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Sample records for beneficial hemodynamic effects

  1. Beneficial hemodynamic effects of nicorandil in a canine model of acute congestive heart failure: comparison with nitroglycerin and cromakalim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, K; Matsuzaki, T; Ojiri, Y; Koyama, T; Nakasone, J; Sakanashi, M

    1998-01-01

    Comparative hemodynamic effects of nicorandil (NCR), nitroglycerin (NTG) and cromakalim (CRM) were examined in a canine model of acute congestive heart failure (CHF). CHF was produced by injections of saponin into coronary arteries of anesthetized dogs followed by volume loading and continuous i.v. infusion of methoxamine. After the treatment, aortic blood flow (AoF), left ventricular dP/dt and myocardial segment shortening (SS) markedly decreased, while the left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), the right atrial pressure (RAP) and the systemic vascular resistance (SVR) increased. NCR (n = 6), NTG (n = 6) and CRM (n = 8), which were administered i.v. after production of CHF, caused a comparable reduction in LVEDP. NCR and CRM profoundly increased AoF and SS but NTG did only slightly. On the other hand, NTG and NCR but not CRM significantly reduced RAP. Intracoronary NCR (n = 8) exerted no or similar effects on SS as well as systemic hemodynamic indices to those observed with i.v. NCR despite distinct coronary vasodilation. These results indicate that NCR may exert beneficial hemodynamic effects in an experimental CHF mainly due to lessening both afterload and preload rather than the coronary vasodilating effect.

  2. Hemodynamic Effects of Glucagon - A Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meidahl Petersen, Kasper; Bøgevig, Søren; Holst, Jens Juul

    2018-01-01

    Context: Glucagon's effects on hemodynamic parameters - most notably heart rate and cardiac contractility - are overlooked. The glucagon receptor is a central target in novel and anticipated type 2 diabetes therapies and hemodynamic consequences of glucagon signaling have therefore become increas...

  3. [Effect of complex sanatorium treatment including magnetotherapy on hemodynamics in patients with arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremushkin, G G; Duruda, N V

    2003-01-01

    Forty nine patients with arterial hypertension of stage I-II received combined sanatorium treatment. Of them, 21 had adjuvant total magnetotherapy. All the patients were examined for parameters of central, cerebral hemodynamics and microcirculation. The adjuvant magnetotherapy produced a beneficial effect on hypertension: clinical symptoms attenuated, arterial pressure became more stable, hemodynamics improved, duration of hospitalization reduced, requirement in hypotensive drugs diminished.

  4. Acute dark chocolate ingestion is beneficial for hemodynamics via enhancement of erythrocyte deformability in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosinska, Jana; Horvathova, Martina; Frimmel, Karel; Muchova, Jana; Vidosovicova, Maria; Vazan, Rastislav; Bernatova, Iveta

    2017-03-01

    Erythrocyte deformability is an important property of erythrocytes that considerably affects blood flow and hemodynamics. The high content of polyphenols present in dark chocolate has been reported to play a protective role in functionality of erythrocytes. We hypothesized that chocolate might influence erythrocytes not only after repeated chronic intake, but also immediately after its ingestion. Thus, we determined the acute effect of dark chocolate and milk (with lower content of biologically active substances) chocolate intake on erythrocyte deformability. We also focused on selected factors that may affect erythrocyte deformability, specifically nitric oxide production in erythrocytes and total antioxidant capacity of plasma. We determined posttreatment changes in the mentioned parameters 2hours after consumption of chocolate compared with their levels before consumption of chocolate. In contrast to milk chocolate intake, the dark chocolate led to a significantly higher increase in erythrocyte deformability. Nitric oxide production in erythrocytes was not changed after dark chocolate intake, but significantly decreased after milk chocolate. The plasma total antioxidant capacity remained unaffected after ingestion of both chocolates. We conclude that our hypothesis was confirmed. Single ingestion of dark chocolate improved erythrocyte deformability despite unchanged nitric oxide production and antioxidant capacity of plasma. Increased deformability of erythrocytes may considerably improve rheological properties of blood and thus hemodynamics in humans, resulting in better tissue oxygenation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. HEMODYNAMIC EFFECTS OF XENON ANESTHESIA IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Bykov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed at hemodynamic effects of xenon on operative interventions in children. Patients and methods: the study involved 30 5-17-year-old children – 10 (33.3% girls and 20 (66.7% boys with ASA score 1-3 admitted for surgical treatment. The children underwent endotracheal anesthesia with xenon-oxygen mixture (Xe:O2 = 60-65:30% and fentanyl (2.5‑3.5  mcg/kg per hour for the following operations: appendectomy – 10 (33.3% patients, herniotomy – 8 (26.7% patients, Ivanissevich procedure – 6 (20.0% patients, plastic surgery of posttraumatic defects of skin and soft tissues – 4 (13.3% patients, abdominal adhesiotomy – 2 (6.7% patients. Central hemodynamics was studied echocardiographically (Philips HD 11, the Netherlands using the Teichholz technique along the cephalocaudal axis (parasternal access. Results: the anesthesia was notable for hemodynamic stability during the operation: as a result, a statistically significant (p < 0.05 increase in systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure by 10, 18 and 17%, respectively, was observed. Conclusion: the analysis demonstrated that xenon anesthesia improves lusitropic myocardial function statistically significantly increasing cardiac output by 12% by way of increasing stroke volume by 30%. 

  6. Pain and hemodynamic effects in aortofemoral angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyman, U.; Nilsson, P.; Westergren, A.

    1982-01-01

    Two new contrast media, iohexol (non-ionic monomer) and ioxaglate (monoacidic dimer), were compared with the non-ionic metrizamide during aortofemoral angiography in a single blind randomized trial in 2 groups of patients with 20 in each. The degree of heat and pain produced by iohexol and ioxaglate did not differ significantly from that produced by metrizamide, while subsequent injections of metrizoate caused significantly more heat and pain. The hemodynamic effects recorded in 10 patients in each group showed that iohexol and ioxaglate induced a decrease in vascular resistance, decrease in blood pressure and increase in heart rate not differing significantly from that induced by metrizamide. (Auth.)

  7. Effect of dialysate temperature on hemodynamic stability among hemodialysis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azar, Ahmad Taher

    2009-01-01

    Cooling the dialysate below 36.5 degree C is an important factor that contributes to hemody-namic stability in patients during hemodialysis (HD). In this study, the effect of dialysate tempe-rature on hemodynamic stability, patients' perception of dialysis discomfort and post dialysis fatigue were assessed in a group of patients on HD. A total of 50 patients, all of whom were on 3-times-perweek dialysis regimen, were studied. Patients were assessed during six dialysis sessions; in three sessions, the dialysate temperature was normal (37 degree C) and in three other sessions, the dialysate temperature was low (35 degree C). Specific scale questionnaires were used in each dialysis session, to evaluate the symptoms during the dialysis procedure as well as post-dialysis fatigue, and respective scores were noted. The results showed that usage of low dialysate temperature was associated with the following: higher post dialysis systolic blood pressure (P< 0.05) and lower post dialysis heart rate (P<0.01), with similar ultrafiltration rates, better intra-dialysis symptoms score and post-dialysis fatigue scores (P< 0.001, and P<0.001, respectively), shorter post-dialysis fatigue period (P<0.001) as well as higher urea removal (P< 00001) and Kt/V (P< 0.0001). Patients' perceptions were measured by a questionnaire, which showed that 76% of them felt more energetic after dialysis with cool dialysate and requested to be always dialyzed with cool dialysate. Low temperature dialysate is particularly beneficial for highly symptomatic patients, improves tolerance to dialysis in hypotensive patients and helps increase ultrafiltration while maintaining hemodynamic stability during and after dialysis. (author)

  8. [Prebiotics: concept, properties and beneficial effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corzo, N; Alonso, J L; Azpiroz, F; Calvo, M A; Cirici, M; Leis, R; Lombó, F; Mateos-Aparicio, I; Plou, F J; Ruas-Madiedo, P; Rúperez, P; Redondo-Cuenca, A; Sanz, M L; Clemente, A

    2015-02-07

    Prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients (oligosaccharides) that reach the colon and are used as substrate by microorganisms producing energy, metabolites and micronutrients used for the host; in addition they also stimulate the selective growth of certain beneficial species (mainly bifidobacteria and lactobacilli) in the intestinal microbiota. In this article, a multidisciplinary approach to understand the concept of prebiotic carbohydrates, their properties and beneficial effects in humans has been carried out. Definitions of prebiotics, reported by relevant international organizations and researchers, are described. A comprehensive description of accepted prebiotics having strong scientific evidence of their beneficial properties in humans (inulin-type fructans, FOS, GOS, lactulose and human milk oligosaccharides) is reported. Emerging prebiotics and those which are in the early stages of study have also included in this study. Taken into account that the chemical structure greatly influences carbohydrates prebiotic properties, the analytical techniques used for their analysis and characterization are discussed. In vitro and in vivo models used to evaluate the gastrointestinal digestion, absorption resistance and fermentability in the colon of prebiotics as well as major criteria to design robust intervention trials in humans are described. Finally, a comprehensive summary of the beneficial effects of prebiotics for health at systemic and intestinal levels is reported. The research effort on prebiotics has been intensive in last decades and has demonstrated that a multidisciplinary approach is necessary in order to claim their health benefits. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  9. Is there a specific hemodynamic effect in reflexology? A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jenny; Thomson, Patricia; Irvine, Kathleen; Leslie, Stephen J

    2013-04-01

    Reflexology claims that the feet are representative of the body and that massage to specific points of the feet increases blood supply to "mapped" organs in the body. This review provides the first systematic evaluation of existing reflexology randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to determine whether there is any evidence to suggest the existence of a reflexology treatment-related hemodynamic effect; to examine whether reflexology researchers used study designs that systematically controlled for nonspecific effects in order to isolate this specific component; and to highlight some of the methodological challenges that need to be overcome to demonstrate specific and beneficial hemodynamic effects. Fifty-two RCTs of reflexology published from 1990 to September 2011 were initially retrieved. Cardiorespiratory Department, Highland Heartbeat Centre, Raigmore Hospital, Inverness. Adult subjects. Studies using reflexology foot massage techniques as the intervention versus sham reflexology treatment, simple foot massage, conventional treatment, or no treatment as the control were then selected. OUTCOME MEASURES included any hemodynamic parameter potentially involved in the regulation of circulating blood volume and flow, including heart rate and systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure. Seven RCTs suggested that reflexology has an effect on selected cardiovascular parameters; however, five of these delivered the reflexology intervention as a whole complex treatment, with the data collector often delivering the intervention themselves. This systematic review found that although reflexology has been shown to have an effect on selected hemodynamic variables, the lack of methodological control for nonspecific general massage effects means that there is little convincing evidence at this time to suggest the existence of a specific treatment-related hemodynamic effect. Furthermore, the review found that few studies of reflexology controlled for nonspecific effects in order

  10. Beneficial effects of cytokine induced hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feingold, K R; Hardardóttir, I; Grunfeld, C

    1998-01-01

    lipoproteins binding toxic agents and neutralizing their harmful effects. Thus, cytokines induce marked changes in lipid metabolism that lead to hyperlipidemia which represents part of the innate immune response and may be beneficial to the host.

  11. [Beneficial effects of chocolate on cardiovascular health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Juaristi, M; González-Torres, L; Bravo, L; Vaquero, M P; Bastida, S; Sánchez-Muniz, F J

    2011-01-01

    Since ancient times, numerous health beneficial effects have been attributed to chocolate, closing up its consumption to a therapeutic use. The present study reviews some relevant studies about chocolate (and its bioactive compounds) on some cardiovascular risk factors and stresses the need of future studies. The consumption of cocoa/ chocolate (i) increases plasma antioxidant capacity, (ii) diminishes platelet function and inflammation, and (iii) decreases diastolic and systolic arterial pressures. Data currently available indicate that daily consumption of cocoa-rich chocolate (rich in polyphenols) may at least partially lower cardiovascular disease risk. Further studies are required in order to establish the bioavailability and mechanisms of action of bioactive compounds in chocolate. The study of the interaction of chocolate and its components with candidate genes will also supply necessary information regarding the individuals best suited to benefit from a potential cardiovascular disease treatment with chocolate.

  12. Beneficial effects of antioxidative lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisako Nakagawa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is caused by exposure to reactive oxygen intermediates. The oxidative damage of cell components such as proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids one of the important factors associated with diabetes mellitus, cancers and cardiovascular diseases. This occurs as a result of imbalance between the generations of oxygen derived radicals and the organism’s antioxidant potential. The amount of oxidative damage increases as an organism ages and is postulated to be a major causal factor of senescence. To date, many studies have focused on food sources, nutrients, and components that exert antioxidant activity in worms, flies, mice, and humans. Probiotics, live microorganisms that when administered in adequate amounts provide many beneficial effects on the human health, have been attracting growing interest for their health-promoting effects, and have often been administered in fermented milk products. In particular, lactic acid bacteria (LAB are known to conferre physiologic benefits. Many studies have indicated the antioxidative activity of LAB. Here we review that the effects of lactic acid bacteria to respond to oxidative stress, is connected to oxidative-stress related disease and aging.

  13. Hemodynamic effects of a novel pharmacologic stress agent, Higemine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X.L.; Liu, X.J.; Tao, Z.H.; Shi, R.F.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Higenamine (dl-demethylcodaurine) (HG), which was isolated from aconitum japonicum. This study was to evaluate the hemodynamic effects of HG in animal study. Methods: We compared the hemodynamic effects of HG (0.5-4μg/min/kg) with Dobutamine (Dob) (5-30μg/min/kg) in 6 dogs: heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), coronary blood flow (CBF), myocardial oxygen consumption (MOC) were measured. Tolerability and safety of HG (1-500μg/mg/min) were evaluated in 8 dogs. Results: Comparison of hemodynamic effects between Dob an HG was presented. SBP: systolic blood pressure; DP: diastolic blood pressure; P<0.01; P<0.05. Diastolic BP slightly decreased, but systolic BP did not change significantly during HG infusion. There was no significant ECG abnormalities and side effects during HG infusion. Conclusion: HG might be a safe and useful pharmacologic stress agent, especially for patients with severe hypertension

  14. Beneficial and adverse effects of chemopreventive agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Mu; Park, Kwang-Kyun

    2003-01-01

    The beneficial and adverse effects of some chemopreventive agents, such as Vitamins A, C, E, beta-carotene, indole-3-carbinol, capsaicin, garlic, and aloe are reviewed. Two large randomized trials with a lung cancer endpoint, the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene (ATBC) Prevention Study and the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET), suggested that antioxidants might be harmful in smokers. However, the results of the Linxian study and of the ATBC or the CARET studies were significantly different in this respect, and therefore, the relationship between antioxidant and carcinogenesis remains open to debate. Indole-3-carbinol has cancer promoting activities in the colon, thyroid, pancreas, and liver, whereas capsaicin alters the metabolism of chemical carcinogens and may promote carcinogenesis at high doses. Organosulfur compounds and selenium from garlic have no or a little enhancing effect on cancer promotion stage. Information upon chemopreventive mechanisms that inhibit carcinogenesis is imperfect, although the causes and natures of certain human cancers are known. Therefore, definitive preventive guidelines should be carefully offered for various types of tumors, which properly consider ethnic variations, and the efficacies and the safety of chemopreventive agents

  15. Beneficial and adverse effects of chemopreventive agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Mu; Park, Kwang-Kyun

    2003-03-01

    The beneficial and adverse effects of some chemopreventive agents, such as Vitamins A, C, E, beta-carotene, indole-3-carbinol, capsaicin, garlic, and aloe are reviewed. Two large randomized trials with a lung cancer endpoint, the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene (ATBC) Prevention Study and the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET), suggested that antioxidants might be harmful in smokers. However, the results of the Linxian study and of the ATBC or the CARET studies were significantly different in this respect, and therefore, the relationship between antioxidant and carcinogenesis remains open to debate. Indole-3-carbinol has cancer promoting activities in the colon, thyroid, pancreas, and liver, whereas capsaicin alters the metabolism of chemical carcinogens and may promote carcinogenesis at high doses. Organosulfur compounds and selenium from garlic have no or a little enhancing effect on cancer promotion stage. Information upon chemopreventive mechanisms that inhibit carcinogenesis is imperfect, although the causes and natures of certain human cancers are known. Therefore, definitive preventive guidelines should be carefully offered for various types of tumors, which properly consider ethnic variations, and the efficacies and the safety of chemopreventive agents.

  16. The beneficial effect of yoga in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Varun; Singh, Savita; Tandon, Om Prakash; Sharma, Suman Bala

    2005-12-01

    Twenty NIDDM subjects (mild to moderate diabetics) in the age group of 30-60 years were selected from the out patient clinic of G.T.B. hospital. They were on a 40 days yoga asana regime under the supervision of a yoga expert. 13 specific Yoga asanas Surya Namaskar, Trikonasana, Tadasana, Sukhasana, Padmasana, Bhastrika Pranayama, Pashimottanasana, Ardhmatsyendrasana, Pawanmuktasana, Bhujangasana, Vajrasana, Dhanurasana and Shavasana are beneficial for diabetes mellitus. Serum insulin, plasma fasting and one hour postprandial blood glucose levels and anthropometric parameters were measured before and after yoga asanas. The results indicate that there was significant decrease in fasting glucose levels from basal 208.3 +/- 20.0 to 171.7 +/- 19.5 mg/dl and one hour postprandial blood glucose levels decreased from 295.3 +/- 22.0 to 269.7 +/- 19.9 mg/dl. The exact mechanism as to how these postures and controlled breathing interact with somatoendocrine mechanism affecting insulin kinetics was worked out. A significant decrease in waist-hip ratio and changes in insulin levels were also observed, suggesting a positive effect of yoga asanas on glucose utilisation and fat redistribution in NIDDM. Yoga asanas may be used as an adjunct with diet and drugs in the management of Type 2 diabetes.

  17. Hemodynamic effects of sodium bicarbonate administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katheria, A C; Brown, M K; Hassan, K; Poeltler, D M; Patel, D A; Brown, V K; Sauberan, J B

    2017-05-01

    To describe the hemodynamic changes that occur with sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) administration in premature neonates. This retrospective study included premature neonates 23 to 31+6 weeks of gestational age who underwent continuous cardiac and cerebral monitoring as participants in prospective trials at our institution, and who received NaHCO 3 infused over 30 min in the first 24 h of life. Blood pressure (BP), heart rate, cardiac output (CO), SpO 2 and cerebral oximetry (StO 2 ) were captured every 2 s. A baseline was established for all continuous data and averaged over the 10 min before NaHCO 3 administration. Baseline was compared with measurements over 10 min epochs until 80 min after administration. Arterial blood gases before and within 1 h of administration were also compared. Significance was set at P<0.05. A total of 36 subjects received NaHCO 3 (1.3±0.3 mEq kg -1 ) in the first 24 h (14±8.5 h) of life. NaHCO 3 administration increased pH (7.23 vs 7.28, P<0.01) and decreased base deficit (-8.9 vs -6.8, P<0.01) and PaCO 2 (45 vs 43 mm Hg, P<0.05). There was a transient but significant (P<0.05) decrease in systemic BP coinciding with an increase in cerebral oxygenation without an increase in oxygen extraction. CO did not change. Early postnatal NaHCO 3 administration does not acutely improve CO but does cause transient fluctuations in cerebral and cardiovascular hemodynamics in extremely premature infants.

  18. Lower-limb hot-water immersion acutely induces beneficial hemodynamic and cardiovascular responses in peripheral arterial disease and healthy, elderly controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kate N; van Rij, André M; Lucas, Samuel J E; Cotter, James D

    2017-03-01

    Passive heat induces beneficial perfusion profiles, provides substantive cardiovascular strain, and reduces blood pressure, thereby holding potential for healthy and cardiovascular disease populations. The aim of this study was to assess acute responses to passive heat via lower-limb, hot-water immersion in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and healthy, elderly controls. Eleven patients with PAD (age 71 ± 6 yr, 7 male, 4 female) and 10 controls (age 72 ± 7 yr, 8 male, 2 female) underwent hot-water immersion (30-min waist-level immersion in 42.1 ± 0.6°C water). Before, during, and following immersion, brachial and popliteal artery diameter, blood flow, and shear stress were assessed using duplex ultrasound. Lower-limb perfusion was measured also using venous occlusion plethysmography and near-infrared spectroscopy. During immersion, shear rate increased ( P Lower-limb blood flow increased significantly in both groups, as measured from duplex ultrasound (>200%), plethysmography (>100%), and spectroscopy, while central and peripheral pulse-wave velocity decreased in both groups. Mean arterial blood pressure was reduced by 22 ± 9 mmHg (main effect P lower 3 h afterward. In PAD, popliteal shear profiles and claudication both compared favorably with those measured immediately following symptom-limited walking. A 30-min hot-water immersion is a practical means of delivering heat therapy to PAD patients and healthy, elderly individuals to induce appreciable systemic (chronotropic and blood pressure lowering) and hemodynamic (upper and lower-limb perfusion and shear rate increases) responses. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Is the antiproteinuric effect of dipyridamole hemodynamically mediated

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, P. E.; van der Meer, J.; van der Hem, G. K.; de Zeeuw, D.

    1988-01-01

    We studied the acute antiproteinuric and renal hemodynamic effect of dipyridamole 30–60 mg intravenously in 13 salt-depleted patients with the nephrotic syndrome of different etiology. Whereas mean arterial pressure did not change, a small fall in glomerular filtration rate with a concomitant fall

  20. Effects of an interatrial shunt on rest and exercise hemodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaye, David; Shah, Sanjiv J; Borlaug, Barry A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A treatment based on an interatrial shunt device has been proposed for counteracting elevated pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) in patients with heart failure and mildly reduced or preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). We tested the theoretical hemodynamic effects of this appro...

  1. Methylene Blue Is Effective to Reverse Refractory Hemodynamic Instability due to Dimethoate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Youssefi

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion:MB treatment was effective to reverse hypotension and restore hemodynamic instability caused by dimethoate poisoning. This index case may pave way to further investigation of MB therapy for OP-induced hemodynamic instabilities.

  2. Acute coronary hemodynamic effects of equihypotensive doses of nisoldipine and diltiazem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Suryapranata (Harry); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); A.L. Soward; J. Planellas; G. Vanhaleweyk; P.G. Hugenholtz (Paul)

    1985-01-01

    textabstractThe hemodynamic effects of nisoldipine and diltiazem were investigated in two groups of patients undergoing investigation for suspected coronary artery disease. Emphasis was placed on the coronary hemodynamic changes. Approximately equihypotensive doses of these two calcium channel

  3. Hemodynamic effects of microgravity and their ground-based simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobachik, V. I.; Abrosimov, S. V.; Zhidkov, V. V.; Endeka, D. K.

    Hemodynamic effects of simulated microgravity were investigated, in various experiments, using radioactive isotopes, in which 40 healthy men, aged 35 to 42 years, took part. Blood shifts were evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively. Simulation studies included bedrest, head-down tilt (-5° and -15°), and vertical water immersion, it was found that none of the methods could entirely simulate hemodynamic effects of microgravity. Subjective sensations varied in a wide range. They cannot be used to identify reliably the effects of real and simulated microgravity. Renal fluid excretion in real and simulated microgravity was different in terms of volume and time. The experiments yielded data about the general pattern of circulation with blood displaced to the upper body.

  4. Computational simulation of passive leg-raising effects on hemodynamics during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Ah; Park, Jiheum; Lee, Jung Chan; Shin, Sang Do; Kim, Hee Chan

    2017-03-01

    The passive leg-raising (PLR) maneuver has been used for patients with circulatory failure to improve hemodynamic responsiveness by increasing cardiac output, which should also be beneficial and may exert synergetic effects during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). However, the impact of the PLR maneuver on CPR remains unclear due to difficulties in monitoring cardiac output in real-time during CPR and a lack of clinical evidence. We developed a computational model that couples hemodynamic behavior during standard CPR and the PLR maneuver, and simulated the model by applying different angles of leg raising from 0° to 90° and compression rates from 80/min to 160/min. The simulation results showed that the PLR maneuver during CPR significantly improves cardiac output (CO), systemic perfusion pressure (SPP) and coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) by ∼40-65% particularly under the recommended range of compression rates between 100/min and 120/min with 45° of leg raise, compared to standard CPR. However, such effects start to wane with further leg lifts, indicating the existence of an optimal angle of leg raise for each person to achieve the best hemodynamic responses. We developed a CPR-PLR model and demonstrated the effects of PLR on hemodynamics by investigating changes in CO, SPP, and CPP under different compression rates and angles of leg raising. Our computational model will facilitate study of PLR effects during CPR and the development of an advanced model combined with circulatory disorders, which will be a valuable asset for further studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Beneficial effect of Curcumin in Letrozole induced polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sushma Reddy

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Curcumin showed beneficial effects in Letrozole induced PCOS in female Wistar rats. Its effect was comparable to that of Clomiphene citrate, most widely used treatment for ovulation induction in PCOS condition.

  6. Effective citizen advocacy of beneficial nuclear technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKibben, J. Malvyn; Wood, Susan

    2007-01-01

    In 1991, a small group of citizens from communities near the Savannah River Site (SRS) formed a pro-nuclear education and advocacy group, Citizens for Nuclear Technology Awareness (CNTA). Their purpose was to: (1) counter nuclear misinformation that dominated the nation's news outlets, (2) provide education on nuclear subjects to area citizens, students, elected officials, and (3) provide informed citizen support for potential new missions for SRS when needed. To effectively accomplish these objectives it is also essential to establish and maintain good relations with community leaders and reporters that cover energy and nuclear subjects. The organization has grown considerably since its inception and has expanded its sphere of influence. We believe that our experiences over these fifteen years are a good model for effectively communicating nuclear subjects with the public. This paper describes the structure, operation and some of the results of CNTA. (authors)

  7. Beneficial Effects of Environmental Gases: Health Prospective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, A.Z.; IBrahim, M.S.; Zakaria, Kh.M.

    2009-01-01

    Radioactive radon gas is widely considered to be a health hazard by environmental agencies in the United States and in Europe. Yet despite the warnings of these agencies, thousands of people annually expose themselves to radon for therapeutic purposes, in facilities ranging from rustic old mines, to upscale spas and clinics. The inert natural radioactive gas radon has been used since the beginning of the century in the treatment of rheumatic diseases. In many places in the world, radon is used for therapeutic purposes for various diseases. Radon inhalation is applied in a thermal gallery with atmospheric radon concentrations up to 100 kBq/m3, elevated temperature up to 41 EC , and humidity close to 100%, or in the form of radon baths where Rn is emanated from water with high natural Rn activity. Frequently, a combination of both treatment procedures is applied. Evidence from empirical experience and from clinical observational studies suggests that radon has analgesic, anti inflammatory and immune-stimulating effects. Ozone is one of nature's most powerful oxidants. It increases the effectiveness of the antioxidant enzyme system, which scavenge excess free radicals in the body. It is used in water purification and sewage treatment and is now being applied medically to treat many diseases from wounds and colitis to cancer, stroke and AIDS. According to the dosage and concentration range, medical ozone is a pharmaceutical agent that exerts specific properties and a well-defined range of efficacy. This paper describes the medical application of environmental gases: radon and ozone

  8. Pharmacological and other beneficial effects of anti- nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... Key words: Pharmacological, beneficial effects, anti-nutritional factors, plants. INTRODUCTION ...... Rankin SM, DeWhalley CV, Hoult S, Jessup W, Willins GM, Collard J, .... saponins from alfalfa on weeds and wheat. Bot. Bull ...

  9. Hemodynamic mechanisms underlying the incomplete tolerance to caffeine's pressor effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Noha H; Vincent, Andrea S; McKey, Barbara S; Whitsett, Thomas L; Lovallo, William R

    2005-06-01

    Blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular hemodynamics were assessed at baseline and after caffeine administration in a 4-week, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized, crossover trial of caffeine tolerance formation. Half of the subjects developed tolerance to the pressor effect of caffeine, whereas the other half continued to show increases in BP after caffeine ingestion (F = 16.7, p <0.0001). In the subjects who did not develop tolerance, peripheral resistance increased incrementally as the daily dose of caffeine increased (F = 2.8, p = 0.05).

  10. THE BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF SPORT ON ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Perrotta

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that exercise increases energy levels and mood state. At least 20 published studies, indicate a link between physical activity and signs of prosperity. There is much medical evidence showing the beneficial effects of exercise on cardiovascular disease, obesity and diabetes. Currently there is growing interest to see ifphysical activity can also improve symptoms of mental illness

  11. Pulsatile flow effects on the hemodynamics of intracranial aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Trung B; Borazjani, Iman; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2010-11-01

    High-resolution numerical simulations are carried out to systematically investigate the effect of the incoming flow waveform on the hemodynamics and wall shear stress patterns of an anatomic sidewall intracranial aneurysm model. Various wave forms are constructed by appropriately scaling a typical human waveform such that the waveform maximum and time-averaged Reynolds numbers, the Womersley number (α), and the pulsatility index (PI) are systematically varied within the human physiologic range. We show that the waveform PI is the key parameter that governs the vortex dynamics across the aneurysm neck and the flow patterns within the dome. At low PI, the flow in the dome is similar to a driven cavity flow and is characterized by a quasi-stationary shear layer that delineates the parent artery flow from the recirculating flow within the dome. At high PI, on the other hand, the flow is dominated by vortex ring formation, transport across the neck, and impingement and breakdown at the distal wall of the aneurysm dome. We further show that the spatial and temporal characteristics of the wall shear stress field on the aneurysm dome are strongly correlated with the vortex dynamics across the neck. We finally argue that the ratio between the characteristic time scale of transport by the mean flow across the neck and the time scale of vortex ring formation can be used to predict for a given sidewall aneurysm model the critical value of the waveform PI for which the hemodynamics will transition from the cavity mode to the vortex ring mode.

  12. Health effects of predatory beneficial mites and wasps in greenhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper; Enkegaard, Annie; Doekes, Gert

    A three-year study of 579 greenhouse workers in 31 firms investigated the effect of four different beneficial arthropods. It was shown that the thrips mite Amblyseeius cucumeris and the spider mite predator Phytoseiulus persimilis may cause allergy measured by blood tests as well as eye and nose...... symptoms. No effect was seen by the predator wasp Aphidius colemani nor the predator mite Hypoaspis miles and no effect on lung diseases were seen....

  13. Effects of adenosine infusion into renal interstitium on renal hemodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlowska, D.; Granger, J.P.; Knox, F.G.

    1987-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the hemodynamic effects of exogenous adenosine in the interstitium of the rat kidney. Adenosine or its analogues were infused into the renal interstitium by means of chronically implanted capsules. In fusion of adenosine decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) from 0.81 +/- 0.06 to 0.37 +/- 0.06 ml/min while having no effect on renal blood flow (RBF). The metabolically stable analogue, 2-chloradenosine (2-ClAdo), decreased GFR from 0.73 +/- 0.07 to 021 +/- 0.06 ml/min. Interstitial infusion of theophylline, an adenosine receptor antagonist, completely abolished the effects of adenosine and 2-ClAdo on GFR. The distribution of adenosine, when infused into the renal interstitium, was determined using radiolabeled 5'-(N-ethyl)-carboxamidoadenosine (NECA), a metabolically stable adenosine agonist. After continuous infusion, [ 3 H]NECA was distributed throughout the kidney. The effects of NECA to reduce GFR were similar to those of adenosine and 2-ClAdo. They conclude that increased levels of adenosine in the renal interstitium markedly decrease GFR without affecting RBF in steady-state conditions. The marked effects of adenosine agonists during their infusion into the renal interstitium and the complete blockade of these effects by theophylline suggest an extracellular action of adenosine

  14. Energy Drink Consumption: Beneficial and Adverse Health Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsunni, Ahmed Abdulrahman

    2015-10-01

    Consumption of energy drinks has been increasing dramatically in the last two decades, particularly amongst adolescents and young adults. Energy drinks are aggressively marketed with the claim that these products give an energy boost to improve physical and cognitive performance. However, studies supporting these claims are limited. In fact, several adverse health effects have been related to energy drink; this has raised the question of whether these beverages are safe. This review was carried out to identify and discuss the published articles that examined the beneficial and adverse health effects related to energy drink. It is concluded that although energy drink may have beneficial effects on physical performance, these products also have possible detrimental health consequences. Marketing of energy drinks should be limited or forbidden until independent research confirms their safety, particularly among adolescents.

  15. Adrenergic Metabolic and Hemodynamic Effects of Octopamine in the Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelar Bracht

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The fruit extracts of Citrus aurantium (bitter orange are traditionally used as weight-loss products and as appetite suppressants. A component of these extracts is octopamine, which is an adrenergic agent. Weight-loss and adrenergic actions are always related to metabolic changes and this work was designed to investigate a possible action of octopamine on liver metabolism. The isolated perfused rat liver was used to measure catabolic and anabolic pathways and hemodynamics. Octopamine increased glycogenolysis, glycolysis, oxygen uptake, gluconeogenesis and the portal perfusion pressure. Octopamine also accelerated the oxidation of exogenous fatty acids (octanoate and oleate, as revealed by the increase in 14CO2 production derived from 14C labeled precursors. The changes in glycogenolysis, oxygen uptake and perfusion pressure were almost completely abolished by α1-adrenergic antagonists. The same changes were partly sensitive to the β-adrenergic antagonist propranolol. It can be concluded that octopamine accelerates both catabolic and anabolic processes in the liver via adrenergic stimulation. Acceleration of oxygen uptake under substrate-free perfusion conditions also means acceleration of the oxidation of endogenous fatty acids, which are derived from lipolysis. All these effects are compatible with an overall stimulating effect of octopamine on metabolism, which is compatible with its reported weight-loss effects in experimental animals.

  16. Endovascular management of renal transplant dysfunction secondary to hemodynamic effects related to ipsilateral femoral arteriovenous graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsamendi, Jason; Pereira, Keith; Quintana, David; Bleicher, Drew; Tabbara, Marwan; Goldstein, Michael; Narayanan, Govindarajan

    2016-01-01

    Hemodialysis access options become complex in long-term treatment for patients with renal disease, while awaiting renal transplantation (RT). Once upper extremity sites are exhausted, lower extremities are used. RT is preferably in the contralateral iliac fossa, rarely ipsilateral. In current literature, RT dysfunction secondary to the hemodynamic effects of an ipsilateral femoral arteriovenous graft (AVG) has been rarely described. To our knowledge, AVG ligation is the only published technique for hemodynamic correction of an ipsilateral AVG. We present a simple, potentially reversible endovascular approach to manage the hemodynamic effects of an AVG, without potentially permanently losing future AVG access. PMID:26899147

  17. Effect of Aspirin Supplementation on Hemodynamics in Older Firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane-Cordova, Abbi D; Ranadive, Sushant M; Yan, Huimin; Kappus, Rebecca M; Sun, Peng; Bunsawat, Kanokwan; Smith, Denise L; Horn, Gavin P; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Fernhall, B O

    2015-12-01

    Cardiovascular events are the leading cause of line-of-duty fatality for firefighters. Aspirin reduces the risk of cardiovascular events in men and may reduce fatalities in older (>40 yr) firefighters. We hypothesized that both chronic and acute aspirin supplementation would improve vascular function after live firefighting but that chronic supplementation would also improve resting hemodynamics. Twenty-four firefighters (40-60 yr) were randomly assigned to acute or chronic aspirin supplementation or placebo in a balanced, crossover design. Arterial stiffness, brachial and central blood pressures, as well as forearm vasodilatory capacity and blood flow were measured at rest and immediately after live firefighting. Total hyperemic blood flow (area under the curve (AUC)) was increased (P 0.05 for interaction). Arterial stiffness/central blood pressure increased (P < 0.04) with no effect of aspirin (from 0.0811 ± 0.001 to 0.0844 ± 0.003 m·s·mm⁻¹ Hg⁻¹ in aspirin condition versus 0.0802 ± 0.002 to 0.0858 ± 0.002 m·s⁻¹·mm Hg⁻¹ in placebo condition), whereas peripheral and central systolic and pulse pressures decreased after firefighting across conditions (P < 0.05). Live firefighting resulted in increased AUC and pressure-controlled arterial stiffness and decreased blood pressure in older firefighters, but aspirin supplementation did not affect macro- or microvascular responsiveness at rest or after firefighting.

  18. Prevalence and hemodynamic effects of leaning during CPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, Dana E.; Sutton, Robert M.; Nadkarni, Vinay M.; Glatz, Andrew; Zuercher, Mathias; Maltese, Matthew R.; Eilevstjønn, Joar; Abella, Benjamin S.; Becker, Lance B.; Berg, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) guidelines recommend complete release between chest compressions (CC). Objective Evaluate the hemodynamic effects of leaning (incomplete chest wall release) during CPR and the prevalence of leaning during CPR. Results In piglet ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrests, 10% and 20% (1.8 kg and 3.6 kg, respectively), leaning during CPR increased right atrial pressures, decreased coronary perfusion pressures, and decreased cardiac index and left ventricular myocardial blood flow by nearly 50%. In contrast, residual leaning of a 260 g accelerometer/ force feedback device did not adversely affect cardiac index or myocardial blood flow. Among 108 adult in-hospital CPR events, leaning ≥2.5 kg was demonstrable in 91% of the events and 12% of the evaluated CC. For 12 children with in-hospital CPR, 28% of CC had residual leaning ≥2.5 kg and 89% had residual leaning ≥0.5 kg. Conclusions Leaning during CPR increases intrathoracic pressure, decreases coronary perfusion pressure, and decreases cardiac output and myocardial blood flow. Leaning is common during CPR. PMID:22208173

  19. Experts' opinion on management of hemodynamics in ARDS patients: focus on the effects of mechanical ventilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vieillard-Baron, A.; Matthay, M.; Teboul, J. L.; Bein, T.; Schultz, M.; Magder, S.; Marini, J. J.

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is frequently associated with hemodynamic instability which appears as the main factor associated with mortality. Shock is driven by pulmonary hypertension, deleterious effects of mechanical ventilation (MV) on right ventricular (RV) function, and

  20. Non-hemodynamic effects of organic nitrates and the distinctive characteristics of pentaerithrityl tetranitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Tommaso; Daiber, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Organic nitrates are among the oldest and yet most commonly employed drugs in the long-term therapy of coronary artery disease and congestive heart failure. While they have long been used in clinical practice, our understanding of their mechanism of action and side effects remains incomplete. For instance, recent findings provide evidence of previously unanticipated, non-hemodynamic properties that include potentially beneficial mechanisms (such as the induction of a protective phenotype that mimics ischemic preconditioning), but also toxic effects (such as endothelial and autonomic dysfunction, rebound angina, tolerance). To date, the most commonly employed organic nitrates are isosorbide mononitrate, isosorbide dinitrate, and nitroglycerin (glyceryl trinitrate). Another organic nitrate, pentaerithrityl tetranitrate (PETN), has long been employed in eastern European countries and is currently being reintroduced in Western countries. In light of their wide use, and of the (re)introduction of PETN in Western markets, the present review focuses on the novel effects of organic nitrates, describing their potential clinical implications and discussing differences among different compounds. We believe that these recent findings have important clinical implications. Since the side effects of organic nitrates such as nitroglycerin and isosorbides appear to be mediated by reactive oxygen species, care should be taken that drugs with antioxidant properties are co-administered. On the other hand, efforts should be made to clinically exploit the preconditioning effects of these drugs.

  1. A review of the hemodynamic effects of external leg and lower body compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmi, M; Gommers, D; Groeneveld, A B J

    2014-03-01

    External leg and lower body compression (ELC) has been used for decades in the prevention of deep vein thrombosis and the treatment of leg ischemia. Because of systemic effects, the methods have regained interest in anesthesia, surgery and critical care. This review intends to summarize hemodynamic effects and their mechanisms. Compilation of relevant literature published in English as full paper and retrieved from Medline. By compressing veins, venous stasis is diminished and venous return and arterial blood flow are increased. ELC has been suggested to improve systemic hemodynamics, in different clinical settings, such as postural hypotension, anesthesia, surgery, shock, cardiopulmonary resuscitation and mechanical ventilation. However, the hemodynamic alterations depend upon the magnitude, extent, cycle, duration and thus the modality of ELC, when applied in a static or intermittent fashion (by pneumatic inflation), respectively. ELC may help future research and optimizing treatment of hemodynamically unstable, surgical or critically ill patients, independent of plasma volume expansion.

  2. Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Beneficial Effects of Flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhlaghi, Masoumeh

    2016-10-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been known as the hepatic feature of metabolic syndrome. Extra fat depots, especially in visceral areas, develop insulin resistance as a result of mild oxidation and inflammation. Insulin resistance induces lipolysis and releases free fatty acids into the circulation, where they are transported to the liver. In the liver, free fatty acids are converted to triglycerides and accumulate, causing simple steatosis that, if left untreated, can lead to steatohepatitis, and subsequently liver necrosis and cirrhosis.Flavonoids, a group of plant compounds with incredible biological characteristics, have shown advantages in pathological conditions. Beneficial effects of flavonoids against NAFLD and its related disorders have been observed in both animal and human studies. Various mechanisms have been found for their protection. Flavonoids prevent hepatosteatosis by increasing fatty acid oxidation in the liver. They can also reduce caloric intake and decrease body weight and fat deposition in visceral tissues. Flavonoids are unique antioxidants that exert their beneficial effects through inhibition of nuclear factor κB, thereby attenuating release of inflammatory cytokines, which are triggers of insulin resistance. Finally, flavonoids have shown to increase adiponectin, improve insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, correct dyslipidemia, and reduce blood pressure in patients with NAFLD. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Beneficial effects of minocycline on cuprizone induced cortical demyelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skripuletz, Thomas; Miller, Elvira; Moharregh-Khiabani, Darius; Blank, Alexander; Pul, Refik; Gudi, Viktoria; Trebst, Corinna; Stangel, Martin

    2010-09-01

    In this study, we investigated the potential of minocycline to influence cuprizone induced demyelination in the grey and white matter. To induce demyelination C57BL/6 mice were fed with cuprizone for up to 6 weeks and were analysed at different timepoints (week 0, 4, 5, 6). Mice treated with minocycline had less demyelination of the cortex and corpus callosum compared with sham treated animals. In the cortex decreased numbers of activated and proliferating microglia were found after 6 weeks of cuprizone feeding, while there were no significant effects for microglial infiltration of the corpus callosum. In addition to the beneficial effects on demyelination, minocycline prevented from motor coordination disturbance as shown in the beam walking test. For astrogliosis and the numbers of OPC and oligodendrocytes no treatment effects were found. In summary, minocycline treatment diminished the course of demyelination in the grey and white matter and prevented disturbances in motor coordination.

  4. Resolving the controversy over beneficial effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuttler, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    In spite of the extensive research carried out during the past century, intense controversy continues over the health effects of low-level radiation. This controversy is largely due to political, social and economic issues among scientists and analysts in a variety of disciplines. These issues cloud objectivity and strengthen paradigms. Over the past ten years, in 14 universities and two research institutes, Japanese scientists have conducted exceptional research which clearly demonstrates beneficial effects of low-level radiation and cancer cures following therapy with low doses of radiation. Assessment, replication and extension of this work in North America could lead to greater appreciation of its significance. Cancer patients would demand such treatments, leading to universal acceptance of these bio-positive effects and reducing public fear of nuclear technology. (author)

  5. Beneficial Effects of Green Tea Catechins on Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monira Pervin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Tea is one of the most consumed beverages in the world. Green tea, black tea, and oolong tea are made from the same plant Camellia sinensis (L. O. Kuntze. Among them, green tea has been the most extensively studied for beneficial effects on diseases including cancer, obesity, diabetes, and inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. Several human observational and intervention studies have found beneficial effects of tea consumption on neurodegenerative impairment, such as cognitive dysfunction and memory loss. These studies supported the basis of tea’s preventive effects of Parkinson’s disease, but few studies have revealed such effects on Alzheimer’s disease. In contrast, several human studies have not reported these favorable effects with regard to tea. This discrepancy may be due to incomplete adjustment of confounding factors, including the method of quantifying consumption, beverage temperature, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and differences in genetic and environmental factors, such as race, sex, age, and lifestyle. Thus, more rigorous human studies are required to understand the neuroprotective effect of tea. A number of laboratory experiments demonstrated the benefits of green tea and green tea catechins (GTCs, such as epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, and proposed action mechanisms. The targets of GTCs include the abnormal accumulation of fibrous proteins, such as Aβ and α-synuclein, inflammation, elevated expression of pro-apoptotic proteins, and oxidative stress, which are associated with neuronal cell dysfunction and death in the cerebral cortex. Computational molecular docking analysis revealed how EGCG can prevent the accumulation of fibrous proteins. These findings suggest that GTCs have the potential to be used in the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and could be useful for the development of new drugs.

  6. Comparison of the hemodynamic effects of etomidate between hypertensive and normotensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayrettin Daşkaya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Comparison of the hemodynamic effect of ethomidate induction in normotensive and hypertensive patients. Methods: Forty ASA 1-2 patients were included. After informed consent were obtained, patients were divided into two group; Group H: Hypertensive patients, Group N: Normotensive patients. Fentanile and midazolam were administrated for premedication. Anesthesia induction was performed by etomidate 0.3 mg/kg and rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg. Arterial pressures and heart rates were measured at certain intervals: control, pre-intubation and 1, 3 and 5 min post-intubation. Myoclonic movements and hemodynamic parameters were noted by an anesthetist who was masked to the groups. Results: Hemodynamic parameters were higher in hypertensive patients but were in clinically tolerable limits. Conclusion: No hemodynamic instability was observed in anesthesia induction with ethomidate in neither hypertensive nor normotensive patients. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (2: 164-168

  7. Acute effects of power and resistance exercises on hemodynamic measurements of older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coelho-Júnior HJ

    2017-07-01

    demonstrated post-exercise hypotension during 35 minutes in the PT when compared to rest period (P=0.001. In turn, RT showed decreased heart rate and double product (P<0.001 during the whole evaluation period after exercise completion compared with the rest period. NO levels increased in the PT and RT during the whole evaluation period in relation to rest period. However, there were no differences between PT, RT, and CS regarding hemodynamic and NO evaluations. Conclusion: Data indicate that an acute session of power and resistance exercise can be effective to cause beneficial changes on hemodynamic parameters and NO levels in older women. Keywords: post-exercise hypotension, resistance training, power training, nitric oxide, older people

  8. Beneficial Effects of Corn Silk on Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Xiao, Tiegang; Ruan, Jun; Liu, Wensheng

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a very common medical problem worldwide. It includes obesity, hypertension, hyperglycemia, and abnormal levels of triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. It is closely associated with insulin resistance and may lead to diabetes mellitus, liver diseases, or cardiovascular diseases. Corn silk (CS), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been reported to have multiple beneficial effects, including hypotensive, anti-diabetic, and hypolipidemic properties. This suggests that corn silk could be used to treat or prevent metabolic syndrome. In this review, we will discuss the potential role of corn silk in different components of metabolic syndrome. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. 4-Phenylbutyric Acid Reveals Good Beneficial Effects on Vital Organ Function via Anti-Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Septic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liangming; Wu, Huiling; Zang, JiaTao; Yang, Guangming; Zhu, Yu; Wu, Yue; Chen, Xiangyun; Lan, Dan; Li, Tao

    2016-08-01

    Sepsis and septic shock are the common complications in ICUs. Vital organ function disorder contributes a critical role in high mortality after severe sepsis or septic shock, in which endoplasmic reticulum stress plays an important role. Whether anti-endoplasmic reticulum stress with 4-phenylbutyric acid is beneficial to sepsis and the underlying mechanisms are not known. Laboratory investigation. State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burns and Combined Injury. Sprague-Dawley rats. Using cecal ligation and puncture-induced septic shock rats, lipopolysaccharide-treated vascular smooth muscle cells, and cardiomyocytes, effects of 4-phenylbutyric acid on vital organ function and the relationship with endoplasmic reticulum stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated inflammation, apoptosis, and oxidative stress were observed. Conventional treatment, including fluid resuscitation, vasopressin, and antibiotic, only slightly improved the hemodynamic variable, such as mean arterial blood pressure and cardiac output, and slightly improved the vital organ function and the animal survival of septic shock rats. Supplementation of 4-phenylbutyric acid (5 mg/kg; anti-endoplasmic reticulum stress), especially administered at early stage, significantly improved the hemodynamic variables, vital organ function, such as liver, renal, and intestinal barrier function, and animal survival in septic shock rats. 4-Phenylbutyric acid application inhibited the endoplasmic reticulum stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress-related proteins, such as CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein in vital organs, such as heart and superior mesenteric artery after severe sepsis. Further studies showed that 4-phenylbutyric acid inhibited endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated cytokine release, apoptosis, and oxidative stress via inhibition of nuclear factor-κB, caspase-3 and caspase-9, and increasing glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase expression, respectively. Anti

  10. BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF LEVOTHYROXINE IN THE TREATMENT OF SUBCLINICAL HYPOTHYROIDISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulic Mersudin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Increased cardiovascular risk in thyroid dysfunction is associated with disorders of lipid and lipoproteins, endothelial dysfunction, metabolic, hormonal, hemodynamic changes and coagulation disorders. Subclinical hypothyroidism is characterized by a suprarnormal level of TSH with normal levels of thyroid hormones. The correlation between subclinical hypothyroidism of the lipid profile and cardiovascular outcomes remains unclear. Several intervention studies assessed the effect of levothyroxine therapy on the lipid profile of patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and obtained conflicting results. The aim of the research is to determine whether subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with the atherogenic lipid profile and whether these changes are reversible after the introduction of the L-thyroxine replacement therapy. Method: The study included 51 patients over 50 years of age with subclinical hypothyroidism. All the participants were subjected to an examination programme which included a detailed anamnesis and physical examination, laboratory tests (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, T3, T4, TSH. After eight weeks of levothyroxine therapy, the same laboratory parameters were determined in the patients. Results: Subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism had high average values: TSH (12.77 + 2.78 mIU / ml, total cholesterol (7.55 ± 0.79 mmol / l, LDL cholesterol (5.03 ± 0.61 mmol / l, triglycerides (2.48 ± 1.01 mmol / l; and the average value of HDL cholesterol was within reference values (1.12 ± 0.21 mmol / l. After eight weeks of levothyroxine replacement therapy, there was a statistically significant reduction of average values (p <0.0001: TSH (3.83 ± 1.33 mIU / ml, total cholesterol (6.28 ± 0.96 mmol / l, LDL cholesterol ( 4.03 ± 0.70 mmol / mmol / l l, triglycerides (1.98 ± 0.87 mmol / l; and the average value of HDL cholesterol increased significantly (p <0.0001 (1.32 ± 0.22 mmol

  11. Effects of Dietary Nitrates on Systemic and Cerebrovascular Hemodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon Bond

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral blood flow dysregulation is often associated with hypertension. We hypothesized that a beetroot juice (BRJ treatment could decrease blood pressure and cerebrovascular resistance (CVR. We subjected 12 healthy females to control and BRJ treatments. Cerebrovascular resistance index (CVRI, systolic blood pressure (SBP, total vascular resistance (TVR, and the heart rate-systolic pressure product (RPP measured at rest and at two exercise workloads were lower after the BRJ treatment. CVRI, SBP, and RPP were lower without a lower TVR at the highest exercise level. These findings suggest improved systemic and cerebral hemodynamics that could translate into a dietary treatment for hypertension.

  12. Multifarious Beneficial Effect of Nonessential Amino Acid, Glycine: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meerza Abdul Razak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycine is most important and simple, nonessential amino acid in humans, animals, and many mammals. Generally, glycine is synthesized from choline, serine, hydroxyproline, and threonine through interorgan metabolism in which kidneys and liver are the primarily involved. Generally in common feeding conditions, glycine is not sufficiently synthesized in humans, animals, and birds. Glycine acts as precursor for several key metabolites of low molecular weight such as creatine, glutathione, haem, purines, and porphyrins. Glycine is very effective in improving the health and supports the growth and well-being of humans and animals. There are overwhelming reports supporting the role of supplementary glycine in prevention of many diseases and disorders including cancer. Dietary supplementation of proper dose of glycine is effectual in treating metabolic disorders in patients with cardiovascular diseases, several inflammatory diseases, obesity, cancers, and diabetes. Glycine also has the property to enhance the quality of sleep and neurological functions. In this review we will focus on the metabolism of glycine in humans and animals and the recent findings and advances about the beneficial effects and protection of glycine in different disease states.

  13. The Effect of Hemodynamics on Cerebral Aneurysm Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Ralph; Mantha, Aishwarya; Karmonik, Christof; Strother, Charles

    2004-11-01

    One of the difficulties in applying principles of hemodynamics to the study of blood flow in aneurysms are the drastic variations in possible shape of both the aneurysms and the parent arteries in the region of interest. We have taken data from three para-opthalmic internal carotid artery aneurysms using 3D-digital subtraction angiography (3D-DSA) and performed CFD simulations of steady and unsteady flows through the three different cases using the same pressure gradients and pulsatile flow waveforms (based on the Ku model for flow through the Carotid bifurcation). We have found that the total pressure differential within the aneurysms is consistent with the direction of flow, and that the dynamic pressure gradient within the aneurysm is very small compared with the static pressure variations. Wall shear stresses were highest near regions of sharp arterial curvature, but always remained low inside the aneurysm. These results suggest a more complex role for hemodynamics in aneurysm generation, growth and rupture.

  14. THE BENEFICIAL EFFECT OF BILINGUALISM IN VISUAL MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliva Rosdiana

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Bilingualism is a phenomenon that affects people throughout the world. People use bilingualism in particular situations in society such as in education, job, mass media, etc. People who speak bilingualism means that they get second language learning. Radio, televison, and YouTube are important vehicles of mass communication. Mass communication differs from the studies of other forms of communication, such as interpersonal communication, in that it focuses on a single source transmitting information to a large group of receivers. The study of bilingualism in visual media is chiefly concerned with how the content of visual media persuades or otherwise affects either behavior, attitude, opinion, or emotion of the person or people receiving the information. The beneficial effect is the development of bilingualism. Watching video affects children‘s acquisition of their native language and hasten language shift to the majority language. By watching the video, it also enrich our knowledge to particular vocabularies based on particular topics. The Internet makes it possible to have conversations across countries and continents. Individuals have multiple identities and belong to other speakers of their heritage language. So, the linguistic competence will develop as a by-product of the interest. In addition, it brings people closer.

  15. Hemodynamic Effect of Laser Therapy in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomimura, Suely, E-mail: suelytomimura@uol.com.br [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biofotônica em Ciências da Saúde da Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE) (Brazil); Silva, Bianca Passos Assumpção [Programa de Graduação e Pós-Graduação em Medicina da UNINOVE (Brazil); Sanches, Iris Callado [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional da UNINOVE (Brazil); Canal, Marina [Programa de Graduação e Pós-Graduação em Medicina da UNINOVE (Brazil); Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda [Programa de Graduação e Pós-Graduação em Medicina da UNINOVE (Brazil); Unidade de Hipertensão e Central Médica de Laser do Instituto do Coração - Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (InCor/HC-FMUSP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Conti, Felipe Fernandes; Angelis, Katia De [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional da UNINOVE (Brazil); Chavantes, Maria Cristina [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biofotônica em Ciências da Saúde da Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE) (Brazil); Programa de Graduação e Pós-Graduação em Medicina da UNINOVE (Brazil); Unidade de Hipertensão e Central Médica de Laser do Instituto do Coração - Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (InCor/HC-FMUSP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) is considered to be the greatest risk factor for the development of neuro-cardiovascular pathologies, thus constituting a severe Public Health issue in the world. The Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT), or laser therapy, activates components of the cellular structure, therefore converting luminous energy into photochemical energy and leading to biophysical and biochemical reactions in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The LLLT promotes cellular and tissue photobiomodulation by means of changes in metabolism, leading to molecular, cellular and systemic changes. The objective of this study was to analyze the action of low-level laser in the hemodynamic modulation of spontaneously hypertensive rats, in the long term. Animals (n = 16) were randomly divided into the Laser Group (n = 8), which received three weekly LLLT irradiations for seven weeks, and into the Sham Group (n = 8), which received three weekly simulations of laser for seven weeks, accounting for 21 applications in each group. After seven weeks, animals were cannulated by the implantation of a catheter in the left carotid artery. On the following day, the systemic arterial pressure was recorded. The Laser Group showed reduced levels of mean blood pressure, with statistically significant reduction (169 ± 4 mmHg* vs. 182 ± 4 mmHg from the Sham Group) and reduced levels of diastolic pressure (143 ± 4 mmHg* vs. 157 ± 3 mmHg from the Sham Group), revealing a 13 and 14 mmHg decrease, respectively. Besides, there was a concomitant important decline in heart rate (312 ± 14 bpm vs. 361 ± 13 bpm from the Sham Group). Therefore, laser therapy was able to produce hemodynamic changes, thus reducing pressure levels in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

  16. Hemodynamic Effect of Laser Therapy in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suely Tomimura

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Systemic arterial hypertension (SAH is considered to be the greatest risk factor for the development of neuro-cardiovascular pathologies, thus constituting a severe Public Health issue in the world. The Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT, or laser therapy, activates components of the cellular structure, therefore converting luminous energy into photochemical energy and leading to biophysical and biochemical reactions in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The LLLT promotes cellular and tissue photobiomodulation by means of changes in metabolism, leading to molecular, cellular and systemic changes. The objective of this study was to analyze the action of low-level laser in the hemodynamic modulation of spontaneously hypertensive rats, in the long term. Animals (n = 16 were randomly divided into the Laser Group (n = 8, which received three weekly LLLT irradiations for seven weeks, and into the Sham Group (n = 8, which received three weekly simulations of laser for seven weeks, accounting for 21 applications in each group. After seven weeks, animals were cannulated by the implantation of a catheter in the left carotid artery. On the following day, the systemic arterial pressure was recorded. The Laser Group showed reduced levels of mean blood pressure, with statistically significant reduction (169 ± 4 mmHg* vs. 182 ± 4 mmHg from the Sham Group and reduced levels of diastolic pressure (143 ± 4 mmHg* vs. 157 ± 3 mmHg from the Sham Group, revealing a 13 and 14 mmHg decrease, respectively. Besides, there was a concomitant important decline in heart rate (312 ± 14 bpm vs. 361 ± 13 bpm from the Sham Group. Therefore, laser therapy was able to produce hemodynamic changes, thus reducing pressure levels in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

  17. Ultrasound investigation central hemodynamics as a method of assessment effective analgesia in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Y. Dmytriieva

    2016-06-01

    Vinnitsa National Medical University M.I. Pirogov   Summary: The study was include in 23 children (12,4±1,2 years operated on for tumors of the retroperitoneal space (14 children, 61%, renal tumors (6 children, 26%, ovarian cancer (3 children, 13% showed that a comprehensive study of the reactions of pain behavior and central hemodynamics by ultrasonography showed that the use of the scheme KSME bupivacaine 0.3-0.4 mg / kg and a continuous infusion of drugs (fentanyl in a dose of 10 mcg/kg/h for postoperative pain relief leads to effective analgesia after traumatic operations and comprehensive ultrasound including color and spectral Doppler studies, is the main tool by enabling timely and accurately assess the condition of the central hemodynamics at different methods of analgesia.   Key words: central hemodynamics, ultrasound, anesthesia.

  18. Hemodynamic characterization of chronic bile duct-ligated rats: effect of pentobarbital sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.S.; Girod, C.; Braillon, A.; Hadengue, A.; Lebrec, D.

    1986-01-01

    Systemic and splanchnic hemodynamics of the chronic bile duct-ligated rat were characterized by radioactive microspheres. Conscious and pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized, bile duct-ligated and sham-operated rats had cardiac output and regional organ blood flows determined. The conscious bile duct-ligated rat compared with the sham-operated showed a hyperdynamic circulation with an increased cardiac output and portal tributary blood flow. Pentobarbital sodium anesthesia induced marked hemodynamic changes in both sham-operated and bile duct-ligated rats. The latter group was especially sensitive to its effects; thus, comparison of cardiac output and portal tributary blood flow between anesthetized bile duct-ligated and sham-operated rats showed no significant differences. The authors conclude that the rat with cirrhosis due to chronic bile duct ligation is an excellent model for hemodynamic investigations but should be studied in the conscious state, since pentobarbital sodium anesthesia eliminated the hyperdynamic circulation

  19. BENEFICIAL EFFECT OF KETO AMINO ACIDS FOR DIALYSIS PATIENTS

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    Vladimir Teplan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional status is an important predictor of clinical outcome in dialysed patients. Beside decreased serum protein/albumin,lower BMI with decreased muscle mass is the most significant predictor of morbidity and mortality. Keto amino acids (KA represent an additional source for protein anabolism influencing indirectly also carbohydrate and lipid metabolism,Ca-P and acid base balance.Additionaly,by concominant metabolic and hemodynamic effect on residual nefrons, KA can help to slow progression of residual renal function (RRF mainly in peritoneal dialysis patients. We conducted a long-term prospective randomized placebo controlled trial to test whether a modified low-protein diet (LPD with or without keto acids (KA would be safe ,well tolerated and associated with an increase of metabolic status and preservation of RRF in peritoneal dialysis (PD. We evaluated a total of 62 PD patients (32M/30F aged 26-72 yrs with creatinine clearance (Ccr 7.9-5.7 mL/min/1.73m2 for a period of 12 months. All patients were on modified LPD containing 0.8 protein/kg/IBW/day and 135/kJ/kg/IBW/day. LPD was randomly supplemented with KA at dosage of 100 mg/kg/IBW/day (30 patients, Group I while 30 patients (Group II received placebo. We analysed also muscle and fat metabolism by MR spectroscopy (MRS, m.tibialis anterior and imagining (MRI,visceral fat.Patients from Group I were before enrolment on conservative management using LPD + KA (0.6g P + 0.1g KA/kg/IBW/day for longer time (18-48 months, median 28 with good compliance (SGA. Patients from group II were never treated with LPD and KA.All patients were monitored at the beginning of PD and at every 3 months for 12 months.;A neutral or positive long- term nitrogen balance (nPCR in g/kg IBW/day was achieved in Group I (p<0.05 .RRF measured as Ccr remained stable in Group I (6.5 ± 2.18 to 5.9 ± 2.54 ml/min, p=NS,while it decreased in Group II (6.7 ± 2.22 to 3.2 ± 1.44 ml/min, p<0.02.There were no differences in

  20. Comparison of hemodynamic effects of lidocaine, prilocaine and mepivacaine solutions without vasoconstrictor in hypertensive patients

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    Bahadir Ezmek

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Local anesthetic solutions with vasoconstrictors are not contraindicated in hypertensive patients, but due to their hemodynamic effects, local anesthetics without vasoconstrictors are mainly preferred by the clinicians. The aim of this study was to compare hemodynamic effects of three different local anesthetics without vasoconstrictors during tooth extraction in hypertensive patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty-five mandibular molars and premolars were extracted in 60 hypertensive patients (29 females and 31 males; mean age: 66.95 ± 10.87 years; range: 38 to 86 years old. Inferior alveolar and buccal nerve blocks were performed with 2% lidocaine hydrochloride (HCl, 2% prilocaine HCl or 3% mepivacaine HCl without vasoconstrictor. Hemodynamic parameters namely systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, mean arterial pressure (MAP, heart rate (HR, saturation rate (SR, rate pressure product (RPP and pressure rate quotient (PRQ were investigated before and at different intervals after anesthetic injection. RESULTS: The hemodynamic effects of the three agents were similar to each other, although some significance was observed for DBP, MAP, RPP and PRQ values in the lidocaine, prilocaine and mepivacaine groups. CONCLUSION: Lidocaine, prilocaine and mepivacaine solutions without vasoconstrictor can be safely used in hypertensive patients. It is advisable that dental practitioners select anesthetic solutions for hypertensive patients considering their cardiovascular effects in order to provide patient comfort and safety.

  1. Hemodynamic effects of iodixanol and iohexol during ventriculography in patients with compromised left ventricular function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, A; van Dijk, RB; Brekke, O; Orozco, L; den Heijer, P; Crijns, HJGM

    A crossover study was performed to compare the hemodynamic effects of the isoosmolar contrast agent iodixanol (Visipaque(R)) 320 mg I/ml to those of the low-osmolar iohexol (Omnipaque(R)) 350 mg I/ml. The main hypothesis was that iodixanol and iohexol would affect left ventricular end-diastolic

  2. Effects of midazolam and morphine on cerebral oxygenation and hemodynamics in ventilated premature infants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velden, A.A.E.M. van der; Hopman, J.C.W.; Klaessens, J.H.G.M.; Feuth, A.B.; Sengers, R.C.A.; Liem, K.D.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Midazolam sedation and morphine analgesia are commonly used in ventilated premature infants. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of midazolam versus morphine infusion on cerebral oxygenation and hemodynamics in ventilated premature infants. METHODS: 11 patients (GA 26.6-33.0 weeks, BW

  3. The effect of some hemodynamic factors on the behaviour of the aortic valve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhoven, van A.A.; Veenstra, P.C.; Reneman, R.S.

    1982-01-01

    To test the validity of a theoretical model of aortic valve closure, based upon the observations in a two-dimensional analogue, the effect of some hemodynamic factors on aortic valve behaviour was studied in open-chest dogs. Direct cinematography was used to record aortic valve movements. The ECG,

  4. Occupational exposure in hemodynamic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Amanda J.; Fernandes, Ivani M.; Silva, Paula P. Nou; Sordi, Gian Maria A.A.; Carneiro, Janete C.G.G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper has an objective to perform a radiometric survey at a hemodynamic service. Besides, it was intended to evaluate the effective dose of health professionals and to provide data which can contribute with minimization of exposures during the realization of hemodynamic procedure. The radiometric survey was realized in the real environment of work simulating the conditions of a hemodynamic study with a ionization chamber

  5. Acute effects of chewing tobacco on coronary microcirculation and hemodynamics in habitual tobacco chewers

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    Vikas Thakran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Long-term adverse cardiovascular effects of smokeless tobacco are well established, however, the effect of chewing tobacco on coronary microcirculation and hemodynamic have not been studied. We intended to analyze the acute effect of chewing tobacco on coronary microcirculation and hemodynamics in habitual tobacco chewers with stable coronary artery disease undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. Materials and Methods: We prospectively enrolled seven habitual tobacco chewers with stable coronary artery disease with single vessel disease or double vessel disease satisfying the criteria for elective PCI. Patients were instructed to keep 1 g of crushed dried tobacco leaves in the mouth after a successful PCI. Lesion in last stented vessels was evaluated for fractional flow reserve (FFR, coronary flow reserve (CFR, and index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR post-PCI, after 15 min and 30 min of tobacco chewing along with the measurement of serum cotinine levels. Results: Oral tobacco led to high levels of cotinine in the majority of patients. There was an insignificant rise in heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure following tobacco consumption. Baseline CFR (median 1.6, range 1.1–5.5 was low in tobacco chewers after PCI even after optimum FFR (0.9 ± 0.05 in the majority of patients suggesting abnormal microvascular hemodynamics (high IMR in 3 patients, overall median 14.2, range 7–36.2. However, there was no significant change in the estimated CFR or IMR values following tobacco chewing. One patient had bradycardia and hypotension which may be related to vagal reaction or acute nicotine poisoning. Conclusion: Tobacco chewers have abnormal coronary microcirculation hemodynamics even following a successful PCI. However, the coronary micocirculation and hemodynamics do not change acutely following tobacco chewing despite high serum cotinine concentrations.

  6. Effects of radiation, burn and combined radiation-burn injury on hemodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Benlan; Cheng Tianming; Xiao Jiasi

    1996-01-01

    Changes in hemodynamics after radiation, burn and combined radiation burn injury within eight hours post injury were studied. The results indicate: (1) Shock of rats in the combined injury group is more severe than that in the burn group. One of the reasons is that the blood volume in the combined injury group is less than that in the burn group. Radiation injury plays an important role in this effect, which enhances the increase in vascular permeability and causes the loss of plasma. (2) Decrease in cardiac output and stroke work and increase in vascular resistance in the combined radiation burn group are more drastic than those in the burn group, which may cause and enhance shock. Replenishing fluid is useful for recovery of hemodynamics. (3) Rb uptake is increased in the radiation group which indicates that compensated increase of myocardial nutritional blood flow may take place before the changes of hemodynamics and shock. Changes of Rb uptake in the combined injury group is different from that in the radiation groups and in the burn group. The results also suggest that changes of ion channel activities may occur to a different extent after injury. (4) Verapamil is helpful to the recovery of hemodynamics post injury. It is better to combine verapamil with replenishing fluid

  7. Role and Effectiveness of Percutaneous Arterial Embolization in Hemodynamically Unstable Patients with Ruptured Splanchnic Artery Pseudoaneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohan, Anthony; Eveno, Clarisse; Dautry, Raphael; Guerrache, Youcef; Camus, Marine; Boudiaf, Mourad; Gayat, Etienne; Dref, Olivier Le; Sirol, Marc; Soyer, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    PurposeTo assess the role and effectiveness of percutaneous arterial embolization (TAE) in patients with hemodynamic instability due to hypovolemic shock secondary to ruptured splanchnic artery pseudoaneurysms (SAPA).Materials and MethodsSeventeen patients (11 men, 6 women; mean age, 53 years) with hemodynamic instability (systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg) due to hypovolemic shock secondary to ruptured SAPA were treated by TAE. Clinical files, multidetector row computed tomography angiography, and angiographic examinations along with procedure details were reviewed.ResultsSeventeen SAPAs were present, predominantly located on gastroduodenal or pancreatic arteries (9/17; 53 %). Angiography showed extravasation of contrast medium from SAPA in 15/17 patients (88 %). Technical success rate of TAE was 100 %. TAE was performed using metallic coils in all patients (100 %), in association with gelatin sponge in 5/17 patients (29 %). TAE allowed controlling the bleeding and returning to normal hemodynamic status in 16/17 patients (94 %). In 1/17 patient (6 %), surgery was needed to definitively control the bleeding. The mortality and morbidity rate of TAE at 30 days were 0 and 12 %, respectively. Morbidity consisted in coil migration in 1/17 patient (6 %) and transient serum liver enzyme elevation in 1/17 patient (6 %).ConclusionTAE is an effective and safe treatment option for ruptured SAPA in hemodynamically unstable patients, with a success rate of 94 %. Our results suggest that TAE should be the favored option in patients with hemodynamic instability due to ruptured SAPA

  8. Role and Effectiveness of Percutaneous Arterial Embolization in Hemodynamically Unstable Patients with Ruptured Splanchnic Artery Pseudoaneurysms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohan, Anthony, E-mail: anthony.dohan@lrb.aphp.fr [Hôpital Lariboisière, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Abdominal and Interventional Imaging (France); Eveno, Clarisse, E-mail: clarisse.eveno@lrb.aphp.fr [Université Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité (France); Dautry, Raphael, E-mail: raphael.dautry@lrb.aphp.fr; Guerrache, Youcef, E-mail: docyoucef05@yahoo.fr [Hôpital Lariboisière, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Abdominal and Interventional Imaging (France); Camus, Marine, E-mail: marine.camus@lrb.aphp.fr [Université Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité (France); Boudiaf, Mourad, E-mail: mourad.boudiaf@lrb.aphp.fr [Hôpital Lariboisière, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Abdominal and Interventional Imaging (France); Gayat, Etienne, E-mail: etienne.gayat@lrb.aphp.fr [Université Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité (France); Dref, Olivier Le, E-mail: olivier.ledref@lrb.aphp.fr; Sirol, Marc, E-mail: marc.sirol@lrb.aphp.fr; Soyer, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.soyer@lrb.aphp.fr [Hôpital Lariboisière, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Abdominal and Interventional Imaging (France)

    2015-08-15

    PurposeTo assess the role and effectiveness of percutaneous arterial embolization (TAE) in patients with hemodynamic instability due to hypovolemic shock secondary to ruptured splanchnic artery pseudoaneurysms (SAPA).Materials and MethodsSeventeen patients (11 men, 6 women; mean age, 53 years) with hemodynamic instability (systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg) due to hypovolemic shock secondary to ruptured SAPA were treated by TAE. Clinical files, multidetector row computed tomography angiography, and angiographic examinations along with procedure details were reviewed.ResultsSeventeen SAPAs were present, predominantly located on gastroduodenal or pancreatic arteries (9/17; 53 %). Angiography showed extravasation of contrast medium from SAPA in 15/17 patients (88 %). Technical success rate of TAE was 100 %. TAE was performed using metallic coils in all patients (100 %), in association with gelatin sponge in 5/17 patients (29 %). TAE allowed controlling the bleeding and returning to normal hemodynamic status in 16/17 patients (94 %). In 1/17 patient (6 %), surgery was needed to definitively control the bleeding. The mortality and morbidity rate of TAE at 30 days were 0 and 12 %, respectively. Morbidity consisted in coil migration in 1/17 patient (6 %) and transient serum liver enzyme elevation in 1/17 patient (6 %).ConclusionTAE is an effective and safe treatment option for ruptured SAPA in hemodynamically unstable patients, with a success rate of 94 %. Our results suggest that TAE should be the favored option in patients with hemodynamic instability due to ruptured SAPA.

  9. [Dry immersion effects on the mechanisms of metabolic-reflex regulation of hemodynamics during muscular work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravyĭ, Ia R; Bersenev, E Iu; Missina, S S; Borovik, A S; Sharova, A P; Vinogradova, O L

    2008-01-01

    Effects of 4-d dry immersion on metabolic-reflex regulation of hemodynamics were evaluated during local static work (30% of maximum voluntary effort) of the talocrural extensors. One group of immersed test-subjects received low-frequency electrostimulation of leg muscles to offset the immersion effect on EMG of working muscles. Metabolic-reflex regulation was evaluated through comparison of cardiovascular responses to physical tests with and w/o post-exercise vascular occlusion. Immersion vaguely increased heart rate and reduced systolic arterial pressure in resting subjects; however, it did not have a distinct effect on arterial pressure and HR during muscular work or metabolic-reflex potentiation of hemodynamic shifts.

  10. Hemodynamic effects of rapid and slow infusions of manganese chloride and gadolinium-DTPA in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slutsky, R.A.; Peterson, T.; Strich, G.; Brown, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    The acute hemodynamic effects of two paramagnetic contrast materials, manganese chloride and gadolinium-DTPA, were examined in dogs using ultrasonic dimension gauge crystals. Slow infusions (more than 15 minutes) of MnCl 2 or Gd-DTPA via an infusion pump had no significant hemodynamic effects. When given in just over 1 minute, Gd-DTPA produced elevated left ventricular (LV) end diastolic pressure and minor dilation of the ventricle and slowed diastolic filling. MnCl 2 , given rapidly, reduced systemic vascular resistance, resulting in hypotension. With both agents, these side effects waned after 5-10 minutes. It is concluded that both Gd-DTPA and MnCl 2 can be given safely in 0.1-mm/kg doses when administered as a slow, continuous infusion. Slow, intravenous infusion of Gd-DTPA or MnCl 2 is likely to be tolerated well by even severely ill individuals

  11. Beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet on metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Giuseppe; Mistretta, Antonio; Marventano, Stefano; Purrello, Agata; Vitaglione, Paola; Calabrese, Giorgio; Drago, Filippo; Galvano, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) represents a cluster of medical disorders, such as hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and abdominal obesity that, when occurring together, increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. The role of food and nutrients in the aetiology of chronic diseases has become clearer over the last 15 years. In this review we collected evidence on the beneficial impact of the Mediterranean diet on MetS by analyzing epidemiological reports documenting its prevalence in subjects who have adopted this dietary pattern. We also explored the role of the individual components of the diet on the specific aspects characterizing the MetS (i.e. metabolic indices, body weight and blood pressure). There is ample evidence showing that subjects adherent to the Mediterranean diet have lower prevalence and incidence rates of MetS than non-adherent. Moreover, it has been widely documented that specific components of this dietary pattern play a role in the prevention of several morbid conditions related to the MetS.

  12. Beneficial Effects of Temperate Forage Legumes that Contain Condensed Tannins

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    Jennifer W. MacAdam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The two temperate forage legumes containing condensed tannins (CT that promote ruminant production are birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.; BFT and sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.; SF. Both are well-adapted to the cool-temperate climate and alkaline soils of the Mountain West USA. Condensed tannins comprise a diverse family of bioactive chemicals with multiple beneficial functions for ruminants, including suppression of internal parasites and enteric methane. Birdsfoot trefoil contains 10 to 40 g·CT·kg−1 dry matter (DM, while SF contains 30 to 80 g·CT·kg−1 DM. Our studies have focused on these two plant species and have demonstrated consistently elevated rates of gain for beef calves grazing both BFT and SF. Novel results from our BFT research include carcass dressing percentages and consumer sensory evaluations equivalent to feedlot-finished steers and significantly greater than grass-finished steers, but with omega-3 fatty acid concentrations equal to grass-finished beef. We have further demonstrated that ruminants fed BFT or SF will consume more endophyte-infected tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb. Dumort. forage or seed than ruminants fed a non-CT forage legume. There is great potential value for sustainable livestock production in the use of highly digestible, nitrogen-fixing legumes containing tannins demonstrated to improve ruminant productivity.

  13. Beneficial effects of Psidium guajava leaf extract on diabetic myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soman, Sowmya; Rajamanickam, Chellam; Rauf, Arun A; Indira, Madambath

    2013-01-01

    Non enzymatic glycosylation (glycation) between reducing sugar and protein results in the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which is believed to play an important role in diabetes associated cardiovascular complications. Thus agents that inhibit the formation of AGEs are believed to have therapeutic potential against diabetic complications. In the present study we evaluated the antiglycative potential of ethyl acetate fraction of Psidium guajava leaves (PGEt) by administering the extract into streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Daily administration of the extract for a period of one month significantly decreased the blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin and fructosamine levels in a dose dependent manner. Evaluation of the toxicity markers like SGOT and SGPT revealed the non toxic nature of the extract. Apart from this we evaluated the presence of cardiac isoform of liver alpha 2 macroglobulin, which is a major protein associated with earlier stages of cardiac hypertrophy. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the level of this protein decreased significantly in extract treated groups compared to diabetic control. These findings support that the administration of PGEt extract may be beneficial for preventing cardiovascular complications associated with diabetes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Hemodynamic and radionuclide effects of acute captopril therapy for heart failure: changes in left and right ventricular volumes and function at rest and during exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massie, B.; Kramer, B.L.; Topic, N.; Henderson, S.G.

    1982-01-01

    Although the resting hemodynamic effects of captopril in congestive heart failure are known, little information is available about the hemodynamic response to captopril during exercise or about changes in noninvasive measurements of the size and function of both ventricles. In this study, 14 stable New York Heart Association class III patients were given 25 mg of oral captopril. Rest and exercise hemodynamic measurements and blood pool scintigrams were performed simultaneously before and 90 minutes after captopril. The radionuclide studies were analyzed for left and right ventricular end-diastolic volumes, end-systolic volumes, ejection fractions and pulmonary blood volume. The primary beneficial responses at rest were decreases in left and right ventricular end-diastolic volumes from 388 +/- 81 to 350 +/- 77 ml and from 52 +/- 26 to 43 +/- 20 volume units, respectively, and in their corresponding filling pressures, from 24 +/- 10 to 17 +/- 9 mm Hg and 10 +/- 5 to 6 +/- 5 mm Hg. Although stroke volume did not increase significantly, both left and right ventricular ejection fractions increased slightly, from 19 +/- 6% to 22+/- 5% and from 25 +/- 9% to 29 +/- 11%, respectively. During exercise, similar changes were noted in both hemodynamic and radionuclide indexes. This, in patients with moderate symptomatic limitation from chronic heart failure, captopril predominantly reduces ventricular volume and filling pressure, with a less significant effect on cardiac output. These effects persist during exercise, when systemic vascular resistance is already very low. Radionuclide techniques are valuable in assessing the drug effect in these subjects, particularly when ventricular volumes are also measured

  15. The Effects of a Multiflavonoid Supplement on Vascular and Hemodynamic Parameters following Acute Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Kappus

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants can decrease oxidative stress and combined with acute exercise they may lead to further decreases in blood pressure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 2 weeks of antioxidant supplementation on vascular distensibility and cardiovascular hemodynamics during postexercise hypotension. Methods. Twenty young subjects were randomized to placebo (=10 or antioxidant supplementation (=10 for two weeks. Antioxidant status, vascular distensibility, and hemodynamics were obtained before, immediately, and 30 minutes after an acute bout of aerobic exercise both before and after supplementation. Results. Two weeks of antioxidant supplementation resulted in a greater systolic blood pressure (SBP decrease during postexercise hypotension (PEH and significant decreases in augmentation index versus placebo (12.5% versus 3.5%, resp.. Also ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP increased significantly (interaction P = 0.024 after supplementation. Conclusion. Supplementation showed an additive effect on PEH associated with increased FRAP values and decreases in systolic blood pressure and augmentation index.

  16. The effects of a multiflavonoid supplement on vascular and hemodynamic parameters following acute exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, Rebecca M; Curry, Chelsea D; McAnulty, Steve; Welsh, Janice; Morris, David; Nieman, David C; Soukup, Jeffrey; Collier, Scott R

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidants can decrease oxidative stress and combined with acute exercise they may lead to further decreases in blood pressure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 2 weeks of antioxidant supplementation on vascular distensibility and cardiovascular hemodynamics during postexercise hypotension. Twenty young subjects were randomized to placebo (n = 10) or antioxidant supplementation (n = 10) for two weeks. Antioxidant status, vascular distensibility, and hemodynamics were obtained before, immediately, and 30 minutes after an acute bout of aerobic exercise both before and after supplementation. Two weeks of antioxidant supplementation resulted in a greater systolic blood pressure (SBP) decrease during postexercise hypotension (PEH) and significant decreases in augmentation index versus placebo (12.5% versus 3.5%, resp.). Also ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) increased significantly (interaction P = 0.024) after supplementation. Supplementation showed an additive effect on PEH associated with increased FRAP values and decreases in systolic blood pressure and augmentation index.

  17. The Effects of Hemodynamic Changes on Pulse Wave Velocity in Cardiothoracic Surgical Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurie Obata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of blood pressure on pulse wave velocity (PWV is well established. However, PWV variability with acute hemodynamic changes has not been examined in the clinical setting. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of hemodynamic changes on PWV in patients who undergo cardiothoracic surgery. Using data from 25 patients, we determined blood pressure (BP, heart rate (HR, and the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT velocity-time integral. By superimposing the radial arterial waveform on the continuous wave Doppler waveform of the LVOT, obtained by transesophageal echo, we were able to determine pulse transit time and to calculate PWV, stroke volume (SV, cardiac output (CO, and systemic vascular resistance (SVR. Increases in BP, HR, and SVR were associated with higher values for PWV. In contrast increases in SV were associated with decreases in PWV. Changes in CO were not significantly associated with PWV.

  18. Hemodynamics and Gas Exchange Effects of Inhaled Nitrous Oxide in Patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Poptsov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhaled nitrous oxide (iNO therapy aimed at improving pulmonary oxygenizing function and at decreasing artificial ventilation (AV load has been used in foreign clinical practice in the past decade. The study was undertaken to evaluate the hemodynamic and gas exchange effects of iNO in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS that developed after car-diosurgical operations. Fifty-eight (43 males and 15 females patients aged 21 to 76 (55.2±2.4 years were examined. The study has demonstrated that in 48.3% of cases, the early stage of ARDS is attended by the increased tone pulmonary vessels due to impaired NO-dependent vasodilatation. In these patients, iNO therapy is an effective therapeutic method for correcting hemodynamic disorders and lung oxygenizing function.

  19. The direct effect of incretin hormones on glucose and glycerol metabolism and hemodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Kristian; P. Mortensen, Stefan; H. Knudsen, Sine

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the insulin-independent effects of incretin hormones on glucose and glycerol metabolism and hemodynamics under eu- and hyperglycemic conditions. Young, healthy males (n=10) underwent three trials in a randomized, controlled, cross-over study. Each trial c...... hyperglycemia, GIP increases femoral artery blood flow with no effect on glucose metabolism, whereas GLP-1 increases glucose disposal, potentially, however, due to increased insulin levels....... consisted of a 2-stage (eu- and hyperglycemia) pancreatic clamp (using somatostatin to prevent endogenous insulin secretion). Glucose and lipid metabolism were measured via infusion of stable glucose and glycerol isotopic tracers. Hemodynamic variables (femoral, brachial and common carotid artery blood flow...... or glycerol kinetics were seen during euglycemia, whereas hyperglycemia resulted in increased GIR and glucose rate of disappearance (Rd) during GLP-1 compared to CON and GIP (Plevels, no differences between trials were seen for GIR or glucose Rd. Besides...

  20. SvO(2)-guided resuscitation for experimental septic shock: effects of fluid infusion and dobutamine on hemodynamics, inflammatory response, and cardiovascular oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosário, André Loureiro; Park, Marcelo; Brunialti, Milena Karina; Mendes, Marialice; Rapozo, Marjorie; Fernandes, Denise; Salomão, Reinaldo; Laurindo, Francisco Rafael; Schettino, Guilherme Paula; Azevedo, Luciano Cesar P

    2011-12-01

    The pathogenetic mechanisms associated to the beneficial effects of mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO(2))-guided resuscitation during sepsis are unclear. Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of an algorithm of SvO(2)-driven resuscitation including fluids, norepinephrine and dobutamine on hemodynamics, inflammatory response, and cardiovascular oxidative stress during a clinically resembling experimental model of septic shock. Eighteen anesthetized and catheterized pigs (35-45 kg) were submitted to peritonitis by fecal inoculation (0.75 g/kg). After hypotension, antibiotics were administered, and the animals were randomized to two groups: control (n = 9), with hemodynamic support aiming central venous pressure 8 to 12 mmHg, urinary output 0.5 mL/kg per hour, and mean arterial pressure greater than 65 mmHg; and SvO(2) (n = 9), with the goals above, plus SvO(2) greater than 65%. The interventions lasted 12 h, and lactated Ringer's and norepinephrine (both groups) and dobutamine (SvO(2) group) were administered. Inflammatory response was evaluated by plasma concentration of cytokines, neutrophil CD14 expression, oxidant generation, and apoptosis. Oxidative stress was evaluated by plasma and myocardial nitrate concentrations, myocardial and vascular NADP(H) oxidase activity, myocardial glutathione content, and nitrotyrosine expression. Mixed venous oxygen saturation-driven resuscitation was associated with improved systolic index, oxygen delivery, and diuresis. Sepsis induced in both groups a significant increase on IL-6 concentrations and plasma nitrate concentrations and a persistent decrease in neutrophil CD14 expression. Apoptosis rate and neutrophil oxidant generation were not different between groups. Treatment strategies did not significantly modify oxidative stress parameters. Thus, an approach aiming SvO(2) during sepsis improves hemodynamics, without any significant effect on inflammatory response and oxidative stress. The beneficial effects associated

  1. Basilar artery angulation and vertigo due to the hemodynamic effect of dominant vertebral artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosar, Murat; Yaman, Mehmet; Eser, Olcay; Songur, Ahmet; Ozen, Oguz A

    2008-01-01

    Vertebral arteries form the basilar artery at the pontobulbar junction. The vertebral artery may have dominancy in one of them. The branches of basilar arteries supply blood for the vestibular nuclei and its connections. Vertigo is seen generally in the upper middle aged patients. Vertigo can be observed in dolichoectasia of basilar artery such as angulation and elongation, because of the diminished blood supply and changed hemodynamic factors of vestibular nuclei and its connections. We hypothesized that angulation or elongation of basilar artery can be estimated according to the unilateral vertebral artery dominant hypertensive patients. The basilar artery can angulate from the dominant side of vertebral artery to the recessive side. These angulation and elongation can effect the hemodynamic factors in absence of growing collateral arteries. So, the vertigo attacks may occur in these patients.

  2. Effect of volume expansion on systemic hemodynamics and central and arterial blood volume in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Bendtsen, F; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1995-01-01

    , and arterial pressure were determined before and during a volume expansion induced by infusion of a hyperosmotic galactose solution. RESULTS: During volume expansion, the central and arterial blood volume increased significantly in patients with class A and controls, whereas no significant change was found...... in patients with either class B or class C. Conversely, the noncentral blood volume increased in patients with class B and C. In both patients and controls, the cardiac output increased and the systemic vascular resistance decreased, whereas the mean arterial blood pressure did not change significantly......BACKGROUND & AIMS: Systemic vasodilatation in cirrhosis may lead to hemodynamic alterations with reduced effective blood volume and decreased arterial blood pressure. This study investigates the response of acute volume expansion on hemodynamics and regional blood volumes in patients with cirrhosis...

  3. Sex differences in the hemodynamic responses to mental stress: Effect of caffeine consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Noha H; Vincent, Andrea S; McKey, Barbara S; Al'Absi, Mustafa; Whitsett, Thomas L; Lovallo, William R

    2006-07-01

    The effect of caffeine on stress responses was compared in 25 men and 22 women in a 2-week placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized crossover trial. On each week, participants abstained from all dietary sources of caffeine before undergoing a 6-h laboratory protocol under placebo or caffeine exposure followed by a 30-min mental stressor with blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular hemodynamic assessments. On the placebo session, men and women showed a significant BP increase to stress, although women had significant cardiac responses whereas men had vascular responses. Caffeine ingestion before stress caused both men and women to have enhanced hemodynamic responses to the stressor associated with an increase in cardiac index and a drop in the peripheral resistance index. Caffeine enhances the cardiovascular fight-or-flight response pattern to stress in men and women.

  4. Hemodynamic effects of closure of residual arteriovenous fistulae during in situ graft procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jesper; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Pedersen, Erik Morre

    2011-01-01

    lower limb ischemia were obtained. Direct measurements of proximal and distal blood pressures in the graft were taken and simultaneous determinations of volume blood flow proximally and distally in the graft with ultrasound transit time technique before and after closure of residual fistulae were made......The objective was to study the intraoperative hemodynamic effects of closure of residual arteriovenous fistulae during in situ saphenous vein graft procedures. Data on 60 residual arteriovenous fistulae in nine patients (five men) with a median age of 74 years (range 64-83 years) with critical....... Closure of a fistula with blood flow around or below 100 mL/min did not increase distal outflow, whereas closure of fistulae with higher blood flow resulted in unpredictable changes in distal outflow. Only fistulae with a blood flow above approximately 100 mL/min may be of hemodynamic significance....

  5. Comparing the Rates of Dopamine Hemodynamic Effect Onset after Infusion through Peripheral Veins in Three Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deokkyu Kim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Dopamine is an inotropic agent that is often selected for continuous infusion. For hemodynamic stability, the rate of infusion is controlled in the range of 5-15 μg/kg/min. This study aimed to compare the time intervals from the administration of dopamine to the onset of its hemodynamic effects when dopamine was administered through three different peripheral veins (the cephalic vein [CV], the great saphenous vein [GSV], and the external jugular vein [EJV]. Methods Patients in group 1, group 2, and group 3 received dopamine infusions in the CV, GSV, and EJV, respectively. A noninvasive continuous cardiac output monitor (NICCOMO™, Medis, Ilmenau, Germany was used to assess cardiac output (CO and systemic vascular resistance (SVR. Six minutes after intubation, baseline heart rate (HR, systolic blood pressure (BP, diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure (MAP, CO, and SVR values were recorded and dopamine infusion was initiated at a dose of 10 μg/kg/min. Hemodynamic changes at 0, 4, 8, 12, and 15 minutes postinfusion were recorded. Results No statistically significant differences were observed among the three groups with respect to the rate of hemodynamic change. In all groups, systolic BP, diastolic BP, MAP, and SVR tended to increase after decreasing for the first 4 minutes; in contrast, HR and CO decreased until 8 minutes, after which they tended to reach a plateau. Conclusions For patients under general anesthesia receiving dopamine at 10 μg/kg/min, there were no clinical differences in the effect of dopamine administered through three different peripheral veins.

  6. Beneficial and Detrimental Effects of UV on Aquatic Organisms: Implications of Spectral Variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williamson, C.E.; Neale, P.J.; Grad, G.; Lange, de H.J.; Hargreaves, B.R.

    2001-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) may have beneficial as well as detrimental effects on living systems. For example, UV-B radiation (280¿320 nm) is generally damaging, while UV-A radiation (320¿400 nm) may cause damage or stimulate beneficial photorepair of UV-B damage. The nature of both direct and

  7. The Effects of Renal Denervation on Renal Hemodynamics and Renal Vasculature in a Porcine Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willemien L Verloop

    Full Text Available Recently, the efficacy of renal denervation (RDN has been debated. It is discussed whether RDN is able to adequately target the renal nerves.We aimed to investigate how effective RDN was by means of functional hemodynamic measurements and nerve damage on histology.We performed hemodynamic measurements in both renal arteries of healthy pigs using a Doppler flow and pressure wire. Subsequently unilateral denervation was performed, followed by repeated bilateral hemodynamic measurements. Pigs were terminated directly after RDN or were followed for 3 weeks or 3 months after the procedure. After termination, both treated and control arteries were prepared for histology to evaluate vascular damage and nerve damage. Directly after RDN, resting renal blood flow tended to increase by 29±67% (P = 0.01. In contrast, renal resistance reserve increased from 1.74 (1.28 to 1.88 (1.17 (P = 0.02 during follow-up. Vascular histopathology showed that most nerves around the treated arteries were located outside the lesion areas (8±7 out of 55±25 (14% nerves per pig were observed within a lesion area. Subsequently, a correlation was noted between a more impaired adventitia and a reduction in renal resistance reserve (β: -0.33; P = 0.05 at three weeks of follow-up.Only a small minority of renal nerves was targeted after RDN. Furthermore, more severe adventitial damage was related to a reduction in renal resistance in the treated arteries at follow-up. These hemodynamic and histological observations may indicate that RDN did not sufficiently target the renal nerves. Potentially, this may explain the significant spread in the response after RDN.

  8. The Effects of Renal Denervation on Renal Hemodynamics and Renal Vasculature in a Porcine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verloop, Willemien L.; Hubens, Lisette E. G.; Spiering, Wilko; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Goldschmeding, Roel; Bleys, Ronald L. A. W.; Voskuil, Michiel

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Recently, the efficacy of renal denervation (RDN) has been debated. It is discussed whether RDN is able to adequately target the renal nerves. Objective We aimed to investigate how effective RDN was by means of functional hemodynamic measurements and nerve damage on histology. Methods and Results We performed hemodynamic measurements in both renal arteries of healthy pigs using a Doppler flow and pressure wire. Subsequently unilateral denervation was performed, followed by repeated bilateral hemodynamic measurements. Pigs were terminated directly after RDN or were followed for 3 weeks or 3 months after the procedure. After termination, both treated and control arteries were prepared for histology to evaluate vascular damage and nerve damage. Directly after RDN, resting renal blood flow tended to increase by 29±67% (P = 0.01). In contrast, renal resistance reserve increased from 1.74 (1.28) to 1.88 (1.17) (P = 0.02) during follow-up. Vascular histopathology showed that most nerves around the treated arteries were located outside the lesion areas (8±7 out of 55±25 (14%) nerves per pig were observed within a lesion area). Subsequently, a correlation was noted between a more impaired adventitia and a reduction in renal resistance reserve (β: -0.33; P = 0.05) at three weeks of follow-up. Conclusion Only a small minority of renal nerves was targeted after RDN. Furthermore, more severe adventitial damage was related to a reduction in renal resistance in the treated arteries at follow-up. These hemodynamic and histological observations may indicate that RDN did not sufficiently target the renal nerves. Potentially, this may explain the significant spread in the response after RDN. PMID:26587981

  9. Metabolic and hemodynamic effects of saline infusion to maintain volemia on temporary abdominal aortic occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Ferreira Amorim

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze hemodynamic and metabolic effects of saline solution infusion in the maintenance of blood volume in ischemia-reperfusion syndrome during temporary abdominal aortic occlusion in dogs. METHODS: We studied 20 dogs divided into 2 groups: the ischemia-reperfusion group (IRG, n=10 and the ischemia-reperfusion group with saline solution infusion aiming at maintaining mean pulmonary arterial wedge pressure between 10 and 20 mmHg (IRG-SS, n=10. All animals were anesthetized with sodium thiopental and maintained on spontaneous ventilation. Occlusion of the supraceliac aorta was obtained with inflation of a Fogarty catheter inserted through the femoral artery. After 60 minutes of ischemia, the balloon was deflated, and the animals were observed for another 60 minutes of reperfusion. RESULTS: IRG-SS dogs did not have hemodynamic instability after aortic unclamping, and the mean systemic blood pressure and heart rate were maintained. However, acidosis worsened, which was documented by a greater reduction of arterial pH that occurred especially due to the absence of a respiratory response to metabolic acidosis that was greater with the adoption of this procedure. CONCLUSION: Saline solution infusion to maintain blood volume avoided hemodynamic instability after aortic unclamping. This procedure, however, caused worsening in metabolic acidosis in this experimental model.

  10. Stabilizing effects of cool dialysate temperature on hemodynamic parameters in diabetic patients undergoing hemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasemi, A.; Shafiee, M.; Rowghani, K.

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the effect of cool dialysis on hemodynamic parameters and serum nitric oxide levels in diabetic patients, we studied 20 old (mean age 63.3+-7.5) chronic hemodialysis diabetics who were dialyzed twice, once using cool and once using standard (37 C) temperature dialysis solution. During the study, all the dialysis conditions were maintained the same except cooling the dailysate from 37C to 35C. Hemodynamic parameters including SBP, DBP and HR were measured hourly. Oral temperature was measured before and after dialysis. Serum urea and nitric oxide metabolites were determined before and after hemodialysis. Systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure decreased significantly during standard compared to cool dialysis. Maximum decrease of systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure was observed during the third hour of dialysis and magnitude of decrease was 18, 17 and 14 percent for standard temperature and 6, 1, and 4 percent for cool dialysis, respectively. Heart rate did not differ significantly between the two study groups. Compared to the pre dialysis levels of serum nitric oxide metabolites, the post dialysis levels decreased significantly with cool and standard temperature dialysate (59+-5 vs. 37+-4, and 63+-7 vs. 41+-5, umol/L respectively, P<0.01). Cool dialysis could decrease episodes of hypotension and stabilized hemodynamic parameters in diabetic patients. Probably other mechanisms than increased serum nitric oxide levels may be involved in hemodialysis hypotension in this group of patients. (author)

  11. Thermal effect on heart rate and hemodynamics in vitelline arteries of stage 18 chicken embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Yeop; Lee, Sang Joon

    2010-12-01

    We investigated the thermal effects on heart rate, hemodynamics, and response of vitelline arteries of stage-18 chicken embryos. Heart rate was monitored by a high-speed imaging method, while hemodynamic quantities were evaluated using a particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. Experiments were carried out at seven different temperatures (36-42 °C with 1 °C interval) after 1h of incubation to stabilize the heart rate. The heart rate increased in a linear manner (r = 0.992). Due to the increased cardiac output (or heart rate), the hemodynamic quantities such as mean velocity (U(mean)), velocity fluctuation (U(fluc)), and peak velocity (U(peak)) also increased with respect to the Womersley number (Ω) in the manner r = 0.599, 0.693, and 0.725, respectively. This indicates that the mechanical force exerting on the vessel walls increases. However, the active response (or regulation) of the vitelline arteries was not observed in this study. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Music listening after stroke: beneficial effects and potential neural mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Särkämö, Teppo; Soto, David

    2012-04-01

    Music is an enjoyable leisure activity that also engages many emotional, cognitive, and motor processes in the brain. Here, we will first review previous literature on the emotional and cognitive effects of music listening in healthy persons and various clinical groups. Then we will present findings about the short- and long-term effects of music listening on the recovery of cognitive function in stroke patients and the underlying neural mechanisms of these music effects. First, our results indicate that listening to pleasant music can have a short-term facilitating effect on visual awareness in patients with visual neglect, which is associated with functional coupling between emotional and attentional brain regions. Second, daily music listening can improve auditory and verbal memory, focused attention, and mood as well as induce structural gray matter changes in the early poststroke stage. The psychological and neural mechanisms potentially underlying the rehabilitating effect of music after stroke are discussed. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  13. Arteriovenous fistulas aggravate the hemodynamic effect of vein bypass stenoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T G; Djurhuus, C; Pedersen, Erik Morre

    1996-01-01

    Doppler spectra obtained 10 cm downstream of the fistula. All measurements were carried out with open and clamped fistula. RESULTS: At 30% diameter reducing stenosis opening of the fistula induced a 12% systolic pressure drop across the stenosis but had no adverse effect on the Doppler waveform parameters...

  14. Beneficial effects of protein hydrolysates in exercise and sports nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, J; Jiang, B; Li, K; Shen, W; Tang, J L

    2017-01-01

    Protein hydrolysates (PH) are rich sources of proteins that supply the need of exercising muscles. PHs are enriched in di- and tripeptides and are better than free amino acids or intact proteins when muscle anabolic effect is considered. Digestion, absorption and muscle uptake of amino acids are faster and more efficient when PH is ingested in comparison to the respective intact protein. PHs not only enhance endurance in high intensity exercise regimen, but also help in faster post-exercise recovery of muscle by promoting glycogen synthesis, although the latter effect requires more convincing evidence. PHs have been shown to exhibit insulinotrophic effect as it enhances the secretion of insulin and the hormone, in turn, exerts muscle anabolic effect.

  15. Beneficial Effects of Probiotic and Food Borne Yeasts on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saloomeh Moslehi-Jenabian

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Besides being important in the fermentation of foods and beverages, yeasts have shown numerous beneficial effects on human health. Among these, probiotic effects are the most well known health effects including prevention and treatment of intestinal diseases and immunomodulatory effects. Other beneficial functions of yeasts are improvement of bioavailability of minerals through the hydrolysis of phytate, folate biofortification and detoxification of mycotoxins due to surface binding to the yeast cell wall.

  16. The effect of tourniquet deflation on hemodynamics and regional cerebral oxygen saturation in aged patients undergoing total knee replacement surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Inkyung; Kim, Dong Yeon; Kim, Youn Jin

    2012-01-01

    Background Inflation and deflation of a pneumatic tourniquet used in total knee replacement surgery induces various changes in patient's hemodynamic and metabolic status, which may result in serious complications, especially in aged patients. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a monitoring device designed to estimate the regional cerebral oxygen saturation. We evaluated the effect of tourniquet deflation on hemodynamics and regional cerebral oxygen saturation in aged patients undergoing tot...

  17. Hemodynamic, Thyroid and Immunomodulatory Effects of Heroin in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail M. Maulood

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Diacetylmorphine (heroin has many effects on the body system; it exerts effects on cardiovascular, immune and endocrine systems. The aim of the this study is to investigate the short-term effects of low and high doses of heroin on systolic blood pressure (SBP, thyroid hormones and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1. The experimental rats were divided into three groups, each with six individuals and the treatments were continued for seven days. SBP significantly reduced by heroin administration in the second dose as compared with the control group. A marked decrease in the serum NO level was also noticed after first (low and second (high dose of administration as compared with control group. The present results also revealed that serum MCP-1 was statistically increased in the second dose of heroin group. Statistical analysis showed that both serum T3 and T4 levels were reduced significantly by heroin administration. In conclusions, for the first time, our findings suggested that diacetylmorphine could affect immune system through MCP-1 elevation. As well as heroin may affect cardiac and liver functions via increasing troponin-T and bilirubin levels.

  18. Imitation and Creativity: Beneficial Effects of Propulsion Strategies and Specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecca, Jensen T.; Mumford, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Prior studies examining imitation of exemplar solutions have produced a mixed pattern of findings with some studies indicating that exemplar imitation contributes to creative problem-solving and other studies indicating that it may inhibit creative problem-solving. In the present effort, it is argued that the effects of exemplar imitation on…

  19. A Review Study on the Beneficial Effects of Baduanjin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Liye; Pan, Zhujun; Yeung, Albert; Talwar, Saira; Wang, Chaoyi; Liu, Yang; Shu, Yankai; Chen, Xiaoan; Thomas, Garrett Anthony

    2018-04-01

    Baduanjin, a Chinese traditional Qigong exercise that focuses on a mind-body integration, is considered to be an effective exercise in promoting health. Thus, we systematically and critically evaluated the emerging literature relating to the effects of Baduanjin on health outcomes. We used seven English-language electronic databases for the literature search. At least one health-related parameter was reported in retrievable full-text Baduanjin intervention studies. A total of 22 eligible studies were included. The inter-rater reliability between two review authors was 94.4% for selecting eligible studies. The results of individual studies support the notion that Baduanjin may be effective as an adjunctive rehabilitation method for improving cognitive functions in addition to psychological and physiological parameters among different age groups and various clinical populations (e.g., Parkinson's disease, chronic neck pain, chronic fatigue syndrome-like illness, psychological illness). Before we draw a definitive conclusion relating to Baduanjin for health benefits, more methodologically rigorous studies with a long-term follow-up assessment should be further conducted to examine the effects of Baduanjin on health-related parameters and disease-specific measures in different health conditions. This review lends insight for future studies on Baduanjin and its potential application in preventive medicine and rehabilitation science.

  20. The Remarkable Beneficial Effect of Adding Oral Simvastatin to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory disease with unpredictable prognosis. Given the immunomodulatory effects of statins, the present study was conducted to determine whether the addition of orally administered simvastatin to the topical betamethasone, a standard antipsoriatic treatment, can produce a more ...

  1. Beneficial effect of tocilizumab in myasthenia gravis refractory to rituximab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Dagur Ingi; Pirskanen, Ritva; Piehl, Fredrik

    2017-06-01

    Muscle fatigue associated with myasthenia gravis is caused by autoantibodies interfering with neuromuscular transmission. Immunomodulating treatment is widely used in moderate to severe myasthenia, although the use of newer biological drugs except rituximab is rare. We describe the effect of tocilizumab, a blocker of interleukin-6 signalling, in two female myasthenia patients with high titres of serum acetylcholine receptor antibodies and insufficient response to rituximab. The first patient had been treated with high dose immunoglobulins regularly for several years and the second patient had been treated both with different oral immune suppressants and immunoglobulins before testing a low dose of rituximab without significant clinical effect. Subsequent treatment with tocilizumab resulted in clinical improvement within a few months. The first patient was switched back to rituximab, which resulted in worsening until tocilizumab was restarted. Tocilizumab can be a therapeutic option in cases not responding to rituximab. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Evidence for beneficial low level radiation effects and radiation hormesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinendegen, L.E.

    2005-01-01

    Low doses in the mGy range cause a dual effect on cellular DNA. One effect concerns a relatively low probability of DNA damage per energy deposition event and it increases proportional with dose, with possible bystander effects operating. This damage at background radiation exposure is orders of magnitudes lower than that from endogenous sources, such as ROS. The other effect at comparable doses brings an easily obeservable adaptive protection against DNA damage from any, mainly endogenous sources, depending on cell type, species, and metabolism. Protective responses express adaptive responses to metabolic perturbations and also mimic oxygen stress responses. Adaptive protection operates in terms of DNA damage prevention and repair, and of immune stimulation. It develops with a delay of hours, may last for days to months, and increasingly disappears at doses beyond about 100 to 200 mGy. Radiation-induced apoptosis and terminal cell differentiation occurs also at higher doses and adds to protection by reducing genomic instability and the number of mutated cells in tissues. At low doses, damage reduction by adaptive protection against damage from endogenous sources predictably outweighs radiogenic damage induction. The analysis of the consequences of the particular low-dose scenario shows that the linear-no-threshold (LNT) hypothesis for cancer risk is scientifically unfounded and appears to be invalid in favor of a threshold or hormesis. This is consistent with data both from animal studies and human epidemiological observations on low-dose induced cancer. The LNT hypothesis should be abandoned and be replaced by a hypothesis that is scientifically justified. The appropriate model should include terms for both linear and non-linear response probabilities. Maintaining the LNT-hypothesis as basis for radiation protection causes unressonable fear and expenses. (author)

  3. Does fat grafting have any beneficial effects in nerve regeneration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Bloancă1,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES The aim of our study was to assess the effect of autologous fat graft on nerve regeneration by creating a suitable experimental model. MATERIALS AND METHODS The rat sciatic nerve was used, followed by transaction. Primary neurorrhaphy was made on both hind legs, but a processed fat graft was applied on one side, surrounding the nerve. RESULTS We used histological examination for the followup, at 4 and 10 weeks. The results showed an increased and a more organised neural regeneration on the side where the fat graft was used. CONCLUSIONS The adipose-derived stem cell has clearly demonstrated its capacity to transdifferentiate. However, its specific role in this process is not yet clearly understood. We attempted to explore the blunt effect of this cell on direct neurrorhaphy. We did not observe a categorical differentiation towards Schwann like cell, but mostly an antifibrotic and antiinflammatory effect. Graphical abstract: Technical aspects of fat grafting on neurorrhaphy. REFERENCES 1. Raposio E, Caruana G, Bonomini S, Libondi G. A novel and effective strategy for the isolation of adipose-derived stem cells: minimally manipulated adipose-derived stem cells for more rapid and safe stem cell therapy. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2014;133:1406-9. 2. Zack-Williams SDL, Butler PE, Kalaskar DM. Current progress in use of adipose derived stem cells in peripheral nerve regeneration. World J Stem Cells. 2015; 7: 51–64. 3. Zuk PA. The Adipose-derived Stem Cell: Looking Back and Looking Ahead. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:1783–1787.

  4. No beneficial effect of Polidocanol treatment in Achilles tendinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, B H; Mølgaard, C M; Olesen, J L

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Polidocanol injections have been used to treat chronic Achilles tendinopathy in clinical settings, but the few studies published show inconsistent results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mid-term effect of Polidocanol in patients with chronic Achilles tendinopathy. It was hypo......PURPOSE: Polidocanol injections have been used to treat chronic Achilles tendinopathy in clinical settings, but the few studies published show inconsistent results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mid-term effect of Polidocanol in patients with chronic Achilles tendinopathy...... of Achilles tendinopathy for at least 3 months and with neovascularisation demonstrated by ultrasonography was included. A minimum of 3 months of eccentric exercise treatment was required before participating. The patients were allocated to a maximum of two injection of either Polidocanol or Lidocaine...... an improvement at 3- and 6-month follow-up, but no mid-term differences between the groups were seen. An equal number of patients in the two groups were satisfied with the treatment at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that Polidocanol is a safe treatment, but the mid-term effects are the same...

  5. Effects of prehospital nitroglycerin on hemodynamics and chest pain intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelberg, S; Singer, A J; Moldashel, J; Sciammarella, J; Thode, H C; Henry, M

    2000-01-01

    To assess the effects of prehospital nitroglycerin (NTG) on vital signs and chest pain intensity. A retrospective review of advanced life support (ALS) run sheets was performed in a suburban volunteer emergency medical services (EMS) system receiving 8,000 annual ALS calls. All consecutive patients who were administered NTG by EMS were included. Standardized forms were used to collect data on patient demographics, history, and physical exam. Patients assessed their chest pain (CP) before and after NTG on a verbal numeric scale of 0-10 from least to most severe. The presence of syncope, dysrhythmias, or profound hypotension [loss of peripheral pulses, a systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 100 mm Hg in BP] was noted. Results. One thousand six hundred sixty-two patients received NTG over 18 months, their mean age was 66 years, and 48% were female. Indications for NTG included CP (83%), dyspnea (45%), and congestive heart failure (20%). After NTG administration, the CP score decreased from 6.9 to 4.4 (mean difference = 2.6; 95% CI = 2.4 to 2.8). The CP completely resolved in 10% of the patients. Mean decreases in SBPs and diastolic BPs were 11.8 mm Hg (95% CI = 10.7 to 13.0) and 4.0 mm Hg (95% CI = 2.9 to 5.1). The mean pulse rate increased by 2.7 beats/min (95% CI = 0.6 to 4.9). There were 12 patients with adverse events [0.7% (95% CI = 0.4% to 1.3%)], including profound bradycardia and hypotension (1), transient drop in SBP of 100 mm Hg responding to fluids (6), post-NTG SBP <90 mm Hg (4), and syncope (1). There were no deaths in the prehospital setting. Use of prehospital NTG appears safe. While NTG reduces CP, most patients have residual pain.

  6. Beneficial Effects of UV-Radiation: Vitamin D and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Trummer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aside from its well-known effects on bone and mineral metabolism, vitamin D may also play an important role in extra-skeletal processes like immunologic diseases, cancer, or cardiovascular diseases. Even though meta-analyses showed that vitamin D supplementation reduces fractures, falls, and overall mortality, its potential benefits did not find universal acclaim. Several health care authorities published Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs for vitamin D, most of them ranging from 600 to 800 international units (IU per day, corresponding to a serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D of at least 20 ng/mL (50 nmol/L. However, studies conducted in the general population revealed a much lower overall intake of vitamin D than the proposed RDAs. Thus, strategies to increase the vitamin D intake in the general population, e.g., food fortification or vitamin D supplementation, are needed to match the existing evidence and recommendations. Therefore, several currently ongoing projects aim to investigate the effect of vitamin D supplementation in the general population and try to establish food-based solutions to improve vitamin D status.

  7. Mitochondrial bioenergetics decay in aging: beneficial effect of melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradies, Giuseppe; Paradies, Valeria; Ruggiero, Francesca M; Petrosillo, Giuseppe

    2017-11-01

    Aging is a biological process characterized by progressive decline in physiological functions, increased oxidative stress, reduced capacity to respond to stresses, and increased risk of contracting age-associated disorders. Mitochondria are referred to as the powerhouse of the cell through their role in the oxidative phosphorylation to generate ATP. These organelles contribute to the aging process, mainly through impairment of electron transport chain activity, opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore and increased oxidative stress. These events lead to damage to proteins, lipids and mitochondrial DNA. Cardiolipin, a phospholipid of the inner mitochondrial membrane, plays a pivotal role in several mitochondrial bioenergetic processes as well as in mitochondrial-dependent steps of apoptosis and in mitochondrial membrane stability and dynamics. Cardiolipin alterations are associated with mitochondrial bienergetics decline in multiple tissues in a variety of physiopathological conditions, as well as in the aging process. Melatonin, the major product of the pineal gland, is considered an effective protector of mitochondrial bioenergetic function. Melatonin preserves mitochondrial function by preventing cardiolipin oxidation and this may explain, at least in part, the protective role of this compound in mitochondrial physiopathology and aging. Here, mechanisms through which melatonin exerts its protective role against mitochondrial dysfunction associated with aging and age-associated disorders are discussed.

  8. Lead induced oxidative stress: beneficial effects of Kombucha tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipti, P; Yogesh, B; Kain, A K; Pauline, T; Anju, B; Sairam, M; Singh, B; Mongia, S S; Kumar, G Ilavazhagan Devendra; Selvamurthy, W

    2003-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of oral administration of Kombucha tea (K-tea) on lead induced oxidative stress. Sprague Dawley rats were administered 1 mL of 3.8% lead acetate solution daily alone or in combination with K-tea orally for 45 d, and the antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation were evaluated. Oral administration of lead acetate to rats enhanced lipid peroxidation and release of creatine phosphokinase and decreased levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD and glutathione peroxidase, GPx). Lead treatment did not alter humoral immunity, but inhibited DTH response when compared to the control. Lead administration also increased DNA fragmentation in liver. Oral administration of Kombucha tea to rats exposed to lead decreased lipid peroxidation and DNA damage with a concomitant increase in the reduced glutathione level and GPx activity. Kombucha tea supplementation relieved the lead induced immunosuppression to appreciable levels. The results suggest that K-tea has potent antioxidant and immunomodulating properties.

  9. Beneficial effects of naloxone in a patient with intestinal pseudoobstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schang, J.C.; Devroede, G.

    1985-01-01

    A 15-day course of Naloxone treatment was given to a patient with intestinal pseudoobstruction who had previously undergone subtotal colectomy with terminal ileostomy for invalidating constipation. The effects of the drug were assessed according to symptoms, by recording the myoelectric activity of the stomach, and by measuring gastric emptying of a radiolabeled solid-liquid meal and the intestinal transit time of radiopaque markers. All tests were performed 1) at baseline; 2) after 2 wk with Naloxone 1.6 mg subcutaneous per day; and 3) after 8 days of placebo. Results showed that before treatment gastric emptying of solids was delayed, emptying of liquids was normal, myoelectric activity of the stomach was normal, small intestinal transit time of radiopaque markers was considerably increased while ileal output was markedly decreased. After Naloxone, gastric emptying of solids was markedly accelerated, emptying of liquids remained normal, gastric electrical spiking activity increased, small intestinal transit time strikingly decreased, and ileal output increased. After placebo, a tendency to return to pretreatment values was observed. This observation suggests that Naloxone may be helpful in the treatment of some patients with intestinal pseudoobstruction

  10. Beneficial effects of naloxone in a patient with intestinal pseudoobstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schang, J.C.; Devroede, G.

    1985-06-01

    A 15-day course of Naloxone treatment was given to a patient with intestinal pseudoobstruction who had previously undergone subtotal colectomy with terminal ileostomy for invalidating constipation. The effects of the drug were assessed according to symptoms, by recording the myoelectric activity of the stomach, and by measuring gastric emptying of a radiolabeled solid-liquid meal and the intestinal transit time of radiopaque markers. All tests were performed 1) at baseline; 2) after 2 wk with Naloxone 1.6 mg subcutaneous per day; and 3) after 8 days of placebo. Results showed that before treatment gastric emptying of solids was delayed, emptying of liquids was normal, myoelectric activity of the stomach was normal, small intestinal transit time of radiopaque markers was considerably increased while ileal output was markedly decreased. After Naloxone, gastric emptying of solids was markedly accelerated, emptying of liquids remained normal, gastric electrical spiking activity increased, small intestinal transit time strikingly decreased, and ileal output increased. After placebo, a tendency to return to pretreatment values was observed. This observation suggests that Naloxone may be helpful in the treatment of some patients with intestinal pseudoobstruction.

  11. Possible biochemical mechanisms involved in beneficial and adverse effects of folates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Shaljyan

    2016-06-01

    Whether increased circulating folic acid is a risk factor for certain pathologies, or it might have a beneficial effect is not clear at present. Scientific community does not have a true consensus view on whether mandatory fortification is true approach.

  12. [Metabolic and hemodynamic effects of the growth hormone system - insulin-like growth factor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manhylova, T A; Gafarova, N H

    2015-01-01

    Significant congenital deficiency of growth factor (GF) results in pituitary nanism (dwarfism) and its substantial excess is accompanied by the development of gigantism or acromegaly. Its impact on the growth of the whole body or its individual parts is impossible without affecting metabolic processes and hemodynamic parameters. A number of investigations have proven that GF has a direct lipolytic effect: adequate replacement therapy for pituitary nanism gives rise to a reduction in fat depots. Since the concentration of GF is lower in obesity, Whether it may be used to treat this abnormality is considered.

  13. Hemodynamic effects of innominate artery occlusive disease on anterior cerebral artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Teng-Yeow; Lien, Li-Ming; Schminke, Ulf; Tesh, Paul; Reynolds, Patrick S; Tegeler, Charles H

    2002-01-01

    Stenoses of the innominate artery (IA) may affect flow conditions in the carotid arteries. However, alternating flow in ipsilateral anterior cerebral artery (ACA) due to IA stenosis is extremely rare. A 49-year-old woman who was evaluated for symptomatic cerebrovascular disease presented with right latent subclavian and right carotid system steal. Transcranial Doppler examination displayed systolic deceleration wave-forms in the right terminal internal carotid artery and alternating flow in the right ACA. Magnetic resonance angiography demonstrated tight stenosis of the right IA. For a thorough study of the hemodynamic effects of IA stenosis, a combination of duplex and transcranial Doppler examination is required.

  14. Hemodynamic Effects of Noninvasive Ventilation in Patients with Venocapillary Pulmonary Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Moreira Bento

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The hemodynamic effects of noninvasive ventilation with positive pressure in patients with pulmonary hypertension without left ventricular dysfunction are not clearly established. Objectives: Analyze the impact of increasing airway pressure with continuous positive airway pressure on hemodynamic parameters and, in particular, on cardiac output in patients with variable degrees of pulmonary hypertension. Methods: The study included 38 patients with pulmonary hypertension caused by mitral stenosis without left ventricular dysfunction or other significant valvulopathy. The hemodynamic state of these patients was analyzed in three conditions: baseline, after continuous positive pressure of 7 cmH2O and, finally, after pressure of 14 cmH2O. Results: The population was composed of predominantly young and female individuals with significant elevation in pulmonary arterial pressure (mean systolic pressure of 57 mmHg. Of all variables analyzed, only the right atrial pressure changed across the analyzed moments (from the baseline condition to the pressure of 14 cmH2O there was a change from 8 ± 4 mmHg to 11 ± 3 mmHg, respectively, p = 0.031. Even though there was no variation in mean cardiac output, increased values in pulmonary artery pressure were associated with increased cardiac output. There was no harmful effect or other clinical instability associated with use application of airway pressure. Conclusion: In patients with venocapillary pulmonary hypertension without left ventricular dysfunction, cardiac output response was directly associated with the degree of pulmonary hypertension. The application of noninvasive ventilation did not cause complications directly related to the ventilation systems.

  15. Effects of pleural effusion drainage on oxygenation, respiratory mechanics, and hemodynamics in mechanically ventilated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razazi, Keyvan; Thille, Arnaud W; Carteaux, Guillaume; Beji, Olfa; Brun-Buisson, Christian; Brochard, Laurent; Mekontso Dessap, Armand

    2014-09-01

    In mechanically ventilated patients, the effect of draining pleural effusion on oxygenation is controversial. We investigated the effect of large pleural effusion drainage on oxygenation, respiratory function (including lung volumes), and hemodynamics in mechanically ventilated patients after ultrasound-guided drainage. Arterial blood gases, respiratory mechanics (airway, pleural and transpulmonary pressures, end-expiratory lung volume, respiratory system compliance and resistance), and hemodynamics (blood pressure, heart rate, and cardiac output) were recorded before and at 3 and 24 hours (H24) after pleural drainage. The respiratory settings were kept identical during the study period. The mean volume of effusion drained was 1,579 ± 684 ml at H24. Uncomplicated pneumothorax occurred in two patients. Respiratory mechanics significantly improved after drainage, with a decrease in plateau pressure and a large increase in end-expiratory transpulmonary pressure. Respiratory system compliance, end-expiratory lung volume, and PaO2/FiO2 ratio all improved. Hemodynamics were not influenced by drainage. Improvement in the PaO2/FiO2 ratio from baseline to H24 was positively correlated with the increase in end-expiratory lung volume during the same time frame (r = 0.52, P = 0.033), but not with drained volume. A high value of pleural pressure or a highly negative transpulmonary pressure at baseline predicted limited lung expansion following effusion drainage. A lesser improvement in oxygenation occurred in patients with ARDS. Drainage of large (≥500 ml) pleural effusion in mechanically ventilated patients improves oxygenation and end-expiratory lung volume. Oxygenation improvement correlated with an increase in lung volume and a decrease in transpulmonary pressure, but was less so in patients with ARDS.

  16. Effects of 12 days exposure to simulated microgravity on central circulatory hemodynamics in the rhesus monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, V. A.; Koenig, S. C.; Krotov, V. P.; Fanton, J. W.; Korolkov, V. I.; Trambovetsky, E. V.; Ewert, D. L.; Truzhennikov, A.; Latham, R. D.

    1998-01-01

    Central circulatory hemodynamic responses were measured before and during the initial 9 days of a 12-day 10 degrees head-down tilt (HDT) in 4 flight-sized juvenile rhesus monkeys who were surgically instrumented with a variety of intrathoracic catheters and blood flow sensors to assess the effects of simulated microgravity on central circulatory hemodynamics. Each subject underwent measurements of aortic and left ventricular pressures, and aortic flow before and during HDT as well as during a passive head-up postural test before and after HDT. Heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output, and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure were measured, and dP/dt and left ventricular elastance was calculated from hemodynamic measurements. The postural test consisted of 5 min of supine baseline control followed by 5 minutes of 90 degrees upright tilt (HUT). Heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output, and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure showed no consistent alterations during HDT. Left ventricular elastance was reduced in all animals throughout HDT, indicating that cardiac compliance was increased. HDT did not consistently alter left ventricular +dP/dt, indicating no change in cardiac contractility. Heart rate during the post-HDT HUT postural test was elevated compared to pre-HDT while post-HDT cardiac output was decreased by 52% as a result of a 54% reduction in stroke volume throughout HUT. Results from this study using an instrumented rhesus monkey suggest that exposure to microgravity may increase ventricular compliance without alternating cardiac contractility. Our project supported the notion that an invasively-instrumented animal model should be viable for use in spaceflight cardiovascular experiments to assess potential changes in myocardial function and cardiac compliance.

  17. Beneficial effects of probiotic and food borne yeasts on human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moslehi Jenabian, Saloomeh; Pedersen, Line Lindegaard; Jespersen, Lene

    2010-01-01

    Besides being important in the fermentation of foods and beverages, yeasts have shown numerous beneficial effects on human health. Among these, propiotic effects are the most well known health effects including prevention and treatment of intestinal diseases and immunomodulatory effects. Other...

  18. [Hemodynamic and antipyretic effects of paracetamol, metamizol and dexketoprofen in critical patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, P; Zapata, L; Gich, I; Mancebo, J; Betbesé, A J

    2012-12-01

    The objective was to study the antipyretic and hemodynamic effects of three different drugs used to treat fever in critically ill patients. Prospective, observational study in a 16-bed, general ICU of a university hospital. We studied 150 patients who had a febrile episode (temperature>38°C): 50 received paracetamol, 50 metamizol and 50 dexketoprofen. None. Body temperature, systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure, heart rate, central venous pressure and oxygen saturation were determined at baseline and at 30, 60 and 120minutes after infusion of the drug. Additionally, we recorded temperature 180minutes after starting drug infusion. Diuresis and the need for or change of dose of vasodilator or vasoconstrictor drugs were also recorded. Patient characteristics, baseline temperature and hemodynamics were similar in all groups. We observed a significant decrease of at least 1°C in temperature after 180minutes in 38 patients treated with dexketoprofen (76%), in 36 with metamizol (72%), and in 20 with paracetamol (40%) (pdexketoprofen (p=0.005). Dexketoprofen was the most effective antipyretic agent at the doses tested. Although all three drugs reduced mean arterial pressure, the reduction with paracetamol was less pronounced. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  19. The hemodynamic effects of methylene blue when administered at the onset of cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andrew D; Stearns, Gary; Butala, Parag; Batula, Parag; Schwartz, Carl S; Gough, Jeffrey; Singh, Arun K

    2006-07-01

    Hypotension occurs during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), in part because of induction of the inflammatory response, for which nitric oxide and guanylate cyclase play a central role. In this study we examined the hemodynamic effects of methylene blue (MB), an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase, administered during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) to patients taking angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Thirty patients undergoing cardiac surgery were randomized to receive either MB (3 mg/kg) or saline (S) after institution of CPB and cardioplegic arrest. CPB was managed similarly for all study patients. Hemodynamic data were assessed before, during, and after CPB. The use of vasopressors was recorded. All study patients experienced a similar reduction in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) with the onset of CPB and cardioplegic arrest. MB increased MAP and SVR and this effect lasted for 40 minutes. The saline group demonstrated a persistently reduced MAP and SVR throughout CPB. The saline group received phenylephrine more frequently during CPB, and more norepinephrine after CPB to maintain a desirable MAP. The MB group recorded significantly lower serum lactate levels despite equal or greater MAP and SVR. In conclusion, administration of MB after institution of CPB for patients taking angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors increased MAP and SVR and reduced the need for vasopressors. Furthermore, serum lactate levels were lower in MB patients, suggesting more favorable tissue perfusion.

  20. Beneficial effects of prolonged blood pressure control after carotid artery stenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang A

    2017-01-01

    positive correlations between the mean or maximal SBP reductions 6 h post-CAS and SBP reductions 1 year post-CAS (β =0.20±0.07, P=0.0067 and β =0.47±0.10, P<0.0001, respectively. Conclusion: As compared to medical treatment alone, CAS may provide significant beneficial effect on long-term BP control 1 year post-CAS. Furthermore, SBP reductions 6 h post-CAS may predict the SBP reductions 1 year post-CAS. Keywords: carotid artery stenosis, hemodynamics, cerebral autoregulation, baroreflex, post-stenting hypotension, antihypertensive agents

  1. [Effect of cupping on hemodynamic levels in the regional sucked tissues in patients with lumbago].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiao; Xiao, Xue-Hua; Zhang, Guo-Qing

    2012-10-01

    To observe hemodynamic changes in the local sucked tissue of lower back undergoing negative pressure after cupping in patients with lumbago. Twenty-two lumbago outpatients were recruited in the present study and 32 sucked tissues accepted measurements. The cupping was applied to the tenderpoint of the patients' lower back for 10 min by using a glass-mug (5 cm in diameter). Hemodynamic indexes [peak systolic velocity (PSV), end-diastolic velocity (EDV) and resistance index (RI)] of the sucked skin and subcutaneous tissues at the lower back were detected before and after cupping by using a color Doppler flow imaging. After cupping intervention at the lower back, the PSV [(14.2 +/- 1.8) cm/s] and EDV [(5.5 +/- 0.7) cm/s] levels were increased significantly in comparison with those [(5.9 +/- 0.9) and (1.9 +/- 0.3) cm/s] before cupping (P cupping (0.61 +/- 0.05 vs 0.68 +/- 0.06, P Cupping therapy can increase the peak systolic velocity and end-diastolic velocity and lower vascular resistance of the subcutaneous arterioles in the regional tissue, which may contribute to its effect in relieving lumbago.

  2. Effects of Propofol and Midazolam on Newborns’ Apgar Scores and Mothers’ Hemodynamic under Spinal Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Kalani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available At present, cesarean section is the most prevalent surgical procedure in women and the anesthesia performed for it has turned into a selective technique. This study compared the effects of midazolam and propofol on newborns’ Apgar scores and on the hemodynamic status of the mothers undergoing cesarean sections. This research, in the form of a double-blind clinical trial, was carried out on forty-two15 - 35 year-old of class ASAI and II pregnant women who underwent cesarean section. Using the simple random method, they were divided into two groups of equal members: 21 in the Propofol and 21 in the midazolam groups. The newborns’ Apgar scores were recorded 1 and 5 minutes after birth and the mothers’ hemodynamic status 3, 5, 10, 15, 30, 60 minutes into the surgical procedure. The data was analyzed using SPSS, the repeated measurement test, and the independent t-test. One and five minutes after birth, there were no significant differences between the newborns’ Apgar scores in the two groups (p=0.08, or between the two groups (p=0.33. Results showed there were no statistically significant differences between the Apgar scores of the newborns at low doses of midazolam and propofol.

  3. The effects of healthy aging on cerebral hemodynamic responses to posture change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edlow, Brian L; Greenberg, Joel H; Detre, John A; Kim, Meeri N; Durduran, Turgut; Zhou, Chao; Yodh, Arjun G; Putt, Mary E

    2010-01-01

    Aging is associated with an increased incidence of orthostatic hypotension, impairment of the baroreceptor reflex and lower baseline cerebral blood flow. The effect of aging on cerebrovascular autoregulation, however, remains to be fully elucidated. We used a novel optical instrument to assess microvascular cerebral hemodynamics in the frontal lobe cortex of 60 healthy subjects ranging from ages 20–78. Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) were used to measure relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF), total hemoglobin concentration (THC), oxyhemoglobin concentration (HbO 2 ) and deoxyhemoglobin concentration (Hb). Cerebral hemodynamics were monitored for 5 min at each of the following postures: head-of-bed 30°, supine, standing and supine. Supine-to-standing posture change caused significant declines in rCBF, THC and HbO 2 , and an increase in Hb, across the age continuum (p < 0.01). Healthy aging did not alter postural changes in frontal cortical rCBF (p = 0.23) and was associated with a smaller magnitude of decline in HbO 2 (p < 0.05) during supine-to-standing posture change. We conclude that healthy aging does not alter postural changes in frontal cortical perfusion

  4. Hemodynamic effects of 6% hydroxyethyl starch infusion in sevoflurane-anesthetized thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Minoru; Kurimoto, Shinjiro; Tokushige, Hirotaka; Kuroda, Taisuke; Ishikawa, Yuhiro

    2013-07-31

    To determine hemodynamic effects of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) infusion during anesthesia in horses, incremental doses of 6% HES were administered to 6 healthy Thoroughbred horses. Anesthesia was induced with xylazine, guaifenesin and thiopental and maintained with sevoflurane at 2.8% of end-tidal concentration in all horses. The horses were positioned in right lateral recumbency and administered 3 intravenous dose of 6% HES (5 ml/kg) over 15 min with 15-min intervals in addition to constant infusion of lactated Ringer's solution at 10 ml/kg/hr. Hemodynamic parameters were measured before and every 15 min until 90 min after the administration of 6% HES. There was no significant change in heart rate and arterial blood pressures throughout the experiment. The HES administration produced significant increases in mean right atrial pressure, stroke volume, cardiac output (CO) and decrease in systemic vascular resistance (SVR) in a dose-dependent manner. There was no significant change in electrolytes (Na(+), K(+), Cl(-)) throughout the experiment, however, packed cell volume, hemoglobin concentration, and total protein and albumin concentrations decreased in a dose-dependent manner following the HES administration. In conclusion, the HES administration provides a dose-dependent increase in CO, but has no impact upon arterial blood pressures due to a simultaneous decrease in SVR.

  5. Determination of effective dose for workers hemodynamics service using double dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz Lopez, M. A.; Lobato Munoz, M.; Jodar Lopez, C. A.; Ramirez Ros, J. C.; Jerez Sainz, M. I.; Pamos Urena, M.; Carrasco Rodriguez, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    The use of an additional dosimeter at the level of the neck above the lead apron we can provide an indication of the dose in the head (the Crystal dose). In addition, it is possible to combine the two readings of the dosimeter to provide an improved estimate of the effective dose. In the hemodynamics service of our Hospital we have maintained a worker for 3 years with the double dosimetry read monthly. With the readings from these dosimeters will do following algorithms, several estimates of the effective dose to see if, with working conditions that occur in this service, it would be necessary to extend this practice to the rest of the workers to get a better estimation of effective dose. (Author)

  6. Exploiting the Adaptation Dynamics to Predict the Distribution of Beneficial Fitness Effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona John

    Full Text Available Adaptation of asexual populations is driven by beneficial mutations and therefore the dynamics of this process, besides other factors, depends on the distribution of beneficial fitness effects. It is known that on uncorrelated fitness landscapes, this distribution can only be of three types: truncated, exponential and power law. We performed extensive stochastic simulations to study the adaptation dynamics on rugged fitness landscapes, and identified two quantities that can be used to distinguish the underlying distribution of beneficial fitness effects. The first quantity studied here is the fitness difference between successive mutations that spread in the population, which is found to decrease in the case of truncated distributions, remains nearly a constant for exponentially decaying distributions and increases when the fitness distribution decays as a power law. The second quantity of interest, namely, the rate of change of fitness with time also shows quantitatively different behaviour for different beneficial fitness distributions. The patterns displayed by the two aforementioned quantities are found to hold good for both low and high mutation rates. We discuss how these patterns can be exploited to determine the distribution of beneficial fitness effects in microbial experiments.

  7. Comparative Study of the Clonidin and Propranolol Effect in the Prevention of Hemodynamic Changes after Electroconvulsive Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moradi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: ECT is an inevitable therapy for many of psychiatric patients. During ECT severe hemodynamic changes occur which may cause dangerous cardiovascular complications especially in elderly patients with cardiac disease and may lead to arrhythmia,ischemia and myocardial infarction. The purpose of this study was to show the effect of clonidin and propranolol on the prevention of hemodynamic changes following the ECT.Materials & Methods: This study was a controlled double blind clinical trial which was carried out on 31 patients ASA I, II hospitalized in psychiatry ward of Hamadan Sina hospital who were in need of ECT. In order to increase the accuracy of the study the personal factors on the drug metabolism were omitted and the chosen patients were given ECT three times separately with the interval of 48 hours. Two hours before every ECT clonidin (0.2 mg, propranolol (40 mg and placebo (vitamin c were administered and after each ECT the hemodynamic parameters including systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, rate pressure product and ECG were measured at certain intervals and recorded on information forms and then analyzed by SPSS 9 soft ware. Results: The result of this study showed that the average changes of hemodynamic parameters in different times occurred in all groups significantly(p<0.001. Following ECT, arrhythmia in control group has been plentiful in comparison with the other two groups, and the changes were statistically meaningful (p=0.001.Conclusion: We concluded that the modifying hemodynamic changes and decrease of arrhythmia taking the drugs in comparison with placebo have been more effective and of the two drugs, propranolol has been more effective on the prevention of hemodynamic changes after ECT.

  8. Revaccination with Live Attenuated Vaccines Confer Additional Beneficial Nonspecific Effects on Overall Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine S; Fisker, Ane B; Whittle, Hilton C

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Live vaccines against measles (MV), tuberculosis (BCG), polio (OPV) and smallpox reduce mortality more than explained by target-disease prevention. The beneficial nonspecific effects (NSEs) of MV are strongest when MV is given in presence of maternal antibodies. We therefore hypothesi......BACKGROUND: Live vaccines against measles (MV), tuberculosis (BCG), polio (OPV) and smallpox reduce mortality more than explained by target-disease prevention. The beneficial nonspecific effects (NSEs) of MV are strongest when MV is given in presence of maternal antibodies. We therefore...

  9. Modeling of pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and hemodynamic effects of macitentan in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Andreas; Zisowsky, Jochen; Dingemanse, Jasper

    2018-04-01

    Macitentan is the first endothelin receptor antagonist with demonstrated efficacy on morbidity and mortality in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in the pivotal study SERAPHIN. The pharmacokinetics (PK) of macitentan and its active metabolite, ACT-132577, were characterized in a population model. Efficacy and hemodynamics (pharmacodynamics, PD) were related to PK based on PK/PD modeling. Sex, age, and body weight influenced the PK to a statistically significant extent. Model-based simulations showed that these variables are clinically not relevant. Concomitant use of PAH medication (PDE-5 inhibitors) did not influence macitentan trough concentration to a relevant extent. Efficacy and hemodynamics showed clear differences from placebo for macitentan concentrations on 3 and 10 mg with consistent superior effects for 10 mg. After 6 months, PAH patients showed model-predicted 6-min walk distance (6-MWD) improvements of 1.0 m on placebo compared to 29.8 and 34.1 m on 3 and 10 mg of macitentan, respectively. Higher macitentan concentrations were associated with reductions in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), mean right atrial and pulmonary arterial pressure, and total pulmonary resistance (TPR) and increases in cardiac index (CI) and mixed venous oxygen saturation. Statistical significance was determined for PVR, TPR, and CI but not for 6-MWD. In addition, PVR showed more pronounced differences between active treatment and placebo than 6-MWD. Modeling identified statistically significant inter-patient differences; simulations to assess the magnitude of the effects permitted clinical judgment. The same approach will allow for extrapolation to children. Hemodynamic markers might be better markers of treatment effects than 6-MWD. The SERAPHIN study and its open-label extension are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov with identifiers NCT00660179 (https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00660179) and NCT00667823 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show

  10. The Effect of Post-Reproductive Lifespan on the Fixation Probability of Beneficial Mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giaimo, Stefano; Baudisch, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Post-reproductive lifespan is a common trait among mammals and is usually considered to be neutral; i.e. with no influence on population dynamics. Here, we explore the role of post-reproductive lifespan in the fixation probability of beneficial genetic variation. We compare two separate, stationary...... populations living in a constant environment that are equivalent except for the average time their respective members spend in the post-reproductive stage of life. Using a recently derived approximation, we show that fixation of a beneficial mutation is more likely in the population with greater post......-reproductive longevity. This finding is surprising, as the population with more prolonged post-reproductive lifespan has smaller effective size and the classic population-genetic model would suggest that decreasing effective size reduces fixation chances of beneficial mutations. Yet, as we explain, in the age...

  11. Transdermal glyceryl trinitrate (nitroglycerin in healthy persons: acute effects on skin temperature and hemodynamic orthostatic response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Maria Augusta Boeckh Haebisch

    Full Text Available In order to find an explanation for individual reactions to transdermal glyceryl trinitrate (GTN we studied the skin temperature and hemodynamic reactions in 63 healthy persons. The data were obtained before and after the application of GTN and Glycerin (GL placebo patches, during one hour. The skin temperature was measured on both forearms, the local (left sided and systemic (right sided reaction on GTN was related to the skin fold and the calculated body fat content. The bilateral rise of skin temperature and its duration was higher and longer in obese than in lean persons mainly in obese women. The UV induced thermo and the later photothermoreaction (Erythema was reduced on the left forearm after the application of GTN and GL patches. The observed hemodynamic GTN effect confirmed known postural reactions, such as decreased arterial pressure (ΔmAP = -2.9%, increased heart rate (ΔHR = +7,4% and QTc prolongation (ΔQTc = +4,9% in upright position. An adverse drug effect with increased mean blood pressure (ΔmAP = +12% and increased heart rate (ΔHR = + 10.4% mainly in supine position was observed in 11 % of the participants, but only in men. Such a reaction was already described by Murell, 1879. Individual GTN effects were analyzed and related to habits and family history. In male smokers and in persons with hypertensive and diabetic close relatives, the hypotensive GTN effect was accentuated in supine position. In the upright position the group with hypertensives in the family presented a moderate hypotensive reaction without secondary tachycardia and the smokers presented only a slightly increased heart rate. Our observations suggest that individual reactions to transdermal glyceryl trinitrate (GTN with its active component nitric oxide (NO depends on physiological conditions, related to endogenous vasoactive substances, mainly the interaction with EDRF (the endogenous NO and the activity of the Renin-Angiotensin System.

  12. Hemodynamic Effects of Ventricular Assist Device Implantation on Norwood, Glenn, and Fontan Circulation: A Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Molfetta, Arianna; Amodeo, Antonio; Gagliardi, Maria G; Trivella, Maria G; Fresiello, Libera; Filippelli, Sergio; Toscano, Alessandra; Ferrari, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    The growing population of failing single-ventricle (SV) patients might benefit from ventricular assist device (VAD) support as a bridge to heart transplantation. However, the documented experience is limited to isolated case reports. Considering the complex and different physiopathology of Norwood, Glenn, and Fontan patients and the lack of established experience, the aim of this work is to realize and test a lumped parameter model of the cardiovascular system able to simulate SV hemodynamics and VAD implantation effects to support clinical decision. Hemodynamic and echocardiographic data of 30 SV patients (10 Norwood, 10 Glenn, and 10 Fontan) were retrospectively collected and used to simulate patients' baseline. Then, the effects of VAD implantation were simulated. Simulation results suggest that the implantation of VAD: (i) increases the cardiac output and the mean arterial systemic pressure in all the three palliation conditions (Norwood 77.2 and 19.7%, Glenn 38.6 and 32.2%, and Fontan 17.2 and 14.2%); (ii) decreases the SV external work (Norwood 55%, Glenn 35.6%, and Fontan 41%); (iii) decreases the pressure pulsatility index (Norwood 65.2%, Glenn 81.3%, and Fontan 64.8%); (iv) increases the pulmonary arterial pressure in particular in the Norwood circulation (Norwood 39.7%, Glenn 12.1% and Fontan 3%); and (v) decreases the atrial pressure (Norwood 2%, Glenn 10.6%, and Fontan 8.6%). Finally, the VAD work is lower in the Norwood circulation (30.4 mL·mm Hg) in comparison with Fontan (40.3 mL·mm Hg) and to Glenn (64.5 mL·mm Hg) circulations. The use of VAD in SV physiology could be helpful to bridge patients to heart transplantations by increasing the CO and unloading the SV with a decrement of the atrial pressure and the SV external work. The regulation of the pulmonary flow is challenging because the Pap is increased by the presence of VAD. The hemodynamic changes are different in the different SV palliation step. The use of numerical models

  13. Differential hemodynamic effects of exercise and volume expansion in people with and without heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Jønsson; Olson, Thomas P; Melenovsky, Vojtech

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Invasive hemodynamic exercise testing is commonly used in the evaluation of patients with suspected heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) or pulmonary hypertension. Saline loading has been suggested as an alternative provocative maneuver, but the hemodynamic changes...

  14. Encephalic hemodynamic phases in subarachnoid hemorrhage: how to improve the protective effect in patient prognoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Lima Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Subarachnoid hemorrhage is frequently associated with poor prognoses. Three different hemodynamic phases were identified during subarachnoid hemorrhage: oligemia, hyperemia, and vasospasm. Each phase is associated with brain metabolic changes. In this review, we correlated the hemodynamic phases with brain metabolism and potential treatment options in the hopes of improving patient prognoses.

  15. Numerical analysis of the effect of turbulence transition on the hemodynamic parameters in human coronary arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalingam, Arun; Gawandalkar, Udhav Ulhas; Kini, Girish; Buradi, Abdulrajak; Araki, Tadashi; Ikeda, Nobutaka; Nicolaides, Andrew; Laird, John R; Saba, Luca; Suri, Jasjit S

    2016-06-01

    Local hemodynamics plays an important role in atherogenesis and the progression of coronary atherosclerosis disease (CAD). The primary biological effect due to blood turbulence is the change in wall shear stress (WSS) on the endothelial cell membrane, while the local oscillatory nature of the blood flow affects the physiological changes in the coronary artery. In coronary arteries, the blood flow Reynolds number ranges from few tens to several hundreds and hence it is generally assumed to be laminar while calculating the WSS calculations. However, the pulsatile blood flow through coronary arteries under stenotic condition could result in transition from laminar to turbulent flow condition. In the present work, the onset of turbulent transition during pulsatile flow through coronary arteries for varying degree of stenosis (i.e., 0%, 30%, 50% and 70%) is quantitatively analyzed by calculating the turbulent parameters distal to the stenosis. Also, the effect of turbulence transition on hemodynamic parameters such as WSS and oscillatory shear index (OSI) for varying degree of stenosis is quantified. The validated transitional shear stress transport (SST) k-ω model used in the present investigation is the best suited Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes turbulence model to capture the turbulent transition. The arterial wall is assumed to be rigid and the dynamic curvature effect due to myocardial contraction on the blood flow has been neglected. Our observations shows that for stenosis 50% and above, the WSSavg, WSSmax and OSI calculated using turbulence model deviates from laminar by more than 10% and the flow disturbances seems to significantly increase only after 70% stenosis. Our model shows reliability and completely validated. Blood flow through stenosed coronary arteries seems to be turbulent in nature for area stenosis above 70% and the transition to turbulent flow begins from 50% stenosis.

  16. The Adverse Events and Hemodynamic Effects of Adenosine-Based Cardiac MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigtlander, Thomas; Magedanz, Annett; Schmermund, Axel; Bramlage, Peter; Elsaesser, Amelie; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Mohrs, Oliver K.

    2011-01-01

    We wanted to prospectively assess the adverse events and hemodynamic effects associated with an intravenous adenosine infusion in patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease and who were undergoing cardiac MRI. One hundred and sixty-eight patients (64 ± 9 years) received adenosine (140 μg/kg/min) during cardiac MRI. Before and during the administration, the heart rate, systemic blood pressure, and oxygen saturation were monitored using a MRI-compatible system. We documented any signs and symptoms of potential adverse events. In total, 47 out of 168 patients (28%) experienced adverse effects, which were mostly mild or moderate. In 13 patients (8%), the adenosine infusion was discontinued due to intolerable dyspnea or chest pain. No high grade atrioventricular block, bronchospasm or other life-threatening adverse events occurred. The hemodynamic measurements showed a significant increase in the heart rate during adenosine infusion (69.3 ± 11.7 versus 82.4 ± 13.0 beats/min, respectively; p < 0.001). A significant but clinically irrelevant increase in oxygen saturation occurred during adenosine infusion (96 ± 1.9% versus 97 ± 1.3%, respectively; p < 0.001). The blood pressure did not significantly change during adenosine infusion (systolic: 142.8 ± 24.0 versus 140.9 ± 25.7 mmHg; diastolic: 80.2 ± 12.5 mmHg versus 78.9 ± 15.6, respectively). This study confirms the safety of adenosine infusion during cardiac MRI. A considerable proportion of all patients will experience minor adverse effects and some patients will not tolerate adenosine infusion. However, all adverse events can be successfully managed by a radiologist. The increased heart rate during adenosine infusion highlights the need to individually adjust the settings according to the patient, e.g., the number of slices of myocardial perfusion imaging.

  17. Acute Effect of Hypervolemic Hemodilution on Retrobulbar Hemodynamics in Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Bienert

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Ischemic ocular disorders may be treated by hypervolemic hemodilution. The presumed therapeutic benefit is based on a volume effect and improved rheological factors. The aim was to investigate the acute effect of intravenous hydroxyethyl starch on retrobulbar hemodynamics in patients with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION. Methods. 24 patients with acute NAION were included. Retrobulbar hemodynamics were measured using color Doppler imaging before and 15 min after intravenous infusion of 250 cc 10% hydroxyethyl starch (HES. Peak systolic velocity (PSV, end diastolic velocity (EDV, and Pourcelot’s resistive index (RI were measured in the ophthalmic artery (OA, central retinal artery (CRA, and short posterior ciliary arteries (PCAs. Results. After infusion of HES blood flow velocities significantly increased in the CRA (PSV from 7.53±2.33 to 8.32±2.51  (p<0.001; EDV from 2.16±0.56 to 2.34±0.55  (p<0.05 and in the PCAs (PSV from 7.18±1.62 to 7.56±1.55  (p<0.01; EDV from 2.48±0.55 to 2.66±0.6 cm/sec (p<0.01. The RI of all retrobulbar vessels remained unaffected. Blood pressure and heart rate remained unchanged. Conclusions. Hypervolemic hemodilution has an acute effect on blood flow velocities in the CRA and PCAs in NAION patients. Increased blood flow in the arteries supplying the optic nerve head may lead to a better perfusion in NAION patients. This trial is registered with DRKS00012603.

  18. Acute beneficial hemodynamic effects of a novel 3D-echocardiographic optimization protocol in cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Sonne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Post-implantation therapies to optimize cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT focus on adjustments of the atrio-ventricular (AV delay and ventricular-to-ventricular (VV interval. However, there is little consensus on how to achieve best resynchronization with these parameters. The aim of this study was to examine a novel combination of doppler echocardiography (DE and three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE for individualized optimization of device based AV delays and VV intervals compared to empiric programming. METHODS: 25 recipients of CRT (male: 56%, mean age: 67 years were included in this study. Ejection fraction (EF, the primary outcome parameter, and left ventricular (LV dimensions were evaluated by 3DE before CRT (baseline, after AV delay optimization while pacing the ventricles simultaneously (empiric VV interval programming and after individualized VV interval optimization. For AV delay optimization aortic velocity time integral (AoVTI was examined in eight different AV delays, and the AV delay with the highest AoVTI was programmed. For individualized VV interval optimization 3DE full-volume datasets of the left ventricle were obtained and analyzed to derive a systolic dyssynchrony index (SDI, calculated from the dispersion of time to minimal regional volume for all 16 LV segments. Consecutively, SDI was evaluated in six different VV intervals (including LV or right ventricular preactivation, and the VV interval with the lowest SDI was programmed (individualized optimization. RESULTS: EF increased from baseline 23±7% to 30±8 (p<0.001 after AV delay optimization and to 32±8% (p<0.05 after individualized optimization with an associated decrease of end-systolic volume from a baseline of 138±60 ml to 115±42 ml (p<0.001. Moreover, individualized optimization significantly reduced SDI from a baseline of 14.3±5.5% to 6.1±2.6% (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with empiric programming of biventricular pacemakers, individualized echocardiographic optimization with the integration of 3-dimensional indices into the optimization protocol acutely improved LV systolic function and decreased ESV and can be used to select the optimal AV delay and VV interval in CRT.

  19. The effect of intravenous PACAP38 on cerebral hemodynamics in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Steffen; Sitarz, John Thomas; Petersen, Kenneth Ahrend

    2007-01-01

    .9+/-22.4% (Peffect on rCBF in healthy volunteers. The marked increase in heart rate and the reduction in rCBF caused by decreased P(et)CO(2) are important dose-limiting factors to consider in future clinical studies.......PACAP38 is an endogenous peptide located in trigeminal perivascular nerve fibers in the brain. It reduces neuronal loss and infarct size in animal stroke models and has been proposed a candidate substance for human clinical studies of stroke. The effect on systemic hemodynamics and regional......CBF was measured with SPECT and (133)Xe inhalation and mean blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery was measured with transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. End tidal partial pressure of CO(2) (P(et)CO(2)) and vital parameters were recorded throughout the 2 hour study period. PACAP38 decreased rCBF in all...

  20. Hemodynamic Effects of Phenylephrine, Vasopressin, and Epinephrine in Children With Pulmonary Hypertension: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siehr, Stephanie L; Feinstein, Jeffrey A; Yang, Weiguang; Peng, Lynn F; Ogawa, Michelle T; Ramamoorthy, Chandra

    2016-05-01

    During a pulmonary hypertensive crisis, the marked increase in pulmonary vascular resistance can result in acute right ventricular failure and death. Currently, there are no therapeutic guidelines for managing an acute crisis. This pilot study examined the hemodynamic effects of phenylephrine, arginine vasopressin, and epinephrine in pediatric patients with pulmonary hypertension. In this prospective, open-label, nonrandomized pilot study, we enrolled pediatric patients previously diagnosed with pulmonary hypertensive who were scheduled electively for cardiac catheterization. Primary outcome was a change in the ratio of pulmonary-to-systemic vascular resistance. Baseline hemodynamic data were collected before and after the study drug was administered. Eleven of 15 participants were women, median age was 9.2 years (range, 1.7-14.9 yr), and median weight was 26.8 kg (range, 8.5-55.2 kg). Baseline mean pulmonary artery pressure was 49 ± 19 mm Hg, and mean indexed pulmonary vascular resistance was 10 ± 5.4 Wood units. Etiology of pulmonary hypertensive varied, and all were on systemic pulmonary hypertensive medications. Patients 1-5 received phenylephrine 1 μg/kg; patients 6-10 received arginine vasopressin 0.03 U/kg; and patients 11-15 received epinephrine 1 μg/kg. Hemodynamics was measured continuously for up to 10 minutes following study drug administration. After study drug administration, the ratio of pulmonary-to-systemic vascular resistance decreased in three of five patients receiving phenylephrine, five of five patients receiving arginine vasopressin, and three of five patients receiving epinephrine. Although all three medications resulted in an increase in aortic pressure, only arginine vasopressin consistently resulted in a decrease in the ratio of systolic pulmonary artery-to-aortic pressure. This prospective pilot study of phenylephrine, arginine vasopressin, and epinephrine in pediatric patients with pulmonary hypertensive showed an increase in aortic

  1. The effect of TACE with endostatin on hemodynamics in hepatic implantation tumor using Doppler ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Guangli; Wu Yuanyuan; Wang Bin; Liu Yan; Zheng Chuanli; Sang Li; Liu Feng

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the hemodynamic changes in the rabbit liver and VX2 hepatic implantation tumor after treatment by transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE)/endostatin using Doppler ultrasonography. Methods: Twenty rabbits with VX2 hepatic tumor were randomly distributed into the control group (n=10) and the anti- angiogenesis group (n=10). The rabbits were administered with endostatin and adriamycin-lipiodol in the anti-angiogenesis group and with 37℃ saline in the control group via hepatic artery. The hemodynamic changes of the tumors, hepatic artery, and portal vein were recorded with Doppler ultrasonography 1 week after the treatment. The results before and after the treatment were compared. Results: In the control group, the maximal hepatic artery blood flow velocity was significantly higher than that before the treatment (P<0.05). However, the resistance index and the portal vein blood flow velocities had no significantly change compared with those before the treatment (P>0.05). In the anti-angiogenesis group, the hepatic artery blood flow velocity was significantly lower than that before the treatment (P<0.05), and the resistance index was increased (P<0.05). However, the portal vein blood flow velocity had no significantly change (P>0.05). The blood flow signal in all tumors was rich before embolization. After TACE, the blood flow signal was significantly decreased, even partly disappeared in the anti-angiogenesis group. Conclusion: TACE with endostatin can effectively block the blood supplement of VX2 hepatic implantation tumor. Doppler ultrasonography can detected the blood flow changes and can be used in evaluating the therapeutic effect in hepatic implantation tumor. (authors)

  2. The effect of inlet waveforms on computational hemodynamics of patient-specific intracranial aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, J; Siddiqui, A H; Meng, H

    2014-12-18

    Due to the lack of patient-specific inlet flow waveform measurements, most computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of intracranial aneurysms usually employ waveforms that are not patient-specific as inlet boundary conditions for the computational model. The current study examined how this assumption affects the predicted hemodynamics in patient-specific aneurysm geometries. We examined wall shear stress (WSS) and oscillatory shear index (OSI), the two most widely studied hemodynamic quantities that have been shown to predict aneurysm rupture, as well as maximal WSS (MWSS), energy loss (EL) and pressure loss coefficient (PLc). Sixteen pulsatile CFD simulations were carried out on four typical saccular aneurysms using 4 different waveforms and an identical inflow rate as inlet boundary conditions. Our results demonstrated that under the same mean inflow rate, different waveforms produced almost identical WSS distributions and WSS magnitudes, similar OSI distributions but drastically different OSI magnitudes. The OSI magnitude is correlated with the pulsatility index of the waveform. Furthermore, there is a linear relationship between aneurysm-averaged OSI values calculated from one waveform and those calculated from another waveform. In addition, different waveforms produced similar MWSS, EL and PLc in each aneurysm. In conclusion, inlet waveform has minimal effects on WSS, OSI distribution, MWSS, EL and PLc and a strong effect on OSI magnitude, but aneurysm-averaged OSI from different waveforms has a strong linear correlation with each other across different aneurysms, indicating that for the same aneurysm cohort, different waveforms can consistently stratify (rank) OSI of aneurysms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Preserving the Beneficial Effects of Evangelistic Preaching: Billy Graham's Follow-Up Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Carolyn

    A study investigated evangelist Billy Graham's numerical success in using "the invitation" and the Billy Graham Evangelistic Association's (BGEA) follow-up plan to preserve the beneficial effects of Christian commitment and to minimize commitment attrition. Statistics on audience response gathered throughout Graham's ministry attest to…

  4. Transfusion of banked red blood cells and the effects on hemorrheology and microvascular hemodynamics in anemic hematology outpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yürük, Koray; Milstein, Dan M. J.; Bezemer, Rick; Bartels, Sebastiaan A.; Biemond, Bart J.; Ince, Can

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion on the hemorrheologic properties and microcirculatory hemodynamics in anemic hematology outpatients receiving 2 to 4 RBC units of either fresh (leukoreduced storage for less than 1week) or aged

  5. Effects of thrombin inhibition with melagatran on renal hemodynamics and function and liver integrity during early endotoxemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nitescu, Nicoletta; Grimberg, Elisabeth; Ricksten, Sven-Erik

    2007-01-01

    Sepsis is associated with an activation of the coagulation system and multiorgan failure. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of selective thrombin inhibition with melagatran on renal hemodynamics and function, and liver integrity, during early endotoxemia. Endotoxemia was induced...

  6. RENAL AND SYSTEMIC HEMODYNAMIC-EFFECTS OF IBOPAMINE IN PATIENTS WITH MILD-TO-MODERATE CONGESTIVE-HEART-FAILURE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LIEVERSE, AG; VANVELDHUISEN, DJ; SMIT, AJ; ZIJLSTRA, JG; MEIJER, S; REITSMA, WD; LIE, KI; GIRBES, ARJ

    To study the hemodynamic and renal effects of the orally (p.o.) active dopamine (DA) agonist ibopamine, we examined 10 patients with mild to moderate congestive heart failure (CHF), who were stable while treated with digoxin and diuretics. All patients were in New York Heart Association (NYHA)

  7. Ductus arteriosus with left-to-right shunt during venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: effects on cerebral oxygenation and hemodynamics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heyst, A.F.J. van; Staak, F.H.J.M. van der; Hopman, J.C.W.; Tanke, R.B.; Sengers, R.C.A.; Liem, K.D.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect on cerebral oxygenation and hemodynamics of a patent ductus arteriosus with left-to-right shunt during venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in a lamb model. DESIGN: Prospective intervention study in animals. SETTING: Animal research laboratory of a

  8. Renal Hemodynamic Effects of Serelaxin in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voors, Adriaan A.; Dahlke, Marion; Meyer, Sven; Stepinska, Janina; Gottlieb, Stephen S.; Jones, Andrew; Zhang, Yiming; Laurent, Didier; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; Navis, Gerjan J.

    2014-01-01

    Background-Serelaxin is a promising therapy for acute heart failure. The renal hemodynamic effects of serelaxin in patients with chronic heart failure are unknown. Methods and Results-In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter study, patients with New York Heart Association

  9. Effects of rapid versus slow infusion of sodium bicarbonate on cerebral hemodynamics and oxygenation in preterm infants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velden, A.A.E.M. van der; Hopman, J.C.W.; Klaessens, J.H.G.M.; Feuth, A.B.; Sengers, R.C.A.; Liem, K.D.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) is often used for correction of metabolic acidosis in preterm infants. The effects of NaHCO3 administration on cerebral hemodynamics and oxygenation are not well known. Furthermore, there is no consensus on infusion rate of NaHCO3. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the

  10. The Effect of Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy Process on Hemodynamic, Electrolyte and Acid-Base Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan Baş

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Operation of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL, is the most commonly used method of renal stone surgery. During this operation, kidney must be continually irrigated with isotonic liquid. In our study, we investigated the volume of irrigation, irrigation duration, input the number of percutaneous renal parenchymal thickness and the degree of this finding the effects of on hemodynamic, electrolyte and metabolic changes. Method: 64 patient with an indication for percutaneous nephrolithotomy were included in the study. Before irrigation, during irrigation and the post- irrigation; pulse, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (bp, electrolytes, arterial blood gases were measured. In preoperative and postoperative 1. and 24. hours hemoglobin, creatinine levels were measured. Before the operation; pelvicaliectasis degree, parenchymal thickness, volume and duration of irrigation and the number of percutaneous entry were recorded in all patients. Results: Following the start of irrigation, changes in diastolic and systolic bp and pulse also not statistically significant. No significant change of partial oxygen, carbon dioxide, and oxygen saturation pressure was observed. After the operation, serum sodium, potassium, calcium values are within normal limits, but when compared with preoperative values the decrease of these values statistically significant were observed. Bicarbonate and ph values with irrigation period had a negative correlation. Although not clinically significant parenchymal thickness was found to be negative correlation with decrease of calcium. Additionally degrees of pelvicaliectasis has been found negative correlation with the decrease of sodium and bicarbonate. Conclusion: Hemodynamics and electrolytes did not change significantly both during and after the PNL process, but metabolic acidosis was observed towards the end of the PNL process. In long-term irrigation, repeated percutaneous entrances, people with moderate and severe

  11. Hemodynamic effect of bypass geometry on intracranial aneurysm: A numerical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurşun, Burak; Uğur, Levent; Keskin, Gökhan

    2018-05-01

    Hemodynamic analyzes are used in the clinical investigation and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, the effect of bypass geometry on intracranial aneurysm hemodynamics was investigated numerically. Pressure, wall shear stress (WSS) and velocity distribution causing the aneurysm to grow and rupture were investigated and the best conditions were tried to be determined in case of bypassing between basilar (BA) and left/right posterior arteries (LPCA/RPCA) for different values of parameters. The finite volume method was used for numerical solutions and calculations were performed with the ANSYS-Fluent software. The SIMPLE algorithm was used to solve the discretized conservation equations. Second Order Upwind method was preferred for finding intermediate point values in the computational domain. As the blood flow velocity changes with time, the blood viscosity value also changes. For this reason, the Carreu model was used in determining the viscosity depending on the velocity. Numerical study results showed that when bypassed, pressure and wall shear stresses reduced in the range of 40-70% in the aneurysm. Numerical results obtained are presented in graphs including the variation of pressure, wall shear stress and velocity streamlines in the aneurysm. Considering the numerical results for all parameter values, it is seen that the most important factors affecting the pressure and WSS values in bypassing are the bypass position on the basilar artery (L b ) and the diameter of the bypass vessel (d). Pressure and wall shear stress reduced in the range of 40-70% in the aneurysm in the case of bypass for all parameters. This demonstrates that pressure and WSS values can be greatly reduced in aneurysm treatment by bypassing in cases where clipping or coil embolization methods can not be applied. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A computational evaluation of sedentary lifestyle effects on carotid hemodynamics and atherosclerotic events incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Maria Vittoria; Serra, Raffaele; Perri, Paolo; Buffone, Gianluca; Caliò, Francesco Giuseppe; DE Franciscis, Stefano; Fragomeni, Fragomeni

    2017-01-01

    Hemodynamics has a key role in atheropathogenesis. Indeed, atherosclerotic phenomena occur in vessels characterized by complex geometry and flow pattern, like the carotid bifurcation. Moreover, lifestyle is a significant risk factor. The aim of this study is to evaluate the hemodynamic effects due to two sedentary lifestyles - sitting and standing positions - in the carotid bifurcation in order to identify the worst condition and to investigate the atherosclerosis incidence. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was chosen to carry out the analysis, in which in vivo non-invasive measurements were used as boundary conditions. Furthermore, to compare the two conditions, one patient-specific 3D model of a carotid bifurcation was reconstructed starting from computer tomography. Different mechanical indicators, correlated with atherosclerosis incidence, were calculated in addition to flow pattern and pressure distribution: the time average wall shear stress (TAWSS), the oscillatory shear index (OSI) and the relative residence time (RRT). The results showed that the bulb and the external carotid artery emergence are the most probable regions in which atherosclerotic events could happen. Indeed, low velocity and WSS values, high OSI and, as a consequence, areas with chaotic-swirling flow, with stasis (high RRT), occur. Moreover, the sitting position is the worst condition: considering a cardiac cycle, TAWSS is less than 17.2% and OSI and RRT are greater than 17.5% and 21.2%, respectively. This study suggests that if a person spends much time in the sitting position, a high risk of plaque formation and, consequently, of stenosis could happen.

  13. Effects of persistent insecticides on beneficial soil arthropod in conventional fields compared to organic fields, puducherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbarashan, Padmavathy; Gopalswamy, Poyyamoli

    2013-07-15

    The usage of synthetic fertilizers/insecticides in conventional farming has dramatically increased over the past decades. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of bio-pesticides and insecticides/pesticides on selected beneficial non targeted arthropods. Orders Collembola, Arachinida/Opiliones, Oribatida and Coleoptera were the main groups of arthropods found in the organic fields and Coleoptera, Oribatida, Gamasida and Collembola in conventional fields. Pesticides/insecticides had a significant effect on non-targeted arthropods order- Collembola, Arachinida/Opiliones, Hymenoptera and Thysonoptera were suppressed after pesticides/insecticides spraying. Bio-insecticides in organic fields had a non-significant effect on non targeted species and they started to increase in abundance after 7 days of spraying, whereas insecticide treatment in conventional fields had a significant long-term effect on non targeted arthropods and short term effect on pests/insects, it started to increase after 21 days of the spraying. These results indicate that insecticide treatment kept non targeted arthropods at low abundance. In conclusion, organic farming does not significantly affected the beneficial-non targeted arthropods biodiversity, whereas preventive insecticide application in conventional fields had significant negative effects on beneficial non targeted arthropods. Therefore, conventional farmers should restrict insecticide applications, unless pest densities reach the thresholds and more desirably can switch to organic farming practices.

  14. The effect of tourniquet deflation on hemodynamics and regional cerebral oxygen saturation in aged patients undergoing total knee replacement surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Inkyung; Kim, Dong Yeon; Kim, Youn Jin

    2012-11-01

    Inflation and deflation of a pneumatic tourniquet used in total knee replacement surgery induces various changes in patient's hemodynamic and metabolic status, which may result in serious complications, especially in aged patients. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a monitoring device designed to estimate the regional cerebral oxygen saturation. We evaluated the effect of tourniquet deflation on hemodynamics and regional cerebral oxygen saturation in aged patients undergoing total knee replacement surgery, using NIRS. Twenty-eight American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or II patients, over the age of sixty-five years undergoing total knee replacement surgery, were included. Under general anesthesia, the mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), cardiac output (CO), stroke volume (SV), and regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO(2)) were recorded before induction of anesthesia and every 2 min after tourniquet deflation for 20 min. Arterial blood gas analysis was performed 5 min before, in addition to 0, and 10 min after tourniquet deflation. The decrease of rSO(2) was not significant during 20-min deflation period. MAP, CO and SV showed significant decrease during 2 to 12, 4 to 6 and 2 to 6-min period after tourniquet deflation, respectively (P deflation caused significant changes in hemodynamic and metabolic status, but not in regional cerebral oxygen saturation. It is recommended to monitor neurologic status, as well as hemodynamic and metabolic status to avoid serious complications, especially in aged patients.

  15. EFFECTS OF AMLODIPINE, FOSINOPRIL AND METOPROLOL ON HEMODYNAMICS IN HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Hohlov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess an efficacy of antihypertensive therapy with calcium antagonist, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor and β-blocker in patients with arterial hypertension (AH taking into account influence on central and peripheral hemodynamics.Material and methods. 60 patients with AH of I-II stage, 1-2 grade were studied. They were split in 3 groups. Patients of the first group received amlodipine (Tenox, 5-10 mg/d, the second group – fosinopril (Monopril, 10-20 mg/d and the third group – metoprolol (Metocard, 50-200 mg/d.Diuretics were added when necessary. Ambulatory blood pressure (BP monitoring, echocardiography, ultrasound investigation of brachiocephalic and main cerebral arteries, test on reactive hyperemia and nitroglycerine were conducted before and after 6 months of therapy.Results. Amlodipine, fosinopril and metoprolol had similar antihypertensive effect. Amlodipine was more effective in comparison with fosinopril and metoprolol in reduction of left ventricular (LV myocardial mass and improving of LV diastolic function. Amlodipine and fosinopril had positive effect on vascular remodeling. Metoprolol reduced in BP morning elevation and heart rate, but had no effect on systolic BP variability.Conclusion. Amlodipine, fosinopril and metoprolol have similar antihypertensive effect but different influence on the heart, arteries, BP variability and hemodinamics.

  16. The Effect of Inlet Waveforms on Computational Hemodynamics of Patient-Specific Intracranial Aneurysms

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, J.; Siddiqui, A.H.; Meng, H.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the lack of patient-specific inlet flow waveform measurements, most computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of intracranial aneurysms usually employ waveforms that are not patient-specific as inlet boundary conditions for the computational model. The current study examined how this assumption affects the predicted hemodynamics in patient-specific aneurysm geometries. We examined wall shear stress (WSS) and oscillatory shear index (OSI), the two most widely studied hemodynamic qu...

  17. Patent ductus arteriosus: patho-physiology, hemodynamic effects and clinical complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzi, Giovanbattista; Santoro, Giuseppe

    2011-10-01

    During fetal life, patent arterial duct diverts placental oxygenated blood from the pulmonary artery into the aorta by-passing lungs. After birth, decrease of prostacyclins and prostaglandins concentration usually causes arterial duct closure. This process may be delayed, or may even completely fail in preterm infants with arterial duct still remaining patent. If that happens, blood flow by-pass of the systemic circulation through the arterial duct results in pulmonary overflow and systemic hypoperfusion. When pulmonary flow is 50% higher than systemic flow, a hemodynamic "paradox" results, with an increase of left ventricular output without a subsequent increase of systemic output. Cardiac overload support neuro-humoral effects (activation of sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin system) that finally promote heart failure. Moreover, increased pulmonary blood flow can cause vascular congestion and pulmonary edema. However, the most dangerous effect is cerebral under-perfusion due to diastolic reverse-flow and resulting in cerebral hypoxia. At last, blood flow decreases through the abdominal aorta, reducing perfusion of liver, gut and kidneys and may cause hepatic failure, renal insufficiency and necrotizing enterocolitis. Conclusions Large patent arterial duct may cause life-threatening multi-organ effects. In pre-term infant early diagnosis and timely effective treatment are cornerstones in the prevention of cerebral damage and long-term multi-organ failure.

  18. [Beneficial effect of preferred music on cognitive functions in minimally conscious state patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verger, J; Ruiz, S; Tillmann, B; Ben Romdhane, M; De Quelen, M; Castro, M; Tell, L; Luauté, J; Perrin, F

    2014-11-01

    Several studies have shown that music can boost cognitive functions in normal and brain-damaged subjects. A few studies have suggested a beneficial effect of music in patients with a disorder of consciousness but it is difficult to conclude since they did not use quantified measures and a control condition/group. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of music to that of a continuous sound on the relational behavior of patients in a minimally conscious state (MCS). Behavioral responses of six MCS patients were evaluated using items from the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised. Weekly evaluation sessions were carried out, over four weeks, under two conditions: following the presentation of either the patient's preferred music, or following a continuous sound (control condition). Qualitative and quantitative analyses showed that twelve of the eighteen sessions (66.6%) showed a better result for the music condition than for the control condition. This new protocol suggests that preferred music has a beneficial effect on the cognitive abilities of MCS patients. The results further suggest that cerebral plasticity may be enhanced in autobiographical (emotional and familiar) contexts. These findings should now be further extended with an increased number of patients to further validate the hypothesis of the beneficial effect of music on cognitive recovery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Beneficial effects of ginger Zingiber officinale Roscoe on obesity and metabolic syndrome: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Ke, Weixin; Bao, Rui; Hu, Xiaosong; Chen, Fang

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, metabolic syndromes (MetSs), including diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular diseases, have become a common health problem in both developed and developing countries. Accumulating data have suggested that traditional herbs might be able to provide a wide range of remedies in prevention and treatment of MetSs. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberaceae) has been documented to ameliorate hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, and inflammation. These beneficial effects are mediated by transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, and nuclear factor κB. This review focuses on recent findings regarding the beneficial effects of ginger on obesity and related complications in MetS and discusses its potential mechanisms of action. This review provides guidance for further applications of ginger for personalized nutrition and medicine. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  20. Beneficial effect(s) of n-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular diseases: but, why and how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, U N

    2000-12-01

    Low rates of coronary heart disease was found in Greenland Eskimos and Japanese who are exposed to a diet rich in fish oil. Suggested mechanisms for this cardio-protective effect focused on the effects of n-3 fatty acids on eicosanoid metabolism, inflammation, beta oxidation, endothelial dysfunction, cytokine growth factors, and gene expression of adhesion molecules; But, none of these mechanisms could adequately explain the beneficial actions of n-3 fatty acids. One attractive suggestion is a direct cardiac effect of n-3 fatty acids on arrhythmogenesis. N-3 fatty acids can modify Na+ channels by directly binding to the channel proteins and thus, prevent ischemia-induced ventricular fibrillation and sudden cardiac death. Though this is an attractive explanation, there could be other actions as well. N-3 fatty acids can inhibit the synthesis and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factoralpha (TNFalpha) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) and IL-2 that are released during the early course of ischemic heart disease. These cytokines decrease myocardial contractility and induce myocardial damage, enhance the production of free radicals, which can also suppress myocardial function. Further, n-3 fatty acids can increase parasympathetic tone leading to an increase in heart rate variability and thus, protect the myocardium against ventricular arrhythmias. Increased parasympathetic tone and acetylcholine, the principle vagal neurotransmitter, significantly attenuate the release of TNF, IL-1beta, IL-6 and IL-18. Exercise enhances parasympathetic tone, and the production of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 which may explain the beneficial action of exercise in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus. TNFalpha has neurotoxic actions, where as n-3 fatty acids are potent neuroprotectors and brain is rich in these fatty acids. Based on this, it is suggested that the principle mechanism of cardioprotective and neuroprotective action(s) of n-3

  1. Trichurs suis ova theraphy in relapsing multiple sclerosis is safe but without signals of beneficial effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldsgaard, A.; Bager, P.; Garde, E.

    2015-01-01

    revealed 6 new or enlarged T2 lesions in the run-in period, 7 lesions in the early period and 21 lesions in the late treatment period. Two patients suffered a relapse before treatment and two during treatment. Eight patients developed eosinophilia. The expression of cytokines and transcription factors did...... not change. CONCLUSIONS: In a small group of relapsing multiple sclerosis patients, Trichuris suis oral therapy was well tolerated but without beneficial effect....

  2. Divergent effects of laughter and mental stress on arterial stiffness and central hemodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Xaplanteris, Panagiotis; Alexopoulos, Nikolaos; Aznaouridis, Konstantinos; Vasiliadou, Carmen; Baou, Katerina; Stefanadi, Elli; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2009-05-01

    To investigate the effect of laughter and mental stress on arterial stiffness and central hemodynamics. Arterial stiffness and wave reflections are independent predictors of cardiovascular risk. Chronic psychological stress is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events, whereas acute stress deteriorates vascular function. Eighteen healthy individuals were studied on three occasions, according to a randomized, single-blind, crossover, sham procedure-controlled design. The effects of viewing a 30-minute segment of two films inducing laughter or stress were assessed. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity was used as an index of arterial stiffness; augmentation index was used as a measure of wave reflections. Laughter decreased pulse wave velocity (by 0.30 m/sec, p = .01), and augmentation index (by 2.72%, p = .05). Conversely, stress increased pulse wave velocity (by 0.29 m/sec, p = .05) and augmentation index (by 5.1%, p = .005). Laughter decreased cortisol levels by 1.67 microg/dl (p = .02), soluble P-selectin by 26 ng/ml (p = .02) and marginally von Willebrand factor (by 2.4%, p = .07) and increased total oxidative status (by 61 micromol/L, p laughter) and negative (stress) behavioral interventions have divergent acute effects on arterial stiffness and wave reflections. These findings have important clinical implications extending the spectrum of lifestyle modifications that can ameliorate arterial function.

  3. Effect of change in posture on maternal functional hemodynamics at 35-37 weeks' gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, G P; Ling, H Z; Machuca, M; Poon, L C; Nicolaides, K H

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of posture change from the supine to the sitting position and before and after passive leg raising on maternal functional hemodynamics in pregnant women at 35-37 weeks' gestation, and to compare the changes in pregnancies that subsequently developed pre-eclampsia (PE) or gestational hypertension (GH) with those that remained normotensive. In 2764 singleton pregnancies at 35-37 weeks' gestation, maternal cardiovascular parameters were measured using an automated non-invasive cardiac monitor. The hemodynamic response to a change from the supine to the sitting position and before and after passive leg raising in the left lateral position was examined and compared between women who subsequently developed PE or GH and those who remained normotensive. In normotensive singleton pregnancies at 35-37 weeks' gestation, both change from the supine to the sitting position and passive leg raising were associated with an increase in cardiac index and stroke volume index and a decrease in total peripheral resistance index; there was a small increase in mean arterial pressure with both postural changes and a slight decrease in heart rate with passive leg raising. In pregnancies that subsequently developed PE or GH, compared with normotensive pregnancies, cardiac index and stroke volume index were lower and total peripheral resistance index was higher. In general, change from the supine to the sitting position and passive leg raising were associated with similar but less marked changes in cardiovascular parameters as in normotensive pregnancies. Paradoxically, in late third-trimester normal pregnancy, both change from the supine to a sitting position and passive leg raising may result in an increase in preload with a consequent increase in cardiac and stroke volume indices and a decrease in total peripheral resistance index. In pregnancies that develop PE or GH, the effects of postural change on cardiovascular parameters are similar but less marked than in

  4. Effects of midazolam and morphine on cerebral oxygenation and hemodynamics in ventilated premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Alfen-van der Velden, A A E M; Hopman, J C W; Klaessens, J H G M; Feuth, T; Sengers, R C A; Liem, K D

    2006-01-01

    Midazolam sedation and morphine analgesia are commonly used in ventilated premature infants. To evaluate the effects of midazolam versus morphine infusion on cerebral oxygenation and hemodynamics in ventilated premature infants. 11 patients (GA 26.6-33.0 weeks, BW 780-2,335 g) were sedated with midazolam (loading dose 0.2 mg/kg, maintenance 0.2 mg/kg/h) and 10 patients (GA 26.4-33.3 weeks, BW 842-1,955 g) were sedated with morphine (loading dose 0.05 mg/kg, maintenance 0.01 mg/kg/h). Changes in oxyhemoglobin (Delta cO2Hb) and deoxyhemoglobin (Delta cHHb) were assessed using near infrared spectrophotometry. Changes in cHbD (= Delta cO(2)Hb - Delta cHHb) reflect changes in cerebral blood oxygenation and changes in concentration of total hemoglobin (Delta ctHb = Delta cO2Hb + Delta cHHb) represent changes in cerebral blood volume (DeltaCBV). Changes in cerebral blood flow velocity (DeltaCBFV) were intermittently measured using Doppler ultrasound. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), arterial oxygen saturation (saO2) and transcutaneous measured pO2 (tcpO2) and pCO2 (tcpCO2) were continuously registered. Statistical analyses were carried out using linear mixed models to account for the longitudinal character study design. Within 15 min after the loading dose of midazolam, a decrease in saO2, tcpO2 and cHbD was observed in 5/11 infants. In addition, a fall in MABP and CBFV was observed 15 min after midazolam administration. Immediately after morphine infusion a decrease in saO2, tcpO2 and cHbD was observed in 6/10 infants. Furthermore, morphine infusion resulted in a persistent increase in CBV. Administration of midazolam and morphine in ventilated premature infants causes significant changes in cerebral oxygenation and hemodynamics, which might be harmful. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Clinical and Hemodynamic Effects of CPAP-Therapy in Patients with Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Gorbunova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the clinical and hemodynamic effects of CPAP-therapy in the treatment of alveolar cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI.Subjects and methods. The open-labeled prospective study included 22 patients (19 males; mean age, 59.2±5.8 years with CPE that had complicated the course of AMI. Despite the drug and oxygen therapies of CPE for 30 minutes, progressive respiratory and left ventricular failures were an indication for the initiation of CPAP-therapy (7.3±1.2 cm H2O that was performed, by employing REM-Star apparatuses (Respironics, USA and Ultra Mirage facial masks (ResMed, Australia. Oxygen, 2 l/min (FiO2 = 40%, was delivered through the mask circuit. Central hemodynamic parameters were measured before and 60 and 180 minutes after the initiation of CPAP-therapy, by using a Swan-Ganz thermodilution cathether (HANDS OFF, model AH-05000-H, ARROW, USA. Arterial and mixed venous blood gas composition was rapidly determined on an automatic gas analyzer (Rapidlab 348, Bayer, USA.Results. Cyanosis and acrocyanosis disappeared and the number of congestive moist rales reduced in the lung in 19 (86.4% patients during 30-min CPAP-therapy. The patients’ oxygen status changed: the value of PaO2 significantly increased (82.5±2.5 versus 57.4±4.2 mm Hg at the baseline;p<0.05; SaO2 reached the normal values 60 minutes following CPAP-therapy. There was an increase in the cardiac index (3.1±0.2 versus 2.3±0.1 l/min/m2 at the baseline; p<0.05, a decrease in pulmonary wedge pressure (14.4±21 versus 23.6±2.1 mm Hg at the baseline; p<0.05, and synchronism of right and left cardiac performance.Conclusion. CPAP-therapy optimizes treatment of patients with CPE-complicated AMI, results in the normalization of the arterial blood gas composition, significantly diminishes hydrostatic pulmonary capillary pressure, and promotes the synchronism of the right and left hearts. 

  6. Effect of Varying Hemodynamic and Vascular Conditions on Fractional Flow Reserve: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolli, Kranthi K; Min, James K; Ha, Seongmin; Soohoo, Hilary; Xiong, Guanglei

    2016-06-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of varying hemodynamic conditions on fractional flow reserve (ratio of pressure distal [Pd] and proximal [Pa] to stenosis under hyperemia) in an in vitro setting. Failure to achieve maximal hyperemia and the choice of hyperemic agents may have differential effects on coronary hemodynamics and, consequently, on the determination of fractional flow reserve. An in vitro flow system was developed to experimentally model the physiological coronary circulation as flow-dependent stenosis resistance in series with variable downstream resistance. Five idealized models with 30% to 70% diameter stenosis severity were fabricated using VeroClear rigid material in an Objet260 Connex printer. Mean aortic pressure was maintained at 7 levels (60-140 mm Hg) from hypotension to hypertension using a needle valve that mimicked adjustable microcirculatory resistance. A range of physiological flow rates was applied by a steady flow pump and titrated by a flow sensor. The pressure drop and the pressure ratio (Pd/Pa) were assessed for the 7 levels of aortic pressure and differing flow rates. The in vitro experimental data were coupled with pressure-flow relationships from clinical data for populations with and without myocardial infarction, respectively, to evaluate fractional flow reserve. The curve for pressure ratio and flow rate demonstrated a quadratic relationship with a decreasing slope. The absolute decrease in fractional flow reserve in the group without myocardial infarction (with myocardial infarction) was on the order of 0.03 (0.02), 0.05 (0.02), 0.07 (0.05), 0.17 (0.13) and 0.20 (0.24), respectively, for 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, and 70% diameter stenosis, for an increase in aortic pressure from 60 to 140 mm Hg. The fractional flow reserve value, an index of physiological stenosis significance, was observed to decrease with increasing aortic pressure for a given stenosis in this idealized in vitro experiment for vascular

  7. Intestinal innate antiviral immunity and immunobiotics: beneficial effects against rotavirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Villena

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The mucosal tissues of the gastrointestinal tract are the main portal entry of pathogens such as rotavirus (RVs, which is a leading cause of death due to diarrhea among young children across the globe and a major cause of severe acute intestinal infection in livestock animals. The interactions between intestinal epithelial cells (IECs and immune cells with RVs have been studied for several years, and now it is known that the innate immune responses triggered by this virus can have both beneficial and detrimental effects for the host. It was demonstrated that natural RVs infection in infants and experimental challenges in mice result in the intestinal activation of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs like Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3 and striking secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators that can lead to increased local tissue damage and immunopathology. Therefore, modulating desregulated intestinal immune responses triggered by PRRs activation are a significant promise for reducing the burden of RVs diseases. The ability of immunoregulatory probiotic microorganisms (immunobiotics to protect against intestinal infections such as those caused by RVs, are among the oldest effects studied for these important group of beneficial microbes. In this review, we provide an update of the current status on the modulation of intestinal antiviral innate immunity by immunobiotics, and their beneficial impact on RVs infection. In addition, we describe the research of our group that demonstrated the capacity of immunobiotic strains to beneficially modulated TLR3-triggered immune response in IECs, reduce the disruption of intestinal homeostasis caused by intraepithelial lymphocytes, and improve the resistance to RVs infections.

  8. Beneficial Effects of Apelin on Vascular Function in Patients With Central Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinzari, Francesca; Veneziani, Augusto; Mores, Nadia; Barini, Angela; Di Daniele, Nicola; Cardillo, Carmine; Tesauro, Manfredi

    2017-05-01

    Patients with central obesity have impaired insulin-stimulated vasodilation and increased ET-1 (endothelin 1) vasoconstriction, which may contribute to insulin resistance and vascular damage. Apelin enhances insulin sensitivity and glucose disposal but also acts as a nitric oxide (NO)-dependent vasodilator and a counter-regulator of AT 1 (angiotensin [Ang] II type 1) receptor-induced vasoconstriction. We, therefore, examined the effects of exogenous (Pyr 1 )apelin on NO-mediated vasodilation and Ang II- or ET-1-dependent vasoconstrictor tone in obese patients. In the absence of hyperinsulinemia, forearm blood flow responses to graded doses of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside were not different during saline or apelin administration (both P >0.05). During intra-arterial infusion of regular insulin, however, apelin enhanced the vasodilation induced by both acetylcholine and nitroprusside (both P 0.05). In conclusion, in patients with central obesity, apelin has favorable effects not only to improve insulin-stimulated endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilator responses but also to blunt Ang II- and ET-1-dependent vasoconstriction by a mechanism not involving NO. Taken together, our results suggest that targeting the apelin system might favorably impact some hemodynamic abnormalities of insulin-resistant states like obesity. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Hemodynamic effects of acute digitalization several months after acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ressl, J; Jandová, R; Jebavý, P; Kasalický, J; Widimský, J

    1975-01-01

    Left ventricular function was investigated at rest and during exercise by heart catheterization in 15 patients 3-5 months after acute myocardial infarction. The effect of 1 mg digoxin i.v. in ten patients was correlated to placebo (saline solution) in five patients. A significant decrease of the left ventricular enddiastolic pressure, increase of left ventricular systolic ejection fraction and a shift of the left ventricular function curve to left upwards was found after digoxin with no changes in the placebo group. This beneficial effect of acute digitalization in patients convalescing from uncomplicated myocardial infarction without clinical signs of manifest heart failure could have therapeutic implication.

  10. Effects of Reynolds and Womersley Numbers on the Hemodynamics of Intracranial Aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgharzadeh, Hafez

    2016-01-01

    The effects of Reynolds and Womersley numbers on the hemodynamics of two simplified intracranial aneurysms (IAs), that is, sidewall and bifurcation IAs, and a patient-specific IA are investigated using computational fluid dynamics. For this purpose, we carried out three numerical experiments for each IA with various Reynolds (Re = 145.45 to 378.79) and Womersley (Wo = 7.4 to 9.96) numbers. Although the dominant flow feature, which is the vortex ring formation, is similar for all test cases here, the propagation of the vortex ring is controlled by both Re and Wo in both simplified IAs (bifurcation and sidewall) and the patient-specific IA. The location of the vortex ring in all tested IAs is shown to be proportional to Re/Wo2 which is in agreement with empirical formulations for the location of a vortex ring in a tank. In sidewall IAs, the oscillatory shear index is shown to increase with Wo and 1/Re because the vortex reached the distal wall later in the cycle (higher resident time). However, this trend was not observed in the bifurcation IA because the stresses were dominated by particle trapping structures, which were absent at low Re = 151.51 in contrast to higher Re = 378.79. PMID:27847544

  11. Are Non-Newtonian Effects Important in Hemodynamic Simulations of Patients With Autogenous Fistula?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javid Mahmoudzadeh Akherat, S M; Cassel, Kevin; Boghosian, Michael; Dhar, Promila; Hammes, Mary

    2017-04-01

    Given the current emphasis on accurate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of cardiovascular flows, which incorporates realistic blood vessel geometries and cardiac waveforms, it is necessary to revisit the conventional wisdom regarding the influences of non-Newtonian effects. In this study, patient-specific reconstructed 3D geometries, whole blood viscosity data, and venous pulses postdialysis access surgery are used as the basis for the hemodynamic simulations of renal failure patients with native fistula access. Rheological analysis of the viscometry data initially suggested that the correct choice of constitutive relations to capture the non-Newtonian behavior of blood is important because the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patient cohort under observation experience drastic variations in hematocrit (Hct) levels and whole blood viscosity throughout the hemodialysis treatment. For this purpose, various constitutive relations have been tested and implemented in CFD practice, namely Quemada and Casson. Because of the specific interest in neointimal hyperplasia and the onset of stenosis in this study, particular attention is placed on differences in nonhomeostatic wall shear stress (WSS) as that drives the venous adaptation process that leads to venous geometric evolution over time in ESRD patients. Surprisingly, the CFD results exhibit no major differences in the flow field and general flow characteristics of a non-Newtonian simulation and a corresponding identical Newtonian counterpart. It is found that the vein's geometric features and the dialysis-induced flow rate have far greater influence on the WSS distribution within the numerical domain.

  12. Are Non-Newtonian Effects Important in Hemodynamic Simulations of Patients With Autogenous Fistula?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javid Mahmoudzadeh Akherat, S. M.; Cassel, Kevin; Boghosian, Michael; Dhar, Promila; Hammes, Mary

    2017-01-01

    Given the current emphasis on accurate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of cardiovascular flows, which incorporates realistic blood vessel geometries and cardiac waveforms, it is necessary to revisit the conventional wisdom regarding the influences of non-Newtonian effects. In this study, patient-specific reconstructed 3D geometries, whole blood viscosity data, and venous pulses postdialysis access surgery are used as the basis for the hemodynamic simulations of renal failure patients with native fistula access. Rheological analysis of the viscometry data initially suggested that the correct choice of constitutive relations to capture the non-Newtonian behavior of blood is important because the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patient cohort under observation experience drastic variations in hematocrit (Hct) levels and whole blood viscosity throughout the hemodialysis treatment. For this purpose, various constitutive relations have been tested and implemented in CFD practice, namely Quemada and Casson. Because of the specific interest in neointimal hyperplasia and the onset of stenosis in this study, particular attention is placed on differences in nonhomeostatic wall shear stress (WSS) as that drives the venous adaptation process that leads to venous geometric evolution over time in ESRD patients. Surprisingly, the CFD results exhibit no major differences in the flow field and general flow characteristics of a non-Newtonian simulation and a corresponding identical Newtonian counterpart. It is found that the vein's geometric features and the dialysis-induced flow rate have far greater influence on the WSS distribution within the numerical domain. PMID:28249082

  13. Patient-specific simulations and measurements of the magneto-hemodynamic effect in human primary vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyriakou, Adamos; Neufeld, Esra; Szczerba, Dominik; Kuster, Niels; Kainz, Wolfgang; Luechinger, Roger; Kozerke, Sebastian; McGregor, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the main characteristics of the magneto-hemodynamic (MHD) response for application as a biomarker of vascular blood flow. The induced surface potential changes of a volunteer exposed to a 3 T static B0 field of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) magnet were measured over time at multiple locations by an electrocardiogram device and compared to simulation results. The flow simulations were based on boundary conditions derived from MRI flow measurements restricted to the aorta and vena cava. A dedicated and validated low-frequency electromagnetic solver was applied to determine the induced temporal surface potential change from the obtained 4D flow distribution using a detailed whole-body model of the volunteer. The simulated MHD signal agreed with major characteristics of the measured signal (temporal location of main peak, magnitude, variation across chest and along torso) except in the vicinity of the heart. The MHD signal is mostly influenced by the aorta; however, more vessels and better boundary conditions are needed to analyze the finer details of the response. The results show that the MHD signal is strongly position dependent with highly variable but reproducibly measurable distinguished characteristics. Additional investigations are necessary before determining whether the MHD effect is a reliable reference for location-specific information on blood flow. (paper)

  14. Beneficial effects of herbs, spices and medicinal plants on the metabolic syndrome, brain and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panickar, Kiran S

    2013-03-01

    Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times to not only improve the flavor of edible food but also to prevent and treat chronic health maladies. While the scientific evidence for the use of such common herbs and medicinal plants then had been scarce or lacking, the beneficial effects observed from such use were generally encouraging. It is, therefore, not surprising that the tradition of using such herbs, perhaps even after the advent of modern medicine, has continued. More recently, due to an increased interest in understanding the nutritional effects of herbs/spices more comprehensively, several studies have examined the cellular and molecular modes of action of the active chemical components in herbs and their biological properties. Beneficial actions of herbs/spices include anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-hypertensive, gluco-regulatory, and anti-thrombotic effects. One major component of herbs and spices is the polyphenols. Some of the aforementioned properties are attributed to the polyphenols and they are associated with attenuating the metabolic syndrome. Detrimental changes associated with the metabolic syndrome over time affect brain and cognitive function. Metabolic syndrome and type-2 diabetes are also risk factors for Alzheimer's disease and stroke. In addition, the neuroprotective effects of herbs and spices have been demonstrated and, whether directly or indirectly, such beneficial effects may also contribute to an improvement in cognitive function. This review evaluates the current evidence available for herbs/spices in potentially improving the metabolic syndrome, as well as their neuroprotective effects on the brain, and cognitive function in animal and human studies.

  15. Effects of L-glutamine supplementation on maternal and fetal hemodynamics in gestating ewes exposed to alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Sawant, Onkar B.; Ramadoss, Jayanth; Hankins, Gary D.; Wu, Guoyao; Washburn, Shannon E.

    2014-01-01

    Not much is known about effects of gestational alcohol exposure on maternal and fetal cardiovascular adaptations. This study determined whether maternal binge alcohol exposure and L-glutamine supplementation could affect maternal-fetal hemodynamics and fetal regional brain blood flow during the brain growth spurt period. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to one of four groups: saline control, alcohol (1.75–2.5 g/kg body weight), glutamine (100 mg/kg body weight) or alcohol + glutamine. A ...

  16. Effects of irradiation on the pulmonary hemodynamics and the pulmonary vascular permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkuda, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Shinkichi; Okada, Shinichiroh

    1982-01-01

    In 4 sheeps, base lines of hemodynamics and lymph dynamics were observed for 2 hours, and then 1,000 rad of 60 Co was irradiated to the inferior lobes of the lung. Pulmonary hemodynamics and lymph dynamics were continuously observed, and water and protein permeability of the irradiated pulmonary vessels was evaluated. In 4 control sheeps, no change in pulmonary hemodynamics and lymph dynamics was noted. In the irradiated group, there was no remarkable change in pulmonary hemodynamics for 6 to 8 hours after 60 Co irradiation. Pulmonary lymph flow began to increase 2 hours after irradiation to about 1.7 times the base line level after 4 hours. The increase in pulmonary lymph flow was accompanied by decrease in plasma protein concentration and increase in protein concentration of the lung lymph, resulting in an apparent increase in the ratio of lymph/plasma protein concentration. Water and protein leak from the pulmonary vessels increased. A photomicroscopic observation revealed dilatation of the lymphatic vessels in the lung interstice and a mild pulmonary interstitial edema. Vascular damage, especially due to increased water and protein permeability of the lung capillary vessels, occurred immediately after 60 Co irradiation. (Ueda, J.)

  17. The effect of metabolic control on hemodynamics in short-term insulin-dependent diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, E R; Hilsted, J; Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1985-01-01

    Hemodynamics variables (heart rate, arterial blood pressure, cardiac output, hepato-splanchnic blood flow, forearm blood flow, and plasma catecholamines) were measured during good (median blood glucose 4.7 mmol/L) and poor (median blood glucose 16.3 mmol/L) metabolic control in eight young, short...

  18. Effect of breath holding on cerebrovascular hemodynamics in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, Teelkien R.; Panerai, Ronney B.; Haeri, Sina; Zeeman, Gerda G.; Belfort, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is associated with endothelial dysfunction and impaired autonomic function, which is hypothesized to cause cerebral hemodynamic abnormalities. Our aim was to test this hypothesis by estimating the difference in the cerebrovascular response to breath holding (BH; known to cause

  19. Beneficial effect of carbon on hydrogen desorption kinetics from Mg–Ni–In alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cermak, J.; Kral, L.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Beneficial effect of graphitic carbon was observed. ► The effect is optimal up to c opt . ► Above c opt , phase decomposition occurs. ► Indium in studied Mg–Ni-based alloys prevents oxidation. - Abstract: In the present paper, hydrogen desorption kinetics from hydrided Mg–Ni–In–C alloys was investigated. A chemical composition that substantially accelerates hydrogen desorption was found. It was observed that carbon improves the hydrogen desorption kinetics significantly. Its beneficial effect was found to be optimum close to the carbon concentration of about c C ≅ 5 wt.%. With this composition, stored hydrogen can be desorbed readily at temperatures down to about 485 K, immediately after hydrogen charging. This can substantially shorten the hydrogen charging/discharging cycle of storage tanks using Mg–Ni-based alloys as hydrogen storage medium. For higher carbon concentrations, unwanted phases precipitated, likely resulting in deceleration of hydrogen desorption and lower hydrogen storage capacity.

  20. Beneficial Effects of Dietary Nitrate on Endothelial Function and Blood Pressure Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenifer d’El-Rei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor eating habits may represent cardiovascular risk factors since high intake of fat and saturated fatty acids contributes to dyslipidemia, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. Thus, nutritional interventions are recognized as important strategies for primary prevention of hypertension and as adjuvants to pharmacological therapies to reduce cardiovascular risk. The DASH (Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension plan is one of the most effective strategies for the prevention and nonpharmacological management of hypertension. The beneficial effects of DASH diet on blood pressure might be related to the high inorganic nitrate content of some food products included in this meal plan. The beetroot and other food plants considered as nitrate sources account for approximately 60–80% of the daily nitrate exposure in the western population. The increased levels of nitrite by nitrate intake seem to have beneficial effects in many of the physiological and clinical settings. Several clinical trials are being conducted to determine the broad therapeutic potential of increasing the bioavailability of nitrite in human health and disease, including studies related to vascular aging. In conclusion, the dietary inorganic nitrate seems to represent a promising complementary therapy to support hypertension treatment with benefits for cardiovascular health.

  1. Working memory capacity predicts the beneficial effect of selective memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Andreas; Aslan, Alp; Holterman, Christoph; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2015-01-01

    Selective retrieval of some studied items can both impair and improve recall of the other items. This study examined the role of working memory capacity (WMC) for the two effects of memory retrieval. Participants studied an item list consisting of predefined target and nontarget items. After study of the list, half of the participants performed an imagination task supposed to induce a change in mental context, whereas the other half performed a counting task which does not induce such context change. Following presentation of a second list, memory for the original list's target items was tested, either with or without preceding retrieval of the list's nontarget items. Consistent with previous work, preceding nontarget retrieval impaired target recall in the absence of the context change, but improved target recall in its presence. In particular, there was a positive relationship between WMC and the beneficial, but not the detrimental effect of memory retrieval. On the basis of the view that the beneficial effect of memory retrieval reflects context-reactivation processes, the results indicate that individuals with higher WMC are better able to capitalise on retrieval-induced context reactivation than individuals with lower WMC.

  2. [Effects of recruitment maneuver in prone position on hemodynamics in patients with severe pulmonary infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yuan-hua; Liu, Yuan-fei; Zhu, Hua-yong; Zhang, Min

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate effects of recruitment maneuver in prone position on hemodynamics in patients with severe pulmonary infection, based on the protective pulmonary ventilation strategy. Ninety-seven cases with severe pulmonary infection admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) of Ganzhou City People's Hospital undergoing mechanical ventilation were involved. Volume controlled ventilation mode with small tidal volume (8 ml/kg) and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 6 cm H(2)O [1 cm H(2)O = 0.098 kPa] was conducted. Each patient underwent recruitment maneuver in supine position and then in prone position [PEEP 20 cm H(2)O+pressure control (PC) 20 cm H(2)O]. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), pulse oxygen saturation [SpO(2)] and blood gas analysis data were recorded before and after recruitment maneuver in either position. A double-lumen venous catheter was inserted into internal jugular vein or subclavian vein, and a pulse index contour cardiac output (PiCCO) catheter was introduced into femoral artery. Cardiac index (CI), stroke volume index (SVI), systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI), intra-thoracic blood volume index (ITBVI), extra vascular lung water index (EVLWI), global end-diastolic volume index (GEDVI), global ejection fraction (GEF), stroke volume variation (SVV) and central vein pressure (CVP) were monitored. (1) Compared with data before recruitment maneuver, there were no significant differences in HR and MAP after supine position and prone position recruitment maneuver, but significant differences in SpO(2) were found between before and after recruitment maneuver when patients' position was changed (supine position: 0.954 ± 0.032 vs. 0.917 ± 0.025, P recruitment maneuver (P recruitment maneuver, CI [L×min(-1)×m(-2)], SVI (ml/m(2)), GEDVI (ml/m(2)) and GEF were decreased significantly during recruitment maneuver (supine position: CI 3.2 ± 0.4 vs. 3.8 ± 0.6, SVI 32.4 ± 5.6 vs. 38.8 ± 6.5, GEDVI 689 ± 44 vs. 766 ± 32, GEF 0.267 ± 0

  3. Effects of hypercholesterolemia of renal hemodynamics: study in patients with nephrotic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuiano, G; Esposito, C; Sepe, V; Colucci, G; Bovino, M; Rosa, M; Balletta, M; Bellinghieri, G; Conte, G; Cianciaruso, B; Dal Canton, A

    1996-01-01

    Experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated a positive relationship between hyperlipidemia and rate of progression of renal disease, suggesting that lipids can induce or aggravate glomerular injury mainly by interacting with mesangial cells. Nevertheless, recently has been demonstrated that increased cholesterol levels can also induce endothelial cell dysfunction. Thus, since endothelium is known to play a major role in modulating the vascular tone, we have tested the possibility that hypercholesterolemia impairs the renal hemodynamics in patients with active nephrotic syndrome and elevated serum cholesterol levels. In this single-blind, nonrandom study, 12 patients were treated with pravastatin (group T, treated, n = 12) and 8 with placebo (group C, controls, n = 8). The controls were studied after the pravastatin group had been completed. Before starting the treatment the patients underwent basal determinations including routine laboratory investigations and PAH and inulin clearances. The same determinations were repeated after 48 h, and 6 and 12 weeks from the beginning of the treatment. The study at 48 h was performed to see if pravastatin had a direct, cholesterol-independent effect on renal function. The following basal results were reported (mean +/- SEM; group T vs. group C): serum cholesterol (mmol/l) 9.7 +/- 0.4 vs. 9.1 +/- 0.3 (NS); proteinuria (g/24 h): 6.2 +/- 0.2 vs. 7.0 +/- 0.7 (NS); PAH clearance (ml/min): 353 +/- 21 vs. 385 +/- 31 (NS); inulin clearance (ml/min): 62.5 +/- 7.7 vs. 67 +/- 9.3 (NS). After 48 h, no changes were observed in both groups. Subsequently, in group T, the following percentage changes of basal levels were observed: serum cholesterol -21.4 +/- 3.2% at 6 weeks (p < 0.05) and -34.9 +/- 3.2% at 12 weeks (p < 0.01); inulin clearance +3 +/- 3.7% at 6 weeks (NS) and +9.3 +/- 2.9% at 12 weeks (p < 0.05); PAH clearance +7 +/- 3.1% at 6 weeks (p < 0.05) and +21.2 +/- 5.5% at 12 weeks (p < 0.01). By contrast, no significant

  4. Differential Effects of Continuous Versus Discontinuous Aerobic Training on Blood Pressure and Hemodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landram, Michael J; Utter, Alan C; Baldari, Carlo; Guidetti, Laura; McAnulty, Steven R; Collier, Scott R

    2018-01-01

    Landram, MJ, Utter, AC, Baldari, C, Guidetti, L, McAnulty, SR, and Collier, SR. Differential effects of continuous versus discontinuous aerobic training on blood pressure and hemodynamics. J Strength Cond Res 32(1): 97-104, 2018-The purpose of this study was to compare the hemodynamic, arterial stiffness, and blood flow changes after 4 weeks of either continuous or discontinuous aerobic exercise in adults. Forty-seven subjects between the ages of 18 and 57 were recruited for 1 month of either continuous aerobic treadmill work for 30 minutes at 70% max heart rate or 3 bouts of 10 minutes of exercise at 70% of max heart rate with two 10 minutes break periods in between, totaling 30 minutes of aerobic work. After exercise, both continuous (CON) and discontinuous (DIS) groups demonstrated a significant improvement in maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, CON 35.39 ± 1.99 to 38.19 ± 2.03; DIS 36.18 ± 1.82 to 39.33 ± 1.75), heart rate maximum (CON 183.5 ± 3.11 to 187.17 ± 3.06; DIS 179.06 ± 2.75 to 182 ± 2.61), decreases in systolic blood pressure (CON 119 ± 1.82 to 115.11 ± 1.50; DIS 117.44 ± 1.90 to 112.67 ± 1.66), diastolic blood pressure (CON 72.56 ± 1.65 to 70.56 ± 1.06; DIS 71.56 ± 1.59 to 69.56 ± 1.43), augmentation index (CON 17.17 ± 2.17 to 14.9 ± 1.92; DIS 19.71 ± 2.66 to 13.91 ± 2.46), central pulse wave velocity (CON 8.29 ± 0.32 to 6.92 ± 0.21; DIS 7.85 ± 0.30 to 6.83 ± 0.29), peripheral pulse wave velocity (CON 9.49 ± 0.35 to 7.72 ± 0.38; DIS 9.11 ± 0.37 to 7.58 ± 0.47), and significant increases in average forearm blood flow (CON 4.06 ± 0.12 to 4.34 ± 0.136; DIS 4.26 ± 0.18 to 4.53 ± 0.15), peak forearm blood flow (FBF) after reactive hyperemia (CON 28.45 ± 0.094 to 29.96 ± 0.45; DIS 29.29 ± 0.46 to 30.6 ± 0.38), area under the curve (AUC) of FBF (CON 28.65 ± 1.77 to 30.4 ± 1.08; DIS 30.52 ± 1.9 to 31.67 ± 1.44), and AUC peak FBF after reactive hyperemia (CON 222.3 ± 5.68 to 231.95 ± 4.42; DIS 230.81

  5. Prognostic value of noninvasive hemodynamic evaluation of the acute effect of levosimendan in advanced heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malfatto, Gabriella; Della Rosa, Francesco; Rella, Valeria; Villani, Alessandra; Branzi, Giovanna; Blengino, Simonetta; Giglio, Alessia; Facchini, Mario; Parati, Gianfranco

    2014-04-01

    Optimization of inotropic treatment in worsening heart failure sometimes requires invasive hemodynamic assessment in selected patients. Impedance cardiography (ICG) may be useful for a noninvasive hemodynamic evaluation. ICG was performed in 40 patients (69 ± 8 years; left ventricular ejection fraction 27.5 ± 5.6%; New York Heart Association 3.18 ± 0.34; Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support 5.48 ± 0.96, before and after infusion of Levosimendan (0.1–0.2 µg/kg per min for up to 24 h). Echocardiogram, ICG [measuring cardiac index (CI), total peripheral resistances (TPRs) and thoracic fluid content (TFC)] and plasma levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were obtained; in nine patients, right heart catheterization was also carried out. When right catheterization and ICG were performed simultaneously, a significant relationship was observed between values of CI and TPR, and between TFC and pulmonary wedge pressure. ICG detected the Levosimendan-induced recovery of the hemodynamic status, associated with improved systolic and diastolic function and reduction in BNP levels. One-year mortality was 4.4%. At multivariate analysis, independent predictors of mortality were: no improvement in the severity of mitral regurgitation, a persistent restrictive filling pattern (E/E’ > 15), a reduction of BNP levels below 30% and a change below 10% in CI, TPR and TFC. When combined, absence of hemodynamic improvement at ICG could predict 1-year mortality with better sensitivity (86%) and specificity (85%) than the combination of echocardiographic and BNP criteria only (sensitivity 80% and specificity 36%). Noninvasive hemodynamic evaluation of heart failure patients during infusion of inodilator drugs is reliable and may help in their prognostic stratification.

  6. Comparative assessment of beneficial effects of intracoronary and systemic thrombolytic therapy of acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalfen, Eh.Sh.; Shtern, S.V.; Shvarts, I.L.; Bezrukova, G.A.; Zolotarev, V.A.; Rakovskij, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    Comparative study was made on clinical efficiency of introcoronary thrombolytic therapy with streptokinase and systematic thrombolytic therapy with streptodekase for 189 patients with transmural myocardial infarction. Intravenous digital subtraction ventriculography was conducted to obtain indices of hemodynamics and contractility of the left venricle

  7. Hemodynamic effects of dexmedetomidine during intra-operative electrocorticography for epilepsy surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Chaitanya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dexmedetomidine, a predominant alpha-2-adrenergic agonist has been used in anesthetic practice to provide good sedation. The drug is being recently used in neuroanesthesia during awake surgery for brain tumors and in functional neurosurgery. Materials and Methods: This prospective study analyzed the hemodynamic effects of dexmedetomidine infusion during electrocorticography in patients undergoing surgery for mesial temporal sclerosis. Dexmedetomidine infusion was administered during intra-operative electrocorticography recording, 15 minutes after the end tidal MAC of N 2 O and isoflurane were decreased to zero. Anesthesia was maintained with O 2 :air mixture = 50:50, vecuronium and fentanyl. Heart rate (HR, mean arterial pressure (MAP and end tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO 2 were recorded across at induction, 2 min prior to dexmedetomidine (PreDEX, 5 min during dexmedetomidine infusion (DEX; 1 μg/kg, 5 min after stopping dexmedetomidine and 10 minutes after stopping dexmedetomidine. Results: Forty patients with mesial temporal sclerosis (M: F = 27:13, mean age = 28.15 ± 10.9 years; duration of epilepsy = 12.0 ± 7.9 years underwent anterior temporal lobe resection with amygdalohippocampectomy for drug-resistant epilepsy. Infusion of dexmedetomidine caused a transient fall in HR in 87.5% of patients and an increase in MAP in 62.5% of patients, which showed a tendency to revert back towards PreDEX values within 10 min after stopping the infusion. Sixty-five percent of the patients showed ≤25% reduction and 10% of them showed >25% reduction in HR. 47.5% of the patients showed ≤25% increase and 15% of them showed >25% increase in MAP. These changes were over a narrow range and within physiological limits. Conclusion: The infusion of dexmedetomidine for a short period causes reduction of HR and increase in MAP in patients, however the variations are within acceptable range.

  8. Beneficial effects of non-alcoholic grape-derived products on human health: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Lorenzo Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vine is widely cultivated due to the economic value of wine and other grape derivatives. The grape berry is character- ized by the presence of a wide variety of flavonoids, which have been investigated for their health promoting properties. Several epidemiological studies have shown that a moderate consumption of wine is associated with a J-shaped effect on some risk fac- tors for chronic diseases. On the other hand, the wine market has shown a decreasing trend due to the frequent abuse of alcoholic beverages also by young people, as denounced by WHO. Accordingly, the scientific research in the field of non-alcoholic grape products has been further stimulated. The aim of this paper was a preliminary collection of data on human studies supporting the beneficial properties of unfermented grape products. The most convincing positive effects, observed in humans, consisted in the reduction of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension and oxidative stress. Other human trials have been published in the area of: immune system, diabetes, cognitive functions, oral health, and cancer. Generally speaking, the findings listed in this review support the use of non-alcoholic grape derivatives, as a source of beneficial compounds for the human diet, even though further studies are necessary.

  9. The beneficial effect of cynodon dactylon fractions on ethylene glycol-induced kidney calculi in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajavi Rad, Abolfazl; Hadjzadeh, Mousa-Al-Reza; Rajaei, Ziba; Mohammadian, Nema; Valiollahi, Saleh; Sonei, Mehdi

    2011-01-01

    To assess the beneficial effect of different fractions of Cynodon dactylon (C. dactylon) on ethylene glycol-induced kidney calculi in rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, ethylene glycol, curative, and preventive groups. The control group received tap drinking water for 35 days. Ethylene glycol, curative, and preventive groups received 1% ethylene glycol for induction of calcium oxalate (CaOx) calculus formation. Preventive and curative subjects also received different fractions of C. dactylon extract in drinking water at 12.8 mg/kg, since day 0 and day 14, respectively. After 35 days, the kidneys were removed and examined for histopathological findings and counting the CaOx deposits in 50 microscopic fields. In curative protocol, treatment of rats with C. dactylon N-butanol fraction and N-butanol phase remnant significantly reduced the number of the kidney CaOx deposits compared to ethylene glycol group. In preventive protocol, treatment of rats with C. dactylon ethyl acetate fraction significantly decreased the number of CaOx deposits compared to ethylene glycol group. Fractions of C. dactylon showed a beneficial effect on preventing and eliminating CaOx deposition in the rat kidney. These results provide a scientific rational for preventive and treatment roles of C. dactylon in human kidney stone disease.

  10. In vitro effects of copper nanoparticles on plant pathogens, beneficial microbes and crop plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banik, S.; Pérez-de-Luque, A.

    2017-07-01

    Copper-based chemicals are effectively used as antimicrobials in agriculture. However, with respect to its nanoparticulate form there has been limited number of studies. In this investigation, in vitro tests on effect of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) against plant pathogenic fungi, oomycete, bacteria, beneficial microbes Trichoderma harzianum and Rhizobium spp., and wheat seeds were conducted. Integration of CuNPs with non-nano copper like copper oxychloride (CoC) at 50 mg/L concentration each recorded 76% growth inhibition of the oomycete Phytophthora cinnamomi in vitro compared to the control. CuNPs also showed synergistic inhibitory effect with CoC on mycelial growth and sporulation of A. alternata. Pseudomonas syringae was inhibited at 200 mg/L of CuNPs. CuNPs were not significantly biocidal against Rhizobium spp. and Trichoderma harzianum compared to CoC. Evaluation of the effect of CuNP on wheat revealed that rate of germination of wheat seeds was higher in presence of CuNPs and CoC compared to control. Germination vigor index, root length, shoot dry weight and seed metabolic efficiency of wheat were negatively affected. At low concentration, CuNPs promoted the growth of the plant pathogenic fungi Botrytis fabae, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris, F.oxysporum f.sp. melonis, Alternaria alternate and P. syringae, and sporulation of T. harzianum. Synergistic effect of CuNPs and CoC in inhibiting P. cinnamomi offers a possibility of developing new fungicide formulation for better control of the oomycetes. Non-biocidal effect of CuNPs against beneficial microbes indicates its potential use in the agri-ecosystem.

  11. In vitro effects of copper nanoparticles on plant pathogens, beneficial microbes and crop plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banik, S.; Pérez-de-Luque, A.

    2017-01-01

    Copper-based chemicals are effectively used as antimicrobials in agriculture. However, with respect to its nanoparticulate form there has been limited number of studies. In this investigation, in vitro tests on effect of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) against plant pathogenic fungi, oomycete, bacteria, beneficial microbes Trichoderma harzianum and Rhizobium spp., and wheat seeds were conducted. Integration of CuNPs with non-nano copper like copper oxychloride (CoC) at 50 mg/L concentration each recorded 76% growth inhibition of the oomycete Phytophthora cinnamomi in vitro compared to the control. CuNPs also showed synergistic inhibitory effect with CoC on mycelial growth and sporulation of A. alternata. Pseudomonas syringae was inhibited at 200 mg/L of CuNPs. CuNPs were not significantly biocidal against Rhizobium spp. and Trichoderma harzianum compared to CoC. Evaluation of the effect of CuNP on wheat revealed that rate of germination of wheat seeds was higher in presence of CuNPs and CoC compared to control. Germination vigor index, root length, shoot dry weight and seed metabolic efficiency of wheat were negatively affected. At low concentration, CuNPs promoted the growth of the plant pathogenic fungi Botrytis fabae, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris, F.oxysporum f.sp. melonis, Alternaria alternate and P. syringae, and sporulation of T. harzianum. Synergistic effect of CuNPs and CoC in inhibiting P. cinnamomi offers a possibility of developing new fungicide formulation for better control of the oomycetes. Non-biocidal effect of CuNPs against beneficial microbes indicates its potential use in the agri-ecosystem.

  12. Intermittent hypoxia training in prediabetes patients: Beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis, hypoxia tolerance and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebrovska, Tetiana V; Portnychenko, Alla G; Drevytska, Tetiana I; Portnichenko, Vladimir I; Xi, Lei; Egorov, Egor; Gavalko, Anna V; Naskalova, Svitlana; Chizhova, Valentina; Shatylo, Valeriy B

    2017-09-01

    The present study aimed at examining beneficial effects of intermittent hypoxia training (IHT) under prediabetic conditions. We investigate the effects of three-week IHT on blood glucose level, tolerance to acute hypoxia, and leukocyte mRNA expression of hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and its target genes, i.e. insulin receptor, facilitated glucose transporter-solute carrier family-2, and potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily J. Seven healthy and 11 prediabetic men and women (44-70 years of age) were examined before, next day and one month after three-week IHT (3 sessions per week, each session consisting 4 cycles of 5-min 12% O 2 and 5-min room air breathing). We found that IHT afforded beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis in patients with prediabetes reducing fasting glucose and during standard oral glucose tolerance test. The most pronounced positive effects were observed at one month after IHT termination. IHT also significantly increased the tolerance to acute hypoxia (i.e. SaO 2 level at 20th min of breathing with 12% O 2 ) and improved functional parameters of respiratory and cardiovascular systems. IHT stimulated HIF-1α mRNA expression in blood leukocytes in healthy and prediabetic subjects, but in prediabetes patients the maximum increase was lagged. The greatest changes in mRNA expression of HIF-1α target genes occurred a month after IHT and coincided with the largest decrease in blood glucose levels. The higher expression of HIF-1α was positively associated with higher tolerance to hypoxia and better glucose homeostasis. In conclusion, our results suggest that IHT may be useful for preventing the development of type 2 diabetes. Impact statement The present study investigated the beneficial effects of intermittent hypoxia training (IHT) in humans under prediabetic conditions. We found that three-week moderate IHT induced higher HIF-1α mRNA expressions as well as its target genes, which were positively correlated with higher tolerance

  13. Effect of the application of chlorpyrifos to maize on pests and beneficial arthropods in Nicaragua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monzon, A.; Llana, A. de la

    1999-01-01

    Field experiments were performed between 1994 and 1997 to evaluate the effect of chlorpyrifos insecticide on arthropods in maize agroecosystem. The experiments were carried out in Boaco (Central zone) and Managua (Pacific zone) areas. Experiments were set up according to randomized block design, with large plots (750 m 2 ) and four replications. The treatments were 1L/ha Lorsban 4E (containing 480 g a.i../L) and control. Visual sampling, pitfall traps and yellow traps were used to estimate numbers of pest insects and beneficial arthropods. Chlorpiryfos had a measureable affect on fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and Dalbulus maidis. The plots sprayed with the insecticide had the lowest population of S. frugiperda and the highest population of D. maidis. Beneficials insects, mainly parasitoids were more affected than pests by the insecticide sprays. The highest parasitism was found in the unsprayed plots. Overall, the lowest population of arthropods was found in the sprayed plots, except that in Managua the highest number of D. maidis were found in the sprayed plots. (author)

  14. Lack of beneficial effect of activated charcoal in lead induced testicular toxicity in male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel James Offor

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Lead is a multi-organ toxicant implicated in various diseases including testicular toxicity. In search of cheap and readily available antidote this study has investigated a beneficial role of activated charcoal in lead induced testicular toxicity in male albino rats. Materials and Method: Eighteen male albino rats were divided into three groups of six rats per group. Group 1 (control rats received deionised water (10 ml/kg, group 2 was given lead acetate solution 60 mg/kg and group 3 rats were given lead acetate (60 mg/kg followed by Activated charcoal, AC (1000 mg/kg by oral gavage daily for 28 days. Absolute and relative weights of testis, epididymal sperm reserve, testicular sperm count, percent sperm motility and percent sperm viability were monitored. Results: AC failed to show any significant beneficial effect in ameliorating lead induced testicular toxicity. Conclusions: There seem to be a poor adsorption on lead onto AC in vivo.

  15. Volunteering as reciprocity: beneficial and harmful effects of social policies to encourage contribution in older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Christine; Breheny, Mary; Mansvelt, Juliana

    2015-04-01

    Social policy applications of 'active ageing' ideals have recently focussed on volunteering as a beneficial and valuable contribution that older people can make to their communities. In this paper we draw attention to the positive and negative effects of a general imperative to contribute. Understanding the benefits of contribution in terms of the moral force of reciprocity recognises that older people do need and want to contribute to society and these contributions are beneficial for their sense of identity and wellbeing. However, older people vary greatly in their health, financial resources, and social networks and should not be seen as a homogenous group whose members must contribute in the same way. A policy focus on the imperative to contribute as a participating citizen can be oppressive and lead to withdrawal from social engagement by those who are the most in need of support to participate. Priorities for social and organisational policies must include support for the many ways older people are able to be involved in their communities and to provide structures necessary to support their preferences. A focus on individual responsibility for active engagement in society, which does not take account of individual circumstances or past contributions, can be harmful. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Revealing the beneficial effect of protease supplementation to high gravity beer fermentations using "-omics" techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piddocke, Maya Petrova; Fazio, Alessandro; Vongsangnak, Wanwipa

    2011-01-01

    to elucidate the effect on the addition of the multicomponent protease enzyme Flavourzyme and its influence on the metabolism of the brewer's yeast strain Weihenstephan 34/70. The study underlines the importance of sufficient nitrogen availability during the course of beer fermentation. The applied metabolome......Background: Addition of sugar syrups to the basic wort is a popular technique to achieve higher gravity in beer fermentations, but it results in dilution of the free amino nitrogen (FAN) content in the medium. The multicomponent protease enzyme Flavourzyme has beneficial effect on the brewer......'s yeast fermentation performance during high gravity fermentations as it increases the initial FAN value and results in higher FAN uptake, higher specific growth rate, higher ethanol yield and improved flavour profile. Results: In the present study, transcriptome and metabolome analysis were used...

  17. Beneficial effects of low dose Musa paradisiaca on the semen quality of male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, A S; Omotoso, Gabriel O; Enaibe, B U; Akinola, O B; Tagoe, C N B

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed at determining the effects of administration of mature green fruits of Musa paradisiaca on the semen quality of adult male Wistar rats. THE ANIMALS USED FOR THE STUDY WERE GROUPED INTO THREE: the control group, given 2 ml of double distilled water, a low dose group given 500 mg/kg/day and a high dose group given 1000 mg/kg/day of the plantain fruits, which was made into flour, and dissolved in 2 ml of double distilled water for easy oral administration. Significant increment in the semen parameters was noticed in animals that received a lower dose of the plantain flour, but those animals who received the high dose had marked and very significant reduction in sperm cell concentration and percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa. Musa paradisiaca should be consumed in moderate quantities in order to derive its beneficial effects of enhancing male reproductive functions.

  18. Beneficial effects of ω-3 PUFA in children on cardiovascular risk factors during childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafini, Sara; Antoniazzi, Franco; Maffeis, Claudio; Minuz, Pietro; Fava, Cristiano

    2015-07-01

    Omega-3 polyunsatured fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) are essential nutrients mainly derived from fish and seafood but present also in vegetables such as nuts and seed-oils. Some epidemiological and clinical studies indicate a protection of ω-3 FA against cardiovascular disease and a favourable effect on cardiovascular risk factors control in adults. The evidences of their effects in children and adolescents are scanty but a possible beneficial role, especially for insulin sensitivity and blood pressure control, has been proposed. In this review we want to focus especially on the evidences, which could justify the assumption of ω-3 in children and adolescents, and to underline the aspects which need further investigation. Mechanisms through which ω-3 FA act are manifolds and still a matter of investigation: beside their interaction with ion channel and their influence on plasma membrane fluidity, probably the main effect is acting as competitor for cytochrome P-450 (CYP) with respect to ω-6 FA. Thus, they can modulate the biosynthesis of eicosanoids and other lipid mediators, which likely exert a protective action. Another suggestive hypothesis is that their beneficial effect is not dependent only on the intake of ω-3 FA, but also on the complex interaction between different nutrients including ω-3 and other FAs with polymorphisms in genes involved in ω-3 FA modulation. This complex interaction has seldom been explored in children and adolescents. Further studies are needed to investigate all these points in order to find a better collocation of ω-3 FA on the available armamentarium for preventive, possibly individualized, medicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A Focus on the Beneficial Effects of Alpha Synuclein and a Re-Appraisal of Synucleinopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryskalin, Larisa; Busceti, Carla L; Limanaqi, Fiona; Biagioni, Francesca; Gambardella, Stefano; Fornai, Francesco

    2018-01-01

    Alpha synuclein (α-syn) belongs to a class of proteins which are commonly considered to play a detrimental role in neuronal survival. This assumption is based on the occurrence of a severe neuronal degeneration in patients carrying a multiplication of the α-syn gene (SNCA) and in a variety of experimental models, where overexpression of α-syn leads to cell death and neurological impairment. In these conditions, a higher amount of normally structured α-syn produces a damage, which is even worse compared with that produced by α-syn owning an abnormal structure (as occurring following point gene mutations). In line with this, knocking out the expression of α-syn is reported to protect from specific neurotoxins such as 1-methyl, 4-phenyl 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). In the present review we briefly discuss these well-known detrimental effects but we focus on findings showing that, in specific conditions α-syn is beneficial for cell survival. This occurs during methamphetamine intoxication which is counteracted by endogenous α-syn. Similarly, the dysfunction of the chaperone cysteine-string protein- alpha leads to cell pathology which is counteracted by over-expressing α-syn. In line with this, an increased expression of α-syn protects against oxidative damage produced by dopamine. Remarkably, when the lack of α-syn is combined with a depletion of β- and γ- synucleins, alterations in brain structure and function occur. This review tries to balance the evidence showing a beneficial effect with the bulk of data reporting a detrimental effect of endogenous α-syn. The specific role of α-syn as a chaperone protein is discussed to explain such a dual effect. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Beneficial Effects of Vildagliptin on Metabolic Parameters in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimodaira, Masanori; Niwa, Tomohiro; Nakajima, Koji; Kobayashi, Mutsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Blood pressure and lipid profile are important determinants of cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). To identify the pleiotropic effects of vildagliptin other than blood glucose lowering effect, a retrospective study was conducted in 128 patients with T2DM treated with vildagliptin 50 mg twice daily. The patients were separated into two groups: patients who were initiated with vildagliptin as monotherapy or add-on therapy (add-on group, n = 66) and patients who were switched from sitagliptin 100 mg once daily to vildagliptin (switching group, n = 62). Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), body mass index (BMI), systolic/diastolic blood pressure, lipid profiles, and uric acid (UA) at 3, 6, and 12 months of vildagliptin therapy were compared with those at baseline in each group. At baseline, there were no significant differences in HbA1c, BMI, blood pressures, lipid profiles, and UA levels between the two groups. After vildagliptin initiation, HbA1c decreased significantly but BMI and blood pressure did not change in both groups. Only in the add-on group, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased significantly from baseline to 3, 6, and 12 months. On the other hand, triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol did not change in both groups. Serum UA levels decreased only in the switching group from baseline to 3, 6, and 12 months. These results indicate that vildagliptin add-on treatment may have beneficial effects on lipid profiles, and switching from sitagliptin to vildagliptin reduces UA in patients with T2DM; these are important findings linked to the beneficial effects of vildagliptin on lipid and UA metabolisms in the treatment of T2DM.

  1. Beneficial effect of low ethanol intake on the cardiovascular system: possible biochemical mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudesh Vasdev

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Sudesh Vasdev1, Vicki Gill1, Pawan K Singal21Discipline of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada; 2Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Manitoba, Faculty of Medicine, Winnipeg, Manitoba, CanadaAbstract: Low ethanol intake is known to have a beneficial effect on cardiovascular disease. In cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance leads to altered glucose and lipid metabolism resulting in an increased production of aldehydes, including methylglyoxal. Aldehydes react non-enzymatically with sulfhydryl and amino groups of proteins forming advanced glycation end products (AGEs, altering protein structure and function. These alterations cause endothelial dysfunction with increased cytosolic free calcium, peripheral vascular resistance, and blood pressure. AGEs produce atherogenic effects including oxidative stress, platelet adhesion, inflammation, smooth muscle cell proliferation and modification of lipoproteins. Low ethanol intake attenuates hypertension and atherosclerosis but the mechanism of this effect is not clear. Ethanol at low concentrations is metabolized by low Km alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase, both reactions resulting in the production of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH. This creates a reductive environment, decreasing oxidative stress and secondary production of aldehydes through lipid peroxidation. NADH may also increase the tissue levels of the antioxidants cysteine and glutathione, which bind aldehydes and stimulate methylglyoxal catabolism. Low ethanol improves insulin resistance, increases high-density lipoprotein and stimulates activity of the antioxidant enzyme, paraoxonase. In conclusion, we suggest that chronic low ethanol intake confers its beneficial effect mainly through its ability to increase antioxidant capacity and lower AGEs.Keywords: low ethanol, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, biochemical

  2. Does Omegaven have beneficial effects on a rat model of ovarian ischemia/reperfusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gungor, Ayse N Cakir; Turkon, Hakan; Albayrak, Aynur; Ovali, Mehmet; Islimye, Mine; Gencer, Meryem; Hacivelioglu, Servet; Cevizci, Sibel; Cesur, Ismet; Cosar, Emine

    2014-10-01

    The beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids on an intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) model was shown previously. Therefore, we aimed to examine the potential beneficial effects of parenteral omega-3 fatty acids, a safe and inexpensive product, on a rat model of ovarian I/R. A group of 39 rats was divided into six groups. Group 1 (Sham Group; n=6) underwent two laparotomies with a 3-h interval and their ovaries were removed 3h later. Group 2 (torsion-detorsion Group; n=7) had their ovaries torsioned clockwise and fixed at 720°; 3h later a detorsion operation was done and after another 3h, their ovaries were removed. Group 3 (n=7) and Group 4 (n=7) received the same treatment as Group 2; however, half an hour prior to detorsion, these rats received Omegaven at 1mL/kg and 5mL/kg, respectively. Group 5 (n=6) and Group 6 (n=6) received the same treatment as Group 1; however, half an hour prior to the second laparotomy, these rats received Omegaven at 1mL/kg and 5mL/kg, respectively. One ovary from each rat was evaluated histologically by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and the other ovary was homogenized and evaluated for total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS) and oxidative stress index (OSI). While we failed to show any significant relationship among groups in oxidative parameters, there was a significant worsening in the torsion-detorsion group in histological evaluation. High Omegaven doses, but not low doses, improved tissue injury scores of torsioned and detorsioned ovaries to the levels observed in the control group. Omegaven improves the detrimental effects of ovarian I/R when used in sufficient doses. Its effects and dose adjustment on women with ovarian torsion must be investigated by further studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of tilting on central hemodynamics and homeostatic mechanisms in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Nørgaard, Annette; Henriksen, Jens H

    2004-01-01

    Patients with cirrhosis have a hyperdynamic circulation and an abnormal blood volume distribution with central hypovolemia, an activated sympathetic nervous system (SNS) as well as the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). As the hyperdynamic circulation in cirrhosis may be present only...... in the supine patient, we studied the humoral and central hemodynamic responses to changes with posture. Twenty-three patients with alcoholic cirrhosis (Child-Turcotte-Pugh classes A/B/C: 2/13/8) and 14 healthy controls were entered. Measurements of central hemodynamics and activation of SNS and RAAS were taken......). Central circulation time increased only in the patients (+30% vs. -1%, P higher in the patients than in the controls (P

  4. [Study of the effect of colloidal solution of silver nanoparticles on parameters of cardio- and hemo-dynamics in rabbits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryskoka, A O

    2014-01-01

    Metal nanoparticles and silver nanoparticles in particular are extensively studied recently considering their prominent antimicrobial properties. Nevertheless, their toxicity aspects and probable side effects remain not well studied. In this article the results of study of the influence of silver nanoparticles onto a cardiovascular system in an in vivo experiment were provided, changes in parameters of cardio- and hemodynamics were defined, and the principles of such influence were identified. Dose-dependent effect of these nanoparticles was established when administered in dose of 4.3 mg/kg three times and 20 mg/kg once.

  5. Beneficial effect of ethamsylate on the relative blood flow of the pancreas in acute canine necrotizing pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, A D; Schenk, W G

    1982-11-01

    The beneficial effect of ethamsylate in maintaining the relative pancreatic blood flow in acute canine necrotizing pancreatitis has been demonstrated. This beneficial effect is a function of the action of the drug in tending to maintain pancreatic blood flow, thereby minimizing the significant decrease which normally occurs in this parameter in acute necrotizing pancreatitis. The exact mechanism of action of the drug is unclear. Concurrent measurements of oxygen consumption by the pancreas show an apparent beneficial trend in the ethamsylate-treated group, although this was not proved to be statistically significant.

  6. Natriuretic peptides and cerebral hemodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Song; Barringer, Filippa; Zois, Nora Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Natriuretic peptides have emerged as important diagnostic and prognostic tools for cardiovascular disease. Plasma measurement of the bioactive peptides as well as precursor-derived fragments is a sensitive tool in assessing heart failure. In heart failure, the peptides are used as treatment...... in decompensated disease. In contrast, their biological effects on the cerebral hemodynamics are poorly understood. In this mini-review, we summarize the hemodynamic effects of the natriuretic peptides with a focus on the cerebral hemodynamics. In addition, we will discuss its potential implications in diseases...... where alteration of the cerebral hemodynamics plays a role such as migraine and acute brain injury including stroke. We conclude that a possible role of the peptides is feasible as evaluated from animal and in vitro studies, but more research is needed in humans to determine the precise response...

  7. Beneficial synergistic effects of microdose lithium with pyrroloquinoline quinone in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Gong, Neng; Liu, Meng; Pan, Xiaoli; Sang, Shaoming; Sun, Xiaojing; Yu, Zhe; Fang, Qi; Zhao, Na; Fei, Guoqiang; Jin, Lirong; Zhong, Chunjiu; Xu, Tianle

    2014-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complicated, neurodegenerative disorder involving multifactorial pathogeneses and still lacks effective clinical treatment. Recent studies show that lithium exerts disease-modifying effects against AD. However, the intolerant side effects at conventional effective dosage limit the clinical use of lithium in treating AD. To explore a novel AD treatment strategy with microdose lithium, we designed and synthesized a new chemical, tri-lithium pyrroloquinoline quinone (Li3PQQ), to study the synergistic effects of low-dose lithium and pyrroloquinoline quinone, a native compound with powerful antioxidation and mitochondrial amelioration. The results showed that Li3PQQ at a relative low dose (6 and 12 mg/kg) exhibited more powerful effects in restoring the impairment of learning and memory, facilitating hippocampal long-term potentiation, and reducing cerebral amyloid deposition and phosphorylated tau level in APP/PS1 transgenic mice than that of lithium chloride at both low and high dose (5 and 100 mg/kg). We further found that Li3PQQ inhibited the activity of glycogen synthase kinase-3 and increased the activity of β-amyloid-binding alcohol dehydrogenase, which might underlie the beneficial effects of Li3PQQ on APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Our study demonstrated the efficacy of a novel AD therapeutic strategy targeting at multiple disease-causing mechanisms through the synergistic effects of microdose lithium and pyrroloquinoline quinone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Hemodynamic effects of aerosol propellants. I. Cardiac depression in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simaan, J A; Aviado, D M

    1975-11-01

    The inhalation of fluorocarbons caused a depression of myocardial contractility, aortic hypotension, a decrease in cardiac output and an increase in pulmonary vascular resistance. The minimal concentrations that elicited these changes are as follows: 1% trichlorofluoromethane (FC11); 2.5% dichlorotetrafluoroethane (FC114); and 10% dichlorodifluoromethane (FC12). Inhalation of 20% octafluorocyclobutane (FC318) and difluoroethane (FC152a) did not influence these hemodynamic parameters. As in previous comparisons, the most widely used aerosol propellants are potentially cardiotoxic in the anesthetized dog.

  9. Remote effects in treated dogs survived acute radiation sickness. Hemodynamics at various times after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostesha, N.Ya.; Lopukhova, V.V.

    1993-01-01

    Dogs were exposed to X-radiation at a dose of 15 Gy; part of them received a complex treatment. The morphological of internal organs of control dogs were made before death (on days 4 to 15 after irradiation). The treated dogs were killed 0.5-2 years following irradiation. Hemodynamics normalization was noted in 1.5-2 years in the liver, brain cortex, adrenals, insular tissue of the pancreas, and lymph nodes

  10. Novel small-molecule AMPK activator orally exerts beneficial effects on diabetic db/db mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Yu, Li-Fang; Zhang, Li-Na; Qiu, Bei-Ying; Su, Ming-Bo; Wu, Fang; Chen, Da-Kai; Pang, Tao; Gu, Min; Zhang, Wei; Ma, Wei-Ping; Jiang, Hao-Wen; Li, Jing-Ya, E-mail: jyli@mail.shcnc.ac.cn; Nan, Fa-Jun, E-mail: fjnan@mail.shcnc.ac.cn; Li, Jia, E-mail: jli@mail.shcnc.ac.cn

    2013-12-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is a pivotal guardian of whole-body energy metabolism, has become an attractive therapeutic target for metabolic syndrome. Previously, using a homogeneous scintillation proximity assay, we identified the small-molecule AMPK activator C24 from an optimization based on the original allosteric activator PT1. In this paper, the AMPK activation mechanism of C24 and its potential beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism on db/db mice were investigated. C24 allosterically stimulated inactive AMPK α subunit truncations and activated AMPK heterotrimers by antagonizing autoinhibition. In primary hepatocytes, C24 increased the phosphorylation of AMPK downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase dose-dependently without changing intracellular AMP/ATP ratio, indicating its allosteric activation in cells. Through activating AMPK, C24 decreased glucose output by down-regulating mRNA levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) in primary hepatocytes. C24 also decreased the triglyceride and cholesterol contents in HepG2 cells. Due to its improved bioavailability, chronic oral treatment with multiple doses of C24 significantly reduced blood glucose and lipid levels in plasma, and improved the glucose tolerance of diabetic db/db mice. The hepatic transcriptional levels of PEPCK and G6Pase were reduced. These results demonstrate that this orally effective activator of AMPK represents a novel approach to the treatment of metabolic syndrome. - Highlights: • C24 activates AMPK through antagonizing autoinhibition within α subunit. • C24 activates AMPK in hepatocytes and decreases glucose output via AMPK. • C24 exerts beneficial effects on diabetic db/db mice. • C24 represents a novel therapeutic for treatment of metabolic syndrome.

  11. Novel small-molecule AMPK activator orally exerts beneficial effects on diabetic db/db mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Yu, Li-Fang; Zhang, Li-Na; Qiu, Bei-Ying; Su, Ming-Bo; Wu, Fang; Chen, Da-Kai; Pang, Tao; Gu, Min; Zhang, Wei; Ma, Wei-Ping; Jiang, Hao-Wen; Li, Jing-Ya; Nan, Fa-Jun; Li, Jia

    2013-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is a pivotal guardian of whole-body energy metabolism, has become an attractive therapeutic target for metabolic syndrome. Previously, using a homogeneous scintillation proximity assay, we identified the small-molecule AMPK activator C24 from an optimization based on the original allosteric activator PT1. In this paper, the AMPK activation mechanism of C24 and its potential beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism on db/db mice were investigated. C24 allosterically stimulated inactive AMPK α subunit truncations and activated AMPK heterotrimers by antagonizing autoinhibition. In primary hepatocytes, C24 increased the phosphorylation of AMPK downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase dose-dependently without changing intracellular AMP/ATP ratio, indicating its allosteric activation in cells. Through activating AMPK, C24 decreased glucose output by down-regulating mRNA levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) in primary hepatocytes. C24 also decreased the triglyceride and cholesterol contents in HepG2 cells. Due to its improved bioavailability, chronic oral treatment with multiple doses of C24 significantly reduced blood glucose and lipid levels in plasma, and improved the glucose tolerance of diabetic db/db mice. The hepatic transcriptional levels of PEPCK and G6Pase were reduced. These results demonstrate that this orally effective activator of AMPK represents a novel approach to the treatment of metabolic syndrome. - Highlights: • C24 activates AMPK through antagonizing autoinhibition within α subunit. • C24 activates AMPK in hepatocytes and decreases glucose output via AMPK. • C24 exerts beneficial effects on diabetic db/db mice. • C24 represents a novel therapeutic for treatment of metabolic syndrome

  12. Fenestrated Stent Graft Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Hemodynamic Analysis of the Effect of Fenestrated Stents on the Renal Arteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Zhonghua; Chaichana, Thanapong [Curtin University of Technology, Perth (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    We wanted to investigate the hemodynamic effect of fenestrated stents on the renal arteries with using a fluid structure interaction method. Two representative patients who each had abdominal aortic aneurysm that was treated with fenestrated stent grafts were selected for the study. 3D realistic aorta models for the main artery branches and aneurysm were generated based on the multislice CT scans from two patients with different aortic geometries. The simulated fenestrated stents were designed and modelled based on the 3D intraluminal appearance, and these were placed inside the renal artery with an intra-aortic protrusion of 5.0-7.0 mm to reflect the actual patients' treatment. The stent wire thickness was simulated with a diameter of 0.4 mm and hemodynamic analysis was performed at different cardiac cycles. Our results showed that the effect of the fenestrated stent wires on the renal blood flow was minimal because the flow velocity was not significantly affected when compared to that calculated at pre-stent graft implantation, and this was despite the presence of recirculation patterns at the proximal part of the renal arteries. The wall pressure was found to be significantly decreased after fenestration, yet no significant change of the wall shear stress was noticed at post-fenestration, although the wall shear stress was shown to decrease slightly at the proximal aneurysm necks. Our analysis demonstrates that the hemodynamic effect of fenestrated renal stents on the renal arteries is insignificant. Further studies are needed to investigate the effect of different lengths of stent protrusion with variable stent thicknesses on the renal blood flow, and this is valuable for understanding the long-term outcomes of fenestrated repair.

  13. Fenestrated Stent Graft Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Hemodynamic Analysis of the Effect of Fenestrated Stents on the Renal Arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Zhonghua; Chaichana, Thanapong

    2010-01-01

    We wanted to investigate the hemodynamic effect of fenestrated stents on the renal arteries with using a fluid structure interaction method. Two representative patients who each had abdominal aortic aneurysm that was treated with fenestrated stent grafts were selected for the study. 3D realistic aorta models for the main artery branches and aneurysm were generated based on the multislice CT scans from two patients with different aortic geometries. The simulated fenestrated stents were designed and modelled based on the 3D intraluminal appearance, and these were placed inside the renal artery with an intra-aortic protrusion of 5.0-7.0 mm to reflect the actual patients' treatment. The stent wire thickness was simulated with a diameter of 0.4 mm and hemodynamic analysis was performed at different cardiac cycles. Our results showed that the effect of the fenestrated stent wires on the renal blood flow was minimal because the flow velocity was not significantly affected when compared to that calculated at pre-stent graft implantation, and this was despite the presence of recirculation patterns at the proximal part of the renal arteries. The wall pressure was found to be significantly decreased after fenestration, yet no significant change of the wall shear stress was noticed at post-fenestration, although the wall shear stress was shown to decrease slightly at the proximal aneurysm necks. Our analysis demonstrates that the hemodynamic effect of fenestrated renal stents on the renal arteries is insignificant. Further studies are needed to investigate the effect of different lengths of stent protrusion with variable stent thicknesses on the renal blood flow, and this is valuable for understanding the long-term outcomes of fenestrated repair

  14. The beneficial effect of Tai Chi on self-concept in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xueming; Jin, Kaimin

    2015-03-01

    Previous research has documented the beneficial effect of Tai Chi, but most of the studies focused on elders and patients with specific health conditions. The aim of the study was to test whether Tai Chi can help to improve self-concept in adolescents with a longitudinal study. The sample comprised 160 students from a Chinese middle school; half of students formed the experimental group and the rest formed the control group. A 1-year Tai Chi intervention was delivered in 60-minute sessions, five times a week. Both groups were instructed to complete the measure of self-concept at the beginning and end of the intervention. Statistical analysis shows the significant reduction of good behaviour, intellectual and school status, popularity and anxiety in the experimental group compared with the control group. The results suggest that the Tai Chi intervention could improve self-concept in adolescents. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  15. Effects of a human recombinant alkaline phosphatase on renal hemodynamics, oxygenation and inflammation in two models of acute kidney injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Esther, E-mail: esther.peters@radboudumc.nl [Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Radboud university medical center, PO Box 9101, Internal Mailbox 710, 6500 HB, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Radboud university medical center, PO Box 9101, Internal Mailbox 149, 6500 HB, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Ergin, Bülent, E-mail: b.ergin@amc.uva.nl [Department of Translational Physiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kandil, Asli, E-mail: aslikandil@istanbul.edu.tr [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Istanbul University, PK 34134, Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey); Gurel-Gurevin, Ebru, E-mail: egurelgurevin@gmail.com [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Istanbul University, PK 34134, Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey); Elsas, Andrea van, E-mail: a.vanelsas@am-pharma.com [AM-Pharma, Rumpsterweg 6, 3981 AK, Bunnik (Netherlands); Masereeuw, Rosalinde, E-mail: r.masereeuw@uu.nl [Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Science, PO Box 80082, 3508 TB Utrecht (Netherlands); Pickkers, Peter, E-mail: peter.pickkers@radboudumc.nl [Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Radboud university medical center, PO Box 9101, Internal Mailbox 710, 6500 HB, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Ince, Can, E-mail: c.ince@amc.uva.nl [Department of Translational Physiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-12-15

    Two small clinical trials indicated that administration of bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase (AP) improves renal function in critically ill patients with sepsis-associated acute kidney injury (AKI), for which the mechanism of action is not completely understood. Here, we investigated the effects of a newly developed human recombinant AP (recAP) on renal oxygenation and hemodynamics and prevention of kidney damage and inflammation in two in vivo AKI models. To induce AKI, male Wistar rats (n = 18) were subjected to renal ischemia (30 min) and reperfusion (I/R), or sham-operated. In a second model, rats (n = 18) received a 30 min infusion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 2.5 mg/kg), or saline, and fluid resuscitation. In both models, recAP (1000 U/kg) was administered intravenously (15 min before reperfusion, or 90 min after LPS). Following recAP treatment, I/R-induced changes in renal blood flow, renal vascular resistance and oxygen delivery at early, and cortical microvascular oxygen tension at late reperfusion were no longer significantly affected. RecAP did not influence I/R-induced effects on mean arterial pressure. During endotoxemia, recAP treatment did not modulate the LPS-induced changes in systemic hemodynamics and renal oxygenation. In both models, recAP did exert a clear renal protective anti-inflammatory effect, demonstrated by attenuated immunostaining of inflammatory, tubular injury and pro-apoptosis markers. Whether this renal protective effect is sufficient to improve outcome of patients suffering from sepsis-associated AKI is being investigated in a large clinical trial. - Highlights: • Human recombinant alkaline phosphatase (recAP) is a potential new therapy for sepsis-associated acute kidney injury (AKI). • RecAP can modulate renal oxygenation and hemodynamics immediately following I/R-induced AKI. • RecAP did not modulate endotoxemia-induced changes in systemic hemodynamics and renal oxygenation. • RecAP did exert a clear renal protective

  16. The Beneficial Effect of Testing: An Event-Related Potential Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hua eBai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The enhanced memory performance for items that are tested as compared to being restudied (the testing effect is a frequently reported memory phenomenon. According to the episodic context account of the testing effect, this beneficial effect of testing is related to a process which reinstates the previously learnt episodic information. Few studies have explored the neural correlates of this effect at the time point when testing takes place, however. In this study, we utilized the ERP correlates of successful memory encoding to address this issue, hypothesizing that if the benefit of testing is due to retrieval-related processes at test then subsequent memory effects should resemble the ERP correlates of retrieval-based processing in their temporal and spatial characteristics. Participants were asked to learn Swahili-German word pairs before items were presented in either a testing or a restudy condition. Memory performance was assessed immediately and one-day later with a cued recall task. Successfully recalling items at test increased the likelihood that items were remembered over time compared to items which were only restudied. An ERP subsequent memory contrast (later remembered vs. later forgotten tested items, which reflects the engagement of processes that ensure items are recallable the next day were topographically comparable

  17. Effects of the intraoperative application of dexmedetomidine on hemodynamics and cerebral oxygen metabolism of patients with cerebrovascular malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Feng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Circulatory stability of patients with cerebrovascular malformations during the surgery is critical to their prognosis. Anesthesia-induced intubation, tumor separation, clamping and other operations may cause severe fluctuations in blood pressure and even result in aneurysm rupture. As a highly efficient and selective adrenergic α2 receptor agonists, dexmedetomidine hydrochloride is able to regulate the release of catecholamine by means of negative feedback so as to control blood pressure. This study aims to assess the effects of dexmedetomidine hydrochloride on hemodynamics and cerebral oxygen metabolism of intraoperative patients with cerebrovascular malformations.

  18. Fitness effects of beneficial mutations: the mutational landscape model in experimental evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betancourt, Andrea J.; Bollback, Jonathan Paul

    2006-01-01

    of beneficial mutations should be roughly exponentially distributed. The prediction appears to be borne out by most of these studies, at least qualitatively. Another study showed that a modified version of the model was able to predict, with reasonable accuracy, which of a ranked set of beneficial alleles...

  19. The effect of crop protection strategy on pest and beneficials incidence in protected crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, I; Rodrigues, S; Figueiredo, E; Godinho, M C; Marques, C; Amaro, F; Mexia, A

    2002-01-01

    differences are related to different levels of beneficial populations due to different secondary effects of the pesticides applied.

  20. Beneficial effects of exercise training in heart failure are lost in male diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudia, Dalila; Domergue, Valérie; Mateo, Philippe; Fazal, Loubina; Prud'homme, Mathilde; Prigent, Héloïse; Delcayre, Claude; Cohen-Solal, Alain; Garnier, Anne; Ventura-Clapier, Renée; Samuel, Jane-Lise

    2017-12-01

    Exercise training has been demonstrated to have beneficial effects in patients with heart failure (HF) or diabetes. However, it is unknown whether diabetic patients with HF will benefit from exercise training. Male Wistar rats were fed either a standard (Sham, n = 53) or high-fat, high-sucrose diet ( n = 66) for 6 mo. After 2 mo of diet, the rats were already diabetic. Rats were then randomly subjected to either myocardial infarction by coronary artery ligation (MI) or sham operation. Two months later, heart failure was documented by echocardiography and animals were randomly subjected to exercise training with treadmill for an additional 8 wk or remained sedentary. At the end, rats were euthanized and tissues were assayed by RT-PCR, immunoblotting, spectrophotometry, and immunohistology. MI induced a similar decrease in ejection fraction in diabetic and lean animals but a higher premature mortality in the diabetic group. Exercise for 8 wk resulted in a higher working power developed by MI animals with diabetes and improved glycaemia but not ejection fraction or pathological phenotype. In contrast, exercise improved the ejection fraction and increased adaptive hypertrophy after MI in the lean group. Trained diabetic rats with MI were nevertheless able to develop cardiomyocyte hypertrophy but without angiogenic responses. Exercise improved stress markers and cardiac energy metabolism in lean but not diabetic-MI rats. Hence, following HF, the benefits of exercise training on cardiac function are blunted in diabetic animals. In conclusion, exercise training only improved the myocardial profile of infarcted lean rats fed the standard diet. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Exercise training is beneficial in patients with heart failure (HF) or diabetes. However, less is known of the possible benefit of exercise training for HF patients with diabetes. Using a rat model where both diabetes and MI had been induced, we showed that 2 mo after MI, 8 wk of exercise training failed to improve

  1. [Effect of Transcutaneous Acupoint Electrical Stimulation on Hemodynamic Fluctuation Caused by Loosing Tourniquet in Elderly Patients Undergoing Knee Joint Replacement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Han-Sheng; Feng, Yi

    2017-12-25

    To observe the effect of transcutaneous acupoint electrical stimulation (TAES) on hemodynamic fluctuation caused by loosing tourniquet in the elderly patients undergoing knee joint replacement. A total of 60 ASA (America Society Anesthesiologist) I or II elderly patients for elective knee joint replacement surgery were randomly divided into control group (30 cases) and TAES group (30 cases). Patients of both groups were treated by intravenous anesthesia, and monitored with bispectral index (BIS, between 45-60) for anesthesia depth, stroke volume variation (SVV) for fluid management, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and cardiac index (CI) for hemodynamic fluctuation evaluation, and with analgesia nociception index (ANI, between 50-70) for remifentanil dosage adjustment. TAES (2 Hz/100 Hz, 8-20 mA) was applied to bilateral Xinshu (BL 15), Feishu (BL 13), Neiguan (PC 6) and Hegu (LI 4) acupoints for 30 min first (followed by anesthesia induction and operation), and given continuously until 15 min after tourniquet loosing. Patients of the control group were only given with electrodes attachment without electrical stimulation. The levels of MAP, CI, and arterial blood pH, PaCO 2 , PaO 2 , base excess (BE) and lactic acid (Lac) 1 min before, and 5 and 15 min after tourniquet loosing, and the dosages of remifentanil and ephedrine after tourniquet loosing were recorded. The changed levels of MAP, CI and blood Lac at 5 min after tourniquet loosing (relevant to the baseline levels), and blood Lac content at 15 min after tourniquet loosing (relevant to 5 min after tourniquet loosing) were significantly lower in the TAES group than in the control group ( P 0.05). TAES has a positive effect on hemodynamics fluctuation caused by loosing tourniquet in the aged patients undergoing knee joint replacement.

  2. Revealing the beneficial effect of protease supplementation to high gravity beer fermentations using "-omics" techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Workman Chris

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Addition of sugar syrups to the basic wort is a popular technique to achieve higher gravity in beer fermentations, but it results in dilution of the free amino nitrogen (FAN content in the medium. The multicomponent protease enzyme Flavourzyme has beneficial effect on the brewer's yeast fermentation performance during high gravity fermentations as it increases the initial FAN value and results in higher FAN uptake, higher specific growth rate, higher ethanol yield and improved flavour profile. Results In the present study, transcriptome and metabolome analysis were used to elucidate the effect on the addition of the multicomponent protease enzyme Flavourzyme and its influence on the metabolism of the brewer's yeast strain Weihenstephan 34/70. The study underlines the importance of sufficient nitrogen availability during the course of beer fermentation. The applied metabolome and transcriptome analysis allowed mapping the effect of the wort sugar composition on the nitrogen uptake. Conclusion Both the transcriptome and the metabolome analysis revealed that there is a significantly higher impact of protease addition for maltose syrup supplemented fermentations, while addition of glucose syrup to increase the gravity in the wort resulted in increased glucose repression that lead to inhibition of amino acid uptake and hereby inhibited the effect of the protease addition.

  3. Beneficial Effect of Ocimum sanctum (Linn) against Monocrotaline-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghwani, Himanshu; Prabhakar, Pankaj; Mohammed, Soheb A; Dua, Pamila; Seth, Sandeep; Hote, Milind P; Banerjee, Sanjay K; Arava, Sudheer; Ray, Ruma; Maulik, Subir Kumar

    2018-04-17

    The study was designed to explore any beneficial effect of Ocimum sanctum (Linn) (OS) in experimental pulmonary hypertension (PH) in rats. OS is commonly known as “holy basil” and “Tulsi” and is used in the Indian System of Medicine as antidiabetic, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, adaptogenic, and cardioprotective. Monocrotaline (MCT) administration caused development of PH in rats after 28 days and rats were observed for 42 days. Treatments (sildenafil; 175 µg/kg, OS; 200 mg/kg) were started from day 29 after the development of PH and continued for 14 days. Parameters to assess the disease development and effectiveness of interventions were echocardiography, right and left ventricular systolic pressures, and right ventricular end diastolic pressure, percentage medial wall thickness (%MWT) of pulmonary artery, oxidative stress markers in lung tissue, NADPH oxidase (Nox-1) protein expression in lung, and mRNA expression of Bcl2 and Bax in right ventricular tissue. OS (200 mg/kg) treatment ameliorated increased lung weight to body weight ratio, right ventricular hypertrophy, increased RVSP, and RVoTD/AoD ratio. Moreover, OS treatment decreases Nox-1 expression and increases expression of Bcl2/Bax ratio caused by MCT. The present study demonstrates that OS has therapeutic ability against MCT-induced PH in rat which are attributed to its antioxidant effect. The effect of OS was comparable with sildenafil.

  4. The beneficial effects of massage therapy for insomnia in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hachul

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With increases life expectancy, the incidence of undesirable manifestations of menopause has increased as well. The effects of lost ovarian function include progressive decrease in estradiol secretion, trophic changes in the breast, vasomotor symptoms, anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders. Insomnia, which has physiological consequences and can result in a loss of quality of life, is prevalent in women after menopause. Hormone therapy has been widely used to reduce menopausal symptoms, but its use in recent years has been questioned because of the reported risks of cardiovascular events and increased incidence of tumors. This controversy has generated significant interest in non-hormonal treatments among both physicians and patients. Our previous research has shown a positive effect of massage therapy on menopausal symptoms. We explored the hypothesis that massage therapy would produce beneficial effects in postmenopausal women through inflammatory and immunological changes. Recent results from self-report questionnaires have shown improvements in sleep pattern and quality of life following massage therapy. These findings demonstrate the effectiveness of massage therapy for the treatment of postmenopausal symptoms, particularly insomnia, and indicate that it is a promising line of research.

  5. The beneficial effects of massage therapy for insomnia in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachul, H; Oliveira, D S; Bittencourt, L R A; Andersen, M L; Tufik, S

    2014-06-01

    With increases life expectancy, the incidence of undesirable manifestations of menopause has increased as well. The effects of lost ovarian function include progressive decrease in estradiol secretion, trophic changes in the breast, vasomotor symptoms, anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders. Insomnia, which has physiological consequences and can result in a loss of quality of life, is prevalent in women after menopause. Hormone therapy has been widely used to reduce menopausal symptoms, but its use in recent years has been questioned because of the reported risks of cardiovascular events and increased incidence of tumors. This controversy has generated significant interest in non-hormonal treatments among both physicians and patients. Our previous research has shown a positive effect of massage therapy on menopausal symptoms. We explored the hypothesis that massage therapy would produce beneficial effects in postmenopausal women through inflammatory and immunological changes. Recent results from self-report questionnaires have shown improvements in sleep pattern and quality of life following massage therapy. These findings demonstrate the effectiveness of massage therapy for the treatment of postmenopausal symptoms, particularly insomnia, and indicate that it is a promising line of research.

  6. The Beneficial Effect of Cape Gooseberry Juice on Carbon Tetrachloride- Induced Neuronal Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Olayan, Ebtesam M; El-Khadragy, Manal F; Omer, Sawsan A; Shata, Mohamed T M; Kassab, Rami B; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2016-01-01

    Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) belongs to the Solanaceae family. Physalis has many medicinal properties however, the beneficial effect of physalis in protecting against neurotoxins has not yet been evaluated. This experimental study investigated the protective effect of physalis juice against the oxidative damage induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in the rat brain. The degrees of protection by physalis in brain tissues were evaluated by determining the brain levels of lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, glutathione content and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase), after CCl4) induction in the presence or absence of physalis. Adult male albino Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups, Group I served as the control group, Group II was intraperitoneally treated with 2 ml CCl4)/kg bwt for 12 weeks, Group III was supplemented with physalis juice via the drinking water for 12 weeks, Group IV was supplemented with physalis juice and was intraperitoneally injected weekly with CCl4). Treatment with CCl4) was significantly associated with a disturbance in the oxidative status in the brain tissues; this was marked by a significant (pphysalis along with CCl4) juice significantly (pphysalis juice supplemention inhibited apoptosis, as indicated by the increase of Bcl-2 immunoreactivity in brain tissue. Our results suggest that physalis juice could be effective in preventing neurotoxicity and the neuroprotective effect of physalis might be mediated via antioxidant and anti-apoptosis activities.

  7. Growth hormone abolishes beneficial effects of calorie restriction in long-lived Ames dwarf mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesing, Adam; Al-Regaiey, Khalid A; Bartke, Andrzej; Masternak, Michal M

    2014-10-01

    Disruption of the growth hormone (GH) axis promotes longevity and delays aging. In contrast, GH over-expression may lead to accelerated aging and shorter life. Calorie restriction (CR) improves insulin sensitivity and may extend lifespan. Long-lived Ames dwarf (df/df) mice have additional extension of longevity when subjected to 30% CR. The aim of the study was to assess effects of CR or GH replacement therapy separately and as a combined (CR+GH) treatment in GH-deficient df/df and normal mice, on selected metabolic parameters (e.g., insulin, glucose, cholesterol), insulin signaling components (e.g., insulin receptor [IR] β-subunit, phosphorylated form of IR [IR pY1158], protein kinase C ζ/λ [p-PKCζ/λ] and mTOR [p-mTOR]), transcription factor p-CREB, and components of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling (p-ERK1/2, p-p38), responsible for cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. CR decreased plasma levels of insulin, glucose, cholesterol and leptin, and increased hepatic IR β-subunit and IR pY1158 levels as well as IR, IRS-1 and GLUT-2 gene expression compared to ad libitum feeding, showing a significant beneficial diet intervention effect. Moreover, hepatic protein levels of p-PKCζ/λ, p-mTOR and p-p38 decreased, and p-CREB increased in CR mice. On the contrary, GH increased levels of glucose, cholesterol and leptin in plasma, and p-mTOR or p-p38 in livers, and decreased plasma adiponectin and hepatic IR β-subunit compared to saline treatment. There were no GH effects on adiponectin in N mice. Moreover, GH replacement therapy did not affect IR, IRS-1 and GLUT-2 gene expression. GH treatment abolishes the beneficial effects of CR; it may suggest an important role of GH-IGF1 axis in mediating the CR action. Suppressed somatotrophic signaling seems to predominate over GH replacement therapy in the context of the examined parameters and signaling pathways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of Hemodynamic Effects and Negative Predictive Value of Normal Adenosine Gated Myocardial Perfusion Scan With or Without Caffeine Abstinence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaman, Maseeh uz; Fatima, Nosheen; Zaman, Areeba; Zaman, Unaiza; Tahseen, Rabia

    2016-01-01

    For vasodilator stress, myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with at least 12-h caffeine abstinence is recommended, as it attenuates cardiovascular hyperemic response of adenosine and dipyridamole. However, many published conflicting results have shown no significant effect upon perfusion abnormalities in MPI performed without caffeine abstinence. The aim of this study was to compare the hemodynamic changes and negative predictive value (NPV) of normal MPIs with adenosine stress performed with or without caffeine abstinence. This was a prospective study that accrued 50 patients from May 2013 till September 2013 and followed till November 2014. These patients had a normal adenosine-gated MPI (GMPI) with technetium-99m methoxy isobutyl isonitrile ( 99m Tc-MIBI) after 12-h caffeine abstinence (no-caffeine). Next day, all patients had a repeat adenosine stress within 60 min after ingestion of a cup of coffee (about 80 mg of caffeine) followed by no MPI in 30 patients due to concern about radiation dose (prior-caffeine adenosine—no MPI; group A). Twenty patients opted for a repeat MPI (prior-caffeine adenosine—MPI; group B). Adenosine-induced hemodynamic response and NPV of the normal MPI with no-caffeine and prior-caffeine protocols were compared. The mean age of the study cohort was 57 ± 9 years with a male-to-female ratio of 76:24% and mean body mass index (BMI) of 26.915 ± 4.121 kg/m 2 . Prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and positive family history were 76%, 20%, 22%, and 17%, respectively. Comparison of group A with group B revealed no significant difference in demographic parameters, hemodynamic or electrocardiography (ECG) parameters, or left ventricular (LV) function parameters during adenosine intervention with prior-caffeine and no-caffeine protocols. During the follow-up, no fatal myocardial infarction (MI) was reported but 6 nonfatal MIs were reported based upon the history of short hospitalization for chest pain but without biochemical

  9. EFFECTS OF PARENT ARTERY SEGMENTATION AND ANEURISMALWALL ELASTICITY ON PATIENT-SPECIFIC HEMODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jia-liang; DING Guang-hong; YANG Xin-jian; LI Hai-yun

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that hemodynamics and wall tension play an important role in the formation,growth and rupture of aneurysms.In the present study,the authors investigated the influence of parent artery segmentation and aneurismal-wall elasticity on patient-specific hemodynamic simulations with two patient-specific eases of cerebral aneurysms.Realistic models of the aneurysms were constructed from 3-D angiography images and blood flow dynamics was studied under physiologically representative waveform of inflow.For each aneurysm three computational models were constructed:Model 1 with more extensive upstream parent artery with the rigid arterial and aneurismal wall,Model 2 with the partial upstream parent artery with the elastic arterial and aneurismal wall,Model 3 with more extensive upstream parent artery with the rigid wall for arterial wall far from the aneurysm and the elastic wall for arterial wall near the aneurysm.The results show that Model 1 could predict complex intra-aneurismal flow patterns and wall shear stress distribution in the aneurysm,but is unable to give aneurismal wall deformation and tension,Model 2 demonstrates aneurismal wall deformation and tension,but fails to properly model inflow pattern contributed by the upstream parent artery,resulting in local misunderstanding Wall Shear Stress (WSS) distribution,Model 3 can overcome limitations of the former two models,and give an overall and accurate analysis on intra-aneurismal flow patterns,wall shear stress distribution,aneurismal-wall deformation and tension.Therefore we suggest that the proper length of extensive upstream parent artery and aneuri-smal-wall elasticity should be considered carefully in establishing computational model to predict the intra-aneurismal hemodynamic and wall tension.

  10. Hemodynamic Behavior During Hemodialysis: Effects of Dialysate Concentrations of Bicarbonate and Potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno C. Silva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Ultrafiltration that occurs during hemodialysis (HD promotes profound alterations in a relatively short period of time. The dialysate content of bicarbonate (DBic and potassium (DK may have impact over intradialytic hemodynamics, which goes beyond ultrafiltration, and its impact was evaluated in a prospective cohort. Methods: 30 patients under HD were submitted to hemodynamic assessment (HA at the beginning and at the end of HD sessions, through a non-invasive method. Serum minus dialysate potassium concentration was expressed as K-Gap. Cardiac index (CI and peripheral arterial resistance (PAR variation (post-HD minus pre-HD were expressed as ΔCI and ΔPAR. Dialysate content of sodium and calcium were expressed as DNa and DCa, respectively. Results: Mean DNa, DK and DBic were, respectively, 136.4 ± 1.1, 2.1 ± 0.6 and 38.2 ± 2.1 mEq/L. In 15 patients, DCa was >1.5 mmol/L and in the other 15 patients ≤ 1.5 mmol/L. The K-Gap ranged from 1.4 to 5.1 mEq/l (median 3.0 mEq/L. There was a reduction in post-HD CI and systolic blood pressure (ΔCI = -0.72l/min/m2 and -11.3±15.1mmHg, respectively, p5, pConclusion: We confirmed that Na and Ca dialysate content exerts and important role on hemodynamic during HD. In addition, our findings pointed out that higher dialysate concentrations of bicarbonate and potassium promote lower cardiac performance at the end of hemodialysis session.

  11. Effect of hemodynamics on outcome of subtotally occluded paraclinoid aneurysms after stent-assisted coil embolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Jing, Linkai; Wang, Chao; Paliwal, Nikhil; Wang, Shengzhang; Zhang, Ying; Xiang, Jianping; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Meng, Hui; Yang, Xinjian

    2016-11-01

    Endovascular treatment of paraclinoid aneurysms is preferred in clinical practice. Flow alterations caused by stents and coils may affect treatment outcome. To assess hemodynamic changes following stent-assisted coil embolization (SACE) in subtotally embolized paraclinoid aneurysms with residual necks that were predisposed to recanalization. We studied 27 paraclinoid aneurysms (seven recanalized and 20 stable) treated with coils and Enterprise stents. Computational fluid dynamic simulations were performed on patient-specific aneurysm geometries using virtual stenting and porous media technology. After stent placement in 27 cases, aneurysm flow velocity decreased significantly, the reduction gradually increasing from the neck plane (11.9%), to the residual neck (12.3%), to the aneurysm dome (16.3%). Subsequent coil embolization was performed after stent placement and the hemodynamic factors decreased further and significantly at all aneurysm regions except the neck plane. In a comparison of recanalized and stable cases, univariate analysis showed no significant differences in any parameter before treatment. After stent-assisted coiling, only the reduction in area-averaged velocity at the neck plane differed significantly between recanalized (8.1%) and stable cases (20.5%) (p=0.016). Aneurysm flow velocity can be significantly decreased by stent placement and coil embolization. However, hemodynamics at the aneurysm neck plane is less sensitive to coils. Significant reduction in flow velocity at the neck plane may be an important factor in preventing recanalization of paraclinoid aneurysms after subtotal SACE. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. The effect of combined conventional and modified ultrafiltration on mechanical ventilation and hemodynamic changes in congenital heart surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ziyaeifard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with increased fluid accumulation around the heart which influences pulmonary and cardiac diastolic function. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of modified ultrafiltration (MUF versus conventional ultrafiltration (CUF on duration of mechanical ventilation and hemodynamic status in children undergoing congenital heart surgery. Materials and Methods: A randomized clinical trial was conducted on 46 pediatric patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass throughout their congenital heart surgery. Arteriovenous MUF plus CUF was performed in 23 patients (intervention group and sole CUF was performed for other 23 patients (control group. In MUF group, arterial cannula was linked to the filter inlet through the arterial line, and for 10 min, 10 ml/kg/min of blood was filtered and returned via cardioplegia line to the right atrium. Different parameters including hemodynamic variables, length of mechanical ventilation, Intensive Care Unit (ICU stay, and inotrope requirement were compared between the two groups. Results: At immediate post-MUF phase, there was a statistically significant increase in the mean arterial pressure, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.05 only in the study group. Furthermore, there was a significant difference in time of mechanical ventilation (P = 0.004 and ICU stay (P = 0.007 between the two groups. Inotropes including milrinone (P = 0.04, epinephrine (P = 0.001, and dobutamine (P = 0.002 were used significantly less frequently for patients in the intervention than the control group. Conclusion: Administration of MUF following surgery improves hemodynamic status of patients and also significantly decreases the duration of mechanical ventilation and inotrope requirement within 48 h after surgery.

  13. Effect of maturation on hemodynamic and autonomic control recovery following maximal running exercise in highly-trained young soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eBuchheit

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of maturation on post-exercise hemodynamic and autonomic responses. Fifty-five highly-trained young male soccer players (12-18 yr classified as pre-, circum- or post-peak height velocity (PHV performed a graded running test to exhaustion on a treadmill. Before (Pre and after (5th-10th min, Post exercise, heart rate (HR, stroke volume (SV, cardiac ouput (CO, arterial pressure (AP and total peripheral resistance (TPR were monitored. Parasympathetic (high-frequency [HFRR] of HR variability (HRV and baroreflex sensitivity [Ln BRS] and sympathetic activity (low-frequency [LFSAP] of systolic AP variability were estimated. Post-exercise blood lactate [La]b, the HR recovery (HRR time constant and parasympathetic reactivation (time varying HRV analysis were assessed. In all three groups, exercise resulted in increased HR, CO, AP and LFSAP (P<0.001, decreased SV, HFRR and Ln BRS (all P<0.001, and no change in TPRI (P=0.98. There was no ‘maturation x time’ interaction for any of the hemodynamic or autonomic variables (all P>0.22. After exercise, pre-PHV players displayed lower SV, CO and [La]b, faster HRR and greater parasympathetic reactivation compared with circum- and post-PHV players. Multiple regression analysis showed that lean muscle mass, [La]b and Pre parasympathetic activity were the strongest predictors of HRR (r2=0.62, P<0.001. While pre-PHV players displayed a faster HRR and greater post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation, maturation had little influence on the hemodynamic and autonomic responses following maximal running exercise. HRR relates to lean muscle mass, blood acidosis and intrinsic parasympathetic function, with less evident impact of post-exercise autonomic function.

  14. Beneficial therapeutic effects of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale in HCV patients in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Moneim, Adel; Morsy, Basant M; Mahmoud, Ayman M; Abo-Seif, Mohamed A; Zanaty, Mohamed I

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C is a major global health burden and Egypt has the highest prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide. The current study was designed to evaluate the beneficial therapeutic effects of ethanolic extracts of Nigella sativa, Zingiber officinale and their mixture in Egyptian HCV patients. Sixty volunteer patients with proven HCV and fifteen age matched healthy subjects were included in this study. Exclusion criteria included patients on interferon alpha (IFN-α) therapy, infection with hepatitis B virus, drug-induced liver diseases, advanced cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or other malignancies, blood picture abnormalities and major severe illness. Liver function enzymes, albumin, total bilirubin, prothrombin time and concentration, international normalized ratio, alpha fetoprotein and viral load were all assessed at baseline and at the end of the study. Ethanolic extracts of Nigella sativa and Zingiber officinale were prepared and formulated into gelatinous capsules, each containing 500 mg of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale. Clinical response and incidence of adverse drug reactions were assessed initially, periodically, and at the end of the study. Both extracts as well as their mixture significantly ameliorated the altered viral load, alpha fetoprotein, liver function parameters; with more potent effect for the combined therapy. In conclusion, administration of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale ethanolic extracts to HCV patients exhibited potential therapeutic benefits via decreasing viral load and alleviating the altered liver function, with more potent effect offered by the mixture.

  15. The beneficial effects of honeybee-venom serum on facial wrinkles in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han SM

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sang Mi Han,1 In Phyo Hong,1 Soon Ok Woo,1 Sung Nam Chun,2 Kwan Kyu Park,3 Young Mee Nicholls,4 Sok Cheon Pak5 1Department of Agricultural Biology, National Academy of Agricultural Science, Wanju, 2Dong Sung Pharmaceuticals Co Ltd, Seoul, 3Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu, Daegu, South Korea; 4Manuka Doctor Ltd, Auckland, New Zealand; 5School of Biomedical Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Bathurst, NSW, Australia Abstract: Facial wrinkles are an undesirable outcome caused by extrinsic photodamage and intrinsic aging processes. Currently, no effective strategies are known to prevent facial wrinkles. We assessed the beneficial effects of bee-venom serum on the clinical signs of aging skin. Our results show that bee-venom serum treatment clinically improved facial wrinkles by decreasing total wrinkle area, total wrinkle count, and average wrinkle depth. Therefore, bee-venom serum may be effective for the improvement of skin wrinkles. Keywords: bee venom, wrinkle, area, count, depth

  16. Beneficial therapeutic effects of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale in HCV patients in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Moneim, Adel; Morsy, Basant M.; Mahmoud, Ayman M.; Abo-Seif, Mohamed A.; Zanaty, Mohamed I.

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C is a major global health burden and Egypt has the highest prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide. The current study was designed to evaluate the beneficial therapeutic effects of ethanolic extracts of Nigella sativa, Zingiber officinale and their mixture in Egyptian HCV patients. Sixty volunteer patients with proven HCV and fifteen age matched healthy subjects were included in this study. Exclusion criteria included patients on interferon alpha (IFN-α) therapy, infection with hepatitis B virus, drug-induced liver diseases, advanced cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or other malignancies, blood picture abnormalities and major severe illness. Liver function enzymes, albumin, total bilirubin, prothrombin time and concentration, international normalized ratio, alpha fetoprotein and viral load were all assessed at baseline and at the end of the study. Ethanolic extracts of Nigella sativa and Zingiber officinale were prepared and formulated into gelatinous capsules, each containing 500 mg of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale. Clinical response and incidence of adverse drug reactions were assessed initially, periodically, and at the end of the study. Both extracts as well as their mixture significantly ameliorated the altered viral load, alpha fetoprotein, liver function parameters; with more potent effect for the combined therapy. In conclusion, administration of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale ethanolic extracts to HCV patients exhibited potential therapeutic benefits via decreasing viral load and alleviating the altered liver function, with more potent effect offered by the mixture. PMID:27298610

  17. Beneficial effects of banana leaves (Musa x paradisiaca on glucose homeostasis: multiple sites of action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia D. Kappel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The acute effect of crude extract, n-butanol and aqueous residual fractions of Musa x paradisiaca L., Musaceae, leaves on glycemia, serum insulin secretion and glycogen content in an in vivo approach was evaluated. In addition, the in vitro effect on disaccharidases activity and albumin glycation was studied. The crude extract and fractions, n-butanol and aqueous residual, reduced glycemia and increased liver glycogen content in hyperglycemic rats, inhibited maltase activity and the formation of advanced glycation end-products in vitro. Also, a significant increase in insulin secretion and muscle glycogen content in hyperglycemic rats was observed with oral administration of the n-butanol fraction. Phytochemical analysis demonstrated the presence of rutin in crude extract and fractions of M. x paradisiaca leaves as the major compound. These beneficial effects on the regulation of glucose homeostasis observed for M. x paradisiaca leaves and the presence of rutin as the major compound indicate potential anti-diabetic properties, since previous studies have been reported that rutin can modulate glucose homeostasis.

  18. Study of Beneficial Levels and Effect of Azotobacter spp. and Azospirillium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ostadi Jaafari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effects of beneficial free living bacteria (Azotobacter chroococcum and Azospirillum brasilense compared to different nitrogen fertilizer levels on yield and yield components of barley (Hordeum vulgare cv Reyhan a field experiment was conducted at Research Station College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2007-2008. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Fertilizer treatments were biological fertilizer (combine of Azotobacter and Azospirillum and six nitrogen fertilizer levels (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 kg/ha. The plant characteristics were studied in terms of leaf area index, crop growth rate, total dry weight, shoot and root dry matter per plant and seed yield. The results showed that the effect of different nitrogen fertilizer levels imposed a significant effect on all plant characteristics. The difference between biological fertilizers, 60 and 80kg nitrogen fertilizer levels in shoot dry weight were not significant. Additionally, in root dry weight and root/shoot ratio there were significant difference between biological fertilizer and all nitrogen fertilizer levels. There was no significant difference between biological fertilizer, 80 and 100 kg nitrogen fertilizer levels in terms of seed yield. There was no significant difference among biological fertilizer, 40, 60 and 80kg nitrogen fertilizer levels in leaf area index at three finally samples. It seems that, in this experiment biological fertilizer could be provide plant nitrogen requirements the same as 40-80kg nitrogen per hectare.

  19. Effect of cannabinoids CB1 receptors blockade on hemodynamic parameters and endothelial function at the immobilization stress in the experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gavreliuk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the response of hemodynamic parameters and changes in endothelial function in modeling of CB1 cannabinoid receptors blockade in chronic stress. Materials and мethods. The study was performed on four groups of hundred-day-old rats, which were examined by ultrasonic scanning during the ten-day period of the experiment. The first group consisted of intact animals; the second group – animals, which were exposed to immobilization stress; the third – animals which were given a solution of rimonabant hydrochloride at the rate of 10 mg×kg-1 of animal weight per day daily per os; the fourth group consisted of animals which daily received a solution of rimonabant hydrochloride at the rate of 10 mg×kg-1 of animal weight per day and were exposed to immobilization stress. The intraluminal vessel diameter, the intima-media complex thickness, endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent dilation were quantified in the ultrasound examination. Quantitative characteristics of the blood flow were studied: peak systolic velocity, end diastolic velocity, resistive index and peak-systolic/end-diastolic ratio, and estimated mean blood flow velocity. Results. It has been found that the effect of chronic immobilization stress in 100-day-old male rats causes intima-media complex structure and thickness change, endothelial dysfunction and increase in the abdominal aorta intraluminal diameter. Hemodynamics changes are characterized by a decrease in the average blood flow velocity and an increase in the values of indices characterizing the vascular wall peripheral resistance. Prolonged blockade of cannabinoids CB1 receptors leads to endothelial dysfunction development, a decrease in the intraluminal diameter of the abdominal aorta and a decrease in the average blood flow velocity while vascular wall elastic properties maintaining. This affects the sensitivity of cardiovascular system to nitrogen oxide, which is manifested by

  20. The effect of dim light at night on cerebral hemodynamic oscillations during sleep: A near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Joon; Lee, Byeong Uk; Sunwoo, Jun-Sang; Byun, Jung-Ick; Moon, Jangsup; Lee, Soon-Tae; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Chu, Kon; Kim, Manho; Lim, Jong-Min; Lee, Eunil; Lee, Sang Kun; Jung, Ki-Young

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have reported that dim light at night (dLAN) is associated with risks of cardiovascular complications, such as hypertension and carotid atherosclerosis; however, little is known about the underlying mechanism. Here, we evaluated the effect of dLAN on the cerebrovascular system by analyzing cerebral hemodynamic oscillations using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Fourteen healthy male subjects underwent polysomnography coupled with cerebral NIRS. The data collected during sleep with dim light (10 lux) were compared with those collected during sleep under the control dark conditions for the sleep structure, cerebral hemodynamic oscillations, heart rate variability (HRV), and their electroencephalographic (EEG) power spectrum. Power spectral analysis was applied to oxy-hemoglobin concentrations calculated from the NIRS signal. Spectral densities over endothelial very-low-frequency oscillations (VLFOs) (0.003-0.02 Hz), neurogenic VLFOs (0.02-0.04 Hz), myogenic low-frequency oscillations (LFOs) (0.04-0.15 Hz), and total LFOs (0.003-0.15 Hz) were obtained for each sleep stage. The polysomnographic data revealed an increase in the N2 stage under the dLAN conditions. The spectral analysis of cerebral hemodynamics showed that the total LFOs increased significantly during slow-wave sleep (SWS) and decreased during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Specifically, endothelial (median of normalized value, 0.46 vs. 0.72, p = 0.019) and neurogenic (median, 0.58 vs. 0.84, p = 0.019) VLFOs were enhanced during SWS, whereas endothelial VLFOs (median, 1.93 vs. 1.47, p = 0.030) were attenuated during REM sleep. HRV analysis exhibited altered spectral densities during SWS induced by dLAN, including an increase in very-low-frequency and decreases in low-frequency and high-frequency ranges. In the EEG power spectral analysis, no significant difference was detected between the control and dLAN conditions. In conclusion, dLAN can disturb cerebral hemodynamics via the

  1. Anabolic androgenic steroids reverse the beneficial effect of exercise on tendon biomechanics: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitsilonis, Serafim; Chatzistergos, Panayiotis E; Panayiotis, Chatzistergos E; Mitousoudis, Athanasios S; Athanasios, Mitousoudis S; Kourkoulis, Stavros K; Stavros, Kourkoulis K; Vlachos, Ioannis S; Ioannis, Vlachos S; Agrogiannis, George; George, Agrogiannis; Fasseas, Konstantinos; Konstantinos, Fasseas; Perrea, Despina N; Despina, Perrea N; Zoubos, Aristides B; Aristides, Zoubos B

    2014-06-01

    The effect of anabolic androgenic steroids on tendons has not yet been fully elucidated. Aim of the present study was the evaluation of the impact of anabolic androgenic steroids on the biomechanical and histological characteristics of Achilles tendons. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomized into four groups with exercise and anabolic steroids (nandrolone decanoate) serving as variables. Protocol duration was 12 weeks. Following euthanasia, tendons' biomechanical properties were tested with the use of a modified clamping configuration. Histological examination with light and electron microscopy were also performed. In the group of anabolic steroids and exercise the lowest fracture stress values were observed, while in the exercise group the highest ones. Histological examination by light and electron microscopy revealed areas of collagen dysplasia and an increased epitendon in the groups receiving anabolic steroids and exercise. These findings suggest that anabolic androgenic steroids reverse the beneficial effect of exercise, thus resulting in inferior maximal stress values. Copyright © 2013 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Later maturation of the beneficial than the detrimental effect of selective memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Alp; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2014-04-01

    In adults, selective memory retrieval can both impair and improve recall of other memories. The study reported here examined whether children also show these two faces of memory retrieval. Employing a variant of the directed-forgetting task, we asked second, fourth, and seventh graders to study a list of target and nontarget words. After study, the participants received a cue to either forget or continue remembering the list. We subsequently asked some participants to recall the nontarget words before we tested their memory for the target words; for the remaining participants, we tested memory only for the target words. Prior retrieval of nontarget words impaired retrieval of to-be-remembered target words, regardless of children's age. In contrast, prior retrieval of nontarget words improved recall of to-be-forgotten target words in seventh graders, though not in fourth and second graders. These results suggest a developmental dissociation between the two faces of memory retrieval and indicate later maturation of the beneficial effect than of the detrimental effect of selective memory retrieval.

  3. Beneficial immune modulatory effects of a specific nutritional combination in a murine model for cancer cachexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, J; Vos, P; Kegler, D; van Norren, K; Argilés, J M; Laviano, A; Garssen, J; van Helvoort, A

    2008-01-01

    The majority of patients with advanced cancer are recognised by impaired immune competence influenced by several factors, including the type and stage of the tumour and the presence of cachexia. Recently, a specific nutritional combination containing fish oil, specific oligosaccharide mixture, high protein content and leucine has been developed aimed to support the immune system of cancer patients in order to reduce the frequency and severity of (infectious) complications. In a recently modified animal model cachexia is induced by inoculation of C26 tumour cells in mice. In a pre-cachectic state, no effect was observed on contact hypersensitivity, a validated in vivo method to measure Th1-mediated immune function, after adding the individual nutritional ingredients to the diet of tumour-bearing mice. However, the complete mixture resulted in significantly improved Th1 immunity. Moreover, in a cachectic state, the complete mixture reduced plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and beneficially affected ex vivo immune function. Accordingly, the combination of the nutritional ingredients is required to obtain a synergistic effect, leading to a reduced inflammatory state and improved immune competence. From this, it can be concluded that the specific nutritional combination has potential as immune-supporting nutritional intervention to reduce the risk of (infectious) complications in cancer patients. PMID:19018259

  4. Beneficial Effects of Gagam-Palmultang on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Deficits in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Ri Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available From text mining of Dongeuibogam, the 7 herbs in Palmultang can be considered effective candidates for memory enhancement. We sought to determine whether Gagam-Palmultang, comprising these 7 herbs, ameliorates scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice, by focusing on the central cholinergic system and memory-related signaling molecules. Behavioral tests were performed after inducing memory impairment by scopolamine administration. The cholinergic system activity and memory-related molecules were examined in the hippocampus by enzyme-linked immunosorbent, western blot, and immunofluorescence assays. Gagam-Palmultang ameliorated scopolamine-induced memory impairment in the Morris water maze test, producing a significant improvement in the mean time required to find the hidden platform. Treatment with Gagam-Palmultang reduced acetylcholinesterase activity and expression in the hippocampus induced by scopolamine. The diminished phosphorylated phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK, cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB, and mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (mBDNF expressions caused by scopolamine administration were attenuated by treatment with Gagam-Palmultang. This treatment also promoted neuronal cell proliferation in the hippocampus. Gagam-Palmultang has beneficial effects against scopolamine-induced memory impairments, which are exerted via modulation of the cholinergic system as well as the PI3K and ERK/CREB/BDNF signaling pathway. Therefore, this multiherb formula may be a useful therapeutic agent for diseases associated with memory impairments.

  5. Polyhydroxy fullerenes (fullerols or fullerenols: beneficial effects on growth and lifespan in diverse biological models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Gao

    Full Text Available Recent toxicological studies on carbon nanomaterials, including fullerenes, have led to concerns about their safety. Functionalized fullerenes, such as polyhydroxy fullerenes (PHF, fullerols, or fullerenols, have attracted particular attention due to their water solubility and toxicity. Here, we report surprisingly beneficial and/or specific effects of PHF on model organisms representing four kingdoms, including the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the fungus Aspergillus niger, and the invertebrate Ceriodaphnia dubia. The results showed that PHF had no acute or chronic negative effects on the freshwater organisms. Conversely, PHF could surprisingly increase the algal culture density over controls at higher concentrations (i.e., 72% increase by 1 and 5 mg/L of PHF and extend the lifespan and stimulate the reproduction of Daphnia (e.g. about 38% by 20 mg/L of PHF. We also show that at certain PHF concentrations fungal growth can be enhanced and Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings exhibit longer hypocotyls, while other complex physiological processes remain unaffected. These findings may open new research fields in the potential applications of PHF, e.g., in biofuel production and aquaculture. These results will form the basis of further research into the mechanisms of growth stimulation and life extension by PHF.

  6. Beneficial effects of caffeine in a transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease-like tau pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Cyril; Eddarkaoui, Sabiha; Derisbourg, Maxime; Leboucher, Antoine; Demeyer, Dominique; Carrier, Sébastien; Schneider, Marion; Hamdane, Malika; Müller, Christa E; Buée, Luc; Blum, David

    2014-09-01

    Tau pathology found in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is crucial in cognitive decline. Epidemiologic evidences support that habitual caffeine intake prevents memory decline during aging and reduces the risk to develop Alzheimer's disease. So far, experimental studies addressed the impact of caffeine in models mimicking the amyloid pathology of AD. However, in vivo effects of caffeine in a model of AD-like tauopathy remain unknown. Here, we evaluated effects of chronic caffeine intake (0.3 g/L through drinking water), given at an early pathologic stage, in the THY-Tau22 transgenic mouse model of progressive AD-like tau pathology. We found that chronic caffeine intake prevents from the development of spatial memory deficits in tau mice. Improved memory was associated with reduced hippocampal tau phosphorylation and proteolytic fragments. Moreover, caffeine treatment mitigated several proinflammatory and oxidative stress markers found upregulated in the hippocampus of THY-Tau22 animals. Together, our data support that moderate caffeine intake is beneficial in a model of AD-like tau pathology, paving the way for future clinical evaluation in AD patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Hemodynamic effect and safety of intermittent sequential pneumatic compression leg sleeves in patients with congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, Amitai; Shturman, Alexander; Sergeiev, Michael; Ivry, Shimon; Eitan, Arieh; Atar, Shaul

    2014-10-01

    Pneumatic leg sleeves are widely used after prolonged operations for prevention of venous stasis. In healthy volunteers they increase cardiac function. We evaluated the hemodynamic effects and safety of intermittent sequential pneumatic compression (ISPC) leg sleeves in patients with chronic congestive heart failure (CHF). We studied 19 patients with systolic left ventricular dysfunction and CHF. ISPC leg sleeves, each with 10 air cells, were operated by a computerized compressor, exerting 2 cycles/min. Hemodynamic and echocardiographic parameters were measured before, during, and after ISPC activation. The baseline mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 29 ± 9.2%, median 32%, range 10%-40%. Cardiac output (from 4.26 to 4.83 L/min; P = .008) and stroke volume (from 56.1 to 63.5 mL; P = .029) increased significantly after ISPC activation, without a reciprocal increase in heart rate, and declined after sleeve deactivation. Systemic vascular resistance (SVR) decreased significantly (from 1,520 to 1,216 dyne-s/cm5; P = .0005), and remained lower than the baseline level throughout the study. There was no detrimental effect on diastolic function and no adverse clinical events, despite increased pulmonary venous return. ISPC leg sleeves in patients with chronic CHF do not exacerbate symptoms and transiently improve cardiac output through an increase in stroke volume and a reduction in SVR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of transfer from the operating room to the intensive care unit after cardiac surgery on hemodynamics and blood gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celik, S.; Gurkan, S.; Ustabasi, Z.; Atilgan, Y.; Sari, A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to evaluate the effect of transferring open-heart surgery patients from the operating room to the intensive care unit on hemodynamic parameters and blood gases. The study was conducted as a prospective, observational study at the German Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey in 2007. Hemodynamic, blood gas values and oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry SpO2 values were recorded in 37 patients who undergone open-heart surgery. Data were evaluated by descriptive statistical methods, Friedman's test and correlation analysis. Thirty-seven patients were included in this study. The low systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure values prior to transfer, while patients were still under the effect of anesthesia, increased during the transfer and to one and 30 minutes after completion of transfer and return to normal values p<0.05. The SpO2 value measured at 30 minutes after completion of transfer was higher than the first value p<0.05. The pH p<0.001 and arterial partial pressure of oxygen p<0.001 values at the beginning of the transfer had significantly increased at the end of transfer and arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide values had significantly decreased p<0.001. The transfer of open-heart surgery patients was observed to safe. (author)

  9. Application effect of hyperbaric oxygen in the patients with optic atrophy and influence for the hemodynamic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the application effect of hyperbaric oxygen in the patients with optic atrophy and influence degree for the hemodynamic parameters.METHODS: Fifty patients with optic atrophy in our hospital from January 2012 to January 2014 were objected, they were randomly divided into control group(conventional optic atrophy treatment groupand observation group(conventional treatment and hyperbaric oxygen treatment group, each group was 25 cases. Statistical analysis of two group before and after treatment eyesight, vision acuity, visual field defect and ophthalmic artery, central retinal artery blood flow parameters were undergone.RESULTS: The sight, visual field sensitivity and field vision defect of observation group were all better than those of control group at first, second and third course after the treatment, arteriae ophthalmica and arteriae centralis retinae EDV and PSV were all higher than those of control group, PI and RI were all lower than those of control group were all significant differences(PCONCLUSION: The application effect of hyperbaric oxygen in the patients with optic atrophy is better, and the influence of treatment method for the ocular hemodynamic parameters are more active.

  10. Immediate effects of chest physiotherapy on hemodynamic, metabolic, and oxidative stress parameters in subjects with septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Rafael S; Donadio, Márcio V F; da Silva, Gabriela V; Blattner, Clarissa N; Melo, Denizar A S; Nunes, Fernanda B; Dias, Fernando S; Squizani, Eamim D; Pedrazza, Leonardo; Gadegast, Isabella; de Oliveira, Jarbas R

    2014-09-01

    Septic shock presents as a continuum of infectious events, generating tissue hypoxia and hypovolemia, and increased oxidative stress. Chest physiotherapy helps reduce secretion, improving dynamic and static compliance, as well as improving secretion clearance and preventing pulmonary complications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate effect of chest physiotherapy on hemodynamic, metabolic, inflammatory, and oxidative stress parameters in subjects in septic shock. We conducted a quasi-experimental study in 30 subjects in septic shock, who underwent chest physiotherapy, without associated heart diseases and with vasopressors stress were evaluated before and 15 min after physiotherapy. Thirty subjects with a mean age of 61.8 ± 15.9 y and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment of 8 (range 6-10) were included. Chest physiotherapy caused a normalization of pH (P = .046) and P(aCO2) (P = .008); reduction of lactate (P = .001); and an increase in P(aO2) (P = .03), arterial oxygen saturation (P = .02), and P(aO2)/F(IO2) (P = .034), 15 min after it was applied. The results indicate that chest physiotherapy has immediate effects, improving oxygenation and reducing lactate and oxidative damage in subjects in septic shock. However, it does not cause alterations in the inflammatory and hemodynamic parameters. Copyright © 2014 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  11. Leniency programs and socially beneficial cooperation: Effects of type I errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Pavlova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study operationalizes the concept of hostility tradition in antitrust as mentioned by Oliver Williamson and Ronald Coase through erroneous law enforcement effects. The antitrust agency may commit type I, not just type II, errors when evaluating an agreement in terms of cartels. Moreover, firms can compete in a standard way, collude or engage in cooperative agreements that improve efficiency. The antitrust agency may misinterpret such cooperative agreements, committing a type I error (over-enforcement. The model set-up is drawn from Motta and Polo (2003 and is extended as described above using the findings of Ghebrihiwet and Motchenkova (2010. Three effects play a role in this environment. Type I errors may induce firms that would engage in socially efficient cooperation absent errors to opt for collusion (the deserved punishment effect. For other parameter configurations, type I errors may interrupt ongoing cooperation when investigated. In this case, the firms falsely report collusion and apply for leniency, fearing being erroneously fined (the disrupted cooperation effect. Finally, over-enforcement may prevent beneficial cooperation from starting given the threat of being mistakenly fined (the prevented cooperation effect. The results help us understand the negative impact that a hostility tradition in antitrust — which is more likely for inexperienced regimes and regimes with low standards of evidence — and the resulting type I enforcement errors can have on social welfare when applied to the regulation of horizontal agreements. Additional interpretations are discussed in light of leniency programs for corruption and compliance policies for antitrust violations.

  12. Effects of obstructive sleep apnea on hemodynamic parameters in patients entering cardiac rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargens, Trent A; Aron, Adrian; Newsome, Laura J; Austin, Joseph L; Shafer, Brooke M

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a prevalent form of sleep-disordered breathing. Evidence suggests that OSA may lead to cardiac remodeling, although the literature is equivocal. Previous literature suggests a high percentage of individuals entering a cardiac rehabilitation (CR) program also have OSA. The objective of this study was to determine whether resting hemodynamic variables were altered in OSA subjects entering CR compared with those without OSA, as determined by impedance cardiography. Subjects entering an early outpatient CR program were screened for OSA using an at-home screening device and verified by a sleep physician. Subjects were divided into an OSA group (n = 48) or a control group (n = 25) on the basis of the screening results. Hemodynamic variables were measured during supine rest using impedance cardiography. A 6-minute walk test was performed to assess functional capacity. The proportion of cardiac diagnoses was similar between groups. Overall, 66% of the subjects were positive for OSA. Subject groups did not differ by age, body mass index, heart rate, diastolic blood pressure, or functional capacity. Cardiac output, cardiac index, stroke volume, contractility index, and left cardiac work index were all significantly decreased in the OSA group compared with the control group (P disadvantage in recovering from their cardiac event, and place them at increased risk for secondary complications.

  13. Comparing the Effect of Intravenous and Inhalational Anesthtics on Hemodynamic Changes in Deep Vitrectomy Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosro Naghibi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Due to high prevalence of vitrectomy surgery, and the importance of anesthetic technique in conducting an uncomplicated surgery, we decided to do this study. Materials and Methods: This prospective randomized study was conducted on 80 patients 40-80 years old candidating deep vitrectomy sugery under general anesthesia that were categorized into II and III Class by American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA. Patients were randomly allocated to two groups of 40 members. Anesthesia was induced in both groups in the same manner. For maintaining anesthesia, patients from I group receiVed 1.2% isofluran with 50% O2 in air at 4L/min and infusion of remifentanil (0.1 mg.kg-1.min-1. But in the P group, we used propofol up to 10mg/kg /hr with infusion of remifentanyl. Propofol and isoflurane in fusion was discontinued with the last surgical stitches, but remifentanil infusion continued in both groups until the eye was covered with shield. Hemodynamic variables were recorded just before the induction of anesthesia and in different time intervals till discharging of the patients from the recovery room. Then, data were compared. Results: Results showed that there is a significant change in propofol group compared to isofluran in deep vitrectomy surgery operations. Conclusion: Hemodynamic changes are more significant in maintaining propofol anesthesia when compared with isoflurane.

  14. Bio-beneficiation of kaolin and feldspar and its effect on fired ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    colour and quality of the product. Iron oxides, which are ... beneficiated minerals provided improved end products ... was then removed from the magnetic base and the mag- .... a modified method originally described by May and Fish. (2002).

  15. Beneficial effects of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. flower aqueous extract in pregnant rats with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afiune, Luana Alves Freitas; Leal-Silva, Thaís; Sinzato, Yuri Karen; Moraes-Souza, Rafaianne Queiroz; Soares, Thaigra Sousa; Campos, Kleber Eduardo; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Herrera, Emilio; Damasceno, Débora Cristina; Volpato, Gustavo Tadeu

    2017-01-01

    The Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flower is widely used in Brazilian traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes and has shown antifertility activity in female Wistar rats. However, there is no scientific confirmation of its effect on diabetes and pregnancy. The aim of this study was evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of H. rosa-sinensis flowers on maternal-fetal outcome in pregnant rats with diabetes. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ, 40 mg/kg) in virgin, adult, female Wistar rats. After diabetes induction, the rats were mated. The pregnant rats were distributed into four groups (n minimum = 11 animals/group): non-diabetic, non-diabetic treated, diabetic, and diabetic treated. Oral aqueous extract of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis was administered to rats in the treatment groups during pregnancy. At term pregnancy, maternal reproductive outcomes, fetal parameters, and biochemical parameters were analyzed. The non-diabetic treated group showed decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol, increased atherogenic index (AI) and coronary artery risk index (CRI), and increased preimplantation loss rate compared to the non-diabetic group. Although treatment with H. rosa-sinensis led to no toxicity, it showed deleterious effects on cardiac and reproductive functions. However, the diabetic treated group showed increased maternal and fetal weights, reduced AI and CRI, and reduced preimplantation loss rate compared to the untreated diabetic group. Our results demonstrate beneficial effects of this flower only in pregnant rats with diabetes and their offspring. Although these findings cannot be extrapolated to human clinical use, they show that the indiscriminate intake of H. rosa-sinensis may be harmful to healthy individuals and its use should be completely avoided in pregnancy.

  16. Beneficial effects of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. flower aqueous extract in pregnant rats with diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afiune, Luana Alves Freitas; Leal-Silva, Thaís; Sinzato, Yuri Karen; Moraes-Souza, Rafaianne Queiroz; Soares, Thaigra Sousa; Campos, Kleber Eduardo; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Herrera, Emilio; Damasceno, Débora Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flower is widely used in Brazilian traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes and has shown antifertility activity in female Wistar rats. However, there is no scientific confirmation of its effect on diabetes and pregnancy. The aim of this study was evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of H. rosa-sinensis flowers on maternal-fetal outcome in pregnant rats with diabetes. Methods Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ, 40 mg/kg) in virgin, adult, female Wistar rats. After diabetes induction, the rats were mated. The pregnant rats were distributed into four groups (n minimum = 11 animals/group): non-diabetic, non-diabetic treated, diabetic, and diabetic treated. Oral aqueous extract of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis was administered to rats in the treatment groups during pregnancy. At term pregnancy, maternal reproductive outcomes, fetal parameters, and biochemical parameters were analyzed. Results The non-diabetic treated group showed decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol, increased atherogenic index (AI) and coronary artery risk index (CRI), and increased preimplantation loss rate compared to the non-diabetic group. Although treatment with H. rosa-sinensis led to no toxicity, it showed deleterious effects on cardiac and reproductive functions. However, the diabetic treated group showed increased maternal and fetal weights, reduced AI and CRI, and reduced preimplantation loss rate compared to the untreated diabetic group. Conclusion Our results demonstrate beneficial effects of this flower only in pregnant rats with diabetes and their offspring. Although these findings cannot be extrapolated to human clinical use, they show that the indiscriminate intake of H. rosa-sinensis may be harmful to healthy individuals and its use should be completely avoided in pregnancy. PMID:28644857

  17. Beneficial effects of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. flower aqueous extract in pregnant rats with diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Alves Freitas Afiune

    Full Text Available The Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flower is widely used in Brazilian traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes and has shown antifertility activity in female Wistar rats. However, there is no scientific confirmation of its effect on diabetes and pregnancy. The aim of this study was evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of H. rosa-sinensis flowers on maternal-fetal outcome in pregnant rats with diabetes.Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ, 40 mg/kg in virgin, adult, female Wistar rats. After diabetes induction, the rats were mated. The pregnant rats were distributed into four groups (n minimum = 11 animals/group: non-diabetic, non-diabetic treated, diabetic, and diabetic treated. Oral aqueous extract of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis was administered to rats in the treatment groups during pregnancy. At term pregnancy, maternal reproductive outcomes, fetal parameters, and biochemical parameters were analyzed.The non-diabetic treated group showed decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol, increased atherogenic index (AI and coronary artery risk index (CRI, and increased preimplantation loss rate compared to the non-diabetic group. Although treatment with H. rosa-sinensis led to no toxicity, it showed deleterious effects on cardiac and reproductive functions. However, the diabetic treated group showed increased maternal and fetal weights, reduced AI and CRI, and reduced preimplantation loss rate compared to the untreated diabetic group.Our results demonstrate beneficial effects of this flower only in pregnant rats with diabetes and their offspring. Although these findings cannot be extrapolated to human clinical use, they show that the indiscriminate intake of H. rosa-sinensis may be harmful to healthy individuals and its use should be completely avoided in pregnancy.

  18. The beneficial effects of meditation: contribution of the anterior cingulate and locus coeruleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Alker Craigmyle

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During fMRI studies of meditation the cortical salience detecting and executive networks become active during awareness of mind wandering, shifting and sustained attention. The anterior cingulate (AC is activated during awareness of mind wandering.The AC modulates both the peripheral sympathetic nervous system (SNS and the central locus coeruleus (LC norepinephrine systems, which form the principal neuromodulatory system, regulating in multiple ways both neuronal and non-neuronal cells to maximize adaptation in changing environments. The LC is the primary source of central norepinephrine (C-NE and nearly the exclusive source of cortical norepinephrine. Normally activated by novel or salient stimuli, the AC initially inhibits the SNS reflexively, lowering peripheral norepinephrine (P-NE and activates the LC, increasing C-NE.Moderate levels of C-NE enhance working memory through alpha 2 adrenergic receptors, while higher levels of C-NE, acting on alpha 1 and beta receptors, enhance other executive network functions such as the stopping of ongoing behavior, attentional set shifting and sustained attention. The actions of the AC on both the central and peripheral noradrenergic systems are implicated in the beneficial effects of meditation. This paper will explore some of the known functions and interrelationships of the AC, SNS and LC with respect to their possible relevance to meditation.

  19. Exercise training in patients with heart disease: review of beneficial effects and clinical recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielen, Stephan; Laughlin, M Harold; O'Conner, Christopher; Duncker, Dirk J

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decades exercise training has evolved into an established evidence-based therapeutic strategy with prognostic benefits in many cardiovascular diseases (CVDs): In stable coronary artery disease (CAD) exercise training attenuates disease progression by beneficially influencing CVD risk factors (i.e., hyperlipidemia, hypertension) and coronary endothelial function. In heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) training prevents the progressive loss of exercise capacity by antagonizing peripheral skeletal muscle wasting and by promoting left ventricular reverse remodeling with reduction in cardiomegaly and improvement of ejection fraction. Novel areas for exercise training interventions include HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), pulmonary hypertension, and valvular heart disease. In HFpEF, randomized studies indicate a lusitropic effect of training on left ventricular diastolic function associated with symptomatic improvement of exercise capacity. In pulmonary hypertension, reductions in pulmonary artery pressure were observed following endurance exercise training. Recently, innovative training methods such as high-intensity interval training, resistance training and others have been introduced. Although their prognostic value still needs to be determined, these approaches may achieve superior improvements in aerobic exercise capacity and gain in muscle mass, respectively. In this review, we give an overview of the prognostic and symptomatic benefits of exercise training in the most common cardiac disease entities. Additionally, key guideline recommendations for the initiation of training programs are summarized. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Preoperative High-Dose Steroid Has Long-Term Beneficial Effects for Myasthenia Gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syuichi Tetsuka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies addressing preoperative steroid treatment have revealed that control of myasthenia gravis (MG with steroids prior to surgery appeared to stabilize postoperative status. The purpose of our study was to clarify the clinical benefits of the preoperative programmed high-dose steroid treatment on the long-term outcomes of MG patients. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 171 MG patients who were followed up after undergoing thymectomy in our hospital between 1988 and 2006. One hundred and thirteen patients in the programmed treatment group had received preoperative steroid treatment, while 58 patients received no steroid treatment during the preoperative period. Clinical remission, which was defined as the achievement of the modified pharmacologic remission (PR for at least 1 year, and clinical benefits were compared between the two groups. With regard to the remission after thymectomy, Kaplan-Meier life-table curves for patients in the preoperative steroid treatment group versus those for patients in the no steroid preoperative treatment group revealed a significantly higher probability of the PR in the preoperative steroid treatment group (log-rank test, P<0.01. This study might be the first, as per our knowledge, to indicate that preoperative programmed high-dose steroid treatment has long-term beneficial effects for MG patients.

  1. The Dead Sea Mud and Salt: A Review of Its Characterization, Contaminants, and Beneficial Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawab, Abeer Al; Bozeya, Ayat; Abu-Mallouh, Saida; Abu Irmaileh, Basha'er; Daqour, Ismail; Abu-Zurayk, Rund A.

    2018-02-01

    The Dead Sea has been known for its therapeutic and cosmetic properties. The unique climatic conditions in the Dead Sea area make it a renowned site worldwide for the field of climatotherapy, which is a natural approach for the provision of medications for many human diseases including unusual exclusive salt composition of the water, a special natural mud, thermal mineral springs, solar irradiation, oxygen-rich and bromine-rich haze. This review focuses on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the Dead Sea mud and salts, in addition to their contaminants, allowing this review to serve as a guide to interested researchers to their risks and the importance of treatment. Beneficial effects of Dead Sea mud and salts are discussed in terms of therapy and cosmetics. Additional benefits of both Dead Sea mud and salts are also discussed, such as antimicrobial action of the mud in relation to its therapeutic properties, and the potency of mud and salts to be a good medium for the growth of a halophilic unicellular algae, used for the commercial production of β-carotene Dunaliella.

  2. Aspects Regarding the Beneficial Effect of Reflexology in Low Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serban GLIGOR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Reflexology is based on the digital pressure on certain reflex points situated on the sole of the foot, which represents a “map” of the entire body. The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of reflexology in low back pain treatment. To accomplish the objectives of this paper, a lot of 12 patients, of both genders, with low back pain, was formed. Out of these patients, 66.67% were male and 33.33% were female, the majority coming from an urban area (75%. The average age ± the standard deviation of the patients was 43.58±13.02 years. The group of patients was subdivided into an experimental group, composed of 7 patients (58.33%, who, besides the classic drug treatment, also underwent reflexology, and a control group, composed of 5 patients (41.67%, who underwent only drug treatment. The treatment linked to reflexology was conducted by a single practitioner of reflexology, using the Morrell technique. Both in the case of the experimental group and in the control one there was a statistically significant reduction in finger to ground index (p < 0.01, respectively p< 0.05. Also, there was a highly statistically significant reduction of pain (p<0.01. Due to the small number of patients involved in the study, the data obtained cannot be generalised, as further studies are required to highlight the beneficial effect of reflexology in the case of low back pain.

  3. TBC2health: a database of experimentally validated health-beneficial effects of tea bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shihua; Xuan, Hongdong; Zhang, Liang; Fu, Sicong; Wang, Yijun; Yang, Hua; Tai, Yuling; Song, Youhong; Zhang, Jinsong; Ho, Chi-Tang; Li, Shaowen; Wan, Xiaochun

    2017-09-01

    Tea is one of the most consumed beverages in the world. Considerable studies show the exceptional health benefits (e.g. antioxidation, cancer prevention) of tea owing to its various bioactive components. However, data from these extensively published papers had not been made available in a central database. To lay a foundation in improving the understanding of healthy tea functions, we established a TBC2health database that currently documents 1338 relationships between 497 tea bioactive compounds and 206 diseases (or phenotypes) manually culled from over 300 published articles. Each entry in TBC2health contains comprehensive information about a bioactive relationship that can be accessed in three aspects: (i) compound information, (ii) disease (or phenotype) information and (iii) evidence and reference. Using the curated bioactive relationships, a bipartite network was reconstructed and the corresponding network (or sub-network) visualization and topological analyses are provided for users. This database has a user-friendly interface for entry browse, search and download. In addition, TBC2health provides a submission page and several useful tools (e.g. BLAST, molecular docking) to facilitate use of the database. Consequently, TBC2health can serve as a valuable bioinformatics platform for the exploration of beneficial effects of tea on human health. TBC2health is freely available at http://camellia.ahau.edu.cn/TBC2health. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. Hemodynamic effects of various support modes of continuous flow LVADs on the cardiovascular system: A numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhiming; Gu, Kaiyun; Gao, Bin; Wan, Feng; Chang, Yu; Zeng, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine the hemodynamic effects of various support modes of continuous flow left ventricular assist devices (CF-LVADs) on the cardiovascular system using a numerical cardiovascular system model. Material/Methods Three support modes were selected for controlling the CF-LVAD: constant flow mode, constant speed mode, and constant pressure head mode of CF-LVAD. The CF-LVAD is established between the left ventricular apex and the ascending aorta, and was incorporated into the numerical model. Various parameters were evaluated, including the blood assist index (BAI), the left ventricular external work (LVEW), the energy of blood flow (EBF), pulsatility index (PI), and surplus hemodynamic energy (SHE). Results The results show that the constant flow mode, when compared to the constant speed mode and the constant pressure head mode, increases LVEW by 31% and 14%, and EBF by 21% and 15%, respectively, indicating that this mode achieved the best ventricular unloading among the 3 support modes. As BAI is increased, PI and SHE are gradually decreased, whereas PI of the constant pressure head reaches the maximum value. Conclusions The study demonstrates that the continuous flow control mode of the CF-LVAD may achieve the highest ventricular unloading. In contrast, the constant rotational speed mode permits the optimal blood perfusion. Finally, the constant pressure head strategy, permitting optimal pulsatility, should optimize the vascular function. PMID:24793178

  5. Surgery for chronic inguinodynia following routine herniorrhaphy: beneficial effects on dysejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, T; Loos, M J A; Scheltinga, M R M; Roumen, R M H

    2016-02-01

    Pain during sexual activities and ejaculation is reported by 3-4% of men after routine inguinal herniorrhaphy. The potential beneficial effects of surgery for chronic groin pain on dysejaculation are unknown. The objective of this study was to determine dysejaculation rates in a series of patients reporting chronic postherniorrhaphy pain and evaluate the effects of tailored neurectomy on dysejaculation. We evaluated male patients (>18 years) operated for chronic groin pain after inguinal herniorrhaphy during a 6-year time period (2004-2010). Dysejaculation was defined as a burning or searing sensation associated with ejaculation. Men reporting symptoms possibly associated with dysejaculation were sent a questionnaire investigating pain characteristics (VAS, 0-100), influence on sex life and effects of the tailored neurectomy. A Post-Herniorrhaphy Dysejaculation Score (PHDS, 0-12 points) was introduced to quantify the severity of the dysejaculation syndrome. A series of 100 males operated for chronic inguinal pain after standard herniorrhaphy were studied. Thirty-four men reported symptoms of dysejaculation prior to the tailored neurectomy. Sex life was negatively influenced in 20 of these, and 5 completely abstained from any sexual activity. Following surgery including tailored neurectomy, funicular release and/or mesh removal, VAS for dysejaculation pain was significantly reduced [n = 20, 55 (95% CI 47-63) versus 21 (95% CI 13-29), p < 0.001]. PHDS scores were also significantly attenuated [n = 20, 10 (3-12) versus 2 (0-10), p < 0.001]. Sex life normalized in two-thirds of these men (13/20). Dysejaculation in men suffering from chronic pain after routine inguinal herniorrhaphy is not uncommon. A tailored neurectomy, funicular release and/or mesh removal offer relief in the majority of these patients.

  6. Beneficial Effects of Sodium Phenylbutyrate Administration during Infection with Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellbauer, Stefan; Perez Lopez, Araceli; Behnsen, Judith; Gao, Nina; Nguyen, Thao; Murphy, Clodagh; Edwards, Robert A; Raffatellu, Manuela

    2016-09-01

    Sodium phenylbutyrate (PBA) is a derivative of the short-chain fatty acid butyrate and is approved for treatment of urea cycle disorders and progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 2. Previously known functions include histone deacetylase inhibitor, endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibitor, ammonia sink, and chemical chaperone. Here, we show that PBA has a previously undiscovered protective role in host mucosal defense during infection. Administration of PBA to Taconic mice resulted in the increase of intestinal Lactobacillales and segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB), as well as an increase of interleukin 17 (IL-17) production by intestinal cells. This effect was not observed in Jackson Laboratory mice, which are not colonized with SFB. Because previous studies showed that IL-17 plays a protective role during infection with mucosal pathogens, we hypothesized that Taconic mice treated with PBA would be more resistant to infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S Typhimurium). By using the streptomycin-treated mouse model, we found that Taconic mice treated with PBA exhibited significantly lower S Typhimurium intestinal colonization and dissemination to the reticuloendothelial system, as well as lower levels of inflammation. The lower levels of S Typhimurium gut colonization and intestinal inflammation were not observed in Jackson Laboratory mice. Although PBA had no direct effect on bacterial replication, its administration reduced S Typhimurium epithelial cell invasion and lowered the induction of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-23 in macrophage-like cells. These effects likely contributed to the better outcome of infection in PBA-treated mice. Overall, our results suggest that PBA induces changes in the microbiota and in the mucosal immune response that can be beneficial to the host during infection with S Typhimurium and possibly other enteric pathogens. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Beneficial effect of statins on total mortality in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathisen, Sven Ross; Abdelnoor, Michael

    2017-10-01

    In this single center, retrospective cohort study we wished to compare early and total mortality for all patients treated for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) with open surgery who were taking statins compared to those who were not. A cohort of 640 patients with AAA was treated with open surgery between 1999 and 2012. Patients were consecutively recruited from a source population of 390,000; 21.3% were female, and the median age was 73 years. The median follow-up was 3.93 years, with an interquartile range of 1.79-6.58 years. The total follow-up was 2855 patient-years. An explanatory strategy was used. The propensity score (PS) was implemented to control for selection bias and confounders. The crude effect of statin use showed a 78% reduction of the 30-day mortality. A stratified analysis using the Mantel-Haenszel method on quintiles of the PS gave an adjusted effect of the odds ratio equal to 0.43 (95% CI: 0.18-0.96), indicating a 57% reduction of the 30-day mortality for statin users. The adjusted rate ratio was 0.62 (95% CI: 0.45-0.83), indicating a reduction of long-term mortality of 38% for statin users compared to non-users for a median follow-up of 3.93 years. This retrospective cohort study showed a significant beneficial effect of statin use on early and long-term survival for patients treated with open surgery. To be conclusive, our results need to be replicated by a randomized clinical trial.

  8. ACTH has beneficial effects on stuttering in ADHD and ASD patients with ESES: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunel, Attila; Sever, Ali; Altunel, Emine Özlem

    2017-02-01

    Etiology of stuttering remains unknown and no pharmacologic intervention has been approved for treatment. We aimed to evaluate EEG parameters and the effect of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) therapy in stuttering. In this retrospective study, 25 patients with attention deficit and hyperactivity (ADHD) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and comorbid stuttering were followed and treated with ACTH for electrical status epilepticus in sleep (ESES). Sleep EEGs were recorded at referral and follow-up visits and short courses of ACTH were administered when spike-wave index (SWI) was ⩾15%. The assessment of treatment effectiveness was based on reduction in SWI, and the clinician-reported improvement in stuttering, and ADHD or ASD. Statistical analyses were conducted in order to investigate the relationship between the clinical and EEG parameters. Following treatment with ACTH, a reduction in SWI in all the patients was accompanied by a 72% improvement in ADHD or ASD, and 83.8% improvement in stuttering. Twelve of the 25 patients with stuttering showed complete treatment response. Linear regressions established that SWI at final visit significantly predicted improvement in ADHD or ASD, and in stuttering. If symptoms had recurred, improvement was once again achieved with repeated ACTH therapies. Stuttering always improved prior to, and recurred following ADHD or ASD. The underlying etiology leading to ESES may play a significant role in the pathophysiology of stuttering and connect stuttering to other developmental disorders. ACTH therapy has beneficial effects on stuttering and improves EEG parameters. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Beneficial effects of hydrogen-rich saline on early burn-wound progression in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Xue Guo

    Full Text Available Deep burn wounds undergo a dynamic process known as wound progression that results in a deepening and extension of the initial burn area. The zone of stasis is more likely to develop more severe during wound progression in the presence of hypoperfusion. Hydrogen has been reported to alleviate injury triggered by ischaemia/reperfusion and burns in various organs by selectively quenching oxygen free radicals. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective effects of hydrogen against early burn-wound progression.Deep-burn models were established through contact with a boiled, rectangular, brass comb for 20 s. Fifty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham, burn plus saline, and burn plus hydrogen-rich saline (HS groups with sacrifice and analysis at various time windows (6 h, 24 h, 48 h post burn. Indexes of oxidative stress, apoptosis and autophagy were measured in each group. The zone of stasis was evaluated using immunofluorescence staining, ELISA, and Western blot to explore the underlying effects and mechanisms post burn.The burn-induced increase in malondialdehyde was markedly reduced with HS, while the activities of endogenous antioxidant enzymes were significantly increased. Moreover, HS treatment attenuated increases in apoptosis and autophagy postburn in wounds, according to the TUNEL staining results and the expression analysis of Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, Beclin-1 and Atg-5 proteins. Additionally, HS lowered the level of myeloperoxidase and expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in the zone of stasis while augmenting IL-10. The elevated levels of Akt phosphorylation and NF-κB p65 expression post burn were also downregulated by HS management.Hydrogen can attenuate early wound progression following deep burn injury. The beneficial effect of hydrogen was mediated by attenuating oxidative stress, which inhibited apoptosis and inflammation, and the Akt/NF-κB signalling pathway may be involved in regulating the

  10. Beneficial Effects of Selenium on Some Morphological and Physiological Trait of Hot Pepper (Capsicum anuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Shekari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aluminum (Al, cobalt (Co, sodium (Na, selenium (Se, and silicon (Si are considered as beneficial elements for plants. They are not required for all plants but they can improve the growth and development of some plant species. Selenium is an essential element for human with antioxidant and antivirus functions but is not considered essential for higher plants. Selenium is reported to be protective against cancer and more than 40 types of diseases are associated with Se deficiency. The amounts of selenium in food also depend on the amount of the element in the soil. However, its beneficial role in improving plant growth and stress tolerances is well established. Plants revealed different physiological reactions into the Se levels, some specious accumulate it unlike some which are sensitive and Se is a toxic element for them. Some studies showed that Se can reduce adverse effects of salinity, drought, high and low temperatures and also heavy metal stress by enhancing antioxidant defense and MG detoxification systems. Pepper is one of the most important vegetable crops which have strong antioxidant properties. The effect of Se on vegetable especially on hot pepper is not well documented. Materials and Methods: Present experiment was designed in order to study the effects of different concentrations of selenium on vegetative growth and physiological trait of hot pepper (Capsicum annum cv. kenya in hydroponic conditions in the greenhouse at the Department of Horticulture Science, Islamic Azad University of Shiraz (Iran under natural light with a day/night average temperature of 25/17 °C, relative humidity of 50±8.5% and photoperiod 14/10 (day/night. This experiment was carried out based on completed randomized design (CRD with 5 Se levels at (0 as control, 3, 5, 7 and 10 µM with 3 replications. 30 days old seedling with uniform size were selected and transplanted into 4 L pot containing a mixture of peat moss and perlite (1:1. The

  11. The acute hemodynamic effects of intravenous verapamil in coronary artery disease. Assessment by equilibrium-gated radionuclide ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, H.O.; Ninio, R.; Oren, V.; Lang, R.; Sareli, P.; DiSegni, E.; David, D.; Guerrero, J.; Kaplinsky, E.

    1983-01-01

    The acute hemodynamic effects of an i.v. bolus of verapamil, 0.1 mg/kg or 0.06-0.075 mg/kg, were examined by serial radionuclide studies in 46 patients with coronary artery disease. In 20 patients with ejection fractions (EFs) greater than 35% (group 1A), verapamil, 0.1 mg/kg given over 1-11/2 minutes, had a biphasic effect: first, a transient decrease in EF accompanied by increased left ventricular (LV) volumes and cardiac output equivalents; then, an overshoot of EF to values above control, accompanied by a decrease in peripheral vascular resistance and a drastic decrease in LV volumes, while cardiac output equivalent remained slightly elevated. In eight patients with EFs less than 35% (group 1B), only the first effect on EF was noted. In 10 patients with EFs greater than 35% (group 2), verapamil, 0.06-0.075 mg/kg, exerted qualitatively similar but milder effects on hemodynamic function. Finally, verapamil, 0.1 mg/kg given more slowly, over 2-21/2 minutes, produced no significant changes in EF or LV volumes in another eight patients (group 3). The acute effects of verapamil are thus both time-related and dose-dependent. They are also related to the baseline functional reserve of the left ventricle. This study documents that verapamil exerts a depressant effect on LV function. However, the transient nature of this depression and the quick recovery to normal or above-normal values indicate that verapamil, in the doses used in this study, is safe to use intravenously in patients with coronary artery disease

  12. Endothelial Functioning and Hemodynamic Parameters in Rats with Subclinical Hypothyroid and the Effects of Thyroxine Replacement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuixia Gao

    Full Text Available Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH and its associations with atherosclerosis (AS and cardiovascular disease remain controversial. The purpose of our study was to observe changes in endothelial functioning and hemodynamics in rats with SCH and to determine whether L-thyroxine (L-T4 administration affects these changes.In total, sixty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into the following three groups with 20 rats each: control euthyroid rats, SCH rats and SCH rats that had been treated with thyroxine (SCH+T4. The SCH rats were induced by administration of 10 mg x kg(-1 x d(-1 methimazole (MMI once daily by gavage for 3 months. The SCH+T4 rats were administered the same dose of MMI for three months in addition to 2 μg x kg(-1 x d(-1 L-T4 once daily by gavage after 45 days of MMI administration. The control rats received physiological saline via gavage.The SCH group had significantly higher thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and endothelin (ET levels and a lower nitric oxide (NO level than the control and SCH+T4 groups. The tail and carotid artery blood pressures, left ventricular systolic pressure, heart rate and aorta ventralis blood flow were significantly lower in the SCH group than in the control and SCH+T4 groups. ACH treatment caused concentration-dependent relaxation, which was reduced in the SCH arteries compared with the control and SCH+T4 arteries. Histopathological examination revealed the absence of pathological changes in the SCH rat arteries.These findings demonstrate that L-T4 treatment ameliorates endothelial dysfunction and hemodynamic changes in SCH rats.

  13. Systemic and regional hemodynamic effects of enalaprilat infusion in experimental normotensive sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rahal

    Full Text Available Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors have been shown to improve splanchnic perfusion in distinct shock states. We hypothesized that enalaprilat potentiates the benefits of early fluid resuscitation in severe experimental sepsis, particularly in the splanchnic region. Anesthetized and mechanically ventilated mongrel dogs received an intravenous infusion of live Escherichia coli over a period of 30 min. Thereafter, two interventions were performed: fluid infusion (normal saline, 32 mL/kg over 30 min and enalaprilat infusion (0.02 mg kg-1 min-1 for 60 min in randomized groups. The following groups were studied: controls (fluid infusion, N = 4, E1 (enalaprilat infusion followed by fluid infusion, N = 5 and E2 (fluid infusion followed by enalaprilat infusion, N = 5. All animals were observed for a 120 min after bacterial infusion. Mean arterial pressure, cardiac output (CO, portal vein blood flow (PVBF, systemic and regional oxygen-derived variables, and lactate levels were measured. Rapid and progressive reductions in CO and PVBF were induced by the infusion of live bacteria, while minor changes were observed in mean arterial pressure. Systemic and regional territories showed a significant increase in oxygen extraction and lactate levels. Widening venous-arterial and portal-arterial pCO2 gradients were also detected. Fluid replacement promoted transient benefits in CO and PVBF. Enalaprilat after fluid resuscitation did not affect systemic or regional hemodynamic variables. We conclude that in this model of normotensive sepsis inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme did not interfere with the course of systemic or regional hemodynamic and oxygen-derived variables.

  14. Pantoea agglomerans: a mysterious bacterium of evil and good. Part IV. Beneficial effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Mackiewicz, Barbara; Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Golec, Marcin; Milanowski, Janusz

    2016-06-02

    Pantoea agglomerans, a gammaproteobacterium of plant origin, possesses many beneficial traits that could be used for the prevention and/or treatment of human and animal diseases, combating plant pathogens, promotion of plant growth and bioremediation of the environment. It produces a number of antibiotics (herbicolin, pantocins, microcin, agglomerins, andrimid, phenazine, among others) which could be used for combating plant, animal and human pathogens or for food preservation. Japanese researchers have demonstrated that the low-molecular-mass lipopolysaccharide of P. agglomerans isolated by them and described as 'Immunopotentiator from Pantoea agglomerans 1 (IP-PA1)' reveals the extremely wide spectrum of healing properties, mainly due to its ability for the maintenance of homeostasis by macrophage activation. IP-PA1 was proved to be effective in the prevention and treatment of a broad range of human and animal disorders, such as tumours, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, ulcer, various infectious diseases, atopic allergy and stress-induced immunosuppression; it also showed a strong analgesic effect. It is important that most of these effects could be achieved by the safe oral administration of IP-PA1. Taking into account that P. agglomerans occurs commonly as a symbiont of many species of insects, including mosquitoes transmitting the Plasmodium parasites causing malaria, successful attempts were made to apply the strategy of paratransgenesis, in which bacterial symbionts are genetically engineered to express and secrete anti-Plasmodium effector proteins. This strategy shows prospects for a successful eradication of malaria, a deadly disease killing annually over one million people, as well as of other vector-borne diseases of humans, animals and plants. Pantoea agglomerans has been identified as an antagonist of many plant pathogens belonging to bacteria and fungi, as a result of antibiotic production, competition mechanisms or induction of plant resistance. Its use as

  15. Pantoea agglomerans : a mysterious bacterium of evil and good. Part IV. Beneficial effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Dutkiewicz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pantoea agglomerans , a gammaproteobacterium of plant origin, possesses many beneficial traits that could be used for the prevention and/or treatment of human and animal diseases, combating plant pathogens, promotion of plant growth and bioremediation of the environment. It produces a number of antibiotics (herbicolin, pantocins, microcin, agglomerins, andrimid, phenazine, among others which could be used for combating plant, animal and human pathogens or for food preservation. Japanese researchers have demonstrated that the low-molecular-mass lipopolysaccharide of P. agglomerans isolated by them and described as ‘Immunopotentiator from Pantoea agglomerans 1 (IP-PA1’ reveals the extremely wide spectrum of healing properties, mainly due to its ability for the maintenance of homeostasis by macrophage activation. IP-PA1 was proved to be effective in the prevention and treatment of a broad range of human and animal disorders, such as tumours, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, ulcer, various infectious diseases, atopic allergy and stress-induced immunosuppression; it also showed a strong analgesic effect. It is important that most of these effects could be achieved by the safe oral administration of IP-PA1. Taking into account that P. agglomerans occurs commonly as a symbiont of many species of insects, including mosquitoes transmitting the Plasmodium parasites causing malaria, successful attempts were made to apply the strategy of paratransgenesis, in which bacterial symbionts are genetically engineered to express and secrete anti- Plasmodium effector proteins. This strategy shows prospects for a successful eradication of malaria, a deadly disease killing annually over one million people, as well as of other vector-borne diseases of humans, animals and plants. Pantoea agglomerans has been identified as an antagonist of many plant pathogens belonging to bacteria and fungi, as a result of antibiotic production, competition mechanisms or induction of

  16. Pantoea agglomerans: a mysterious bacterium of evil and good. Part IV. Beneficial effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Dutkiewicz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available [i][/i][i]Pantoea agglomerans[/i], a gammaproteobacterium of plant origin, possesses many beneficial traits that could be used for the prevention and/or treatment of human and animal diseases, combating plant pathogens, promotion of plant growth and bioremediation of the environment. It produces a number of antibiotics (herbicolin, pantocins, microcin, agglomerins, andrimid, phenazine, among others which could be used for combating plant, animal and human pathogens or for food preservation. Japanese researchers have demonstrated that the low-molecular-mass lipopolysaccharide of [i]P. agglomerans[/i] isolated by them and described as ‘Immunopotentiator from [i]Pantoea agglomerans[/i] 1 (IP-PA1’ reveals the extremely wide spectrum of healing properties, mainly due to its ability for the maintenance of homeostasis by macrophage activation. IP-PA1 was proved to be effective in the prevention and treatment of a broad range of human and animal disorders, such as tumours, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, ulcer, various infectious diseases, atopic allergy and stress-induced immunosuppression; it also showed a strong analgesic effect. It is important that most of these effects could be achieved by the safe oral administration of IP-PA1. Taking into account that [i]P. agglomerans[/i] occurs commonly as a symbiont of many species of insects, including mosquitoes transmitting the [i]Plasmodium[/i] parasites causing malaria, successful attempts were made to apply the strategy of paratransgenesis, in which bacterial symbionts are genetically engineered to express and secrete anti-[i]Plasmodium[/i] effector proteins. This strategy shows prospects for a successful eradication of malaria, a deadly disease killing annually over one million people, as well as of other vector-borne diseases of humans, animals and plants. [i]Pantoea agglomerans[/i] has been identified as an antagonist of many plant pathogens belonging to bacteria and fungi, as a result of antibiotic

  17. Beneficial effects of retinoic acid on extracellular matrix degradation and attachment behaviour in follicular thyroid carcinoma cell lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havekes, B.; Schröder van der Elst, J. P.; van der Pluijm, G.; Goslings, B. M.; Romijn, J. A.; Smit, J. W.

    2000-01-01

    The prognosis of patients with metastasised follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) is limited, necessitating the search for new treatment options. Beneficial effects of retinoids have been suggested in thyroid cancer and the present study was performed to investigate the effects of retinoic acid (RA) on

  18. The two faces of selective memory retrieval: Earlier decline of the beneficial than the detrimental effect with older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Alp; Schlichting, Andreas; John, Thomas; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2015-12-01

    Recent work with young adults has shown that, depending on study context access, selective memory retrieval can both impair and improve recall of other memories (Bäuml & Samenieh, 2010). Here, we investigated the 2 opposing effects of selective retrieval in older age. In Experiment 1, we examined 64 younger (20-35 years) and 64 older participants (above 60 years), and manipulated study context access using list-method directed forgetting. Whereas both age groups showed a detrimental effect of selective retrieval on to-be-remembered items, only younger but not older adults showed a beneficial effect on to-be-forgotten items. In Experiment 2, we examined 112 participants from a relatively wide age range (40-85 years), and manipulated study context access by varying the retention interval between study and test. Overall, a detrimental effect of selective retrieval arose when the retention interval was relatively short, but a beneficial effect when the retention interval was prolonged. Critically, the size of the beneficial but not the detrimental effect of retrieval decreased with age and this age-related decline was mediated by individuals' working memory capacity, as measured by the complex operation span task. Together, the results suggest an age-related dissociation in retrieval dynamics, indicating an earlier decline of the beneficial than the detrimental effect of selective retrieval with older age. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Cued Memory Reactivation During SWS Abolishes the Beneficial Effect of Sleep on Abstraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennies, Nora; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; Durrant, Simon J; Cousins, James N; Lewis, Penelope A

    2017-08-01

    Extracting regularities from stimuli in our environment and generalizing these to new situations are fundamental processes in human cognition. Sleep has been shown to enhance these processes, possibly by facilitating reactivation-triggered memory reorganization. Here, we assessed whether cued reactivation during slow wave sleep (SWS) promotes the beneficial effect of sleep on abstraction of statistical regularities. We used an auditory statistical learning task, in which the benefit of sleep has been firmly established. Participants were exposed to a probabilistically determined sequence of tones and subsequently tested for recognition of novel short sequences adhering to this same statistical pattern in both immediate and delayed recall sessions. In different groups, the exposure stream was replayed during SWS in the night between the recall sessions (SWS-replay group), in wake just before sleep (presleep replay group), or not at all (control group). Surprisingly, participants who received replay in sleep performed worse in the delayed recall session than the control and the presleep replay group. They also failed to show the association between SWS and task performance that has been observed in previous studies and was present in the controls. Importantly, sleep structure and sleep quality did not differ between groups, suggesting that replay during SWS did not impair sleep but rather disrupted or interfered with sleep-dependent mechanisms that underlie the extraction of the statistical pattern. These findings raise important questions about the scope of cued memory reactivation and the mechanisms that underlie sleep-related generalization. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Combining reduced glutathione and ascorbic acid has supplementary beneficial effects on boar sperm cryotolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaretta, Elisa; Estrada, Efrén; Bucci, Diego; Spinaci, Marcella; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan E; Yeste, Marc

    2015-02-01

    The main aim of this work was to evaluate how supplementing freezing and thawing media with reduced glutathione (GSH) and l-ascorbic acid (AA) affected the quality parameters of frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa. With this purpose, semen samples of 12 ejaculates coming from 12 boars were used. Each ejaculate was split into seven aliquots to which 5 mM of GSH and 100 μM of AA were added separately or together at two different steps of freeze-thawing. Various sperm parameters (levels of free cysteine residues in sperm nucleoproteins, sperm viability, acrosome membrane integrity, intracellular peroxide and superoxide levels [ROS], and total and progressive motility) were evaluated before freezing and at 30 and 240 minutes after thawing. Both GSH and AA significantly improved boar sperm cryotolerance when they were separately added to freezing and thawing media. However, the highest improvement was recorded when both freezing and thawing media were supplemented with 5 mM of GSH plus 100 μM of AA. This improvement was observed in sperm viability and acrosome integrity, sperm motility, and nucleoprotein structure. Although ROS levels were not much increased by freeze-thawing procedures, the addition of GSH and AA to both freezing and thawing extenders significantly decreased intracellular peroxide levels and had no impact on superoxide levels. According to our results, we can conclude that supplementation of freezing and thawing media with both GSH and AA has a combined, beneficial effect on frozen-thawed boar sperm, which is greater than that obtained with the separate addition of either GSH or AA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of mood state on divided attention in patients with bipolar disorder: evidence for beneficial effects of subclinical manic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenders, Manja A; Spijker, Annet T; Hoencamp, Erik; Haffmans, Judith P M; Zitman, Frans G; Giltay, Erik J

    2014-12-15

    A relatively small number of studies have been dedicated to the differential effects of the current mood state on cognition in patients with a bipolar disorder (BD). The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of current mood state on divided attention (DA) performance, and specifically examine possible beneficial effects of the (hypo-) manic state. Over a maximum period of 24 months, medication use, divided attention test (a subtest of the Test for Attentional Performance (TAP)) was assessed every 6 months in 189 outpatients with BD. Data were analyzed with multilevel regression analysis (i.e. linear mixed models). DA performance varied considerable over time within patients. Corrected for psychotropic medication a significant quadratic relationship between manic symptoms and DA performance was found, with mild hypomanic symptoms having a positive influence on divided attention scores and moderate to severe manic symptoms having a negative influence. No association between depressive symptoms and DA performance was found. In future research on mania and cognition as well as in the clinical practice both the beneficial and negative effects of mania should be taken into account. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Beneficial effects of low alcohol exposure, but adverse effects of high alcohol intake on glymphatic function

    OpenAIRE

    Lundgaard, Iben; Wang, Wei; Eberhardt, Allison; Vinitsky, Hanna Sophia; Reeves, Benjamin Cameron; Peng, Sisi; Lou, Nanhong; Hussain, Rashad; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2018-01-01

    Prolonged intake of excessive amounts of ethanol is known to have adverse effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Here we investigated the effects of acute and chronic ethanol exposure and withdrawal from chronic ethanol exposure on glymphatic function, which is a brain-wide metabolite clearance system connected to the peripheral lymphatic system. Acute and chronic exposure to 1.5 g/kg (binge level) ethanol dramatically suppressed glymphatic function in awake mice. Chronic exposure to 1....

  3. The effect of verapamil as an adjuvant agent with local anesthetic on sensory block level, hemodynamic and postoperative pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabaeizavareh, M.H.; Omranifard, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Coadministration of verapamil with local anesthetics could potentiate the sensory block of peripheral nerve, increase the duration of sensory nerve block and reduce postoperative pain and analgesic consumption. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of verapamil as an adjuvant with bupivacaine on level of sensory block, post-operative pain and analgesic consumption among patients undergone elective surgery in Isfahan. Methodology: In this prospective randomized interventional clinical double-blind study ASA physical status I or II male patients referred for elective lower abdominal surgery were enrolled. They randomized in group A (20 cc of 0.5% bupivacaine plus 5 mg verapamil) and B(20 cc of 0.5% bupivacaine plus 2 cc normal saline). The sensory level block, postoperative pain, opioid consumption and vomiting and nausa and hemodynamic state was recorded and compared in two groups. Results: Sixty two patients were studied. Mean of the sensory level block 20 minutes after stating epidural anesthesia and immediately after surgery, postoperative pain score, opioid consumption and nausea and vomiting and fluid intake was not significantly different in two groups (P>0.05). Mean of systolic and diastolic blood pressure and pulse rate changes was not significantly different in two groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: Verapamil as an adjuvant with bupivacaine could not significantly increase the level of sensory block and attenuate post-operative pain and analgesic consumption and hemodynamic condition of the patients. For more accurate results it is recommended to determine the effect of different dose of verapamil in larger sample size of the patients. Studying the effect of other Ca channel blockers would be favorable in this regard. (author)

  4. Beneficial effect of honokiol on lipopolysaccharide induced anxiety-like behavior and liver damage in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulakhiya, Kunjbihari; Kumar, Parveen; Gurjar, Satendra S; Barua, Chandana C; Hazarika, Naba K

    2015-02-26

    Anxiety disorders are commonly occurring co-morbid neuropsychiatric disorders with chronic inflammatory conditions such as live damage. Numerous studies revealed that peripheral inflammation, oxidative stress and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) play important roles in the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders. Honokiol (HNK) is a polyphenol, possessing multiple biological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytic, antidepressant and hepatoprotection. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of HNK, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced anxiety-like behavior and liver damage in mice. Mice (n=6-10/group) were pre-treated with different doses of HNK (2.5 and 5mg/kg; i.p.) for two days, and challenged with saline or LPS (0.83mg/kg; i.p.) on third day. Anxiety-like behavior was monitored using elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field test (OFT). Animals were sacrificed to evaluate various biochemical parameters in plasma and liver. HNK pre-treatment provided significant (P<0.01) protection against LPS-induced reduction in body weight, food and water intake in mice. HNK at higher dose significantly (P<0.05) attenuated LPS-induced anxiety-like behavior by increasing the number of entries and time spent in open arm in EPM test, and by increasing the frequency in central zone in OFT. HNK pre-treatment ameliorated LPS-induced peripheral inflammation by reducing plasma IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α level, and also improved the plasma BDNF level, prevented liver damage via attenuating transaminases (AST, ALT), liver oxidative stress and TNF-α activity in LPS challenged mice. In conclusion, the current investigation suggests that HNK provided beneficial effect against LPS-induced anxiety-like behavior and liver damage which may be governed by inhibition of cytokines production, oxidative stress and depletion of plasma BDNF level. Our result suggests that HNK could be a therapeutic approach for the treatment of anxiety and other

  5. The Beneficial Effect of Hypnosis in Elective Cardiac Surgery: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgul, Ahmet; Guner, Beyhan; Çırak, Musa; Çelik, Derya; Hergünsel, Oya; Bedirhan, Sevim

    2016-10-01

    Background  Single-session hypnosis has never been evaluated as a premedication technique in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the beneficial effects of clinical hypnotherapy on perioperative anxiety, pain perception, sedation, and necessity for ventilator assistance in patients undergoing CABG. Methods  Double-blind, randomized, clinical trial was performed. Forty-four patients undergoing CABG surgery were randomized into two groups. The patients in group A received preprocedural hypnosis by an anesthesiologist. Patients in group B (control) had only information on the surgical intervention by the same anesthesiologist. State-Trait-Anxiety Index-I (STAI-I) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were performed preoperatively in both groups. Visual analog scale (VAS) and Ramsay sedation scale (RSS) were evaluated on 0th, 1st, 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th, 12th, and 24th hours, postoperatively. Postoperative anxiety level, analgesic drug consumption, and duration of ventilator assistance and intensive care unit (ICU) stay were also documented. Results  When anxiety and depression levels were compared, significantly lower STA-I and BDI values were detected in group A after hypnotherapy ( p  = 0.001, p  = 0.001, respectively). Significantly less total doses of remifentanil (34.4 ± 11.4 vs. 50.0 ± 13.6 mg) and morphine (4.9 ± 3.3 vs. 13.6 ± 2.7 mg) were administered in group A in the postoperative period. Ventilator assistance duration (6.8 ± 2.0 vs. 8.9 ± 2.7 hours) was also shorter in group A when compared with that in group B ( p  = 0.007). Conclusion  Hypnosis session prior to surgery was an effective complementary method in decreasing presurgical anxiety, and it resulted in better pain control as well as reduced ventilator assistance following CABG surgery. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Beneficial effects of low alcohol exposure, but adverse effects of high alcohol intake on glymphatic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgaard, Iben; Wang, Wei; Eberhardt, Allison; Vinitsky, Hanna Sophia; Reeves, Benjamin Cameron; Peng, Sisi; Lou, Nanhong; Hussain, Rashad; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2018-02-02

    Prolonged intake of excessive amounts of ethanol is known to have adverse effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Here we investigated the effects of acute and chronic ethanol exposure and withdrawal from chronic ethanol exposure on glymphatic function, which is a brain-wide metabolite clearance system connected to the peripheral lymphatic system. Acute and chronic exposure to 1.5 g/kg (binge level) ethanol dramatically suppressed glymphatic function in awake mice. Chronic exposure to 1.5 g/kg ethanol increased GFAP expression and induced mislocation of the astrocyte-specific water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4), but decreased the levels of several cytokines. Surprisingly, glymphatic function increased in mice treated with 0.5 g/kg (low dose) ethanol following acute exposure, as well as after one month of chronic exposure. Low doses of chronic ethanol intake were associated with a significant decrease in GFAP expression, with little change in the cytokine profile compared with the saline group. These observations suggest that ethanol has a J-shaped effect on the glymphatic system whereby low doses of ethanol increase glymphatic function. Conversely, chronic 1.5 g/kg ethanol intake induced reactive gliosis and perturbed glymphatic function, which possibly may contribute to the higher risk of dementia observed in heavy drinkers.

  7. The effect of acute maximal exercise on postexercise hemodynamics and central arterial stiffness in obese and normal-weight individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunsawat, Kanokwan; Ranadive, Sushant M; Lane-Cordova, Abbi D; Yan, Huimin; Kappus, Rebecca M; Fernhall, Bo; Baynard, Tracy

    2017-04-01

    Central arterial stiffness is associated with incident hypertension and negative cardiovascular outcomes. Obese individuals have higher central blood pressure (BP) and central arterial stiffness than their normal-weight counterparts, but it is unclear whether obesity also affects hemodynamics and central arterial stiffness after maximal exercise. We evaluated central hemodynamics and arterial stiffness during recovery from acute maximal aerobic exercise in obese and normal-weight individuals. Forty-six normal-weight and twenty-one obese individuals underwent measurements of central BP and central arterial stiffness at rest and 15 and 30 min following acute maximal exercise. Central BP and normalized augmentation index (AIx@75) were derived from radial artery applanation tonometry, and central arterial stiffness was obtained via carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cPWV) and corrected for central mean arterial pressure (cPWV/cMAP). Central arterial stiffness increased in obese individuals but decreased in normal-weight individuals following acute maximal exercise, after adjusting for fitness. Obese individuals also exhibited an overall higher central BP ( P  <   0.05), with no exercise effect. The increase in heart rate was greater in obese versus normal-weight individuals following exercise ( P  <   0.05), but there was no group differences or exercise effect for AIx@75 In conclusion, obese (but not normal-weight) individuals increased central arterial stiffness following acute maximal exercise. An assessment of arterial stiffness response to acute exercise may serve as a useful detection tool for subclinical vascular dysfunction. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  8. The effect of stent structure changes on the hemodynamics and the formation of in-stent restenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xia; Xu Ke; Xiao Liang; Zhang Xitong; Su Hongying; Feng Bo

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of stent structure changes on the formation of in-stent restenosis by studying the influence of these changes on the shear force to the vascular wall, on the velocity of flow and on the flow pattern. Methods: Five stent models were established by using Pro/engineer wildfire 3.0. Model A was regarded as control structure. On the base structure of model A, transverse link component was added to form model B, and vertical link component was added to form model C. The thickness of model D was twice than that of model A, and the meshes density of model E was twice than that of model A. Fluid models were built up by importing these stent models into computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software ansys11.0-CFX, then, CFD analysis was proceeded to study the effect of stent structure on hemodynamics. Results: After the stents were implanted, the percentage of low wall shear stress on the surface of model A, B, C, D and E was 7.78%, 6.65%, 1.48%, 16.52% and 12.12%, respectively. The percentage of D and E was obviously larger than that of A, while the percentage of B was markedly smaller than that of A. The velocity vector on the cross-sectional planes showed that the low velocity and eddy areas in D and E were much larger than that in A, while this area in C was smaller than that in A. Conclusion: The stent structure changes can cause obvious changes in hemodynamics in the implanted vessels. The increase in the thickness and meshes density of the stent is the main factor that induces the formation of low wall shear stress, which will precipitate the development of in-stent restenosis. The added vertical link component will reduce the area of low wall shear stress as well as the occurrence of in-stent restenosis. (authors)

  9. The Two Faces of Selective Memory Retrieval: Recall Specificity of the Detrimental but Not the Beneficial Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T.; Dobler, Ina M.

    2015-01-01

    Depending on the degree to which the original study context is accessible, selective memory retrieval can be detrimental or beneficial for the recall of other memories (Bäuml & Samenieh, 2012). Prior work has shown that the detrimental effect of memory retrieval is typically recall specific and does not arise after restudy trials, whereas…

  10. Low doses of nanodiamonds and silica nanoparticles have beneficial hormetic effects in normal human skin fibroblasts in culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mytych, Jennifer; Wnuk, Maciej; Rattan, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    (FSF1) in culture. ND and SiO2-NP at low concentration (up to 0.5 μg/ml) had beneficial effects on FSF1 in terms of increasing their proliferation and metabolic activity. Exposure of FSF1 cells to low levels of NP enhanced their wound healing ability in vitro and slowed down aging during serial...

  11. Effect of imidazole and indomethacin on hemodynamics of the obstructed canine kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balint, P.; Laszlo, K.

    1985-01-01

    In the anesthetized dog renal blood flow (RBF) and its intrarenal distribution were investigated by the radioactive microsphere technique 24 hr after bilateral (BUL) and unilateral (UUL) ureteral ligation. In the control series indomethacin (IM) led to a decrease in RBF with outward shifting of zonal perfusions; imidazole (IA) did not cause significant changes in renal hemodynamics. In the BUL series there was a sharp drop in RBF with a proportional decrease in outer (OC) and inner (IC) cortical perfusion; IM treatment resulted in a further decrease in overall and zonal perfusions. IA, a selective inhibitor of thromboxane synthetase, relieved IC vasoconstriction. In the ligated kidney of the UUL preparations decrease in RBF was due to OC vasoconstriction, while IC perfusion equalled controls. IM led to an overall vasoconstriction in all cortical layers; IA did not influence either total RBF or its distribution. It was concluded that BUL ''unmasked'' TXA2 production in the IC layers, while IM treatment, by inhibiting the production of PGE2, PGI2, and TXA2, resulted in an overall vasoconstriction both in controls and the BUL and UUL preparations

  12. The Acute Effect of Resistance Exercise with Blood Flow Restriction with Hemodynamic Variables on Hypertensive Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araújo Joamira P.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP and the heart rate (HR before, during and after training at moderate intensity (MI, 50%-1RM and at low intensity with blood flow restriction (LIBFR. In a randomized controlled trial study, 14 subjects (average age 45±9,9 years performed one of the exercise protocols during two separate visits to the laboratory. SBP, DBP and HR measurements were collected prior to the start of the set and 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes after knee extension exercises. Repeated measures of analysis of variance (ANOVA were used to identify significant variables (2 x 5; group x time. The results demonstrated a significant reduction in SBP in the LIBFR group. These results provide evidence that strength training performed acutely alters hemodynamic variables. However, training with blood flow restriction is more efficient in reducing blood pressure in hypertensive individuals than training with moderate intensity.

  13. Beneficial effects of estrogen in a mouse model of cerebrovascular insufficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naohito Kitamura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The M(5 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor is known to play a crucial role in mediating acetylcholine dependent dilation of cerebral blood vessels. Previously, we reported that male M(5 muscarinic acetylcholine knockout mice (M5R(-/- mice suffer from a constitutive constriction of cerebral arteries, reduced cerebral blood flow, dendritic atrophy, and short-term memory loss, without necrosis and/or inflammation in the brain. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We employed the Magnetic Resonance Angiography to study the area of the basilar artery in male and female M5R(-/- mice. Here we show that female M5R(-/- mice did not show the reduction in vascular area observed in male M5R(-/- mice. However, ovariectomized female M5R(-/- mice displayed phenotypic changes similar to male M5R(-/- mice, strongly suggesting that estrogen plays a key role in the observed gender differences. We found that 17beta-estradiol (E2 induced nitric oxide release and ERK activation in a conditional immortalized mouse brain cerebrovascular endothelial cell line. Agonists of ERalpha, ERbeta, and GPR30 promoted ERK activation in this cell line. Moreover, in vivo magnetic resonance imaging studies showed that the cross section of the basilar artery was restored to normal in male M5R(-/- mice treated with E2. Treatment with E2 also improved the performance of male M5R(-/- mice in a cognitive test and reduced the atrophy of neural dendrites in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. M5R(-/- mice also showed astrocyte swelling in cortex and hippocampus using the three-dimensional reconstruction of electron microscope images. This phenotype was reversed by E2 treatment, similar to the observed deficits in dendrite morphology and the number of synapses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicate that M5R(-/- mice represent an excellent novel model system to study the beneficial effects of estrogen on cerebrovascular function and cognition. E2 may offer new therapeutic

  14. Beneficial effects of non-matched allogeneic cord blood mononuclear cells upon patients with idiopathic osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jun

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immunological arguments and historical examples have shown that treatment with cord blood for non-hematopoietic activities, such as growth factor production and stimulation of angiogenesis, may not require matching or immune suppression. Methods To study the benefit of blood mononuclear cell therapy, 8 patients with idiopathic osteoporosis were given intermittent treatments with non-matched allogeneic cord blood mononuclear cells for 3 months. Morning fasting samples were collected for measuring urine N telopeptide of type-1 collagen, serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, and insulin-like growth factor 1 during one-year study. Results Clinical response was striking. Serum insulin-like growth factor 1 significantly increased in all patients at 3 months compared with baseline values, from 264.1 ± 107.0 to 384.4 ± 63.1 ng/mL (P = 0.002, with a tendency to return to baseline values at 12 months (312.9 ± 75.5 ng/mL, P = 0.083. In contrast, differences in serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and urine N telopeptide of type-1 collagen were not significant at 3 (P = 0.765, P = 0.057 or 12 months (P = 0.889, P = 0.122. A beneficial effect on bone density was observed in all patients at the lumbar spine. The mean bone mineral density calculated during therapy (0.6811 ± 0.1442 g/cm2 tended higher than baseline values (0.6239 ± 0.1362 g/cm2, P  Conclusions The findings indicate that for these patients with idiopathic osteoporosis, treatment with cord blood mononuclear cells led to a significant increase in insulin-like growth factor 1 levels, which favors the increase in bone mineral density.

  15. Beneficial Effects of Early Enteral Nutrition After Major Rectal Surgery: A Possible Role for Conditionally Essential Amino Acids? Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Barneveld, Kevin W Y; Smeets, Boudewijn J J; Heesakkers, Fanny F B M; Bosmans, Joanna W A M; Luyer, Misha D; Wasowicz, Dareczka; Bakker, Jaap A; Roos, Arnout N; Rutten, Harm J T; Bouvy, Nicole D; Boelens, Petra G

    2016-06-01

    better clinical outcome was observed. We conclude that plasma amino acids do not provide a causal explanation for the observed beneficial effects of early enteral feeding after major rectal surgery.

  16. Curcumin-mediated regulation of intestinal barrier function: The mechanism underlying its beneficial effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Siddhartha S; He, Hongliang; Wang, Jing; Gehr, Todd W; Ghosh, Shobha

    2018-01-02

    Curcumin has anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-proliferative properties established largely by in vitro studies. Accordingly, oral administration of curcumin beneficially modulates many diseases including diabetes, fatty-liver disease, atherosclerosis, arthritis, cancer and neurological disorders such as depression, Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease. However, limited bioavailability and inability to detect curcumin in circulation or target tissues has hindered the validation of a causal role. We established curcumin-mediated decrease in the release of gut bacteria-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into circulation by maintaining the integrity of the intestinal barrier function as the mechanism underlying the attenuation of metabolic diseases (diabetes, atherosclerosis, kidney disease) by curcumin supplementation precluding the need for curcumin absorption. In view of the causative role of circulating LPS and resulting chronic inflammation in the development of diseases listed above, this review summarizes the mechanism by which curcumin affects the several layers of the intestinal barrier and, despite negligible absorption, can beneficially modulate these diseases.

  17. Effects of Reiki on Post-cesarean Delivery Pain, Anxiety, and Hemodynamic Parameters: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midilli, Tulay Sagkal; Eser, Ismet

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Reiki on pain, anxiety, and hemodynamic parameters on postoperative days 1 and 2 in patients who had undergone cesarean delivery. The design of this study was a randomized, controlled clinical trial. The study took place between February and July 2011 in the Obstetrical Unit at Odemis Public Hospital in Izmir, Turkey. Ninety patients equalized by age and number of births were randomly assigned to either a Reiki group or a control group (a rest without treatment). Treatment applied to both groups in the first 24 and 48 hours after delivery for a total of 30 minutes to 10 identified regions of the body for 3 minutes each. Reiki was applied for 2 days once a day (in the first 24 and 48 hours) within 4-8 hours of the administration of standard analgesic, which was administered intravenously by a nurse. A visual analog scale and the State Anxiety Inventory were used to measure pain and anxiety. Hemodynamic parameters, including blood pressure (systolic and diastolic), pulse and breathing rates, and analgesic requirements also were recorded. Statistically significant differences in pain intensity (p = .000), anxiety value (p = .000), and breathing rate (p = .000) measured over time were found between the two groups. There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups in the time (p = .000) and number (p = .000) of analgesics needed after Reiki application and a rest without treatment. Results showed that Reiki application reduced the intensity of pain, the value of anxiety, and the breathing rate, as well as the need for and number of analgesics. However, it did not affect blood pressure or pulse rate. Reiki application as a nursing intervention is recommended as a pain and anxiety-relieving method in women after cesarean delivery. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of N-acetylcysteine and terbutaline treatment on hemodynamics and regional albumin extravasation in porcine septic shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groeneveld, A.B.; den Hollander, W.; Straub, J.; Nauta, J.J.; Thijs, L.G.

    1990-01-01

    We studied the therapeutic effects of continuously infused N-acetylcysteine, an O2 radical scavenger (N, n = 6), and terbutaline, a beta 2-agonist (T, n = 6), versus dextrose (controls C, N = 6) on hemodynamics and regional albumin extravasation in porcine septic shock. After instrumentation, injection of 99mTc-labeled red blood cells, and baseline measurements, pigs received a 90 min infusion of 11 +/- 9 X 10(8).kg-1 live Escherichia coli bacteria. Thereafter, therapy was started, and 131I human serum albumin was injected. Images were obtained hourly using a gamma camera and a computer until 5 hours after baseline. Regions of interest were drawn in the 99mTc images, yielding regional 131I/99mTc radioactivity ratios, with blood samples as reference. From these ratios, an albumin leak index, a rate constant of transvascular albumin transport, was calculated. Control pigs developed pulmonary hypertension, arterial hypotension, hemoconcentration, and lactic acidemia. In spite of tachycardia and unchanged filling pressures, cardiac output fell. In arterial blood, white cell count, PO2, albumin level, and colloid osmotic pressure fell. The albumin leak index (X10(-3).min-1) measured 1.56 +/- 0.59 over the lungs and 2.87 +/- 1.19 over the abdomen in C, confirming previously found increased albumin flux in both lung and abdomen, the latter exceeding the former. Neither N nor T significantly affected hemodynamic and biochemical changes. The drugs neither decreased the regional albumin leak index nor attenuated the formation of albumin-rich ascites found at autopsy. However, the lung albumin index obtained at autopsy was significantly reduced with N (P less than .01 vs. C), at similar gravimetrically determined extravascular lung water (EVLW). EVLW positively correlated with pulmonary albumin extravasation in C and T but not in N

  19. Ecotoxicological standard tests confirm beneficial effects of nitrate capture in organically coated grapewood biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Andreas; Kammann, Claudia; Löhnertz, Otmar

    2017-04-01

    Due to the rising use of mineral N fertilizers and legume use in agriculture, the input of reactive N into the global N cycle has dramatically increased. Therefore new agricultural techniques that increase N use efficiency and reduce the loss of soil mineral N to surface and ground waters are urgently required. Pyrogenic carbon (biochar) produced from biomass may be used as a beneficial soil amendment to sequester carbon (C) in soils, increase soil fertility in the long term, and reduce environmental pollution such as nitrate leaching or N2O emissions. However, reduced nitrate leaching is not a constant finding when using biochar as a soil amendment and the mechanisms are poorly understood. To investigate if biochar is able to reduce nitrate pollution and its subsequent effects on soil and aquatic fauna, we conducted a series of experiments using standard ecotoxicological test methods: (1) the collembolan reproduction test (ISO 11267 (1999)), (2) the earthworm reproduction test (ISO 11268-2 (1998)), (3) the aquatic Daphnia acute test (ISO 6341 (1996)) and (4) a seedling emergence and growth test (ISO 11269-2 (2006)) also involving leaching events. For the tests grapewood biochar produced with a Kon-Tiki kiln (600-700°C) was used which had previously demonstrated nitrate capture; terrestrial tests were carried out with loamy sand standard soil 2.2 (LUFA-Speyer, Germany). The tests included the factors: (A) nitrate addition (using critical values for the test organisms) or no nitrate addition, (B) control (no biochar), pure biochar and organically-coated biochar. In the aquatic test (3), a nitrate amount which caused 50% of the Daphnia-immobilizing toxic nitrate concentration in leachates was applied to the soil or soil-biochar mixtures. Subsequently, soils were incubated overnight and leached on the next day, producing (in the control) the calculated nitrate concentrations. Daphnids were incubated for 48 hours. Test results without nitrate confirmed that soil

  20. Effects of head-down-tilt bed rest on cerebral hemodynamics during orthostatic stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R.; Zuckerman, J. H.; Pawelczyk, J. A.; Levine, B. D.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Our aim was to determine whether the adaptation to simulated microgravity (microG) impairs regulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) during orthostatic stress and contributes to orthostatic intolerance. Twelve healthy subjects (aged 24 +/- 5 yr) underwent 2 wk of -6 degrees head-down-tilt (HDT) bed rest to simulate hemodynamic changes that occur when humans are exposed to microG. CBF velocity in the middle cerebral artery (transcranial Doppler), blood pressure, cardiac output (acetylene rebreathing), and forearm blood flow were measured at each level of a ramped protocol of lower body negative pressure (LBNP; -15, -30, and -40 mmHg x 5 min, -50 mmHg x 3 min, then -10 mmHg every 3 min to presyncope) before and after bed rest. Orthostatic tolerance was assessed by using the cumulative stress index (CSI; mmHg x minutes) for the LBNP protocol. After bed rest, each individual's orthostatic tolerance was reduced, with the group CSI decreased by 24% associated with greater decreases in cardiac output and greater increases in systemic vascular resistance at each level of LBNP. Before bed rest, mean CBF velocity decreased by 14, 10, and 45% at -40 mmHg, -50 mmHg, and maximal LBNP, respectively. After bed rest, mean velocity decreased by 16% at -30 mmHg and by 21, 35, and 39% at -40 mmHg, -50 mmHg, and maximal LBNP, respectively. Compared with pre-bed rest, post-bed-rest mean velocity was less by 11, 10, and 21% at -30, -40, and -50 mmHg, respectively. However, there was no significant difference at maximal LBNP. We conclude that cerebral autoregulation during orthostatic stress is impaired by adaptation to simulated microG as evidenced by an earlier and greater fall in CBF velocity during LBNP. We speculate that impairment of cerebral autoregulation may contribute to the reduced orthostatic tolerance after bed rest.

  1. The effect of blood transfusion on cerebral hemodynamics in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyano, Kosuke; Kusaka, Takashi; Nakamura, Shinji; Nakamura, Makoto; Konishi, Yukihiko; Miki, Takanori; Ueno, Masaki; Yasuda, Saneyuki; Okada, Hitoshi; Nishida, Tomoko; Isobe, Kenichi; Itoh, Susumu

    2013-07-01

    Anemia of prematurity commonly occurs in infants with very low birth weight; blood transfusion is an important treatment. However, there is no clear evidence to support the criteria currently widely used, based on blood hemoglobin (bHb) and hematocrit indices. Previous studies showed that overtransfusion or a low threshold for transfusion could induce complications or neurologic sequelae, respectively. We hypothesized that a cerebral hemodynamic index may provide an appropriate criterion for determining the need for transfusion in anemic preterm infants. We used near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy to measure cerebral hemoglobin oxygen saturation (ScO2 ) and cerebral blood volume (CBV) before and after transfusion in 19 infants (24 measurements) with anemia of prematurity. The median gestational age was 27 weeks 0 days, median birth weight was 751 g, and median postconceptual age at transfusion was 30 weeks 4 days. bHb levels before and after transfusion (mean ± SD) were 9.3 ± 1.4 and 13.7 ± 1.3 g/dL, respectively. After transfusion, CBV significantly decreased from 2.63 ± 0.60 to 2.13 ± 0.26 mL/100 g of brain, and ScO2 significantly increased from 72.8 ± 4.3% to 74.7 ± 4.2%. After transfusion, CBV changes were significantly greater with low compared to high pretransfusion Hb levels. This reflected the physiologic response to severe anemia in premature infants, which is to increase CBV and decrease ScO2 . Therefore, CBV and ScO2 may be useful markers for determining the need for transfusion in very-low-birth-weight infants. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  2. Hemodynamic effects of terlipressin in patients with bleeding esophageal varices secondary to cirrhosis of liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budruddin, A.H.; Rasool, G.; Chaudhry, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    To study the hemodynamics of terlipressin in bleeding esophageal varices due to cirrhosis of the liver. Seventy-eight consecutive patients with bleeding esophageal varices were evaluated. The diagnosis of cirrhosis was based on history, physical examination, laboratory data and abdominal ultrasound. Blood-pressure and pulse rate were monitored. Injection terlipressin 2 mg intravenous bolus was given followed by 2 mg i/v 6 hourly. Intravenous plasma expanders, whole blood, fresh frozen plasma and platelet concentrates were transfused as needed. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed for evaluation and grading of varices, detection of portal gastropathy, and banding. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied as applicable. Seventy patients of either gender, aged 18 - 95 years were included in the study. Systolic blood pressure(SP) increased by 7.77 mmHg (mean SP: 108.1 mmHg, SD + 9.84, 95% CI: 105.77 - 110.43 mmHg; p-value: 0.0002); diastolic blood-pressure(DP) by 21.57 mmHg (mean DP: 79.71 mmHg, SD + 7.35, 95% CI: 77.97 - 81.45 mmHg; p-value: 0.001) and mean arterial pressure by 9.42 mmHg(mean MAP: 89.12 mmHg, SD + 6.98, 95% CI: 87.45 - 90.78 mmHg; p-value: 0.0007) within 24 hours of initiating terlipressin in majority of patients. The pulse rate decreased in 34 (48.5%) patients by 6-24 beats/min in 30 min, and by 2-12 beats/min in 24 hours; and increased in 30 (42.85)% patients by 10-15 beats/min at 30 min and by 2-8 beats/min at 24 hours. (author)

  3. Sirtuins and resveratrol-derived compounds: a model for understanding the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Matteo A; Sansone, Luigi; Polletta, Lucia; Runci, Alessandra; Rashid, Mohammad M; De Santis, Elena; Vernucci, Enza; Carnevale, Ilaria; Tafani, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet (MD) had been first observed about 50 years ago. Consumption of fresh vegetables and fruits, cereals, red wine, nuts, legumes, etc. has been regarded as the primary factor for protection from many human pathologies by the Mediterranean diet. Subsequently, this was attributed to the presence of polyphenols and their derivatives that, by exerting an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effect, can be involved in the prevention of many diseases. Clinical trials, observational studies and meta-analysis have demonstrated an antiageing effect of MD accompanied by a reduced risk of age-related pathologies, such as cardiovascular, metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases, as well as cancer. The scientific explanation of such beneficial effects was limited to the reduction of the oxidative stress by compounds present in the MD. However, recently, this view is changing thanks to new studies aimed to uncover the molecular mechanism(s) activated by components of this diet. In particular, a new class of proteins called sirtuins have gained the attention of the scientific community because of their antiageing effects, their ability to protect from cardiovascular, metabolic, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer and to extend lifespan in lower organisms as well as in mammals. Interestingly, resveratrol a polyphenol present in grapes, nuts and berries has been shown to activate sirtuins and such activation is able to explain most of the beneficial effects of the MD. In this review, we will highlight the importance of MD with particular attention to the possible molecular pathways that have been shown to be influenced by it. We will describe the state of the art leading to demonstrate the important role of sirtuins as principal intracellular mediators of the beneficial effects of the MD. Finally, we will also introduce how Mediterranean diet may influence microbioma composition and stem cells function.

  4. Vitamin C supplementation ameliorates the adverse effects of nicotine on placental hemodynamics and histology in nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Jamie O; Schabel, Matthias C; Roberts, Victoria H J; Morgan, Terry K; Rasanen, Juha P; Kroenke, Christopher D; Shoemaker, Sophie R; Spindel, Eliot R; Frias, Antonio E

    2015-03-01

    We previously demonstrated that prenatal nicotine exposure decreases neonatal pulmonary function in nonhuman primates, and maternal vitamin C supplementation attenuates these deleterious effects. However, the effect of nicotine on placental perfusion and development is not fully understood. This study utilizes noninvasive imaging techniques and histological analysis in a nonhuman primate model to test the hypothesis that prenatal nicotine exposure adversely effects placental hemodynamics and development but is ameliorated by vitamin C. Time-mated macaques (n = 27) were divided into 4 treatment groups: control (n = 5), nicotine only (n = 4), vitamin C only (n = 9), and nicotine plus vitamin C (n = 9). Nicotine animals received 2 mg/kg per day of nicotine bitartrate (approximately 0.7 mg/kg per day free nicotine levels in pregnant human smokers) from days 26 to 160 (term, 168 days). Vitamin C groups received ascorbic acid at 50, 100, or 250 mg/kg per day with or without nicotine. All underwent placental dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) at 135-140 days and Doppler ultrasound at 155 days to measure uterine artery and umbilical vein velocimetry and diameter to calculate uterine artery volume blood flow and placental volume blood flow. Animals were delivered by cesarean delivery at 160 days. A novel DCE-MRI protocol was utilized to calculate placental perfusion from maternal spiral arteries. Placental tissue was processed for histopathology. Placental volume blood flow was significantly reduced in nicotine-only animals compared with controls and nicotine plus vitamin C groups (P = .03). Maternal placental blood flow was not different between experimental groups by DCE-MRI, ranging from 0.75 to 1.94 mL/mL per minute (P = .93). Placental histology showed increased numbers of villous cytotrophoblast cell islands (P vitamin C. Prenatal nicotine exposure significantly decreased fetal blood supply via reduced placental volume blood flow, which

  5. Intravenous dexmedetomidine infusion in adult patients undergoing open nephrolithotomy: Effects on intraoperative hemodynamics and blood loss; a random

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doaa A. Rashwan

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine infusion in patients undergoing open nephrolithotomy under general anesthesia was associated with intraoperative hemodynamic stability, which decreases intraoperative blood loss and the need for intraoperative blood transfusion.

  6. A Comparison Between the Hemodynamic Effects of Cisatracurium and Atracurium in Patient with Low Function of Left Ventricle who are Candidate for Open Heart Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbanlo, Masoud; Mohaghegh, Mahmoud Reza; Yazdanian, Forozan; Mesbah, Mehrdad; Totonchi, Ziya

    2016-07-27

    The need for muscle relaxants in general anesthesia in different surgeries including cardiac surgeries, and the type of relaxant to be used considering its different hemodynamic effects on patients with heart disease can be of considerable importance. In this study, the hemodynamic effects of two muscle relaxants, Cisatracurium and Atracurium in patients whit low function of left ventricle who are candidate for open heart surgery have been considered. This study has been designed as a randomized prospective double-blind clinical trial. The target population included all adult patients with heart disease whose ejection fraction reported by echocardiography or cardiac catheterization was 35% or less before the surgery, and were candidate for open heart surgery in Shahid Rajaei Heart Center. Taking into account the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the patients were randomly placed in two groups of 30 people each. In the induction stage, all the patients received midazolam, etomidate, and one of the considered muscle relaxant, either 0.2 mg/kg of cisatracurium or 0.5mg/kg of Atracurium within one minute. In the maintenance stage of anesthesia, the patients were administered by infusion of midazolam, sufentanil and the same muscle relaxant used in the induction stage. The hemodynamic indexes were recorded and evaluated in different stages of anesthesia and surgery as well as prior to transfer to ICU. In regard with descriptive indexes (age and sex distributions, premedication with cardiac drugs, ejection fraction before surgery, basic disease) there was no statistically significant difference between the groups. The significant difference of hemodynamic indexes between the two groups of this study, and the need for hemodynamic stability in all stages of surgery for patients with low function of left ventricle who are candidate for open heart surgery, proves that administering Cisatracurium as the muscle relaxant is advantageous and better.

  7. Effect of an inspiratory impedance threshold device on hemodynamics during conventional manual cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirrallo, Ronald G; Aufderheide, Tom P; Provo, Terry A; Lurie, Keith G

    2005-07-01

    In animals in cardiac arrest, an inspiratory impedance threshold device (ITD) has been shown to improve hemodynamics and neurologically intact survival. The objective of this study was to determine whether an ITD would improve blood pressure (BP) in patients receiving CPR for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. This prospective, randomized, double-blind, intention-to-treat study was conducted in the Milwaukee, WI, emergency medical services (EMS) system. EMS personnel used an active (functional) or sham (non-functional) ITD on a tracheal tube on adults in cardiac arrest of presumed cardiac etiology. Care between groups was similar except for ITD type. Low dose epinephrine (1mg) was used per American Heart Association Guidelines. Femoral arterial BP (mmHg) was measured invasively during CPR. Mean+/-S.D. time from ITD placement to first invasive BP recording was approximately 14 min. Twelve patients were treated with a sham ITD versus 10 patients with an active ITD. Systolic BPs (mean+/-S.D.) [number of patients treated at given time point] at T = 0 (time of first arterial BP measurement), and T=2, 5 and 7 min were 85+/-29 [10], 85+/-23 [10], 85+/-16 [9] and 69+/-22 [8] in the group receiving an active ITD compared with 43+/-15 [12], 47+/-16 [12], 47+/-20 [9], and 52+/-23 [9] in subjects treated with a sham ITD, respectively (p < 0.01 for all times). Diastolic BPs at T = 0, 2, 5 and 7 min were 20+/-12, 21+/-13, 23+/-15 and 25+/-14 in the group receiving an active ITD compared with 15+/-9, 17+/-8, 17+/-9 and 19+/-8 in subjects treated with a sham ITD, respectively (p = NS for all times). No significant adverse device events were reported. Use of the active ITD was found to increase systolic pressures safely and significantly in patients in cardiac arrest compared with sham controls.

  8. Intermittent fasting dissociates beneficial effects of dietary restriction on glucose metabolism and neuronal resistance to injury from calorie intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anson, R. Michael; Guo, Zhihong; de Cabo, Rafael; Iyun, Titilola; Rios, Michelle; Hagepanos, Adrienne; Ingram, Donald K.; Lane, Mark A.; Mattson, Mark P.

    2003-01-01

    Dietary restriction has been shown to have several health benefits including increased insulin sensitivity, stress resistance, reduced morbidity, and increased life span. The mechanism remains unknown, but the need for a long-term reduction in caloric intake to achieve these benefits has been assumed. We report that when C57BL/6 mice are maintained on an intermittent fasting (alternate-day fasting) dietary-restriction regimen their overall food intake is not decreased and their body weight is maintained. Nevertheless, intermittent fasting resulted in beneficial effects that met or exceeded those of caloric restriction including reduced serum glucose and insulin levels and increased resistance of neurons in the brain to excitotoxic stress. Intermittent fasting therefore has beneficial effects on glucose regulation and neuronal resistance to injury in these mice that are independent of caloric intake. PMID:12724520

  9. The unexpected beneficial effect of the L-valley population on the electron mobility of GaAs nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin, E. G.; Ruiz, F. G.; Godoy, A.; Tienda-Luna, I. M.; Gámiz, F.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of the L-valley population on the transport properties of GaAs cylindrical nanowires (NWs) is analyzed by numerically calculating the electron mobility under the momentum relaxation time approximation. In spite of its low contribution to the electron mobility (even for high electron populations in small NWs), it is demonstrated to have a beneficial effect, since it significantly favours the Γ-valley mobility by screening the higher Γ-valley energy subbands

  10. Norwood with right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery conduit is more effective than Norwood with Blalock-Taussig shunt for hypoplastic left heart syndrome: mathematic modeling of hemodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroczek, Tomasz; Małota, Zbigniew; Wójcik, Elżbieta; Nawrat, Zbigniew; Skalski, Janusz

    2011-12-01

    The introduction of right ventricle to pulmonary artery (RV-PA) conduit in the Norwood procedure for hypoplastic left heart syndrome resulted in a higher survival rate in many centers. A higher diastolic aortic pressure and a higher mean coronary perfusion pressure were suggested as the hemodynamic advantage of this source of pulmonary blood flow. The main objective of this study was the comparison of two models of Norwood physiology with different types of pulmonary blood flow sources and their hemodynamics. Based on anatomic details obtained from echocardiographic assessment and angiographic studies, two three-dimensional computer models of post-Norwood physiology were developed. The finite-element method was applied for computational hemodynamic simulations. Norwood physiology with RV-PA 5-mm conduit and Blalock-Taussig shunt (BTS) 3.5-mm shunt were compared. Right ventricle work, wall stress, flow velocity, shear rate stress, energy loss and turbulence eddy dissipation were analyzed in both models. The total work of the right ventricle after Norwood procedure with the 5-mm RV-PA conduit was lower in comparison to the 3.5-mm BTS while establishing an identical systemic blood flow. The Qp/Qs ratio was higher in the BTS group. Hemodynamic performance after Norwood with the RV-PA conduit is more effective than after Norwood with BTS. Computer simulations of complicated hemodynamics after the Norwood procedure could be helpful in establishing optimal post-Norwood physiology. Copyright © 2011 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of cold water immersion and active recovery on hemodynamics and recovery of muscle strength following resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Llion A; Muthalib, Makii; Stanley, Jamie; Lichtwark, Glen; Nosaka, Kazunori; Coombes, Jeff S; Peake, Jonathan M

    2015-08-15

    Cold water immersion (CWI) and active recovery (ACT) are frequently used as postexercise recovery strategies. However, the physiological effects of CWI and ACT after resistance exercise are not well characterized. We examined the effects of CWI and ACT on cardiac output (Q̇), muscle oxygenation (SmO2), blood volume (tHb), muscle temperature (Tmuscle), and isometric strength after resistance exercise. On separate days, 10 men performed resistance exercise, followed by 10 min CWI at 10°C or 10 min ACT (low-intensity cycling). Q̇ (7.9 ± 2.7 l) and Tmuscle (2.2 ± 0.8°C) increased, whereas SmO2 (-21.5 ± 8.8%) and tHb (-10.1 ± 7.7 μM) decreased after exercise (P < 0.05). During CWI, Q̇ (-1.1 ± 0.7 l) and Tmuscle (-6.6 ± 5.3°C) decreased, while tHb (121 ± 77 μM) increased (P < 0.05). In the hour after CWI, Q̇ and Tmuscle remained low, while tHb also decreased (P < 0.05). By contrast, during ACT, Q̇ (3.9 ± 2.3 l), Tmuscle (2.2 ± 0.5°C), SmO2 (17.1 ± 5.7%), and tHb (91 ± 66 μM) all increased (P < 0.05). In the hour after ACT, Tmuscle, and tHb remained high (P < 0.05). Peak isometric strength during 10-s maximum voluntary contractions (MVCs) did not change significantly after CWI, whereas it decreased after ACT (-30 to -45 Nm; P < 0.05). Muscle deoxygenation time during MVCs increased after ACT (P < 0.05), but not after CWI. Muscle reoxygenation time after MVCs tended to increase after CWI (P = 0.052). These findings suggest first that hemodynamics and muscle temperature after resistance exercise are dependent on ambient temperature and metabolic demands with skeletal muscle, and second, that recovery of strength after resistance exercise is independent of changes in hemodynamics and muscle temperature. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  12. COMPARISON OF EFFECTIVENESS OF A PROGRESSIVE MOBILIZATION AND MOZART MUSIC THERAPY ON NON-INVASIVE HEMODYNAMIC STATUS CHANGES IN PATIENTS WITH HEAD INJURY IN THE INTENSIVE CARE UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novi Indriani

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The instability of hemodynamic status in patients with head injury with decreased consciousness has an effect on the increase of intracranial pressure. The recovery of hemodynamic status can be done through nursing intervention either by providing a sensory stimulus (music therapy or motor stimulus (progressive mobilization. Objective: To compare the effectiveness of progressive mobilization of level I with Mozart's music therapy on non-invasive hemodynamic status changes in patients with head injury with decreased awareness. Methods: This was a quasy-experimental study with pretest-posttest design. There were 34 samples selected using consecutive sampling, which 17 samples assigned in a group of progressive mobilization and group of music therapy. Paired t-test and Wilcoxon test were used for paired group, and Independent t-test and Mann-Whitney test for unpaired group. Results: Progressive mobilization of level I had significant effect on changes in systolic blood pressure (p = 0.0001, diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.002 and MAP (p = 0.019, and no significant effect on heart rate (p = 0.155, respiration (p = 0.895 and oxygen saturation (p = 0.248. Mozart's music therapy had a significant effect on changes in systolic blood pressure (p = 0.0001, diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.0001, respiration (p= 0.032 and oxygen saturation (p = 0.008, but no effect on MAP (p = 0.561. There was a significant difference between the two interventions in the systolic blood pressure and heart rate variables (p 0.05. Conclusion: The Mozart's music therapy is more effective on non-invasive hemodynamic status changes in patients with head injury with decreased consciousness compared with progressive mobilization of level I.

  13. Effect of Buqi Huoxue decoction on hemodynamics and liver fibrosis indices in hepatitis B patients with cirrhotic portal hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAI Zhiqin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the effect of Buqi Huoxue decoction on hemodynamics and liver fibrosis indices in hepatitis B patients with cirrhotic portal hypertension. MethodsA total of 79 patients with hepatitis B cirrhosis who were admitted to The People′s Hospital of Qingyuan District from December 2013 to August 2015 were enrolled and randomly divided into study group (41 patients and control group (38 patients. The patients in both groups were given oral entecavir (0.5 mg, once a day and bicyclol tablets (25 mg, three times a day; the patients in the control group were given propranolol (10 mg, three times a day in addition, and those in the study group were given Buqi Huoxue decoction in addition. The course of treatment was 12 weeks for both groups. The hemodynamics and liver fibrosis indices were compared between the two groups before treatment and after 12 weeks of treatment. The t-test was used for comparison of continuous data between groups, and the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. ResultsAfter 12 weeks of treatment, both groups had significant reductions in diameter of the portal vein, diameter of the splenic vein, and portal vein flow and a significant increase in portal vein blood flow velocity (t=3.847, 4.672, 3.524, 5.237, 3.578, 3.829, 3.468, and 3.673, P=0.041, 0.036, 0.047, 0.032, 0.045, 0.042, 0.048, and 0.046, and the study group had significantly greater changes in these parameters compared with the control group (diameter of the portal vein: 12.86±2.34 mm vs 13.65±2.45 mm, t=3.725, P=0.044; diameter of the splenic vein: 9.50±1.26 mm vs 11.15±1.37 mm, t=-6.672, P=0.012; portal vein flow: 1.23±0.35 L/min vs 1.38±0.44 L/min, t=-3.521, P=0.047; portal vein blood flow velocity: 19.50±4.65 cm/s vs 17.57±2.40 cm/s, t=-6.225, P=0.024. After 12 weeks of treatment, both groups had reductions in the four liver fibrosis indices hyaluronic acid, laminin, procollagen type Ⅲ, and

  14. Soy isoflavones exert beneficial effects on letrozole-induced rat polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) model through anti-androgenic mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Ravi Kumar; M, Siva Selva Kumar; Balaji, Bhaskar

    2017-12-01

    Soy is the main source of phytoestrogens, which has long been used as traditional food. One major subtype of phytoestrogens includes isoflavones and they are scientifically validated for their beneficial actions on many hormone-dependent conditions. The present study examines the effect of soy isoflavones on letrozole-induced polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) rat model. PCOS was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats with of 1 mg/kg letrozole, p.o. once daily for 21 consecutive days. Soy isoflavones (50 and 100 mg/kg) was administered for 14 days after PCOS induction. Physical parameters (body weight, oestrous cycle determination, ovary and uterus weight) metabolic parameters (oral glucose tolerance test, total cholesterol), steroidal hormone profile (testosterone and 17β-oestradiol), steroidogenic enzymes (3β-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase (HSD) and 17β-HSD), oxidative stress and histopathology of ovary were studied. Soy isoflavones (100 mg/kg) treatment significantly altered the letrozole-induced PCOS symptoms as observed by decreased body weight gain (p PCOS rats resulted in well-developed antral follicles and normal granulosa cell layer in rat ovary. Treatment with soy isoflavones exerts beneficial effects in PCOS rats (with decreased aromatase activity) which might be due to their ability to decrease testosterone concentration in the peripheral blood. Analysis of physical, biochemical and histological evidences shows that soy isoflavones may be beneficial in PCOS.

  15. Childhood moyamoya disease: hemodynamic MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzika, A.A. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Robertson, R.L. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Barnes, P.D. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Vajapeyam, S. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Burrows, P.E. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Treves, S.T. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Scott, R.M. l [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Background. Childhood moyamoya disease is a rare progressive cerebrovascular disease. Objective. To evaluate cerebral hemodynamics using dynamic Gd-DTPA-enhanced imaging in children with moyamoya disease. Materials and methods. Eight children (2-11 years of age) with the clinical and angiographic findings typical of moyamoya disease, before and/or after surgical intervention (pial synangiosis), underwent conventional MR imaging (MRI) and hemodynamic MR imaging (HMRI). HMRI used a spoiled gradient-echo with low flip angle (10 deg) and long TE (TR/TE = 24/15 ms) to minimize T 1 effects and emphasize T 2{sup *} weighting. Raw and calculated hemodynamic images were reviewed. Three-dimensional time-of-flight MR angiography (MRA) and perfusion brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were also performed. Results. Abnormal hemodynamic maps resulting from vascular stenosis or occlusion and basal collaterals were observed in six patient studies. HMRI depicted perfusion dynamics of affected cerebrovascular territories, detected cortical perfusion deficits, and complemented conventional MRI and MRA. HMRI findings were consistent with those of catheter angiography and perfusion SPECT. Conclusion. Our preliminary experience suggests that HMRI may be of value in the preoperative and postoperative evaluation of surgical interventions in moyamoya disease. (orig.). With 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Childhood moyamoya disease: hemodynamic MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzika, A.A.; Robertson, R.L.; Barnes, P.D.; Vajapeyam, S.; Burrows, P.E.; Treves, S.T.; Scott, R.M. I

    1997-01-01

    Background. Childhood moyamoya disease is a rare progressive cerebrovascular disease. Objective. To evaluate cerebral hemodynamics using dynamic Gd-DTPA-enhanced imaging in children with moyamoya disease. Materials and methods. Eight children (2-11 years of age) with the clinical and angiographic findings typical of moyamoya disease, before and/or after surgical intervention (pial synangiosis), underwent conventional MR imaging (MRI) and hemodynamic MR imaging (HMRI). HMRI used a spoiled gradient-echo with low flip angle (10 deg) and long TE (TR/TE = 24/15 ms) to minimize T 1 effects and emphasize T 2 * weighting. Raw and calculated hemodynamic images were reviewed. Three-dimensional time-of-flight MR angiography (MRA) and perfusion brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were also performed. Results. Abnormal hemodynamic maps resulting from vascular stenosis or occlusion and basal collaterals were observed in six patient studies. HMRI depicted perfusion dynamics of affected cerebrovascular territories, detected cortical perfusion deficits, and complemented conventional MRI and MRA. HMRI findings were consistent with those of catheter angiography and perfusion SPECT. Conclusion. Our preliminary experience suggests that HMRI may be of value in the preoperative and postoperative evaluation of surgical interventions in moyamoya disease. (orig.). With 4 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Cerebrovascular Hemodynamics in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Cristina; Feske, Steven K; Sorond, Farzaneh A

    2017-12-01

    Sex and gender, as biological and social factors, significantly influence health outcomes. Among the biological factors, sex differences in vascular physiology may be one specific mechanism contributing to the observed differences in clinical presentation, response to treatment, and clinical outcomes in several vascular disorders. This review focuses on the cerebrovascular bed and summarizes the existing literature on sex differences in cerebrovascular hemodynamics to highlight the knowledge deficit that exists in this domain. The available evidence is used to generate mechanistically plausible and testable hypotheses to underscore the unmet need in understanding sex-specific mechanisms as targets for more effective therapeutic and preventive strategies. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  18. The acute effects of the thermogenic supplement Meltdown on energy expenditure, fat oxidation, and hemodynamic responses in young, healthy males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooke Matt

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a thermogenic supplement, Meltdown, on energy expenditure, fat oxidation, and hemodynamics before and after maximal treadmill exercise. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over design, 12 male participants underwent two testing sessions after consuming either the Meltdown or placebo supplement. While in a fasted state, participants rested for one hour, orally ingested either Meltdown or placebo and rested for another hour, performed a maximal treadmill exercise test, and then rested for another hour. Throughout the testing protocol, resting energy expenditure (REE and respiratory exchange ratio (RER were assessed. In addition, heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP were assessed before and after exercise. Meltdown increased REE significantly more than placebo at 45 min (1.44 ± 0.25 vs. 1.28 ± 0.23 kcal/min; p = 0.003, 60 min (1.49 ± 0.28 vs. 1.30 ± 0.22 kcal/min; p = 0.025, and 120 min (1.51 ± 0.26 vs. 1.33 ± 0.27 kcals/min; p = 0.014 post-ingestion. Meltdown significantly decreased RER at 30 min (0.84 ± 0.03 vs. 0.91 ± 0.04; p = 0.022 and 45 min post-ingestion (0.82 ± 0.04 vs. 0.89 ± 0.05; p = 0.042, and immediately post-exercise (0.83 ± 0.05 vs. 0.90 ± 0.07; p = 0.009. Furthermore, over the course of the evaluation period, area under the curve assessment demonstrated that REE was significantly increased with Meltdown compared to placebo (992.5 ± 133.1 vs. 895.1 ± 296.1 kcals; p = 0.043, while RER was significantly less than placebo (5.55 ± 0.61 vs. 5.89 ± 0.44; p = 0.002 following ingestion. HR and BP were not significantly affected prior to exercise with either supplement (p > 0.05 and the exercise-induced increases for HR and BP decreased into recovery and were not different between supplements (p > 0.05. These data suggest that Meltdown enhances REE and fat oxidation more than placebo for several hours after ingestion in fully rested and

  19. Effect of maintenance oral theophylline on dipyridamole-thallium-201 myocardial imaging using SPECT and dipyridamole-induced hemodynamic changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daley, P.J.; Mahn, T.H.; Zielonka, J.S.; Krubsack, A.J.; Akhtar, R.; Bamrah, V.S.

    1988-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of maintenance oral theophylline therapy on the diagnostic efficacy of dipyridamole-thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging for coronary artery disease, dipyridamole-thallium-201 SPECT imaging was performed in eight men with documented coronary artery disease before initiation of theophylline treatment and repeated while these patients were receiving therapeutic doses of oral theophylline. Before theophylline treatment, intravenous dipyridamole caused a significant increase in heart rate, decrease in blood pressure, angina in seven of eight patients, and ST segment depression in four of eight patients. While they were being treated with theophylline, none of the patients had angina or ST segment depression, and there were no hemodynamic changes with intravenous dipyridamole. Before theophylline treatment, dipyridamole-thallium-201 SPECT imaging showed reversible perfusion defects in myocardial segments supplied by stenotic coronary arteries. With theophylline treatment, dipyridamole-thallium-201 SPECT showed total absence of reversible perfusion defects. Treatment with theophylline markedly reduced the diagnostic accuracy of dipyridamole-thallium-201 imaging for coronary artery disease

  20. Effects of inspiratory muscle exercise in the pulmonary function, autonomic modulation, and hemodynamic variables in older women with metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feriani, Daniele Jardim; Coelho, Hélio José; Scapini, Kátia Bilhar; de Moraes, Oscar Albuquerque; Mostarda, Cristiano; Ruberti, Olivia Moraes; Uchida, Marco Carlos; Caperuto, Érico Chagas; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia; Rodrigues, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of inspiratory muscle exercise (IME) on metabolic and hemodynamic parameters, cardiac autonomic modulation and respiratory function of older women with metabolic syndrome (MS). For this, sixteen older women with MS and 12 aged-matched controls participated of the present study. Two days before and 2 days after the main experiment, fasting blood samples (i.e., total cholesterol, triglycerides and blood glucose), cardiac autonomic modulation (i.e., heart rate variability), and respiratory muscle function were obtained and evaluated. The sessions of physical exercise was based on a IME, which was performed during 7 days. Each session of IME was performed during 20 min, at 30% of maximal static inspiratory pressure. In the results, MS group presented higher levels of triglycerides, blood glucose, and systolic blood pressure when compared to control group. IME was not able to change these variables. However, although MS group showed impaired respiratory muscle strength and function, as well as cardiac autonomic modulation, IME was able to improve these parameters. Thus, the data showed that seven days of IME are capable to improve respiratory function and cardiac autonomic modulation of older women with MS. These results indicate that IME can be a profitable therapy to counteracting the clinical markers of MS, once repeated sessions of acute IME can cause chronical alterations on respiratory function and cardiac autonomic modulation. PMID:28503537

  1. Comparative effects of acute O/sub 2/ breathing and terbutaline in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A combined hemodynamic and radionuclide study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschopp, J M; Gabathuler, J; Righetti, A; Junod, A F

    1985-01-01

    The acute effects of terbutaline (T) and breathing 100% O/sub 2/(O/sub 2/) on gas exchange, pulmonary hemodynamics and radionuclide angiography were evaluated in 15 patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). O/sub 2/ breathing resulted in a decrease in mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and cardiac index (CI) without changing pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI) or right and left ventricular ejection fractions (RVEF,LVEF). On the other hand, T administration was followed by a decrease in PVRI, and increase in CI, RVEF and LVEF. These effects of T were maintained during exercise. Although RVEF was inversely correlated with basal levels of PAP or PVRI, acute changes in pulmonary hemodynamics were not correlated with significant changes on RVEF. These results suggest that T may be useful in the treatment of patients with COPD prone to develop cor pulmonale. However, the long-term benefit of this treatment remains to be established.

  2. Comparative effects of acute O2 breathing and terbutaline in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A combined hemodynamic and radionuclide study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschopp, J.M.; Gabathuler, J.; Righetti, A.; Junod, A.F.

    1985-01-01

    The acute effects of terbutaline (T) and breathing 100% O 2 (O 2 ) on gas exchange, pulmonary hemodynamics and radionuclide angiography were evaluated in 15 patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). O 2 breathing resulted in a decrease in mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and cardiac index (CI) without changing pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI) or right and left ventricular ejection fractions (RVEF,LVEF). On the other hand, T administration was followed by a decrease in PVRI, and increase in CI, RVEF and LVEF. These effects of T were maintained during exersice. Although RVEF was inversely correlated with basal levels of PAP or PVRI, acute changes in pulmonary hemodynamics were not correlated with significant changes on RVEF. These results suggest that T may be useful in the treatment of patients with COPD prone to develop cor pulmonale. However, the long-term benefit of this treatment remains to be established. (author)

  3. Hemodynamic changes after levothyroxine treatment in subclinical hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, J; Petersen, L; Wiinberg, N

    2002-01-01

    by LT(4) (p treatment in SH results in changes in hemodynamic parameters of potentially beneficial character. SH and overt hypothyroidism should......In hypothyroidism, lack of thyroid hormones results in reduced cardiac function (cardiac output [CO]), and an increase of systemic vascular resistance (SVR). We speculated whether hemodynamic regulation in subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) (defined as mildly elevated thyrotropin [TSH......) and T(3) estimates) LT(4) treatment resulted in 6% reduction in supine MAP (p treatment (p

  4. Effect of methyl salicylate-based lures on beneficial and pest arthropods in strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jana C

    2010-04-01

    Methyl salicylate (MeSA) is a common herbivore-induced plant volatile that, when applied to crops, has the potential to enhance natural enemy abundance and pest control. The impacts of MeSA in strawberry were unknown and examined in the spring and midsummer period. Strawberry plots contained no lures (control) or two 30-d MeSA lures (Predalure) in the center: one lure 0.61 m aboveground over a sticky trap, and one lure on a plant near the ground. Arthropod abundance was monitored at the point source, 5 m and 10 m away from lures over 31 d with white sticky traps, pitfall traps, and leaf inspection. Twenty-seven and nine comparisons were made among beneficial and pest arthropods, respectively. Overall positive responses were found among Chrysopidae in July-August 2008 and Orius tristicolor (White) in May-June 2009 to MeSA based on sticky traps. Chrysopidae showed attraction to the point source, but not at 5 m and 10 m. Ground-dwelling predators collected in pitfall traps such as Araneae, the carabid beetles, Pterostichus melanarius (Illiger), and Nebria brevicollis (Fabricius) did not respond. Increased abundance of six natural enemy groups appeared on various dates between 3 and 24 d after placement of lures in the field based on leaf inspection and sticky traps. Conversely, fewer Coccinellidae were captured on sticky traps on days 0-3, and fewer natural enemies were observed on leaves on day 28 in MeSA plots. MeSA did not increase nor decrease pest abundance.

  5. The effects of long term strength training on hemodynamic parameters and resistin level in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Tardivo Marin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Investigate the influence of strength training (ST on serum resistin levels and blood pressure of postmenopausal women. Methods: Longitudinal study conducted at the Federal University of São Carlos with twenty-three sedentary postmenopausal women. The ST lasted 13 months (Dec./2008 to Jan./2010 and consisted of two weekly sessions with three sets of 8-12 maximum repetitions and one exercise for each main muscle group. Maximum muscular strength was tested in the following exercises: bench press, 45° leg press, and standing arm curl. Serum resistin level was determined using the ELISA method. ANOVA (with repeated measures was used for the comparisons between periods Pre-, 6 months and 13 months (p < 0.05; Pearson’s correlation test was used to evaluate the correlations between resistin × blood pressure, resistin × muscle strength and strength × blood pressure. Results: Women presented the following anthropometric profile: 61.33±3.8 years; height 148.5±32.7 cm; body mass 67.56±10.85 kg. The ST decreased resistin levels (30272.4 ± 8100.1 to 16350.6 ± 2404.6 pg/mL and systolic blood pressure (120.5 ± 11.8 to 115.8 ± 1.6 mmHg, and increased muscular strength in the leg press 45o (172.3 ± 27.3 to 348.6 ± 40.8kg, bench press (31.9 ± 4.1 to 41.8 ± 5.6 kg and arm curl (21.0 ± 2.4 to 26.5 ± 2.9 kg after 13 months (p < 0.05. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that long-term ST increases maximum muscular strength, decreases systolic blood pressure and serum resistin levels, which are beneficial physiological alterations that reduce the risk for cardiovascular diseases in postmenopausal women. doi:10.5020/18061230.2013.p325

  6. Beneficial Effects of N-acetylcysteine and N-mercaptopropionylglycine on Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in the Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartekova, Monika; Barancik, Miroslav; Ferenczyova, Kristina; Dhalla, Naranjan S

    2018-01-30

    Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury of the heart as a consequence of myocardial infarction or cardiac surgery represents a serious clinical problem. One of the most prominent mechanisms of I/R injury is the development of oxidative stress in the heart. In this regard, I/R has been shown to enhance the production of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species in the heart which lead to the imbalance between the pro-oxidants and antioxidant capacities of the endogenous radical-scavenging systems. Increasing the antioxidant capacity of the heart by the administration of exogenous antioxidants is considered beneficial for the heart exposed to I/R. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and Nmercaptopropionylglycine (MPG) are two sulphur containing amino acid substances, which belong to the broad category of exogenous antioxidants that have been tested for their protective potential in cardiac I/R injury. Pretreatment of hearts with both NAC and MPG has demonstrated that these agents attenuate the I/R-induced alterations in sarcolemma, sarcoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and myofibrils in addition to improving cardiac function. While experimental studies have revealed promising data suggesting beneficial effects of NAC and MPG in cardiac I/R injury, the results of clinical trials are not conclusive because both positive and no effects of these substances have been reported on the post-ischemic recovery of heart following cardiac surgery or myocardial infarction. It is concluded that both NAC and MPG exert beneficial effects in preventing the I/Rinduced injury; however, further studies are needed to establish their effectiveness in reversing the I/R-induced abnormalities in the heart. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Effects of “Danzhi Decoction” on Chronic Pelvic Pain, Hemodynamics, and Proinflammatory Factors in the Murine Model of Sequelae of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Bu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effect of Danzhi decoction (DZD on chronic pelvic pain (CPP, hemodynamics, and proinflammatory factors of sequelae of pelvic inflammatory diseases (SPID in murine model. Methods. SPID mice were randomly treated with high-dose DZD, mid-dose DZD, low-dose DZD, aspirin, and vehicle for 3 estrous circles. The Mouse Grimace Scale (MGS was performed to evaluate CPP; blood flows of the upper genital tract, pelvic wall, and mesentery were used to assess hemodynamics in SPID mice; expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2, and osteopontin (OPN were measured by Western blot and immunochemistry. Results. Treatment with dose-dependent DZD significantly decreased the MGS scores, accelerated blood flows of the pelvis, and reduced expressions of VEGF, Ang-2, and OPN in the upper genital tract. Conclusions and Discussions. DZD was effective in relieving CPP and improving hemodynamics of the pelvic blood-stasis microenvironment in SPID mice. There was a relationship between CPP and the pelvic blood-stasis microenvironment. Furthermore, DZD might play a positive role in the anti-inflammatory process.

  8. Radiation hormesis: Beneficial effects of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation. A critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.; Schlesinger, T.

    2002-01-01

    Hormesis is defined as the stimulating effect of low doses of agents that cause an inhibiting effect at high doses. The hormesis hypothesis states that most chemical and physical agents may stimulate biological effects at doses lower than a threshold, while they are toxic at doses higher than this threshold. Since the eighties of the nineties century multiple evidences of hormetic responses have been reported in the scientific literature

  9. Does gratitude always work? Ambivalence over emotional expression inhibits the beneficial effect of gratitude on well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lung Hung; Chen, Mei-Yen; Tsai, Ying-Mei

    2012-01-01

    The psychological benefit of gratitude has been well demonstrated in previous studies. However, when we examined these studies closely, we found that the moderators were rarely investigated, suggesting that further work is needed to explore the boundaries of gratitude In this regard, the authors have proposed that ambivalence over emotional expression might be a potential moderator that would inhibit the beneficial effect of gratitude on well-being. Two studies were conducted to examine our hypothesis. Study 1 consisted of 353 Taiwanese college students who completed the Gratitude Questionnaire-Taiwan version (GQ-T), Ambivalence over Emotional Expression Questionnaire (AEQ), and one question about subjective happiness. We found that ambivalence over emotional expression significantly moderated the effect of gratitude on happiness. To validate our findings in Study 1, 233 Taiwanese college students were recruited for Study 2, and they completed the GQ-T, AEQ, subjective happiness short-form UCLA loneliness scale, as well as the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Both studies demonstrated that ambivalence over emotional expression moderated the relationship between gratitude and well-being indexes. Simply stated, the authors found that across the two independent samples, among students who are high in ambivalence over emotional expression, the beneficial effect of gratitude on subjective happiness was inhibited. However, the moderating pattern for loneliness and depression was contrary to our expectations, indicating that high ambivalence over emotional expression does not inhibit gratitude. Possible explanations and implications for social relationships and emotional expression are discussed.

  10. Short-term hemodynamic effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition in patients with severe aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Morten; Iversen, Kasper; Kjaergaard, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    vs 0.8 ± 6 pmol/L, P = .04, respectively). No episodes of symptomatic hypotension were noted, and other hemodynamic parameters remained unchanged. CONCLUSION: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition in severe AS caused a decrease in LVESV and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide with other...

  11. Depressive Symptoms Negate the Beneficial Effects of Physical Activity on Mortality Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pai-Lin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to: (1) compare the association between various levels of physical activity (PA) and mortality; and (2) examine the potential modifying effect of depressive symptoms on the PA-mortality associations. Previous large scale randomized studies rarely assess the association in conjunction with modifying effects of depressive…

  12. Effects of weed harrowing frequency on beneficial arthropods, plants and crop yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navntoft, Søren; Kristensen, Kristian; Johnsen, Ib

    2016-01-01

    * Weed harrowing is an alternative to herbicides but it may have negative effects on epigaeic arthropods. We assessed the effects of frequent (four) versus two harrowings during the growing season on the density and diversity of generalist arthropods and the weed flora. Collection by flooding was...

  13. Effects of Intraluminal Thrombus on Patient-Specific Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Hemodynamics via Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocity and Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Yuan; Antón, Raúl; Hung, Ming-yang; Menon, Prahlad; Finol, Ender A.; Pekkan, Kerem

    2014-01-01

    The pathology of the human abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and its relationship to the later complication of intraluminal thrombus (ILT) formation remains unclear. The hemodynamics in the diseased abdominal aorta are hypothesized to be a key contributor to the formation and growth of ILT. The objective of this investigation is to establish a reliable 3D flow visualization method with corresponding validation tests with high confidence in order to provide insight into the basic hemodynamic features for a better understanding of hemodynamics in AAA pathology and seek potential treatment for AAA diseases. A stereoscopic particle image velocity (PIV) experiment was conducted using transparent patient-specific experimental AAA models (with and without ILT) at three axial planes. Results show that before ILT formation, a 3D vortex was generated in the AAA phantom. This geometry-related vortex was not observed after the formation of ILT, indicating its possible role in the subsequent appearance of ILT in this patient. It may indicate that a longer residence time of recirculated blood flow in the aortic lumen due to this vortex caused sufficient shear-induced platelet activation to develop ILT and maintain uniform flow conditions. Additionally, two computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling codes (Fluent and an in-house cardiovascular CFD code) were compared with the two-dimensional, three-component velocity stereoscopic PIV data. Results showed that correlation coefficients of the out-of-plane velocity data between PIV and both CFD methods are greater than 0.85, demonstrating good quantitative agreement. The stereoscopic PIV study can be utilized as test case templates for ongoing efforts in cardiovascular CFD solver development. Likewise, it is envisaged that the patient-specific data may provide a benchmark for further studying hemodynamics of actual AAA, ILT, and their convolution effects under physiological conditions for clinical applications. PMID:24316984

  14. Effects of Nuclear Factor-E2-related factor 2/Heme Oxygenase 1 on splanchnic hemodynamics in experimental cirrhosis with portal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jun; He, Yue; Duan, Ming; Luo, Meng

    2017-05-01

    We explored the effects of Nuclear Factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and Heme Oxygenase 1 (HO-1) on splanchnic hemodynamics in portal hypertensive rats. Experimental cirrhosis with portal hypertension was induced by intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride. The expression of proteins was examined by immunoblotting. Hemodynamic studies were performed by radioactive microspheres. The vascular perfusion system was used to measure the contractile response of mesentery arterioles in rats. Nrf2 expression in the nucleus and HO-1 expression in cytoplasm was significantly enhanced in portal hypertensive rats. Portal pressure, as well as regional blood flow, increased significantly in portal hypertension and can be blocked by tin protoporphyrin IX. The expression of endogenous nitric oxide synthase and vascular endothelial growth factors increased significantly compared to normal rats, while HO-1 inhibition decreased the expression of these proteins significantly. The contractile response of mesenteric arteries decreased in portal hypertension, but can be partially recovered through tin protoporphyrin IX treatment. The expression of Nrf2/HO-1 increased in mesenteric arteries of portal hypertensive rats, which was related to oxidative stress. HO-1was involved in increased portal pressure and anomaly splanchnic hemodynamics in portal hypertensive rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Hemodynamics in Korean Hemorrhagic Fever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Ji Young; Lee, Jung Sang; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho

    1974-01-01

    The author in an attempt to evaluate hemodynamic changes in the clinical stages of Korean hemorrhagic fever measured plasma volume, cardiac output and effective renal plasma flow utilizing radioisoto as during various phases of the disease. Cardiac output was measured by radiocardiography with external monitoring method using RIHSA. Effective renal plasma flow was obtained from blood clearance curve drawn by external monitoring after radiohippuran injection according to the method described by Razzak et al. The study was carried out in thirty-eight cases of Korean hemorrhagic fever and the following conclusions were obtained. 1) Plasma volume was increased in the patients during the oliguric and hypertensive-diuretic phases, while it was normal in the patients during the normotensive-diuretic phase. 2) Cardiac index was increased in the patients during the oliguric phase and was slightly increased in the patients at the hypertensive diuretic phase. It was normal in the other phases. 3) Total peripheral resistance was increased in the hypertensive patients during diuretic phase, while it was normal in the rest of phases. 4) Effective renal plasma flow was significantly reduced in the patients during the oliguric and diuretic phases as well as at one month after the oliguric onset. There was no significant difference between the oliguric and the early diuretic phases. Renal plasma flow in the group of patients at one month after the oliguric onset was about 45% of the normal, however, it returned to normal level at six months after the onset. 5) Clinical syndrome of relative hypervolemia was observed in some patients during the oliguric phase or hypertensive diuretic phase. Characteristic hemodynamic findings were high cardiac output and normal to relatively increased peripheral resistance these cases. Relatively increased circulating blood volumes due to decreased effective vascular space was suggested for the mechanism of relative hypervolemia. 6) Cardiac

  16. Effects of L-glutamine supplementation on maternal and fetal hemodynamics in gestating ewes exposed to alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Onkar B; Ramadoss, Jayanth; Hankins, Gary D; Wu, Guoyao; Washburn, Shannon E

    2014-08-01

    Not much is known about effects of gestational alcohol exposure on maternal and fetal cardiovascular adaptations. This study determined whether maternal binge alcohol exposure and L-glutamine supplementation could affect maternal-fetal hemodynamics and fetal regional brain blood flow during the brain growth spurt period. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to one of four groups: saline control, alcohol (1.75-2.5 g/kg body weight), glutamine (100 mg/kg body weight) or alcohol + glutamine. A chronic weekend binge drinking paradigm between gestational days (GD) 99 and 115 was utilized. Fetuses were surgically instrumented on GD 117 ± 1 and studied on GD 120 ± 1. Binge alcohol exposure caused maternal acidemia, hypercapnea, and hypoxemia. Fetuses were acidemic and hypercapnic, but not hypoxemic. Alcohol exposure increased fetal mean arterial pressure, whereas fetal heart rate was unaltered. Alcohol exposure resulted in ~40 % reduction in maternal uterine artery blood flow. Labeled microsphere analyses showed that alcohol induced >2-fold increases in fetal whole brain blood flow. The elevation in fetal brain blood flow was region-specific, particularly affecting the developing cerebellum, brain stem, and olfactory bulb. Maternal L-glutamine supplementation attenuated alcohol-induced maternal hypercapnea, fetal acidemia and increases in fetal brain blood flow. L-Glutamine supplementation did not affect uterine blood flow. Collectively, alcohol exposure alters maternal and fetal acid-base balance, decreases uterine blood flow, and alters fetal regional brain blood flow. Importantly, L-glutamine supplementation mitigates alcohol-induced acid-base imbalances and alterations in fetal regional brain blood flow. Further studies are warranted to elucidate mechanisms responsible for alcohol-induced programming of maternal uterine artery and fetal circulation adaptations in pregnancy.

  17. Effects of body position on the carbon monoxide diffusing capacity in patients with chronic heart failure: relation to hemodynamic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggiano, P; D'Aloia, A; Simoni, P; Gualeni, A; Foglio, K; Ambrosino, N; Giordano, A

    1998-01-01

    Pulmonary diffusion has been found to be reduced in patients with congestive heart failure. The effects of postural changes on the diffusing capacity had been evaluated in healthy subjects, but not in patients with heart failure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the posture-induced changes in diffusing capacity in patients with chronic heart failure and their relation to the hemodynamic profile. The pulmonary carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO) was measured in the supine position, with 20 degrees passive head elevation, and in the sitting position, both postures maintained for 10 min, in a group of 32 male patients with mild to moderate chronic heart failure due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction differ in the two positions (20.3 +/- 5.7 vs. 19.4 +/- 5.6 ml/min/mm Hg, 77 +/- 23 vs. 75 +/- 20% of predicted, respectively). The patients were then subdivided according to changes in DLCO from the supine to the sitting position: DLCO increased (+23%) in 9 patients (28%, group 1), decreased (-17.5%) in 17 patients (53%, group 2), and remained within the coefficient of reproducibility ( +/- 5 %) in 6 patients (group 3). As compared with group 2, group 1 patients showed a significant increase in mean pulmonary artery pressure (+7 vs. -15%, p pressure (+8 vs. -22%, p position, while the cardiac index showed a smaller - but not significant - decrease in group 1 (-5 vs. -12%). The percent changes in DLCO significantly correlated with changes in pulmonary capillary wedge (r = 0.54, p pressures. In chronic heart failure postural changes may induce different responses in diffusing capacity. To a greater extent than in healthy subjects, the most common response is a decrease in DLCO in the sitting as compared with the supine position. The DLCO changes correlate with variations in pulmonary circulation pressure, probably due to changes in pulmonary vascular recruitment and pulmonary capillary blood volume.

  18. Beneficial effects of recreational football on the cardiovascular risk profile in untrained premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Hansen, P. R.; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the cardiovascular health effects of 16 weeks of recreational football training in untrained premenopausal women in comparison with continuous running training. Fifty healthy women were matched and randomized to a football (FG, n=25) or a running (RG, n=25) group......, regular recreational football training has significant favorable effects on the cardiovascular risk profile in untrained premenopausal women and is at the least as efficient as continuous running....

  19. Cardiac hemodynamics in PCI : effects of ischemia, reperfusion and mechanical support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remmelink, M.

    2009-01-01

    The combined pressure-conductance catheter provides the opportunity to continuously assess systolic and diastolic LV function from pressure-volume loops in the catheterization laboratory, enabling accurate assessment of the timing and magnitude of the LV dynamic effects of therapeutic interventions.

  20. Randomized trial of BCG vaccination at birth to low-birth-weight children: beneficial nonspecific effects in the neonatal period?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaby, Peter; Roth, Adam; Ravn, Henrik; Napirna, Bitiguida Mutna; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Lisse, Ida Maria; Stensballe, Lone; Diness, Birgitte Rode; Lausch, Karen Rokkedal; Lund, Najaaraq; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Whittle, Hilton; Benn, Christine Stabell

    2011-07-15

    Observational studies have suggested that BCG may have nonspecific beneficial effects on survival. Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are not given BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau; we conducted a randomized trial of BCG at birth (early BCG) vs delayed BCG. In the period 2004-2008 we recruited 2320 LBW children in Bissau. The children were visited at home at 2, 6, and 12 months of age. With a pretrial infant mortality of 250 per 1000, we hypothesized a 25% reduction in infant mortality for LBW children. Infant mortality was only 101 per 1000 during the trial. In the primary analysis, infant mortality was reduced insignificantly by 17% (mortality rate ratio [MRR] = .83 [.63-1.08]). In secondary analyses, early BCG vaccine was safe with an MRR of .49 (.21-1.15) after 3 days and .55 (.34-.89) after 4 weeks. The reduction in neonatal mortality was mainly due to fewer cases of neonatal sepsis, respiratory infection, and fever. The impact of early BCG on infant mortality was marked for children weighing <1.5 kg (MRR = .43 [.21-.85]) who had lower coverage for diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccinations. Though early BCG did not reduce infant mortality significantly, it may have a beneficial effect in the neonatal period. This could be important for public health because BCG is often delayed in low-income countries.

  1. Low doses of nanodiamonds and silica nanoparticles have beneficial hormetic effects in normal human skin fibroblasts in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mytych, Jennifer; Wnuk, Maciej; Rattan, Suresh I S

    2016-04-01

    Nanodiamonds (ND) and silica nanoparticles (SiO2-NP) have been much investigated for their toxicity at high doses, little is known about their biological activity at low concentrations. Here we report the biphasic dose response of ND and SiO2-NP in modulating normal human facial skin fibroblasts (FSF1) in culture. ND and SiO2-NP at low concentration (up to 0.5 μg/ml) had beneficial effects on FSF1 in terms of increasing their proliferation and metabolic activity. Exposure of FSF1 cells to low levels of NP enhanced their wound healing ability in vitro and slowed down aging during serial passaging as measured by maintenance of youthful morphology, reduction in the rate of loss of telomeres, and the over all proliferative characteristics. Furthermore, NP treatment induced the activation of Nrf2- and FOXO3A-mediated cellular stress responses, including an increased expression of heme oxygenease (HO-1), sirtuin (SIRT1), and DNA methyltransferase II (DNMT2). These results imply that ND and SiO2-NP at low doses are potential hormetins, which exert mild stress-induced beneficial hormetic effects through improved survival, longevity, maintenance, repair and function of human cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The effects of religion and spirituality on postoperative pain, hemodynamic functioning and anxiety after cesarean section.

    OpenAIRE

    Siavash Beiranvand; Morteza Noparast; Nasrin Eslamizade; Saeed Saeedikia

    2014-01-01

    Spiritual elements play an important role in the recovery process from acute postoperative pain. This study was conducted to assess the effect of pray meditation on postoperative pain reduction and physiologic responds among muslim patients who underwent cesarean surgery under spinal anesthesia. This double-blinded randomized clinical trial study was conducted among muslim patients who underwent cesarean surgery under spinal anesthesia during 2011-2013 at tertiary regional and teaching hospit...

  3. The effects of dexmedetomidine on hemodynamic responses to tracheal ntubation in hypertensive patients: A comparison with esmolol and sufentanyl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hale Yarkan Uysal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertension and tachycardia caused by tracheal intubation can be detrimental in hypertensive patients. This study was conducted in order to compare the effects of dexmedetomidine on hemodynamic response to tracheal intubation in hypertensive patients with esmolol and sufentanyl. Methods: Sixty hypertensive patients scheduled for noncardiac surgery under general anesthesia were randomly as-signed to receive one of the three drugs before induction of anesthesia. Groups I, II, and III respectively received esmo-lol (100 mg dexmedetomidine (1 μg/kg and sufentanyl (0.25 μg/kg. Heart Rate (HR, systolic (SAP and diastolic (DAP arterial pressures were recorded before drug administration (baseline; T1, after drug administration (T2, after induction of anesthesia (T3, immediately after intubation (T4 and 3, 5 and 10 minutes after intubation (T5, T6, and T7, respectively. The mean percentage variations from T1 to T4 were calculated for all variables (HR, SAP and DAP. Thiopental dose, onset time of vecuronium and intubation time were also assessed. Results: No differences were observed between the three groups regarding demographic data (p > 0.05. Median thi-opental dose was significantly lower in Group II (325 mg; range: 250-500 compared to Group I (425 mg; range: 325-500; p < 0.01 and Group III (375 mg; range: 275-500; p = 0.02. The onset time of vecuronium was longest in Group I (245.2 ± 63 s vs. 193.9 ± 46.6 s and 205.5 ± 43.5 s; p < 0.01 and p < 0.05. In Group I, HR significantly decreased after drug administration compared to baseline (83.8 ± 20.4 vs. 71.7 ± 14.8; p = 0.002. Compared to the baseline (90.4 ± 8.4, DAP decreased after induction and remained below baseline values at T5, T6 and T7 (71.3 ± 12.8, 76.2 ± 10.7, 68.9 ± 10.8 and 62.1 ± 8.7, respectively; p < 0.05 in Group II. According to the mean percen-tage variation, a significant reduction in HR was assessed in Group II compared to Group III (-13.4 ± 17.6% vs. 11

  4. Environmental enrichment in the absence of wheel running produces beneficial behavioural and anti-oxidative effects in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mármol, F; Sánchez, J; Torres, M N; Chamizo, V D

    2017-11-01

    The effects of early environmental enrichment (EE) when solving a simple spatial task in adult male rats were assessed. After weaning, rats were housed in pairs in enriched or standard cages (EE and control groups) for two and a half months. Then the rats were trained in a triangular-shaped pool to find a hidden platform whose location was defined in terms of two sources of information, a landmark outside the pool and a particular corner of the pool. As expected, enriched rats reached the platform faster than control animals. Enriched rats also performed better on a subsequent test trial without the platform with the geometry cue individually presented (in the absence of the landmark). Most importantly, the beneficial effects of the present protocol were obtained in the absence of wheel running. Additionally, the antioxidative effects in the hippocampus produced by the previous protocol are also shown. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Beneficial effects of GH/IGF-1 on skeletal muscle atrophy and function in experimental heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Libera, Luciano; Ravara, Barbara; Volterrani, Maurizio; Gobbo, Valerio; Della Barbera, Mila; Angelini, Annalisa; Danieli Betto, Daniela; Germinario, Elena; Vescovo, Giorgio

    2004-01-01

    Muscle atrophy is a determinant of exercise capacity in heart failure (CHF). Myocyte apoptosis, triggered by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) or its second messenger sphingosine (SPH), is one of the causes of atrophy. Growth hormone (GH) improves hemodynamic and cardiac trophism in several experimental models of CHF, but its effect on skeletal muscle in CHF is not yet clear. We tested the hypothesis that GH can prevent skeletal muscle apoptosis in rats with CHF. CHF was induced by injecting monocrotaline. After 2 wk, 2 groups of rats were treated with GH (0.2 mg.kg(-1).day(-1) and 1.0 mg.kg(-1).day(-1)) subcutaneously. A third group of controls had saline. After 2 additional weeks, rats were killed. Tibialis anterior cross-sectional area, myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition, and a study on myocyte apoptosis and serum levels of TNF-alpha and SPH were carried out. The number of apoptotic nuclei, muscle atrophy, and serum levels of TNF-alpha and SPH were decreased with GH at high but not at low doses compared with CHF rats. Bcl-2 was increased, whereas activated caspases and bax were decreased. The MHC pattern in GH-treated animals was similar to that of controls. Monocrotaline slowed down both contraction and relaxation but did not affect specific tetanic force, whereas absolute force was decreased. GH treatment restored contraction and relaxation to control values and brought muscle mass and absolute twitch and tetanic tension to normal levels. These findings may provide an insight into the therapeutic strategy of GH given to patients with CHF to improve exercise capacity.

  6. OZONE AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARD HAS BENEFICIAL EFFECT ON PONDEROSA PINE IN CALIFORNIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambient air quality standards and control strategies are implemented to protect humans and vegetation from adverse effects. However, to date there has not been a simple and objective method to determine if the standards and resultant control strategies have reduced O3 impacts on ...

  7. The beneficial effect of combined administration of vitamins C and E ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Valued eMachines Customer

    2013-10-23

    Oct 23, 2013 ... diabetic rats and to evaluate the effect of combined treatment of vitamin E and ... ability of the pancreas to respond to glucose, eventually ... abnormal zinc metabolism could play a role in the .... albumin, creatinine, urea and uric acid assays. ..... excretion of nitrogenous compounds and liver amino acid-.

  8. Simulations with Elaborated Worked Example Modeling: Beneficial Effects on Schema Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Debra K.; Reinhard, Karl J.; Carter, David O.; Brooks, David W.

    2008-01-01

    Worked examples have been effective in enhancing learning outcomes, especially with novice learners. Most of this research has been conducted in laboratory settings. This study examined the impact of embedding elaborated worked example modeling in a computer simulation practice activity on learning achievement among 39 undergraduate students…

  9. The beneficial effect of combined administration of vitamins C and E ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to examine the progression of kidney damage induced by zinc deficiency in diabetic rats and to evaluate the effect of combined treatment of vitamin E and vitamin C in renal injury by providing protection against deleterious action of zinc deficiency. Female diabetic albino Wistar rats were randomly ...

  10. Beneficial Effects of Isoproterenol and Quinidine in the Treatment of Ventricular Fibrillation in Brugada Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Dakkak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of an implantable cardiac defibrillator has been advocated as the only effective treatment for the management of ventricular fibrillation (VF in patients with Brugada Syndrome (BrS. However, this device is only useful for terminating VF. Intermittent and/or recalcitrant VF for which lifesaving cardioversion occurs is a problematic situation in this patient population. The immediate use of appropriate antiarrhythmics in the acute setting has proven to be lifesaving. Quinidine has been well established as an effective antiarrhythmic in BrS, while isoproterenol (ISP has had some recognition as well. The addition of drug therapy to prevent the induction of these arrhythmias has been shown to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with BrS. It was proven to be especially effective in the presence of early repolarization, evidenced by the reduction or normalization of the early repolarization pattern on ECG. Thus, for the prophylactic management and long term suppression of VF in BrS, further prospective studies should be performed to determine the effectiveness of quinidine and ISP in this patient population.

  11. Regional Disparities in the Beneficial Effects of Rising CO2 Emissions on Crop Water Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Folberth, Christian; Meuller, Christoph; Pugh, Thomas A. M.; Boote, Kenneth J.; Conway, Declan; Ruane, Alex C.; Gerten, Dieter; Jones, James W.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are expected to enhance photosynthesis and reduce crop water use. However, there is high uncertainty about the global implications of these effects for future crop production and agricultural water requirements under climate change. Here we combine results from networks of field experiments and global crop models to present a spatially explicit global perspective on crop water productivity (CWP, the ratio of crop yield to evapotranspiration) for wheat, maize, rice and soybean under elevated carbon dioxide and associated climate change projected for a high-end greenhouse gas emissions scenario. We find carbon dioxide effects increase global CWP by 10[0;47]%-27[7;37]% (median[interquartile range] across the model ensemble) by the 2080s depending on crop types, with particularly large increases in arid regions (by up to 48[25;56]% for rain fed wheat). If realized in the fields, the effects of elevated carbon dioxide could considerably mitigate global yield losses whilst reducing agricultural consumptive water use (4-17%). We identify regional disparities driven by differences in growing conditions across agro-ecosystems that could have implications for increasing food production without compromising water security. Finally, our results demonstrate the need to expand field experiments and encourage greater consistency in modeling the effects of rising carbon dioxide across crop and hydrological modeling communities.

  12. Beneficial Effects of Bioactive Compounds in Mulberry Fruits against Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahae Lee

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mulberry, the fruit of white mulberry tree (Morus alba L., Moraceae, is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicines as a sedative, tonic, laxative, and emetic. In our continuing research of the bioactive metabolites from mulberry, chemical analysis of the fruits led to the isolation of five compounds, 1–5. The compounds were identified as butyl pyroglutamate (1, quercetin 3-O-β-d-glucoside (2, kaempferol 3-O-β-d-rutinoside (3, rutin (4, and 2-phenylethyl d-rutinoside (5 by spectroscopic data analysis, comparing their nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR data with those in published literature, and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis. The isolated compounds 1–5 were evaluated for their effects on anticancer drug-induced side effects by cell-based assays. Compound 1 exerted the highest protective effect against cisplatin-induced kidney cell damage. This effect was found to be mediated through the attenuation of phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and caspase-3 in cisplatin-induced kidney cell damage.

  13. Beneficial effects of CO2 enrichment to field-grown soybeans under ozone stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.H.; Mulchi, C.L.

    1991-01-01

    Damage from gaseous air pollution [e.g. ozone (O 3 ) and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 )] on crops in the US has been estimated to exceed several billion dollars annually. Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentrations have increased from about 290 ppm in the late 1800's to current levels of 350 ppm. The combined effects of increased CO 2 and O 3 stress have not been studied under field conditions. The present study was conducted to determine the interactive effects of CO 2 enrichment and O 3 stress on the growth and physiology of 'Clark' soybean, testing the hypothesis that elevated CO 2 will ameliorate the effects of O 3 stress. Experiments with soybeans in open-top field chambers showed that increasing CO 2 levels to 400 parts per million (ppm) negated current ambient ozone harmful effects on soybean yields. When ambient O 3 levels were doubled, it was necessary to increase the atmospheric CO 2 concentration to 500 ppm to negate O 3 damage. Rising CO 2 counteracts O 3 pollution. Reduced stomatal conductance and decreased photosynthesis appear to reverse the CO 2 stimulation

  14. The "War on drugs" in Nigeria: How effective and beneficial is it in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since drugs became both a public and social issue in Nigeria, fear about both the real ... research literature, published documents and media reports on drug policy matters. ... The shift will provide far more cost-effective drug control results and ...

  15. Effects of Ischemic Postconditioning on the Hemodynamic Parameters and Heart Nitric Oxide Levels of Hypothyroid Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeddi, Sajad; Zaman, Jalal; Ghasemi, Asghar

    2015-01-01

    Ischemic postconditioning (IPost) is a method of protecting the heart against ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. However, the effectiveness of IPost in cases of ischemic heart disease accompanied by co-morbidities such as hypothyroidism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of IPost on myocardial IR injury in hypothyroid male rats. Propylthiouracil in drinking water (500 mg/L) was administered to male rats for 21 days to induce hypothyroidism. The hearts from control and hypothyroid rats were perfused in a Langendorff apparatus and exposed to 30 min of global ischemia, followed by 120 min of reperfusion. IPost was induced immediately following ischemia. Hypothyroidism and IPost significantly improved the left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and peak rates of positive and negative changes in left ventricular pressure (±dp/dt) during reperfusion in control rats (p < 0.05). However, IPost had no add-on effect on the recovery of LVDP and ±dp/dt in hypothyroid rats. Furthermore, hypothyroidism significantly decreased the basal NO metabolite (NO x ) levels of the serum (72.5 ± 4.2 vs. 102.8 ± 3.7 μmol/L; p < 0.05) and heart (7.9 ± 1.6 vs. 18.8 ± 3.2 μmol/L; p < 0.05). Heart NO x concentration in the hypothyroid groups did not change after IR and IPost, whereas these were significantly (p < 0.05) higher and lower after IR and IPost, respectively, in the control groups. Hypothyroidism protects the heart from IR injury, which may be due to a decrease in basal nitric oxide (NO) levels in the serum and heart and a decrease in NO after IR. IPost did not decrease the NO level and did not provide further cardioprotection in the hypothyroid group

  16. The hemodynamic effects of prolonged respiratory alkalosis in anesthetized newborn piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jundi, K; Barrington, K J; Henderson, C; Allen, R G; Finer, N N

    2000-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that prolonged alkalosis decreases cardiac output and, furthermore, exacerbates hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, as respiratory alkalosis is frequently induced as a therapy for persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn despite a lack of controlled evidence of improved outcomes. Potential adverse effects of prolonged alkalosis have been demonstrated. Two groups (control, n = 6, and hypocapnic alkalosis, n = 6) of 1-3 day old fentanyl-anesthetized, vecuronium-paralyzed piglets were instrumented to measure cardiac index (CI) and mean systemic (MAP) and pulmonary (PAP) arterial pressures. Baseline values were recorded. Alveolar hypoxia was then induced to achieve an arterial oxygen saturation of between 50 and 60% for 15 min. Respiratory alkalosis was then induced, by increasing ventilation to achieve a pH between 7.55-7.60, and was continued for 240 min. Inspired carbon dioxide was used with hyperventilation in the control group to maintain pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) at 35-45 mmHg and pH of 7.35-7.45. Hypoxia was induced again at 15 and 240 min. Pulmonary and systemic vascular resistances (PVR and SVR) were calculated. Prolonged alkalosis led to a significant and progressive fall in mean MAP from 61 (SD 7) mmHg at the start of the study falling to 50 (SD 6.9, p = 0.043), with no effect on CI. Calculated SVR decreased (0.45 SD 0.03 vs 0.36 SD 0.05). There were no statistically significant changes in any of the variables in the control group. Neither acute nor prolonged respiratory alkalosis had a significant effect on hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. Prolonged hyperventilation leads to systemic hypotension, however it does not exacerbate hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction.

  17. Effects of Ischemic Postconditioning on the Hemodynamic Parameters and Heart Nitric Oxide Levels of Hypothyroid Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeddi, Sajad; Zaman, Jalal; Ghasemi, Asghar, E-mail: ghasemi@endocrine.ac.ir [Endocrine Physiology Research Center - Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences - Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Endocrine Research Center - Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences - Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Ischemic postconditioning (IPost) is a method of protecting the heart against ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. However, the effectiveness of IPost in cases of ischemic heart disease accompanied by co-morbidities such as hypothyroidism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of IPost on myocardial IR injury in hypothyroid male rats. Propylthiouracil in drinking water (500 mg/L) was administered to male rats for 21 days to induce hypothyroidism. The hearts from control and hypothyroid rats were perfused in a Langendorff apparatus and exposed to 30 min of global ischemia, followed by 120 min of reperfusion. IPost was induced immediately following ischemia. Hypothyroidism and IPost significantly improved the left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and peak rates of positive and negative changes in left ventricular pressure (±dp/dt) during reperfusion in control rats (p < 0.05). However, IPost had no add-on effect on the recovery of LVDP and ±dp/dt in hypothyroid rats. Furthermore, hypothyroidism significantly decreased the basal NO metabolite (NO{sub x}) levels of the serum (72.5 ± 4.2 vs. 102.8 ± 3.7 μmol/L; p < 0.05) and heart (7.9 ± 1.6 vs. 18.8 ± 3.2 μmol/L; p < 0.05). Heart NO{sub x} concentration in the hypothyroid groups did not change after IR and IPost, whereas these were significantly (p < 0.05) higher and lower after IR and IPost, respectively, in the control groups. Hypothyroidism protects the heart from IR injury, which may be due to a decrease in basal nitric oxide (NO) levels in the serum and heart and a decrease in NO after IR. IPost did not decrease the NO level and did not provide further cardioprotection in the hypothyroid group.

  18. Beneficial effect of prolonged heme oxygenase 1 activation in a rat model of chronic heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Collino

    2013-07-01

    We and others have previously demonstrated that heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1 induction by acute hemin administration exerts cardioprotective effects. Here, we developed a rat model of heart failure to investigate whether a long-term induction of HO-1 by chronic hemin administration exerted protective effects. Sprague Dawley rats that underwent permanent ligation of the left coronary artery were closely monitored for survival rate analysis and sacrificed on day 28 post-operation. Administration of hemin (4 mg/kg body weight every other day for 4 weeks induced a massive increase in HO-1 expression and activity, as shown by the increased levels of the two main metabolic products of heme degradation, bilirubin and carbon monoxide (CO. These effects were associated with significant improvement in survival and reduced the extension of myocardial damage. The ischemic hearts of the hemin-treated animals displayed reduced oxidative stress and apoptosis in comparison with the non-treated rats, as shown by the decreased levels of lipid peroxidation, free-radical-induced DNA damage, caspase-3 activity and Bax expression. Besides, chronic HO-1 activation suppressed the elevated levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO activity, interleukin 1β (IL-1β production and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα production that were evoked by the ischemic injury, and increased the plasma level of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Interestingly, HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP-IX; 1 mg/kg lowered bilirubin and CO concentrations to control values, thus abolishing all the cardioprotective effects of hemin. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that chronic HO-1 activation by prolonged administration of hemin improves survival and exerts protective effects in a rat model of myocardial ischemia by exerting a potent antioxidant activity and disrupting multiple levels of the apoptotic and inflammatory cascade.

  19. Beneficial effect of prolonged heme oxygenase 1 activation in a rat model of chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collino, Massimo; Pini, Alessandro; Mugelli, Niccolò; Mastroianni, Rosanna; Bani, Daniele; Fantozzi, Roberto; Papucci, Laura; Fazi, Marilena; Masini, Emanuela

    2013-07-01

    We and others have previously demonstrated that heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) induction by acute hemin administration exerts cardioprotective effects. Here, we developed a rat model of heart failure to investigate whether a long-term induction of HO-1 by chronic hemin administration exerted protective effects. Sprague Dawley rats that underwent permanent ligation of the left coronary artery were closely monitored for survival rate analysis and sacrificed on day 28 post-operation. Administration of hemin (4 mg/kg body weight) every other day for 4 weeks induced a massive increase in HO-1 expression and activity, as shown by the increased levels of the two main metabolic products of heme degradation, bilirubin and carbon monoxide (CO). These effects were associated with significant improvement in survival and reduced the extension of myocardial damage. The ischemic hearts of the hemin-treated animals displayed reduced oxidative stress and apoptosis in comparison with the non-treated rats, as shown by the decreased levels of lipid peroxidation, free-radical-induced DNA damage, caspase-3 activity and Bax expression. Besides, chronic HO-1 activation suppressed the elevated levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, interleukin 1β (IL-1β) production and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) production that were evoked by the ischemic injury, and increased the plasma level of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Interestingly, HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP-IX; 1 mg/kg) lowered bilirubin and CO concentrations to control values, thus abolishing all the cardioprotective effects of hemin. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that chronic HO-1 activation by prolonged administration of hemin improves survival and exerts protective effects in a rat model of myocardial ischemia by exerting a potent antioxidant activity and disrupting multiple levels of the apoptotic and inflammatory cascade.

  20. Effect of stress on variability of systemic hemodynamics in rats of various genetic strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkina, L M; Tarasova, O S; Kirillina, T N; Borovik, A S; Popkova, E V

    2003-09-01

    Power spectral density of heart rate fluctuations in the range of 0.02-5.00 Hz in August rats was lower than in Wistar rats. Changes in mean blood pressure and heart rate during stress (15-min immobilization) were similar in animals of both strains. As differentiated from Wistar rats, power spectral density of fluctuations in August rats considerably decreased after stress. August rats were characterized by low spectral power at rest and high resistance to the arrhythmogenic effect of 10-min acute myocardial ischemia.

  1. Treatment of acquired arteriovenous fistula with severe hemodynamic effects: therapeutic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Ferreira Pilan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A 34-year-old female patient with severe heart failure and pulmonary hypertension was diagnosed late with a high-output acquired arteriovenous fistula between the right common iliac vein and artery. The most probable cause was an iatrogenic vascular injury inflicted during a prior laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Treatment was conducted by placement of an endoprosthesis in the common iliac artery, achieving total exclusion of the fistula and complete remission of symptoms. Considering the options available for treating this type of lesion, endovascular techniques are becoming ever more effective and are now the option of first-choice for management of this pathology.

  2. A Comparison of the Effects of Intraosseous and Intravenous 5% Albumin on Infusion Time and Hemodynamic Measures in a Swine Model of Hemorrhagic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Stacy L; Sheppard, Lance B; Maika-Wilson, Anne; Burgert, James M; Garcia-Blanco, Jose; Johnson, Arthur D; Coyner, Jennifer L

    2016-08-01

    Introduction Obtaining intravenous (IV) access in patients in hemorrhagic shock is often difficult and prolonged. Failed IV attempts delay life-saving treatment. Intraosseous (IO) access may often be obtained faster than IV access. Albumin (5%) is an option for prehospital volume expansion because of the absence of interference with coagulation and platelet function. Hypothesis/Problem There are limited data comparing the performance of IO and IV administered 5% albumin. The aims of this study were to compare the effects of tibial IO (TIO) and IV administration of 500 mL of 5% albumin on infusion time and hemodynamic measurements of heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output (CO), and stroke volume (SV) in a swine model of hemorrhagic shock. Sixteen male swine were divided into two groups: TIO and IV. All subjects were anesthetized and a Class III hemorrhage was achieved by exsanguination of 31% of estimated blood volume (EBV) from a femoral artery catheter. Following exsanguination, 500 mL of 5% albumin was administered under pressurized infusion (300 mmHg) by the TIO or IV route and infusion time was recorded. Hemodynamic measurements of HR, MAP, CO, and SV were collected before and after exsanguination and every 20 seconds for 180 seconds during 5% albumin infusion. An independent t-test determined that IV 5% albumin infusion was significantly faster compared to IO (P=.01). Mean infusion time for TIO was seven minutes 35 seconds (SD=two minutes 44 seconds) compared to four minutes 32 seconds (SD=one minute 08 seconds) in the IV group. Multivariate Analysis of Variance was performed on hemodynamic data collected during the 5% albumin infusion. Analyses indicated there were no significant differences between the TIO and IV groups relative to MAP, CO, HR, or SV (P>.05). While significantly longer to infuse 5% albumin by the TIO route, the longer TIO infusion time may be negated as IO devices can be placed more quickly compared to repeated IV

  3. Hemodynamic effects of metoprolol and nifedipine in angina pectoris measured by isotope technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostroem, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    In order to evaluate the therapeutic effects of metoprolol, nifedipine, and their combination, 11 patients with secondary angina pectoris and with thallium tomographic findings indicating coronary artery disease were studied before and after these three treatment regimes in a single-blind cross-over study. The therapeutic effect was measured by standardized working test and isotope angiocardiography, which enabled evaluation of left ventricular ejection fraction, stroke volume, and phase analysis of left ventricular contraction. Treatment with metoprolol and combination therapy increased work performance. Ejection fraction did not differentiate the treatment regimes, whereas stroke volume was significantly lower at work and heart rate higher at rest and at work during nifedipine treatment compared to either metoprolol or combination treatment (p less than 0.05). Cardiac output was significantly reduced during nifedipine and metoprolol treatment during work (p less than 0.05). Phase improved after all therapeutic regimes, but reached significance only during the metoprolol treatment period at rest (p less than 0.05).

  4. Perioperative music and its effects on anxiety, hemodynamics, and pain in women undergoing mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns-Turner, Pamela G; Wilson, Lynda Law; Pryor, Erica R; Boyd, Gwendolyn L; Prickett, Carol A

    2011-08-01

    There is increasing interest in evaluating the use of nonpharmacologic interventions such as music to minimize potential adverse effects of anxiety-reducing medications. This study used a quasi-experimental design to evaluate the effects of a perioperative music intervention (provided continuously throughout the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative periods) on changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate, anxiety, and pain in women with a diagnosis of breast cancer undergoing mastectomy. A total of 30 women were assigned randomly to a control group or to the music intervention group. Findings indicated that women in the intervention group had a greater decrease in MAP and anxiety with less pain from the preoperative period to the time of discharge from the recovery room compared with women in the control group. Music is a noninvasive and low-cost intervention that can be easily implemented in the perioperative setting, and these findings suggest that perioperative music can reduce MAP, anxiety, and pain among women undergoing mastectomy for breast cancer.

  5. Cardiovascular Mitochondrial Dysfunction Induced by Cocaine: Biomarkers and Possible Beneficial Effects of Modulators of Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Graziani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine abuse has long been known to cause morbidity and mortality due to its cardiovascular toxic effects. The pathogenesis of the cardiovascular toxicity of cocaine use has been largely reviewed, and the most recent data indicate a fundamental role of oxidative stress in cocaine-induced cardiovascular toxicity, indicating that mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in the mechanisms of oxidative stress. The comprehension of the mechanisms involving mitochondrial dysfunction could help in selecting the most appropriate mitochondria injury biological marker, such as superoxide dismutase-2 activity and glutathionylated hemoglobin. The potential use of modulators of oxidative stress (mitoubiquinone, the short-chain quinone idebenone, and allopurinol in the treatment of cocaine cardiotoxic effects is also suggested to promote further investigations on these potential mitochondria-targeted antioxidant strategies.

  6. Beneficial effects of intermittent suction and pressure treatment in intermittent claudication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, J; Himmelstrup, H; Himmelstrup, Bodil

    1993-01-01

    administration. The treatment caused significant increments in the ADP thresholds for platelet aggregation, while the effects on fibrinolysis were uncertain. It is concluded that intermittent suction and pressure treatment offers a new approach for conservative treatment of intermittent claudication....... participated in an open trial investigating the possible effects of the treatment on platelet aggregation and fibrinolysis. Pain-free and maximal walking distances were measured on a treadmill, and systolic blood pressure was measured on the upper limb, the ankle, and the first toe bilaterally. The threshold...... for adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation was tested, and the fibrinolytic activity was estimated from the euglobulin clot lysis time. Active treatment resulted in significant improvements in pain-free and maximal walking distances, whereas no changes could be found during placebo...

  7. The relevance of theobromine for the beneficial effects of cocoa consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Mart?nez-Pinilla, Eva; O?atibia-Astibia, Ainhoa; Franco, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Cocoa consumption began in America and in the mid sixteenth Century it quickly spread to Europe. Beyond being considered a pleasant habit due to its rich sweet lingering taste, chocolate was considered a good nutrient and even a medicine. Traditionally, health benefits of cocoa have been related with the high content of antioxidants of Theobroma cocoa beans. However, the direct psychoactive effect due to methylxanthines in cocoa is notable. Theobromine and caffeine, in the proportions found i...

  8. Beneficial effects of co-treatment with dextromethorphan on prenatally methadone-exposed offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yao-Chang; Ye, Li-Ci; Hsu, Kuei-Ying; Liao, Chien-Wei; Hung, Tsai-Wei; Lo, Wan-Jou; Ho, Ing-Kang; Tao, Pao-Luh

    2015-03-20

    Heroin use among young women of reproductive age has drawn much attention around the world. Although methadone is widely used in maintenance therapy for heroin/morphine addiction, the long-term effects of prenatal exposure to methadone and preventative therapy remain unclear. For revealing this question, female pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were sub-grouped to receive (1) vehicle, (2) methadone 5 mg/kg at embryonic day 3 (E3) and then 7 mg/kg from E4 to E20, (3) dextromethorphan (DM) 3 mg/kg, and (4) methadone + DM (the rats received methadone followed by DM treatment), subcutaneously, twice a day from E3 to E20. The body weight, natural withdrawal, pain sensitivity, ED50, conditioned place preference and water maze were conducted at different postnatal stages (P1 to P79) of offspring. The quantitative real-time RT-PCR and electrophysiology were also used to measure the gene expression of opioid receptors in the spinal cord and changes of LTP/LTD in the hippocampus, separately. Prenatal exposure to methadone or DM did not affect survival rate, body weight, water maze and LTP or LTD of offspring. However, prenatal methadone significantly increased the withdrawal symptoms, pain sensitivity, addiction liability and decreased the mRNA expression of pain related opioid receptors. Co-administration of DM with methadone in the maternal rats effectively prevented these abnormalities of offspring induced by methadone. Our study clearly showed that co-administration of dextromethorphan with methadone in the maternal rats prevented the adverse effects induced by prenatal methadone exposure. It implies that dextromethorphan may have a potential to be used in combination with methadone for maintenance treatment in pregnant heroin-addicted women to prevent the adverse effects induced by methadone on offspring.

  9. Proteins and Carbohydrates from Red Seaweeds: Evidence for Beneficial Effects on Gut Function and Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl E. Cian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on their composition, marine algae, and namely red seaweeds, are good potential functional foods. Intestinal mucosal barrier function refers to the capacity of the intestine to provide adequate containment of luminal microorganisms and molecules. Here, we will first outline the component of seaweeds and will summarize the effects of these on the regulation of mucosal barrier function. Special attention will be paid to unique components of red seaweeds: proteins and derived peptides (e.g., phycobiliproteins, glycoproteins that contain “cellulose binding domains”, phycolectins and the related mycosporine-like amino acids together with polysaccharides (e.g., floridean starch and sulfated galactans, such as carrageenans, agarans and “dl-hybrid” and minerals. These compounds have been shown to exert prebiotic effects, to regulate intestinal epithelial cell, macrophage and lymphocyte proliferation and differentiation and to modulate the immune response. Molecular mechanisms of action of peptides and polysaccharides are starting to be elucidated, and evidence indicating the involvement of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR, Toll-like receptors (TLR and signal transduction pathways mediated by protein kinase B (PKB or AKT, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB and mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK will also be summarized. The need for further research is clear, but in vivo experiments point to an overall antiinflammatory effect of these algae, indicating that they can reinforce membrane barrier function.

  10. The relevance of theobromine for the beneficial effects of cocoa consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Pinilla, Eva; Oñatibia-Astibia, Ainhoa; Franco, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Cocoa consumption began in America and in the mid sixteenth Century it quickly spread to Europe. Beyond being considered a pleasant habit due to its rich sweet lingering taste, chocolate was considered a good nutrient and even a medicine. Traditionally, health benefits of cocoa have been related with the high content of antioxidants of Theobroma cocoa beans. However, the direct psychoactive effect due to methylxanthines in cocoa is notable. Theobromine and caffeine, in the proportions found in cocoa, are responsible for the liking of the food/beverage. These compounds influence in a positive way our moods and our state of alertness. Theobromine, which is found in higher amounts than caffeine, seems to be behind several effects attributed to cocoa intake. The main mechanisms of action are inhibition of phosphodiesterases and blockade of adenosine receptors. Further mechanisms are being explored to better understand the health benefits associated to theobromine consumption. Unlike what happens in other mammals -pets- included, theobromine is safe for humans and has fewer unwanted effects than caffeine. Therefore, theobromine deserves attention as one of the most attractive molecules in cocoa.

  11. Beneficial effects of Omalizumab therapy in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis: A synthesis review of published literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Xiong; Fan, Li-Chao; Li, Man-Hui; Cao, Wei-Jun; Xu, Jin-Fu

    2017-01-01

    Omalizumab, a humanized mAb that binds to IgE, has been an effective therapy for patients with severe allergic asthma; however, there are few clinical trials examining the efficacy of Omalizumab in patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) except some case reports. To assess the clinical and immunological effects of Omalizumab in ABPA patients, we made a synthesis review of 102 cases from 30 published literature, analyzed the effects of Omalizumab therapy in ABPA and conducted subgroup analyses to determine factors that influenced the therapy endpoints. We found that Omalizumab treatment not only provided a clinically important reduction in serum IgE, exacerbation rates and steroid requirement, but also showed attenuated asthma symptoms and improved pulmonary function parameters in patients with ABPA. Moreover, further discussion was made when interpretating the results. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials are necessary to establish the efficacy and safety of this novel therapeutic intervention for ABPA patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Beneficial Effect of Leptin on Spatial Learning and Memory in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ghasemi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease which may be accompanied by cognitive impairments. The expression of the obesity gene (ob is decreased in insulin-deficient diabetic animals and increased after the administration of insulin or leptin. Plasma leptin levels are reduced in the streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. Therefore, the deleterious effects of diabetes on memory may be due to the reduction of leptin. Aims: Investigate the effect of subcutaneous injection of leptin on spatial learning and memory in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: The rats were divided into three groups: 1- control, 2- diabetic, and 3- diabetic-leptin. Diabetes was induced in groups 2 and 3 by STZ injection (55 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p. The animals received leptin (0.1 mg/kg or saline subcutaneously (s.c for 10 days before behavioral studies. Then, they were examined in the Morris water maze over 3 blocks after 3 days of the last injection of leptin. Results: The travelled path length and time spent to reach the platform significantly increased in the diabetic group (p<0.001 and decreased with leptin treatment (p<0.01 & p<0.001 respectively; also, a significant increase in path length and time was observed between the diabetic-leptin group and the diabetic group (p<0.01, p<0.001, respectively in the probe test. Conclusion: Leptin can exert positive effects on memory impairments in diabetic rats.

  13. The relevance of theobromine for the beneficial effects of cocoa consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eMartínez-Pinilla

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa consumption began in America and in the mid 16th Century it quickly spread to Europe. Beyond being considered a pleasant habit due to its rich sweet lingering taste, chocolate was considered a good nutrient and even a medicine. Traditionally, health benefits of cocoa have been related with the high content of antioxidants of Theobroma cocoa beans. However, the direct psychoactive effect due to methylxanthines in cocoa is notable. Theobromine and caffeine in the proportions found in cocoa are responsible for the liking of the food/beverage. These compounds influence in a positive way our moods and our state of alertness. Theobromine, which is found in higher amounts than caffeine, seems to be behind several effects attributed to cocoa intake. The main mechanisms of action are inhibition of phosphodiesterases and blockade of adenosine receptors. Further mechanisms are being explored to better understand the health benefits associated to theobromine consumption. Unlike what happens in other mammals –pets included-, theobromine is safe for humans and has fewer unwanted effects than caffeine. Therefore, theobromine deserves attention as one of the most attractive molecules in cocoa.

  14. Beneficial effects of Ectothiorhodospira shaposhnikovii WF on larval cultivation of Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, C Q; Xue, M; Liang, H F; Wu, Y; Li, X

    2015-01-01

    To develop high quality probiotics for shrimp larviculture, the effects of a photosynthetic purple sulphur bacterium WF identified as Ectothiorhodospira shaposhnikovii on survival and development of Litopenaeus vannamei larvae were evaluated in vivo. The larvae exhibited a better survival rate after administration of strain WF compared to the probiotic Rhodopseudomonas palustris. To investigate the effect of dose and dosing frequency, strain WF was added to larvae, stages nauplius 6 to zoea 3, at three different doses and dosing frequencies. Larval treatment with strain WF twice at 10(6) cfu/ml exhibited significantly higher survival compared to the other doses and dosing frequencies as well as the control. The effect on water quality was assessed by applying strain WF to larvae, stages nauplius 6 to postlarvae 1, under conditions of zero water exchange and one-third water exchange. The larvae exhibited higher survival and faster growth when treated under conditions of zero water exchange. No significant difference was detected in the levels of three water quality parameters and in vibrio counts between these two conditions. Therefore, E. shaposhnikovii WF acts both as a bioremediation agent and nutrient source and can benefit shrimp larvae if given at an appropriate dose and dosing frequency. Strain WF, a moderate halophile, shows great promise as a water additive in improving water quality and providing nutrition for shrimp larviculture.

  15. Beneficial effect of bilingualism on Alzheimer's disease CSF biomarkers and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estanga, Ainara; Ecay-Torres, Mirian; Ibañez, Almudena; Izagirre, Andrea; Villanua, Jorge; Garcia-Sebastian, Maite; Iglesias Gaspar, M Teresa; Otaegui-Arrazola, Ane; Iriondo, Ane; Clerigue, Monserrat; Martinez-Lage, Pablo

    2017-02-01

    Bilingualism as a component of cognitive reserve has been claimed to delay the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, its effect on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) AD-biomarkers has not been investigated. We assessed cognitive performance and CSF AD-biomarkers, and potential moderation effect of bilingualism on the association between age, CSF AD-biomarkers, and cognition. Cognitively healthy middle-aged participants classified as monolinguals (n = 100, n CSF  = 59), early (n = 81, n CSF  = 55) and late bilinguals (n = 97, n CSF  = 52) were evaluated. Models adjusted for confounders showed that bilinguals performed better than monolinguals on digits backwards (early-bilinguals p = 0.003), Judgment of Line Orientation (JLO) (early-bilinguals p = 0.018; late-bilinguals p = 0.004), and Trail Making Test-B (late-bilinguals p = 0.047). Early bilingualism was associated with lower CSF total-tau (p = 0.019) and lower prevalence of preclinical AD (NIA-AA classification) (p = 0.02). Bilingualism showed a moderation effect on the relationship between age and CSF AD-biomarkers and the relationship between age and executive function. We conclude that bilingualism contributes to cognitive reserve enhancing executive and visual-spatial functions. For the first time, this study reveals that early bilingualism is associated with more favorable CSF AD-biomarker profile. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Beneficial effects of dietary acarbose in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katovich, M J; Meldrum, M J; Vasselli, J R

    1991-12-01

    Diabetes is characterized by hyperphagia, polydipsia, polyuria, and elevations in blood and urinary glucose. It has also been documented that beta-adrenergic responsiveness is reduced in diabetes. The intestinal glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose (BAY G 5421), decreases postprandial glycemia by delaying carbohydrate absorption. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of chronic acarbose treatment (20 and 40 mg/100 g of diet) on the metabolic and adrenergic parameters altered in streptozotocin (STZ) (50 mg/kg, intravenously [IV] )-induced diabetes. Metabolic parameters were measured daily for 8 weeks. Diabetic rats were hyperphagic, polydipsic, and polyuric within 1 week of STZ treatment. Acarbose treatment did not consistently effect the food intake but did reduce water intake, urinary output, blood glucose, and the urinary loss of glucose associated with STZ-induced diabetes. Adrenergic responses were assessed by monitoring the increase in tail skin temperature (TST) associated with administration of isoproterenol. Diabetic rats were less responsive than controls and acarbose treatment restored responses toward that of the controls. Additionally, 3H-NE release from the tail artery was elevated in the diabetic rat and restored to normal in the acarbose-treated animals. Collectively these data suggest that acarbose treatment is effective in reducing the severity of metabolic and autonomic complications associated with STZ-induced diabetes.

  17. [Effects of flunarizine and vitamin C on hemodynamics in rat heart subjected to ischemia-reperfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Y; Lan, T; Wang, Y

    1998-09-01

    Langendorff perfusion isolated rat heart was subjected to total global ischemia (coronary flow rate is equal to zero) for 10 minutes and reperfusion for 15 minutes. The heart rate (HR), left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), coronary flow rate (CFR), electrocardiogram (ECG) and the effects of calcium antagonist-flunarizine (FNZ) and/or oxygen free radical scavenger--vitamine C on the above parameters were observed. The results showed that FNZ dilated coronary vessel (P Vitamine C did not affect HR, LVP and CFR. The recovery of the product of HR and LVDP-Rate Pressure Product (RPP) in the FNZ + Vit. C group, Vit. C group and FNZ group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P C may improve the recovery of heart function after reperfusion.

  18. Exogenous L-Arginine Attenuates the Effects of Angiotensin II on Renal Hemodynamics and the Pressure Natriuresis-Diuresis Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Satarupa; Mattson, David L.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Administration of exogenous L-Arginine (L-Arg) attenuates Angiotensin II (AngII)-mediated hypertension and kidney disease in rats. The present study assessed renal hemodynamics and pressure-diuresis-natriuresis in anesthetized rats infused with vehicle, AngII (20 ng/kg/min, iv) or AngII + L-Arg (300 µg/kg/min, iv). Increasing renal perfusion pressure (RPP) from approximately 100 to 140 mmHg resulted in a 9–10 fold increase in urine flow and sodium excretion rate in control animals. In comparison, AngII infusion significantly reduced renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by 40–42% and blunted the pressure-dependent increase in urine flow and sodium excretion rate by 54–58% at elevated RPP. Supplementation of L-Arg reversed the vasoconstrictor effects of AngII and restored pressure-dependent diuresis to levels not significantly different from control rats. Experiments in isolated aortic rings were performed to assess L-Arg effects on the vasculature. Dose-dependent contraction to AngII (10−10M to 10−7M) was observed with a maximal force equal to 27±3% of the response to 10−5M phenylephrine. Contraction to 10−7M AngII was blunted by 75±3% with 10−4M L-Arg. The influence of L-Arg to blunt AngII mediated contraction was eliminated by endothelial denudation or incubation with nitric oxide synthase inhibitors. Moreover, the addition of 10−3M cationic or neutral amino acids, which compete with L-Arg for cellular uptake, blocked the effect of L-Arg. Anionic amino acids did not influence the effects of L-Arg on AngII-mediated contraction. These studies indicate that L-Arg blunts AngII-mediated vascular contraction by an endothelial- and NOS-dependent mechanism involving cellular uptake of L-Arg. PMID:24472006

  19. Beneficial Effects of Phyllanthus amarus Against High Fructose Diet Induced Insulin Resistance and Hepatic Oxidative Stress in Male Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putakala, Mallaiah; Gujjala, Sudhakara; Nukala, Srinivasulu; Desireddy, Saralakumari

    2017-11-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is a characteristic feature of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular diseases. Emerging evidence suggests that the high-fructose consumption is a potential and important factor responsible for the rising incidence of IR. The present study investigates the beneficial effects of aqueous extract of Phyllanthus amarus (PAAE) on IR and oxidative stress in high-fructose (HF) fed male Wistar rats. HF diet (66% of fructose) and PAAE (200 mg/kg body weight/day) were given concurrently to the rats for a period of 60 days. Fructose-fed rats showed weight gain, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, impaired glucose tolerance, impaired insulin sensitivity, dyslipidemia, hyperleptinemia, and hypoadiponectinemia (P diet significantly ameliorated all these alterations. Regarding hepatic antioxidant status, higher lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation, lower reduced glutathione levels and lower activities of enzymatic antioxidants, and the histopathological changes like mild to severe distortion of the normal architecture as well as the prominence and widening of the liver sinusoids observed in the HF diet-fed rats were significantly prevented by PAAE treatment. These findings indicate that PAAE is beneficial in improving insulin sensitivity and attenuating metabolic syndrome and hepatic oxidative stress in fructose-fed rats.

  20. Trivaric acid, a new inhibitor of PTP1b with potent beneficial effect on diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenlong; Zhang, Bowei; Zheng, Haizhou; Zhuang, Chunlin; Li, Xia; Lu, Xinhua; Quan, Chunshan; Dong, Yuesheng; Zheng, Zhihui; Xiu, Zhilong

    2017-01-15

    To screen a potential PTP1b inhibitor from the microbial origin-based compound library and to investigate the potential anti-diabetic effects of the inhibitor in vivo and determine its primary anti-diabetic mechanism in vitro and in silico. PTP1b inhibitory activity was measured using recombination protein as the enzyme and p-NPP as the substrate. The binding of the inhibitor to PTP1b was analysed by docking in silico and confirmed by ITC experiments. The intracellular signalling pathway was detected by Western blot analysis in HepG2 cells. The anti-diabetic effects were evaluated using a diabetic mice model in vivo. Among 545 microbial origin-based pure compounds tested, trivaric acid, a tridepside, was selected as a PTP1B inhibitor exhibiting strong inhibitory activity with an IC 50 of 173nM. Docking and ITC studies showed that trivaric acid was able to spontaneously bind to PTP1b and may inhibit PTP1b by blocking the catalytic domain of the phosphatase. Trivaric acid also enhanced the ability of insulin to stimulate the IR/IRS/Akt/GLUT2 pathway and increase the glucose consumption in HepG2 cells. In diabetic mice, trivaric acid that had been encapsulated into Eudrgit L100-5.5 showed significant anti-diabetic effects, improving insulin resistance, leptin resistance and lipid profile and weight control at doses of 5mg/kg and 50mg/kg. Trivaric acid is a potential lead compound in the search for anti-diabetic agents targeting PTP1b. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Beneficial effect of TRAIL on HIV burden, without detectable immune consequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett D Shepard

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available During uncontrolled HIV disease, both TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL and TRAIL receptor expression are increased. Enhanced TRAIL sensitivity is due to TRAIL receptor up-regulation induced by gp120. As a result of successful antiretroviral therapy TRAIL is down-regulated, and there are fewer TRAIL-sensitive cells. In this setting, we hypothesized that all cells that contain virus, including those productively- and latently-infected, have necessarily been "primed" by gp120 and remain TRAIL-sensitive, whereas uninfected cells remain relatively TRAIL-resistant.We evaluated the immunologic and antiviral effects of TRAIL in peripheral blood lymphocytes collected from HIV-infected patients with suppressed viral replication. The peripheral blood lymphocytes were treated with recombinant TRAIL or an equivalent amount of bovine serum albumin as a negative control. Treated cells were then analyzed by quantitative flow cytometry, ELISPOT for CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell function, and limiting dilution microculture for viral burden. Alterations in the cytokine milieu of treated cells were assessed with a multiplex cytokine assay. Treatment with recombinant TRAIL in vitro reduced viral burden in lymphocytes collected from HIV-infected patients with suppressed viral load. TRAIL treatment did not alter the cytokine milieu of treated cells. Moreover, treatment with recombinant TRAIL had no adverse effect on either the quantity or function of immune cells from HIV-infected patients with suppressed viral replication.TRAIL treatment may be an important adjunct to antiretroviral therapy, even in patients with suppressed viral replication, perhaps by inducing apoptosis in cells with latent HIV reservoirs. The absence of adverse effect on the quantity or function of immune cells from HIV-infected patients suggests that there is not a significant level of "bystander death" in uninfected cells.

  2. Beneficial effect of combined aspiration and interstitial laser therapy in patients with benign cystic thyroid nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, H; Bennedbaek, F N; Hegedüs, L

    2006-01-01

    nodule causing local discomfort were assigned to cyst aspiration followed by ultrasound-guided ILP and followed for 12 months. The ILP was performed under continuous ultrasound-guidance and with an output power of 2.5-3.5 W. The volume of the nodules was assessed by means of ultrasound and determination...... part. Both pressure symptoms and cosmetic complaints were significantly reduced. The only side effect was mild pain or tenderness for a few days. Our study suggests that complete cyst aspiration and subsequent ultrasound-guided ILP of benign cystic thyroid nodules is a feasible and safe technique...

  3. On possible beneficial ponderomotive force effects on fast wave coupling in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrzilka, V.

    1994-02-01

    Ponderomotive forces at fast wave launching lead in the vicinity of the launching structure in tokamaks at lower hybrid frequencies typically to a boundary plasma density increase. This results in a decrease of the reflection coefficient, and in cases of detached plasmas, to an appearance of a local electric field maximum at a distance of several centimeters from the launching grill structure; this electric field maximum is connected to the reversal of the plasma density gradient near the grill mouth because of ponderomotive force effects. (author) 3 figs., 20 refs

  4. Halo and spillover effect illustrations for selected beneficial medical devices and drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent D. Kerger

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Negative news media reports regarding potential health hazards of implanted medical devices and pharmaceuticals can lead to a ‘negative halo effect,’ a phenomenon whereby judgments about a product or product type can be unconsciously altered even though the scientific support is tenuous. To determine how a ‘negative halo effect’ may impact the rates of use and/or explantation of medical products, we analyzed the occurrence of such an effect on three implanted medical devices and one drug: 1 intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUDs; 2 silicone gel-filled breast implants (SGBI; 3 metal-on-metal hip implants (MoM; and 4 the drug Tysabri. Methods Data on IUD use from 1965 to 2008 were gathered from the Department of Health and Human Services Vital and Health Statistics and peer-reviewed publications. Data regarding SGBI implant and explantation rates from 1989 to 2012 were obtained from the Institute of Medicine and the American Society of Plastic Surgeons. MoM implant and explantation data were extracted from the England and Wales National Joint Registry and peer-reviewed publications. Tysabri patient data were reported by Elan Corporation or Biogen Idec Inc. Data trends for all products were compared with historical recall or withdrawal events and discussed in the context of public perceptions following such events. Results We found that common factors altered public risk perceptions and patterns of continued use. First, a negative halo effect may be driven by continuing patient anxiety despite positive clinical outcomes. Second, negative reports about one product can spill over to affect the use of dissimilar products in the same category. Third, a negative halo effect on an entire category of medical devices can be sustained regardless of the scientific findings pertaining to safety. Fourth, recovery of a product’s safety reputation and prevalent use may take decades in the U.S., even while these products may

  5. Beneficial effects of fucoidan in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naoki Mori; Kazunori Nakasone; Koh Tomimori; Chie Ishikawa

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the effects of fucoidan,a complex sulfated polysaccharide extract from marine seaweed,on hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA load both in vitro and in vivo.METHODS:HCV-1b replicon-expressing cells were cultured in the presence of fucoidan obtained from Cladosiphon okamuranus Tokida cultivated in Okinawa,Japan,and quantified the level of HCV replication.In an open-label uncontrolled study,15 patients with chronic hepatitis C,and HCV-related cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma were treated with fucoidan (0.83 g/d) for 12 mo.The clinical symptoms,biochemical tests,and HCV RNA levels were assessed before,during,and after treatment.RESULTS:Fucoidan dose-dependently inhibited the expression of HCV replicon.At 8-10 mo of treatment with fucoidan,HCV RNA levels were significantly lower relative to the baseline.The same treatment also tended to lower serum alanine aminotransferase levels,and the latter correlated with HCV RNA levels.However,the improved laboratory tests did not translate into significant clinical improvement.Fucoidan had no serious adverse effects.CONCLUSION:Our findings suggest that fucoidan is safe and useful in the treatment of patients with HCV-related chronic liver diseases.Further controlled clinical trials are needed to confirm the present findings.

  6. Beneficial effect of pramipexole for motor function and depression in Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamu Kano

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Osamu Kano1,2, Ken Ikeda2, Tetsuhito Kiyozuka2, Konosuke Iwamoto2, Hirono Ito2, Yuji Kawase2, Ryuta Sato2, Toshiki Fujioka2, Yo Araki2, Shigeji Baba2, Yasuo Iwasaki21Department of Neurology, Methodist Neurological Institute, Houston, TX, USA; 2Department of Neurology, Toho University Omori Medical Center, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: We examined whether pramipexole (PPX can influence depressive scale in normal and mild depressive parkinsonian patients. In an open study of PPX as an add-on to L-dopa therapy or single administration, 36 nondemented outpatients with Parkinson’s disease (PD were entered first. All were in the stage II or III of Hoehn and Yahr scale (H&Y. PPX were started at 0.125 mg/day and daily doses were increased to 1.5 mg/day. At 3 months after PPX treatment, patients were re-evaluated. Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale III, H&Y stage, and freezing of gait questionnaire were compared in patients before and after PPX treatment. These scores were significantly improved after PPX administration. There were no correlations between HAM-D and those motor functions. We suggest that PPX treatment has antidepressant effects in depressive PD patients and also ameliorates HAM-D score in nondepressive PD patients in addition to motor function.Keywords: Parkinson disease, pramipexole, motor function, depression, antidepressant effect

  7. Beneficial effects of aluminum enrichment on nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria in the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiaxing; Zhou, Linbin; Ke, Zhixin; Li, Gang; Shi, Rongjun; Tan, Yehui

    2018-04-01

    Few studies focus on the effects of aluminum (Al) on marine nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria, which play important roles in the ocean nitrogen cycling. To examine the effects of Al on the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria, bioassay experiments in the oligotrophic South China Sea (SCS) and culture of Crocosphaera watsonii in the laboratory were conducted. Field data showed that 200 nM Al stimulated the growth and the nitrogenase gene expression of Trichodesmium and unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacterium group A, and the nitrogen fixation rates of the whole community. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that Al stimulated the growth and nitrogen fixation of C. watsonii under phosphorus limited conditions. Both field and laboratory results indicated that Al could stimulate the growth of diazotrophs and nitrogen fixation in oligotrophic oceans such as the SCS, which is likely related to the utilization of phosphorus, implying that Al plays an important role in the ocean nitrogen and carbon cycles by influencing nitrogen fixation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. POTENTIAL ESTROGENIC EFFECTS OF BISPHENOL-A IN MALE RATS AND BENEFICIAL ADMINISTRATION OF SOME ANTIOXIDANTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MAZEN, G.M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Bisphenol-A is a chemical compound which is used primarily as a monomer in the manufacture of numerous chemical products. The objective of this study was to evaluate potential harmful effects of bisphenol-A on reproductive system of male rats and was designed to clarify the ability of zinc or selenium to improve this perturbation in the reproductive function of rats.As a result of bisphenol-A treatment, number of sperms, testis total protein, glutathione and glutathione peroxidase were decreased significantly. This effect was concomitant with a significant decrease in serum testosterone level. On the other hand, bisphenol-A caused a significant elevation in the abnormality of sperm (sperm malformed head or tail or head and tail) and testis total lipid. However, a significant increment was obtained in serum FSH, LH, PRL, E2 and progesterone levels when compared with their corresponding normal control rats.Moreover, the administration of zinc or selenium to treated rats with bisphenol-A rats led to a remarkable amelioration in all previous parameters

  9. Beneficial effect of sulphate-bicarbonate-calcium water on gallstone risk and weight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradini, Stefano Ginanni; Ferri, Flaminia; Mordenti, Michela; Iuliano, Luigi; Siciliano, Maria; Burza, Maria Antonella; Sordi, Bruno; Caciotti, Barbara; Pacini, Maria; Poli, Edoardo; Santis, Adriano De; Roda, Aldo; Colliva, Carolina; Simoni, Patrizia; Attili, Adolfo Francesco

    2012-03-07

    To investigate the effect of drinking sulphate-bicarbonate-calcium thermal water (TW) on risk factors for atherosclerosis and cholesterol gallstone disease. Postmenopausal women with functional dyspepsia and/or constipation underwent a 12 d cycle of thermal (n = 20) or tap (n = 20) water controlled drinking. Gallbladder fasting volume at ultrasound, blood vitamin E, oxysterols (7-β-hydroxycholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol), bile acid (BA), triglycerides, total/low density lipoprotein and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured at baseline and at the end of the study. Food consumption, stool frequency and body weight were recorded daily. Blood lipids, oxysterols and vitamin E were not affected by either thermal or tap water consumption. Fasting gallbladder volume was significantly (P water group (19.0 ± 1.4 mL vs 19.4 ± 1.5 mL). Total serum BA concentration was significantly (P water group (3.41 ± 0.46 μmol vs 2.91 ± 0.56 μmol). The increased BA concentration after TW consumption was mainly accounted for by glycochenodeoxycholic acid. The number of pasta (P water group. Body weight did not change at the end of the study as compared to baseline in both groups. Sulphate-bicarbonate-calcium water consumption has a positive effect on lithogenic risk and intestinal transit and allows maintenance of a stable body weight despite a high food intake.

  10. Beneficial Effects of Prebiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mannan on Allergic Asthma Mouse Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, D Betty; Michael, Christie F; Overbeck, Tracie; Robinson, W Scout; Rohman, Erin L; Lehman, Jeffrey M; Patel, Jennifer K; Eiseman, Brandi; LeMessurier, Kim S; Samarasinghe, Amali E; Gaber, M Waleed

    2017-01-01

    One of the unmet needs for asthma management is a new therapeutic agent with both anti-inflammatory and anti-smooth muscle (ASM) remodeling effects. The mannose receptor (MR) family plays an important role in allergen uptake and processing of major allergens Der p 1 and Fel d 1. We have previously reported that ASM cells express a mannose receptor (ASM-MR) and that mannan derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC-MN) inhibits mannosyl-rich lysosomal hydrolase-induced bovine ASM cell proliferation. Using a humanized transgenic mouse strain (huASM-MRC2) expressing the human MRC2 receptor in a SM tissue-specific manner, we have demonstrated that ASM hyperplasia/hypertrophy can occur as early as 15 days after allergen challenge in this mouse model and this phenomenon is preventable with SC-MN treatment. This proof-of-concept study would facilitate future development of a potential asthma therapeutic agent with dual function of anti-inflammatory and anti-smooth muscle remodeling effects.

  11. Beneficial effect of candesartan and lisinopril against haloperidol-induced tardive dyskinesia in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Kuldeep Singh; Prakash, Atish; Bisht, Rohit; Bansal, Puneet Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Tardive dyskinesia is a serious motor disorder of the orofacial region, resulting from chronic neuroleptic treatment of schizophrenia. Candesartan (AT1 antagonist) and lisinopril (ACE inhibitor) has been reported to possess antioxidant and neuroprotective effects. The present study is designed to investigate the effect of candesartan and lisinopril on haloperidol-induced orofacial dyskinesia and oxidative damage in rats. Tardive dyskinesia was induced by administering haloperidol (1 mg/kg i.p.) and concomitantly treated with candesartan (3 and 5 mg/kg p.o.) and lisinopril (10 and 15 mg/kg p.o.) for 3 weeks in male Wistar rats. Various behavioral parameters were assessed on days 0, 7, 14 and 21 and biochemical parameters were estimated at day 22. Chronic administration of haloperidol significantly increased stereotypic behaviors in rats, which were significantly improved by administration of candesartan and lisinopril. Chronic administration of haloperidol significantly increased oxidative stress and neuro-inflammation in the striatum region of the rat's brain. Co-administration of candesartan and lisinopril significantly attenuated the oxidative damage and neuro-inflammation in the haloperidol-treated rat. The present study supports the therapeutic use of candesartan and lisinopril in the treatment of typical antipsychotic-induced orofacial dyskinesia and possible antioxidant and neuro-inflammatory mechanisms. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Beneficial effects of nonpharmacological interventions in the management of essential hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasios Vamvakis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential hypertension is a major health problem causing excess cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Management of essential hypertension consists of pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions. In order to prevent and/or treat hypertension, parameters like nutrition, body weight, and physical exercise should be evaluated and taken under consideration for improvement. A large body of evidence clearly support that the role of salt, alcohol, fruits, and vegetables is important for high blood pressure. Furthermore, maintaining a normal body weight should be succeeded along with physical activity few times per week if not daily. Nonpharmacological intervention is rather a dynamic procedure that takes a multilevel approach with repeated training of the hypertensives by a team of expert physicians, rather than a single based guidance. Additionally, it should be based on a profile customization and personalized approach. Intensive interventions aiming at lifestyle changes through educational meetings are considered more effective in lowering high blood pressure. This consists of a lifestyle modification with a permanent basis for patient’s daily schedule and eventually should become a philosophy for a better quality of life through improvement of nutritional and exercise behavior. Further studies are needed so intervention guideline models can be even more effective for patients with essential hypertension.

  13. Beneficial effects of hydroxyapatite on enamel subjected to 30% hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Ma, Xiao; Wang, Zhejun; Tong, Hua; Hu, Jiming; Wang, Yining

    2008-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of combination of hydroxyapatite (HA) and hydrogen peroxide (HP) on color, microhardness and morphology of human tooth enamel. Forty-eight human dental blocks were obtained from 12 pairs of premolars and were randomly divided into four groups. Group DW was treated with distilled water, group HP with 30% HP, group HA+DW with HA mixed with distilled water and group HA+HP with HA mixed with 30% HP. Baseline and final color measurements and microhardness test were carried out before and after bleaching experiments. Two specimens from each group were selected for morphological investigation after final tests. The DeltaE of group HP and HA+HP were significantly higher than those of group DW (p=0.000 and p=0.000) and group HA+DW (p=0.000 and p=0.000). The percentage microhardness loss of group HA+HP was significantly lower than that of group HP (p=0.047), but significantly higher than those of group DW (p=0.000) and group HA+DW (p=0.000). The obvious variation of morphology was only observed on enamel surfaces in group HP. This study suggested that combination of HA and HP was effective in tooth whitening. HA could significantly reduce the microhardness loss of enamel caused by 30% HP and keep enamel surface morphology almost unchanged.

  14. Beneficial Effects of Prebiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mannan on Allergic Asthma Mouse Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Betty Lew

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the unmet needs for asthma management is a new therapeutic agent with both anti-inflammatory and anti-smooth muscle (ASM remodeling effects. The mannose receptor (MR family plays an important role in allergen uptake and processing of major allergens Der p 1 and Fel d 1. We have previously reported that ASM cells express a mannose receptor (ASM-MR and that mannan derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC-MN inhibits mannosyl-rich lysosomal hydrolase-induced bovine ASM cell proliferation. Using a humanized transgenic mouse strain (huASM-MRC2 expressing the human MRC2 receptor in a SM tissue-specific manner, we have demonstrated that ASM hyperplasia/hypertrophy can occur as early as 15 days after allergen challenge in this mouse model and this phenomenon is preventable with SC-MN treatment. This proof-of-concept study would facilitate future development of a potential asthma therapeutic agent with dual function of anti-inflammatory and anti-smooth muscle remodeling effects.

  15. Beneficial Effect of Preferential Music on Exercise Induced Changes in Heart Rate Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archana, R; Mukilan, R

    2016-05-01

    Music is known to reduce pain, anxiety and fear in several stressful conditions in both males and females. Further, listening to preferred music enhances the endurance during running performance of women rather than listening to non-preferred music. In recent years Heart Rate Variability (HRV) has been used as an indicator of autonomic nervous activity. This study was aimed to assess the effectiveness of preferential music on HRV after moderate exercise. This was an experimental study done in 30 healthy students aged between 20-25 years, of either sex. HRV was measured at rest, 15 minutes of exercise only and 15 minutes of exercise with listening preferential music in same participants. Data was analysed by One-Way ANOVA and Tukey HSD Post-hoc Test. Statistical significance was taken to be a p-value of less than 0.05. Low frequency and high frequency component was significantly increased followed by only exercise. Music minimized increase in both high and low frequency component followed by exercise. However, only high frequency change was statistically significant. LF/HF ratio was significantly increased followed by only exercise. Music significantly minimized increase in LF/HF ratio. This study provides the preliminary evidence that listening to preferential music could be an effective method of relaxation, as indicated by a shift of the autonomic balance towards the parasympathetic activity among medical students.

  16. The Effect of Bilingualism and Trilingualism on Metacognitive Processing: Detrimental or Beneficial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Hassan; Rahmanian, Mahboubeh

    2018-01-24

    Research in multilingualism has shown that bilinguals have enhanced executive function (e.g., Donnelly et al. in Proceedings of the 37th annual conference of the cognitive science society 2015; Green in Bilingualism Lang Cognit 1(02):67-81, 1998. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728998000133 ); however, this with many other areas in multilingualism have been questioned like their non-verbal reasoning or their metacognitive ability. This study attempts to explore learning more than one languages in the field of metacognitive abilities. Three groups of monolinguals, bilinguals, and trilinguals were explored to examine the effect of language learning on enhancing or weakening accuracy and response time in metacognitive processing. Conducting dot discrimination task, we found that multilingualism might have some advantages in this field. As cognition and metacognitive abilities demonstrated no positive correlation in this study, we might conclude that executive functioning can not bring about higher order functioning for the individuals. Nevertheless, monolinguals did the task in the least period of time with the least accuracy. Trilinguals, on the contrary, could respond more accurately with an average speed. Accuracy, difficulty, and response time choice in metacognitive processing were discussed for each group. It is concluded that multilingualism might have different effects on higher-order decision making abilities.

  17. Beneficial effect of acupuncture in the management of anxiety related to dental treatment: a set of case series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosted, P; Bundgaard, M; Gordon, S

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anxiety related to dental treatment is a common phenomenon that has a significant impact on the provision of appropriate dental care. The aim of this case series was to examine the effect of acupuncture given prior to dental treatment on the level of anxiety. METHODS: Eight dentists...... a median BAI score of 26.5 at baseline. The BAI score was assessed before and after the acupuncture treatment. All patients received acupuncture treatment for 5 min prior to the planned dental treatment using the points GV20 and EX6. RESULTS: There was a significant reduction in median value of BAI scores...... after treatment with acupuncture (26.5 reduced to 11.5; pacupuncture treatment. Previously this had only been possible in six cases. CONCLUSION: Acupuncture prior to dental treatment has a beneficial effect...

  18. Growing evidence of the beneficial effects of a marine protein-based dietary supplement for treating hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornfeldt, Carl S

    2018-04-01

    Hair loss is a common condition among women with a range of causes including nutritional deficiencies. To review the clinical data supporting the use of an oral marine supplement designed to promote hair growth. Adult women with temporary thinning hair. Following an initial pilot study, five randomized, double-blind studies assessed the effectiveness of the oral marine supplement for promoting hair growth. Each study was approved by one or more institutional review boards. Together, these studies demonstrated the ability of oral marine supplements to increase the growth of terminal and vellus hairs, increase the diameter of terminal and vellus hairs, and decrease hair loss. This product is beneficial for men as well as women. A dietary supplement containing a marine complex and other natural ingredients can safely and effectively promote hair growth and decrease hair shedding in women and men with thinning hair. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The effects of religion and spirituality on postoperative pain, hemodynamic functioning and anxiety after cesarean section.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Beiranvand

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Spiritual elements play an important role in the recovery process from acute postoperative pain. This study was conducted to assess the effect of pray meditation on postoperative pain reduction and physiologic responds among muslim patients who underwent cesarean surgery under spinal anesthesia. This double-blinded randomized clinical trial study was conducted among muslim patients who underwent cesarean surgery under spinal anesthesia during 2011-2013 at tertiary regional and teaching hospital in Lorestan, Iran. The patients were randomly divided into interventional group (n=80 and control group (n=80. For about 20 minutes using a disposable phone mentioned and listened to pray meditation "Ya man esmoho davaa va zekroho shafa, Allahomma salle ala mohammad va ale mohammad" in interventional group and phone off in control group. Before and during pray meditation, 30, 60 minutes, 3 and 6 hours after pray meditation pain intensity, blood pressure, heart rate and respiratory rate were measured. No statistically significant improvement in pain score was found before and during pray meditation, 30, 60 minutes after pray meditation (P>0.05. Statistically significant improvement in pain score was found at 3 and 6 hours after pray meditation than control group (1.5 ± 0.3 vs. 3 ± 1.3, P=0.030 and (1.3 ± 0.8 vs. 3 ± 1.1, P=0.003. However, there was no significant difference in the physiological responses (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respiration, and heart rate any time between the groups. Religion and spirituality intervention such as pray meditation could be used as one of non-pharmacological pain management techniques for reducing pain after cesarean surgery. Also, Pray meditation provides less postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV and more relaxation.

  20. Renal hemodynamic effects of activation of specific renal sympathetic nerve fiber groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBona, G F; Sawin, L L

    1999-02-01

    To examine the effect of activation of a unique population of renal sympathetic nerve fibers on renal blood flow (RBF) dynamics, anesthetized rats were instrumented with a renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) recording electrode and an electromagnetic flow probe on the ipsilateral renal artery. Peripheral thermal receptor stimulation (external heat) was used to activate a unique population of renal sympathetic nerve fibers and to increase total RSNA. Total RSNA was reflexly increased to the same degree with somatic receptor stimulation (tail compression). Arterial pressure and heart rate were increased by both stimuli. Total RSNA was increased to the same degree by both stimuli but external heat produced a greater renal vasoconstrictor response than tail compression. Whereas both stimuli increased spectral density power of RSNA at both cardiac and respiratory frequencies, modulation of RBF variability by fluctuations of RSNA was small at these frequencies, with values for the normalized transfer gain being approximately 0.1 at >0.5 Hz. During tail compression coherent oscillations of RSNA and RBF were found at 0.3-0.4 Hz with normalized transfer gain of 0.33 +/- 0.02. During external heat coherent oscillations of RSNA and RBF were found at both 0.2 and 0.3-0.4 Hz with normalized transfer gains of 0. 63 +/- 0.05 at 0.2 Hz and 0.53 +/- 0.04 to 0.36 +/- 0.02 at 0.3-0.4 Hz. Renal denervation eliminated the oscillations in RBF at both 0.2 and 0.3-0.4 Hz. These findings indicate that despite similar increases in total RSNA, external heat results in a greater renal vasoconstrictor response than tail compression due to the activation of a unique population of renal sympathetic nerve fibers with different frequency-response characteristics of the renal vasculature.

  1. The effects of religion and spirituality on postoperative pain, hemodynamic functioning and anxiety after cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiranvand, Siavash; Noparast, Morteza; Eslamizade, Nasrin; Saeedikia, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    Spiritual elements play an important role in the recovery process from acute postoperative pain. This study was conducted to assess the effect of pray meditation on postoperative pain reduction and physiologic responds among muslim patients who underwent cesarean surgery under spinal anesthesia. This double-blinded randomized clinical trial study was conducted among muslim patients who underwent cesarean surgery under spinal anesthesia during 2011-2013 at tertiary regional and teaching hospital in Lorestan, Iran. The patients were randomly divided into interventional group (n=80) and control group (n=80). For about 20 minutes using a disposable phone mentioned and listened to pray meditation "Ya man esmoho davaa va zekroho shafa, Allahomma salle ala mohammad va ale mohammad" in interventional group and phone off in control group. Before and during pray meditation, 30, 60 minutes, 3 and 6 hours after pray meditation pain intensity, blood pressure, heart rate and respiratory rate were measured. No statistically significant improvement in pain score was found before and during pray meditation, 30, 60 minutes after pray meditation (P>0.05). Statistically significant improvement in pain score was found at 3 and 6 hours after pray meditation than control group (1.5 ± 0.3 vs. 3 ± 1.3, P=0.030) and (1.3 ± 0.8 vs. 3 ± 1.1, P=0.003). However, there was no significant difference in the physiological responses (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respiration, and heart rate) any time between the groups. Religion and spirituality intervention such as pray meditation could be used as one of non-pharmacological pain management techniques for reducing pain after cesarean surgery. Also, Pray meditation provides less postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and more relaxation.

  2. Low concentrations of silver nanoparticles have a beneficial effect on wound healing in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrožová, Nikola [Palacký University, Department of Medical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry (Czech Republic); Zálešák, Bohumil [University Hospital Olomouc, Department of Plastic and Aesthetic Surgery (Czech Republic); Ulrichová, Jitka [Palacký University, Department of Medical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry (Czech Republic); Čížková, Kateřina [Palacký University, Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry (Czech Republic); Galandáková, Adéla, E-mail: galandakova.a@seznam.cz [Palacký University, Department of Medical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry (Czech Republic)

    2017-03-15

    Silver has been used in medical application for its antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory effects. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are currently in the spotlight. It was shown that their application can be useful in the management of wounds. Our study was conducted to determine whether AgNPs (average size 10.43 ± 4.74 nm) and ionic silver (Ag-I) could affect the wound healing in the in vitro model of normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF). We evaluated their effect on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and the expression of key transcription factors that coordinate the cellular response to oxidative stress [nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)] and inflammation [nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)], expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) level. Isolated primary NHDF were scratched, heated (1 h; 42 °C), and cultured with AgNPs (0.25, 2.5, and 25 μg/ml) and Ag-I (0.025, 0.1, and 0.25 μg/ml) for 8 or 24 h. The ROS generation, Nrf2, NF-κB, and HO-1 protein expression and IL-6 protein level were then evaluated by standard methods. Non-cytotoxic concentrations of AgNPs (0.25 and 2.5 μg/ml) did not affect the ROS generation but activated the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway and decreased the NF-κB expression and IL-6 level in the in vitro wound healing model. AgNPs at concentrations of 0.25 and 2.5 μg/ml seem to be suitable for the intended application as a topical agent for wound healing, although the gene silencing technique, chemical inhibitors, and detailed time- and concentration-dependent experiments are needed for a comprehensive study of signaling pathway regulation. Further investigation is also necessary to exclude any possible adverse effects.

  3. Low concentrations of silver nanoparticles have a beneficial effect on wound healing in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrožová, Nikola; Zálešák, Bohumil; Ulrichová, Jitka; Čížková, Kateřina; Galandáková, Adéla

    2017-01-01

    Silver has been used in medical application for its antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory effects. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are currently in the spotlight. It was shown that their application can be useful in the management of wounds. Our study was conducted to determine whether AgNPs (average size 10.43 ± 4.74 nm) and ionic silver (Ag-I) could affect the wound healing in the in vitro model of normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF). We evaluated their effect on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and the expression of key transcription factors that coordinate the cellular response to oxidative stress [nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)] and inflammation [nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)], expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) level. Isolated primary NHDF were scratched, heated (1 h; 42 °C), and cultured with AgNPs (0.25, 2.5, and 25 μg/ml) and Ag-I (0.025, 0.1, and 0.25 μg/ml) for 8 or 24 h. The ROS generation, Nrf2, NF-κB, and HO-1 protein expression and IL-6 protein level were then evaluated by standard methods. Non-cytotoxic concentrations of AgNPs (0.25 and 2.5 μg/ml) did not affect the ROS generation but activated the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway and decreased the NF-κB expression and IL-6 level in the in vitro wound healing model. AgNPs at concentrations of 0.25 and 2.5 μg/ml seem to be suitable for the intended application as a topical agent for wound healing, although the gene silencing technique, chemical inhibitors, and detailed time- and concentration-dependent experiments are needed for a comprehensive study of signaling pathway regulation. Further investigation is also necessary to exclude any possible adverse effects.

  4. Isosteviol has beneficial effects on palmitate-induced α-cell dysfunction and gene expression.

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    Xiaoping Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to high levels of fatty acids impairs insulin secretion and exaggerates glucagon secretion. The aim of this study was to explore if the antihyperglycemic agent, Isosteviol (ISV, is able to counteract palmitate-induced α-cell dysfunction and to influence α-cell gene expression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Long-term incubation studies with clonal α-TC1-6 cells were performed in the presence of 0.5 mM palmitate with or without ISV. We investigated effects on glucagon secretion, glucagon content, cellular triglyceride (TG content, cell proliferation, and expression of genes involved in controlling glucagon synthesis, fatty acid metabolism, and insulin signal transduction. Furthermore, we studied effects of ISV on palmitate-induced glucagon secretion from isolated mouse islets. Culturing α-cells for 72-h with 0.5 mM palmitate in the presence of 18 mM glucose resulted in a 56% (p<0.01 increase in glucagon secretion. Concomitantly, the TG content of α-cells increased by 78% (p<0.01 and cell proliferation decreased by 19% (p<0.05. At 18 mM glucose, ISV (10(-8 and 10(-6 M reduced palmitate-stimulated glucagon release by 27% (p<0.05 and 27% (p<0.05, respectively. ISV (10(-6 M also counteracted the palmitate-induced hypersecretion of glucagon in mouse islets. ISV (10(-6 M reduced α-TC1-6 cell proliferation rate by 25% (p<0.05, but ISV (10(-8 and 10(-6 M had no effect on TG content in the presence of palmitate. Palmitate (0.5 mM increased Pcsk2 (p<0.001, Irs2 (p<0.001, Fasn (p<0.001, Srebf2 (p<0.001, Acaca (p<0.01, Pax6 (p<0.05 and Gcg mRNA expression (p<0.05. ISV significantly (p<0.05 up-regulated Insr, Irs1, Irs2, Pik3r1 and Akt1 gene expression in the presence of palmitate. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: ISV counteracts α-cell hypersecretion and apparently contributes to changes in expression of key genes resulting from long-term exposure to palmitate. ISV apparently acts as a glucagonostatic drug with potential as a

  5. Beneficial and adverse effects of irradiation in patients repeatedly subjected to high-dosage treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeckelein, I.

    1986-01-01

    During the period between 1978 and 1983 a total of 156 patients showing different types of tumours were subjected to high-dosage radiotherapy. The patients were treated repeatedly for primary or recurrent tumours using a radiation dose of >79 Gy. Each of the three largest groups, which were mammary carcinomas (33), cerebral tumours (25) and orohypopharyngeal tumours (22), was analysed individually. In the majority of patients the local effects of this radiotherapy were such that total or at least partial remission of the primary or recurrent tumour appeared most likely. In the groups receiving doses in the lower range the results were just as good as those achieved in subjects exposed to high doses. The survival times determined here for bearers of mammary or cerebral carcinomas were better than the relevant values given in the literature. (orig./MG) [de

  6. Beneficial effect of intralesionally injected 5-fluorouracil on basal cell epithelioma associated with radiodermatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hata, Seiichiro (Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1984-06-01

    A 81-year-old male had perioral radiodermatitis of 50 years' duration which was associated with Bowen's disease and basal cell epitheliomas since age 59 years. One of those basal cell epitheliomas treated with topical 5-FU and bleomycin ointments increased to form an ulcer of 25 x 15mm in size nearby the right side of nose, accompanying with a fistule to the oral cavity while he hesitated to visit the hospital. 5-FU was intralesionally injected into the tumor. After the injections in total dose of 6,550mg the ulcer got epithelized and the biopsy could not reveal the tumor cell. The case proves the effectiveness of intralesional injection of 5-FU for basal cell epithelioma which avoids the surgical excision.

  7. Beneficial effects of physical activity in an HIV-infected woman with lipodystrophy: a case report

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    de Oliveira Leandro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Lipodystrophy is common in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy, and presents with morphologic changes and metabolic alterations that are associated with depressive behavior and reduced quality of life. We examined the effects of exercise training on morphological changes, lipid profile and quality of life in a woman with human immunodeficiency virus presenting with lipodystrophy. Case presentation A 31-year-old Latin-American Caucasian woman infected with human immunodeficiency virus participated in a 12-week progressive resistance exercise training program with an aerobic component. Her weight, height, skinfold thickness, body circumferences, femur and humerus diameter, blood lipid profile, maximal oxygen uptake volume, exercise duration, strength and quality of life were assessed pre-exercise and post-exercise training. After 12 weeks, she exhibited reductions in her total subcutaneous fat (18.5%, central subcutaneous fat (21.0%, peripheral subcutaneous fat (10.7%, waist circumference (WC (4.5%, triglycerides (9.9%, total cholesterol (12.0% and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (8.6%. She had increased body mass (4.6%, body mass index (4.37%, humerus and femur diameter (3.0% and 2.3%, respectively, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (16.7%, maximal oxygen uptake volume (33.3%, exercise duration (37.5% and strength (65.5%. Quality of life measures improved mainly for psychological and physical measures, independence and social relationships. Conclusions These findings suggest that supervised progressive resistance exercise training is a safe and effective treatment for evolving morphologic and metabolic disorders in adults infected with HIV receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy, and improves their quality of life.

  8. The beneficial effects of l-cysteine on brain antioxidants of rats affected by sodium valproate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, R Z; El-Shenawy, N S

    2017-11-01

    Oxidative stress caused by sodium valproate (SV) is known to play a key role in the pathogenesis of brain tissue. The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of l-cysteine (LC) on the antioxidants of brain tissue of rats. The animals were divided into six groups: control group 1 was treated with saline as vehicle, groups 2 and 3 were treated with low and high doses of SV (100 and 500 mg/kg, respectively), group 4 was treated with LC (100 mg/kg), and groups 5 and 6 were treated with low-dose SV + LC and high-dose SV + LC, respectively. All the groups were treated orally by gastric tube for 30 successive days. Some antioxidant parameters were determined. Brain tissue (cerebral cortex) of SV-treated animals showed an increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO) and reduction in activity of enzymatic antioxidant and total antioxidant levels. Histopathological examination of cerebral cortex of SV rats showed astrocytic swelling, inflammation, and necrosis. After 4 weeks of the combination treatment of SV and LC daily, results showed significant improvement in the activity of cathepsin marker enzymes and restored the structure of the brain. LC was able to ameliorate oxidative stress deficits observed in SV rats. LC decreased LPO level and was also able to restore the activity of antioxidant enzymes as well as structural deficits observed in the brain of SV animals. The protective effect of LC in SV-treated rats is mediated through attenuation of oxidative stress, suggesting a therapeutic role for LC in individuals treated with SV.

  9. Beneficial effects of lycopene against haloperidol induced orofacial dyskinesia in rats: Possible neurotransmitters and neuroinflammation modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Swati; Jamwal, Sumit; Deshmukh, Rahul; Kumar, Puneet

    2016-01-15

    Tardive Dyskinesia is a severe side effect of chronic neuroleptic treatment consisting of abnormal involuntary movements, characterized by orofacial dyskinesia. The study was designed to investigate the protective effect of lycopene against haloperidol induced orofacial dyskinesia possibly by neurochemical and neuroinflammatory modulation in rats. Rats were administered with haloperidol (1mg/kg, i.p for 21 days) to induce orofacial dyskinesia. Lycopene (5 and 10mg/kg, p.o) was given daily 1hour before haloperidol treatment for 21 days. Behavioral observations (vacuous chewing movements, tongue protrusions, facial jerking, rotarod activity, grip strength, narrow beam walking) were assessed on 0th, 7th(,) 14th(,) 21st day after haloperidol treatment. On 22nd day, animals were killed and striatum was excised for estimation of biochemical parameters (malondialdehyde, nitrite and endogenous enzyme (GSH), pro-inflammatory cytokines [Tumor necrosis factor, Interleukin 1β, Interleukin 6] and neurotransmitters level (dopamine, serotonin, nor epinephrine, 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), Homovanillic acid, 3,4- dihydroxyphenylacetic acid. Haloperidol treatment for 21 days impaired muscle co-ordination, motor activity and grip strength with an increased in orofacial dyskinetic movements. Further free radical generation increases MDA and nitrite levels, decreasing GSH levels in striatum. Neuroinflammatory markers were significantly increased with decrease in neurotransmitters levels. Lycopene (5 and 10mg/kg, p.o) treatment along with haloperidol significantly attenuated impairment in behavioral, biochemical, neurochemical and neuroinflammatory markers. Results of the present study attributed the therapeutic potential of lycopene in the treatment (prevented or delayed) of typical antipsychotic induced orofacial dyskinesia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Beneficial Effects of Concentrated Growth Factors and Resveratrol on Human Osteoblasts In Vitro Treated with Bisphosphonates

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    Elisa Borsani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bisphosphonates are primary pharmacological agents against osteoclast-mediated bone loss and widely used in the clinical practice for prevention and treatment of a variety of skeletal conditions, such as low bone density and osteogenesis imperfecta, and pathologies, such as osteoporosis, malignancies metastatic to bone, Paget disease of bone, multiple myeloma, and hypercalcemia of malignancy. However, long-term bisphosphonate treatment is associated with pathologic conditions including osteonecrosis of the jaw, named BRONJ, which impaired bone regeneration process. Clinical management of BRONJ is controversy and one recent approach is the use of platelet concentrates, such as Concentrated Growth Factors, alone or together with biomaterials or antioxidants molecules, such as resveratrol. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro effects of Concentrated Growth Factors and/or resveratrol on the proliferation and differentiation of human osteoblasts, treated or not with bisphosphonates. Human osteoblasts were stimulated for 3 days in complete medium and for 21 days in mineralization medium. At the end of the experimental period, the in vitro effect on osteoblast proliferation and differentiation was evaluated using different techniques such as MTT, ELISA for the quantification/detection of osteoprotegerin and bone morphogenetic protein-2, immunohistochemistry for sirtuin 1 and collagen type I, and the Alizarin Red S staining for the rate of mineralization. Results obtained showed that Concentrated Growth Factors and/or resveratrol significantly increased osteoblast proliferation and differentiation and that the cotreatment with Concentrated Growth Factors and resveratrol had a protective role on osteoblasts treated with bisphosphonates. In conclusion, these data suggest that this approach could be promised in the clinical management of BRONJ.

  11. Beneficial effects of microwave-assisted heating versus conventional heating in noble metal nanoparticle synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, Naween; García, Stephany; Zhou, Jiping; Humphrey, Simon M

    2012-11-27

    An extensive comparative study of the effects of microwave versus conventional heating on the nucleation and growth of near-monodisperse Rh, Pd, and Pt nanoparticles has revealed distinct and preferential effects of the microwave heating method. A one-pot synthetic method has been investigated, which combines nucleation and growth in a single reaction via precise control over the precursor addition rate. Using this method, microwave-assisted heating enables the convenient preparation of polymer-capped nanoparticles with improved monodispersity, morphological control, and higher crystallinity, compared with samples heated conventionally under otherwise identical conditions. Extensive studies of Rh nanoparticle formation reveal fundamental differences during the nucleation phase that is directly dependent on the heating method; microwave irradiation was found to provide more uniform seeds for the subsequent growth of larger nanostructures of desired size and surface structure. Nanoparticle growth kinetics are also markedly different under microwave heating. While conventional heating generally yields particles with mixed morphologies, microwave synthesis consistently provides a majority of tetrahedral particles at intermediate sizes (5-7 nm) or larger cubes (8+ nm) upon further growth. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy indicates that Rh seeds and larger nanoparticles obtained from microwave-assisted synthesis are more highly crystalline and faceted versus their conventionally prepared counterparts. Microwave-prepared Rh nanoparticles also show approximately twice the catalytic activity of similar-sized conventionally prepared particles, as demonstrated in the vapor-phase hydrogenation of cyclohexene. Ligand exchange reactions to replace polymer capping agents with molecular stabilizing agents are also easily facilitated under microwave heating, due to the excitation of polar organic moieties; the ligand exchange proceeds with excellent retention of

  12. Beneficial cardiovascular effects of reducing exposure to particulate air pollution with a simple facemask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langrish, Jeremy P; Mills, Nicholas L; Chan, Julian Kk; Leseman, Daan Lac; Aitken, Robert J; Fokkens, Paul Hb; Cassee, Flemming R; Li, Jing; Donaldson, Ken; Newby, David E; Jiang, Lixin

    2009-03-13

    Exposure to air pollution is an important risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and is associated with increased blood pressure, reduced heart rate variability, endothelial dysfunction and myocardial ischaemia. Our objectives were to assess the cardiovascular effects of reducing air pollution exposure by wearing a facemask. In an open-label cross-over randomised controlled trial, 15 healthy volunteers (median age 28 years) walked on a predefined city centre route in Beijing in the presence and absence of a highly efficient facemask. Personal exposure to ambient air pollution and exercise was assessed continuously using portable real-time monitors and global positional system tracking respectively. Cardiovascular effects were assessed by continuous 12-lead electrocardiographic and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Ambient exposure (PM2.5 86 +/- 61 vs 140 +/- 113 mug/m3; particle number 2.4 +/- 0.4 vs 2.3 +/- 0.4 x 104 particles/cm3), temperature (29 +/- 1 vs 28 +/- 3 degrees C) and relative humidity (63 +/- 10 vs 64 +/- 19%) were similar (P > 0.05 for all) on both study days. During the 2-hour city walk, systolic blood pressure was lower (114 +/- 10 vs 121 +/- 11 mmHg, P 0.05). Over the 24-hour period heart rate variability increased (SDNN 65.6 +/- 11.5 vs 61.2 +/- 11.4 ms, P pollution on blood pressure and heart rate variability. This simple intervention has the potential to protect susceptible individuals and prevent cardiovascular events in cities with high concentrations of ambient air pollution.

  13. A novel pleiotropic effect of aspirin: Beneficial regulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory mechanisms in microglial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kata, Diana; Földesi, Imre; Feher, Liliana Z; Hackler, Laszlo; Puskas, Laszlo G; Gulya, Karoly

    2017-06-01

    Aspirin, one of the most widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, has extensively studied effects on the cardiovascular system. To reveal further pleiotropic, beneficial effects of aspirin on a number of pro- and anti-inflammatory microglial mechanisms, we performed morphometric and functional studies relating to phagocytosis, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production (IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IL-10, respectively) and analyzed the expression of a number of inflammation-related genes, including those related to the above functions, in pure microglial cells. We examined the effects of aspirin (0.1mM and 1mM) in unchallenged (control) and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged secondary microglial cultures. Aspirin affected microglial morphology and functions in a dose-dependent manner as it inhibited LPS-elicited microglial activation by promoting ramification and the inhibition of phagocytosis in both concentrations. Remarkably, aspirin strongly reduced the pro-inflammatory IL-1β and TNF-α production, while it increased the anti-inflammatory IL-10 level in LPS-challenged cells. Moreover, aspirin differentially regulated the expression of a number of inflammation-related genes as it downregulated such pro-inflammatory genes as Nos2, Kng1, IL1β, Ptgs2 or Ccr1, while it upregulated some anti-inflammatory genes such as IL10, Csf2, Cxcl1, Ccl5 or Tgfb1. Thus, the use of aspirin could be beneficial for the prophylaxis of certain neurodegenerative disorders as it effectively ameliorates inflammation in the brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of clomiphene citrate on uterine hemodynamics in women with unexplained infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omran E

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Eman Omran, Mohamed El-Sharkawy, Akmal El-Mazny, Mohamed Hammam, Wafaa Ramadan, Dina Latif, Dalia Samir, Sherine Sobh Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kasr Al-Ainy Hospital, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of clomiphene citrate on uterine artery blood flow using pulsed Doppler and endometrial and subendometrial micro vascularization using 3D power Doppler in unexplained infertility. Patients and methods: In a prospective observational study at a university teaching hospital, the mid-luteal (peri-implantation endometrial thickness and volume, uterine artery pulsatility index (PI and resistance index (RI, endometrial and subendometrial vascularization index (VI, flow index (FI, and vascularization flow index (VFI, and serum estradiol and progesterone levels were compared between natural and clomiphene citrate stimulated cycles in the same group of 50 patients with unexplained infertility. Statistical analysis was done using paired t-test to compare different study variables. Results: The primary outcome, which was the endometrial flow index, was significantly lower in the stimulated cycles (mean ± SD: 23.89±7.96 vs 27.49±8.73, mean difference (95% CI: -3.6 (-2, -5.9; P=0.03. The mean ± SD of endometrial thickness (10.92±3.04 vs 12.46±3.08 mm; P=0.01, volume (4.57±1.28 vs 5.26±1.32 cm3; P=0.009, endometrial VI (0.86±0.15 vs 0.95%±0.21%; P=0.02, VFI (0.25±0.08 vs 0.31±0.12; P=0.004, subendometrial VI (1.93±0.68 vs 2.26%±0.75%; P=0.02, FI (26.81±9.16 vs 30.73±9.87; P=0.04, and VFI (0.68±0.18 vs 0.79±0.21; P=0.006 were significantly lower in the stimulated cycles. However, there were no significant differences in the uterine artery PI (P=0.12 and RI (P=0.08 or serum estradiol (P=0.54 and progesterone (P=0.37 levels between natural and stimulated cycles. Conclusion: Peri-implantation endometrial perfusion is significantly lower in clomiphene citrate stimulated

  15. Multiple Beneficial Health Effects of Natural Alkylglycerols from Shark Liver Oil

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    Alain B. Legrand

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Alkylglycerols (alkyl-Gro are ether lipids abundant in the liver of some elasmobranch fish species such as ratfishes and some sharks. Shark liver oil from Centrophorus squamosus (SLO, or alkyl-Gro mix from this source, have several in vivo biological activities including stimulation of hematopoiesis and immunological defences, sperm quality improvement, or anti-tumor and anti-metastasis activities. Several mechanisms are suggested for these multiple activities, resulting from incorporation of alkyl-Gro into membrane phospholipids, and lipid signaling interactions. Natural alkyl-Gro mix from SLO contains several alkyl-Gro, varying by chain length and unsaturation. Six prominent constituents of natural alkyl-Gro mix, namely 12:0, 14:0, 16:0, 18:0, 16:1 n-7, and 18:1 n-9 alkyl-Gro, were synthesized and tested for anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activities on a model of grafted tumor in mice (3LL cells. 16:1 and 18:1 alkyl-Gro showed strong activity in reducing lung metastasis number, while saturated alkyl-Gro had weaker (16:0 or no (12:0, 14:0, 18:0 effect. Multiple compounds and mechanisms are probably involved in the multiple activities of natural alkyl-Gro.

  16. Metabolic remodeling agents show beneficial effects in the dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse model

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    Jahnke Vanessa E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a genetic disease involving a severe muscle wasting that is characterized by cycles of muscle degeneration/regeneration and culminates in early death in affected boys. Mitochondria are presumed to be involved in the regulation of myoblast proliferation/differentiation; enhancing mitochondrial activity with exercise mimetics (AMPK and PPAR-delta agonists increases muscle function and inhibits muscle wasting in healthy mice. We therefore asked whether metabolic remodeling agents that increase mitochondrial activity would improve muscle function in mdx mice. Methods Twelve-week-old mdx mice were treated with two different metabolic remodeling agents (GW501516 and AICAR, separately or in combination, for 4 weeks. Extensive systematic behavioral, functional, histological, biochemical, and molecular tests were conducted to assess the drug(s' effects. Results We found a gain in body and muscle weight in all treated mice. Histologic examination showed a decrease in muscle inflammation and in the number of fibers with central nuclei and an increase in fibers with peripheral nuclei, with significantly fewer activated satellite cells and regenerating fibers. Together with an inhibition of FoXO1 signaling, these results indicated that the treatments reduced ongoing muscle damage. Conclusions The three treatments produced significant improvements in disease phenotype, including an increase in overall behavioral activity and significant gains in forelimb and hind limb strength. Our findings suggest that triggering mitochondrial activity with exercise mimetics improves muscle function in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice.

  17. "Beneficial effects of vitamin C and vitamin E on blood pressure in Hyperandrogenic women "

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    Sotoudeh G

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Hyperandrogenism affects 2-6% of all women. Hypertension is one of disturbances which is related to androgen excess. Higher intakes of vitamin C and vitamin E have been associated with lower blood pressure. Tho investigate the effect of these vitamin supplementation on blood pressure in hyperandrogenic women, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was designed on 56 women 18-54 years old. Women were randomly allocated to one of four treatment groups: spironolactone plus vitamain C and viamin E (SCE, spironolactone plus vitamins placebo (SP, vitamin C plus vitamin E (CE, vitamins placebo (P. The treatment consisted of oral administration of 100 mg spironolactone, 1000 mg vitamin C and 900 mg vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol acetate daily for about 3 months. Results indicated that compared to pretreatment, vitamins supplementation significantly lowered systolic (119.1±12.6 vs. 112.6±15.4 mmHg and mean blood pressure (97.4±11.5 vs. 92. ±12.1 mmHg SCE group (P<0.05, diastolic (87.3±12.7 vs. 80±12 mmHg and mean group (P<0.05. Blood levels of vitamin C and alpha-tocopherol increased in all SCE and CE subjects. In conclusion, vitamin C and vitamin E supplementation reduced blood pressure in hperandrogenic women who are at risk of hypertension.

  18. The beneficial effects of breastfeeding on microvascular function in 11- to 14-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Faisel; Green, Fiona C; Forsyth, J Stewart; Greene, Stephen A; Newton, David J; Belch, Jill J F

    2009-05-01

    Infant feeding practices have an impact on health in later life, although the evidence for its effects on cardiovascular health is not so clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between breastfeeding in infancy and vascular function in later childhood. Infant feeding data, together with demographic and clinical information, were obtained prospectively from a cohort of children from birth until 2 years of age. Vascular function was assessed in 159 children, now aged 11-14 years, by measuring their skin microvascular responses to iontophoretic administration of the endothelium-dependent vasodilator acetylcholine. Endothelial function was significantly better in children who had been breastfed than in those who had received infant milk formula (p = 0.001), after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Linear regression showed that acetylcholine responses were significantly related to the duration of breastfeeding (r = 0.30, p = 0.006). The risk of later cardiovascular disease may be reduced by exclusively breastfeeding during infancy. These findings have potential public health implications, and support policies aimed at promoting breastfeeding.

  19. Beneficial aerodynamic effect of wing scales on the climbing flight of butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slegers, Nathan; Heilman, Michael; Cranford, Jacob; Lang, Amy; Yoder, John; Habegger, Maria Laura

    2017-01-30

    It is hypothesized that butterfly wing scale geometry and surface patterning may function to improve aerodynamic efficiency. In order to investigate this hypothesis, a method to measure butterfly flapping kinematics optically over long uninhibited flapping sequences was developed. Statistical results for the climbing flight flapping kinematics of 11 butterflies, based on a total of 236 individual flights, both with and without their wing scales, are presented. Results show, that for each of the 11 butterflies, the mean climbing efficiency decreased after scales were removed. Data was reduced to a single set of differences of climbing efficiency using are paired t-test. Results show a mean decrease in climbing efficiency of 32.2% occurred with a 95% confidence interval of 45.6%-18.8%. Similar analysis showed that the flapping amplitude decreased by 7% while the flapping frequency did not show a significant difference. Results provide strong evidence that butterfly wing scale geometry and surface patterning improve butterfly climbing efficiency. The authors hypothesize that the wing scale's effect in measured climbing efficiency may be due to an improved aerodynamic efficiency of the butterfly and could similarly be used on flapping wing micro air vehicles to potentially achieve similar gains in efficiency.

  20. Beneficial effect of a polyphenol-rich diet on cardiovascular risk: a randomised control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noad, Rebecca L; Rooney, Ciara; McCall, Damian; Young, Ian S; McCance, David; McKinley, Michelle C; Woodside, Jayne V; McKeown, Pascal P

    2016-09-01

    There is previous epidemiological evidence that intake of polyphenol-rich foods has been associated with reduced cardiovascular disease risk. We aimed to investigate the effect of increasing dietary polyphenol intake on microvascular function in hypertensive participants. All participants completed a 4-week run-in phase, consuming chocolate. Subjects were then randomised to continue with the low-polyphenol diet for 8 weeks or to consume a high-polyphenol diet of six portions F&V (including one portion of berries/day and 50 g of dark chocolate). Endothelium-dependent (acetylcholine, ACh) and endothelium-independent (sodium nitroprusside) vasodilator responses were assessed by venous occlusion plethysmography. Compliance with the intervention was measured using food diaries and biochemical markers. Final analysis of the primary endpoint was conducted on 92 participants. Between-group comparison of change in maximum % response to ACh revealed a significant improvement in the high-polyphenol group (p=0.02). There was a significantly larger increase in vitamin C, carotenoids and epicatechin in the high-polyphenol group (between-group difference pchocolate results in a significant improvement in an established marker of cardiovascular risk in hypertensive participants. NCT01319786. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Camel Milk Beneficial Effects on Treating Gentamicin Induced Alterations in Rats

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    Abdulrahman K. Al-Asmari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential effect of camel milk (CM against gentamicin (GM induced biochemical changes in the rat serum was evaluated. Four groups of six albino rats were used for control, CM fed, injected with GM(i.p., and then fed and injected with GM. The results showed that the administration of GM significantly altered the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity in rat serum. CM restored these parameters to almost their normal range in group IV. Additionally, the present study showed that injection of rats with gentamicin caused an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA and myeloperoxidase (MPO activity while the antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione s-transferase (GST activity decreased significantly (P≤0.05. Administration of CM significantly (P≤0.05 inhibited the formation of MDA and activity of MPO and upregulated the antioxidant enzymes (SOD and GST activity. The overall findings of this study demonstrated that pretreatment with CM gave protection against GM induced hepatic damage possibly by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation, and hence camel milk can be identified as a new therapeutic agent.

  2. Beneficial effect of D-allose for isolated islet culture prior to islet transplantation.

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    Kashiwagi, Hirotaka; Asano, Eisuke; Noguchi, Chisato; Sui, Li; Hossain, Akram; Akamoto, Shintaro; Okano, Keiichi; Tokuda, Masaaki; Suzuki, Yasuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Pretransplant restoration of islets damaged during isolation remains to be solved. In this study, we examined the effect of D-allose on islets isolated from rat pancreata prior to islet transplantation. Rat islets isolated from fresh pancreata were cultured overnight in Roswell Park Memorial Institute 1640 solution in the absence (group 1) or presence (group 2) of D-allose. Then we assessed stimulation index of insulin, and cure rate after islet transplantation to diabetic nude mice. We also measured malondialdehyde level and caspase 3 activity of islets after the overnight culture for assessment of the oxidative stress and the apoptosis. D-allose significantly improved insulin secretion of islets. The stimulation index in group 2 was significantly higher than in group 1. Cure rate after transplantation in group 2 was higher than in group 1 especially in the first week. The malondialdehyde level in group 2 was significantly lower than in group 1. But the caspase 3 activities in both groups did not differ. D-allose treatment of isolated islet culture prior to transplantation restored islet function and increased successful transplant rate. The results of this study suggested that D-allose improved function of damaged islets through its anti-oxidative activity. © 2015 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  3. Beneficial effects of neuropeptide galanin on reinstatement of exercise-induced somatic and psychological trauma.

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    He, Biao; Fang, Penghua; Guo, Lili; Shi, Mingyi; Zhu, Yan; Xu, Bo; Bo, Ping; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2017-04-01

    Galanin is a versatile neuropeptide that is distinctly upregulated by exercise in exercise-related tissues. Although benefits from exercise-induced upregulation of this peptide have been identified, many issues require additional exploration. This Review summarizes the information currently available on the relationship between galanin and exercise-induced physical and psychological damage. On the one hand, body movement, exercise damage, and exercise-induced stress and pain significantly increase local and circulatory galanin levels. On the other hand, galanin plays an exercise-protective role to inhibit the flexor reflex and prevent excessive movement of skeletal muscles through enhancing response threshold and reducing acetylcholine release. Additionally, elevated galanin levels can boost repair of the exercise-induced damage in exercise-related tissues, including peripheral nerve, skeletal muscle, blood vessel, skin, bone, articulation, and ligament. Moreover, elevated galanin levels may serve as effective signals to buffer sport-induced stress and pain via inhibiting nociceptive signal transmission and enhancing pain threshold. This Review deepens our understanding of the profitable roles of galanin in exercise protection, exercise injury repair, and exercise-induced stress and pain. Galanin and its agonists may be used to develop a novel preventive and therapeutic strategy to prevent and treat exercise-induced somatic and psychological trauma. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Beneficial Effects of Poultry Meat Consumption on Cardiovascular Health and the Prevention of Childhood Obesity

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    Mustafa Metin Donma

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Poultry meat is an animal product important in human nutrition. A variable, and moderate energy content, highly digestible proteins of good nutritional quality, unsaturated lipids, fat-soluble and B-complex vitamins as well as minerals make poultry meat a valuable food. Poultry meat is one of the recommended constituents of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Diet as well as the Mediterranean Diet. The substitution of red meat with poultry as well as fish, nuts and legumes decreases the risk of developing type 2 and gestational diabetes mellitus, improves glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors. Low-fat diets supported by fruits, grains, nuts, fish and poultry instead of red meat yields cardiovascular health benefits. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidative diet enriched with high-quality foods reduces pro-inflammatory cytokines. This favors anti-inflammatory milieu which in turn improves insulin sensitivity and endothelial function and ultimately act as a barrier to obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus and development of atherosclerosis. The nutritive value of poultry meat depends on different factors such as age, feeding, keeping, hybrids, carcass parts and type of meat. Preventive measures against risky aspects of the matter should be developed. Since the use of antibiotics leads to the development of antibiotic resistant pathogens, antibiotics must be replaced by herbs and spices with growth promoting effects, antimicrobial properties, and other health related benefits to solve the problem. Enrichment and fortification with nutrients may cause poultry meat to gain even more functional food character.

  5. Beneficial Effects of Different Flavonoids on Vascular and Renal Function in L-NAME Hypertensive Rats

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    M. Dolores Paredes

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: we have evaluated the antihypertensive effect of several flavonoid extracts in a rat model of arterial hypertension caused by chronic administration (6 weeks of the nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor, L-NAME. Methods: Sprague Dawley rats received L-NAME alone or L-NAME plus flavonoid-rich vegetal extracts (Lemon, Grapefruit + Bitter Orange, and Cocoa or purified flavonoids (Apigenin and Diosmin for 6 weeks. Results: L-NAME treatment resulted in a marked elevation of blood pressure, and treatment with Apigenin, Lemon Extract, and Grapefruit + Bitter Orange extracts significantly reduced the elevated blood pressure of these animals. Apigenin and some of these flavonoids also ameliorated nitric oxide-dependent and -independent aortic vasodilation and elevated nitrite urinary excretion. End-organ abnormalities such as cardiac infarcts, hyaline arteriopathy and fibrinoid necrosis in coronary arteries and aorta were improved by these treatments, reducing the end-organ vascular damage. Conclusions: the flavonoids included in this study, specially apigenin, may be used as functional food ingredients with potential therapeutic benefit in arterial hypertension.

  6. The beneficial effects of rehabilitation on hand function in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

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    Krystyna Księżopolska-Orłowska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The hand is one of the main elements of the rehabilitation of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA due to deformities, which occur in approximately 90% of patients. It is a serious problem, both in the psychological and functional aspect, connected with muscle strength reduction, a limited range of motion and non-acceptance of the changes in the shape of the limb. The study aimed to assess the effect of rehabilitation on the function of the hand in rheumatoid arthritis. Material and methods: The study group consisted of 40 women with RA. The patients had been previously treated at the Rehabilitation Department of the National Institute of Geriatrics, Rheumatology and Rehabilitation in Warsaw. The study group underwent 3 weeks of rehabilitation involving individual therapy, exercises with equipment, patient education and physical therapy. The control group included women without a diagnosis of RA, hands pain-free and fully mobile. In both groups the hand was assessed for grip value, grip quality and manipulative ability. In the study group the basis of pain intensity was noted. The measurements were performed twice – prior to the rehabilitation and after 3 weeks of rehabilitation in women with RA and once in women without hand problems. Results : The results obtained revealed marked limitation of hand function in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The treatment resulted in an improvement of all assessed parameters except cylindrical grip, in which only a part of the findings was statistically significant. Conclusions : The analysis of the study material showed that appropriately adjusted and conducted hand physiotherapy in women with rheumatoid arthritis contributed to the improvement of its function by pain reduction, improved value and quality of grip, and also increased manipulative ability.

  7. Beneficial Effects of Renal Denervation on Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling in Experimental Pulmonary Artery Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qingyan, Zhao; Xuejun, Jiang; Yanhong, Tang; Zixuan, Dai; Xiaozhan, Wang; Xule, Wang; Zongwen, Guo; Wei, Hu; Shengbo, Yu; Congxin, Huang

    2015-07-01

    Activation of both the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is closely associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension. We hypothesized that renal denervation decreases renin-angiotensin-aldosterone activity and inhibits the progression of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Twenty-two beagles were randomized into 3 groups. The dogs' pulmonary dynamics were measured before and 8 weeks after injection of 0.1mL/kg dimethylformamide (control dogs) or 2mg/kg dehydromonocrotaline (pulmonary arterial hypertension and pulmonary arterial hypertension + renal denervation dogs). Eight weeks after injection, neurohormone levels and pulmonary tissue morphology were measured. Levels of plasma angiotensin II and endothelin-1 were significantly increased after 8 weeks in the pulmonary arterial hypertension dogs and were higher in the lung tissues of these dogs than in those of the control and renal denervation dogs (mean [standard deviation] angiotensin II: 65 [9.8] vs 38 [6.7], 46 [8.1]; endothelin-1: 96 [10.3] vs 54 [6.2], 67 [9.4]; P < .01). Dehydromonocrotaline increased the mean pulmonary arterial pressure (16 [3.4] mmHg vs 33 [7.3] mmHg; P < .01), and renal denervation prevented this increase. Pulmonary smooth muscle cell proliferation was higher in the pulmonary arterial hypertension dogs than in the control and pulmonary arterial hypertension + renal denervation dogs. Renal denervation attenuates pulmonary vascular remodeling and decreases pulmonary arterial pressure in experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension. The effect of renal denervation may contribute to decreased neurohormone levels. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Beneficial effects of edaravone, a novel antioxidant, in rats with dilated cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, Somasundaram; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan A; Veeraveedu, Punniyakoti T; Nakamura, Takashi; Arozal, Wawaimuli; Sari, Flori R; Giridharan, Vijayasree V; Soetikno, Vivian; Palaniyandi, Suresh S; Harima, Meilei; Suzuki, Kenji; Nagata, Masaki; Kodama, Makoto; Watanabe, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    Edaravone, a novel antioxidant, acts by trapping hydroxyl radicals, quenching active oxygen and so on. Its cardioprotective activity against experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) was reported. Nevertheless, it remains to be determined whether edaravone protects against cardiac remodelling in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The present study was undertaken to assess whether edaravone attenuates myocardial fibrosis, and examine the effect of edaravone on cardiac function in rats with DCM after EAM. Rat model of EAM was prepared by injection with porcine cardiac myosin 28 days after immunization, we administered edaravone intraperitoneally at 3 and 10 mg/kg/day to rats for 28 days. The results were compared with vehicle-treated rats with DCM. Cardiac function, by haemodynamic and echocardiographic study and histopathology were performed. Left ventricular (LV) expression of NADPH oxidase subunits (p47phox, p67phox, gp91phox and Nox4), fibrosis markers (TGF-β1 and OPN), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers (GRP78 and GADD 153) and apoptosis markers (cytochrome C and caspase-3) were measured by Western blotting. Edaravone-treated DCM rats showed better cardiac function compared with those of the vehicle-treated rats. In addition, LV expressions of NADPH oxidase subunits levels were significantly down-regulated in edaravone-treated rats. Furthermore, the number of collagen-III positive cells in the myocardium of edaravone-treated rats was lower compared with those of the vehicle-treated rats. Our results suggest that edaravone ameliorated the progression of DCM by modulating oxidative and ER stress-mediated myocardial apoptosis and fibrosis. PMID:22268705

  9. Beneficial effect of hot spring bathing on stress levels in Japanese macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Rafaela S C; Bercovitch, Fred B; Kinoshita, Kodzue; Huffman, Michael A

    2018-05-01

    The ability of animals to survive dramatic climates depends on their physiology, morphology and behaviour, but is often influenced by the configuration of their habitat. Along with autonomic responses, thermoregulatory behaviours, including postural adjustments, social aggregation, and use of trees for shelter, help individuals maintain homeostasis across climate variations. Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) are the world's most northerly species of nonhuman primates and have adapted to extremely cold environments. Given that thermoregulatory stress can increase glucocorticoid concentrations in primates, we hypothesized that by using an available hot spring, Japanese macaques could gain protection against weather-induced cold stress during winter. We studied 12 adult female Japanese macaques living in Jigokudani Monkey Park, Japan, during the spring birth season (April to June) and winter mating season (October to December). We collected faecal samples for determination of faecal glucocorticoid (fGC) metabolite concentrations by enzyme immunoassay, as well as behavioural data to determine time spent in the hot springs, dominance rank, aggression rates, and affiliative behaviours. We used nonparametric statistics to examine seasonal changes in hot spring bathing, and the relationship between rank and air temperature on hot spring bathing. We used general linear mixed-effect models to examine factors impacting hormone concentrations. We found that Japanese macaques use hot spring bathing for thermoregulation during the winter. In the studied troop, the single hot spring is a restricted resource favoured by dominant females. High social rank had both costs and benefits: dominant females sustained high fGC levels, which were associated with high aggression rates in winter, but benefited by priority of access to the hot spring, which was associated with low fGC concentrations and therefore might help reduce energy expenditure and subsequent body heat loss. This unique

  10. The beneficial effects of dapagliflozin on the course of experimental urate nephrolithiasis

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    V. Yu. Perfil’ev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study. Rate dapagliflozin effective in the prevention and treatment of experimental urate nephropathy.Мaterials and methods. The study was conducted on 30 male rats Wistar stock weighing 220–310 g. For the formation of urate nephropathy in rats using reproduced earlier classic model inhibiting uricase, causing the development of hyperuricemia in rodents. The animal was determined daily urine content MC, total proteins, creatinine, and enzyme activity of renal dysfunction markers LDH, gamma-glutamyl and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase. After the experiment the rat blood obtained after decapitation determined content MC, creatinine, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione, thiobarbiturate-reactive products, total antioxidant activity and a common pro-oxidant activity. In the kidneys of rats was determined by the same parameters of free radical oxidation.Results. It was found that prolonged use of dapagliflozin in the prophylactic and therapeutic regimes, despite a decline in urinary pH, significantly improves the condition of animals with experimental urate nephrolithiasis, as evidenced by a significant decrease in the level of uric acid in blood plasma and urine of rats, a decrease in LDH activity in urine and inhibition process is free -radical oxidation.Сonclusion. Prolonged use of dapagliflozin in the prophylactic and therapeutic regimes, despite a decline urine pH, improved the urate nephrolithiasis, as evidenced by a significant decrease in the level of uric acid in blood plasma and urine of rats, decreased activity of LDH in urine and inhibition of the process of free-radical oxidation. 

  11. Beneficial effects of gluten free diet in potential coeliac disease in adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperatore, Nicola; Tortora, Raffaella; De Palma, Giovanni Domenico; Capone, Pietro; Gerbino, Nicolò; Donetto, Sara; Testa, Anna; Caporaso, Nicola; Rispo, Antonio

    2017-08-01

    To date, potential coeliac disease (PCD) occurring in adults remains an almost unexplored condition. To explore the prognostic role of Marsh grade in adult PCD patients, and to evaluate the effects of gluten-containing diet (GCD) in asymptomatic PCD patients. We retrospectively evaluated all consecutive adult PCD patients followed-up for at least 6 years. Patients were divided into: Group A (patients with Marsh 0 histology) and Group B (Marsh 1 patients). Symptomatic patients were started gluten-free diet (GFD), while asymptomatic subjects were kept on GCD and were followed-up. 56 PCD patients were enrolled (21 in Group A and 35 in Group B). Forty-three patients were symptomatic and started GFD. Of these, none of 15 patients in Group A and 8 of 28 patients in Group B developed immune-mediated disorders (IMD) during follow-up (P=0.03; OR=4.2). The 13 asymptomatic PCD patients were kept on GCD. During the follow-up, 9 patients developed CD-related symptoms, 6 villous atrophy and 8 IMD. At the end, patients kept on GCD were at higher risk of developing IMD than those following a GFD (61% vs 18%, P=0.03, OR=3.3). Although PCD with normal mucosa seems to be a milder disease, the continuation of GCD places patients at a high risk of developing villous atrophy and IMD compared to commencement of GFD. Adult PCD patients should start GFD even if not symptomatic. Copyright © 2017 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Low doses of dextromethorphan have a beneficial effect in the treatment of neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Véronique; Pickering, Gisèle; Etienne, Monique; Dupuis, Amandine; Privat, Anne-Marie; Chalus, Maryse; Eschalier, Alain; Daulhac, Laurence

    2014-12-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists may be given in persistent neuropathic pain, but adverse events especially with ketamine may limit their clinical use. Less central and cognitive adverse events are described with dextromethorphan and memantine. These molecules have been explored in many preclinical and clinical studies, but data are conflicting as regards neuropathic pain alleviation. Dextromethorphan and memantine have been administered to animals after spinal nerve ligation (SNL) to evaluate their antinociceptive/cognitive effects and associated molecular events, including the phosphorylation of several tyrosine (pTyr(1336), pTyr(1472)) residues in the NR2B NMDAR subunit. Spinal nerve ligation and sham animals received dextromethorphan (10 mg/kg, i.p.), memantine (20 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline (1 mL/kg, i.p.). These drugs were administered once symptoms of allodynia and hyperalgesia had developed. Tests were carried out before and after surgery. Tactile allodynia, mechanical hyperalgesia and spatial memory were, respectively, evaluated by von Frey, Randall & Selitto and Y-maze tests and molecular events by Western blot analysis. Spinal nerve-ligated animals displayed nociception and impaired spatial memory. Dextromethorphan, but not memantine, reversed neuropathic pain (NP) symptoms, restored spatial memory integrity and decreased the expression of pTyr(1336)NR2B. Following postoperative administration of dextromethorphan, this study has demonstrated for the first time a concordance between behaviour, cognitive function and molecular events via pTyr(1336)NR2B for neuropathic pain alleviation. Confirmation of these findings in patients would constitute a major step forward in the treatment of neuropathic pain and in the improvement of cognitive function and quality of life. © 2014 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  13. Beneficial Effect of Moderate Exercise in Kidney of Rat after Chronic Consumption of Cola Drinks.

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    Gabriel Cao

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of moderate intensity exercise on kidney in an animal model of high consumption of cola soft drinks.Forty-eight Wistar Kyoto rats (age: 16 weeks; weight: 350-400 g were assigned to the following groups: WR (water runners drank water and submitted to aerobic exercise; CR (cola runners drank cola and submitted to aerobic exercise; WS (water sedentary and CS (cola sedentary, not exercised groups. The aerobic exercise was performed for 5 days per week throughout the study (24 weeks and the exercise intensity was gradually increased during the first 8 weeks until it reached 20 meters / minute for 30 minutes. Body weight, lipid profile, glycemia, plasma creatinine levels, atherogenic index of plasma (AIP and systolic blood pressure (SBP were determined. After 6 months all rats were sacrificed. A kidney histopathological score was obtained using a semiquantitative scale. Glomerular size and glomerulosclerosis were estimated by point-counting. The oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory status were explored by immunohistochemistry. A one way analysis of variance (ANOVA with Tukey-Kramer post-hoc test or the Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn's post-hoc test was used for statistics. A value of p < 0.05 was considered significant.At 6 months, an increased consumption of cola soft drink was shown in CS and CR compared with water consumers (p<0.0001. Chronic cola consumption was associated with increased plasma triglycerides, AIP, heart rate, histopathological score, glomerulosclerosis, oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory status. On the other hand, moderate exercise prevented these findings. No difference was observed in the body weight, SBP, glycemia, cholesterol and plasma creatinine levels across experimental groups.This study warns about the consequences of chronic consumption of cola drinks on lipid metabolism, especially regarding renal health. Additionally, these findings emphasize the protective

  14. Beneficial effects of a woman-focused development programme on child survival: evidence from rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiya, Abbas; Chowdhury, Mushtaque

    2002-11-01

    This paper reports results from a prospective study of the impact of a woman-focused development programme on child survival in Matlab, a rural area of Bangladesh. The programme was targeted to households owning less than 50 decimals of land and members selling more than 100 days of labour for living in a year. Programme components included formation of women's groups for saving and credit, training on skill development, functional literacy including legal and social awareness, and technical and marketing support to projects undertaken with the loan money from the organization. A total of 13,549 children born alive during 1988-97 in the study area were included in the study. Hazards of mortality during pre- and post-intervention periods were compared among the programme participants and non-participants controlling the effects of other relevant variables. There has been a substantial reduction in mortality during the post-intervention period; however, the reduction was much greater for infants whose mothers participated in the development programme compared to infants of non-participant mothers from similar socioeconomic background. In a relative sense, there has been a 52% reduction of the pre-intervention level hazard of death of children during infancy of participant mothers compared to 31% reduction for the infants of non-participant mothers from similar socioeconomic background. There had also been a substantial reduction in hazard of death during childhood (1-4 year age group), however, the reduction was statistically similar for all groups of children irrespective of their mothers' participation in the development programmes.

  15. Beneficial Effects of High-Density Lipoproteins on Acquired von Willebrand Syndrome in Aortic Valve Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhard, C; Maafi, F; Stähli, B E; Bonnefoy, A; Gebhard, C E; Nachar, W; de Oliveira Moraes, A Benjamim; Mecteau, M; Mihalache-Avram, T; Lavoie, V; Kernaleguen, A E; Shi, Y; Busseuil, D; Chabot-Blanchet, M; Perrault, L P; Rhainds, D; Rhéaume, E; Tardif, J C

    2018-02-01

     Infusions of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the major protein component of high-density lipoproteins (HDL), result in aortic valve stenosis (AVS) regression in experimental models. Severe AVS can be complicated by acquired von Willebrand syndrome, a haemorrhagic disorder associated with loss of high-molecular-weight von Willebrand factor (vWF) multimers (HMWM), the latter being a consequence of increased shear stress and enhanced vWF-cleaving protease (ADAMTS-13) activity. Although antithrombotic actions of HDL have been described, its effects on ADAMTS-13 and vWF in AVS are unknown.  We assessed ADAMTS-13 activity in plasma derived from a rabbit model of AVS ( n  = 29) as well as in plasma collected from 64 patients with severe AVS (age 65.0 ± 10.4 years, 44 males) undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR). In both human and rabbit AVS plasma, ADAMTS-13 activity was higher than that in controls ( p  AVS patients had less HMWM than controls (66.3 ± 27.2% vs. 97.2 ± 24.1%, p  AVS rabbits as compared with the placebo group (2.0 ± 0.5 RFU/sec vs. 3.8 ± 0.4 RFU/sec, p  AVS ( r  = -0.3, p  = 0.045).  Our data indicate that HDL levels are associated with reduced ADAMTS-13 activity and increased HMWM. HDL-based therapies may reduce the haematologic abnormalities of the acquired von Willebrand syndrome in AVS. Schattauer GmbH Stuttgart.

  16. Beneficial Effects on Pregnancy Outcomes of Thyroid Hormone Replacement for Subclinical Hypothyroidism

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    Norman J. Blumenthal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hypothyroidism and raised thyroid antibody levels have been associated with adverse obstetrical outcomes. Several studies have investigated causal associations, but results have been inconsistent and few studies have reported the effects of thyroxine replacement therapy on pregnancy outcomes in hypothyroid patients. Objective. The primary study objective was to determine the outcome of pregnancies in women diagnosed with overt and subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH (serum TSH > 2.5 mIU/L and those with elevated circulating thyroid autoantibody levels in the first trimester of pregnancy and after the institution of appropriate thyroxine replacement therapy to maintain the serum TSH ≤ 2.5 mIU/L. Study Design. This prospective observational study was undertaken between 2013 and 2016. Blood samples were taken from 1025 women at presentation for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (TGAb, and thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb. Those with a TSH > 2.5 mIU/L were treated with thyroxine and managed appropriately to ensure that the TSH was maintained ≤2.5 mIU/L. Outcomes in these patients were compared to those in euthyroid patients. Maternal antenatal complications and perinatal outcomes were recorded. Results. There were a total of 1025 patients of whom 382 (37.5% were nulliparous. 10.1% had a TSH level > 2.5 mIU/L and 18.2% had at least one raised thyroid antibody level. No differences in adverse outcomes of pregnancy were evident in women treated for SCH or overt hypothyroidism compared to the euthyroid group. There was also no association between raised thyroid antibodies and adverse pregnancy outcomes in either group. Conclusion. There were no adverse outcomes of pregnancy found in pregnant women who had been diagnosed and treated with thyroxine for SCH at the time of presentation when compared to euthyroid patients. There was also no relationship with thyroid antibodies and adverse pregnancy

  17. The Smn-independent beneficial effects of trichostatin A on an intermediate mouse model of spinal muscular atrophy.

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    Hong Liu

    Full Text Available Spinal muscular atrophy is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disease characterized by the progressive loss of alpha motor neurons in the spinal cord. Trichostatin A (TSA is a histone deacetylase inhibitor with beneficial effects in spinal muscular atrophy mouse models that carry the human SMN2 transgene. It is currently unclear whether TSA specifically targets the SMN2 gene or whether other genes respond to TSA and in turn provide neuroprotection in SMA mice. We have taken advantage of the Smn2B/- mouse model that does not harbor the human SMN2 transgene, to test the hypothesis that TSA has its beneficial effects through a non-SMN mediated pathway. TSA increased the median lifespan of Smn2B/- mice from twenty days to eight weeks. As well, there was a significant attenuation of weight loss and improved motor behavior. Pen test and righting reflex both showed significant improvement, and motor neurons in the spinal cord of Smn2B/- mice were protected from degeneration. Both the size and maturity of neuromuscular junctions were significantly improved in TSA treated Smn2B/- mice. Of interest, TSA treatment did not increase the levels of Smn protein in mouse embryonic fibroblasts or myoblasts obtained from the Smn2B/- mice. In addition, no change in the level of Smn transcripts or protein in the brain or spinal cord of TSA-treated SMA model mice was observed. Furthermore, TSA did not increase Smn protein levels in the hind limb muscle, heart, or liver of Smn2B/- mice. We therefore conclude that TSA likely exerts its effects independent of the endogenous mouse Smn gene. As such, identification of the pathways regulated by TSA in the Smn2B/- mice could lead to the development of novel therapeutics for treating SMA.

  18. Beneficial psychological effects of novel psychobiotics in diabetic rats: the interaction among the gut, blood and amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morshedi, Mohammad; Valenlia, Khadijeh Bavafa; Hosseinifard, Elaheh Sadat; Shahabi, Parviz; Abbasi, Mehran Mesgari; Ghorbani, Meysam; Barzegari, Abolfazl; Sadigh-Eteghad, Saeed; Saghafi-Asl, Maryam

    2018-04-03

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) can lead to major complications such as psychiatric disorders which include depressive and anxiety-like behaviors. The association of the gut-brain axis in the development of such disorders, especially in T2DM, has been elucidated; however, gut dysbiosis is also reported in patients with T2DM. Hence, the regulation of the gut-brain axis, in particular, the gut-amygdala, as a vital region for the regulation of behavior is essential. Thirty-five male Wistar rats were divided into six groups. To induce T2DM, treatment groups received high-fat diet and 35 mg/kg streptozotocin. Then, supplements of Lactobacillus plantarum, inulin or their combination were administered to each group for 8 weeks. Finally, the rats were sacrificed for measurement of blood and tissue parameters after behavioral testing. The findings demonstrated the favorable effects of the psychobiotics (L. plantarum, inulin or their combination) on oxidative markers of the blood and amygdala (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, malondialdehyde and total antioxidant capacity), as well as on concentrations of amygdala serotonin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor, in the diabetic rats. In addition, beneficial effects were observed on the elevated plus maze and forced swimming tests with no change in locomotor activity of the rats. There was a strong correlation between the blood and amygdala oxidative markers, insulin and fasting blood sugar with depressive and anxiety-like behaviors. Our results identified L. plantarum ATCC 8014 and inulin or their combination as novel psychobiotics that could improve the systemic and nervous antioxidant status and improve amygdala performance and beneficial psychotropic effects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Selective beneficial cardiometabolic effects of vertical sleeve gastrectomy are predominantly mediated through glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1 in Zucker diabetic fatty rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Enhanced GLP-1 secretion post VSG imparted beneficial cardiometabolic effects on blood glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, bile acids and L-PGDS levels which were abated in the presence of GLP-1 antagonist.

  20. Beneficial effect of feeding a ketogenic diet to mothers on brain development in their progeny with a murine model of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lioudmila Pliss

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: The findings provide for the first time experimental support for beneficial effects of a ketogenic diet during the prenatal and early postnatal periods on the brain development of PDC-deficient mammalian progeny.

  1. Nutritional Proteomics: Investigating molecular mechanisms underlying the health beneficial effect of functional foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Kawashima

    2013-07-01

    illustrate that the dietary influence of omega-3 and omega-6 on protein expression is eminent with the proteins directly responsible for catalytic activity in the “Molecular Function” category, totaling 192 proteins, of Gene Ontology designation. In a similar analysis with regard to the “Cellular Localization” category, protein expression changed the most in the sub-categories of “Cytoplasm”, “Membrane”, “Nucleus”, and “Mitochondrion”, totaling 221 proteins. The same analysis with regard to “Biological Process”considering the top four categories, i.e., “Metabolic process”, “Regulation of biological (process”, “Response to stimulus”, and “Transport” also indicated significant alteration of 182 proteins. These results illustrate a robust influence of dietary elements, omega-3 or omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, on the protein expression in mouse liver.Conclusions: Application of nutritional proteomics to the dietary effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids compared to that of omega-6 on mouse liver revealed; 1 significant number of proteins are altered between the two diets dependent on the classes of polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 or omega-6, in the diet. The change of protein expression is likely to carry the molecular information that we could possibly decipher, leading to a better understanding of the role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in inflammatory/anti-inflammatory process. The results corroborate the concept and utility of nutritional proteomics that should be developed as a part of functional food studies with regard to other dietary types.Keywords: Nutritional proteomics, functional foods, mass spectrometry, genome database, cellular signaling, omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids

  2. Facial rejuvenation starts in the midface: three-dimensional volumetric facial rejuvenation has beneficial effects on nontreated neighboring esthetic units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollina, Uwe

    2016-03-01

    Facial aging is a major indication for minimal invasive esthetic procedures. Dermal fillers are a cornerstone in the approach for facial sculpturing. But where to start? Our concept is midfacial volume restoration in first place. This will result in a healthy and youthful appearance creating a facial V-shape. But midfacial filler injection does not only improve the malar area. It has also beneficial effects on neighboring esthetic units. We report on such improvements in periocular and nasolabial region, upper lips and perioral tissue, and the jaw line and discuss anatomical background. We hypothesize that midfacial deep filler injections also may activate subdermal white adipose tissue stem cells contributing to longer lasting rejuvenation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Phytochemicals in quinoa and amaranth grains and their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and potential health beneficial effects: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yao; Tsao, Rong

    2017-07-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) and amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus L.) are pseudocereal grains rich in both macronutrients and micronutrients including vitamins and minerals. The proteins are particularly of high nutritional quality due to the outstanding balance of essential amino acids. However, recent research strongly suggests that nonessential nutrients such as phytochemicals of quinoa and amaranth may also have potential health beneficial effects. This review focuses on the phytochemical composition of quinoa and amaranth seeds, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of hydrophilic (e.g. phenolics, betacyanins) and lipophilic (e.g. fatty acids, tocopherols, and carotenoids) nutrients, and how these contribute to the potential health benefits, especially in lowering the risk of the oxidative stress related diseases e.g. cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity. The gap between current knowledge and future research needs have also been identified. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Radical Nephrectomy for Primary Retroperitoneal Liposarcoma Near the Kidney has a Beneficial Effect on Disease-Free Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhu, Jinsoo; Cho, Chan Woo; Lee, Kyo Won; Park, Hyojun; Park, Jae Berm; Choi, Yoon-La; Kim, Sung Joo

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the clinical impact of radical nephrectomy on retroperitoneal liposarcoma near the kidney. Data of patients who underwent surgery for unilateral primary retroperitoneal liposarcoma near the kidney were retrospectively collected. Patients were divided into four groups according to whether they underwent nephrectomy and combined resection of other organs. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to estimate disease-free survival and overall survival. Multivariable Cox analysis was used to analyze factors related to disease-free survival and overall survival. Nephrectomy (HR = 0.260, CI = 0.078-0.873, p = 0.029) had a beneficial effect on disease-free survival, while interaction model of nephrectomy*other organ resection (HR = 4.655, CI = 1.767-12.263, p = 0.002) showed poor disease-free survival. Other organ resection was not related to disease-free survival (HR = 1.543, CI = 0.146-16.251, p = 0.718). Operation method (p = 0.007) and FNCLCC grade (p free survival. While combined organ resection without nephrectomy group (HR = 1.604, CI = 0.167-15.370, p = 0.682) and radical nephrectomy with combined organ resection group (HR = 1.309, CI = 0.448-3.825, p = 0.622) did not show significant difference in disease-free survival from the mass excision only group, radical nephrectomy without combined organ resection group (HR = 0.279, CI = 0.078-0.991, p = 0.048) showed superior disease-free survival. Radical nephrectomy of unilateral primary retroperitoneal liposarcoma near the kidney has a beneficial effect on disease-free survival.

  5. Beneficial effects of laser irradiation on the deposition process of diamond/Ni60 composite coating with cold spray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Jianhua, E-mail: laser@zjut.edu.cn; Yang, Lijing; Li, Bo; Li, Zhihong

    2015-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The hard Ni-based alloy powder as matrix in diamond composite coating was studied. • The influence of laser on diamond distribution of composite coating was analyzed. • The graphitization of diamond was prohibited in supersonic laser deposition process. • The abrasion mechanisms of diamond/Ni60 composite coating were discussed. - Abstract: Although cold spray process has many unique advantages over other coating techniques, it has difficulties in depositing hard materials. This article presents a study in the beneficial effects of laser irradiation on the fabrication process of diamond/Ni60 composite coating using cold spray. The focus of this research is on the comparison between the composite coatings produced with laser cladding (LC) and with supersonic laser deposition (SLD), with respect to diamond graphitization and tribological properties, thus to demonstrate the beneficial effects of laser irradiation on the cold spray process. The influence of deposition temperature on the coating characteristics, such as deposition efficiency, diamond volume fraction, microstructure and phase is also investigated. The tribological properties of the diamond/Ni60 composite coating produced with SLD are determined using a pin-on-disc tribometer, along with the diamond/Ni60 coating produced using LC with the optimal process parameters for comparison. The experimental results show that with the assistance of laser irradiation, diamond/Ni60 composite coating can be successfully deposited using cold spray; the obtained coating is superior to that processed with LC, because SLD can suppress the graphitization of the diamond particles. The diamond/Ni60 composite coating fabricated with SLD has much better tribological properties than the LC coating.

  6. The cardioprotective effect of vanillic acid on hemodynamic parameters, malondialdehyde, and infarct size in ischemia-reperfusion isolated rat heart exposed to PM10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmat Radmanesh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Particulate matter (PM exposure can promote cardiac ischemia and myocardial damage. The effects of PM10 on hemodynamic parameters, lipid peroxidation, and infarct size induced by ischemia-reperfusion injury and the protective effects of vanillic acid (VA in isolated rat heart were investigated. Materials and Methods: Eighty male Wistar rats (250–300 g were divided into 8 groups (n=10: Control, Sham, VAc, VA, PMa (0.5 mg/kg PM, intratracheal instillation, PMb (2.5 mg/kg PM, intratracheal instillation, PMc (5 mg/kg PM, intratracheal instillation, and PMc + VA (5 mg/kg PM, intratracheal instillation; and 10 mg/kg vanillic acid, gavage for 10 days. PM10 was instilled into the trachea in two stages, within 48 hr. After isolating the hearts and transfer to a Langendorff apparatus, hearts were subjected to 30 min ischemia and 60 min reperfusion. Hemodynamic parameters (±dp/dt, LVSP, LVDP, and RPP, production of lipid peroxidation (MDA, and infarct size were assessed. Results: A significant decrease in ±dp/dt, LVSP, LVDP and RPP occurred in PM groups. A significant increase in MDA and myocardial infarct size occurred in PM groups. A significant increase in LVDP, LVSP, ±dp/dt, RPP and decrease in infarct size, MDA, and myocardial dysfunction was observed in groups that received vanillic acid after ischemia–reperfusion. Conclusion: It was demonstrated that PM10 increases MDA, as well as the percentage of cardiac infarct size, and has negative effects on hemodynamic parameters. This study suggests that vanillic acid may serve as an adjunctive treatment in delaying the progression of ischemic heart disease.

  7. Occupational exposure in hemodynamic; Exposicao ocupacional em hemodinamica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Amanda J.; Fernandes, Ivani M.; Silva, Paula P. Nou; Sordi, Gian Maria A.A.; Carneiro, Janete C.G.G., E-mail: ajsilva@ipen.b, E-mail: imfernandes@ipen.b, E-mail: ppsilva@ipen.b, E-mail: gmsordi@ipen.b, E-mail: janetegc@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    This paper has an objective to perform a radiometric survey at a hemodynamic service. Besides, it was intended to evaluate the effective dose of health professionals and to provide data which can contribute with minimization of exposures during the realization of hemodynamic procedure. The radiometric survey was realized in the real environment of work simulating the conditions of a hemodynamic study with a ionization chamber

  8. The effectiveness of habitat modification schemes for enhancing beneficial insects: Assessing the importance of trap cropping management approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisnawati, Indah; Azis, Abdul

    2017-06-01

    Many farms in regions of intensive crop production lack the habitats that historically provided resources to beneficial insects, and this lack has compromised the ability of farmers to rely on natural enemies for pest control. One of the strategies to boost populations of existing or naturally occurring beneficial insects is to supply them with appropriate habitat and alternative food sources, such as diversifying trap crop systems and plant populations in or around fields include perennials and flowering plants. Trap cropping using insectary plant that attracts beneficial insects as natural enemies, especially flowering plants, made for provision of habitat for predators or parasitoids that are useful for biological control. Perimeter trap cropping (PTC) is a method of integrated pest management in which the main crop is surrounded with a perimeter trap crop that is more attractive to pests. We observed PTC habitat modification and conventionaly-managed tobacco farms in Purwosari Village, Pasuruan (East Java) to evaluate the effectiveness of habitat modification management prescription (perimeter trap crop using flowering plant Crotalaria juncea) on agroecosystem natural enemies. Field tests were conducted in natural enemies (predator and parasitoid) abundance dynamic and diversity on tobacco field in Purwoasri, Pasuruan. Yellow pan trap, sweep net and hand collecting methods were applied in each 10 days during tobacco growth stage (vegetative, generative until reproductive/harvesting. The results showed that application perimeter trap crop with C. juncea in tobacco fields able to help arthropod conservation of natural enemies on all tobacco growth stages. These results were evidenced the increase in abundance of predators and parasitoids and the increased value of the Diversity Index (H') and Evenness Index (EH) in all tobacco growth phases. Composition of predator and parasitoid in the habitat modification field were more diverse than in the conventional field

  9. Acute effects of ingesting Java Fit™ energy extreme functional coffee on resting energy expenditure and hemodynamic responses in male and female coffee drinkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willoughby Darryn S

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a functional coffee beverage containing additional caffeine, green tea extracts, niacin and garcinia cambogia to regular coffee to determine the effects on resting energy expenditure (REE and hemodynamic variables. Methods Subjects included five male (26 ± 2.1 y, 97.16 ± 10.05 kg, 183.89 ± 6.60 cm and five female (28.8 ± 5.3 y, 142.2 ± 12.6 lbs regular coffee drinkers. Subjects fasted for 10 hours and were assessed for 1 hour prior (PRE and 3 hours following 1.5 cups of coffee ingestion [JavaFit™ Energy Extreme (JF ~400 mg total caffeine; Folgers (F ~200 mg total caffeine] in a double-blind, crossover design. REE, resting heart rate (RHR, and systolic (SBP and diastolic (DBP blood pressure was assessed at PRE and 1, 2, and 3-hours post coffee ingestion. Data were analyzed by three-factor repeated measures ANOVA (p Results JF trial resulted in a significant main effect for REE (p 2 (p Conclusion Results from this study suggest that JavaFit™ Energy Extreme coffee is more effective than Folgers regular caffeinated coffee at increasing REE in regular coffee drinkers for up to 3 hours following ingestion without any adverse hemodynamic effects.

  10. Beneficial Effects of Caloric Restriction on Chronic Kidney Disease in Rodent Models: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Meng Xu

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have demonstrated the life-extending effect of caloric restriction. It is generally accepted that caloric restriction has health benefits, such as prolonging lifespan and delaying the onset and progression of CKD in various species, especially in rodent models. Although many studies have tested the efficacy of caloric restriction, no complete quantitative analysis of the potential beneficial effects of reducing caloric intake on the development and progression of CKD has been published.All studies regarding the relationship between caloric restriction and chronic kidney diseases were searched in electronic databases, including PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index (SCI, OVID evidence-based medicine, Chinese Bio-medical Literature and Chinese science and technology periodicals (CNKI, VIP, and Wan Fang. The pooled odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were calculated by using fixed- or random-effects models.The data from 27 of all the studies mentioned above was used in the Meta analysis. Through the meta-analysis, we found that the parameter of blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine and urinary protein levels of the AL group was significant higher than that of the CR group, which are 4.11 mg/dl, 0.08mg/dl and 33.20mg/kg/24h, respectively. The incidence of the nephropathy in the caloric restriction (CR group was significantly lower than that in the ad libitum-fed (AL group. We further introduced the subgroup analysis and found that the effect of caloric restriction on the occurrence of kidney disease was only significant with prolonged intervention; the beneficial effects of CR on the 60%-caloric-restriction group were greater than on the less-than-60%-caloric-restriction group, and caloric restriction did not show obvious protective effects in genetically modified strains. Moreover, survival rate of the caloric restriction group is much higher than that of the ad libitum-fed (AL group.Our findings

  11. Beneficial effects of a N-terminally modified GIP agonist on tissue-level bone material properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabilleau, Guillaume; Mieczkowska, Aleksandra; Irwin, Nigel; Simon, Yannick; Audran, Maurice; Flatt, Peter R; Chappard, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Bone remodeling is under complex regulation from nervous, hormonal and local signals, including gut hormones. Among the gut hormones, a role for the glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) has been suggested. However, the rapid degradation of GIP in the bloodstream by the ubiquitous enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) precludes therapeutic use. To circumvent this problem, a series of N-terminally modified GIP agonists have been developed, with N-AcGIP being the most promising. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effects of N-AcGIP on bone at the micro-level using trabecular and cortical microstructural morphology, and at the tissue-level in rats. Copenhagen rats were randomly assigned into control or N-AcGIP-treated groups and received daily injection for 4 weeks. Bone microstructural morphology was assessed by microCT and dynamic histomorphometry and tissue-level properties by nanoindentation, qBEI and infra-red microscopy. Four week treatment with N-AcGIP did not alter trabecular or cortical microstructural morphology. In addition, no significant modifications of mechanical response and properties at the tissue-level were observed in trabecular bone. However, significant augmentations in maximum load (12%), hardness (14%), indentation modulus (13%) and dissipated energy (16%) were demonstrated in cortical bone. These beneficial modifications of mechanical properties at the tissue-level were associated with increased mineralization (22%) and collagen maturity (13%) of the bone matrix. Taken together, the results support a beneficial role of GIP, and particularly stable analogs such as N-AcGIP, on tissue material properties of bone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Biochemical proximates of pumpkin (Cucurbitaeae spp.) and their beneficial effects on the general well-being of poultry species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilonu, M C; Nwafor, I C; Umesiobi, D O; Sedibe, M M

    2018-02-01

    There is a growing need to increase productivity in poultry. Growth hormones and antibiotics have the ability to improve health, weight gain and feed efficiency in meat-producing animals. The growth-promoting antibiotics are administered to poultry to improve the general performance of the chicken. However, the use of the xenobiotic drugs in food-producing animals has been a concern and a sensitive issue of debate for several decades in the EU and many other regional blocks of the world. Consequently, the use of hormones in animal production has been banned in Italy, Denmark and Germany for over 4-5 decades, while Belgium and Greece had never permitted its use for livestock fattening purposes. Bioactive phytochemicals exhibit antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiparasitic, antiprotozoal, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties and consequently have several beneficial effects on appetite, growth and the immune status of the animal. In South Africa, different species of pumpkin are produced for food due to their high nutrient content. The flesh serves as a traditional food, while the seeds and peels are commonly discarded. Pumpkin seed extract is reported to be useful for immunomodulation, reproductive health, therapeutics over a wide range of disease conditions and stimulates metabolism of accumulated fats. Studies have also shown that pumpkin seeds are a valuable source of protein and fat. Their complexity and extent of bioactivity offers sustainable prospects for natural control of pathogenic/parasitic organisms, stimulate nutrition or enhance resistance to disease infections, and reduce abdominal fat and serum levels of harmful lipids, while increasing serum levels of beneficial lipids. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Metabolic and hemodynamic effects of sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors on cardio-renal protection in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Maegawa, Hiroshi

    2017-07-01

    The specific sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2 inhibitors) inhibit glucose reabsorption in proximal renal tubular cells, and both fasting and postprandial glucose significantly decrease because of urinary glucose loss. As a result, pancreatic β-cell function and peripheral insulin action significantly improve with relief from glucose toxicity. Furthermore, whole-body energy metabolism changes to relative glucose deficiency and triggers increased lipolysis in fat cells, and fatty acid oxidation and then ketone body production in the liver during treatment with SGLT2 inhibitors. In addition, SGLT2 inhibitors have profound hemodynamic effects including diuresis, dehydration, weight loss and lowering blood pressure. The most recent findings on SGLT2 inhibitors come from results of the Empagliflozin, Cardiovascular Outcomes and Mortality in Type 2 Diabetes trial. SGLT2 inhibitors exert extremely unique and cardio-renal protection through metabolic and hemodynamic effects, with long-term durability on the reduction of blood glucose, bodyweight and blood pressure. Although a site of action of SGLT2 inhibitors is highly specific to inhibit renal glucose reabsorption, whole-body energy metabolism, and hemodynamic and renal functions are profoundly modulated during the treatment of SGLT2 inhibitors. Previous studies suggest multifactorial clinical benefits and safety concerns of SGLT2 inhibitors. Although ambivalent clinical results of this drug are still under active discussion, the present review summarizes promising recent evidence on the cardio-renal and metabolic benefits of SGLT2 inhibitors in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Effects of dipyridamole and aminophylline on hemodynamics, regional myocardial blood flow and thallium-201 washout in the setting of a critical coronary stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granato, J.E.; Watson, D.D.; Belardinelli, L.; Cannon, J.M.; Beller, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments were performed to characterize the interaction of intravenous dipyridamole and aminophylline on thallium-201 transport kinetics, regional myocardial blood flow and systemic hemodynamics in the presence of a critical coronary artery stenosis. In 12 dogs with a critical left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis, arterial pressure decreased from a mean value (+/- SEM) of 107 +/- 6 to 94 +/- 3 mm Hg and distal left anterior descending artery pressure decreased from 70 +/- 7 to 55 +/- 4 mm Hg after intravenous administration of dipyridamole. In the left anterior descending perfusion zone, the endocardial/epicardial flow ratio decreased from 0.70 to 0.36 and the intrinsic thallium washout rate was significantly prolonged. Intravenous aminophylline reversed the dipyridamole-induced systemic hypotension and transmural coronary steal and restored the thallium washout rate to baseline values. In six other dogs, aminophylline alone resulted in no alterations in systemic and coronary hemodynamics or regional myocardial blood flow. As expected, dipyridamole-induced vasodilation and coronary steal were prevented by aminophylline pretreatment. These data show that in a canine model of partial coronary stenosis, systemic hypotension, adverse regional flow effects and prolonged thallium-201 washout consequent to intravenously administered dipyridamole are promptly reversed by intravenous aminophylline administration. Aminophylline alone had no significant hemodynamic and coronary flow effects. This study provides further insight into the altered thallium kinetics occurring as a consequence of dipyridamole-induced vasodilation and suggests that the prompt reversal of symptoms and signs of ischemia with aminophylline in patients receiving intravenous dipyridamole for clinical imaging studies probably reflects the reversal of transmural coronary steal

  15. Effects of Lignocaine Administered Intravenously or Intratracheally on Airway and Hemodynamic Responses during Emergence and Extubation in Patients Undergoing Elective Craniotomies in Supine Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabnum, Tabasum; Ali, Zulfiqar; Naqash, Imtiaz Ahmad; Mir, Aabid Hussain; Azhar, Khan; Zahoor, Syed Amer; Mir, Abdul Waheed

    2017-01-01

    Sympathoadrenergic responses during emergence and extubation can lead to an increase in heart rate (HR) and blood pressure whereas increased airway responses may lead to coughing and laryngospasm. The aim of our study was to compare the effects of lignocaine administered intravenously (IV) or intratracheally on airway and hemodynamic responses during emergence and extubation in patients undergoing elective craniotomies. Sixty patients with physical status American Society of Anaesthesiologists Classes I and II aged 18-70 years, scheduled to undergo elective craniotomies were included. The patients were randomly divided into three groups of twenty patients; Group 1 receiving IV lignocaine and intratracheal placebo (IV group), Group 2 receiving intratracheal lignocaine and IV placebo (I/T group), and Group 3 receiving IV and intratracheal placebo (placebo group). The tolerance to the endotracheal tube was monitored, and number of episodes of cough was recorded during emergence and at the time of extubation. Hemodynamic parameters such as HR and blood pressure (systolic, diastolic, mean arterial pressure) were also recorded. There was a decrease of HR in both IV and intratracheal groups in comparison with placebo group ( P < 0.005). Rise in blood pressure (systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure) was comparable in both Groups 1 and 2 but was lower in comparison with placebo group ( P < 0.005). Cough suppression was comparable in all the three groups. Grade III cough (15%) was documented only in placebo group. Both IV and intratracheal lignocaine are effective in attenuation of hemodynamic response if given within 20 min from skull pin removal to extubation. There was comparable cough suppression through intratracheal route and IV routes than the placebo group.

  16. [Effects of captopril on hemodynamics, gas exchange and exercise capacity in patients with pulmonary hypertension secondary to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paitl, C E; Nery, L E; Romaldini, H; Herrmann, J L; Portugal, O P; dos Santos, M L; Martinez Filho, E E

    1989-02-01

    Captopril, a potent inhibitor of angiotensin converting enzyme, was tested in patients with COPD (means forced expired volume in the first second--FEV1 = 0.73 l) and pulmonary hypertension (PAP = 41.3 mmHg). In the first phase of the experiment, patients underwent and incremental exercise test to the limit of tolerance. These were double blind, randomized, cross-over studies, where the patients received oral placebo (Pl) or captopril (Cp) 25 mg, on different days. In a second phase, the patients were submitted to hemodynamic and gasometric studies in the supine position, before placebo, the 60 min after and immediately after exercise (cycling-like leg movements). After 30 min of rest the same protocol was repeated with oral administration of 25 mg of captopril. In the metabolic evaluation (cycloergometry) captopril increased significantly exercise tolerance (means VO2-uptake at maximal exercise: CP = 0.81 vs Pl = 0.73 1/min), associated with a slower heart rate and higher O2-pulse at maximal exercise. In the hemodynamic study, when the effects of Cp and Pl were compared, the mean values of pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) were similar at rest, but significantly lower during exercise, after captopril (means PAP Cp = 41.3 vs Pl = 51.2 mmHg; XPVR Cp = 278 vs Pl = 392 dyn. sec. cm5). There were similar systemic hemodynamic effects after Cp, but these were more intense in the pulmonary circulation (lower PVR/SVR ratio post-Cp in relation to post-Pl, during exercise). The cardiac index, systemic O2 transport and arterial and mixed venous blood gases were similar at rest and during exercise, with Pl or Cp.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Life Satisfaction and Hemodynamic Reactivity to Mental Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerdtfeger, Andreas; Gaisbachgrabner, Kerstin; Traunmüller, Claudia

    2017-06-01

    Satisfaction with life has been considered a health-protective variable, which could impact cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, few studies have examined the physiological pathways involved in the potentially salutary effect of life satisfaction. It was hypothesized that life satisfaction should be associated with a cardiovascular response profile that signals challenge (i.e., higher cardiac output, lower peripheral resistance), rather than threat during a mental stress task. A sample of 75 healthy, medication-free men without clinical signs of psychological disorders who worked full-time and occupied highly demanding positions participated in this study. They performed two mental stress tasks (n-back) with varying degrees of difficulty. The tasks were embedded between a baseline and a recovery period. Cardiovascular and hemodynamic variables (heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output, total peripheral resistance) were recorded by means of impedance cardiography. Individuals who were more satisfied with their life displayed higher cardiac output and lower peripheral resistance levels during the stress tasks, indicating a challenge rather than a threat profile. Findings were robust when controlled for physical activity, smoking, age, and depressive symptoms. Life satisfaction could be positively correlated with beneficial hemodynamic stress reactivity, indicating that individuals with higher levels of life satisfaction can more adaptively cope with stress. Increased cardiac output and decreased peripheral resistance during stress may constitute one route through which life satisfaction can benefit health.

  18. Evaluation of Beneficial Metabolic Effects of Berries in High-Fat Fed C57BL/6J Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovisa Heyman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the study was to screen eight species of berries for their ability to prevent obesity and metabolic abnormalities associated with type 2 diabetes. Methods. C57BL/6J mice were assigned the following diets for 13 weeks: low-fat diet, high-fat diet or high-fat diet supplemented (20% with lingonberry, blackcurrant, bilberry, raspberry, açai, crowberry, prune or blackberry. Results. The groups receiving a high-fat diet supplemented with lingonberries, blackcurrants, raspberries or bilberries gained less weight and had lower fasting insulin levels than the control group receiving high-fat diet without berries. Lingonberries, and also blackcurrants and bilberries, significantly decreased body fat content, hepatic lipid accumulation, and plasma levels of the inflammatory marker PAI-1, as well as mediated positive effects on glucose homeostasis. The group receiving açai displayed increased weight gain and developed large, steatotic livers. Quercetin glycosides were detected in the lingonberry and the blackcurrant diets. Conclusion. Lingonberries were shown to fully or partially prevent the detrimental metabolic effects induced by high-fat diet. Blackcurrants and bilberries had similar properties, but to a lower degree. We propose that the beneficial metabolic effects of lingonberries could be useful in preventing obesity and related disorders.

  19. Obesity and renal hemodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, R. J.; Krikken, J. A.; van der Heide, J. J. Homan; de Jong, P. E.; Navis, G. J.

    2006-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for renal damage in native kidney disease and in renal transplant recipients. Obesity is associated with several renal risk factors such as hypertension and diabetes that may convey renal risk, but obesity is also associated with an unfavorable renal hemodynamic profile

  20. The beneficial effects of Kampo medicine Dai-ken-chu-to after hepatic resection: a prospective randomized control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Masaki; Shimada, Mitsuo; Uchiyama, Hideaki; Ikegami, Toru; Arakawa, Yusuke; Hanaoka, Jun; Kanemura, Hirofumi; Morine, Yuji; Imura, Satoru; Miyake, Hidenori; Utsunomiya, Toru

    2012-10-01

    After hepatic resection, delayed flatus and impaired bowel movement often cause problematic postoperative ileus. Kampo medicine, Dai-kenchu-to (DKT), is reported to have a various beneficial effects on bowel systems. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate effects of DKT after hepatic resection. Thirty-two patients who underwent hepatic resection between July 2007 and August 2008 in Tokushima University Hospital were prospectively divided into DKT group (n=16) and control group (n=16). In DKT group, 2.5 g of DKT was administered orally three times a day from postoperative day (POD) 1. Blood was examined on POD 1, 3, 5 and 7. Postoperative first flatus, bowel movement and full recovery of oral intake, hospital stays and complications were checked. In DKT group, levels of c-reactive protein and beta-(1-3)-D-glucan on POD 3 were significantly decreased (pDKT group (pDKT suppressed inflammatory reaction, stimulated bowel movement and improved oral intake after hepatic resection, which may decrease serious morbidity after hepatic resection.

  1. The role of indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase in beneficial effects of stem cells in hind limb ischemia reperfusion injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Masoumy

    Full Text Available Ischemia-Reperfusion (IR injury of limb remains a significant clinical problem causing secondary complications and restricting clinical recovery, despite rapid restoration of blood flow and successful surgery. In an attempt to further improve post ischemic tissue repair, we investigated the effect of a local administration of bone marrow derived stem cells (BMDSCs in the presence or absence of immune-regulatory enzyme, IDO, in a murine model. A whole limb warm ischemia-reperfusion model was developed using IDO sufficient (WT and deficient (KO mice with C57/BL6 background. Twenty-four hours after injury, 5 × 105 cells (5×105 cells/200 µL of PBS solution BMDSCs (Sca1 + cells were injected intramuscularly while the control group received just the vehicle buffer (PBS. Forty-eight to seventy-two hours after limb BMDSC injection, recovery status including the ratio of intrinsic paw function between affected and normal paws, general mobility, and inflammatory responses were measured using video micrometery, flow cytometry, and immunohistochemistry techniques. Additionally, MRI/MRA studies were performed to further study the inflammatory response between groups and to confirm reconstitution of blood flow after ischemia. For the first time, our data, showed that IDO may potentially represent a partial role in triggering the beneficial effects of BMDSCs in faster recovery and protection against structural changes and cellular damage in a hind limb IR injury setting (P = 0.00058.

  2. Current evidence on the health-beneficial effects of berry fruits in the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Katarzyna; Olejnik, Anna

    2016-11-01

    Berries belong to the best dietary sources of bioactive compounds, which exert a synergistic and cumulative effect on promotion of human health and prevention of diseases. The present review presents the most recent findings of animal and human studies regarding the health benefits of berries in terms of prevention and treatment of obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. In the last years, there was a growing number of evidence from human epidemiological and interventional studies, which emphasized the role of berries in the management of metabolic diseases. Based on the results from recent clinical trials, it can be established that a berry diet rich in antioxidants and bioactive phytochemicals has beneficial effects on hepatic function, increase of insulin sensitivity and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, decrease of serum glucose and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and finally is inversely associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes. Numerous recent studies have shown that berries provide great benefits in preventing or mitigating metabolic disorders. The results of this review indicate that regular long-term consumption of different berries could potentially delay the progression of metabolic syndrome and comorbidities.

  3. Potential beneficial effects of a gluten-free diet in newly diagnosed children with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Jannet; Sildorf, Stine Møller; Pipper, Christian B.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Gluten-free diet has shown promising effects in preventing type 1 diabetes (T1D) in animals as well as beneficial effects on the immune system. Gluten-free diet at diabetes onset may alter the natural course and outcome of autoimmune diseases such as T1D. Methods: In a 12-month study, 15...... children newly diagnosed with T1D were instructed to follow a gluten-free diet. Questionnaires were used to evaluate adherence to the gluten-free diet. Partial remission (PR) was defined by insulin dose-adjusted A1c (IDAA1c) ≤9 or stimulated C-peptide (SCP) >300 pmol/L measured 90 min after a liquid mixed...... meal at the inclusion, six and 12 months after onset. The intervention group was compared with two previous cohorts. Linear mixed models were used to estimate differences between cohorts. Results: After 6 months, more children on a gluten-free diet tended to have SCP values above 300 pmol/L compared...

  4. Beneficial effect of ghee consumption over mustard oil on lipid profile: A study in North Indian adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Hanjabam Barun; Vyas, Soniya; Kumar, Jayant; Manna, Soumen

    2018-01-24

    Background Ghee (G) is attributed with numerous health benefits in Ayurveda. However, due to the high saturated fat content, it has been predicted to increase the cardiovascular disease risk. Hence, the current study was performed to evaluate the effect of G consumption as compared to mustard oil (MO) on lipid profile. Methods Two hundred (100 males) apparently healthy adults (≥40 years) were randomly selected out of the total individuals interviewed in a house-to-house survey. They were divided into three groups based on G and MO consumption: (A) MO >1 L/month, G1.25 kg/month. Serum lipid parameters were compared among the groups. Results Group C had the significantly lowest triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), TC/HDL and LDL/HDL and highest high-density lipoprotein (HDL). A similar finding was found when analysis was done separetely for male and female. Conclusions A favorable lipid profile might suggest a possible beneficial effect of predominantly G consumption over MO.

  5. Volume-dependent hemodynamic effects of blood collection in canine donors - evaluation of 13% and 15% of total blood volume depletion

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    RUI R.F. FERREIRA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is no consensus regarding the blood volume that could be safely donated by dogs, ranging from 11 to 25% of its total blood volume (TBV. No previous studies evaluated sedated donors.Aim: To evaluate the hemodynamic effects of blood collection from sedated and non-sedated dogs and to understand if such effects were volume-dependent.Materials and Methods: Fifty three donations of 13% of TBV and 20 donations of 15% TBV were performed in dogs sedated with diazepam and ketamine. Additionally, a total of 30 collections of 13% TBV and 20 collections of 15% TBV were performed in non-sedated dogs. Non-invasive arterial blood pressures and pulse rates were registered before and 15 min after donation. Results: Post-donation pulse rates increased significantly in both sedated groups, with higher differences in the 15% TBV collections. Systolic arterial pressures decreased significantly in these groups, while diastolic pressures increased significantly in 13% TBV donations. Non-sedated groups revealed a slight, but significant, SBP decrease. No clinical signs related to donations were registered.Conclusion: These results suggest that the collection of 15% TBV in sedated donors induces hemodynamic variations that may compromise the harmlessness of the procedure, while it seems to be a safe procedure in non-sedated dogs.

  6. Effect of high altitude exposure on the hemodynamics of the bidirectional Glenn physiology: modeling incremented pulmonary vascular resistance and heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallecilla, Carolina; Khiabani, Reza H; Sandoval, Néstor; Fogel, Mark; Briceño, Juan Carlos; Yoganathan, Ajit P

    2014-06-03

    The considerable blood mixing in the bidirectional Glenn (BDG) physiology further limits the capacity of the single working ventricle to pump enough oxygenated blood to the circulatory system. This condition is exacerbated under severe conditions such as physical activity or high altitude. In this study, the effect of high altitude exposure on hemodynamics and ventricular function of the BDG physiology is investigated. For this purpose, a mathematical approach based on a lumped parameter model was developed to model the BDG circulation. Catheterization data from 39 BDG patients at stabilized oxygen conditions was used to determine baseline flows and pressures for the model. The effect of high altitude exposure was modeled by increasing the pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and heart rate (HR) in increments up to 80% and 40%, respectively. The resulting differences in vascular flows, pressures and ventricular function parameters were analyzed. By simultaneously increasing PVR and HR, significant changes (p fails to overcome the increased preload and implied low oxygenation in BDG patients at higher altitudes, especially for those with high baseline PVRs. The presented mathematical model provides a framework to estimate the hemodynamic performance of BDG patients at different PVR increments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fibroblast growth factor 21 is required for beneficial effects of exercise during chronic high-fat feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyd, Christine; Magrisso, I. Jack; Haas, Michael; Balusu, Sowmya; Krishna, Radha; Itoh, Nobuyuki; Sandoval, Darleen A.; Perez-Tilve, Diego; Obici, Silvana

    2016-01-01

    Exercise is an effective therapy against the metabolic syndrome. However, the molecular pathways underlying the advantageous effects of exercise are elusive. Glucagon receptor signaling is essential for exercise benefits, and recent evidence indicates that a downstream effector of glucagon, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), is implicated in this response. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that FGF21 action is necessary in mediating metabolic effects of exercise. We utilized acute exhaustive treadmill exercise in Wistar rats to identify a putative, concomitant increase in plasma glucagon and FGF21 with the increase in glucose and lactate following exercise. To test the necessity of FGF21 action in the exercise response, we exposed FGF21 congenitally deficient mice (Fgf21−/−) and their wild-type (Wt) littermates to chronic high-fat (HF) feeding and inoperable (sedentary) or operable (exercise) voluntary running wheels. Physiological tests were performed to assess the role of FGF21 in the beneficial effect of exercise on glucose metabolism. Wt and Fgf21−/− littermates exhibited similar running behavior, and exercise was effective in suppressing weight and fat mass gain and dyslipidemia independently of genotype. However, exercise failed to positively affect hepatic triglyceride content and glucose tolerance in HF diet-fed Fgf21−/− mice. Furthermore, Fgf21−/− mice exhibited an impaired adaptation to exercise training, including reduced AMP-activated protein kinase activity in skeletal muscle. This study demonstrates that FGF21 action is necessary to achieve the full metabolic benefits of exercise during chronic HF feeding. PMID:27445299

  8. [Prevention and preventive therapy of age-related macular degeneration through the beneficial effect of treatment of endothelial dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Tamás

    2006-12-24

    The beneficial effect achieved by the treatment of endothelial dysfunction in chronic cardiovascular diseases is already an evidence belonging to the basic treatment of the disease. Given the fact that the vascular system is uniform and consubstantial both physiologically, pathophysiologically and in terms of therapy, and that it plays a key role in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) - a disease leading to tragic loss of vision with its etiology and therapy being unknown -, endothelial dysfunction should be treated. The pleiotropic effects of ACE-inhibitors, AR-blockers and statins help to restitute the balance between vasodilators and vasoconstrictors in endothelial dysfunction caused by oxidative stress, the balance of growth factors and their inhibitors, pro- and anti-inflammatory substances and prothrombotic and fibrinolytic factors, inhibit the formation of oxidative stress and its harmful effects; while aspirin with its pleiotropic effects acting as an antiaggregation substance on platelets helps to set the endothelial layer back to its normal balance regarding its vasodilating, antithrombotic, anti-adhesive and anti-inflammatory functions. For the above reasons it is suggested that, as a part of long term primary and/or secondary prevention, the following groups of patients with AMD receive - taking into consideration all possible side effects - ACE-inhibitor and/or AR-blocker and statin and aspirin treatment: 1) those without maculopathy but being over the age of 50 and having risk factors inducing endothelial dysfunction; 2) those, who already developed AMD in one eye as a prevention in the second, unaffected eye; and 3) those patients who developed AMD in both eyes in order to ameliorate or merely slow the progression of the disease. Besides, it is advisory to inhibit AMD risk factors inducing oxidative stress with consecutive endothelial dysfunction.

  9. Hemodynamic segmentation of brain perfusion images with delay and dispersion effects using an expectation-maximization algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Feng Lu

    Full Text Available Automatic identification of various perfusion compartments from dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance brain images can assist in clinical diagnosis and treatment of cerebrovascular diseases. The principle of segmentation methods was based on the clustering of bolus transit-time profiles to discern areas of different tissues. However, the cerebrovascular diseases may result in a delayed and dispersed local perfusion and therefore alter the hemodynamic signal profiles. Assessing the accuracy of the segmentation technique under delayed/dispersed circumstance is critical to accurately evaluate the severity of the vascular disease. In this study, we improved the segmentation method of expectation-maximization algorithm by using