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Sample records for beneficial endophyte trichoderma

  1. Antioxident activity of the mangrove endophytic fungus (Trichoderma sp.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saravanakumar Kandasamy; Kathiresan Kandasamy

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To test antioxidant property of the endophytic Trichoderma species isolated from the leaves of 12 mangroves of Andaman Nicobar Islands. Methods: Eight strains of Trichoderma species were found predominant and their crude extracts were assessed for antioxidant activity by using seven assays.Results:EMFCAS8 and other strains also showed considerable activity. Total antioxidant activity varied with the strains and it was maximum in Trichoderma Conclusions: This work concluded that mangroves are rich in endophytic Trichoderma species with potential for antioxidant activity.

  2. Identifying beneficial qualities of Trichoderma parareesei for plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, M Belén; Quijada, Narciso M; Pérez, Esclaudys; Domínguez, Sara; Monte, Enrique; Hermosa, Rosa

    2014-03-01

    Trichoderma parareesei and Trichoderma reesei (teleomorph Hypocrea jecorina) produce cellulases and xylanases of industrial interest. Here, the anamorphic strain T6 (formerly T. reesei) has been identified as T. parareesei, showing biocontrol potential against fungal and oomycete phytopathogens and enhanced hyphal growth in the presence of tomato exudates or plant cell wall polymers in in vitro assays. A Trichoderma microarray was used to examine the transcriptomic changes in T6 at 20 h of interaction with tomato plants. Out of a total 34,138 Trichoderma probe sets deposited on the microarray, 250 showed a significant change of at least 2-fold in expression in the presence of tomato plants, with most of them being downregulated. T. parareesei T6 exerted beneficial effects on tomato plants in terms of seedling lateral root development, and in adult plants it improved defense against Botrytis cinerea and growth promotion under salt stress. Time course expression patterns (0 to 6 days) observed for defense-related genes suggest that T6 was able to prime defense responses in the tomato plants against biotic and abiotic stresses. Such responses undulated, with a maximum upregulation of the jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET)-related LOX1 and EIN2 genes and the salt tolerance SOS1 gene at 24 h and that of the salicylic acid (SA)-related PR-1 gene at 48 h after T6 inoculation. Our study demonstrates that the T. parareesei T6-tomato interaction is beneficial to both partners.

  3. A new cytotoxic cytochalasin from the endophytic fungus Trichoderma harzianum.

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    Chen, Huiqin; Daletos, Georgios; Okoye, Festus; Lai, Daowan; Dai, Haofu; Proksch, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The new natural product 4]-hydroxy-deacetyl-18-deoxycytochalasin H (1), together with the known deacetyl-18-deoxycytochalasin H (2) and 18-deoxycytochalasin H (3) were obtained from the endophytic fungus Trichoderma harzianum isolated from leaves of Cola nitida. The structure of the new compound was unambiguously determined by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, and by HRESIMS measurements, as well as by comparison with the literature. Compounds 1-3 showed potent cytotoxic activity against the murine lymphoma (L5178Y) cell line and against human ovarian cancer (A2780 sens and A2780 CisR) cell lines (IC50 0.19-6.97 µM). The A2780 cell lines included cisplatin-sensitive (sens) and -resistant (R) cells. PMID:25973482

  4. Beneficial role of bacterial endophytes in heavy metal phytoremediation.

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    Ma, Ying; Rajkumar, Mani; Zhang, Chang; Freitas, Helena

    2016-06-01

    Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that uses plants and their associated microbes to clean up pollutants from the soil, water and air. In recent years, phytoremediation assisted by bacterial endophytes has been highly recommended for cleaning up of metal polluted soils since endophytic bacteria can alleviate metal toxicity in plant through their own metal resistance system and facilitate plant growth under metal stress. Endophytic bacteria improve plant growth in metal polluted soils in two different ways: 1) directly by producing plant growth beneficial substances including solubilization/transformation of mineral nutrients (phosphate, nitrogen and potassium), production of phytohormones, siderophores and specific enzymes; and 2) indirectly through controlling plant pathogens or by inducing a systemic resistance of plants against pathogens. Besides, they also alter metal accumulation capacity in plants by excreting metal immobilizing extracellular polymeric substances, as well as metal mobilizing organic acids and biosurfactants. The present work aims to review the progress of recent research on the isolation, identification and diversity of metal resistant endophytic bacteria and illustrate various mechanisms responsible for plant growth promotion and heavy metal detoxification/phytoaccumulation/translocation in plants. PMID:26989941

  5. Novel Endophytic Trichoderma spp. Isolated from Healthy Coffea arabica Roots are Capable of Controlling Coffee Tracheomycosis

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    Temesgen Belayneh Mulaw

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest threats to coffee growers in East Africa are emerging vascular wilt diseases (tracheomycosis caused by Fusarium spp. Many Trichoderma species are known to be natural antagonists of these pathogens and are widely used in biological control of fungal plant diseases. More recently, several Trichoderma spp., which exhibited high antifungal activity have been isolated as endophytes. Consequently, we have investigated the presence and the antagonistic activity of endophytic Trichoderma isolated from roots of healthy coffee plants (Coffea arabica from the major coffee growing regions of Ethiopia. Our results showed that community of Trichoderma spp. in roots of C. arabica contains fungi from coffee rhizosphere, as well as putatively obligate endophytic fungi. The putatively “true” endophytic species, until now, isolated only from coffee plant ecosystems in Ethiopia and recently described as T. flagellatum and novel T. sp. C.P.K. 1812 were able to antagonize Fusarium spp., which cause coffee tracheomycosis. Moreover, we found that strains of these species are also highly antagonistic against other phytopathogenic fungi, such as Alternaria alternata, Botryotinia fuckeliana (anamorph: Botrytis cinerea, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

  6. SSR Markers for Trichoderma virens: Their Evaluation and Application to Identify and Quantify Root-Endophytic Strains

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    Joerg Geistlinger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Using biological fertilizers and pesticides based on beneficial soil microbes in order to reduce mineral fertilizers and chemical pesticides in conventional agriculture is still a matter of debate. In this regard, a European research project seeks to elucidate the role of root-endophytic fungi and to develop molecular tools to trace and quantify these fungi in the rhizosphere and root tissue. To do this, the draft genome sequence of the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma virens (T. virens was screened for simple sequence repeats (SSRs and primers were developed for 12 distinct loci. Primers were evaluated using a global collection of ten isolates where an average of 7.42 alleles per locus was detected. Nei’s standard genetic distance ranged from 0.18 to 0.27 among the isolates, and the grand mean of haploid diversity in AMOVA analysis was 0.693 ± 0.019. Roots of tomato plants were inoculated with different strains and harvested six weeks later. Subsequent PCR amplification identified root-endophytic strains and co-colonization of roots by different strains. Markers were applied to qPCR to quantify T. virens strains in root tissue and to determine their identity using allele-specific melting curve analysis. Thus, the root-endophytic lifestyle of T. virens was confirmed, strains in roots were quantified and simultaneous colonization of roots by different strains was observed.

  7. Identification of New Lactone Derivatives Isolated from Trichoderma sp., An Endophytic Fungus of Brotowali (Tinaspora crispa

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    Elfita

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi is a rich source of novel organic compounds with interesting biological activities and a high level of structural diversity. As a part of our systematic search for new bioactive lead structures and specific profiles from endophytic fungi, an endophytic fungus was isolated from roots of brotowali (Tinaspora crispa, an important medicinal plant. Colonial morphological trait and microscopic observation revealed that the endophytic fungus was Trichoderma sp. The pure fungal strain was cultivated on 7 L Potatos Dextose Broth (PDB medium under room temperature (no shaking for 8 weeks. The ethyl acetate were added to cultur medium and left overnight to stop cell growth. The culture filtrates were collected and extracted with EtOAc and then taken to evaporation. Two new lactone derivatives, 5-hydroxy-4-hydroxymethyl-2H-pyran-2-one (1 and (5-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H pyran-4-yl methyl acetate (2 were obtained from the EtOAc extracts of Trichoderma sp. Their structures were determined on the basic of spectroscopic methods including UV, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HMQC, and HMBC.

  8. Antifungal activity of metabolites of the endophytic fungus Trichoderma brevicompactum from garlic

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    Xuping Shentu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The endophytic fungus strain 0248, isolated from garlic, was identified as Trichoderma brevicompactum based on morphological characteristics and the nucleotide sequences of ITS1-5.8SITS2 and tef1. The bioactive compound T2 was isolated from the culture extracts of this fungus by bioactivity-guided fractionation and identified as 4β-acetoxy-12,13-epoxy-Δ9-trichothecene (trichodermin by spectral analysis and mass spectrometry. Trichodermin has a marked inhibitory activity on Rhizoctonia solani, with an EC50 of 0.25 µgmL-1. Strong inhibition by trichodermin was also found for Botrytis cinerea, with an EC50 of 2.02 µgmL-1. However, a relatively poor inhibitory effect was observed for trichodermin against Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (EC50 = 25.60 µgmL-1. Compared with the positive control Carbendazim, trichodermin showed a strong antifungal activity on the above phytopathogens. There is little known about endophytes from garlic. This paper studied in detail the identification of endophytic T. brevicompactum from garlic and the characterization of its active metabolite trichodermin.

  9. Trichoderma chlorosporum,a new record of endophytic fungi from Dendrobium nobile in China%中国木霉属内生真菌一个新记录种Trichoderma chlorosporum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁志林; 陈益存; 章初龙; 林福呈; 陈连庆

    2008-01-01

    @@ 1 INTRODUCTION Typically,Trichoderma spp.are free-living fungi most frequently isolated from soils and have been extensively studied due to their remarkable biocontrol and plant-growth promoting capacity.There is increasing evidence that sometimes they display flexible lifestyle and penetrate epidermis of roots and act as opportunistic,avirulent plant symbiont(Harman et al.2004).Recently,a Trichoderma species living as endophyte,Trichoderma taxi C.L.Zhang et al.(2007),has been recognized.

  10. Investigating the beneficial traits of Trichoderma hamatum GD12 for sustainable agriculture – insights from genomics.

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    David J Studholme

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma hamatum strain GD12 is unique in that it can promote plant growth, activate biocontrol against pre- and post-emergence soil pathogens and can induce systemic resistance to foliar pathogens. This study extends previous work in lettuce to demonstrate that GD12 can confer beneficial agronomic traits to other plants, providing examples of plant growth promotion in the model dicot, Arabidopsis thaliana and induced foliar resistance to Magnaporthe oryzae in the model monocot rice. We further characterize the lettuce-T. hamatum interaction to show that bran extracts from GD12 and a N-acetyl-β-D-glucosamindase-deficient mutant differentially promote growth in a concentration dependent manner, and these differences correlate with differences in the small molecule secretome. We show that GD12 mycoparasitises a range of isolates of the pre-emergent soil pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and that this interaction induces a further increase in plant growth promotion above that conferred by GD12. To understand the genetic potential encoded by T. hamatum GD12 and to facilitate its use as a model beneficial to study plant growth promotion, induced systemic resistance and mycoparasitism we present de novo genome sequence data. We compare GD12 with other published Trichoderma genomes and show that T. hamatum GD12 contains unique genomic regions with the potential to encode novel bioactive metabolites that may contribute to GD12’s agrochemically important traits.

  11. Investigating the beneficial traits of Trichoderma hamatum GD12 for sustainable agriculture-insights from genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studholme, David J; Harris, Beverley; Le Cocq, Kate; Winsbury, Rebecca; Perera, Venura; Ryder, Lauren; Ward, Jane L; Beale, Michael H; Thornton, Chris R; Grant, Murray

    2013-01-01

    Trichoderma hamatum strain GD12 is unique in that it can promote plant growth, activate biocontrol against pre- and post-emergence soil pathogens and can induce systemic resistance to foliar pathogens. This study extends previous work in lettuce to demonstrate that GD12 can confer beneficial agronomic traits to other plants, providing examples of plant growth promotion in the model dicot, Arabidopsis thaliana and induced foliar resistance to Magnaporthe oryzae in the model monocot rice. We further characterize the lettuce-T. hamatum interaction to show that bran extracts from GD12 and an N-acetyl-β-D-glucosamindase-deficient mutant differentially promote growth in a concentration dependent manner, and these differences correlate with differences in the small molecule secretome. We show that GD12 mycoparasitises a range of isolates of the pre-emergence soil pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and that this interaction induces a further increase in plant growth promotion above that conferred by GD12. To understand the genetic potential encoded by T. hamatum GD12 and to facilitate its use as a model beneficial organism to study plant growth promotion, induced systemic resistance and mycoparasitism we present de novo genome sequence data. We compare GD12 with other published Trichoderma genomes and show that T. hamatum GD12 contains unique genomic regions with the potential to encode novel bioactive metabolites that may contribute to GD12's agrochemically important traits.

  12. Trichocitrin, a new fusicoccane diterpene from the marine brown alga-endophytic fungus Trichoderma citrinoviride cf-27.

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    Liang, Xiao-Rui; Miao, Feng-Ping; Song, Yin-Ping; Guo, Zhan-Yong; Ji, Nai-Yun

    2016-07-01

    One new diterpene, trichocitrin (1), and four known secondary metabolites, nafuredin (2), 5-hydroxy-2,3-dimethyl-7-methoxychromone (3), 24-methylenecycloartanol (4) and citrostadienol (5), were isolated from the culture of marine brown alga-endophytic Trichoderma citrinoviride cf-27. Trichocitrin (1) represents the first Trichoderma-derived and furan-bearing fusicoccane diterpene, and its structure and relative configuration were identified by analysis of 1D/2D NMR and mass spectroscopic data. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited 8.0- and 9.5-mm inhibition zones, respectively, against Escherichia coli at 20 μg/disc and 54.1 and 36.7% growth inhibition, respectively, of Prorocentrum donghaiense at 80 μg/mL. PMID:26728965

  13. Trichocitrin, a new fusicoccane diterpene from the marine brown alga-endophytic fungus Trichoderma citrinoviride cf-27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiao-Rui; Miao, Feng-Ping; Song, Yin-Ping; Guo, Zhan-Yong; Ji, Nai-Yun

    2016-07-01

    One new diterpene, trichocitrin (1), and four known secondary metabolites, nafuredin (2), 5-hydroxy-2,3-dimethyl-7-methoxychromone (3), 24-methylenecycloartanol (4) and citrostadienol (5), were isolated from the culture of marine brown alga-endophytic Trichoderma citrinoviride cf-27. Trichocitrin (1) represents the first Trichoderma-derived and furan-bearing fusicoccane diterpene, and its structure and relative configuration were identified by analysis of 1D/2D NMR and mass spectroscopic data. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited 8.0- and 9.5-mm inhibition zones, respectively, against Escherichia coli at 20 μg/disc and 54.1 and 36.7% growth inhibition, respectively, of Prorocentrum donghaiense at 80 μg/mL.

  14. Plant Beneficial Endophytic Bacteria from the Ethnomedicinal Mussaenda roxburghii (Akshap of Eastern Himalayan Province, India

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    Pramod Kumar Pandey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mussaenda roxburghii are very important ethnomedicinal plant, used for its various applications from the ancient period. The role of their associated plant beneficial endophytic bacteria was evaluated, which were previously untapped. Among the isolates, PAK6 was identified as efficient phosphate solubilizer, quantified by the molybdenum blue method. Four isolates PAK1, PAK2, PAK3, and PAK8 were able to synthesize significant level of IAA in the presence and absence of tryptophan. Isolates PAK1 and PAK9 were able to produce siderophore on CAS agar media, PAK2 and PAK9 were able to produce HCN, and PAK7 and PAK8 were able to grow on N2-free medium. All the isolates were able to produce a moderate level of polysaccharide and tolerate up to 10% of NaCl. Isolates PAK3, PAK6, PAK7, and PAK8 were able to grow well at pH 5.0 and isolates PAK2, PAK7, and PAK8 were able to tolerate 600 μg mL−1 of Al+3, while all the isolates except PAK1 showed a tolerance to 600 μg mL−1 of Mn+2 tested. Endophytic bacterial isolates PAK6 and PAK9 were effective against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Sclerotium rolfsii.

  15. RNA Interference of Endochitinases in the Sugarcane Endophyte Trichoderma virens 223 Reduces Its Fitness as a Biocontrol Agent of Pineapple Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Aline S Romão-Dumaresq; Welington Luiz Araújo; Nicholas J Talbot; Thornton, Christopher R.

    2012-01-01

    The sugarcane root endophyte Trichoderma virens 223 holds enormous potential as a sustainable alternative to chemical pesticides in the control of sugarcane diseases. Its efficacy as a biocontrol agent is thought to be associated with its production of chitinase enzymes, including N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidases, chitobiosidases and endochitinases. We used targeted gene deletion and RNA-dependent gene silencing strategies to disrupt N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase and endochitinase activities of t...

  16. TOXICITY OF CULTURFILTRATE OF ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI Trichoderma sp. IN DIFFERENT MEDIA AGAINST ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE Meloidogyne spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Nur, Amin

    2013-01-01

    Endophytic fungi are fungi that live within their host plant tissues without causing any symptoms on the host. A host plant and endophytic fungi living on it have a mutulistic relathionship. The host provides substrate and space for the endophytes to grow while the fungal endophytes promote plant growth and protect the plant hosts from pests and diseases. Endophytic fungi have proven to be rich sources of bioactive natural products. One of the mode of action of endophytic fungi against plant...

  17. Development of a Low Input and sustainable Switchgrass Feedstock Production System Utilizing Beneficial Bacterial Endophytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, Chuansheng [IALR; Nowak, Jerzy [VPISU; Seiler, John [VPISU

    2014-10-24

    Switchgrass represents a promising feedstock crop for US energy sustainability. However, its broad utilization for bioenergy requires improvements of biomass yields and stress tolerance. In this DOE funded project, we have been working on harnessing beneficial bacterial endophytes to enhance switchgrass performance and to develop a low input feedstock production system for marginal lands that do not compete with the production of food crops. We have demonstrated that one of most promising plant growth-promoting bacterial endophytes, Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN, is able to colonize roots and significantly promote growth of switchgrass cv. Alamo under in vitro, growth chamber, greenhouse, as well as field conditions. Furthermore, PsJN bacterization improved growth and development of switchgrass seedlings, significantly stimulated plant root and shoot growth, and tiller number in the field, and enhanced biomass accumulation on both poor (p<0.001) and rich (p<0.05) soils, with more effective stimulation of plant growth in low fertility soil. Plant physiology measurements showed that PsJN inoculated Alamo had consistently lower transpiration, lower stomatal conductance, and higher water use efficiency in greenhouse conditions. These physiological changes may significantly contribute to the recorded growth enhancement. PsJN inoculation rapidly results in an increase in photosynthetic rates which contributes to the advanced growth and development. Some evidence suggests that this initial growth advantage decreases with time when resources are not limited such as in greenhouse studies. Additionally, better drought resistance and drought hardening were observed in PsJN inoculated switchgrass. Using the DOE-funded switchgrass EST microarray, in a collaboration with the Genomics Core Facility at the Noble Foundation, we have determined gene expression profile changes in both responsive switchgrass cv. Alamo and non-responsive cv. Cave-in-Rock (CR) following Ps

  18. Dichlorodiaportinol A - A new chlorine-containing isocoumarin from an endophytic fungus Trichoderma sp. 09 from Myoporum bontioides A. Gray and its cytotoxic activity

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    Chunyuan Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Myoporum bontioides A. Gray, an evergreen shrub from the Myoporaceae family, is a commonly used medicinal plant. Many studies have been conducted on the biologically active constituents of whole parts of M. bontioides. However, the endophytes of M. bontioides have not been intensively investigated. A new chlorine-containing isocoumarin, named dichlorodiaportinol A (1 was isolated from the endophytic fungus Trichoderma sp. 09 isolated from the root of M. bontioides. Its cytotoxic activity against human breast cancer (MCF-7 and human liver cancer (HepG2 cell lines was evaluated. Materials and Methods: Different open silica gel column chromatographic techniques with different solvent systems were used for the separation of the constituents of the ethyl acetate extract of the culture broth of the endophytic fungus Trichoderma sp. 09. The structure of compound one was identified by analysis of spectroscopic data [one-dimensional (1D, two-dimensional (2D-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, ultraviolet (UV, infrared (IR and Mass spectrometry (MS]. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT assay method was used for the evaluation of cytotoxic activity of compound one against MCF-7 and HepG2 cell lines. Results: Compound one was identified as 3-(3,3-dichloro-2,3-dihydroxy-propyl-8-hydroxy-6- methoxy-isochromen-1-one. It inhibited MCF-7 and HepG2 cell lines, with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC 50 values of 17.8 and 39.6 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: Compound one is a new chlorine-containing isocoumarin with moderate cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 and HepG2 cell lines. Thus, endophytes of M. bontioides are worthy of consideration for the development and research of antitumor agents.

  19. Endophytic Association of Trichoderma asperellum within Theobroma cacao Suppresses Vascular Streak Dieback Incidence and Promotes Side Graft Growth

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    Nasaruddin, Nasaruddin; Hendarto, Hendarto; Hakkar, Andi Akbar; Agriansyah, Nursalim

    2016-01-01

    Trichoderma species are able to persist on living sapwood and leaves of cacao (Theobroma cacao) in an endophytic relationship. In this research, we evaluated the ability of Trichodema asperellum introduced at the incision site in the bark for side grafting with the concentration of 4 g/10 mL, 4 g/100 mL, and 4 g/1,000 mL (suspended in water) in suppressing vascular streak dieback (VSD) incidence and promoting growth of side grafts in the field. The incidence of VSD in two local clones of cacao, MCC1 and M04, without application of T. asperellum was 71.2% and 70.1% at 21 wk after grafting, respectively. However, when the two clones were treated with a concentration of 4 g/10 mL T. asperellum, the incidence was 20.6% and 21.7%, respectively, compared to 29.1% and 20.9% at 4 g/100 mL and 18.2% and 15.6% at 4 g/1,000 mL. By comparing to the control, the treatment with the same concentrations of T. asperellum listed above, the total number of stomata in MCC1 decreased by 41.9%, 30.2%, and 14.0% and in M04 by 30.5%, 21.9%, and -2.5% (exception), respectively. Otherwise, the total area of stomata opening increased by 91.4%, 99.7%, and 28.6% in MCC1 and by 203.8%, 253.5%, and 35.9% in M04, respectively. Furthermore, the number of buds and branches treated with a mixture concentration on the the two clones increased by 90.7% and 21.7%, respectively. These data showed that the application of T. asperellum to cacao scions while grafting can decrease VSD incidence in side grafts and increase growth of grafts in addition to decreasing total number of stomata, increasing total area of opened stomata, and increasing number of buds and branches. PMID:27790069

  20. Nice to meet you: genetic, epigenetic and metabolic controls of plant perception of beneficial associative and endophytic diazotrophic bacteria in non-leguminous plants.

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    Carvalho, T L G; Ballesteros, H G F; Thiebaut, F; Ferreira, P C G; Hemerly, A S

    2016-04-01

    A wide range of rhizosphere diazotrophic bacteria are able to establish beneficial associations with plants, being able to associate to root surfaces or even endophytically colonize plant tissues. In common, both associative and endophytic types of colonization can result in beneficial outcomes to the plant leading to plant growth promotion, as well as increase in tolerance against biotic and abiotic stresses. An intriguing question in such associations is how plant cell surface perceives signals from other living organisms, thus sorting pathogens from beneficial ones, to transduce this information and activate proper responses that will finally culminate in plant adaptations to optimize their growth rates. This review focuses on the recent advances in the understanding of genetic and epigenetic controls of plant-bacteria signaling and recognition during beneficial associations with associative and endophytic diazotrophic bacteria. Finally, we propose that "soil-rhizosphere-rhizoplane-endophytes-plant" could be considered as a single coordinated unit with dynamic components that integrate the plant with the environment to generate adaptive responses in plants to improve growth. The homeostasis of the whole system should recruit different levels of regulation, and recognition between the parties in a given environment might be one of the crucial factors coordinating these adaptive plant responses.

  1. Occurrence and characterization of peptaibols from Trichoderma citrinoviride, an endophytic fungus of cork oak, using electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

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    Maddau, Lucia; Cabras, Annalisa; Franceschini, Antonio; Linaldeddu, Benedetto T; Crobu, Salvatore; Roggio, Tonina; Pagnozzi, Daniela

    2009-10-01

    A cork oak endophytic strain of Trichoderma citrinoviride, previously selected for its antagonistic potential against various fungal pathogens involved in oak decline, was screened for the production of bioactive secondary metabolites. From liquid culture a mixture of polypeptide antibiotics (peptaibols) belonging to the paracelsin family was isolated and characterized. This peptide mixture was purified by column chromatography and preparative TLC on silica gel, and separated by analytical HPLC. It was analysed by MALDI-TOF MS and nano-ESI-QTOF MS. Tandem mass experiments were performed to determine the amino acid sequences based on the fragmentation pattern of selected parent ions. The mixture comprised 20-residue peptides with C-terminal phenylalaninol and N-terminal acetylation. Twenty-eight amino acid sequences were identified, and amino acid exchanges were located in positions 6, 9, 12 and 17. Among them, seven sequences are new as compared to those reported in the database specifically for peptaibols and in the literature. In addition, we obtained experimental evidence suggesting the existence of non-covalent dimeric forms (homo- and hetero-) of the various peptaibol species. The peptide mixture showed strong antifungal activity toward seven important forest tree pathogens, and it was highly toxic in an Artemia salina (brine shrimp) bioassay. These results emphasize the cryptic role of endophytic fungi as a source of novel bioactive natural products and biocontrol agents. PMID:19574303

  2. RNA interference of endochitinases in the sugarcane endophyte Trichoderma virens 223 reduces its fitness as a biocontrol agent of pineapple disease.

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    Romão-Dumaresq, Aline S; de Araújo, Welington Luiz; Talbot, Nicholas J; Thornton, Christopher R

    2012-01-01

    The sugarcane root endophyte Trichoderma virens 223 holds enormous potential as a sustainable alternative to chemical pesticides in the control of sugarcane diseases. Its efficacy as a biocontrol agent is thought to be associated with its production of chitinase enzymes, including N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidases, chitobiosidases and endochitinases. We used targeted gene deletion and RNA-dependent gene silencing strategies to disrupt N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase and endochitinase activities of the fungus, and to determine their roles in the biocontrol of soil-borne plant pathogens. The loss of N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase activities was dispensable for biocontrol of the plurivorous damping-off pathogens Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and of the sugarcane pathogen Ceratocystis paradoxa, the causal agent of pineapple disease. Similarly, suppression of endochitinase activities had no effect on R. solani and S. sclerotiorum disease control, but had a pronounced effect on the ability of T. virens 223 to control pineapple disease. Our work demonstrates a critical requirement for T. virens 223 endochitinase activity in the biocontrol of C. paradoxa sugarcane disease, but not for general antagonism of other soil pathogens. This may reflect its lifestyle as a sugarcane root endophyte. PMID:23110120

  3. RNA interference of endochitinases in the sugarcane endophyte Trichoderma virens 223 reduces its fitness as a biocontrol agent of pineapple disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline S Romão-Dumaresq

    Full Text Available The sugarcane root endophyte Trichoderma virens 223 holds enormous potential as a sustainable alternative to chemical pesticides in the control of sugarcane diseases. Its efficacy as a biocontrol agent is thought to be associated with its production of chitinase enzymes, including N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidases, chitobiosidases and endochitinases. We used targeted gene deletion and RNA-dependent gene silencing strategies to disrupt N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase and endochitinase activities of the fungus, and to determine their roles in the biocontrol of soil-borne plant pathogens. The loss of N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase activities was dispensable for biocontrol of the plurivorous damping-off pathogens Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and of the sugarcane pathogen Ceratocystis paradoxa, the causal agent of pineapple disease. Similarly, suppression of endochitinase activities had no effect on R. solani and S. sclerotiorum disease control, but had a pronounced effect on the ability of T. virens 223 to control pineapple disease. Our work demonstrates a critical requirement for T. virens 223 endochitinase activity in the biocontrol of C. paradoxa sugarcane disease, but not for general antagonism of other soil pathogens. This may reflect its lifestyle as a sugarcane root endophyte.

  4. Occurrence and characterization of peptaibols from Trichoderma citrinoviride, an endophytic fungus of cork oak, using electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddau, Lucia; Cabras, Annalisa; Franceschini, Antonio; Linaldeddu, Benedetto T; Crobu, Salvatore; Roggio, Tonina; Pagnozzi, Daniela

    2009-10-01

    A cork oak endophytic strain of Trichoderma citrinoviride, previously selected for its antagonistic potential against various fungal pathogens involved in oak decline, was screened for the production of bioactive secondary metabolites. From liquid culture a mixture of polypeptide antibiotics (peptaibols) belonging to the paracelsin family was isolated and characterized. This peptide mixture was purified by column chromatography and preparative TLC on silica gel, and separated by analytical HPLC. It was analysed by MALDI-TOF MS and nano-ESI-QTOF MS. Tandem mass experiments were performed to determine the amino acid sequences based on the fragmentation pattern of selected parent ions. The mixture comprised 20-residue peptides with C-terminal phenylalaninol and N-terminal acetylation. Twenty-eight amino acid sequences were identified, and amino acid exchanges were located in positions 6, 9, 12 and 17. Among them, seven sequences are new as compared to those reported in the database specifically for peptaibols and in the literature. In addition, we obtained experimental evidence suggesting the existence of non-covalent dimeric forms (homo- and hetero-) of the various peptaibol species. The peptide mixture showed strong antifungal activity toward seven important forest tree pathogens, and it was highly toxic in an Artemia salina (brine shrimp) bioassay. These results emphasize the cryptic role of endophytic fungi as a source of novel bioactive natural products and biocontrol agents.

  5. Isolation, screening, and molecular characterization of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria isolates of Azotobacter and Trichoderma and their beneficial activities

    OpenAIRE

    Kasa, Parameswari; Modugapalem, Hemalatha; Battini, Kishori

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The present study was conducted for isolation, screening, and identification of Azotobacter and Trichoderma from different soil samples. Methods: A total of 10 isolates of Azotobacter and Trichoderma were isolated from rhizospheric soils. The test isolates were biochemically characterized and screened in in-vitro conditions for their plant growth promoting properties. DNA polymorphism of isolates was studied using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. Results: A total of 41...

  6. 内生真菌Trichoderma harzianum次生代谢产物研究%Study on secondary metabolites of endophytic fungi Trichoderma harzianum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕海宁; 陈辉; 屈晶; 李勇; 马双刚; 刘云宝

    2015-01-01

    目的:对格木Erythrophleum fordii Oliver的内生真菌菌株Trichoderma harzianum次生代谢产物进行研究.方法:将此内生真菌进行发酵培养,对其发酵液利用色谱方法进行分离纯化,利用波谱方法鉴定得到化合物结构.结果:从其发酵液中分离得到了10个化合物,包括7个环二肽类、2个酚酸和1个嘧啶类化合物,其结构分别为环(R-脯氨酸-甘氨酸)(1)、环-(R-脯氨酸-R-丙氨酸)(2)、环-(S-脯氨酸-R-缬氨酸)(3)、环-(4-甲基-R-脯氨酸-S-正缬氨酸)(4)、环-(R-脯氨酸-R-亮氨酸)(5)、环-(R-脯氨酸-R-苯丙氨酸)(6)、环-(4-羟基-S-脯氨酸-S-亮氨酸)(7)、尿嘧啶(8)、对羟基苯乙醇(9)、间羟基苯乙酸(10).结论:这些化合物均是首次从该菌株中分离得到.

  7. Diversity of Cultivated Fungi Associated with Conventional and Transgenic Sugarcane and the Interaction between Endophytic Trichoderma virens and the Host Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romão-Dumaresq, Aline Silva; Dourado, Manuella Nóbrega; Fávaro, Léia Cecilia de Lima; Mendes, Rodrigo; Ferreira, Anderson; Araújo, Welington Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Plant-associated fungi are considered a vast source for biotechnological processes whose potential has been poorly explored. The interactions and diversity of sugarcane, one of the most important crops in Brazil, have been rarely studied, mainly concerning fungal communities and their interactions with transgenic plants. Taking this into consideration, the purpose of this study was, based on culture dependent strategy, to determine the structure and diversity of the fungal community (root endophytes and rhizosphere) associated with two varieties of sugarcane, a non-genetically modified (SP80-1842) variety and its genetically modified counterpart (IMI-1, expressing imazapyr herbicide resistance). For this, the sugarcane varieties were evaluated in three sampling times (3, 10 and 17 months after planting) under two crop management (weeding and herbicide treatments). In addition, a strain of Trichoderma virens, an endophyte isolated from sugarcane with great potential as a biological control, growth promotion and enzyme production agent, was selected for the fungal-plant interaction assays. The results of the isolation, characterization and evaluation of fungal community changes showed that the sugarcane fungal community is composed of at least 35 different genera, mostly in the phylum Ascomycota. Many genera are observed at very low frequencies among a few most abundant genera, some of which were isolated from specific plant sites (e.g., the roots or the rhizosphere). An assessment of the possible effects upon the fungal community showed that the plant growth stage was the only factor that significantly affected the community's structure. Moreover, if transgenic effects are present, they may be minor compared to other natural sources of variation. The results of interaction studies using the Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing T. virens strain T.v.223 revealed that this fungus did not promote any phenotypic changes in the host plant and was found mostly in the

  8. Diversity of Cultivated Fungi Associated with Conventional and Transgenic Sugarcane and the Interaction between Endophytic Trichoderma virens and the Host Plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Silva Romão-Dumaresq

    Full Text Available Plant-associated fungi are considered a vast source for biotechnological processes whose potential has been poorly explored. The interactions and diversity of sugarcane, one of the most important crops in Brazil, have been rarely studied, mainly concerning fungal communities and their interactions with transgenic plants. Taking this into consideration, the purpose of this study was, based on culture dependent strategy, to determine the structure and diversity of the fungal community (root endophytes and rhizosphere associated with two varieties of sugarcane, a non-genetically modified (SP80-1842 variety and its genetically modified counterpart (IMI-1, expressing imazapyr herbicide resistance. For this, the sugarcane varieties were evaluated in three sampling times (3, 10 and 17 months after planting under two crop management (weeding and herbicide treatments. In addition, a strain of Trichoderma virens, an endophyte isolated from sugarcane with great potential as a biological control, growth promotion and enzyme production agent, was selected for the fungal-plant interaction assays. The results of the isolation, characterization and evaluation of fungal community changes showed that the sugarcane fungal community is composed of at least 35 different genera, mostly in the phylum Ascomycota. Many genera are observed at very low frequencies among a few most abundant genera, some of which were isolated from specific plant sites (e.g., the roots or the rhizosphere. An assessment of the possible effects upon the fungal community showed that the plant growth stage was the only factor that significantly affected the community's structure. Moreover, if transgenic effects are present, they may be minor compared to other natural sources of variation. The results of interaction studies using the Green fluorescent protein (GFP-expressing T. virens strain T.v.223 revealed that this fungus did not promote any phenotypic changes in the host plant and was found

  9. Diversity of Cultivated Fungi Associated with Conventional and Transgenic Sugarcane and the Interaction between Endophytic Trichoderma virens and the Host Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romão-Dumaresq, Aline Silva; Dourado, Manuella Nóbrega; Fávaro, Léia Cecilia de Lima; Mendes, Rodrigo; Ferreira, Anderson; Araújo, Welington Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Plant-associated fungi are considered a vast source for biotechnological processes whose potential has been poorly explored. The interactions and diversity of sugarcane, one of the most important crops in Brazil, have been rarely studied, mainly concerning fungal communities and their interactions with transgenic plants. Taking this into consideration, the purpose of this study was, based on culture dependent strategy, to determine the structure and diversity of the fungal community (root endophytes and rhizosphere) associated with two varieties of sugarcane, a non-genetically modified (SP80-1842) variety and its genetically modified counterpart (IMI-1, expressing imazapyr herbicide resistance). For this, the sugarcane varieties were evaluated in three sampling times (3, 10 and 17 months after planting) under two crop management (weeding and herbicide treatments). In addition, a strain of Trichoderma virens, an endophyte isolated from sugarcane with great potential as a biological control, growth promotion and enzyme production agent, was selected for the fungal-plant interaction assays. The results of the isolation, characterization and evaluation of fungal community changes showed that the sugarcane fungal community is composed of at least 35 different genera, mostly in the phylum Ascomycota. Many genera are observed at very low frequencies among a few most abundant genera, some of which were isolated from specific plant sites (e.g., the roots or the rhizosphere). An assessment of the possible effects upon the fungal community showed that the plant growth stage was the only factor that significantly affected the community’s structure. Moreover, if transgenic effects are present, they may be minor compared to other natural sources of variation. The results of interaction studies using the Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing T. virens strain T.v.223 revealed that this fungus did not promote any phenotypic changes in the host plant and was found mostly in

  10. Detoxification of Toxic Phorbol Esters from Malaysian Jatropha curcas Linn. Kernel by Trichoderma spp. and Endophytic Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar Najjar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The presence of phorbol esters (PEs with toxic properties limits the use of Jatropha curcas kernel in the animal feed industry. Therefore, suitable methods to detoxify PEs have to be developed to render the material safe as a feed ingredient. In the present study, the biological treatment of the extracted PEs-rich fraction with non-pathogenic fungi (Trichoderma harzianum JQ350879.1, T. harzianum JQ517493.1, Paecilomyces sinensis JQ350881.1, Cladosporium cladosporioides JQ517491.1, Fusarium chlamydosporum JQ350882.1, F. chlamydosporum JQ517492.1 and F. chlamydosporum JQ350880.1 was conducted by fermentation in broth cultures. The PEs were detected by liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-ESIMS and quantitatively monitored by HPLC using phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate as the standard. At day 30 of incubation, two T. harzianum spp., P. sinensis and C. cladosporioides significantly (p < 0.05 removed PEs with percentage losses of 96.9%–99.7%, while F. chlamydosporum strains showed percentage losses of 88.9%–92.2%. All fungal strains could utilize the PEs-rich fraction for growth. In the cytotoxicity assay, cell viabilities of Chang liver and NIH 3T3 fibroblast cell lines were less than 1% with the untreated PEs-rich fraction, but 84.3%–96.5% with the fungal treated PEs-rich fraction. There was no inhibition on cell viability for normal fungal growth supernatants. To conclude, Trichoderma spp., Paecilomyces sp. and Cladosporium sp. are potential microbes for the detoxification of PEs.

  11. Effect of endophytic pseudomonas aeruinosa and trichoderma harzianum on soil-borne diseases, mycorrhizae and induction of systemic resistance in okra grown in soil amended with vernonia anthelmintica (L.) seeds powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biostimulants are used in agricultural practices for plant growth improvement. These fertilizers improve microbial activity and cause a negative impact on soil-borne pathogens. In recent years, stimulating plant natural defense is considered as most promising alternative strategy for crop productivity. The present study was carried out to examine the effect of endophytic Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Trichoderma harzianum in soil amendment with Vernonia anthelmintica seeds powder, on root rotting fungi, plant growth, mycorrhizal population around roots, phosphorous uptake and stimulation of plant defense markers like poylphenol and antioxidant status in okra. Combine application of Vernonia with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Trichoderma harzianum significantly (p<0.05) suppressed Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum with complete reduction of Macrophomina phaseolina and Fusarium solani. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and T. harzianum alone or in Vernonia amended soil significantly reduced nematode galls on roots. Organic amendment also improved plant resistance against root diseases as evident from enhanced DPPH radical scavenging capacity and polyphenol content in treated plants as compare to control. VA Mycorrhizal spores were found significantly (p<0.05) higher in number around roots received Pseudomonas aeruginosa or T. harzianum alone or in Vernonia amended soil. Whereas, higher concentrations of phosphorus in okra shoots were found in plants received biocontrol agents in amended soil. Mixed application of PGPR and T. harzianum in amended soil produced tallest plants than other treatments. Soil amendment with Vernonia seed powder alone or with biocontrol agents offer a non-chemical means of plant disease control. (author)

  12. Indole-3-acetaldoxime-derived compounds restrict root colonization in the beneficial interaction between Arabidopsis roots and the endophyte Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nongbri, Pyniarlang L; Johnson, Joy Michal; Sherameti, Irena; Glawischnig, Erich; Halkier, Barbara Ann; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2012-09-01

    The growth-promoting and root-colonizing endophyte Piriformospora indica induces camalexin and the expression of CYP79B2, CYP79B3, CYP71A13, PAD3, and WRKY33 required for the synthesis of indole-3-acetaldoxime (IAOx)-derived compounds in the roots of Arabidopsis seedlings. Upregulation of the mRNA levels by P. indica requires cytoplasmic calcium elevation and mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 but not root-hair-deficient 2, radical oxygen production, or the 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1/oxidative signal-inducible 1 pathway. Because P. indica-mediated growth promotion is impaired in cyp79B2 cyp79B3 seedlings, while pad3 seedlings-which do not accumulate camalexin-still respond to the fungus, IAOx-derived compounds other than camalexin (e.g., indole glucosinolates) are required during early phases of the beneficial interaction. The roots of cyp79B2 cyp79B3 seedlings are more colonized than wild-type roots, and upregulation of the defense genes pathogenesis-related (PR)-1, PR-3, PDF1.2, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, and germin indicates that the mutant responds to the lack of IAOx-derived compounds by activating other defense processes. After 6 weeks on soil, defense genes are no longer upregulated in wild-type, cyp79B2 cyp79B3, and pad3 roots. This results in uncontrolled fungal growth in the mutant roots and reduced performance of the mutants. We propose that a long-term harmony between the two symbionts requires restriction of root colonization by IAOx-derived compounds.

  13. Cyclonerol derivatives from Trichoderma longibrachiatum YM311505.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Qi-Cun; Huang, Rong; Chen, You-Wei; Miao, Cui-Ping; Ma, Kai-Xia; Wang, Tang; Wu, Shao-Hua

    2014-03-01

    A new sesquiterpene, 10,11-dihydrocyclonerotriol (1), together with two known compounds, catenioblin C (2) and sohirnone A (3), were isolated from Trichoderma longibrachiatum YM311505, an endophytic fungus of Azadirachta indica. Their structures were characterized and identified by spectral analysis. Compounds 1-3 exhibited antifungal activities against Pyricularia oryzae and Candida albicans. PMID:24689203

  14. The Use of Fungal Endophytes Against Vascular Streak Dieback (VSD) Oncobasidium theobromae on Seedling of Cocoa Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Nur, Amin; Muslim, Salam; Asman; Ryan,, Tony; Danial, Rahim

    2014-01-01

    Fungal endophytes are Fungus that live within plant tissues without causing symptoms of disease. A host plant and fungal endophytes living on it have a mutulistic relathionship. The host provides substrate and space for the endophytes to grow while the fungal endophytes promote plant growth and protect the plant hosts from pests and diseases. The research aimed to investigate of fungal endopohytes e.g Aspergillus sp, Beauveria sp, Culvularia sp, and Trichoderma sp isolated from healthy branch...

  15. Trichoderma genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Pamela; Goedegebuur, Frits; Van Solingen, Pieter; Ward, Michael

    2012-06-19

    Described herein are novel gene sequences isolated from Trichoderma reesei. Two genes encoding proteins comprising a cellulose binding domain, one encoding an arabionfuranosidase and one encoding an acetylxylanesterase are described. The sequences, CIP1 and CIP2, contain a cellulose binding domain. These proteins are especially useful in the textile and detergent industry and in pulp and paper industry.

  16. Dynamics of Seed-Borne Rice Endophytes on Early Plant Growth Stages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardoim, P.R.; Hardoim, C.C.P.; Overbeek, van L.S.; Elsas, van J.D.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial endophytes are ubiquitous to virtually all terrestrial plants. With the increasing appreciation of studies that unravel the mutualistic interactions between plant and microbes, we increasingly value the beneficial functions of endophytes that improve plant growth and development. However,

  17. Diversity of endophytic fungi from root of Maize var. Pulut (waxy corn local variety of south sulawesi, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    AMIN, NUR

    2013-01-01

    Endophytes are microorganisms that live within plant tissues without causing symptoms of disease. The objective of this investigation was to isolation and identification of fungal endophytes from roots of maize plant var. Pulut (a local variety of south Sulawesi). Sixty three isolates of fungal endophytes were isolated from the root of maize var. Pulut. The isolates belonged to six genera, namely :Trichoderma sp., Fusarium sp., Acremonium sp., Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp., and Botryodiplo...

  18.   The fungus Trichoderma spp. on vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winding, Anne

      The fungus Trichoderma spp. on vegetables   Anne Winding, National Environmental Research Institute, Roskilde, AU   Trichoderma spp. is a naturally occurring fungus in soil and T. harzianum is an active ingredient in microbial pest control agents (MPCA) active against root pathogenic fungi....... The MPCA is administered to the plants by watering. The fungus establishes in the root zone and exerts its beneficial effect by general increase of resistance against pathogenic fungi. The natural occurrence of Trichoderma spp. and the fate and survival of the introduced T. harzianum on vegetables...... are important for risk assessment of MPCA and are the objectives of this project. Trichoderma spp. on tomatoes and cucumbers grown in greenhouses and on broccoli and celery leaf grown outdoors were quantified during a growth season. A MPCA with T. harzianum was applied in a greenhouse growing tomatoes...

  19. 77 FR 4903 - Trichoderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... Trichoderma virens strain GL-21) (40 CFR 180.1100)--see the Federal Register of September 20, 1995 (60 FR 48657) (FRL-4974-1) and October 5, 1995 (60 FR 52248) (FRL-4974-1). 2. Trichoderma harzianum Rifai.... Trichoderma harzianum strain T-39 (40 CFR 180.1201)--see the Federal Register of June 22, 2000 (65 FR...

  20. Molecular Characterisation of Endophytic Fungi from Roots of Wild Banana (Musa acuminata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Latiffah; Jamil, Muhamad Izham Muhamad; Anuar, Intan Sakinah Mohd

    2016-02-01

    Endophytic fungi inhabit apparently healthy plant tissues and are prevalent in terrestrial plants, especially root tissues, which harbour a wide assemblage of fungal endophytes. Therefore, this study focused on the isolation and characterisation of endophytic fungi from the roots of wild banana (Musa acuminata). A total of 31 isolates of endophytic fungi were isolated from 80 root fragments. The endophytic fungi were initially sorted according to morphological characteristics and identified using the sequences of the translation elongation factor-1α (TEF-1α) gene of Fusarium spp. and the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions of other fungi. The most common fungal isolates were species of the genus Fusarium, which were identified as F. proliferatum, Fusarium sp., F. solani species complex, and F. oxysporum. Other isolated endophytic fungi included Curvularia lunata, Trichoderma atroviride, Calonectria gracilis, Rhizoctonia solani, Bionectria ochroleuca, and Stromatoneurospora phoenix (Xylariceae). Several of the fungal genera, such as Fusarium, Trichoderma, Rhizoctonia, and Xylariceae, are among the common fungal endophytes reported in plants. This study showed that the roots of wild banana harbour a diverse group of endophytic fungi. PMID:27019688

  1. Poplar and its bacterial endophytes: coexistence and harmony

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Lelie, D.; Taghavi, S.; Monchy, S.; Schwender, J.; Miller, L.; Ferrieri, R.; Rogers, A.; Zhu, W.; Weyens, N.; Vangronsveld, J.; Newman, L.

    2009-09-01

    Associations between plants and microorganisms are very complex and are the subject of an increasing number of studies. Here, we specifically address the relationship between poplar and its endophytic bacteria. The role and importance of endophytic bacteria in growth and development of their host plants is still underestimated. However, since many endophytes have a beneficial effect on their host, an improved understanding of the interaction between poplar and its endophytic bacteria has the potential to provide major breakthroughs that will improve the productivity of poplar. Endophytic bacteria can improve plant growth and development in a direct or indirect way. Direct plant growth promoting mechanisms may involve nitrogen fixation, production of plant growth regulators such as auxins, cytokinins and gibberellins, and suppression of stress ethylene synthesis by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity. Endophytic bacteria can indirectly benefit the plant by preventing the growth or activity of plant pathogens through competition for space and nutrients, antibiosis, production of hydrolytic enzymes, inhibition of pathogen-produced enzymes or toxins, and through systemic induction of plant defense mechanisms. Examples of applications for custom endophyte-host partnerships include improved productivity and establishment of poplar trees on marginal soils and the phytoremediation of contaminated soils and groundwater. A systems biology approach to understand the synergistic interactions between poplar and its beneficial endophytic bacteria represents an important field of research, which is facilitated by the recent sequencing of the genomes of poplar and several of its endophytic bacteria.

  2. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI FROM HEALTHY LEAF OF COCOA PLANT

    OpenAIRE

    Surapati, Untung; Izha, MNY; Nur, Amin

    2015-01-01

    The new prospective area on agriculture and forestry are the use of microorganisms to promote plant growth and to protect the plant hosts from pests and diseases. One group of the microorganisms is endophytic fungi. The research aims to isolate and to identify of fungal endophyte of healthy leaf of cocoa plant. A total of 6 isolates of fungal endophyte were isolated from healthy leaf of cocoa plant. The isolates belonged to 1 genera namely: Trichoderma sp., and 5 isolates that have not been...

  3. Applications of Trichoderma formulations in crop protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Monte E; Rodríguez A; Rey M; Axpilicueta A; Gómez M I; de la Vina G; Grondona I; Llobell A

    2004-01-01

    @@ The choice of active Trichoderma strains is important in designing effective and safe biocontrol applications. Many species of Trichoderma have multiple strategies for fungal antagonism and indirect effects on plant health, such as growth promotion, systemic resistance induction and fertility improvements. Some strains are powerful antibiotic producers, and their suitability for use in biocontrol systems must be carefully assessed. However, many other active strains have no antibiotic capacity, and these are likely to be more useful in food production systems since they have not adverse effects on important groups of beneficial soil organisms. We have assessed the performance of selected naturally occurring Trichoderma strains (singly and in combination) and developed TUSAL , a mixture of Trichoderma harzianum and T. viride that has demonstrated to be effective against major pathogens in sugar beet and horticulture. TUSAL , has been bulked up and tested under field conditions, showing positive effects on precocity and root development, and increasing the crop production in field trials carried out in different pathosystems. The environmental impact of TUSAL strains on beneficial organisms in the environment were assessed before release, and molecular detection methods were developed to monitor the presence and performance of strains in the field.

  4. Fungal root endophytes of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilliam, Richard S; Jones, David L

    2010-06-01

    As carnivorous plants acquire substantial amounts of nutrients from the digestion of their prey, mycorrhizal associations are considered to be redundant; however, fungal root endophytes have rarely been examined. As endophytic fungi can have profound impacts on plant communities, we aim to determine the extent of fungal root colonisation of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia at two points in the growing season (spring and summer). We have used a culture-dependent method to isolate fungal endophytes and diagnostic polymerase chain reaction methods to determine arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonisation. All of the roots sampled contained culturable fungal root endophytes; additionally, we have provided molecular evidence that they also host arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Colonisation showed seasonal differences: Roots in the spring were colonised by Articulospora tetracladia, two isolates of uncultured ectomycorrhizal fungi, an unidentified species of fungal endophyte and Trichoderma viride, which was present in every plant sampled. In contrast, roots in the summer were colonised by Alatospora acuminata, an uncultured ectomycorrhizal fungus, Penicillium pinophilum and an uncultured fungal clone. Although the functional roles of fungal endophytes of D. rotundifolia are unknown, colonisation may (a) confer abiotic stress tolerance, (b) facilitate the acquisition of scarce nutrients particularly at the beginning of the growing season or (c) play a role in nutrient signalling between root and shoot. PMID:20012108

  5. Genetic compatibility determines endophyte-grass combinations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Saikkonen

    Full Text Available Even highly mutually beneficial microbial-plant interactions, such as mycorrhizal- and rhizobial-plant exchanges, involve selfishness, cheating and power-struggles between the partners, which depending on prevailing selective pressures, lead to a continuum of interactions from antagonistic to mutualistic. Using manipulated grass-endophyte combinations in a five year common garden experiment, we show that grass genotypes and genetic mismatches constrain genetic combinations between the vertically (via host seeds transmitted endophytes and the out-crossing host, thereby reducing infections in established grass populations. Infections were lost in both grass tillers and seedlings in F(1 and F(2 generations, respectively. Experimental plants were collected as seeds from two different environments, i.e., meadows and nearby riverbanks. Endophyte-related benefits to the host included an increased number of inflorescences, but only in meadow plants and not until the last growing season of the experiment. Our results illustrate the importance of genetic host specificity and trans-generational maternal effects on the genetic structure of a host population, which act as destabilizing forces in endophyte-grass symbioses. We propose that (1 genetic mismatches may act as a buffering mechanism against highly competitive endophyte-grass genotype combinations threatening the biodiversity of grassland communities and (2 these mismatches should be acknowledged, particularly in breeding programmes aimed at harnessing systemic and heritable endophytes to improve the agriculturally valuable characteristics of cultivars.

  6. Genetic compatibility determines endophyte-grass combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikkonen, Kari; Wäli, Piippa R; Helander, Marjo

    2010-01-01

    Even highly mutually beneficial microbial-plant interactions, such as mycorrhizal- and rhizobial-plant exchanges, involve selfishness, cheating and power-struggles between the partners, which depending on prevailing selective pressures, lead to a continuum of interactions from antagonistic to mutualistic. Using manipulated grass-endophyte combinations in a five year common garden experiment, we show that grass genotypes and genetic mismatches constrain genetic combinations between the vertically (via host seeds) transmitted endophytes and the out-crossing host, thereby reducing infections in established grass populations. Infections were lost in both grass tillers and seedlings in F(1) and F(2) generations, respectively. Experimental plants were collected as seeds from two different environments, i.e., meadows and nearby riverbanks. Endophyte-related benefits to the host included an increased number of inflorescences, but only in meadow plants and not until the last growing season of the experiment. Our results illustrate the importance of genetic host specificity and trans-generational maternal effects on the genetic structure of a host population, which act as destabilizing forces in endophyte-grass symbioses. We propose that (1) genetic mismatches may act as a buffering mechanism against highly competitive endophyte-grass genotype combinations threatening the biodiversity of grassland communities and (2) these mismatches should be acknowledged, particularly in breeding programmes aimed at harnessing systemic and heritable endophytes to improve the agriculturally valuable characteristics of cultivars. PMID:20614034

  7. Phosphate Solubilizing and Antifungal Activity of Root Endophyte Isolated from Shorea leprosula Miq. and Shoreal selanica (DC Blume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safinah Surya Hakim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fungal endophytes are fungi that lives within plant tissues without causing apparent disease. It is also suggested that these fungi have ability to enhance plant growth and plant resistancy against pest and disease. This research is a preliminary study about root fungal endophytes in dipterocarp since there are lack research concerning about this study focus. We examined root fungal endophyte isolated from seedling of Shorea leprosula and Shorea selanica taken from Dramaga Experimental Forest, Bogor. Furthermore, we also tried to find out the fungal potential ability to solubilize phosphate and suppres fungal pathogen by in vitro assay. Surface sterilization method was used to isolated fungal endophytes from root tissues. Trichoderma spirale, Velsalceae sp., Melanconiela ellisii, Chaetosphaeria callimorpha, and Trichoderma asperellum were isolated during this study. These fungi appear to have specific association between fungal species and host plant, but no evidence of fungal order-level specificiation in S. leprosula and S. selanica. In vitro test also suggested that root fungal endophyte Trichoderma spirale and Melanconiella elisii have potential ability to solubilize inorganic phosphate. In addition, this result also present that root fungal endophyte T. spirale and T. asperellum have the potential to inhibit pathogen fungi Fusarium sp.

  8. Diversity of Trichoderma in greenhouse soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Zhi-hui; SUN Xiao-dong; YANG Rui-xiu; YANG Hong; LU Guo-zhong

    2004-01-01

    @@ The protected agricultural production has become one of the fast growing and widespread cultivation technology in the north parts of China. Continuous cultivation of single crop or less rotation of crops usually resulted in the large amount of accumulation of soilborne pathogens and serious crop diseases in the greenhouse. After a few years of investigation of soilborne fungi in the north parts of China, nearly one hundred species of mictosporic fungi have been identified by the authors. Among these fungi 11species of Trichoderma have been morphologically identified, namely T. atroviride, T.aureoviride, T. citrinoviride , T. fertile, T. harzianum , T. inhamatum , T.longibrachiatum, T. parceramosum, T. reeseii, T. virens and T. viride. Trichoderm is found to be a frequently occurring genus of fungi in greenhouse soil. As an important component of effective beneficial antibiotic mycoparasites in soil Trichoderma plays an important part to regulate the balance of beneficial and harmful soilborne microorganisms.

  9. Trichoderma species from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chu-long; XU Tong

    2004-01-01

    @@ Seventeen species of Trichoderma, isolated from soil or tree bark from China are identified based on morphological and physiological characters, and from their phylogenetic position inferred from parsimony analyses of nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacer regions of the rDNA cluster (ITS1 and 2) and partial sequences of translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1) . There were T. citrinoviride, T. longibrachiatum, T. sinensis in section Longibrachiatum, T. atroviride, T.koningii, T. viride, T. asperellum, T. hamatum, T. erinaceum in section Trichoderma, T.harzianum (H.lixii) , T. inhamatum, T. velutinum , T. cerinum , T. strictipile , T. spirale ,T. virens, H. nigrovirens (Trichoderma sp.) in section Pachybasium. Among them four species:T. asperellum , T. velutinum , T. cerinum , T. spirale were reported firstly in China. In addition, two suspected new taxa (Trichoderma spp.) in Trichoderma section were proposed:Trichoderma sp. 1 (ZAUT261, 4, 4A, 15A, 2C), Trichoderma sp. 2 (2B, 5, 7A, 7B, 9A).Trichoderma sp. 1 was similar to T. hamatum , but the temperature optimum for mycelial growth was lower than that of T. hamatum and the species tended to form hemisphaerical pustule with Telatively larger conidia (average length 4.6 μm × 2.8 μm). Trichoderma sp. 2 was distinguished morphologically from related species T. strigosum, T. pubescens, T. erinaceum, T. hamatum and Trichoderma sp. 1 in pustules on CMD without fertile or sterile conidiophore elongation and distinctive phialide shape, the conidiophore branches similar to T. koningii, but the conidia similar to T. viride, subglobose, conspicuously tuberculate.

  10. Colonization of onions by endophytic fungi and their impacts on the biology of Thrips tabaci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M Muvea

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi, which live within host plant tissues without causing any visible symptom of infection, are important mutualists that mediate plant-herbivore interactions. Thrips tabaci (Lindeman is one of the key pests of onion, Allium cepa L., an economically important agricultural crop cultivated worldwide. However, information on endophyte colonization of onions, and their impacts on the biology of thrips feeding on them, is lacking. We tested the colonization of onion plants by selected fungal endophyte isolates using two inoculation methods. The effects of inoculated endophytes on T. tabaci infesting onion were also examined. Seven fungal endophytes used in our study were able to colonize onion plants either by the seed or seedling inoculation methods. Seed inoculation resulted in 1.47 times higher mean percentage post-inoculation recovery of all the endophytes tested as compared to seedling inoculation. Fewer thrips were observed on plants inoculated with Clonostachys rosea ICIPE 707, Trichoderma asperellum M2RT4, Trichoderma atroviride ICIPE 710, Trichoderma harzianum 709, Hypocrea lixii F3ST1 and Fusarium sp. ICIPE 712 isolates as compared to those inoculated with Fusarium sp. ICIPE 717 and the control treatments. Onion plants colonized by C. rosea ICIPE 707, T. asperellum M2RT4, T. atroviride ICIPE 710 and H. lixii F3ST1 had significantly lower feeding punctures as compared to the other treatments. Among the isolates tested, the lowest numbers of eggs were laid by T. tabaci on H. lixii F3ST1 and C. rosea ICIPE 707 inoculated plants. These results extend the knowledge on colonization of onions by fungal endophytes and their effects on Thrips tabaci.

  11. Snuffelen aan Trichoderma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, J.J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Problemen met groene schimmel in champignon-compost blijven zich voor doen, ondanks alle genomen maatregelen. In een onderzoek van Plant Research International wordt nu getracht, via geurprofielen Trichoderma aggressivum al tijdens het doorgroeien aan te tonen.

  12. Enhancement of Rice Seed Germination and Vigour by Trichoderma spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Febri Doni

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to examine the effectiveness of Trichoderma spp. to enhance rice germination and vigour. An in vitro experiment was carried out to assess the effect of seven isolates of Trichoderma spp. in enhancing rice germination and vigour. The results showed that all isolates of Trichoderma spp. significantly increased rice seedling growth, germination rate, vigour index and speed of germination with sp., SL2 showing the greatest increase in all the four parameters. Trichoderma sp., SL2 treated rice seeds attained values of 4.48 and 6.00 cm, 0.0084 and 0.0048 g and 1016.56 and 44.75 seeds/day for seedling shoot length seedling root length, shoot weight, root weight, vigour index and speed of germination respectively. We may conclude that Trichoderma spp. is able to enhance seed germination and vigour. The results of the study adds to the further understanding of the role of beneficial fungi in improving rice resistance to stress, yield and quality through seed invigoration. Trichoderma

  13. Novel traits of Trichoderma predicted through the analysis of its secretome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druzhinina, Irina S; Shelest, Ekaterina; Kubicek, Christian P

    2012-12-01

    Mycotrophic species of Trichoderma are among the most common fungi isolated from free soil, dead wood and as parasites on sporocarps of other fungi (mycoparasites). In addition, they undergo various other biotrophic associations ranging from rhizosphere colonization and endophytism up to facultative pathogenesis on such animals as roundworms and humans. Together with occurrence on a variety of less common substrata (marine invertebrates, artificial materials, indoor habitats), these lifestyles illustrate a wealthy opportunistic potential of the fungus. One tropical species, Trichoderma reesei, has become a prominent producer of cellulases and hemicellulases, whereas several other species are applied in agriculture for the biological control of phytopathogenic fungi. The sequencing of the complete genomes of the three species (T. reesei, T. virens, and T. atroviride) has led to a deepened understanding of Trichoderma lifestyle and its molecular physiology. In this review, we present the in silico predicted secretome of Trichoderma, and - in addition to the unique features of carbohydrate active enzymes - demonstrate the importance of such protein families as proteases, oxidative enzymes, and small cysteine-rich proteins, all of that received little attention in Trichoderma genetics so far. We also discuss the link between Trichoderma secretome and biology of the fungus.

  14. A cultured endophyte community is associated with the plant Clerodendrum inerme and antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, B; Yao, X H; Zhang, Y Q; Fang, H Y; Pang, T C; Dong, Q L

    2015-01-01

    Fungal endophytes live in the inner tissues of Clerodendrum inerme and may be significant resources for new chemicals in drug discovery. A total of 242 endophytic fungi were recovered from 602 sample segments of C. inerme; 66 were purified. The 66 fungi belonging to 16 taxa and 11 genera (Alternaria, Nigrospora, Bartalinia, Pestalotiopsis, Fusarium, Mycoleptodiscus, Trichoderma, Phomopsis, Diaporthe, Lasiodiplodia, and Curvularia) were identified by morphological characteristics and fungal internal transcribed spacer sequences. The most abundant genera were Alternaria and Lasiodiplodia. Some of the endophytes exhibited tissue specificity. The colonization frequencies of endophytes in the stems were evidently higher than those in the roots and leaves. The crude ethyl acetate extracts were tested against 6 endophytes isolated from C. inerme. Three of 10 (33.3%) endophytes, which were identified as Phomopsis sp, Curvularia sp, and Mycoleptodiscus sp, displayed distinct antifungal activity against ≥3 tested fungi. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an endophytic community associated with C. inerme in China and its antifungal activity in vitro. PMID:26125809

  15. Trichoderma volatiles effecting Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramadan, Metwaly; Gigolashvili, Tamara; Grosskinsky, Dominik Kilian;

    2015-01-01

    Trichoderma species are present in many ecosystems and some strains have the ability to reduce the severity of plant diseases by activating various defense pathways via specific biologically active signaling molecules. Hence we investigated the effects of low molecular weight volatile compounds...... of Trichoderma asperellum IsmT5 on Arabidopsis thaliana. During co-cultivation of T. asperellum IsmT5 without physical contact to A. thaliana we observed smaller but vital and robust plants. The exposed plants exhibit increased trichome numbers, accumulation of defense-related compounds such as H2O2, anthocyanin......, camalexin, and increased expression of defense-related genes. We conclude that A. thaliana perceives the Trichoderma volatiles as stress compounds and subsequently initiates multilayered adaptations including activation of signaling cascades to withstand this environmental influence. The prominent headspace...

  16. Diversity of fungal endophytes in recent and ancient wheat ancestors Triticum dicoccoides and Aegilops sharonensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofek-Lalzar, Maya; Gur, Yonatan; Ben-Moshe, Sapir; Sharon, Or; Kosman, Evsey; Mochli, Elad; Sharon, Amir

    2016-10-01

    Endophytes have profound impacts on plants, including beneficial effects on agriculturally important traits. We hypothesized that endophytes in wild plants include beneficial endophytes that are absent or underrepresented in domesticated crops. In this work, we studied the structure of endophyte communities in wheat-related grasses, Triticum dicoccoides and Aegilops sharonensis, and compared it to an endophyte community from wheat (T. aeastivum). Endophytes were isolated by cultivation and by cultivation-independent methods. In total, 514 intergenic spacer region sequences from single cultures were analyzed. Categorization at 97% sequence similarity resulted in 67 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that were evenly distributed between the different plant species. A narrow core community of Alternaria spp. was found in all samples, but each plant species also contained a significant portion of unique endophytes. The cultivation-independent analysis identified a larger number of OTUs than the cultivation method, half of which were singletons or doubletons. For OTUs with a relative abundance >0.5%, similar numbers were obtained by both methods. Collectively, our data show that wild grass relatives of wheat contain a wealth of taxonomically diverse fungal endophytes that are not found in modern wheat, some of which belong to taxa with known beneficial effects. PMID:27402714

  17. Diversity of fungal endophytes in recent and ancient wheat ancestors Triticum dicoccoides and Aegilops sharonensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofek-Lalzar, Maya; Gur, Yonatan; Ben-Moshe, Sapir; Sharon, Or; Kosman, Evsey; Mochli, Elad; Sharon, Amir

    2016-10-01

    Endophytes have profound impacts on plants, including beneficial effects on agriculturally important traits. We hypothesized that endophytes in wild plants include beneficial endophytes that are absent or underrepresented in domesticated crops. In this work, we studied the structure of endophyte communities in wheat-related grasses, Triticum dicoccoides and Aegilops sharonensis, and compared it to an endophyte community from wheat (T. aeastivum). Endophytes were isolated by cultivation and by cultivation-independent methods. In total, 514 intergenic spacer region sequences from single cultures were analyzed. Categorization at 97% sequence similarity resulted in 67 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that were evenly distributed between the different plant species. A narrow core community of Alternaria spp. was found in all samples, but each plant species also contained a significant portion of unique endophytes. The cultivation-independent analysis identified a larger number of OTUs than the cultivation method, half of which were singletons or doubletons. For OTUs with a relative abundance >0.5%, similar numbers were obtained by both methods. Collectively, our data show that wild grass relatives of wheat contain a wealth of taxonomically diverse fungal endophytes that are not found in modern wheat, some of which belong to taxa with known beneficial effects.

  18. Beneficial biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara R Robertson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface-adherent biofilm growth is a common trait of bacteria and other microorganisms in nature. Within biofilms, organisms are present in high density and are enmeshed in an organic matrix containing polysaccharides and other molecules. The close proximity of organisms within biofilms facilitates microbial interactions and signaling, including many metabolic processes in which consortia rather than individual organisms participate. Biofilm growth also enables microorganisms to withstand chemical and biological stresses. Here, we review some current literature and document representative beneficial aspects of biofilms using examples from wastewater treatment, microbial fuel cells, biological repair (biocementation of stonework, and biofilm protection against Candida albicans infections. Finally, we address a chemical ecology strategy whereby desired microbial succession and beneficial biofilm formation can be encouraged via manipulation of culture conditions and bacterial signaling.

  19. Beneficial rhizobacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Charlotte Frydenlund

    5 were identified and their antifungal as well as anticancer potentials were elucidated. Furthermore, the effect of biotic and abiotic factors on bacterial communities in the Greenlandic potato soils was studied in addition to beneficial rhizobacteria and their production of bioactive compounds......., a number of beneficial fungal-inhibiting bacteria were isolated from a Rhizoctonia solani suppressive potato soil in Inneruulalik, South Greenland. Especially one bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens In5, showed high antifungal activity against ascomycetes, basidiomycetes, and oomycetes, and it was able...... to protect tomato seedlings against R. solani infection. Various molecular and biochemical methods, such as PCR and sequence analysis, genome mining, gene knock-out, heterologous recombination, TLC and HPLC analyses were used in order to assess the antifungal mechanisms of P. fluorescens In5. In addition...

  20. Sebacinales everywhere: previously overlooked ubiquitous fungal endophytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Weiss

    Full Text Available Inconspicuous basidiomycetes from the order Sebacinales are known to be involved in a puzzling variety of mutualistic plant-fungal symbioses (mycorrhizae, which presumably involve transport of mineral nutrients. Recently a few members of this fungal order not fitting this definition and commonly referred to as 'endophytes' have raised considerable interest by their ability to enhance plant growth and to increase resistance of their host plants against abiotic stress factors and fungal pathogens. Using DNA-based detection and electron microscopy, we show that Sebacinales are not only extremely versatile in their mycorrhizal associations, but are also almost universally present as symptomless endophytes. They occurred in field specimens of bryophytes, pteridophytes and all families of herbaceous angiosperms we investigated, including liverworts, wheat, maize, and the non-mycorrhizal model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. They were present in all habitats we studied on four continents. We even detected these fungi in herbarium specimens originating from pioneering field trips to North Africa in the 1830s/40s. No geographical or host patterns were detected. Our data suggest that the multitude of mycorrhizal interactions in Sebacinales may have arisen from an ancestral endophytic habit by specialization. Considering their proven beneficial influence on plant growth and their ubiquity, endophytic Sebacinales may be a previously unrecognized universal hidden force in plant ecosystems.

  1. Endophytes in commercial micropropagation - friend or foe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rödel, Philipp

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal and aromatic plants are superorganisms like all plant species- naturally colonized by bacteria, fungi and protists. Micropropagated plants are facing different challenges under in vitro and ex vitro conditions: Mixotrophic growth under low light conditions on artificial nutrient media, poor gas exchange in small vessels, abiotic stress, bad rooting, transplanting stress, low survival rate during acclimatization in greenhouse. The use of endophytes in micropropagation can improve plant growth, yield, and health and induce tolerance to abiotic and biotic stress. A tool for the use of competent endophytes in micropropagation under in vitro and ex vitro conditions is “biotization” of plantlets with useful bacterial and fungal inocula. Fungal inocula which are used commercially are e.g. arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in form of spores and extraradical mycelium on different carrier materials like expanded clay, vermiculite, sand or peat. Furthermore representatives of the root fungal genus Trichoderma are applied as spores formulated in powder. Plantgrowth promoting rhizobacteria of the important genera Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Azospirillum and Azotobacter in form of lyophilised endospores/bacterial cells in powder or liquid formulation are also available on the market.

  2. The significance of cellulolytic enzymes produced by Trichoderma in opportunistic lifestyle of this fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strakowska, Judyta; Błaszczyk, Lidia; Chełkowski, Jerzy

    2014-07-01

    The degradation of native cellulose to glucose monomers is a complex process, which requires the synergistic action of the extracellular enzymes produced by cellulolytic microorganisms. Among fungi, the enzymatic systems that can degrade native cellulose have been extensively studied for species belonging to the genera of Trichoderma. The majority of the cellulolytic enzymes described so far have been examples of Trichoderma reesei, extremely specialized in the efficient degradation of plant cell wall cellulose. Other Trichoderma species, such as T. harzianum, T. koningii, T. longibrachiatum, and T. viride, known for their capacity to produce cellulolytic enzymes, have been isolated from various ecological niches, where they have proved successful in various heterotrophic interactions. As saprotrophs, these species are considered to make a contribution to the degradation of lignocellulosic plant material. Their cellulolytic potential is also used in interactions with plants, especially in plant root colonization. However, the role of cellulolytic enzymes in species forming endophytic associations with plants or in those existing in the substratum for mushroom cultivation remains unknown. The present review discusses the current state of knowledge about cellulolytic enzymes production by Trichoderma species and the encoding genes, as well as the involvement of these proteins in the lifestyle of Trichoderma.

  3. Interactions among endophytic bacteria and fungi: effects and potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    W M M S Bandara; Gamini Seneviratne; S A Kulasooriya

    2006-12-01

    Plants benefit extensively by harbouring endophytic microbes. They promote plant growth and confer enhanced resistance to various pathogens. However, the way the interactions among endophytes influence the plant productivity has not been explained. Present study experimentally showed that endophytes isolated from rice (Oryza sativa) used as the test plant produced two types of interactions; biofilms (bacteria attached to mycelia) and mixed cultures with no such attachments. Acidity, as measured by pH in cultures with biofilms was higher than that of fungi alone, bacteria alone or the mixed cultures. Production of indoleacetic acid like substances (IAAS) of biofilms was higher than that of mixed cultures, fungi or bacteria. Bacteria and fungi produced higher quantities of IAAS than mixed cultures. In mixed cultures, the potential of IAAS production of resident microbes was reduced considerably. There was a negative relationship between IAAS and pH of the biofilms, indicating that IAAS was the main contributor to the acidity. However, such a relationship was not observed in mixed cultures. Microbial acid production is important for suppressing plant pathogens. Thus the biofilm formation in endophytic environment seems to be very important for healthy and improved plant growth. However, it is unlikely that an interaction among endophytes takes place naturally in the endophytic environment, due to physical barriers of plant tissues. Further, critical cell density dependant quorum sensing that leads to biofilm formation may not occur in the endophytic environment as there is a limited space. As such in vitro production and application of beneficial biofilmed inocula of endophytes are important for improved plant production in any agro-ecosystem. The conventional practice of plant inoculation with monocultures or mixed cultures of effective microbes may not give the highest microbial effect, which may only be achieved by biofilm formation.

  4. Isolation and screening of endophytic fungi from three plants used in traditional medicine in Nigeria for antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Abass Tolulope

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endophytes represent a promising source of biologically active metabolites for pharmaceutical and agricultural applications. Objective: This study was aimed to investigate the endophytic fungi diversity and the antimicrobial potential of three popular medicinal plants (Alstonia boonei-Ahun, Enantia chlorantha-Awopa and Kigelia africana-Pandoro that have ethnobotanical history in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The stem barks were used for isolation of endophytic fungi and fermented, and the cell free fermentation broths were subjected to antimicrobial screening against six human pathogens; Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Candida albicans by using standard agar well diffusion method. Results: A total of ten endophytic fungi were isolated from the stem bark of the plants. Seven of these fungi were identified, which include; Aspergillus niger, Macrophomina spp., Trichoderma spp. and four different Penicillium species, while three of the isolated endophytes remained unknown. Furthermore, nine of the isolated endophytes showed potential antimicrobial activity against at least one of the six tested pathogens. Conclusion: This study shows that endophytic fungi inhabiting the inner tissue of medicinal plants studied may be the source of the curative properties of the plants.

  5. Unraveling the efficient applications of secondary metabolites of various Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keswani, Chetan; Mishra, Sandhya; Sarma, Birinchi Kumar; Singh, Surya Pratap; Singh, Harikesh Bahadur

    2014-01-01

    Recent shift in trends of agricultural practices from application of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides to organic farming has brought into focus the use of microorganisms that carryout analogous function. Trichoderma spp. is one of the most popular genera of fungi commercially available as a plant growth promoting fungus (PGPF) and biological control agent. Exploitation of the diverse nature of secondary metabolites produced by different species of Trichoderma augments their extensive utility in agriculture and related industries. As a result, Trichoderma has achieved significant success as a powerful biocontrol agent at global level. The endorsement of Trichoderma spp. by scientific community is based on the understanding of its mechanisms of action against a large set of fungal, bacterial and in certain cases viral infections. However, it is still an agnostic view that there could be any single major mode of operation, although it is argued that all mechanisms operate simultaneously in a synchronized fashion. The central idea behind this review article is to emphasize the potentiality of applications of target specific secondary metabolites of Trichoderma for controlling phytopathogens as a substitute of commercially available whole organism formulations. With the aim to this point, we have compiled an inclusive list of secondary metabolites produced by different species of Trichoderma and their applications in diverse areas with the major emphasis on agriculture. Outlining the importance and diverse activities of secondary metabolites of Trichoderma besides its relevance to agriculture would generate greater understanding of their other important and beneficial applications apart from target specific biopesticides.

  6. Dissecting endophytic lifestyle along the parasitism/mutualism continuum in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesel, Philipp H; Zuccaro, Alga

    2016-08-01

    Mutualistic interactions between plants and fungi often occur in the rhizosphere, although examples exist where shoot-endophytes support host growth and increase resistance to pathogens and herbivores. Fungal endophytes which colonize their hosts without any visible disease symptoms have been recognized to be fundamental components of various ecosystems. Initial efforts have been taken to decipher the genetic basis of beneficial plant-fungus interactions and of lifestyle transitions. This review gives a short overview on well established experimental systems amenable to genetic manipulation and of known genome sequence for dissecting plant-fungal endophyte interactions with a special focus on Arabidopsis thaliana associations. PMID:27280851

  7. Phytoremediation of Alberta oil sand tailings using native plants and fungal endophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repas, T.; Germida, J.; Kaminskyj, S.

    2012-04-01

    Fungal endophytes colonize host plants without causing disease. Some endophytes confer plant tolerance to harsh environments. One such endophyte, Trichoderma harzianum strain TSTh20-1, was isolated from a plant growing on Athabasca oil sand tailings. Tailing sands are a high volume waste product from oil sand extraction that the industry is required to remediate. Tailing sands are low in organic carbon and mineral nutrients, and are hydrophobic due to residual polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Typically, tailing sands are remediated by planting young trees in large quantities of mulch plus mineral fertilizer, which is costly and labour intensive. In greenhouse trials, TSTh20-1 supports growth of tomato seedlings on tailing sands without fertilizer. The potential use of TSTh20-1 in combination with native grasses and forbs to remediate under field conditions is being assessed. Twenty-three commercially available plant species are being screened for seed germination and growth on tailing sands in the presence of TSTh20-1. The best candidates from this group will be used in greenhouse and small scale field trials. Potential mechanisms that contribute to endophyte-induced plant growth promotion, such as plant hormone production, stress tolerance, mineral solubilization, and uptake are also being assessed. As well, TSTh20-1 appears to be remarkably frugal in its nutrient requirements and the possibility that this attribute is characteristic of other plant-fungal endophytes from harsh environments is under study.

  8. Arabidopsis thaliana polyamine content is modified by the interaction with different Trichoderma species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Badillo, Fatima Berenice; Sánchez-Rangel, Diana; Becerra-Flora, Alicia; López-Gómez, Miguel; Nieto-Jacobo, Fernanda; Mendoza-Mendoza, Artemio; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan Francisco

    2015-10-01

    Plants are associated with a wide range of microorganisms throughout their life cycle, and some interactions result on plant benefits. Trichoderma species are plant beneficial fungi that enhance plant growth and development, contribute to plant nutrition and induce defense responses. Nevertheless, the molecules involved in these beneficial effects still need to be identify. Polyamines are ubiquitous molecules implicated in plant growth and development, and in the establishment of plant microbe interactions. In this study, we assessed the polyamine profile in Arabidopsis plants during the interaction with Trichoderma virens and Trichoderma atroviride, using a system that allows direct plant-fungal contact or avoids their physical interaction (split system). The plantlets that grew in the split system exhibited higher biomass than the ones in direct contact with Trichoderma species. After 3 days of interaction, a significant decrease in Arabidopsis polyamine levels was observed in both systems (direct contact and split). After 5 days of interaction polyamine levels were increased. The highest levels were observed with T. atroviride (split system), and with T. virens (direct contact). The expression levels of Arabidopsis ADC1 and ADC2 genes during the interaction with the fungi were also assessed. We observed a time dependent regulation of ADC1 and ADC2 genes, which correlates with polyamine levels. Our data show an evident change in polyamine profile during Arabidopsis - Trichoderma interaction, accompanied by evident alterations in plant root architecture. Polyamines could be involved in the changes undergone by plant during the interaction with this beneficial fungus.

  9. Epichloë grass endophytes in sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Miia; Saikkonen, Kari; Helander, Marjo; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Wäli, Piippa R

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need to create new solutions for sustainable agricultural practices that circumvent the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides and increase the resilience of agricultural systems to environmental change. Beneficial microbial symbionts of plants are expected to play an important role in integrated pest management schemes over the coming decades. Epichloë endophytes, symbiotic fungi of many grass species, can protect plants against several stressors, and could therefore help to increase the productivity of forage grasses and the hardiness of turf grasses while reducing the use of synthetic pesticides. Indeed, Epichloë endophytes have successfully been developed and commercialized for agricultural use in the USA, Australia and New Zealand. Many of the host grass species originate from Europe, which is a biodiversity hotspot for both grasses and endophytes. However, intentional use of endophyte-enhanced grasses in Europe is virtually non-existent. We suggest that the diversity of European Epichloë endophytes and their host grasses should be exploited for the development of sustainable agricultural, horticultural and landscaping practices, and potentially for bioremediation and bioenergy purposes, and for environmental improvement. PMID:27249195

  10. Epichloë grass endophytes in sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Miia; Saikkonen, Kari; Helander, Marjo; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Wäli, Piippa R

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need to create new solutions for sustainable agricultural practices that circumvent the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides and increase the resilience of agricultural systems to environmental change. Beneficial microbial symbionts of plants are expected to play an important role in integrated pest management schemes over the coming decades. Epichloë endophytes, symbiotic fungi of many grass species, can protect plants against several stressors, and could therefore help to increase the productivity of forage grasses and the hardiness of turf grasses while reducing the use of synthetic pesticides. Indeed, Epichloë endophytes have successfully been developed and commercialized for agricultural use in the USA, Australia and New Zealand. Many of the host grass species originate from Europe, which is a biodiversity hotspot for both grasses and endophytes. However, intentional use of endophyte-enhanced grasses in Europe is virtually non-existent. We suggest that the diversity of European Epichloë endophytes and their host grasses should be exploited for the development of sustainable agricultural, horticultural and landscaping practices, and potentially for bioremediation and bioenergy purposes, and for environmental improvement.

  11. Copper tolerance of Trichoderma species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić-Petrović Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Some Trichoderma strains can persist in ecosystems with high concentrations of heavy metals. The aim of this research was to examine the variability of Trichoderma strains isolated from different ecosystems, based on their morphological properties and restriction analysis of ITS fragments. The fungal growth was tested on potato dextrose agar, amended with Cu(II concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 10 mmol/l, in order to identify copper-resistant strains. The results indicate that some isolated strains of Trichoderma sp. show tolerance to higher copper concentrations. Further research to examine the ability of copper bioaccumulation by tolerant Trichoderma strains is needed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31080 i br. III 43010

  12. Methylobacterium-induced endophyte community changes correspond with protection of plants against pathogen attack.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlo Ardanov

    Full Text Available Plant inoculation with endophytic bacteria that normally live inside the plant without harming the host is a highly promising approach for biological disease control. The mechanism of resistance induction by beneficial bacteria is poorly understood, because pathways are only partly known and systemic responses are typically not seen. The innate endophytic community structures change in response to external factors such as inoculation, and bacterial endophytes can exhibit direct or indirect antagonism towards pathogens. Earlier we showed that resistance induction by an endophytic Methylobacterium sp. in potato towards Pectobacterium atrosepticum was dependent on the density of the inoculum, whereas the bacterium itself had no antagonistic activity. To elucidate the role of innate endophyte communities in plant responses, we studied community changes in both in vitro and greenhouse experiments using various combinations of plants, endophyte inoculants, and pathogens. Induction of resistance was studied in several potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cultivars by Methylobacterium sp. IMBG290 against the pathogens P. atrosepticum, Phytophthora infestans and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, and in pine (Pinus sylvestris L. by M. extorquens DSM13060 against Gremmeniella abietina. The capacities of the inoculated endophytic Methylobacterium spp. strains to induce resistance were dependent on the plant cultivar, pathogen, and on the density of Methylobacterium spp. inoculum. Composition of the endophyte community changed in response to inoculation in shoot tissues and correlated with resistance or susceptibility to the disease. Our results demonstrate that endophytic Methylobacterium spp. strains have varying effects on plant disease resistance, which can be modulated through the endophyte community of the host.

  13. Draft Whole-Genome Sequence of the Biocontrol Agent Trichoderma harzianum T6776.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroncelli, Riccardo; Piaggeschi, Giulia; Fiorini, Lisa; Bertolini, Edoardo; Zapparata, Antonio; Pè, Mario Enrico; Sarrocco, Sabrina; Vannacci, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Trichoderma harzianum T6776 is a promising beneficial isolate whose effects consist of growth promotion, positive response of photosynthetic activity, hormonal signaling, and carbon partitioning in tomato, coupled with biocontrol of plant pathogens. Here, we present the first genome assembly of T6776, providing a useful platform for the scientific community. PMID:26067977

  14. An endophytic fungus isolated from finger millet (Eleucine coracona produces anti-fungal natural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaa Kamel Mousa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Finger millet is an ancient African cereal crop, domesticated 7000 years ago in Ethiopia, reaching India at 3000 BC. Finger millet is reported to be resistant to various fungal pathogens including Fusarium sp. We hypothesized that finger millet may host beneficial endophytes (plant-colonizing microbes that contribute to the antifungal activity. Here we report the first isolation of endophyte(s from finger millet. Five distinct fungal species were isolated from roots and predicted taxonomically based on 18S rDNA sequencing. Extracts from three putative endophytes inhibited growth of F. graminearum and three other pathogenic Fusarium species. The most potent anti-Fusarium strain (WF4, predicted to be a Phoma sp. was confirmed to behave as an endophyte using pathogenicity and confocal microscopy experiments. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the WF4 extract identified four anti-fungal compounds, viridicatol, tenuazonic acid, alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether. All the purified compounds caused dramatic breakage of F. graminearum hyphae in vitro. These compounds have not previously been reported to have anti-Fusarium activity. None of the compounds, except for tenuazonic acid, have previously been reported to be produced by Phoma. We conclude that the ancient, disease-tolerant crop, finger millet, is a novel source of endophytic anti-fungal natural products. This paper suggests the value of the crops grown by subsistence farmers as sources of endophytes and their natural products. Application of these natural chemicals to solve real world problems will require further validation.

  15. Indole-Diterpene Biosynthetic Capability of Epichloë Endophytes as Predicted by ltm Gene Analysis▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Carolyn A.; Tapper, Brian A.; May, Kimberley; Moon, Christina D.; Schardl, Christopher L.; Scott, Barry

    2009-01-01

    Bioprotective alkaloids produced by Epichloë and closely related asexual Neotyphodium fungal endophytes protect their grass hosts from insect and mammalian herbivory. One class of these compounds, known for antimammalian toxicity, is the indole-diterpenes. The LTM locus of Neotyphodium lolii (Lp19) and Epichloë festuce (Fl1), required for the biosynthesis of the indole-diterpene lolitrem, consists of 10 ltm genes. We have used PCR and Southern analysis to screen a broad taxonomic range of 44 endophyte isolates to determine why indole-diterpenes are present in so few endophyte-grass associations in comparison to that of the other bioprotective alkaloids, which are more widespread among the endophtyes. All 10 ltm genes were present in only three epichloë endophytes. A predominance of the asexual Neotyphodium spp. examined contained 8 of the 10 ltm genes, with only one N. lolii containing the entire LTM locus and the ability to produce lolitrems. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry profiles of indole-diterpenes from a subset of endophyte-infected perennial ryegrass showed that endophytes that contained functional genes present in ltm clusters 1 and 2 were capable of producing simple indole-diterpenes such as paspaline, 13-desoxypaxilline, and terpendoles, compounds predicted to be precursors of lolitrem B. Analysis of toxin biosynthesis genes by PCR now enables a diagnostic method to screen endophytes for both beneficial and detrimental alkaloids and can be used as a resource for screening isolates required for forage improvement. PMID:19181837

  16. Effect of endophyte-infection on growth parameters and Cd-induced phytotoxicity of Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yong; Luo, Shenglian; Chen, Jueliang; Xiao, Xiao; Chen, Liang; Zeng, Guangming; Liu, Chengbin; He, Yejuan

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate effects of endophytic bacterium inoculation on plant growth and assess the possible mechanism of endophyte in heavy metal phytoremediation. Seeds of Solanum nigrum L. were inoculated with endophyte Serratia nematodiphila LRE07 and were subjected to Cd in the growing medium. Cd produced a significant inhibition on plant growth and a reduction in the content of photosynthetic pigments. The inoculation of endophytic bacterium alleviated the Cd-induced changes, resulting in more biomass production and higher photosynthetic pigments content of leaves compared with non-symbiotic ones. The beneficial effect was more obvious at relatively low Cd concentration (10 μM). Based on the alteration of nutrient uptake and activated oxygen metabolism in infected plants, the possible mechanisms of endophytic bacterium in Cd phytotoxicity reduction can be concluded as uptake enhancement of essential mineral nutrition and improvement in the antioxidative enzymes activities in infected plant. PMID:22858258

  17. Grass fungal endophytes and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Kelly

    2015-03-10

    The invention provides isolated fungal endophytes and synthetic combinations thereof with host grass plants. Methods for inoculating grass plant with the endophytes, for propagating the grass-endophyte combinations, and for producing feeds and biofuels from grass-endophyte combinations are also provided.

  18. Endophytic bacteria affect sugarcane physiology without changing plant growth

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Castro Correia Marcos; Raquel de Paula Freitas Iório; Adriana Parada Dias da Silveira; Rafael Vasconcelos Ribeiro; Eduardo Caruso Machado; Ana Maria Magalhães Andrade Lagôa

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate if endophytic bacteria inoculants would be beneficial to the sugarcane varieties IACSP94-2094 and IACSP95-5000, promoting changes in photosynthesis and plant growth. The plants, obtained from mini stalks with one bud, were treated with two bacteria mixtures (inoculum I or II) or did not receive any inoculum (control plants). The inocula did not affect shoot and root dry matter accumulation as compared to the control condition (plants with native ...

  19. Endophytic colonization of plant roots by nitrogen-fixing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen-fixing bacteria are able to enter into roots from the rhizosphere, particularly at the base of emerging lateral roots, between epidermal cells and through root hairs. In the rhizosphere growing root hairs play an important role in symbiotic recognition in legume crops. Nodulated legumes in endosymbiosis with rhizobia are amongst the most prominent nitrogen-fixing systems in agriculture. The inoculation of non-legumes, especially cereals, with various non-rhizobial diazotrophic bacteria has been undertaken with the expectation that they would establish themselves intercellularly within the root system, fixing nitrogen endophytic ally and providing combined nitrogen for enhanced crop production. However, in most instances bacteria colonize only the surface of the roots and remain vulnerable to competition from other rhizosphere micro-organisms, even when the nitrogen-fixing bacteria are endophytic, benefits to the plant may result from better uptake of soil nutrients rather than from endophytic nitrogen fixation. Azorhizobium caulinodans is known to enter the root system of cereals, other nonlegume crops and Arabidopsis, by intercellular invasion between epidermal cells and to internally colonize the plant intercellularly, including the xylem. This raises the possibility that xylem colonization might provide a nonnodular niche for endosymbiotic nitrogen fixation in rice, wheat, maize, sorghum and other non-legume crops. A particularly interesting, naturally occurring, non-qodular xylem colonising endophytic diazotrophic interaction with evidence for endophytic nitrogen fixation is that of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus in sugarcane. Could this beneficial endophytic colonization of sugarcane by G. diazotrophicus be extended to other members of the Gramineae, including the major cereals, and to other major non-legume crops of the World? (author)

  20. Biodiversity of endophytic fungi from seven herbaceous medicinal plants of Malnad region, Western Ghats, southern India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. Shankar Naik; M. Krishnappa; Y. L. Krishnamurthy

    2014-01-01

    A total of 3611 fungal isolates were recovered from 4200 leaf segments incubated from 7 medicinal herbs during monsoon, winter and summer seasons. These fungal isolates belonged to teleomorphic Asco-mycota (23.5%), anamorphic Ascomycota producing conidiomata (17.4%), anamorphic Ascomycota without conidiomata (46.9%), Zygo-mycota (1.42%) and sterile forms (10.6%). Chaetomium globosum, As-pergillus niger, Aureobasidium pullulans, Curvularia lunata, Fusarium spp., Penicillium spp., Pestalotiopsis spp., Trichoderma viridae, Cladosporium cladosporioides, were frequently isolated from more than one host plant. The number of endophytic isolates was higher in winter than in monsoon and summer seasons.

  1. Endophytic fungi from medicinal plant Bauhinia forficata: Diversity and biotechnological potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadson D.P. Bezerra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bauhinia forficata is native to South America and used with relative success in the folk medicine in Brazil. The diversity, antibacterial activity, and extracellular hydrolytic enzymes of endophytic fungi associated with this plant were studied. Plant samples, which included leaves, sepals, stems, and seeds, were used. Ninety-five endophytic fungal were isolated (18 from leaves, 22 from sepals, 46 from stems, and nine from seeds, comprising 28 species. The most frequently isolated species were Acremonium curvulum (9.5%, Aspergillus ochraceus (7.37%, Gibberella fujikuroi (10.53%, Myrothecium verrucaria (10.53% and Trichoderma piluliferum(7.37%. Diversity and species richness were higher in stem tissues, and Sorensen’s index of similarity between the tissues was low. Eleven fungi showed antibacterial activity. Aspergillus ochraceus, Gibberella baccata, Penicillium commune, and P. glabrum were those with the greatest antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and/or Streptococcus pyogenes. Thirteen species showed proteolytic activity, particularly Phoma putaminum. Fourteen species were cellulase positive, particularly the Penicillium species and Myrmecridium schulzeri. All isolates tested were xylanase positive and 10 showed lipolytic activity, especially Penicillium glabrum. It is clear that the endophytic fungi from B. forficata have potential for the production of bioactive compounds and may be a source of new therapeutic agents for the effective treatment of diseases in humans, other animals, and plants. To our knowledge, this is the first study of endophytic fungi from different tissues of B. forficata and their biotechnological potential.

  2. Systematics of the Trichoderma harzianum species complex and the re-identification of commercial biocontrol strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaverri, Priscila; Branco-Rocha, Fabiano; Jaklitsch, Walter; Gazis, Romina; Degenkolb, Thomas; Samuels, Gary J

    2015-01-01

    Trichoderma harzianum is known as a cosmopolitan, ubiquitous species associated with a wide variety of substrates. It is possibly the most commonly used name in agricultural applications involving Trichoderma, including biological control of plant diseases. While various studies have suggested that T. harzianum is a species complex, only a few cryptic species are named. In the present study the taxonomy of the T. harzianum species complex is revised to include at least 14 species. Previously named species included in the complex are T. guizhouense, T. harzianum, and T. inhamatum. Two new combinations are proposed, T. lentiforme and T. lixii. Nine species are described as new, T. afarasin, T. afroharzianum, T. atrobrunneum, T. camerunense, T. endophyticum, T. neotropicale, T. pyramidale, T. rifaii and T. simmonsii. We isolated Trichoderma cultures from four commercial biocontrol products reported to contain T. harzianum. None of the biocontrol strains were identified as T. harzianum s. str. In addition, the widely applied culture 'T. harzianum T22' was determined to be T. afroharzianum. Some species in the T. harzianum complex appear to be exclusively endophytic, while others were only isolated from soil. Sexual states are rare. Descriptions and illustrations are provided. A secondary barcode, nuc translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF1) is needed to identify species in this complex.

  3. Disentangling the Trichoderma viridescens complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaklitsch, W.M.; Samuels, G.J.; Ismaiel, A.; Voglmayr, H.

    2013-01-01

    Trichoderma viridescens is recognised as a species complex. Multigene analyses based on the translation elongation factor 1-alpha encoding gene (tef1), a part of the rpb2 gene, encoding the second largest RNA polymerase subunit and the larger subunit of ATP citrate lyase (acl1) reveals 13 phylogenet

  4. The Trichoderma-plant interaction is mediated by avirulence proteins produced by this fungus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruocco M; Kip N; P J G M de Wit; Lorito M; Lanzuise S; Woo S L; Ambrosino P; Marra R; Turrà D; Gigante S; Formisno E; Scala F

    2004-01-01

    @@ The molecular basis of Trichoderma -plant interaction is very complex and still not completely understood. The colonization of the root system by rhizosphere competent strains of Trichoderma results in increased development of root/aerial systems, in improved yields and in plant disease control.Other beneficial effects, such as the induction of plant systemic resistance, have also been described.To understand the mechanisms involved we are using different approaches, including the making of transformants expressing genes that encode for compounds able to affect plant response to pathogens.Trichoderma transformants carrying the avirulence gene Avr4 from Cladosporium fulvum under the control of constitutive and inducible promoters were obtained and tested on tomato plants having the Cf4 resistance gene. Necrosis and suberification zones, similar to the symptoms appearing during Cladosporium-tomato interaction, were found when the roots of the Cf4 plants were treated with Avr4-Trichoderma. This demonstrates that selected Trichoderma strains are able to transfer to the plant molecules that may deeply affect metabolism, disease resistance etc. Therefore, these beneficial fungi can be regarded as biotechnological tools to provide a variety of crops with useful compounds.Moreover, in in vitro competition assays the transformants were found to be more effective as antagonists against Alternaria alternata than the wild type. Trichoderma sends a variety of biochemical signals to the plants including avirulence molecules; therefore the presence of avr-like proteins in the fungus proteome was investigated. Proteome analysis has permitted us to isolate and sequence many proteins potentially having this function. From the extraeellular protein extracts, we have purified and sequenced a protein with structural characteristics similar to Avr4 of C. fulvum.The protein, Hytra1, was found to be a hydrophobin with chitin binding activity, the typical 8cysteine residues, and 4

  5. Salicylic acid prevents Trichoderma harzianum from entering the vascular system of roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Ramírez, Ana; Poveda, Jorge; Martín, Ignacio; Hermosa, Rosa; Monte, Enrique; Nicolás, Carlos

    2014-10-01

    Trichoderma is a soil-borne fungal genus that includes species with a significant impact on agriculture and industrial processes. Some Trichoderma strains exert beneficial effects in plants through root colonization, although little is known about how this interaction takes place. To better understand this process, the root colonization of wild-type Arabidopsis and the salicylic acid (SA)-impaired mutant sid2 by a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-marked Trichoderma harzianum strain was followed under confocal microscopy. Trichoderma harzianum GFP22 was able to penetrate the vascular tissue of the sid2 mutant because of the absence of callose deposition in the cell wall of root cells. In addition, a higher colonization of sid2 roots by GFP22 compared with that in Arabidopsis wild-type roots was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction. These results, together with differences in the expression levels of plant defence genes in the roots of both interactions, support a key role for SA in Trichoderma early root colonization stages. We observed that, without the support of SA, plants were unable to prevent the arrival of the fungus in the vascular system and its spread into aerial parts, leading to later collapse.

  6. Biodegradation of Mixed PAHs by PAH-Degrading Endophytic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuezhu; Ni, Xue; Waigi, Michael Gatheru; Liu, Juan; Sun, Kai; Gao, Yanzheng

    2016-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria can promote plant growth, induce plant defence mechanisms, and increase plant resistance to organic contaminants. The aims of the present study were to isolate highly PAH-degrading endophytic bacteria from plants growing at PAH-contaminated sites and to evaluate the capabilities of these bacteria to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in vitro, which will be beneficial for re-colonizing target plants and reducing plant PAH residues through the inoculation of plants with endophytic bacteria. Two endophytic bacterial strains P₁ (Stenotrophomonas sp.) and P₃ (Pseudomonas sp.), which degraded more than 90% of phenanthrene (PHE) within 7 days, were isolated from Conyza canadensis and Trifolium pretense L., respectively. Both strains could use naphthalene (NAP), PHE, fluorene (FLR), pyrene (PYR), and benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) as the sole sources of carbon and energy. Moreover, these bacteria reduced the contamination of mixed PAHs at high levels after inoculation for 7 days; strain P₁ degraded 98.0% NAP, 83.1% FLR, 87.8% PHE, 14.4% PYR, and 1.6% B(a)P, and strain P₃ degraded 95.3% NAP, 87.9% FLR, 90.4% PHE, 6.9% PYR, and negligible B(a)P. Notably, the biodegradation of PAHs could be promoted through additional carbon and nitrogen nutrients; therein, beef extract was suggested as the optimal co-substrate for the degradation of PAHs by these two strains (99.1% PHE was degraded within 7 days). Compared with strain P₁, strain P₃ has more potential for the use in the removal of PAHs from plant tissues. These results provide a novel perspective in the reduction of plant PAH residues in PAH-contaminated sites through inoculating plants with highly PAH-degrading endophytic bacteria. PMID:27517944

  7. Biodegradation of Mixed PAHs by PAH-Degrading Endophytic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuezhu Zhu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic bacteria can promote plant growth, induce plant defence mechanisms, and increase plant resistance to organic contaminants. The aims of the present study were to isolate highly PAH-degrading endophytic bacteria from plants growing at PAH-contaminated sites and to evaluate the capabilities of these bacteria to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in vitro, which will be beneficial for re-colonizing target plants and reducing plant PAH residues through the inoculation of plants with endophytic bacteria. Two endophytic bacterial strains P1 (Stenotrophomonas sp. and P3 (Pseudomonas sp., which degraded more than 90% of phenanthrene (PHE within 7 days, were isolated from Conyza canadensis and Trifolium pretense L., respectively. Both strains could use naphthalene (NAP, PHE, fluorene (FLR, pyrene (PYR, and benzo(apyrene (B(aP as the sole sources of carbon and energy. Moreover, these bacteria reduced the contamination of mixed PAHs at high levels after inoculation for 7 days; strain P1 degraded 98.0% NAP, 83.1% FLR, 87.8% PHE, 14.4% PYR, and 1.6% B(aP, and strain P3 degraded 95.3% NAP, 87.9% FLR, 90.4% PHE, 6.9% PYR, and negligible B(aP. Notably, the biodegradation of PAHs could be promoted through additional carbon and nitrogen nutrients; therein, beef extract was suggested as the optimal co-substrate for the degradation of PAHs by these two strains (99.1% PHE was degraded within 7 days. Compared with strain P1, strain P3 has more potential for the use in the removal of PAHs from plant tissues. These results provide a novel perspective in the reduction of plant PAH residues in PAH-contaminated sites through inoculating plants with highly PAH-degrading endophytic bacteria.

  8. Survival trade-offs in plant roots during colonization by closely related beneficial and pathogenic fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hacquard, Stéphane; Kracher, Barbara; Hiruma, Kei; Münch, Philipp C; Garrido-Oter, Ruben; Thon, Michael R; Weimann, Aaron; Damm, U.; Dallery, Jean-Félix; Hainaut, Matthieu; Henrissat, Bernard; Lespinet, Olivier; Sacristán, Soledad; Ver Loren van Themaat, Emiel; Kemen, Eric; McHardy, Alice C; Schulze-Lefert, Paul; O'Connell, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    The sessile nature of plants forced them to evolve mechanisms to prioritize their responses to simultaneous stresses, including colonization by microbes or nutrient starvation. Here, we compare the genomes of a beneficial root endophyte, Colletotrichum tofieldiae and its pathogenic relative C. incan

  9. Burkholderia phytofirmans sp. nov., a novel plant-associated bacterium with plant-beneficial properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sessitsch, A; Coenye, T; Sturz, AV; Vandamme, P; Barka, EA; Salles, JF; Van Elsas, JD; Faure, D; Reiter, B; Glick, BR; Wang-Pruski, G; Nowak, J

    2005-01-01

    A Gram-negative, non-sporulating, rod-shaped, motile bacterium, with a single polar flagellum, designated strain PsJNT, was isolated from surface-sterilized onion roots. This isolate proved to be a highly effective plant-beneficial bacterium, and was able to establish rhizosphere and endophytic popu

  10. Selective isolation and characterization of agriculturally beneficial endopytic bacteria from wild hemp using canola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endophytic bacteria can provide a useful alternative to synthetic fertilizers to improve plant growth. Wild plants are little investigated as a source of growth promoting endophytic bacteria for commercial application to crops. In present study, endophytic bacteria were isolated from Cannabis sativa L. (hemp) using two different methods to examine their ability to promote canola growth. Besides direct isolation from the roots, endophytic bacteria were also selectively isolated from the rhizosphere of C. sativa using canola. Under gnotobiotic conditions, six bacteria from the selective isolation significantly improved canola root growth, as compared to the two bacteria isolated from direct method. Overall, three isolates performed distinctly well, namely, Pantoea vagans MOSEL-t13, Pseudomonas geniculata MOSEL-tnc1, and Serratia marcescens MOSEL-w2. These bacteria tolerated high salt concentrations and promoted canola growth under salt stress. Further, the isolated bacteria possessed plant growth promoting traits like IAA production, phosphate solubilization, and siderophore production. Most isolates produced plant cell-wall degrading enzymes, cellulase and pectinase. Some isolates were also effective in hindering the growth of two phytopathogenic fungi in dual culture assay, and displayed chitinase and protease activity. Paenibacillus sp. MOSEL-w13 displayed the greatest antifungal activity among all the isolates. Present findings conclude that wild plants can be a good source for isolating beneficial microbes, and validates the employed selective isolation for improved isolation of plant-beneficial endophytic bacteria. (author)

  11. Habitat filters in fungal endophyte community assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungal endophytes can influence host health, and more broadly, can instigate trophic cascades with effects scaling to the ecosystem level. Despite this, biotic mechanisms of endophyte community assembly are largely unknown. We used maize to investigate three potential habitat filters in endophyte co...

  12. Trichoderma species collected from Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Doostmorad Zafari

    2004-01-01

    @@ In order to identify Trichoderma species isolated from Iran, Trichoderma selective media and malt extract agar (MEA) were used to isolate Trichoderma species from the soil samples. All the cultures were purified on 2% water agar by hyphal tip method prior to morphological examination.Morphological observations were carried out on the cultures grown on 2% MEA and oat meal agar at 20℃ under ambient laboratory conditions. Macroscopic features of colony and microscopic features of conidiophore, phialid and conidium including position of phialids on conidiophore and shape and size of phialids and conidia were studied and recorded 3-5 days after inoculation. Out of 36 tested isolates, using morphological features and molecular data obtained from ITS1, ITS2 and 5.8S regions fourteen species were identified as follow: T. atroviride, T. ghanense, T. spirale, T. erinaceum, T. citrinoviride, T. saturnisporum,T. longibrachiatum , T. hamatum , T. harzianum, T. inhamatum , T. tomentosum , T.virens, T. asperellum, T. koningii. Among the species T. harzianum and T. virens isolates were the most frequent species. In addition of the mentioned species two Tichoderma sp. were collected from walnut rhizospher that they are not fit to any described species so far. Although one of them are T. brevicumpactum introduced informally.

  13. Genetic improvement of Trichoderma ability to induce systemic resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ciliento R; Mach R L; Lorito M; Woo S L; Di Benedetto P; Ruocco M; Scala F; Soriente I; Ferraioli S; Brunner K; Zeilinger S

    2004-01-01

    @@ The beneficial applications of Trichoderma spp. in agriculture include not only the control of plant pathogens, but also the improvement of plant growth, micronutrient availability, and plant tolerance to abiotic stress. In addition, it has been suggested that these fungi are able to increase plant disease resistance by activating induced systemic resistance (ISR) . The mode of action of these beneficial fungi in the Trichoderma -plant-pathogen interaction are many, complex and not completely understood. Numerous lytic enzymes have been characterized, the encoding genes (ech42 gluc78,nag1 from T. atroviride strain P1) cloned, and their role in biocontrol demonstrated. The corresponding biocontrol-related inducible promoters have been used in a reporter system based on the Aspergillus niger glucose oxidase gene (goxA) to monitor biocontrol activity. Glucose oxidase catalyzes the oxygen-dependent oxidation of D-glucose to D-glucono-1, 5-lactone and hydrogen peroxide; this latter compound is known to have an antifungal effect and activate the plant defence cascade, thus increasing resistance to pathogen attack. T. atroviride P1 transformants with various promoters gox were tested as seed coating treatments on bean seeds planted in soil infested with a soilborne fungal pathogen. Successively, the emergent leaves were inoculated with a foliar pathogen to determine the effect of the GOX transformants on biocontrol and resistance to pathogen attack.Inoculations with the P1-GOX transformants not only reduced disease symptoms caused by a soil pathogen, but also the lesions of various foliar pathogens applied far from the Trichoderma colonization, thus activating ISR. A similar approach is being use to genetically improve T.harzianum T22, a rhizosphere competent and commercially marketed strain not transformed yet, by using four different gox gene constructs under the control of constitutive and inducible promoters.Plasmids have been introduced in Trichoderma by

  14. Antimicrobial potential of endophytic fungi derived from three seagrass species: Cymodocea serrulata, Halophila ovalis and Thalassia hemprichii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preuttiporn Supaphon

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi from three commonly found seagrasses in southern Thailand were explored for their ability to produce antimicrobial metabolites. One hundred and sixty endophytic fungi derived from Cymodoceaserrulata (Family Cymodoceaceae, Halophilaovalis and Thalassiahemprichii (Family Hydrocharitaceae were screened for production of antimicrobial compounds by a colorimetric broth microdilution test against ten human pathogenic microorganisms including Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, a clinical isolate of methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Escherichia coli ATCC 25923, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Candida albicans ATCC 90028 and NCPF 3153, Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 90112 and ATCC 90113 and clinical isolates of Microsporumgypseum and Penicilliummarneffei. Sixty-nine percent of the isolates exhibited antimicrobial activity against at least one test strain. Antifungal activity was more pronounced than antibacterial activity. Among the active fungi, seven isolates including Hypocreales sp. PSU-ES26 from C. serrulata, Trichoderma spp. PSU-ES8 and PSU-ES38 from H. ovalis, and Penicillium sp. PSU-ES43, Fusarium sp. PSU-ES73, Stephanonectria sp. PSU-ES172 and an unidentified endophyte PSU-ES190 from T. hemprichii exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against human pathogens with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of less than 10 µg/ml. The inhibitory extracts at concentrations of 4 times their MIC destroyed the targeted cells as observed by scanning electron microscopy. These results showed the antimicrobial potential of extracts from endophytic fungi from seagrasses.

  15. Isolation of the Endophytic Fungi of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis and Their Effects on the Embryo Development of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis Seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun CHENG; Yanqiong YANG; Changling ZHAO; Li WANG; Shuying CHEN; Yuhan SHEN; Jing CHAI; Key words Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis; Endophytic fungus; P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis seed; Embryo development; Embryo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract [Objective] This study aimed to isolate the endophytic fungi of Paris poly- phylla var. yunnanensis and investigate their effects on the embryo development of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis seeds. [Method] The endophytic fungi of P. poly- phylla were isolated and identified morphologically, and their effects on the embryo development of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis seeds were studied by using paraffin sectioning and microphotography. [Result] Nine endophytic fungi, Le. P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis endophytic fungi PPYEF-1, PPYEF-2, PPYEF-3, PPYEF-4, PPYEF- 5, PPYEF-6, PPYEF-7, PPYEF-8 and PPYEF-9 belonging to seven genera in five families, three orders were isolated from the rhizomes. Except PPYEF-4 (Cladospori- um sp.), other fungi could promote the embryo development of the P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis seeds, mostly reaching the extremely significant or significant level. PPYEF-9 (Trichoderma sp.) resulted in the highest embryo length and embryo-e- merging ratio. [Conclusion] This paper could provide a reference for the applica- tion of the endophytic fungi of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis in the dormancy- breaking of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis seeds.

  16. Dynamics of beneficial epidemics

    CERN Document Server

    Berdahl, Andrew; De Bacco, Caterina; Dumas, Marion; Ferdinand, Vanessa; Grochow, Joshua A; Hébert-Dufresne, Laurent; Kallus, Yoav; Kempes, Christopher P; Kolchinsky, Artemy; Larremore, Daniel B; Libby, Eric; Power, Eleanor A; Stern, Caitlin A; Tracey, Brendan

    2016-01-01

    Pathogens can spread epidemically through populations. Beneficial contagions, such as viruses that enhance host survival or technological innovations that improve quality of life, also have the potential to spread epidemically. How do the dynamics of beneficial biological and social epidemics differ from those of detrimental epidemics? We investigate this question using three theoretical approaches as well as an empirical analysis of concept propagation. First, in evolutionary models, we show that a beneficial horizontally-transmissible element, such as viral DNA, spreads super-exponentially through a population, substantially more quickly than a beneficial mutation. Second, in an epidemiological social network approach, we show that infections that cause increased connectivity lead to faster-than-exponential fixation in the population. Third, in a sociological model with strategic rewiring, we find that preferences for increased global infection accelerate spread and produce super-exponential fixation rates,...

  17. Species diversity of culturable endophytic fungi from Brazilian mangrove forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Sebastianes, Fernanda Luiza; Romão-Dumaresq, Aline Silva; Lacava, Paulo Teixeira; Harakava, Ricardo; Azevedo, João Lúcio; de Melo, Itamar Soares; Pizzirani-Kleiner, Aline Aparecida

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to perform a comparative analysis of the diversity of endophytic fungal communities isolated from the leaves and branches of Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia schaueriana and Laguncularia racemosa trees inhabiting two mangroves in the state of São Paulo, Brazil [Cananeia and Bertioga (oil spill-affected and unaffected)] in the summer and winter. Three hundred and forty-three fungi were identified by sequencing the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of rDNA. Differences were observed in the frequencies of fungi isolated from the leaves and branches of these three different plant species sampled from the Bertioga oil spill-affected and the oil-unaffected mangrove sites in the summer and winter; these differences indicate a potential impact on fungal diversity in the study area due to the oil spill. The molecular identification of the fungi showed that the fungal community associated with these mangroves is composed of at least 34 different genera, the most frequent of which were Diaporthe, Colletotrichum, Fusarium, Trichoderma and Xylaria. The Shannon and the Chao1 indices [H'(95 %) = 4.00, H'(97 %) = 4.22, Chao1(95 %) = 204 and Chao1(97 %) = 603] indicated that the mangrove fungal community possesses a vast diversity and richness of endophytic fungi. The data generated in this study revealed a large reservoir of fungal genetic diversity inhabiting these Brazilian mangrove forests and highlighted substantial differences between the fungal communities associated with distinct plant tissues, plant species, impacted sites and sampling seasons. PMID:23832271

  18. Trichoderma: the genomics of opportunistic success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druzhinina, Irina S.; Seiboth, Verena Seidl; Estrella, Alfredo Herrera; Horwitz, Benjamin A.; Kenerley, Charles M.; Monte, Enrique; Mukherjee, Prasun K.; Zeilinger, Susanne; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Kubicek, Christian P.

    2011-01-01

    Trichoderma is a genus of common filamentous fungi that display a remarkable range of lifestyles and interactions with other fungi, animals and plants. Because of their ability to antagonize plant-pathogenic fungi and to stimulate plant growth and defence responses, some Trichoderma strains are used for biological control of plant diseases. In this Review, we discuss recent advances in molecular ecology and genomics which indicate that the interactions of Trichoderma spp. with animals and plants may have evolved as a result of saprotrophy on fungal biomass (mycotrophy) and various forms of parasitism on other fungi (mycoparasitism), combined with broad environmental opportunism.

  19. Fungal endophytes: modifiers of plant disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Posy E; Ridout, Mary; Newcombe, George

    2016-04-01

    Many recent studies have demonstrated that non-pathogenic fungi within plant microbiomes, i.e., endophytes ("endo" = within, "phyte" = plant), can significantly modify the expression of host plant disease. The rapid pace of advancement in endophyte ecology warrants a pause to synthesize our understanding of endophyte disease modification and to discuss future research directions. We reviewed recent literature on fungal endophyte disease modification, and here report on several emergent themes: (1) Fungal endophyte effects on plant disease span the full spectrum from pathogen antagonism to pathogen facilitation, with pathogen antagonism most commonly reported. (2) Agricultural plant pathosystems are the focus of research on endophyte disease modification. (3) A taxonomically diverse group of fungal endophytes can influence plant disease severity. And (4) Fungal endophyte effects on plant disease severity are context-dependent. Our review highlights the importance of fungal endophytes for plant disease across a broad range of plant pathosystems, yet simultaneously reveals that complexity within plant microbiomes presents a significant challenge to disentangling the biotic environmental factors affecting plant disease severity. Manipulative studies integrating eco-evolutionary approaches with emerging molecular tools will be poised to elucidate the functional importance of endophytes in natural plant pathosystems that are fundamental to biodiversity and conservation. PMID:26646287

  20. Diversity of endophytic fungal and bacterial communities in Ilex paraguariensis grown under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, María Laura; Collavino, Mónica Mariana; Sansberro, Pedro Alfonso; Mroginski, Luis Amado; Galdeano, Ernestina

    2016-04-01

    The composition and diversity of the endophytic community associated with yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) was investigated using culture-depending methods. Fungi were identified based on their micromorphological characteristics and internal transcribed spacer rDNA sequence analysis; for bacteria 16S rDNA sequence analysis was used. Fungal and bacterial diversity did not show significant differences between organ age. The highest fungal diversity was registered during fall season and the lowest in winter. Bacterial diversity was higher in stems and increased from summer to winter, in contrast with leaves, which decreased. The most frequently isolated fungus was Fusarium, followed by Colletotrichum; they were both present in all the sampling seasons and organ types assayed. Actinobacteria represented 57.5 % of all bacterial isolates. The most dominant bacterial taxa were Curtobacterium and Microbacterium. Other bacteria frequently found were Methylobacterium, Sphingomonas, Herbiconiux and Bacillus. Nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization activity, ACC deaminase production and antagonism against plant fungal pathogens were assayed in endophytic bacterial strains. In the case of fungi, strains of Trichoderma, Penicillium and Aspergillus were assayed for antagonism against pathogenic Fusarium sp. All microbial isolates assayed showed at least one growth promoting activity. Strains of Bacillus, Pantoea, Curtobacterium, Methylobacterium, Brevundimonas and Paenibacillus had at least two growth-promoting activities, and Bacillus, Paenibacillus and the three endophytic fungi showed high antagonistic activity against Fusarium sp. In this work we have made a wide study of the culturable endophytic community within yerba mate plants and found that several microbial isolates could be considered as potential inoculants useful for improving yerba mate production. PMID:26925623

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens XK-4-1, a Plant Growth-Promoting Endophyte with Antifungal Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhengxiang; Hsiang, Tom; Zhou, Yi; Zhou, Jinglong

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of a bacterial plant-growth-promoting endophyte, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens XK-4-1, which consists of one circular chromosome of 3,941,805 bp with 3,702 coding sequences (CDSs). The data presented highlight multiple sets of functional genes associated with its plant-beneficial characteristics. PMID:26564038

  2. Structural and mechanistic analysis of engineered trichodiene synthase enzymes from Trichoderma harzianum: towards higher catalytic activities empowering sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Indu; Chaudhary, Nitika; Sandhu, Padmani; Ahmed, Mushtaq; Akhter, Yusuf

    2016-06-01

    Trichoderma spp. are well-known bioagents for the plant growth promotion and pathogen suppression. The beneficial activities of the fungus Trichoderma spp. are attributed to their ability to produce and secrete certain secondary metabolites such as trichodermin that belongs to trichothecene family of molecules. The initial steps of trichodermin biosynthetic pathway in Trichoderma are similar to the trichothecenes from Fusarium sporotrichioides. Trichodiene synthase (TS) encoded by tri5 gene in Trichoderma catalyses the conversion of farnesyl pyrophosphate to trichodiene as reported earlier. In this study, we have carried out a comprehensive comparative sequence and structural analysis of the TS, which revealed the conserved residues involved in catalytic activity of the protein. In silico, modelled tertiary structure of TS protein showed stable structural behaviour during simulations. Two single-substitution mutants, i.e. D109E, D248Y and one double-substitution mutant (D109E and D248Y) of TS with potentially higher activities are screened out. The mutant proteins showed more stability than the wild type, an increased number of electrostatic interactions and better binding energies with the ligand, which further elucidates the amino acid residues involved in the reaction mechanism. These results will lead to devise strategies for higher TS activity to ultimately enhance the trichodermin production by Trichoderma spp. for its better exploitation in the sustainable agricultural practices.

  3. Structural and mechanistic analysis of engineered trichodiene synthase enzymes from Trichoderma harzianum: towards higher catalytic activities empowering sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Indu; Chaudhary, Nitika; Sandhu, Padmani; Ahmed, Mushtaq; Akhter, Yusuf

    2016-06-01

    Trichoderma spp. are well-known bioagents for the plant growth promotion and pathogen suppression. The beneficial activities of the fungus Trichoderma spp. are attributed to their ability to produce and secrete certain secondary metabolites such as trichodermin that belongs to trichothecene family of molecules. The initial steps of trichodermin biosynthetic pathway in Trichoderma are similar to the trichothecenes from Fusarium sporotrichioides. Trichodiene synthase (TS) encoded by tri5 gene in Trichoderma catalyses the conversion of farnesyl pyrophosphate to trichodiene as reported earlier. In this study, we have carried out a comprehensive comparative sequence and structural analysis of the TS, which revealed the conserved residues involved in catalytic activity of the protein. In silico, modelled tertiary structure of TS protein showed stable structural behaviour during simulations. Two single-substitution mutants, i.e. D109E, D248Y and one double-substitution mutant (D109E and D248Y) of TS with potentially higher activities are screened out. The mutant proteins showed more stability than the wild type, an increased number of electrostatic interactions and better binding energies with the ligand, which further elucidates the amino acid residues involved in the reaction mechanism. These results will lead to devise strategies for higher TS activity to ultimately enhance the trichodermin production by Trichoderma spp. for its better exploitation in the sustainable agricultural practices. PMID:26207800

  4. Fungal endophyte diversity in Sarracenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungal endophytes were isolated from four species of the carnivorous pitcher plant genus Sarracenia: S. minor, S. oreophila, S. purpurea, and S. psittacina. Twelve taxa of fungi, eight within the Ascomycota and four within the Basidiomycota, were identified based on PCR amplification and sequencing ...

  5. Isolation and Mass Production of Trichoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Mendoza, Artemio; Clouston, Annabel; Li, Jin-Hua; Nieto-Jacobo, Maria Fernanda; Cummings, Nicholas; Steyaert, Johanna; Hill, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Members of the genus Trichoderma comprise the majority of commercial fungal biocontrol agents of plant diseases. As such, there is a wealth of information available on the analysis of their biocontrol potential and the mechanisms behind their superior abilities. This chapter aims to summarize the most common methods utilized within a Trichoderma biocontrol program for the isolation, identification, and mass propagation of individual strains. PMID:27565488

  6. Endophytic benefit for a competitive host is neutralized by increasing ratios of infected plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lianjie; Ren, Anzhi; Jing, Yuanfang; Zhou, Yong; Wang, Xinyu; Qin, Junhua; Gao, Yubao

    2016-01-01

    Leaf endophytes such as Epichloë can affect the competitive ability of host grasses, but the reported responses are inconsistent. We hypothesized that this inconsistency is caused, at least in part, by the following two aspects. One is that a competitive advantage might occur as a result of an increase in storage compounds for both growth and defense. Another is that the effect of the endophyte might be related to both water availability and host density. In a greenhouse experiment, we compared the competitive abilities of endophyte-infected (EI) and endophyte-free (EF) Leymus chinensis, a dominant grass native to the Inner Mongolia Steppe of China, subjected to ten treatments comprised of a factorial combination of two levels of water availability (well-watered and drought) and five proportions of EI to EF plants (12:0, 4:8, 6:6, 8:4, 0:12). The results showed that the competitive ability of EI plants was higher than that of EF under drought. Here, greater belowground biomass and water use efficiency might contribute to better competitiveness of EI plants. When competing under well-watered conditions, endophyte infection did not provide a benefit to the host plant in biomass accumulation, but more carbon was allocated to defense (total phenolics) in EI plants. This scenario could help EI plants suffer less damage than EF when exposed to herbivores in natural habitats. The competitive ability of EI plants was regulated by EI:EF ratios. Competitive ability of EI plants was higher than that of EF plants in mixtures with lower numbers of EI plants, but the beneficial effect of endophyte infection was neutralized in mixtures with higher numbers of EI plants. Overall, endophyte infection improved the competitive ability of the host under either drought or well-watered conditions but in the presence of herbivore, only this benefit was neutralized by increasing ratios of EI plants. We suspect that both the conditional beneficial effects and stabilizing effects of density

  7. Pinus flexilis and Piceae engelmannii share a simple and consistent needle endophyte microbiota with a potential role in nitrogen fixation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa Ann Carrell

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Conifers predominantly occur on soils or in climates that are suboptimal for plant growth. This is generally attributed to symbioses with mycorrhizal fungi and to conifer adaptations, but recent experiments suggest that aboveground endophytic bacteria in conifers fix nitrogen (N and affect host shoot tissue growth. Because most bacteria cannot be grown in the laboratory very little is known about conifer-endophyte associations in the wild. Pinus flexilis (limber pine and Picea engelmannii (Engelmann spruce growing in a subalpine, nutrient-limited environment are potential candidates for hosting endophytes with roles in N2 fixation and abiotic stress tolerance. We used 16S rRNA pyrosequencing to ask whether these conifers host a core of bacterial species that are consistently associated with conifer individuals and therefore potential mutualists. We found that while overall the endophyte communities clustered according to host species, both conifers were consistently dominated by the same phylotype, which made up 19-53% and 14-39% of the sequences in P. flexilis and P. engelmannii respectively. This phylotype is related to Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus and other N2 fixing acetic acid bacterial endophytes. The pattern observed for the P. flexilis and P. engelmannii needle microbiota—a small number of major species that are consistently associated with the host across individuals and species—is unprecedented for an endophyte community, and suggests a specialized beneficial endophyte function. One possibility is endophytic N fixation, which could help explain how conifers can grow in severely nitrogen-limited soil, and why some forest ecosystems accumulate more N than can be accounted for by known nitrogen input pathways.

  8. Potential use of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) endophytic fungi as seed treatment agents against root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-ning YAN; Richard A. SIKORA; Jing-wu ZHENG

    2011-01-01

    Seed treatment with endophytic fungi has been regarded as an effective method for plant parasitic nematode control. Endophytic fungi from cucumber seedlings were isolated and screened for their potential to be used as seed treatment agents against Meloidogyne incognita. Among the 294 isolates screened, 23 significantly reduced galls formed by M. incognita in greenhouse test. The 10 most effective isolates were Fusarium (5), Trichoderma (1), Chaetomium (1),Acremonium (1), Paecilomyces (1), and Phyllosticta (1). Their control efficacies were repeatedly tested and their colonizations as well as in vitro activity against M. incognita were studied. They reduced the number of galls by 24.0%58.4% in the first screening and 15.6%-44.3% in the repeated test, respectively. Phyllosticta Ph511 and Chaetomium Ch1001 had high colonizations on both the roots and the aboveground parts of cucumber seedlings. Fusarium isolates had colonization preference on the roots, their root colonizations ranging from 20.1% to 47.3% of the total root area. Trichoderma Tr882, Paecilomyces Pa972, and Acremonium Ac985 had low colonizations on both the roots and the aboveground parts. Acremonium Ac985, Chaetomium Ch1001, Paecilomyces Pa972, and Phyllosticta Ph511 produced compounds affecting motility of the second stage juveniles of M. incognita. Based on these results, Chaetomium Ch1001 was considered to have the highest potential as a seed treatment agent for M. incognita biocontrol.

  9. Endophytic bacteria associated with growing shoot tips of banana (Musa sp.) cv. Grand Naine and the affinity of endophytes to the host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Pious; Soly, Thyvalappil A

    2009-11-01

    A cultivation-based assessment of endophytic bacteria present in deep-seated shoot tips of banana suckers was made with a view to generate information on the associated organisms, potential endophytic contaminants in tissue-cultured bananas and to assess if the endophytes shared a beneficial relationship with the host. Plating the tissue homogenate from the central core of suckers showed colony growth on nutrient agar from just 75% and 42% of the 12 stocks during May and November, respectively (average 58%; 6 x 10(3) colony-forming units per gram), yielding diverse organisms belonging to firmicutes (Bacillus, Brevibacillus, Paenibacillus, Virgibacillus, Staphylococcus spp.), actinobacteria (Cellulomonas, Micrococcus, Corynebacterium, Kocuria spp.), alpha-proteobacteria (Paracoccus sp.), and gamma-proteobacteria (Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter spp.). Each shoot tip showed one to three different organisms and no specific organism appeared common to different sucker tips. Tissue homogenate from shoot tips including the ones that did not yield culturable bacteria displayed abundant bacterial cells during microscopic examination suggesting that a high proportion of cells were in viable-but-nonculturable state, or their cultivation requirements were not met. Direct application of cultivation-independent approach to study endophytic bacterial community using bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA universal primers resulted in high interference from chloroplast and mitochondrial genome sequences. Dislodging the bacterial cells from shoot tips that did not show cultivable bacteria and incubating the tissue crush in dilute-nutrient broth led to the activation of four organisms (Klebsiella, Agrobacterium, Pseudacidovorax spp., and an unidentified isolate). The endophytic organisms in general showed better growth at 30-37 degrees C compared with 25 degrees C, and the growth of endophytes as well as pathogenic Erwinia carotovora were promoted with the supply of host tissue extract (HTE) while

  10. Characterization of endophytic fungi from Acer ginnala Maxim. in an artificial plantation: media effect and tissue-dependent variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenghui Qi

    Full Text Available The community of endophytic fungi associated with Acer ginnala, a common tree in northeastern China, was investigated. Four media, PDA, Czapek's, WA and Sabouraud's, were used to inoculate explants from seeds, annual twigs and perennial twigs (xylem and bark. Media strongly affected the isolated species number, but not colonization frequency (CF or isolation frequency (IF. To investigate media effect further, a Principal Component Analysis (PCA was done. As a result, two components accounted for 86.502% of the total variance were extracted. These two components were named as PDA-determined factor (accounted for 45.139% of the total variance and Czapek's-determined factor (accounted for 41.363% of the total variance, respectively. This result suggested that only two media, PDA and Czapek's, could be used instead of all four media in this study without affecting the isolation results significantly. In total, ten taxa were isolated in this study. Alternaria sp., Phomopsis sp., Neurospora sp. and Phoma sp. were dominant endophytes while Pleosporales Incertae Sedis sp., Cladosporium sp., Trichoderma sp. and Epicoccum sp. were rare taxa. Different tissues/organs had different endophyte assemblages. All tissue/organ pairs had low Bray-Curtis indices (<0.3 except for bark and annual twigs (0.63. Compared to perennial twigs, annual twigs had a lower taxon number, lower isolate number, lower endophyte dominance and diversity indices. Seeds had distinct assemblage, lower similarity and similar low diversity indices to annual twigs. These results suggested that tissue type determines the endophyte assemblage while age determines the diversity.

  11. Trichoderma sp Native from Chili Region of Poanas, Durango, Mexico Antagonist against Phytopathogen Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela B. Valencia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Presence of Trichoderma spp. in agricultural soils decrease incidence of diseases by phytopathogen fungi. Sanity diagnostic require to know if exist beneficial microorganism and what agricultural practices help to their propagation. Approach: Samples (30 were taken from soils and sick plants of ten sites in four localities of Valley of Poanas. Phytophthora capsici Leo, Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn and Trichoderma sp were isolated in agar V8 and were identified by microscopy. Results: In the 30 samples analyzed the presence of Phytophthora capsici Leo and Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn was determined. Two isolations of Trichoderma sp were obtained from soil, they had antagonist activity against to P. capsici and R. solani on agar-V8 medium and showed chitinase activity. Sugar production in chitinase (10 mg.mL-1 by crude extract of Trichoderma growth in basal medium more chitin was determined. The average of sugar production from strains were 0.1175 and 0.1125 mg.mL-1 and standard deviations were 0.0567 and 0.0567 in four repetition. Interviews were applied to fifty farmers about cultivars and cultivation practices. At least seven types of chili were cultivated in the region of the Valley of Poanas, inorganic fertilization, irrigation systems by channel, gates and pumps were used. One hundred percent of farmers reported diseases of Damping off and Phytophthora root. Biocides were not used to control these diseases. Conclusion: The natural presence of Trichoderma spp was detected in Valley of Poanas, but some practices as inorganic fertilization and irrigation system can be contributing to propagation of phytopathogen fungi.

  12. Root Endophyte Colletotrichum tofieldiae Confers Plant Fitness Benefits that Are Phosphate Status Dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiruma, Kei; Gerlach, Nina; Sacristán, Soledad; Nakano, Ryohei Thomas; Hacquard, Stéphane; Kracher, Barbara; Neumann, Ulla; Ramírez, Diana; Bucher, Marcel; O’Connell, Richard J.; Schulze-Lefert, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Summary A staggering diversity of endophytic fungi associate with healthy plants in nature, but it is usually unclear whether these represent stochastic encounters or provide host fitness benefits. Although most characterized species of the fungal genus Colletotrichum are destructive pathogens, we show here that C. tofieldiae (Ct) is an endemic endophyte in natural Arabidopsis thaliana populations in central Spain. Colonization by Ct initiates in roots but can also spread systemically into shoots. Ct transfers the macronutrient phosphorus to shoots, promotes plant growth, and increases fertility only under phosphorus-deficient conditions, a nutrient status that might have facilitated the transition from pathogenic to beneficial lifestyles. The host’s phosphate starvation response (PSR) system controls Ct root colonization and is needed for plant growth promotion (PGP). PGP also requires PEN2-dependent indole glucosinolate metabolism, a component of innate immune responses, indicating a functional link between innate immunity and the PSR system during beneficial interactions with Ct. PMID:26997485

  13. Root Endophyte Colletotrichum tofieldiae Confers Plant Fitness Benefits that Are Phosphate Status Dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiruma, Kei; Gerlach, Nina; Sacristán, Soledad; Nakano, Ryohei Thomas; Hacquard, Stéphane; Kracher, Barbara; Neumann, Ulla; Ramírez, Diana; Bucher, Marcel; O'Connell, Richard J; Schulze-Lefert, Paul

    2016-04-01

    A staggering diversity of endophytic fungi associate with healthy plants in nature, but it is usually unclear whether these represent stochastic encounters or provide host fitness benefits. Although most characterized species of the fungal genus Colletotrichum are destructive pathogens, we show here that C. tofieldiae (Ct) is an endemic endophyte in natural Arabidopsis thaliana populations in central Spain. Colonization by Ct initiates in roots but can also spread systemically into shoots. Ct transfers the macronutrient phosphorus to shoots, promotes plant growth, and increases fertility only under phosphorus-deficient conditions, a nutrient status that might have facilitated the transition from pathogenic to beneficial lifestyles. The host's phosphate starvation response (PSR) system controls Ct root colonization and is needed for plant growth promotion (PGP). PGP also requires PEN2-dependent indole glucosinolate metabolism, a component of innate immune responses, indicating a functional link between innate immunity and the PSR system during beneficial interactions with Ct. PMID:26997485

  14. Root Endophyte Colletotrichum tofieldiae Confers Plant Fitness Benefits that Are Phosphate Status Dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiruma, Kei; Gerlach, Nina; Sacristán, Soledad; Nakano, Ryohei Thomas; Hacquard, Stéphane; Kracher, Barbara; Neumann, Ulla; Ramírez, Diana; Bucher, Marcel; O'Connell, Richard J; Schulze-Lefert, Paul

    2016-04-01

    A staggering diversity of endophytic fungi associate with healthy plants in nature, but it is usually unclear whether these represent stochastic encounters or provide host fitness benefits. Although most characterized species of the fungal genus Colletotrichum are destructive pathogens, we show here that C. tofieldiae (Ct) is an endemic endophyte in natural Arabidopsis thaliana populations in central Spain. Colonization by Ct initiates in roots but can also spread systemically into shoots. Ct transfers the macronutrient phosphorus to shoots, promotes plant growth, and increases fertility only under phosphorus-deficient conditions, a nutrient status that might have facilitated the transition from pathogenic to beneficial lifestyles. The host's phosphate starvation response (PSR) system controls Ct root colonization and is needed for plant growth promotion (PGP). PGP also requires PEN2-dependent indole glucosinolate metabolism, a component of innate immune responses, indicating a functional link between innate immunity and the PSR system during beneficial interactions with Ct.

  15. Chemical characterization of bioactive compounds from the endophytic fungus Diaporthe helianthi isolated from Luehea divaricata

    OpenAIRE

    Specian, Vânia; Sarragiotto, Maria Helena; Pamphile, João Alencar; Edmar CLEMENTE

    2012-01-01

    Endophytic microorganisms, defined as fungi or bacteria that colonize the interior of plants without causing any immediate negative effects or damages, have reciprocal relationships with host plants. In some cases their presence is beneficial to the host due to the synthesis of bioactive compounds, among which several alcohols, esters, ketones and others that may react with other compounds and may be lethal to pathogenic microorganisms. Diaporthe helianthi (Phomopsis helianthi in its anamorph...

  16. Phosphate enhances levan production in the endophytic bacterium Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5

    OpenAIRE

    Idogawa, Nao; Amamoto, Ryuta; Murata, Kousaku; Kawai, Shigeyuki

    2014-01-01

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a gram-negative and endophytic nitrogen-fixing bacterium that has several beneficial effects in host plants; thus, utilization of this bacterium as a biofertilizer in agriculture may be possible. G. diazotrophicus synthesizes levan, a D-fructofuranosyl polymer with β-(2→6) linkages, as an exopolysaccharide and the synthesized levan improves the stress tolerance of the bacterium. In this study, we found that phosphate enhances levan production by G. diazotro...

  17. New advances in the science and use of Trichoderma spp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gary Harman

    2004-01-01

    @@ Trichoderna spp. have been known for their strong abilities to produce extracellular enzymes,especially cellulases and glucanases by T. reesei, and also for their abilities to control plant pathogens.Most notably, a number of lines of evidence indicate that the agriculturally relevant strains are synergistic plant symbionts. As plant symbionts they possess the following characteristics: (a) they infect plant roots but cause the plant to restrict their growth to outer layers of the plant cortex (an exception is the recent discoveries of plant endophytic strains of Trichoderma and Gliocladium), (b)they produce bioactive plant molecules in the zone of interaction that (c) induce localized systemic resistance to plant diseases and (d) systemic plant resistance to diseases that in some respects is similar to that induced by rhizobacteria, (e) they induce changes in plant proteomes, (f) increase plant growth and yield at least in part by enhancing root growth, and (g) they increase plant nutrient uptake. The increase in plant growth and yields is strongly interactive with plant genotype, at least in maize. There also are very significant increases in the knowledge of events that occur in mycoparasitism that in many respects have features in common with their interactions with plants.They are highly resistant to toxicants and have recently been shown to degrade cyanide and take up,and then degrade, metallocyanides. These discoveries allow new uses for the organisms in managed plant systems, including agriculture. For example, the induced systemic resistance system allows control of fungi, bacteria, Oomycetes and even one virus at sites temporally and spatially distant from the site of application. The abilities of the fungi to resist/degrade toxicants and increase plant growth indicate they will highly useful components in plant-microbe or microbe-only strategies for remediation of soil and water pollution. Finally, there are new uses of their enzyme systems for

  18. Genetic and metabolic biodiversity of Trichoderma from Colombia and adjacent neotropic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyos-Carvajal, Lilliana; Orduz, Sergio; Bissett, John

    2009-09-01

    The genus Trichoderma has been studied for production of enzymes and other metabolites, as well as for exploitation as effective biological control agents. The biodiversity of Trichoderma has seen relatively limited study over much of the neotropical region. In the current study we assess the biodiversity of 183 isolates from Mexico, Guatemala, Panama, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil and Colombia, using morphological, metabolic and genetic approaches. A comparatively high diversity of species was found, comprising 29 taxa: Trichoderma asperellum (60 isolates), Trichoderma atroviride (3), Trichoderma brevicompactum (5), Trichoderma crassum (3), Trichoderma erinaceum (3), Trichoderma gamsii (2), Trichoderma hamatum (2), Trichoderma harzianum (49), Trichoderma koningiopsis (6), Trichoderma longibrachiatum (3), Trichoderma ovalisporum (1), Trichoderma pubescens (2), Trichoderma rossicum (4), Trichoderma spirale (1), Trichoderma tomentosum (3), Trichoderma virens (8), Trichoderma viridescens (7) and Hypocrea jecorina (3) (anamorph: Trichoderma reesei), along with 11 currently undescribed species. T. asperellum was the prevalent species and was represented by two distinct genotypes with different metabolic profiles and habitat preferences. The second predominant species, T. harzianum, was represented by three distinct genotypes. The addition of 11 currently undescribed species is evidence of the considerable unresolved biodiversity of Trichoderma in neotropical regions. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS) of the ribosomal repeat could not differentiate some species, and taken alone gave several misidentifications in part due to the presence of nonorthologous copies of the ITS in some isolates.

  19. Uji Antagonisme Jamur Trichoderma koningii dan Trichoderma harzianum Terhadap Penyakit Bidang Sadap Tanaman Karet Mouldy rot (Ceratocystis fimbriata) di Laboratorium

    OpenAIRE

    Marbun, Harif Nepen

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the research wasto test antagonism ability of Trichoderma koningii andTrichoderma harzianumto control Ceratocystis fimbriatain laboratory. The research was conducted at Laboratory of Research Agency of Rubber, Sungei Putih from April to December 2015. It was done by using Completely Randomized Design (CRD) non factorial with three treatments and eight replications. The results showed Trichoderma koningii andTrichoderma harzianumpotential as biological agents to control Cerato...

  20. Beneficial rhizosphere pseudomonads

    OpenAIRE

    Lugtenberg, B; Kamilova, F.

    2008-01-01

    Among the many bacteria present on and around the root, Pseudomonas bacteria are (among) the best root colonizers and therefore very suitable to apply for beneficial purposes. In this chapter, we discuss the possibilities to use such bacteria for the following purposes: fertilization of the plant, stimulation of plant growth and yield, reduction of plant stress, and reduction of plant diseases. This research was supported by numerous grants, especially from the Dutch Organization for scientif...

  1. When is Concentration Beneficial?

    OpenAIRE

    Liron-Espana, Carmen; Lopez, Rigoberto A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper separates market power and efficiency effects of concentration in a sample of 255 U.S. manufacturing industries and computes welfare changes from rises in concentration. The empirical findings reveal that in nearly two-third of the cases, consumers lose as efficiency gains are generally pocketed by the industries. From an aggregate welfare standpoint, concentration is found to be beneficial in nearly 70% of the cases, mostly for low and moderate levels of concentration being partic...

  2. Bioactive alkaloids in vertically transmitted fungal endophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plants form mutualistic symbioses with a variety of microorganisms, including endophytic fungi that live inside the plant and cause no symptoms of infection. Some endophytic fungi form defensive mutualisms based on the production of bioactive metabolites that protect the plant from herbivores in exc...

  3. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for endophytic hilar tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Pierro, G B; Tartaglia, N; Aresu, L;

    2014-01-01

    To analyze feasibility and outcomes of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) for endophytic hilar tumors in low-intermediate (ASA I-II) risk patients.......To analyze feasibility and outcomes of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) for endophytic hilar tumors in low-intermediate (ASA I-II) risk patients....

  4. Gliocladium and Trichoderma in agricultural soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Chen; LI Bao-du; LU Guo-zhong

    2004-01-01

    @@ Gliocladium and Trichoderma are common fungi in agricultural soil. Several species of them were isolated and identified, great diversity was displayed in different agricultural soils of different crops,agricultural climate zones, different seasons, depths, different treated soybean cyst nematode soil,healthy and diseased crop soil. Among five crops soil samples, wheat and corn soil were found to possess the largest number of Gliocladium and Trichoderma separately. Gliocladium and Trichoderma of three major crops showed consistent changing patterns with seasonal variation. Corn soil displayed distinct vertical distribution of Trichoderna. There is a different distribution of the two fungi in diseased and healthy plant soil. Among the various isolated methods, diluted plate method is the best for isolating Gliocladium, and Trichoderma could be found in plant residue method and be tolerant to steam for two minutes. In the soybean cyst nematode soil mycobiota, the frequency of Gliocladium is higher than that of the others fungi, and Trichoderma may have the role of bioremediation in herbicide treated soil. Similarly, Gliocladium occurred frequently in different climate zones.

  5. The Terpenoid Biosynthesis Toolkit of Trichoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Ravindra; Mukherjee, Prasun Kumar

    2016-04-01

    The widely used biotechnologically important fungi belonging to the genus Trichoderma are rich sources of secondary metabolites. Even though the genomes of several Trichoderma spp. have been published, and data are available on the genes involved in biosynthesis of non-ribosomal peptide synthetases and polyketide synthases, no genome-wide data are available for the terpenoid biosynthesis machinery in these organisms. In the present study, we have identified the genes involved in terpene biosynthesis in the genomes of three Trichoderma spp., viz., T. virens, T. atroviride and T. reesei. While the genes involved in the condensation steps are highly conserved across the three species, these fungi differed in the number and organization of terpene cyclases. T. virens genome harbours eleven terpene cyclases, while T. atroviride harbours seven, and T. reeseisix in their genomes; seven, three and two being part of putative secondary metabolism related gene clusters. PMID:27396184

  6. Screening of Trichoderma strains tolerant to benzimidazole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Kai-qi; XIANG Mei-mei; LIU Ren; ZENG Yong-san; ZHOU Hong-zi; YU Jin-feng; JIANG Xin-yin; ZHANG Yue-li

    2004-01-01

    @@ The screening of isolates and the assay of biocontrol mechanisms of Trichoderma were studied systematically in laboratory and greenhouse in vivo. The proteins tolerant to benzimidazole in Trichoderma strains were purified, and their physical and chemical properties were detected. Compared their biological activities in vitro and vivo in greenhouse, nine biocontrol strains (including Ty- 10-2, LTR-2, Tj-5-1, Tj-5-4, Ty- 11-1, Tj-11-3, Ty- 11-3, Tj-3-3-2, Tj-3-3-4) were screened. These biocontrol strains had faster rates of growth and higher inhibition to gray mould (Bortrytis cinerea),and the inhibition was stable. The effects of controlling gray mould in greenhouse with the screened Trichoderma strains were 70 % and 50 % in vivo.

  7. The Terpenoid Biosynthesis Toolkit of Trichoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Ravindra; Mukherjee, Prasun Kumar

    2016-04-01

    The widely used biotechnologically important fungi belonging to the genus Trichoderma are rich sources of secondary metabolites. Even though the genomes of several Trichoderma spp. have been published, and data are available on the genes involved in biosynthesis of non-ribosomal peptide synthetases and polyketide synthases, no genome-wide data are available for the terpenoid biosynthesis machinery in these organisms. In the present study, we have identified the genes involved in terpene biosynthesis in the genomes of three Trichoderma spp., viz., T. virens, T. atroviride and T. reesei. While the genes involved in the condensation steps are highly conserved across the three species, these fungi differed in the number and organization of terpene cyclases. T. virens genome harbours eleven terpene cyclases, while T. atroviride harbours seven, and T. reeseisix in their genomes; seven, three and two being part of putative secondary metabolism related gene clusters.

  8. [Improvement of Trichoderma strains for biocontrol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez, T; Rey, M; Delgado-Jarana, J; Rincón, A M; Limón, M C

    2000-03-01

    The use of the fungal genus Trichoderma to control fungal plant diseases is a promising alternative to the use of chemical compounds. The aim of this work has been to obtain Trichoderma strains with improved capacity as biological control agents. To do so, the hydrolytic capacity on fungal cell walls of strains of the fungus Trichoderma harzianum has been increased. On one hand, transformation experiments with genes which coded for chitinases and glucanases have been carried out in T. harzianumstra ins. On the other hand, the medium composition has also been modified in order to eliminate proteolytic degradation of some of the overproduced enzymes. Finally, hybrid chitinolytic enzymes with substrate-binding domains have been produced as an alternative to obtain improved biocontrol strains. The transformant strains, when compared with the wild type, showed improved antifungal capacity against the phytopathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani, in in vitro experiments. PMID:15762779

  9. Isolation and Characterization of Saponin-Producing Fungal Endophytes from Aralia elata in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhua Li

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the diversity of endophytic fungi of Aralia elata distributed in Northeast China as well as their capacity to produce saponins. Ninety-six strains of endophytic fungi were isolated, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR and sequencing were employed to identify the isolates. The saponin concentrations of the culture filtrates of representative strains were measured. The agar diffusion method was used to test antimicrobial activity, while high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was employed to identify the saponins produced by representative strains. Alternaria, Botryosphaeria, Camarosporium, Cryptosporiopsis, Diaporthe, Dictyochaeta, Penicillium, Fusarium, Nectria, Peniophora, Schizophyllum, Cladosporium and Trichoderma species were isolated in this study. Overall, 25% of the isolates belonged to Diaporthe (Diaporthe eres, and 12.5% belonged to Alternaria. The highest concentration of saponins was produced by G22 (2.049 mg/mL. According to the results of the phylogenetic analysis, G22 belonged to the genus Penicillium. The culture filtrate of G22 exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, and ginsenosides Re and Rb2 were detected in G22 culture filtrates by HPLC.

  10. Isolation and identification of endophytic and mycorrhizal fungi from seeds and roots of Dendrobium (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Wang, Hui; Guo, Shun-Xing

    2012-05-01

    The seed germination of orchids under natural conditions requires association with mycorrhizal fungi. Dendrobium nobile and Dendrobium chrysanthum are threatened orchid species in China where they are considered medicinal plants. For conservation and application of Dendrobium using symbiosis technology, we isolated culturable endophytic and mycorrhizal fungi colonized in the protocorms and adult roots of two species plants and identified them by morphological and molecular analyses (5.8S and nrLSU). Of the 127 endophytic fungi isolated, 11 Rhizoctonia-like strains were identified as Tulasnellales (three strains from protocorms of D. nobile), Sebacinales (three strains from roots of D. nobile and two strains from protocorms of D. chrysanthum) and Cantharellales (three strains from roots of D. nobile), respectively. In addition, species of Xylaria, Fusarium, Trichoderma, Colletotrichum, Pestalotiopsis, and Phomopsis were the predominant non-mycorrhizal fungi isolated, and their probable ecological roles in the Dendrobium plants are discussed. These fungal resources will be of great importance for the large-scale cultivation of Dendrobium plants using symbiotic germination technology and for the screening of bioactive metabolites from them in the future.

  11. Fungos endofíticos associados a plantas medicinais Endophytic fungi associated with medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Mussi-Dias

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Com a utilização de plantas medicinais em infusões, xaropes, tinturas, ungüentos, dentre outras formas, pressupõe-se que fungos endofíticos, presentes no interior das plantas, mas sem causar doença, possam tornar-se um componente destes produtos, principalmente quando utilizados in natura. Além disso, os fungos endofíticos podem também produzir substâncias tóxicas aos usuários ou mesmo alterar o metabolismo vegetal, modificando a composição e as propriedades medicinais, assim como, a qualidade do produto armazenado e comercializado. Neste sentido, objetivou-se isolar e identificar a flora fúngica endofítica de onze espécies medicinais escolhidas ao acaso. Obtiveram-se culturas-puras dos fungos Phomopsis, Colletotrichum, Pestalotia, Trichoderma, Fusarium, Nigrospora e Glomerella ocorrendo endofiticamente em Plectranthus barbatus, Vernonia condensata, Pfaffia paniculata, Foeniculum vulgare, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Cordia curassavica, Maytenus ilicifolia, Punica granatum, Morus nigra e Bauhinia forficata. As espécies vegetais em que se identificaram o maior número de fungos endofíticos foram Vernonia condensata, Punica granatum e Morus nigra. Todos os fungos recuperados neste trabalho apresentaram características estritamente endofíticas, não manifestando patogenicidade nas espécies hospedeiras. Dentre os fungos detectados, especial atenção deve ser dada ao gênero Fusarium, uma vez que inúmeras espécies deste gênero são conhecidas produtoras de micotoxinas e constituem-se em importantes patógenos pós-colheita.With the use of medicinal plants in infusions, syrups, dyes, unguents, among other forms, it is expected that endophytic fungi, present inside the plants but not causing diseases, become components of these products, especially when used in natura. In addition, endophytic fungi can produce toxic substances to the users or even modify the plant metabolism, altering the medicinal composition and

  12. Beneficial Bacteria Isolated from Grapevine Inner Tissues Shape Arabidopsis thaliana Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldan, Enrico; Nigris, Sebastiano; Romualdi, Chiara; D'Alessandro, Stefano; Clocchiatti, Anna; Zottini, Michela; Stevanato, Piergiorgio; Squartini, Andrea; Baldan, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the potential plant growth-promoting traits of 377 culturable endophytic bacteria, isolated from Vitis vinifera cv. Glera, as good biofertilizer candidates in vineyard management. Endophyte ability in promoting plant growth was assessed in vitro by testing ammonia production, phosphate solubilization, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and IAA-like molecule biosynthesis, siderophore and lytic enzyme secretion. Many of the isolates were able to mobilize phosphate (33%), release ammonium (39%), secrete siderophores (38%) and a limited part of them synthetized IAA and IAA-like molecules (5%). Effects of each of the 377 grapevine beneficial bacteria on Arabidopsis thaliana root development were also analyzed to discern plant growth-promoting abilities (PGP) of the different strains, that often exhibit more than one PGP trait. A supervised model-based clustering analysis highlighted six different classes of PGP effects on root architecture. A. thaliana DR5::GUS plantlets, inoculated with IAA-producing endophytes, resulted in altered root growth and enhanced auxin response. Overall, the results indicate that the Glera PGP endospheric culturable microbiome could contribute, by structural root changes, to obtain water and nutrients increasing plant adaptation and survival. From the complete cultivable collection, twelve promising endophytes mainly belonging to the Bacillus but also to Micrococcus and Pantoea genera, were selected for further investigations in the grapevine host plants towards future application in sustainable management of vineyards. PMID:26473358

  13. Beneficial Bacteria Isolated from Grapevine Inner Tissues Shape Arabidopsis thaliana Roots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Baldan

    Full Text Available We investigated the potential plant growth-promoting traits of 377 culturable endophytic bacteria, isolated from Vitis vinifera cv. Glera, as good biofertilizer candidates in vineyard management. Endophyte ability in promoting plant growth was assessed in vitro by testing ammonia production, phosphate solubilization, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA and IAA-like molecule biosynthesis, siderophore and lytic enzyme secretion. Many of the isolates were able to mobilize phosphate (33%, release ammonium (39%, secrete siderophores (38% and a limited part of them synthetized IAA and IAA-like molecules (5%. Effects of each of the 377 grapevine beneficial bacteria on Arabidopsis thaliana root development were also analyzed to discern plant growth-promoting abilities (PGP of the different strains, that often exhibit more than one PGP trait. A supervised model-based clustering analysis highlighted six different classes of PGP effects on root architecture. A. thaliana DR5::GUS plantlets, inoculated with IAA-producing endophytes, resulted in altered root growth and enhanced auxin response. Overall, the results indicate that the Glera PGP endospheric culturable microbiome could contribute, by structural root changes, to obtain water and nutrients increasing plant adaptation and survival. From the complete cultivable collection, twelve promising endophytes mainly belonging to the Bacillus but also to Micrococcus and Pantoea genera, were selected for further investigations in the grapevine host plants towards future application in sustainable management of vineyards.

  14. The Epl1 and Sm1 proteins from Trichoderma atroviride and Trichoderma virens differentially modulate systemic disease resistance against different life style pathogens in Solanum lycopersicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel eSalas-Marina

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fungi belonging to the genus Trichoderma, commonly found in soil or colonizing plant roots, exert beneficial effects on plants, including the promotion of growth and the induction of resistance to disease. T. virens and T. atroviride secrete the proteins Sm1 and Epl1, respectively, which elicit local and systemic disease resistance in plants. In this work, we show that these fungi promote growth in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum plants. T. virens was more effective than T. atroviride in promoting biomass gain, and both fungi were capable of inducing systemic protection in tomato against Alternaria solani, Botrytis cinerea, and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst DC3000. Deletion (KO of epl1 in T. atroviride resulted in diminished systemic protection against A. solani and B. cinerea, whereas the T. virens sm1 KO strain was less effective in protecting tomato against Pst DC3000 and B. cinerea. Importantly, over-expression (OE of epl1 and sm1 led to an increase in disease resistance against all tested pathogens. Although the Trichoderma WT strains induced both systemic acquired resistance (SAR- and induced systemic resistance (ISR-related genes in tomato, inoculation of plants with OE and KO strains revealed that Epl1 and Sm1 play a minor role in the induction of these genes. However, we found that Epl1 and Sm1 induce the expression of a peroxidase and an α-dioxygenase encoding genes, respectively, which could be important for tomato protection by Trichoderma spp. Altogether, these observations indicate that colonization by beneficial and/or infection by pathogenic microorganisms dictates many of the outcomes in plants, which are more complex than previously thought.

  15. A rapid, one step molecular identification of Trichoderma citrinoviride and Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saroj, Dina B; Dengeti, Shrinivas N; Aher, Supriya; Gupta, Anil K

    2015-06-01

    Trichoderma species are widely used as production hosts for industrial enzymes. Identification of Trichoderma species requires a complex molecular biology based identification involving amplification and sequencing of multiple genes. Industrial laboratories are required to run identification tests repeatedly in cell banking procedures and also to prove absence of production host in the product. Such demands can be fulfilled by a brief method which enables confirmation of strain identity. This communication describes one step identification method for two common Trichoderma species; T. citrinoviride and T. reesei, based on identification of polymorphic region in the nucleotide sequence of translation elongation factor 1 alpha. A unique forward primer and common reverse primer resulted in 153 and 139 bp amplicon for T. citrinoviride and T. reesei, respectively. Simplification was further introduced by using mycelium as template for PCR amplification. Method described in this communication allows rapid, one step identification of two Trichoderma species.

  16. Characterization of endophytic bacteria from cucurbit fruits with potential benefits to agriculture in melons (Cucumis melo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassner, Hanoch; Zchori-Fein, Einat; Compant, Stéphane; Sessitsch, Angela; Katzir, Nurit; Portnoy, Vitaly; Yaron, Sima

    2015-07-01

    Endophytes are microorganisms that mainly colonize vegetative parts, but are also found in reproductive and disseminating organs, and may have beneficial characteristics. To identify microorganisms associated with the agriculturally important family, Cucurbitaceae, endophytes were initially determined in fruits of Cucumis melo Reticulatus Group 'Dulce' by a cultivation-independent approach based on fluorescence in situ hybridization using double labeling of oligonucleotide probes. Alpha-, Beta-, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were localized inside the fruits. Culturable bacteria were further isolated and identified from fruit tissues of 'Dulce', from fruits of other cultivated and wild-field-grown Cucurbitaceae, and from wild fruits growing under natural conditions. Low densities of culturable bacteria were detected in the investigated fruits, especially in four out of the five wild species, regardless of their growing environment. Substantial differences were observed between the wild and cultivated cucurbit taxa in regard to the number of colonized fruits as well as the type of endophytes. Bacillus was the most dominant genus of endophytes colonizing fruits of Cucurbitaceae. The antagonistic effects of isolated endophytes were assessed against cucurbit disease agents in dual-culture assays. Several bacterial isolates exhibited antagonistic properties against the tested plant pathogens. The identified bacteria may be useful for protecting plants not only in the field, but also for post-harvest. PMID:26183916

  17. The fungal leaf endophyte Paraconiothyrium variabile specifically metabolizes the host-plant metabolome for its own benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuan; Amand, Séverine; Buisson, Didier; Kunz, Caroline; Hachette, François; Dupont, Joëlle; Nay, Bastien; Prado, Soizic

    2014-12-01

    Fungal endophytes live inside plant tissues and some have been found to provide benefits to their host. Nevertheless, their ecological impact is not adequately understood. Considering the fact that endophytes are continuously interacting with their hosts, it is conceivable that both partners have substantial influence on each other's metabolic processes. In this context, we have investigated the action of the endophytic fungus Paraconiothyrium variabile, isolated from the leaves of Cephalotaxus harringtonia, on the secondary metabolome of the host-plant. The alteration of the leaf compounds by the fungus was monitored through metabolomic approaches followed by structural characterization of the altered products. Out of more than a thousand molecules present in the crude extract of the plant leaf, we have observed a specific biotransformation of glycosylated flavonoids by the endophyte. In all cases it led to the production of the corresponding aglycone via deglycosylation. The deglycosylated flavonoids turned out to display significant beneficial effects on the hyphal growth of germinated spores. Our finding, along with the known allelopathic role of flavonoids, illustrates the chemical cooperation underlying the mutualistic relationship between the plant and the endophyte. PMID:25446235

  18. Characterization of an Endophytic Gloeosporium sp. and Its Novel Bioactivity with "Synergistans".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaible, George A; Strobel, Gary A; Mends, Morgan Tess; Geary, Brad; Sears, Joe

    2015-07-01

    Gloeosporium sp. (OR-10) was isolated as an endophyte of Tsuga heterophylla (Western hemlock). Both ITS and 18S sequence analyses indicated that the organism best fits either Hypocrea spp. or Trichoderma spp., but neither of these organisms possess conidiophores associated with acervuli, in which case the endophytic isolate OR-10 does. Therefore, the preferred taxonomic assignment was primarily based on the morphological features of the organism as one belonging to the genus Gloeosporium sp. These taxonomic observations clearly point out that limited ITS and 18S sequence information can be misleading when solely used in making taxonomic assignments. The volatile phase of this endophyte was active against a number of plant pathogenic fungi including Phytophthora palmivora, Rhizoctonia solani, Ceratocystis ulmi, Botrytis cinerea, and Verticillium dahliae. Among several terpenes and furans, the most abundantly produced compound in the volatile phase was 6-pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one, a compound possessing antimicrobial activities. When used in conjunction with microliter amounts of any in a series of esters or isobutyric acid, an enhanced inhibitory response occurred with each test fungus that was greater than that exhibited by Gloeosporium sp. or the compounds tested individually. Compounds behaving in this manner are hereby designated "synergistans." An expression of the "median synergistic effect," under prescribed conditions, has been termed the mSE50. This value describes the amount of a potential synergistan that is required to yield an additional median 50% inhibition of a target organism. In this report, the mSE50s are reported for a series of esters and isobutyric acid. The results indicated that isoamyl acetate, allyl acetate, and isobutyric acid generally possessed the lowest mSE50 values. The value and potential importance of these microbial synergistic effects to the microbial environment are also discussed. PMID:25501886

  19. Enhanced Expression of Endochitinase in Trichoderma harzianum with the cbh1 Promoter of Trichoderma reesei

    OpenAIRE

    Margolles-Clark, E.; Harman, G. E.; Penttila, M.

    1996-01-01

    Production of extracellular endochitinase could be increased 5-fold in the mycoparasite fungus Trichoderma harzianum by using the cellulase promoter cbh1 of Trichoderma reesei, whereas the total endochitinase activity increased 10-fold. The cbh1 promoter was not expressed on glucose and sucrose in T. harzianum and was induced by sophorose and on cellulase-inducing medium. The endogenous endochitinase gene was expressed at a low basal level on glucose and sucrose. No specific induction by crab...

  20. Involvement of Trichoderma asperellum strain T6 in regulating iron acquisition in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Yaqing; Zhang, Jiaojiao

    2014-07-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is a major plant nutritional disorder in many parts of the world, particularly in areas with saline soils. Among the numerous root-associated microbes that are beneficial for plant nutrient uptake, Trichoderma spp. are the most effective rhizosphere fungi for enhancing plant growth and plant resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. To investigate the potential mechanisms of action of Trichoderma on insoluble Fe in the soil, which is difficult for plants to absorb and utilize, a high siderophore-producing strain of Trichoderma T6, was isolated from the rhizosphere of cucumber plants. The strain was identified as T. asperellum based on the morphological features and molecular phylogenetic analyses. Applying strain T6 to sterile soil could increase soil levels of Fe(2+) and siderophores, as well as increase Fe(2+) and Fe(3+)-chelate reductase (FCR) activity in cucumber tissues. Purified siderophore eluent (PSE) increased plant growth, thus confirming its role in plant growth promotion. Moreover, extracellular Fe(3+) reducing activity and three kinds of organic acids were detected in the culture filtrate of strain T6. These results indicate that strain T6 influences plant Fe absorption in several ways. Siderophore-based Fe chelation is effective in providing Fe to plants, organic acids, and Fe(3+) reducing enzymes may participate in the solubilization and reduction of insoluble Fe(3+) to Fe(2+).

  1. Screening of bacterial endophytes inhabiting Mimosa pudica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Baker

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Research on endophytes is burgeoning immense importance since recent years with almost all plants harboring untold number of microorganism as endophytes. Endophytic plethora is reported to secrete unique novel metabolites bearing therapeutic property which are being constantly exploited. The present study uncaps the bacterial endophytes inhabiting stem and roots of Mimosa pudica L located in southern part of India. The screening resulted in isolation of one forty one myriad bacterial endophytes with different morphological characteristics. The endophytes isolated in the present study will be exploited for further research which will be promising enough to extract the novel leads of pharmaceutical importance

  2. Bioaugmentation with endophytic bacterium E6S homologous to Achromobacter piechaudii enhances metal rhizoaccumulation in host Sedum plumbizincicola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying eMa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Application of hyperaccumulator–endophyte symbiotic systems is a potential approach to improve phytoremediation efficiency, since some beneficial endophytic bacteria are able to detoxify heavy metals, alter metal solubility in soil and facilitate plant growth. The objective of this study was to isolate multi-metal resistant and plant beneficial endophytic bacteria and to evaluate their role in enhancing plant growth and metal accumulation/translocation. The metal resistant endophytic bacterial strain E6S was isolated from stems of the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator plant Sedum plumbizincicola growing in metalliferous mine soils using Dworkin and Foster salts minimal agar medium with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC as the sole nitrogen source, and identified as homologous to Achromobacter piechaudii based on morphological and biochemical characteristics, partial 16S rDNA sequence and phylogenetic analysis. Strain E6S showed high level of resistance to various metals (Cd, Zn and Pb. Besides utilizing ACC, strain E6S exhibited plant beneficial traits, such as solubilization of phosphate and production of indole-3-acetic acid. Inoculation with E6S significantly increased the bioavailability of Cd, Zn and Pb in soil. In addition, bacterial cells bound considerable amounts of metal ions in the following order: Zn ˃ Cd ˃ Pb. Inoculation of E6S significantly stimulated plant biomass, uptake and bioaccumulation of Cd, Zn and Pb. However, E6S greatly reduced the root to shoot translocation of Cd and Zn, indicating that bacterial inoculation assisted the host plant to uptake and store heavy metals in its root system. Inoculation with the endophytic bacterium E6S homologous to A. piechaudii can improve phytostabilization of metalliferous soils due to its effective ability to enhance in situ metal rhizoaccumulation in plants.

  3. Bioaugmentation with Endophytic Bacterium E6S Homologous to Achromobacter piechaudii Enhances Metal Rhizoaccumulation in Host Sedum plumbizincicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying; Zhang, Chang; Oliveira, Rui S; Freitas, Helena; Luo, Yongming

    2016-01-01

    Application of hyperaccumulator-endophyte symbiotic systems is a potential approach to improve phytoremediation efficiency, since some beneficial endophytic bacteria are able to detoxify heavy metals, alter metal solubility in soil, and facilitate plant growth. The objective of this study was to isolate multi-metal resistant and plant beneficial endophytic bacteria and to evaluate their role in enhancing plant growth and metal accumulation/translocation. The metal resistant endophytic bacterial strain E6S was isolated from stems of the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator plant Sedum plumbizincicola growing in metalliferous mine soils using Dworkin and Foster salts minimal agar medium with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) as the sole nitrogen source, and identified as homologous to Achromobacter piechaudii based on morphological and biochemical characteristics, partial 16S rDNA sequence and phylogenetic analysis. Strain E6S showed high level of resistance to various metals (Cd, Zn, and Pb). Besides utilizing ACC, strain E6S exhibited plant beneficial traits, such as solubilization of phosphate and production of indole-3-acetic acid. Inoculation with E6S significantly increased the bioavailability of Cd, Zn, and Pb in soil. In addition, bacterial cells bound considerable amounts of metal ions in the following order: Zn > Cd >Pb. Inoculation of E6S significantly stimulated plant biomass, uptake and bioaccumulation of Cd, Zn, and Pb. However, E6S greatly reduced the root to shoot translocation of Cd and Zn, indicating that bacterial inoculation assisted the host plant to uptake and store heavy metals in its root system. Inoculation with the endophytic bacterium E6S homologous to A. piechaudii can improve phytostabilization of metalliferous soils due to its effective ability to enhance in situ metal rhizoaccumulation in plants. PMID:26870079

  4. Effect of bacterial inoculation, plant genotype and developmental stage on root-associated and endophytic bacterial communities in potato (Solanum tuberosum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andreote, F.D.; Rocha, da U.N.; Araujo, W.L.; Azevedo, J.L.; Overbeek, van L.S.

    2010-01-01

    Beneficial bacteria interact with plants by colonizing the rhizosphere and roots followed by further spread through the inner tissues, resulting in endophytic colonization. The major factors contributing to these interactions are not always well understood for most bacterial and plant species. It is

  5. Genome-scale investigation of phenotypically distinct but nearly clonal Trichoderma strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Claudia; Weld, Richard J; Cox, Murray P; Bradshaw, Rosie E; McLean, Kirstin L; Stewart, Alison; Steyaert, Johanna M

    2016-01-01

    Biological control agents (BCA) are beneficial organisms that are applied to protect plants from pests. Many fungi of the genus Trichoderma are successful BCAs but the underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Trichoderma cf. atroviride strain LU132 is a remarkably effective BCA compared to T. cf. atroviride strain LU140 but these strains were found to be highly similar at the DNA sequence level. This unusual combination of phenotypic variability and high DNA sequence similarity between separately isolated strains prompted us to undertake a genome comparison study in order to identify DNA polymorphisms. We further investigated if the polymorphisms had functional effects on the phenotypes. The two strains were clearly identified as individuals, exhibiting different growth rates, conidiation and metabolism. Superior pathogen control demonstrated by LU132 depended on its faster growth, which is a prerequisite for successful distribution and competition. Genome sequencing identified only one non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) between the strains. Based on this SNP, we successfully designed and validated an RFLP protocol that can be used to differentiate LU132 from LU140 and other Trichoderma strains. This SNP changed the amino acid sequence of SERF, encoded by the previously undescribed single copy gene "small EDRK-rich factor" (serf). A deletion of serf in the two strains did not lead to identical phenotypes, suggesting that, in addition to the single functional SNP between the nearly clonal Trichoderma cf. atroviride strains, other non-genomic factors contribute to their phenotypic variation. This finding is significant as it shows that genomics is an extremely useful but not exhaustive tool for the study of biocontrol complexity and for strain typing. PMID:27190719

  6. Molecular Identification Of Trichoderma Strains Collected To Develop Plant Growth-Promoting And Biocontrol Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oskiera Michał

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma strains that are beneficial to both the growth and health of plants can be used as plant growth-promoting fungi (PGPF or biological control agents (BCA in agricultural and horticultural practices. In order to select PGPF or BCA strains, their biological properties and taxonomy must be carefully studied. In this study, 104 strains of Trichoderma collected at geographically different locations in Poland for selection as PGPF or BCA were identified by DNA barcoding, based on the sequences of internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 (ITS1 and 2 of the ribosomal RNA gene cluster and on the sequences of translation elongation factor 1 alpha (tef1, chitinase 18-5 (chi18-5, and RNA polymerase II subunit (rpb2 gene fragments. Most of the strains were classified as: T. atroviride (38%, T. harzianum (21%, T. lentiforme (9%, T. virens (9%, and T. simmonsii (6%. Single strains belonging to T. atrobrunneum, T. citrinoviride, T. crassum, T. gamsii, T. hamatum, T. spirale, T. tomentosum, and T. viridescens were identified. Three strains that are potentially pathogenic to cultivated mushrooms belonging to T. pleuroticola and T. aggressivum f. europaeum were also identified. Four strains: TRS4, TRS29, TRS33, and TRS73 were classified to Trichoderma spp. and molecular identification was inconclusive at the species level. Phylogeny analysis showed that three of these strains TRS4, TRS29, and TRS33 belong to Trichoderma species that is not yet taxonomically established and strain TRS73 belongs to the T. harzianum complex, however, the species could not be identified with certainty.

  7. Novel understanding of Trichoderma interaction mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matteo Lorito

    2004-01-01

    @@ Trichoderma- based biofungicides are a reality in commercial agriculture, with more than 50formulations registered worldwide as biopesticides or biofertilizers. Several research strategies have been applied to identify the main genes and compounds involved in the complex, three-way interactions between fungal antagonists, plants and microbial pathogens. Proteome and genome analyses have greatly enhanced our ability to conduct targeted and genome-based functional studies. We have obtained reproducible 2-D maps of the entire fungal proteome in various conditions of interaction,which permitted the isolation of many proteins related to specific functions. Many differential proteins from several biocontrol strains of Trichoderma spp. during the in vivo interaction with different plants and/or several phytopathogenic fungi have been isolated and analyzed by MALDI-TOF.Relevant genes have been cloned and specifically inactivated, to demonstrate their function in biocontrol and induction of disease resistance. GFP-based reporter systems with interaction-inducible promoters allowed the characterization of regulatory sequences activated by the presence of the pathogen or the plant. From extensive cDNA and EST libraries of genes expressed during Trichoderma-pathogen-plant interactions, we are identified and determined the role of a variety of novel genes and gene-products, including ABC transporters specifically induced during antagonism with other microbes; enzymes and other proteins that produce or act as novel elicitors of Induced Resistance in plant and promote root growth and crop yield; proteins possibly responsible of a gene-forgene avirulent interaction between Trichoderma and plants; mycoparasitism-related inducers released from fungal pathogens and that activate biocontrol in Trichoderma; fungal promoters specifically induced during mycoparasitism and plant colonization; plant proteins and a novel phytoalexin induced by the presence of the fungal antagonist; etc

  8. Beneficial Properties of Probiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lye Huey; Balakrishnan, Kunasundari; Thiagarajah, Kokila; Mohd Ismail, Nor Ismaliza; Yin, Ooi Shao

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that can be found in fermented foods and cultured milk, and are widely used for the preparation of infant food. They are well-known as “health friendly bacteria”, which exhibit various health beneficial properties such as prevention of bowel diseases, improving the immune system, for lactose intolerance and intestinal microbial balance, exhibiting antihypercholesterolemic and antihypertensive effects, alleviation of postmenopausal disorders, and reducing traveller’s diarrhoea. Recent studies have also been focused on their uses in treating skin and oral diseases. In addition to that, modulation of the gut-brain by probiotics has been suggested as a novel therapeutic solution for anxiety and depression. Thus, this review discusses on the current probiotics-based products in Malaysia, criteria for selection of probiotics, and evidences obtained from past studies on how probiotics have been used in preventing intestinal disorders via improving the immune system, acting as an antihypercholesterolemic factor, improving oral and dermal health, and performing as anti-anxiety and anti-depressive agents. PMID:27688852

  9. Beneficial Properties of Probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lye Huey; Balakrishnan, Kunasundari; Thiagarajah, Kokila; Mohd Ismail, Nor Ismaliza; Yin, Ooi Shao

    2016-08-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that can be found in fermented foods and cultured milk, and are widely used for the preparation of infant food. They are well-known as "health friendly bacteria", which exhibit various health beneficial properties such as prevention of bowel diseases, improving the immune system, for lactose intolerance and intestinal microbial balance, exhibiting antihypercholesterolemic and antihypertensive effects, alleviation of postmenopausal disorders, and reducing traveller's diarrhoea. Recent studies have also been focused on their uses in treating skin and oral diseases. In addition to that, modulation of the gut-brain by probiotics has been suggested as a novel therapeutic solution for anxiety and depression. Thus, this review discusses on the current probiotics-based products in Malaysia, criteria for selection of probiotics, and evidences obtained from past studies on how probiotics have been used in preventing intestinal disorders via improving the immune system, acting as an antihypercholesterolemic factor, improving oral and dermal health, and performing as anti-anxiety and anti-depressive agents. PMID:27688852

  10. Beneficial bacteria inhibit cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varian, Bernard J; Goureshetti, Sravya; Poutahidis, Theofilos; Lakritz, Jessica R; Levkovich, Tatiana; Kwok, Caitlin; Teliousis, Konstantinos; Ibrahim, Yassin M; Mirabal, Sheyla; Erdman, Susan E

    2016-03-15

    Muscle wasting, known as cachexia, is a debilitating condition associated with chronic inflammation such as during cancer. Beneficial microbes have been shown to optimize systemic inflammatory tone during good health; however, interactions between microbes and host immunity in the context of cachexia are incompletely understood. Here we use mouse models to test roles for bacteria in muscle wasting syndromes. We find that feeding of a human commensal microbe, Lactobacillus reuteri, to mice is sufficient to lower systemic indices of inflammation and inhibit cachexia. Further, the microbial muscle-building phenomenon extends to normal aging as wild type animals exhibited increased growth hormone levels and up-regulation of transcription factor Forkhead Box N1 [FoxN1] associated with thymus gland retention and longevity. Interestingly, mice with a defective FoxN1 gene (athymic nude) fail to inhibit sarcopenia after L. reuteri therapy, indicating a FoxN1-mediated mechanism. In conclusion, symbiotic bacteria may serve to stimulate FoxN1 and thymic functions that regulate inflammation, offering possible alternatives for cachexia prevention and novel insights into roles for microbiota in mammalian ontogeny and phylogeny. PMID:26933816

  11. Beneficial uses of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, M.R.

    1991-10-01

    An overall decline in technical literacy within the American public has come at a time when technological advances are accelerating in the United States and around the world. This had led to a large communication gulf between the general public and the technologists. Nowhere is this more evident then with the topic of radiation. Regrettably, too few people know about sources of radiation, the pervasiveness, amounts, and variabilities, and do not have a true understanding of the environment in which we live. Nor do many people know that radiation has been used in beneficial ways for decades around the world. While the general public does not know of the scientific applications to which radiation has been deployed, it nevertheless had benefited tremendously from these efforts. Thanks to the well know properties of radiation, scientific ingenuity has found many uses of radiation in chemical and agricultural research, biomedical research, in the diagnoses and treatment of hundreds of types of diseases, in industrial applications, food irradiation, and many others. This paper provides a sample of the types of uses to which radiation has been used to help advance the betterment of humankind.

  12. Endophytic bacteria in Coffea arabica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Fernando E; Pava-Ripoll, Monica; Posada, Francisco; Buyer, Jeffrey S

    2005-01-01

    Eighty-seven culturable endophytic bacterial isolates in 19 genera were obtained from coffee plants collected in Colombia (n = 67), Hawaii (n = 17), and Mexico (n = 3). Both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria were isolated, with a greater percentage (68%) being Gram negative. Tissues yielding bacterial endophytes included adult plant leaves, various parts of the berry (e.g., crown, pulp, peduncle and seed), and leaves, stems, and roots of seedlings. Some of the bacteria also occurred as epiphytes. The highest number of bacteria among the berry tissues sampled was isolated from the seed, and includes Bacillus , Burkholderia , Clavibacter , Curtobacterium , Escherichia , Micrococcus , Pantoea , Pseudomonas , Serratia , and Stenotrophomonas . This is the first survey of the endophytic bacteria diversity in various coffee tissues, and the first study reporting endophytic bacteria in coffee seeds. The possible role for these bacteria in the biology of the coffee plant remains unknown.

  13. Endophytic bacteria in Coffea arabica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Fernando E; Pava-Ripoll, Monica; Posada, Francisco; Buyer, Jeffrey S

    2005-01-01

    Eighty-seven culturable endophytic bacterial isolates in 19 genera were obtained from coffee plants collected in Colombia (n = 67), Hawaii (n = 17), and Mexico (n = 3). Both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria were isolated, with a greater percentage (68%) being Gram negative. Tissues yielding bacterial endophytes included adult plant leaves, various parts of the berry (e.g., crown, pulp, peduncle and seed), and leaves, stems, and roots of seedlings. Some of the bacteria also occurred as epiphytes. The highest number of bacteria among the berry tissues sampled was isolated from the seed, and includes Bacillus , Burkholderia , Clavibacter , Curtobacterium , Escherichia , Micrococcus , Pantoea , Pseudomonas , Serratia , and Stenotrophomonas . This is the first survey of the endophytic bacteria diversity in various coffee tissues, and the first study reporting endophytic bacteria in coffee seeds. The possible role for these bacteria in the biology of the coffee plant remains unknown. PMID:16187260

  14. Enhancement of Rice Seed Germination and Vigour by Trichoderma spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Febri Doni; I. Anizan; C.M.Z. Che Radziah; Ahmad Hilmi Salman; Muhammad Hidayat Rodzihan; Wan Mohtar Wan Yusoff

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine the effectiveness of Trichoderma spp. to enhance rice germination and vigour. An in vitro experiment was carried out to assess the effect of seven isolates of Trichoderma spp. in enhancing rice germination and vigour. The results showed that all isolates of Trichoderma spp. significantly increased rice seedling growth, germination rate, vigour index and speed of germination with sp., SL2 showing the greatest increase in all the four parameters. Tric...

  15. Uji Pengaruh Beberapa Herbisida Terhadap Trichoderma sp Secara In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Majid, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Muhammad Majid: In Vitro Test on the Effect of Trichoderma sp Through Application of some Herbicides. Under Supervision ofHasanuddin and Mukhtar Iskandar Pinem. Herbicide is most commonly used pesticide, yet contained multiple negative effect on environment, especially towards soil microorganisms. This research’s objective is to study effect of herbicide with different concentration towards Trichoderma sp. Trichoderma sp has been inoculated in PDA which have been induced with six different...

  16. Antioxidants in mangrove plants and endophytic fungal associations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ravindran, C.; Naveenan, T.; Varatharajan, G.R.; Rajasabapathy, R.; Meena, R.M.

    ) is also an unresolved issue. Here, we report antioxidant potentials of four different mangroves and their endophytic fungi. We elucidated the possible roles of antioxidants in symbiotic association between mangroves and their endophytic fungi. Four...

  17. Transpiration rates of rice plants treated with Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doni, Febri; Anizan, I.; Che Radziah C. M., Z.; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2014-09-01

    Trichoderma spp. are considered as successful plant growth promoting fungi and have positive role in habitat engineering. In this study, the potential for Trichoderma spp. to regulate transpiration process in rice plant was assessed experimentally under greenhouse condition using a completely randomized design. The study revealed that Trichoderma spp. have potential to enhance growth of rice plant through transpirational processes. The results of the study add to the advancement of the understanding as to the role of Trichoderma spp. in improving rice physiological process.

  18. Antagonistic and Biocontrol Potential of Trichoderma asperellum ZJSX5003 Against the Maize Stalk Rot Pathogen Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaqian; Sun, Ruiyan; Yu, Jia; Saravanakumar, Kandasamy; Chen, Jie

    2016-09-01

    The efficacy of seven strains of Trichoderma asperellum collected from the fields in Southern China was assessed against Fusarium graminearum (FG) the causal agent of corn stalk rot of maize were in vitro for their antagonistic properties followed by statistical model of principal compound analysis to identify the beneficial antagonist T. asperellum strain. The key factors of antagonist activity were attributed to a total of 13 factors including cell wall degrading enzymes (chitnase, protease and β-glucanases), secondary metabolites and peptaibols and these were analyzed from eight strains of Trichoderma. A linear regression model demonstrated that interaction of enzymes and secondary metabolites of T. asperellum strain ZJSX5003 enhanced the antagonist activity against FG. Further, this strain displayed a disease reduction of 71 % in maize plants inoculated with FG compared to negative control. Pointing out that the T. asperellum strain ZJSX5003 is a potential source for the development of a biocontrol agent against corn stalk rot.

  19. Antagonistic and Biocontrol Potential of Trichoderma asperellum ZJSX5003 Against the Maize Stalk Rot Pathogen Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaqian; Sun, Ruiyan; Yu, Jia; Saravanakumar, Kandasamy; Chen, Jie

    2016-09-01

    The efficacy of seven strains of Trichoderma asperellum collected from the fields in Southern China was assessed against Fusarium graminearum (FG) the causal agent of corn stalk rot of maize were in vitro for their antagonistic properties followed by statistical model of principal compound analysis to identify the beneficial antagonist T. asperellum strain. The key factors of antagonist activity were attributed to a total of 13 factors including cell wall degrading enzymes (chitnase, protease and β-glucanases), secondary metabolites and peptaibols and these were analyzed from eight strains of Trichoderma. A linear regression model demonstrated that interaction of enzymes and secondary metabolites of T. asperellum strain ZJSX5003 enhanced the antagonist activity against FG. Further, this strain displayed a disease reduction of 71 % in maize plants inoculated with FG compared to negative control. Pointing out that the T. asperellum strain ZJSX5003 is a potential source for the development of a biocontrol agent against corn stalk rot. PMID:27407296

  20. Effects of different inoculum densities of Trichoderma harzianum and Trichoderma viride against Meloidogyne javanica on tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hazmi, Ahmad Saad; TariqJaveed, Muhammad

    2016-03-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different inoculum densities of two Saudi isolates of Trichoderma harzianum and Trichoderma viride against Meloidogyne javanica on tomato. Four densities (10(4), 10(6), 10(8) and 10(10) spores/g of soil) of each fungus were used. The results indicate that all four inoculum densities of the two Trichoderma species suppressed the nematode reproduction and root galling; and increased the growth of tomato plants, compared to controls. Efficacy of both fungi increased as their inoculum densities increased. Generally, efficacy of T. harzianum was better than that of T. viride, especially at the highest used density (10(10) spore/g soil) which resulted in the best control. PMID:26981012

  1. Factors that contribute to the mycoparasitism stimulus in Trichoderma atroviride strain P1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Woo S L; Lorito M; Formisano E; Fogliano V; Cosenza C; Mauro A; Turrà D; Soriente I; Ferraioli S; Scala F

    2004-01-01

    @@ Trichoderma atroviride strain P1 has been used extensively to study the mycoparasitic mechanisms in the interaction between plant pathogenic host and beneficial antagonistic fungi. Mutants of P1 containing the green fluorescent protein (gfp) or glucose oxidase (gox) reporter systems and different inducible promoters (from the exochitinase nag1 gene, or the endochitinase ech42 gene of P1) were used to determine the factors that activate the biocontrol gene expression cascade in the antagonist. The following compounds were tested singly and in various combinations: purified Trichoderma P1 enzymes (endochitinase, exochitinase, chitobiosidase,glucanase); antagonist culture filtrates (T. atroviride P1 wild-type and relative knock-out mutants, T.harzianum, T. reesei); pathogen culture filtrates (Botrytis, Pythium, Rhizoctonia); purified fungal cell walls (CWs) from Trichoderma , Botrytis, Pythium, Rhizoctonia; colloidal crab shell chitin; and plant extracts from cucumber leaves, stems or roots. Strong induction of mycoparasitism was found with the various digestion products produced by treating fungal CWs and colloidal chitin with purified enzymes or fungal culture filtrates. Filtrates from chitinase knock-out mutants, as well as CWs from Oomycetes fungi, were less active in producing the stimulus for mycoparasitism. The host CW digestion products were separated by molecular weight (MW) to determine which compounds were able to activate Trichoderma. Micromolecules of MW less than 3 kDa were found to trigger mycoparasitism gene expression before physical contact with the host pathogen. These compounds stimulated mycelial growth and spore germination of the antagonist. Purification of these host-derived compounds was conducted by HPLC and in vivo assay. The obtained inducers were able to stimulate both the production of endochitinase and exochitinase enzymes, even under repressing conditions in the presence of glucose. Inducers stimulated the biocontrol effect of P1 in

  2. Cytostatic effect of L-lysine-. cap alpha. -oxidase from Trichoderma harzianum Rifai and Trichoderma viride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaduev, S.Kh.; Zhukova, O.S.; Dobrynin, Ya.V.; Soda, K.; Berezov, T.T.

    1987-09-01

    Comparative data is given on the effect of the new antitumor enzyme LO, obtained from a Soviet strain of Trichoderma harzianum Rifai and from Trichoderma viride from Japan, on DNA and RNA synthesis in human ovarian carcinoma cells in culture and also the results of the action of LO from Tr. harzianum Rifai on protein synthesis. Specific precursors were added to the samples 1 hour before the end of incubation time: /sup 3/H-thymidine, the precursor for DNA synthesis, /sup 3/H-uridine for RNA synthesis, and /sup 3/H-leucine for protein synthesis.

  3. Identification and Separation of Endophytes in Wild and Cultivated Glycyrrhiza Uralensis from Gansu Province%甘肃乌拉尔甘草野生与栽培品内生菌的分离及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓毅; 王艳; 丁仁伟; 杨志军; 张艳萍

    2012-01-01

    目的:通过对甘肃乌拉尔甘草野生与栽培品内生菌的分离,对甘草同属不同品种内生菌的优势菌种进行初步鉴定,比较二者的生理活性差异.方法:采用NA、PDA培养基对甘草野生与栽培品内生菌进行分离和纯化,并以分离频率比较判断各自优势菌种.结果:野生甘草分离到内生细菌65 株,内生真菌7 株,优势菌种为青霉菌属和曲霉属;栽培甘草分离到内生细菌54 株,内生真菌6 株,优势菌种为青霉菌属;野生与栽培甘草的内生真菌分属于6 个属,相同的有5 个属,不同的2个属为丝核菌属和木霉属.结论:野生与栽培甘草具有相趋同数量和种类的内生细菌与内生真菌,但二者内生真菌的菌属及优势菌种存在明显差异.%Objective: To compare the differences of biological activity between wild and cultivated glycyrrhiza uralensis through the isolation of endophytes and identification on dominant bacteria from endophytes of different species in the same genera. Method: Endophytes from wild and cultivated GanCao were isolated and purified with NA and PDA base. The dominant bacteria were compared and judged with frequency separation. Result: All 65 strains of endophytic bacteria and seven strains of endophytic fungi were isolated from wild GanCao, the dominant bacteria were penicillium spp and monillales; 54 strains of endophytic bacteria and six strains of endophytic fungi were isolated from cultivated GanCao, the dominant bacteria were penicillium spp; endophytic fungi isolated from wild and cultivated GanCao were in the six genera, there were five same genera, two different genera were rhi-zoctonia and trichoderma. Conclusion: Wild and cultivated GanCao have almost the same amount and kinds of endophytic bacteria and fungi, but there exists remarkable difference in genera and dominant bacteria of endophtic fungi in both.

  4. Trichoderma (Hypocrea) species with green ascospores from China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Z.X.; Zhuang, W.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Stromata of Trichoderma species having green ascospores were collected in various regions of China. Based on morphology of the sexual and asexual morph, culture characteristics, and sequence analyses of rpb2 and tef1 genes, 17 species with green ascospores were identified. Among them, Trichoderma ro

  5. Trichoderma genes in plants for stress tolerance- status and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolás, Carlos; Hermosa, Rosa; Rubio, Belén; Mukherjee, Prasun K; Monte, Enrique

    2014-11-01

    Many filamentous fungi from the genus Trichoderma are well known for their anti-microbial properties. Certain genes from Trichoderma spp. have been identified and transferred to plants for improving biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, as well for applications in bioremediation. Several Trichoderma genomes have been sequenced and many are in the pipeline, facilitating high throughput gene analysis and increasing the availability of candidate transgenes. This, coupled with improved plant transformation systems, is expected to usher in a new era in plant biotechnology where several genes from these antagonistic fungi can be transferred into plants to achieve enhanced stress tolerance, bioremediation activity, herbicide tolerance, and reduction of phytotoxins. In this review, we illustrate the major achievements made by transforming plants with Trichoderma genes as well as their possible mode of action. Moreover, examples of efficient application of genetically modified plants as biofactories to produce active Trichoderma enzymes are indicated.

  6. Optimization of isolation and cultivation of bacterial endophytes through addition of plant extract to nutrient media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eevers, N; Gielen, M; Sánchez-López, A; Jaspers, S; White, J C; Vangronsveld, J; Weyens, N

    2015-07-01

    Many endophytes have beneficial effects on plants and can be exploited in biotechnological applications. Studies hypothesize that only 0.001-1% of all plant-associated bacteria are cultivable. Moreover, even after successful isolations, many endophytic bacteria often show reduced regrowth capacity. This research aimed to optimize isolation processes and culturing these bacteria afterwards. We compared several minimal and complex media in a screening. Beside the media themselves, two gelling agents and adding plant extract to media were investigated to enhance the number and diversity of endophytes as well as the growth capacity when regrown after isolation. In this work, 869 medium delivered the highest numbers of cultivable bacteria, as well as the highest diversity. When comparing gelling agents, no differences were observed in the numbers of bacteria. Adding plant extract to the media lead to a slight increase in diversity. However, when adding plant extract to improve the regrowth capacity, sharp increases of viable bacteria occurred in both rich and minimal media.

  7. PERBAIKAN PERTUMBUHAN DAN HASIL STEVIA (Stevia rebaudiana BERTONI M) MELALUI APLIKASI Trichoderma sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Haryuni -

    2013-01-01

    AbstrakTujuan penelitian ini adalah menguji perbaikan pertumbuhan dan hasil stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni M) melalui penggunaan  Trichoderma sp.  Perbanyakan  Trichoderma sp. dilakukan di laboratorium Balai Proteksi Perkebunan di Salatiga Jawa Tengah. Penelitian dirancang menggunakan rancangan factorial dengan dua faktor. Faktor pertama adalah inokulasi Trichoderma sp (To = tanpa  Trichoderma sp. & T1 = menggunakan Trichoderma sp. 100 g.  Faktor kedua adalah variasi aplikasi perlakuan...

  8. Impact of Rhizophagus sp. (syn. Glomus sp.) and Trichoderma harzianum on the potato resistance against Rhizoctonia solani and Phytophthora infestans, two major potato pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Gallou, Adrien

    2011-01-01

    Potato is the fourth largest food crop cultivated in the world. This crop is susceptible to numerous pests and diseases, which control requires large quantities of pesticides in conventional agriculture. In the last decade, several studies have suggested the use of beneficial microorganisms as promising alternatives to reduce/replace chemicals. Among these microorganisms, the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and the fungal antagonist, Trichoderma spp. are the most frequently cited in the lit...

  9. Diversity of endophytic fungi in Glycine max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Elio Gomes; Pereira, Olinto Liparini; da Silva, Cynthia Cânedo; Bento, Claudia Braga Pereira; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira

    2015-12-01

    Endophytic fungi are microorganisms that live within plant tissues without causing disease during part of their life cycle. With the isolation and identification of these fungi, new species are being discovered, and ecological relationships with their hosts have also been studied. In Glycine max, limited studies have investigated the isolation and distribution of endophytic fungi throughout leaves and roots. The distribution of these fungi in various plant organs differs in diversity and abundance, even when analyzed using molecular techniques that can evaluate fungal communities in different parts of the plants, such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Our results show there is greater species richness of culturable endophytic filamentous fungi in the leaves G. max as compared to roots. Additionally, the leaves had high values for diversity indices, i.e. Simpsons, Shannon and Equitability. Conversely, dominance index was higher in roots as compared to leaves. The fungi Ampelomyces sp., Cladosporium cladosporioides, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Diaporthe helianthi, Guignardia mangiferae and Phoma sp. were more frequently isolated from the leaves, whereas the fungi Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani and Fusarium sp. were prevalent in the roots. However, by evaluating the two communities by DGGE, we concluded that the species richness was higher in the roots than in the leaves. UPGMA analysis showed consistent clustering of isolates; however, the fungus Leptospora rubella, which belongs to the order Dothideales, was grouped among species of the order Pleosporales. The presence of endophytic Fusarium species in G. max roots is unsurprising, since Fusarium spp. isolates have been previously described as endophyte in other reports. However, it remains to be determined whether the G. max Fusarium endophytes are latent pathogens or non-pathogenic forms that benefit the plant. This study provides a broader knowledge of the distribution of the fungal

  10. Metagenomic insights into communities, functions of endophytes, and their associates with infection by root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, in tomato roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Bao-Yu; Cao, Yi; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Endophytes are known to play important roles in plant's health and productivity. In this study, we investigated the root microbiome of tomato in association with infection by root knot nematodes. Our objectives were to observe the effects and response of the bacterial endophytes before nematode attacks and to reveal the functional attributes of microbes in plant health and nematode pathogenesis. Community analysis of root-associated microbiomes in healthy and nematode-infected tomatoes indicated that nematode infections were associated with variation and differentiation of the endophyte and rhizosphere bacterial populations in plant roots. The community of the resident endophytes in tomato root was significantly affected by nemato-pathogenesis. Remarkably, some bacterial groups in the nematode feeding structure, the root gall, were specifically enriched, suggesting an association with nematode pathogenesis. Function-based metagenomic analysis indicated that the enriched bacterial populations in root gall harbored abundant genes related to degradation of plant polysaccharides, carbohydrate and protein metabolism, and biological nitrogen fixation. Our data indicated that some of the previously assumed beneficial endophytes or bacterial associates with nematode might be involved in nematode infections of the tomato roots. PMID:26603211

  11. Metabolites from mangrove endophytic fungus Dothiorella sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUQingyan; WANGJianfeng; HUANGYaojian; ZHENGZhonghui; SONGSiyang; ZHANGYongmin; SUWenjin

    2004-01-01

    Mangroves are special woody plant communities in the intertidal zone of tropical and subtropical coasts. They prove to be a natural microorganisms and new metabolites storage. In the study of mangrove endophytic fungi metabolites, four new compounds, Compounds 1, 2, 3 and 4, as well as a known octaketide, cytosporone B (5), are isolated from an endophytic fungus, Dothiorella sp., HTF3. They all show cytotoxic activities. The elucidation of these structures is mainly based on 1D/2D NMR and ESI-MS spectral analyses.

  12. Antibiosis functions during interactions of Trichoderma afroharzianum and Trichoderma gamsii with plant pathogenic Rhizoctonia and Pythium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinjian; Harvey, Paul R; Stummer, Belinda E; Warren, Rosemary A; Zhang, Guangzhi; Guo, Kai; Li, Jishun; Yang, Hetong

    2015-09-01

    Trichoderma afroharzianum is one of the best characterized Trichoderma species, and strains have been utilized as plant disease suppressive inoculants. In contrast, Trichoderma gamsii has only recently been described, and there is limited knowledge of its disease suppressive efficacies. Comparative studies of changes in gene expression during interactions of these species with their target plant pathogens will provide fundamental information on pathogen antibiosis functions. In the present study, we used complementary DNA amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) analysis to investigate changes in transcript profiling of T. afroharzianum strain LTR-2 and T. gamsii strain Tk7a during in vitro interactions with plant pathogenic Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium irregulare. Considerable differences were resolved in the overall expression profiles of strains LTR-2 and Tk7a when challenged with either plant pathogen. In strain LTR-2, previously reported mycoparasitism-related genes such as chitinase, polyketide synthase, and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase were found to be differentially expressed. This was not so for strain Tk7a, with the only previously reported antibiosis-associated genes being small secreted cysteine-rich proteins. Although only one differentially expressed gene was common to both strains LTR-2 and Tk7a, numerous genes reportedly associated with pathogen antibiosis processes were differentially expressed in both strains, including degradative enzymes and membrane transport proteins. A number of novel potential antibiosis-related transcripts were found from strains LTR-2 and Tk7a and remain to be identified. The expression kinetics of 20 Trichoderma (10 from strain LTR-2, 10 from strain Tk7a) transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were quantified by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) at pre- and post-mycelia contact stages of Trichoderma-prey interactions, thereby confirming differential gene expression. Collectively, this research

  13. "Omics" tools for better understanding the plant-endophyte interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjana eKaul

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Endophytes, which mostly include bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes, are the endosymbionts that reside asymptomatically in plants for at least a part of their life cycle. They have emerged as a valuable source of novel metabolites, industrially important enzymes and as stress relievers of host plant, but still many aspects of endophytic biology are unknown. Functions of individual endophytes are the result of their continuous and complex interactions with the host plant as well as other members of the host microbiome. Understanding plant microbiomes as a system allows analysis and integration of these complex interactions. Modern genomic studies involving metaomics and comparative studies can prove to be helpful in unravelling the grey areas of endophytism. A deeper knowledge of the mechanism of host infestation and role of endophytes could be exploited to improve the agricultural management in terms of plant growth promotion, biocontrol and bioremediation. Genome sequencing, comparative genomics, microarray, next gen sequencing, metagenomics, metatranscriptomics are some of the techniques that are being used or can be used to unravel plant endophyte relationship.The modern techniques and approaches need to be explored to study endophytes and their putative role in host plant ecology. This review highlights omics tools that can be explored for understanding the role of endophytes in the plant microbiome. Keywords: Endophytism, microbiome, endophytes, genomics, metagenomics

  14. Deciphering the hormonal signalling network behind the systemic resistance induced by Trichoderma harzianum in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainhoa eMartinez-Medina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Root colonization by selected Trichoderma isolates can activate in the plant a systemic defence response that is effective against a broad spectrum of plant pathogens. Diverse plant hormones play pivotal roles in the regulation of the defence signalling network that leads to the induction of systemic resistance triggered by beneficial organisms (ISR. Among them, jasmonic acid (JA and ethylene (ET signalling pathways are generally essential for ISR. However, Trichoderma ISR (TISR is believed to involve a wider variety of signalling routes, interconnected in a complex network of cross-communicating hormone pathways. Using tomato as a model, an integrative analysis of the main mechanisms involved in the systemic resistance induced by Trichoderma harzianum against the necrotrophic leaf pathogen Botrytis cinerea was performed. Root colonization by T. harzianum rendered the leaves more resistant to B. cinerea independently of major effects on plant nutrition. The analysis of disease development in shoots of tomato mutant lines impaired in the synthesis of the key defence related hormones JA, ET, salicylic acid (SA and abscisic acid (ABA and the peptide prosystemin (PS evidenced the requirement of intact JA, SA and ABA signalling pathways for a functional TISR. Expression analysis of several hormone related marker genes point to the role of priming for enhanced JA-dependent defence responses upon pathogen infection. Together, our results indicate that although TISR induced in tomato against the necrotrophs is mainly based on boosted JA-dependent responses, the pathways regulated by the plant hormones SA- and ABA are also required for successful TISR development

  15. Genetic regulation of conidiation in Trichoderma hamatun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Johanna Steyaert; Travis Glare; Alison Stewart; Margaret Carpenter; Hayley Ridgway

    2004-01-01

    @@ Achieving a balance between vegetative growth and spore production is essential for successful biocontrol by fungi. Low sporulation rates in the field can result in poor establishment and survival,whereas failure of conidia to recognise hosts can lead to persistence without efficacy. Commercial biocontrol products involve bulk preparations of conidia, however considerable variability in conidiation rates exists between biocontrol agents, which can restrict choice of strain for production. The majority of studies on Trichoderma conidiation have focused on the species T. viride and T. atroviride.These species form conidia in response to blue and near-UV light and/or nutrient deprivation and conidiation proceeds in a highly co-ordinated fashion, however relatively little is known on the genetic basis of Trichoderrma conidiation. In addition, whilst photoconidiation appears to be a general response detailed studies in other Trichoderma species are absent. In this study, conidiation in the lesser known biocontrol species T. hamatum is being investigated using a combined morphological and molecular approach. In contrast to T. atroviride, conidiation in response to blue-light was weaker and variable and suggested that additional triggers may be required for the T. hamatum photoresponse. A series of comparative photoconidiation assays are currently being undertaken investigating the effect of inoculum type and abiotic factors on timing and intensity of the response.Results will be discussed in relation to the current knowledge on conidial morphogenesis in Trichoderma. In addition to these morphological assays, a selection of genes implicated in sporulation and the blue-light responses are currently being isolated and characterised from T. hamatum. Two genes, phr1 and cmp1 , which were isolated previously from T. atroviride will be used as early and late markers of gene expression during the photoresponse in T. hamatum in order to define time points for harvesting

  16. Vision and development in Trichoderma atroviride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Casas S; Cortés C; Ríos M; Rosales T; Bibbins M; Olmedo V; Herrera-Estrella A

    2004-01-01

    @@ Phototropism, the induction of carotenogenesis and reproductive structures, and resetting of the circadian rhythm are controlled by blue light. Trichoderma is used as a photomorphogenetic model due to its ability to conidiate upon exposure to light. In total darkness, T. atroviride grows indefinitely as a mycelium provided that nutrients are not limiting. However, nutrient deprivation and light trigger the conidiation process. A pulse of blue light given to a radially growing colony induces synchronous sporulation. A ring of conidiophores bearing green conidia is produced at what had been the colony perimeter at the time of the light pulse. All known responses to blue light in N. crassa are initiated by a couple of transcription factors encoded by the white-collar genes (wc -1 and wc-2). WC-1 and WC-2 bind to the promoters of light regulated genes to rapidly activate transcription in response to light. In T. atroviride the photolyase encoding gene phr1 undergoes fast transcriptional activation in response to light. The presence of putative WCC binding boxes in the promoter of phr1 , suggested that light responses in Trichoderma could be under the control of white-collar homologues. We cloned two genes and demonstrated by gene replacement that both are essential for photoconidiation and photolyase gene expression. Therefore, they were named blue-light regulator one and two (blr1 and blr2 ). The BLR1 protein has all the characteristics of a blue-light photoreceptor. The generation of subtractive cDNA libraries allowed us to identify novel, BLR independent, light responses including the regulation of gene expression by blue-light. In addition, we recently initiated a Trichoderma ESTs sequencing project. Until now, we have sequenced above 3000 ESTs, from which we have obtained approximately 1800 unigenes. This unigene set was printed in microarrays and used to search for light induced genes. Twenty five clearly induced and around thirty repressed genes have been

  17. Dissection of Trichoderma longibrachiatum-induced defense in onion (Allium cepa L.) against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepa by target metabolite profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, Mostafa; Abdel-Motaal, Fatma; El-Sayed, Magdi; Jogaiah, Sudisha; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Ito, Shin-ichi; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2016-05-01

    Trichoderma spp. are versatile opportunistic plant symbionts that can cause substantial changes in the metabolism of host plants, thereby increasing plant growth and activating plant defense to various diseases. Target metabolite profiling approach was selected to demonstrate that Trichoderma longibrachiatum isolated from desert soil can confer beneficial agronomic traits to onion and induce defense mechanism against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepa (FOC), through triggering a number of primary and secondary metabolite pathways. Onion seeds primed with Trichoderma T1 strain displayed early seedling emergence and enhanced growth compared with Trichoderma T2-treatment and untreated control. Therefore, T1 was selected for further investigations under greenhouse conditions, which revealed remarkable improvement in the onion bulb growth parameters and resistance against FOC. The metabolite platform of T1-primed onion (T1) and T1-primed onion challenged with FOC (T1+FOC) displayed significant accumulation of 25 abiotic and biotic stress-responsive metabolites, representing carbohydrate, phenylpropanoid and sulfur assimilation metabolic pathways. In addition, T1- and T1+FOC-treated onion plants showed discrete antioxidant capacity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) compared with control. Our findings demonstrated the contribution of T. longibrachiatum to the accumulation of key metabolites, which subsequently leads to the improvement of onion growth, as well as its resistance to oxidative stress and FOC. PMID:26993243

  18. The Interaction between Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Endophytic Bacteria Enhances Plant Growth of Acacia gerrardii under Salt Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Abeer; Abd_Allah, Elsayed F.; Alqarawi, Abdulaziz A.; Al-Huqail, Asma A.; Wirth, Stephan; Egamberdieva, Dilfuza

    2016-01-01

    Microbes living symbiotically in plant tissues mutually cooperate with each other by providing nutrients for proliferation of the partner organism and have a beneficial effect on plant growth. However, few studies thus far have examined the interactive effect of endophytic bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in hostile conditions and their potential to improve plant stress tolerance. In this study, we investigated how the synergistic interactions of endophytic bacteria and AMF affect plant growth, nodulation, nutrient acquisition and stress tolerance of Acacia gerrardii under salt stress. Plant growth varied between the treatments with both single inoculants and was higher in plants inoculated with the endophytic B. subtilis strain than with AMF. Co-inoculated A. gerrardii had a significantly greater shoot and root dry weight, nodule number, and leghemoglobin content than those inoculated with AMF or B. subtilis alone under salt stress. The endophytic B. subtilis could alleviate the adverse effect of salt on AMF colonization. The differences in nitrate and nitrite reductase and nitrogenase activities between uninoculated plants and those inoculated with AMF and B. subtilis together under stress were significant. Both inoculation treatments, either B. subtilis alone or combined with AMF, enhanced the N, P, K, Mg, and Ca contents and phosphatase activities in salt-stressed A. gerrardii tissues and reduced Na and Cl concentration, thereby protecting salt-stressed plants from ionic and osmotic stress-induced changes. In conclusion, our results indicate that endophytic bacteria and AMF contribute to a tripartite mutualistic symbiosis in A. gerrardii and are coordinately involved in the plant adaptation to salt stress tolerance. PMID:27486442

  19. The Interaction between Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Endophytic Bacteria Enhances Plant Growth of Acacia gerrardii under Salt Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Abeer; Abd Allah, Elsayed F; Alqarawi, Abdulaziz A; Al-Huqail, Asma A; Wirth, Stephan; Egamberdieva, Dilfuza

    2016-01-01

    Microbes living symbiotically in plant tissues mutually cooperate with each other by providing nutrients for proliferation of the partner organism and have a beneficial effect on plant growth. However, few studies thus far have examined the interactive effect of endophytic bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in hostile conditions and their potential to improve plant stress tolerance. In this study, we investigated how the synergistic interactions of endophytic bacteria and AMF affect plant growth, nodulation, nutrient acquisition and stress tolerance of Acacia gerrardii under salt stress. Plant growth varied between the treatments with both single inoculants and was higher in plants inoculated with the endophytic B. subtilis strain than with AMF. Co-inoculated A. gerrardii had a significantly greater shoot and root dry weight, nodule number, and leghemoglobin content than those inoculated with AMF or B. subtilis alone under salt stress. The endophytic B. subtilis could alleviate the adverse effect of salt on AMF colonization. The differences in nitrate and nitrite reductase and nitrogenase activities between uninoculated plants and those inoculated with AMF and B. subtilis together under stress were significant. Both inoculation treatments, either B. subtilis alone or combined with AMF, enhanced the N, P, K, Mg, and Ca contents and phosphatase activities in salt-stressed A. gerrardii tissues and reduced Na and Cl concentration, thereby protecting salt-stressed plants from ionic and osmotic stress-induced changes. In conclusion, our results indicate that endophytic bacteria and AMF contribute to a tripartite mutualistic symbiosis in A. gerrardii and are coordinately involved in the plant adaptation to salt stress tolerance. PMID:27486442

  20. Fungal endophytes of sorghum in Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zida, E P; Thio, I G; Néya, B J;

    2014-01-01

    A survey was conducted to assess the natural occurrence and distribution of fungal endophytes in sorghum in relation to plant performance in two distinct agro-ecological zones in Burkina Faso. Sorghum farm-saved seeds were sown in 48 farmers’ fields in Sahelian and North Sudanian zones to produce...

  1. Phyllosticta capitalensis, a widespread endophyte of plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wikee, S.; Lombard, L.; Crous, P.W.; Nakashima, C.; Motohashi, K.; Chukeatirote, E.; Alias, S.A.; McKenzie, E.H.C.; Hyde, K.D.

    2013-01-01

    Phyllosticta capitalensis is an endophyte and weak plant pathogen with a worldwide distribution presently known from 70 plant families. This study isolated P. capitalensis from different host plants in northern Thailand, and determined their different life modes. Thirty strains of P. capitalensis we

  2. Exopolysaccharide from Trichoderma pseudokoningii induces macrophage activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guodong; Zhu, Lei; Yu, Bo; Chen, Ke; Liu, Bo; Liu, Jun; Qin, Guozheng; Liu, Chunyan; Liu, Huixia; Chen, Kaoshan

    2016-09-20

    In this study, we evaluated the immunomodulatory activity of an exopolysaccharide (EPS) derived from Trichoderma pseudokoningii and investigated the molecular mechanism of EPS-mediated activation of macrophages. Results revealed that EPS could significantly induce the production of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β and enhance phagocytic activity in RAW 264.7 cells. Immunofluorescence staining indicated that EPS promoted the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65 subunit. Western blot analysis showed that EPS increased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein, the degradation of IκB-α and the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Furthermore, pretreatment of RAW 264.7 cells with specific inhibitors of NF-κB and MAPKs significantly attenuated EPS-induced TNF-α and IL-1β production. EPS also induced the inhibition of cytokine secretion by special antibodies against Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) and Dectin-1. These data suggest that EPS from Trichoderma pseudokoningii activates RAW 264.7 cells through NF-κB and MAPKs signaling pathways via TLR4 and Dectin-1. PMID:27261736

  3. Hydrocarbon degradation, plant colonization and gene expression of alkane degradation genes by endophytic Enterobacter ludwigii strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousaf, Sohail [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Bioresources Unit, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Afzal, Muhammad [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Bioresources Unit, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), Faisalabad (Pakistan); Reichenauer, Thomas G. [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Environmental Resources and Technologies Unit, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Brady, Carrie L. [Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute, Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa); Sessitsch, Angela, E-mail: angela.sessitsch@ait.ac.at [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Bioresources Unit, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)

    2011-10-15

    The genus Enterobacter comprises a range of beneficial plant-associated bacteria showing plant growth promotion. Enterobacter ludwigii belongs to the Enterobacter cloacae complex and has been reported to include human pathogens but also plant-associated strains with plant beneficial capacities. To assess the role of Enterobacter endophytes in hydrocarbon degradation, plant colonization, abundance and expression of CYP153 genes in different plant compartments, three plant species (Italian ryegrass, birdsfoot trefoil and alfalfa) were grown in sterile soil spiked with 1% diesel and inoculated with three endophytic E. ludwigii strains. Results showed that all strains were capable of hydrocarbon degradation and efficiently colonized the rhizosphere and plant interior. Two strains, ISI10-3 and BRI10-9, showed highest degradation rates of diesel fuel up to 68% and performed best in combination with Italian ryegrass and alfalfa. All strains expressed the CYP153 gene in all plant compartments, indicating an active role in degradation of diesel in association with plants. - Highlights: > E. ludwigii strains efficiently colonized plants in a non-sterile soil environment. > E. ludwigii strains efficiently expressed alkane degradation genes in plants. > E. ludwigii efficiently degraded alkane contaminations and promoted plant growth. > E. ludwigii interacted more effectively with Italian ryegrass than with other plants. > Degradation activity varied with plant and microbial genotype as well as with time. - Enterobacter ludwigii strains belonging to the E. cloacae complex are able to efficiently degrade alkanes when associated with plants and to promote plant growth.

  4. Growth Inhibition of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides by Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma koningii, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens

    OpenAIRE

    Febrilia Nur ‘Aini; Sri Sukamto; Dwi Wahyuni; Risma Galuh Suhesti; Qurrotun Ayunin

    2015-01-01

    Colletotrichum  gloeosporioides is  a  disease  which  can  cause  significant yield  loss  of  cocoa.  The  objective  of  this  research  is  to  investigate  the  abilityof  antagonist  microbes,  Trichoderma  harzianum,  Trichoderma  koningii,  Bacillus subtilis  and Pseudomonas  fluorescens  in  controlling  gloeosporioides  biologically  in  laboratorium  condition.  The  experiment  was  carried  out  in  Crop  Protection  Laboratory,  Indonesian  Coffee  and  Cocoa  Research  Institut...

  5. Identification of genetic components involved in Lotus-endophyte interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zgadzaj, Rafal Lukasz

    bacterial strain aimed at obtaining a reliable and easy to handle system for plant-microsymbiont interaction research. Two different methods were tested for their usefulness in identification of genetic components involved in plant-endophyte interactions. The first method was based on measuring growth...... promotion effects resulting from endophytic inoculation of Lotus plants. It proved to be difficult to handle due to large variations in plant growth and was discontinued. In the second, presence or lack of interactions between plants and endophytes was assessed based on the frequency of endophytic...

  6. Growth Inhibition of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides by Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma koningii, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Febrilia Nur ‘Aini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Colletotrichum  gloeosporioides is  a  disease  which  can  cause  significant yield  loss  of  cocoa.  The  objective  of  this  research  is  to  investigate  the  abilityof  antagonist  microbes,  Trichoderma  harzianum,  Trichoderma  koningii,  Bacillus subtilis  and Pseudomonas  fluorescens  in  controlling  gloeosporioides  biologically  in  laboratorium  condition.  The  experiment  was  carried  out  in  Crop  Protection  Laboratory,  Indonesian  Coffee  and  Cocoa  Research  Institute.  Results of  this  research  showed  that  antagonist  fungi,  T.  harzianum,  T.  koningii,  had  a stronger  ability  in  inhibiting  growth  of  C.  gloeosporioides about  83%  compared  to  the  ability  of  antagonist  bacteria,  B.  subtilis  and P.  fluorescens,  only about  49%. Key words: Growth  inhibition,  Colletotrichum  gloeosporioides,  Trichoderma  harzianum, Trichoderma koningii,  Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas fluorescens.

  7. [Isolation, identification and anticancer activity of an endophytic fungi from Juglans mandshurica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meiya; Wu, Yunwei; Jiang, Fusheng; Yu, Xiangli; Tang, Kexuan; Miao, Zhiqi

    2009-07-01

    The endophytic fungus named FSN006 was isolated from the inner bark of Juglans mandshurica. It grew quickly and formed circular colony on PDA plate. The upper side of the colony was white, while the lower side of the colony and the conditioned medium were light yellow as a result of significant yellow pigment substances were produced and secreted by the fungi. Green elliptic conidia appeared when cultured on CMX plate. Based on the morphology identification and ITS sequence, it was clear that this fungus belonged to the Deuteromycotina, HyPhomycetes, Moniliales, Trichoderma longibrachiatum. The conditioned medium of FSN006 showed a high anti-tumor ability against liver cancer cell-HepG2, and reached its IC50 concentration after being diluted 20 times, while the IC50 concentration of curcumine was(11.49 +/- 0.12) mg x L(-1). In addition, there was preeminent selective inhibiting effect against the normal liver cell strain HL-7702 and its caner counter strain HepG2. The inhibiting effect against strain HL-7702 was only one quarter of that against HepG2 at the concentration of IC50. Therefore, the fermentation of FSN006 may provide a possible way to produce anticancer drug with higher efficiency and lower toxicity. PMID:19873766

  8. Trichoharzianol, a new antifungal from Trichoderma harzianum F031.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeerapong, Chotika; Phupong, Worrapong; Bangrak, Phuwadol; Intana, Warin; Tuchinda, Patoomratana

    2015-04-15

    A new decalin derivative, trichoharzianol (1), together with three known compounds, eujavanicol A (2), 5-hydroxy-3-hydroxymethyl-2-methyl-7-methoxychromone (3), and 4,6-dihydroxy-5-methylphthalide (4), were isolated from Trichoderma harzianum F031. For the first time, compounds 2-4 were reported from the Trichoderma species. Their structures were characterized by spectroscopic methods. Trichoharzianol (1) showed the highest antifungal activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 128 μg/mL.

  9. Trichoderma spp. decrease Fusarium root rot in common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Teixeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of six Trichoderma-based commercial products (TCP in controlling Fusarium root rot (FRR in common bean was assessed under field conditions. Three TCP, used for seed treatment or applied in the furrow, increased seedling emergence as much as the fungicide fludioxonil. FRR incidence was not affected, but all TCP and fludioxonil reduced the disease severity, compared to control. Application of Trichoderma-based products was as effective as that of fludioxonil in FRR management.

  10. Effects due to rhizospheric soil application of an antagonistic bacterial endophyte on native bacterial community and its survival in soil: A case study with Pseudomonas aeruginosa from banana

    OpenAIRE

    Pious eThomas; Aparna Chandra Sekhar

    2016-01-01

    Effective translation of research findings from laboratory to agricultural fields is essential for the success of biocontrol or growth promotion trials employing beneficial microorganisms. The rhizosphere is to be viewed holistically as a dynamic ecological niche comprising of diverse microorganisms including competitors and noxious antagonists to the bio-inoculant. This study was undertaken to assess the effects due to the soil application of an endophytic bacterium with multiple pathogen an...

  11. Effect of rare earth application on the growth of Trichoderma spp.and several plant pathogenic fungi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    d'Aquino L; Carboni M; Woo S L; Morgana M; Nardi L; Lorito M

    2004-01-01

    @@ Rare earth elements (REEs) enriched fertilisers are currently used in China for soil and foliar applications to crops, but little is known about the effect of REEs applications on the growth of beneficial and detrimental soilborne microorganisms. The growth of biological control agents Trichoderma atroviride strain P1, Trichoderma harzianum strain A6 and strain T22, plant pathogens Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria alternata, Fusarium solani, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was investigated in the presence of REEs. An in vitro assays was used to monitor the effect of different concentration levels of either a mix of REEs (La, Ce, Pr, Nd) nitrates or lanthanum alone in comparison to treatments conducted with potassium nitrate and water. Although all fungi were affected when the REEs mix or lanthanum were present at concentrations higher than 100 mM, the growth inhibition depended mainly upon the combination of compounds, the dose and the fungal species or strains tested. Trichoderma strains and B. cinerea were more sensitive than A.alternata, F. solani, R. solani or at higher concentrations. Differing growth responses of some fungi to treatments with REEs mix vs. lanthanum alone indicated that in given situations the effect of the REEs compounds may be caused by elements other than lanthanum or by element mixtures.Further investigations are in progress to determine the effect of REEs on important interactions in the soil community between beneficial fungi, pathogenic fungi and/or the plant. REEs are naturally present in the environment and in biological systems but accumulation in soil can take place following successive applications. Therefore, it would be useful to achieve a better understanding of the effect of REEs accumulation on the activity of rhizosphere microorganisms given the widespread use in some regions of rare earths as fertilizers and their presence as fertilizer contaminants.

  12. Volatile antimicrobials from Muscodor crispans, a novel endophytic fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Angela M; Strobel, Gary A; Moore, Emily; Robison, Richard; Sears, Joe

    2010-01-01

    Muscodor crispans is a recently described novel endophytic fungus of Ananas ananassoides (wild pineapple) growing in the Bolivian Amazon Basin. The fungus produces a mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs); some of the major components of this mixture, as determined by GC/MS, are propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester; propanoic acid, 2-methyl-; 1-butanol, 3-methyl-;1-butanol, 3-methyl-, acetate; propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-methylbutyl ester; and ethanol. The fungus does not, however, produce naphthalene or azulene derivatives as has been observed with many other members of the genus Muscodor. The mixture of VOCs produced by M. crispans cultures possesses antibiotic properties, as does an artificial mixture of a majority of the components. The VOCs of the fungus are effective against a wide range of plant pathogens, including the fungi Pythium ultimum, Phytophthora cinnamomi, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Mycosphaerella fijiensis (the black sigatoka pathogen of bananas), and the serious bacterial pathogen of citrus, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri. In addition, the VOCs of M. crispans killed several human pathogens, including Yersinia pestis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus. Artificial mixtures of the fungal VOCs were both inhibitory and lethal to a number of human and plant pathogens, including three drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The gaseous products of Muscodor crispans potentially could prove to be beneficial in the fields of medicine, agriculture, and industry.

  13. Impacto de herbicidas em isolados de Trichoderma spp. Impact of herbicides on strains of Trichoderma spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Reis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O uso de microrganismos é uma alternativa para o controle de doenças em plantas. Todavia, é prudente verificar a interação desse com os demais métodos de controle empregados em determinada cultura. Dessa forma, objetivou-se avaliar a fungitoxicidade dos herbicidas sobre o crescimento e desenvolvimento dos isolados de Trichoderma spp. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 6 x 6 x 4, com quatro repetições. O fator A correspondeu aos herbicidas pendimethalin, clomazone, carfentrazone-ethyl, oxadiazon, thiobencarb + propanil e byspiribac-sodium; o fator B, às doses dos herbicidas - 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 e 200% da dose recomendada; e o fator C, aos isolados de Trichoderma spp. AJAM 18, CE 66, TRI 01 e TRI 02. O ensaio foi realizado em condições in vitro; avaliaram-se o crescimento micelial radial (CMR e a esporulação dos isolados após aplicação dos herbicidas. Observaram-se diferenças de sensibilidade dos isolados para o mesmo produto testado. O oxadiazon reduziu o CMR dos isolados AJAM 18 e TRI 01 em 66 e 35%, respectivamente. No entanto, reduziu apenas 16% do CMR do isolado TRI 02 e não alterou o CMR do isolado CE 66 mesmo em 200% da dose recomendada. Verificaram-se diferentes efeitos dos produtos em cada isolado. A mistura comercial de thiobencarb+propanil foi altamente tóxica aos isolados de Trichoderma spp., com reduções em torno de 85% no CMR e no número de esporos. Por outro lado, o byspiribac-sodium pouco afetou os isolados, apresentando reduções inferiores a 10% no CMR e na esporulação. O carfentrazone-ethyl e byspiribac-sodium demonstraram ser compatíveis com os isolados de Trichoderma spp. estudados.The use of microorganisms is an alternative for the control of plant diseases. However, one should verify its interaction with other methods of control used for a particular crop. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of herbicide fungitoxicity on the growth and

  14. Biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani with Trichoderma Spp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ From over 800 fungal strains of Trichoderma Spp. , 6 strains were found to greatly inhibit the growing of Rhizocotonia solani, the pathogen of rice sheath blight in dual culture. Among them, strain T3 was the best antagonist,which reduced the growing of the pathogen by 52.54% (Table 1). In field, both the pesticide Jinggangmycin and the mixture of T1 T6 could reduce the severity of rice sheath blight(Table 2), which resulted in the increases of seed setting rate and 1000 grain weight. Because the effect of the antagonists on the control of the pathogen could be partially realized in the watery environment, studies on the biocontrol mechanism of the fungi should be strengthened to help the establishment of a best way of antagonist utilization.

  15. Xylanase production by Trichoderma harzianum E58

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senior, D.J.; Mayers, P.R.; Saddler, J.N. (Fortintek Canada Corp., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Dept. of Biotechnology and Chemistry)

    1989-12-01

    Growth of Trichoderma harzianum E58 on hemicellulose-rich media, both in batch and fermentor cultures, resulted in independent profiles of the production of xylanase and endoglucanase enzymes. Dramatic differences in the ratio of xylanase to endoglucanase activities were observed among cultures grown on cellulose-rich Solka Floc and xylan. These results indicated that the induction of xylanases and cellulases was likely to be under separate regulatory control. The specific activity and amount of xylanases produced were found to be dependent on the concentration of xylan in the growth media. Growth on oat spelts xylan or the hemicellulose-rich, watersoluble fraction from steam-treated aspenwood (SEA-WS) greatly enhanced the production of xylanases and xylosidase in the culture filtrates. Constitutive levels of xylanase and endoglucanase enzymes were detected during growth of the fungus on glucose. (orig.).

  16. Trichodermaerin: a diterpene lactone from Trichoderma asperellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchada Chantrapromma

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C20H28O3, known as `trichodermaerin' [systematic name: (4E-4,9,15,16,16-pentamethyl-6-oxatetracyclo[10.3.1.01,10.05,9]hexadec-4-ene-7,13-dione], is a diterpene lactone which was isolated from Trichoderma asperellum. The structure has a tetracycic 6–5–7–5 ring system, with the cyclohexanone ring adopting a twisted half-chair conformation and the cyclopentane ring adopting a half-chair conformation, whereas the cycloheptene and tetrahydrofurananone rings are in chair and envelope (with the methyl-substituted C atom as the flap conformations, respectively. The three-dimensional architecture is stabilized by C—H...O interactions.

  17. Trichodermaerin: a diterpene lactone from Trichoderma asperellum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantrapromma, Suchada; Jeerapong, Chotika; Phupong, Worrapong; Quah, Ching Kheng; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2014-01-01

    The title compound, C20H28O3, known as ‘trichodermaerin’ [systematic name: (4E)-4,9,15,16,16-penta­methyl-6-oxa­tetra­cyclo­[10.3.1.01,10.05,9]hexa­dec-4-ene-7,13-dione], is a diterpene lactone which was isolated from Trichoderma asperellum. The structure has a tetra­cycic 6–5–7–5 ring system, with the cyclo­hexa­none ring adopting a twisted half-chair conformation and the cyclo­pentane ring adopting a half-chair conformation, whereas the cyclo­heptene and tetra­hydro­furan­anone rings are in chair and envelope (with the methyl-substituted C atom as the flap) conformations, respectively. The three-dimensional architecture is stabilized by C—H⋯O inter­actions. PMID:24826124

  18. Beneficial Effects of Temperate Forage Legumes that Contain Condensed Tannins

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    Jennifer W. MacAdam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The two temperate forage legumes containing condensed tannins (CT that promote ruminant production are birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.; BFT and sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.; SF. Both are well-adapted to the cool-temperate climate and alkaline soils of the Mountain West USA. Condensed tannins comprise a diverse family of bioactive chemicals with multiple beneficial functions for ruminants, including suppression of internal parasites and enteric methane. Birdsfoot trefoil contains 10 to 40 g·CT·kg−1 dry matter (DM, while SF contains 30 to 80 g·CT·kg−1 DM. Our studies have focused on these two plant species and have demonstrated consistently elevated rates of gain for beef calves grazing both BFT and SF. Novel results from our BFT research include carcass dressing percentages and consumer sensory evaluations equivalent to feedlot-finished steers and significantly greater than grass-finished steers, but with omega-3 fatty acid concentrations equal to grass-finished beef. We have further demonstrated that ruminants fed BFT or SF will consume more endophyte-infected tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb. Dumort. forage or seed than ruminants fed a non-CT forage legume. There is great potential value for sustainable livestock production in the use of highly digestible, nitrogen-fixing legumes containing tannins demonstrated to improve ruminant productivity.

  19. Defense Response Induced by Seed Treatment with Trichoderma harzianum in Maize Mo17%生物拮抗菌Trichoderma harzianum处理玉米种子诱导实生苗的抗病性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田世平; HARMAN Gary

    2008-01-01

    The effects of seed treatment with or without Trichoderma strain T22 on root development and shoot growth of maize and on induced resistance against Colletrichonum graminicola were investigated.The results indicated that seed treatment with Trichoderma directly enhanced root development and plant growth of maize seedlings,significantly induce an increased level in defense-related plant enzymes and protein contents in both roots and leaves,and obviously limit disease development of C. graminicola in inoculated leaves. Even before convincing evidence of induced resistance in plants by Trichoderma strains Was available,the re-suits might be beneficial for consummating the effect of Trichoderma strains inducing defense response to pathogen infection and enhancing root development and shoot growth of maize seedlings.%本文研究了生物拮抗菌Trichoderma harzianum(T22)处理对玉米(Mo 17)实生苗生长的影响,以及对病原菌Col-letrichonum graminicola的抗病性.试验结果表明:用拮抗菌T.harzianum处理后能明显地提高玉米苗根系发育和叶片生长,显著的诱导玉米叶片和根系中防御相关的酶活性和蛋白含量.用病原菌C.graminicola接种玉米叶片后观测发现,处理的实生苗叶片上病斑直径明显小于不处理的对照.尽管拮抗菌T.harzianum诱导植物抗病性的作用已被证实,但该研究更进一步揭示了T. harzianum处理玉米种子后植株的抗性应答与促进实生苗根系发育和叶片生长,以及诱导抗性相关的酶.

  20. Search for endophytic diazotrophs in barley seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam S. Zawoznik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Eight endophytic isolates assigned to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Bacillus genera according to pheno-genotypic features were retrieved from barley seeds under selective pressure for nitrogen-fixers. Genetic relationships among related isolates were investigated through RAPD. Six isolates displayed nitrogen-fixing ability, while all could biosynthesize indolacetic acid in vitro and showed no antibiosis effects against Azospirillum brasilense Az39, a recognized PGPR.

  1. Search for endophytic diazotrophs in barley seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawoznik, Myriam S; Vázquez, Susana C; Díaz Herrera, Silvana M; Groppa, María D

    2014-01-01

    Eight endophytic isolates assigned to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Bacillus genera according to pheno-genotypic features were retrieved from barley seeds under selective pressure for nitrogen-fixers. Genetic relationships among related isolates were investigated through RAPD. Six isolates displayed nitrogen-fixing ability, while all could biosynthesize indolacetic acid in vitro and showed no antibiosis effects against Azospirillum brasilense Az39, a recognized PGPR.

  2. "Omics" Tools for Better Understanding the Plant-Endophyte Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Sanjana; Sharma, Tanwi; K Dhar, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    Endophytes, which mostly include bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes, are the endosymbionts that reside asymptomatically in plants for at least a part of their life cycle. They have emerged as a valuable source of novel metabolites, industrially important enzymes and as stress relievers of host plant, but still many aspects of endophytic biology are unknown. Functions of individual endophytes are the result of their continuous and complex interactions with the host plant as well as other members of the host microbiome. Understanding plant microbiomes as a system allows analysis and integration of these complex interactions. Modern genomic studies involving metaomics and comparative studies can prove to be helpful in unraveling the gray areas of endophytism. A deeper knowledge of the mechanism of host infestation and role of endophytes could be exploited to improve the agricultural management in terms of plant growth promotion, biocontrol and bioremediation. Genome sequencing, comparative genomics, microarray, next gen sequencing, metagenomics, metatranscriptomics are some of the techniques that are being used or can be used to unravel plant-endophyte relationship. The modern techniques and approaches need to be explored to study endophytes and their putative role in host plant ecology. This review highlights "omics" tools that can be explored for understanding the role of endophytes in the plant microbiome. PMID:27446181

  3. Enhanced resistance to Spodoptera litura in endophyte infected cauliflower plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Abhinay; Kaur, Sanehdeep; Kaur, Amarjeet; Singh, Varinder

    2013-04-01

    Endophytic fungi, which live within host plant tissues without causing any visible symptom of disease, are important mediators of plant-herbivore interactions. These endophytes enhance resistance of host plant against insect herbivores mainly by productions of various alkaloid based defensive compounds in the plant tissue or through alterations of plant nutritional quality. Two endophytic fungi, i.e., Nigrospora sp. and Cladosporium sp., were isolated from Tinospora cordifolia (Thunb.) Miers, a traditional indian medicinal plant. Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L.) plants were inoculated with these two endophytic fungi. The effect of endophyte infected and uninfected cauliflower plants were measured on the survival and development of Spodoptera litura (Fab.), a polyphagous pest. Endophyte infected cauliflower plants showed resistance to S. litura in the form of significant increase in larval and pupal mortality in both the fungi. Inhibitory effects of endophytic fungi also were observed on adult emergence, longevity, reproductive potential, as well as hatchability of eggs. Thus, it is concluded that antibiosis to S. litura could be imparted by artificial inoculation of endophytes and this could be used to develop alternative ecologically safe control strategies. PMID:23575013

  4. Endophytic bacterial community of a Mediterranean marine angiosperm (Posidonia oceanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neus eGarcias-Bonet

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial endophytes are crucial for the survival of many terrestrial plants, but little is known about the presence and importance of bacterial endophytes of marine plants. We conducted a survey of the endophytic bacterial community of the long-living Mediterranean marine angiosperm Posidonia oceanica in surface-sterilized tissues (roots, rhizomes and leaves by DGGE. A total of 26 Posidonia oceanica meadows around the Balearic Islands were sampled, and the band patterns obtained for each meadow were compared for the three sampled tissues. Endophytic bacterial sequences were detected in most of the samples analyzed. A total of 34 OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Units were detected. The main OTUs of endophytic bacteria present in P. oceanica tissues belonged primarily to Proteobacteria (α, γ and δ subclasses and Bacteroidetes. The OTUs found in roots significantly differed from those of rhizomes and leaves. Moreover, some OTUs were found to be associated to each type of tissue. Bipartite network analysis revealed differences in the bacterial endophyte communities present on different islands. The results of this study provide a pioneering step toward the characterization of the endophytic bacterial community associated with tissues of a marine angiosperm and reveal the presence of bacterial endophytes that differed among locations and tissue types.

  5. Effect of infesting soil with Trichoderma harzianum and amendment with coffee pulp on survival of Armillaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otieno, W.; Jeger, M.J.; Termorshuizen, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    Six isolates of Trichoderma were screened for antagonism to Armillaria in tea stem sections buried in the soil. The inability of Armillaria to invade Trichoderma-colonized stem sections and the reduction of its viability in the plant materials following invasion of these by Trichoderma were used as

  6. Advances in biocontrol mechanism and application of Trichoderma spp. for plant diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Caihong; YANG Qian

    2007-01-01

    Trichoderma spp. is a filamentous soil fungus known as an effective biocontrol agent of a range of important airborne and soilborne pathogens, it has universal distribution and economic importance. This article reviewed the researches on biocontrol mechanism for plant diseases and application of Trichoderma spp., especially Trichoderma harzianum in recent years.

  7. Physiological characterization of sugarcane's endophytic microbial community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anar Janet Rodríguez Cheang

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Excessive application of chemical nitrogen fertilisers and pesticides has badly affected the environment. This has led to great interest being shown in studying a crop's native microbial community and its benefit for plants. This paper was thus aimed at characterising sugarcane's endophytic microbial community. 5 sugar cane strains and 50 isolates were used. Gas chromatography was used for measuring nitrogenase activity and the influence of carbon and nitrogen sources and pH on cultures. Indol acetic (IAA production was detected by Dot-Immunobinding and Salkowski's method. These results show that 19 strains and isolates had nitrogenase activity, values ranging from 100 to SOOO/zg/mL; 6 of them produced IAA (values ranging from 1,7 to 2,5 //g/mL: Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAl-5, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus 1-05, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus 4-02,17,30 and 305. It was demonstrated that culture medium nutrient sources and pH affected the nitrogenase activity of the strains representing the endophytic community. Key words: endophytic community, sugarcane, nitrogenase activity, indolacetic acid.

  8. Rethinking production of Taxol® (paclitaxel) using endophyte biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusari, Souvik; Singh, Satpal; Jayabaskaran, Chelliah

    2014-06-01

    Taxol® (generic name paclitaxel) represents one of the most clinically valuable natural products known to mankind in the recent past. More than two decades have elapsed since the notable discovery of the first Taxol®-producing endophytic fungus, which was followed by a plethora of reports on other endophytes possessing similar biosynthetic potential. However, industrial-scale Taxol® production using fungal endophytes, although seemingly promising, has not seen the light of the day. In this opinion article, we embark on the current state of knowledge on Taxol® biosynthesis focusing on the chemical ecology of its producers, and ask whether it is actually possible to produce Taxol® using endophyte biotechnology. The key problems that have prevented the exploitation of potent endophytic fungi by industrial bioprocesses for sustained production of Taxol® are discussed.

  9. Endophytes: exploitation as a tool in plant protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devanushi Dutta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Endophytes are symptomless fungal or bacterial microorganisms found in almost all living plant species reported so far. They are the plant-associated microbes that form symbiotic association with their host plants by colonizing the internal tissues, which has made them valuable for agriculture as a tool in improving crop performance. Many fungal endophytes produce secondary metabolites such as auxin, gibberellin etc that helps in growth and development of the host plant. Some of these compounds are antibiotics having antifungal, antibacterial and insecticidal properties, which strongly inhibit the growth of other microorganisms, including plant pathogens. This article reviews the endophyte isolated from different plants, mode of endophytic infection and benefits derived by the host plant as a result of endophytism.

  10. Phytoremediation: plant-endophyte partnerships take the challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyens, N.; van der Lelie, D.; Taghavi, S.; Vangronsveld, J.

    2009-04-01

    A promising field to exploit plant-endophyte partnerships is the remediation of contaminated soils and (ground) water. Many plant growth promoting endophytes can assist their host plant to overcome contaminant-induced stress responses, thus providing improved plant growth. During phytoremediation of organic contaminants, plants can further benefit from endophytes possessing appropriate degradation pathways and metabolic capabilities, leading to more efficient contaminant degradation and reduction of both phytotoxicity and evapotranspiration of volatile contaminants. For phytoremediation of toxic metals, endophytes possessing a metal-resistance/sequestration system can lower metal phytotoxicity and affect metal translocation to the above-ground plant parts. Furthermore, endophytes that can degrade organic contaminants and deal with or, even better, improve extraction of the metals offer promising ways to improve phytoremediation of mixed pollution.

  11. Electrostatic Beneficiation of Lunar Simulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigwell, Steve; Captain, James; Captain, Janine; Arens, Ellen; Quinn, Jacqueline; Calle, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    Electrostatic beneficiation of lunar regolith is a method allowing refinement of specific minerals in the material for processing on the moon. The use of tribocharging the regolith prior to separation was investigated on the lunar simulant MLS-I by passing the dust through static mixers constructed from different materials; aluminum, copper, stainless steel, and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The amount of charge acquired by the simulant was dependent upon the difference in the work function of the dust and the charging material. XPS and SEM were used to characterize the simulant after it was sieved into five size fractions (> 100 pm, 75-100 pm, 50- 75 pm, 50-25 pm, and 100 pm) size fractions were beneficiated through a charge separator using the aluminum (charged the simulant negatively) and PTFE (charged positively) mixers. The mass fractions of the separated simulant revealed that for the larger particle size, significant unipolar charging was observed for both mixers, whereas for the smaller particle sizes, more bipolar charging was observed, probably due to the finer simulant adhering to the inside of the mixers shielding the dust from the charging material. Subsequent XPS analysis of the beneficiated fractions showed the larger particle size fraction having some species differentiation, but very little difference for the smaller.size. Although MLS-1 was made to have similar chemistry to actual lunar dust, its mineralogy is quite different. On-going experiments are using NASA JSC-1 lunar simulant. A vacuum chamber has been constructed, and future experiments are planned in a simulated lunar environment.

  12. Beneficiation of beach magnetite sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Münevver TEL

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, beneficiation of beach magnetite sand was investigated by applying high intensity dry magnetic separator. The effect of feed particle size, feed rate, roll rotation speed, induced magnetic field intensity, and separator knife angle on Fe grade and recovery of the magnetite concentrate were investigated. As a result of dry magnetic separation at about 750 Gauss magnetic field conducted with -0.212+0.106 mm size fraction under optimum conditions, a magnetite concentrate assaying 54.41% Fe was obtained with 63.46% recovery where the beach sand sample contained %48.41 Fe.

  13. Effects of endophyte colonization of Vicia faba (Fabaceae plants on the life-history of leafminer parasitoids Phaedrotoma scabriventris (hymenoptera: braconidae and Diglyphus isaea (hymenoptera: eulophidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komivi S Akutse

    Full Text Available Effects of the fungal endophytes Beauveria bassiana (isolates ICIPE 279, G1LU3, S4SU1 and Hypocrea lixii (isolate F3ST1 on the life-history of Phaedrotoma scabriventris and Diglyphus isaea, parasitoids of the pea leafminer Liriomyza huidobrensis, were studied in the laboratory. Parasitoids were allowed to parasitize 2(nd and 3(rd instar L. huidobrensis larvae reared on endophytically-inoculated faba bean, Vicia faba. In the control, parasitoids were reared on non-inoculated host plants. Parasitism, pupation, adult emergence and survival were recorded. No significant difference was observed between the control and the endophyte-inoculated plants in terms of parasitism rates of P. scabriventris (p = 0.68 and D. isaea (p = 0.45 and adult' survival times (p = 0.06. The survival period of the F1 progeny of P. scabriventris was reduced (p<0.0001 in B. bassiana S4SU1 to 28 days as compared to more than 40 days for B. bassiana G1LU3, ICIPE 279 and H. lixii F3ST1. However, no significant difference (p = 0.54 was observed in the survival times of the F1 progeny of D. isaea. This study has demonstrated that together, endophytes and parasitoids have beneficial effects in L. huidobrensis population suppression.

  14. Three new species of Trichoderma with hyaline ascospores from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Z X; Zhuang, W Y

    2015-01-01

    Collections of Trichoderma having hyaline ascospores from different areas of China were examined. Using combined analyses of morphological data, culture characters and phylogenetic information based on rDNA sequences of partial nuc translation elongation factor 1-α encoding gene (TEF1-α) and the gene encoding the second largest nuc RNA polymerase subunit (RPB2), three new species, Trichoderma applanatum, T. oligosporum and T. sinoluteum, were discovered and are described. Trichoderma applanatum produces continuous flat to pulvinate, white to cream stromata with dense orange or pale brown ostioles, and simple acremonium-like to verticillium-like conidiophores, belongs to the Hypocreanum clade and is closely related to T. decipiens. Trichoderma oligosporum forms reddish brown stromata with a downy surface, hyaline conidia and gliocladium-like conidiophores, and is closely related to but distinct from T. crystalligenum in the Psychrophila clade. Trichoderma sinoluteum, as a member of the Polysporum clade, is characterized by pale yellow stromata, white pustulate conidiomata, pachybasium-like conidiophores, and hyaline conidia. Differences between the new species and their close relatives are discussed.

  15. Trichoderma (Hypocrea) species with green ascospores from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Z X; Zhuang, W Y

    2015-06-01

    Stromata of Trichoderma species having green ascospores were collected in various regions of China. Based on morphology of the sexual and asexual morph, culture characteristics, and sequence analyses of rpb2 and tef1 genes, 17 species with green ascospores were identified. Among them, Trichoderma rosulatum, T. rufobrunneum and T. stipitatum are described as new species, and seven other species are reported for the first time from China. Trichoderma rosulatum produces small bright yellow or pale greenish stromata with dense dark green ostioles and gliocladium-like conidiophores, shows a close relationship to T. thelephoricola, and belongs to the Chlorospora clade. Trichoderma rufobrunneum, which typically forms reddish brown stromata, is recognised as a member of the Harzianum clade. Trichoderma stipitatum is characterised by turbinate, pale yellow to nearly orange stromata and verticillium-like conidiophores; it forms a distinct, independent lineage with strong bootstrap support in the phylogenetic trees. The distinctions between the new species and their close relatives are discussed, and their phylogenetic positions are explored. PMID:26240449

  16. Diversity of endophytic fungal community of cacao (Theobroma cacao L. and biological control of Crinipellis perniciosa, causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The basidiomycete fungus Crinipellis perniciosa (Stahel Singer is the causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease of Cacao (Theobroma cacao L. which is the main factor limiting cacao production in the Americas. Pod losses of up to 90% are experienced in affected areas as evidenced by the 50% drop in production in Bahia province, Brazil following the arrival of the C. perniciosa in the area in 1989. The disease has proven particularly difficult to control and many farmers in affected areas have given up cacao cultivation. In order to evaluate the potential of endophytes as a biological control agent of this phytopathogen, the endophytic fungal community of resistant and susceptible cacao plants as well as affected branches was studied between 2001 and 2002. The fungal community was identified by morphological traits and rDNA sequencing as belonging to the genera Acremonium, Blastomyces, Botryosphaeria, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Cordyceps, Diaporthe, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gibberella, Gliocladium, Lasiodiplodia, Monilochoetes, Nectria, Pestalotiopsis, Phomopsis, Pleurotus, Pseudofusarium, Rhizopycnis, Syncephalastrum, Trichoderma, Verticillium and Xylaria. These fungi were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo by their ability to inhibit C. perniciosa. Among these, some were identified as potential antagonists, but only one fungus (Gliocladium catenulatum reduced the incidence of Witches' Broom Disease in cacao seedlings to 70%.

  17. Two new Chinese record of the genus Trichoderma: Trichoderma pleuroticola and T.pleurotum%木霉属中国新纪录种Trichoderma pleuroticola和T.pleurotum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张广志; 杨合同; 张新建; 李纪顺; 陈凯; 黄玉杰

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] Identification of two Trichoderma isolates were isolated from the soil in vegetable greenhouses and the pileus of Asafoetida mushroom. [Methods] By combination of morphological charaters and application of internal transcribed spacer (ITS). [Results] Two Trichoderma isolates were identified as Trichoderma pleuroticola S.H.Yu & Park sp. nov. and Trichoderma pleurotum S.H.Yu & Park. The morphological charaters of T. pleuroticola is similar with T. harzianum, but its conidiospore is obviously more than T. harzianum, secretes dark brown pigment, and forms yellow crystal on PDA medium. The typical characteristics of Trichoderma pleurotum is that its conidiophores are mostly solitary and more or less prostrate, branches scattered, arising separately and bearing crowded whorls of appressed phialides at the apex rsembling the conidiophore in Gliocladium. [Conclusion] Two Trichoderma isolates are T. pleuroticola and T. pleurotum respectively, which are two new record species in China.%[目的]对蔬菜大棚土壤中和阿魏菇腐烂的菌盖上分离的两株木霉菌进行分类鉴定.[方法]结合形态学分类特征和ITS序列分析的方法进行鉴定.[结果]从蔬菜大棚的土壤中和阿魏菇腐烂的菌盖上分离的两株木霉菌分别为Trichoderma pleuroticola和T.pleurotum.T.pleuroticola的形态特征与T.harzianum相似,但其分生孢子显著大于T.harzianum的分生孢子,且在PDA上产生黑褐色的色素以及黄色的结晶物.T.pleurotum 典型特征是分生孢子梗单生,有时匍匐,分枝散生,初级分枝和分生孢子梗顶端聚生,类似粘帚霉.[结论]分离的两株木霉分别是T.pleuroticola和T.pleurotum,为木霉菌中国新纪录种.

  18. Trichoderma songyi sp. nov., a new species associated with the pine mushroom (Tricholoma matsutake).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myung Soo; Oh, Seung-Yoon; Cho, Hae Jin; Fong, Jonathan J; Cheon, Woo-Jae; Lim, Young Woon

    2014-10-01

    A new species, Trichoderma songyi, was found to be associated with the pine mushroom (Tricholoma matsutake) in Korea. This species was isolated from three different substrates: Tricholoma matsutake basidiomata, as well as roots of Pinus densiflora and soil in the fairy ring. Based on its molecular and phenotypic characteristics, we demonstrate that Trichoderma songyi is unique and distinguishable from closely related species. We performed phylogenetic analyses based on two molecular markers, the genes for both translation elongation factor 1-alpha and the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. Phylogenetic analyses showed that Trichoderma songyi is closely related to Trichoderma koningii aggregate and Trichoderma caerulescens. Morphologically, Trichoderma songyi can be distinguished from these closely related taxa by its growth rates, colony morphology on PDA in darkness, and coconut-like odour. Due to the economic importance of the pine mushroom, the relationship between Trichoderma songyi and Tricholoma matsutake should be studied further.

  19. Trichoderma species occurring on wood with decay symptoms in mountain forests in Central Europe: genetic and enzymatic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaszczyk, Lidia; Strakowska, Judyta; Chełkowski, Jerzy; Gąbka-Buszek, Agnieszka; Kaczmarek, Joanna

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the species diversity of Trichoderma obtained from samples of wood collected in the forests of the Gorce Mountains (location A), Karkonosze Mountains (location B) and Tatra Mountains (location C) in Central Europe and to examine the cellulolytic and xylanolytic activity of these species as an expression of their probable role in wood decay processes. The present study has led to the identification of the following species and species complex: Trichoderma atroviride P. Karst., Trichoderma citrinoviride Bissett, Trichoderma cremeum P. Chaverri & Samuels, Trichoderma gamsii Samuels & Druzhin., Trichoderma harzianum complex, Trichoderma koningii Oudem., Trichoderma koningiopsis Samuels, C. Suárez & H.C. Evans, Trichoderma longibrachiatum Rifai, Trichoderma longipile Bissett, Trichoderma sp. (Hypocrea parapilulifera B.S. Lu, Druzhin. & Samuels), Trichoderma viride Schumach. and Trichoderma viridescens complex. Among them, T. viride was observed as the most abundant species (53 % of all isolates) in all the investigated locations. The Shannon's biodiversity index (H), evenness (E), and the Simpson's biodiversity index (D) calculations for each location showed that the highest species diversity and evenness were recorded for location A-Gorce Mountains (H' = 1.71, E = 0.82, D = 0.79). The preliminary screening of 119 Trichoderma strains for cellulolytic and xylanolytic activity showed the real potential of all Trichoderma species originating from wood with decay symptoms to produce cellulases and xylanases-the key enzymes in plant cell wall degradation. PMID:26586561

  20. Is vitamin C supplementation beneficial?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen

    2010-01-01

    of the benefit:harm ratio of antioxidant supplements. We have examined the literature on vitamin C intervention with the intention of drawing a conclusion on its possible beneficial or deleterious effect on health and the result is discouraging. One of several important issues is that vitamin C uptake is tightly...... controlled, resulting in a wide-ranging bioavailability depending on the current vitamin C status. Lack of proper selection criteria dominates the currently available literature. Thus, while supplementation with vitamin C is likely to be without effect for the majority of the Western population due...... to saturation through their normal diet, there could be a large subpopulation with a potential health problem that remains uninvestigated. The present review discusses the relevance of the available literature on vitamin C supplementation and proposes guidelines for future randomised intervention trials....

  1. Chemical characterization of bioactive compounds from the endophytic fungus Diaporthe helianthi isolated from Luehea divaricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specian, Vânia; Sarragiotto, Maria Helena; Pamphile, João Alencar; Clemente, Edmar

    2012-07-01

    Endophytic microorganisms, defined as fungi or bacteria that colonize the interior of plants without causing any immediate negative effects or damages, have reciprocal relationships with host plants. In some cases their presence is beneficial to the host due to the synthesis of bioactive compounds, among which several alcohols, esters, ketones and others that may react with other compounds and may be lethal to pathogenic microorganisms. Diaporthe helianthi (Phomopsis helianthi in its anamorphic phase) is available worldwide, especially in Europe, Asia and America. Isolated in Europe as an agent of the sunflower stem cancer, it has also been endophytically isolated from tropical and temperate plants. A D. helianthi strain isolated from Luehea divaricata has been employed in current research. An investigation of the secondary metabolite from D. helianthi by CC and NMR of (1)H and (13)C yielded the separation of 10 fractions and the identification of the phenolic compound 2(-4 hydroxyphenyl)-ethanol (Tyrosol). Its antimicrobial reaction was tested and the ensuing antagonistic effects on the human pathogenic bacteria Enterococcus hirae, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, phytopathogenic Xanthomonas asc. phaseoli and phytopathogenic fungi were demonstrated. Results show that bioactive compounds and Tyrosol produced by D. helianthi have a biotechnological potential. PMID:24031942

  2. Chemical characterization of bioactive compounds from the endophytic fungus Diaporthe helianthi isolated from Luehea divaricata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Specian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic microorganisms, defined as fungi or bacteria that colonize the interior of plants without causing any immediate negative effects or damages, have reciprocal relationships with host plants. In some cases their presence is beneficial to the host due to the synthesis of bioactive compounds, among which several alcohols, esters, ketones and others that may react with other compounds and may be lethal to pathogenic microorganisms. Diaporthe helianthi (Phomopsis helianthi in its anamorphic phase is available worldwide, especially in Europe, Asia and America. Isolated in Europe as an agent of the sunflower stem cancer, it has also been endophytically isolated from tropical and temperate plants. A D. helianthi strain isolated from Luehea divaricata has been employed in current research. An investigation of the secondary metabolite from D. helianthi by CC and NMR of ¹H and 13C yielded the separation of 10 fractions and the identification of the phenolic compound 2(-4 hydroxyphenyl-ethanol (Tyrosol. Its antimicrobial reaction was tested and the ensuing antagonistic effects on the human pathogenic bacteria Enterococcus hirae, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, phytopathogenic Xanthomonas asc. phaseoli and phytopathogenic fungi were demonstrated. Results show that bioactive compounds and Tyrosol produced by D. helianthi have a biotechnological potential.

  3. Chemical characterization of bioactive compounds from the endophytic fungus Diaporthe helianthi isolated from Luehea divaricata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specian, Vânia; Sarragiotto, Maria Helena; Pamphile, João Alencar; Clemente, Edmar

    2012-01-01

    Endophytic microorganisms, defined as fungi or bacteria that colonize the interior of plants without causing any immediate negative effects or damages, have reciprocal relationships with host plants. In some cases their presence is beneficial to the host due to the synthesis of bioactive compounds, among which several alcohols, esters, ketones and others that may react with other compounds and may be lethal to pathogenic microorganisms. Diaporthe helianthi (Phomopsis helianthi in its anamorphic phase) is available worldwide, especially in Europe, Asia and America. Isolated in Europe as an agent of the sunflower stem cancer, it has also been endophytically isolated from tropical and temperate plants. A D. helianthi strain isolated from Luehea divaricata has been employed in current research. An investigation of the secondary metabolite from D. helianthi by CC and NMR of 1H and 13C yielded the separation of 10 fractions and the identification of the phenolic compound 2(-4 hydroxyphenyl)-ethanol (Tyrosol). Its antimicrobial reaction was tested and the ensuing antagonistic effects on the human pathogenic bacteria Enterococcus hirae, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, phytopathogenic Xanthomonas asc. phaseoli and phytopathogenic fungi were demonstrated. Results show that bioactive compounds and Tyrosol produced by D. helianthi have a biotechnological potential. PMID:24031942

  4. Biological control of banana black Sigatoka disease with Trichoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poholl Adan Sagratzki Cavero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Black Sigatoka disease caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis is the most severe banana disease worldwide. The pathogen is in an invasive phase in Brazil and is already present in most States of the country. The potential of 29 isolates of Trichoderma spp. was studied for the control of black Sigatoka disease under field conditions. Four isolates were able to significantly reduce disease severity and were further tested in a second field experiment. Isolate 2.047 showed the best results in both field experiments and was selected for fungicide sensitivity tests and mass production. This isolate was identified as Trichoderma atroviride by sequencing fragments of the ITS region of the rDNA and tef-1α of the RNA polymerase. Trichoderma atroviride was as effective as the fungicide Azoxystrobin, which is recommended for controlling black Sigatoka. This biocontrol agent has potential to control the disease and may be scaled-up for field applications on rice-based solid fermentation

  5. Study on Biological Control Of Rhizoctonia solani via Trichoderma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Strain T02-25 was selected from approximately 30 rhizosphere isolates of Trichoderma species isolated from roots of crops. Its biological activity against Rhizoctonia solani was determined for the control efficacy to pepper seedling blight caused by R. solani in the field. The assay methods were treating R. solani sclerotia by Trichoderma conidial suspension (106cfu ml-1) and scattering Thichoderma rice bran over the pepper root medium. The results showed that T02-25 was active against R. solani in both ways, and its control efficacy was 82.7% and 78.0%, respectively. In addition to comparison of the efficacy of the two application methods, the relationship of different factors in the control efficacy of Trichoderma against R. solani was discussed.

  6. Effects of endophytic fungi on the ash dieback pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Markus; Dubach, Vivanne; von Buol, Larissa; Sieber, Thomas N

    2016-09-01

    While Hymenoscyphus fraxineus causes dieback of the European ash (Fraxinus excelsior), flowering ash (F. ornus) appears resistant to the pathogen. To date, contributions of endophytic fungi to host resistance are unknown. The following hypotheses were tested: (i) endophytic fungi enhance the resistance of F. excelsior to the pathogen; (ii) resistance of F. ornus relies on its community of endophytic fungi. Two experiments were performed. (i) The effect of exudates of ash endophytes on the germination rate of H. fraxineus ascospores was studied in vitro Isolates of abundant Fraxinus leaf endophytes, such as Venturia fraxini, Paraconiothyrium sp., Boeremia exigua, Kretzschmaria deusta and Neofabraea alba inhibited ascospore germination. (ii) Ash seedlings inoculated in a climate chamber, with fungi sporulating on the previous year's leaf litter, were exposed to natural infections by the pathogen present in the forest. Non-inoculated seedlings were used as controls. Venturia spp. dominated the inoculated endophyte 'communities'. Subsequent exposure to H. fraxineus led to infection of F. excelsior leaves by the pathogen, but no differences in health status between pre-inoculated and non-inoculated seedlings were detected. Fraxinus ornus leaves experienced a low infection rate, independent of their colonization by endophytic fungi. These results did not support either hypothesis. PMID:27364360

  7. Endophytic Fungal Diversity in Medicinal Plants of Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monnanda Somaiah Nalini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Endophytes constitute an important component of microbial diversity, and in the present investigation, seven plant species with rich ethnobotanical uses representing six families were analyzed for the presence of endophytic fungi from their natural habitats during monsoon (May/June and winter (November/December seasons of 2007. Fungal endophytes were isolated from healthy plant parts such as stem, root, rhizome, and inflorescence employing standard isolation methods. One thousand five hundred and twenty-nine fungal isolates were obtained from 5200 fragments. Stem fragments harbored more endophytes (80.37% than roots (19.22%. 31 fungal taxa comprised of coelomycetes (65%, hyphomycetes (32%, and ascomycetes (3%. Fusarium, Acremonium, Colletotrichum, Chaetomium, Myrothecium, Phomopsis, and Pestalotiopsis spp. were commonly isolated. Diversity indices differed significantly between the seasons (P<0.001. Species richness was greater for monsoon isolations than winter. Host specificity was observed for few fungal endophytes. UPGMA cluster analysis grouped the endophytes into distinct clusters on the basis of genetic distance. This study is the first report on the diversity and host-specificity of endophytic fungal taxa were from the semi evergreen forest type in Talacauvery subcluster of Western Ghats.

  8. Nitrogen acquisition in Agave tequilana from degradation of endophytic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran-Garcia, Miguel J; White, James F; Prado, Fernanda M; Prieto, Katia R; Yamaguchi, Lydia F; Torres, Monica S; Kato, Massuo J; Medeiros, Marisa H G; Di Mascio, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Plants form symbiotic associations with endophytic bacteria within tissues of leaves, stems, and roots. It is unclear whether or how plants obtain nitrogen from these endophytic bacteria. Here we present evidence showing nitrogen flow from endophytic bacteria to plants in a process that appears to involve oxidative degradation of bacteria. In our experiments we employed Agave tequilana and its seed-transmitted endophyte Bacillus tequilensis to elucidate organic nitrogen transfer from (15)N-labeled bacteria to plants. Bacillus tequilensis cells grown in a minimal medium with (15)NH4Cl as the nitrogen source were watered onto plants growing in sand. We traced incorporation of (15)N into tryptophan, deoxynucleosides and pheophytin derived from chlorophyll a. Probes for hydrogen peroxide show its presence during degradation of bacteria in plant tissues, supporting involvement of reactive oxygen in the degradation process. In another experiment to assess nitrogen absorbed as a result of endophytic colonization of plants we demonstrated that endophytic bacteria potentially transfer more nitrogen to plants and stimulate greater biomass in plants than heat-killed bacteria that do not colonize plants but instead degrade in the soil. Findings presented here support the hypothesis that some plants under nutrient limitation may degrade and obtain nitrogen from endophytic microbes. PMID:25374146

  9. Mutagenesis of Trichoderma Viride by Ultraviolet and Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚日生; 李曼曼; 邓胜松; 胡华佳; 王淮; 李凤和

    2012-01-01

    Considering the importance of a microbial strain capable of increased cellulase production, a mutant strain UP4 of Trichoderma viride was developed by ultraviolet (UV) and plasma mutation. The mutant produced a 21.0 IU/mL FPase which was 98.1% higher than that of the parent strain Trichoderma viride ZY-1. In addition, the effect of ultraviolet and plasma mutagenesis was not merely simple superimposition of single ultraviolet mutation and single plasma mutation. Meanwhile, there appeared a capsule around some of the spores after the ultraviolet and plasma treatment, namely, the spore surface of the strain became fuzzy after ultraviolet or ultraviolet and plasma mutagenesis.

  10. Mutagenesis of Trichoderma Viride by Ultraviolet and Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Risheng; Li, Manman; Deng, Shengsong; Hu, Huajia; Wang, Huai; Li, Fenghe

    2012-04-01

    Considering the importance of a microbial strain capable of increased cellulase production, a mutant strain UP4 of Trichoderma viride was developed by ultraviolet (UV) and plasma mutation. The mutant produced a 21.0 IU/mL FPase which was 98.1% higher than that of the parent strain Trichoderma viride ZY-1. In addition, the effect of ultraviolet and plasma mutagenesis was not merely simple superimposition of single ultraviolet mutation and single plasma mutation. Meanwhile, there appeared a capsule around some of the spores after the ultraviolet and plasma treatment, namely, the spore surface of the strain became fuzzy after ultraviolet or ultraviolet and plasma mutagenesis.

  11. Trichoharzianol, a new antifungal from Trichoderma harzianum F031.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeerapong, Chotika; Phupong, Worrapong; Bangrak, Phuwadol; Intana, Warin; Tuchinda, Patoomratana

    2015-04-15

    A new decalin derivative, trichoharzianol (1), together with three known compounds, eujavanicol A (2), 5-hydroxy-3-hydroxymethyl-2-methyl-7-methoxychromone (3), and 4,6-dihydroxy-5-methylphthalide (4), were isolated from Trichoderma harzianum F031. For the first time, compounds 2-4 were reported from the Trichoderma species. Their structures were characterized by spectroscopic methods. Trichoharzianol (1) showed the highest antifungal activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 128 μg/mL. PMID:25817439

  12. Do foliar endophytic bacteria fix nitrogen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueppers, L. M.; Moyes, A. B.; Frank, C.; Pett-Ridge, J.; Carper, D.; Vandehey, N.; O'Neil, J.; Dekas, A.

    2015-12-01

    Endophytic microorganisms - bacteria and fungi that live inside healthy plant tissue - are a relatively unexplored source of functional diversity in natural ecosystems. Prior to modern sequencing technology, detecting uncultured endophytic bacteria and assessing their putative functions was challenging. However, recent work has revealed a remarkable diversity of as yet non-culturable endophytic taxa and is beginning to identify functional roles within plant microbiomes. We recently examined bacterial communities in the foliage of a long-lived, high-elevation conifer species, limber pine (Pinus flexilis), and discovered a community strongly dominated by acetic acid bacteria (Acetobacteraceae), with several taxa closely related to known nitrogen fixers. Given limber pine's status as a pioneer species that is able to grow in low fertility soils, we hypothesized that this bacterial community has a potential functional role in fixing atmospheric nitrogen, providing a source of this limiting nutrient to the host tree. We used the radioisotope 13N2 to confirm that N2 rapidly diffuses into pine needles, where it could potentially be fixed. With an acetylene reduction assay we confirmed nitrogenase enzyme activity inside excised twigs 4 times over a growing season, and estimate potential rates of N2 fixation at 0.1 nmol N2 g needle-1 hr-1. Scaled to the stand level, this N input could be on the order of ~20 mg N m-2 d-1 over a growing season. While these rates are low, the long lifespan of individual trees (~1000 years) makes them biologically meaningful. Still, measured rates of acetylene reduction and bulk 15N2 incorporation are quite variable in space and time. Much work remains to better characterize the plant-microbial interactions in this system, including the rates of nitrogen fixation and their variability over the growing season, across edaphic conditions, among host species, and through plant development; and to determine which community members are responsible

  13. Endophytic fungi associated with endogenous Boswellia sacra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAIFELDIN A.F. EL-NAGERABI1,♥,

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi associated with leaves and stem tissues of Boswellia sacra growing in Dhofar Mountains of Oman were investigated from May 2008 through October 2011. The biological diversity, tissue-preference and seasonal variations of fungi were evaluated. Forty-three species and 3 varieties of fungi were recovered as new records from this plant. Of these isolates, 35 species are new reports to the mycoflora of Oman, whereas 12 species were added to the list of fungal flora of the Arabian Peninsula. The genus Alternaria (12 species is the most prevalent genus recovered from 12.5-83.3% of the screened leaves and stem samples, followed by Aspergillus (5 species, 3 varieties, 6.9-86.1%, Mycelia sterilia (76.4%, Rhizopus stolonifer (62.5%, Drechslera (3 species, 40.3-54.2%, Cladosporium (3 species, 20.8-52.8%, Curvularia lunata (38.8%, Chaetomium (2 species, 15.3-26.3%, Penicillim spp. (9.8-27.8%, Fusarium (9 species, 6.9-27.8%, Ulocladium consortiale (27.8%, Mucor hiemalis (19.5%, and the remaining species (Scytalidium thermophilum, Phoma solani, Taeniolella exilis, and Botryodiplodia theobromae exhibited very low levels of incidence (4.2-11.1%. Endophytic colonization of the leaf tissues was greater (43 species, 3 varieties comparable to stem tissues (25 species. This indicates heterogeneity and tissue-preference, with no evidence of seasonal variation. Therefore, the isolation of many fungal species and sterile mycelia supports the biodiversity of the endophytic fungi invading B. sacra and the high possibility of isolating more fungal species using advanced molecular techniques.

  14. The importance of chorismate mutase in the biocontrol potential of Trichoderma parareesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Esclaudys; Rubio, M Belén; Cardoza, Rosa E; Gutiérrez, Santiago; Bettiol, Wagner; Monte, Enrique; Hermosa, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Species of Trichoderma exert direct biocontrol activity against soil-borne plant pathogens due to their ability to compete for nutrients and to inhibit or kill their targets through the production of antibiotics and/or hydrolytic enzymes. In addition to these abilities, Trichoderma spp. have beneficial effects for plants, including the stimulation of defenses and the promotion of growth. Here we study the role in biocontrol of the T. parareesei Tparo7 gene, encoding a chorismate mutase (CM), a shikimate pathway branch point leading to the production of aromatic amino acids, which are not only essential components of protein synthesis but also the precursors of a wide range of secondary metabolites. We isolated T. parareesei transformants with the Tparo7 gene silenced. Compared with the wild-type, decreased levels of Tparo7 expression in the silenced transformants were accompanied by reduced CM activity, lower growth rates on different culture media, and reduced mycoparasitic behavior against the phytopathogenic fungi Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporum and Botrytis cinerea in dual cultures. By contrast, higher amounts of the aromatic metabolites tyrosol, 2-phenylethanol and salicylic acid were detected in supernatants from the silenced transformants, which were able to inhibit the growth of F. oxysporum and B. cinerea. In in vitro plant assays, Tparo7-silenced transformants also showed a reduced capacity to colonize tomato roots. The effect of Tparo7-silencing on tomato plant responses was examined in greenhouse assays. The growth of plants colonized by the silenced transformants was reduced and the plants exhibited an increased susceptibility to B. cinerea in comparison with the responses observed for control plants. In addition, the plants turned yellowish and were defective in jasmonic acid- and ethylene-regulated signaling pathways which was seen by expression analysis of lipoxygenase 1 (LOX1), ethylene-insensitive protein 2 (EIN2) and pathogenesis

  15. The importance of chorismate mutase in the biocontrol potential of Trichoderma parareesei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esclaudys ePérez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Species of Trichoderma exert direct biocontrol activity against soil-borne plant pathogens due to their ability to compete for nutrients and to inhibit or kill their targets through the production of antibiotics and/or hydrolytic enzymes. In addition to these abilities, Trichoderma spp. have beneficial effects for plants, including the stimulation of defenses and the promotion of growth. Here we study the role in biocontrol of the T. parareesei Tparo7 gene, encoding a chorismate mutase (CM, a shikimate pathway branch point leading to the production of aromatic amino acids, which are not only essential components of protein synthesis but also the precursors of a wide range of secondary metabolites. We isolated T. parareesei transformants with the Tparo7 gene silenced. Compared with the wild-type, decreased levels of Tparo7 expression in the silenced transformants were accompanied by reduced CM activity, lower growth rates on different culture media, and reduced mycoparasitic behavior against the phytopathogenic fungi Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporum and Botrytis cinerea in dual cultures. By contrast, higher amounts of the aromatic metabolites tyrosol, 2-phenylethanol and salicylic acid were detected in supernatants from the silenced transformants, which were able to inhibit the growth of F. oxysporum and B. cinerea. In in vitro plant assays, Tparo7-silenced transformants also showed a reduced capacity to colonize tomato roots. The effect of Tparo7-silencing on tomato plant responses was examined in greenhouse assays. The growth of plants colonized by the silenced transformants was reduced and the plants exhibited an increased susceptibility to B. cinerea in comparison with the responses observed for control plants. In addition, the plants turned yellowish and were defective in jasmonic acid- and ethylene-regulated signaling pathways which was seen by expression analysis of lipoxygenase 1 (LOX1, ethylene-insensitive protein 2 (EIN2 and

  16. Biodiversity and distribution of Hypocrea/Trichoderma species in New Zealand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sarah L Dodd; Alison Stewart

    2004-01-01

    @@ With increased imports of foreign microbes either as commercial biocontrol products or for the purposes of research, there is potentially an increased threat to indigenous beneficial microflora. In the present study, indigenous species of the fungal genus Hypocrea/Trichoderma are being used as a model system to determine the impact of foreign microbes on the native microflora of New Zealand. In order to protect such microflora, one has to first be aware of what is currently present and what sites, if any,are most vulnerable. A preliminary survey for the presence and diversity of species of Hypocrea/Trichoderma is currently underway in New Zealand and samples are being assessed from forest soils,agricultural soils, orchards, garden soils, sclerotia of various plant pathogens and pasture land. To date 238 isolates have been identified using both morphological characters and DNA sequence data from the ITS regions of the ribosomal gene cluster (ITS1 & ITS2) and, in some instances, sequence of the elongation factor gene (EF1-α) . Isolates were found to represent 16 known species plus three species as yet undescribed. In forest soils T. harzianum /T. inhamatum (31%) and T. viride (29%)followed by T. fertile (13%), were clearly the most abundant species and the remaining five species found in forests ( T. atroviride, T. koningii, T. aureoviride, H. cf. flavovirens anamorph and one unknown) each accounting for <8% of the total. Dominance by the species T. harzianum/inhamatum is consistent with studies done in South-East Asia, a mid-European primeval floodplainforest and Moscow. In contrast, when isolations were conducted with a bias for biocontrol capabilities it was found that the species T. atroviride (29%), T. koningii (17%), T. harzianum (15%)and T. viride (12%) dominated respectively. This survey is currently ongoing in New Zealand.Future studies will monitor indigenous species and strains following inoculation of specific microbes to assess the impact of the

  17. Detection of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. and antagonism of Trichoderma sp. in soybean under no-tillage

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Mendes Milanesi; Elena Blume; Marlove Fátima Brião Muniz; Lia Rejane Silveira Reiniger; Zaida Inês Antoniolli; Emanuele Junges; Manoeli Lupatini

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed i) to quantify the occurrence of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. in rhizospheric soil, with and without symptoms of Sudden Death Syndrome (SDS) in eight soybean genotypes; ii) morphologically identify isolates of Fusarium spp. from roots with SDS; iii) evaluate the antagonism between Trichoderma spp. and Fusarium spp. isolates from rhizospheric soil and roots from with and without SDS, respectively; and iv) characterize through the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of rDNA the isolate...

  18. Nitrogen Metabolism and Growth Enhancement in Tomato Plants Challenged with Trichoderma harzianum Expressing the Aspergillus nidulans Acetamidase amdS Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Sara; Rubio, M Belén; Cardoza, Rosa E; Gutiérrez, Santiago; Nicolás, Carlos; Bettiol, Wagner; Hermosa, Rosa; Monte, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Trichoderma is a fungal genus that includes species that are currently being used as biological control agents and/or as biofertilizers. In addition to the direct application of Trichoderma spp. as biocontrol agents in plant protection, recent studies have focused on the beneficial responses exerted on plants, stimulating the growth, activating the defenses, and/or improving nutrient uptake. The amdS gene, encoding an acetamidase of Aspergillus, has been used as a selectable marker for the transformation of filamentous fungi, including Trichoderma spp., but the physiological effects of the introduction of this gene into the genome of these microorganisms still remains unexplored. No evidence of amdS orthologous genes has been detected within the Trichoderma spp. genomes and the amdS heterologous expression in Trichoderma harzianum T34 did not affect the growth of this fungus in media lacking acetamide. However, it did confer the ability for the fungus to use this amide as a nitrogen source. Although a similar antagonistic behavior was observed for T34 and amdS transformants in dual cultures against Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinerea, and Fusarium oxysporum, a significantly higher antifungal activity was detected in amdS transformants against F. oxysporum, compared to that of T34, in membrane assays on media lacking acetamide. In Trichoderma-tomato interaction assays, amdS transformants were able to promote plant growth to a greater extent than the wild-type T34, although compared with this strain the transformants showed similar capability to colonize tomato roots. Gene expression patterns from aerial parts of 3-week-old tomato plants treated with T34 and the amdS transformants have also been investigated using GeneChip Tomato Genome Arrays. The downregulation of defense genes and the upregulation of carbon and nitrogen metabolism genes observed in the microarrays were accompanied by (i) enhanced growth, (ii) increased carbon and nitrogen levels, and (iii) a

  19. Nitrogen Metabolism and Growth Enhancement in Tomato Plants Challenged with Trichoderma harzianum Expressing the Aspergillus nidulans Acetamidase amdS Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Sara; Rubio, M. Belén; Cardoza, Rosa E.; Gutiérrez, Santiago; Nicolás, Carlos; Bettiol, Wagner; Hermosa, Rosa; Monte, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Trichoderma is a fungal genus that includes species that are currently being used as biological control agents and/or as biofertilizers. In addition to the direct application of Trichoderma spp. as biocontrol agents in plant protection, recent studies have focused on the beneficial responses exerted on plants, stimulating the growth, activating the defenses, and/or improving nutrient uptake. The amdS gene, encoding an acetamidase of Aspergillus, has been used as a selectable marker for the transformation of filamentous fungi, including Trichoderma spp., but the physiological effects of the introduction of this gene into the genome of these microorganisms still remains unexplored. No evidence of amdS orthologous genes has been detected within the Trichoderma spp. genomes and the amdS heterologous expression in Trichoderma harzianum T34 did not affect the growth of this fungus in media lacking acetamide. However, it did confer the ability for the fungus to use this amide as a nitrogen source. Although a similar antagonistic behavior was observed for T34 and amdS transformants in dual cultures against Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinerea, and Fusarium oxysporum, a significantly higher antifungal activity was detected in amdS transformants against F. oxysporum, compared to that of T34, in membrane assays on media lacking acetamide. In Trichoderma-tomato interaction assays, amdS transformants were able to promote plant growth to a greater extent than the wild-type T34, although compared with this strain the transformants showed similar capability to colonize tomato roots. Gene expression patterns from aerial parts of 3-week-old tomato plants treated with T34 and the amdS transformants have also been investigated using GeneChip Tomato Genome Arrays. The downregulation of defense genes and the upregulation of carbon and nitrogen metabolism genes observed in the microarrays were accompanied by (i) enhanced growth, (ii) increased carbon and nitrogen levels, and (iii) a

  20. Biocontrol potential of endophytes harbored in Radula marginata (liverwort) from the New Zealand ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusari, Parijat; Kusari, Souvik; Spiteller, Michael; Kayser, Oliver

    2014-10-01

    Radula marginata and Cannabis sativa L. are two phylogenetically unrelated plant species containing structurally similar secondary metabolites like cannabinoids. The major objective of our work was the isolation, identification, biocontrol efficacies, biofilm forming potential and anti-biofilm ability of endophytic microbial community of the liverwort R. marginata, as compared to bacterial endophytic isolates harbored in C. sativa plants. A total of 15 endophytic fungal and 4 endophytic bacterial isolates were identified, including the presence of a bacterial endosymbiont within an endophytic fungal isolate. The endosymbiont was visible only when the fungus containing it was challenged with two phytopathogens Botrytis cinerea and Trichothecium roseum, highlighting a tripartite microbe-microbe interaction and biocontrol potency of endophytes under biotic stress. We also observed sixteen types of endophytic fungal-pathogen and twelve types of endophytic bacterial-pathogen interactions coupled to varying degree of growth inhibitions of either the pathogen or endophyte or both. This showed the magnitude of biocontrol efficacies of endophytes in aiding plant fitness benefits under different media (environmental) conditions. Additionally, it was ecologically noteworthy to find the presence of similar endophytic bacterial genera in both Radula and Cannabis plants, which exhibited similar functional traits like biofilm formation and general anti-biofilm activities. Thus far, our work underlines the biocontrol potency and defensive functional traits (in terms of antagonism and biofilm formation) of endophytes harbored in liverwort R. marginata as compared to the endophytic community of phylogenetically unrelated but phytochemically similar plant C. sativa. PMID:25100187

  1. Isolation and Identification of Endophytes from Seeds of Torreya yunnanensis and Its Antimicrobial Activity Screening%云南榧种子内生真菌的分离鉴定及抑菌活性筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李向楠; 周稚凡; 刘风路; 李靖

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the endophytic fungi were isolated and purified from the seeds of T.yunnanensis collected from Weixi County, Yunnan Province. The morphology of the endophytic fungi was identified,and antimicrobial activity was screened. By fungal separation and purification technology, endophytic fungi were isolated initially from the seeds of T.yunnanensis. Morphological analyses of endophytic fungi were conducted by microscopic observation of sporulation structures, and antibacterial activities were screened by filter paper method. Fifty endophytic fungi were isolated and purified. Among them, 13 belonged to Phomopsis, 7 Fusarium, 5 Anthrax, 4 Paecilomyces, 1 Alternaria, 1 Trichoderma, and 19 without spores. Antimicrobial results showed that crude extracts of endophytic fungi had broader inhibitory effects on ten important plant pathogenic fungi. Z41 and Z43 exhibited the best antimicrobial activities.%对采自云南省维西县的云南榧(Torreya yunnanensis)种子的内生真菌进行分离纯化和初步形态学鉴定,同时对内生真菌的抑菌活性进行筛选。通过真菌分离纯化技术对云南榧种子的内生真菌进行分离纯化,通过显微镜观察产孢结构进行初步形态学分析,并通过滤纸片法对内生真菌的抑菌活性进行筛选。从云南榧种子中共分离纯化得到50株内生真菌,其中拟茎点霉属13株,镰孢霉属7株,炭疽霉属5株,拟青霉属4株,链格孢属1株,木霉属1株,无孢菌群19株。抑菌活性显示云南榧种子内生真菌具有广泛的抑菌活性,其中菌株Z41与Z43对10种植物病原真菌具有广谱抗性。

  2. Progress in developments of dry coal beneficiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuemin Zhao; Xuliang Yang; Zhenfu Luo; Chenlong Duan; Shulei Song

    2014-01-01

    China’s energy supply heavily relies on coal and China’s coal resource and water resource has a reverse distribution. The problem of water shortages restricts the applications of wet coal beneficiation technologies in drought regions. The present situation highlights the significance and urgency of developing dry beneficiation technologies of coal. Besides, other countries that produce large amounts of coal also encounter serious problem of lack of water for coal beneficiation, such as American, Australia, Canada, South Africa, Turkey and India. Thus, dry coal beneficiation becomes the research hot-points in the field of coal cleaning worldwide in recent years. This paper systematically reviewed the promising research efforts on dry coal beneficiation reported in literature in last 5 years and discussed the progress in developments of dry coal beneficiation worldwide. Finally, we also elaborated the prospects and the challenges of the development of dry coal beneficiation.

  3. Isolation of Endophytic Streptomyces Strains from Surface-Sterilized Roots

    OpenAIRE

    Sardi, P.; Saracchi, M.; Quaroni, S.; Petrolini, B.; Borgonovi, G. E.; Merli, S.

    1992-01-01

    When the roots of 28 plant species were surface sterilized and incubated on agar medium, endophytic actinomycetes in the root cortex were observed by direct microscopic observation and pure culture techniques.

  4. Endophytic degrader bacteria for improving phytoremediation of organic xenobiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, U.; Trapp, Stefan; Lelie, D, van der;

    2003-01-01

    by improving their degradation during transport in the plant vascular system. Introducing endophytic degrader bacteria into the plants’ vascular system was proposed as a tool to achieve this goal. As a scientific necessity, the project comprised the thorough ecological and genetic investigation of endophytic....... Another potential spin-off of the project was the unexpected generation of constitutive TCE degraders, i.e., bacteria that do not require toluene or phenol for induction of cometabolic TCE degradation. Genetic engineering methods were not involved in the generation of this metabolic trait. The business...... bacteria, and the isolation of a large number of natural endophytic strains. The project delivered on this goal by providing a large collection of 150 novel characterized endophytic bacteria from poplar and willow, two plant species commonly used for phytoremediation, and from Flag Iris, a plant used...

  5. Some endophytes of Juncus trifidus from Tatra Mts. in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Chlebicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a first part of work devoted highland rush endophytes: Penicillium expansum, Cladosporium oxysporum, Arthrinium state of Apiospora montagnei and Aureobasidium pullulans. The basidiomycete strain, possibly Lagarobasidium detriticum was also isolated.

  6. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by Trichoderma species: a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra, German; Cortés-Espinosa, Diana V

    2015-12-01

    Fungi belonging to Trichoderma genus are ascomycetes found in soils worldwide. Trichoderma has been studied in relation to diverse biotechnological applications and are known as successful colonizers of their common habitats. Members of this genus have been well described as effective biocontrol organisms through the production of secondary metabolites with potential applications as new antibiotics. Even though members of Trichoderma are commonly used for the commercial production of lytic enzymes, as a biological control agent, and also in the food industry, their use in xenobiotic biodegradation is limited. Trichoderma stands out as a genus with a great range of substrate utilization, a high production of antimicrobial compounds, and its ability for environmental opportunism. In this review, we focused on the recent advances in the research of Trichoderma species as potent and efficient aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading organisms, as well as aimed to provide insight into its potential role in the bioremediation of soils contaminated with heavy hydrocarbons. Several Trichoderma species are associated with the ability to metabolize a variety of both high and low molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as naphthalene, phenanthrene, chrysene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene. PAH-degrading species include Trichoderma hamatum, Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma reesei, Trichoderma koningii, Trichoderma viride, Trichoderma virens, and Trichoderma asperellum using alternate enzyme systems commonly seen in other organisms, such as multicooper laccases, peroxidases, and ring-cleavage dioxygenases. Within these species, T. asperellum stands out as a versatile organism with remarkable degrading abilities, high tolerance, and a remarkable potential to be used as a remediation agent in polluted soils.

  7. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by Trichoderma species: a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra, German; Cortés-Espinosa, Diana V

    2015-12-01

    Fungi belonging to Trichoderma genus are ascomycetes found in soils worldwide. Trichoderma has been studied in relation to diverse biotechnological applications and are known as successful colonizers of their common habitats. Members of this genus have been well described as effective biocontrol organisms through the production of secondary metabolites with potential applications as new antibiotics. Even though members of Trichoderma are commonly used for the commercial production of lytic enzymes, as a biological control agent, and also in the food industry, their use in xenobiotic biodegradation is limited. Trichoderma stands out as a genus with a great range of substrate utilization, a high production of antimicrobial compounds, and its ability for environmental opportunism. In this review, we focused on the recent advances in the research of Trichoderma species as potent and efficient aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading organisms, as well as aimed to provide insight into its potential role in the bioremediation of soils contaminated with heavy hydrocarbons. Several Trichoderma species are associated with the ability to metabolize a variety of both high and low molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as naphthalene, phenanthrene, chrysene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene. PAH-degrading species include Trichoderma hamatum, Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma reesei, Trichoderma koningii, Trichoderma viride, Trichoderma virens, and Trichoderma asperellum using alternate enzyme systems commonly seen in other organisms, such as multicooper laccases, peroxidases, and ring-cleavage dioxygenases. Within these species, T. asperellum stands out as a versatile organism with remarkable degrading abilities, high tolerance, and a remarkable potential to be used as a remediation agent in polluted soils. PMID:26498812

  8. Antimicrobial chemical constituents from endophytic fungus Phomasp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hidayat Hussain; Siegfried Draeger; Barbara Schulz; Karsten Krohn; Ines Kock; Ahmed Al-Harrasi; Ahmed Al-Rawahi; Ghulam Abbas; Ivan R Green; Afzal Shah; Amin Badshah; Muhammad Saleem

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antimicrobial potential of different extracts of the endophytic fungus Phomasp. and the tentative identification of their active constituents.Methods:The extract and compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity using theAgarWellDiffusionMethod. Four compounds were purified using column chromatography and their structures were assigned using1H and13CNMR spectra,DEPT,2DCOSY,HMQC andHMBC experiments.Results:The ethyl acetate fraction ofPhomasp. showed good antifungal, antibacterial, and algicidal properties.One new dihydrofuran derivative, named phomafuranol(1), together with three known compounds, phomalacton(2),(3R)-5-hydroxymellein(3) and emodin(4) were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction ofPhomasp.Preliminary studies indicated that phomalacton(2) displayed strong antibacterial, good antifungal and antialgal activities.Similarly(3R)-5-hydroxymellein (3) and emodin(4) showed good antifungal, antibacterial and algicidal properties.Conclusions:Antimicrobial activities of the ethyl acetate fraction of the endophytic fungusPhomasp. and isolated compounds clearly demonstrate thatPhomasp. and its active compounds represent a great potential for the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

  9. Proteome scale census of major facilitator superfamily transporters in Trichoderma reesei using protein sequence and structure based classification enhanced ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Nitika; Kumari, Indu; Sandhu, Padmani; Ahmed, Mushtaq; Akhter, Yusuf

    2016-07-01

    Trichoderma spp. have been acknowledged as potent bio-control agents against microbial pathogens and also as plant growth promoters. Various secondary metabolites are attributed for these beneficial activities. Major facilitator superfamily (MFS) includes the large proportion of efflux-pumps which are linked with membrane transport of these secondary metabolites. We have carried out a proteome-wide identification of MFS transporters using protein sequence and structure based hierarchical method in Trichoderma reesei. 448 proteins out of 9115 were detected to carry transmembrane helices. MFS specific intragenic gene duplication and its context with transport function have been presented. Finally, using homology based techniques, domains and motifs of MFS families have been identified and utilized to classify them. From query dataset of 448 transmembrane proteins, 148 proteins are identified as potential MFS transporters. Sugar porter, drug: H(+) antiporter-1, monocarboxylate porter and anion: cation symporter emerged as major MFS families with 51, 35, 17 and 11 members respectively. Representative protein tertiary structures of these families are homology modeled for structure-function analysis. This study may help to understand the molecular basis of secretion and transport of agriculturally valuable secondary metabolites produced by these bio-control fungal agents which may be exploited in future for enhancing its biotechnological applications in eco-friendly sustainable development.

  10. Proteome scale census of major facilitator superfamily transporters in Trichoderma reesei using protein sequence and structure based classification enhanced ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Nitika; Kumari, Indu; Sandhu, Padmani; Ahmed, Mushtaq; Akhter, Yusuf

    2016-07-01

    Trichoderma spp. have been acknowledged as potent bio-control agents against microbial pathogens and also as plant growth promoters. Various secondary metabolites are attributed for these beneficial activities. Major facilitator superfamily (MFS) includes the large proportion of efflux-pumps which are linked with membrane transport of these secondary metabolites. We have carried out a proteome-wide identification of MFS transporters using protein sequence and structure based hierarchical method in Trichoderma reesei. 448 proteins out of 9115 were detected to carry transmembrane helices. MFS specific intragenic gene duplication and its context with transport function have been presented. Finally, using homology based techniques, domains and motifs of MFS families have been identified and utilized to classify them. From query dataset of 448 transmembrane proteins, 148 proteins are identified as potential MFS transporters. Sugar porter, drug: H(+) antiporter-1, monocarboxylate porter and anion: cation symporter emerged as major MFS families with 51, 35, 17 and 11 members respectively. Representative protein tertiary structures of these families are homology modeled for structure-function analysis. This study may help to understand the molecular basis of secretion and transport of agriculturally valuable secondary metabolites produced by these bio-control fungal agents which may be exploited in future for enhancing its biotechnological applications in eco-friendly sustainable development. PMID:27041239

  11. Identification of Trichoderma strains by image analysis of HPLC chromatograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Ulf; Poulsen, S.B.; Nirenberg, H.I.;

    2001-01-01

    Forty-four Trichoderma strains from water-damaged building materials or indoor dust were classified with chromatographic image analysis on full chromatographic matrices obtained by high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection of culture extracts. The classes were compared with morphol...

  12. Comparative genomics provide insights into evolution of trichoderma nutrition style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bin-Bin; Qin, Qi-Long; Shi, Mei; Chen, Lei-Lei; Shu, Yan-Li; Luo, Yan; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Rong, Jin-Cheng; Gong, Zhi-Ting; Li, Dan; Sun, Cai-Yun; Liu, Gui-Ming; Dong, Xiao-Wei; Pang, Xiu-Hua; Huang, Feng; Liu, Weifeng; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; Song, Xiao-Yan

    2014-02-01

    Saprotrophy on plant biomass is a recently developed nutrition strategy for Trichoderma. However, the physiology and evolution of this new nutrition strategy is still elusive. We report the deep sequencing and analysis of the genome of Trichoderma longibrachiatum, an efficient cellulase producer. The 31.7-Mb genome, smallest among the sequenced Trichoderma species, encodes fewer nutrition-related genes than saprotrophic T. reesei (Tr), including glycoside hydrolases and nonribosomal peptide synthetase-polyketide synthase. Homology and phylogenetic analyses suggest that a large number of nutrition-related genes, including GH18 chitinases, β-1,3/1,6-glucanases, cellulolytic enzymes, and hemicellulolytic enzymes, were lost in the common ancestor of T. longibrachiatum (Tl) and Tr. dN/dS (ω) calculation indicates that all the nutrition-related genes analyzed are under purifying selection. Cellulolytic enzymes, the key enzymes for saprotrophy on plant biomass, are under stronger purifying selection pressure in Tl and Tr than in mycoparasitic species, suggesting that development of the nutrition strategy of saprotrophy on plant biomass has increased the selection pressure. In addition, aspartic proteases, serine proteases, and metalloproteases are subject to stronger purifying selection pressure in Tl and Tr, suggesting that these enzymes may also play important roles in the nutrition. This study provides insights into the physiology and evolution of the nutrition strategy of Trichoderma.

  13. Bioprospecting endophytic bacteria for biological control of coffee leaf rust

    OpenAIRE

    Shiomi Humberto Franco; Silva Harllen Sandro Alves; Melo Itamar Soares de; Nunes Flávia Vieira; Bettiol Wagner

    2006-01-01

    Suppression of plant diseases due to the action of endophytic microorganisms has been demonstrated in several pathosystems. Experiments under controlled conditions involving endophytic bacteria isolated from leaves and branches of Coffea arabica L and Coffea robusta L were conducted with the objective of evaluating the inhibition of germination of Hemileia vastatrix Berk. & Br., race II, urediniospores and the control of coffee leaf rust development in tests with leaf discs, detached leaves, ...

  14. Symbiotic grasses: A review of basic biology of forage grass fungal endophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungal endophytes associated with grasses are the fundamental reason for the basic successes of several pasture grasses, notable tall fescues, and perennial ryegrass. Tall fescue and perennial ryegrass fungal endophytes, Neotyphodium coenophialum and N. lolii, respectively, and their relatives ...

  15. Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae endophytically colonize cassava roots following soil drench inoculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungal entomopathogens Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae were investigated to determine if endophytic colonization could be achieved in cassava. An inoculation method based on drenching the soil around cassava stems using conidial suspensions resulted in endophytic colonization of ca...

  16. Diverse and bioactive endophytic Aspergilli inhabit Cupressaceae plant family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Jalal; Moghaddam, Mahdieh S Hosseyni

    2014-09-01

    Aspergilli are filamentous, cosmopolitan and ubiquitous fungi which have significant impact on human, animal and plant welfare worldwide. Due to their extraordinary metabolic diversity, Aspergillus species are used in biotechnology for the production of a vast array of biomolecules. However, little is known about Aspergillus species that are able to adapt an endophytic lifestyle in Cupressaceae plant family and are capable of producing cytotoxic, antifungal and antibacterial metabolites. In this work, we report a possible ecological niche for pathogenic fungi such as Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. Indeed, our findings indicate that A. fumigatus, A. flavus, Aspergillus niger var. niger and A. niger var. awamori adapt an endophytic lifestyle inside the Cupressaceous plants including Cupressus arizonica, Cupressus sempervirens var. fastigiata, Cupressus semipervirens var. cereiformis, and Thuja orientalis. In addition, we found that extracts of endophytic Aspergilli showed significant growth inhibition and cytotoxicity against the model fungus Pyricularia oryzae and bacteria such as Bacillus sp., Erwinia amylovora and Pseudomonas syringae. These endophytic Aspergilli also showed in vitro antifungal effects on the cypress fungal phytopathogens including Diplodia seriata, Phaeobotryon cupressi and Spencermartinsia viticola. In conclusion, our findings clearly support the endophytic association of Aspergilli with Cupressaceae plants and their possible role in protection of host plants against biotic stresses. Observed bioactivities of such endophytic Aspergilli may represent a significant potential for bioindustry and biocontrol applications. PMID:24912659

  17. ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI FROM JATROPHA CURCUS: A PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Singh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Fungal endophytes are ubiquitously reported from the living tissues of healthy plant parts from every host studied so far. These microbes attributed significantly in upraising the caliber of the host to counteract against the different stresses and herbivores, and also some times to improve the host fitness. This study presenting here the endophytic mycoflora of Jatropha curcus, which remain less explored. A total of eighteen species of fungi were isolated from leaf, stem, and roots of Jatropha curcus. The root was heavily colonized by the genera like Alternaria, Cladosporium, and Aspergillus spp. The leaf tissues however showed somewhat greater diversity of endophytic colonization. Drechslera, Curvularia, Bipolaris, Alternaria, and Aspergillus sp. were dominant in to the leaf tissues with strong presence of an unidentified genus. The species richness as well as frequency of colonization of endophytic fungi was more pronounced in the leaf tissues rather than the root and stem. This study reaffirms the fact that endophytes are host and tissues specific. In this regard, the endophytic fungi received in this study, may represent a unique source of one or more of the interesting and useful bioactive compounds similar to those of vinca alkaloid group.

  18. Characterization of an endophytic bacterial community associated with Eucalyptus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procópio, R E L; Araújo, W L; Maccheroni, W; Azevedo, J L

    2009-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria were isolated from stems of Eucalyptus spp (Eucalyptus citriodora, E. grandis, E. urophylla, E. camaldulensis, E. torelliana, E. pellita, and a hybrid of E. grandis and E. urophylla) cultivated at two sites; they were characterized by RAPD and amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). Endophytic bacteria were more frequently isolated from E. grandis and E. pellita. The 76 isolates were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as Erwinia/Pantoea (45%), Agrobacterium sp (21%), Curtobacterium sp (9%), Brevibacillus sp (8%), Pseudomonas sp (8%), Acinetobacter sp (4%), Burkholderia cepacia (2.6%), and Lactococcus lactis (2.6%). Genetic characterization of these endophytic bacteria isolates showed at least eight ARDRA haplotypes. The genetic diversity of 32 Erwinia/Pantoea and 16 Agrobacterium sp isolates was assessed with the RAPD technique. There was a high level of genetic polymorphism among all the isolates and there was positive correlation between the clusters and the geographic origin of the strains. These endophytic bacteria were further analyzed for in vitro interaction with endophytic fungi from Eucalyptus spp. We found that metabolites secreted by Erwinia/Pantoea and B. cepacia isolates had an inhibitory growth effect on some endophytic fungi, suggesting that these metabolites play a role in bacterial-fungal interactions inside the host plant. Apparently, these bacteria could have an important role in plant development; in the future they may be useful for biological control of diseases and plant growth promotion, as well as for the production of new metabolites and enzymes. PMID:19937585

  19. Seasonal variation of bacterial endophytes in urban trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Yi eShen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial endophytes, non-pathogenic bacteria residing within plants, contribute to the growth and development of plants and their ability to adapt to adverse conditions. In order to fully exploit the capabilities of these bacteria, it is necessary to understand the extent to which endophytic communities vary between species and over time. The endophytes of Acer negundo, Ulmus pumila and Ulmus parvifolia were sampled over three seasons and analyzed using culture dependent and independent methods (culture on two media, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism, and tagged pyrosequencing of 16S ribosomal amplicons. The majority of culturable endophytes isolated were Actinobacteria, and all the samples harbored Bacillus, Curtobacterium, Frigoribacterium, Methylobacterium, Paenibacilllus and Sphingomonas species. Regardless of culture medium used, only the culturable communities obtained in the winter for A. negundo could be distinguished from those of Ulmus spp.. In contrast, the nonculturable communities were dominated by Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, particularly Erwinia, Ralstonia and Sanguibacter spp.. The presence and abundance of various bacterial classes and phyla changed with the changing seasons. Multivariate analysis on the culture independent data revealed significant community differences between the endophytic communities of A. negundo and Ulmus spp., but overall season was the main determinant of endophytic community structure. This study suggests investigations of the studies ofendophytic populations of urban trees should expect to find significant seasonal and species-specific community differences and sampling should proceed accordingly.

  20. Exploring Arabidopsis thaliana Root Endophytes via Single-Cell Genomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, Derek; Woyke, Tanja; Tringe, Susannah; Dangl, Jeff

    2014-03-19

    Land plants grow in association with microbial communities both on their surfaces and inside the plant (endophytes). The relationships between microbes and their host can vary from pathogenic to mutualistic. Colonization of the endophyte compartment occurs in the presence of a sophisticated plant immune system, implying finely tuned discrimination of pathogens from mutualists and commensals. Despite the importance of the microbiome to the plant, relatively little is known about the specific interactions between plants and microbes, especially in the case of endophytes. The vast majority of microbes have not been grown in the lab, and thus one of the few ways of studying them is by examining their DNA. Although metagenomics is a powerful tool for examining microbial communities, its application to endophyte samples is technically difficult due to the presence of large amounts of host plant DNA in the sample. One method to address these difficulties is single-cell genomics where a single microbial cell is isolated from a sample, lysed, and its genome amplified by multiple displacement amplification (MDA) to produce enough DNA for genome sequencing. This produces a single-cell amplified genome (SAG). We have applied this technology to study the endophytic microbes in Arabidopsis thaliana roots. Extensive 16S gene profiling of the microbial communities in the roots of multiple inbred A. thaliana strains has identified 164 OTUs as being significantly enriched in all the root endophyte samples compared to their presence in bulk soil.

  1. Survival trade-offs in plant roots during colonization by closely related beneficial and pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacquard, Stéphane; Kracher, Barbara; Hiruma, Kei; Münch, Philipp C; Garrido-Oter, Ruben; Thon, Michael R; Weimann, Aaron; Damm, Ulrike; Dallery, Jean-Félix; Hainaut, Matthieu; Henrissat, Bernard; Lespinet, Olivier; Sacristán, Soledad; Ver Loren van Themaat, Emiel; Kemen, Eric; McHardy, Alice C; Schulze-Lefert, Paul; O'Connell, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    The sessile nature of plants forced them to evolve mechanisms to prioritize their responses to simultaneous stresses, including colonization by microbes or nutrient starvation. Here, we compare the genomes of a beneficial root endophyte, Colletotrichum tofieldiae and its pathogenic relative C. incanum, and examine the transcriptomes of both fungi and their plant host Arabidopsis during phosphate starvation. Although the two species diverged only 8.8 million years ago and have similar gene arsenals, we identify genomic signatures indicative of an evolutionary transition from pathogenic to beneficial lifestyles, including a narrowed repertoire of secreted effector proteins, expanded families of chitin-binding and secondary metabolism-related proteins, and limited activation of pathogenicity-related genes in planta. We show that beneficial responses are prioritized in C. tofieldiae-colonized roots under phosphate-deficient conditions, whereas defense responses are activated under phosphate-sufficient conditions. These immune responses are retained in phosphate-starved roots colonized by pathogenic C. incanum, illustrating the ability of plants to maximize survival in response to conflicting stresses. PMID:27150427

  2. Survival trade-offs in plant roots during colonization by closely related beneficial and pathogenic fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacquard, Stéphane; Kracher, Barbara; Hiruma, Kei; Münch, Philipp C.; Garrido-Oter, Ruben; Thon, Michael R.; Weimann, Aaron; Damm, Ulrike; Dallery, Jean-Félix; Hainaut, Matthieu; Henrissat, Bernard; Lespinet, Olivier; Sacristán, Soledad; Ver Loren van Themaat, Emiel; Kemen, Eric; McHardy, Alice C.; Schulze-Lefert, Paul; O'Connell, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    The sessile nature of plants forced them to evolve mechanisms to prioritize their responses to simultaneous stresses, including colonization by microbes or nutrient starvation. Here, we compare the genomes of a beneficial root endophyte, Colletotrichum tofieldiae and its pathogenic relative C. incanum, and examine the transcriptomes of both fungi and their plant host Arabidopsis during phosphate starvation. Although the two species diverged only 8.8 million years ago and have similar gene arsenals, we identify genomic signatures indicative of an evolutionary transition from pathogenic to beneficial lifestyles, including a narrowed repertoire of secreted effector proteins, expanded families of chitin-binding and secondary metabolism-related proteins, and limited activation of pathogenicity-related genes in planta. We show that beneficial responses are prioritized in C. tofieldiae-colonized roots under phosphate-deficient conditions, whereas defense responses are activated under phosphate-sufficient conditions. These immune responses are retained in phosphate-starved roots colonized by pathogenic C. incanum, illustrating the ability of plants to maximize survival in response to conflicting stresses. PMID:27150427

  3. Functional genomic approach to the study of biodiversitywithin Trichoderma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Monte E; Hermosa M R; González F J; Rey M; Cardoza R E; Gutiérrez S; Delgado Jarana J; Llobell A

    2004-01-01

    @@ Trichoderma is a fungal genus of great and demonstrable biotechnological value, but its genome is poorly surveyed compared with other model microorganisms. Due to their ubiquity and rapid substrate colonization, Trichoderma species have been widely used as biocontrol organisms for agriculture, and their enzyme systems are widely used in industry. Therefore, there is a clear interest to explore beyond the phenotype to exploit the underlying genetic systems using functional genomics tools. The great diversity of species within the Trichoderma genus, the absence of optimized systems for its exploration, and the great variety of genes expressed under a wide range of ambient conditions are the main challenges to consider when starting a comprehensive functional genomics study. An initial project started by three Spanish groups has been extended into the project TRICHOEST, funded by the EU (FP5, QLRT-2001-02032) to target the transcriptome analysis of selected Trichoderma strains with biocontrol potential, in conditions related to antagonism, nutrient stress and plant interactions. Once specific conditions were defined, cDNA libraries were produced and used for EST sequencing. Nine strains from seven Trichoderma species have been considered in this study and an important amount of gene sequence data has been generated, analyzed and used to compare the gene expression in different strains.In parallel to sequencing, genomic expression studies were carried out by means of macro-arrays to identify genes expressed in specific conditions. In silico analysis of DNA sequencing data together with macro-array expression results have lead to a selection based on the potential use of the gene sequences.The selected clone sequences were completed and cloned in appropriate vectors to initiate functional analysis by means of expression studies in homologous and heterologous systems.

  4. Different growth promoting effects of endophytic bacteria on invasive and native clonal plants

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi-Cong eDai; Wei eFu; Ling-Yun eWan; Hong-Hong eCai; Ning eWang; Shanshan eQi; Daolin eDu

    2016-01-01

    The role of the interactions between endophytes and alien plants has been unclear yet in plant invasion. We used a completely germ-free culture system to quantify the plant growth-promoting (PGP) effects of endophytic bacteria Bacillus sp. on aseptic seedlings of W. trilobata and of its native clonal congener W. chinensis. The endophytic bacteria did not affect the growth of W. chinensis, but they significantly promoted the growth of W. trilobata. With the PGP effects of endophytic bacteria,...

  5. Diversity and species composition of fungal endophytes in Avenella flexuosa under different sheep grazing regimes

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Fungal endophytes have been shown to be extremely widespread and abundant in terrestrial plants. It is also known that fungal endophytes may affect the grazing intensity of the host plant. In this study the occurrence of fungal endophytes in the perennial grass Avenella flexuosa was investigated under different grazing regimes in a field site in Norway. The main aim was to reveal to what degree the grazing influenced the fungal diversity and species composition. The fungal endophytes were ana...

  6. Age-dependent Distribution of Fungal Endophytes in Panax ginseng Roots Cultivated in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Young-Hwan; Kim, Young-Chang; Park, Sang Un; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Kim, Joon Bum; Cho, Byoung-Kwan; Bae, Hanhong

    2012-01-01

    Fungal endophytes were isolated from 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old ginseng roots (Panax ginseng Meyer) cultivated in Korea. The isolated fungal endophytes were identified based on sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer and morphological characterization by microscopic observations. A total of 81 fungal endophytes were isolated from 24 ginseng roots. Fungal endophytes were classified into 9 different fungal species and 2 unknown species. Ginseng roots that were 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-yea...

  7. Phylogeny of the clinically relevant species of the emerging fungus Trichoderma and their antifungal susceptibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Denis, Marcelo; Sutton, Deanna A; Cano-Lira, José F; Gené, Josepa; Fothergill, Annette W; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Guarro, Josep

    2014-06-01

    A set of 73 isolates of the emerging fungus Trichoderma isolated from human and animal clinical specimens were characterized morphologically and molecularly using a multilocus sequence analysis that included the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the nuclear ribosomal DNA and fragments of the translation elongation factor 1 alpha (Tef1), endochitinase CHI18-5 (Chi18-5), and actin 1 (Act1) genes. The most frequent species was Trichoderma longibrachiatum (26%), followed by Trichoderma citrinoviride (18%), the Hypocrea lixii/Trichoderma harzianum species complex (15%), the newly described species Trichoderma bissettii (12%), and Trichoderma orientale (11%). The most common anatomical sites of isolation in human clinical specimens were the respiratory tract (40%), followed by deep tissue (30%) and superficial tissues (26%), while all the animal-associated isolates were obtained from superficial tissue samples. Susceptibilities of the isolates to eight antifungal drugs in vitro showed mostly high MICs, except for voriconazole and the echinocandins.

  8. Bioactivity of fungal endophytes as a function of endophyte taxonomy and the taxonomy and distribution of their host plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Higginbotham

    Full Text Available Fungal endophytes--fungi that grow within plant tissues without causing immediate signs of disease--are abundant and diverse producers of bioactive secondary metabolites. Endophytes associated with leaves of tropical plants are an especially exciting and relatively untapped source of novel compounds. However, one major challenge in drug discovery lies in developing strategies to efficiently recover highly bioactive strains. As part of a 15-year drug discovery project, foliar endophytes were isolated from 3198 plant samples (51 orders, 105 families and at least 232 genera of angiosperms and ferns collected in nine geographically distinct regions of Panama. Extracts from culture supernatants of >2700 isolates were tested for bioactivity (in vitro percent inhibition of growth, % IG against a human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7 and the causative agents of malaria, leishmaniasis, and Chagas' disease. Overall, 32.7% of endophyte isolates were highly active in at least one bioassay, including representatives of diverse fungal lineages, host lineages, and collection sites. Up to 17% of isolates tested per assay were highly active. Most bioactive strains were active in only one assay. Fungal lineages differed in the incidence and degree of bioactivity, as did fungi from particular plant taxa, and greater bioactivity was observed in endophytes isolated from plants in cloud forests vs. lowland forests. Our results suggest that using host taxonomy and forest type to tailor plant collections, and selecting endophytes from specific orders or families for cultivation, will markedly increase the efficiency and efficacy of discovering bioactive metabolites for particular pharmaceutical targets.

  9. Increased milk production by Holstein cows consuming endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected grasses inhibit prolactin (PRL) secretion and may reduce milk production of cows consuming endophyte-infected grasses. We hypothesized that consumption of endophyte-infected fescue during the dry period inhibits mammary differentiation and subsequent milk produ...

  10. Isolation and identification of fungal endophytes from grasses on the Oregon coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungal endophytes have been shown to improve abiotic and biotic stress response in plants. Grasses growing along the Oregon coast are exposed to harsh conditions and may harbor endophytes that enable them to survive and grow under these conditions. Endophytic fungi were isolated from thirty-four gra...

  11. Leaf endophyte load and fungal garden development in leaf-cutting ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous work has shown that leaf-cutting ants prefer to cut leaf material that is relatively low in fungal endophyte content. Such a preference suggests that fungal endophytes exact a cost on the ants or on the development of their colonies. We hypothesized that endophytes may play a role in thei...

  12. Properties of bacterial endophytes and their proposed role in plant growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardoim, Pablo R.; van Overbeek, Leo S.; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial endophytes live inside plants for at least part of their life cycle. Studies of the interaction of endophytes with their host plants and their function within their hosts are important to address the ecological relevance of endophytes. The modulation of ethylene levels in plants by bacteri

  13. Construction of engineering Trichoderma strains and their characteristics against tomato gray mold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xian; ZHUANG Jing-hua; GAO Zeng-gui; YANG Chang-cheng; CHEN Jie

    2004-01-01

    @@ The transformed Trichoderma strains Ttrm31, Ttrm34 and Ttrm55 were obtained from Trichoderma wild strain T21 mutated by REMI technique for more effective biocontrol of tomato gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) with Trichoderma agent. Those transformants appeared much better in biocontrol activity in vitro or in vivo against tomato gray mold were better than that of wild strain T21. The main results were as follow:

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF SOIL TRICHODERMA ISOLATES FOR POTENTIAL BIOCONTROL OF PLANT PATHOGENS

    OpenAIRE

    S. Matei; Gabi-Mirela Matei; Petruta Cornea; Gabriela Popa

    2011-01-01

    Various fungal strains belonging to genus Trichoderma act as biological control agents for soil born plant pathogens. Two new strains of Trichoderma harzianum (T.h.) and Trichoderma viride (T.v.) were isolated from forest soils in Ilfov county and their morphological aspects, enzymatic and antagonistic activity were examined. Current chemical fungicides had constantly, in time, less influence on pathogens due to their diversity, adaptability and increasing resistance.The paper present the mor...

  15. Isolation and expression of two polyketide synthase genes from Trichoderma harzianum 88 during mycoparasitism

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Yao; Chong Tan; Jinzhu Song; Qian Yang; Lijie Yu; Xinling Li

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Metabolites of mycoparasitic fungal species such as Trichoderma harzianum 88 have important biological roles. In this study, two new ketoacyl synthase (KS) fragments were isolated from cultured Trichoderma harzianum 88 mycelia using degenerate primers and analysed using a phylogenetic tree. The gene fragments were determined to be present as single copies in Trichoderma harzianum 88 through southern blot analysis using digoxigenin-labelled KS gene fragments as probes. The complete se...

  16. PERBAIKAN PERTUMBUHAN DAN HASIL STEVIA (Stevia rebaudiana BERTONI M MELALUI APLIKASI Trichoderma sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryuni -

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakTujuan penelitian ini adalah menguji perbaikan pertumbuhan dan hasil stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni M melalui penggunaan  Trichoderma sp.  Perbanyakan  Trichoderma sp. dilakukan di laboratorium Balai Proteksi Perkebunan di Salatiga Jawa Tengah. Penelitian dirancang menggunakan rancangan factorial dengan dua faktor. Faktor pertama adalah inokulasi Trichoderma sp (To = tanpa  Trichoderma sp. & T1 = menggunakan Trichoderma sp. 100 g.  Faktor kedua adalah variasi aplikasi perlakuan yaitu: 1. S0 =  tanpa perlakuan, 2. S1 = 10 hari sebelum tanam, 3. S3 = tanama dan  4. S3 = 10  hari setelah tanam. Tiap perlakuan diulang tiga ulangan, tiap ulangan terdiri dari 16 tanaman. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan  bahwa inokulasi Trichoderma sp. dan aplikasi perlakuan  S3 = 10 hari setelah tanam dapat meningkatkan pertumbuhan dan hasil dari  tanaman tevia. AbstractThe object of this research was examine to repair of growth and yield of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni M by Trichoderma sp. application.  Reproduction of Trichoderma sp. performed in the laboratory center of Protection plantation Central of Java at Salatiga.The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized completely factorial design, consisted of two factors. The first factor was Trichoderma sp inoculation which were To = without Trichoderma sp. and T1 = Trichoderma sp. 100 g. The second factor was variation  of plant application treatment, which were 1. S0 = without treatment, 2. S1 = 10 days before of planting , 3. S3 = planting  and 4. S3 = 10 days after planting. Each treatment was repeated three times and each replicate consisted of 16 plants. The result showed that that the inoculation of Trichoderma sp.  and application of treatmen 4 is S3= 10 days after planting increases plant growth and yields of stevia.

  17. Isolated sinusitis sphenoidalis caused by Trichoderma longibrachiatum in an immunocompetent patient with headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár-Gábor, Etelka; Dóczi, Ilona; Hatvani, Lóránt; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Kredics, László

    2013-08-01

    We present a case of isolated sinusitis sphenoidalis caused by Trichoderma longibrachiatum, an emerging causal agent of fungal infections with an often fatal outcome. A Trichoderma strain was isolated from secretion obtained from the sinus sphenoidalis of a rhinosinusitis patient and identified by sequence analysis of two loci as Trichoderma longibrachiatum from the Longibrachiatum Clade of the genus Trichoderma. T. longibrachiatum can trigger a fatal pathomechanism in immunodeficient patients, but only rarely causes disease in healthy people. The case presented is unique because the patient was not immunocompromised.

  18. Endophytic fungi: a reservoir of antibacterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Sunil K; Verekar, Shilpa A; Bhave, Sarita V

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug drug resistant bacteria are becoming increasingly problematic particularly in the under developed countries of the world. The most important microorganisms that have seen a geometric rise in numbers are Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium, Penicillin resistant Streptococcus pneumonia and multiple drug resistant tubercule bacteria to name a just few. New drug scaffolds are essential to tackle this every increasing problem. These scaffolds can be sourced from nature itself. Endophytic fungi are an important reservoir of therapeutically active compounds. This review attempts to present some data relevant to the problem. New, very specific and effective antibiotics are needed but also at an affordable price! A Herculean task for researchers all over the world! In the Asian subcontinent indigenous therapeutics that has been practiced over the centuries such as Ayurveda have been effective as "handed down data" in family generations. May need a second, third and more "in-depth investigations?" PMID:25620957

  19. Endophytic Fungi: A Reservoir of Antibacterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Deshmukh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug drug resistant bacteria are becoming increasingly problematic particularly in the undeveloped countries of the world. The most important microorganisms that have seen a geometric rise in are Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium, Penicillin resistant Streptococcus pneumonia and multiple drug resistant tubercule bacteria to name a just few. New drug scaffolds are essential to tackle this every increasing problem. These scaffolds can be sourced from nature itself. Endophytic fungi are an important reservoir of therapeutically active compounds. This review attempts to present some data relavent to the problem. New, very specific and effective antibiotics are needed but also at the affordable price!!!. Herculean task for researcher all over the world. In the Asian subcontinent indigenous therapeutics that has been practiced over the centuries such as Ayurveda that has been effective as ‘handed down data’ in family generations. May need a second, third and more in-depth investigations?

  20. Potential Endophytic Bacteria for Increasing Paddy Var Rojolele Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desriani Desriani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Paddy var Rojoleleis asuperior paddy come from Klaten that released by Department of Agriculture in 2003. Its superior properties are resistant to pests leaf hoppers, fluffier, and fragrant. To increase the productivity of paddy that are of ten used by farmers is to use chemical-based fertilizers. The use of these chemicals will effect to adisruption of ecosystem balancing, reduction the amount of soil microflora which essential forplants. Endophytic bacteria are symbiotic microorganisms living within plant tissues, and does not cause negative effects on the host plant. Endophytic bacteria have a capability increasing crop productivity by producing growth hormone, contributes to plant health, and as bio-control agents. Some endophytic bacteria which contribute to plant growth are: Pseudomonas sp., Enterobacter sp., Staphylococcus sp., Azotobacter sp., And Azospirilum sp., Whereas endophytic bacteria that contribute to the health and plant protection several of them are: Pseudomonas sp., Serratia sp. ,Clavibacter sp., and Bacillus sp. This study was conducted to investigate potential of endophytic bacteria to increase Paddy var Rojolele productivity based on its ability to produce extracellular enzymes and resistance to multiple types of antibiotics. The method were endophytic bacteria isolation from three Paddy varRojolele plants, extracellular enzymes detection and antibiotic resistance testing to chloramfinekol, ampicillin and kanamycin. As the result, 43isolateswere isolated from Paddy var Rojolele. Four isolatesamong them havethe ability to produce extra cellular enzym esandresistant toampicillin, kanamycin, and chloramfinekol. Extra cellular enzyme production capability and resistance to antibiotics makes endophytic bacteria are potentialto improveplant health and also asbio-control agentwhich then willaffect to the productivity of rice. To further ensure its potential to plant, more research is needed.

  1. Isolation of endophytic fungi from Coscinium fenestratum- a red listed endangered medicinal plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhosh Wilson Goveas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Enumeration of the endophytic fungi from the red listed, critically endangered medicinal plant, Coscinium fenestratum was investigated for the first time. The ubiquitous presence of 41 endophytic fungi belonging to sixteen different taxa was identified from 195 samples of healthy leaves and stem using traditional morphological methods. The overall colonization rate of endophytes in both the leaf and the stem was found to be 21.02%.The stem showed low percentage frequency of colonization of the endophytic fungi when compared to leaf segments. Among the endophytic flora, Phomopsis jacquiniana was found to be the core-group fungus with a colonization frequency of 4.6%.

  2. Formulation of Trichoderma sp. SL2 inoculants using different carriers for soil treatment in rice seedling growth

    OpenAIRE

    Doni, Febri; Isahak, Anizan; Che Mohd Zain, Che Radziah; Mohd Ariffin, Salwati; Wan Mohamad, Wan Nur’ashiqin; Wan Yusoff, Wan Mohtar

    2014-01-01

    Background Trichoderma sp. SL2 has been previously reported to enhance rice germination, vigour, growth and physiological characteristics. The use of Potato Dextrose Agar as carrier of Trichoderma sp. SL2 inoculant is not practical for field application due to its short shelf life and high cost. This study focuses on the use of corn and sugarcane bagasse as potential carriers for Trichoderma sp. SL2 inoculants. Findings A completely randomized design was applied for this study. Trichoderma sp...

  3. DNA barcoding survey of Trichoderma diversity in soil and litter of the Colombian lowland Amazonian rainforest reveals Trichoderma strigosellum sp. nov. and other species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Quintero, Carlos A; Atanasova, Lea; Franco-Molano, A Esperanza; Gams, Walter; Komon-Zelazowska, Monika; Theelen, Bart; Müller, Wally H; Boekhout, Teun; Druzhinina, Irina

    2013-11-01

    The diversity of Trichoderma (Hypocreales, Ascomycota) colonizing leaf litter as well as the rhizosphere of Garcinia macrophylla (Clusiaceae) was investigated in primary and secondary rain forests in Colombian Amazonia. DNA barcoding of 107 strains based on the internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 (ITS1 and 2) of the ribosomal RNA gene cluster and the partial sequence of the translation elongation factor 1 alpha (tef1) gene revealed that the diversity of Trichoderma was dominated (71 %) by three common cosmopolitan species, namely Trichoderma harzianum sensu lato (41 %), Trichoderma spirale (17 %) and Trichoderma koningiopsis (13 %). Four ITS 1 and 2 phylotypes (13 strains) could not be identified with certainty. Multigene phylogenetic analysis and phenotype profiling of four strains with an ITS1 and 2 phylotype similar to Trichoderma strigosum revealed a new sister species of the latter that is described here as Trichoderma strigosellum sp. nov. Sequence similarity searches revealed that this species also occurs in soils of Malaysia and Cameroon, suggesting a pantropical distribution.

  4. Fungal genus Hypocrea/Trichoderma: from barcodes to biodiversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christian P. KUBICEK; Monika KOMON-ZELAZOWSKA; Irina S. DRUZHININA

    2008-01-01

    Hypocrea/Trichoderma is a genus of soil-borne or wood-decaying fungi containing members important to mankind as producers of industrial enzymes and biocontrol agents against plant pathogens, but also as opportunistic pathogens of immuno-compromised humans and animals, while others can cause damage to cultivated mushroom. With the recent advent of a reliable, BarCode-aided identification system for all known taxa of Trichoderma and Hypocrea, it became now possible to study some of the biological fundamentals of the diversity in this fungal genus in more detail. In this article, we will therefore review recent progress in (1) the understanding of the geographic distribution of individual taxa; (2) mechanisms of speciation leading to development of mushroom diseases and facultative human mycoses; and (3) the possible correlation of specific traits of secondary metabolism and molecular phylogeny.

  5. Antimicrobial activities of endophytic fungi isolated from Ophiopogon japonicus (Liliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Hanqiao

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug resistance in bacteria has become a global concern and the search for new antibacterial agents is urgent and ongoing. Endophytes provide an abundant reservoir of bioactive metabolites for medicinal exploitation, and an increasing number of novel compounds are being isolated from endophytic fungi. Ophiopogon japonicus, containing compounds with antibacterial activity, is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant used for eliminating phlegm, relieving coughs, latent heat in the lungs, and alleviating diabetes mellitus. We investigated the antimicrobial activities of 30 strains of O. japonicus. Methods Fungal endophytes were isolated from roots and stems of O. japonicus collected from Chongqing City, southwestern China. Mycelial extracts (MC and fermentation broth (FB were tested for antimicrobial activity using peptide deformylase (PDF inhibition fluorescence assays and MTT cell proliferation assays. Results A total of 30 endophytic strains were isolated from O. japonicus; 22 from roots and eight from stems. 53.33% of the mycelial extracts (MC and 33.33% of the fermentation broths (FB displayed potent inhibition of PDF. 80% of MC and 33.33% of FB significantly inhibited Staphylococcus aureus. 70% of MC and 36.67% of FB showed strong activities against Cryptococcus neoformans. None showed influence on Escherichia coli. Conclusion The secondary metabolites of endophytic fungi from O. japonicus are potential antimicrobial agents.

  6. 40 CFR 180.1293 - Trichoderma gamsii strain ICC 080; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trichoderma gamsii strain ICC 080... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1293 Trichoderma gamsii strain ICC 080; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Trichoderma gamsii strain ICC 080 is exempted from the requirement...

  7. 40 CFR 180.1294 - Trichoderma asperellum strain ICC 012; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trichoderma asperellum strain ICC 012... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1294 Trichoderma asperellum strain ICC 012; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Trichoderma asperellum strain ICC 012 is exempted from...

  8. 40 CFR 180.1201 - Trichoderma harzianum strain T-39; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trichoderma harzianum strain T-39... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1201 Trichoderma harzianum strain T-39; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Trichoderma harzianum strain T-39 is exempt from the requirement of...

  9. Endophytic fungi in Scots pine needles: Spatial variation and consequences of simulated acid rain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helander, M.L.; Neuvonen, S. (Turku Univ., Turku (F)); Sieber, T.N.; Petrini, O. (Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland))

    1994-01-01

    Within- and among-tree variation in assemblages of endophytic fungi in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) needles were studied in a subarctic area where background pollution values are low; the effects of tree density and prolonged simulated acid rain on the occurrence of endophytic fungi were investigated. The needle endophyte most frequently isolated was Cenangium ferruginosum, accounting for 64% of all fungal individuals, followed by Cyclaneusma minus (12% of all individuals). Old needles were colonized more frequently by endophytes than young ones. In young needles the colonization by endophytes increased during the summer, whereas in old ones no seasonal variation was detected. Endophyte colonization was positively correlated with stand density and was reduced on pines treated with spring water acidified with either sulphuric acid alone or in combination with nitric acid. In contrast, nitric acid alone did not affect endophyte colonization. 37 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. In Vitro Antifungal Activity of Strains of Trichoderma harzianum

    OpenAIRE

    KÜÇÜK, Çiğdem; Merih KIVANÇ

    2004-01-01

    Interactions between Trichoderma harzianum strains and some soilborne plant pathogens (Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, Fusarium culmorum and F. moniliforme) were studied on PDA medium. All T. harzianum strains tested produced a metabolite that inhibited growth of plant pathogenic fungi on PDA medium. When grown in liquid cultures containing laminarin, chitin or fungal cell walls as sole carbon sources, 2 strains of T. harzianum produced 1,3-b-glucanase and chitinase in the medium. Highe...

  11. Control of lettuce bottom rot by isolates of Trichoderma spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zayame Vegette Pinto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bottom rot, caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG 1-IB, is an important disease affecting lettuce in Brazil, where its biological control with Trichoderma was not developed yet. The present study was carried out with the aim of selecting Trichoderma isolates to be used in the control of lettuce bottom rot. Forty-six Trichoderma isolates, obtained with baits containing mycelia of the pathogen, were evaluated in experiments carried out in vitro and in vivo in a greenhouse in two steps. In the laboratory, the isolates were evaluated for their capabilities of parasitizing and producing toxic metabolic substances that could inhibit the pathogen mycelial growth. In the first step of the in vivo experiments, the number and the dry weight of lettuce seedlings of the cultivar White Boston were evaluated. In the second step, 12 isolates that were efficient in the first step and showed rapid growth and abundant sporulation in the laboratory were tested for their capability of controlling bottom rot in two repeated experiments, and had their species identified. The majority of the isolates of Trichoderma spp. (76% showed high capacity for parasitism and 50% of them produced toxic metabolites capable of inhibiting 60-100% of R. solani AG1-IB mycelial growth. Twenty-four isolates increased the number and 23 isolates increased the dry weight of lettuce seedlings inoculated with the pathogen in the first step of the in vivo experiments.In both experiments of the second step, two isolates of T. virens, IBLF 04 and IBLF 50, reduced the severity of bottom rot and increased the number and the dry weight of lettuce seedlings inoculated with R. solani AG1-IB. These isolates had shown a high capacity for parasitism and production of toxic metabolic substances, indicating that the in vitro and in vivo steps employed in the present study were efficient in selecting antagonists to be used for the control of lettuce bottom rot.

  12. In vitro sensitivity of antagonistic Trichoderma atroviride to herbicides

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Helena Santoro; Silvia Akimi Cavaguchi; Talita Moretto Alexandre; Janaina Zorzetti; Pedro Manuel Oliveira Janeiro Neves

    2014-01-01

    Trichoderma atroviride was tested in vitro for its sensitivity to different herbicides. The dosages tested were recommended dosage (RD), half dosage (½RD), and double dosage (2RD). Germination, colony-forming units (CFU), radial growth, and spore production were evaluated. Carfentrazone-ethyl and sulfentrazone inhibited the germination at RD and 2RD. A reduction in the CFU was observed for glufosinate-ammonium, atrazine, carfentrazone-ethyl, diuron + paraquat dichloride, imazapyr, oxyfluorfen...

  13. Can Tomato Inoculation with Trichoderma Compensate Yield and Soil Health Deficiency due to Soil Salinity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Karl; Apostolakis, Antonios; Daliakopoulos, Ioannis; Tsanis, Ioannis

    2016-04-01

    Soil salinity is a major soil degradation threat, especially for arid coastal environments where it hinders agricultural production and soil health. Protected horticultural crops in the Mediterranean region, typically under deficit irrigation and intensive cultivation practices, have to cope with increasing irrigation water and soil salinization. This study quantifies the beneficial effects of the Trichoderma harzianum (TH) on the sustainable production of Solanum lycopersicum (tomato), a major greenhouse crop of the RECARE project Case Study in Greece, the semi-arid coastal Timpaki basin in south-central Crete. 20 vigorous 20-day-old Solanum lycopersicum L. cv Elpida seedlings are treated with TH fungi (T) or without (N) and transplanted into 35 L pots under greenhouse conditions. Use of local planting soil with initial Electrical Conductivity (ECe) 1.8 dS m-1 and local cultivation practices aim to simulate the prevailing conditions at the Case Study. In order to simulate seawater intrusion affected irrigation, plants are drip irrigated with two NaCl treatments: slightly (S) saline (ECw = 1.1 dS m-1) and moderately (M) saline water (ECw = 3.5 dS m-1), resulting to very high and excessively high ECe, respectively. Preliminary analysis of below and aboveground biomass, soil quality, salinity, and biodiversity indicators, suggest that TH pre-inoculation of tomato plants at both S and M treatments improve yield, soil biodiversity and overall soil health.

  14. Can Tomato Inoculation with Trichoderma Compensate Yield and Soil Health Deficiency due to Soil Salinity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Karl; Apostolakis, Antonios; Daliakopoulos, Ioannis; Tsanis, Ioannis

    2016-04-01

    Soil salinity is a major soil degradation threat, especially for arid coastal environments where it hinders agricultural production and soil health. Protected horticultural crops in the Mediterranean region, typically under deficit irrigation and intensive cultivation practices, have to cope with increasing irrigation water and soil salinization. This study quantifies the beneficial effects of the Trichoderma harzianum (TH) on the sustainable production of Solanum lycopersicum (tomato), a major greenhouse crop of the RECARE project Case Study in Greece, the semi-arid coastal Timpaki basin in south-central Crete. 20 vigorous 20-day-old Solanum lycopersicum L. cv Elpida seedlings are treated with TH fungi (T) or without (N) and transplanted into 35 L pots under greenhouse conditions. Use of local planting soil with initial Electrical Conductivity (ECe) 1.8 dS m‑1 and local cultivation practices aim to simulate the prevailing conditions at the Case Study. In order to simulate seawater intrusion affected irrigation, plants are drip irrigated with two NaCl treatments: slightly (S) saline (ECw = 1.1 dS m‑1) and moderately (M) saline water (ECw = 3.5 dS m‑1), resulting to very high and excessively high ECe, respectively. Preliminary analysis of below and aboveground biomass, soil quality, salinity, and biodiversity indicators, suggest that TH pre-inoculation of tomato plants at both S and M treatments improve yield, soil biodiversity and overall soil health.

  15. Potential of Endophytic Bacterium Paenibacillus sp. PHE-3 Isolated from Plantago asiatica L. for Reduction of PAH Contamination in Plant Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuezhu; Jin, Li; Sun, Kai; Li, Shuang; Ling, Wanting; Li, Xuelin

    2016-01-01

    Endophytes are ubiquitous in plants, and they may have a natural capacity to biodegrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In our study, a phenanthrene-degrading endophytic Paenibacillus sp. PHE-3 was isolated from P. asiatica L. grown in a PAH-contaminated site. The effects of environmental variables on phenanthrene biodegradation by strain PHE-3 were studied, and the ability of strain PHE-3 to use high molecular weight PAH (HMW-PAH) as a sole carbon source was also evaluated. Our results indicated that pH value of 4.0–8.0, temperature of 30 °C–42 °C, initial phenanthrene concentration less than 100 mg·L−1, and some additional nutrients are favorable for the biodegradation of phenanthrene by strain PHE-3. The maximum biodegradation efficiency of phenanthrene was achieved at 99.9% after 84 h cultivation with additional glutamate. Moreover, the phenanthrene biodegradation by strain PHE-3 was positively correlated with the catechol 2,3-dioxygenase activity (ρ = 0.981, p < 0.05), suggesting that strain PHE-3 had the capability of degrading HMW-PAHs. In the presence of other 2-, 3-ringed PAHs, strain PHE-3 effectively degraded HMW-PAHs through co-metabolism. The results of this study are beneficial in that the re-colonization potential and PAH degradation performance of endophytic Paenibacillus sp. PHE-3 may be applied towards reducing PAH contamination in plants. PMID:27347988

  16. Potential of Endophytic Bacterium Paenibacillus sp. PHE-3 Isolated from Plantago asiatica L. for Reduction of PAH Contamination in Plant Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuezhu; Jin, Li; Sun, Kai; Li, Shuang; Ling, Wanting; Li, Xuelin

    2016-01-01

    Endophytes are ubiquitous in plants, and they may have a natural capacity to biodegrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In our study, a phenanthrene-degrading endophytic Paenibacillus sp. PHE-3 was isolated from P. asiatica L. grown in a PAH-contaminated site. The effects of environmental variables on phenanthrene biodegradation by strain PHE-3 were studied, and the ability of strain PHE-3 to use high molecular weight PAH (HMW-PAH) as a sole carbon source was also evaluated. Our results indicated that pH value of 4.0-8.0, temperature of 30 °C-42 °C, initial phenanthrene concentration less than 100 mg·L(-1), and some additional nutrients are favorable for the biodegradation of phenanthrene by strain PHE-3. The maximum biodegradation efficiency of phenanthrene was achieved at 99.9% after 84 h cultivation with additional glutamate. Moreover, the phenanthrene biodegradation by strain PHE-3 was positively correlated with the catechol 2,3-dioxygenase activity (ρ = 0.981, p < 0.05), suggesting that strain PHE-3 had the capability of degrading HMW-PAHs. In the presence of other 2-, 3-ringed PAHs, strain PHE-3 effectively degraded HMW-PAHs through co-metabolism. The results of this study are beneficial in that the re-colonization potential and PAH degradation performance of endophytic Paenibacillus sp. PHE-3 may be applied towards reducing PAH contamination in plants. PMID:27347988

  17. ANTAGONISMO IN VITRO DE Trichoderma spp. A Verticillium dahliae KLEB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTINS-CORDER M.P.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho visou testar e selecionar isolados selvagens de Trichoderma spp. quanto à capacidade antagônica ao fungo fitopatogênico Verticillium dahliae. Os ensaios in vitro consistiram de testes para avaliar a capacidade hiperparasítica e de antibiose através da produção de metabólitos voláteis e não voláteis. Pela técnica de culturas pareadas, 47 isolados de diversas espécies de Trichoderma foram avaliados e, pelos resultados obtidos, 20 foram selecionados. Através do teste de antibiose, selecionaram-se 7 isolados: T15P e Tal-1 (T. viride, TW6 e CNP311A (T. koningii, CNP17 e TCII (T. harzianum e Tal-10 (T. aureoviride os quais inibiram completamente o crescimento micelial de V. dahliae através da produção de metabólitos. Observações microscópicas demonstraram interações de hifas entre Trichoderma sp. e V. dahliae, tais como: enrolamento, crescimento paralelo de ambos, formação de ganchos.

  18. Identification of novel Trichoderma hamatum genes expressed during mycoparasitism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Margaret Carpenter; Alison Stewart; Hayley Ridgway

    2004-01-01

    @@ Trichoderma species are currently used as biocontrol agents for crop diseases caused by a number of fungal plant pathogens. However, their biocontrol performance in the field can be unreliable and it is likely that more consistent performance could be achieved through knowledge and manipulation of the genes involved. For example, induction of the genes could be optimised for variable environmental and physiological conditions, superior strains could be selected more effectively and novel strains could be created. One method by which Trichoderma species accomplish biocontrol is mycoparasitism. Several genes involved in the mycoparasitic interaction have previously been characterised, however these consist predominantly of those that encode enzymes that degrade fungal cell walls. In the current study subtractive hybridisation was used to target genes expressed when Trichoderma hamatum and the plant pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum were cultured together, subtracting genes expressed when each are grown individually. This experimental design has the potential to yield T.hamatum genes involved in mycoparasitism of S. sclerotiorum, and S. sclerotiorum genes upregulated in host defence. The cDNA fragments yielded by the subtraction were characterised with respect to expression, sequence and species of origin. A number of novel T. hamatum genes which were up-regulated during mycoparasitism were identified.

  19. Ecological plasticity of Trichoderma fungi in leached chernozem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svistova, I. D.; Senchakova, T. Yu.

    2010-03-01

    The autecological properties of Trichoderma fungi ecotypes isolated from the leached chernozem of the forest-steppe zone of the European part of Russia have been studied. We were the first who carried out the complex study of the synecological relations of micromycetes of such kinds in a system including the soil, microbial community, and plants, i.e., their relations with soil saprotrophic fungi, bacteria, actinomycetes, plants, and pathogenic fungi. It was shown that the ecological plasticity of the Trichoderma genus in the soil of this zone is determined by its growth rate, the optimum pH and temperature, the biosynthesis of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes, the biological action of mycotoxins, and the ability for parasitism. The efficiency of the introduction of Trichoderma species typical and atypical for the leached chernozem into this soil and their influence on the structure of the microbial community were evaluated. The T. pseudokoningii ecotype, which produces cellulolytic enzymes, is very promising for industrial biotechnology, and the T. harzianum ecotype can be used in soil biotechnology for the biocontrol of chernozem. The addition of a commercial trichodermin preparation into the chernozem damages the structure of its microbial community.

  20. Quorum quenching activity in cell-free lysate of endophytic bacteria isolated from Pterocarpus santalinus Linn., and its effect on quorum sensing regulated biofilm in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, P S; Ravishankar Rai, V

    2014-01-01

    Quorum sensing mechanism allows the microorganisms to resist the antibiotic treatment by forming biofilms. Quorum quenching is one of the mechanisms to control the development of drug resistance in microbes. Endophyte bacteria are beneficial to plant growth as they support the immune system against the pathogen attack. The endophytic bacteria present in Pterocarpus santalinus were screened for the presence of N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) degrading bacteria using biosensor strains and further confirmed by quantifying the violacein production. Cell-free lysate of endophytic bacteria, Bacillus firmus PT18 and Enterobacter asburiae PT39 exhibited potent AHL degrading ability by inhibiting about 80% violacein production in biosensor strain. Furthermore, when the cell-free lysate was applied to Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and PAO1-JP2 biofilm it resulted in significant (p<0.01) inhibition of biofilm formation. The biofilm inhibition was confirmed by visualization of biofilm slides under fluorescence microscopy, which showed decrease in total biomass formation in treated slides. Isolation and amplification of the gene (aiiA) indicated that the presence of AHL lactonase in cell-free lysate and sequence alignment indicated that AiiA contains a "HXHXDH" zinc-binding motif that is being conserved in several groups of metallohydrolases. Therefore, the study shows the potential of AHLs degradation by AHL lactonase present in cell-free lysate of isolated endophytic bacteria and inhibition of quorum sensing regulated biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa PAO1. PMID:24268182

  1. Endophytic bacteria from Piper tuberculatum Jacq.: isolation, molecular characterization, and in vitro screening for the control of Fusarium solani f. sp piperis, the causal agent of root rot disease in black pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, S B; Lima, A M; Borges, B N; de Souza, C R B

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria have been found to colonize internal tissues in many different plants, where they can have several beneficial effects, including defense against pathogens. In this study, we aimed to identify endophytic bacteria associated with roots of the tropical piperaceae Piper tuberculatum, which is known for its resistance to infection by Fusarium solani f. sp piperis, the causal agent of black pepper (Piper nigrum) root rot disease in the Amazon region. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, we isolated endophytes belonging to 13 genera: Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Rhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Agrobacterium, Ralstonia, Serratia, Cupriavidus, Mitsuaria, Pantoea, and Staphylococcus. The results showed that 56.52% of isolates were associated with the phylum Proteobacteria, which comprised α, β, and γ classes. Other bacteria were related to the phylum Firmicutes, including Bacillus, which was the most abundant genus among all isolates. Antagonistic assays revealed that Pt12 and Pt13 isolates, identified as Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas sp, respectively, were able to inhibit F. solani f. sp piperis growth in vitro. We describe, for the first time, the molecular identification of 23 endophytic bacteria from P. tuberculatum, among which two Pseudomonas species have the potential to control the pathogen responsible for root rot disease in black pepper in the Amazon region. PMID:26214435

  2. Endophytic bacteria from Piper tuberculatum Jacq.: isolation, molecular characterization, and in vitro screening for the control of Fusarium solani f. sp piperis, the causal agent of root rot disease in black pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, S B; Lima, A M; Borges, B N; de Souza, C R B

    2015-07-06

    Endophytic bacteria have been found to colonize internal tissues in many different plants, where they can have several beneficial effects, including defense against pathogens. In this study, we aimed to identify endophytic bacteria associated with roots of the tropical piperaceae Piper tuberculatum, which is known for its resistance to infection by Fusarium solani f. sp piperis, the causal agent of black pepper (Piper nigrum) root rot disease in the Amazon region. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, we isolated endophytes belonging to 13 genera: Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Rhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Agrobacterium, Ralstonia, Serratia, Cupriavidus, Mitsuaria, Pantoea, and Staphylococcus. The results showed that 56.52% of isolates were associated with the phylum Proteobacteria, which comprised α, β, and γ classes. Other bacteria were related to the phylum Firmicutes, including Bacillus, which was the most abundant genus among all isolates. Antagonistic assays revealed that Pt12 and Pt13 isolates, identified as Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas sp, respectively, were able to inhibit F. solani f. sp piperis growth in vitro. We describe, for the first time, the molecular identification of 23 endophytic bacteria from P. tuberculatum, among which two Pseudomonas species have the potential to control the pathogen responsible for root rot disease in black pepper in the Amazon region.

  3. Complete genome sequence of Kibdelosporangium phytohabitans KLBMP 1111(T), a plant growth promoting endophytic actinomycete isolated from oil-seed plant Jatropha curcas L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Sheng; Feng, Wei-Wei; Xing, Ke; Bai, Juan-Luan; Yuan, Bo; Liu, Wei-Jie; Jiang, Ji-Hong

    2015-12-20

    Kibdelosporangium phytohabitans KLBMP 1111(T) is a plant growth promoting endophytic actinomycete isolated from the oil-seed plant Jatropha curcas L. collected from dry-hot valley, in Sichuan, China. The complete genome sequence of this actinomycete consists of one chromosome (11,759,770bp) with no plasmid. From the genome, we identified gene clusters responsible for polyketide and nonribosomal peptide synthesis of natural products, and genes related to the plant growth promoting, such as zeatin, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (ACCD) and siderophore. The complete genome information may be useful to understand the beneficial interactions between K. phytohabitans KLBMP 1111(T) and host plants. PMID:26516119

  4. Environmental stress and elicitors enhance taxol production by endophytic strains of Paraconiothyrium variabile and Epicoccum nigrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somjaipeng, Supunnika; Medina, Angel; Magan, Naresh

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the effect of different elicitors (seven, different concentrations) and environmental factors (water activity (aw), pH) on taxol production by strains of two endophytic fungi, Paraconiothyrium variabile and Epicoccum nigrum, isolated from temperate yew trees. A defined liquid broth medium was modified with elicitors, solute aw depressors at different pH values. For P. variabile, the best elicitor was salicylic acid at 50mg/l which gave a taxol yield of 14.7±4.8μg/l. The study of synergistic effects between elicitor, aw and pH on taxol production showed that the highest yield of taxol (68.9±11.9μg/l) was produced under modified ionic stress of 0.98aw (KCl) at pH 5 when supplemented with 20mg/l of salicylic acid. For E. nigrum, serine was the best elicitor which increased yield significantly (29.6 fold) when KCL was used as the aw depressor (0.98aw) at pH 5.0 with 30mg/l of serine. The maximum taxol yield produced by E. nigrum was 57.1±11.8μg/l. Surface response models were used to build contour maps to determine the conditions for maximum and marginal conditions for taxol yield in relation to the best elicitor and aw, and the best pH for the first time. This will be beneficial for identifying key parameters for improvement of taxol yields by endophytic fungi. PMID:27241294

  5. Role of gliotoxin in the symbiotic and pathogenic interactions of Trichoderma virens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Walter A; Mukherjee, Prasun K; Laughlin, David; Wiest, Aric; Moran-Diez, Maria E; Kenerley, Charles M

    2014-10-01

    Using a gene disruption strategy, we generated mutants in the gliP locus of the plant-beneficial fungus Trichoderma virens that were no longer capable of producing gliotoxin. Phenotypic assays demonstrated that the gliP-disrupted mutants grew faster, were more sensitive to oxidative stress and exhibited a sparse colony edge compared with the WT strain. In a plate confrontation assay, the mutants deficient in gliotoxin production were ineffective as mycoparasites against the oomycete, Pythium ultimum, and the necrotrophic fungal pathogen, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, but retained mycoparasitic ability against Rhizoctonia solani. Biocontrol assays in soil showed that the mutants were incapable of protecting cotton seedlings from attack by P. ultimum, against which the WT strain was highly effective. The mutants, however, were as effective as the WT strain in protecting cotton seedlings against R. solani. Loss of gliotoxin production also resulted in a reduced ability of the mutants to attack the sclerotia of S. sclerotiorum compared with the WT. The addition of exogenous gliotoxin to the sclerotia colonized by the mutants partially restored their degradative abilities. Interestingly, as in Aspergillus fumigatus, an opportunistic human pathogen, gliotoxin was found to be involved in pathogenicity of T. virens against larvae of the wax moth, Galleria mellonella. The loss of gliotoxin production in T. virens was restored by complementation with the gliP gene from A. fumigatus. We have, thus, demonstrated that the putative gliP cluster of T. virens is responsible for the biosynthesis of gliotoxin, and gliotoxin is involved in mycoparasitism and biocontrol properties of this plant-beneficial fungus. PMID:25082950

  6. Endophytes: A Treasure House of Bioactive Compounds of Medicinal Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouda, Sushanto; Das, Gitishree; Sen, Sandeep K.; Shin, Han-Seung; Patra, Jayanta Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Endophytes are an endosymbiotic group of microorganisms that colonize in plants and microbes that can be readily isolated from any microbial or plant growth medium. They act as reservoirs of novel bioactive secondary metabolites, such as alkaloids, phenolic acids, quinones, steroids, saponins, tannins, and terpenoids that serve as a potential candidate for antimicrobial, anti-insect, anticancer and many more properties. While plant sources are being extensively explored for new chemical entities for therapeutic purposes, endophytic microbes also constitute an important source for drug discovery. This review aims to comprehend the contribution and uses of endophytes as an impending source of drugs against various forms of diseases and other possible medicinal use. PMID:27746767

  7. Fungal endophytes characterization from four species of Diplazium Swartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affina-Eliya, A. A.; Noraini, T.; Nazlina, I.; Ruzi, A. R.

    2014-09-01

    Four species on genus Diplazium namely Diplazium tomentosum, D. sorzogonense, D. asperum and D. accedens of Peninsular Malaysia were studied for presence of fungal endophyte. The objective of this study is to characterize fungal endophytes in the rhizome of four Diplazium species. The rhizome was surface sterilized and incubated to isolate fungal endophytes. Characterization of the colonies was performed by macroscopic morphological, microscopic identification, types of hyphae and mycelium, and spore structure. For isolation that produces spores, the structure of conidiophores and conidia were identified. From this study, four fungal have been isolated and determined as Aspergillus sp. (isolates AE 1), Aspergillus fumigatus (isolates AE 2), Aspergillus versicolor (isolates AE 3) and Verticillium sp. (isolates AE 4). The fungal isolates from this study were classified from the same family Moniliaceae.

  8. Methods for the Evaluation of the Bioactivity and Biocontrol Potential of Species of Trichoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyaert, Johanna; Hicks, Emily; Kandula, Janaki; Kandula, Diwakar; Alizadeh, Hossein; Braithwaite, Mark; Yardley, Jessica; Mendoza-Mendoza, Artemio

    2016-01-01

    Members of the genus Trichoderma comprise the majority of commercial fungal biocontrol agents of plant diseases. As such, there is a wealth of information available on the analysis of their biocontrol potential and the mechanisms behind their superior abilities. This chapter aims to summarize the most common methods utilized within a Trichoderma biocontrol program for assessing the biological properties of individual strains. PMID:27565489

  9. Trichoderma species fungemia after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festuccia, M; Giaccone, L; Gay, F; Brunello, L; Maffini, E; Ferrando, F; Talamo, E; Boccadoro, M; Serra, R; Barbui, A; Bruno, B

    2014-08-01

    We present a case of Trichoderma fungemia with pulmonary involvement in a multiple myeloma patient, who was severely immunocompromised and heavily treated with high-dose melphalan, and underwent autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of proven Trichoderma fungemia, defined by published criteria, successfully treated with voriconazole.

  10. Combined inoculation of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma harzianum for enhancing plant growth of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandheep, A R; Asok, A K; Jisha, M S

    2013-06-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the plant growth promoting efficiency of combined inoculation of rhizobacteria on Vanilla plants. Based on the in vitro performance of indigenous Trichoderma spp. and Pseudomonas spp., four effective antagonists were selected and screened under greenhouse experiment for their growth enhancement potential. The maximum percentage of growth enhancement were observed in the combination of Trichoderma harzianum with Pseudomonas fluorescens treatment followed by Pseudomonas fluorescens, Trichoderma harzianum, Pseudomonas putida and Trichoderma virens, respectively in decreasing order. Combined inoculation of Trichoderma harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens registered the maximum length of vine (82.88 cm), highest number of leaves (26.67/plant), recorded the highest fresh weight of shoots (61.54 g plant(-1)), fresh weight of roots (4.46 g plant(-1)) and dry weight of shoot (4.56 g plant(-1)) where as the highest dry weight of roots (2.0806 g plant(-1)) were achieved with treatments of Pseudomonas fluorescens. Among the inoculated strains, combined inoculation of Trichoderma harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens recorded the maximum nitrogen uptake (61.28 mg plant(-1)) followed by the combined inoculation of Trichoderma harzianum (std) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (std) (55.03 mg plant(-1)) and the highest phosphorus uptake (38.80 mg plant(-1)) was recorded in dual inoculation of Trichoderma harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens.

  11. 21 CFR 184.1250 - Cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Trichoderma longibrachiatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the... Trichoderma longibrachiatum. 184.1250 Section 184.1250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT....1250 Cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Trichoderma longibrachiatum. (a) Cellulase...

  12. Impact of Trichoderma spp. on Soybean Seed Germination and Potential Antagonistic Effect on Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    OpenAIRE

    Sonja Tančić; Jelica Skrobonja; Mirjana Lalošević; Radivoje Jevtić; Miloš Vidić

    2013-01-01

    Trichoderma species have been registered as species with important plant growth promoting potential and antagonistic effect against various phytopathogens. Trichoderma isolates originating from different soil types from the Vojvodina region (Serbia) were screened using dual culture test for their antagonistic effect against the pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. All tested isolates had high radial growth inhibition (RGI) factors of the pathogen and high col...

  13. DETECTION OF CROSS-PROJECT BENEFICIAL CLONES

    OpenAIRE

    Ms.Kavitha Esther Rajakumari; Dr.T.Jebarajan

    2014-01-01

    Duplicate codes are also known as code clones. They are considered as one of the main factors that deteriorate the quality of software. They are usually discarded by using automatic clone detection tools. In this paper the clones are detected using a data mining approach. The clones are well analyzed and the beneficial code clones are retained. These clones are maintained separately and are used in software maintenance. The beneficial clones will definitely help in reducing the overall time s...

  14. Isolation and Characterisation of Endophytic Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria in Sugarcane

    OpenAIRE

    Muangthong, Ampiga; Youpensuk, Somchit; Rerkasem, Benjavan

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic nitrogen fixing bacteria were isolated from the leaves, stems and roots of industrial variety (cv. U-Thong 3; UT3), wild and chewing sugarcane plants grown for 6 weeks in nitrogen (N)-free sand. Eighty nine isolates of endophytic bacteria were obtained on N-free agar. An acetylene reduction assay (ARA) detected nitrogenase activity in all 89 isolates. Three isolates from the chewing (C2HL2, C7HL1 and C34MR1) sugarcane and one isolate from the industrial sugarcane (UT3R1) varieties ...

  15. Genetic responses induced in olive roots upon colonization by the biocontrol endophytic bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Schilirò

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the genetic basis underlying interactions between beneficial bacteria and woody plants is still very limited, and totally absent in the case of olive. We aimed to elucidate genetic responses taking place during the colonization of olive roots by the native endophyte Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7, an effective biocontrol agent against Verticillium wilt of olive. Roots of olive plants grown under non-gnotobiotic conditions were collected at different time points after PICF7 inoculation. A Suppression Subtractive Hybridization cDNA library enriched in induced genes was generated. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR analysis validated the induction of selected olive genes. Computational analysis of 445 olive ESTs showed that plant defence and response to different stresses represented nearly 45% of genes induced in PICF7-colonized olive roots. Moreover, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR analysis confirmed induction of lipoxygenase, phenylpropanoid, terpenoids and plant hormones biosynthesis transcripts. Different classes of transcription factors (i.e., bHLH, WRKYs, GRAS1 were also induced. This work highlights for the first time the ability of an endophytic Pseudomonas spp. strain to mount a wide array of defence responses in an economically-relevant woody crop such as olive, helping to explain its biocontrol activity.

  16. The role of the Oregon State University Endophyte Service Laboratory in diagnosing clinical cases of endophyte toxicoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, A Morrie; Blythe, Linda L; Duringer, Jennifer M

    2014-07-30

    The Oregon State University Colleges of Veterinary Medicine and Agricultural Sciences instituted the Endophyte Service Laboratory to aid in diagnosing toxicity problems associated with cool-season grasses in livestock. The endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophalum) present in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) produces ergopeptine alkaloids, of which ergovaline is the molecule used to determine exposure and toxicity thresholds for the vasoconstrictive conditions "fescue foot" and "summer slump". Another vasoconstrictive syndrome, "ergotism," is caused by a parasitic fungus, Claviceps purpurea, and its primary toxin, ergotamine. "Ryegrass staggers" is a neurological condition that affects livestock consuming endophyte (Neotyphodium lolii)-infected perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) with high levels of lolitrem B. HPLC-fluorescent analytical methods for these mycotoxins are described and were used to determine threshold levels of toxicity for ergovaline and lolitrem B in cattle, sheep, horses, and camels. In addition, six clinical cases in cattle are presented to illustrate diagnosis of these three diseases. PMID:25017309

  17. Trichoderma Biocontrol: Signal Transduction Pathways Involved in Host Sensing and Mycoparasitism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Zeilinger

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi of the genus Trichoderma are used as biocontrol agents against several plant pathogenic fungi like Rhizoctonia spp., Pythium spp., Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium spp. which cause both soil-borne and leaf- or flower-borne diseases of agricultural plants. Plant disease control by Trichoderma is based on complex interactions between Trichoderma, the plant pathogen and the plant. Until now, two main components of biocontrol have been identified: direct activity of Trichoderma against the plant pathogen by mycoparasitism and induced systemic resistance in plants. As the mycoparasitic interaction is host-specific and not merely a contact response, it is likely that signals from the host fungus are recognised by Trichoderma and provoke transcription of mycoparasitism-related genes.In the last few years examination of signalling pathways underlying Trichoderma biocontrol started and it was shown that heterotrimeric G-proteins and mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinases affected biocontrol-relevant processes such as the production of hydrolytic enzymes and antifungal metabolites and the formation of infection structures. MAPK signalling was also found to be involved in induction of plant systemic resistance in Trichoderma virens and in the hyperosmotic stress response in Trichoderma harzianum. Analyses of the function of components of the cAMP pathway during Trichoderma biocontrol revealed that mycoparasitism-associated coiling and chitinase production as well as secondary metabolism are affected by the internal cAMP level; in addition, a cross talk between regulation of light responses and the cAMP signalling pathway was found in Trichoderma atroviride.

  18. Pervasive Effects of Wildfire on Foliar Endophyte Communities in Montane Forest Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Ling; Devan, M M Nandi; U'Ren, Jana M; Furr, Susan H; Arnold, A Elizabeth

    2016-02-01

    Plants in all terrestrial ecosystems form symbioses with endophytic fungi that inhabit their healthy tissues. How these foliar endophytes respond to wildfires has not been studied previously, but is important given the increasing frequency and intensity of severe wildfires in many ecosystems, and because endophytes can influence plant growth and responses to stress. The goal of this study was to examine effects of severe wildfires on endophyte communities in forest trees, with a focus on traditionally fire-dominated, montane ecosystems in the southwestern USA. We evaluated the abundance, diversity, and composition of endophytes in foliage of Juniperus deppeana (Cupressaceae) and Quercus spp. (Fagaceae) collected contemporaneously from areas affected by recent wildfire and paired areas not affected by recent fire. Study sites spanned four mountain ranges in central and southern Arizona. Our results revealed significant effects of fires on endophyte communities, including decreases in isolation frequency, increases in diversity, and shifts in community structure and taxonomic composition among endophytes of trees affected by recent fires. Responses to fire were similar in endophytes of each host in these fire-dominated ecosystems and reflect regional fire-return intervals, with endophytes after fire representing subsets of the regional mycoflora. Together, these findings contribute to an emerging perspective on the responses of diverse communities to severe fire, and highlight the importance of considering fire history when estimating endophyte diversity and community structure for focal biomes.

  19. Mycorrhizal and dark septate endophytic fungi under the canopies of desert plants in Mu Us Sandy Land of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanqing WU; Tiantian LIU; Xueli HE

    2009-01-01

    Biodiversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization and spore density was investigated in 20 desert plants (dominant or common species) collected from different locations of Mu Us Sandy Land of China. We observed three mycorrhizal types including Arum-type, Paris-type, and an intermediate type among the plants. Another type of potentially beneficial fungi associated with roots of all species was also observed, namely, dark septate endophytic fungi (DSEF). Of the 20 sample plants examined, all species were coinfected by the two target fungi (Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonization of Salixpsammophila and DSEF colonization of Periploca septum were as low as 4%). Based on this investigation, we speculated that the DSEF are ubiquitous in desert ecosystems and can co-occur with AMF in desert plants, functioning much like mycorrhizal fungi. Further studies will be required to elucidate interactional mechanisms with AMF and the mechanisms operating in desert ecosystem.

  20. Seed-borne endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RWL-1 produces gibberellins and regulates endogenous phytohormones of Oryza sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Raheem; Waqas, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Asaf, Sajjad; Khan, Muhammad Aaqil; Kang, Sang-Mo; Yun, Byung-Wook; Lee, In-Jung

    2016-09-01

    Some microorganisms are adapted to an endophytic mode, living symbiotically with plants through vertical transmission in seeds. The role of plant growth-promoting endophytes has been well studied, but those of seed-associated endophytic bacteria are less understood. The current study aimed to isolate and identify bacterial endophytes associated with rice (Oryza sativa L. 'Jin so mi') seeds, their potential to produce gibberellins (GAs), and role in improving host-plant physiology. The isolated bacterial endophyte RWL-1 was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens by using 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The pure culture of B. amyloliquefaciens RWL-1, supplied with deuterated internal standards, was subjected to gas chromatography and mass spectrometric selected ion monitoring (GC-MS/SIM) for quantification of GAs. Results showed the presence of GAs in various quantities (ng/mL) viz., GA20 (17.88 ± 4.04), GA36 (5.75 ± 2.36), GA24 (5.64 ± 2.46), GA4 (1.02 ± 0.16), GA53 (0.772 ± 0.20), GA9 (0.12 ± 0.09), GA19 (0.093 ± 0.13), GA5 (0.08 ± 0.04), GA12 (0.014 ± 0.34), and GA8 (0.013 ± 0.01). Since endogenous seed GAs are essential for prolonged seed growth and subsequent plant development, we used exogenous GA3 as a positive control and water as a negative control for comparative analysis of the application of B. amyloliquefaciens RWL-1 to rice plants. The growth parameters of rice plants treated with endophytic bacterial cell application was significantly increased compared to the plants treated with exogenous GA3 and water. This was also revealed by the significant up-regulation of endogenous GA1 (17.54 ± 2.40 ng), GA4 (310 ± 5.41 ng), GA7 (192.60 ± 3.32 ng), and GA9 (19.04 ± 2.49 ng) as compared to results of the positive and negative control treatments. Rice plants inoculated with B. amyloliquefaciens RWL-1 exhibited significantly higher endogenous salicylic acid (1615.06 ± 10.81 μg), whereas

  1. Diversity of culturable bacterial endophytes of saffron in Kashmir, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Tanwi; Kaul, Sanjana; Dhar, Manoj K

    2015-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus) is a medicinally important plant. The Kashmir valley (J&K, India) emblematizes one of the major and quality saffron producing areas in the world. Nonetheless, the area has been experiencing a declining trend in the production of saffron during the last decade. Poor disease management is one of the major reasons for declining saffron production in the area. Endophytes are known to offer control against many diseases of host plant. During the present study, culturable bacterial endophytes were isolated from saffron plant, identified and assessed for plant growth promoting activities. Molecular and phylogenetic analysis grouped the fifty-four bacterial isolates into eleven different taxa, viz. Bacillus licheniformis, B. subtilis, B. cereus, B. humi, B. pumilus, Paenibacillus elgii, B. safensis, Brevibacillus sp., Pseudomonas putida, Staphylococcus hominis and Enterobacter cloacae. The results were also supported with the identification based on BIOLOG system. B. licheniformis was the dominant endophyte in both leaves and corms of saffron. 81 % isolates showed lipase activity, 57 % cellulase, 48 % protease, 38 % amylase, 33 % chitinase and 29 % showed pectinase activity. 24 % of the isolates were phosphate solublizers, 86 % showed siderophore production and 80 % phytohormone production potential. The present repository of well characterized bacterial endophytes of saffron, have plant growth promoting potential which can be explored further for their respective roles in the biology of the saffron plant.

  2. Bioaugmentation with engineered endophytic bacteria improves contaminant fate in phytoremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyens, N.; van der Lelie, D.; Artois, T.; Smeets, K.; Taghavi, S.; Newman, L.; Carleer, R.; Vangronsveld, J.

    2009-12-01

    Phytoremediation of volatile organic contaminants often proves not ideal because plants and their rhizosphere microbes only partially degrade these compounds. Consequently, plants undergo evapotranspiration that contaminates the ambient air and, thus, undermines the merits of phytoremediation. Under laboratory conditions, endophytic bacteria equipped with the appropriate degradation pathways can improve in plant degradation of volatile organic contaminants. However, several obstacles must be overcome before engineered endophytes will be successful in field-scale phytoremediation projects. Here we report the first in situ inoculation of poplar trees, growing on a TCE-contaminated site, with the TCE-degrading strain Pseudomonas putida W619-TCE. In situ bioaugmentation with strain W619-TCE reduced TCE evapotranspiration by 90% under field conditions. This encouraging result was achieved after the establishment and enrichment of P. putida W619-TCE as a poplar root endophyte and by further horizontal gene transfer of TCE metabolic activity to members of the poplar's endogenous endophytic population. Since P. putida W619-TCE was engineered via horizontal gene transfer, its deliberate release is not restricted under European genetically modified organisms (GMO) regulations.

  3. Extracellular Hemicellulolytic Enzymes from the Maize Endophyte Acremonium zeae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The maize endophyte Acremonium zeae was examined for production of extracellular enzymes that hydrolyze cellulose and hemicellulose. The most prominent enzyme activity in cell-free culture media from A. zeae NRRL 6415 was xylanase, with a specific activity of 60 U/mg from cultures grown on crude co...

  4. 7 CFR 201.58d - Fungal endophyte test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... compound microscope at 100-400x magnification, scoring a seed as positive if any identifiable hyphae are... thoroughly in running tap water. (4) De-glume seeds and place on a microscope slide in a drop of endophyte... sheath approximately 3-5 mm in width. (5) Place the section on a microscope slide with the epidermis...

  5. Plant Growth Promotion Induced by Phosphate Solubilizing Endophytic Pseudomonas Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas eOtieno

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of plant growth promoting bacterial inoculants as live microbial biofertilisers provides a promising alternative to chemical fertilisers and pesticides. Inorganic phosphate solubilisation is one of the major mechanisms of plant growth promotion by plant associated bacteria. This involves bacteria releasing organic acids into the soil which solubilise the phosphate complexes converting them into ortho-phosphate which is available for plant up-take and utilisation. The study presented here describes the ability of endophytic bacterial isolates to produce gluconic acid, solubilise insoluble phosphate and stimulate the growth of Pea plants (Pisum sativum. This study also describes the genetic systems within three of these endophyte isolates thought to be responsible for their effective phosphate solubilising abilities. The results showed that many of the endophytic isolates produced gluconic acid (14-169 mM and have moderate to high phosphate solubilisation capacities (~ 400-1300 mg L-1. When inoculated to Pea plants grown in sand/soil under soluble phosphate limiting conditions, the endophyte isolates that produced medium to high levels of gluconic acid also displayed enhanced plant growth promotion effects.

  6. Endophytic microorganisms--promising applications in bioremediation of greenhouse gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stępniewska, Z; Kuźniar, A

    2013-11-01

    Bioremediation is a technique that uses microbial metabolism to remove pollutants. Various techniques and strategies of bioremediation (e.g., phytoremediation enhanced by endophytic microorganisms, rhizoremediation) can mainly be used to remove hazardous waste from the biosphere. During the last decade, this specific technique has emerged as a potential cleanup tool only for metal pollutants. This situation has changed recently as a possibility has appeared for bioremediation of other pollutants, for instance, volatile organic compounds, crude oils, and radionuclides. The mechanisms of bioremediation depend on the mobility, solubility, degradability, and bioavailability of contaminants. Biodegradation of pollutions is associated with microbial growth and metabolism, i.e., factors that have an impact on the process. Moreover, these factors have a great influence on degradation. As a result, recognition of natural microbial processes is indispensable for understanding the mechanisms of effective bioremediation. In this review, we have emphasized the occurrence of endophytic microorganisms and colonization of plants by endophytes. In addition, the role of enhanced bioremediation by endophytic bacteria and especially of phytoremediation is presented.

  7. Relationship between plant lipid bodies and fungal endophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipid bodies are universal components of plant cells and provide a mobilized carbon source for essential biological processes. Plant oils harvested for food and fuel often reside in these lipid bodies. Plants also host diverse populations of endophytic fungi, which easily escape microscopic detect...

  8. Impact of Endophytic Microorganisms on Plants, Environment and Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanya N. Nair

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Endophytes are microorganisms (bacteria or fungi or actinomycetes that dwell within robust plant tissues by having a symbiotic association. They are ubiquitously associated with almost all plants studied till date. Some commonly found endophytes are those belonging to the genera Enterobacter sp., Colletotrichum sp., Phomopsis sp., Phyllosticta sp., Cladosporium sp., and so forth. Endophytic population is greatly affected by climatic conditions and location where the host plant grows. They produce a wide range of compounds useful for plants for their growth, protection to environmental conditions, and sustainability, in favour of a good dwelling place within the hosts. They protect plants from herbivory by producing certain compounds which will prevent animals from further grazing on the same plant and sometimes act as biocontrol agents. A large amount of bioactive compounds produced by them not only are useful for plants but also are of economical importance to humans. They serve as antibiotics, drugs or medicines, or the compounds of high relevance in research or as compounds useful to food industry. They are also found to have some important role in nutrient cycling, biodegradation, and bioremediation. In this review, we have tried to comprehend different roles of endophytes in plants and their significance and impacts on man and environment.

  9. Cytosporones O, P and Q from an endophytic Cytospora sp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abreu, L.M.; Phipps, Richard Kerry; Pfenning, L.H.;

    2010-01-01

    Cytosporones O, P and Q, together with the known compounds cytosporones B, C, D, E and dothiorelones A, 13, C. and H were isolated from the ascomycete fungus Cytospora sp. during a chemotaxonomic study Of fungal endophytes belonging to the related genera Cytospora and Phomopsis from Brazil...

  10. Dark septate endophytic pleosporalean genera from semiarid areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapp, D.G.; Kovács, G.M.; Zajta, E.; Groenwald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2015-01-01

    Dark septate endophytes (DSE) are distributed worldwide as root-colonising fungi, and frequent in environments with strong abiotic stress. DSE is not a taxon, but constitutes numerous fungal taxa belonging to several orders of Ascomycota. In this study we investigate three unidentified DSE lineages b

  11. Dark septate endophytic pleosporalean genera from semiarid areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapp, D G; Kovács, G M; Zajta, E; Groenewald, J Z; Crous, P W

    2015-01-01

    Dark septate endophytes (DSE) are distributed worldwide as root-colonising fungi, and frequent in environments with strong abiotic stress. DSE is not a taxon, but constitutes numerous fungal taxa belonging to several orders of Ascomycota. In this study we investigate three unidentified DSE lineages

  12. Identification of lead- resistant endophytic bacteria isolated from rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Pérez-Cordero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available   The objective of this study was to evaluate in vitro the endophytic bacteria resistance to different lead concentrations. The sampling was undertaken in the first half of 2013, when tissue samples of commercial varieties of rice at tillering stage were collected in Montería, Cordoba, Colombia. Each tissue was subjected to surface cleaning. Endophytic bacteria in agar R2A medium were isolated. Population density (CFU/g tissue was determined from each tissue, by direct counting of R2A medium surface. morphotypes were classified by shape, color, size, and appearance. A total of 168 morphotypes were isolated from root, tillers, and leaf of different commercial varieties of rice. The lead resistance test was performed in vitro, to do that, suspensions of endophytic bacteria in log phase were prepared and inoculated in minimal medium with five concentrations of lead as Pb(NO32. The experiment was incubated at 32 °C and agitated at 150 rpm, for five days. Every hour afterstarting the test, turbidimetry measuring at 600 nm was conducted. Results showed the ability of endophytic bacteria to grow at concentrations of 100% of Pb as Pb(NO32. The results of the identification with kit API20E confirmed the presence of Burkholderia cepacia and Pseudomonas putida, which showed resistance to different lead concentrations.

  13. Antifungal metabolites from fungal endophytes of Pinus strobus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumarah, Mark W; Kesting, Julie R; Sørensen, Dan;

    2011-01-01

    The extracts of five foliar fungal endophytes isolated from Pinus strobus (eastern white pine) that showed antifungal activity in disc diffusion assays were selected for further study. From these strains, the aliphatic polyketide compound 1 and three related sesquiterpenes 2-4 were isolated...

  14. Optimization of solid fermentation of cellulase from Trichoderma koningii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Pei-jun; JING De-bing; ZHOU Qi-xing; ZHANG Chun-gui

    2004-01-01

    To exploit peashrub resources in Ordos as fodders, it is very crucial to realize industrial production of cheap cellulase of high activity by optimizing culture technology, especially culture substrate. In this study, a new prescription experiment based on uniform design ideal was invented and successfully applied in the solid fermentation of Trichoderma koningii F244, which being performed with two different temperature degrees. The activities of FPA, cotton lyase, CMCase and β-glucosidase were assayed and then mathematical models of enzymatic activities, which were figured out by Unconstraint Mathematical Programming, were developed by Multivariate Regression Program of SPSS10.0. Enzymatic activities of optimized substrate prescriptions corresponding to mathematical models were forecasted to determine an ideal substrate prescription. It is revealed that in solid fermentation, Tween80 has negative effect on cellulase production. Furthermore, the ideal prescription for cellulase complex production by Trichoderma koningii F244 was straw powder 16.9%,wheat bran 26.5%, (NH4)2SO4 9.5% and water 47.1%, whose corresponding cellulase activity was expected to be at the same high level with that of Trichoderma reesei Q9414 on its own recommended substrate. Especially, goats mainly fed on peashrub tissues mixed with cellulase complex of this prescription and culture technology, got an incremental ratio of 0.3 kg/d, which brought a very promising feeding prospect for local peashrub resource. By populization of this cellulase complex, it can integrate living standard, economic construction of local residents into vegetational restoration tightly and thus this paper will be very meaningful to be use for reference for western China like Ordos to realize its sustainable development of economy, society and environment.

  15. Different growth promoting effects of endophytic bacteria on invasive and native clonal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Cong eDai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The role of the interactions between endophytes and alien plants has been unclear yet in plant invasion. We used a completely germ-free culture system to quantify the plant growth-promoting (PGP effects of endophytic bacteria Bacillus sp. on aseptic seedlings of W. trilobata and of its native clonal congener W. chinensis. The endophytic bacteria did not affect the growth of W. chinensis, but they significantly promoted the growth of W. trilobata. With the PGP effects of endophytic bacteria, relative change ratios of the clonal traits and the ramets' growth traits of W. trilobata were significantly greater than those of W. chinensis. Our results indicate that the growth-promoting effects of endophytes may differ between invasive and native clonal plants, and the endophytes of invasive plant may be host-specific to facilitate plant invasion.

  16. Different Growth Promoting Effects of Endophytic Bacteria on Invasive and Native Clonal Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhi-Cong; Fu, Wei; Wan, Ling-Yun; Cai, Hong-Hong; Wang, Ning; Qi, Shan-Shan; Du, Dao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    The role of the interactions between endophytes and alien plants has been unclear yet in plant invasion. We used a completely germ-free culture system to quantify the plant growth-promoting (PGP) effects of endophytic bacteria Bacillus sp. on aseptic seedlings of Wedelia trilobata and of its native clonal congener W. chinensis. The endophytic bacteria did not affect the growth of W. chinensis, but they significantly promoted the growth of W. trilobata. With the PGP effects of endophytic bacteria, relative change ratios of the clonal traits and the ramets’ growth traits of W. trilobata were significantly greater than those of W. chinensis. Our results indicate that the growth-promoting effects of endophytes may differ between invasive and native clonal plants, and the endophytes of invasive plant may be host-specific to facilitate plant invasion. PMID:27252722

  17. ISOLATION OF ENDOPHYTIC ACTINOMYCETES FROM MEDICINAL PLANTS AND ITS MUTATIONAL EFFECT IN BIOCONTROL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hema Shenpagam N.*, D. Kanchana Devi ** and Sinduja G.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the endophytic actinomycetes were collected from three medicinal plants Azadiracta indica, Ocimum sanctum and Phyllanthus amarus. Endophytic actinomycetes were isolated using different media like Starch casein agar, Starch casein nitrate agar, Actinomycetes isolation agar and Soyabean agar, while it showed more colonies in Starch casein agar. The endophytic actinomycetes were stained and biochemical tests were performed. Antimicrobial compound was purified from the filtrate by ethanol extraction method. Antagonistic activities of endophytic actinomycetes isolates were tested against bacterial pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the fungi Rhizopus. For the selected isolates antibiotic resistance was checked using various antibiotic discs like Amoxycillin, Penicillin, Rifampicin and Ampicillin. The strains which showed efficient antibacterial activity were selected to study the effect of mutation by physical and chemical method. In this study, UV mutated endophytic actinomycetes increase antibiotic production than non-mutated endophytic Actinomycetes, whereas in chemical mutation it does not increase the antibiotic production.

  18. The potentiality of Trichoderma harzianum in alleviation the adverse effects of salinity in faba bean plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Baki, G K; Mostafa, Doaa

    2014-12-01

    The interaction between sodium chloride and Trichoderma harzianum (T24) on growth parameters, ion contents, MDA content, proline, soluble proteins as well as SDS page protein profile were studied in Vicia faba Giza 429. A sharp reduction was found in fresh and dry mass of shoots and roots with increasing salinity. Trichoderma treatments promoted the growth criteria as compared with corresponding salinized plants. The water content and leaf area exhibited a marked decrease with increasing salinity. Trichoderma treatments induced a progressive increase in both parameters. Both proline and MDA contents were increased progressively as the salinity rose in the soil. Trichoderma treatments considerably retarded the accumulation of both parameters in shoots and roots. Both Na+ and K+ concentration increased in both organs by enhancing salinity levels. The treatment with Trichoderma harzianum enhanced the accumulation of both ions. Exposure of plants to different concentrations of salinity, or others treated with Trichoderma harzianum produced marked changes in their protein pattern. Three types of alterations were observed: the synthesis of certain proteins declined significantly, specific synthesis of certain other proteins were markedly observed and synthesis of a set specific protein was induced de novo in plant treated with Trichoderma harzianum.

  19. Trichoderma strains- Silybum marianum hairy root cultures interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hasanloo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Silymarin is a unique flavonoid complex with documented hepatoprotective properties. Silybum  marianum hairy root culture as a source for producing silymarin has been an important strategy for study the cell signaling pathway. In the present investigation Trichoderma strains- Silybum marianum hairy root cultures interactions have been studied. Methods: The effects of two Trichoderma Strains (KHB and G46-7 (0, 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 mg/ 50 mL culture in 6 different exposure times (0, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h have been investigated on flavonolignans production. The flavonolignans were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography method. Cell signaling pathway was evaluated by determination of H2O2 content, peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase activities. Results:The elicitation effects of two Trichoderma Strains (KHB and G46-7 were examined on flavonolignans accumulation and the activation of cell defense system in S. marianum hairy root cultures. The results indicated that the highest silymarin accumulation (0.45 and 0.33 mg/g DW was obtained in media elicited with 0.5 mg/50 mL cultures of T. harzianum Strains (KHB and G46-3, respectively after 120 h. Feeding time experiments indicated that a significant higher content of silymarin production was achieved after 120 and 72 h in media treated with 0.5 mg/50 mL cultures of KHB and G46-3, respectively. Our results showed that S. marianum treated by KHB strain, increased taxifolin, silychristin, isosilybin and silydianin productions significantly. The H2O2 content in the control hairy root cultures remained lower than the treated cultures. There was significant enhancement in both peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase activities in treated hairy roots reaching a peak after 72 h. Conclusion: These findings suggested that some Trichoderma strains are positive elicitors for promoting silymarin accumulation in S. marianum hairy root cultures. The results also suggested the presence

  20. Proteomic mapping of secreted proteins of Trichoderma spp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li S; Bramley P M; Smith J; Cannon P F

    2004-01-01

    @@ A series of highly taxonomically diverse Trichoderma strains were investigated using proteomic approaches, to investigate the utility of protein profiles as taxonomic markers and to identify proteins of potential economic importance. Initial studies have focused on a comparison of single strains of T.aureoviride, T. saturnisporum, T. polysporum, T. longbrachiatum and T. spirale, along with two strains of T. harzianum. All seven strains were grown in synthetic medium supplemented with 2 % (w/v) glycerol, to maximize the diversity of extracellular protein production. Samples of secreted protein were separated by 2D gel electrophoresis and will be characterized by MALDI-TOF peptide fingerprinting.

  1. Three tubulin genes of Trichoderma harzianum: alpha, beta and gamma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Li

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Three tubulin genes of Trichoderma harzianum were cloned followed genomic walking procedure. The tubulins showed high degree of amino acid homology with other fungal tubulins and were homologous with each other with 32 to 38% amino acid identity. Three measures for the degree of codon usage bias indicated the presence of bias in all the sequences, suggesting high expression levels in all the genes. Protein structures were modeled to provide the basis for understanding the tubulin's properties and its interactions with microtubule-associated proteins. Potential motifs were also postulated.

  2. Competition in artifical plant growth media by Trichoderma spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarocco, Sabrina; Lübeck, Mette; Vannacci, Giovanni

    of the reason why more biocontrol agents are reaching the market place. A comparative evaluation of life strategies of both the pathogen and its antagonists is required to predict the fate of a biopesticide in agricultural systems.The objectives of this work have been: 1) to screen a collection of Trichoderma......, but even after R. solani was able to re-colonize haulm fragments, the positive effects on damping off were still evident, demonstrating a “residual” effect of antagonists. On the whole, competition for the food base explains a large part of the recorded effects....

  3. Epichloe endophytes alter inducible indirect defences in host grasses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Li

    Full Text Available Epichloë endophytes are common symbionts living asymptomatically in pooid grasses and may provide chemical defences against herbivorous insects. While the mechanisms underlying these fungal defences have been well studied, it remains unknown whether endophyte presence affects the host's own defences. We addressed this issue by examining variation in the impact of Epichloë on constitutive and herbivore-induced emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC, a well-known indirect plant defence, between two grass species, Schedonorus phoenix (ex. Festuca arundinacea; tall fescue and Festuca pratensis (meadow fescue. We found that feeding by a generalist aphid species, Rhopalosiphum padi, induced VOC emissions by uninfected plants of both grass species but to varying extents, while mechanical wounding failed to do so in both species after one day of damage. Interestingly, regardless of damage treatment, Epichloë uncinata-infected F. pratensis emitted significantly lower quantities of VOCs than their uninfected counterparts. In contrast, Epichloë coenophiala-infected S. phoenix did not differ from their uninfected counterparts in constitutive VOC emissions but tended to increase VOC emissions under intense aphid feeding. A multivariate analysis showed that endophyte status imposed stronger differences in VOC profiles of F. pratensis than damage treatment, while the reverse was true for S. phoenix. Additionally, both endophytes inhibited R. padi population growth as measured by aphid dry biomass, with the inhibition appearing greater in E. uncinata-infected F. pratensis. Our results suggest, not only that Epichloë endophytes may play important roles in mediating host VOC responses to herbivory, but also that the magnitude and direction of such responses may vary with the identity of the Epichloë-grass symbiosis. Whether Epichloë-mediated host VOC responses will eventually translate into effects on higher trophic levels merits future investigation.

  4. Endophytic Phoma sp. isolated from medicinal plants promote the growth of Zea mays

    OpenAIRE

    ASHWINI KEDAR; DNYANESHWAR RATHOD; ALKA YADAV; GAURAVI AGARKAR; MAHENDRA RAI

    2014-01-01

    Kedar A, Rathod D, Yadav A, Agarkar G, Rai M. 2014. Endophytic Phoma sp. isolated from medicinal plants promote the growth of Zea mays. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 132-139. Fungal endophytes are reported as rich sources of valuable secondary metabolites and could be used as bio-fertilizers. In the present study, we report growth promotion potential of two Phoma species isolated from Tinospora cordifolia and Calotropis procera on maize. The fungal endophytes enhanced growth in inoculated maize pla...

  5. Conservation and Diversity of Seed Associated Endophytes in Zea across Boundaries of Evolution, Ethnography and Ecology

    OpenAIRE

    David Johnston-Monje; Raizada, Manish N

    2011-01-01

    Endophytes are non-pathogenic microbes living inside plants. We asked whether endophytic species were conserved in the agriculturally important plant genus Zea as it became domesticated from its wild ancestors (teosinte) to modern maize (corn) and moved from Mexico to Canada. Kernels from populations of four different teosintes and 10 different maize varieties were screened for endophytic bacteria by culturing, cloning and DNA fingerprinting using terminal restriction fragment length polymorp...

  6. A Friendly Relationship between Endophytic Fungi and Medicinal Plants: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Min; Chen, Ling; Xin, Hai-Liang; Zheng, Cheng-Jian; Rahman, Khalid; Han, Ting; Qin, Lu-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Endophytic fungi or endophytes exist widely inside the healthy tissues of living plants, and are important components of plant micro-ecosystems. Over the long period of evolution, some co-existing endophytes and their host plants have established a special relationship with one and another, which can significantly influence the formation of metabolic products in plants, then affect quality and quantity of crude drugs derived from medicinal plants. This paper will focus on the increasing knowl...

  7. Fungal Endophytes from Three Cultivars of Panax ginseng Meyer Cultivated in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sang Un; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Park, Kee-Choon; Park, Young-Hwan; Bae, Hanhong

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the diversity of endophytes, fungal endophytes in Panax ginseng Meyer cultivated in Korea were isolated and identified using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of ribosomal DNA. Three cultivars of 3-year-old ginseng roots (Chunpoong, Yunpoong, and Gumpoong) were used to isolate fungal endophytes. Surface sterilized ginseng roots were placed on potato dextrose agar plates supplemented with ampicilin and streptomycin to inhibit bacterial growth. Overall, 38 fung...

  8. Data on litter quality of host grass plants with and without fungal endophytes

    OpenAIRE

    Gundel, P.E.; Helander, M.; Garibaldi, L.A.; Vázquez-de-Aldana, B.R.; Zabalgogeazcoa, I.; Saikkonen, K.

    2016-01-01

    Certain Pooideae species form persistent symbiosis with fungal endophytes of Epichloë genus. Although endophytes are known to impact the ecology and evolution of host species, their effects on parameters related with quality of plant biomass has been elusive. This article provides information about parameters related with the quality of plant litter biomass of two important grass species (Schedonorus phoenix and Schedonorus pratensis) affected by the symbiosis with fungal endophytes (Epichloë...

  9. Genome sequencing and analysis of the paclitaxel-producing endophytic fungus Penicillium aurantiogriseum NRRL 62431

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yanfang; Zhao, Hainan; Barrero, Roberto A; Zhang, Baohong; Sun, Guiling; Iain W Wilson; Xie, Fuliang; Walker, Kevin D; Parks, Joshua W.; Bruce, Robert; Guo, Guangwu; Li CHEN; Zhang, Yong; Huang, Xin; Tang, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Background Paclitaxel (Taxol™) is an important anticancer drug with a unique mode of action. The biosynthesis of paclitaxel had been considered restricted to the Taxus species until it was discovered in Taxomyces andreanae, an endophytic fungus of T. brevifolia. Subsequently, paclitaxel was found in hazel (Corylus avellana L.) and in several other endophytic fungi. The distribution of paclitaxel in plants and endophytic fungi and the reported sequence homology of key genes in paclitaxel biosy...

  10. Leaf endophyte load influences fungal garden development in leaf-cutting ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Bael Sunshine A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous work has shown that leaf-cutting ants prefer to cut leaf material with relatively low fungal endophyte content. This preference suggests that fungal endophytes exact a cost on the ants or on the development of their colonies. We hypothesized that endophytes may play a role in their host plants’ defense against leaf-cutting ants. To measure the long-term cost to the ant colony of fungal endophytes in their forage material, we conducted a 20-week laboratory experiment to measure fungal garden development for colonies that foraged on leaves with low or high endophyte content. Results Colony mass and the fungal garden dry mass did not differ significantly between the low and high endophyte feeding treatments. There was, however, a marginally significant trend toward greater mass of fungal garden per ant worker in the low relative to the high endophyte treatment. This trend was driven by differences in the fungal garden mass per worker from the earliest samples, when leaf-cutting ants had been foraging on low or high endophyte leaf material for only 2 weeks. At two weeks of foraging, the mean fungal garden mass per worker was 77% greater for colonies foraging on leaves with low relative to high endophyte loads. Conclusions Our data suggest that the cost of endophyte presence in ant forage material may be greatest to fungal colony development in its earliest stages, when there are few workers available to forage and to clean leaf material. This coincides with a period of high mortality for incipient colonies in the field. We discuss how the endophyte-leaf-cutter ant interaction may parallel constitutive defenses in plants, whereby endophytes reduce the rate of colony development when its risk of mortality is greatest.

  11. Trichoderma koningiopsis:A New Chinese Record of the Genus Trichoderma%木霉属中国新记录种Trichoderma koningiopsis记述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李广记; 陈捷; 刘铜; 刘力行

    2010-01-01

    在华东地区木霉菌资源调查中,利用内转录间隔区(ITS)序列分析和形态学鉴定方法,对从土壤中分离到的木霉菌进行鉴定,发现一个中国新纪录种,即拟康宁木霉.Trichoderma koningiopsis/Hypocrea koningiopsis Samuels,C.Suarez & H.C.Evans sp.nov..该种典型的形态特征是在PDA以及CMD(玉米粉琼脂)上有瓶梗层出现象,而在MA(麦芽提取物)培养基上没有此特征.

  12. Cell wall degrading enzymes in Trichoderma asperellum grown on wheat bran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Lasse; Busk, Peter Kamp; Lange, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Trichoderma asperellum is a filamentous fungus that is able to produce and secrete a wide range of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes used for plant cell wall degradation. The Trichoderma genus has attracted considerable attention from the biorefinery industry due to the production of cell wall...... Pattern Recognition enabling an efficient enzyme discovery. This was furthermore used to re-annotate CAZYmes present in five publically available Trichoderma species, hereby elucidating differences in CAZYmes on a functional level in contrary to glycoside hydrolase family level. This comparison supports...

  13. Isolation, Purification, and Structural Identification of an Antifungal Compound from a Trichoderma Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chong-Wei; Song, Rui-Qing; Yang, Li-Bin; Deng, Xun

    2015-08-01

    Trichoderma strain T-33 has been demonstrated to have inhibitory effect on the fungus species Cytospora chrysosperma. Here, an active antifungal compound was obtained from Trichoderma strain T-33 extract via combined separation technologies, including organic solvent extraction, liquid chromatography, and thin-layer chromatography. The purified compound was further characterized by advanced analytical technologies to elucidate its chemical structure. Results indicated that the active antifungal compound in Trichoderma strain T-33 extract is 2,5- cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione-2,6-bis (1,1-dimethylethyl).

  14. Antagnism of three strains of Trichoderma spp.against mycelial growth of Rhizoctonia salani

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing-ze; TU Yan-la

    2004-01-01

    @@ Three strains of Trichoderma spp. TVll2, TX003, TY009 obtained from previous experiments could inhibit the sclerotial formation of two strains of Rhizoctonia salani AG1 (-1A) isolated from the rice paddies in Hanzhou of China. However, it is unclear if there are the antagonism and mycoparasitism of the Trichoderma strains tested against the mycelial growth of R. solani . The objective of this research was to evaluate the ability of the Trichoderma strains to inhibit the mycelial growth of R. solani in vitro .

  15. INFLUENCE OF TRICHODERMA SPP AGAINST ALTERNARIA TENUISSIMA INCITING LEAF SPOT OF RUMEX ACETOSA L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Ambuse, V. S. Chatage and U. N. Bhale

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Leaf spot of Sorrel (Rumex acetosa L. is caused by Alternaria tenuissima. This paper describes the efficacy of Trichoderma spp against sensitive and resistant isolates of A. tenuissima by dual culture method under invitro conditions. Trichoderma viride T. harzianum, T. virens, T. koningii and T. pseudokoningii species were used for antagonistic study. Results indicate that all Trichoderma species showed antagonistic activity. But among them, T.viride, T.koningii and T.pseudokoningii showed 80% antagonistic activity than others in case of sensitive isolate of test fungus. Resistant isolate of pathogen was restricting the antagonism in some extent.

  16. The Roles of Beneficiation in Lunar Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, Doug L.

    2010-01-01

    Natural feedstocks used for any process are intrinsically variable. They may also contain deleterious components or low concentrations of desired fractions. For these three reasons it is standard industrial practice to beneficiate feedstocks. This is true across all industries which trans-form raw materials into standardized units. On the Moon there are three natural resources: vacuum, radiation and regolith. To utilize in situ resources on the Moon it is reasonable to presume some beneficiation of the regolith (ground rock) resource will be desirable if not essential. As on Earth, this will require fundamental understanding of the physics and chemistry of the relevant processes, which are exceeding complex in detail. Further, simulants are essential test articles for evaluation of components and systems planned for lunar deployment. Simulants are of course made from geologic feedstocks. Therefore, there is variation, deleterious components and incorrect concentrations of desired fractions in the feedstocks used for simulants. Thus, simulant production can benefit from beneficiation of the input feedstocks. Beneficiation of geologic feedstocks is the subject of extractive metallurgy. Clearly, NASA has two discrete interests pertaining to the science and technology of extractive metallurgy.

  17. [Prebiotics: concept, properties and beneficial effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corzo, N; Alonso, J L; Azpiroz, F; Calvo, M A; Cirici, M; Leis, R; Lombó, F; Mateos-Aparicio, I; Plou, F J; Ruas-Madiedo, P; Rúperez, P; Redondo-Cuenca, A; Sanz, M L; Clemente, A

    2015-01-01

    Prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients (oligosaccharides) that reach the colon and are used as substrate by microorganisms producing energy, metabolites and micronutrients used for the host; in addition they also stimulate the selective growth of certain beneficial species (mainly bifidobacteria and lactobacilli) in the intestinal microbiota. In this article, a multidisciplinary approach to understand the concept of prebiotic carbohydrates, their properties and beneficial effects in humans has been carried out. Definitions of prebiotics, reported by relevant international organizations and researchers, are described. A comprehensive description of accepted prebiotics having strong scientific evidence of their beneficial properties in humans (inulin-type fructans, FOS, GOS, lactulose and human milk oligosaccharides) is reported. Emerging prebiotics and those which are in the early stages of study have also included in this study. Taken into account that the chemical structure greatly influences carbohydrates prebiotic properties, the analytical techniques used for their analysis and characterization are discussed. In vitro and in vivo models used to evaluate the gastrointestinal digestion, absorption resistance and fermentability in the colon of prebiotics as well as major criteria to design robust intervention trials in humans are described. Finally, a comprehensive summary of the beneficial effects of prebiotics for health at systemic and intestinal levels is reported. The research effort on prebiotics has been intensive in last decades and has demonstrated that a multidisciplinary approach is necessary in order to claim their health benefits. PMID:25659062

  18. Modulation of host immunity by beneficial microbes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zamioudis, C; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    In nature, plants abundantly form beneficial associations with soilborne microbes that are important for plant survival and, as such, affect plant biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Classical examples of symbiotic microbes are mycorrhizal fungi that aid in the uptake of water and minerals, and

  19. The defensive role of foliar endophytic fungi for a South American tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Teuber, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    Fungal endophytes colonize living internal plant tissues without causing any visible symptoms of disease. Endophytic fungi associated with healthy leaves may play an important role in the protection of hosts against herbivores and pathogens. In this study, the diversity of foliar endophytic fungi (FEF) of the southern temperate tree Embothrium coccineum (Proteaceae), as well as their role in plant protection in nature was determined. Fungal endophytes were isolated from 40 asymptomatic leaves by the culture method for molecular identification of the 18S rRNA gene. A relationship between FEF frequency and plant protection was evaluated in juveniles of E. coccineum. Fungal endophyte frequency was estimated using real-time PCR analyses to determine endophyte DNA content per plant. A total of 178 fungal isolates were identified, with sequence data revealing 34 different operational taxonomic units (OTUs). A few common taxa dominated the fungal endophyte community, whereas most taxa qualified as rare. A significant positive correlation between plant protection (evaluated in terms of percentage of leaf damage) and FEF frequency was found. Furthermore, in vitro confrontation assays indicated that FEF were able to inhibit the growth of fungal pathogens. The data showed a relatively high diversity of fungal endophytes associated with leaves of E. coccineum, and suggest a positive relationship between fungal endophyte frequencies in leaves and host protection in nature. PMID:27339046

  20. Host associations and beta diversity of fungal endophyte communities in New Guinea rainforest trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, J B; Weiblen, G D; May, G

    2016-02-01

    Processes shaping the distribution of foliar fungal endophyte species remain poorly understood. Despite increasing evidence that these cryptic fungal symbionts of plants mediate interactions with pathogens and herbivores, there remain basic questions regarding the extent to which dispersal limitation and host specificity might shape fungal endophyte community composition in rainforests. To assess the relative importance of spatial pattern and host specificity, we isolated fungi from a sample of mapped trees in lowland Papua New Guinea. Sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region were obtained for 2079 fungal endophytes from three sites and clustered into molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs) at 95% similarity. Multivariate analyses suggest that host affinity plays a significant role in structuring endophyte community composition whereas there was no evidence of endophyte spatial pattern at the scale of tens to hundreds of metres. Differences in endophyte communities between sampled trees were weakly correlated with variation in foliar traits but not with tree species relatedness. The dominance of relatively few generalist endophytes and the presence of a large number of rare MOTUs was a consistent observation at three sites separated by hundreds of kilometres and regional turnover was low. Host specificity appears to play a relatively weak but more important role than dispersal limitation in shaping the distribution of fungal endophyte communities in New Guinea forests. Our results suggest that in the absence of strong ecological gradients and host turnover, beta diversity of endophyte communities could be low in large areas of contiguous forest.

  1. The defensive role of foliar endophytic fungi for a South American tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Teuber, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    Fungal endophytes colonize living internal plant tissues without causing any visible symptoms of disease. Endophytic fungi associated with healthy leaves may play an important role in the protection of hosts against herbivores and pathogens. In this study, the diversity of foliar endophytic fungi (FEF) of the southern temperate tree Embothrium coccineum (Proteaceae), as well as their role in plant protection in nature was determined. Fungal endophytes were isolated from 40 asymptomatic leaves by the culture method for molecular identification of the 18S rRNA gene. A relationship between FEF frequency and plant protection was evaluated in juveniles of E. coccineum Fungal endophyte frequency was estimated using real-time PCR analyses to determine endophyte DNA content per plant. A total of 178 fungal isolates were identified, with sequence data revealing 34 different operational taxonomic units (OTUs). A few common taxa dominated the fungal endophyte community, whereas most taxa qualified as rare. A significant positive correlation between plant protection (evaluated in terms of percentage of leaf damage) and FEF frequency was found. Furthermore, in vitro confrontation assays indicated that FEF were able to inhibit the growth of fungal pathogens. The data showed a relatively high diversity of fungal endophytes associated with leaves of E. coccineum, and suggest a positive relationship between fungal endophyte frequencies in leaves and host protection in nature. PMID:27339046

  2. The Hidden World within Plants: Ecological and Evolutionary Considerations for Defining Functioning of Microbial Endophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardoim, Pablo R; van Overbeek, Leonard S; Berg, Gabriele; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Compant, Stéphane; Campisano, Andrea; Döring, Matthias; Sessitsch, Angela

    2015-09-01

    All plants are inhabited internally by diverse microbial communities comprising bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and protistic taxa. These microorganisms showing endophytic lifestyles play crucial roles in plant development, growth, fitness, and diversification. The increasing awareness of and information on endophytes provide insight into the complexity of the plant microbiome. The nature of plant-endophyte interactions ranges from mutualism to pathogenicity. This depends on a set of abiotic and biotic factors, including the genotypes of plants and microbes, environmental conditions, and the dynamic network of interactions within the plant biome. In this review, we address the concept of endophytism, considering the latest insights into evolution, plant ecosystem functioning, and multipartite interactions.

  3. Evaluating Susceptibility to Commercial Fungicide of Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Roses (Rosa hybrida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Carolina Corredor Perilla

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Fungal endophytes have shown their potential as biocontrol agents; however, their application in commercial fields remains limited. Continuously applying fungicides to crops (specifically to roses may have harmful effects on endophyte growth. Endophytic fungi were isolated from R. hybrida and their susceptibility to fungicides regularly used for controlling important pathogens was analysed. This was performed in vitro, mixing several fungicide concentrations with standard medium for fungal endophytes; growth inhibition was then measured. The susceptibility of Botrytis cinerea (3015 strain, one of the most important pathogens affecting roses in Colombia, was also assessed using the same protocols. Active ingredients, such as boscalid, captan, iprodione and pyrimethanyl, showed susceptibility ranging from not sensitive (³73.75% to regularly sensitive (³48.75% - <61.25% for 45.45% of the fungal endophytes assessed. Endophytic fungi were highly susceptible to fungicides such as pyrimethanyl, carboxin plus thiram, fludioxonyl plus ciprodinyl and prochloraz. B. cinerea (3015 strain presented high susceptibility (<23.75% to fungicides such as pyrimethanyl, carboxin and thiram, fludioxonil and ciprodinyl, prochloraz. Although B. cinerea showed the greatest growth in controls, the endophytic fungi being assessed grew better in different media with fungicides. The results revealed some of these fungal endophytes’ potential for integrated pest management (IPM in roses in Colombia (3002, 3003, 3004, 3005 and 3006 strains, taking into account correct application time, application frequency and both fungal endophyte and fungicide dosage which may greatly limit fungal endophyte growth.

  4. Biodiversity, Phylogeny, and Antifungal Functions of Endophytic Fungi Associated with Zanthoxylum bungeanum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peiqin; Wu, Zhou; Liu, Tao; Wang, Yanan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the biodiversity, phylogeny, and antifungal activity of endophytic fungi isolated from Zanthoxylum bungeanum. A total of 940 isolates obtained were grouped into 93 morphotypes, 43 species, and 23 genera, which were authenticated by molecular identification based on rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis. A high diversity of endophytic fungi from Z. bungeanum are observed with high species richness S (43), Margalef index D' (6.1351), Shannon-Wiener index H' (3.2743), Simpson diversity index Ds (0.9476), PIE index (0.9486), and evenness Pielou index J (0.8705) but a low dominant index λ (0.0524). Significant tissue specificity of the endophytic fungi was observed in Z. bungeanum, and the highest species richness and diversity indexes were obtained in the stem. Phylogenetic analyses of the 93 endophytic isolates were carried out by the neighbor-joining (NJ) method to demonstrate their evolutionary processes. Antifungal activities of endophytic fungi were assayed and eight endophytic isolates showed strong and long-lasting inhibition against host pathogenic fungi Fusarium sambucinum and Pseudocercospora zanthoxyli. Here, for the first time, we systematically demonstrate the biodiversity, phylogeny, and antifungal activity of endophytic fungi associated with Z. bungeanum and reveal the value of sampling different tissues of a given plant to obtain the greatest endophyte species diversity, which might offer a framework for further investigation and utilization of endophytic fungi as aunique source of interesting and useful bioactive compounds. PMID:27649145

  5. Endophytic fungi found in association with Bacopa monnieri as potential producers of industrial enzymes and antimicrobial bioactive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenu Katoch

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to screen the endophytic fungal species of ethano-medicinal plant Bacopa monnieri (L. Pennell for their ability to produce antimicrobial substances against Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. Endophytes were also screened for their ability to produce amylase, cellulase, protease and lipase to evaluate their ecological role within the host plant. Twenty-six endophytes were isolated and seventeen were identified. All the isolated endophytes exhibited amylolytic activity. Lipolytic, cellulolytic, proteolytic activity was shown by 98, 28 and 31% isolates, respectively. Similarly, all the endophytes (100% exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against K. pneumonia, while seventeen endophytes (89.5% were active against S. aureus. Fourteen endophytes (78.9% showed significant antimicrobial activity against B. subtilis and C. albicans. Eleven (57.8%, nine (50%, four (21% endophytes were active against S. typhimurium, E. coli and P. aeruginosa, respectively.

  6. Parasitism of Rhizoctonia solani by strains of Trichoderma spp. Parasitismo de Rhizoctonia solani por linhagens de Trichoderma spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itamar Soares de Melo

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Rhizoctonia solani causes serious diseases in a wide range of plant species. The fungus Trichoderma has been shown to be particularly effective in the control of the pathogen. Thus, this research was carried out to screen fourteen Trichoderma strains against R. solani in vitro. All strains tested inhibited the growth of R. solani. Three T. koningii strains produced toxic metabolites with strong activity against R. solani, inhibiting the mycelial growth by 79%. T. harzianum, Th-9 reduced the viability of sclerotia of R. solani by 81.8% and T. koningii, TK-5 reduced by 53%. Electron microscopic observations revealed that all T. harzianum strains interacted with R. solani. Th-9 grew toward and coiled around the host cells, penetrating and destroying the hyphae. Penetration of host cells was apparently accomplished by mechanical activity.Rhizoctonia solani é um dos mais destrutivos patógenos de plantas cultivadas. Métodos alternativos de controle têm sido empregados com sucesso, particularmente, utilizando-se o fungo Trichoderma. Este trabalho visou, portanto, selecionar linhagens efetivas desse micoparasita contra o patógeno. Onze linhagens de T. harzianum e três de T. koningii foram testadas in vitro com relação ao parasitismo de hifas e de escleródios e produção de metabólitos tóxicos. Todas as linhagens de Trichoderma spp. inibiram o crescimento miceliano de R. solani e as três linhagens de T. koningii produziram potentes antibióticos, que inibiram mais de 79% o crescimento do patógeno. Uma linhagem de T. harzianum, Th-9, reduziu a viabilidade dos escleródios em 81,8% e uma de T. koningii em 53%. Microscopia eletrônica de varredura revelou que todas as linhagens de T. harzianum parasitaram R. solani enquanto nenhuma linhagem de T. koningii interagiu com R. solani, possivelmente, devido à forte inibição causada pelos metabólitos que impediu o contato entre os dois fungos. T. harzianum, Th-9, cresceu ao redor, penetrou e

  7. Exploring the evolutionary ecology of fungal endophytes in agricultural systems: using functional traits to reveal mechanisms in community processes

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders, Megan; Anthony E. Glenn; Kohn, Linda M.

    2010-01-01

    All plants, including crop species, harbor a community of fungal endophyte species, yet we know little about the biotic factors that are important in endophyte community assembly. We suggest that the most direct route to understanding the mechanisms underlying community assembly is through the study of functional trait variation in the host and its fungal consortium. We review studies on crop endophytes that investigate plant and fungal traits likely to be important in endophyte community pro...

  8. POTENCIAL FARMACOINDUSTRIAL DE Trichoderma harzianum PARA FINS FARMACOTERAPÊUTICOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Fernando Albarello Gellen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Linhagens de Trichoderma estão bem difundidas nos processos de controle de fitopatógenos, além disto, para promoção do desenvolvimento e crescimento das culturas onde são inoculados, estes benefícios dão-se pela gama de processos desempenhados por este organismo, os processos são classificados em parasitismo, antibiose e competição, além de secretarem produtos enzimáticos com ações degradantes, compostos voláteis e antimicrobianos. Por meio de testes de produção enzimática, confronto em placa, metabólitos voláteis e sensibilização do agente, os isolados de Trichoderma harzianum mostraram-se como um potente produtor de substâncias antimicrobianas e antifúngicas perante Sthaphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. faecalis e Rhodotorula sp., Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis e Candida lusitaniae. Palavras-chave: antimicrobianos, antifúngicas, metabólitos, sensibilização. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v4n4p91-96

  9. Quality of Agricultural by Products Fermented by Trichoderma harzianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhayati Nurhayati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available (Kualitas limbah produk pertanian yang difermentasi dengan trichoderma harzianum ABSTRAK. Telah dilakukan penelitian untuk mengetahui pengaruh fermentasi menggunakan Trichoderma harzianum terhadap kualitas limbah pertanian sehingga dapat digunakan sebagai bahan pakan non konvensional pada ternak unggas. Sekam padi, kulit pisang dan kulit nanas digunakan dalam penelitian ini dan difermentasi dengan T. harzianum selama 7 hari. Penelitian dirancang menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap pola faktorial dengan 2 faktor yaitu 3 jenis limbah pertanian (sekam padi, kulit pisang dan kulit nanas dan 4 level T. harzianum ( 0, 4, 8 dan 12%. Setiap unit perlakuan diulang 4 kali. Parameter yang diamati yaitu kandungan bahan kering, protein kasar dan serat kasar. Data yang dihimpun dianalisis menggunakan analisis ragam (ANOVA dan Uji Jarak Berganda Duncan. Hasil penelitian memperlihatkan bahwa terdapat perbedaan yang nyata (P<0.05 kualitas kulit nanas, kulit pisang dan sekam padi setelah difermentasi menggunakan T. harzianum. Kandungan protein kasar kulit nanas dan sekam padi lebih tinggi dibandingkan kulit pisang sedangkan kandungan serat kasarnya lebih rendah. Semakin meningkat level penggunaan T. harzianum pada fermentasi kulit nanas dan sekam padi maka semakin meningkat kandungan protein kasar dan semakin menurun kandungan serat kasarnya. Berbeda dengan kulit pisang, yang kualitasnya tidak nyata dipengaruhi oleh meningkatnya level T. harzianum. Disimpulkan bahwa T. harzianum dapat digunakan untuk memfermentasi limbah pertanian yang kaya kandungan serat untuk meningkatkan kandungan protein dan menurunkan serat kasarnya. Kulit nanas dan sekam padi memiliki kualitas lebih tinggi setelah difermentasi menggunakan 12 % T. harzianum. Kulit pisang tidak disarankan untuk difermentasi menggunakan T. harzianum.

  10. Temperature and Plant Genotype Alter Alkaloid Concentrations in Ryegrass Infected with an Epichloë Endophyte and This Affects an Insect Herbivore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Louise M.; Popay, Alison J.; Finch, Sarah C.; Clearwater, Michael J.; Cave, Vanessa M.

    2016-01-01

    Asexual Epichloë endophytes colonize agricultural forage grasses in a relationship which is mutually beneficial and provides the host plant with protection against herbivorous insects. The endophyte strain AR37 (Epichloë festucae var. lolii) produces epoxy-janthitrem alkaloids and is the only endophyte known to provide ryegrass with resistance against porina larvae (Wiseana cervinata (Walker)), a major pasture pest in cooler areas of New Zealand. This study examined the effect of temperature on concentrations of epoxy-janthitrems in AR37-infected ryegrass and determined how the resulting variations in concentration affected consumption, growth and survival of porina larvae. Twenty replicate pairs of perennial (Lolium perenne L.) and Italian ryegrass (L. multiflorum Lam.) plants with and without endophyte were prepared by cloning, with one of each pair grown at either high (20°C) or low (7°C) temperature. After 10 weeks, herbage on each plant was harvested, divided into leaf and pseudostem, then freeze dried and ground. Leaf and pseudostem material was then incorporated separately into semi-synthetic diets which were fed to porina larvae in a bioassay over 3 weeks. Epoxy-janthitrem concentrations within the plant materials and the semi-synthetic diets were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. AR37-infected ryegrass grown at high temperature contained high in planta concentrations of epoxy-janthitrem (30.6 μg/g in leaves and 83.9 μg/g in pseudostems) that had a strong anti-feedant effect on porina larvae when incorporated into their diets, reducing their survival by 25–42% on pseudostems. In comparison, in planta epoxy-janthitrem concentrations in AR37-infected ryegrass grown at low temperature were very low (0.67 μg/g in leaves and 7.4 μg/g in pseudostems) resulting in a small anti-feedant effect in perennial but not in Italian ryegrass. Although alkaloid concentrations were greatly reduced by low temperature this reduction did not occur

  11. Trichoderma spp.对樟子松枯梢病病原菌的影响%Effect of Trichoderma spp.on the Pathogen of Sphaeropsis Blight of Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋瑞清; 周秀华

    2004-01-01

    通过Trichoderma属3个菌株与樟子松枯梢病菌(Sphaeropsis sapinea)对峙培养试验的结果表明:Trichoderma viride 1, Trichoderma viride 2及Trichoderma harzianum对樟子松枯梢病病原菌都有抑制效果,其中Trichoderma viride 2对病原菌的相对抑制效果最好,且其相对抑制效果随着时间的增加而增长,在40h达到最高,为73.55.Trichoderma viride 1和Trichoderma harzianum对病原菌的相对抑制效果在16h达到最高,分别为4.86及2.59.

  12. Consumption of endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period does not decrease milk production in the following lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected grasses inhibit prolactin (PRL) secretion and may reduce milk production of cows consuming endophyte-infected grasses. We investigated the effects of consuming endophyte-infected fescue during late lactation and the dry period on mammary growth, differentiation ...

  13. Plant functional traits and phylogenetic relatedness explain variation in associations with root fungal endophytes in an extreme arid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since root endophytes may ameliorate drought stress, understanding which plants associate with endophytes is important, especially in arid ecosystems. Here we characterized the root endophytes of 42 plants from an arid region of Argentina. We related colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF...

  14. Alfalfa endophytes as novel sources of antimicrobial compounds that inhibit the growth of human and plant pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungal endophytes may contribute to plant health and disease protection, yet little is known about their various roles in alfalfa. Also, endophytes from several plant species produce novel antimicrobial compounds that may be useful clinically. We isolated endophytic fungi from over 50 samples from s...

  15. Carbendazim resistance and calculation effective concentration of carbendazim for Trichoderma harzianum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elham Siassi; YANG Qian

    2005-01-01

    There is a method for investigating the transformation of resistance gene of carbendazim into Trichoderma harzianum. In order to introduce the resistance to benzimidazole fungicide into bio-control microorganism Trichoderma harzianum was transformed with the resistance gene. In this study, we investigate resistance level and calculate EC 50 ( effective concentration of carbendazim that can survive 50% of Trichoderma harzianum in that concentration) and stability of the resistance for the transformant isolate of Trichoderma harzianum.Results show the transformants can growth on the medium containing more than 1 000 μg/ml carbendazim and the resistance is stabled after 10 times transfer on non-selective medium and have EC 50 average about, 1 200μg/ml.

  16. Comparative molecular evolution of Trichoderma chitinases in response to mycoparasitic interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ihrmark, Katarina; Asmail, Nashwan; Ubhayasekera, Wimal;

    2010-01-01

    Certain species of the fungal genus Trichoderma are potent mycoparasites and are used for biological control of fungal diseases on agricultural crops. In Trichoderma, whole-genome sequencing reveal between 20 and 36 different genes encoding chitinases, hydrolytic enzymes that are involved...... in the mycoparasitic attack. Sequences of Trichoderma chitinase genes chi18-5, chi18-13, chi18-15 and chi18-17, which all exhibit specific expression during mycoparasitism-related conditions, were determined from up to 13 different taxa and studied with regard to their evolutionary patterns. Two of them, chi18......-usage and contains five codons that evolve under positive selection and three groups of co-evolving sites. Regions of high amino acid variability are preferentially localized to substrate- or product side of the catalytic clefts. Differences in amino acid diversity/conservation patterns between different Trichoderma...

  17. Studies on the control of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.cubense with Trichoderma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yue-li; LIU Kai-qi; XIANG Mei-mei; LIU Ren

    2004-01-01

    @@ One hundred and fifty one isolates of Trichoderma were collected mainly from more than 40 soil samples and other materials in Guangdong Province (including Chigang, Zhanjiang, Wuchuan,Panyu, Zhaoqing, Dongguan, Humen, Qingyuan, Guanzhou) and the soil samples were also from different plant rhizosphere (including rice, different fruits and different vegetables). It was shown that 39 isolates of Trichoderma grew faster than other isolates using growth velocity experiments.The 39 isolates could effectively inhibit Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (E. F. Sm) Sny. &Hans.by dual cultural experiments. The inhibited activity included the antifungal activities of its metabolite,mycoparasitic activities and the lytic enzymes by dual culture, electronic microcopy and enzyme assay.At present, studies on the taxonomy of the 151 isolates of Trichoderma are carried out in our experiments, some Trichoderma species aggregates will be identified according to the taxonomy system revised by Rifai and Bissett.

  18. Production of chitinases with Trichoderma harzianun isolates using solid substrate fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viviana Nagy

    2004-01-01

    @@ Over forty Trichoderma harzianum isolates have been screened in solid substrate fermentation (SSF)for chitinase production. Strains were isolated from Asian soil and tree bark samples. Identification was performed in Canada and Austria by classical and molecular taxonomical methods.

  19. Examining the Potential of Plasma-Assisted Pretreated Wheat Straw for Enzyme Production by Trichoderma reesei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez Gómez, Divanery; Lehmann, Linda Olkjær; Schultz-Jensen, Nadja;

    2012-01-01

    Plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw was investigated for cellulase and xylanase production by Trichoderma reesei fermentation. Fermentations were conducted with media containing washed and unwashed plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw as carbon source which was sterilized by autoclavation...

  20. Exploitation of Trichoderma species on the growth of Pythium Aphanidermatum in Chilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumar, A; Eswaran, A; Sanjeevkumas, K

    2011-10-01

    Damping-off of chilli caused by Pythium aphanidermatum is a major nursery disease in vegetables. In vitro experiments evaluated the effect of eight isolates of Trichoderma species (from chilli rhizosphere) were tested against P. aphanidermatum. All the Trichoderma species had varied antagonistic effects against the pathogen. Among them, TVC3 recorded maximum growth inhibition of P. aphanidermatum and produced more amounts of volatile and non-volatile metabolites. The culture filtrate of the Trichoderma isolate TVC3 recorded complete inhibition on the mycelial growth of pathogen at 15% concentration. Moreover, chilli seeds treated with culture filtrate of the isolate TVC3 recorded maximum germination percentage, shoot length, root length and vigour index of chilli. The study identified the Trichoderma isolate (TVC3) performed well in inhibiting the mycelial growth of pathogen as well as increased the plant growth in chilli. PMID:24031794

  1. Phosphate enhances levan production in the endophytic bacterium Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idogawa, Nao; Amamoto, Ryuta; Murata, Kousaku; Kawai, Shigeyuki

    2014-01-01

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a gram-negative and endophytic nitrogen-fixing bacterium that has several beneficial effects in host plants; thus, utilization of this bacterium as a biofertilizer in agriculture may be possible. G. diazotrophicus synthesizes levan, a D-fructofuranosyl polymer with β-(2→6) linkages, as an exopolysaccharide and the synthesized levan improves the stress tolerance of the bacterium. In this study, we found that phosphate enhances levan production by G. diazotrophicus Pal5, a wild type strain that showed a stronger mucous phenotype on solid medium containing 28 mM phosphate than on solid medium containing 7 mM phosphate. A G. diazotrophicus Pal5 levansucrase disruptant showed only a weak mucous phenotype regardless of the phosphate concentration, indicating that the mucous phenotype observed on 28 mM phosphate medium was caused by levan. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the effect of a high concentration of phosphate on exopolysaccharide production. PMID:24717418

  2. Trichoderma spp. NA EMERGÊNCIA E CRESCIMENTO DE MUDAS DE CAMBARÁ (Gochnatia polymorpha (Less. Cabrera1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Franco Martins Machado

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, o objetivo foi avaliar o efeito de isolados de Trichoderma spp. na emergência de plântulas e no crescimento de mudas de cambará (Gochnatia polymorpha. Utilizou-se, em casa de vegetação, substrato esterilizado e não esterilizado, sendo avaliados os efeitos de quatro isolados de trichoderma: TSM1 e TSM2 de Trichoderma viride, 2B2 e 2B22 de Trichoderma harzianum mais um mix preparado com a mistura desses quatro isolados, além de dois produtos comerciais à base de trichoderma. A análise dos dados permitiu concluir que os isolados de trichoderma testados não interferem na emergência das plântulas, mas os isolados 2B2 e 2B22 de T. harzianum apresentam potenciais como promotores de crescimento de mudas de cambará.

  3. Boosting plant defence by beneficial soil microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Maria J. Pozo; Loon, L. C. van; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Plants in their environment face potential deleterious organisms such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, nematodes, etc. Many of them are able to cause plant diseases, responsible of important losses in crop production worldwide. But often the outcome of these interactions is not disease, since plants have developed multiple mechanisms to protect themselves against pathogens attack. Moreover, beneficial microorganisms are common in the soil, improving plant growth and reducing the effects of delete...

  4. Efficiency of treatments for controlling Trichoderma spp during spawning in cultivation of lignicolous mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colavolpe, María Belén; Mejía, Santiago Jaramillo; Albertó, Edgardo

    2014-01-01

    Trichoderma spp is the cause of the green mold disease in mushroom cultivation production. Many disinfection treatments are commonly applied to lignocellulose substrates to prevent contamination. Mushroom growers are usually worried about the contaminations that may occur after these treatments during handling or spawning. The aim of this paper is to estimate the growth of the green mold Trichoderma sp on lignocellulose substrates after different disinfection treatments to know which of them is more effective to avoid contamination during spawning phase. Three different treatments were assayed: sterilization (121 °C), immersion in hot water (60 and 80 °C), and immersion in alkalinized water. Wheat straw, wheat seeds and Eucalyptus or Populus sawdust were used separately as substrates. After the disinfection treatments, bagged substrates were sprayed with 3 mL of suspension of conidia of Trichoderma sp (10(5) conidia/mL) and then separately spawned with Pleurotus ostreatus or Gymnopilus pampeanus. The growth of Trichoderma sp was evaluated based on a qualitative scale. Trichoderma sp could not grow on non-sterilized substrates. Immersions in hot water treatments and immersion in alkalinized water were also unfavorable treatments for its growth. Co- cultivation with mushrooms favored Trichoderma sp growth. Mushroom cultivation disinfection treatments of lignocellulose substrates influence on the growth of Trichoderma sp when contaminations occur during spawning phase. The immersion in hot water at 60 °C for 30 min or in alkalinized water for 36 h, are treatments which better reduced the contaminations with Trichoderma sp during spawning phase for the cultivation of lignicolous species.

  5. Trichoderma spp.capable of growing at low temperatures with biocontrol potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Szakacs G; Tavaszi A

    2004-01-01

    @@ Though there are successful commercial biocontrol products with Trichoderma spp. In many countries including US, Israel and Europe, their usefulness is limited in cold environments such as mid-and northern part of Europe, US and Canada, especially in the late fall, winter and early spring period.Trichoderma isolates capable of growing at low temperatures (5-10 ℃) and showing good antagonistic properties against plant pathogenic fungi may have therefore both scientific and commercial value.

  6. Biological control of rice brown spot with native isolates of three Trichoderma species

    OpenAIRE

    Elham Khalili; Mehdi Sadravi; Shahram Naeimi; Vahid Khosravi

    2012-01-01

    Brown spot caused by Bipolaris oryzae is an important rice disease in Southern coast of Caspian Sea, the major rice growing region in Iran. A total of 45 Trichoderma isolates were obtained from rice paddy fields in Golestan and Mazandaran provinces which belonged to Trichoderma harzianum, T. virens and T. atroviride species. Initially, they were screened against B. oryzae by antagonism tests including dual culture, volatile and nonvolatile metabolites and hyperparasitism. Results showed that ...

  7. Enhanced biocontrol activity of Trichoderma through inactivation of a mitogen-activated protein kinase

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza-Mendoza, Artemio; Pozo, María J.; Grzegorski, Darlene; Martínez, Pedro; García, Juan M.; Olmedo-Monfil, Vianey; Cortés, Carlos; Kenerley, Charles; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo

    2003-01-01

    The production of lytic enzymes in Trichoderma is considered determinant in its parasitic response against fungal species. A mitogen-activated protein kinase encoding gene, tvk1, from Trichoderma virens was cloned, and its role during the mycoparasitism, conidiation, and biocontrol was examined in tvk1 null mutants. These mutants showed a clear increase in the level of the expression of mycoparasitism-related genes under simulated mycoparasitism and during direct confrontation with the plant ...

  8. Uji Efektifitas Jamur Antagonis Trichoderma sp. Dan Gliocladium sp. Untuk Mengendalikan Penyakit Layu Fusarium

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution, Rima Yunisa

    2015-01-01

    Rima Yunisa Nasution. 2014. Effectiveness test on antagonist fungi Trichoderma sp. and Gliocladium Sp. to control fusarium disease (Fusarium oxysporum F.sp capsici) for chilli crop (Capsicum Annuum L.) at screen house. Supervised by Lahmuddin Lubis and Hassanuddin. The goal of the research is to examine antagonist fungi Trichoderma and Gliocladium virens towards F. Oxysporum that lead the fusarium disease for chilli crop at screen house. The research was conducted at Plant Dise...

  9. Molecular Identification of Trichoderma spp. in Garlic and Onion Fields and In Vitro Antagonism Trials on Sclerotium cepivorum

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Alvarado-Marchena and; William Rivera-Méndez

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Trichoderma species are non-pathogenic microorganisms that protect against fungal diseases and contribute to increased crop yields. However, not all Trichoderma species have the same effects on crop or a pathogen, whereby the characterization and identification of strains at the species level is the first step in the use of a microorganism. The aim of this study was the identification – at species level – of five strains of Trichoderma isolated from soil samples obtained from garlic ...

  10. Tolerance to chitosan by Trichoderma species is associated with low membrane fluidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala-González, Ernesto A; Lopez-Moya, Federico; Aranda-Martinez, Almudena; Cruz-Valerio, Mayra; Lopez-Llorca, Luis Vicente; Ramírez-Lepe, Mario

    2016-07-01

    The effect of chitosan on growth of Trichoderma spp., a cosmopolitan genus widely exploited for their biocontrol properties was evaluated. Based on genotypic (ITS of 18S rDNA) characters, four isolates of Trichoderma were identified as T. pseudokoningii FLM16, T. citrinoviride FLM17, T. harzianum EZG47, and T. koningiopsis VSL185. Chitosan reduces radial growth of Trichoderma isolates in concentration-wise manner. T. koningiopsis VSL185 was the most chitosan tolerant isolate in all culture media amended with chitosan (0.5-2.0 mg ml(-1) ). Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimal Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) were determined showing that T. koningiopsis VSL185 displays higher chitosan tolerance with MIC value >2000 μg ml(-1) while for other Trichoderma isolates MIC values were around 10 μg ml(-1) . Finally, free fatty acid composition reveals that T. koningiopsis VSL185, chitosan tolerant isolate, displays lower linolenic acid (C18:3) content than chitosan sensitive Trichoderma isolates. Our findings suggest that low membrane fluidity is associated with chitosan tolerance in Trichoderma spp. PMID:27213758

  11. Validation of a novel sequential cultivation method for the production of enzymatic cocktails from Trichoderma strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florencio, C; Cunha, F M; Badino, A C; Farinas, C S

    2015-02-01

    The development of new cost-effective bioprocesses for the production of cellulolytic enzymes is needed in order to ensure that the conversion of biomass becomes economically viable. The aim of this study was to determine whether a novel sequential solid-state and submerged fermentation method (SF) could be validated for different strains of the Trichoderma genus. Cultivation of the Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30 reference strain under SF using sugarcane bagasse as substrate was shown to be favorable for endoglucanase (EGase) production, resulting in up to 4.2-fold improvement compared with conventional submerged fermentation. Characterization of the enzymes in terms of the optimum pH and temperature for EGase activity and comparison of the hydrolysis profiles obtained using a synthetic substrate did not reveal any qualitative differences among the different cultivation conditions investigated. However, the thermostability of the EGase was influenced by the type of carbon source and cultivation system. All three strains of Trichoderma tested (T. reesei Rut-C30, Trichoderma harzianum, and Trichoderma sp INPA 666) achieved higher enzymatic productivity when cultivated under SF, hence validating the proposed SF method for use with different Trichoderma strains. The results suggest that this bioprocess configuration is a very promising development for the cellulosic biofuels industry.

  12. Biotransformation of Trichoderma spp. and their tolerance to aromatic amines, a major class of pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocaign, Angélique; Bui, Linh-Chi; Silar, Philippe; Chan Ho Tong, Laetitia; Busi, Florent; Lamouri, Aazdine; Mougin, Christian; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Dairou, Julien

    2013-08-01

    Trichoderma spp. are cosmopolitan soil fungi that are highly resistant to many toxic compounds. Here, we show that Trichoderma virens and T. reesei are tolerant to aromatic amines (AA), a major class of pollutants including the highly toxic pesticide residue 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA). In a previous study, we provided proof-of-concept remediation experiments in which another soil fungus, Podospora anserina, detoxifies 3,4-DCA through its arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT), a xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme that enables acetyl coenzyme A-dependent detoxification of AA. To assess whether the N-acetylation pathway enables AA tolerance in Trichoderma spp., we cloned and characterized NATs from T. virens and T. reesei. We characterized recombinant enzymes by determining their catalytic efficiencies toward several toxic AA. Through a complementary approach, we also demonstrate that both Trichoderma species efficiently metabolize 3,4-DCA. Finally, we provide evidence that NAT-independent transformation is solely (in T. virens) or mainly (in T. reesei) responsible for the observed removal of 3,4-DCA. We conclude that T. virens and, to a lesser extent, T. reesei likely utilize another, unidentified, metabolic pathway for the detoxification of AA aside from acetylation. This is the first molecular and functional characterization of AA biotransformation in Trichoderma spp. Given the potential of Trichoderma for cleanup of contaminated soils, these results reveal new possibilities in the fungal remediation of AA-contaminated soil.

  13. Screening of different Trichoderma species against agriculturally important foliar plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakaran, Narayanasamy; Prameeladevi, Thokala; Sathiyabama, Muthukrishnan; Kamil, Deeba

    2015-01-01

    Different isolates of Trichoderma were isolated from soil samples which were collected from different part of India. These isolates were grouped into four Trichoderma species viz., Trichoderma asperellum (Ta), T. harzianum (Th), T. pseudokoningii (Tp) and T. longibrachiatum (Tl) based on their morphological characters. Identification of the above isolates was also confirmed through ITS region analysis. These Trichoderma isolates were tested for in vitro biological control of Alternaria solani, Bipolaris oryzae, Pyricularia oryzae and Sclerotinia scierotiorum which cause serious diseases like early blight (target spot) of tomato and potato, brown leaf spot disease in rice, rice blast disease, and white mold disease in different plants. Under in vitro conditions, all the four species of Trichoderma (10 isolates) proved 100% potential inhibition against rice blast pathogen Pyracularia oryzae. T. harzianum (Th-01) and T. asperellum (Ta-10) were effective with 86.6% and 97.7%, growth inhibition of B. oryzae, respectively. Among others, T. pseudokoningii (Tp-08) and T. Iongibrachiatum (Tl-09) species were particularly efficient in inhibiting growth of S. sclerotiorum by 97.8% and 93.3%. T. Iongibrachiatum (TI-06 and TI-07) inhibited maximum mycelial growth of A. solani by 87.6% and 84.75. However, all the T. harzianum isolates showed significantly higher inhibition against S. sclerotiorum (CD value 9.430), causing white mold disease. This study led to the selection of potential Trichoderma isolates against rice blast, early blight, brown leaf spot in rice and white mold disease in different crops.

  14. Determination of lytic enzyme activities of indigenous Trichoderma isolates from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asad, Saeed Ahmad; Tabassum, Ayesha; Hameed, Abdul; Hassan, Fayyaz Ul; Afzal, Aftab; Khan, Sabaz Ali; Ahmed, Rafiq; Shahzad, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated lytic enzyme activities in three indigenous Trichoderma strains namely, Trichoderma asperellum, Trichoderma harzianum and Trichoderma sp. Native Trichoderma strains and a virulent strain of Rhizoctonia solani isolated from infected bean plants were also included in the study. Enzyme activities were determined by measuring sugar reduction by dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) method using suitable substrates. The antagonists were cultured in minimal salt medium with the following modifications: medium A (1 g of glucose), medium B (0.5 g of glucose + 0.5 g of deactivated R. solani mycelia), medium C (1.0 g of deactivated respective antagonist mycelium) and medium D (1 g of deactivated R. solani mycelia). T asperellum showed presence of higher amounts of chitinases, β-1, 3-glucanases and xylanases in extracellular protein extracts from medium D as compared to medium A. While, the higher activities of glucosidases and endoglucanses were shown in medium D extracts by T. harzianum. β-glucosidase activities were lower compared with other enzymes; however, activities of the extracts of medium D were significantly different. T. asperellum exhibited maximum inhibition (97.7%). On the other hand, Trichoderma sp. did not show any effect on mycelia growth of R. solani on crude extract.

  15. Isolation and expression of two polyketide synthase genes from Trichoderma harzianum 88 during mycoparasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lin; Tan, Chong; Song, Jinzhu; Yang, Qian; Yu, Lijie; Li, Xinling

    2016-01-01

    Metabolites of mycoparasitic fungal species such as Trichoderma harzianum 88 have important biological roles. In this study, two new ketoacyl synthase (KS) fragments were isolated from cultured Trichoderma harzianum 88 mycelia using degenerate primers and analysed using a phylogenetic tree. The gene fragments were determined to be present as single copies in Trichoderma harzianum 88 through southern blot analysis using digoxigenin-labelled KS gene fragments as probes. The complete sequence analysis in formation of pksT-1 (5669bp) and pksT-2 (7901bp) suggests that pksT-1 exhibited features of a non-reducing type I fungal PKS, whereas pksT-2 exhibited features of a highly reducing type I fungal PKS. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction indicated that the isolated genes are differentially regulated in Trichoderma harzianum 88 during challenge with three fungal plant pathogens, which suggests that they participate in the response of Trichoderma harzianum 88 to fungal plant pathogens. Furthermore, disruption of the pksT-2 encoding ketosynthase-acyltransferase domains through Agrobacterium-mediated gene transformation indicated that pksT-2 is a key factor for conidial pigmentation in Trichoderma harzianum 88. PMID:26991299

  16. Screening of different Trichoderma species against agriculturally important foliar plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakaran, Narayanasamy; Prameeladevi, Thokala; Sathiyabama, Muthukrishnan; Kamil, Deeba

    2015-01-01

    Different isolates of Trichoderma were isolated from soil samples which were collected from different part of India. These isolates were grouped into four Trichoderma species viz., Trichoderma asperellum (Ta), T. harzianum (Th), T. pseudokoningii (Tp) and T. longibrachiatum (Tl) based on their morphological characters. Identification of the above isolates was also confirmed through ITS region analysis. These Trichoderma isolates were tested for in vitro biological control of Alternaria solani, Bipolaris oryzae, Pyricularia oryzae and Sclerotinia scierotiorum which cause serious diseases like early blight (target spot) of tomato and potato, brown leaf spot disease in rice, rice blast disease, and white mold disease in different plants. Under in vitro conditions, all the four species of Trichoderma (10 isolates) proved 100% potential inhibition against rice blast pathogen Pyracularia oryzae. T. harzianum (Th-01) and T. asperellum (Ta-10) were effective with 86.6% and 97.7%, growth inhibition of B. oryzae, respectively. Among others, T. pseudokoningii (Tp-08) and T. Iongibrachiatum (Tl-09) species were particularly efficient in inhibiting growth of S. sclerotiorum by 97.8% and 93.3%. T. Iongibrachiatum (TI-06 and TI-07) inhibited maximum mycelial growth of A. solani by 87.6% and 84.75. However, all the T. harzianum isolates showed significantly higher inhibition against S. sclerotiorum (CD value 9.430), causing white mold disease. This study led to the selection of potential Trichoderma isolates against rice blast, early blight, brown leaf spot in rice and white mold disease in different crops. PMID:26536792

  17. Biological control of rice brown spot with native isolates of three Trichoderma species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Khalili

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Brown spot caused by Bipolaris oryzae is an important rice disease in Southern coast of Caspian Sea, the major rice growing region in Iran. A total of 45 Trichoderma isolates were obtained from rice paddy fields in Golestan and Mazandaran provinces which belonged to Trichoderma harzianum, T. virens and T. atroviride species. Initially, they were screened against B. oryzae by antagonism tests including dual culture, volatile and nonvolatile metabolites and hyperparasitism. Results showed that Trichoderma isolates can significantly inhibit mycelium growth of pathogen in vitro by producing volatile and nonvolatile metabolites Light microscopic observations showed no evidence of mycoparasitic behaviour of the tested isolates of Trichoderma spp. such as coiling around the B. oryzae. According to in vitro experiments, Trichoderma isolates were selected in order to evaluate their efficacy in controlling brown spot in glasshouse using seed treatment and foliar spray methods. Concerning the glasshouse tests, two strains of T. harzianum significantly controlled the disease and one strain of T. atroviride increased the seedling growth. It is the first time that the biological control of rice brown spot and increase of seedling growth with Trichoderma species have been studied in Iran.

  18. Determination of lytic enzyme activities of indigenous Trichoderma isolates from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asad, Saeed Ahmad; Tabassum, Ayesha; Hameed, Abdul; Hassan, Fayyaz Ul; Afzal, Aftab; Khan, Sabaz Ali; Ahmed, Rafiq; Shahzad, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated lytic enzyme activities in three indigenous Trichoderma strains namely, Trichoderma asperellum, Trichoderma harzianum and Trichoderma sp. Native Trichoderma strains and a virulent strain of Rhizoctonia solani isolated from infected bean plants were also included in the study. Enzyme activities were determined by measuring sugar reduction by dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) method using suitable substrates. The antagonists were cultured in minimal salt medium with the following modifications: medium A (1 g of glucose), medium B (0.5 g of glucose + 0.5 g of deactivated R. solani mycelia), medium C (1.0 g of deactivated respective antagonist mycelium) and medium D (1 g of deactivated R. solani mycelia). T asperellum showed presence of higher amounts of chitinases, β-1, 3-glucanases and xylanases in extracellular protein extracts from medium D as compared to medium A. While, the higher activities of glucosidases and endoglucanses were shown in medium D extracts by T. harzianum. β-glucosidase activities were lower compared with other enzymes; however, activities of the extracts of medium D were significantly different. T. asperellum exhibited maximum inhibition (97.7%). On the other hand, Trichoderma sp. did not show any effect on mycelia growth of R. solani on crude extract. PMID:26691463

  19. [Study on secondary metabolites of endophytic fungi Penicillium polonicum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Ding, Guang-Zhi; Fang, Lei; Yu, Shi-Shan

    2014-10-01

    The PDB culture medium was selected to ferment the endophyte strain, and the secondary metabolites of endophytic fungi Penicillium polonicum were studied. Combined application of Sephadex LH-20, ODS and HPLC chromatographies over the ethyl acetate extract of the fermented culture led to the isolation of 6 compounds. By spectral methods, the structures were elucidated as [3, 5-dihydroxy-2-(7-hydroxy-octanoyl)]-ethylphenylacetate (1), (3, 5-dihydroxy-2- octanoyl)-ethyl phenylacetate (2), (5, 7-di- hydroxy-9-heptyl)-isobenzo pyran-3-one (3), 3-(hydroxymethyl) 4-(1E)-1- propen-1-yl-(1R, 2S, 5R, 6S)-7-oxabicyclo [4.1.0] hept-3-ene-2, 5-diol (4), (E)-2-methoxy-3-(prop-1-enyl) phenol (5) and p-hydroxylphenylethanol (6). PMID:25751949

  20. Taxol producing mangrove endophytic fungi Fusarium oxysporum from Rhizophora annamalayana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alaganadham Elavarasi; Gnanaprakash Sathiya Rathna; Murugaiyan Kalaiselvam

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To find out the anticancer properties of Taxol (paclitaxel) isolated from mangrove endophytic fungi. Methods: An endophytic fungus Fusarium oxysporum was isolated fromRhizophora annamalayana, a mangrove plant and analysis for Taxol production. The fungus was identified based on morphology and spore characteristics. The secondary metabolites Taxol were extracted with ethyl acetate. Taxol extracted was characterized by chromatographic and spectrometric analysis. Results: Thin layer chromatography plate shows violet red and IR spectrum values were conformed as group of terpenoid functional groups. The HPLC analysis showed the higher yield of Taxol 172.3 μg/L from potato dextrose liquid medium. Conclusion:The bioprospecting of entophytic fungus F. oxysporum isolated from mangrove is discussed and may serve as a potential material for the production of Taxol for anticancer treatment.

  1. Endophytic Bacteria as Biocontrol Agents of Tomato Bacterial Wilt Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arika Purnawati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ralstonia solanacearum is a tomato pathogen causing wilt disease which can lose crop production up to 100%. This problem also has economical impact to Indonesia, though controlling this pathogen has been donebefore. Biological control using endophytic bacteria is one of alternative control methods to support agriculture sustainability. The objective of these experiments are isolating endophytic bacteria taken from healthy tomato stems and root as well as investigating patogens as biocontrol agents of tomato bacterial wilt disease. Among 10 isolates found, only Ps1 and Ps8 can inhibit R. solanacearum based on antagonistic test in vitro using seed coat method and 4-7 mm inhibition zone forming. In vivo test was applied in green house in 30 days old of tomatoes usingendophytic bacteria by theroot soak technique. The result shows Ps1 and Ps8 within 15-16 days incubation period have suppressed 8.07%-9.19% pathogen attack.

  2. Screening Mangrove Endophytic Fungi for Antimalarial Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Calcul

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a screening campaign to investigate fungi as a source for new antimalarial compounds. A subset of our fungal collection comprising Chinese mangrove endophytes provided over 5000 lipophilic extracts. We developed an accelerated discovery program based on small-scale cultivation for crude extract screening and a high-throughput malaria assay. Criteria for hits were developed and high priority hits were subjected to scale-up cultivation. Extracts from large scale cultivation were fractionated and these fractions subjected to both in vitro malaria and cytotoxicity screening. Criteria for advancing fractions to purification were developed, including the introduction of a selectivity index and by dereplication of known metabolites. From the Chinese mangrove endophytes, four new compounds (14–16, 18 were isolated including a new dimeric tetrahydroxanthone, dicerandrol D (14, which was found to display the most favorable bioactivity profile.

  3. KADAR GLUKOSA DARI HIDROLISIS SELULOSA PADA ECENG GONDOK MENGGUNAKAN Trichoderma viride DENGAN VARIASI TEMPERATUR DAN WAKTU FERMENTASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purbowatiningrum R Sarjono

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Telah kita ketahui bahwa eceng gondok merupakan salah satu sumber selulosa yang melimpah di alam dan dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai sumber karbon bagi jamur Trichoderma viride. Eceng gondok memiliki bobot kering selulosa 21,5%, hemiselulosa 33,9% dan lignin 7,01%. Trichoderma viride adalah jamur saprofit yang berpotensi memproduksi selulase yang mampu mendegradasi ikatan β-1,4-glikosida pada rantai selulosa untuk menghasilkan glukosa. Glukosa dapat dimanfaatkan dalam produksi sirup gula, asam organik dan bioetanol. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan Trichoderma viride yang mampu tumbuh pada media pertumbuhan hasil modifikasi eceng gondok serta memperoleh temperatur optimum aktivitas Trichoderma viride dalam menghidrolisis eceng gondok dan waktu fermentasi terbaik dalam menghasilkan glukosa. Proses pertama adalah persiapan sampel enceng gondok meliputi delignifikasi, kurva pertumbuhan Trichoderma viride dibuat dalam media modifikasi eceng gondok untuk mengetahui waktu optimum pertumbuhan Trichoderma viride. Penentuan temperatur optimum dan waktu fermentasi terbaik dari aktivitas Trichoderma viride didasarkan pada glukosa yang dihasilkan dari hidrolisis selulosa pada eceng gondok menggunakan metode Nelson Somogyi. Berdasarkan penelitian diperoleh hasil bahwa Trichoderma viride mampu tumbuh pada media modifikasi eceng gondok. Temperatur optimum aktivitas Trichoderma viride dalam menghidrolisis selulosa pada eceng gondok adalah 35oC dan waktu fermentasi terbaik dihasilkannya glukosa pada jam ke-96 yaitu sebesar 1,3864 mg/L.

  4. Two New Secondary Metabolites from the Endophytic Fungus Endomelanconiopsis endophytica

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang-Hua Sun; Hao-Hua Li; Fa-Liang Liang; Yu-Chan Chen; Hong-Xin Liu; Sai-Ni Li; Guo-Hui Tan; Wei-Min Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Two new secondary metabolites, endomeketals A–B (1–2), a new natural product (3), and a known compound (4) were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the endophytic fungus Endomelanconiopsis endophytica A326 derived from Ficus hirta. Their structures were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. All compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against SF-268, MCF-7, NCI-H460, and HepG-2 tumor cell lines. However, no compound showed cytotoxic activity agains...

  5. Diversity of culturable bacterial endophytes of saffron in Kashmir, India

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Tanwi; Kaul, Sanjana; Dhar, Manoj K.

    2015-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus) is a medicinally important plant. The Kashmir valley (J&K, India) emblematizes one of the major and quality saffron producing areas in the world. Nonetheless, the area has been experiencing a declining trend in the production of saffron during the last decade. Poor disease management is one of the major reasons for declining saffron production in the area. Endophytes are known to offer control against many diseases of host plant. During the present study, culturable b...

  6. Novel endophyte-infected tall fescue for growing beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, S A; Beck, P A

    2004-01-01

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea, Shreb.) is the predominant cool-season, perennial grass in the eastern half of the United States, and the majority is infected with the endemic endophyte (E+) Neotyphodium coenophialum, resulting in millions of dollars in revenues lost to the beef industry. Endophyte-free (E-) tall fescue was initially tapped as a "silver bullet" for the solution to fescue toxicosis, but drought intolerance and overgrazing have often resulted in nearly complete stand losses in 3 to 4 yr. Recently, the discovery of new endophytes that do not produce ergot alkaloids has resulted in the development of novel-endophyte-infected (NE+), stress-tolerant tall fescue plants. These NE+ tall fescue plants combine the plant persistence advantages of E+ (infected) tall fescue with the animal performance advantages of an E- tall fescue. Controlled studies from several locations in the southern United States have shown that the three commercially available cultivars of NE+ tall fescue persist as well as E+ tall fescues. Stocker cattle performance trials from five states have shown that the ADG in cattle grazing NE+ tall fescue was 47% greater than in cattle grazing E+ tall fescue and that cattle show no signs of fescue toxicosis. Economic evaluations of establishment cost and improved animal performance indicate that a stand of NE+ tall fescue would require 7 yr to pay off and begin to return profit to the enterprise if calves grazing E+ pasture are not discounted in price for fescue toxicosis at marketing. Average discounts at marketing for cattle showing signs of fescue toxicosis are $7.49/45.4 kg of BW. Assuming E+ cattle are discounted at sale and the quality of cattle is not decreased by the use of NE+ tall fescue, a stand of NE+ tall fescue would require 3 yr to pay the expense of establishment and begin to return profit to the enterprise.

  7. Potential Endophytic Bacteria for Increasing Paddy Var Rojolele Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Desriani Desriani; Dwi Endah Kusumawati; Akhmad Rivai; Neneng Hasanah; Wiwit Amrinola; Lita Triratna; Ade Sukma

    2013-01-01

    Paddy var Rojoleleis asuperior paddy come from Klaten that released by Department of Agriculture in 2003. Its superior properties are resistant to pests leaf hoppers, fluffier, and fragrant. To increase the productivity of paddy that are of ten used by farmers is to use chemical-based fertilizers. The use of these chemicals will effect to adisruption of ecosystem balancing, reduction the amount of soil microflora which essential forplants. Endophytic bacteria are symbiotic microorganisms livi...

  8. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AND BIODEGRADING ENZYMES OF ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI FROM EUCALYPTUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ananda et al

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A total of thirty endophytic fungi were isolated from leaves and twigs of Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus citriodora. Among thirty endophytic fungal isolates, four (P3MT1, P3MT2, OP4MT2 and P7ML2 are consistently producing compounds which are inhibiting Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Mycobacterium smegmatis and Candida albicans even after 10 generations tested under dual culture, well diffusion and disc diffusion methods. P3MT1 and OP4MT2 are inhibiting even a filamentous fungi Penicillium chrysogenum. The fungal isolate OP4MT2 showed highest zone of inhibition (20 mm against Penicillium chrysogenum among two test fungi. The crude ethyl acetate extract of P3MT1 isolate showed highest zone of inhibition against Candida albicans (19 mm by both well and disc diffusion method when compared to other fungal isolates. Another four fungal isolates (P3ML1, P6MT1, P5MT1 and P2MT1 from the same set of thirty isolates showed positive for the secretion of amylase, protease and laccase enzymes in agar plate method. Two endophytic fungal isolates (P6MT1 & P2MT1 among thirty are able to oxidize guaiacol indicating the presence of Lignin degrading enzymes. Four fungal isolates indicated presence of laccase enzymes by qualitative test were able to decolorize both methylene blue and aniline blue (synthetic dyes in solid and liquid media. The quantitative estimation of percent decolorization of synthetic dyes by spectrophotometric method confirmed more than 90 % reduction in color is made possible by the endophytic fungi. All these fungal strains with good bioactivity are of worth studying in detail for the purification and characterization of the active compounds and enzymes.

  9. Lasiodiplodins from mangrove endophytic fungus Lasiodiplodia sp. 318.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Xue, Yanyu; Yuan, Jie; Lu, Yongjun; Zhu, Xun; Lin, Yongcheng; Liu, Lan

    2016-01-01

    Four new lasiodiplodins (1-4), together with three known analogues, have been isolated from a mangrove endophytic fungus, Lasiodiplodia sp. 318#. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques. Cytotoxic activities of compounds 1-7 were evaluated in vitro against human cancer lines THP1, MDA-MB-435, A549, HepG2 and HCT-116. Compound 4 exhibited moderate cytotoxic activities. PMID:26222141

  10. Endophytic fungi from plums (Prunus domestica) and their antifungal activity against Monilinia fructicola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant endophytic microorganisms may play an important role in plant evolution, development, and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, the use of these microorganisms to benefit agriculture is in its infancy. We isolated endophytic fungi from plum leaves, identified them using ITS1 an...

  11. Muscodor yucatenensis, a new endophytic ascomycete from Mexican chakah, Bursera simaruba

    Science.gov (United States)

    During a study on the fungal endophytic associations with some trees of the dry tropical forest of El Eden Ecological Reserve located in the northeast of the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico, a new fungal species was isolated as an endophyte of a tree named chakah, chachah or huk´up by indigenous mayas. ...

  12. An Integrated Database for Grass and Endophyte Genomics at www.grassendophyte.org

    Science.gov (United States)

    The endophytic microbes are able to promote plant growth and health under various stresses via their symbiotic association with host plants. Genome-wide comparative analysis has been extensively employed to decipher complex mechanisms of interactions between endophytic microbes and host plants, resu...

  13. “Omics” Tools for Better Understanding the Plant–Endophyte Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Sanjana; Sharma, Tanwi; K. Dhar, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    Endophytes, which mostly include bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes, are the endosymbionts that reside asymptomatically in plants for at least a part of their life cycle. They have emerged as a valuable source of novel metabolites, industrially important enzymes and as stress relievers of host plant, but still many aspects of endophytic biology are unknown. Functions of individual endophytes are the result of their continuous and complex interactions with the host plant as well as other members of the host microbiome. Understanding plant microbiomes as a system allows analysis and integration of these complex interactions. Modern genomic studies involving metaomics and comparative studies can prove to be helpful in unraveling the gray areas of endophytism. A deeper knowledge of the mechanism of host infestation and role of endophytes could be exploited to improve the agricultural management in terms of plant growth promotion, biocontrol and bioremediation. Genome sequencing, comparative genomics, microarray, next gen sequencing, metagenomics, metatranscriptomics are some of the techniques that are being used or can be used to unravel plant–endophyte relationship. The modern techniques and approaches need to be explored to study endophytes and their putative role in host plant ecology. This review highlights “omics” tools that can be explored for understanding the role of endophytes in the plant microbiome. PMID:27446181

  14. A New Eudesmane Sesquiterpene from Nigrospora oryzae, an Endophytic Fungus of Aquilaria sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongli Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A new eudesmane-type sesquiterpene, 11 -hydroxy capitulatin B (1 , along with a known related sesquiterpene, capitulatin B (2, was isolated from the endophytic fungus Nigrospora oryzae A8 from Aquilaria sinensis, the only plant resource for agarwood production in China. This research demonstrates that the endophytic fungi from A. sinensis might play a role in the formation of agarwood.

  15. Anti-Insect Properties of Grass Fungal Endophytes for Plant Resistance to Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many temperate grass species host Epichloë and Neotyphodium endophytic fungi that produce alkaloids with anti-mammalian and anti-insect properties. Ergot and lolitrem alkaloid production by endophyte-infected (E+) grasses can have deleterious effects on grazing livestock, whereas insecticidal alkal...

  16. The Diversity of Anti-Microbial Secondary Metabolites Produced by Fungal Endophytes: An Interdisciplinary Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Mousa, Walaa Kamel; Raizada, Manish N

    2013-01-01

    Endophytes are microbes that inhabit host plants without causing disease and are reported to be reservoirs of metabolites that combat microbes and other pathogens. Here we review diverse classes of secondary metabolites, focusing on anti-microbial compounds, synthesized by fungal endophytes including terpenoids, alkaloids, phenylpropanoids, aliphatic compounds, polyketides, and peptides from the interdisciplinary perspectives of biochemistry, genetics, fungal biology, host plant biology, huma...

  17. The diversity of anti-microbial secondary metabolites produced by fungal endophytes: An interdisciplinary perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Walaa Kamel Mousa; Raizada, Manish N

    2013-01-01

    Endophytes are microbes that inhabit host plants without causing disease and are reported to be reservoirs of metabolites that combat microbes and other pathogens. Here we review diverse classes of secondary metabolites, focusing on anti-microbial compounds, synthesized by fungal endophytes including terpenoids, alkaloids, phenylpropanoids, aliphatic compounds, polyketides and peptides from the interdisciplinary perspectives of biochemistry, genetics, fungal biology, host plant biology, human...

  18. Endophytes : exploiting biodiversity for the improvement of natural product-based drug discovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staniek, Agata; Woerdenbag, Herman J.; Kayser, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    Endophytes, microorganisms that colonize internal tissues of all plant species, create a huge biodiversity with yet unknown novel natural products, presumed to push forward the frontiers of drug discovery. Next to the clinically acknowledged antineoplastic agent, paclitaxel, endophyte research has y

  19. Diversity of endophytic fungal community associated with Piper hispidum (Piperaceae) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandelli, R C; Alberto, R N; Rubin Filho, C J; Pamphile, J A

    2012-01-01

    Tropical and subtropical plants are rich in endophytic community diversity. Endophytes, mainly fungi and bacteria, inhabit the healthy plant tissues without causing any damage to the hosts. These fungi can be useful for biological control of pathogens and plant growth promotion. Some plants of the genus Piper are hosts of endophytic microorganisms; however, there is little information about endophytes on Piper hispidum, a medicinal shrub used as an insecticide, astringent, diuretic, stimulant, liver treatment, and for stopping hemorrhages. We isolated the fungal endophyte community associated with P. hispidum leaves from plants in a Brazilian forest remnant. The endophytic diversity was examined based on sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of rDNA. A high colonization frequency was obtained, as expected for tropical angiosperms. Isolated endophytes were divided into 66 morphogroups, demonstrating considerable diversity. We identified 21 isolates, belonging to 11 genera (Alternaria, Bipolaris, Colletotrichum, Glomerella, Guignardia, Lasiodiplodia, Marasmius, Phlebia, Phoma, Phomopsis, and Schizophyllum); one isolate was identified only to the order level (Diaporthales). Bipolaris was the most frequent genus among the identified endophytes. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the molecular identification of some isolates to genus level while for others it was confirmed at the species level. PMID:22653631

  20. Composition of fungal communities in soil and endophytic in raspberry production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungi play important roles as decomposers, plant symbionts and pathogens in soil. While endophytes are microorganisms that dwell within plant tissues and have a symbiotic association with the host. The structures of fungal communities in the soil and in endophytic association are dependent up comple...

  1. Avanex Unique Endophyte Technology: Reduced Insect Food Source at Airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennell, Christopher G L; Popay, Alison J; Rolston, M Philip; Townsend, Richard J; Lloyd-West, Catherine M; Card, Stuart D

    2016-02-01

    Birds and other forms of wildlife are a major issue for airport authorities worldwide, as they can create hazards to operating aircraft. Wildlife "strikes," the majority caused by birds, can cause damage to operating aircraft and in severe cases lead to a loss of human life. Many airfields contain large areas of ground cover herbage alongside their runways that consist of mixtures of grasses, legumes, and weeds that can harbor many invertebrates. Many airfields use insecticides to control insect populations; however, mounting pressure from regional councils and water boards aim to reduce this practice due to ground water runoff and contamination concerns. Avanex Unique Endophyte Technology, a product specifically developed to reduce the attractiveness of airports and surrounding areas to birds, is based on a novel association between a selected strain of Epichloë endophyte and a turf-type tall fescue cultivar. This grass-endophyte association acts through a direct mechanism whereby a negative response in birds is created through taste aversion and postingestion feedback as well as an indirect mechanism by deterring many invertebrates, a food source of many bird species.

  2. A Novel Fungal Metabolite with Beneficial Properties for Agricultural Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Vinale

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma are ubiquitous soil fungi that include species widely used as biocontrol agents in agriculture. Many isolates are known to secrete several secondary metabolites with different biological activities towards plants and other microbes. Harzianic acid (HA is a T. harzianum metabolite able to promote plant growth and strongly bind iron. In this work, we isolated from the culture filtrate of a T. harzianum strain a new metabolite, named isoharzianic acid (iso-HA, a stereoisomer of HA. The structure and absolute configuration of this compound has been determined by spectroscopic methods, including UV-Vis, MS, 1D and 2D NMR analyses. In vitro applications of iso-HA inhibited the mycelium radial growth of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Rhizoctonia solani. Moreover, iso HA improved the germination of tomato seeds and induced disease resistance. HPLC-DAD experiments showed that the production of HA and iso HA was affected by the presence of plant tissue in the liquid medium. In particular, tomato tissue elicited the production of HA but negatively modulated the biosynthesis of its analogue iso-HA, suggesting that different forms of the same Trichoderma secondary metabolite have specific roles in the molecular mechanism regulating the Trichoderma plant interaction.

  3. The Newly Isolated Endophytic Fungus Paraconiothyrium sp. LK1 Produces Ascotoxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Mo Kang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have isolated five endophytic fungi from the roots of Capsicum annuum, Cucumis sativus and Glycine max. The culture filtrates (CF of these endophytes were screened on dwarf mutant rice (Waito-C and normal rice (Dongjin-byeo. Endophyte CAC-1A significantly inhibited the growth of Waito-C and Dongjin-byeo. Endophyte CAC-1A was identified as Paraconiothyrium sp. by sequencing the ITS rDNA region and phylogenetic analysis. The ethyl acetate fraction of Paraconiothyrium sp. suppressed the germination of Lactuca sativa and Echinochloa crus-galli seeds. The ethyl acetate fraction of the endophyte was subjected to bioassay-guided isolation and we obtained the phytotoxic compound ascotoxin (1 which was characterized through NMR and GC/MS techniques. Ascotoxin revealed 100% inhibitory effects on seed germination of Echinochloa crus-galli. Compound (1 was isolated for the first time from Paraconiothyrium sp.

  4. Short Communication: Antimycotic activity and phytochemical screening of fungal endophytes associated with Santalum album

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASHWANI TAPWAL

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Tapwal A, Pradhan S, Chandra S, Rashmi. 2016. Antimycotic activity and phytochemical screening of fungal endophytes associated with Santalum album. Nusantara Bioscience 8: 14-17. The heartwood of Santalum album constitutes the central part of the tree is valued for its fragrance. The wood and oil are utilized in medicine. Sandalwood oil is extensively used in perfumery, cosmetics, aromatherapy and pharmaceutical industry. The endophytic microorganisms inhabiting the plant tissues are expected to mimic some of the metabolites of its host. This study was aimed to isolate and screen the fungal endophytes inhabiting the Santalum album for antimicrobial activity and for the presence of important phytochemicals. Five fungal endophytes isolated from different parts of S. album have exhibited antimicrobial potential against Fusarium oxysporum in the range of 5.0-40.4%. The isolated endophytic fungi also indicated the presence of alkaloids, phenolics and tannins, flavonoids, carbohydrates and glycosides, terpenoids, amino acids and proteins.

  5. In vitro sensitivity of antagonistic Trichoderma atroviride to herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Helena Santoro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma atroviride was tested in vitro for its sensitivity to different herbicides. The dosages tested were recommended dosage (RD, half dosage (½RD, and double dosage (2RD. Germination, colony-forming units (CFU, radial growth, and spore production were evaluated. Carfentrazone-ethyl and sulfentrazone inhibited the germination at RD and 2RD. A reduction in the CFU was observed for glufosinate-ammonium, atrazine, carfentrazone-ethyl, diuron + paraquat dichloride, imazapyr, oxyfluorfen, and sulfentrazone at each of the tested dosages. Radial growth was influenced by ametryn, atrazine, carfentrazone-ethyl, oxyfluorfen, and sulfentrazone herbicides, with an 80% reduction of the colonial area. Spore production was affected by carfentrazone-ethyl, oxyfluorfen, and sulfentrazone with colonial area reductions of over 70%. It was concluded that 2,4 D, clomazone, and imazapyr herbicides showed the least toxicity to T. atroviride and should be used in the crops where the fungus has been applied for phytopathogen control.

  6. [Antimicrobial Activity of Fungi Strains of Trichoderma from Middle Siberia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadykova, V S; Kurakov, A V; Kuvarina, A E; Rogozhin, E A

    2015-01-01

    The antibiotic activity in 42 strains of 8 species of the Trichoderma genus (T. asperellum, T. viride, T. hamatum, T. koningii, T. atroviride, T. harzianum, T. Citrinoviride, and T. longibrachiatum) isolated from different Siberian ecotops was studied. It was shown that these species differ in the degree of their antibacterial and antifungal activity. The chosen strain, T. citrinoviride TV4-1, exhibited high activity and a wide range of actions against the opportunistic and pathogenic fungi of the Aspergillus and Candida albicans genus; bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; and cancer cells. According to mass and I R spectrometry data and the spectrum of biological action, peptaibols are probably the most active compounds in the strain culture extracts. PMID:26204779

  7. BIOTECHNOLOGY OF TRICHODERMA-BASED FEED ADDITIVE WITH CELLULOLYTIC PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koshchayev A. G.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the work, we have presented the information of elaboration of a manufacturing process of Mycocel feed additive with the cellulolytic activity for poul-try industry. Manufacturing process includes follow-ing steps: stock culture maintenance and storage of Trichoderma lignorum 81-17, growing fluid culture of microscopic fungus in sucrose yeast extract me-dium, feed additive with cellulolytic properties out-put and quality control, packaging, storage and disposal of waste. We have shown that the Mycocel is non-toxic feed additive for protozoa and warm-blooded animals (laboratory mice and quails. This study demonstrated total population livability in the experimental group with feed additive. Quail body-weight of experimental group was higher by 6% as compared to the control and feed consumption per 1 kg of live weight of bird was 3,58 kg, 7,5% lower than the control

  8. The Effect of Endophytic Fungi on Nematode Populations in Summer-dormant and Summer-active Tall Fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, James K; Walker, Nathan R; Young, Carolyn A

    2016-06-01

    Summer-active (continental) and summer-dormant (Mediterranean) tall fescue morphotypes are each adapted to different environmental conditions. Endophyte presence provides plant parasitic nematode resistance, but not with all endophyte strains and cultivar combinations. This study sought to compare effects of four nematode genera on continental and Mediterranean cultivars infected with common toxic or novel endophyte strains. A 6-mon greenhouse study was conducted with continental cultivars, Kentucky 31 (common toxic) and Texoma MaxQ II (novel endophyte) and the Mediterranean cultivar Flecha MaxQ (novel endophyte). Endophyte-free plants of each cultivar were controls. Each cultivar × endophyte combination was randomly assigned to a control, low or high inoculation rate of a mixed nematode culture containing stunt nematodes (Tylenchorhynchus spp.), ring nematodes (Criconemella spp.), spiral nematodes (Helicotylenchus spp.), and lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus spp.). Endophyte infection had no effect on nematode population densities. The cultivar × endophyte interaction was significant. Population densities of stunt nematode, spiral nematode, and ring nematodes were higher for Flecha MaxQ than other cultivar × endophyte combinations. Novel endophyte infection enhances suitability of Flecha MaxQ as a nematode host. PMID:27418701

  9. Effects of heavy metals on plant-associated rhizobacteria: comparison of endophytic and non-endophytic strains of Azospirillum brasilense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamnev, Alexander A; Tugarova, Anna V; Antonyuk, Lyudmila P; Tarantilis, Petros A; Polissiou, Moschos G; Gardiner, Philip H E

    2005-01-01

    The plant-associated nitrogen-fixing rhizobacterium Azospirillum brasilense attracts world-wide attention owing to its plant growth-promoting activities. Among hundreds of its strains known up to date, wild-type strain Sp245 has been proved to be capable of colonising both the plant-root interior and exterior (i.e. a facultative endophyte), whereas others are non-endophytes colonising the root surface only. Thus, the different ecological niches occupied by these strains in the rhizosphere suggest that their responses to environmental conditions might differ as well. In this study, responses of A. brasilense strains Sp245 and Sp7 to several heavy metals (Co2+, Cu2+, Zn2+), present in the medium at tolerable concentrations (up to 0.2 mmol/l) and taken up by the bacteria, were compared. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used for controlling the compositional features of whole cells. The results obtained show that in strain Sp7 (non-endophyte) the heavy metals induced an enhanced accumulation of polyester compounds (poly-3-hydroxybutyrate; PHB). In contrast, the response of the endophytic strain Sp245 to heavy metal uptake was found to be much less pronounced. These dissimilarities in their behaviour may be caused by different adaptation abilities of these strains to stress conditions owing to their different ecological status. It was also found that adding 0.2 mmol/l Cu2+ or Cd2+ in the culture medium resulted in noticeably reducing the levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, auxin) produced by both the strains of the bacterium. This can directly affect the efficiency of associative plant-bacterial symbioses involving A. brasilense in heavy-metal-contaminated soil.

  10. Fernald scrap metal recycling and beneficial reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motl, G.P.; Burns, D.D.

    1993-10-01

    The Fernald site, formerly the Feed Materials Production Facility, produced uranium metal products to meet defense production requirements for the Department of Energy from 1953 to 1989. In this report is is described how the Fernald scrap metal project has demonstrated that contractor capabilities can be used successfully to recycle large quantities of Department of Energy scrap metal. The project has proven that the {open_quotes}beneficial reuse{close_quotes} concept makes excellent economic sense when a market for recycled products can be identified. Topics covered in this report include the scrap metal pile history, the procurement strategy, scrap metal processing, and a discussion of lessons learned.

  11. Bacterial endophytes from wild maize suppress Fusarium graminearum in modern maize and inhibit mycotoxin accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaa Kamel Mousa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Wild maize (teosinte has been reported to be less susceptible to pests than their modern maize (corn relatives. Endophytes, defined as microbes that inhabit plants without causing disease, are known for their ability to antagonize plant pests and pathogens. We hypothesized that the wild relatives of modern maize may host endophytes that combat pathogens. Fusarium graminearum is the fungus that causes Gibberella Ear Rot (GER in modern maize and produces the mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON. In this study, 215 bacterial endophytes, previously isolated from diverse maize genotypes including wild teosintes, traditional landraces and modern varieties, were tested for their ability to antagonize F. graminearum in vitro. Candidate endophytes were then tested for their ability to suppress GER in modern maize in independent greenhouse trials. The results revealed that three candidate endophytes derived from wild teosintes were most potent in suppressing F. graminearum in vitro and GER in a modern maize hybrid. These wild teosinte endophytes could suppress a broad spectrum of fungal pathogens of modern crops in vitro. The teosinte endophytes also suppressed DON mycotoxin during storage to below acceptable safety threshold levels. A fourth, less robust anti-fungal strain was isolated from a modern maize hybrid. Three of the anti-fungal endophytes were predicted to be Paenibacillus polymyxa, along with one strain of Citrobacter. Microscopy studies suggested a fungicidal mode of action by all four strains. Molecular and biochemical studies showed that the P. polymyxa strains produced the previously characterized anti-Fusarium compound, fusaricidin. Our results suggest that the wild relatives of modern crops may serve as a valuable reservoir for endophytes in the ongoing fight against serious threats to modern agriculture. We discuss the possible impact of crop evolution and domestication on endophytes in the context of plant defense.

  12. Diversity of fungal endophytes in non-native Phragmites australis in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Keith; Shearin, Zachery; Bourke, Kimberly; Bickford, Wesley A.; Kowalski, Kurt P.

    2016-01-01

    Plant–microbial interactions may play a key role in plant invasions. One common microbial interaction takes place between plants and fungal endophytes when fungi asymptomatically colonize host plant tissues. The objectives of this study were to isolate and sequence fungal endophytes colonizing non-native Phragmites australis in the Great Lakes region to evaluate variation in endophyte community composition among three host tissue types and three geographical regions. We collected entire ramets from multiple clones and populations, surface sterilized plant tissues, and plated replicate tissue samples from leaves, stems, and rhizomes on corn meal agar plates to culture and isolate fungal endophytes. Isolates were then subjected to Sanger sequencing of the ITS region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. Sequences were compared to fungal databases to define operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that were analyzed statistically for community composition. In total, we obtained 173 endophyte isolates corresponding to 55 OTUs, 39 of which were isolated only a single time. The most common OTU corresponded most closely to Sarocladium strictum and comprised 25 % of all fungal isolates. More OTUs were found in stem tissues, but endophyte diversity was greatest in rhizome tissues. PERMANOVA analyses indicated significant differences in endophyte communities among tissue types, geographical regions, and the interaction between those factors, but no differences among individual ramets were detected. The functional role of the isolated endophytes is not yet known, but one genus isolated here (Stagonospora) has been reported to enhance Phragmites growth. Understanding the diversity and functions of Phragmites endophytes may provide targets for control measures based on disrupting host plant/endophyte interactions.

  13. SRS stainless steel beneficial reuse program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boettinger, W.L.

    1997-02-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) has thousands of tons of stainless steel radioactive scrap metal (RSNI). Much of the metal is volumetrically contaminated. There is no {open_quotes}de minimis{close_quotes} free release level for volumetric material, and therefore no way to recycle the metal into the normal commercial market. If declared waste, the metal would qualify as low level radioactive waste (LLW) and ultimately be dispositioned through shallow land buried at a cost of millions of dollars. The metal however could be recycled in a {open_quotes}controlled release{close_quote} manner, in the form of containers to hold other types of radioactive waste. This form of recycle is generally referred to as {open_quotes}Beneficial Reuse{close_quotes}. Beneficial reuse reduces the amount of disposal space needed and reduces the need for virgin containers which would themselves become contaminated. Stainless steel is particularly suited for long term storage because of its resistance to corrosion. To assess the practicality of stainless steel RSM recycle the SRS Benficial Reuse Program began a demonstration in 1994, funded by the DOE Office of Science and Technology. This paper discusses the experiences gained in this program.

  14. Tribocharging Lunar Soil for Electrostatic Beneficiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Future human lunar habitation requires using in situ materials for both structural components and oxygen production. Lunar bases must be constructed from thermal-and radiation-shielding materials that will provide significant protection from the harmful cosmic energy which normally bombards the lunar surface. In addition, shipping oxygen from Earth is weight-prohibitive, and therefore investigating the production of breathable oxygen from oxidized mineral components is a major ongoing NASA research initiative. Lunar regolith may meet the needs for both structural protection and oxygen production. Already a number of oxygen production technologies are being tested, and full-scale bricks made of lunar simulant have been sintered. The beneficiation, or separation, of lunar minerals into a refined industrial feedstock could make production processes more efficient, requiring less energy to operate and maintain and producing higher-performance end products. The method of electrostatic beneficiation used in this research charges mineral powders (lunar simulant) by contact with materials of a different composition. The simulant acquires either a positive or negative charge depending upon its composition relative to the charging material.

  15. Growth promotion and colonization of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum cv. Alamo by bacterial endophyte Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Seonhwa

    2012-05-01

    -optimal conditions, indicating that the use of the beneficial bacterial endophytes may boost switchgrass growth on marginal lands and significantly contribute to the development of a low input and sustainable feedstock production system.

  16. 40 CFR 180.1102 - Trichoderma harzianum KRL-AG2 (ATCC #20847) strain T-22; exemption from requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trichoderma harzianum KRL-AG2 (ATCC... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1102 Trichoderma harzianum KRL-AG2... of a tolerance is established for residues of the biofungicide Trichoderma harzianum KRL-AG2...

  17. Improvement in phytoremediation potential of Solanum nigrum under cadmium contamination through endophytic-assisted Serratia sp. RSC-14 inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdur Rahim; Ullah, Ihsan; Khan, Abdul Latif; Park, Gun-Seok; Waqas, Muhammad; Hong, Sung-Jun; Jung, Byung Kwon; Kwak, Yunyoung; Lee, In-Jung; Shin, Jae-Ho

    2015-09-01

    The growth of hyperaccumulator plants is often compromised by increased toxicity of metals like cadmium (Cd). However, extraction of such metals from the soil can be enhanced by endophytic microbial association. Present study was aimed to elucidate the potential of microbe-assisted Cd phytoextraction in hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum plants and their interactions under varied Cd concentrations. An endophytic bacteria Serratia sp. RSC-14 was isolated from the roots of S. nigrum. In addition to Cd tolerance up to 4 mM, the RSC-14 exhibited phosphate solubilization and secreted plant growth-promoting phytohormones such as indole-3-acetic acid (54 μg/mL). S. nigrum plants were inoculated with RSC-14 and were grown in different concentrations of Cd (0, 10, and 30 mg Cd kg(-1) sand). Results revealed that Cd treatment caused significant cessation in plant growth, biomass, and chlorophyll content, whereas significantly higher malondialdehyde (MDA) and electrolyte production in leaves were observed in a dose-dependent manner. Conversely, RSC-14 inoculation relived the toxic effects of Cd-induced stress by significantly increasing root/shoot growth, biomass production, and chlorophyll content and decreasing MDA and electrolytes contents. Ameliorative effects on host growth were also observed by the regulation of metal-induced oxidative stress enzymes such as catalase, peroxidase, and polyphenol peroxidase. Activities of these enzymes were significantly reduced in RSC-14 inoculated plants as compared to control plants under Cd treatments. The lower activities of stress responsive enzymes suggest modulation of Cd stress by RSC-14. The current findings support the beneficial uses of Serratia sp. RSC-14 in improving the phytoextraction abilities of S. nigrum plants in Cd contamination.

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF SOIL TRICHODERMA ISOLATES FOR POTENTIAL BIOCONTROL OF PLANT PATHOGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Matei

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Various fungal strains belonging to genus Trichoderma act as biological control agents for soil born plant pathogens. Two new strains of Trichoderma harzianum (T.h. and Trichoderma viride (T.v. were isolated from forest soils in Ilfov county and their morphological aspects, enzymatic and antagonistic activity were examined. Current chemical fungicides had constantly, in time, less influence on pathogens due to their diversity, adaptability and increasing resistance.The paper present the morphological characterization of two strains of Trichoderma isolated from forest soils. Growth rate was higher in strain T.v.SP456 (0,675mm/h than in strain T.h.P8 (0,505mm/h when fungi were grown on Czapek culture medium.Morphological description is completed with photographs of colonies in Petri plates and microscopical aspects of fungal structures belonging to Trichoderma strains SP456 and P8.Comparative aspects concerning the level of main enzymes released by T.h. isolate P8 and T.v.SP456 in liquid culture media showed differences as a function of genetic structure of each fungal isolate. The optimum culture media for inducing peroxidase, polyphenol-oxidase, β-1,3-glucanase activity in T.v.SP456 isolate was Czapek and PDA for phenil-alanin-ammonium-oxidase and chitinase. T.v.SP456 was more efficient than T.h.P8 concerning enzymes activity.The interaction between Trichoderma fungal strains SP456 and P8 and strawberry plant pathogen strains, three belonging to Botrytis cinerea (S1, P1, P2 and one to Phytophtora spp. were examined, also. Both Trichoderma strains act as mycoparasites for plant pathogens. The inhibition percent of radial growth was higher for T.v.SP456 when compared with T.h.P8 for almost all pathogenic isolates.

  19. Trichoderma Biodiversity of Agricultural Fields in East China Reveals a Gradient Distribution of Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuan; Wang, Jin-Liang; Chen, Jing; Mao, Li-Juan; Feng, Xiao-Xiao; Zhang, Chu-Long; Lin, Fu-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    We surveyed the Trichoderma (Hypocreales, Ascomycota) biodiversity in agricultural fields in four major agricultural provinces of East China. Trichoderma strains were identified based on molecular approaches and morphological characteristics. In three sampled seasons (spring, summer and autumn), 2078 strains were isolated and identified to 17 known species: T. harzianum (429 isolates), T. asperellum (425), T. hamatum (397), T. virens (340), T. koningiopsis (248), T. brevicompactum (73), T. atroviride (73), T. fertile (26), T. longibrachiatum (22), T. pleuroticola (16), T. erinaceum (16), T. oblongisporum (2), T. polysporum (2), T. spirale (2), T. capillare (2), T. velutinum (2), and T. saturnisporum (1). T. harzianum, T. asperellum, T. hamatum, and T. virens were identified as the dominant species with dominance (Y) values of 0.057, 0.052, 0.048, and 0.039, respectively. The species amount, isolate numbers and the dominant species of Trichoderma varied between provinces. Zhejiang Province has shown the highest diversity, which was reflected in the highest species amount (14) and the highest Shannon-Wiener diversity index of Trichoderma haplotypes (1.46). We observed that relative frequencies of T. hamatum and T. koningiopsis under rice soil were higher than those under wheat and maize soil, indicating the preference of Trichoderma to different crops. Remarkable seasonal variation was shown, with summer exhibiting the highest biodiversity of the studied seasons. These results show that Trichoderma biodiversity in agricultural fields varies by region, crop, and season. Zhejiang Province (the southernmost province in the investigated area) had more T. hamatum than Shandong Province (the northernmost province), not only in isolate amounts but also in haplotype amounts. Furthermore, at haplotype level, only T. hamatum showed a gradient distribution from south to north in correspondence analysis among the four dominant species. The above results would contribute to the

  20. Cellulolytic and xylanolytic potential of high β-glucosidase-producing Trichoderma from decaying biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, Benedict C

    2014-10-01

    Availability, cost, and efficiency of microbial enzymes for lignocellulose bioconversion are central to sustainable biomass ethanol technology. Fungi enriched from decaying biomass and surface soil mixture displayed an array of strong cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities. Strains SG2 and SG4 produced a promising array of cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes including β-glucosidase, usually low in cultures of Trichoderma species. Nucleotide sequence analysis of internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of rRNA gene revealed that strains SG2 and SG4 are closely related to Trichoderma inhamatum, Trichoderma piluliferum, and Trichoderma aureoviride. Trichoderma sp. SG2 crude culture supernatant correspondingly displayed as much as 9.84 ± 1.12, 48.02 ± 2.53, and 30.10 ± 1.11 units mL(-1) of cellulase, xylanase, and β-glucosidase in 30 min assay. Ten times dilution of culture supernatant of strain SG2 revealed that total activities were about 5.34, 8.45, and 2.05 orders of magnitude higher than observed in crude culture filtrate for cellulase, xylanase, and β-glucosidase, respectively, indicating that more enzymes are present to contact with substrates in biomass saccharification. In parallel experiments, Trichoderma species SG2 and SG4 produced more β-glucosidase than the industrial strain Trichoderma reesei RUT-C30. Results indicate that strains SG2 and SG4 have potential for low cost in-house production of primary lignocellulose-hydrolyzing enzymes for production of biomass saccharides and biofuel in the field.

  1. Trichoderma Biodiversity of Agricultural Fields in East China Reveals a Gradient Distribution of Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Mao, Li-Juan; Feng, Xiao-Xiao; Zhang, Chu-Long; Lin, Fu-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    We surveyed the Trichoderma (Hypocreales, Ascomycota) biodiversity in agricultural fields in four major agricultural provinces of East China. Trichoderma strains were identified based on molecular approaches and morphological characteristics. In three sampled seasons (spring, summer and autumn), 2078 strains were isolated and identified to 17 known species: T. harzianum (429 isolates), T. asperellum (425), T. hamatum (397), T. virens (340), T. koningiopsis (248), T. brevicompactum (73), T. atroviride (73), T. fertile (26), T. longibrachiatum (22), T. pleuroticola (16), T. erinaceum (16), T. oblongisporum (2), T. polysporum (2), T. spirale (2), T. capillare (2), T. velutinum (2), and T. saturnisporum (1). T. harzianum, T. asperellum, T. hamatum, and T. virens were identified as the dominant species with dominance (Y) values of 0.057, 0.052, 0.048, and 0.039, respectively. The species amount, isolate numbers and the dominant species of Trichoderma varied between provinces. Zhejiang Province has shown the highest diversity, which was reflected in the highest species amount (14) and the highest Shannon–Wiener diversity index of Trichoderma haplotypes (1.46). We observed that relative frequencies of T. hamatum and T. koningiopsis under rice soil were higher than those under wheat and maize soil, indicating the preference of Trichoderma to different crops. Remarkable seasonal variation was shown, with summer exhibiting the highest biodiversity of the studied seasons. These results show that Trichoderma biodiversity in agricultural fields varies by region, crop, and season. Zhejiang Province (the southernmost province in the investigated area) had more T. hamatum than Shandong Province (the northernmost province), not only in isolate amounts but also in haplotype amounts. Furthermore, at haplotype level, only T. hamatum showed a gradient distribution from south to north in correspondence analysis among the four dominant species. The above results would contribute to the

  2. DNA barcoding survey of Trichoderma diversity in soil and litter of the Colombian lowland Amazonian rainforest reveals Trichoderma strigosellum sp. nov. and other species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez-Quintero, C.A.; Atanasova, L.; Franco-Molano, A.E.; Gams, W.; Komon-Zelazowska, M.; Theelen, B.; Muller, W.H.; Boekhout, T.; Druzhinina, I.

    2013-01-01

    The diversity of Trichoderma (Hypocreales, Ascomycota) colonizing leaf litter as well as the rhizosphere of Garcinia macrophylla (Clusiaceae) was investigated in primary and secondary rain forests in Colombian Amazonia. DNA barcoding of 107 strains based on the internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 (

  3. Electrostatic Separator for Beneficiation of Lunar Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jacqueline; Arens, Ellen; Trigwell, Steve; Captain, James

    2010-01-01

    A charge separator has been constructed for use in a lunar environment that will allow for separation of minerals from lunar soil. In the present experiments, whole lunar dust as received was used. The approach taken here was that beneficiation of ores into an industrial feedstock grade may be more efficient. Refinement or enrichment of specific minerals in the soil before it is chemically processed may be more desirable as it would reduce the size and energy requirements necessary to produce the virgin material, and it may significantly reduce the process complexity. The principle is that minerals of different composition and work function will charge differently when tribocharged against different materials, and hence be separated in an electric field.

  4. Phytohormone profiles induced by Trichoderma isolates correspond with their biocontrol and plant growth-promoting activity on melon plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-Medina, Ainhoa; Del Mar Alguacil, Maria; Pascual, Jose A.; van Wees, Saskia C M

    2014-01-01

    The application of Trichoderma strains with biocontrol and plant growth-promoting capacities to plant substrates can help reduce the input of chemical pesticides and fertilizers in agriculture. Some Trichoderma isolates can directly affect plant pathogens, but they also are known to influence the ph

  5. Using of green fluorescent reporter gene (GFP) to monitor the fate of Fusarium moniliforme mycoparasitized by Trichoderma viride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Ting-heng; WANG Wei-xia; WANG Chang-chun; YANG Rui-qin; CAI Xin-zhong

    2004-01-01

    @@ Fusarium moniliforme Sheld. is a rice pathogenic fungus and causes the disease called Bakanae,which has increasingly damaged rice production in the recent years. Trichoderma spp. has been one of the most widely used biological control agent of plant disease. By geneticaly labelling F. moniliforme with the GFP reporter gene, we have studied the antagonistic action of Trichoderma viride against this pathogenic fungus.

  6. The influence of formulation on Trichoderma biological activity and frosty pod rot disease management in Theobroma cacao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frosty pod rot (FPR), caused by Moniliophthora roreri is responsible for significant losses in Theobroma cacao. Due to the limited options for FPR management, biological control methods using Trichoderma are being studied. Combinations of three formulations and two Trichoderma isolates were studied ...

  7. Produced Water Management and Beneficial Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry Brown; Carol Frost; Thomas Hayes; Leo Heath; Drew Johnson; David Lopez; Demian Saffer; Michael Urynowicz; John Wheaton; Mark Zoback

    2007-10-31

    Large quantities of water are associated with the production of coalbed methane (CBM) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. The chemistry of co-produced water often makes it unsuitable for subsequent uses such as irrigated agriculture. However, co-produced waters have substantial potential for a variety of beneficial uses. Achieving this potential requires the development of appropriate water management strategies. There are several unique characteristics of co-produced water that make development of such management strategies a challenge. The production of CBM water follows an inverse pattern compared to traditional wells. CBM wells need to maintain low reservoir pressures to promote gas production. This need renders the reinjection of co-produced waters counterproductive. The unique water chemistry of co-produced water can reduce soil permeability, making surface disposal difficult. Unlike traditional petroleum operations where co-produced water is an undesirable by-product, co-produced water in the PRB often is potable, making it a highly valued resource in arid western states. This research project developed and evaluated a number of water management options potentially available to CBM operators. These options, which focus on cost-effective and environmentally-sound practices, fall into five topic areas: Minimization of Produced Water, Surface Disposal, Beneficial Use, Disposal by Injection and Water Treatment. The research project was managed by the Colorado Energy Research Institute (CERI) at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) and involved personnel located at CERI, CSM, Stanford University, Pennsylvania State University, the University of Wyoming, the Argonne National Laboratory, the Gas Technology Institute, the Montana Bureau of Mining and Geology and PVES Inc., a private firm.

  8. Produced Water Management and Beneficial Use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large quantities of water are associated with the production of coalbed methane (CBM) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. The chemistry of co-produced water often makes it unsuitable for subsequent uses such as irrigated agriculture. However, co-produced waters have substantial potential for a variety of beneficial uses. Achieving this potential requires the development of appropriate water management strategies. There are several unique characteristics of co-produced water that make development of such management strategies a challenge. The production of CBM water follows an inverse pattern compared to traditional wells. CBM wells need to maintain low reservoir pressures to promote gas production. This need renders the reinjection of co-produced waters counterproductive. The unique water chemistry of co-produced water can reduce soil permeability, making surface disposal difficult. Unlike traditional petroleum operations where co-produced water is an undesirable by-product, co-produced water in the PRB often is potable, making it a highly valued resource in arid western states. This research project developed and evaluated a number of water management options potentially available to CBM operators. These options, which focus on cost-effective and environmentally-sound practices, fall into five topic areas: Minimization of Produced Water, Surface Disposal, Beneficial Use, Disposal by Injection and Water Treatment. The research project was managed by the Colorado Energy Research Institute (CERI) at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) and involved personnel located at CERI, CSM, Stanford University, Pennsylvania State University, the University of Wyoming, the Argonne National Laboratory, the Gas Technology Institute, the Montana Bureau of Mining and Geology and PVES Inc., a private firm

  9. Identification and characterization of Trichoderma species aggressive to Pleurotus in Italy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Woo S L; Di Benedetto P; Senatore M; Abadi K; Gigante S; Soriente I; Ferraioli S; Scala F; Lorito M

    2004-01-01

    @@ In the late 1980's the development of a severe epidemic of green mold caused by Trichoderma spp.was noted in the commercial production of Agaricus bisporus (champignon) in the United Kingdom,North America, Spain and Holland, which caused extensive economic losses. The parasitic fungi isolated from the edible mushroom belonged to four biotypes, Thl, Th2, Th3 and Th4 of T.harzianum. However, among these biotypes, only Th2 (since classified as T. aggressivum f.europaeum) and Th4 (T. aggressivum f. aggressivum) were identified as the fungi causing problems in Agaricus production. In general, mushroom compost hosts both aggressive and innocuous isolates of Trichoderma, which are not morphologically distinguishable. About four years ago, a problem with green mold became apparent in the production of Pleurotus ostreatus in Northern Italy,which eventually developed to a crisis situation in the South two years later and threatened to seriously compromise the Pleurotus market. This study was initiated to: isolate and identify the aggressive fungi, then morphologically, physiologically and genetically characterize the isolates, determine the source and phases of infection, and study methods of control. Samples were obtained from different phases of compost preparation at the locality of a major producer and supplier of compost to the mushroom industry in Southern Italy, and microbial counts were conducted. Although the presence of Trichoderma was detected in the initial stages of composting, this value was reduced to zero from the phase of pasteurization to seeding with Pleurotus. Trichoderma infestations were noted in the packaged Pleurotus bales at various times during the incubation phase (7-15 days after seeding) and after shipping to the mushroom greenhouses, where the pathogen infestations greatly reduced the quality and quantity of the mushroom yield, as well as the number of potential harvest cycles.Preliminary results from the morphological and genetic

  10. GC--MS analysis reveals production of 2--Phenylethanol from Aspergillus niger endophytic in rose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Masood Ahmed; Sanjana, Kaul; Kumar, Dhar Manoj; Lal, Dhar Kanahya

    2010-02-01

    Endophytes include all organisms that during a variable period of their life, colonize the living internal tissues of their hosts without causing detectable symptoms. Several fungal endophytes have been isolated from a variety of plant species which have proved themselves as a rich source of secondary metabolites. The reported natural products from endophytes include antibiotics, immunosuppresants, anticancer compounds, antioxidant agents, etc. For the first time Rosa damacaena (rose) has been explored for its endophytes. The rose oil industry is the major identified deligence for its application in perfumery, flavouring, ointments, and pharmaceuticals including various herbal products. During the present investigation fungal endophytes were isolated from Rosa damacaena. A total of fifty four isolates were isolated out of which sixteen isolates were screened for the production of secondary metabolites. GCMS analysis reveals the production of 2-phenylethanol by one of the isolates JUBT 3M which was identified as Aspergillus niger. This is the first report of production of 2-phenylethanol from endophytic A. niger. 2-phenylethanol is an important constituent of rose oil constituting about 4.06% of rose oil. Presence of 2-phenylethanol indicates that the endophyte of rose may duplicate the biosynthesis of phenyl propanoids by rose plant. Besides this, the other commercial applications of phenylethanol include its use in antiseptics, disinfectants, anti-microbials and preservative in pharmaceuticals. PMID:20082377

  11. Cultivable endophytic bacteria from leaf bases of Agave tequilana and their role as plant growth promoters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Rodríguez, Julia del C.; la Mora-Amutio, Marcela De; Plascencia-Correa, Luis A.; Audelo-Regalado, Esmeralda; Guardado, Francisco R.; Hernández-Sánchez, Elías; Peña-Ramírez, Yuri J.; Escalante, Adelfo; Beltrán-García, Miguel J.; Ogura, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Agave tequilana Weber var. ‘Azul’ is grown for the production of tequila, inulin and syrup. Diverse bacteria inhabit plant tissues and play a crucial role for plant health and growth. In this study culturable endophytic bacteria were extracted from leaf bases of 100 healthy Agave tequilana plants. In plant tissue bacteria occurred at mean population densities of 3 million CFU/g of fresh plant tissue. Three hundred endophytic strains were isolated and 16s rDNA sequences grouped the bacteria into eight different taxa that shared high homology with other known sequences. Bacterial endophytes were identified as Acinectobacter sp., A. baumanii, A. bereziniae, Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter hormaechei, Bacillus sp. Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas sp., Enterococcus casseliflavus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and Gluconobacter oxydans. Isolates were confirmed to be plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) by their capacities for nitrogen fixation, auxin production, phosphate solubilization, or antagonism against Fusarium oxysporum AC132. E. casseliflavus JM47 and K. oxytoca JM26 secreted the highest concentrations of IAA. The endophyte Acinectobacter sp. JM58 exhibited the maximum values for nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization index (PSI). Inhibition of fungi was found in Pseudomonas sp. JM9p and K. oxytoca JM26. Bacterial endophytes show promise for use as bio-inoculants for agave cultivation. Use of endophytes to enhance cultivation of agave may be particularly important for plants produced by micropropagation techniques, where native endophytes may have been lost. PMID:25763038

  12. Antifungal and proteolytic activities of endophytic fungi isolated from Piper hispidum Sw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravely Casarotti Orlandelli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Endophytes are being considered for use in biological control, and the enzymes they secrete might facilitate their initial colonization of internal plant tissues and direct interactions with microbial pathogens. Microbial proteases are also biotechnologically important products employed in bioremediation processes, cosmetics, and the pharmaceutical, photographic and food industries. In the present study, we evaluated antagonism and competitive interactions between 98 fungal endophytes and Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum sp., Phyllosticta citricarpa and Moniliophthora perniciosa. We also examined the proteolytic activities of endophytes grown in liquid medium and conducted cup plate assays. The results showed that certain strains in the assemblage of P. hispidum endophytes are important sources of antifungal properties, primarily Lasiodiplodia theobromae JF766989, which reduced phytopathogen growth by approximately 54 to 65%. We detected 28 endophytes producing enzymatic halos of up to 16.40 mm in diameter. The results obtained in the present study highlight the proteolytic activity of the endophytes Phoma herbarum JF766995 and Schizophyllum commune JF766994, which presented the highest enzymatic halo diameters under at least one culture condition tested. The increased activities of certain isolates in the presence of rice or soy flour as a substrate (with halos up to 17.67 mm in diameter suggests that these endophytes have the potential to produce enzymes using agricultural wastes.

  13. Linking Bacterial Endophytic Communities to Essential Oils: Clues from Lavandula angustifolia Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Emiliani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic bacteria play a crucial role in plant life and are also drawing much attention for their capacity to produce bioactive compounds of relevant biotechnological interest. Here we present the characterisation of the cultivable endophytic bacteria of Lavandula angustifolia Mill.—a species used since antiquity for its therapeutic properties—since the production of bioactive metabolites from medical plants may reside also in the activity of bacterial endophytes through their direct production, PGPR activity on host, and/or elicitation of plant metabolism. Lavender tissues are inhabited by a tissue specific endophytic community dominated by Proteobacteria, highlighting also their difference from the rhizosphere environment where Actinobacteria and Firmicutes are also found. Leaves’ endophytic community resulted as the most diverse from the other ecological niches. Overall, the findings reported here suggest: (i the existence of different entry points for the endophytic community, (ii its differentiation on the basis of the ecological niche variability, and (iii a two-step colonization process for roots endophytes. Lastly, many isolates showed a strong inhibition potential against human pathogens and the molecular characterization demonstrated also the presence of not previously described isolates that may constitute a reservoir of bioactive compounds relevant in the field of pathogen control, phytoremediation, and human health.

  14. Cultivable endophytic bacteria from leaf bases of Agave tequilana and their role as plant growth promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia del C. Martínez-Rodríguez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Agave tequilana Weber var. 'Azul' is grown for the production of tequila, inulin and syrup. Diverse bacteria inhabit plant tissues and play a crucial role for plant health and growth. In this study culturable endophytic bacteria were extracted from leaf bases of 100 healthy Agave tequilana plants. In plant tissue bacteria occurred at mean population densities of 3 million CFU/g of fresh plant tissue. Three hundred endophytic strains were isolated and 16s rDNA sequences grouped the bacteria into eight different taxa that shared high homology with other known sequences. Bacterial endophytes were identified as Acinectobacter sp., A. baumanii, A. bereziniae, Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter hormaechei, Bacillus sp. Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas sp., Enterococcus casseliflavus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and Gluconobacter oxydans. Isolates were confirmed to be plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB by their capacities for nitrogen fixation, auxin production, phosphate solubilization, or antagonism against Fusarium oxysporum AC132. E. casseliflavus JM47 and K. oxytoca JM26 secreted the highest concentrations of IAA. The endophyte Acinectobacter sp. JM58 exhibited the maximum values for nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization index (PSI. Inhibition of fungi was found in Pseudomonas sp. JM9p and K. oxytoca JM26. Bacterial endophytes show promise for use as bio-inoculants for agave cultivation. Use of endophytes to enhance cultivation of agave may be particularly important for plants produced by micropropagation techniques, where native endophytes may have been lost.

  15. Macroalgal Endophytes from the Atlantic Coast of Canada: A Potential Source of Antibiotic Natural Products?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Flewelling

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available As the need for new and more effective antibiotics increases, untapped sources of biodiversity are being explored in an effort to provide lead structures for drug discovery. Endophytic fungi from marine macroalgae have been identified as a potential source of biologically active natural products, although data to support this is limited. To assess the antibiotic potential of temperate macroalgal endophytes we isolated endophytic fungi from algae collected in the Bay of Fundy, Canada and screened fungal extracts for the presence of antimicrobial compounds. A total of 79 endophytes were isolated from 7 species of red, 4 species of brown, and 3 species of green algae. Twenty of the endophytes were identified to the genus or species level, with the remaining isolates designated codes according to their morphology. Bioactivity screening assays performed on extracts of the fermentation broths and mycelia of the isolates revealed that 43 endophytes exhibited antibacterial activity, with 32 displaying antifungal activity. Endophytic fungi from Bay of Fundy macroalgae therefore represent a significant source of antibiotic natural products and warrant further detailed investigation.

  16. Fungal Endophytes as a Metabolic Fine-Tuning Regulator for Wine Grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhi-Yu; Yang, Wei-Xi; Zhang, Han-Bo; Huang, Li-Hua; Ren, An-Yun; Shan, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Endophytes proved to exert multiple effects on host plants, including growth promotion, stress resistance. However, whether endophytes have a role in metabolites shaping of grape has not been fully understood. Eight endophytic fungal strains which originally isolated from grapevines were re-inoculated to field-grown grapevines in this study, and their effects on both leaves and berries of grapevines at maturity stage were assessed, with special focused on secondary metabolites and antioxidant activities. High-density inoculation of all these endophytic fungal strains modified the physio-chemical status of grapevine to different degrees. Fungal inoculations promoted the content of reducing sugar (RS), total flavonoids (TF), total phenols (TPh), trans-resveratrol (Res) and activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), in both leaves and berries of grapevine. Inoculation of endophytic fungal strains, CXB-11 (Nigrospora sp.) and CXC-13 (Fusarium sp.) conferred greater promotion effects in grape metabolic re-shaping, compared to other used fungal strains. Additionally, inoculation of different strains of fungal endophytes led to establish different metabolites patterns of wine grape. The work implies the possibility of using endophytic fungi as fine-tuning regulator to shape the quality and character of wine grape. PMID:27656886

  17. The fungal endophyte Chaetomium globosum negatively affects both above- and belowground herbivores in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenqing; Starr, James L; Krumm, Janice L; Sword, Gregory A

    2016-10-01

    Mutualistic plant-endophyte symbioses can benefit plants by increasing host fitness through reductions in herbivory. The fungus, Chaetomium globosum strain TAMU 520, was previously isolated as an endophyte from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and can be re-inoculated to systemically colonize cotton plants via seed treatment. We evaluated the potential impacts of the endophyte in cotton on plant parasitic nematodes belowground, along with piercing-sucking and chewing insects aboveground. Endophytic C. globosum inhibited root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) infection and reduced female reproduction belowground. To confirm the endophytic effect of C. globosum on root-knot nematode, a contact fungicide was applied to remove soil-borne and epiphytic C. globosum Consistent inhibition of nematode activity was observed post-fungicide treatment, with positive C. globosum colonization confirmed within plant tissues. Aboveground, endophytic C. globosum also negatively affected the fecundity of both cotton aphids (Aphis gossypii) and beet armyworms (Spodoptera exigua). Faster development rates and smaller head capsule of beet armyworm larvae were observed when fed Chaetomium-colonized plants. However, no larval weight difference was found between Chaetomium-colonized and control plants. No consistent effect on plant performance was found across experiments. Our findings illustrate how a single facultative fungal endophyte can increase plant systemic resistance against a range of invertebrate herbivores in a major crop. PMID:27451418

  18. Antifungal and proteolytic activities of endophytic fungi isolated from Piper hispidum Sw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandelli, Ravely Casarotti; de Almeida, Tiago Tognolli; Alberto, Raiani Nascimento; Polonio, Julio Cesar; Azevedo, João Lúcio; Pamphile, João Alencar

    2015-06-01

    Endophytes are being considered for use in biological control, and the enzymes they secrete might facilitate their initial colonization of internal plant tissues and direct interactions with microbial pathogens. Microbial proteases are also biotechnologically important products employed in bioremediation processes, cosmetics, and the pharmaceutical, photographic and food industries. In the present study, we evaluated antagonism and competitive interactions between 98 fungal endophytes and Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum sp., Phyllosticta citricarpa and Moniliophthora perniciosa. We also examined the proteolytic activities of endophytes grown in liquid medium and conducted cup plate assays. The results showed that certain strains in the assemblage of P. hispidum endophytes are important sources of antifungal properties, primarily Lasiodiplodia theobromae JF766989, which reduced phytopathogen growth by approximately 54 to 65%. We detected 28 endophytes producing enzymatic halos of up to 16.40 mm in diameter. The results obtained in the present study highlight the proteolytic activity of the endophytes Phoma herbarum JF766995 and Schizophyllum commune JF766994, which presented the highest enzymatic halo diameters under at least one culture condition tested. The increased activities of certain isolates in the presence of rice or soy flour as a substrate (with halos up to 17.67 mm in diameter) suggests that these endophytes have the potential to produce enzymes using agricultural wastes. PMID:26273250

  19. Comparative analysis of microsatellites in five different antagonistic Trichoderma species for diversity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Shalini; Kashyap, Prem Lal; Kumar, Sudheer; Srivastava, Alok Kumar; Ramteke, Pramod W

    2016-01-01

    Microsatellites provide an ideal molecular markers system to screen, characterize and evaluate genetic diversity of several fungal species. Currently, there is very limited information on the genetic diversity of antagonistic Trichoderma species as determined using a range of molecular markers. In this study, expressed and whole genome sequences available in public database were used to investigate the occurrence, relative abundance and relative density of SSRs in five different antagonistic Trichoderma species: Trichoderma atroviride, T. harzianum, T. reesei, T. virens and T. asperellum. Fifteen SSRs loci were used to evaluate genetic diversity of twenty isolates of Trichoderma spp. from different geographical regions of India. Results indicated that relative abundance and relative density of SSRs were higher in T. asperellum followed by T. reesei and T. atroviride. Tri-nucleotide repeats (80.2%) were invariably the most abundant in all species. The abundance and relative density of SSRs were not influenced by the genome sizes and GC content. Out of eighteen primer sets, only 15 primer pairs showed successful amplification in all the test species. A total of 24 alleles were detected and five loci were highly informative with polymorphism information content values greater than 0.40, these markers provide useful information on genetic diversity and population genetic structure, which, in turn, can exploit for establishing conservation strategy for antagonistic Trichoderma isolates.

  20. Studies on strains of Trichoderma spp. from high altitude of Garhwal Himalayan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, B B; Vishwakarma, M P; Bahukhandi, D; Bhatt, R P

    2012-09-01

    Two species of Trichoderma i.e. T. harzianum and T. viride have been isolated from the soil samples collected from the higher altitude (2000-3500 m) of Garhwal Himalayan region in India. The two species were grown in Petri plates on TSM agar media and it was also observed that the optimum temperature and pH for Trichoderma growth was 30 degrees C and 5.5 respectively. When incubated on TSM agar medium at 4 degrees C, the fungus grew normally with heavy induced sporulation within three weeks of incubation. Induction of sporulation on exposure to low temperature appeared to be strategies for survival of these species in extreme cold environment temperature 4 to 5 degrees C. Antifungal activities of the two species of Trichoderma were demonstrated with phytopathogenic fungi in dual cultures. The antifungal metabolites produced by Trichoderma spp., diffusible as well as volatile, caused abnormalities in pathogenic fungi. Plant growth promotion of Trichoderma spp. was also shown through plant analysis in greenhouse.

  1. Two new hyaline-ascospored species of Trichoderma and their phylogenetic positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, W T; Zhuang, W Y

    2016-01-01

    Collections of hypocrealean fungi found on decaying wood in subtropical regions of China were examined. Two new species, Trichoderma confluens and T. hubeiense, were discovered and are described. Trichoderma confluens is characterized by its widely effuse to rarely pulvinate, yellow stromata with densely disposed yellowish brown ostioles, simple acremonium- to verticillium-like conidiophores, hyaline conidia and multiform chlamydospores. Trichoderma hubeiense has pulvinate, grayish yellow stromata with brownish ostioles, trichoderma- to verticillium-like conidiophores and hyaline conidia. The phylogenetic positions of the two fungi were investigated based on sequence analyses of RNA polymerase II subunit b and translation elongation factor 1-α genes. The results indicate that T. confluens belongs to the Hypocreanum clade and is associated with but clearly separated from T. applanatum and T. decipiens. Trichoderma hubeiense belongs to the Polysporum clade and related to T. bavaricum but obviously differs from other members of the clade in sequence data. Morphological distinctions between the new species and their close relatives are noted and discussed.

  2. Use of Trichoderma spp.in remediation of polluted soils and waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gary E Harmant; James Lynch; Matteo Lorito

    2004-01-01

    @@ Trichoderma spp. probably have a role in remediation of polluted soils and waters. Highly rhizosphere competent strains persist on roots for an extended period of time (at least months) and continuously interact with the plants. They can increase general plant and root growth and increase uptake of a variety of materials. This makes the Trichoderma-plant interaction highly attractive for use in phytoextraction technologies. Moreover, Trichoderma spp. are resistant to a wide range of toxic compounds and can degrade some of these. One highly attractive target for remediation are soils that are polluted with cyanide and metallocyanides. Shrub willows (genus Salix) have been shown to take up and degrade these compounds by unknown mechanisms. Thus, they remove these compounds from soil but there are no cyanide residues in the plants. Similarly, Trichoderma spp. degrade free cyanide via production of extracellular enzymes and take up and then degrade metallocyanides such as Prussian blue. The willow-Trichoderma system therefore provides a plant-microbe system for degradation of these toxic compounds. The fungi also can be used directly in remediation strategies; for example,they degrade polyphenols such as those found in large quantities in waste water from production of olive oil. Thus, the abilities of the fungi to interact and enhance plant growth, their ability to grow in the presence of toxicants and their enzymatic abilities to degrade polluting substances provide a number of opportunities for either plant-microbe or pure fungal systems to remove pollutants from lands and waters.

  3. Diversity and effect of Trichoderma spp. associated with green mold disease on Lentinula edodes in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gangzheng; Cao, Xiantao; Ma, Xiaolong; Guo, Mengpei; Liu, Changhao; Yan, Lianlian; Bian, Yinbing

    2016-08-01

    Lentinula edodes, one of the most important edible mushrooms in China, is affected heavily by the infection of green mold that overgrows mushroom mycelia. We collected the diseased samples from main L. edodes cultivation regions in China to characterize the pathogen and to study the effect of Trichoderma spp. on L. edodes species. We identified six Trichoderma species, that is, T. harzianum, T. atroviride, T. viride, T. pleuroticola, T. longibrachiatum, and T. oblongisporum based on the internal transcribed spacer or tef1-α sequences and morphology characteristics. In confrontation cultures on Petri plates or in tubes, and in L. edodes cultures in a medium containing Trichoderma metabolites, L. edodes mycelia were not only distorted and swollen, but also inhibited by Trichoderma isolates. It is not possible that adjusting pH value or temperature is used for controlling L. edodes green disease, because the growth of most of Trichoderma isolates and L. edodes shared similar pH and temperature conditions. PMID:27147196

  4. Comparative analysis of microsatellites in five different antagonistic Trichoderma species for diversity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Shalini; Kashyap, Prem Lal; Kumar, Sudheer; Srivastava, Alok Kumar; Ramteke, Pramod W

    2016-01-01

    Microsatellites provide an ideal molecular markers system to screen, characterize and evaluate genetic diversity of several fungal species. Currently, there is very limited information on the genetic diversity of antagonistic Trichoderma species as determined using a range of molecular markers. In this study, expressed and whole genome sequences available in public database were used to investigate the occurrence, relative abundance and relative density of SSRs in five different antagonistic Trichoderma species: Trichoderma atroviride, T. harzianum, T. reesei, T. virens and T. asperellum. Fifteen SSRs loci were used to evaluate genetic diversity of twenty isolates of Trichoderma spp. from different geographical regions of India. Results indicated that relative abundance and relative density of SSRs were higher in T. asperellum followed by T. reesei and T. atroviride. Tri-nucleotide repeats (80.2%) were invariably the most abundant in all species. The abundance and relative density of SSRs were not influenced by the genome sizes and GC content. Out of eighteen primer sets, only 15 primer pairs showed successful amplification in all the test species. A total of 24 alleles were detected and five loci were highly informative with polymorphism information content values greater than 0.40, these markers provide useful information on genetic diversity and population genetic structure, which, in turn, can exploit for establishing conservation strategy for antagonistic Trichoderma isolates. PMID:26712623

  5. Use of Trichoderma spp.for biological control of the livestock feed contaminant fungus Fusarium proliferatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruocco M; Ferraioli S; Scala F; Lorito M; Pane F; Ritieni A; Lanzuise S; Ambrosino P; Marra R; Woo S L; Ciliento R; Soriente I

    2004-01-01

    @@ Fusarium spp. are pathogens of many important agricultural crops, and are often strong mycotoxin producers. Fusarium proliferatum, in particular, causes disease in cereals and secretes the toxin Beauvaricin that contaminates livestock feed and cereals, producing a variety of toxicity symptoms ranging from poor weight gain to mortality. Beauvaricin is a cyclodepsipeptide and acts as a potent mycotoxin known to have insecticidal properties. This compound is highly toxic to human cell lines,where it induces apoptosis and specifically inhibits cholesterol acetyltransferase. Nothing is known about the role of this mycotoxin during the interaction of F. proliferatum with other microorganisms, including the fungal antagonists Trichoderma spp. In vitro tests have demonstrated that the antagonistic and mycoparasitic activity of Trichoderma is not inhibited by the presence of Beauvaricin at concentrations up to 10 mg/kg in the substrate. In vivo biocontrol assays on barley and wheat with Trichoderma against F. proliferatum isolates, producing and non-producing Beauvaricin, confirmed the ability of the antagonist to control this pathogen in all cases. Also Trichoderma culture filtrates obtained in conditions that promote _Cell Wall _Degrading Enzyme (CWDE) secretion, were able to inhibit spore germination of different F. proliferatum isolates.These results suggest the possibility of using Trichoderma and/or its metabolites to control contaminants of livestock feed by mycotoxin-producing Fusarium.

  6. A mutualistic endophyte alters the niche dimensions of its host plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazenel, Melanie R; Debban, Catherine L; Ranelli, Luciana; Hendricks, Will Q; Chung, Y Anny; Pendergast, Thomas H; Charlton, Nikki D; Young, Carolyn A; Rudgers, Jennifer A

    2015-01-01

    Mutualisms can play important roles in influencing species coexistence and determining community composition. However, few studies have tested whether such interactions can affect species distributions by altering the niches of partner species. In subalpine meadows of the Rocky Mountains, USA, we explored whether the presence of a fungal endophyte (genus Epichloë) may shift the niche of its partner plant, marsh bluegrass (Poa leptocoma) relative to a closely related but endophyte-free grass species, nodding bluegrass (Poa reflexa). Using observations and a 3-year field experiment, we tested two questions: (i) Do P. leptocoma and P. reflexa occupy different ecological niches? and (ii) Does endophyte presence affect the relative fitness of P. leptocoma versus P. reflexa in the putative niches of these grass species? The two species were less likely to co-occur than expected by chance. Specifically, P. leptocoma grew closer to water sources and in wetter soils than P. reflexa, and also had higher root colonization by mycorrhizal fungi. Endophyte-symbiotic P. leptocoma seeds germinated with greater frequency in P. leptocoma niches relative to P. reflexa niches, whereas neither endophyte-free (experimentally removed) P. leptocoma seeds nor P. reflexa seeds showed differential germination between the two niche types. Thus, endophyte presence constrained the germination and early survival of host plants to microsites occupied by P. leptocoma. However, endophyte-symbiotic P. leptocoma ultimately showed greater growth than endophyte-free plants across all microsites, indicating a net benefit of the symbiosis at this life history stage. Differential effects of endophyte symbiosis on different host life history stages may thus contribute to niche partitioning between the two congeneric plant species. Our study therefore identifies a symbiotic relationship as a potential mechanism facilitating the coexistence of two species, suggesting that symbiont effects on host niche may

  7. Natural enemies act faster than endophytic fungi in population control of cereal aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härri, Simone A; Krauss, Jochen; Müller, Christine B

    2008-05-01

    1. Fast-growing populations of phytophagous insects can be limited by the presence of natural enemies and by alkaloids that are produced by symbiotic associations of many temperate grass species with endophytic fungi. It is unclear if and how acquired plant defences derived from endophytic fungi interact with natural enemies to affect phytophagous insect populations. 2. To assess the relative importance of endophytic fungi compared to that of natural enemies on the population dynamics of phytophagous insects, we carried out a fully factorial field experiment, in which the presence of natural enemies and the presence of endophytic fungi were manipulated simultaneously. Target colonies of aphids were monitored for 8 weeks starting from their natural appearance in the field to the end of the aphid season. 3. We show that on Lolium perenne increased natural enemy densities reduced the individual numbers of two common cereal aphids, Rhopalosiphum padi and Metopolophium festucae. 4. The presence of the endophytic fungi Neotyphodium lolii reduced the number of M. festucae but did not affect the number of R. padi. The reduction in R. padi numbers by predators and parasitoids was not influenced by the presence of endophytes. For adult M. festucae, however, the negative effects of natural enemies were significant only in the absence of endophytes. 5. Over the duration of the experiment, the effect of natural enemies on aphid colony growth was much stronger than the effect of the endophytic fungi N. lolii, presumably because predator and parasitoid action on aphid colonies is much faster than any effects of endophytes. 6. Our results demonstrate that with simultaneous action of acquired endosymbionts and natural enemies, both factors can control aphid colony growth but they generally act independently of each other.

  8. Quantitative mineralogical characterization of chrome ore beneficiation plant tailing and its beneficiated products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S. K.

    2015-04-01

    Mineralogical characterization and liberation of valuable minerals are primary concerns in mineral processing industries. The present investigation focuses on quantitative mineralogy, elemental deportment, and locking-liberation characteristics of the beneficiation of tailings from a chrome ore beneficiation plant in the Sukinda region, Odisha; methods used for the study of the beneficiated tailings are QEMSCAN®, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and mineral chemistry by a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS). The tailing sample was fine grained (69.48wt% below 45 μm size), containing 20.25wt% Cr2O3 and 39.19wt% Fe2O3, with a Cr:Fe mass ratio of 0.51. Mineralogical investigations using QEMSCAN studies revealed that chromite, goethite, and gibbsite are the dominant mineral phases with minor amounts of hematite, kaolinite, and quartz. The sample contained 34.22wt% chromite, and chromite liberation is more than 80% for grains smaller than 250 μm in size. Based on these results, it was predicted that liberated chromite and high-grade middling chromite particles could be separated from the gangue by various concentration techniques. The tailing sample was beneficiated by hydrocyclone, tabling, wet high-intensity magnetic separation (WHIMS), and flotation in order to recover the chromite. A chromite concentrate with 45.29wt% Cr2O3 and a Cr:Fe mass ratio of 1.85 can be produced from these low-grade chromite ore beneficiation plant rejects.

  9. Phytohormone profiles induced by trichoderma isolates correspond with their biocontrol and plant growth-promoting activity on melon plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Medina, Ainhoa; Del Mar Alguacil, Maria; Pascual, Jose A; Van Wees, Saskia C M

    2014-07-01

    The application of Trichoderma strains with biocontrol and plant growth-promoting capacities to plant substrates can help reduce the input of chemical pesticides and fertilizers in agriculture. Some Trichoderma isolates can directly affect plant pathogens, but they also are known to influence the phytohormonal network of their host plant, thus leading to an improvement of plant growth and stress tolerance. In this study, we tested whether alterations in the phytohormone signature induced by different Trichoderma isolates correspond with their ability for biocontrol and growth promotion. Four Trichoderma isolates were collected from agricultural soils and were identified as the species Trichoderma harzianum (two isolates), Trichoderma ghanense, and Trichoderma hamatum. Their antagonistic activity against the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis was tested in vitro, and their plant growth-promoting and biocontrol activity against Fusarium wilt on melon plants was examined in vivo, and compared to that of the commercial strain T. harzianum T-22. Several growth- and defense-related phytohormones were analyzed in the shoots of plants that were root-colonized by the different Trichoderma isolates. An increase in auxin and a decrease in cytokinins and abscisic acid content were induced by the isolates that promoted the plant growth. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to evaluate the relationship between the plant phenotypic and hormonal variables. PCA pointed to a strong association of auxin induction with plant growth stimulation by Trichoderma. Furthermore, the disease-protectant ability of the Trichoderma strains against F. oxysporum infection seems to be more related to their induced alterations in the content of the hormones abscisic acid, ethylene, and the cytokinin trans-zeatin riboside than to the in vitro antagonism activity against F. oxysporum.

  10. Endophytic nitrogen fixation in sugarcane: Present knowledge and future applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Brazil the long-term continuous cultivation of sugarcane with low N fertiliser inputs, without apparent depletion of soil-N reserves, led to the suggestion that N2-fixing bacteria associated with the plants may be the source of agronomically significant N inputs to this crop. From the 1950s to 1970s, considerable numbers of N2-fixing bacteria were found to be associated with the crop, but it was not until the late 1980s that evidence from N balance and 15N dilution experiments showed that some Brazilian varieties of sugarcane were able to obtain significant contributions from this source. The results of these studies renewed the efforts to search for N2-fixing bacteria, but this time the emphasis was on those diazotrophs that infected the interior of the plants. Within a few years several species of such 'endophytic diazotrophs' were discovered including Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, Herbaspirillum seropedicae, H. rubrisubalbicans and Burkholderia sp. Work has continued on these endophytes within sugarcane plants, but to date little success has been attained in elucidating which endophyte is responsible for the observed BNF and in what site, or sites, within the cane plants the N2 fixation mainly occurs. Until such important questions are answered further developments or extension of this novel N2-fixing system to other economically important non-legumes (e.g. cereals) will be seriously hindered. As far as application of present knowledge to maximise BNF with sugarcane is concerned, molybdenum is an essential micronutrient. An abundant water supply favours high BNF inputs, and the best medium term strategy to increase BNF would appear to be based on cultivar selection on irrigated N deficient soils fertilised with Mo. (author)

  11. Antimicrobial activity of Ulva reticulata and its endophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanya, K. I.; Swati, V. I.; Vanka, Kanth Swaroop; Osborne, W. J.

    2016-04-01

    Seaweeds are known to exhibit various antimicrobial properties, since it harbours an enormous range of indigenous bioactive compounds. The emergence of drug resistant strains has directed to the identification of prospective metabolites from seaweed and its endophytes, thereby exploiting the properties in resisting bacterial diseases. The current study was aimed to assess the antimicrobial activity of extracts obtained from Ulva reticulate, for which metabolites of Ulva reticulata and its endophytes were extracted and assessed against human pathogens like Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, and Bacillus subtilis. It was observed that the hexane extract of isolate VITDSJ2 was effective against all the tested pathogens but a significant inhibition was observed for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Further, Gas chromatography coupled with Mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) revealed the existence of phenol, 3, 5-bis (1, 1-dimethylethyl) in the crude hexane extract which is well-known to possess antibacterial activity. The effective isolate VITDSJ2 was identified to be the closest neighbour of Pseudomonas stutzeri by phenotypic and genotypic methods. The crude extracts of the seaweed Ulva reticulata was also screened for antibacterial activity and the hexane extract was effective in showing inhibition against all the tested pathogens. The compound in the crude extract of Ulva reticulata was identified as hentriacontane using GC-MS. The extracts obtained from dichloromethane did not show significant activity in comparison with the hexane extracts. Hence the metabolites of Ulva reticulata and the bacterial secondary metabolites of the endophytes could be used in the treatment of bacterial infections.

  12. Enterobacter cloacae is an endophytic symbiont of corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, D M; Bacon, C W

    1995-01-01

    The bacterium Enterobacter cloacae is presently used for biocontrol of postharvest diseases of fruits and vegetables and as a preplant seed treatment for suppression of damping-off. This bacterium has apparent affinities for several grass species, but it is not considered to be an endophyte. While screening corn for fungi and bacteria with potential for biocontrol of various corn diseases, the surface-sterilized kernels of one unknown Italian corn cultivar produced fungus-free corn seedlings with roots endophytically infected by E. cloacae. This paper describes the microscopic nature of E. cloacae RRC 101 with corn, and the in vitro control of Fusarium moniliforme and other fungi with this bacterium. Light and electron microscopy determined that this isolate of E. cloacae was biologically associated with corn seedling roots, where it was distributed intercellularly within the cortex and stele. This is a first report of a strain of this bacterium as an endophytic symbiont of roots. Following a topical application of E. cloacae to kernels, and upon germination this bacterium readily infected roots of two other corn cultivars. The bacterium was observed within the endosperm of germinating corn seedling, but germination was not affected. Further, the bacterium was isolated from leaves and stems of 3- to 6-week-old seedlings indicating that the above ground portions of corn were also colonized. There was no evidence of damage to cells of the root during a three to four week observation period. This bacterium was antagonistic to several isolates of the corn pathogen Fusarium moniliforme, and to two other species of fungi, all of which produce mycotoxins on corn. PMID:7659140

  13. Comparative proteomic analysis in pea treated with microbial consortia of beneficial microbes reveals changes in the protein network to enhance resistance against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Akansha; Singh, Akanksha; Singh, Surendra; Singh, Vinay; Singh, Harikesh Bahadur

    2015-06-15

    Microbial consortia may provide protection against pathogenic ingress via enhancing plant defense responses. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PJHU15, Trichoderma harzianum TNHU27 and Bacillus subtilis BHHU100 were used either singly or in consortia in the pea rhizosphere to observe proteome level changes upon Sclerotinia sclerotiorum challenge. Thirty proteins were found to increase or decrease differentially in 2-DE gels of pea leaves, out of which 25 were identified by MALDI-TOF MS or MS/MS. These proteins were classified into several functional categories including photosynthesis, respiration, phenylpropanoid metabolism, protein synthesis, stress regulation, carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism and disease/defense-related processes. The respective homologue of each protein identified was trapped in Pisum sativum and a phylogenetic tree was constructed to check the ancestry. The proteomic view of the defense response to S. sclerotiorum in pea, in the presence of beneficial microbes, highlights the enhanced protection that can be provided by these microbes in challenged plants. PMID:26067380

  14. Comparative proteomic analysis in pea treated with microbial consortia of beneficial microbes reveals changes in the protein network to enhance resistance against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Akansha; Singh, Akanksha; Singh, Surendra; Singh, Vinay; Singh, Harikesh Bahadur

    2015-06-15

    Microbial consortia may provide protection against pathogenic ingress via enhancing plant defense responses. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PJHU15, Trichoderma harzianum TNHU27 and Bacillus subtilis BHHU100 were used either singly or in consortia in the pea rhizosphere to observe proteome level changes upon Sclerotinia sclerotiorum challenge. Thirty proteins were found to increase or decrease differentially in 2-DE gels of pea leaves, out of which 25 were identified by MALDI-TOF MS or MS/MS. These proteins were classified into several functional categories including photosynthesis, respiration, phenylpropanoid metabolism, protein synthesis, stress regulation, carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism and disease/defense-related processes. The respective homologue of each protein identified was trapped in Pisum sativum and a phylogenetic tree was constructed to check the ancestry. The proteomic view of the defense response to S. sclerotiorum in pea, in the presence of beneficial microbes, highlights the enhanced protection that can be provided by these microbes in challenged plants.

  15. A new compound from an endophytic fungus Alternaria tenuissima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Bin; Yue, Gao-Chao; Huang, Qi-Lin; Sun, Ling-Ling; Zhang, Wen

    2014-01-01

    A new secondary metabolite, named altertoxin IV (1), together with altertoxin II (2), was isolated from the fermentation broth of Alternaria tenuissima, an endophytic fungal strain residing in the stem of Tribulus terrestris L. The structure of new compound 1 was established by HR-ESI-MS, multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, and single crystal X-ray diffraction method. In their in vitro bioassay, compound 2 exhibited moderate cytotoxic activity against PC-3 cell lines with an IC50 value of 14.28 μM. PMID:24660902

  16. Two new antimicrobial metabolites from the endophytic fungus, Seimatosporium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Hidayat; Krohn, Karsten; Schulz, Barbara; Draeger, Siegfried; Nazir, Mamona; Saleem, Muhammad

    2012-03-01

    Two new acaranoic acids, named seimatoporic acid A and B (1, and 2), together with six known compounds, R-(-)-mellein (3), cis-4-hydroxymellein (4), trans-4-hydroxymellein (5), 4R-hydroxy-5-methylmellein (6), (-)-5-hydroxymethylmellein (7), and ergosterol (8) were isolated from an endophytic fungus, Seimatosporium sp, by a bioassay-guided procedure. The structures of the new compounds have been assigned from analysis of the 1H and 13C NMR spectra, DEPT, and by 2D COSY, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY experiments. A mixture of compounds 1 and 2 showed strong antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea, Septoria tritici, and Pyricularia oryzae. PMID:22545398

  17. Bioactive compounds from the endophytic fungus Fusarium proliferatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dame, Zerihun T; Silima, Beauty; Gryzenhout, Marieka; van Ree, Teunis

    2016-06-01

    The crude extract of an endophytic fungus isolated from Syzygium cordatum and identified as Fusarium proliferatum showed 100% cytotoxicity against the brine shrimp Artemia salina at 100 μg/mL. Seven coloured, biologically active metabolites - including ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3β-ol, nectriafurone-8-methyl ether, 9-O-methyl fusarubin, bostrycoidin, bostrycoidin-9-methyl ether and 8-hydroxy-5,6-dimethoxy-2-methyl-3-(2-oxo-propyl)-1,4-naphthoquinone- were isolated from the extract. PMID:26158312

  18. Preliminary study on Salvia miltiorrhiza bung endophytic fungus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Objective To select the strains which can produce tanshinone ⅡA like its host plant Salvia miltiorrhiza bung.Methods A total of 50 strains of endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy,living and symptomless tissues of Salvia miltiorrhiza bung,among which 29 strains were obtained from the root,14 from the stem,3 from the leaf,3 from the flower and 1 from the seed.Their antimicrobial activities against nine different bacteria,including both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria,were measured by Oxford pl...

  19. Biochemical and metabolic profiles of Trichoderma strains isolated from common bean crops in the Brazilian Cerrado, and potential antagonism against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Fabyano Alvares Cardoso; Steindorff, Andrei Stecca; Geraldine, Alaerson Maia; Brandão, Renata Silva; Monteiro, Valdirene Neves; Lobo, Murillo; Coelho, Alexandre Siqueira Guedes; Ulhoa, Cirano José; Silva, Roberto Nascimento

    2012-07-01

    Some species of Trichoderma have successfully been used in the commercial biological control of fungal pathogens, e.g., Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, an economically important pathogen of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The objectives of the present study were (1) to provide molecular characterization of Trichoderma strains isolated from the Brazilian Cerrado; (2) to assess the metabolic profile of each strain by means of Biolog FF Microplates; and (3) to evaluate the ability of each strain to antagonize S. sclerotiorum via the production of cell wall-degrading enzymes (CWDEs), volatile antibiotics, and dual-culture tests. Among 21 isolates, we identified 42.86% as Trichoderma asperellum, 33.33% as Trichoderma harzianum, 14.29% as Trichoderma tomentosum, 4.76% as Trichoderma koningiopsis, and 4.76% as Trichoderma erinaceum. Trichoderma asperellum showed the highest CWDE activity. However, no species secreted a specific group of CWDEs. Trichoderma asperellum 364/01, T. asperellum 483/02, and T. asperellum 356/02 exhibited high and medium specific activities for key enzymes in the mycoparasitic process, but a low capacity for antagonism. We observed no significant correlation between CWDE and antagonism, or between metabolic profile and antagonism. The diversity of Trichoderma species, and in particular of T. harzianum, was clearly reflected in their metabolic profiles. Our findings indicate that the selection of Trichoderma candidates for biological control should be based primarily on the environmental fitness of competitive isolates and the target pathogen.

  20. Are mycoparasitism and chitinase production species or isolate dependent in Trichoderma ?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Szakacs G; Nagy V; Kovacs K

    2004-01-01

    @@ The relationship between taxonomic status of Trichoderma spp., chitinase production in solid substrate fermentation (SSF) on four media and mycoparasitism in dual culture (confrontation assay)against four plant pathogenic fungi was studied. Seventy five Trichoderma isolates belonging to 35species have been screened. The plant pathogenic fungi used in confrontation assay were Botrytis cinerea , Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi , Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum . The SSF media contained wheat bran, crude chitin (from crab shells, SIGMA) and salt solutions. The best performing isolates in mycoparasitism tests were Trichoderma flavofuscum, T. harzianum, T.inhamatum, T. koningii and T. strigosum. Some isolates exhibiting good mycoparasitism produced chitinase in SSF only at low or medium level. In contrary there were isolates with excellent extracellular chitinase production but their biocontrol potential did not belong to the leading group.Statistical methods have been used to evaluate the data.

  1. Population dynamics of Trichoderma species in the rhizosphere of tobacco and four species form China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ze-fen; ZHANG Ke-qin

    2004-01-01

    @@ To study the effect of tobacco growth on Trichoderma population, we investigated the occurrence of Trichoderma species in the rhizosphere of tobacco plant during the period from transplanting (June) to harvesting (October) and measured relative environmental factors. Eleven species of Trichoderma were isolated, among which T. harzianum, T. viride, T. hamatum, T. atroviride, T.longibrachiatum, T. virens, T. koningii were identified, other four species Ty1, Ty2, Ty3, Ty4are new species. Of the species which occurred at high frequencies, T. harzianum and T. hamatum were most abundant in the July and T. viride in the August. The occurrence of the above three abundant species correlates significantly with the developmental phase of tobacco and correlates apparently with the soil moisture content, but not with the temperature. For the other eight species,no obvious correlation was found between the above factors and them.

  2. [Endocarditis caused by Trichoderma longibrachiatumin a patient receiving home parenteral nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Peralta, Laura I; Mañas Vera, Ma Reyes; García Delgado, Manuel J; Pérez de la Cruz, Antonio J

    2013-01-01

    Home parenteral nutrition (HPN) improves the quality of life of the patients although it has complications. Catheter-related infections and mechanical complications are the most frequent ones. We report the case of endocarditis over catheter in a man suffering from short bowel and receiving HPN. The special features of the case are firstly the catheter was a remaining fragment on the right atrial and secondly the infection was caused by Trichoderma longibrachiatum, an isolated fact regarding this pathology so far. Conventional surgery was applied to take the catheter out. Staphylococcus epidermidis, Ochrobactrum anthropi and Trichoderma longibrachiatum were isolated from the surgical specimen. The extraction of the infected catheter along with antibiotic therapy led to the complete recovery of the subject. Ochrobactrum anthropi and Trichoderma longibrachiatum are unusual microorganisms but they are acquiring more relevance. Although there is no agreement about intravascular retained catheter management, the most recommended approach consists on monitoring them and removing the device in case of complications.

  3. Isolation and Characterization of Trichoderma spp. for Antagonistic Activity Against Root Rot and Foliar Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Krishna; Amaresan, N; Bhagat, S; Madhuri, K; Srivastava, R C

    2012-06-01

    Trichoderma, soil-borne filamentous fungi, are capable of parasitising several plant pathogenic fungi. Twelve isolates of Trichoderma spp. isolated from different locations of South Andaman were characterized for their cultural, morphological and antagonistic activity against soil borne and foliar borne pathogens. The sequencing of these isolates showed seven different species. The isolates revealed differential reaction patterns against the test pathogens viz., Sclerotium rolfsii, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. capsici. However, the isolates, TND1, TWN1, TWC1, TGD1 and TSD1 were most effective in percentage inhibition of mycelial growth of test pathogens. Significant chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase activities of all Trichoderma isolates has been recorded in growth medium. T. viride was found with highest chitinase whereas T. harzianum was recorded with highest β-1,3-glucanase activities. PMID:23729873

  4. Antagonisme in vitro de trichoderma spp. vis-a-vis de rhizoctonia solani kuhn

    OpenAIRE

    Camporota, P.

    1985-01-01

    Cet article présente les résultats obtenus lors de la réalisation de la première étape d’un programme de sélection de souches de Trichoderma spp. utilisables pour la lutte biologique contre Rhizoctonia solani dans le sol : 28 souches de Trichoderma ont été confrontées in vitro à 3 souches de R. solani appartenant à des groupes d’anastomose différents. On a mesuré, pour chaque souche de Trichoderma, la capacité à envahir les colonies de l’agent pathogène ainsi que les 3 modes d’action : my...

  5. Clinical supervision, is it mutually beneficial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Clinical education in Nuclear Medicine is essential for student learning as it enables them to develop knowledge and competence and put theory into practice. While the benefit to the student is clear, the clinical education experience should be mutually beneficial. The role of the clinical supervisor involves teaching, role modelling, management and assessment. It could be assumed that the Supervisor would find the teaching role leading to increased knowledge; role modelling leading to increased reflection which improves practice; management skills being enhanced and assessment improving critical evaluation skills. The aim of this study was to assess the perceived benefits of taking on the role of a clinical supervisor. Clinical Supervisors participating in the Nuclear Medicine program were surveyed. Questions were grouped into three main categories - professional, interpersonal and communication. A Likert scale was used to assess perceived level of benefit and open-ended questions were included to obtain additional understanding of Supervisors' perceptions. Results from the survey indicate that 64% of supervisors felt an increase in work satisfaction by taking students, 68% agreed their level of performance was improved and 61% agreed that it deepened their understanding of Nuclear Medicine. It is concluded that respondents perceived a positive benefit to areas within the role of Clinical Supervisor. Copyright (2000) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  6. Beneficial and adverse effects of chemopreventive agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Mu; Park, Kwang-Kyun

    2003-03-01

    The beneficial and adverse effects of some chemopreventive agents, such as Vitamins A, C, E, beta-carotene, indole-3-carbinol, capsaicin, garlic, and aloe are reviewed. Two large randomized trials with a lung cancer endpoint, the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene (ATBC) Prevention Study and the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET), suggested that antioxidants might be harmful in smokers. However, the results of the Linxian study and of the ATBC or the CARET studies were significantly different in this respect, and therefore, the relationship between antioxidant and carcinogenesis remains open to debate. Indole-3-carbinol has cancer promoting activities in the colon, thyroid, pancreas, and liver, whereas capsaicin alters the metabolism of chemical carcinogens and may promote carcinogenesis at high doses. Organosulfur compounds and selenium from garlic have no or a little enhancing effect on cancer promotion stage. Information upon chemopreventive mechanisms that inhibit carcinogenesis is imperfect, although the causes and natures of certain human cancers are known. Therefore, definitive preventive guidelines should be carefully offered for various types of tumors, which properly consider ethnic variations, and the efficacies and the safety of chemopreventive agents.

  7. FACEBOOK AND WHATSAPP: BENEFICIAL OR HARMFUL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankalp Raj

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available New innovations and advances in science and technology in the present day have made considerable and significant changes in the lifestyle of people all around the globe. Communication from one part of the world to another is possible at the hit of a button . Social networking is being rampantly used everywhere and by everybody, be it youngsters or the older generation. Facebook and Whatsapp are the most commonly used means of communication in social networking at present. Smart phones functioning as minicomp uters with fast internet connectivity in the pockets of today’s technosavy generation have made them create and spend most of their time interacting with people in a virtual world. There is an urgent need to understand the dynamics of social media and its effects on the lifestyle of people. Studies documenting the same have been very few. This study was conducted to understand the benefits and harms towards health and academics of MBBS students. This cross - sectional study on 147 MBBS students revealed inter esting findings and opinions of the students. Effects of Facebook and What Sapp on productivity and sleep disturbances due to it were the significant findings of the study. Facebook and Whatsapp can be considered both beneficial and harmful and it solely d epends on how it is being put to use

  8. Beneficial health properties of iridoids terpenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Carreras, N.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Food components can have biological activity and healthy properties. Some of them, produced by plants, are named phytochemicals. The diversity of phytochemicals is amazing and this term refers in fact to a wide variety of compounds. Some of them, biosynthesized from isoprene, are named terpenes, and an important group of biciclic monoterpenes, derived fromgeraniol, are named iridoids.Iridoids can have open structures (secoiridoids or closed structures (really iridoids and they appear usua lly as heteroside compounds, in particular as glycosides. They have beneficial effects on liver and bi -liary function. Moreover, they have also demonstrated anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anti-carcinogenic and antiviral activity, and they can be used as antidote in mushroom intoxications, in particular, those caused byAmanita type. Iridoids are present in particular in plants such as olive, harpagophytum, the valerian plant, the gentian plant and the ash tree. All these plants have been reported to be used as traditional medicine inmany cultures. Nowadays, their leaves, tubercles, roots, seeds, and extracts are also considered important for pharmacology, and some of their active compounds have been identified. This review refers to the origin and biosynthetic pathways of iridoids. It describes the characteristics and properties of the plants mentioned above, and it also mentions the principal iridoids isolated from them.

  9. Genotype x environment interactions in Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows and their calves grazing common bermudagrass, endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures, or both forages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M A; Brown, A H; Jackson, W G; Miesner, J R

    2000-03-01

    Reproductive and preweaning data on 190 Angus (A x A), Brahman (B x B), and reciprocal-cross cows (A x B and B x A) and 434 two- and three-breed-cross calves managed on common bermudagrass (BG), endophyte-infected tall fescue (E+), or a combination of both forages (ROT) were used to evaluate the interaction of forage type with individual and maternal heterosis and maternal and grandmaternal breed effects. Cows were born from 1988 to 1991, and calves sired by 13 Polled Hereford bulls were born from 1995 to 1997. Heterosis for calving rate was larger on E+ than on BG or ROT (P Brahman-cross cows over purebreds on E+ than on BG. We also observed that moving cows and calves from E+ to BG in the summer will alleviate some, but not all, of the deleterious effects of E+ on calf growth, although it may be more beneficial for reproductive traits in purebred cows. PMID:10764060

  10. 当归内生真菌抗植物病原菌的活性研究%Antiphytopathogenic activities of endophytic fungi from Angelica sinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江曙; 段金廒; 钱大玮; 陶金华

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The antiphytopathogenic activities of endophytic fungi isolated from Angelica sinensis and their metabolites were studied. [Method] Beneficial endophytic fungi and active parts in their metabolites were screened by microbial antagonism test, mycelium growth inhibition and spore germination inhibition test. [Results] The numbers of endophytic fungi inhibiting Fusarium graminearum and Alternaria solani were 24. 3% and 28.6%, respectively. Endophytic fungi with higher inhibition activity on F. Graminearum, A. Solani, Botry-tis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solani included 8 strains belonging to 5 genera. And 6 strains inhibited the growth of only one pathogenic fungus. In addition, the rate of endophytic fungi, which could inhibit the spore germination of four phytopathogens, was more than 20%. Inhibition rates of Myxormia sp. 2 and Myxormia sp.4 on spore germination reached above 90%. Inhibition of acidic acetone extract against the growth and spore germination was obvious. [Conclusion] The results showed that endophytic fungi and their metabolites with bioactivities were abundant.%[目的]从当归内生真菌中筛选抗小麦赤霉病菌、番茄早疫病菌、番茄灰霉病菌、水稻纹枯病菌等植物病原菌的有益菌株,并筛选代谢产物中的抑菌活性部位.[方法]采用平板拮抗法对抗性菌株进行初步筛选,采用抑制菌丝生长法以及抑制孢子萌发法筛选有益内生真菌代谢产物中的抑菌活性部位.[结果]抗小麦赤霉病菌、番茄早疫病菌的内生真菌较多,分别占24.3%和28.6%.对小麦赤霉病菌、番茄早疫病菌、番茄灰霉病菌以及水稻纹枯病菌生长抑制作用较强的内生真菌包括5个属8个菌株,其中6个菌株只对1种病原菌菌丝生长有抑制作用.此外,对4种植物病原真菌孢子萌发具有抑制作用的内生真菌超过20%,其中内生真菌Myxormia sp.2和Myxormia sp.4的提取物对4种植物病原真菌孢子萌发的抑

  11. Isolation and identification of endophytic halotolerant and halophilic fungi associated with Artemisia halodendron%盐蒿内生耐(嗜)盐真菌的分离及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁小维

    2014-01-01

    This study isolated and identified species diversity of fungal endophytes in Artemisia haloden-dron using different media complemented with the different concentration of NaCl. We have obtained 1215 fun-gal isolates from A. halodendron,and these fungi are classified into 6 genera including Leptosphaeria,Penicil-lium,Trichoderma,Aspergillus,Alternaria and Fusarium. Leptosphaeria is predominant(78. 8% )of the total number,followed by Alternaria(2. 28% ). All the fungal strains are identified as 9 species such as Penicilli-um chrysogenum,Aspergillus westerdijkiae,Alternaria tenuissima and Trichoderma longibrachiatum. Our study shows that halotolerant and halophilic fungi in A. halodendron grown in the salt Huama lake in Northern Shaanxi are rich.%采用含盐浓度不同的培养基分离陕北花马盐湖盐蒿(Artemisia halodendron)的内生耐(嗜)盐真菌并研究其物种多样性。从盐蒿组织中共分离得到1215株内生耐(嗜)盐真菌,基于形态学和 ITS 系统发育分析表明,上述菌株属于6个属,包括小球腔霉属(Leptospha-eria)、青霉属(Penicillium)、木霉属(Trichoderma)、曲霉属(Aspergillus)、链格孢属(Alternaria)和镰孢属(Fusarium)。以小球腔霉属(Leptosphaeria)为优势属,其次为链格孢属,其分离频率分别为78.8%和2.28%;共计9个代表种如产黄青霉(Penicillium chrysogenum)、Aspergillus west-erdijkiae、极细链格孢(Alternaria tenuissima)和长梗木霉(Trichoderma longibrachiatum)等。研究表明,陕北花马盐湖盐蒿中蕴藏着丰富的耐(嗜)盐真菌物种资源。

  12. Cell wall degrading isoenzyme profiles of Trichoderma biocontrol strains show correlation with rDNA species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sanz L; Hermosa M R; González F J; Monte E

    2004-01-01

    @@ Species of the fungus Trichoderma, a genus of Hyphomycetes, are ubiquitous in the environment, but especially in soil. They have been used in a wide range of commercial applications including the production of hydrolases and in the biological control of plant diseases. A fundamental part of the Trichoderma antifungal system consists of a series of genes coding for a surprising variety of extracellular cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDE).Characterisation and identification of strains at the species level is the first step in utilizing the full potential of fungi in specific applications. One aim when isolating Trichoderma strains is to identify those which can be used in new agricultural and industrial applications. In the past it was not uncommon that biocontrol strains were defined as T. harzianum Rifai, due to the limited classification system of the genus Trichoderma. In recent years, several PCR-based molecular techniques have been used to detect and discriminate among microorganisms. Sequence analysis of the ITS regions of the ribosomal DNA and gene fragments as those corresponding to tef1 gene have been helpful in the neotypification, description and characterization of species in the genus Trichoderna.Another useful method for the identification of Trichoderma strains is the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique.Isozyme polymorphisms evaluation of five putative extracellular lytic enzymes loci (β-1,3-glucanase, β-1,6-glucanase, cellulase, chitinase and protease antivities) were carried out using representative strains of defined molecular groups. CWDE groupings obtained from biocontrol strains are discussed in relation to their phylogenetic location and antifungal activities.Compiling morphological, biochemical and sequence information data into a common database would provide a useful resource that could be used to accurately name new haplotypes identified in the future and correctly place them within the genus Trichoderma.

  13. In Vitro Antagonist Action of Trichoderma Strains Against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Sclerotium cepivorum

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    Francisco D.H. Castillo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Sclerotium cepivorum are soil pathogens which have generated resistance to synthetic fungicides. One biological alternative to this problem is to select novel strains of Trichoderma with different mechanisms of action against these plant pathogens to ensure efficient control. Approach: In the present research was determined the antagonism effect of Mexicans Trichoderma strains on S. sclerotiorum and S. cepivorum in vitro. It was used dual culture technique by determining the percentage of mycelia growth inhibition, days to contact and antagonism levels proposed by Bell. It was also determined the effect of volatile compounds and metabolites compound from Trichoderma produced in solutions. Results: The mycelia growth inhibition of S. sclerotiorum and S. cepivorum were 45-63.8 and 50.9-81.5% respectively by the effect of Trichoderma strains. The T. ghanense and T. longibrachiatum (T15 and T10 inhibited in higher proportion to S. sclerotiorum. On the other hand T. inhamatum and T. asperellum (T32 and T11 inhibited in higher proportion to S. cepivorum. The days to contact between the Trichoderma and phytopathogen species were between two to three days. The levels of antagonism according to the Bells scale were different between the two species of phytopathogen and for Trichoderma strains were grouped into I and II class. The maximum inhibition effect by volatiles compound was occasioned by T. longibrachiatum with 31.5 (T3 and 59.2% (T10 on S. sclerotiorum and S. cepivorum respectively. Respect to metabolites, these shown high effects on phytopathogen growth, where T. asperellum is the more outstanding specie which produce totals mycelia growth inhibition of two phytopathogen species. Conclusion: T. longibrachiatum (T3 and T10 and T. asperellum (T1 and T11 were the most efficient species with the highest antagonist effects against S. sclerotiorum and S. cepivorum.

  14. Experimental Evolution of Trichoderma citrinoviride for Faster Deconstruction of Cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Travisano, Michael; Kazlauskas, Romas J

    2016-01-01

    Engineering faster cellulose deconstruction is difficult because it is a complex, cooperative, multi-enzyme process. Here we use experimental evolution to select for populations of Trichoderma citrinoviride that deconstruct up to five-fold more cellulose. Ten replicate populations of T. citrinoviride were selected for growth on filter paper by serial culture. After 125 periods of growth and transfer to fresh media, the filter paper deconstruction increased an average of 2.5 fold. Two populations were examined in more detail. The activity of the secreted cellulase mixtures increased more than two-fold relative to the ancestor and the largest increase was in the extracellular β-glucosidase activity. qPCR showed at least 16-fold more transcribed RNA for egl4 (endoglucanase IV gene), cbh1 (cellobiohydrolase I gene) and bgl1 (extracellular β-glucosidase I gene) in selected populations as compared to the ancestor, and earlier peak expressions of these genes. Deep sequencing shows that the regulatory strategies used to alter cellulase secretion differ in the two strains. The improvements in cellulose deconstruction come from earlier expression of all cellulases and increased relative amount of β-glucosidase, but with small increases in the total secreted protein and therefore little increase in metabolic cost. PMID:26820897

  15. The Fungus Trichoderma Regulates Submerged Conidiation Using the Steroid Pregnenolone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Travisano, Michael; Kazlauskas, Romas J

    2016-09-16

    In previous work, we evolved a population of Trichoderma citrinoviride in liquid cultures to speed up its asexual development cycle. The evolved population, called T-6, formed conidia 3 times sooner and in >1000-fold greater numbers. Here, we identify the steroid pregnenolone as a molecular signal for this different behavior. Media in which the ancestral T. citrinoviride population was grown (called ancestral spent media) contained a submerged conidiation inhibitor. Growing the evolved population T-6 in ancestral spent media eliminated the abundant formation of conidia. This inhibition depended on the amount and age of the ancestral spent medium and the time that the ancestral spent medium was added to the T-6 culture. Fractionation of the ancestral spent medium identified a hydrophobic inhibiting compound with a molecular weight less than 2000 g/mol. A combination of GC-MS, ELISA, and reaction with cholesterol oxidase identified it as pregnenolone. The addition of pregnenolone to cultures of T-6 inhibited submerged conidiation by inhibiting formation of conidiophores, while 10 other analogous steroids did not. Pregnenolone also inhibited submerged conidiation of Fusarium graminearum PH-1, a plant pathogen that causes head blight in wheat and barley. This identification of steroids as signal molecules in fungi creates opportunities to disrupt this signaling to control fungal behavior. PMID:27413801

  16. Genetic characterization of somatic recombination in Trichoderma pseudokoningii

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    Barcellos Fernando Gomes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Crossing experiments via hyphal anastomosis between two strains contrasting for auxotrophic markers of Trichoderma pseudokoningii were conducted to characterize the somatic recombination process in this specie. Four crossings were made and a total of 1052 colonies obtained from conidial suspensions of the heterokaryotic colonies were analyzed. Sixty-eight recombinant colonies, from four growing generations, were analyzed for the auxotrophic markers. Of the 68 colonies analyzed, 58 were stable after four generations and the remainders were unstable, reverting to one of the parentals. Most of the recombinant colonies were unstable through subculture and after four growing generations they showed the leu ino met markers (auxotrophic for leucin, inositol and metionin respectively. The unstable recombinant colonies showed irregular growing borders, sparse sporulation and frequent sector formation. The results suggest the occurrence of recombination mechanisms in the heterokaryon (somatic recombination, different from those described for the parasexual cycle or parameiosis. Therefore, we proposed the ocurrence of nuclei degradation from one parental (non prevalent parental in the heterokaryon and that the resulting chromosomal fragments may be incorporated into whole nuclei of the another parental (prevalent parental. However the parameiosis as originally described cannot be excluded.

  17. Enzymes of Trichoderma and other origin in biopreparation of cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anita Losonczi; George Szakacs; Emilia Csiszar; Outi Kareela

    2004-01-01

    @@ Preparation and bleaching are among the most energy and chemical intensive steps of the traditional cotton finishing. About 75 % of the organic pollutants arising from textile finishing are derived from the preparation of cotton goods. Biopreparation may be a valuable and environmentally friendly alternative to harsh alkaline chemicals for preparing of cotton. Different enzymes i. e. cellulases,pectinases, lipases and proteases have been tested for biopreparation. Many papers have been published how enzymes effect on the properties of cotton fabrics in respect to their effectiveness to replace alkaline scouring and how enzymes modify the various cell wall components of cotton fibers. However,very few data have been reported on bleachability and dyeing behavior of the bioscoured fabrics. In this work an acidic cellulase (Celluclast 1.5 L, Trichoderma reesei origin), an acidic pectinasehemicellulase (Viscozyme 120 L , Aspergillus aculeatus ) and a cellulase-free xylanase (Pulpzyme HC,Bacillus sp. ) enzymes were used for bioscouring of greige cotton fabric. Selected properties of the pretreated samples, which are important for effective dyeing, are characterized in detail. Effect of hydrogen peroxide bleaching, applied subsequent to the biopretreatment on the bleachability and dyeing properties of the samples is also elucidated. A reactive dye was used at four different concentrations to compare the dyeing behavior of biopretreated as well as biopretreated and subsequently bleached cotton fabrics with that of the alkaline scoured as well as alkaline scoured and bleached fabrics, respectively. Color evenness and uniformity, and wash fastness properties of the dyed samples are also determined[1].

  18. Reduction of aflatoxins by Rhizopus oryzae and Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackbart, H C S; Machado, A R; Christ-Ribeiro, A; Prietto, L; Badiale-Furlong, E

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated the ability of the microorganisms Rhizopus oryzae (CCT7560) and Trichoderma reesei (QM9414), producers of generally recognized as safe (GRAS) enzymes, to reduce the level of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, and M1. The variables considered to the screening were the initial number of spores in the inoculum and the culture time. The culture was conducted in contaminated 4 % potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium, and the residual mycotoxins were determined every 24 h by HPLC-FL. The fungus R. oryzae has reduced aflatoxins B1, B2, and G1 in the 96 h and aflatoxins M1 and G2 in the range of 120 h of culture by approximately 100 %. The fungus T. reesei has reduced aflatoxins B1, B2, and M1 in the 96 h and aflatoxin G1 in the range of 120 h of culture by approximately 100 %. The highest reduction occurred in the middle of R. oryzae culture.

  19. Epoxide hydrolase of Trichoderma reesei: Biochemical properties and conformational characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Gabriel Stephani; Adriani, Patricia Pereira; Borges, Flavia Garcia; Lopes, Adriana Rios; Campana, Patricia T; Chambergo, Felipe S

    2016-08-01

    Epoxide hydrolases (EHs) are enzymes that are present in all living organisms and catalyze the hydrolysis of epoxides to the corresponding vicinal diols. EHs have biotechnological potential in chiral chemistry. We report the cloning, purification, enzymatic activity, and conformational analysis of the TrEH gene from Trichoderma reesei strain QM9414 using circular dichroism spectroscopy. The EH gene has an open reading frame encoding a protein of 343 amino acid residues, resulting in a molecular mass of 38.2kDa. The enzyme presents an optimum pH of 7.2, and it is highly active at temperatures ranging from 23 to 50°C and thermally inactivated at 70°C (t1/2=7.4min). The Michaelis constants (Km) were 4.6mM for racemic substrate, 21.7mM for (R)-(+)-styrene oxide and 3.0mM for (S)-(-)-styrene oxide. The kcat/Km analysis indicated that TrEH is enantioselective and preferentially hydrolyzes (S)-(-)-styrene oxide. The conformational stability studies suggested that, despite the extreme conditions (high temperatures and extremely acid and basic pHs), TrEH is able to maintain a considerable part of its regular structures, including the preservation of the native cores in some cases. The recombinant protein showed enantioselectivity that was distinct from other fungus EHs, making this protein a potential biotechnological tool. PMID:27177457

  20. Nutrient activation of Trichoderma fungal spores for improved biocontrol activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linda Gordon Hjeljord; Arne Tronsmo

    2004-01-01

    @@ The effect of preliminary nutrient activation on the ability of conidia of the antagonist Trichoderma harzianum P1 (ThP1) to suppress Botrytis cinerea was investigated in laboratory, greenhouse and field trials. Preliminary nutrient activation at 21 ℃ accelerated subsequent germination of the antagonist at temperatures from 9 ℃ to 21 ℃; at ≥ 18 ℃ the germination time of preactivated ThP1conidia did not differ significantly from that of B. cinerea. When coinoculated with B. cinerea,concentrated inocula of preactivated but ungerminated ThP1 conidia reduced in vitro germination of the pathogen by ≥ 87 % at 12 ℃ to 25 ℃; initially-quiescent conidia achieved this level of suppression only at 25 ℃. Application of quiescent ThP1 conidia to detached strawberry flowers in moist chambers reduced infection by B. cinerea by ≥85 % at 24 ℃ , but only by 35 % at 12 ℃. Preactivated conidia reduced infection by ≥60% at 12 ℃. Both quiescent and preactivated conidia significantly reduced latent infection in greenhouse-grown strawberries at a mean temperture of 19 ℃, while only preactivated conidia were effective in the field at a mean temperature of 14 ℃ on the day of treatment application.