on he nine fuels tested; and presented three technical papers on the project results at the 16th International Conference on Coal & Slurry Technologies.

  4. Clearance of buildings and certification for reuse as non nuclear industrial building at SCK.CEN, Mol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past, the SCK.CEN was involved in both nuclear and non-nuclear research programs. In the early nineties, the Belgian government decided to restrict the operational scope of the SCK.CEN to the strictly nuclear programs. A new research centre, the Vito (Flemish Institute for Technological Research) was founded and took over all non-nuclear activities. The Vito is housed in former SCK.CEN buildings. In addition to well-equipped non-nuclear laboratories and offices, these buildings contain laboratories and installations with a radiological history. The buildings have to be decontaminated and cleared for unrestricted reuse prior to transferring them to the Vito. This paper describes the process for decommissioning and clearance of some radiological laboratories for unrestricted reuse. Contamination levels were below 500 Bq/cm2 for beta gamma emitters and 0.5 Bq/cm2 for alpha emitters. Clearance limits were established as 0,4 Bq/cm2 surficial contamination for beta and gamma emitters and 0.04 Bq/cm2 for alpha emitters. Residual radioactivity should be of the same order of magnitude as that of a non-nuclear building on site. Methods used to demonstrate compliance with the limits were the radiological monitoring of the entire wall and floor surfaces, radiological analyses of the wash water from walls and floors, and measurement of selective core samples

  5. Programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The programmer's task is often taken to be the construction of algorithms, expressed in hierarchical structures of procedures: this view underlies the majority of traditional programming languages, such as Fortran. A different view is appropriate to a wide class of problem, perhaps including some problems in High Energy Physics. The programmer's task is regarded as having three main stages: first, an explicit model is constructed of the reality with which the program is concerned; second, this model is elaborated to produce the required program outputs; third, the resulting program is transformed to run efficiently in the execution environment. The first two stages deal in network structures of sequential processes; only the third is concerned with procedure hierarchies. (orig.)

  6. Beneficial effects of green tea: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuttan Ramadasan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The health benefits of green tea for a wide variety of ailments, including different types of cancer, heart disease, and liver disease, were reported. Many of these beneficial effects of green tea are related to its catechin, particularly (--epigallocatechin-3-gallate, content. There is evidence from in vitro and animal studies on the underlying mechanisms of green tea catechins and their biological actions. There are also human studies on using green tea catechins to treat metabolic syndrome, such as obesity, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular risk factors. Long-term consumption of tea catechins could be beneficial against high-fat diet-induced obesity and type II diabetes and could reduce the risk of coronary disease. Further research that conforms to international standards should be performed to monitor the pharmacological and clinical effects of green tea and to elucidate its mechanisms of action.

  7. Mobile phone collection, reuse and recycling in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → We characterized the key features of the voluntary UK mobile phone takeback network via a survey. → We identified 3 flows: information; product (handsets and accessories); and incentives. → There has been a significant rise in the number of UK takeback schemes since 1997. → Most returned handsets are low quality; little data exists on quantities of mobile phones collected. → Takeback schemes increasingly divert EoL mobile phones from landfill and enable reuse/recycling. - Abstract: Mobile phones are the most ubiquitous electronic product on the globe. They have relatively short lifecycles and because of their (perceived) in-built obsolescence, discarded mobile phones represent a significant and growing problem with respect to waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). An emerging and increasingly important issue for industry is the shortage of key metals, especially the types of metals found in mobile phones, and hence the primary aim of this timely study was to assess and evaluate the voluntary mobile phone takeback network in the UK. The study has characterised the information, product and incentives flows in the voluntary UK mobile phone takeback network and reviewed the merits and demerits of the incentives offered. A survey of the activities of the voluntary mobile phone takeback schemes was undertaken in 2008 to: identify and evaluate the takeback schemes operating in the UK; determine the target groups from whom handsets are collected; and assess the collection, promotion and advertising methods used by the schemes. In addition, the survey sought to identify and critically evaluate the incentives offered by the takeback schemes, evaluate their ease and convenience of use; and determine the types, qualities and quantities of mobile phones they collect. The study has established that the UK voluntary mobile phone takeback network can be characterised as three distinctive flows: information flow; product flow (handsets and related

  8. Health effects of predatory beneficial mites and wasps in greenhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper; Enkegaard, Annie; Doekes, Gert;

    A three-year study of 579 greenhouse workers in 31 firms investigated the effect of four different beneficial arthropods. It was shown that the thrips mite Amblyseeius cucumeris and the spider mite predator Phytoseiulus persimilis may cause allergy measured by blood tests as well as eye and nose...... symptoms. No effect was seen by the predator wasp Aphidius colemani nor the predator mite Hypoaspis miles and no effect on lung diseases were seen....

  9. Beneficial Effects of Temperate Forage Legumes that Contain Condensed Tannins

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer W. MacAdam; Villalba, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    The two temperate forage legumes containing condensed tannins (CT) that promote ruminant production are birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.; BFT) and sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.; SF). Both are well-adapted to the cool-temperate climate and alkaline soils of the Mountain West USA. Condensed tannins comprise a diverse family of bioactive chemicals with multiple beneficial functions for ruminants, including suppression of internal parasites and enteric methane. Birdsfoot tref...

  10. Glutamine Supplementation in Sick Children: Is It Beneficial?

    OpenAIRE

    Elise Mok; Régis Hankard

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide a critical appraisal of the literature on Glutamine (Gln) supplementation in various conditions or illnesses that affect children, from neonates to adolescents. First, a general overview of the proposed mechanisms for the beneficial effects of Gln is provided, and subsequently clinical studies are discussed. Despite safety, studies are conflicting, partly due to different effects of enteral and parenteral Gln supplementation. Further insufficient evide...

  11. Beneficial effects of green tea: A literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Kuttan Ramadasan; Thambi Priya T; Chacko Sabu M; Nishigaki Ikuo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The health benefits of green tea for a wide variety of ailments, including different types of cancer, heart disease, and liver disease, were reported. Many of these beneficial effects of green tea are related to its catechin, particularly (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, content. There is evidence from in vitro and animal studies on the underlying mechanisms of green tea catechins and their biological actions. There are also human studies on using green tea catechins to treat metaboli...

  12. Signaling in Arabidopsis roots in response to beneficial rhizobacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Zamioudis, C.

    2012-01-01

    Root colonization by selected strains of beneficial soil-resident bacteria is known to improve plant growth, influence root system architecture and trigger a systemic immune response that is effective against a broad range of pathogens, known as induced systemic resistance (ISR). In this thesis we explore signaling mechanisms that are activated in the roots in response to ISR-inducing bacteria. We demonstrate that the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS417 secret...

  13. Multi-beneficial remedial measures of hydro power rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scope of the study was to develop model plans for ecologically beneficial remedial measures of hydro power producing rivers. As a background of the plans were environmental factors contributing to power production, recreational use, fishery and ecology of rivers as well as their relations to each other studied. The focus of the study was to collect information about ecology of flowing waters and habitat requirements of different organisms. Model plans were worked out for ecologically beneficial shore protection structure, submerged weir and habitat restoration on hydro littoral zone. To assess economical impacts of the change of the remedial manners, calculatory costs of these theoretical measures were compared to the realized costs of present measures. This way it was possible to increase the accuracy of planning and reliability of assessments. It also made possible to estimate the total potential of ecologically beneficial remedial measures at the Oulujoki rivercourse. Multi-beneficial remedial measure of rivers is new as well as a concept as a course of action. Theoretical basis of the concept is still rather weak because previous studies dealing with river ecology and remedial measures have been strictly defined to certain viewpoints. The other aspect that weakens the suitability of these studies for Finnish large hydro power rivers is that they have been conducted in smaller streams and under different climate conditions. Information about mutual importance of different environmental factors was only a few in number and those studies available could be in contradiction with each other, that even further emphasis the need of basic ecological studies on great northern rivers. However, the most of the studies are based on field studies, which make them very valuable. (orig.) 123 refs

  14. EFFECT OF LIVING MULCH ON PEST/BENEFICIAL INTERACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Burgio, Giovanni; Kristensen, Hanne L.; Campanelli, Gabriele; Bavec, Franc; Bavec, Martina; von Fragstein und Niemsdorff, Peter; Depalo, Laura; Lanzoni, Alberto; Canali, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cover crops on pest/beneficial dynamics and to test the potential of living mulch on enhancing biological control against insect pests. The research, carried out in the frame of the InterVeg (Core Organic II) project, involved four European countries: Germany, Slovenia, Denmark and Italy. Three crops were tested: cauliflower, leek and artichoke. The preliminary results obtained in Italy on cauliflower, indicated that the living mulch did not...

  15. Microbial Beneficiation of Salem Iron Ore Using Penicillium purpurogenum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, M.; Pradhan, M.; Sukla, L. B.; Mishra, B. K.

    2011-02-01

    High alumina and silica content in the iron ore affects coke rate, reducibility, and productivity in a blast furnace. Iron ore is being beneficiated all around the world to meet the quality requirement of iron and steel industries. Choosing a beneficiation treatment depends on the nature of the gangue present and its association with the ore structure. The advanced physicochemical methods used for the beneficiation of iron ore are generally unfriendly to the environment. Biobeneficiation is considered to be ecofriendly, promising, and revolutionary solutions to these problems. A characterization study of Salem iron ore indicates that the major iron-bearing minerals are hematite, magnetite, and goethite. Samples on average contains (pct) Fe2O3-84.40, Fe (total)-59.02, Al2O3-7.18, and SiO2-7.53. Penicillium purpurogenum (MTCC 7356) was used for the experiment . It removed 35.22 pct alumina and 39.41 pct silica in 30 days in a shake flask at 10 pct pulp density, 308 K (35 °C), and 150 rpm. In a bioreactor experiment at 2 kg scale using the same organism, it removed 23.33 pct alumina and 30.54 pct silica in 30 days at 300 rpm agitation and 2 to 3 l/min aeration. Alumina and silica dissolution follow the shrinking core model for both shake flask and bioreactor experiments.

  16. Shale-oil-recovery systems incorporating ore beneficiation. Final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, M.A.; Klumpar, I.V.; Peterson, C.R.; Ring, T.A.

    1982-10-01

    This study analyzed the recovery of oil from oil shale by use of proposed systems which incorporate beneficiation of the shale ore (that is concentration of the kerogen before the oil-recovery step). The objective was to identify systems which could be more attractive than conventional surface retorting of ore. No experimental work was carried out. The systems analyzed consisted of beneficiation methods which could increase kerogen concentrations by at least four-fold. Potentially attractive low-enrichment methods such as density separation were not examined. The technical alternatives considered were bounded by the secondary crusher as input and raw shale oil as output. A sequence of ball milling, froth flotation, and retorting concentrate is not attractive for Western shales compared to conventional ore retorting; transporting the concentrate to another location for retorting reduces air emissions in the ore region but cost reduction is questionable. The high capital and energy cost s results largely from the ball milling step which is very inefficient. Major improvements in comminution seem achievable through research and such improvements, plus confirmation of other assumptions, could make high-enrichment beneficiation competitive with conventional processing. 27 figures, 23 tables.

  17. Chemotaxis signaling systems in model beneficial plant-bacteria associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Birgit E; Hynes, Michael F; Alexandre, Gladys M

    2016-04-01

    Beneficial plant-microbe associations play critical roles in plant health. Bacterial chemotaxis provides a competitive advantage to motile flagellated bacteria in colonization of plant root surfaces, which is a prerequisite for the establishment of beneficial associations. Chemotaxis signaling enables motile soil bacteria to sense and respond to gradients of chemical compounds released by plant roots. This process allows bacteria to actively swim towards plant roots and is thus critical for competitive root surface colonization. The complete genome sequences of several plant-associated bacterial species indicate the presence of multiple chemotaxis systems and a large number of chemoreceptors. Further, most soil bacteria are motile and capable of chemotaxis, and chemotaxis-encoding genes are enriched in the bacteria found in the rhizosphere compared to the bulk soil. This review compares the architecture and diversity of chemotaxis signaling systems in model beneficial plant-associated bacteria and discusses their relevance to the rhizosphere lifestyle. While it is unclear how controlling chemotaxis via multiple parallel chemotaxis systems provides a competitive advantage to certain bacterial species, the presence of a larger number of chemoreceptors is likely to contribute to the ability of motile bacteria to survive in the soil and to compete for root surface colonization. PMID:26797793

  18. Reuse of Lathe Waste Steel Scrap in Concrete Pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Shrivastavaa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available These project works assess on the study of the workability and mechanical strength properties of the concrete reinforced with industrialized waste fibers or the recycled fibers. In each lathe industries wastes are available in form of steel scraps are yield by the lathe machines in process of finishing of different machines parts and dumping of these wastes in the barren soil contaminating the soil and ground water that builds an unhealthy environment. Now a day’s these steel scraps as a waste products used by innovative construction industry and also in transportation and highway industry. In addition to get sustainable progress and environmental remuneration, lathe scrap as worn-recycle fibers with concrete are likely to be used. When the steel scrap reinforced in concrete it acquire a term; fiber reinforced concrete and steel fibers in concrete defined as steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC.Different experimental studies are done to identify about fresh and hardened concrete properties of steel scrap fiber reinforced concrete (SSFRC and their mechanical properties are found to be increase due to the addition of steel scrap in concrete i.e. compressive strength, flexural strength, impact strength, fatigue strength and split tensile strength were increased but up to 0.5-2% scrap content . When compared with usual concrete to SSFRC, flexural strength increases by 40% and considerable increases in tensile and compressive strength. These steel scrap also aid to improve the shrinkage reduction, cracking resistance i.e. preventing crack propagation and modulus of elasticity. The workability of fresh SSFRC are carried out by using slump test but it restricted to less scrap contents. This work focuses on the enhancement of structural strength and improvement in fatigue life of concrete pavements by reuse of scrap steel in concrete. These concrete roads with SSFRC promises an appreciably eminent design life, offer superior serviceability and

  19. Cleaning protocol for a FO membrane fouled in wastewater reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Valladares Linares, Rodrigo

    2013-05-30

    Forward osmosis (FO) is an emerging technology which can be applied in water reuse applications. Osmosis is a natural process that involves less energy consumption than reverse osmosis (RO), and therefore can be applied as a dilution process before low-pressure RO; it is expected to compete favourably against current advanced water reuse technologies that use microfiltration/ultrafiltration and RO. The focus of this research was to assess the efficiency of different cleaning procedures to remove fouling from the surface of a FO membrane during the operation of a submerged system working in FO-mode (active layer (AL) facing feed solution) intended for secondary wastewater effluent (SWWE) recovery, using seawater as draw solution (DS), which will be diluted and can further be fed to a low-pressure RO unit to produce fresh water. Natural organic matter (NOM) fouling was expected to affect the AL, while for the support layer (SL), transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) were used as indicators of fouling due to their stickiness and propensity to enhance the attachment of other foulants in seawater on the membrane surface. The composition of the NOM fouling layer was determined after proper characterisation with a liquid chromatograph coupled with organic carbon detection (LC-OCD), showing biopolymers and protein-like substances as the main constituents. NOM fouling showed high hydraulic reversibility after a 25% flux decline was observed, up to 89.5% when in situ air scouring for 15 min was used as a cleaning technique. Chemical cleaning with a mixture of Alconox, an industrial detergent containing phosphates, and sodium EDTA showed to increase the reversibility (93.6%). Osmotic backwash using a 4% NaCl solution and DI water proved to be ineffective to recover flux due to the salt diffusion phenomena occurring at the AL. Part of the flux that could not be recovered is attributable to TEP fouling on the SL, which forms clusters clearly identifiable with an optical

  20. Modeling technology innovation: How science, engineering, and industry methods can combine to generate beneficial socioeconomic impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone Vathsala I

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Government-sponsored science, technology, and innovation (STI programs support the socioeconomic aspects of public policies, in addition to expanding the knowledge base. For example, beneficial healthcare services and devices are expected to result from investments in research and development (R&D programs, which assume a causal link to commercial innovation. Such programs are increasingly held accountable for evidence of impact—that is, innovative goods and services resulting from R&D activity. However, the absence of comprehensive models and metrics skews evidence gathering toward bibliometrics about research outputs (published discoveries, with less focus on transfer metrics about development outputs (patented prototypes and almost none on econometrics related to production outputs (commercial innovations. This disparity is particularly problematic for the expressed intent of such programs, as most measurable socioeconomic benefits result from the last category of outputs. Methods This paper proposes a conceptual framework integrating all three knowledge-generating methods into a logic model, useful for planning, obtaining, and measuring the intended beneficial impacts through the implementation of knowledge in practice. Additionally, the integration of the Context-Input-Process-Product (CIPP model of evaluation proactively builds relevance into STI policies and programs while sustaining rigor. Results The resulting logic model framework explicitly traces the progress of knowledge from inputs, following it through the three knowledge-generating processes and their respective knowledge outputs (discovery, invention, innovation, as it generates the intended socio-beneficial impacts. It is a hybrid model for generating technology-based innovations, where best practices in new product development merge with a widely accepted knowledge-translation approach. Given the emphasis on evidence-based practice in the medical and

  1. Multi-Language Programming Environments for High Performance Java Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Getov

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in processor capabilities, software tools, programming languages and programming paradigms have brought about new approaches to high performance computing. A steadfast component of this dynamic evolution has been the scientific community’s reliance on established scientific packages. As a consequence, programmers of high‐performance applications are reluctant to embrace evolving languages such as Java. This paper describes the Java‐to‐C Interface (JCI tool which provides application programmers wishing to use Java with immediate accessibility to existing scientific packages. The JCI tool also facilitates rapid development and reuse of existing code. These benefits are provided at minimal cost to the programmer. While beneficial to the programmer, the additional advantages of mixed‐language programming in terms of application performance and portability are addressed in detail within the context of this paper. In addition, we discuss how the JCI tool is complementing other ongoing projects such as IBM’s High‐Performance Compiler for Java (HPCJ and IceT’s metacomputing environment.

  2. Knowledge-reuse-oriented Product Modeling and Knowledge Management in Digital Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jinsong

    2006-01-01

    Mostly product design knowledge and experience exists in design handbook or expert's brain. During design process, designer has to refer to many handbooks and design materials, and design solution is hard to be reused. In order to deal with these deficiencies in digital design, this paper focuses on knowledge-reuse-oriented product modeling and knowledge management. Design knowledge is used to guide design process, and it is embedded into product model along with design process. Through analyzing design process, mechanical product knowledge is classified into four basic types that include calculation formula, design rule, engineering check and parameter spectrum etc. In order to manage and encapsulate design knowledge the concept of knowledge component(KCOM) is proposed. Design knowledge base can be organized as a hierarchy tree of KCOM. Knowledge reuse in KCOM level is the reuse of whole object in knowledge base, and knowledge reuse in item level is the reuse of basic knowledge type. Finally knowledge reuse approaches between knowledge base and CAD system is presented.

  3. Dose estimation for the reuse of wooden chips contaminated by radioactive cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood and wooden wastes potentially contaminated by radioactive cesium released by Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant have been reused for various purposes as wooden chips. The Ministry of the Environment indicated that the general disaster wastes including the wooden wastes were reusable with the criteria of total radioactive cesium (cesium-134 and metal generated at nuclear power plant and not on dose estimation for reuse of wooden chips. The purpose of this study is to confirm the validity of the criteria by the dose estimation approach. We investigated actual conditions of production and use for main five reuse purposes of wooden chips around Fukushima. On the basis of this investigation, exposure pathways and parameters for workers and public involved with the reuse of wooden chips were selected. We calculated dose for the exposure pathways and evaluated radioactive concentrations of wooden chips corresponding to dose criteria for safety reuse of radioactive materials. From the calculation result, all radioactive concentrations corresponding to the dose criteria are more than the reuse criteria of 100 Bq/kg, which ensures the validity of the criteria for the safety of present reuse of wood and wooden wastes. (author)

  4. Potential reuse of small household waste electrical and electronic equipment: Methodology and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovea, María D; Ibáñez-Forés, Valeria; Pérez-Belis, Victoria; Quemades-Beltrán, Pilar

    2016-07-01

    This study proposes a general methodology for assessing and estimating the potential reuse of small waste electrical and electronic equipment (sWEEE), focusing on devices classified as domestic appliances. Specific tests for visual inspection, function and safety have been defined for ten different types of household appliances (vacuum cleaner, iron, microwave, toaster, sandwich maker, hand blender, juicer, boiler, heater and hair dryer). After applying the tests, reuse protocols have been defined in the form of easy-to-apply checklists for each of the ten types of appliance evaluated. This methodology could be useful for reuse enterprises, since there is a lack of specific protocols, adapted to each type of appliance, to test its potential of reuse. After applying the methodology, electrical and electronic appliances (used or waste) can be segregated into three categories: the appliance works properly and can be classified as direct reuse (items can be used by a second consumer without prior repair operations), the appliance requires a later evaluation of its potential refurbishment and repair (restoration of products to working order, although with possible loss of quality) or the appliance needs to be finally discarded from the reuse process and goes directly to a recycling process. Results after applying the methodology to a sample of 87.7kg (96 units) show that 30.2% of the appliances have no potential for reuse and should be diverted for recycling, while 67.7% require a subsequent evaluation of their potential refurbishment and repair, and only 2.1% of them could be directly reused with minor cleaning operations. This study represents a first approach to the "preparation for reuse" strategy that the European Directive related to Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment encourages to be applied. However, more research needs to be done as an extension of this study, mainly related to the identification of the feasibility of repair or refurbishment operations

  5. C++ how to program

    CERN Document Server

    Deitel, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    This best-selling comprehensive text is aimed at readers with little or no programming experience. It teaches programming by presenting the concepts in the context of full working programs and takes an early-objects approach. The authors emphasize achieving program clarity through structured and object-oriented programming, software reuse and component-oriented software construction. The Ninth Edition encourages students to connect computers to the community, using the Internet to solve problems and make a difference in our world. All content has been carefully fine-tuned in response to a team of distinguished academic and industry reviewers.

  6. Fusion power plant for water desalination and reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of industry and agriculture demands a huge fresh water consumption. Exhaust of water sources together with pollution arises a difficult problem of population, industry, and agriculture water supply. Request for additional water supply in next 50 years is expected from industrial and agricultural sectors of many countries in the world. The presented study of fusion power plant for water desalination and reuse is aimed to widen a range of possible fusion industrial applications. Fusion offers a safe, long-term source of energy with abundant resources and major environmental advantages. Thus fusion can provide an attractive energy option to society in the next century. Fusion power tokamak reactor based on RF DEMO-S project [Proc. ISFNT-5 (2000) in press; Conceptual study of RF DEMO-S fusion reactor (2000)] was chosen as an energy source. A steady state operation mode is considered with thermal power of 4.0 GW. The reactor has to operate in steady-state plasma mode with high fraction of bootstrap current. Average plant availability of ∼0.7 is required. A conventional type of water cooled blanket is the first choice, helium or lithium coolants are under consideration. Desalination plant includes two units: reverse osmosis and distillation. Heat to electricity conversion schemes is optimized fresh water production and satisfy internal plant electricity demand The plant freshwater capacity is ∼6000000 m3 per day. Fusion power plant of this capacity can provide a region of a million populations with fresh water, heat and electricity

  7. Recovery and reuse of asphalt roofing waste. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, S.; Graziano, G.; Shepherd, P.

    1984-02-02

    Burning of asphalt roofing waste as a fuel and incorporating asphalt roofing waste in bituminous paving were identified as the two outstanding resource recovery concepts out of ten studied. Four additional concepts might be worth considering under different market or technical circumstances. Another four concepts were rated as worth no further consideration at this time. This study of the recovery of the resource represented in asphalt roofing waste has identified the sources and quantities of roofing waste. About six million cubic yards of scrap roofing are generated annually in the United States, about 94% from removal of old roofing at the job site and the remainder from roofing material production at factories. Waste disposal is a growing problem for manufacturers and contractors. Nearly all roofing waste is hauled to landfills at a considerable expense to roofing contractors and manufacturers. Recovery of the roofing waste resource should require only a modest economic incentive. The asphalt contained in roofing waste represents an energy resource of more than 7 x 10/sup 13/ Btu/year. Another 1 x 10/sup 13/ Btu/year may be contained in field-applied asphalt on commercial building roofs. The two concepts recommended by this study appear to offer the broadest applicability, the most favorable economics, and the highest potential for near-term implementation to reuse this resource.

  8. Clean-out and Reuse of GCEP Facilities at Portsmouth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PORTS began operations in 1956 to enrich uranium for both civilian and military use. It operated under Goodyear Atomic Corporation and Lockheed-Martin as a government-owned contractor-operated facility until the formation of the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) as a government corporation in 1993. In 1998, USEC was privatized as a publicly traded corporation. USEC leases the Portsmouth and Paducah GDPs from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Enrichment operations were terminated at Portsmouth in 2001, although USEC continues to lease and maintain the Portsmouth GDP in Cold Shutdown and conduct some DOE projects there. LPP found that removal of old equipment to allow reuse of a facility can present unexpected challenges. Classified components create significant logistics issues. In this case, teamwork and attention to detail by USEC, LATA/Parallax, and DOE resulted in solutions and success. Lessons learnt: - Transportation logistics are particularly important when shipping waste streams with special requirements. - Investment in extra equipment yields tangible benefits where other resources (cleared drivers) are scarce. - An early start to providing specially qualified drivers, in this case providing security clearances, is essential. Availability is limited, and the time required to qualify new drivers may be lengthy. - A dedicated communications station, rather than reliance on existing resources (shift superintendent), is invaluable

  9. Reuse of constructed wetland effluents for irrigation of energy crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbagallo, S; Barbera, A C; Cirelli, G L; Milani, M; Toscano, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate biomass production of promising 'no-food' energy crops, Vetiveria zizanoides (L.) Nash, Miscanthus × giganteus Greef et Deu. and Arundo donax (L.), irrigated with low quality water at different evapotranspiration restitutions. Two horizontal subsurface flow (H-SSF) constructed wetland (CW) beds, with different operation life (12 and 6 years), were used to treat secondary municipal wastewaters for crop irrigation. Water chemical, physical and microbiological parameters as well as plant bio-agronomic characters were evaluated. The results confirm the high reliability of CWs for tertiary wastewater treatment given that the H-SSF1 treatment capacity remained largely unchanged after 12 years of operation. Average total suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand and total nitrogen removal for CWs were about 68, 58 and 71%, respectively. The Escherichia coli removal was satisfactory, about 3.3 log unit for both CW beds on average, but caution should be taken as this parameter did not achieve the restrictive Italian law limits for wastewater reuse. The average above-ground dry matter productions were 7 t ha⁻¹ for Vetiveria zizanoides, 24 t ha⁻¹ for Miscanthus × giganteus and 50 t ha⁻¹ for Arundo donax. These results highlight attractive biomass yield by using treated wastewater for irrigation with a complete restitution of evapotranspiration losses. PMID:25401309

  10. Data Management System Reuse for Visualization of JPL's SMAP Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcon, C.; Huang, T.; Roberts, J. T.; Rodriguez, J. D.; Quach, N. T.; De Cesare, C.; Hall, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    The Imagery Exchange (TIE) is a scalable and efficient imagery data management system that powers the WMS web server OnEarth. Designed and developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), TIE's primary purpose was to power the NASA's Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS), a system that provides full resolution imagery from a broad set of Earth science disciplines to the public. The SMAP project at JPL had just about all of its requirements met with GIBS but required very project-specific behavior and automation for the Cal-Val phase of the project. Thanks to the extendable design of TIE (already an extension of JPL's Horizon framework) and Amazon's GovCloud services, we were able to meet the needs of the project without any rewrite of the system while significantly expanding the capabilities of an already robust system through well modularized feature additions. In this presentation, we will talk about the efforts made to re-use the already developed data system TIE for SMAP with minimal turn around. Leveraging cloud resources and standard interfaces, we were able to satisfy new project requirements in a very short amount of time.

  11. A novel integrated assessment methodology of urban water reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listowski, A; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S; Vigneswaran, S

    2011-01-01

    Wastewater is no longer considered a waste product and water reuse needs to play a stronger part in securing urban water supply. Although treatment technologies for water reclamation have significantly improved the question that deserves further analysis is, how selection of a particular wastewater treatment technology relates to performance and sustainability? The proposed assessment model integrates; (i) technology, characterised by selected quantity and quality performance parameters; (ii) productivity, efficiency and reliability criteria; (iii) quantitative performance indicators; (iv) development of evaluation model. The challenges related to hierarchy and selections of performance indicators have been resolved through the case study analysis. The goal of this study is to validate a new assessment methodology in relation to performance of the microfiltration (MF) technology, a key element of the treatment process. Specific performance data and measurements were obtained at specific Control and Data Acquisition Points (CP) to satisfy the input-output inventory in relation to water resources, products, material flows, energy requirements, chemicals use, etc. Performance assessment process contains analysis and necessary linking across important parametric functions leading to reliable outcomes and results. PMID:22335107

  12. Reuse of sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) to produce ceramic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, A E; Teixeira, S R; Santos, G T A; Costa, F B; Longo, E

    2011-10-01

    Sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) is a residue resulting from the burning of bagasse in boilers in the sugarcane/alcohol industry. SCBA has a very high silica concentration and contains aluminum, iron, alkalis and alkaline earth oxides in smaller amounts. In this work, the properties of sintered ceramic bodies were evaluated based on the concentration of SCBA, which replaced non-plastic material. The ash was mixed (up to 60 wt%) with a clayed raw material that is used to produce roof tiles. Prismatic probes were pressed and sintered at different temperatures (up to 1200 °C). Technological tests of ceramic probes showed that the addition of ash has little influence on the ceramic properties up to 1000 °C. X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis data showed that, above this temperature the ash participates in the sintering process and in the formation of new important phases. The results reported show that the reuse of SCBA in the ceramic industry is feasible. PMID:21733619

  13. Food industrial wastewater reuse by membrane bio-reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patthanant Natpinit

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation was to study the possibility and performance of treating food industrial wastewater by Membrane BioReactor (MBR. In addition, the effluent of MBR was treated by Reverse Osmosis system (RO to reuse in boiler or cooling tower. The membranes of hollow fiber type were filled in the aerobic tank with aerobe bacteria. The total area of membrane 6 units was 630 m2 so the flux of the operation was 0.25 m/d or 150 m3/d. The spiral wound RO was operated at 100 m3/d of influent and received 72 m3/d of permeate. The sludge volume (MLSS of MBR was maintained at 8,000-10,000 mg/l. The average COD and SS of MBR influent were 600 mg/l and 300 mg/l respectively. After treating by MBR, COD and SS of effluent were maintained at less than 100 mg/l and less than 10 mg/l respectively. In the same way, COD and SS of RO permeate were less than 10 mg/l and less than 5 mg/l respectively.

  14. Making More Wikipedians: Facilitating Semantics Reuse for Wikipedia Authoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Linyun; Wang, Haofen; Zhu, Haiping; Zhang, Huajie; Wang, Yang; Yu, Yong

    Wikipedia, a killer application in Web 2.0, has embraced the power of collaborative editing to harness collective intelligence. It can also serve as an ideal Semantic Web data source due to its abundance, influence, high quality and well-structuring. However, the heavy burden of up-building and maintaining such an enormous and ever-growing online encyclopedic knowledge base still rests on a very small group of people. Many casual users may still feel difficulties in writing high quality Wikipedia articles. In this paper, we use RDF graphs to model the key elements in Wikipedia authoring, and propose an integrated solution to make Wikipedia authoring easier based on RDF graph matching, expecting making more Wikipedians. Our solution facilitates semantics reuse and provides users with: 1) a link suggestion module that suggests and auto-completes internal links between Wikipedia articles for the user; 2) a category suggestion module that helps the user place her articles in correct categories. A prototype system is implemented and experimental results show significant improvements over existing solutions to link and category suggestion tasks. The proposed enhancements can be applied to attract more contributors and relieve the burden of professional editors, thus enhancing the current Wikipedia to make it an even better Semantic Web data source.

  15. A study of quality management strategy for reused products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To ensure the sustainability, industries have to move forward to product recovery strategies. Reuse is one of the most efficient strategies as it preserves natural resources while maintaining the functional properties of the product. To alleviate the concerns over the quality at the end of first life, laws are enacted to protect the consumers through mandatory warranty requirements. Offering warranty results in additional costs, this cost might be reduced through upgrade that improves the reliability of the item. Considering the age at the end of first life as stochastic, this paper proposes a profit model, relevant costs like upgrade and the minimal repair during the warranty period are included. Optimal upgrade level and warranty length are jointly derived so that the expected profit per used item for the producer can be maximized. Algorithm to search for the optimal solution is developed for a special case. Numerical examples are utilized to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach and the sensitivity analyses regarding the important parameters that might impact the profit

  16. Refrigeration CFC's recovery, reuse, alternatives and new legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The industrialized nations of the world met in 1986 in Vienna, Austria, to discuss curbs on the production of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Scientists had determined that these compounds, typically used as refrigerants, were accumulating in the upper layers of the earth's atmosphere. The chlorine atoms in the compounds were catalytically converting ozone in the stratosphere to oxygen, effectively reducing ozone levels. Ozone in the stratosphere serves as a protective shield, reflecting ultraviolet radiation (UV) from the sun from striking the earth's surface. The loss of this protective shield would result in increased UV radiation levels. Plant growth on land and plankton production in the seas would be stunted, altering the food chain. Severe climatic changes would also result. At the initial meeting in Vienna, and at a subsequent meeting in Montreal, the industrialized nations agreed to limit the production of CFCs based on 1986 worldwide production levels. This paper examines alternatives to the use of CFCs, their recovery and reuse, and new legislation governing their use

  17. Cyanobacterial reuse of extracellular organic carbon in microbial mats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Rhona K; Mayali, Xavier; Lee, Jackson Z; Craig Everroad, R; Hwang, Mona; Bebout, Brad M; Weber, Peter K; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Thelen, Michael P

    2016-05-01

    Cyanobacterial organic matter excretion is crucial to carbon cycling in many microbial communities, but the nature and bioavailability of this C depend on unknown physiological functions. Cyanobacteria-dominated hypersaline laminated mats are a useful model ecosystem for the study of C flow in complex communities, as they use photosynthesis to sustain a more or less closed system. Although such mats have a large C reservoir in the extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs), the production and degradation of organic carbon is not well defined. To identify extracellular processes in cyanobacterial mats, we examined mats collected from Elkhorn Slough (ES) at Monterey Bay, California, for glycosyl and protein composition of the EPS. We found a prevalence of simple glucose polysaccharides containing either α or β (1,4) linkages, indicating distinct sources of glucose with differing enzymatic accessibility. Using proteomics, we identified cyanobacterial extracellular enzymes, and also detected activities that indicate a capacity for EPS degradation. In a less complex system, we characterized the EPS of a cyanobacterial isolate from ES, ESFC-1, and found the extracellular composition of biofilms produced by this unicyanobacterial culture were similar to that of natural mats. By tracing isotopically labeled EPS into single cells of ESFC-1, we demonstrated rapid incorporation of extracellular-derived carbon. Taken together, these results indicate cyanobacteria reuse excess organic carbon, constituting a dynamic pool of extracellular resources in these mats. PMID:26495994

  18. Software Reuse in Cardiology Related Medical Database Using K-Means Clustering Technique

    OpenAIRE

    M. Bhanu Sridhar; Srinivas, Y.; M. H. M. Krishna Prasad

    2012-01-01

    Software technology based on reuse is identified as a process of designing software for the reuse purpose. The software reuse is a process in which the existing software is used to build new software. A metric is a quantitative indicator of an attribute of an item or thing. Reusability is the likelihood for a segment of source code that can be used again to add new functionalities with slight or no modification. A lot of research has been projected using reusability in reducing code, domain, ...

  19. Guidelines for supporting re-use of existing digital learning materials and methods in higher education

    OpenAIRE

    Schoonenboom, Judith; Sligte, Henk; Kliphuis, Eja

    2009-01-01

    The literature on the re-use of learning materials has largely focused on the development of materials. This paper explores how re-use can be stimulated after learning materials have been developed and made available. We searched for and developed guidelines that support staff and/or management most frequently adopt in cases of (un)successful re-use of existing digital teaching and learning materials and methods by teachers in higher education. In a grounded theory approach, we collected exis...

  20. Adaptive Re-Use Principles in Historic Hotel Buildings in Melaka And George Town

    OpenAIRE

    Ab Wahab Lilawati; Mohd.Hamdan Noor Aishah; Lop Nor Suzila; Mohd Kamar Izatul Faritta

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive re-use of historic buildings is a process of changing the original function of the historic buildings to another function that can optimise the use of existing historic buildings. The selection of appropriate new function is an important factor in determining the success of adaptive re-use of historic buildings. However, adaptive re-use work done on historic buildings on the World Heritage Site is not an easy task due to rules and principles outlined by local and international charte...

  1. Characterization of waste of soda-lime glass generated from lapping process to reuse as filler in composite materials as thermal insulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. P. Galvão

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe beneficiation plate process by soda-lime glass lapping in the glass industry generates, an untapped residue (waste. The waste of this material is sent to landfills, causing impact on the environment. This work aimed to characterize and evaluate the waste of soda-lime glass (GP lapping. After its acquisition, the GP was processed by grinding and sieving and further characterized by the chemical/mineralogical analysis (XRF, EDS and XRD, SEM morphology, particle size by laser diffraction, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA and DSC and thermophysical analyses. It was observed that the GP particles are irregular and micrometric with the predominant presence of Na, Si and Ca elements characteristic of amorphous soda-lime glass. The assessment of the chemical/mineralogical, morphological, thermophysical and thermal gravimetric characteristics of GP suggest its reuse as reinforcing fillers or filler in composite materials to obtain thermal insulation.

  2. First results from the PARSE.Insight project HEP survey on data preservation, re-use and (open) access

    CERN Document Server

    Holzner, André; Mele, Salvatore

    2009-01-01

    There is growing interest in the issues of preservation and re-use of the records of science, in the “digital era”. The aim of the PARSE.Insight project, partly financed by the European Commission under the Seventh Framework Program, is twofold: to provide an assessment of the current activities, trends and risks in the field of digital preservation of scientific results, from primary data to published articles; to inform the design of the preservation layer of an emerging e-Infrastructure for e-Science. CERN, as a partner of the PARSE.Insight consortium, is performing an in-depth case study on data preservation, re-use and (open) access within the High-Energy Physics (HEP) community. The first results of this large-scale survey of the attitudes and concerns of HEP scientists are presented. The survey reveals the widespread opinion that data preservation is “very important” to “crucial”. At the same time, it also highlights the chronic lack of resources and infrastructure to tackle this issue, as ...

  3. Indirect desalination of Red Sea water with forward osmosis and low pressure reverse osmosis for water reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Yangali-Quintanilla, Victor

    2011-10-01

    The use of energy still remains the main component of the costs of desalting water. Forward osmosis (FO) can help to reduce the costs of desalination, and extracting water from impaired sources can be beneficial in this regard. Experiments with FO membranes using a secondary wastewater effluent as a feed water and Red Sea water as a draw solution demonstrated that the technology is promising. FO coupled with low pressure reverse osmosis (LPRO) was implemented for indirect desalination. The system consumes only 50% (~1.5 kWh/m3) of the energy used for high pressure seawater RO (SWRO) desalination (2.5-4 kWh/m3), and produces a good quality water extracted from the impaired feed water. Fouling of the FO membranes was not a major issue during long-term experiments over 14 days. After 10 days of continuous FO operation, the initial flux declined by 28%. Cleaning the FO membranes with air scouring and clean water recovered the initial flux by 98.8%. A cost analysis revealed FO per se as viable technology. However, a minimum average FO flux of 10.5 L/m2-h is needed to compete with water reuse using UF-LPRO, and 5.5 L/m2-h is needed to recover and desalinate water at less cost than SWRO. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  4. Dioxins, Furans and PCBs in Recycled Water for Indirect Potable Reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemencia Rodriguez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of potential health impacts of dioxin and dioxin-like compounds in recycled water for indirect potable reuse was conducted. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs for 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD and dibenzofurans (PCDFs and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs congeners have been developed by the World Health Organization to simplify the risk assessment of complex mixtures. Samples of secondary treated wastewater in Perth, Australia were examined pre-and post-tertiary treatment in one full-scale and one pilot water reclamation plant. Risk quotients (RQs were estimated by expressing the middle-bound toxic equivalent (TEQ and the upper-bound TEQ concentration in each sampling point as a function of the estimated health target value. The results indicate that reverse osmosis (RO is able to reduce the concentration of PCDD, PCDF and dioxin-like PCBs and produce water of high quality (RQ after RO=0.15. No increased human health risk from dioxin and dioxin-like compounds is anticipated if highly treated recycled water is used to augment drinking water supplies in Perth. Recommendations for a verification monitoring program are offered.

  5. Reduce, reuse and recycle: a green solution to Canada's medical isotope shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, R; Ross, C; Wells, R G

    2014-05-01

    Due to the unforeseen maintenance issues at the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor at Chalk River and coincidental shutdowns of other international reactors, a global shortage of medical isotopes (in particular technetium-99m, Tc-99m) occurred in 2009. The operation of these research reactors is expensive, their age creates concerns about their continued maintenance and the process results in a large amount of long-lived nuclear waste, whose storage cost has been subsidized by governments. While the NRU has since revived its operations, it is scheduled to cease isotope production in 2016. The Canadian government created the Non-reactor based medical Isotope Supply Program (NISP) to promote research into alternative methods for producing medical isotopes. The NRC was a member of a collaboration looking into the use of electron linear accelerators (LINAC) to produce molybdenum-99 (Mo-99), the parent isotope of Tc-99m. This paper outlines NRC's involvement in every step of this process, from the production, chemical processing, recycling and preliminary animal studies to demonstrate the equivalence of LINAC Tc-99m with the existing supply. This process stems from reusing an old idea, reduces the nuclear waste to virtually zero and recycles material to create a green solution to Canada's medical isotope shortage. PMID:24332878

  6. Accepting managed aquifer recharge of urban storm water reuse: The role of policy-related factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankad, Aditi; Walton, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    A between-groups experimental design examined public acceptance for managed aquifer recharge of storm water for indirect potable and nonpotable reuse; acceptance was based on five policy-related variables (fairness, effectiveness, trust, importance of safety assurances, and importance of communication activities). Results showed that public acceptance (N = 408) for managed aquifer recharge of storm water was higher for nonpotable applications, as was the importance of safety assurances. Analyses of variance also showed that perceptions of fairness and effectiveness were higher for a nonpotable scheme, but not trust. A three-step hierarchical regression (Step 1: age, gender, education, and income; Step 2: type of use; Step 3: fairness, effectiveness, trust, safety assurance, and communication activities) demonstrated that type of storm water use and the policy-related factors accounted for 73% of the variance in acceptance of storm water (R2 = 0.74, adjusted R2 = 0.74, F (10, 397) = 113.919, p important predictors were perceptions of trust in water authorities, perceptions of effectiveness, and perceptions of fairness. Interestingly, while safety assurance was important in attitudinal acceptance of managed aquifer recharge based on type of use, safety assurance was not found to be significant predictor of acceptance. This research suggests that policy-makers should look to address matters of greater public importance and drive such as fairness, trust, and effectiveness of storm water programs and advocate these at the forefront of their policies, rather than solely on education campaigns.

  7. Beneficial influence of physical exercise following status epilepticus in the immature brain of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, F G Novaes; Gomes Da Silva, S; Cavalheiro, E A; Arida, R M

    2014-08-22

    Studies in adult animals have demonstrated a beneficial effect of physical exercise on epileptic insults. Although the effects of physical exercise on the mature nervous system are well documented, its influence on the developing nervous system subjected to injuries in childhood has been little explored. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether a physical exercise program applied during brain development could influence the hippocampal plasticity of rats submitted to status epilepticus (SE) induced by pilocarpine model at two different ages of the postnatal period. Male Wistar rats aged 18 (P18) and 28 (P28) days were randomly divided into four groups: Control (CTRL), Exercise (EX), SE (SE) and SE Exercise (SE/EX) (n=17 per group). After the aerobic exercise program, histological and behavioral (water maze) analyses were performed. Our results showed that only animals subjected to pilocarpine-induced SE at P28 presented spontaneous seizures during the observational period. A significant reduction in seizure frequency was observed in the SE/EX group compared to the SE group. In adulthood, animals submitted to early-life SE displayed impairment in long-term memory in the water maze task, while the exercise program reversed this deficit. Reduced mossy fiber sprouting in the dentate gyrus was noted in animals that presented spontaneous seizures (SE/EX vs SE). Exercise increased cell proliferation (Ki-67 staining) and anti-apoptotic response (bcl-2 staining) and reduced pro-apoptotic response (Bax staining) in animals of both ages of SE induction (P18/28). Exercise also modified the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in EX and SE/EX animals. Our findings indicate that in animals subjected to SE in the postnatal period a physical exercise program brings about beneficial effects on seizure frequency and hippocampal plasticity in later stages of life. PMID:24857853

  8. ANALYSIS OF WEB MINING APPLICATIONS AND BENEFICIAL AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    Khaleel Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to study the process of Web mining techniques, features, application ( e-commerce and e-business) and its beneficial areas. Web mining has become more popular and its widely used in varies application areas (such as business intelligent system, e-commerce and e-business). The e-commerce or e-business results are bettered by the application of the mining techniques such as data mining and text mining, among all the mining techniques web mining is better.

  9. Worker Exposure at a Copper Mining and Beneficiation Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palabora Mining Company is a fully integrated copper producer, dealing with mining, beneficiation, smelting, refining and casting processes. It has held a nuclear authorization since 1993 and has a well developed and mature radiation protection programme in place. The object of the paper is to report on the outcome of the most recent worker dose assessment, including a comparison with a previous study. It also provides some views on the determination of future monitoring protocols and reflects on the programme within the broader framework of an integrated risk management programme. (author)

  10. Conditioning of carbonaceous material prior to physical beneficiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warzinski, Robert P.; Ruether, John A.

    1987-01-01

    A carbonaceous material such as coal is conditioned by contact with a supercritical fluid prior to physical beneficiation. The solid feed material is contacted with an organic supercritical fluid such as cyclohexane or methanol at temperatures slightly above the critical temperature and pressures of 1 to 4 times the critical pressure. A minor solute fraction is extracted into critical phase and separated from the solid residuum. The residuum is then processed by physical separation such as by froth flotation or specific gravity separation to recover a substantial fraction thereof with reduced ash content. The solute in supercritical phase can be released by pressure reduction and recombined with the low-ash, carbonaceous material.

  11. Status of the Beneficial Uses Shipping System cask (BUSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Beneficial Uses Shipping System cask is a Type B packaging developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Department of Energy. The cask is designed to transport special form radioactive source capsules (cesium chloride and strontium fluoride) produced by the Department of Energy's Hanford Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility. This paper describes the cask system and the analyses performed to predict the response of the cask in impact, puncture, and fire accident conditions as specified in the regulations. The cask prototype has been fabricated and Certificates of Compliance have been obtained

  12. Beneficial Plant Microbe Interaction in Adverse Climatic Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Oves

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There are two well-known old American and Japanese quotes "snug as a bug in a rug” and ‘Tade kuu mushi mo suki-zuki’ which means very comfortable and everyone has their own tastes respectively, both quotes are best fit for beneficial plantmicrobes (PM interactions. Most of the plants interact largely with diverse microorganisms in their surrounding environment but the question arises why PM interaction exist everywhere in agroecosystem with sustainability? PM interactions were occurred from the evolutionary time scale which is considered in existing literature.

  13. ANALYSIS OF WEB MINING APPLICATIONS AND BENEFICIAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaleel Ahmad

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to study the process of Web mining techniques, features, application ( e-commerce and e-business and its beneficial areas. Web mining has become more popular and its widely used in varies application areas (such as business intelligent system, e-commerce and e-business. The e-commerce or e-business results are bettered by the application of the mining techniques such as data mining and text mining, among all the mining techniques web mining is better.

  14. Veritex(TM) Patches for Structural Repair and Re-Use Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. (CRG) proposes to develop a bonded composite patch repair and re-use system based on CRG's Veritex

  15. Soil Aquifer Treatment: Assessment and Applicability of Primary Effluent Reuse in Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abel, C.D.T.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis showed that soil aquifer treatment (SAT) is an effective polishing technology for reuse of primary effluent. The study experimentally revealed relatively high removal of suspended solids, bulk organic matter, nutrients, pharmaceutically active compounds and pathogens indicators under var

  16. EDUCATION ON REDUCE, REUSE, AND RECYCLE &NDASH; A NON-TRADITIONAL UNIVERSITY TAKES THE LOCAL GLOBAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The direct accomplishments/outputs of Phase I are: Implementation of “Individuals, Society, and Sustainability” course where UMUC students from all over the world share what they see locally Sharing of reduce and reuse resources from 39 co...

  17. HEALTH EFFECT POTENTIAL OF REUSING TREATED FRUIT PROCESSING WASTEWATER WITHIN A CANNERY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reclamation of fruit processing wastewater by biological treatment, granular media filtration, and disinfection with chlorine, and reuse of the reclaimed wastewater for fruit washing and conveying, and for direct contact container cooling, was investigated over three seasons for ...

  18. Reuse of materials and byproducts in construction waste minimization and recycling

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This book examines the reuse of materials and byproducts in the construction industry. It investigates the main building materials and their use. The book also offers an overview of new green design guides that will encourage best practice.

  19. A BIM-based approach to reusing construction firm’s management information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiliang Ma

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays most construction firms have begun to use information management systems in their business to work more efficiently. At the same time, a lot of management information is being accumulated and some of the information can be reused to support the decision-making. Up to now, the information has not been reused so effectively in construction firms as expected. This paper introduces a new approach to reusing construction firm’s management information, which is based on BIM (Building Information Modeling technology. In the paper, the current approaches are reviewed at first, and then the framework of the new approach is described. Next, the key issues of the new approach are clarified. Finally, a use case of the new approach is demonstrated. It is concluded that the new approach can be used in construction firms to better reuse the accumulated management information.

  20. Code Component Reuse Supporting Environment (CCRSE) and Its Design Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YingShi; XuGang; YuanSheng-qiong; ChenHao

    2003-01-01

    Code Component Reuse Supporting Environment(CCRSE), which has been developed by us, is an integrated development environment. CCRSE can provide comprehensive supports for the whole process of reusing code component in the manner of dynamic composition. The architecture and functionality of CCRSE are introduced in this paper. The key achievement of this paper is giving the three strategies that are vital to successfully design CCRSE. The three strategies include: (1) according to the three pivotal technologies (encapsulation, composition and management)for supporting composition reuse of code component, design three tools respectively. (2) keep tool for supporting code component development independent of tool for supporting code component composition. (3) strictly restrict code component specification, provide the strong “plug and play” support for code component composition reuse, and furthest provide transparence to strictly restricted specification of code component in development of component itself.

  1. Integration into Big Data: First Steps to Support Reuse of Comprehensive Toxicity Model Modules (SOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data surrounding the needs of human disease and toxicity modeling are largely siloed limiting the ability to extend and reuse modules across knowledge domains. Using an infrastructure that supports integration across knowledge domains (animal toxicology, high-throughput screening...

  2. Mobile phone collection, reuse and recycling in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongondo, F O; Williams, I D

    2011-06-01

    Mobile phones are the most ubiquitous electronic product on the globe. They have relatively short lifecycles and because of their (perceived) in-built obsolescence, discarded mobile phones represent a significant and growing problem with respect to waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). An emerging and increasingly important issue for industry is the shortage of key metals, especially the types of metals found in mobile phones, and hence the primary aim of this timely study was to assess and evaluate the voluntary mobile phone takeback network in the UK. The study has characterised the information, product and incentives flows in the voluntary UK mobile phone takeback network and reviewed the merits and demerits of the incentives offered. A survey of the activities of the voluntary mobile phone takeback schemes was undertaken in 2008 to: identify and evaluate the takeback schemes operating in the UK; determine the target groups from whom handsets are collected; and assess the collection, promotion and advertising methods used by the schemes. In addition, the survey sought to identify and critically evaluate the incentives offered by the takeback schemes, evaluate their ease and convenience of use; and determine the types, qualities and quantities of mobile phones they collect. The study has established that the UK voluntary mobile phone takeback network can be characterised as three distinctive flows: information flow; product flow (handsets and related accessories); and incentives flow. Over 100 voluntary schemes offering online takeback of mobile phone handsets were identified. The schemes are operated by manufacturers, retailers, mobile phone network service operators, charities and by mobile phone reuse, recycling and refurbishing companies. The latter two scheme categories offer the highest level of convenience and ease of use to their customers. Approximately 83% of the schemes are either for-profit/commercial-oriented and/or operate to raise funds

  3. MAGNESIUM CARBONATE AS A COAGULANT, RECOVERY AND REUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Shariat

    1982-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to prevent water losses through disposing hydrous sludge during treatment of water, also recovery and reuse of chemicals; treatment by magnesium carbonate as a coagulant was examined in batch and continuous systems. 600 mg/1 MgCO3 as optimum dosage reduced 80% turbidity of a highly turbid water containing 200 NTU. Sulfates decreased, but hardness and alkalinity showed some increases. Recarbonation by CO2 resulted in recovery of 45% of magnesium carbonate which was used again as part of coagulants in continuous system. A mixture of magnesium carbonate and calcium oxide (lime was examined. 600 mg/1 MgCO3+250 mg/1 CaO as optimum dosage showed 90% reduction in turbidity, 10% reduction in both hardness and alkalinity and almost 60% reduction in sulfates. Recarbonation of sludge resulted in 73.5% recovery for magnesium carbonate and 40% for the lime, which were used again in a continuous system. Six hours operation of a continuous system with a detention time of 1 hour confirmed results obtained from batch analysis. A third trial was experienced with a mixture of magnesium carbonate+sodium carbonate. Although the total hardness showed more decreases, but the turbidity reduction was not satisfactory. As the conclusion, treatment of water by a mixture of MgCO3+ CaO is our choice. There will be no water losses in this method, resulting additional incomes by selling the 15-20% saved water and savings in expenditure and cost of coagulants. Cost of new constructions and CO2 production seems insignificant, comparing to savings and new income.

  4. Reuse of secondhand TVs exported from Japan to the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The trade of secondhand electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) from developed to developing countries has become a growing environmental issue owing to concerns about improper recycling of these goods in developing countries. We followed a 12-m cargo container of cathode-ray-tube color TVs exported from Japan to the Philippines in February 2008. We surveyed the number of TVs damaged in transport, as well as the number of malfunctioning TVs from this shipment. In addition, we present the results of interviews with 113 Filipino consumers who intended to buy secondhand EEE at nine secondhand shops in Metro Manila. Approximately 3% of the imported TVs were damaged upon arrival. The importer sold some of the units directly to local dealers, and kept the rest to repair, refurbish and resell. Approximately 40% of the imported TVs malfunctioned and needed repair in addition to basic reconditioning. Most interviewees indicated that they prefer to buy secondhand EEE because the prices are lower than those of brand-new products. Consumers indicated that they planned on using the product for an average of about 5 years, but the actual period of use may be lower. Most end-of-life EEE in the Philippines is dismantled and recycled by unregulated companies and untrained individuals in markets or near landfill sites, and it is clear that a proper collection system and treatment methods are needed for e-waste. In addition to the material flow of secondhand TVs, we also discuss several economic aspects and appropriate control measures of the international reuse of secondhand TVs.

  5. Development of decommissioning, decontamination and reuse technology for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this project, the foundation of decommissioning technology through the development of core technologies applied to maintenance and decommissioning of nuclear facility was established. First of all, we developed the key technology such as safety assessment technology for decommissioning work needed at the preparatory stage of decommissioning of the highly contaminated facilities and simultaneous measurement technology of the high-level alpha/beta contamination applicable to the operation and decommissioning of the nuclear facilities. Second, we developed a remotely controlled laser ablation decontamination system which is useful for a removal of fixed contaminants and developed a chemical gel decontamination technology for a removal of non-fixed contaminants during the maintenance and decommissioning works of high radiation hot cells which have been used for a recycling or treatment of spent fuels. Third, we developed a volume reduction and self-disposal technology for dismantled concrete wastes. Also, the technology for volume reduction and stabilization of the peculiar wastes(HEPA filter and organic mixed wastes), which have been known to be very difficult to treat and manage, generated from the high radioactive facilities in operation, improvement and repair and under decommissioning was developed. Finally, this research project was developed a system for the reduction of radiotoxicity of several uranium mixtures generated in the front- and back-end nuclear fuel cycles with characteristics of highly enhanced proliferation-resistance and more environmental friendliness, which can make the uranium to be recovered or separated from the mixtures with a high purity level enough for the uranium to be reused and to be classified as C-class level for burial near the surface, and then which result in the much reduction in volume of the uranium mixture wastes

  6. Adaptive reuse of historic buildings/neighborhoods in the mind frame of sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, SSY; Yang, F.

    2009-01-01

    From the view point of sustainable development, this paper explores how the three aspects comprising sustainable development embody and influence the old building/neighborhood adaptive reuse. We argue that most of the reuse practices focus on economic aspect, aiming at maximum monetary pay back. Beside this, another trend is emerging, which strives to update environmental performance of old buildings/districts. Case studies were carried out for these two categories, respectively, in an attemp...

  7. Benchmarking of Excavated Soil Reuse Management in Europe - Development of a French management framework

    OpenAIRE

    Blanc, Céline; Darmendrail, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Benchmarking of Excavated Soil Reuse Management in Europe Management of excavated soil remains a problem for a number of European Member States. The revision of the EU Waste Framework Directive defines now the legal framework applicable to excavated soil at EU level. However, its implementation at the national level is based on technical conditions of reuse of this land which differ between European countries. Most development projects in urban areas or remediation projects on contaminated an...

  8. Cross-disciplinary data sharing and reuse via gCube

    OpenAIRE

    Candela, Leonardo; Pagano, Pasquale (ISTI-CNR)

    2015-01-01

    Data sharing has been an emerging topic since the 1980's. Science evolution - e.g. data-intensive, open science, science 2.0 - is revamping this discussion and calling for data infrastructures capable of properly managing data sharing and promoting extensive reuse. 'gCube', a software system that promotes the development of data infrastructures, boasts the distinguishing feature of providing its users with Virtual Research Environments where data sharing and reuse actually happens.

  9. Reuse and repurpose: the life story of an (open) educational resource

    OpenAIRE

    Lane, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This paper relates the life story of a particular educational resource (and its lead author) that went from being closed to open and which exemplifies the value of reuse and reworking of educational resources in both arenas. It describes how the educational resource was itself a reworking of previous resources and has now been reworked and reused in a number of other settings, both closed and open. It also shows the amplification and networking effects of open educational resources.

  10. Techno-economic analysis of polygeneration systems with carbon capture and storage and CO reuse

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, KS; Zhang, N.; Sadhukhan, J

    2013-01-01

    Several decarbonised polygeneration schemes exploiting carbon capture and storage (CCS) or CO reuse technologies for the generation of clean fuels, chemicals, electricity and heat have been systematically analysed for techno-economic feasibility. Process simulation, energy integration and economic analysis were undertaken to analyse the effect of process configurations and operating conditions on the economic potential (EP) and risks. CO capture and reuse producing methane using Sabatier's re...

  11. Re-use of public sector information in cultural heritage institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, P.; Margoni, T.; Rybicka, K.; Tarkowski, A

    2014-01-01

    In 2013 the European Union amended the Directive on Public Sector Information, establishing the principle that all available information produced and collected by public sector institutions must be made available for reuse under open terms and conditions. The amended Directive also brings publicly funded libraries, museums and archives into its scope. These new rules on reuse of heritage materials, treated as public sector information (PSI), attempt for the first time to define a general fram...

  12. Towards the Methodology for the Reuse of Industrial Heritage in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Yanbin

    2014-01-01

    The theme of this dissertation is to reflect on the reuse methodology for the industrial heritage, through the analysis of different reuse ways used in the Chinese cities. A comparative perspective with typical methodologies and strategies used in Europe is barely sketched in order to illuminate the specificities of the Chinese situation. The discussion on the industrial heritage mainly focuses on the immovable tangible industrial heritage in modern and contemporary time (after 1860), includi...

  13. Reuse of sewage sludge in agricolture in the valley of Vipava

    OpenAIRE

    Gerljevič, Damjan

    2007-01-01

    The following thesis presents the posibilities of reuse of sewage sludge from biological wastewater treatment plants for municipal wastewater in agriculture in the valley of Vipava. The treatment processes of wastewater in the biological treatment plants for municipal wastewater are presented in the first part of the thesis. The main part of the work is dedicated to the posibilities of reuse of sewaga sludge, from wastewater treatment plants of Ajdovščina and Vipava in agricolt...

  14. Re-use of Low Bandwidth Equipment for High Bit Rate Transmission Using Signal Slicing Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Christoph; Spolitis, S.; Vegas Olmos, Juan José;

    : Massive fiber-to-the-home network deployment requires never ending equipment upgrades operating at higher bandwidth. We show effective signal slicing method, which can reuse low bandwidth opto-electronical components for optical communications at higher bit rates.......: Massive fiber-to-the-home network deployment requires never ending equipment upgrades operating at higher bandwidth. We show effective signal slicing method, which can reuse low bandwidth opto-electronical components for optical communications at higher bit rates....

  15. Towards an Intelligent Workflow Designer based on the Reuse of Workflow Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Iochpe, C.; Chiao, C.; Hess, G; Nascimento, G.S.; Thom, L.H.; Reichert, M.U.

    2007-01-01

    In order to perform process-aware information systems we need sophisticated methods and concepts for designing and modeling processes. Recently, research on workflow patterns has emerged in order to increase the reuse of recurring workflow structures. However, current workflow modeling tools do not provide functionalities that enable users to define, query, and reuse workflow patterns properly. In this paper we gather a suite for both process modeling and normalization based on workflow patte...

  16. New hybrid frequency reuse method for packet loss minimization in LTE network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nora A; El-Dakroury, Mohamed A; El-Soudani, Magdi; ElSayed, Hany M; Daoud, Ramez M; Amer, Hassanein H

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates the problem of inter-cell interference (ICI) in Long Term Evolution (LTE) mobile systems, which is one of the main problems that causes loss of packets between the base station and the mobile station. Recently, different frequency reuse methods, such as soft and fractional frequency reuse, have been introduced in order to mitigate this type of interference. In this paper, minimizing the packet loss between the base station and the mobile station is the main concern. Soft Frequency Reuse (SFR), which is the most popular frequency reuse method, is examined and the amount of packet loss is measured. In order to reduce packet loss, a new hybrid frequency reuse method is implemented. In this method, each cell occupies the same bandwidth of the SFR, but the total system bandwidth is greater than in SFR. This will provide the new method with a lot of new sub-carriers from the neighboring cells to reduce the ICI which represents a big problem in many applications and causes a lot of packets loss. It is found that the new hybrid frequency reuse method has noticeable improvement in the amount of packet loss compared to SFR method in the different frequency bands. Traffic congestion management in Intelligent Transportation system (ITS) is one of the important applications that is affected by the packet loss due to the large amount of traffic that is exchanged between the base station and the mobile node. Therefore, it is used as a studied application for the proposed frequency reuse method and the improvement in the amount of packet loss reached 49.4% in some frequency bands using the new hybrid frequency reuse method. PMID:26644933

  17. Adaptive Reuse as a Strategy towards Conservation of Cultural Heritage: a Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    PLEVOETS, Bie; Van Cleempoel, Koenraad

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a survey of scholarly literature on the subject of adaptive reuse within the discipline of heritage conservation and architecture. The different theories are compared and classified according to their approach towards adaptive reuse. Three main approaches can be distinguished: typological, technical and architectural strategies. Each approach is discussed separately and an overview of relevant literature is presented in a schematic way. To conclude, we indicate ...

  18. Successful reuse of a transplanted kidney: 3-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Ali; Saglam, Funda; Cavdar, Caner; Sifil, Aykut; Gungor, Ozkan; Bora, Seymen; Gulay, Huseyin; Camsari, Taner

    2007-07-01

    The number of new transplantations has not kept pace with the ever-growing number of patients waiting for a kidney transplant, and there has been a growing shortage of deceased donor kidneys. Previously transplanted organs have been used to increase the donor pool. There is very little data about the reuse of a transplanted kidney. We report a case of successful reuse of a kidney graft after the death of the first recipient with a 3-year follow-up. PMID:17591534

  19. Microbiological and physicochemical treatments applied to metallurgic industry aiming water reuse

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Roberto Crystal Bello; Dejanira de Franceschi de Angelis; Roberto Naves Domingos

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted on the reuse of the water in a system composed of a sewage treatment plant (STP) using prolonged aeration with activated sludge and a compact water treatment plant (CWTP) in a metallurgic industry. The processes for obtaining the water for reuse were microbiological and physicochemical. The domestic sewage was then pumped to the STP, where biological flocks were formed and clarified water was obtained. The efficiency of the microbiological process in the STP was evaluate...

  20. Perlecan and the Blood-Brain Barrier: Beneficial Proteolysis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill eRoberts

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The cerebral microvasculature is important for maintaining brain homeostasis. This is achieved via the blood-brain barrier (BBB, composed of endothelial cells with specialized tight junctions, astrocytes and a basement membrane. Prominent components of the basement membrane extracellular matrix (ECM include fibronectin, laminin, collagen IV and perlecan, all of which regulate cellular processes via signal transduction through various cell membrane bound ECM receptors. Expression and proteolysis of these ECM components can be rapidly altered during pathological states of the central nervous system. In particular, proteolysis of perlecan, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan, occurs within hours following ischemia induced by experimental stroke. Proteolysis of ECM components following stroke results in the degradation of the basement membrane and further disruption of the BBB. While it is clear that such proteolysis has negative consequences for the BBB, we propose that it also may lead to generation of ECM protein fragments, including the C-terminal domain V (DV of perlecan, that potentially have a positive influence on other aspects of CNS health. Indeed, perlecan DV has been shown to be persistently generated after stroke and beneficial as a neuroprotective molecule and promoter of post-stroke brain repair. This mini-review will discuss beneficial roles of perlecan protein fragment generation within the brain during stroke.

  1. [Alcohol--when it's beneficial to your health?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmumt; Pypno, Damian; Bugaj, Bartosz; Cabała, Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    Ethyl alcohol is the most commonly used psychoactive agent. It's average consumption in Poland totaled 9.67 liters per capita in 2013. Ethanol's biotransformation rate in an adult ranges from 7 to 10 grams per hour. The basic metabolism takes place in the liver through the oxidation involving NAD+. The alcohol is transformed first into acetaldehyde and then into acetic acid. In higher blood concentrations or in alcoholism, cytochrome's P-450 coenzyme CYP2E1 also plays an important role in this process. Alcohol is responsible for nearly 50% of annual deaths, mostly caused by an accident due to alcohol intoxication while driving. Studies were performed to determine the influence ethanol has on the human body and how it impacts the progression of illnesses such as senile dementia, cardiovascular diseases or osteoporosis. Scientists' attention was drawn to the possibility of ethyl alcohol's usage resulting in a reduction in an overall mortality rate, however the beneficial effects were observed only during a slight and moderate consumption. Higher doses of alcohol were associated with a decline in patient's condition. The purpose of this dissertation is an attempt to answer the question, whether the alcohol can be beneficial to the user's health and if so, in what doses? The importance of this topic comes from the fact that due to the alcohol being widely available, determining the influence it has on human body is vital for public health. Original articles and reviews were used to summarize the results of studies regarding the topic. PMID:26802685

  2. Characterization and Beneficiation Studies of a Low Grade Bauxite Ore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, D. S.; Das, B.

    2014-10-01

    A low grade bauxite sample of central India was thoroughly characterized with the help of stereomicroscope, reflected light microscope and electron microscope using QEMSCAN. A few hand picked samples were collected from different places of the mine and were subjected to geochemical characterization studies. The geochemical studies indicated that most of the samples contain high silica and low alumina, except a few which are high grade. Mineralogically the samples consist of bauxite (gibbsite and boehmite), ferruginous mineral phases (goethite and hematite), clay and silicate (quartz), and titanium bearing minerals like rutile and ilmenite. Majority of the gibbsite, boehmite and gibbsitic oolites contain clay, quartz and iron and titanium mineral phases within the sample as inclusions. The sample on an average contains 39.1 % Al2O3 and 12.3 % SiO2, and 20.08 % of Fe2O3. Beneficiation techniques like size classification, sorting, scrubbing, hydrocyclone and magnetic separation were employed to reduce the silica content suitable for Bayer process. The studies indicated that, 50 % by weight with 41 % Al2O3 containing less than 5 % SiO2 could be achieved. The finer sized sample after physical beneficiation still contains high silica due to complex mineralogical associations.

  3. Surface modification of materials to encourage beneficial biofilm formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amreeta Sarjit

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms are communities of sessile microorganisms that grow and produce extrapolymeric substances on an abiotic or biotic surface. Although biofilms are often associated with negative impacts, the role of beneficial biofilms is wide and include applications in bioremediation, wastewater treatment and microbial fuel cells. Microbial adhesion to a surface, which is highly dependent on the physicochemical properties of the cells and surfaces, is an essential step in biofilm formation. Surface modification therefore represents an important way to modulate microbial attachment and ultimately biofilm formation by microorganisms. In this review different surface modification processes such as organosilane surface modification, plasma treatment, and chemical modification of carbon nanotubes, electro-oxidation and covalent-immobilization with neutral red and methylene blue molecules are outlined. The effectiveness of these modifications and their industrial applications are also discussed. There is inadequate literature on surface modification as a process to enhance beneficial biofilm formation. These methods need to be safe, economically viable, scalable and environmental friendly and their potential to fulfil these criteria for many applications has yet to be determined.

  4. Is Vitamin C Beneficial to Patients with CAP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yin; Li, Guoping

    2016-08-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in elderly and children. Vitamin C is known as a physiological antioxidant, regulating innate immune system in the lung. Vitamin C has been used to prevent and treat CAP. However, the use of vitamin C for preventing and treating CAP has been a subject of controversy. We aim to review the most significant findings about vitamin C supplementation in patients with pneumonia based on literature from the PubMed. First, we reviewed recent advances about the role of oxidative stress in CAP. Oxidative stress is a crucial component of the host defense system and inflammatory response. However, excessive oxidative stress can cause a systemic inflammatory response leading to tissue damage. The degree of oxidative stress has been associated with the severity of CAP. Vitamin C is beneficial to the host defense system by regulating the innate immunity in the lungs. We also discuss the prophylactic use of vitamin C for pneumonia. Vitamin C supplementation decreased the pneumonia risk in patients with vitamin C deficiency. However, it is not beneficial for prophylactic use of vitamin C to prevent pneumonia in the well-nourished population. Finally, we summarize the effect of vitamin C on mechanical ventilation used during respiratory failure. Administration of vitamin C decreases the duration of mechanical ventilation by decreasing oxidative stress. PMID:27363830

  5. Beneficial effect of sesame oil on heavy metal toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Victor Raj Mohan; Hsu, Dur-Zong; Liu, Ming-Yie

    2014-02-01

    Heavy metals become toxic when they are not metabolized by the body and accumulate in the soft tissue. Chelation therapy is mainly for the management of heavy metal-induced toxicity; however, it usually causes adverse effects or completely blocks the vital function of the particular metal chelated. Much attention has been paid to the development of chelating agents from natural sources to counteract lead- and iron-induced hepatic and renal damage. Sesame oil (a natural edible oil) and sesamol (an active antioxidant) are potently beneficial for treating lead- and iron-induced hepatic and renal toxicity and have no adverse effects. Sesame oil and sesamol significantly inhibit iron-induced lipid peroxidation by inhibiting the xanthine oxidase, nitric oxide, superoxide anion, and hydroxyl radical generation. In addition, sesame oil is a potent inhibitor of proinflammatory mediators, and it attenuates lead-induced hepatic damage by inhibiting nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-1β levels. Because metal chelating therapy is associated with adverse effects, treating heavy metal toxicity in addition with sesame oil and sesamol may be better alternatives. This review deals with the possible use and beneficial effects of sesame oil and sesamol during heavy metal toxicity treatment. PMID:23744838

  6. The role of process mineralogy in mineral beneficiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economic feasibility of mineral beneficiation or ore extraction depends on a number of factors amongst which process mineralogy plays a significant role. Mineralogy influences comminution required to liberate the desired mineral. Physical property contrast between ore and gangue minerals influence process selection. Ore texture affects recovery. Rheological properties of the minerals in aqueous medium and the probable ionic composition of the slurry or leach liquor can be fairly predicted from mineralogy. The effect of mineralogy in mineral beneficiation and ore extraction with special reference to atomic minerals is discussed. Some typical case studies on mineral deposits hosting atomic and other minerals are presented and process flow-sheets are discussed keeping economics, by-product recovery and mineral conservation in perspective. These include the sandstone type uranium deposit of Domiasiat, Meghalaya, uranium deposits of Singhbhum Shear Zone, carbonatites of Sung Valley, Meghalaya and the cassiterite and columbite-tantalite bearing pegmatites of Bastar, Madhya Pradesh. It is also pointed out that process mineralogy bridges the gap between the mining geologist and the metallurgist and helps in obtaining maximum recovery of metallic or non-metallic minerals, from a given deposit. (author)

  7. Recycle and reuse of materials and components from waste streams of nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All nuclear fuel cycle processes utilize a wide range of equipment and materials to produce the final products they are designed for. However, as at any other industrial facility, during operation of the nuclear fuel cycle facilities, apart from the main products some byproducts, spent materials and waste are generated. A lot of these materials, byproducts or some components of waste have a potential value and may be recycled within the original process or reused outside either directly or after appropriate treatment. The issue of recycle and reuse of valuable material is important for all industries including the nuclear fuel cycle. The level of different materials involvement and opportunities for their recycle and reuse in nuclear industry are different at different stages of nuclear fuel cycle activity, generally increasing from the front end to the back end processes and decommissioning. Minimization of waste arisings and the practice of recycle and reuse can improve process economics and can minimize the potential environmental impact. Recognizing the importance of this subject, the International Atomic Energy Agency initiated the preparation of this report aiming to review and summarize the information on the existing recycling and reuse practice for both radioactive and non-radioactive components of waste streams at nuclear fuel cycle facilities. This report analyses the existing options, approaches and developments in recycle and reuse in nuclear industry

  8. Characterizing heavy metal build-up on urban road surfaces: Implication for stormwater reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, An [Research Centre of Environmental Engineering and Management, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, 518055 Shenzhen (China); Cooperative Research and Education Centre for Environmental Technology, Kyoto University–Tsinghua University, 518055 Shenzhen (China); Liu, Liang; Li, Dunzhu [Research Centre of Environmental Engineering and Management, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, 518055 Shenzhen (China); Guan, Yuntao, E-mail: guanyt@tsinghua.edu.cn [Research Centre of Environmental Engineering and Management, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, 518055 Shenzhen (China); School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Stormwater reuse is increasingly popular in the worldwide. In terms of urban road stormwater, it commonly contains toxic pollutants such as heavy metals, which could undermine the reuse safety. The research study investigated heavy metal build-up characteristics on urban roads in a typical megacity of South China. The research outcomes show the high variability in heavy metal build-up loads among different urban road sites. The degree of traffic congestion and road surface roughness was found to exert a more significant influence on heavy metal build-up rather than traffic volume. Due to relatively higher heavy metal loads, stormwater from roads with more congested traffic conditions or rougher surfaces might be suitable for low-water-quality required activities while the stormwater from by-pass road sections could be appropriate for relatively high-water-quality required purposes since the stormwater could be relatively less polluted. Based on the research outcomes, a decision-making process for heavy metals based urban road stormwater reuse was proposed. The new finding highlights the importance to undertaking a “fit-for-purpose” road stormwater reuse strategy. Additionally, the research results can also contribute to enhancing stormwater reuse safety. - Highlights: • Heavy metal (HM) build-up varies with traffic and road surface conditions. • Traffic congestion and surface roughness exert a higher impact on HM build-up. • A “fit-for-purpose” strategy could suit urban road stormwater reuse.

  9. Exploratory Disposal and Reuse Feasibility Analysis of Winter Maintenance Wash Water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather L Ullinger

    Full Text Available The Ohio Department of Transportation has more than 60 facilities without sewer access generating approximately 19 million gallons of winter maintenance wash water. Off-site disposal is costly, creating the need for sustainable management strategies. The objective of this study was to conduct an exploratory feasibility analysis to assess wash water disposal and potential reuse as brine. Based on a comprehensive literature review and relevant environmental chemistry, a sampling protocol consisting of 31 water quality constituents was utilized for monthly sampling at three geographically distinct Ohio Department of Transportation garages during the winter of 2012. Results were compared to local disposal and reuse guidance limits. Three constituents, including a maximum copper concentration of 858 ppb, exceeded disposal limits, and many constituents also failed to meet reuse limits. Some concentrations were orders of magnitude higher than reuse limits and suggest pre-treatment would be necessary if wash water were reused as brine. These water quality results, in conjunction with copper chemical equilibrium modeling, show pH and dissolved carbon both significantly impact the total dissolved copper concentration and should be measured to assess reuse potential. The sampling protocol and specific obstacles highlighted in this paper aid in the future development of sustainable wash water management strategies.

  10. Exploratory Disposal and Reuse Feasibility Analysis of Winter Maintenance Wash Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullinger, Heather L; Kennedy, Marla J; Schneider, William H; Miller, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    The Ohio Department of Transportation has more than 60 facilities without sewer access generating approximately 19 million gallons of winter maintenance wash water. Off-site disposal is costly, creating the need for sustainable management strategies. The objective of this study was to conduct an exploratory feasibility analysis to assess wash water disposal and potential reuse as brine. Based on a comprehensive literature review and relevant environmental chemistry, a sampling protocol consisting of 31 water quality constituents was utilized for monthly sampling at three geographically distinct Ohio Department of Transportation garages during the winter of 2012. Results were compared to local disposal and reuse guidance limits. Three constituents, including a maximum copper concentration of 858 ppb, exceeded disposal limits, and many constituents also failed to meet reuse limits. Some concentrations were orders of magnitude higher than reuse limits and suggest pre-treatment would be necessary if wash water were reused as brine. These water quality results, in conjunction with copper chemical equilibrium modeling, show pH and dissolved carbon both significantly impact the total dissolved copper concentration and should be measured to assess reuse potential. The sampling protocol and specific obstacles highlighted in this paper aid in the future development of sustainable wash water management strategies. PMID:26908148

  11. Implications of Transitioning from De Facto to Engineered Water Reuse for Power Plant Cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Zachary A; Stillwell, Ashlynn S

    2016-05-17

    Thermoelectric power plants demand large quantities of cooling water, and can use alternative sources like treated wastewater (reclaimed water); however, such alternatives generate many uncertainties. De facto water reuse, or the incidental presence of wastewater effluent in a water source, is common at power plants, representing baseline conditions. In many cases, power plants would retrofit open-loop systems to cooling towers to use reclaimed water. To evaluate the feasibility of reclaimed water use, we compared hydrologic and economic conditions at power plants under three scenarios: quantified de facto reuse, de facto reuse with cooling tower retrofits, and modeled engineered reuse conditions. We created a genetic algorithm to estimate costs and model optimal conditions. To assess power plant performance, we evaluated reliability metrics for thermal variances and generation capacity loss as a function of water temperature. Applying our analysis to the greater Chicago area, we observed high de facto reuse for some power plants and substantial costs for retrofitting to use reclaimed water. Conversely, the gains in reliability and performance through engineered reuse with cooling towers outweighed the energy investment in reclaimed water pumping. Our analysis yields quantitative results of reclaimed water feasibility and can inform sustainable management of water and energy. PMID:27077957

  12. Characterizing heavy metal build-up on urban road surfaces: Implication for stormwater reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stormwater reuse is increasingly popular in the worldwide. In terms of urban road stormwater, it commonly contains toxic pollutants such as heavy metals, which could undermine the reuse safety. The research study investigated heavy metal build-up characteristics on urban roads in a typical megacity of South China. The research outcomes show the high variability in heavy metal build-up loads among different urban road sites. The degree of traffic congestion and road surface roughness was found to exert a more significant influence on heavy metal build-up rather than traffic volume. Due to relatively higher heavy metal loads, stormwater from roads with more congested traffic conditions or rougher surfaces might be suitable for low-water-quality required activities while the stormwater from by-pass road sections could be appropriate for relatively high-water-quality required purposes since the stormwater could be relatively less polluted. Based on the research outcomes, a decision-making process for heavy metals based urban road stormwater reuse was proposed. The new finding highlights the importance to undertaking a “fit-for-purpose” road stormwater reuse strategy. Additionally, the research results can also contribute to enhancing stormwater reuse safety. - Highlights: • Heavy metal (HM) build-up varies with traffic and road surface conditions. • Traffic congestion and surface roughness exert a higher impact on HM build-up. • A “fit-for-purpose” strategy could suit urban road stormwater reuse

  13. Exploratory Disposal and Reuse Feasibility Analysis of Winter Maintenance Wash Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Ohio Department of Transportation has more than 60 facilities without sewer access generating approximately 19 million gallons of winter maintenance wash water. Off-site disposal is costly, creating the need for sustainable management strategies. The objective of this study was to conduct an exploratory feasibility analysis to assess wash water disposal and potential reuse as brine. Based on a comprehensive literature review and relevant environmental chemistry, a sampling protocol consisting of 31 water quality constituents was utilized for monthly sampling at three geographically distinct Ohio Department of Transportation garages during the winter of 2012. Results were compared to local disposal and reuse guidance limits. Three constituents, including a maximum copper concentration of 858 ppb, exceeded disposal limits, and many constituents also failed to meet reuse limits. Some concentrations were orders of magnitude higher than reuse limits and suggest pre-treatment would be necessary if wash water were reused as brine. These water quality results, in conjunction with copper chemical equilibrium modeling, show pH and dissolved carbon both significantly impact the total dissolved copper concentration and should be measured to assess reuse potential. The sampling protocol and specific obstacles highlighted in this paper aid in the future development of sustainable wash water management strategies. PMID:26908148

  14. Dry beneficiation of fine coal using a fluidized dense medium bed / Andre Nardus Terblanche

    OpenAIRE

    Terblanche, Andre Nardus

    2013-01-01

    Beneficiation of fine coal (+500 μm –2000 μm) is a worldwide problem in the mining industry, especially dry beneficiation of fine coal. Coal beneficiation can be divided primarily into two methods, namely wet- and dry beneficiation. Wet beneficiation methods are utilized more in today‘s industry because of the sharp separation efficiency that can be achieved. These processes include wet jigging, dense medium cyclones, spiral beneficiation etc. Due to the lack of a sufficient water supply in s...

  15. Environmental assessment for the reuse of TNX as a multi-purpose pilot plant campus at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this environmental assessment (EA) to analyze the potential environmental and safety impacts of DOE planning to allow asset reuse of the TNX Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS) located near Aiken, South Carolina. The proposed action would include providing for a location for the Centers of Excellence at or adjacent to SRS and entering into a cooperative agreement with a non-profit management and operations (management firm) contractor to operate and market the TNX facilities and equipment. The area (formerly TNX) would be called a Multi-Purpose Pilot Plant Campus (MPPC) and would be used: (1) as location for technology research, development, demonstration, and commercial operations; (2) to establish partnerships with industry to develop applied technologies for commercialization; and (3) serve as administrative headquarters for Centers of Excellence in the program areas of soil remediation, radioecology, groundwater contamination, and municipal solid waste minimization

  16. Environmental assessment for the reuse of TNX as a multi-purpose pilot plant campus at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this environmental assessment (EA) to analyze the potential environmental and safety impacts of DOE planning to allow asset reuse of the TNX Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS) located near Aiken, South Carolina. The proposed action would include providing for a location for the Centers of Excellence at or adjacent to SRS and entering into a cooperative agreement with a non-profit management and operations (management firm) contractor to operate and market the TNX facilities and equipment. The area (formerly TNX) would be called a Multi-Purpose Pilot Plant Campus (MPPC) and would be used: (1) as location for technology research, development, demonstration, and commercial operations; (2) to establish partnerships with industry to develop applied technologies for commercialization; and (3) serve as administrative headquarters for Centers of Excellence in the program areas of soil remediation, radioecology, groundwater contamination, and municipal solid waste minimization.

  17. Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 10, July--September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

    1991-11-01

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches of fuels for shipment to CE`s laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. CE then processes the products into either a coal-water fuel (CWF) or a dry microfine pulverized coa1 (DMPC) form for combustion testing. The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. During the third quarter of 1991, the following technical progress was made: Continued analyses of drop tube furnace samples to determine devolatilization kinetics; completed analyses of the samples from the pilot-scale ash deposition tests of unweathered Upper Freeport fuels; completed editing of the first three quarterly reports and sent them to the publishing office; presented the project results at the Annual Contractors` Conference.

  18. Electrostatic Beneficiation of Lunar Regolith: Applications in In-Situ Resource Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigwell, Steve; Captain, James; Weis, Kyle; Quinn, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    Upon returning to the moon, or further a field such as Mars, presents enormous challenges in sustaining life for extended periods of time far beyond the few days the astronauts experienced on the moon during the Apollo missions. A stay on Mars is envisioned to last several months, and it would be cost prohibitive to take all the requirements for such a stay from earth. Therefore, future exploration missions will be required to be self-sufficient and utilize the resources available at the mission site to sustain human occupation. Such an exercise is currently the focus of intense research at NASA under the In-situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) program. As well as oxygen and water necessary for human life, resources for providing building materials for habitats, radiation protection, and landing/launch pads are required. All these materials can be provided by the regolith present on the surface as it contains sufficient minerals and metals oxides to meet the requirements. However, before processing, it would be cost effective if the regolith could be enriched in the mineral(s) of interest. This can be achieved by electrostatic beneficiation in which tribocharged mineral particles are separated out and the feedstock enriched or depleted as required. The results of electrostatic beneficiation of lunar simulants and actual Apollo regolith, in lunar high vacuum are reported in which various degrees of efficient particle separation and mineral enrichment up to a few hundred percent were achieved.

  19. Multicriteria analysis to evaluate the energetic reuse of riparian vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The management of riparian vegetation which includes cutting operations of grass, reeds, bushes and trees, is very important to reduce hydrogeologic risk. In Tuscany, riparian biomass and residues are mainly left shredded along courses or disposed in landfills as special wastes: actually different laws prohibit that tree trunks are abandoned in areas naturally affected by flooding, because they can be moved contributing to increase the water level and to maximize the hydraulic risk of some other nearby areas. In some cases, it is also possible to store the logs in specified sites from where they can be taken and used as a fuel in fireplaces or domestic heating plants. This work studies the possibility of the reuse of riparian vegetation as biomass for energy production and evaluates benefits and drawbacks from the economical, environmental and managerial points of view. Particularly, a specific methodology has been developed for two hydrological districts of Tuscany, with different typologies and densities of vegetation. First, an estimation of biomass distribution on the land and an evaluation of annual wood availability have been carried out; then, different chains concerning harvesting operation, biomass transport, storage conditions and final utilisation, have been defined and compared by a specific multicriteria analysis (MCA); finally, for the most suitable bio-energy chains the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been implemented. Results of the LCA have also permitted to validate some environmental indicators used in the MCA, as mechanisation level of yards, energy efficiency of plants or transport distances. The decision making tool developed allows to compare costs and environmental benefits of the energy use of riparian vegetation, supporting local authorities involved in energy planning: in this way it is possible to confront different alternatives to match the energy demand and meet the energy saving and sustainability issues at the lowest cost for the

  20. Multicriteria analysis to evaluate the energetic reuse of riparian vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recchia, Lucia; Cini, Enrico [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Agraria e Forestale, Universita di Firenze, Piazzale delle Cascine 15, 50144 Firenze (Italy); Corsi, Stefano [Consorzio di Bonifica per la difesa del suolo e la tutela dell' ambiente della Toscana Centrale, via Verdi 16, 50122 Firenze (Italy)

    2010-01-15

    The management of riparian vegetation which includes cutting operations of grass, reeds, bushes and trees, is very important to reduce hydrogeologic risk. In Tuscany, riparian biomass and residues are mainly left shredded along courses or disposed in landfills as special wastes: actually different laws prohibit that tree trunks are abandoned in areas naturally affected by flooding, because they can be moved contributing to increase the water level and to maximize the hydraulic risk of some other nearby areas. In some cases, it is also possible to store the logs in specified sites from where they can be taken and used as a fuel in fireplaces or domestic heating plants. This work studies the possibility of the reuse of riparian vegetation as biomass for energy production and evaluates benefits and drawbacks from the economical, environmental and managerial points of view. Particularly, a specific methodology has been developed for two hydrological districts of Tuscany, with different typologies and densities of vegetation. First, an estimation of biomass distribution on the land and an evaluation of annual wood availability have been carried out; then, different chains concerning harvesting operation, biomass transport, storage conditions and final utilisation, have been defined and compared by a specific multicriteria analysis (MCA); finally, for the most suitable bio-energy chains the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been implemented. Results of the LCA have also permitted to validate some environmental indicators used in the MCA, as mechanisation level of yards, energy efficiency of plants or transport distances. The decision making tool developed allows to compare costs and environmental benefits of the energy use of riparian vegetation, supporting local authorities involved in energy planning: in this way it is possible to confront different alternatives to match the energy demand and meet the energy saving and sustainability issues at the lowest cost for the

  1. Radiation Processing of Wastewater and Possibilities for Reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the CRP IPEN has worked on the irradiation and toxicity assessment for the improvement of dyes standard solutions and real complex effluents (textile) in order to achieve recommended quality for reuse of treated effluents during the process as well as for a suitable environmental discharge. Three different types of effluents were submitted to irradiation including standard solution of two reactive dyes (Remazol Black B - RPB and Remazol Orange 3R – R3AR). It was also identified that different chemical formulas of these reactive dyes can contribute to a higher toxic charge during effluents discharges. In general the toxicity control was carried out on crustaceans and luminescent bacteria but a lot of experiments were performed with the aquatic snail Biomphalaria glabrata, this last biological assay was developed at “Instituto Butantan (USP, SP)”. Irradiations and measurements with UV spectrophotometer resulted always on less colored effluents and most often on less toxic liquid residues, after irradiation. Percentage of reductions for toxicity and color depended on the effluent source and the radiation doses applied varied from 1 to 10 kGy. The decoloration of remazol black B and orange 3R solutions was effective for 1kGy and 2.5 kGy which is a relatively low dose and may contribute to a suitable cost for irradiation technology. Since the possibility of different formula of dyes be present at environment exist, the toxicity was measured for all of them and it was noted that vinylsulphone form was the worst in terms of effects for V.fischeri ( Black B 133%) and D.similis (Orange 3R). Regarding biological effects of these remazol dyes after irradiation, this same dye solution resulted at 60% removal only for V.fischeri (not for daphnids) and when treated with 5 kGy and 10 kGy. Irradiation of real textile BVT effluents resulted in good colour removal but the acute toxicity reduction varied widely 97% (0.5kGy), 54% (2.5kGy) and 19% (1.0k

  2. Resolving the controversy over beneficial effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spite of the extensive research carried out during the past century, intense controversy continues over the health effects of low-level radiation. This controversy is largely due to political, social and economic issues among scientists and analysts in a variety of disciplines. These issues cloud objectivity and strengthen paradigms. Over the past ten years, in 14 universities and two research institutes, Japanese scientists have conducted exceptional research which clearly demonstrates beneficial effects of low-level radiation and cancer cures following therapy with low doses of radiation. Assessment, replication and extension of this work in North America could lead to greater appreciation of its significance. Cancer patients would demand such treatments, leading to universal acceptance of these bio-positive effects and reducing public fear of nuclear technology. (author)

  3. Beneficiation studies of an uranium siliceous - phosphate ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consolidation of the beneficiation studies of a low-grade uranium siliceous - phosphate ore (11% P2O5) from Itataia region in the Northeast of Brazil, owned by Empresas Nucleares Brasileiras S.A. - NUCLEBRAS, are presented. Laboratory studies using froth flotation technique and applying statistical methods for data evaluation were made. Pilot plant tests in a 120 Kg/h scale were conducted as a consequence of the bench scale tests. The developed process using tall-oil as collector and starch as depressant gave a total yield of 80% for the P2O5 and 71% the U3O8, for a 33% P2O5 phosphate concentrate. (Author)

  4. Beneficial and harmful roles of bacteria from the Clostridium genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samul, Dorota; Worsztynowicz, Paulina; Leja, Katarzyna; Grajek, Włodzimierz

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria of the Clostridium genus are often described only as a biological threat and a foe of mankind. However, many of them have positive properties and thanks to them they may be used in many industry branches (e.g., in solvents and alcohol production, in medicine, and also in esthetic cosmetology). During the last 10 years interest in application of C. botulinum and C. tetani in medicine significantly increased. Currently, the structure and biochemical properties of neurotoxins produced by these bacterial species, as well as possibilities of application of such toxins as botulinum as a therapeutic factor in humans, are being intensely researched. The main aim of this article is to demonstrate that bacteria from Clostridium spp. are not only pathogens and the enemy of humanity but they also have many important beneficial properties which make them usable among many chemical, medical, and cosmetic applications. PMID:24432307

  5. Glutamine supplementation in sick children: is it beneficial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Elise; Hankard, Régis

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide a critical appraisal of the literature on Glutamine (Gln) supplementation in various conditions or illnesses that affect children, from neonates to adolescents. First, a general overview of the proposed mechanisms for the beneficial effects of Gln is provided, and subsequently clinical studies are discussed. Despite safety, studies are conflicting, partly due to different effects of enteral and parenteral Gln supplementation. Further insufficient evidence is available on the benefits of Gln supplementation in pediatric patients. This includes premature infants, infants with gastrointestinal disease, children with Crohn's disease, short bowel syndrome, malnutrition/diarrhea, cancer, severe burns/trauma, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, sickle cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, and type 1 diabetes. Moreover, methodological issues have been noted in some studies. Further mechanistic data is needed along with large randomized controlled trials in select populations of sick children, who may eventually benefit from supplemental Gln. PMID:22175008

  6. Glutamine Supplementation in Sick Children: Is It Beneficial?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Mok

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to provide a critical appraisal of the literature on Glutamine (Gln supplementation in various conditions or illnesses that affect children, from neonates to adolescents. First, a general overview of the proposed mechanisms for the beneficial effects of Gln is provided, and subsequently clinical studies are discussed. Despite safety, studies are conflicting, partly due to different effects of enteral and parenteral Gln supplementation. Further insufficient evidence is available on the benefits of Gln supplementation in pediatric patients. This includes premature infants, infants with gastrointestinal disease, children with Crohn's disease, short bowel syndrome, malnutrition/diarrhea, cancer, severe burns/trauma, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, sickle cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, and type 1 diabetes. Moreover, methodological issues have been noted in some studies. Further mechanistic data is needed along with large randomized controlled trials in select populations of sick children, who may eventually benefit from supplemental Gln.

  7. Beneficial effects of melatonin in experimental models of Alzheimer disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong CHENG; Zheng FENG; Qing-zhu ZHANG; Jun-tian ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), a progressive degenerative disorder, is characterized by the presence of amyloid deposits, neurofibrillary tangles and neuron loss.Emerging evidence indicates that antioxidants could be useful either for the prevention or treatment of AD. It has been shown that melatonin is a potent antioxidant and free radical scavenger. Additionally, melatonin stimulates several antioxidative enzymes and improves mitochondrial energy metabolism. These findings led us to study amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice, ovariectomized rats, and pheochromocytoma and astroglioma cell lines, to observe whether melatonin had any effect on Alzheimer's symptoms or pathological changes. We found that melatonin had many beneficial effects in experimental models of AD, including improvement of cognitive function, anti-oxidative injury, anti-apoptosis, inhibition of β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition and Aβ fiber formation. Several groups have shown that melatonin has an inhibitory effect on tau protein hyperphosphorylation.These actions may potentially slow down or stop the progression of dementia.

  8. The beneficial effects of taurine in preventing metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen; Guo, Junxia; Zhang, Yanzhen; Zhang, Jing

    2016-04-20

    Metabolic syndrome, a cluster of risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease, has become a very serious public health concern. A number of studies have provided evidence that taurine has an efficient action against metabolic syndrome, which includes reducing triglycerides to prevent obesity, improving insulin resistance to regulate glucose metabolism, lowering cholesterol (especially decreasing VLDL + LDL cholesterol and increasing HDL cholesterol) to prevent diet-induced hypercholesterolemia, and regulating the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the kallikrein-kinin system etc. to reduce blood pressure. This review summarizes the data from in vitro, animal and limited human studies of beneficial effects of taurine on obesity, dyslipidaemia, diabetes mellitus and hypertension, and addresses the possible metabolic and molecular mechanisms of the prevention of metabolic syndrome by taurine. PMID:26918249

  9. Beneficiation studies of Bajaur manganese ore by different processing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The manganese ore of Bajaur Agency of Pakistan was subjected to flotation, heavy medium separation, gravity concentration and magnetic separation techniques for beneficiation. The original composition of the manganese ore was 45.56% Mn , 4% Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 40% SiO/sub 2/. The Mn content was raised to a maximum 48.76 % in the concentrate with the recovery of 67.78 % through flotation technique. Other techniques rendered marginal increase in Mn concentration against the theoretical possibility of substantial enrichment by rejecting the 20 % gangue minerals. The separation of manganese minerals from associated gangue was difficult, due to mineralogical complexity of the ore, extreme fineness of the particle size, texture and minerals intergrowth. High Mn/Fe ratio, phosphorus, and silica contents were within tolerable limits for utilisation of the ore in ferro-manganese production. (author)

  10. Potential beneficial effects of butyrate in intestinal and extraintestinal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Berni Canani, Margherita Di Costanzo, Ludovica Leone, Monica Pedata, Rosaria Meli, Antonio Calignano

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The multiple beneficial effects on human health of the short-chain fatty acid butyrate, synthesized from non-absorbed carbohydrate by colonic microbiota, are well documented. At the intestinal level, butyrate plays a regulatory role on the transepithelial fluid transport, ameliorates mucosal inflammation and oxidative status, reinforces the epithelial defense barrier, and modulates visceral sensitivity and intestinal motility. In addition, a growing number of studies have stressed the role of butyrate in the prevention and inhibition of colorectal cancer. At the extraintestinal level, butyrate exerts potentially useful effects on many conditions, including hemoglobinopathies, genetic metabolic diseases, hypercholesterolemia, insulin resistance, and ischemic stroke. The mechanisms of action of butyrate are different; many of these are related to its potent regulatory effects on gene expression. These data suggest a wide spectrum of positive effects exerted by butyrate, with a high potential for a therapeutic use in human medicine.

  11. Experimental mobile water reuse; Unidade movel experimental em reuso de agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Maria de Fatima Rodrigues da; Santiago, Vania Maria Junqueira; Machado, Mara de Barros; Cerqueira, Ana Claudia Figueiras Pereira de; Florido, Priscilla Lopes; Iwane, Tsutomo; Coelho, Eloisia B.A.P.; Souza, Rodrigo Suhett de; Tomaz, Ailton Fonseca [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The search for environmental excellence in PETROBRAS and the need to minimize water use dictated by Law 9433/97 led to corporate guidelines to promote initiatives for the effective management of water resources, triggering a series of actions and projects. The Center for Research and Development - CENPES has as a priority research lines enable the reduction of water consumption in the oil industry through the reuse of effluent. The Mobile Unit for Experimental Water Reuse is a pioneer project in the world, in its format and purpose, was developed by CENPES in partnership with E and P - Process Engineering Ltda. and with e participation of the managements of Refine, SMES and Engineering. The main objective support initiatives aimed at reuse deployments Units of Operations (refineries and terminals, for example), by defining the best route technology for water treatment and wastewater. The Mobile Unit is composed of two trucks with pilot scale equipment that can test up to 90 technological solutions for water treatment and reuse. The station can test spot, the Company's refinery, processes to remove solids, organic load removal, and processes aimed at polishing and demineralization, simulating the operating conditions specific to the different characteristics of water and wastewater, with view to producing high quality water-compatible reuse in cooling towers or steam generation. From these tests CENPES may indicate the best alternative technically and economically for water reuse in design for industrial facilities, reducing time and cost of testing pilots. The field of knowledge in water reuse is an important asset to the sustainability of the Oil and Gas industry. Sustainable use of water resources is a goal of permanent PETROBRAS. (author)

  12. The Suitability of Adaptive Reuse Practices on Historic Residential Buildings to National Memorials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Syahila Ab Rashid

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to prolong the life of the old buildings in the country through building conservation practices, there is a tendency by the government to acquire and reuse Malaysian leadership figures’ residential buildings as memorials. However, it raises the question of whether there is any adaptive reuse guidelines to reuse historic residential buildings in Malaysia as national memorials in maintaining those buildings as an exhibition space on the history of their leadership. The absence of guidelines raises questions about how to implement the process accordingly. The objective of this research is to find the best formula for reusing historic residential buildings as national memorials based on that issue by reviewing and identify the principles of adaptive reuse practices of historic residential buildings as national memorials that implemented in Malaysia. The case studies were conducted on three samples of historic residential buildings that reused as national memorials and those buildings were selected based on a list of the study population, which are Rumah Kelahiran Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad (The Birthplace of Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad, Rumah Merdeka (Freedom House and Memorial Tun Abdul Ghafar Baba (The Tun Abdul Ghafar Baba Memorial. The sample may be determined by the sampling method and evaluated using the checklist provided. Based on the results of the case studies that were analyzed and discussed, it can be concluded that aspects of building code (local requirements as well as environmental and conservation requirements are not met in implementing adaptive reuse process on historic residential buildings to national memorials which needs suggestions for improvement.

  13. Aluminum-Based Water Treatment Residue Reuse for Phosphorus Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Yoke Lee

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum-based water treatment residue (Al-WTR generated during the drinking water treatment process is a readily available recycled material with high phosphorus (P adsorption capacity. The P adsorption capacity of Al-WTR generated from Singapore’s water treatment plant was evaluated with reference to particle size range, adsorption pH and temperature. Column tests, with WTR amendments in sand with and without compost, were used to simulate the bioretention systems. The adsorption rate decreased with increasing WTR sizes. Highest P adsorption capacity, 15.57 mg PO43−-P/g WTR, was achieved using fine WTR particles (>50% particles at less than 0.30 mm. At pH 4, the contact time required to reduce effluent P concentration to below the detectable range was half compared with pH 7 and 9. The adsorption rate observed at 40 ± 2 °C was 21% higher compared with that at 30 ± 2 °C. Soil mixes amended with 10% WTR and compost were able to maintain consistently high (90% total phosphorus (TP removal efficiency at a TP load up to 6.45 g/m3. In contrast, TP removal efficiencies associated with columns without WTR amendment decreased to less than 45% as the TP load increased beyond 4.5 g/m3. The results showed that WTR application is beneficial for enhanced TP removal in bioretention systems.

  14. Topics in Semantics-based Program Manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grobauer, Bernt

    Programming is at least as much about manipulating existing code as it is about writing new code. Existing code is modified, for example to make inefficient code run faster, or to accommodate for new features when reusing code; existing code is analyzed, for example to verify certain program prop...

  15. Learning Cython programming

    CERN Document Server

    Herron, Philip

    2013-01-01

    A practical and a fast-paced guide that gives you all the information you need to start programming using Cython.This book is for developers who love C/C++ for low latency and speed but who also require the ability to add more dynamic features to applications both fast and reliably. It will also show you how you can get new applications off the ground by reusing Python libraries to get started.

  16. The Reuse of Greywater Recycling For High Rise Buildings in Kuwait Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ibrahim Abd Alaziz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The domestic grey water recycling and reuse in high rise buildings has been discussed and detailed. It is estimated that the usable domestic grey water resource could amount from to 35% to 39% of the total domestic demand. A summary of worldwide review of recycling and reuse of grey water is reported. In many cases, light grey water from bathroom sinks, baths and showers can be directly reused in garden irrigation. Dark grey water from laundry, dishwashers and, in some instances, kitchen sinks should be subjected to simple treatment to be reused in non-potable contexts such as toilet flushing and garden irrigation. In all cases, disinfection by chlorine or ozone is important if there is a possibility contact with human exists. Therefore, there are verity of system designs from simple to sophisticated systems according to the quality and of the grey water and the type of reuse. Examples of these systems, filters and storage tanks are presented and explained. Black water from the toilet is allowed to flow directly to the septic tank or to the sewer of municipal wastewater system.

  17. Beyond the throwaway society: A life cycle-based assessment of the environmental benefit of reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, Valentina; Sala, Serenella; Mirabella, Nadia

    2015-07-01

    In the context of a circular economy, sustainable consumption is often seen as the antithesis of current consumption patterns, which have led to the definition of the so-called throwaway society. Reuse may provide a preferred alternative to other waste management options, because it promotes resource efficiency and may significantly reduce environmental impacts. To appraise the environmental benefits related to reuse of goods, a methodology adopting life cycle assessment (LCA) has been developed. A standardized procedure has been developed, identifying reference products within product category subject to reuse, and collecting reliable inventory data as a basis for calculating environmental impact through LCA. A case study on a second-hand shop is presented, and the avoided impacts are quantified. Inventory data were taken both from the literature and directly from sales and surveys submitted to customers. The results are presented, highlighting: 1) for each product category, the average avoided impacts for 1 unit of reused product considered; and 2) for the overall activities of the second-hand shop, the cumulative avoided impacts in 1 yr. In the case study, the higher contribution to avoided impacts comes from the apparel sector, due to the high amount of items sold, followed by the furniture sector, because of the high amount of environmental impacts avoided by the reuse of each single item. PMID:25557152

  18. Recycle and reuse of radioactive scrap metals within the department of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) National Center of Excellence for Metals Recycle (NMR) is pursuing recycle and reuse alternatives to burial of radioactive scrap metal. This approach is being implemented in a safe and environmentally sound manner, while significantly lowering dis-positioning cost and accelerating cleanup activities. This paper will define the NMR's success to date in promoting safe and cost effective recycle and reuse strategies for DOE's excess metals, through the use of case studies. The paper will also present actual volumes of metal moved by DOE into restricted and unrestricted uses since 1997. In addition, this paper will discuss the principle underlying the Three Building Decommissioning and Decontamination (D and D) Project in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. In January 2000, the Secretary of Energy placed a moratorium on the unrestricted release of volumetrically contaminated metals from the DOE sites. Pursuant to that moratorium, the Secretary also established a ''Re-Use and Recycling Task Force'' to conduct a review of DOE policies regarding the management and release of all materials for recycle and reuse from DOE facilities. This task force was charged to develop a set of recommendations to ensure the protection of public health and the environment, openness and public trust, and fiscal responsibility. This paper will present an overview of the DOE's present range of recycle and reuse alternatives to disposal, as practiced by the NMR, and discuss the policy and issues associated with the task force mission. (authors)

  19. Characterizing heavy metal build-up on urban road surfaces: implication for stormwater reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, An; Liu, Liang; Li, Dunzhu; Guan, Yuntao

    2015-05-15

    Stormwater reuse is increasingly popular in the worldwide. In terms of urban road stormwater, it commonly contains toxic pollutants such as heavy metals, which could undermine the reuse safety. The research study investigated heavy metal build-up characteristics on urban roads in a typical megacity of South China. The research outcomes show the high variability in heavy metal build-up loads among different urban road sites. The degree of traffic congestion and road surface roughness was found to exert a more significant influence on heavy metal build-up rather than traffic volume. Due to relatively higher heavy metal loads, stormwater from roads with more congested traffic conditions or rougher surfaces might be suitable for low-water-quality required activities while the stormwater from by-pass road sections could be appropriate for relatively high-water-quality required purposes since the stormwater could be relatively less polluted. Based on the research outcomes, a decision-making process for heavy metals based urban road stormwater reuse was proposed. The new finding highlights the importance to undertaking a "fit-for-purpose" road stormwater reuse strategy. Additionally, the research results can also contribute to enhancing stormwater reuse safety. PMID:25687783

  20. Integrated wastewater management by reuse and recycling in a textile industry: a case study in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing stringent environmental legislation, scarcity of resources and development of treatment and management techniques for wastewater, have made recycling and reuse feasible and economical in many industrial processes. Wastewater management by integrating all available techniques was studied for reuse and recycling in a textile industry. Cotton and silk fabrics were main products of the selected industry. Approach was divided in to five parts, to achieve the objectives of reuse and recycling: in-house water consumption evaluation, segregation study, optimizing existing WWTP, treatability study and advanced treatment for final effluent to fulfill reuse criteria. Water consumption evaluation was done by in-house survey. Segregation study was performed by analyzing different wastewater streams. Efficiency of existing WWTP for COD and BOD removal was assessed and optimized. Treatability of dye wastewater by ozonation, chemical and nanofiltration was studied. Treatment study of final effluent for TDS and color removal by nanofiltration and chemical treatment was performed. Analyses show the possibilities to conserve and optimize water consumption up to 30% in the production processes by in-house improvement. Segregation study shows that up to 15% wastewater from less polluted streams can be recycled back. Adopting separate efficient treatment techniques could fulfill reuse criteria for remaining wastewater streams (50%). (author)

  1. Reuse and Upcycling of Municipal Waste for ZEB Envelope Design in European Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Pennacchia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Building energy efficiency and urban waste management are two focal issues for improving environmental status and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The main aim of this paper is to compare economic costs of new building envelope structures designed by authors reusing and upcycling municipal waste in order to decrease energy demand from the building sector and, at the same time, improve eco-friendly waste management at the local scale. The reuse of waste for building envelope structures is one of the main principles of the Earthship buildings model, based on the use of passive solar principles in autonomous earth-sheltered homes. This Earthship principle has been analyzed in order to optimize buildings’ energy performance and reuse municipal waste for new building envelope structures in urban areas. Indeed, the elaborated structures have been designed for urban contexts, with the aim of reuse waste coming from surrounding landfills. The methods include an analysis of thermal performance of urban waste for designing new building envelope structures realized by assembling waste and isolating materials not foreseen in Earthship buildings. The reused materials are: cardboard tubes, automobile tires, wood pallets, and plastic and glass bottles. Finally, comparing economic costs of these new building envelope structures, the obtained results highlight their economic feasibility compared to a traditional structure with similar thermal transmittance.

  2. Granularity as a Cognitive Factor in the Effectiveness of Business Process Model Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holschke, Oliver; Rake, Jannis; Levina, Olga

    Reusing design models is an attractive approach in business process modeling as modeling efficiency and quality of design outcomes may be significantly improved. However, reusing conceptual models is not a cost-free effort, but has to be carefully designed. While factors such as psychological anchoring and task-adequacy in reuse-based modeling tasks have been investigated, information granularity as a cognitive concept has not been at the center of empirical research yet. We hypothesize that business process granularity as a factor in design tasks under reuse has a significant impact on the effectiveness of resulting business process models. We test our hypothesis in a comparative study employing high and low granularities. The reusable processes provided were taken from widely accessible reference models for the telecommunication industry (enhanced Telecom Operations Map). First experimental results show that Recall in tasks involving coarser granularity is lower than in cases of finer granularity. These findings suggest that decision makers in business process management should be considerate with regard to the implementation of reuse mechanisms of different granularities. We realize that due to our small sample size results are not statistically significant, but this preliminary run shows that it is ready for running on a larger scale.

  3. Reuse Requirements for Generating Long Term Climate Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleig, A. J.

    2007-12-01

    Creating long term climate data sets from remotely sensed data requires a specialized form of code reuse. To detect long term trends in a geophysical parameter, such as global ozone amount or mean sea surface temperature, it is essential to be able to differentiate between real changes in the measurement and artifacts related to changes in processing algorithms or instrument characteristics. The ability to rerun the exact algorithm used to produce a given data set many years after the data was originally made is essential to create consistent long term data sets. It is possible to quickly develop a basic algorithm that will convert a perfect instrument measurement into a geophysical parameter value for a well specified set of conditions. However the devil is in the details and it takes a massive effort to develop and verify a processing system to generate high quality global climate data over all necessary conditions. As an example, from 1976 until now, over a hundred man years and eight complete reprocessings have been spent on deriving thirty years of total ozone data from multiple backscattered ultraviolet instruments. To obtain a global data set it is necessary to make numerous assumptions and to handle many special conditions (e.g. "What happens at high solar zenith angles with scattered clouds for snow covered terrain at high altitudes"?) It is easier to determine the precision of a remotely sensed data set than to determine its absolute accuracy. Fortunately if the entire data set is made with a single instrument and a constant algorithm the ability to detect long term trends is primarily determined by the precision of the measurement system rather than its absolute accuracy. However no instrument runs forever and new processing algorithms are developed over time. Introducing the resulting changes can impact the estimate of product precision and reduce the ability to estimate long term trends.Given an extended period of time when both the initial measurement

  4. Health risk assessment along the wastewater and faecal sludge management and reuse chain of Kampala, Uganda: a visualization

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Fuhrimann; Winkler, Mirko S.; Schneeberger, Pierre H. H.; Niwagaba, Charles B.; Joseph Buwule; Mohammed Babu; Kate Medlicott; Jürg Utzinger; Guéladio Cissé

    2014-01-01

    Reuse of wastewater in agriculture is a common feature in the developing world. While this strategy might con- tribute to the livelihood of farming communities, there are health risks associated with the management and reuse of wastewater and faecal sludge. We visualise here an assessment of health risks along the major wastewater channel in Kampala, Uganda. The visualization brings to bear the context of wastewater reuse activities in the Nakivubo wetlands and emphasises interconnections to ...

  5. Reduce, reuse and recycle: A green solution to Canada's medical isotope shortage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the unforeseen maintenance issues at the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor at Chalk River and coincidental shutdowns of other international reactors, a global shortage of medical isotopes (in particular technetium-99m, Tc-99m) occurred in 2009. The operation of these research reactors is expensive, their age creates concerns about their continued maintenance and the process results in a large amount of long-lived nuclear waste, whose storage cost has been subsidized by governments. While the NRU has since revived its operations, it is scheduled to cease isotope production in 2016. The Canadian government created the Non-reactor based medical Isotope Supply Program (NISP) to promote research into alternative methods for producing medical isotopes. The NRC was a member of a collaboration looking into the use of electron linear accelerators (LINAC) to produce molybdenum-99 (Mo-99), the parent isotope of Tc-99m. This paper outlines NRC’s involvement in every step of this process, from the production, chemical processing, recycling and preliminary animal studies to demonstrate the equivalence of LINAC Tc-99m with the existing supply. This process stems from reusing an old idea, reduces the nuclear waste to virtually zero and recycles material to create a green solution to Canada's medical isotope shortage. - Highlights: • Commercial power electron accelerators are realistic option to produce 99Mo. • Could cover national demand of Canada. Demonstrate LINAC-99Mo as environmental and economical solution to isotope crisis. • Demonstrate LINAC-99mTc to be clinically equivalent to current fission-99mTc supply

  6. Parallel programming with PCN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, I.; Tuecke, S.

    1991-12-01

    PCN is a system for developing and executing parallel programs. It comprises a high-level programming language, tools for developing and debugging programs in this language, and interfaces to Fortran and C that allow the reuse of existing code in multilingual parallel programs. Programs developed using PCN are portable across many different workstations, networks, and parallel computers. This document provides all the information required to develop parallel programs with the PCN programming system. In includes both tutorial and reference material. It also presents the basic concepts that underly PCN, particularly where these are likely to be unfamiliar to the reader, and provides pointers to other documentation on the PCN language, programming techniques, and tools. PCN is in the public domain. The latest version of both the software and this manual can be obtained by anonymous FTP from Argonne National Laboratory in the directory pub/pcn at info.mcs.anl.gov (c.f. Appendix A).

  7. Preoperative High-Dose Steroid Has Long-Term Beneficial Effects for Myasthenia Gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syuichi Tetsuka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies addressing preoperative steroid treatment have revealed that control of myasthenia gravis (MG with steroids prior to surgery appeared to stabilize postoperative status. The purpose of our study was to clarify the clinical benefits of the preoperative programmed high-dose steroid treatment on the long-term outcomes of MG patients. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 171 MG patients who were followed up after undergoing thymectomy in our hospital between 1988 and 2006. One hundred and thirteen patients in the programmed treatment group had received preoperative steroid treatment, while 58 patients received no steroid treatment during the preoperative period. Clinical remission, which was defined as the achievement of the modified pharmacologic remission (PR for at least 1 year, and clinical benefits were compared between the two groups. With regard to the remission after thymectomy, Kaplan-Meier life-table curves for patients in the preoperative steroid treatment group versus those for patients in the no steroid preoperative treatment group revealed a significantly higher probability of the PR in the preoperative steroid treatment group (log-rank test, P<0.01. This study might be the first, as per our knowledge, to indicate that preoperative programmed high-dose steroid treatment has long-term beneficial effects for MG patients.

  8. Beneficial Effects of Temperate Forage Legumes that Contain Condensed Tannins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer W. MacAdam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The two temperate forage legumes containing condensed tannins (CT that promote ruminant production are birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.; BFT and sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.; SF. Both are well-adapted to the cool-temperate climate and alkaline soils of the Mountain West USA. Condensed tannins comprise a diverse family of bioactive chemicals with multiple beneficial functions for ruminants, including suppression of internal parasites and enteric methane. Birdsfoot trefoil contains 10 to 40 g·CT·kg−1 dry matter (DM, while SF contains 30 to 80 g·CT·kg−1 DM. Our studies have focused on these two plant species and have demonstrated consistently elevated rates of gain for beef calves grazing both BFT and SF. Novel results from our BFT research include carcass dressing percentages and consumer sensory evaluations equivalent to feedlot-finished steers and significantly greater than grass-finished steers, but with omega-3 fatty acid concentrations equal to grass-finished beef. We have further demonstrated that ruminants fed BFT or SF will consume more endophyte-infected tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb. Dumort. forage or seed than ruminants fed a non-CT forage legume. There is great potential value for sustainable livestock production in the use of highly digestible, nitrogen-fixing legumes containing tannins demonstrated to improve ruminant productivity.

  9. Evidence against a beneficial effect of irisin in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silja Raschke

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue has gained interest as a potential target to treat obesity and metabolic diseases. Irisin is a newly identified hormone secreted from skeletal muscle enhancing browning of white fat cells, which improves systemic metabolism by increasing energy expenditure in mice. The discovery of irisin raised expectations of its therapeutic potential to treat metabolic diseases. However, the effect of irisin in humans is unclear. Analyses of genomic DNA, mRNA and expressed sequence tags revealed that FNDC5, the gene encoding the precursor of irisin, is present in rodents and most primates, but shows in humans a mutation in the conserved start codon ATG to ATA. HEK293 cells transfected with a human FNDC5 construct with ATA as start codon resulted in only 1% full-length protein compared to human FNDC5 with ATG. Additionally, in vitro contraction of primary human myotubes by electrical pulse stimulation induced a significant increase in PGC1α mRNA expression. However, FNDC5 mRNA level was not altered. FNDC5 mRNA expression in muscle biopsies from two different human exercise studies was not changed by endurance or strength training. Preadipocytes isolated from human subcutaneous adipose tissue exhibited differentiation to brite human adipocytes when incubated with bone morphogenetic protein (BMP 7, but neither recombinant FNDC5 nor irisin were effective. In conclusion, our findings suggest that it is rather unlikely that the beneficial effect of irisin observed in mice can be translated to humans.

  10. Beneficial role of bacterial endophytes in heavy metal phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying; Rajkumar, Mani; Zhang, Chang; Freitas, Helena

    2016-06-01

    Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that uses plants and their associated microbes to clean up pollutants from the soil, water and air. In recent years, phytoremediation assisted by bacterial endophytes has been highly recommended for cleaning up of metal polluted soils since endophytic bacteria can alleviate metal toxicity in plant through their own metal resistance system and facilitate plant growth under metal stress. Endophytic bacteria improve plant growth in metal polluted soils in two different ways: 1) directly by producing plant growth beneficial substances including solubilization/transformation of mineral nutrients (phosphate, nitrogen and potassium), production of phytohormones, siderophores and specific enzymes; and 2) indirectly through controlling plant pathogens or by inducing a systemic resistance of plants against pathogens. Besides, they also alter metal accumulation capacity in plants by excreting metal immobilizing extracellular polymeric substances, as well as metal mobilizing organic acids and biosurfactants. The present work aims to review the progress of recent research on the isolation, identification and diversity of metal resistant endophytic bacteria and illustrate various mechanisms responsible for plant growth promotion and heavy metal detoxification/phytoaccumulation/translocation in plants. PMID:26989941

  11. Clostridium butyricum: from beneficial to a new emerging pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassir, N; Benamar, S; La Scola, B

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium butyricum, a strictly anaerobic spore-forming bacillus, is a common human and animal gut commensal bacterium, and is also frequently found in the environment. Whereas non-toxigenic strains are currently used as probiotics in Asia, other strains have been implicated in pathological conditions, such as botulism in infants or necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm neonates. In terms of the latter, within the same species, different strains have antagonist effects on the intestinal mucosa. In particular, short-chain fatty acids, which are products of carbohydrate fermentation, have a dose-dependent paradoxical effect. Moreover, toxin genes have been identified by genome sequencing in pathological strains. Asymptomatic carriage of these strains has also been reported. Herein, we provide an overview of the implications of C. butyricum for human health, from the beneficial to the pathogenic. We focus on pathogenic strains associated with the occurrence of necrotizing enterocolitis. We also discuss the need to use complementary microbiological methods, including culture, in order to better assess gut bacterial diversity and identify new emergent enteropathogens at the strain level. PMID:26493849

  12. BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF SUDARSHANA KRIYA IN TYPE II DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sudarshana kriya is a Sanskrit term meaning ―proper vision, purified action by controlling the breath. Kri means to act with awareness. It normalizes breathing by concentrating on it systematically. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 40 subjects with type II diabetes 20 males, 20 females with age group of 40-60 were chosen. They underwent sudarshana kriya training for 6 days organized in Bangalore. A written consent was taken from subjects. They participated in 6 day Sudarshana kriya training held at Bangalore by a trained teacher. This 6 day training includes Sudarshana kriya and meditation. Our Study is designed to study the glycemic control and antilipemic effect of Sudarshana kriya in TypeII Diabetes Mellitus. RESULTS: Sudarshana kriya appears to be specialized pranayamic breathing capable of inducing series of beneficial changes besides causing significant fall of sugar levels, total cholesterol, triglyceride levels (p<0.001 and a raise in HDL cholesterol (p<0.001 CONCLUSION: Sudarshan Kriya can be used along with oral hypoglycemic agents as a holistic adjunct approach for a better glycemic and lipid profile control. Regular practice of Sudarshana Kriya reduces symptoms of mental depression for treating stress and anxiety in post- traumatic stress disorder. Sudarshana Kriya leaves one more alert aware, attentive and focused

  13. Primary beneficiation of tantalite using magnetic separation and acid leaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M Nete; F Koko; T Theron; W Purcell; JT Nel

    2014-01-01

    Primary beneficiation was successfully performed prior to dissolution of manganotantalite (sample A) and ferrotantalite (sample C) samples obtained from two different mines in the Naquissupa area, Mozambique. Magnetic separation removed the majority of iron and tita-nium, whereas H2SO4 leaching removed a large portion of thorium and uranium in these samples. Analytical results indicated that 64.14wt%and 72.04wt%of the total Fe and Ti, respectively, and~2wt%each of Nb2O5 and Ta2O5 were removed from sample C (ferrotantalite) using the magnetic separation method, whereas only 9.64wt%and 8.66wt%of total Fe2O3 and TiO2, respectively, and~2wt%each of Nb2O5 and Ta2O5 were removed from sample A (manganotantalite). A temperature of 50°C and a leaching time of 3 h in the presence of concentrated H2SO4 were observed to be the most appropriate leaching conditions for removal of radioactive elements from the tantalite ores. The results obtained for sample A under these conditions indicated that 64.14wt%U3O8 and 60.77wt%ThO2 were leached into the acidic solution, along with 4.45wt%and 0.99wt%of Nb2O5 and Ta2O5, respectively.

  14. Industrial process water treatment and reuse: A framework for synthesis and design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quaglia, Alberto; Pennati, Alessandra; Bogataj, Milos; Kravanja, Zdravko; Sin, Gürkan; Gani, Rafiqul

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical optimization has shown the potential to contribute to industrial water management, through the development of the solution methods needed for optimization-based design of wastewater treatment and reuse networks (also called water networks). Nevertheless, the application of this...... algorithms. To this end, we propose a computer-aided framework for the design of water treatment and reuse networks. In the framework, optimization methods, problem analysis tools and wastewater engineering knowledge are integrated in a computer-aided environment, in order to facilitate the formulation and...... solution of the design problems with fair complexity representative of industrial applications. The framework is demonstrated through the solution of a case study dealing with the treatment and reuse of water effluent produced by an oil refinery. The problem is solved, and a win−win solution is identified...

  15. Reuse of nuclear byproducts, NaF and HF in metal glass industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.W.; Lee, H.W. [Korea Power Engineering Co., Inc., Kyunggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, S.H.; Moon, H.S.; Cho, N.C. [Korea Nuclear Fuel Co., Ltd., Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-02-01

    A study has been performed to evaluate the radiological safety and feasibility associated with reuse of NaF(Sodium Fluoride) and HF(Hydrofluoric Acid) which are generated as byproducts from the nuclear fuel fabrication process. The investigation of oversea`s experience reveals that the byproduct materials are most often used in the metal and glass industries. For the radiological safety evaluation, the uranium radioactivities in the byproduct materials were examined and shown to be less than radioactivities in natural materials. The radiation doses to plant personnel and the general public were assessed to be very small and could be ignored. The Korea nuclear regulatory body permits the reuse of NaF in the metal industry on the basis of associated radioactivity being {open_quote}below regulatory concern{close_quote}. HF is now under review for reuse acceptability in the steel and glass industries.

  16. A model driven method for promoting reuse in SOA-solutions by managing variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutaina Chakir

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Service Oriented Architecture (SOA is an architectural paradigm that describes how organizations, people and systems provide and use services to achieve their goals and enhance productivity. Moreover, with the evolution of SOA, the focus in software development has shifted from applications to reusable services. However, the reuse in SOA is more seen as composition of fine-grained services rather than reuse of services implementation to build new services with additional functionalities. This can have some performance repercussions. Hence, in this paper, we propose a model driven method for managing Web services variability based on MDA (Model Driven Architecture as a way to promote reuse. In fact, through MDA, the method enables the automation of Web services realization regardless of the supported platforms. Moreover, we present a WSDL extension meta-model called VarWSDL which enhances Web services by variability notions.

  17. The profitability drivers in packaging materials reuse for manufacturers in business to business environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Samuel; Deleuran, Brian; Jacobsen, Peter

    Purpose –The purpose of this paper is to explore the profitability drivers for a firm’s operation of a reverse supply chain (RSC) that takes back and reuses packaging materials. Results apply specifically to original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) in business to business environments. Design....../Methodology/Approach – Using in-depth data from the Danish manufacturer of measurement instruments, Radiometer Medical, the paper first identifies the total set of factors that directly influence the profitability of reusing packaging materials, and second assesses the relative impact among the identified factors. The paper......’s theoretical basis is the RSC literature’s business perspective formulated by Guide and Van Wassenhove. Findings – The drivers of profitability in packaging materials reuse are 1) the amount of avoided costs of purchasing new packaging materials, 2) the firm’s ability to reduce costs of reverse logistics...

  18. Processing of combined domestic bath and laundry waste waters for reuse as commode flushing water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypes, W. D.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental investigation of processes and system configurations for reclaiming combined bath and laundry waste waters for reuse as commode flush water was conducted. A 90-min recycle flow was effective in removing particulates and in improving other physical characteristics to the extent that the filtered water was subjectively acceptable for reuse. The addition of a charcoal filter resulted in noticeable improvements in color, turbidity, and suds elimination. Heating and chlorination of the waste waters were investigated for reducing total organism counts and eliminating coliform organisms. A temperature of 335.9 K (145 F) for 30 min and chlorine concentrations of 20 mg/l in the collection tank followed by 10 mg/l in the storage tank were determined to be adequate for this purpose. Water volume relationships and energy-use rates for the waste water reuse systems are also discussed.

  19. Elements of Cellular Blind Interference Alignment --- Aligned Frequency Reuse, Wireless Index Coding and Interference Diversity

    CERN Document Server

    Jafar, Syed A

    2012-01-01

    We explore degrees of freedom (DoF) characterizations of partially connected wireless networks, especially cellular networks, with no channel state information at the transmitters. Specifically, we introduce three fundamental elements --- aligned frequency reuse, wireless index coding and interference diversity --- through a series of examples, focusing first on infinite regular arrays, then on finite clusters with arbitrary connectivity and message sets, and finally on heterogeneous settings with asymmetric multiple antenna configurations. Aligned frequency reuse refers to the optimality of orthogonal resource allocations in many cases, but according to unconventional reuse patterns that are guided by interference alignment principles. Wireless index coding highlights both the intimate connection between the index coding problem and cellular blind interference alignment, as well as the added complexity inherent to wireless settings. Interference diversity refers to the observation that in a wireless network ...

  20. REUSE OF TREATED WASTEWATER IN AGRICULTURE: SOLVING WATER DEFICIT PROBLEMS IN ARID AREAS (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faissal AZIZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the arid and semiarid areas, the availability and the management of irrigation water have become priorities of great importance. The successive years of drought, induced by climate change and population growth, increasingly reduced the amount of water reserved for agriculture. Consequently, many countries have included wastewater reuse as an important dimension of water resources planning. In the more arid areas wastewater is used in agriculture, releasing high resource of water supplies. In this context, the present work is a review focusing the reuse of treated wastewater in agriculture as an important strategy for solving water deficit problems in arid areas. Much information concerning the wastewater reuse in different regions of the world and in Morocco, the different wastewater treatment technologies existing in Morocco were discussed. The review focused also the fertilizing potential of wastewater in agriculture, the role of nutrients and their concentrations in wastewater and their advantages effects on plant growth and yield.

  1. Model evolvement and reuse technology of injection molding machine based on performance knowledge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhe; Feng Yixiong; Tan Jianrong; Wang Jinlong

    2008-01-01

    To illuminate the necessity of model evolvement and reuse, dynamics of injection molding machine's product models are analyzed. The performance knowledge is used to support the model evolvement and reuse. The driven factors of mechanical product model are concluded. The dynamic characteristics of product model are described. The performance knowledge is used to improve specific evolvement process. The upper-layer passing rules are adopted in the mechanical product configuration design. The rules of product model evolvement are investigated. And the model evolvement of injection molding machine has three levels. Practical and effective realization arithmetic is given to realize the performance knowledge reuse. Finally, HT1800X1N series injection molding machines are taken as examples to illuminate that the arithmetic is correct and practical.

  2. Control criteria for residual contamination in materials considered for recycle and reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is collecting data and conducting technical analyses to support the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Guidance, Air, Water, and Radiation Division (DOE/EH-232) in determining the feasibility of developing radiological control criteria for recycling or reuse of metals or equipment containing residual radioactive contamination from DOE operations. The criteria, framed as acceptable concentrations for release of materials for recycling or reuse, will be risk-based and will be developed through analysis of radiation exposure scenarios and pathways. The analysis will include evaluation of relevant radionuclides, potential mechanisms of exposure, and non-health-related impacts of residual radioactivity on electronics and film. The analyses will consider 42 key radionuclides that are generated during DOE operations and may be contained in recycled or reused metals or equipment. (author). 12 refs, 3 tabs

  3. Recycled Water Reuse Permit Renewal Application for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Lewis

    2014-09-01

    This renewal application for a Recycled Water Reuse Permit is being submitted in accordance with the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act 58.01.17 “Recycled Water Rules” and the Municipal Wastewater Reuse Permit LA-000141-03 for continuing the operation of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant located at the Idaho National Laboratory. The permit expires March 16, 2015. The permit requires a renewal application to be submitted six months prior to the expiration date of the existing permit. For the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant, the renewal application must be submitted by September 16, 2014. The information in this application is consistent with the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality’s Guidance for Reclamation and Reuse of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater and discussions with Idaho Department of Environmental Quality personnel.

  4. Data Sharing and Reuse within the Academic Pathways Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toye, George; Sheppard, Sheri; Chen, Helen L.

    2016-01-01

    The Academic Pathway Study (APS) research program within National Science Foundation (NSF) Center for Advancement of Engineering Education (CAEE) ran from 2003-2010. It amassed a collection of longitudinal as well as cross-sectional data sets, of varying research method types and formats, from four different primary cohorts that included over…

  5. Recycling and reuse of very low level radioactive steel in motorway tunnel scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Methodology for the reuse of very low radioactive material was developed. • Radiation impact assessment for the motorway tunnel scenario was performed. • New clearance levels for analyzed radionuclides were derived. • Recyclable amount of radioactive steel arising from decommissioning was determined. • Cost-benefit analysis of application of concept of conditional clearance was done. -- Abstract: Since a number of nuclear power plants are approaching the end of their lifetime is continuously increasing, decommissioning issues and radioactive waste management have become widely discussed topics. Considerable amounts of materials arising from decommissioning could be categorized as very low level radioactive waste. In line with international incentives for optimization of radioactive material management, alternative concepts of recycling and reuse of materials are suggested, analyzed and discussed. One of these concepts of such optimization is the conditional clearance of materials with their subsequent recycling and reuse in the industrial sector. The present paper describes an option of recycling and reuse of conditionally cleared steel in motorway tunnels. The analyzed scenario assumes that very low level radioactive steel would be reused in the form of steel reinforcing components, such as reinforcing mesh and bars, assembled in the primary and secondary linings of a motorway tunnel. However, prior to real application, a radiological impact assessment has to be done in order to prove compliance with radiation protection criteria. Methodology for implementation of the concept of conditional clearance was created and applied on two selected NPPs located in the Slovak Republic, which are currently under decommissioning. Assessment of relevant exposure pathways, which are likely to occur in the analyzed scenario, was performed. The aim of the paper is to derive and to justify new clearance levels for each radionuclide contained in steel

  6. Characterization studies for the reuse of phosphogypsum as a raw material in the civil construction industry of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NORM stands for 'naturally occurring radioactive material', which is a material that naturally contains one or more radionuclides, mainly, uranium, thorium and potassium-40, and their radioactive decay products, such as radium and radon. An example of this material is the Phosphogypsum (PG), which results from the processing of phosphate ore into phosphoric acid for fertilizer production. In order to support regulation of the reuse of phosphogypsum as a raw material of the Brazilian civil construction industry, a characterization study was performed. The physical and chemical properties of PG and natural gypsum were determinate by evaluating the results of thermal (DTA and TG), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and laser granulometric analyses. The radioactivity concentration of each sample was measured by gamma spectrometry analyses. The results of thermal analyses demonstrated that phosphogypsum must be treated (initially heated in an electrical oven at 60 deg. C for 24 hours, then sieved and heated again at 160 deg. C for one hour) to obtain the same mineralogical properties of the gypsum used in the civil construction industry. The X- ray fluorescence analysis showed that PG and natural gypsum are similar with both being composed mainly of S, O, Ca, P and small quantities of trace elements (Ce, Ti, La, Sr, Zr, and Pr). The main crystalline compounds found in PG samples were gypsita (CaSO4.2H2O) and in natural gypsum were bassanite (CaSO4.0.5H2O). The concentration of Ra-226, Ra-228 and Pb-210 present in PG samples was 467 Bq/kg, 224 Bq/kg and 395 Bq/kg, respectively. The levels of radioactivity in natural gypsum samples were much lower (around 3 Bq/kg). The same behavior was observed for the uranium and thorium content. The results of all the analyses showed that phosphogypsum can be a viable substitute for gypsum, after certain, beneficial processes. (authors)

  7. Estimation of a Decommissioning Program Considering the Reuse of Demolition Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As for a decommissioning job in Japan decontamination and dismantling including safety store are executed during the prior period of the total project. The reprocessing and disposal of dismantling wastes as well recycling is to be practiced during the succeeding period. An expert system proposed in this paper has a faculty of furnishing motivations for decommissioning planners by correlative estimations of the project between its prior part and the succeeding recycle part of total process. This paper presents both a summarized configuration and an algorithm of the proposed model and indicates some contents of essential data bases (D/B) to be prepared as well some additional data to embody an assumed scenario for recycling. The proposed model provides the useful outputs concerning commercial cost, required procedures or licenses, regional encouragement, obstacles to be surmounted and so on. These outputs are available to explain the outline of the project both to inside and to outside of a plant corporate entity by combining each other. Simulated cases for concrete structures in non-controlled areas bring some information about both feasibility and comparisons of assumed recycling scenarios taking account of quality requirements in relevant technical standards, ordinances and the ability of reprocessing facilities. (authors)

  8. The effect of multiple processing and re-use on orthodontic mini-screw torque values

    OpenAIRE

    Noorollahian, Saeed; Alavi, Shiva; Rafiei, Elahe

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reusing orthodontic mini-screws would reduce treatment cost and lead to more use of mini-screws and improvement of orthodontic treatments. This study has assessed the effects of reprocessing and reusing the titanium mini-screws on their maximum insertion, removal and fracture torque (FT). Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 20 titanium mini-screws (1.6-mm × 8-mm) were randomly divided into two equal groups. In the test group, the screws were first sterilized by auto...

  9. ENHANCING CIVIC ACTIVISM THROUGH THE RE-USE OF PUBLIC INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Jabłoński

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the scope of realization of the rights to access and to re-use public information in Poland. It characterizes the subject of this right and the key aspects of statutory regulation of the request procedure, which materialize the content of Article 61 of the Constitution of Poland. In its main section, the article provides an overview of newly-adopted provisions concerning the right to re-use public information and their potential impact on civic activity. This right enables a broad category of interested persons to obtain and use public information not only for informational and oversight purposes, but also for tangible and intangible gains.

  10. ENHANCING CIVIC ACTIVISM THROUGH THE RE-USE OF PUBLIC INFORMATION

    OpenAIRE

    Mariusz Jabłoński

    2013-01-01

    The article analyses the scope of realization of the rights to access and to re-use public information in Poland. It characterizes the subject of this right and the key aspects of statutory regulation of the request procedure, which materialize the content of Article 61 of the Constitution of Poland. In its main section, the article provides an overview of newly-adopted provisions concerning the right to re-use public information and their potential impact on civic activity. This right enable...

  11. TREATMENT AND RESOURCE REUSE OF 1,2,4-ACID PRODUCING EFFLUENT WITH MACROPOROUS POLYMERIC ADSORBENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The treatment and resource reuse of 1,2,4-acid producing wastewater by self-mademacroporous adsorption resin ND,A-107 was studied in this paper. Optimum adsorption anddesorption process parameters were acquired by systematically study. The polymeric resin NDA-10 7indicated good adsorption & desorption of 1,2, 4-acid in the wastewater. The removal efficiency of1,2,4-acid, CODer is about 78%, 72% respectively. It is evident that this adsorption process is anefficient treatment method for 1,2,4-acid producing wastewater. At the same time, the accumulationand resource reuse of l,2, 4-acid can be realized in this process.

  12. Semantic search: finding KTBL's planning data and reusing them in IT systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Martini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The effort to investigate relevant data for planning purposes and preparation of labour and investments in agricultural production as well as reworking and entering them for reuse in calculation tools and farm management information systems are major challenges for decisions based on data. The following paper presents a solution which on the one hand simplifies targeted finding of planning data within KTBL’s data sets using a semantic search engine and on the other hand enables simple reuse and processing of these data by providing them using Linked Open Data principles.

  13. Reclamation and reuse of MWI slags under the aspect of ground water protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some importants aspects of ground water protection are discussed, with regard to MWI-slag reclamation and reuse as construction material. The effects of a treatment process on residual organic compounds of slag material have to be regarded as very positive. Directed chemical influencing of the hydratation process directly after incineration offers new perspectives for generating slag with potentially little and constant elution behaviour. The authors welcome the new, sharpened demands on reuse of MWI-slag in Northrhine-Westfalia. This challenge can be met by the proposed treatment procedure without problems. (orig.)

  14. CARDS: A blueprint and environment for domain-specific software reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallnau, Kurt C.; Solderitsch, Anne Costa; Smotherman, Catherine

    1992-01-01

    CARDS (Central Archive for Reusable Defense Software) exploits advances in domain analysis and domain modeling to identify, specify, develop, archive, retrieve, understand, and reuse domain-specific software components. An important element of CARDS is to provide visibility into the domain model artifacts produced by, and services provided by, commercial computer-aided software engineering (CASE) technology. The use of commercial CASE technology is important to provide rich, robust support for the varied roles involved in a reuse process. We refer to this kind of use of knowledge representation systems as supporting 'knowledge-based integration.'

  15. Influence of electrochemical pre-treatment in dyeing wastewater reuse for five reactive dyes

    OpenAIRE

    Riera Torres, Miquel Antoni; Gutiérrez Bouzán, María Carmen; Valldeperas Morell, José; Lis Arias, Manuel José; Crespi Rosell, Martin

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the influence of an electrochemical pre-treatment was evaluated in dyeing wastewater reuse for five reactive dyes for cotton fabrics. The most proper dyeing method was established and the influence of alkali was also studied. Wastewater was treated in an electrochemical cell at 20 Lh_1 and 40 mA/cm2 for between 3 and 15 minutes before being reused. During the electrochemical treatment the evolution of the dye degradation was evaluated by COD measurements. From the results, it c...

  16. Treatment of black liquor from the papermaking industry by acidification and reuse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Wen-bo; MU Huan-zhen; HUANG Yan-chu

    2003-01-01

    Two different kinds of black liquor from the papermaking industry were treated by acidification and reuse. The experimental parameters and conditions were discussed in detail. The experimental results indicated that the treatment process mentioned in this article is an effective process for the treatment of black liquor from the papermaking industry. By the treatment, the solid materials in black liquor are transferred into two by-products and the other components are reused or evaporated. Thus, no wastewater except some condensation water would be discharged in pulping process and the problem of pollution of black liquor would be effectively solved.

  17. Treatment of black liquor from the papermaking industry by acidification and reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Bo; Mu, Huan-Zhen; Huang, Yan-Chu

    2003-09-01

    Two different kinds of black liquor from the papermaking industry were treated by acidification and reuse. The experimental parameters and conditions were discussed in detail. The experimental results indicated that the treatment process mentioned in this article is an effective process for the treatment of black liquor from the papermaking industry. By the treatment, the solid materials in black liquor are transferred into two by-products and the other components are reused or evaporated. Thus, no wastewater except some condensation water would be discharged in pulping process and the problem of pollution of black liquor would be effectively solved. PMID:14562934

  18. ASTM STANDARD GUIDE FOR EVALUATING DISPOSAL OPTIONS FOR REUSE OF CONCRETE FROM NUCLEAR FACILITY DECOMMISSIONING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the nuclear industry, many contaminated facilities that require decommissioning contain huge volumes of concrete. This concrete is generally disposed of as low-level waste at a high cost. Much of the concrete is lightly contaminated and could be reused as roadbed, fill material, or aggregate for new concrete, thus saving millions of dollars. However, because of the possibility of volumetric contamination and the lack of a method to evaluate the risks and costs of reusing concrete, reuse is rarely considered. To address this problem, Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory teamed to write a ''concrete protocol'' to help evaluate the ramifications of reusing concrete within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This document, titled the Protocol for Development of Authorized Release Limits for Concrete at U.S. Department of Energy Site (1) is based on ANL-E's previously developed scrap metal recycle protocols; on the 10-step method outlined in DOE's draft handbook, Controlling Release for Reuse or Recycle of Property Containing Residual Radioactive Material (2); and on DOE Order 4500.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (3). The DOE concrete protocol was the basis for the ASTM Standard Guide for Evaluating Disposal Options for Concrete from Nuclear Facility Decommissioning, which was written to make the information available to a wider audience outside DOE. The resulting ASTM Standard Guide is a more concise version that can be used by the nuclear industry worldwide to evaluate the risks and costs of reusing concrete from nuclear facility decommissioning. The bulk of the ASTM Standard Guide focuses on evaluating the dose and cost for each disposal option. The user calculates these from the detailed formulas and tabulated data provided, then compares the dose and cost for each disposal option to select the best option that meets regulatory requirements. With this information

  19. The role of ecological infrastructure on beneficial arthropods in vineyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrijela Kuštera

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Weeds and non-cultivated plants have a great impact on abundance and diversity of beneficial arthropods in agriculture. The main aim of this work was to study the influence of the ecological infrastructure (meadows and weedy margins on the arthropod composition in vineyard surrounding landscape. Research was carried out from May to October during three years. Sampling took place in the ecological infrastructure of three differently managed vineyards (organic, integrated and extensive. Three zones were chosen in each vineyard (3 m, 10 m, and 30 m from the edge of the vineyard. Samples were taken using a standardised sweep net method. In total, we captured 6032 spiders and 1309 insects belonging to 4 orders and 10 families. Arthropod fauna was numerically dominated by Aranea (82.1%; among insects, Coleoptera was the most abundant taxonomic group (10.6%; Neuroptera showed the lowest value (0.88%. Significant differences were found between sites and zones. Organic vineyard showed the highest abundance of arthropods (92.41% were spiders and in the integrated vineyard there was a 23% of insects. Both the highest abundance of arthropods and the highest Shannon Index value (2.46 was found 3 m away from the edge of the vineyard. Results showed that spiders were the dominant arthropods and ladybugs the dominant insects. Weedy strips near the edge of the vineyard contained a high number of insects and spiders. Our results support the importance of weedy margins in enhancing the population of arthropods as well as in biodiversity promotion. Well-managed field margins could play important role in biological control of vineyard pests.

  20. The Beneficial Role of Retinoids in Glomerular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep eMallipattu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The primary etiology of CKD is a direct consequence of initial dysfunction and injury of the glomerulus, the main filtration system. Podocytes are terminally differentiated epithelial cells in the glomerulus, whose major function is the maintenance of this renal filtration barrier. Podocyte injury is implicated in many glomerular diseases including Focal Segmental Glomerular Sclerosis (FSGS and HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN. In many of these diseased conditions, the podocyte can either undergo dedifferentiation and proliferation, apoptosis, or cell detachment. Regardless of the initial type of injury, the podocyte ultimately loses its functional capacity to maintain the glomerular filtration barrier. Significant injury resulting in a loss of the podocytes and failure to maintain the renal filtration barrier contributes to progressive kidney disease. Consequently, therapies that prevent podocyte injury and promote their regeneration will have a major clinical impact on glomerular disease. Retinoic acid (RA, which is a derivative of vitamin A, has many cellular functions including induction of cell differentiation, regulation of apoptosis, and inhibition of inflammation and proliferation. RA is required for kidney development and is essential for cellular differentiation in the setting of podocyte injury. The mechanism by which RA directs its beneficial effects is multifactorial, ranging from its anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects to a direct effect of upregulating podocyte differentiation markers in the podocyte. The focus of this review is to provide an overview of RA in kidney development and glomerular disease. We also highlight the key mechanism(s by which RA restores podocyte differentiation markers and ameliorates glomerular disease.